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1

Effects of short-term ingestion of Russian Tarragon prior to creatine monohydrate supplementation on whole body and muscle creatine retention and anaerobic sprint capacity: a preliminary investigation  

PubMed Central

Background Extracts of Russian Tarragon (RT) have been reported to produce anti-hyperglycemic effects and influence plasma creatine (Cr) levels while supplementing with creatine monohydrate (CrM). The purpose of this preliminary study was to determine if short-term, low-dose aqueous RT extract ingestion prior to CrM supplementation influences whole body Cr retention, muscle Cr or measures of anaerobic sprint performance. Methods In a double-blind, randomized, and crossover manner; 10 recreationally trained males (20?±?2 yrs; 179?±?9 cm; 91.3?±?34 kg) ingested 500 mg of aqueous RT extract (Finzelberg, Andernach, Germany) or 500 mg placebo 30-minutes prior to ingesting 5 g of CrM (Creapure®, AlzChem AG, Germany) twice per day for 5-days then repeated after a 6-week wash-out period. Urine was collected at baseline and during each of the 5-days of supplementation to determine urine Cr content. Whole body Cr retention was estimated from urine samples. Muscle biopsies were obtained for determination of muscle free Cr content. Participants also performed two 30-second Wingate anaerobic capacity tests prior to and following supplementation for determination of peak power (PP), mean power (MP), and total work (TW). Data were analysed by repeated measures MANOVA. Results Whole body daily Cr retention increased in both groups following supplementation (0.0?±?0.0; 8.2?±?1.4, 6.5?±?2.4, 5.6?±?3.2, 6.1?±?2.6, 4.8?±?3.2 g?·?d-1; p?=?0.001) with no differences observed between groups (p?=?0.59). After 3 and 5-days of supplementation, respectively, both supplementation protocols demonstrated a significant increase in muscle free Cr content from baseline (4.8?±?16.7, 15.5?±?23.6 mmol?·?kg-1 DW, p?=?0.01) with no significant differences observed between groups (p?=?0.34). Absolute change in MP (9?±?57, 35?±?57 W; p?=?0.031), percent change in MP (2.5?±?10.5, 6.7?±?10.4%; p?=?0.026), absolute change in TW (275?±?1,700, 1,031?±?1,721 J; p?=?0.032), and percent change in TW (2.5?±?10.5, 6.6?±?10.4%; p?=?0.027) increased over time in both groups with no differences observed between groups. Conclusions Short-term CrM supplementation (10 g?·?d-1 for 5-days) significantly increased whole body Cr retention and muscle free Cr content. However, ingesting 500 mg of RT 30-min prior to CrM supplementation did not affect whole body Cr retention, muscle free Cr content, or anaerobic sprint capacity in comparison to ingesting CrM with a placebo. PMID:24568653

2014-01-01

2

Preliminary Investigation of Profiling Tools and Methods.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this technical memorandum is to outline the proposed component of project 15AG: Canadian Forces (CF) Enhanced Influence Operations and the preliminary investigation of profiling tools for CF application and purposes. There are several diffe...

A. Hawton, C. Powlesland, K. Richards, Q. Lam, W. Sullivan-Kwantes

2011-01-01

3

Explosive volcanic deposits on Mars: Preliminary investigations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two investigations were undertaken to examine possible large scale explosive volcanic deposits on Mars. The first includes an analysis of Viking Infrared Thermal Mapper (IRTM) data covering the vast deposits in the Amazonis, Memnonia, and Aeolis regions. These postulated ignimbrites have been previously mapped, and at least five high resolution nighttime IRTM data tracks cross the deposits. Preliminary analysis of the data covering Amazonis Planitia show that local features have anomalous thermal inertias but the ignimbrites as a whole do not consistently have significantly different thermal inertias from their surroundings. Preliminary photogeologic and IRTM studies of the large and small highland paterae have also begun. The purpose of IRTM studies of postulated Martian explosive volcanic deposits is to determine the physical properties of the proposed ignimbrites. If volcanic deposits are exposed at the surface, high thermal inertias, as are observed for Apollinaris Patera, should be present.

Crown, D. A.; Leshin, L. A.; Greeley, Ronald

1987-01-01

4

Preliminary Investigation of an Active PLZT Lens  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design, analysis and preliminary testing of a prototype Adjustable Focus Optical Correction Lens (AFOCL) is described. The AFOCL is an active optical component composed of solid state lead lanthanum-modified zirconate titanate (PLZT) ferroelectric ceramic with patterned indium tin oxide (ITO) transparent surface electrodes that modulate the refractive index of the PLZT to function as an electro-optic lens. The AFOCL was developed to perform optical re-alignment and wavefront correction to enhance the performance of Ultra-Lightweight Structures and Space Observatories (ULSSO). The AFOCL has potential application as an active optical component within a larger optical system. As such, information from a wavefront sensor would be processed to provide input to the AFOCL to drive the sensed wavefront to the desired shape and location. While offering variable and rapid focussing capability (controlled wavefront manipulation) similar to liquid crystal based spatial light modulators (SLM), the AFOCL offers some potential advantages because it is a solid-state, stationary, low-mass, rugged, and thin optical element that can produce wavefront quality comparable to the solid refractive lens it replaces. The AFOCL acts as a positive or negative lens by producing a parabolic phase-shift in the PLZT material through the application of a controlled voltage potential across the ITO electrodes. To demonstrate the technology, a 4 mm diameter lens was fabricated to produce 5-waves of optical power operating at 2.051 micrometer wavelength. Optical metrology was performed on the device to measure focal length, optical quality, and efficiency for a variety of test configurations. The data was analyzed and compared to theoretical data available from computer-based models of the AFOCL.

Lightsey, W. D.; Peters, B. R.; Reardon, P. J.; Wong, J. K.

2001-01-01

5

Adolescent Reasoning about Advertisements: Preliminary Investigations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three studies investigate the role of competence factors (defined as acquisition of Piagetian formal reasoning) and performance factors (defined as influences from content and expectations) with respect to adolescents' reasoning about advertisements reporting product tests. (Author/MP)

Linn, Marcia C.; And Others

1982-01-01

6

A Preliminary Investigation of Developable Dimensions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article poses the question, what do researchers know about the developability of the dimensions commonly used in assessment centers? A brief review of the training and development literature is used to explore empirical evidence for the developability of 16 common managerial performance dimensions. A survey of 139 managers is used to investigate participants' perceptions regarding the developability of the

Alyssa Mitchell Gibbons; Deborah E. Rupp; Lori A. Snyder; A. Silke Holub; Sang Eun Woo

2006-01-01

7

Natural fibers\\/polypropylene composite: processing and preliminary structural investigations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biodegradation and physico-mechanical properties allow us to predict a wide application of cellulosic\\/thermoplastic composites and it is an essential motive for investigations on structure-properties relationship. The preliminary investigations on the structure of composites containing isotactic polypropylene with hemp or flax are presented.

Dominik Paukszta; Jozef Garbarczyk

1997-01-01

8

Natural fibers/polypropylene composite: processing and preliminary structural investigations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biodegradation and physico-mechanical properties allow us to predict a wide application of cellulosic/thermoplastic composites and it is an essential motive for investigations on structure-properties relationship. The preliminary investigations on the structure of composites containing isotactic polypropylene with hemp or flax are presented.

Paukszta, Dominik; Garbarczyk, Jozef

1997-02-01

9

Vicarious exploration and catalog shopping: a preliminary investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

As catalog proliferation continues, understanding consumer characteristics and motivations that lead consumers to examine catalogs is becoming increasingly important. This research presents the results of a preliminary investigation that extends the traditional analysis of in-home shoppers through an examination of vicarious exploration with a catalog. A previous vicarious exploration measure is adapted and initial results suggest that vicarious exploration with

Roxanne Stell; Nita Paden

1999-01-01

10

Heat Capacity Mapping Mission investigation no. 25 (Tellus project)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The TELLUS pilot project, utilizing 0.5 to 1.1 micron and 10.5 to 12.5 micron day and/or night imagery from the Heat Capacity Mapping Mission, is described. The application of remotely sensed data to synoptic evaluation of evapotranspiration and moisture in agricultural soils was considered. The influence of topography, soils, land use, and meteorology on surface temperature distribution was evaluated. Anthropogenic heat release was investigated. Test areas extended from semi-arid land in southern Italy to polders in the Netherlands, and from vine-growing hills in the Rhineland to grasslands in Buckinghamshire.

Deparatesi, S. G. (principal investigator); Reiniger, P. (editor)

1982-01-01

11

Preliminary investigation of microwave telemetry on an EML projectile  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a preliminary experimental investigation to convey acceleration measurements, made on-board an electromagnetic (EM) launched projectile, using microwave telemetry techniques. The focus of the investigation is to extend the Hardened Subminiature Telemetry and Sensor Systems (HSTSS) technology for use in EM launch environments. Many aspects of the HSTSS technology have already been successfully demonstrated in high-G, high-pressure launch

S. Levinson; M. Erengil; K. McMullen

2003-01-01

12

Investigations on CO 2 storage capacity in saline aquifers—Part 2: Estimation of storage capacity coefficients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many studies on geological carbon dioxide (CO2) storage capacity neglect the influence of complex coupled processes which occur during and after the injection of CO2. Storage capacity is often overestimated since parts of the reservoirs cannot be reached by the CO2 plume due to gravity segregation and are thus not accessible for storage. This work investigates the effect of reservoir

A. Kopp; R. Helmig

2009-01-01

13

A preliminary investigation of bird classification by Doppler radar  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A preliminary study of the application of Doppler radar to the classification of birds is reported. The desirability for improvements in bird classification stems primarily from the hazards they present to jet aircraft in flight and in the vicinity of airports. A secondary need exists in the study of bird migration. The wing body and tail motion of a bird in flight reflect signals which, when analyzed properly present a signature of wing beat pattern which is unique for each bird species. Although the results of this investigation did not validate the feasibility of classifying bird species, they do indicate that a more thorough investigation is warranted. Certain gross characteristics such as wing beat rates, multiple bird patterns, and bird maneuverability, were indicated clearly in the results. Large birds with slow wing beat rates appear to be the most optimum subject for further study with the X-band Doppler radar used in this investigation.

Martinson, L. W.

1973-01-01

14

Preliminary analysis to guide the choice of the power capacity of the future French Sodium Fast Reactor prototype  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a preliminary analysis aiming to guide the choice of the power capacity of the future French Sodium Fast Reactor (SFR) prototype. Given the French background on SFRs, the reactor prototype, called ASTRID (Advanced Sodium Technological Reactor for Industrial Demonstration), will be a demonstration reactor to validate at an industrial scale, the future commercial reactor technologies (1) mainly

G. Mignot; M. S. Chenaud; N. Devictor; L. Paret; G. Rodriguez; P. Dubuisson; J. Rouault

15

Trained Quantity Abilities in Horses (Equus caballus): A Preliminary Investigation  

PubMed Central

Once believed to be a human prerogative, the capacity to discriminate between quantities now has also been reported in several vertebrates. To date, only two studies investigated numerical abilities in horses (Equus caballus) but reported contrasting data. To assess whether horses can be trained to discriminate between quantities, I have set up a new experimental protocol using operant conditioning. One adult female was trained to discriminate between 1 and 4 (Test 1) in three different conditions: non-controlled continuous variables (numerical and continuous quantities that co-vary with number are simultaneously available), 50% controlled continuous variables (intermediate condition), and 100% controlled continuous variables (only numerical information available). The subject learned the discrimination in all conditions, showing the capacity to process numerical information. When presented with a higher numerical ratio (2 vs. 4, Test 2), the subject still discriminated between the quantities but its performance was statistically significant only in the non-controlled condition, suggesting that the subject used multiple cues in presence of a more difficult discrimination. On the whole, the results here reported encourage the use of this experimental protocol as a valid tool to investigate the capacity to process numerical and continuous quantities in horses in future research. PMID:25379278

Miletto Petrazzini, Maria Elena

2014-01-01

16

Investigations on CO 2 storage capacity in saline aquifers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The CO2 storage capacity of geological reservoirs is of great interest for the selection of potential storage sites in carbon capture and storage (CCS) projects. A detailed analysis essentially requires a thorough understanding of the interaction of forces acting within the system. By defining characteristic quantities for length, time, pressure and velocity, the governing multiphase flow equations can be non-dimensionalised.

A. Kopp; R. Helmig

2009-01-01

17

Sexually transmitted diseases in college men: a preliminary clinical investigation.  

PubMed

Continuing efforts to educate college students about the dangers of unprotected sexual intercourse have resulted in little evidence of positive change in sexual behavior. This clinical study examined the sexual behavior, perceived risk of human immunodeficiency virus, and pathology of 66 university men attending a health center's men's clinic for treatment of sexually transmitted disease (STD). The study demonstrated the existence of a high-risk group of men who, despite sexually transmitted disease pathology, high numbers of sexual partners, inconsistent condom use, and delays in seeking treatment, perceive their risk of contracting HIV/AIDS as being extremely low. This preliminary investigation suggests the need for specific education interventions and future in-depth studies of this population. PMID:8288833

Sawyer, R G; Moss, D J

1993-11-01

18

Preliminary Investigations of Wind Potential at Marietta College  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Marietta College received a grant to build a wind turbine on campus for educational purposes, as a demonstration of alternative energy production, and to promote new energy systems minors. We report on an investigation of the potential wind energy profile on Marietta College's campus and preliminary wind tunnel studies of variations in shroud design for a shrouded horizontal axis wind turbine. Anemometers were placed in three locations on the campus and wind velocity data was logged for several months. The data provides average wind speeds as well as prevailing wind directions. A wind tunnel was constructed to test shrouded wind turbines. A shrouded wind turbine with a diffuser and flange can maximize the wind speed through a turbine, thus maximizing its power output. This paper sets the stage for future projects to further develop the turbine models' geometry that will maximize power output.

Vance, William; Kuhl, Dennis

2012-04-01

19

Preliminary investigation of the 317 Area, ANL-E  

SciTech Connect

The 317 Area at Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL-E) is scheduled to undergo a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigation, Act or RFI. Prior to the formal RFI, a voluntary, preliminary characterization of the 317 Area was conducted by ANL-E. The characterization results were used to formulate the RFI work plan and provided a better focus for the formal investigation. This site presents a difficult engineering challenge. The nature of the waste disposed at this site in the past includes both liquid chemicals and radioactive waste. The 317 Area is classified as a radiologically controlled area because of operations currently performed there. Present Department of Energy policy stipulates that waste material from such an area must be considered radioactive. The possible presence of hazardous constituents in the soil and groundwater would require the investigation-derived waste generated at the site be disposed as radioactive mixed waste. Besides the nature of the waste possibly contaminating this site, the geology of the site poses an equally enigmatic situation. The ANL-E site is located in a region of recessional glacial moraine deposits.

Wescott, J.; Moos, L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Remeikis, A. [ATR Environmental Services Ltd., Lemont, IL (United States)

1995-06-01

20

Preliminary investigations into solutal flow about growing tetragonal lysozyme crystals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A series of preliminary experiments were done to investigate solutal flow about growing lysozyme crystals and its effects. Density-gradient-driven flow was observed using a schlieren optical system. Crystals used ranged from 0.3 to 1.72 mm across the (110) face, and protein concentrations were from 3.7 to 23.7 mg/ml. The convective plume velocities were found to be from 10 to 50 microns/s, which correlated with those predicted to occur based upon a diffusive-convective model. When microcrystals of lysozyme, less than 20 microns across the (110) face were subjected to directed solution flows, the growth rate was found to rapidly decrease over the 8-20 h course of the experiment. Solution flow rates used ranged from 18 to 40 microns/s, and protein concentrations were from 7.3 to 11.7 mg/ml, conditions typical of larger (greater than 0.5 mm) crystals in the terminal phases of a typical crystal growth procedure.

Pusey, Marc; Witherow, William; Naumann, Robert

1988-01-01

21

Preliminary investigation tests of novel antifungal topical aerosol  

PubMed Central

Spray formulation can minimize pain and irritation experience during the application of conventional dosage forms. Econazole Nitrate is an active ingredient of the aerosol concentrate to be used for twice-daily application because of its long durability in the superficial layers of the fungal infected skin. The aim of this study is preliminary investigation of Econazole Nitrate spray by varying the concentrations of different constituents of the spray. The ratios of Propylene glycol (PG) and isopropyl myristate (IPM) were selected as independent variables in 22 full factorial designs, keeping the concentration of solvent, co-solvent and propellant LPG constant. Aerosol also contained Ethanol as solvent and Isopropyl alcohol as co-solvent. All ingredients of the aerosol were packaged in an aluminum container fitted with continuous-spray valves. Physical properties evaluated for the Econazole Nitrate spray included delivery rate, delivery amount, pressure, minimum fill, leakage, flammability, spray patterns, particle image and plume angle. Glass containers were used to study incompatibility between concentrate and propellant due to the ease of visible inspection. Isopropyl myristate at lower concentrate showed turbidity, while at high concentration it met the requirements for aerosol and produced Econazole Nitrate spray with expected characteristics. PMID:23066214

Kapadia, Monali M.; Solanki, S. T.; Parmar, V.; Thosar, M. M.; Pancholi, S. S.

2012-01-01

22

Preliminary findings of the LDEF Materials Special Investigation Group  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The retrieval of NASA's LDEF from low Earth orbit provided an opportunity for the study of long duration space environmental effects on materials. The five year, nine month flight of the LDEF greatly enhanced the potential value of most LDEF materials. NASA recognized this potential by forming the LDEF Space Environmental Effects on Materials Special Investigation Group (MSIG). Its goal is to explore the expanded materials analysis opportunities available in the LDEF structure and on experiment trays. The charter and scope of MSIG activities is presented, followed by an overview of the preliminary MSIG observations. These observations of low Earth orbit environmental effects on materials were made in-space during LDEF retrieval and during LDEF tray disintegration. Also presented are initial findings of lab analyses of LDEF materials. Included are effects of individual environmental parameters: atomic oxygen, ultraviolet radiation, meteoroid and debris impacts, thermal cycling, vacuum, and contamination, plus combined effects of these parameters. Materials considered include anodized aluminum, polymer matrix composites, polymer films, silvered Teflon thermal blankets, and a white thermal control paint.

Stein, Bland A.; Pippin, H. Gary

1992-01-01

23

Preliminary investigations into triazole derived androgen receptor antagonists.  

PubMed

A range of 1,4-substituted-1,2,3-N-phenyltriazoles were synthesized and evaluated as non-steroidal androgen receptor (AR) antagonists. The motivation for this study was to replace the N-phenyl amide portion of small molecule antiandrogens with a 1,2,3-triazole and determine effects, if any, on biological activity. The synthetic methodology presented herein is robust, high yielding and extremely rapid. Using this methodology a series of 17 N-aryl triazoles were synthesized from commercially available starting materials in less than 3h. After preliminary biological screening at 20 and 40 ?M, the most promising three compounds were found to display IC50 values of 40-50 ?M against androgen dependent (LNCaP) cells and serve as a starting point for further structure-activity investigations. All compounds in this work were the focus of an in silico study to dock the compounds into the human androgen receptor ligand binding domain (hARLBD) and compare their predicted binding affinity with known antiandrogens. A comparison of receptor-ligand interactions for the wild type and T877A mutant AR revealed two novel polar interactions. One with Q738 of the wild type site and the second with the mutated A877 residue. PMID:24726305

Altimari, Jarrad M; Niranjan, Birunthi; Risbridger, Gail P; Schweiker, Stephanie S; Lohning, Anna E; Henderson, Luke C

2014-05-01

24

Preliminary investigation tests of novel antifungal topical aerosol.  

PubMed

Spray formulation can minimize pain and irritation experience during the application of conventional dosage forms. Econazole Nitrate is an active ingredient of the aerosol concentrate to be used for twice-daily application because of its long durability in the superficial layers of the fungal infected skin. The aim of this study is preliminary investigation of Econazole Nitrate spray by varying the concentrations of different constituents of the spray. The ratios of Propylene glycol (PG) and isopropyl myristate (IPM) were selected as independent variables in 2(2) full factorial designs, keeping the concentration of solvent, co-solvent and propellant LPG constant. Aerosol also contained Ethanol as solvent and Isopropyl alcohol as co-solvent. All ingredients of the aerosol were packaged in an aluminum container fitted with continuous-spray valves. Physical properties evaluated for the Econazole Nitrate spray included delivery rate, delivery amount, pressure, minimum fill, leakage, flammability, spray patterns, particle image and plume angle. Glass containers were used to study incompatibility between concentrate and propellant due to the ease of visible inspection. Isopropyl myristate at lower concentrate showed turbidity, while at high concentration it met the requirements for aerosol and produced Econazole Nitrate spray with expected characteristics. PMID:23066214

Kapadia, Monali M; Solanki, S T; Parmar, V; Thosar, M M; Pancholi, S S

2012-03-01

25

Aerobic Capacity Following Long Duration International Spaces Station (ISS) Missions: Preliminary Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max) is reduced immediately following space flights lasting <15 d, but has not been measured following long-duration missions. The purpose of this study is to measure VO2max and maximum work rate (WRmax) data from astronauts following ISS flights (91 to 188 d). Methods: Five astronauts [3 M, 2 F: 47+/-6 yr, 174+/-6 cm, 71.9+/-10.9 kg (mean +/- SD)] have participated in the study. Subjects performed upright cycle exercise tests to symptom-limited maximum. An initial test was done approx.270 d before flight to establish work rates for subsequent tests. Subsequent tests, conducted approx.45 d before flight and repeated on the first or second day (R+1/2) and at approx.10 d (R+10) following landing, consisted of 3 5 min stages designed to elicit 25%, 50%, and 75% of preflight VO2max, followed by 25 W(dot)/min increases. VO2, WR, and heart rate (HR) were measured using the ISS Portable Pulmonary Function System [Damec, Odense, DK]. Descriptive statistics are reported. Results: On R+1/2 mean VO2max decreased compared to preflight (Pre: 2.98+/-0.99, R+1/2: 2.63+/-0.56 L(dot)/min); 4 of 5 subjects demonstrated a loss of > 6%. WRmax also decreased on R+1/2 compared to preflight (Pre: 245+/-69, R+1/2: 210+/-45 W). On R+10, VO2max was 2.86+/-0.62 L(dot)/min, with 2 subjects still demonstrating a loss of > 6% from preflight. WRmax on R+10 was 240+/-49 W. HRmax did not change from pre to post-flight. Conclusions: These preliminary results, from the first 5 of 12 planned subjects of an ongoing ISS study, suggest that the majority of astronauts will experience a decrease in VO2max after long-duration space-flight. Interestingly, the two astronauts with the highest preflight VO2max had the greatest loss on R+1/2, and the astronaut with the lowest preflight VO2max increased by 13%. Thus, maintenance of VO2max may be more difficult in astronauts who have a high aerobic capacity, perhaps requiring more intense in-flight exercise countermeasure prescriptions.

Moore, Alan D.; Lee, S.M.C.; Everett, M.E.; Guined, J.R.; Knudsen, P.

2010-01-01

26

Preliminary geologic investigation of the Apollo 16 landing site  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Preliminary results of examining the lunar rock samples from the Apollo 16 flight are reported. Topics discussed include: premission geologic studies, geologic objectives, description of the site and traverse routes, superficial deposits, and station descriptions.

Muehlberger, W. R.; Batson, R. M.; Boudette, E. L.; Duke, C. M.; Eggleton, R. E.; Elston, D. P.; England, A. W.; Freeman, V. L.; Hait, M. H.; Hall, T. A.

1972-01-01

27

Preliminary Aerodynamic Investigation of Fan Rotor Blade Morphing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Various new technologies currently under development may enable controlled blade shape variability, or so-called blade morphing, to be practically employed in aircraft engine fans and compressors in the foreseeable future. The current study is a relatively brief, preliminary computational fluid dynamics investigation aimed at partially demonstrating and quantifying the aerodynamic potential of fan rotor blade morphing. The investigation is intended to provide information useful for near-term planning, as well as aerodynamic solution data sets that can be subsequently analyzed using advanced acoustic diagnostic tools, for the purpose of making fan noise comparisons. Two existing fan system models serve as baselines for the investigation: the Advanced Ducted Propulsor fan with a design tip speed of 806 ft/sec and a pressure ratio of 1.294, and the Source Diagnostic Test fan with a design tip speed of 1215 ft/sec and a pressure ratio of 1.470. Both are 22-in. sub-scale, low-noise research fan/nacelle models that have undergone extensive experimental testing in the 9- by 15-foot Low Speed Wind Tunnel at the NASA Glenn Research Center. The study, restricted to fan rotor blade morphing only, involves a fairly simple blade morphing technique. Specifically, spanwise-linear variations in rotor blade-section setting angle are applied to alter the blade shape; that is, the blade is linearly retwisted from hub to tip. Aerodynamic performance comparisons are made between morphed-blade and corresponding baseline configurations on the basis of equal fan system thrust, where rotor rotational speed for the morphed-blade fan is varied to change the thrust level for that configuration. The results of the investigation confirm that rotor blade morphing could be a useful technology, with the potential to enable significant improvements in fan aerodynamic performance. Even though the study is very limited in scope and confined to simple geometric perturbations of two existing fan systems, the aerodynamic effectiveness of blade morphing is demonstrated by the configurations analyzed. In particular, for the Advanced Ducted Propulsor fan it is demonstrated that the performance levels of the original variable-pitch baseline design can be achieved using blade morphing instead of variable pitch, and for the Source Diagnostic Test fan the performance at important off-design operating points is substantially increased with blade morphing.

Tweedt, Daniel L.

2012-01-01

28

Asynchronous Nano-electronics: Preliminary Investigation Alain J. Martin & Piyush Prakash  

E-print Network

Asynchronous Nano-electronics: Preliminary Investigation Alain J. Martin & Piyush Prakash is a preliminary investigation in implement- ing asynchronous QDI logic in molecular nano-electronics, taking apply to nano-CMOS as well. 1. Introduction Currently, molecular nano-electronics is considered

Martin, Alain

29

Investigation of Heat capacity and Specific Heat: Using Different Temperatures of Water and Solids  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is a chemistry lab-based investigation where students apply observational skills and critical thinking skills to finding specific heat and heat capacity using different temperatures of water and solids. A final activity will assess students understanding of specific heat and heat capacity and promote data analysis skills, using real-life situations.

30

Preliminary Investigation of a Video-Based Stimulus Preference Assessment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Video clips may be an effective format for presenting complex stimuli in preference assessments. In this preliminary study, we evaluated the correspondence between preference hierarchies generated from preference assessments that included either toys or videos of the toys. The top-ranked item corresponded in both assessments for 5 of the 6…

Snyder, Katie; Higbee, Thomas S.; Dayton, Elizabeth

2012-01-01

31

Islam, media, and cultural policy: a preliminary investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article seeks to expand the purview of cultural policy studies of the Middle East by offering some preliminary observations on implicit Islamic cultural policies in Egypt since the 1990s. It argues that there has been an ascending moment of industrial, market?oriented media culture and practice in Egypt during the past two decades, which has been shaped by a new

Karim Tartoussieh

2009-01-01

32

SAR investigation over the Baegdu stratovolcanic mountain: preliminary results  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mt. Baegdu, a Cenozoic stratovolcano, is studied using SAR and JERS-1 OPS data. The authors use ERS-2 SAR and JERS-1 SAR to generate interferograms and coherence maps. One of the JERS-1 SAR pairs acquired with 1100 days interval produces a relatively excellent interferogram. Although there is a height trend still to be removed, the preliminary DEMs are successfully estimated from

Joong-Sun Won; Hyo Jae Lee; Wooil M. Moon

2000-01-01

33

PREDICTING THE ENTREPRENEURIAL INTENTIONS OF NONBUSINESS MAJORS: A PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports preliminary results of an ongoing project to profile entrepreneurial intentions of Family and Consumer Sciences (FCS) majors. The study used a self-administered questionnaire to explore the influence of vicarious experience, entrepreneurial orientation, image of entrepreneurship, and subjective norms on EI in a non business student sample. Students who expressed stronger interest in entrepreneurial careers are proactive, creative,

Barbara J. Frazier; Linda S. Niehm

34

MIDDLE POTLATCH CREEK, LATAH COUNTY, IDAHO - PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION REPORT, 1993  

EPA Science Inventory

The 1992 Idaho Water Quality Status Report listed the Middle Potlatch Creek (17060306) as an Idaho Impaired Stream Segment Requiring Further Assessment and listed the creek as a water body not fully supporting at least one beneficial use. This preliminary resource assessment foc...

35

Exploring the Assimilation Stage of GTA Socialization: A Preliminary Investigation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A preliminary study explored the components of the assimilation stage of graduate teaching assistant (GTA) socialization. Subjects, 64 GTAs attending a large midwestern university, completed 4 survey instruments concerning their attitudes on mentoring and communication support, information seeking strategies, teacher communication concerns, and…

Myers, Scott A.

36

Examining the Reinforcing Properties of Making Sense: A Preliminary Investigation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Acceptance and commitment therapy asserts that in clinical problems such as rumination and depression, making sense continues despite accompanying aversive consequences, because sense-making is reinforcing, particularly when it leads to experiential avoidance. The following series of experiments aimed to provide preliminary empirical evidence for…

Wray, Alisha M.; Dougher, Michael J.; Hamilton, Derek A.; Guinther, Paul M.

2012-01-01

37

Preliminary Investigation of Linkages Between Arctic Pingos and Subsurface Stratigraphy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This NASA-SETI supported study investigates the distribution of pingos (elliptically-shaped ice-rich topographic mounds) across 2300 square kilometers of the central coastal plain of Arctic Alaska in relation to the shallow geological framework that exists immediately beneath them. Pingos in the central North Slope of Alaska are classified as being of the closed or hydrostatic type. Their genesis is often assigned to freezing and cryogenic uplift of near-surface saturated thaw lake sediments that are exposed as lakes are drained and/or become choked with sediments. Although thaw lakes appear rather ubiquitous across the study area, pingos do not. Pingo distributions can be categorized as either clusters of elements or as relatively dispersed. Spatial statistical analysis reveals that pingo distribution is non-random and clustered. The analysis also took into account that pingo distribution is a function of preferential preservation between modern rivers channels that cross the study area. Pingo distributions and frequency were tested in relation to the location and type of stratigraphic and sedimentological features that characterized the shallow subsurface across the study area. Subsurface interpretation was derived mostly from oil well wireline logs. Gamma ray logs for more than 160 wells were used to define, correlate and assess the connectivity and conductivity of shallow and near-surface stratigraphic units between wells. Assessed also were major facies changes and the type and locations of subsurface structures such as major basement-to-surface faults and folds. The surface and near-surface truncation and subcropping of tilted, alternating units of permeable coarse-grained and confining fine- grained units were also mapped in relation to pingo locations. Preliminary and intriguing findings will be presented which contribute to the hypothesis that pingo genesis, location, and variations in morphology could be, in part, linked to a well-documented and active subsurface geohydrologic system. This system is characterized by multiple stacked hydrocarbon-, saline- and freshwater-rich reservoirs. Processes include fault reactivation and basin subsidence that drive episodic basin expulsion, and upward migration and mixing of deep basin and phreatic fluids along basin margins. Endpoints of the system include demonstrable gas hydrates deposits that occur below and within the permafrost, and documented seepage of hydrocarbons and groundwater at the surface. Our hypothesis entertains the idea that closed pingos might also be endpoints of the petroluem system as basin and phreatic fluids migrate vertically within a thick and leaky permafrost interval along faults and tilted reservoir sand-rich units, which intersect and differentially charge frozen near-surface sedimentary units. Future field-based sampling and geophysical studies may shed additional light on this model's application for pingo genesis and resource exploration on Mars.

Casavant, R.; Skirvin, S.; Patel, C.; Burr, D.

2008-12-01

38

Improving CAD performance in pulmonary embolism detection: preliminary investigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this preliminary study, a new computer-aided detection (CAD) scheme for pulmonary embolism (PE) detection was developed and tested. The scheme applies multiple steps including lung segmentation, candidate extraction using intensity mask and tobogganing method, feature extraction, false positive reduction using a multifeature based artificial neural network (ANN) and a k-nearest neighbor (KNN) classifier to detect and classify suspicious PE lesions. In particular, a new method to define the surrounding background regions of interest (ROI) depicting PE candidates was proposed and tested in an attempt to reduce the detection of false positive regions. In this study, the authors also investigated following methods to improve CAD performance, which include a grouping and scoring method, feature selection using genetic algorithm, and limitation on allowed suspicious lesions to be cued in one examination. To test the scheme performance, a set of 20 chest CT examinations were selected. Among them, 18 are positive cases depicted 44 verified PE lesions and the remaining 2 were negative cases. The dataset was also divided into a training subset (9 examinations) and a testing subset (11 examinations), respectively. The experimental results showed when applying to the testing dataset CAD scheme using tobogganing method alone achieved 2D region-based sensitivity of 72.1% (220/305) and 3D lesion-based sensitivity of 83.3% (20/24) with total 19,653 2D false-positive (FP) PE regions (1,786.6 per case or approximately 6.3 per CT slice). Applying the proposed new method to improve lung region segmentation and better define the surrounding background ROI, the scheme reduced the region-based sensitivity by 6.5% to 65.6% or lesion-based sensitivity by 4.1% to 79.2% while reducing the FP rate by 65.6% to 6,752 regions (or 613.8 per case). After applying the methods of grouping, the maximum scoring, a genetic algorithm (GA) to delete "redundant" features, and limiting the maximum number of cued-lesions in one examination, CAD scheme further reduced FP rate to 50 per case. Based on the FROC curve, an operating threshold was set up in which the CAD scheme could ultimately achieve 63.2% detection sensitivity with 18.4 FP regions per case when applying to the testing dataset. This study investigated the feasibility of several methods applying to the CAD scheme in detecting PE lesions and demonstrated that CAD performance could depend on many factors including better defining candidate ROI and its background, optimizing the 2D region grouping and scoring methods, selecting the optimal feature set, and limiting the number of allowed cueing lesions per examination.

Park, Sang Cheol; Chapman, Brian; Deible, Christopher; Lee, Sean; Zheng, Bin

2010-03-01

39

PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION ON THE DISTRIBUTION OF AFRICANIZED HONEY BEES IN ARGENTINA  

E-print Network

PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION ON THE DISTRIBUTION OF AFRICANIZED HONEY BEES IN ARGENTINA A. DIETZ, R The preliminary results of a survey for Africanized honey bees conducted in 17 provinces of Argentina from January with the defensive behavior test. Roadside samples and bees from feral colonies were collected at 392 sites

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

40

Preliminary Investigation into the Corrosion of Beryllium Exposed to Celotex and Water  

E-print Network

Preliminary Investigation into the Corrosion of Beryllium Exposed to Celotex and Water R. Scott , it was uncertain in the LLNL work if accelerate corrosion would result when beryllium was exposed to Celotex the corrosion rate of beryllium. While preliminary, these results indicate that storage conditions which may

41

18 CFR 367.1830 - Account 183, Preliminary survey and investigation charges.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...SUBJECT TO THE PROVISIONS OF THE PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 2005, FEDERAL POWER ACT AND NATURAL GAS ACT Balance Sheet Chart of Accounts Deferred Debits § 367.1830 Account 183, Preliminary survey and investigation charges. (a)...

2013-04-01

42

18 CFR 367.1830 - Account 183, Preliminary survey and investigation charges.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...SUBJECT TO THE PROVISIONS OF THE PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 2005, FEDERAL POWER ACT AND NATURAL GAS ACT Balance Sheet Chart of Accounts Deferred Debits § 367.1830 Account 183, Preliminary survey and investigation charges. (a)...

2011-04-01

43

18 CFR 367.1830 - Account 183, Preliminary survey and investigation charges.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...SUBJECT TO THE PROVISIONS OF THE PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 2005, FEDERAL POWER ACT AND NATURAL GAS ACT Balance Sheet Chart of Accounts Deferred Debits § 367.1830 Account 183, Preliminary survey and investigation charges. (a)...

2010-04-01

44

Adaptive Patterns of Stress Responsivity: A Preliminary Investigation  

PubMed Central

The adaptive calibration model (ACM) is an evolutionary–developmental theory of individual differences in stress responsivity. In this article, we tested some key predictions of the ACM in a middle childhood sample (N = 256). Measures of autonomic nervous system activity across the sympathetic and parasympathetic branches validated the 4-pattern taxonomy of the ACM via finite mixture modeling. Moreover, the 4 patterns of responsivity showed the predicted associations with family stress levels but no association with measures of ecological stress. Our hypotheses concerning sex differences in responsivity were only partly confirmed. This preliminary study provides initial support for the key predictions of the ACM and highlights some of the methodological challenges that will need to be considered in future research on this topic. PMID:22148947

Del Giudice, Marco; Hinnant, J. Benjamin; Ellis, Bruce J.; El-Sheikh, Mona

2014-01-01

45

Preliminary investigations into UHCRE thermal control materials (A0178)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An overview of the initial work that was done in the ESTEC Materials and Processes Division to evaluate the effect of space environment on the thermal blankets of the Ultra-Heavy Cosmic Ray Nuclei Experiments (UHCRE) is presented. The topics covered include: (1) a preliminary survey of the perforations of the two-thirds of the thermal blanket returned to ESTEC; (2) thermo-optical properties and thickness recessions of three samples cut from each of the third center parts of the 16 thermal blankets were measured and effects of environments (sun illumination and atomic oxygen fluences); (3) contamination was analyzed on trays, external blanket and internal aluminized Kapton foil by IR technique and scanning electron microscopy SEM/EDX examination; (4) the pattern of contamination on the Al Kapton foils was observed, sketched, and related to atomic oxygen flow; and (5) the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) yaw angle misorientation was evaluated from the contaminated areas visible on some of the trays. In addition, impacts of micrometeoroids and space debris were experimentally simulated on spare flight thermal blankets. Relations between penetration/perforation hole characteristics and projectile parameters were established.

Levadou, Francois; Froggatt, Mike; Rott, Martin; Schneider, Eberhard

1992-01-01

46

Tungsten mine waste geopolymeric binder: Preliminary hydration products investigations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geopolymeric mine waste mud (GMWM) binders are obtained from dehydroxylated waste powder mixed with minor quantities of calcium hydroxide, activated with NaOH and waterglass solutions. In this work recent investigations of GMWM binders hydration products have been carried out. The hydration products have been investigated by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy\\/energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM\\/EDS).Results indicate that

Fernando Pacheco-Torgal; João Castro-Gomes; Said Jalali

2009-01-01

47

An investigation of factors limiting aerobic capacity in patients with ankylosing spondylitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) has been shown to produce exercise limitation and breathlessness. The purpose of this study was to investigate factors which may be responsible for limiting aerobic capacity in patients with AS.Twenty patients with no other cardio-respiratory disease performed integrative cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET). The results were compared to 20 age and gender matched healthy controls. Variables that might

R. Carter; P. Riantawan; S. W. Banham; R. D. Sturrock

1999-01-01

48

Gambling Behaviors Among Oxford House Residents: A Preliminary Investigation  

PubMed Central

The present study investigated the prevalence of gambling behaviors among 71 individuals recovering from substance-dependent disorders and living in self-run recovery homes (Oxford Houses). Residents were given the South Oaks Gambling Screen to assess gambling behaviors and pathological gambling, and 19.7% of the sample was identified as having probable pathological gambling. These residents reported proportionately more involvement in a variety of gambling behaviors than other residents. Engagement in various gambling activities was consistent with previous investigations and suggested that self-run recovery homes such as Oxford Houses might be suitable referral sources for recovering persons who have comorbid gambling problems. PMID:21949457

Majer, John M.; Angulo, Robert S.; Aase, Darrin M.; Jason, Leonard A.

2011-01-01

49

Spirituality and Young Women in Transition: A Preliminary Investigation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study contributes to the growing body of knowledge about spirituality and life transitions. Through qualitative investigation, 9 young women in professional education programs described their definition of spirituality, their spiritual activities, and how they used their spirituality to cope with life transitions as they prepared to enter the…

Livingston, Kimberly A.; Cummings, Anne L.

2009-01-01

50

Role of Working Memory in Children's Understanding Spoken Narrative: A Preliminary Investigation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The role of phonological short-term memory (PSTM), attentional resource capacity/allocation, and processing speed on children's spoken narrative comprehension was investigated. Sixty-seven children (6-11 years) completed a digit span task (PSTM), concurrent verbal processing and storage (CPS) task (resource capacity/allocation), auditory-visual…

Montgomery, James W.; Polunenko, Anzhela; Marinellie, Sally A.

2009-01-01

51

Preliminary investigation of the nature of hydrocarbon migration and entrapment  

E-print Network

migration models. This was essential in order to determine what could reasonably be considered to learn possible in terms of the details regarding the migration of oil and gas through stacked fault-bounded reservoirs. In this investigation the following...-phase systems. Therefore, a better understanding of the role of back doors on hydrocarbon migration and distribution in an oil-gas-water system is essential to identifying possible migration pathways along faults in stacked fault-bounded reservoirs, as well...

Bai, Jianyong

2004-09-30

52

Pubertal Timing and Identity Crisis: A Preliminary Investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Retrospective self-report data were utilized in an attempt to investigate the relationship between pubertal timing and identity-crisis status. Identity status interviews were administered to 105 late adolescents: 46 males and 59 females. Retrospective reports about pubertal onset were obtained. The results indicated that crisis males reportedly matured significantly later than their non-crisis counterparts whereas the opposite pattern was found with

Michael D. Berzonsky; John P. Lombardo

1983-01-01

53

A preliminary investigation of chlorine XANES in silicate glasses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chlorine speciation in silicate melts affects volatile exsolution, rheology, and thermodynamic properties of the melt but is poorly known. X-Ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES) spectra have been used to investigate Cl speciation in 26 silicate glasses and to test the hypothesis that Cl in silicate melts is hosted by species that combine Cl and network-modifying cations such as Ca and Mg. Results indicate that Cl in CMAS (CaO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2) plus Na2O, K2O, or MnO silicate glasses exists as a combination of Ca-Clx and Mg-Clx species or, possibly, as mixed Ca-Mgy-Clx species. The geometry and stoichiometry of the proposed species is unknown, but there are similarities between spectra from Ca-bearing melts and the spectra of hydrated CaCl2.2H2O, suggesting that the Ca-Clx species could have a salt-like atomic arrangement and ionic bonding. Further investigations using XANES, alternative spectroscopic techniques, and forward modeling approaches are required to distinguish between these possibilities.

Evans, K. A.; Mavrogenes, J. A.; O'Neill, H. S.; Keller, N. S.; Jang, L.-Y.

2008-10-01

54

Preliminary investigation of a two-zone swirl flow combustor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effect of full-annular swirling-flow on a flow-zone combustor design is investigated. Swirl flow angles of 25, 35, and 45 degrees were investigated in a combustor design envelope typical of those used in modern engines. The two-zone combustor had 24 pilot-zone fuel injectors and 24 main-fuel injectors located in the centerbody between the pilot and swirl passage. Combustor performance was determined at idle, and two parametric 589 K inlet temperature conditions. Combustor performance was highest with the 45 degree swirl vane design; at the idle condition, combustion efficiency was 99.5 percent. The 45 degree swirl vane also produced the lowest pattern factor of the three angles and showed a combustor lean blowout limit below a 0.001 fuel-air ratio. Combustor total pressure drop varied from a low of 4.6 percent for the 25 degree swirl to a high of 4.9 percent for the 45 degree swirl. Previously announced in STAR as N84-22565

Biaglow, J. A.; Johnson, S. M.; Smith, J. M.

1984-01-01

55

Age Dating of Mixed SNM--Preliminary Investigations  

SciTech Connect

Recently we investigated the nuclear forensics problem of age determination for mixed special nuclear material (SNM). Through limited computational mixing experiments and interactive age analysis, it was observed that age dating results are generally affected by the mixing of samples with different assays or even by small radioactive material contamination. The mixing and contamination can be detected through interactive age analysis, a function provided by the Decay Interaction, Visualization and Analysis (DIVA) software developed by NSTec. It is observed that for mixed SNM with two components, the age estimators typically fall into two distinct clusters on the time axis. This suggests that averaging or other simple statistical methods may not always be suitable for age dating SNM mixtures. Instead, an interactive age analysis would be more suitable for age determination of material components of such SNM mixtures. This work was supported by the National Center for Nuclear Security (NCNS).

Yuan, D., Guss, P. P., Yfantis, E., Klingensmith, A., Emer, D.

2011-12-01

56

Preliminary investigations of thermionic converters utilizing HOTEMA and DFVLR electrodes  

SciTech Connect

Experiment results obtained from three thermionic converters using improved electrodes are reported. Two converters with ZrO/sub 2/-Mo cermet electrodes produced by a low pressure plasma spray technique at the DFVLR in Stuttgart were fabricated and tested. The first of this pair of diodes was outgassed and operated at high temperatures and did not show improved thermionic performance. The second of the two was outgassed and operated at more moderate temperatures. An encouraging barrier index of 2.00 eV at T/sub E/ = 1400/sup 0/K was recorded. Additionally, pre- and postoperational diagnostics confirmed that elemental concentrations on the emitter were nearly equal before and after operation. However, these electrodes did not give stable performance at emitter temperatures corresponding to practical ouput power densities. The Mo-Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, Cr/sub 2/O/sub 3/ eutectic emitter developed by HOTEMA in the Netherlands exhibited stable performance at emitter temperatures up to 1650/sup 0/K. The barrier index at T/sub E/ = 1400/sup 0/K was 2.04 eV. The minimum collector work function as measured by the retarding plot method was 1.53 eV. This low work function may be related to the presence of oxygen (which was verified by postoperational diagnostics) on both the emitter and collector. These results suggest that an emitter of this type has the potential of providing significantly improved thermionic converter performance, and should be investigated further.

Saunders, M.; Danielson, L.; Huffman, F.

1982-11-01

57

Music therapy assessment in school settings: a preliminary investigation.  

PubMed

The present investigation was undertaken in response to music therapists working in school settings for information relating to the availability of music therapy assessments and the feasibility of standardizing an assessment instrument for music therapists to use in school settings. Five research questions were identified, and the music therapy literature was surveyed to compile responses to those questions. Three different online data bases (ERIC, PsycINFO, and Article 1st) were used, covering articles published between 1980 and 1997. Individual hand searches were done of the Arts in Psychotherapy, Journal of Music Therapy, Journal of Research in Music Education, Journal of the International Association of Music for the Handicapped, Music Therapy and Music Therapy Perspectives. The questions and responses were as follows: 1. Which music-based assessment tools are being used with children with disabilities? Little commonality in assessment tools being used by music therapists and researchers was discovered. Of the total 41 studies, 20 (49%) reported using a "named" or "titled" assessment tool, and in the remaining 51% of studies, the authors reported using an untitled, and usually experimenter-designed, original assessment tool. 2. Have certain assessments been used in more than one study? Very limited replication of existing assessments was found. Of the 16 "named" assessments, only 3 were found to be used in more than one research study. 3. Are the actual assessments published along with the articles describing their use? Only 3 of the 20 studies using named assessments were published along with the journal article. Of the remaining 21 studies using original, experimenter-designed assessment tools, only 6 (28%) had the assessment instrument published with the article. 4. What is the primary purpose for using the assessment? Six primary purposes emerged from the review of the literature: to compare with data obtained from other assessment measures or from other populations (39%), as a baseline or pretest measure (29%), to determine eligibility for services or the receipt of treatment (12%), to determine the psychometric properties of the assessment (7%), suitability of the instrument for the given population (7%), and the identification of musical preferences (5%). 5. What are the musical or nonmusic elements being assessed? Musical elements were: music perception (37%), musical aptitude (29%), musical preferences (12%), and attention to/enjoyment of music (2%). Nonmusical behaviors/responses were: self-expression (10%), motor responses (10%), behavioral responses (7%), cognitive development (2%), and acts of communication (2%). 6. What subject populations are being assessed? Subject populations were: children with developmental disabilities/mental retardation (44%), children with autism (10%), children with hearing impairments (17%), "psychiatric" clients or emotionally disturbed (22%), individuals described as "handicapped" (5%), individuals with physical disabilities (2%), and a student with a speech impairment (2%). Nondisabled individuals were also included in 12 of the aforementioned studies. PMID:10932124

Wilson, B L; Smith, D S

2000-01-01

58

Investigation of technology for developing large capacity and compact size GCB  

SciTech Connect

New effective technologies to increase the interruption capacity and to reduce the size of a GCB will be shown. One is the adoption of a new nozzle shape that improves the cooling of the arc. The other is the investigation of hot gas diffusion in the exhaust cylinder related to the dielectric strength recovery after the current interruption. It is shown that these technologies are useful for increasing the interrupting current from 50 kA to 63 kA.

Mori, T.; Ohashi, H.; Mizoguchi, H.; Suzuki, K. [Toshiba Corp., Kawasaki (Japan)] [Toshiba Corp., Kawasaki (Japan)

1997-04-01

59

Reputation of Communities of Web services -Preliminary Investigation Said Elnaffar1  

E-print Network

Reputation of Communities of Web services - Preliminary Investigation Said Elnaffar1 , Zakaria Maamar2 , Hamdi Yahyaoui3 , Jamal Bentahar4 , and Philippe Thiran5 1 United Arab Emirates University, Al-Ain, U.A.E 2 Zayed University, Dubai, U.A.E 3 Sharjah University, Sharjah, U.A.E 4 Concordia University

Bentahar, Jamal

60

A Preliminary Investigation of Factors Affecting Employment Motivation in People with Intellectual Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Relatively small numbers of people with intellectual disabilities (ID) are engaging in paid employment and those who are tend to be working only part-time. This preliminary study addressed the question of what factors motivate people with ID to work. The issue was investigated in a sample of 10 young work-age adults attending supported learning…

Andrews, Abbye; Rose, John L.

2010-01-01

61

A Quantitative Approach to Investigating Spanish HL Speakers' Characteristics and Motivation: A Preliminary Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present preliminary study empirically investigated Spanish heritage language (HL) speakers in Spanish for native speakers (SNS) college courses. It focused on their attitudes and motivation to improve their HL and on their varying linguistic competences in that language. A well-established second language acquisition (SLA) motivational model…

Yanguas, Inigo

2010-01-01

62

[Construction principles, strength investigation and early clinical results of the Integracja osteosynthesis system: a preliminary report].  

PubMed

The aim of this paper was to present the construction principles and strength investigation of the Integracja osteosynthesis system. Preliminary results of fracture treatment in 6 patients with hip and knee prosthesis are presented. Inc all cases bony union was obtained. Integracja can be successfully used in femur fractures near the tip of the prosthesis shaft. PMID:11761761

Ga?dzik, T; Bartyzel, P; Fija?kowski, J

2001-01-01

63

Mood, arousal and cognitions in persistent gambling: Preliminary investigation of a theoretical model  

Microsoft Academic Search

A theoretical model of persistent gambling is described together with the results of two preliminary investigations focusing on poker machine play under ecologically valid conditions. The subjects (N=80), the majority of whom already had experience of playing, gambled with their own money (either with or without a small “priming” fee), 1) in a laboratory setting on a commercially available machine

Mary Dickerson; Sylvia Adcock

1987-01-01

64

Postmortem electrical excitability of skeletal muscle: preliminary investigation of an animal model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Presented is a preliminary study of the feasibility of using an animal model to investigate the postmortem time-dependent decay in muscular response, when subjected to electrical stimulation and to develop an animal model for the assessment of the use of electrical excitability as a method for determining the postmortem period of a human corpse. Analysis of the results shows a

M. D. Jones; W. S. James; S. Barasi; L. D. M. Nokes

1995-01-01

65

Preliminary Investigations for Causes of the Disappearance of Diporeia spp. from Lake Ontario  

E-print Network

203 Preliminary Investigations for Causes of the Disappearance of Diporeia spp. from Lake Ontario. Morris St. Oxford, Maryland, U.S.A. 21654 Abstract The amphipod Diporeia spp. comprised 60-80% of the benthos in offshore Lake Ontario and was an important food for fish. In eastern Lake Ontario, Diporeia spp

66

Understanding comorbidity between ptsd and substance use disorders: Two preliminary investigations  

Microsoft Academic Search

While there is high level of comorbidity of PTSD and substance use disorders (SUDs), little research has focused on the overlapping symptom constellation characteristic of both PTSD and substance use\\/withdrawal. This report describes two preliminary investigations that address this area. In the first study, the pattern of PTSD symptoms in a sample of women (n = 28) seeking treatment for

Michael E. Saladin; Kathleen T. Brady; Bonnie S. Dansky; Dean G. Kilpatrick

1995-01-01

67

Efficacy of Attention Regulation in Preschool-Age Children Who Stutter: A Preliminary Investigation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This preliminary investigation assessed the attentional processes of preschool-age children who do (CWS) and do not stutter (CWNS) during Traditional cueing and Affect cueing tasks. Method: Participants consisted of 12 3- to 5-year-old CWS and the same number of CWNS (all boys). Both talker groups participated in two tasks of shifting and…

Johnson, Kia N.; Conture, Edward G.; Walden, Tedra A.

2012-01-01

68

Analytical and experimental investigation of liquid double drop dynamics: Preliminary design for space shuttle experiments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The preliminary grant assessed the use of laboratory experiments for simulating low g liquid drop experiments in the space shuttle environment. Investigations were begun of appropriate immiscible liquid systems, design of experimental apparatus and analyses. The current grant continued these topics, completed construction and preliminary testing of the experimental apparatus, and performed experiments on single and compound liquid drops. A continuing assessment of laboratory capabilities, and the interests of project personnel and available collaborators, led to, after consultations with NASA personnel, a research emphasis specializing on compound drops consisting of hollow plastic or elastic spheroids filled with liquids.

1981-01-01

69

Investigation of Mg modified mesoporous silicas and their CO 2 adsorption capacities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CO 2 adsorption properties on Mg modified silica mesoporous materials were investigated. By using the methods of co-condensation, dispersion and ion-exchange, Mg 2+ was introduced into SBA-15 and MCM-41, and transformed into MgO in the calcination process. The basic MgO can provide active sites to enhance the acidic CO 2 adsorption capacity. To improve the amount and the dispersion state of the loading MgO, the optimized modification conditions were also investigated. The XRD and TEM characteristic results, as well as the CO 2 adsorption performance showed that the CO 2 adsorption capacity not only depended on the pore structures of MCM-41 and SBA-15, but also on the improvement of the dispersion state of MgO by modification. Among various Mg modified silica mesoporous materials, the CO 2 adsorption capacity increased from 0.42 mmol g -1 of pure silica SBA-15 to 1.35 mmol g -1 of Mg-Al-SBA-15-I1 by the ion-exchange method enhanced with Al 3+ synergism. Moreover, it also increased from 0.67 mmol g -1 of pure silica MCM-41 to 1.32 mmol g -1 of Mg-EDA-MCM-41-D10 by the dispersion method enhanced with the incorporation of ethane diamine. The stability test by 10 CO 2 adsorption/desorption cycles showed Mg-urea-MCM-41-D10 possessed quite good recyclability.

Zhao, Huiling; Yan, Wei; Bian, Zijun; Hu, Jun; Liu, Honglai

2012-02-01

70

Radiation and temperature effects on electronic components investigated under the CSTI high capacity power project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of nuclear radiation and high temperature environments must be fully known and understood for the electronic components and materials used in both the Power Conditioning and Control subsystem and the reactor Instrumentation and Control subsystem of future high capacity nuclear space power systems. This knowledge is required by the designer of these subsystems in order to develop highly reliable, long-life power systems for future NASA missions. A review and summary of the experimental results obtained for the electronic components and materials investigated under the power management element of the Civilian Space Technology Initiative (CSTI) high capacity power project are presented: (1) neutron, gamma ray, and temperature effects on power semiconductor switches, (2) temperature and frequency effects on soft magnetic materials; and (3) temperature effects on rare earth permanent magnets.

Schwarze, Gene E.; Niedra, Janis M.; Frasca, Albert J.; Wieserman, William R.

1993-01-01

71

Radiation and temperature effects on electronic components investigated under the CSTI high capacity power project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of nuclear radiation and high temperature environments must be fully known and understood for the electronic components and materials used in both the Power Conditioning and Control subsystem and the reactor Instrumentation and Control subsystem of future high capacity nuclear space power systems. This knowledge is required by the designer of these subsystems in order to develop highly reliable, long-life power systems for future NASA missions. A review and summary of the experimental results obtained for the electronic components and materials investigated under the power management element of the CSTI high capacity power project will be presented in this paper: (1) Neutron, gamma ray, and temperature effects on power semiconductor switches, (2) Temperature and frequency effects on soft magnetic materials; and (3) Temperature effects on rare-earth permanent magnets.

Schwarze, Gene E.; Niedra, Janis M.; Frasca, Albert J.; Wieserman, William R.

1993-01-01

72

Investigation of the carbon dioxide sorption capacity and structural deformation of coal  

SciTech Connect

Due to increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations causing the global energy and environmental crises, geological sequestration of carbon dioxide is now being actively considered as an attractive option to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. One of the important strategies is to use deep unminable coal seams, for those generally contain significant quantities of coal bed methane that can be recovered by CO2 injection through enhanced coal bed natural gas production, as a method to safely store CO2. It has been well known that the adsorbing CO2 molecules introduce structural deformation, such as distortion, shrinkage, or swelling, of the adsorbent of coal organic matrix. The accurate investigations of CO2 sorption capacity as well as of adsorption behavior need to be performed under the conditions that coals deform. The U.S. Department of Energy-National Energy Technology Laboratory and Regional University Alliance are conducting carbon dioxide sorption isotherm experiments by using manometric analysis method for estimation of CO2 sorption capacity of various coal samples and are constructing a gravimetric apparatus which has a visual window cell. The gravimetric apparatus improves the accuracy of carbon dioxide sorption capacity and provides feasibility for the observation of structural deformation of coal sample while carbon dioxide molecules interact with coal organic matrix. The CO2 sorption isotherm measurements have been conducted for moist and dried samples of the Central Appalachian Basin (Russell County, VA) coal seam, received from the SECARB partnership, at the temperature of 55 C.

Hur, Tae-Bong; Fazio, James; Romanov, Vyacheslav; Harbert, William

2010-01-01

73

Two protocols to measure mitochondrial capacity in women and adolescent girls: a 31P-MRS preliminary study.  

PubMed

The phosphocreatine (PCr) recovery time constant (?) following exercise provides a measure of mitochondrial oxidative capacity. The purpose of this investigation was to use 2 different protocols to determine ? in adolescent females. 31P-MR spectra were collected during 2 exercise tests in 6 adolescent girls (13.8 ± 0.3 y) and 7 women (23.2 ± 3.4 y). The first test consisted of 23 repeated 4 seconds maximal isometric calf contractions separated by 12-second recovery; PCr recovery between the final 18 contractions was used to calculate ?. The second test was a sustained 20-second maximal contraction; recovery was fitted with an exponential function to measure ?. PCr ? did not significantly differ between groups: (gated exercise: 4 girls: 16 ± 5 s, 7 women: 17 ± 5 s, p; sustained exercise: 6 girls: 19 ± 6 s, 7 women: 19 ± 4 s). Bland-Altman analysis demonstrated a close agreement between sustained and gated exercise. Both gated and sustained exercise appear feasible in a pediatric population, and offer a noninvasive evaluation of mitochondrial oxidative capacity. PMID:24893379

Willcocks, Rebecca Jane; Fulford, Jon; Barker, Alan Robert; Armstrong, Neil; Williams, Craig Anthony

2014-05-01

74

Hypnotically Assisted Diaphragmatic Exercises in the Treatment of Stuttering: A Preliminary Investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This preliminary study investigates the combined effect of intensive hypnotherapy and diaphragmatic exercises in the management of stuttering. Fifty-nine clients with stuttering were trained to practice abdominal weightlifting to strengthen their respiratory muscles and to improve their diaphragmatic movements. The weightlifting exercises involved lifting a dumbbell (2.0–4.0 kg) with the abdomen for 2 hours daily for 8 consecutive days. Hypnotherapy

Yalcin Kaya; Assen Alladin

2012-01-01

75

A Preliminary Investigation of the Effectiveness of Attachment Therapy for Adopted Children with Reactive Attachment Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this preliminary investigation was to examine the effectiveness of attachment therapy for adopted children\\u000a diagnosed with Reactive Attachment Disorder (RAD). Although attachment therapy is widely utilized in the practice community,\\u000a outcomes of such therapy have not been well documented. In this study a pretest–posttest one-group design was used with a\\u000a sample of 24 adopted children who received

Jane S. Wimmer; M. Elizabeth Vonk; Patrick Bordnick

2009-01-01

76

Apollo 17 preliminary science report. [Apollo 17 investigation of Taurus-Littrow lunar region  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analysis of the Apollo 17 flight is presented in the form of a preliminary science report. The subjects discussed are: (1) Apollo 17 site selection, (2) mission description, (3) geological investigation of landing site, (4) lunar experiments, (5) visual flight flash phenomenon, (6) volcanic studies, (7) mare ridges and related studies, (8) remote sensing and photogrammetric studies, and (9) astronomical photography. Extensive photographic data are included for all phases of the mission.

1973-01-01

77

A preliminary investigation of post-traumatic stress symptoms among firefighters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emergency service personnel are at high risk of developing post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, there is little in-depth information on the psychological responses of firefighters to the daily incidents that they attend. This preliminary study aimed to investigate the PTSD symptoms of firefighters in relation to traumatic events experienced by them, and the availability of social support. Thirty-one UK fire

Cheryl Haslam; Krissie Mallon

2003-01-01

78

Investigation of polarized-proton target materials by differential calorimetry: preliminary results  

SciTech Connect

A simple differential calorimeter was designed and operated for an investigation of the thermodynamic properties of polarized target materials. The calibration and use of the calorimeter are discussed, after a brief exposition of our motivation for this work. The results of a preliminary study of target materials is presented with emphasis on the relevance of the glass state to dynamic polarization in chemically-doped targets.

Hill, D.A.; Hill, J.J.

1980-10-15

79

Science misconceptions and working memory capacity among Saudi adolescents: A neo-Piagetian investigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study was designed to investigate the relationships between science misconceptions and working memory capacity in Saudi adolescent students. The participants in this study were from eleventh and twelfth grades; both male and female students and natural and social science Saudi comprised the sample. Also investigated in this study were the conceptions and misconceptions of gravity in a non-European culture, that is Saudi culture, and the variables that differentiated those individuals who could overcome their misconceptions from those who could not and the gender differences in science misconceptions in the context of Saudi culture. Another important focus of this study was to investigate the participants' responses and explanations on the science misconceptions tasks (WLT and EGT). As would be expected, there was a strong correlation between WLT and EGT in the responses of students and their explanations. The most successful students on the WLT and EGT were natural science students rather than social science students, and there were no gender differences between male and female participants. Also investigated were the correlations between the dependent variables (i.e., the WLT and EGT; the measures of science misconceptions) and the independent variables, which were the visual working memory capacity tasks (i.e., FIT and VPS), the field independence/dependence (FASP), students' grade point average (GPA), age, academic major, gender, and grade level. It was found that both of the dependent variables (i.e., the WLT and EGT) correlated significantly with the same independent variables, the FIT, VPS, FASP, academic major, and students' grade point average (GPA).

Al-Jubaili, Ahmad Yahya

80

Preliminary Investigation of Zircaloy-4 as a Research Reactor Cladding Material  

SciTech Connect

As part of a scoping study for the ATR fuel conversion project, an initial comparison of the material properties of Zircaloy-4 and Aluminum-6061 (T6 and O-temper) is performed to provide a preliminary evaluation of Zircaloy-4 for possible inclusion as a candidate cladding material for ATR fuel elements. The current fuel design for the ATR uses Aluminum 6061 (T6 and O temper) as a cladding and structural material in the fuel element and to date, no fuel failures have been reported. Based on this successful and longstanding operating history, Zircaloy-4 properties will be evaluated against the material properties for aluminum-6061. The preliminary investigation will focus on a comparison of density, oxidation rates, water chemistry requirements, mechanical properties, thermal properties, and neutronic properties.

Brian K Castle

2012-05-01

81

Investigation of the absorption and polymerization capacity of coal wash oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The absorption and polymerization capacity of coal gas wash oils is important when they are used as an absorber to recover benzol from coke-oven gas. The absorption capacity characterizes the property of the oil for dissolving benzol at normal temperature and a high benzol concentration in the coke-oven gas and for easily separating the benzol on heating. The polymerization capacity

T. Ya. Gogoleva; E. T. Kovalev; L. I. Butsinskaya; G. G. Golovina

1981-01-01

82

[Wording and content of national anthems -- preliminary findings from a transcultural investigation of suicide].  

PubMed

Suicide is still a major health concern, although suicide rates widely differ among different countries and cultures. Thus, besides biological and clinical studies, there is an increasing transcultural research activity on suicidal behaviour. We are presenting here some important transcultural aspects of suicidal behaviour and report some preliminary findings of our transcultural suicide research. Based on the previous data and on our investigations it is likely that the national character and the attitudes toward self-harm are reflecting in some major cultural, historical texts of a nation. PMID:22781542

Vörös, Viktor; Osváth, Péter; Vincze, Orsolya; Pusztay, Katalin; Fekete, Sándor; Rihmer, Zoltán

2012-01-01

83

Preliminary investigation of power flow and electrode phenomena in a multi-megawatt coaxial plasma thruster  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present report on preliminary results of theoretical and experimental investigations of power flow in a large, unoptimized, multimegawatt coaxial thruster evaluates the significance of these data for the development of efficient, megawatt-class magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thrusters. The good agreement obtained between thruster operational performance and model predictions suggests that ideal MHD processes, including those of a magnetic nozzle, play an important role in coaxial plasma thruster dynamics at power levels relevant to advanced space propulsion. An optimized magnetic nozzle design would aid the development of efficient, multimegawatt MPD thrusters.

Schoenberg, Kurt F.; Gerwin, Richard A.; Henins, Ivars; Mayo, Robert; Scheuer, Jay; Wurden, Glen

1992-01-01

84

Preliminary Investigation of Cyclic Behavior at SHADOZ Sites Between the Equator and 5 deg S Latitude  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Investigation of cyclic behavior of temperature and ozone data from five SHADOZ sites between the Equator and 5degS Latitude (Nairobi, Ascension Island, Natal, San Crystobal, and Watukoset) reveal an amazing array of oscillations. In particular, eight years of measurements (1998-2007) reveal changes such as decreasing amounts of ozone at some pressure levels and/or sites, while other levels and/or sites experience increasing ozone. Temperature changes of 1-2 C occur that also experience irregular oscillations. This study is preliminary and only concentrates on the 250-, 200-, 100-, 70-, and 50-hPa pressure surfaces. Surfaces existing below and above the tropopause behave differently.

Schmidlin, F. J.

2009-01-01

85

A preliminary investigation of the effect of compositional variation on compressional-wave velocity in transversely isotropic media  

E-print Network

A PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION OF THE EFFECT OF COMPOSITIONAL VARIATION ON COMPRESSIONAL-WAVE VELOCITY IN TRANSVERSELY ISOTROPIC MEDIA A Thesis by PATRICR JOHN MELIA Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial... fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1983 Ma)or Sub)ect: Geophysics A PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION OF THE EFFECT ON COMPOSITIONAL VARIATION ON COMPRESSIONAL-WAVE VELOCITY IN TRANSVERSELY ISOTROPIC MEDIA A Thesis...

Melia, Patrick John

2012-06-07

86

R&D Requirements, RF Gun Mode Studies, FEL-2 Steady-StateStudies, Preliminary FEL-1 Time-Dependent Studies, and Preliminary LayoutOption Investigation  

SciTech Connect

This report constitutes the third deliverable of LBNLs contracted role in the FERMI {at} Elettra Technical Optimization study. It describes proposed R&D activities for the baseline design of the Technical Optimization Study, initial studies of the RF gun mode-coupling and potential effects on beam dynamics, steady-state studies of FEL-2 performance to 10 nm, preliminary studies of time-dependent FEL-1 performance using electron bunch distribution from the start-to-end studies, and a preliminary investigation of a configuration with FEL sinclined at a small angle from the line of the linac.

Byrd, John; Corlett, John; Doolittle, Larry; Fawley, William; Lidia, Steven; Penn, Gregory; Ratti, Alex; Staples, John; Wilcox Russell; Wurtele, Jonathan; Zholents, Alexander

2005-10-01

87

Efficacy of attention regulation in preschool-age children who stutter: A preliminary investigation  

PubMed Central

Purpose This preliminary investigation assessed the attentional processes of preschoolage children who do (CWS) and do not stutter (CWNS) during Traditional cueing and Affect cueing tasks. Method Participants consisted of 12 3- to 5-year-old CWS and the same number of CWNS (all boys). Both talker groups participated in two tasks of shifting and focusing attention: (a) Traditional cueing and (b) Affect cueing. The Affect cueing task was preceded by stress-heightening instructions intended to influence participants' emotionality. In both tasks participants provided non-speech motor responses (i.e., button pressing) to computer-presented target stimuli. Targets were preceded by a visual cue (i.e., highlighted box) occurring in the same (i.e., Valid trials) or opposite (i.e., Invalid trials) location as the target stimuli. Reaction times (RT) were measured (in ms) from the onset of the target stimuli to the onset of the non-speech motor response. Errors were tallied for both experimental conditions and were categorized by type. Results Findings of this preliminary investigation indicated that there were no significant between-group differences in RT or frequency of erroneous responses. There were differences in error type that were correlated with RT for both CWS and CWNS when stress-heightening instructions were introduced. Conclusion Preliminary findings suggest that speed of attentional disengaging, shifting and re-engaging does not differ between preschool-age CWS and CWNS during the experimental paradigm employed in this study and that introducing stress-heightening instructions does affect components of performance for both preschool-age CWS and CWNS. Caveats for the present study include a limited sample size of young preschool-aged children as well as methodological concerns. Learning outcomes Readers will be able to: (1) Define attention regulation and describe findings that investigate the role of attention regulation in developmental stuttering of preschool-age children; (2) Describe the components of attention regulation employed during a Posner Cueing Task; (3) Describe the findings of the present study in relation to other studies investigating attention regulation and developmental stuttering in preschool-age children. PMID:22560538

Johnson, Kia N.; Conture, Edward G.; Walden, Tedra A.

2012-01-01

88

Capacity investigation of brine-bearing sands of the Fwwm formation for geologic sequestration of CO{sub 2}  

SciTech Connect

The capacity of fluvial brine-bearing formations to sequester CO{sub 2} is investigated using numerical simulations of CO{sub 2} injection and storage. Capacity is defined as the volume fraction of the subsurface available for CO{sub 2} storage and is conceptualized as a product of factors that account for two-phase flow and transport processes, formation geometry, formation heterogeneity, and formation porosity. The space and time domains used to define capacity must be chosen with care to obtain meaningful results, especially when comparing different authors' work. Physical factors that impact capacity include permeability anisotropy and relative permeability to CO{sub 2}, brine/CO{sub 2} density and viscosity ratios, the shape of the trapping structure, formation porosity and the presence of low-permeability layering.

Doughty, Christine; Pruess, Karsten; Benson, Sally M.; Hovorka, Susan D.; Knox, Paul R.; Green, Christopher T.

2001-05-01

89

Bioinspired actuation of the eyeballs of an android robotic face: concept and preliminary investigations.  

PubMed

This paper describes the concept and preliminary investigations related to the development of simple bioinspired actuation mechanisms for the eyeballs of an android robotic face. Two design solutions for a one-degree-of-freedom mechanism are proposed and analytically studied according to linear models. Both of them are based on new contractile actuators made of electroactive polymers, employed as pseudomuscular devices. The actuators consist of dielectric elastomers and are capable of electrically driven linear contractions. The arrangement and the functionality of the actuators were conceived to mimic those of rectus-type human ocular muscles. Both the presented solutions rely on a couple of agonist-antagonist actuators, in order to enable bidirectional rotations of the eyeball around an axis. The two configurations basically differ in the presence/absence of pulleys, guiding tendon-like wires which connect the actuators to the eyeball. The influence on the system performances of both rest length and elastic modulus of the actuators was studied for both configurations. Geometrical constraints allow the configuration with pulleys to perform more than the other, despite a potential intrinsic superior efficacy of the latter. The paper describes also the assembly of a simple prototype version of the system and presents the results of preliminary tests. These permitted us to assess the feasibility of the proposed concept and suggested possible improvements. PMID:17671329

Carpi, Federico; De Rossi, Danilo

2007-06-01

90

Preliminary investigation of zirconium boride ceramals for gas-turbine blade applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Zirconium boride ZrB2 ceramals were investigated for possible gas-turbine-blade application. Included in the study were thermal shock evaluations of disks, preliminary turbine-blade operation, and observations of oxidation resistance. Thermal shock disks of the following three compositions were studied: (a) 97.5 percent ZrB2 plus 2.5 percent B by weight; (b) 92.5 percent ZrB2 plus 7.5 percent B by weight; and (c) 100 percent ZrB2. Thermal shock disks were quenched from temperatures of 1800 degrees, 2000 degrees, 2200 degrees, and 2400 degrees F. The life of turbine blades containing 93 percent ZrB2 plus 7 percent B by weight was determined in gas-turbine tests. The blades were run at approximately 1600 degrees F and 15,000 to 26,000 rpm. The thermal shock resistance of the 97.5 percent ZrB2 plus 2.5 percent boron ceramals compares favorably with that of TiC plus Co and TiC plus Ni ceramals. Oxidation of the disks during the thermal shock evaluation was slight for the comparatively short time (8.3 hr) up through 2000 degrees F. Oxidation of a specimen was severe, however, after 100 hours at 2000 degrees F. The turbine blade performance evaluation of the 93 percent ZrB2 plus 7 percent B composition was preliminary in scope ; no conclusions can be drawn.

Hoffman, Charles A

1953-01-01

91

Scaling the Information Load of Occupations: Preliminary Findings of the Fit between Individual Capacities and Environmental Demands  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Person-Environment (P-E) fit models provide a conceptually powerful way to think about career development, vocational choice, and occupational success. The work reported here focuses on yet another pair of P-E criteria: self-reported individual capacity for information processing (the ability to tolerate information overload from a variety of…

Haase, Richard F.; Ferreira, Joaquim Armando G. A.; Santos, Eduardo J. R.; Aguayo, Gina M.; Fallon, Melissa M.

2008-01-01

92

An investigation of capacity and safety in near-terminal airspace for guiding information technology adoption  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The nation's air traffic infrastructure, operating under current rules, regulations, practices, and technologies, is approaching its capacity. At some future date, it will be unable to accommodate an increase in air traffic. Travellers, airline operators, industry, and government all desire to see capacity increased in order to avoid delays, increased costs, inconveniences, and negative impacts on the economy. Various information technology (IT) based solutions have been proposed and/or fielded as a means to extend or augment human capabilities in an effort to increase capacity. Although there is promise in the ability of IT to increase capacity, there is very little scholarly literature and no verifiable proof that capacity is related to safety. My effort examined the relationship between capacity and safety and illustrates its interactive nature. Understanding this relationship is a major consideration when determining whether to adopt information-based technologies, the employment of which should be aimed at increasing safety and capacity, not as individual entities or quantitative values, but as inextricably related and vital components of the air traffic infrastructure. My thesis was that the differences between increasing or decreasing demand on available capacity influence the levels of safety. Further, information technology solutions will have a direct effect on whether increased demand can be accommodated safely while remaining within the constraints imposed by current operational practices and rules. The primary research effort involved collection and analysis of landing time intervals observed between arrival aircraft at selected locations. This effort assumes that a snapshot of current operating practices and procedures is obtainable by observing and recording how aircraft separation standards are actually employed at various airports. The primary data collection also assumed that audio and visual monitoring of aircraft and tower operations provided insights in establishing a relationship between safety and capacity, because difficulties encountered by aircraft pilots or air traffic controllers at high-demand times can be observed and understood. Historical evidence to support the hypothesis that safety and capacity have a relationship was shown in two ways. The first historical correlation establishes a relationship between historical demands with safety incidents filed at the four airports under study. The second historical correlation relied on near mid-air collision reports filed at the thirty-one busiest airports in the United States and also correlated these reports with the recorded demand on the facility at the time. A potential information technology process was developed and employed to demonstrate that a safety-capacity relationship exists and that selecting the appropriate information technologies for aircrews, aircraft, and controllers is the only viable means of achieving an increase in both safety and capacity. The primary landing time interval data obtained at LaGuardia was used to demonstrate the current state and the benefits of potential improvements. This effort is the only known experimental or empirical effort to establish that a relationship between capacity and safety exists. All the evidence and findings support my thesis and the three additional sub-hypotheses, which hypothesize that there is a relationship between capacity and safety. My research also shows that current rules, technologies, and methods of operation in near-terminal airspace appear to artificially limit the ability of the existing air traffic control system to safely handle the projected growth in aircraft operations. A paradigm shift in the way aircraft are controlled is required if the National Airspace System is to safely accommodate increases in operational demand.

Haynie, Rudolph Clinton

93

A preliminary investigation of the use of throttles for emergency flight control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A preliminary investigation was conducted regarding the use of throttles for emergency flight control of a multiengine aircraft. Several airplanes including a light twin-engine piston-powered airplane, jet transports, and a high performance fighter were studied during flight and piloted simulations. Simulation studies used the B-720, B-727, MD-11, and F-15 aircraft. Flight studies used the Lear 24, Piper PA-30, and F-15 airplanes. Based on simulator and flight results, all the airplanes exhibited some control capability with throttles. With piloted simulators, landings using manual throttles-only control were extremely difficult. An augmented control system was developed that converts conventional pilot stick inputs into appropriate throttle commands. With the augmented system, the B-720 and F-15 simulations were evaluated and could be landed successfully. Flight and simulation data were compared for the F-15 airplane.

Burcham, F. W., Jr.; Fullerton, C. G.; Gilyard, Glenn B.; Wolf, Thomas D.; Stewart, James F.

1991-01-01

94

Preliminary results from the investigation of thermal effects in electrokinetics soil remediation  

SciTech Connect

Electrokinetics is an emerging soil remediation technology. Contaminants are extracted from the soil as a result of a complex set of phenomena that occur when an electric gradient is imposed across a soil-water system. The primary phenomena include electroosmosis, electromigration, and electrophoresis. Secondary phenomena, such as changes in solubility or speciation of various chemical components, may occur as a result of electrically induced changes in the chemical environment of the system. Numerous factors, such as temperature, may affect each of these phenomena and, consequently, the overall process efficiency. We have begun an investigation of thermal effects in the extraction of potassium dichromate from kaolinite soils under conditions of constant saturation and dewatering. Preliminary results suggest that increasing the soil temperature from 21 to 55{degrees}C may decrease the processing time under saturated conditions. However, increasing the soil temperature under dewatering, conditions causes soil cracking, which reduces the overall process efficiency.

Krause, T.R.; Tarman, B.

1993-10-01

95

Investigation of fracture-matrix interaction: Preliminary experiments in a simple system  

SciTech Connect

Paramount to the modeling of unsaturated flow and transport through fractured porous media is a clear understanding of the processes controlling fracture-matrix interaction. As a first step toward such an understanding, two preliminary experiments have been performed to investigate the influence of matrix imbibition on water percolation through unsaturated fractures in the plane normal to the fracture. Test systems consisted of thin slabs of either tuff or an analog material cut by a single vertical fracture into which a constant fluid flux was introduced. Transient moisture content and solute concentration fields were imaged by means of x-ray absorption. Flow fields associated with the two different media were significantly different owing to differences in material properties relative to the imposed flux. Richards` equation was found to be a valid means of modeling the imbibition of water into the tuff matrix from a saturated fracture for the current experiment.

Foltz, S.D. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Tidwell, V.C.; Glass, R.J.; Sobolik, S.R. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1992-12-31

96

A Preliminary Investigation of Corpus Callosum and Anterior Commissure Aberrations in Aggressive Youth with Bipolar Disorders  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective Although behavioral deficits in bipolar disorder (BPD) are well described, the specific brain white matter (WM) disruptions have not been completely characterized, and neural mechanisms underlying dysfunction in BPD are not well established, particularly for youth with BPD and aggression. This preliminary study utilized diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to investigate commissural tracts (corpus callosum [CC] and anterior commissure [AC]) in youth with BPD, because disruption of interhemispheric communication may contribute to the emotional deficits that are characteristic of the illness. Method DTI was used to investigate WM in 10 youth (7–17 years of age) with BPD and 10 typically developing age-matched controls. Tract-based spatial statistics voxel-wise analysis was used to compare fractional anisotropy (FA) of the two groups. We specifically focused on five subdivisions of the midsagittal CC as well as on the decussation of AC, which connects the temporal lobes. Exploratory correlations between FA values and life history of aggression scores were calculated for the BPD group. Results Youth with BPD had significantly lower FA values in the callosal genu and AC. FA values in the AC were negatively correlated with a life history of aggression in the BPD group. Conclusions These results contribute to a growing literature implicating a role for the genu of the CC in BPD and are the first to report WM variations in the AC of children with BPD. Taken together with the correlational data for aggression and the role of the AC in emotional processing, our data provide preliminary evidence for a possible association between the structural integrity of the WM of the AC and aggression in pediatric BPD. PMID:22375854

Tamm, Leanne; Walley, Annie; Simmons, Alex; Rollins, Nancy; Chia, Jonathan; Soares, Jair C.; Emslie, Graham J.; Fan, Xin; Huang, Hao

2012-01-01

97

Investigation of the bond and tensile capacity of synthetic lightweight aggregates embedded in a cement matrix  

E-print Network

ratio of 30 percent by weight and. mixed in a 1 1/2 cu. ft. mortar mixer. Type one cement was used in all batches, although cement from more than one bag was used. The first set of samples was to be a preliminary batch to determine the approximate... water/cement ratio could be used which would again make a low strength paste. The author thought of using mortar made with standard Ottawa sand but decided it would not make any differenoe to the bond development since 2 Taylor and Brome found that a...

Nichols, Gisela Wagner

2012-06-07

98

Evaluation of CO2 migration and formation storage capacity in the Dalders formations, Baltic Sea - Preliminary analysis by means of models of increasing complexity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present preliminary data analysis and modeling of CO2 injection into selected parts of the Dalders Monocline and Dalders Structure, formations situated under the Baltic Sea and of potential interest for CO2 geological storage. The approach taken is to use models of increasing complexity successively, thereby increasing the confidence and reliability of the predictions. The objective is to get order-of-magnitude estimates of the behavior of the formations during potential industrial scale CO2 injection and subsequent storage periods. The focus has been in regions with best cap-rock characteristics, according to the present knowledge. Data has been compiled from various sources available, such as boreholes within the region. As the first approximation we use analytical solutions, in order to get an initial estimate the CO2 injection rates that can be used without causing unacceptable pressure increases. These preliminary values are then used as basis for more detailed numerical analyses with TOUGH2/TOUGH2-MP (e.g. Zhang et al, 2008) simulator and vertical equilibrium based (e.g. Gasda et al, 2009) models. With the numerical models the variations in material properties, formation thickness etc., as well as more processes such as CO2 dissolution can also be taken into account. The presentation discusses results from these preliminary analyses in terms of estimated storage capacity, CO2 and pressure plume extent caused by various injection scenarios, as well as CO2 travel time after the end of the injection. The effect of factors such as number of injection wells and the positioning of these, the effect of formation properties and the boundary conditions are discussed as are the benefits and disadvantages of the various modeling approaches used. References: Gasda S.E. et al, 2009. Computational Geosciences 13, 469-481. Zhang et al, 2008. Report LBNL-315E, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.

Niemi, Auli; Yang, Zhibing; Tian, Liang; Jung, Byeongju; Fagerlund, Fritjof; Joodaki, Saba; Pasquali, Riccardo; O'Neill, Nick; Vernon, Richard

2014-05-01

99

Preliminary investigation of high power microwave plasmas for electrothermal thruster use  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results are reported from preliminary tests to evaluate the high power microwave electrothermal thruster (MET) concept, which employs a free-floating plasma discharge maintained by applied CW microwave power to heat a propellant gas flow. Stable plasmas have been created and maintained in helium (He), nitrogen (N2), and hydrogen (H2) as propellants in both the TM(sub 011) and TM(sub 012) modes at discharge pressures from 10 Pa to 69 kPa. Reproducible starting conditions of pressure and power have been documented for all the plasmas. Vortical inflow of the propellant gas was observed to cause the formation of on-axis 'spike' plasmas. The formation and unformation conditions of these plasmas were studied. Operation in the spike plasma condition enables maximum power absorption with minimum wall heating and offers maximum efficiency in heating the propellant gas. In the spike condition, plasmas of the three propellant gases were investigated in an open channel configuration to a maximum applied power level of 11.2 kW (in N2). Microwave power coupling efficiencies of over 90 percent were routinely obtained at absorbed power levels up to 2 kW. Magnetic nozzle effects were investigated with a superconducting solenoid Al magnet applying a high magnetic field to the plasmas in and exiting from the discharge tube.

Power, John L.; Sullivan, Daniel J.

1993-01-01

100

Preliminary Investigation of Stagnation Point Liquid Injection Influence on Blunt Body Aerodynamics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A preliminary investigation has been performed to determine the influence of stagnation point water injection on the hypersonic aerodynamic forces and moments for two-dimensional blunt bodies. This investigation was performed in the Langley 20-Inch Mach 6 Air Tunnel, and represents the qualitative first phase of a study to examine the potential benefits of water injection to reduce aerodynamic drag and aero-heating. Tests with a 4-inch diameter hemisphere cylinder and a 4-inch diameter cylinder with a span 1.5 times the diameter were performed over a range of free-stream unit Reynolds number from two million to six million per ft and of angle of attack (-5 deg to 5 deg) with water and gaseous nitrogen injection at the geometric stagnation point. The momentum flux ratio, that is, the ratio of the momentum flux of the jet to that of the free-stream flow, was varied from the non-blowing value of zero up to 0.00031 by maintaining the jet momentum fixed and varying the free-stream momentum, hence Reynolds number. The effect of water injection on the aerodynamic drag coefficient for the hemisphere cylinder was observed to be negligible as the momentum flux ratio was increased to 0.00017, but decreased significantly as this ratio increased above 0.00017; a nearly 50 percent reduction in drag occurred for a factor of two increase in momentum flux ratio.

Woods, William C.; Jones, Kenneth M.; Genzel, Noah N.

2002-01-01

101

Preliminary Results from an Investigation into Nanostructured Nuclear Radiation Detectors for Non-Proliferation Applications  

SciTech Connect

In recent years, the concept of embedding composite scintillators consisting of nanosized inorganic crystals in an organic matrix has been actively pursued. Nanocomposite detectors have the potential to meet many of the homeland security, non-proliferation, and border and cargo-screening needs of the nation and, by virtue of their superior nuclear identification capability over plastic, at roughly the same cost as plastic, have the potential to replace all plastic detectors. Nanocomposites clearly have the potential of being a gamma ray detection material that would be sensitive yet less expensive and easier to produce on a large scale than growing large, whole crystals of similar sensitivity. These detectors would have a broad energy range and a sufficient energy resolution to perform isotopic identification. The material can also be fabricated on an industrial scale, further reducing cost. This investigation focused on designing and fabricating prototype core/shell and quantum dot (QD) detectors. Fourteen core/shell and four QD detectors, all with the basic consistency of a mixture of nanoparticles in a polymer matrix with different densities of nanoparticles, were prepared. Nanoparticles with sizes <10 nm were fabricated, embedded in a polystyrene matrix, and the resultant scintillators’ radiation detector properties were characterized. This work also attempted to extend the gamma energy response on both low- and high-energy regimes by demonstrating the ability to detect low-energy and high-energy gamma rays. Preliminary results of this investigation are consistent with a significant response of these materials to nuclear radiation.

,

2012-10-01

102

Contribution of Working Memory Capacity to Children’s Reading Comprehension: A Longitudinal Investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the contribution of working memory capacity to the development of children’s reading comprehension. We present\\u000a data from three waves of a longitudinal study when the children were 7 years (Grade 1), 8 years (Grade 2) and 9 years (Grade\\u000a 3). Two questions were raised: The first question concerned the developmental changes of the relative contribution of working\\u000a memory in predicting reading

Alix Seigneuric; Marie-France Ehrlich

2005-01-01

103

Preliminary Geophysical Investigations of the Ship Rock Diatreme, Navajo Nation, New Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic and gravity data were collected at the Ship Rock minette neck and dikes, part of the Navajo volcanic field in the central Colorado Plateau, to investigate their subsurface structure. The deep root system of Ship Rock, an exhumed Oligocene maar-diatreme complex, has not been resolved. The diatreme is largely composed of minette tuff-breccia with a large wallrock fraction, whereas the dikes are composed of hypabyssal minette. The country rock is the Upper Cretaceous Mancos Shale. Density and magnetic contrasts between the igneous rock and surrounding shale suggest that the buried structure of Ship Rock can be imaged. Preliminary geophysical investigations were carried out in order to test this hypothesis. We collected magnetic and gravitational data along four lines selected to transect the major south and northeast dikes and to partly encircle the diatreme. Modeling differently sized, oriented and shaped intrusions, we created theoretical Free Air anomaly curves to try to match the two clearest anomalies. Modeling necessitates (i) that the major north-south dike dips west and (ii) the presence of a high-density, deep body near the diatreme. The Free Air anomaly curves show that smaller dikes might not be detected from gravity data; however, they are necessary to determine the presence of large, dense bodies. Although not modeled, the magnetics curves show that smaller dikes can easily be detected. Our study results are promising, and we plan a more thorough investigation in the future which will produce a magnetic map to determine if further buried dikes exist in the vicinity, and measure gravity along additional profiles to better constrain the location of the dense body at depth.

Gruen, E. M.; McCarthy, L.; Namingha, G.; Bank, C.; Noblett, J.; Semken, S.

2003-12-01

104

PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION ON POLISTES DOMINULUS WORKERS' SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION ON THE NEST IN RELATION TO IMMATURE BROOD POSITION  

E-print Network

PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION ON POLISTES DOMINULUS WORKERS' SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION ON THE NEST the brood positions into every cell of each nest and overlapped the spatial distributions of workers distributed rear of the immature brood in the nest. KEY WORDS: Polistes, comb, rearing, workers' tasks. #12

Chittka, Lars

105

Preliminary investigation of Faraday rotation effects and description of polarization measurements on the AFGL high latitude meteor scatter test bed  

Microsoft Academic Search

The background, methodology and preliminary results of an investigation of Faraday rotation effects on the Meteor Scatter High Latitude Test Bed in Greenland are presented. A short review of polarization theory for radio waves, presenting basic properties and changes when reflected from the surface of the earth or propagated through the ionosphere is included. Material published by other workers is

Jens C. Ostergaard

1989-01-01

106

Preliminary investigation of multi-biomarker responses in three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus L.) sampled in contaminated streams  

E-print Network

1 Preliminary investigation of multi-biomarker responses in three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus study was to determine the extent to which multiple biomarkers in this fish species could distinguish- ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) and glutathione-S-transferase, antioxidant enzymes including glutathione

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

107

P 4.72 A PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION OF DERECHO-PRODUCING MCSs IN ENVIRONMENTS OF VERY LOW DEWPOINTS  

E-print Network

P 4.72 A PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION OF DERECHO-PRODUCING MCSs IN ENVIRONMENTS OF VERY LOW DEWPOINTS winds and other severe weather threats with which they are associated, derecho-producing mesoscale and summer, derecho MCSs typically occur in environments of substantial convective instability, with very

108

Eastern Mediterranean high resolution paleoclimate investigations using south Adriatic finely laminated sediment: preliminary data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The formation of distinct organic-rich units (sapropels) in the Medditerenean is well-known, and intensively studied , however less is known of the smaller scale variability during their formation. Multicore GeoB 107-39-03 was taken in 2006, in the central part of the straits of Otranto, south Adriatic. Over the main part of the core, fine, sub-milimetric scale laminae are found. Preliminary dating indicates a Sapropel 1 age for these sediments. The fine, laminae permit high-resolution climate variability to be studied in this area during sapropel formation. Besides conventional geochemical analyses on discrete samples (XRF, ICP-OES, organic C/N, 13C) a novel technique was used to investigate the sediment chemistry at the laminae scale: the sediment has been resin-impregnated to enable laser ablation coupled to ICP-MS analyses (LA-ICP-MS). This method recently developed (Jilbert et al., 2008) permits extremely high resolution geochemical profiling of the laminated sediment, to unravel the forcing mechanisms generating the laminae. Furthermore, in order to compare the data to modern sediment geochemistry, a series of analyses were carried out on a batch of sediment surface samples in collaboration with the MOCCHA project partners (see Posters/Talks in session OS15). This work is supported by the EUROCORES/EUROMARC Program of the European Science Foundation (NWO.817.01.002 MOCCHA project).

Goudeau, Marie-Louise; Robert, Brice; Jilbert, Tom; Fhlaithearta, Shauna Ni; Zonneveld, K. A. F.; Versteegh, G. J. M.; Grauel, A.; Bernasconi, S.; de Lange, G. J.

2010-05-01

109

A preliminary environmental site investigation for a bridge over the Mississippi River at Moline, Illinois  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Illinois State Geological Survey completed a preliminary environmental site assessment along the alignment of Interstate 74 (I-74) and its bridge over the Mississippi River for the Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT) in 2002. The objective of the study was to determine if any of the parcels proposed for acquisition or on which soil excavation was intended were sufficiently contaminated to require additional investigation by a commercial environmental consultant under contract to IDOT and to identify potential natural hazards that might have an impact on the proposed construction project. VOC were detected at 13 of 37 sites tested for VOC. These sites included an elevator manufacturer, former foundries, former and active machine shops, former and active gasoline stations, and a former automobile dealer. PAH above TACO Tier 1 residential standards were detected on an island in the Mississippi River. PCB was detected at a former foundry and a control box for a railroad. Magnetic anomalies that might indicate the presence of UST were detected in a park that formerly had been the site of a city garage, adjacent to a parking lot that formerly contained an automobile dealer, and at the sites of three former gasoline stations. These studies helped IDOT to save millions of dollars in highway construction projects. This is an abstract of a paper presented in Contaminated Soils, Sediments and Water: Success and Challenges (Massachusetts Fall 2005).

Trask, C. B.

2006-01-01

110

A preliminary investigation of segmentation and rime abilities of children who stutter  

PubMed Central

The present study investigated segmentation and rhyme abilities, skills critical for phonological encoding, of children who stutter (CWS) and those who do not (CNS). Participants were 9 CWS (8 males and 1 female, Mean Age = 11.1, SD = 2.31) in the age range of 7 and 13 years and 9 age and sex matched CNS (Mean Age = 11.2, SD = 2.19). Participants performed two verbal monitoring tasks, phoneme and rhyme monitoring, in silent naming. Performances in the verbal monitoring tasks were compared to a neutral, nonverbal tone monitoring task. Additionally, the complexity of the phoneme monitoring task was varied such that participants had to monitor for singletons vs. consonant clusters. Repeated measures analysis of the response time data did not reveal significant differences between the groups in the three monitoring tasks. Analysis of the complexity data revealed a trend for slower monitoring of the consonant clusters in the CWS group compared to the CNS. Present findings do not support a deficit in segmentation and rhyme abilities in CWS, although there was some preliminary evidence of segmentation difficulties with increasing phonological complexity of the stimuli. PMID:23773673

Sasisekaran, Jayanthi; Byrd, Courtney T.

2013-01-01

111

A preliminary investigation of the potential mechanical sensitivity of vertical comb drives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article describes a preliminary step taken in investigating the potential of vertical comb drives to be used as force-compensation mechanisms in interfacial force microscopes, by exploring the lower limit of the stiffness of the springs the comb drives can be fabricated with. The stiffness of their springs will affect the sensitivity of the microscope. Six vertical comb drives were fabricated for this study; the dimensions of their spring beams were chosen with the intention of giving them stiffnesses of three different orders of magnitude. During fabrication it was found that etching the tops of some of the teeth down to create the vertical offset between the combs can be done using only photoresist to mask the rest of the teeth. The stiffnesses of the fabricated springs were estimated by applying loads to them and measuring their resulting deflections. Weights were applied to the two comb drives with the stiffest springs. Voltages were also applied to them so as to determine the force-voltage relationship for their comb design. Since the other four comb drives had the same comb design, the stiffnesses of their springs could be estimated from the displacements of their movable combs when voltages were applied to them.

Gallagher, E.; Moussa, W.

2014-10-01

112

Job stress and dyadic synchrony in police marriages: a preliminary investigation.  

PubMed

Despite reports documenting adverse effects of stress on police marriages, few empirical studies focus on actual emotional behaviors of officers and spouses. In this preliminary investigation, 17 male police officers and their nonpolice wives completed daily stress diaries for 1 week and then participated in a laboratory-based discussion about their respective days. Conversations were video-recorded and coded for specific emotional behaviors reflecting hostility and affection, which are strong predictors of marital outcomes. We examined associations between officers' job stress (per diaries and the Police Stress Survey) and couples' emotional behavior (mean levels and behavioral synchrony) using a dyadic repeated measures design capitalizing on the large number of observations available for each couple (1020 observations). When officers reported more job stress, they showed less hostility, less synchrony with their wives' hostility, and more synchrony with their wives' affection; their wives showed greater synchrony with officers' hostility and less synchrony with officers' affection. Therefore, for officers, greater job stress was associated with less behavioral negativity, potentially less attunement to wives' negativity, but potentially greater attunement to wives' affection-perhaps a compensatory strategy or attempt to buffer their marriage from stress. These attempts may be less effective, however, if, as our synchrony findings may suggest, wives are focusing on officers' hostility rather than affection. Although it will be important to replicate these results given the small sample, our findings reveal that patterns of behavioral synchrony may be a key means to better understand how job stress exacts a toll on police marriages. PMID:23763686

Roberts, Nicole A; Leonard, Rachel C; Butler, Emily A; Levenson, Robert W; Kanter, Jonathan W

2013-06-01

113

A preliminary investigation on nanohorn toxicity in marine mussels and polychaetes.  

PubMed

Single walled carbon nanohorns (SWCNHs) are a black nanoscale spherical aggregate of cylindrical tubes of graphitic carbon which differ from nanotubes in their "horn-like" shape. Their peculiar structure makes them one of the best electronconductors at a nanoscale level. Although not commercially exploited, their rapid environmental diffusion is expected to rise significantly in the next few years. Therefore, we appraised the ecotoxicology of SWCNH powders by taking into account the ecological role of the two species that were deployed in exposure experiments: polychaetes, Hediste diversicolor, and mussels, Mytilus galloprovincialis. Adult mussels and polychaetes were exposed to three SWCNH concentrations: 1, 5, and 10 mg L(-1) and acute effects were measured after 24 and 48 h. Sub-lethal effects were estimated at level of physiological functions such as digestion in mussels (i.e. variations in lysosomal parameters and lipofuscin content) and the antioxidant system in both species (i.e. glutathione peroxidase activity and malondialdehyde content). SWCNH suspension in sea water was also characterised, highlighting the formation of aggregates the size of which was related to SWCNH concentrations and their resident time in the medium. The results showed that SWCNH affected the oxidative and lysosomal systems on the hepatopancreas and led to lysosomal alterations on haemocytes in mussels. The biological responses were less clear in polychaetes. This preliminary investigation highlighted the need of focusing future research efforts on possible physiological impairments caused by long-term exposure to SWCNHs in marine species. PMID:24012899

Moschino, V; Nesto, N; Barison, S; Agresti, F; Colla, L; Fedele, L; Da Ros, L

2014-01-15

114

Preliminary Results of an Experimental Investigation of the Qu Superconducting Heat Pipe  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This note on preliminary results of our evaluation of the so-called Qu Tube is prompted in part by recent concerns expressed to the authors by some researchers regarding the performance characteristics of the superconducting, solid-state heat pipe as described in the patents, or on the company's websites. Briefly, the company's claims include: a new type of heat transfer mechanism that is a form of solid state thermal superconductivity, which results in an effective thermal conductivity of the order of tens of thousands of times that of an equivalent solid silver bar, or, tens to hundreds of times that of liquid - vapor heat pipes. The company's website also refers to tests conducted by Stanford Research Institute that substantiate these claims, but the report is apparently not publicly available. We are conducting an investigation of the Qu Tube under a NASA Grant, and in general find that these claims have merit, but our study is not yet complete. We present some of our preliminary results in part to show that it would not be imprudent to conduct such studies, especially for possible future applications requiring exceptional thermal management performance capabilities. Working with HiTek Services, we originally acquired several Qu Tubes, including 17" long, 5/16" diameter copper tubes, one that is 7 7/8" long, 3/16" diameter, and one that is 4" long, 1" diameter. We subjected the smaller tubes to various exploratory tests, including a transient test with electrical band heaters, boiling water tests, and a series of steady state tests with electrical band heaters heating one end with free convective cooling along the remainder of the length. All results indicate a very high thermal conductivity, but the length of these tubes limited our ability to obtain accurate data on temperature gradients, necessary to determine the effective thermal conductivity. We then acquired nine Qu Tubes that are 10' long, 5/16" diameter, and we have recently conducted initial tests, which further support the claims of exceptional thermal conductivity.

Blackmon, James B.; Entrekin, Sean F.

2006-01-01

115

Preliminary results of investigations into the use of artificial neural networks for discriminating gas chromatograph mass spectra of remote samples  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Neural networks trained using mass spectra data from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) are studied. The investigations also included sample data from the gas chromatograph mass spectrometer (GCMS) instrument aboard the Viking Lander, obtained from the National Space Science Data Center. The work performed to data and the preliminary results from the training and testing of neural networks are described. These preliminary results are presented for the purpose of determining the viability of applying artificial neural networks in discriminating mass spectra samples from remote instrumentation such as the Mars Rover Sample Return Mission and the Cassini Probe.

Geller, Harold A.; Norris, Eugene; Warnock, Archibald, III

1991-01-01

116

LOD 1 VS. LOD 2 - Preliminary Investigations Into Differences in Mobile Rendering Performance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The increasing availability, size and detail of 3D City Model datasets has led to a challenge when rendering such data on mobile devices. Understanding the limitations to the usability of such models on these devices is particularly important given the broadening range of applications - such as pollution or noise modelling, tourism, planning, solar potential - for which these datasets and resulting visualisations can be utilized. Much 3D City Model data is created by extrusion of 2D topographic datasets, resulting in what is known as Level of Detail (LoD) 1 buildings - with flat roofs. However, in the UK the National Mapping Agency (the Ordnance Survey, OS) is now releasing test datasets to Level of Detail (LoD) 2 - i.e. including roof structures. These datasets are designed to integrate with the LoD 1 datasets provided by the OS, and provide additional detail in particular on larger buildings and in town centres. The availability of such integrated datasets at two different Levels of Detail permits investigation into the impact of the additional roof structures (and hence the display of a more realistic 3D City Model) on rendering performance on a mobile device. This paper describes preliminary work carried out to investigate this issue, for the test area of the city of Sheffield (in the UK Midlands). The data is stored in a 3D spatial database as triangles and then extracted and served as a web-based data stream which is queried by an App developed on the mobile device (using the Android environment, Java and OpenGL for graphics). Initial tests have been carried out on two dataset sizes, for the city centre and a larger area, rendering the data onto a tablet to compare results. Results of 52 seconds for rendering LoD 1 data, and 72 seconds for LoD 1 mixed with LoD 2 data, show that the impact of LoD 2 is significant.

Ellul, C.; Altenbuchner, J.

2013-09-01

117

PICASSO Phase I: MT Investigation of Spain from Madrid to the Betics - preliminary results and models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The first phase of the DIAS magnetotelluric (MT) component of the PICASSO (Project to Investigate Convective Alboran Sea System Overturn) project was carried out in Southern Spain from Sept.-Nov., 2007. PICASSO is an international, multi-disciplinary project that aims to improve knowledge of the internal structure and plate-tectonic processes in the highly complex three-dimensional region formed by the collision of the African and European plate under the effect of the Mediterranean plate motion. Two different types of magnetotelluric (MT) equipment - broadband (BBMT) and long period (LMT) MT - were used along a profile from the outskirts of Madrid to the Mediterranean Sea through the Betic Mountain Chain. In spite of low solar activity during acquisition, the time series data are of good quality at most sites due to the excellent instrumentation and careful site location. The modified acquisition design of one of the equipment types (the LEMI long period system) with separate recording of each telluric channel allowed for advanced investigation of the dataset. The data were processed using four different robust algorithms, and the different responses have been compared. Pseudosections of responses from this first phase show a remarkably complex subsurface structure dominated by a slightly southwards dipping, conductive slab underneath the region of the External Betic Chain. Strike direction varies along the profile and with depth due to the intricate morphology, and its choice has an enormous impact on the responses to be modelled and thereby provides a challenging framework for MT data interpretation. This paper will describe the experiment and show representative responses and strike analyses. Preliminary models derived from different assumptions about strike coordinates will be compared and contrasted, and common features interpreted.

Schmoldt, J.-P.; G.. Jones, A.; Hogg, C.; Rosell, O.

2009-04-01

118

Reconnaissance investigation of the rough diamond resource potential and production capacity of Côte d’Ivoire  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Ethnic and political conflict developed into open civil war in Côte d’Ivoire in 2002, leading to a de facto partitioning of the country into the government-controlled south and the rebel-controlled north. Côte d’Ivoire’s two main diamond mining areas, Séguéla and Tortiya, are located in the north, under what was, until recently, rebel-controlled territory. In an effort to prevent proceeds from diamond mining from funding the conflict, the United Nations (UN) placed an embargo on the export of rough diamonds from Côte d’Ivoire in 2005. That same year, the Kimberley Process (KP), the international initiative charged with stemming the flow of conflict diamonds, acted to enforce this ban by adopting the Moscow Resolution on Côte d’Ivoire, which contained measures to prevent the infiltration of Ivorian diamonds into the legitimate global rough diamond trade. Though under scrutiny by the international community, diamond mining activities continued in Côte d’Ivoire, with artisanal miners exploiting both alluvial deposits in fluvial systems and primary kimberlitic dike deposits. However, because of the embargo, there has been no official record of diamond production since the conflict began in 2002. This lack of production statistics represents a significant data gap and hinders efforts by the KP to understand how illicitly produced diamonds may be entering the legitimate trade. This study presents the results of a multiyear effort to monitor the diamond mining activities of Côte d’Ivoire’s two main diamond mining areas, Séguéla and Tortiya. An innovative approach was developed that integrates data acquired from archival reports and maps, high-resolution satellite imagery, and digital terrain modeling to assess the total diamond endowment of the Séguéla and Tortiya deposits and to calculate annual diamond production from 2006 to 2013. On the basis of currently available data, this study estimates that a total of 10,100,000 carats remain in Séguéla and a total of 1,100,000 carats remain in Tortiya. Production capacity was calculated for the two study areas for the years 2006–2010 and 2012–2013. Production capacity was found to range from between 38,000 carats and 375,000 carats in Séguéla and from 13,000 carats and 20,000 carats in Tortiya. Further, this study demonstrates that artisanal mining activities can be successfully monitored by using remote sensing and geologic modeling techniques. The production capacity estimates presented here fill a significant data gap and provide policy makers, the UN, and the KP with important information not otherwise available.

Chirico, Peter G.; Malpeli, Katherine C.

2013-01-01

119

A preliminary empirical investigation of the use of evidence based software engineering by under-graduate students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, Dybå, Jørgensen and Kitchenham have proposed a methodology, Evidence-Based Software Engineering (EBSE), that is intended to help researchers and practitioners evaluate software technologies in practice. We report the conduct of a preliminary empirical investigation of the reported use of Evidence-Based Software Engineering by 15 final-year under-graduate students. The investigation produced inconsistent results: our quantitative data suggests that students are

Austen Rainer; Nathan Baddoo

2006-01-01

120

Investigation into the erosive capacity of pyroclastic density currents at Mount Saint Helens, Washington (USA)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two fundamental aspects of PDC dynamics that remain poorly understood are the primary control(s) on substrate erosion and the effect of erosion on downstream flow dynamics. The gap in understanding reflects the lack of sufficient field exposures with evidence for these processes. In the 32 years since the May 18th, 1980 eruption of Mount St Helens (MSH), kilometers of new outcrops have been exposed throughout the PDC and debris avalanche hummock deposits that provide substantial evidence of substrate erosion and entrainment by the PDCs produced throughout the afternoon of the eruption. Field observations include a reappearance of large lithics (>1 m) in PDC deposits at distances of 4-5 km from the vent, suggesting that these lithics were entrained locally. For this study, detailed componentry and roundness analyses are utilized to determine the source of lithics in PDC deposits and to quantify the erosive capacity of the PDCs at MSH. Comparison of componentry data from the PDC deposits with debris avalanche deposits ~200 m upstream indicate that >50% of the lithics were locally entrained. The entrainment of these lithics appears to have significantly altered the dynamics of the current as contacts between flow units change from purely depositional upstream from the hummocks to erosive and scouring following the entrainment of dense lithics. This evidence suggests that the capacity of a PDC to behave erosively could be a self-perpetuating process; entrainment of dense lithics at the base of the current results in an increased density gradient, which in turn enhances a current's ability to continue to erode. In addition, the presence of locally entrained lithics at various heights within a single flow unit and within close proximity to the source of the lithics suggests both a progressive entrainment of the substrate as well as a progressive aggradation of the deposits, depending on localized flow conditions. While erosion may have initially occurred due to the underpressure associated with the passing of the head of the current, as has been previously speculated (Roche et al., 2010. J Geophys Res 115, B09206), field evidence suggests that erosive conditions continue to exist (at least sporadically) during the passage of the body of the current. The inclusion of erosion and entrainment into models for the dynamics of PDCs will continue to increase our knowledge of these dangerous currents and allow for refined numerical simulations of the hazards associated with PDCs.

Pollock, N. M.; Brand, B. D.

2012-12-01

121

Further investigations on the resilience capacity of Taraxacum officinale Weber growing on mine soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Heavy metal accumulation produces significant physiological and biochemical responses in vascular plants. Plants growing on abandoned mine sites are of particular interest, since they are genetically tolerant to high metal concentrations. In this work we examined the effect of heavy metals (HM) on the morphology of T. officinale growing on mine soils, with the following objectives: - to determine the fate of HM within the soil-plant system; - to highlight possible damage at anatomical and cytological level; - to assess the resilience capacity of Taraxacum officinale after three years of pot cultivation. Wild specimens of Taraxacum officinale Web, with their soil clod, were gathered from four sites with different contamination levels by heavy metals (Cu, Fe, Pb, Zn) in the abandoned Imperina Valley mine (Northeast Italy). Plants were cultivated in pots at the botanical garden of the University of Florence (HBF), and appeared macroscopically not affected by toxic signals (e.g. reduced growth, leaf necrosis) possibly induced by soil HM concentration. Leaves and roots taken at the same growing season were observed by light microscopy (LM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Light microscopy observations show a clear difference in the cell organization of not-contaminated and contaminated samples. The unpolluted samples present a well organized palisade tissue and spongy photosynthetic parenchyma. Samples from contaminated sites, instead, present a palisade parenchyma less organized, and a reduction of leaf thickness proportional to HM concentration. The poor structural organisations, and the reduced foliar thickness of the contaminated plants, are related to soil contamination. Differences in roots micromorphology concern the cortical parenchyma. Moreover, all the samples examined present mycorrhiza. Ultrastructure observations of the parenchyma cells show mitochondrial structure alteration, with lacking or reduced cristae of the internal membrane at increasing metal content. Instead, chloroplast organization does not present significant differences, particularly in number and compartmentalization of thylakoids. Although macromorphology does not present evidence of phytotoxicity, the recorded observations of the micromorphological characteristics of leaves and roots, show a suffering state of the plants, strictly related to HM content. Leaching reduced partly the HM content of the soil, therefore decreasing their phytotoxic effect. A gradual restoration of leaf organization suggests that somewhat resilience occurred in plants. Moreover, the presence of stress-tolerant mycorrhizal fungi could contribute to reduce metal toxicity. The resilience capacity suggests that Taraxacum could be a useful species in remediation projects. Keywords: Heavy metals • Mine soils • Plant morphology • Taraxacum officinale • Ultrastructure

Maleci, Laura; Bini, Claudio; Spiandorello, Massimo; Wahsha, Mohammad

2014-05-01

122

Preliminary Report on Laminar-Flow Airfoils and New Methods Adopted for Airfoil and Boundary-Layer Investigations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent developments in airfoil-testing methods and fundamental air-flow investigations, as applied to airfoils, are discussed. Preliminary test results, obtained under conditions relatively free from stream turbulence and other disturbances, are presented. Suitable airfoils and airfoil-design principles were developed to take advantage of the unusually extensive laminar boundary layers that may be maintained under the improved testing conditions. The results are of interest mainly in range of below 6,000,000.

Jacobs, Eastman N.

1939-01-01

123

Identifying Predictors of Emotional Exhaustion among Special Education Paraeducators: A Preliminary Investigation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this preliminary study was to identify predictors of emotional exhaustion among special education paraeducators. A sample of 100 paraeducators in public and specialized alternative setting schools was used to determine whether self-reported levels of emotional exhaustion and other job-related factors were reported. Using…

Shyman, Eric

2010-01-01

124

Preliminary investigation of the feasibility of magnetic propulsion for future microdevices in blood vessels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Magnetic Resonance Submarine (MR-Sub) project is a first attempt to validate a new propulsion method for future small magnetically controlled microdevices suited for minimally invasive applications in blood vessels. A Magnetic Res- onance Imaging (MRI) system provides the driving force in three dimensions to a ferromagnetic core that could be embedded onto a specialised microdevice. The paper describes preliminary

Jean-Baptiste Mathieu; L'Hocine Yahia; PQ Montréal

2005-01-01

125

A Preliminary Investigation of the Effects of Experimentally Induced Mindfulness on Emotional Responding to Film Clips  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite encouraging preliminary findings regarding the efficacy of mindfulness and acceptance-based treatments for a range of psychological presentations, we have yet to elucidate mechanisms of action within these treatments. One mechanism through which mindfulness may reduce psychological symptoms and promote functioning is enhancing emotional responding and regulation. In this study, we used multimodal assessment to examine the effects of a

Shannon M. Erisman; Lizabeth Roemer

2010-01-01

126

Parental Choice of Infant Feeding Behaviours in South West Sydney: A Preliminary Investigation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The purpose of this study was to test a research instrument that could possibly be used for longitudinal research on infant feeding and to report on the preliminary results from the data collected. Design: Mixed methods approach--cross-sectional survey and qualitative research. Setting: Mother-infant dyads in South West Sydney,…

Arora, A.; Gay, M.; Thirukumar, D.

2012-01-01

127

Preliminary investigation of an additive approach to the fabrication of precision aspheres  

SciTech Connect

We report progress in the aspherization of precision optical substrates via deposition of graded period Mo/Si multilayer coatings using a masking technique. These preliminary results show good agreement between the measured and desired thickness profiles over 85% of the sample, however, thickness deviations of up to 7 % are observed in the central area. The errors are attributed to misalignments of the mask relative to the substrate during deposition.

Weber, F.W.; Montcalm, C.; Vernon, S.P.; Kania, D.R.

1996-05-24

128

Preliminary investigation of power flow and electrode phenomena in a multi-megawatt coaxial plasma thruster  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper summarizes preliminary experimental and theoretical research that was directed towards the study of quasisteady-state power flow in a large, un-optimized, multi-megawatt coaxial plasma thruster. The report addresses large coaxial thruster operation and includes evaluation and interpretation of the experimental results with a view to the development of efficient, steady-state megawatt-class magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thrusters.

Schoenberg, Kurt; Gerwin, Richard; Henins, Ivars; Mayo, Robert; Scheuer, Jay; Nurden, Glen

1993-01-01

129

An Investigation of the Relationship between College Chinese EFL Students' Autonomous Learning Capacity and Motivation in Using Computer-Assisted Language Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the study was to investigate the relationship between college EFL students' autonomous learning capacity and motivation in using web-based Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL) in China. This study included three questionnaires: the student background questionnaire, the questionnaire on student autonomous learning capacity, and…

Pu, Minran

2009-01-01

130

Process-oriented investigation of the nitrate-removal-capacity of the aquifers in the Hessian Ried  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The quarternary sediments of the Hessian Ried, a part of the Rhine valley, hold an important groundwater resource for the densely populated Rhine-Main region in germany. Studies related to the implementation of the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD) have shown high nitrate concentrations in the groundwater, especially in the upper parts of the aquifers. Recently, there are signs which indicate that the nitrate-removal-capacity may be exhausted and the denitrification is slowing down. In aquifers, microbial autolitho- and heterotrophic denitrification is coupled to the consumption of the reactive phases pyrite (FeS2) and organic carbon (TOC), respectively. These reducing phases occur often only in trace amounts which makes it difficult to determine their distribution, reactivity and content in the field. However, a process-based knowledge of the occurring reactions and the quantification of the nitrate-removal-capacity and -kinetic is required to predict future nitrate fate. For this aim we combined different methods on a laboratory and field scale to identify the relevant nitrate degradation processes in the Hessian Ried. For determining the reactive phases (TOC and pyrite) in sediment samples, we modified and validated a combination of methods, ranging from sequential combustion for TOC and XRF for elemental and chromium reducible sulphur (CRS) for sulphide/disulphide determination. The analyses of core samples from different field sites in the Hessian Ried (forest and agricultural area) showed that especially the sediments under agricultural areas have much lower pyrite contents. Laboratory batch experiments with these sediment samples showed a much faster denitrification for sediments having higher sulphide content. ?34S isotope analyses of solid-phase sulphide and water-phase sulphate proved to be a good tool for determining the progress of the autolithotrophic denitrification. With in-situ multi-parameter measurements (Eh, pH, nitrate, temperature and conductivity) in several monitoring wells in combination with water analyses, especially sulphur-isotopic-ratios, we were able to identify high risk areas with a low nitrate-removal-capacity which is mainly caused by the consumption of the pyrite during the denitrification process. Furthermore, we are focusing on process-based investigations of denitrification using ?15N-isotopes and N2/Ar-measurements. The identified high risk areas allow intensifying the implementation of programs planed under the WFD in agricultural areas with low nitrate removal capacity.

Kludt, Christoph; Weber, Frank-Andreas; Bergmann, Axel; Knipp, Elena; Preiß, Indriani; Schüth, Christoph

2013-04-01

131

Accelerator Magnet Plugging By Metal Oxides: A Theoretical Investigation, Remediation, and Preliminary Results  

SciTech Connect

The Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility has experienced magnet overheating at high power. Overheating is caused by cooling water passages becoming plugged and is a direct result of the Dean Effect deposition of corrosion products suspended in the water. Salving simplified dynamic model equations of the flow in the magnet tubing bends yielded a relationship for plugging rate as a function of particle size, concentration, velocity, channel width and bend radius. Calculated deposition rates using data from a previous study are promising. Remediation has consisted of submicron filtration, magnet cleaning, and dissolved oxygen removal. Preliminary results are good: no accelerator outages have been attributed to magnet plugging since the remediation has been completed.

William W. Rust

2003-05-01

132

Preliminary investigation of Zagros thrust-fold-belt deformation using SAR interferometry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Most of the Zagros deformation resulting from the convergence of Arabia and Eurasia takes place in the Southeast Zagros. To apply the SAR interferometry geodetic technique, a few ERS 1 & 2 satellite images were used to map this continuing deformation proven by GPS. Interferograms over 7 years show surprisingly high coherence. The unwrapped phases display a high correlation with topography reflecting atmospheric noise in addition to the desired tectonic signal. We estimate two simple linear trends and remove them from interferograms. The preliminary results show local uplift rates with a likely minimum of 1-2 mm/yr. These early crude results will be tested by more data in project No. 3174.

Nilforoushan, Faramarz; Talbot, Christopher J.; Fielding, Eric J.

2005-01-01

133

Kinetic Roughening and Energetics of Tetragonal Lysozyme Crystal Growth: A Preliminary Atomic Force Microscopy Investigation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We examined particulars of crystal growth from measurements obtained at both microscopic and molecular levels. The crystal growth measurements performed at the microscopic level are well characterized by a model that balances the flux of macromolecules towards the crystal surface with the flux of the crystal surface. Numerical evaluation of model with measurements of crystal growth, in time, provided accurate estimates for the average growth velocities. Growth velocities thus obtained were also interpreted using well-established phenomenological theories. Moreover, we find that microscopic measurements of growth velocity measurements obtained as a function of temperature best characterizes changes in crystal growth modes, when present. We also examined the possibility of detecting a change in crystal growth modes at the molecular level using atomic force microscopy, AFM. From preliminary AFM measurements performed at various supersaturations, we find that magnitude of surface height fluctuations, h(x), increases with supersaturation. Further examination of surface height fluctuations using methods established for fluctuation spectroscopy also enabled the discovery of the existence of a characteristic length, c, which may possibly determine the mode of crystal growth. Although the results are preliminary, we establish the non- critical divergence of 5 and the root-mean-square (rms) magnitude of height-height fluctuations as the kinetic roughening transition temperatures are approached. Moreover, we also examine approximate models for interpreting the non-critical behavior of both 6 and rms magnitude of height-height fluctuations, as the solution supersaturation is increased towards the kinetic roughening supersaturation.

Gorti, Sridhar; Forsythe, Elizabeth L.; Pusey, Marc L.

2004-01-01

134

Archaeological Palimpsest Dissection at Cova del Parco (Lleida, Spain) through Microstratigraphic Investigation of Combustion Structures. Preliminary Results.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present preliminary data from ongoing microstratigraphic investigations of Cova del Parco (Lleida, Spain), a Magdalenian karstic cave site in North western Catalonia. Excavations of the Upper Magdalenian levels are currently underway, with radiometric dates between 15,690 and 16,390 cal BP. This period has yielded a complex anthropogenic sedimentary deposit including combustion features and local accumulations of anthropogenic debris near the cave walls. On of the working hypothesis is that the Magdalenian hunter-gatherers who occupied the site did so for short periods, possibly seasonally. Support of this hypothesis comes the presence of overlapping, very thin flat combustion structures, which appear to have been short-lived and close to each other in time. In order to investigate this issue, we carried out micromorphological analysis of some of the mentioned combustion features. Preliminary results show significant microstratification and presence of unburned spherulites mixed in with reprecipitated calcitic wood ash, both of which point towards the existence of hiatuses between combustion events. This is supported by the observation of scattered, lightly burned microscopic flint and bone fragments in the sediment between ash layers, which could represent renewed occupation floor debris. Our case study adds to the growing number of combustion feature microstratigraphic investigations contributing to a correct characterization of anthropogenic palimpsest deposits. Key words: Microstratigraphy; Micromorphology; Magdalenian; Combustion features; Wood ash; Palimpsest; Iberian Peninsula.

Égüez, Natalia; Mallol, Carolina; Mangado, Xavier; Tejero, José Miguel; Fullola, Josep Maria

2014-05-01

135

Preliminary Investigation of the Effect of Compressibility on the Maximum Lift Coefficient, Special Report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Preliminary data are presented on the variation of the maximum lift coefficient with Mach number. The data were obtained from tests in the 8-foot high-speed tunnel of three NACA 16-series airfoils of 1-foot chord. Measurements consisted primarily of pressure-distribution measurements in order to illustrate the nature of the phenomena. It was found that the maximum lift coefficient of airfoils is markedly affected by compressibility even at Mach numbers as low as 0.2. At high Mach numbers pronounced decrease of the maximum lift coefficient was found. The magnitude of the effects of compressibility on the maximum lift coefficient and the low speeds at which these effects first appear indicate clearly that consideration of the take-off thrust for propellers will give results seriously in error if these considerations are based on the usual low-speed maximum-lift-coefficient data generally used.

Stack, John; Fedziuk, Henry A.; Cleary, Harold E.

1943-01-01

136

Investigation of the tetraquark candidate $a_0(980)$: technical aspects and preliminary results  

E-print Network

We discuss technical aspects and first results of a lattice QCD study of the $a_0(980)$ state. We employ various interpolating operators of quark-antiquark, mesonic molecule, diquark-antidiquark and two-meson type. Both connected and disconnected contributions including diagrams with closed fermion loops are computed. To keep statistical errors small, it is essential to optimize the computation of these diagrams by choosing that combination of techniques most appropriate for each type of diagram from the correlation matrix of interpolating operators. We illustrate, how this can be done, by discussing certain diagrams in detail. We also present preliminary results corresponding to a $4\\times 4$ submatrix computed with 2+1 flavors of clover fermions.

Abdou Abdel-Rehim; Constantia Alexandrou; Joshua Berlin; Mattia Dalla Brida; Mario Gravina; Marc Wagner

2014-10-31

137

Preliminary investigation of changes in x-ray multilayer optics subjected to high radiation flux  

SciTech Connect

A variety of metal multilayers was exposed to high x-ray flux using Sandia National Laboratories' PROTO II machine in the gas puff mode. Fluxes incident on the multilayers above 700 MW/cm/sup 2/ in total radiation, in nominal 20 ns pulses, were realized. The neon hydrogen- and helium-like resonance lines were used to probe the x-ray reflectivity properties of the multilayers as they underwent change of state during the heating pulse. A fluorescer-fiber optic-streak camera system was used to monitor the changes in x-ray reflectivity as a function of time and irradiance. Preliminary results are presented for a W/C multilayer. Work in progress to model the experiment is discussed. 13 refs., 4 figs.

Hockaday, M.P.; Blake, R.L.; Grosso, J.S.; Selph, M.M.; Klein, M.M.; Matuska, W. Jr.; Palmer, M.A.; Liefeld, R.J.

1985-01-01

138

Head-Up Auditory Displays for Traffic Collision Avoidance System Advisories: A Preliminary Investigation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The advantage of a head-up auditory display was evaluated in a preliminary experiment designed to measure and compare the acquisition time for capturing visual targets under two auditory conditions: standard one-earpiece presentation and two-earpiece three-dimensional (3D) audio presentation. Twelve commercial airline crews were tested under full mission simulation conditions at the NASA-Ames Man-Vehicle Systems Research Facility advanced concepts flight simulator. Scenario software generated visual targets corresponding to aircraft that would activate a traffic collision avoidance system (TCAS) aural advisory; the spatial auditory position was linked to the visual position with 3D audio presentation. Results showed that crew members using a 3D auditory display acquired targets approximately 2.2 s faster than did crew members who used one-earpiece head- sets, but there was no significant difference in the number of targets acquired.

Begault, Durand R.

1993-01-01

139

Preliminary Investigation on Battery Sizing Investigation for Thrust Vector Control on Ares I and Ares V Launch Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An investigation into the merits of battery powered Electro Hydrostatic Actuation (EHA) for Thrust Vector Control (TVC) of the Ares I and Ares V launch vehicles is described. A top level trade study was conducted to ascertain the technical merits of lithium-ion (Li-ion) and thermal battery performance to determine the preferred choice of an energy storage system chemistry that provides high power discharge capability for a relatively short duration.

Miller, Thomas B.

2011-01-01

140

Seismic Investigations of the Murci Geothermal Field (Southern Tuscany, Italy): Preliminary Results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Monte Amiata region in the Southern Tuscany, Central Italy, describes a volcanic complex with great significance in terms of the regional fresh water supply, mining and geothermal power generation. Mainly for the latter purpose, the volcanic area of Mt Amiata has been the subject of extensive geological and geophysical research (e.g. Dini et al., 2010 and references therein). The insights from these studies have led to successful geothermal production in the Mt Amiata region since the early 1960s (e.g. Batini et al., 2003). Today's most important reservoirs in this area are the Bagnore and the Piancastagnaio fields which are both operated by the company Enel Green Power. The work presented here deals with the Murci area, another potential reservoir located about 10 km southwest of the Mt Amiata volcanic complex. Therefore, in order to get a more detailed understanding of this area, five reflection seismic profiles were carried out. We have performed on three of them a preliminary depth-migrated images, through Kirchhoff prestack depth migration (KPSDM). The vital point of depth migration algorithms is the accuracy of the velocity model that is used for the backpropagation of the seismic data. Therefore, we derived a suitable 1D starting model from nearby well logs and VSP measurements. In order to remove the large topography effects along the profiles, we then utilized first-arrival tomography for each seismic line. For the following processing we incorporated these 2D tomographic results into our starting model which compensates for static effects and improves the resolution in the near-surface area. The velocity models were then used in the application of KPSDM to the seismic data for each profile, respectively. The resulting preliminary images show a zone of high seismic reflectivity, known as the 'K-horizon' (e.g. Brogi, 2008), and could improve its geological interpretation. These promising results encourage us to proceed with deeper migration velocity analysis which will reveal more details about the structures of the Murci area. Batini, F. et al., 2003: Geological features of Larderello-Travale and Mt. Amiata geothermal areas (southern Tuscany, Italy), Episodes, 26, 239-244. Brogi, A., 2008. The structure of the Monte Amiata volcano-geothermal area (Northern Apennines, Italy): Neogene-Quaternary compression versus extension, Int J Earth Sci (Geol Rundsch) (2008) 97:677-703 Dini, I. et al., 2010. Geological Evaluation of the Base of the Mt. Amiata Volcanic Complex (Tuscany, Italy), Procedings World Geothermal Congress 2010, Bali, Indonesia, April 2010.

Riedel, M.; Alexandrakis, C.; Buske, S.

2013-12-01

141

Examining emotional modulation of pain and spinal nociception in Native Americans: a preliminary investigation.  

PubMed

Pain problems are more prevalent in Native Americans than in any other group in the U.S., and this might result from group differences in pain modulation. This study was designed to examine emotional modulation of pain and spinal nociception in healthy, pain-free Native Americans (n = 21) relative to non-Hispanic Whites (n = 20). To assess emotional modulation of pain and the nociceptive flexion reflex (NFR, a physiological measure of spinal nociception), participants underwent a well-validated emotional picture-viewing paradigm during which suprathreshold pain stimuli were delivered to the ankle. Compared to Whites, Native Americans reported less pleasure to erotic pictures and failed to show corrugator reactivity to mutilation pictures. Unlike Whites, Native Americans only evidenced pain inhibition in response to erotica, but no pain facilitation (disinhibition) to mutilation pictures. Emotional modulation of NFR was similar in both groups. These preliminary findings suggest that Native Americans failed to disinhibit pain, perhaps due to over-activation of pain inhibitory mechanisms. Chronic over-activation of this system could ultimately exhaust it, thus putting Native Americans at future risk for chronic pain. PMID:23994207

Palit, Shreela; Kerr, Kara L; Kuhn, Bethany L; DelVentura, Jennifer L; Terry, Ellen L; Bartley, Emily J; Shadlow, Joanna O; Rhudy, Jamie L

2013-11-01

142

Preliminary investigation of voice onset time production in persons with dysphagia.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to determine whether voice onset time (VOT) values of persons with dysphagia differed from those of a person with normal swallow function. Five male subjects with dysphagia (average age = 80.6 years) and a control subject (age = 79 years) read 18 consonant-vowel-consonant words in quasi-random order. These syllables began with the voiced and voiceless cognates from the three stop places of articulation (i.e., bilabial, alveolar, and velar). These consonants were followed by the vowels /i/, /a/, and /u/. Digital audio tape recordings were performed and speech was digitized onto disk. Measurements were completed using BLISS software (Mertus J: BLISS User's Manual. Providence: Department of Cognitive and Linguistic Sciences, Brown University, 1989) implemented on a 486 microcomputer. Averages and standard deviations of the VOT measures for the six stop consonants were compared between the two experimental groups. For the dysphagic speakers, average VOT values for voiceless stops were shorter, and there were larger negative VOT values for voiced stops. Standard deviations for the VOT productions pf the dysphagic subjects were smaller. Statistical comparisons showed significant differences between individual dysphagic speakers and the normal control for three of the five subjects. These preliminary data suggest that dysphagia affects the fine motor control required for accurate VOT production in speech. PMID:10341116

Ryalls, J; Gustafson, K; Santini, C

1999-01-01

143

Preliminary design and economic investigations of Diffuser-Augmented Wind Turbines (DAWT). Executive summary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A preferred design and configuration approach for the diffuser augmented wind turbine (DAWT) innovative wind energy conversion system is suggested. A preliminary economic assessment is made for limited production rates of units between 5 and 150 kW rated outputs. Nine point designs are used to arrive at the conclusions regarding best construction material for the diffuser and busbar cost of electricity (COE). It is estimated that for farm and cooperative end users, the COE can range between 2 and 3.5 cents pr kWh for sites with annual average wind speeds of 16 and 12 mph (25.7 and 19.3 km/h) respectively, and 150 kW rated units. No tax credits are included in these COE figures. For commercial end users of these 150 kW units, the COE ranges between 4.0 and 6.5 cents per kWh for 16 and 12 mph sites. These estimates in 1971 dollars are lower than department of energy goals set in 1978 for the rating size and end applications. Recommendations are made for future activities to maintain steady, systematic progress toward mature development of the DAWT.

Foreman, K. M.

1981-12-01

144

Synthesis, Characterization, and Preliminary Investigation of Cell Interaction of Magnetic Nanoparticles with Catechol-Containing Shells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Superparamagnetic iron oxide cores were synthesized by co-precipitation of Fe(II) and Fe(III) salts and subsequently stabilized by coating with different catechols (levodopa, dopamine, hydrocaffeic acid, dopamine-containing carboxymethyl dextran) known to act as high-affinity, bidentate ligands for Fe(III). The prepared stable magnetic fluids were characterized with regard to their chemical composition (content of iron and shell material, Fe(II)/Fe(III) ratio) and their physical properties (size, surface charge, magnetic parameters). The nanoparticles showed no or only slight cytotoxic effects within 1 and 4 days of incubation with 3T3 fibroblast cells. Preliminary experiments were performed to study the interaction of the prepared nanoparticles with human MCF-7 breast cancer cells and leukocytes. An intense interaction of the MCF-7 cells with these particles was found whereas the leukocytes showed a lower tendency of interaction. Based on these finding, the novel magnetic nanoparticles possess the potential for use in depletion of tumor cells from peripheral blood.

Wagner, Kerstin; Seemann, Thomas; Wyrwa, Ralf; Clement, Joachim H.; Müller, Robert; Nietzsche, Sandor; Schnabelrauch, Matthias

2010-12-01

145

Production of hydrogen by direct thermal decomposition of water - Preliminary investigations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Preliminary results from examinations of two techniques to effect solar thermal decomposition of water and then prevent recombination, as part of the French PIRDES program, are reported. A solar furnace simulator was fabricated with a 4 kW lamp shining light on elliptic mirrors which redirected the light to a focus to produce temperatures of 3000 K. Reaction studies have shown that significant hydrogen evolution occurs only at temperatures above 2000 K. Water injected into a zirconia nozzle at the focus rose to 2300 K and began dissociating within 0.001-0.01 sec. One experiment comprised water vapor with argon gas, pure water, and two types of nozzles (one perforated). Evolved hydrogen increased with increased stirring of the water feed, but decreased with increasing flow rate. Use of membrane semipermeable to oxygen around the zirconia nozzle demonstrated that the hydrogen flow rate depended on the electrical characteristics of the membrane. Good agreement was found between theoretical predictions and the hydrogen evolution rates in all the configurations.

Lede, J.; Lapicque, F.; Villermaux, J.; Cales, B.; Ounalli, A.; Baumard, J. F.; Anthony, A. M.

146

Purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic investigation of FrnE, a disulfide oxidoreductase from Deinococcus radiodurans.  

PubMed

In prokaryotes, Dsb proteins catalyze the formation of native disulfide bonds through an oxidative folding pathway and are part of the cell machinery that protects proteins from oxidative stress. Deinococcus radiodurans is an extremophile which shows unparalleled resistance to ionizing radiation and oxidative stress. It has a strong mechanism to protect its proteome from oxidative damage. The genome of Deinococcus shows the presence of FrnE, a Dsb protein homologue that potentially provides the bacterium with oxidative stress tolerance. Here, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of FrnE from D. radiodurans are reported. Diffraction-quality single crystals were obtained using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method with reservoir solution consisting of 100?mM sodium acetate pH 5.0, 10% PEG 8000, 15-20% glycerol. Diffraction data were collected on an Agilent SuperNova system using a microfocus sealed-tube X-ray source. The crystal diffracted to 1.8?Å resolution at 100?K. The space group of the crystal was found to be P21221, with unit-cell parameters a = 47.91, b = 62.94, c = 86.75?Å, ? = ? = ? = 90°. Based on Matthews coefficient analysis, one monomer per asymmetric unit is present in the crystal, with a solvent content of approximately 45%. PMID:25372826

Panicker, Lata; Misra, Hari Sharan; Bihani, Subhash Chandra

2014-11-01

147

Investigation of human exposure to triclocarban after showering, and preliminary evaluation of its biological effects  

PubMed Central

The antibacterial soap additive triclocarban (TCC) is widely used in personal care products. TCC has a high environmental persistence. We developed and validated a sensitive online solid phase extraction-LC-MS/MS method to rapidly analyze TCC and its major metabolites in urine and other biological samples to assess human exposure. We measured human urine concentrations 0–72 h after showering with a commercial bar soap containing 0.6% TCC. The major route of renal elimination was excretion as N-glucuronides. The absorption was estimated at 0.6% of the 70±15 mg TCC in the soap used. The TCC N-glucuronide urine concentration varied widely among the subjects and continuous daily use of the soap led to steady state levels of excretion. In order to assess potential biological effects arising from this exposure we screened TCC for the inhibition of human enzymes in vitro. We demonstrate that TCC is a potent inhibitor of the enzyme soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH), whereas TCC?s major metabolites lack strong inhibitory activity. Topical administration of TCC at similar levels to rats in a preliminary in vivo study however failed to alter plasma biomarkers of sEH activity. Overall the analytical strategy described here revealed that use of TCC soap causes exposure levels that warrant further evaluation. PMID:21381656

Schebb, Nils Helge; Inceoglu, Bora; Ahn, Ki Chang; Morisseau, Christophe; Gee, Shirley; Hammock, Bruce D.

2012-01-01

148

Preliminary design and economic investigations of diffuser-augmented wind turbines (DAWT). Executive summary. Final report  

SciTech Connect

A preferred design and configuration approach for the DAWT innovative wind energy conversion system is suggested. A preliminary economic assessment is made for limited production rates of units between 5 and 150 kW rated output. Nine point designs are used to arrive at the conclusions regarding best construction material for the diffuser and busbar cost of electricity (COE). It is estimated that for farm and REA cooperative end users, the COE can range between 2 and 3.5 cents/kWh for sites with annual average wind speeds of 16 and 12 mph (25.7 and 19.3 km/h) respectively, and 150 kW rated units. No tax credits are included in these COE figures. For commercial end users of these 150 kW units, the COE ranges between 4.0 and 6.5 cents/kWh for 16 and 12 mph sites. These estimates in 1971 dollars are lower than DOE goals set in 1978 for the rating size and end applications. Recommendations are made for future activities to maintain steady, systematic progress toward mature development of the DAWT.

Foreman, K.M.

1981-12-01

149

Preliminary design and economic investigations of Diffuser-Augmented Wind Turbines (DAWT)  

SciTech Connect

A preferred design and configuration approach is suggested for the DAWT innovative wind energy conversion system. A preliminary economic asessment is made for limited production rates of units between 5 and 150 kw rated output. Nine point designs are used to arrive at the conclusions regarding best construction material for the diffuser and busbar cost of electricity (COE). It is estimated that for farm and REA cooperative end users, the COE can range between 2 and 3.5 cents/kWh for sites with annual average wind speeds of 16 and 12 mph (25.7 and 19.3 km/h) respectively, and 150 kW rated units. No tax credits are included in these COE figures. For commercial end users of these 150 kW units the COE ranges between 4.0 and 6.5 cents/kWh for 16 and 12 mph sites. These estimates in 1979 dollars are lower than DOE goals set in 1978 for the rating size and end applications. Recommendations are made for future activities to maintain steady, systematic progress toward mature development of the DAWT.

Foreman, K.M.

1981-12-01

150

Synthesis, Characterization, and Preliminary Investigation of Cell Interaction of Magnetic Nanoparticles with Catechol-Containing Shells  

SciTech Connect

Superparamagnetic iron oxide cores were synthesized by co-precipitation of Fe(II) and Fe(III) salts and subsequently stabilized by coating with different catechols (levodopa, dopamine, hydrocaffeic acid, dopamine-containing carboxymethyl dextran) known to act as high-affinity, bidentate ligands for Fe(III). The prepared stable magnetic fluids were characterized with regard to their chemical composition (content of iron and shell material, Fe(II)/Fe(III) ratio) and their physical properties (size, surface charge, magnetic parameters). The nanoparticles showed no or only slight cytotoxic effects within 1 and 4 days of incubation with 3T3 fibroblast cells. Preliminary experiments were performed to study the interaction of the prepared nanoparticles with human MCF-7 breast cancer cells and leukocytes. An intense interaction of the MCF-7 cells with these particles was found whereas the leukocytes showed a lower tendency of interaction. Based on these finding, the novel magnetic nanoparticles possess the potential for use in depletion of tumor cells from peripheral blood.

Wagner, Kerstin; Seemann, Thomas; Wyrwa, Ralf; Schnabelrauch, Matthias [Biomaterials Department, INNOVENT e. V., Pruessingstrasse 27 B, D-07745 Jena (Germany); Clement, Joachim H. [Department of Internal Medicine II, University Hospital Jena, Erlanger Allee 101, D-07740 Jena (Germany); Mueller, Robert [Institute of Photonic Technology, Albert-Einstein-Strasse 9, D-07745 Jena (Germany); Nietzsche, Sandor [Center for Electron Microscopy, University Hospital Jena, Ziegelmuehlenweg 1, D-07743 Jena (Germany)

2010-12-02

151

A preliminary investigation into the effects of nonlinear response modification within coupled oscillators.  

E-print Network

??This thesis provides an account of an investigation into possible dynamic interactions between two coupled nonlinear sub-systems, each possessing opposing nonlinear overhang characteristics in the… (more)

Lim, Fannon Chwee Ning

2003-01-01

152

Alu Insertions and Genetic Diversity: A Preliminary Investigation by an Undergraduate Bioinformatics Class  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Alu"-insertion polymorphisms were used by an undergraduate Bioinformatics class to study how these insertion sites could be the basis for an investigation in human population genetics. Based on the students' investigation, both allele and genotype "Alu" frequencies were determined for African-American and Japanese populations as well as a…

Elwess, Nancy L.; Duprey, Stephen L.; Harney, Lindesay A.; Langman, Jessie E.; Marino, Tara C.; Martinez, Carolina; McKeon, Lauren L.; Moss, Chantel I. E.; Myrie, Sasha S.; Taylor, Luke Ryan

2008-01-01

153

Cue exposure with coping skills treatment for male alcoholics: A preliminary investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although early investigations were promising, no controlled follow-up studies have investigated the effectiveness of cue exposure treatment for alcoholics. In this study, inpatient alcoholics received either cue exposure integrated with urge coping skills training (CET, n = 22) or a contrast condition (CC) involving daily contact with assessment only ( n = 18) in addition to standard treatment. Comprehensive assessment

Peter M. Monti; Damaris J. Rohsenow; Anthony V. Rubonis; Raymond S. Niaura

1993-01-01

154

Preliminary results of paleoseismic investigations of Quaternary faults on eastern Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

Site characterization of the potential nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, requires detailed knowledge of the displacement histories of nearby Quaternary faults. Ongoing paleoseismic studies provide data on the amount and rates of Quaternary activity on the Paintbrush Canyon, Bow Ridge, and Stagecoach Road faults along the eastern margin of the mountain over varying time spans of 0-700 ka to perhaps 0-30 ka, depending on the site. Preliminary stratigraphic interpretations of deposits and deformation at many logged trenches and natural exposures indicate that each of these faults have experienced from 3 to 8 surface-rupturing earthquakes associated with variable dip-slip displacements per event ranging from 5 to 115 cm, and commonly in the range of 20 to 85 cm. Cumulative dip-slip offsets of units with broadly assigned ages of 100-200 ka are typically less than 200 cm, although accounting for the effects of possible left normal-oblique slip could increase these displacements by factors of 1.1 to 1.7. Current age constraints indicate recurrence intervals of 10{sup 4} to 10{sup 5} years (commonly between 30 and 80 k.y.) and slip rates of 0.001 to 0.08 mm/yr (typically 0.01-0.02 mm/yr). Based on available timing data, the ages of the most recent ruptures among the faults; they appear younger on the Stagecoach Road Fault ({approximately} 5.20 ka) relative to the southern Paintbrush Canyon and Bow Ridge faults ({approximately} 30-100 ka).

Menges, C.M.; Oswald, J.A.; Coe, J.A.; Whitney, J.W. [Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States); Swan, F.H.; Wesling, J.R.; Thomas, A.P. [Geomatrix Consultants, San Francisco, CA (United States)

1994-12-31

155

Large Power Transformers from Korea. Investigation No. 731-TA-1189 (Preliminary).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Partial Contents: Determination; Views of the Commission; Part I: Introduction (Background, Statutory criteria and organization of the report, Market summary, Summary data, Previous investigations, Nature and extent of sales at LTFV, The subject merchandi...

2011-01-01

156

Preliminary Investigations of the Hardening Qualities of Desulphurization Products. The Desulphurization Product Stabilized.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In order to prove the hypothesis that hardening of a desulphurization product containing fly ash is a thermal activated process which follows the Arrhenius equation, this report investigates the possibility of carrying out accelerated testing as it is kno...

J. L. Soerensen, N. Foged, P. Henriksen, K. Gram Jeppesen

1986-01-01

157

Investigation of broadband over power line channel capacity of shipboard power system cables for ship communications networks  

E-print Network

cables. The work used a multiconductor transmission line theory based approach to model the channel response of SPS distribution lines and estimated the channel throughput capacity using a “water-filling” communication technique. This work found that BPL...

Akinnikawe, Ayorinde

2009-05-15

158

Impact of Chromosome 4p- Syndrome on Communication and Expressive Language Skills: A Preliminary Investigation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this investigation was to examine the impact of Chromosome 4p- syndrome on the communication and expressive language phenotype of a large cross-cultural population of children, adolescents, and adults. Method: A large-scale survey study was conducted and a descriptive research design was used to analyze quantitative and…

Marshall, Althea T.

2010-01-01

159

Preliminary Investigation of the Relationships between Involvement in Student Affairs Professional Development and Margin in Life  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Involvement in student affairs professional development was investigated using McClusky's (1963) Power Load Margin (PLM) theory from the adult education field. The PLM theory is a framework for identifying sources of stress (load) and power in one's life; the amount of power available to handle stress is called margin in life (MIL). This study…

Lagana, Brandon T.

2007-01-01

160

Integrating Children with Special Needs: Singapore Preschool Teachers Share Their Feelings--A Preliminary Investigation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There has been a marked change in the Singapore Educational System where general and special education schools will receive extra funding for special needs children. While this financial support is encouraging, it is uncertain if preschool teachers and their respective kindergartens are ready for integration. This study investigated how teachers…

Nonis, Karen P.

2006-01-01

161

Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy of Panic Disorder with Secondary Major Depression: A Preliminary Investigation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated extent to which cognitive-behavioral therapy can be used successfully in treatment of secondary depressed panic patients. Findings from eight panic patients with major depression and seven panic patients without major depression showed that cognitive-behavioral therapy was significantly superior to information-based therapy in…

Laberge, Benoit; And Others

1993-01-01

162

Preliminary investigation of a sealed, remotely activated silver-zinc battery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods necessary to provide a remotely activated, silver zinc battery capable of an extended activated stand while in a sealed condition were investigated. These requirements were to be accomplished in a battery package demonstrating an energy density of at least 35 watt hours per pound. Several methods of gas suppression were considered in view of the primary nature of this

C. G. Wheat

1977-01-01

163

Generalization of Sight Word Accuracy Using a Common Stimulus Procedure: A Preliminary Investigation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The need to investigate strategies promoting the generalization of reading skills is well documented. The current study builds upon previous literature by examining the impact of a common stimulus procedure on accuracy of reading generalization words in isolation. The common stimulus procedure used in this study intended to enhance the salience of…

Mesmer, Eric M.; Duhon, Gary J.; Hogan, Karen; Newry, Brandi; Hommema, Savannah; Fletcher, Courtney; Boso, Maggie

2010-01-01

164

PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION OF SUBMERGED AQUATIC VEGETATION MAPPING USING HYPERSPECTRAL REMOTE SENSING  

EPA Science Inventory

The use of airborne hyperspectral remote sensing imagery for automated mapping of submersed aquatic vegetation in the tidal Potomac River was investigated for near to real-time resource assessment and monitoring. Airborne hyperspectral imagery, together with in-situ spectral refl...

165

Preliminary Investigations on Thermometry in Thermal Flows via Transient Grating Spectroscopy (TGS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The laser-based diagnostic method Transient Grating Spectroscopy (TGS) is investigated as a noninvasive, local and time-resolved temperature measurement technique with respect to its application in thermal flow environments. TGS determines in a probe volume comparable to the Laser Doppler Anemometry (LDA) in a period of a few hundred nanoseconds the local speed of sound and thus the temperature of the

F. Bake; B. Lehmann

2004-01-01

166

A preliminary investigation of acid-catalyzed polymerization reactions of shale oil distillates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sinor (1989) reported that a major specialty market may exist for shale oil as an asphalt blending material. Shale oil can be converted to an asphalt blending material by acid catalyzed condensation and polymerization reactions of the many molecular species comprising the composition of shale oil. To simplify the investigation, crude shale oil was separated by distillation into three distillates

Netzel

1991-01-01

167

Interaction between Economic and Computational Problems arising in Internet: A Preliminary Investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate the development of sophisticated software tools to analyze the problems arising in the e-commerce and the e-procurement. Traditional economic models seems inadequate and the business organization may not completely exploit the potentiality of the network. The goal is to better understand the inner complexity of the new system in order to enhance its capabilities. Based on a brief

Davide Gualerzi; Elena Lodi; Linda Pagli

168

Trace evidence characteristics of DNA: A preliminary investigation of the persistence of DNA at crime scenes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The successful recovery of trace or contact DNA is highly variable. It is seemingly dependent on a wide range of factors, from the characteristics of the donor, substrate and environment, to the delay between contact and recovery. There is limited research on the extent of the effect these factors have on trace DNA analysis. This study investigated the persistence of

Jennifer J. Raymond; Roland A. H. van Oorschot; Peter R. Gunn; Simon J. Walsh; Claude Roux

2009-01-01

169

Joint magnetotelluric and seismic investigation of the Cascadia subduction zone structure: Preliminary results and outlook  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using magnetotelluric data from EARTHSCOPE and EMSLAB, and passive seismic data from CAFÉ and EARTHSCOPE, we investigate the substructure of the Cascadia subduction zone. Through a series of two dimensional magnetotelluric inversions and migrated seismic sections, we explore some of the constraints to slab geometry, volatile release, and melting within the subduction zone structure. We consider what each geophysical method

R. S. McGary; R. L. Evans; S. Rondenay; G. A. Abers; K. C. Creager; P. E. Wannamaker

2009-01-01

170

Paleontologic investigations at Big Bone Lick State Park, Kentucky: A preliminary report  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Big Bone Lick area in Kentucky, the first widely known collecting locality for vertebrate fossils in North America, is being investigated for further faunal and geologic evidence. Mammal bones, ranging in age from Wisconsin (Tazewell?) to Recent, were recovered in 1962 from four different faunal zones in two terrace fills.

Schultz, C.B.; Tanner, L.G.; Whitmore, F.C., Jr.; Ray, L.L.; Crawford, E.C.

1963-01-01

171

A Preliminary Investigation of Stimulus Control Training for Worry: Effects on Anxiety and Insomnia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For individuals with generalized anxiety disorder, worry becomes associated with numerous aspects of life (e.g., time of day, specific stimuli, environmental cues) and is thus under poor discriminative stimulus control (SC). In addition, excessive worry is associated with anxiety, depressed mood, and sleep difficulties. This investigation sought…

McGowan, Sarah Kate; Behar, Evelyn

2013-01-01

172

Phonetic Inventories and Phonological Patterns of African American Two-Year-Olds: A Preliminary Investigation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study investigated phonological skills of 8 African American English (AAE)-speaking 2-year-olds. They acquired and used the same phonemes and phonological processes as described in the literature for both AAE-speaking toddlers and toddlers speaking Standard American English. Results could not distinguish typical phonological development from…

Bland-Stewart, Linda M.

2003-01-01

173

Preliminary Investigation of the Extent and Effects of Sediment Contamination in White Lake, MI  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has released this report (in .pdf or HTML formats) on sediment contamination in White Lake, Michigan. The investigation aimed "to define the ecological effects of the heavy metal contamination in Tannery Bay and to assess heavy metal contamination in eastern White Lake." Numerous tables and detailed figures accompany the text.

1999-01-01

174

A Preliminary Investigation of Phonological Encoding Skills in Children Who Stutter  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The present study investigated phonological encoding skills in children who stutter (CWS) and those who do not (CNS). Participants were 9 CWS (M=11.8 years, SD=1.5) and 9 age and sex matched CNS (M=11.8 years, SD=1.5). Method: Participants monitored target phonemes located at syllable onsets and offsets of bisyllabic words. Performance in…

Sasisekaran, Jayanthi; Brady, Alison; Stein, Jillian

2013-01-01

175

A Preliminary Investigation of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy as a Treatment for Marijuana Dependence in Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this investigation, 3 adults who met criteria for marijuana dependence were treated using an abbreviated version of acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT). The treatment was delivered in eight weekly 90-min individual sessions. The effects of the intervention were assessed using a nonconcurrent multiple baseline across participants design. Self-reported marijuana use, confirmed through oral swabs, reached zero levels for all

MICHAEL P. TWOHIG; Deacon Shoenberger; STEVEN C. HAYES

2007-01-01

176

The investigation of school-dropout at the secondary level of formal education: the stated reasons by the school administrators and school counselors: a preliminary study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The subject of this preliminary study was to investigate the stated reasons of school dropout at the secondary level of formal education. The researcher investigated this issue from two viewpoints. One is the viewpoint of the school administrators and the other is that of the school counselors. This was a qualitative study. Semi-structured interviews were done with the administrators and

Cem Kirazo?lu

2009-01-01

177

A preliminary investigation of the potential applicability of the IPAD system to non-aerospace industry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A study of the applicability of the planned Integrated Programs for Aerospace-Vehicle Design (IPAD) system to the design activities of non-aerospace industries was carried out. It was determined that IPAD could be of significant benefit to a number of industries, with the most likely users being the heavy construction and automotive industries. Two additional short studies were initiated to investigate the possible impact of IPAD on a national energy program and on urban and regional planning activities of local and state governments. These initial studies indicated the possibility of significant payoff in these areas and the need for further investigations. It was also determined that utilization of IPAD by non-aerospace industries will probably involve a long stepwise process, since these industries maintain a policy of gradual introduction of new technology.

Hulbert, L. E.

1975-01-01

178

Attitudes to new technology in relation to social beliefs and group memberships: A preliminary investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Though the term “new technology” is widely used and discussed, there has been very little systematic study of attitudes to\\u000a technology and their relation to other beliefs and group memberships. This article describes an initial investigation into\\u000a the nature of attitudes towards new technology (n=534 undergraduates) and demonstrates that, as yet, these attitudes are only weakly structured and are not

Glynis M. Breakwell; Chris Fife-Schaw; Terence Lee; Judith Spencer

1986-01-01

179

Preliminary investigation in optical resonators based on carbon nano-tube and coupling for optoelectronics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the use of carbon nano-tubes performed by chemical vapor deposition for photonics applications producing samples of various geometries on the same wafer and performing experiments and numerical modeling. Publisher's Note: This paper, originally published on 5/2/14, was replaced with a corrected/revised version on 5/19/14. If you downloaded the original PDF but are unable to access the revision, please contact SPIE Digital Library Customer Service for assistance.

Salzenstein, Patrice; Makaryan, Taron

2014-05-01

180

Isolation of flavonoids from the heartwood and resin of Prunus avium and some preliminary biological investigations.  

PubMed

An investigation of the constituents in heartwood and resin of Prunus avium is reported. A mini-library of structurally diverse flavanones and flavones was screened for human cytochrome P450 1A1, 3A4 and 19 (aromatase) inhibition, and for antifungal activity against a panel of pathogenic fungi. The defensive role of these natural plant flavonoids as antifungal phytoalexins and phytoanticipins is discussed. PMID:19837443

McNulty, James; Nair, Jerald J; Bollareddy, Endreddy; Keskar, Kunal; Thorat, Amol; Crankshaw, Denis J; Holloway, Alison C; Khan, Ghaznia; Wright, Gerard D; Ejim, Linda

2009-12-01

181

Preliminary Investigation of the Heat Shock Resistant Properties of Molybdenum Disilicide Blades Under Centrifugal Load  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An investigation to determine the heat-shock resistant properties of two molybdenum disilicide turbine blades under centrifugal loads imposed by turbine rotation is presented. Molybdenum disilicide turbine blades fabricated by hot-pressing techniques withstood heat-shock conditions under blade centrifugal stresses up to 5350 pounds per square inch. Additional development is required before the heat-shock resistant properties of molybdenum disilicide are satisfactory for turbine-blade application.

Long, Roger A; Frenche, John C

1952-01-01

182

Preliminary Investigation of Cyclic De-Icing of an Airfoil Using an External Electric Heater  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An investigation was conducted in the NACA Lewis icing research tunnel to determine the characteristics and requirements of cyclic deicing of a 65,2-216 airfoil by use of an external electric heater. The present investigation was limited to an airspeed of 175 miles per hour. Data are presented to show the effects of variations in heat-on and heat-off periods, ambient air temperature, liquid-water content, angle of attack, and. heating distribution on the requirements for cyclic deicing. The external heat flow at various icing and heating conditions is also presented. A continuously heated parting strip at the airfoil leading edge was found necessary for quick, complete, and consistent ice removal. The cyclic power requirements were found to be primarily a function of the datum temperature and heat-on time, with the other operating and meteorological variables having a second-order effect. Short heat-on periods and high power densities resulted in the most efficient ice removal, the minimum energy input, and the minimum runback ice formations. The optimum chordwise heating distribution pattern was found to consist of a uniform distribution of cycled power density in the impingement region. Downstream of the impingement region the power density decreased to the limits of heating which, for the conditions investigated, extended from 5.7 percent chord on the upper surface of the airfoil to 8.9 percent chord on the lower surface. Ice removal did not take place at a heater surface temperature of 32 F; surface temperatures of approximately 50 to 100 F were required to effect removal. Better de-icing performance and greater energy savings would be possible with a heater having a higher thermal efficiency.

Lewis, James P.; Bowden, Dean T.

1952-01-01

183

Alkali-free bioactive glasses for bone tissue engineering: A preliminary investigation  

SciTech Connect

An alkali-free series of bioactive glasses has been designed and developed in the glass system CaO-MgO-SiO2-P2O5-CaF2 along diopside (CaMgSi2O6) – fluorapatite [Ca5(PO4)3F] – tricalcium phosphate (3CaO•P2O5) join. The silicate network in all the investigated glasses is predominantly coordinated in Q2 (Si) units while phosphorus tends to remain in orthophosphate (Q0) environment. The in vitro bioactivity analysis of glasses has been made by immersion of glass powders in simulated body fluid (SBF) while chemical degradation has been studied in Tris-HCl in accordance with ISO-10993-14. Some of the investigated glasses exhibit hydroxyapatite (HA) formation on their surface with in 1-12 h of their immersion in SBF solution. The sintering and crystallization kinetics of glasses has been investigated by differential thermal analysis (DTA) and hot-stage microscopy (HSM), respectively while the crystalline phase evolution in resultant glass-ceramics (GCs) has been studied in the temperature range of 800-900 oC using powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The cell growth and osteogenic differentiation for glasses has been studied in vitro on sintered glass powder compacts using rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. The as designed glasses are ideal candidates for their potential applications in bone tissue engineering in the form of bioactive glasses as well as glass/GC scaffolds.

Goel, Ashutosh; Kapoor, Saurabh; Rajagopal, Raghu R.; Pascual, Maria J.; Kim, Hae-Won; Ferreira, Jose M.

2011-08-25

184

Preliminary investigations of equilibrium reconstruction quality during ELMy and ELM-free phases on JET  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On JET, the magnetic topology is normally derived from the code EFIT, which solves the Grad-Shafranov equation with constraints imposed by the available measurements, typically the pick-up coils. Both the code and the measurements are expected to perform worse during ELMs. To assess this hypothesis, various statistical indicators, based on the values of the residuals and their probability distribution, have been calculated. They all show that the quality of EFIT reconstructions is clearly better in absence of ELMs. How the responsibility, for the lower quality of the reconstructions, is shared between the measurements and EFIT is a subject under investigation. 2001 Elsevier Science.

Gelfusa, M.; Murari, A.; Peluso, E.; Gaudio, P.; Orsitto, F. P.; Gerasimov, S.; JET-EFDA Contributors

2013-08-01

185

Effects of dietary supplementation on autoimmunity in the MRL/lpr mouse: a preliminary investigation.  

PubMed Central

The effects of dietary fatty acid supplementation on various disease parameters in the spontaneously autoimmune MRL-mp-lpr/lpr mouse model of systemic lupus erythematosus before onset of disease were investigated. A fat deficient diet was supplemented with the following oils: olive oil, sunflower oil, evening primrose oil (EPO), fish oil, and a fish oil/EPO mixture. The mice receiving a diet enriched with EPO showed an increase in survival, as did those receiving the fish oil/EPO mixture. These results, taken together with those of the other parameters monitored, suggest that EPO may be of benefit in alleviating the murine form of the disease. PMID:3492970

Godfrey, D G; Stimson, W H; Watson, J; Belch, J F; Sturrock, R D

1986-01-01

186

Preliminary investigation of parasitic radioisotope production using the LANL IPF secondary neutron flux  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to ascertain the potential for radioisotope production and material science studies using the Isotope Production Facility at Los Alamos National Lab, a two-pronged investigation has been initiated. The Monte Carlo for Neutral Particles eXtended (MCNPX) code has been used in conjunction with the CINDER 90 burnup code to predict neutron flux energy distributions as a result of routine irradiations and to estimate yields of radioisotopes of interest for hypothetical irradiation conditions. A threshold foil activation experiment is planned to study the neutron flux using measured yields of radioisotopes, quantified by HPGe gamma spectroscopy, from representative nuclear reactions with known thresholds up to 50 MeV.

Engle, J. W.; Kelsey, C. T.; Bach, H.; Ballard, B. D.; Fassbender, M. E.; John, K. D.; Birnbaum, E. R.; Nortier, F. M.

2012-12-01

187

Preliminary dosimetry investigation of Tc-99m diagnostic radionuclide by NIPAM gel dosimeter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAM) gel dosimeter was investigated as a suitable material for measuring absorbed doses from radionuclide sources. In this study, NIPAM gel dosimeter was used to evaluate the dose distributions of the Tc-99m radionuclide in NIPAM gel. The accumulated radioactivity range of the Tc-99m NIPAM gel is from approximately 0 MBq to 13.6 MBq (about 0.37 mCi). The NIPAM gel dosimeter with high stability and high-dose linear and non-energy dependent properties can provide various radiopharmaceutical activity intensities in the conduct of dose assessment in nuclear medicine, thereby producing the most promising dose verification tools.

Huang, You-Ruei; Chang, Yuan-Jen; Hsieh, Ling-Ling; Yu, Bi-Wei; Chu, Chien-Hau; Hsieh, Bor-Tsung

2013-06-01

188

A preliminary investigation of the organic chemical emissions from green sand pyrolysis.  

PubMed

Condensable effluents from the thermal decomposition of a typical green sand foundry mold were investigated for the presence of emissions that could present health hazards in a foundry atmosphere. The benzene-soluble fraction extracted from the condensate was analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Over 200 compounds were observed on the chromatograms and benzo(a)pyrene, benzo(e)pyrene and perylene were identified. The concentrations of these materials were not determined, but their presence in foundry atmospheres represents in area of potential concern for health welfare. PMID:1008027

Gwin, C H; Scott, W D; James, R H

1976-12-01

189

A Preliminary Investigation of Rapid Depressurization Phenomena Following a Sudden DLOFC in a VHTR  

SciTech Connect

Air ingress has been identified as a potential threat for Very High Temperature gas-cooled Reactors (VHTR). Reactor components constructed of graphite will, at high temperatures, produce exothermic reactions in the presence of oxygen. The danger lies in the possibility of fuel element damage and core structural failure. Previous investigations of air ingress mechanisms have focused on thermal and molecular diffusion, density-driven stratified flow due to hydrodynamic instability, and natural convection. Here, we investigate the possibility of a rapid flow reversal of helium coolant due to a Taylor (rarefaction) wave expansion after a hypothetical sudden Depressurized Loss of Forced Cooling (DLOFC) scenario in a VHTR. Conceivably, flow reversal of the helium coolant could entrain significant quantities of air into the reactor vessel. Our analysis starts with a one-dimensional shock tube simulation to simply illustrate the development of a Taylor wave with resulting reentrant flow. Then, a simulation is performed of an idealized two-dimensional axisymmetric representation of the lower plenum of General Atomics GT-MHR subjected to a hypothetical catastrophic break of the hot duct. Analysis shows the potential for significant and rapid air ingress into the reactor vessel in the case of a large break in the cooling system.

Richard C. Martineau; Ray A. Berry

2010-05-01

190

A preliminary investigation into the prevalence and prediction of problematic cell phone use  

PubMed Central

Background and aims: Likening mobile phone use dependency to the classification of excessive behaviors may be necessarily equivalent in seriousness to previously established addictions such as problematic computing or excessive gambling. The aim of the study explores into the behavior of excessive use of mobile phones as a pathological behavior. Methods: Two studies investigated criteria for problematic mobile phone usage by examining student (Study 1, N = 301) and nonstudent (Study 2, N = 362) responses to a set of adapted mobile phone addiction inventories. Study 1 investigated cell phone addiction inventories as constructs designed to measure problematic cell phone use. Additionally, Study 2 sought to predict age, depression, extraversion, emotional stability, impulse control, and self-esteem as independent variables that augment respondents’ perceptions of problematic use. Results: The results from Study 1 and Study 2 indicate that 10 to 25% of the participants tested exhibited problematic cell phone usage. Additionally, age, depression, extraversion, and low impulse control are the most suitable predictors for problematic use. Conclusions: The results of the two studies indicate that problematic mobile phone use does occur and ought to be taken seriously by the psychological community. Presently, there is limited data providing conclusive evidence for a comprehensible categorization of cell phone addiction, as well as a unified explanatory model specific to problematic mobile phone use. Studies such as this one may contribute substantial findings, adding scientific significance, and offering a valuable submission for the ongoing progress of creating intervention frameworks relative to “virtual addictions”.

Smetaniuk, Peter

2014-01-01

191

Investigation of Halogenated Components Formed from Chlorination of Natural Waters: Preliminary Studies  

SciTech Connect

Chlorination of power plant cooling water is extensively used as a means of controlling biofouling. This practice presents the potential for formation of halogenated organic compounds hazardous to man and his environment. Accordingly, the organic composition resulting from the chlorination of natural waters (northern Olympic Penn1sula sea water and the Columbia River in Washington State} has been investigated. Nonpolar lipophilic organic halogens were extracted by passing large volumes of water over columns of XAD-2 macroreticular resins. Examination of ether extracts from the resin columns using capillary gas chromatography revealed the presence of halogenated methanes, as well as other electron-capturing components~ that were not found when unchlorinated water was sampled. Examination of the chlorinated water extracts using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry revealed complex mixtures which generally were not separable into individual components~ even when high efficiency WCOT capillary columns were used. The samples were separated into fractions of increasing polarity using a water-deactivated silica gel column. Fractions were thus obtained which were more amenable to GC/MS investigation. Haloforms were identified as the major halogenated product from chlorination of the waters studied. Other halogenated products were found at much lower concentrations.

Bean, R. M.; Riley, R. G.

1980-11-01

192

A Preliminary Investigation of Rapid Depressurization Phenomena Following a Sudden DLOFC in a VHTR  

SciTech Connect

Air ingress has been identified as a potential threat for Very High Temperature gas-cooled Reactors (VHTR). Reactor components constructed of graphite will, at high temperatures, produce exothermic reactions in the presence of oxygen. The danger lies in the possibility of fuel element damage and core structural failure. Previous investigations of air ingress mechanisms have focused on thermal and molecular diffusion, density-driven stratified flow, and natural convection. Here, we investigate the possibility of a rapid ingress of air due to a Taylor wave expansion after a hypothetical sudden loss of coolant accident (LOCA) scenario in a VHTR. Our analysis starts with a one-dimensional shock tube simulation to simply illustrate the development of a Taylor wave with resulting reentrant flow. Then, a simulation is performed of an idealized two-dimensional axisymmetric representation of the lower plenum of General Atomics GT-MHR subjected to a hypothetical catastrophic break of the hot duct. Analysis shows the potential for significant and rapid air ingress into the reactor vessel in the case of a large break in the cooling system.

Richard C. Martineau; Ray A. Berry; Dana A. Knoll

2009-03-01

193

Preliminary investigations of rat skin after topical application of optical clearing agent  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The tissue optical clearing technique based on immersion of tissues into optical clearing agents (OCAs) can enhance the penetration depth of light in tissues, thus improve the capabilities of noninvasive optical diagnosis and therapeutic treatment. However, the optical clearing efficiency of skin caused by topical application of OCAs usually suffers from the barrier of stratum corneum and epithelium. The addition of chemical penetration enhancers to OCAs could significantly improve the optical clearing of skin, but the investigations on their safety are seldom concerned. In this study, based on the direct observation and histological examinations, the short-term and long-term effects of the mixture of PEG-400 and Thiazone on morphology and microstructure of in vivo rat skin were investigated. The results demonstrated that, in the first week, the hair growth was stunted, some degree of abnormal thickens and vacuoles occurred at the epidermis layer, and the collagen arranged denser. After 2 week, the morphology and microstructure of rat skin was completely recovered. It means that there is no long-term effect on rat skin by the mixture of PEG-400 and Thiazone. In addition, this work provides a useful method for assessing the safety of OCAs to skin.

Wang, Jing; Zhu, Dan

2010-10-01

194

Preliminary investigations of rat skin after topical application of optical clearing agent  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The tissue optical clearing technique based on immersion of tissues into optical clearing agents (OCAs) can enhance the penetration depth of light in tissues, thus improve the capabilities of noninvasive optical diagnosis and therapeutic treatment. However, the optical clearing efficiency of skin caused by topical application of OCAs usually suffers from the barrier of stratum corneum and epithelium. The addition of chemical penetration enhancers to OCAs could significantly improve the optical clearing of skin, but the investigations on their safety are seldom concerned. In this study, based on the direct observation and histological examinations, the short-term and long-term effects of the mixture of PEG-400 and Thiazone on morphology and microstructure of in vivo rat skin were investigated. The results demonstrated that, in the first week, the hair growth was stunted, some degree of abnormal thickens and vacuoles occurred at the epidermis layer, and the collagen arranged denser. After 2 week, the morphology and microstructure of rat skin was completely recovered. It means that there is no long-term effect on rat skin by the mixture of PEG-400 and Thiazone. In addition, this work provides a useful method for assessing the safety of OCAs to skin.

Wang, Jing; Zhu, Dan

2011-03-01

195

Preliminary investigation of a sealed, remotely activated silver-zinc battery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Methods necessary to provide a remotely activated, silver zinc battery capable of an extended activated stand while in a sealed condition were investigated. These requirements were to be accomplished in a battery package demonstrating an energy density of at least 35 watt hours per pound. Several methods of gas suppression were considered in view of the primary nature of this unit and utilized the electroplated dendritic zinc electrode. Amalgamation of the electrode provided the greatest suppression of gas at the zinc electrode. The approach to extending the activated stand capability of the remotely activated battery was through evaluation of three basic methods of remote, multi-cell activation; 1) the electrolyte manifold, 2) the gas manifold and 3) the individual cell. All three methods of activation can be incorporated into units which will meet the minimum energy density requirement.

Wheat, C. G.

1977-01-01

196

Preliminary investigations on laminin coatings for flexible polyimide/platinum thin films for PNS applications.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to investigate the possibility to obtain stable bioactive coatings for polyimide/platinum neural interfaces based on thin film technology for applications into the peripheral nervous system (PNS). Laminin (LI), a glycoprotein of the extracellular matrix, which guides and promotes differentiation and growth of neurons, was selected to deposit bioactive coatings. Dip-coating was performed on dummy structures at different LI concentrations. Indirect methods allowed to identify and characterize laminin on coated samples. Mechanical stability was also confirmed by indirect evaluations. Pilot experiments with differentiated PC12 cells, by the addition of nerve growth factor (NGF), showed improved neurite outgrowth on the coated probes compared to bare polyimide samples. PMID:21096373

Bossi, S; Benvenuto, A; Wieringa, P; Di Pino, G; Guglielmelli, E; Boretius, T; Stieglitz, T; Navarro, X; Micera, S

2010-01-01

197

A preliminary investigation on reinforced double layer Nafion membranes for high temperature PEFCs application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Double layer recast Nafion® membranes reinforced using a polyethyleneterephthalate (PET) support were developed for PEFCs application at Tcell > 110 °C, low humidification and pressure. The investigation of chemical-physical properties suggested a probable interaction between PET and Nafion matrices. Electrochemical tests in a 25 cm2 H2/air PEFC between 80 and 140°C were carried using a pure Nafion as a reference. A short time test supplied an average stable current density of about 400 mA cm-2 (0.5 V) for reinforced membrane against an unstable trend of reference. High current densities of 530 mA cm-2 and 330 mA cm-2 (0.6 V) were obtained for N-PET at unusual temperatures (130-140 °C).

Saccà, A.; Pedicini, R.; Carbone, A.; Gatto, I.; Fracas, P.; Passalacqua, E.

2014-01-01

198

Preliminary investigation and application of alternate dry gas seal face materials{copyright}  

SciTech Connect

Traditional seal mating ring materials such as tungsten carbide (WC) are commonly used in high pressure centrifugal gas compressor dry gas (gas lubricating film) seal applications. Although these materials possess desirable properties for minimizing thermal distortion and deformation when subjected to pressure and centrifugal force, they have low toughness, i.e., they are brittle and have poor resistance to thermal shock. It has been found that these materials are easily heat checked during seal face touchdown. Heat checking as well as other crack indications inherent in these materials can quickly propagate, resulting in a catastrophic seal ring failure. In this paper, an investigation of alternate seal face materials is described. Two ductile, nitrided, low ferrous materials proved to be readily manufacturable into dry gas seal rings and performed comparably to tungsten carbide in natural gas service. 10 refs., 13 figs., 5 tabs.

Evenson, R.; Peterson, R.; Hanson, R. [NOVA Corp. of Alberta, Calgary (Canada)

1994-01-01

199

Preliminary Investigation of Candidate Materials for Use in Accident Resistant Fuel  

SciTech Connect

As part of a Collaborative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) with industry, Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is investigating several options for accident resistant uranium compounds including silicides, and nitrides for use in future light water reactor (LWR) fuels. This work is part of a larger effort to create accident tolerant fuel forms where changes to the fuel pellets, cladding, and cladding treatment are considered. The goal fuel form should have a resistance to water corrosion comparable to UO2, have an equal to or larger thermal conductivity than uranium dioxide, a melting temperature that allows the material to stay solid under power reactor conditions, and a uranium loading that maintains or improves current LWR power densities. During the course of this research, fuel fabricated at INL will be characterized, irradiated at the INL Advanced Test Reactor, and examined after irradiation at INL facilities to help inform industrial partners on candidate technologies.

Jason M. Harp; Paul A. Lessing; Blair H. Park; Jakeob Maupin

2013-09-01

200

The preliminary results on the investigation of historic stained glass panels from Grodziec collection, Poland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Grodziec collection of stained glass panels consists of fourteen objects depicting figures of saints. Probably they belong to one, uniform set from the one of Lower Silesia churches. Recently eight of them, already after conservatory treatment, are exhibited in Jagiellonian University Museum of Collegium Maius in Krakow, while remaining six, which will be restored in nearest future, are stored in the National Museum in Wroclaw. This paper presents the results of the investigation of composition and corrosion products of glass from three panels of Wroclaw group. Since comparative analysis of historic glass composition is vital for its dating, to obtain the possibly full set of composition data with particular stress on light elements identification, the multi technique approach was necessary. The physicochemical analysis was carried out by X-ray fluorescence (XRF), micro-Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (SEM/EDX). The study revealed that some of stained glasses have composition characteristic of northern medieval glass (potash-lime-silicate) while other pieces could be dated on 16th or 19th century. This confirms the suggestion from the former historic and scientific investigation of Krakow's set that the Wroclaw panels may be of the same medieval origin as the Krakow's ones and that they were already restored, at least in 19th c. The possibility of working on the whole set of panels from the Grodziec collection opens up the opportunity for conducting exceptional scientific study which will lead to the definitive designation of the provenance of this important collection, its history and age.

Walczak, M.; Kaminska, M.; Karaszkiewicz, P.; Szczerbinski, J.; Szymonski, M.

2013-05-01

201

Field-Theoretical Investigations of the Influence of Mutual Coupling Effects on the Capacity of MIMO Wireless Links  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a MIMO channel model which takes into account mutual coupling effects at the receiver and transmitter array in order to assess the influence of mutual coupling effects on the capacity of MIMO channels. We evaluate the mutual impedances using a general approach based on the electric field integral equation (EFIE) and its implementation by the method of moments (MOM). We compute the capacity of a 2x2-MIMO system in a one path scenario for square half wavelength patch antenna elements and half wavelength dipole antenna elements. The capacity of the MIMO system with and without coupling increases compared to the single antenna transmission for the patch antenna elements. On the contrary for half wavelength dipole antenna elements we have found that the MIMO system degenerates to a one-transmitting, one-receiving antenna system due to mutual coupling.

Ndoumbè Mbonjo Mbonjo, H.; Wu, G.; Hansen, V.

2005-05-01

202

Preliminary Investigations of Joining Technologies for Attaching Refractory Metals to Ni-Based Superalloys  

SciTech Connect

In this study, a range of joining technologies has been investigated for creating attachments between refractory metal and Ni-based superalloys. Refractory materials of interest include Mo-47%Re, T-111, and Ta-10%W. The Ni-based superalloys include Hastelloy X and MarM 247. During joining with conventional processes, these materials have potential for a range of solidification and intermetallic formation-related defects. For this study, three non-conventional joining technologies were evaluated. These included inertia welding, electro-spark deposition (ESD) welding, and magnetic pulse welding (MPW). The developed inertia welding practice closely paralleled that typically used for the refractory metals alloys. Metallographic investigations showed that forging during inertia welding occurred predominantly on the refractory metal side. It was also noted that at least some degree of forging on the Ni-based superalloy side of the joint was necessary to achieve consistent bonding. Both refractory metals were readily weldable to the Hastelloy X material. When bonding to the MarM 247, results were inconsistent. This was related to the higher forging temperatures of the MarM 247, and subsequent reduced deformation on that material during welding. ESD trials using a Hastelloy X filler were successful for all material combinations. ESD places down very thin (5- to 10-{mu}m) layers per pass, and interactions between the substrates and the fill were limited (at most) to that layer. For the refractory metals, the fill only appeared to wet the surface, with minimal dilution effects. Microstructures of the deposits showed high weld metal integrity with maximum porosity on the order of a few percent. Some limited success was also obtained with MPW. In these trials, only the T-111 tubes were used. Joints were possible for the T-111 tube to the Hastelloy X bar stock, but the stiffness of the tube (resisting collapse) necessitated the use of very high power levels. These power levels resulted in damage to the equipment (concentrator) during welding. It is of note that the joint made showed the typical wavy bond microstructure associated with magnetic pulse/explosion bond joints. Joints were not possible between the T-111 tube and the MarM 247 bar stock. In this case, the MarM 247 shattered before sufficient impact forces could be developed for bonding.

Gould, Jerry E. [Edison Welding Institute, 1250 Arthur E. Adams Drive, Columbus, OH 43221 (United States); Ritzert, Frank J. [NASA Glenn Research Center, 21000 Brookpark Road, Mail Stop 49-1, Cleveland, OH 44135 (United States); Loewenthal, William S. [Ohio Aerospace Institute, 21000 Brookpark Road, Mail Stop 49-1, Cleveland, OH 44135 (United States)

2006-01-20

203

Friction Stir Lap Welding of Magnesium Alloy to Steel: A Preliminary Investigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An initial study was made to evaluate the feasibility of joining magnesium alloy AZ31 sheet to galvanized steel sheet in a lap configuration using friction stir welding (FSW). Two different automotive sheet steels were used for comparative evaluation of the dissimilar joining potential: a 0.8 mm thick, electrogalvanized (EG) mild steel, and a 1.5 mm thick hot-dipped galvanized (HDG) high-strength, low-alloy (HSLA) steel. These steels were joined to 2.33 mm thick AZ31B magnesium sheet. A single FSW tool design was used for both dissimilar welds, and the process parameters were kept the same. The average peak load for the AZ31-1.5 mm steel weld joint in lap shear mode was found to be 6.3 ± 1.0 kN. For the AZ31-0.8 mm steel weld, joint strength was 5.1 ± 1.5 kN. Microstructural investigation indicates melting of the Zn coating present on the steel sheets, and subsequent alloying with the Mg sheet resulted in the formation of a solidified Zn-Mg alloy layer.

Jana, S.; Hovanski, Y.; Grant, G. J.

2010-12-01

204

Friction Stir Lap Welding of Magnesium Alloy to Steel: A Preliminary Investigation  

SciTech Connect

An initial study was made to evaluate the feasibility of joining Magnesium alloy AZ31 sheet to galvanized steel sheet in lap configuration using friction stir welding (FSW). Two different automotive sheet steels were used for comparative evaluation of the dissimilar joining potential; a 0.8mm thick, electro galvanized (EG) mild steel, and a 1.5mm thick hot dipped galvanized (HDG) high-strength, low-alloy steel (HSLA). These steels were joined to 2.33mm thick AZ31B magnesium sheet. A single FSW tool design was used for both dissimilar welds, and process parameters were kept the same. Average peak load for the AZ31-1.5 mm steel weld joint in lap shear mode was found to be 6.3 ± 1.0 kN. For the AZ31-0.8 mm steel weld, joint strength was 5.1 ± 1.5 kN. Microstructural investigation indicates melting of the Zn coating at the interface and subsequent alloying with the Mg sheet resulting in formation of solidified Zn-Mg alloy layer at AZ31/steel interface.

Jana, Saumyadeep; Hovanski, Yuri; Grant, Glenn J.

2010-12-01

205

Preliminary investigation of submerged aquatic vegetation mapping using hyperspectral remote sensing.  

PubMed

The use of airborne hyperspectral remote sensing imagery for automated mapping of submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) in the tidal Potomac River was investigated for near to real-time resource assessment and monitoring. Airborne hyperspectral imagery and field spectrometer measurements were obtained in October of 2000. A spectral library database containing selected ground-based and airborne sensor spectra was developed for use in image processing. The spectral library is used to automate the processing of hyperspectral imagery for potential real-time material identification and mapping. Field based spectra were compared to the airborne imagery using the database to identify and map two species of SAV (Myriophyllum spicatum and Vallisneria americana). Overall accuracy of the vegetation maps derived from hyperspectral imagery was determined by comparison to a product that combined aerial photography and field based sampling at the end of the SAV growing season. The algorithms and databases developed in this study will be useful with the current and forthcoming space-based hyperspectral remote sensing systems. PMID:12620030

William, David J; Rybicki, Nancy B; Lombana, Alfonso V; O'Brien, Tim M; Gomez, Richard B

2003-01-01

206

Preliminary Investigation of an SOI-based Arrayed Waveguide Grating Demodulation Integration Microsystem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An arrayed waveguide grating (AWG) demodulation integration microsystem is investigated in this study. The system consists of a C-band on-chip LED, a 2 × 2 silicon nanowire-based coupler, a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) array, a 1 × 8 AWG, and a photoelectric detector array. The coupler and AWG are made from silicon-on-insulator wafers using electron beam exposure and response-coupled plasma technology. Experimental results show that the excess loss in the MMI coupler with a footprint of 6 × 100 ?m2 is 0.5423 dB. The 1 × 8 AWG with a footprint of 267 × 381 ?m2 and a waveguide width of 0.4 ?m exhibits a central channel loss of -3.18 dB, insertion loss non-uniformity of -1.34 dB, and crosstalk level of -23.1 dB. The entire system is preliminarily tested. Wavelength measurement precision is observed to reach 0.001 nm. The wavelength sensitivity of each FBG is between 0.04 and 0.06 nm/dB.

Li, Hongqiang; Zhou, Wenqian; Liu, Yu; Dong, Xiaye; Zhang, Cheng; Miao, Changyun; Zhang, Meiling; Li, Enbang; Tang, Chunxiao

2014-05-01

207

Crystallization and preliminary X-ray investigation of a glycoprotein, human renal dipeptidase  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A glycoprotein of human renal dipeptidase expressed in Pichia pastoris GS115/pHIL-D2?DP4S has been crystallized, into the space group P2 1 with cell dimensions of a = 81.70 Å, b = 81.74 Å, c = 57.13 Å and ? = 96.45°. The dipeptidase is a homodimer consisting of two 42 kDa monomers. The monomer with 4 N-linked glycosylation sites is secreted in highly glycosylated forms that exhibit a molecular mass of about 45 kDa. In order to obtain diffraction-quality crystals, oligosaccharide moieties of this metal enzyme were trimmed by the endoglycosidase Hf treatment. The dipeptidase trimmed to 42 kDa retains nearly full catalytic activity. Crystals were obtained at 10°C by use of a 15 g/100 g polyethylene glycol 8000 precipitant of pH 5.6 and were further grown with the macroseeding technique. The crystal diffracts X-rays at least to 2 Å resolution and is suitable for investigation of the three-dimensional structure.

Nitanai, Yasushi; Satow, Yoshinori; Adachi, Hideki; Tsujimoto, Masafumi

1996-10-01

208

A preliminary investigation of acid-catalyzed polymerization reactions of shale oil distillates  

SciTech Connect

Sinor (1989) reported that a major specialty market may exist for shale oil as an asphalt blending material. Shale oil can be converted to an asphalt blending material by acid catalyzed condensation and polymerization reactions of the many molecular species comprising the composition of shale oil. To simplify the investigation, crude shale oil was separated by distillation into three distillates of different hydrocarbon and heteroaromatic compositions. These distillates were then treated with two different types of acids to determine the effect of acid type on the end products. Three western shale oil distillates, a naphtha, a middle distillate, and an atmospheric gas oil, were reacted with anhydrous AlCl{sub 3} and 85% H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} under low-severity conditions. At relatively low temperatures, little change in the hydrocarbon composition was noted for the AlCl{sub 3} reactions. AlCl{sub 3}{center dot} (a polymerized product and/or complex) was formed. However, it is assumed that the sludge was mainly the result of heteroaromatic-AlCl{sub 3} reactions.

Netzel, D.A.

1991-04-01

209

A preliminary investigation of acid-catalyzed polymerization reactions of shale oil distillates  

SciTech Connect

Sinor (1989) reported that a major specialty market may exist for shale oil as an asphalt blending material. Shale oil can be converted to an asphalt blending material by acid catalyzed condensation and polymerization reactions of the many molecular species comprising the composition of shale oil. To simplify the investigation, crude shale oil was separated by distillation into three distillates of different hydrocarbon and heteroaromatic compositions. These distillates were then treated with two different types of acids to determine the effect of acid type on the end products. Three western shale oil distillates, a naphtha, a middle distillate, and an atmospheric gas oil, were reacted with anhydrous AlCl{sub 3} and 85% H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} under low-severity conditions. At relatively low temperatures, little change in the hydrocarbon composition was noted for the AlCl{sub 3} reactions. AlCl{sub 3}{center_dot} (a polymerized product and/or complex) was formed. However, it is assumed that the sludge was mainly the result of heteroaromatic-AlCl{sub 3} reactions.

Netzel, D.A.

1991-04-01

210

Preliminary Investigation of an SOI-based Arrayed Waveguide Grating Demodulation Integration Microsystem  

PubMed Central

An arrayed waveguide grating (AWG) demodulation integration microsystem is investigated in this study. The system consists of a C-band on-chip LED, a 2 × 2 silicon nanowire-based coupler, a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) array, a 1 × 8 AWG, and a photoelectric detector array. The coupler and AWG are made from silicon-on-insulator wafers using electron beam exposure and response-coupled plasma technology. Experimental results show that the excess loss in the MMI coupler with a footprint of 6 × 100??m2 is 0.5423?dB. The 1 × 8 AWG with a footprint of 267 × 381??m2 and a waveguide width of 0.4??m exhibits a central channel loss of ?3.18?dB, insertion loss non-uniformity of ?1.34?dB, and crosstalk level of ?23.1?dB. The entire system is preliminarily tested. Wavelength measurement precision is observed to reach 0.001?nm. The wavelength sensitivity of each FBG is between 0.04 and 0.06?nm/dB. PMID:24797561

Li, Hongqiang; Zhou, Wenqian; Liu, Yu; Dong, Xiaye; Zhang, Cheng; Miao, Changyun; Zhang, Meiling; Li, Enbang; Tang, Chunxiao

2014-01-01

211

[Preliminary investigation on acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) cases in Jinan area].  

PubMed

Eighty AFP cases under 12 years old from 6 hospitals in Jinan were investigated. Among them, there were 17 (21.25%) cases with poliomyelitis (POLIO), 40 (50.00%) cases with Guillian-Barre syndrome (GBS) and 23 (28.75%) cases with other AFP diseases. Most AFP cases occurred from May to October and no significant seasonal difference was found for each kind of AFP cases (P > 0.05), but the average age for POLIO cases (1.55 +/- 1.24) was significantly lower than that for non-POLIO AFP cases (3.76 +/- 2.58) (P < 0.01). The reporting rate from hospitals to each level of epidemic prevention station (EPS) for POLIO, GBS and other AFP cases were 100%, 12.50% and 43.75%, respectively (P < 0.01). Sixty-five AFP cases occurred in 6 prefectures around Jinan city. The average incidence rate (per 100,000) for total AFP, non-POLIO AFP and GBS cases among children under 12 years old were 1.11, 0.89 and 0.53, respectively. The results are helpful to estimate the incidence of AFP cases among children in north provinces of China and also indicate that the POLIO surveillance system in Shandong Province at the present is not sensitive enough, so the AFP cases reporting work of hospitals and the surveillance at each level of EPS should be enhanced. PMID:7834687

Xu, A; Li, L; Zhao, S

1994-06-01

212

Preliminary experimental investigation of a dual-band relativistic backward wave oscillator with dual beams  

SciTech Connect

A dual-band relativistic backward wave oscillator with dual electron beams generating C-band and X-band microwaves is investigated experimentally. The frequencies, powers, and radiation patterns of the dual-band microwaves are measured. With the diode voltage of 657 kV and the total beam current of 14 kA guided by a magnetic field of about 1.7 T, the dual-band microwaves are generated with dominant frequencies of 4.58 and 8.30 GHz close to the results from the particle-in-cell simulation. The powers of the C-band and X-band microwaves are 520 and 113 MW, respectively. The effects of variations in the guiding magnetic field and diode voltage on the powers of the dual-band microwaves are presented and discussed. The radiation patterns of the dual-band microwaves from the radiating antenna are tested both corresponding to a TM{sub 01} mode and the independency of the operation processes of them is discussed.

Wang Ting; Qian Baoliang; Zhang Jiande; Zhang Xiaoping; Cao Yibing; Zhang Qiang [College of Optoelectronic Science and Engineering, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China)

2011-01-15

213

A preliminary investigation of anticholinesterase activity of some Iranian medicinal plants commonly used in traditional medicine  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of this study was to evaluate acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of some commonly used herbal medicine in Iran to introduce a new source for management of Alzheimer’s disease. A total of 18 aqueous-methanolic extract (1:1; v/v) from the following plants: Brassica alba, Brassica nigra, Camellia sinensis, Cinchona officinalis, Citrus aurantifolia, Citrus x aurantium, Ferula assafoetida, Humulus lupulus, Juglans regia, Juniperus sabina, Myristica fragrans, Pelargonium graveolens, Pistacia vera, Punica granatum, Rheum officinale, Rosa damascena, Salix alba, and Zizyphus vulgaris were prepared and screened for their acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity using in vitro Ellman spectrophotometric method. Results According to the obtained results, the order of inhibitory activity (IC50 values, ?g /ml) of extracts from highest to the lowest was: C. sinensis (5.96), C. aurantifolia (19.57), Z. vulgaris (24.37), B. nigra (84.30) and R. damascena (93.1). Conclusions The results indicated and confirmed the traditional use of these herbs for management of central nervous system disorders. C. sinensis showed the highest activity in inhibition of acetylcholinesterase. However, further investigations on identification of active components in the extracts are needed. PMID:24401532

2014-01-01

214

Preliminary investigation of a highly sulfated galactofucan fraction isolated from the brown alga Sargassum polycystum.  

PubMed

A fucoidan preparation was isolated from the brown alga Sargassum polycystum (Fucales, Sargassaceae). The preparation was fractionated by anion-exchange chromatography, and two highly sulfated fractions F3 and F4 were obtained. The fractions were quite similar in composition, but different in chemical structure. F4 was analyzed by chemical methods, including desulfation, methylation, Smith degradation, and partial acid hydrolysis with mass-spectrometric monitoring, as well as by NMR spectroscopy. Several 2D NMR procedures, including HMQC-TOCSY and HMQC-NOESY, were used to obtain reliable structural information from the complex spectra. Molecules of F4 were shown to contain a backbone built up mainly of 3-linked ?-L-fucopyranose 4-sulfate residues, as in many other fucoidans, but rather short sequences of these residues are interspersed by single 2-linked ?-D-galactopyranose residues also sulfated at position 4. This rather unusual structural feature should have a great influence on the conformation of the polymeric molecule and may be important for biological activity of the polysaccharide. Hence, F4 is an example of a new sulfated galactofucan isolated from the brown alga. According to the data obtained, the distribution of galactose residues along the polysaccharide backbone seems to be not strictly regular, but the definitive sequence of monomers in the polymeric molecules awaits additional investigation. PMID:23810980

Bilan, Maria I; Grachev, Alexey A; Shashkov, Alexander S; Thuy, Thanh Thi Thu; Van, Tran Thi Thanh; Ly, Bui Minh; Nifantiev, Nikolay E; Usov, Anatolii I

2013-08-01

215

Work plan for preliminary investigation of organic constituents in ground water at the New Rifle site, Rifle, Colorado. Revision 2  

SciTech Connect

A special study screening for Appendix 9 (40 CFR Part 264) analytes identified the New Rifle site as a target for additional screening for organic constituents. Because of this recommendation and the findings in a recent independent technical review, the US Department of Energy (DOE) has requested that the Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC) perform a preliminary investigation of the potential presence of organic compounds in the ground water at the New Rifle Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site, Rifle, Colorado. From 1958 to 1972, organic chemicals were used in large quantities during ore processing at the New Rifle site, and it is possible that some fraction was released to the environment. Therefore, the primary objective of this investigation is to determine whether organic chemicals used at the milling facility are present in the ground water. The purpose of this document is to describe the work that will be performed and the procedures that will be followed during installation of ground water well points at the New Rifle site. The selection of analytes and the procedures for collecting ground water samples for analysis of organic constituents are also described.

NONE

1996-01-01

216

Multifractal Detrended Fluctuation Analysis of Human EEG: Preliminary Investigation and Comparison with the Wavelet Transform Modulus Maxima Technique  

PubMed Central

Recently, many lines of investigation in neuroscience and statistical physics have converged to raise the hypothesis that the underlying pattern of neuronal activation which results in electroencephalography (EEG) signals is nonlinear, with self-affine dynamics, while scalp-recorded EEG signals themselves are nonstationary. Therefore, traditional methods of EEG analysis may miss many properties inherent in such signals. Similarly, fractal analysis of EEG signals has shown scaling behaviors that may not be consistent with pure monofractal processes. In this study, we hypothesized that scalp-recorded human EEG signals may be better modeled as an underlying multifractal process. We utilized the Physionet online database, a publicly available database of human EEG signals as a standardized reference database for this study. Herein, we report the use of multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis on human EEG signals derived from waking and different sleep stages, and show evidence that supports the use of multifractal methods. Next, we compare multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis to a previously published multifractal technique, wavelet transform modulus maxima, using EEG signals from waking and sleep, and demonstrate that multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis has lower indices of variability. Finally, we report a preliminary investigation into the use of multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis as a pattern classification technique on human EEG signals from waking and different sleep stages, and demonstrate its potential utility for automatic classification of different states of consciousness. Therefore, multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis may be a useful pattern classification technique to distinguish among different states of brain function. PMID:23844189

Zorick, Todd; Mandelkern, Mark A.

2013-01-01

217

Preliminary investigation into subjective well-being, mental health, resilience, and spinal cord injury  

PubMed Central

Objectives To undertake a pilot investigation into whether individuals whose subjective well-being had returned to the normal homeostatic range after a spinal cord injury (SCI) may be more resilient and therefore, at less risk of emotional distress over time. To consider the relative stability of subjective well-being in individuals with chronic SCI whose subjective well-being had previously returned to the normative homeostatic range. Study design Longitudinal study: Time 1 (T1) 2004 and Time 2 (T2) 2009. Setting Victoria, Australia. Participants Participants were adults living in the community with chronic SCI, who had no mental ill-health symptoms at T1. Outcome measures Scales include: Comprehensive Quality of Life Scale – Adult v5 (COMQoL-A5) at T1, Personal Well-being Index (PWI – the successor to the COMQol-A5) at T2, and Depression, Anxiety & Stress Scale – short form (DASS-21) at T1 and T2. Results Twenty-one adults participated at T1 and T2. Subjective well-being was stable for 57% of the cohort. However, 19% presented with symptoms of emotional distress by T2. There was no significant difference in age (P = 0.94) or time since injury (P = 0.51) between those reporting significant emotional symptoms and those without; nor was there any systematic change in health status. Conclusion This study yielded two important findings. First, individuals with chronic SCI may be vulnerable to mental health issues even after they have previously exhibited good resilience. Second, subjective well-being after SCI may not be as stable as suggested by the general quality of life literature that have examined genetic and personality connections to subjective well-being. PMID:24090180

Migliorini, Christine; Callaway, Libby; New, Peter

2013-01-01

218

Provesicular granisetron hydrochloride buccal formulations: in vitro evaluation and preliminary investigation of in vivo performance.  

PubMed

Granisetron hydrochloride (granisetron) is a potent antiemetic that has been proven to be effective in acute and delayed emesis in cancer chemotherapy. Granisetron suffers from reduced oral bioavailability (?60%) due to hepatic metabolism. In this study the combined advantage of provesicular carriers and buccal drug delivery has been explored aiming to sustain effect and improve bioavailability of granisetron via development of granisetron provesicular buccoadhesive tablets with suitable quality characteristics (hardness, drug content, in vitro release pattern, exvivo bioadhesion and in vivo bioadhesion behavior). Composition of the reconstituted niosomes from different prepared provesicular carriers regarding type of surfactant used and cholesterol concentration significantly affected both entrapment efficiency (%EE) and vesicle size. Span 80 proniosome-derived niosomes exhibited higher encapsulation efficiency and smaller particle size than those derived from span 20. Also, the effect of %EE and bioadhesive polymer type on in vitro drug release and in vivo performance of buccoadhesive tablets was investigated. Based on achievement of required in vitro release pattern (20-30% at 2h, 40-65% at 6h and 80-95% at 12h), in vivo swelling behavior, and in vivo adhesion time (>14 h) granisetron formulation (F19, 1.4 mg) comprising HPMC:carbopol 974P (7:3) and maltodextrin coated with the vesicular precursors span 80 and cholesterol (9:1) was chosen for in vivo study. In vivo pharmacokinetic study revealed higher bioavailability of buccal formulation relative to conventional oral formulation of granisetron (AUC0-? is 89.97 and 38.18 ng h/ml for buccal and oral formulation, respectively). A significantly lower and delayed Cmax (12.09±4.47 ng/ml, at 8h) was observed after buccal application compared to conventional oral tablet (31.66±10.15 ng/ml, at 0.5 h). The prepared provesicular buccoadhesive tablet of granisetron (F19) might help bypass hepatic first-pass metabolism and improve bioavailability of granisetron with the possibility of reducing reported daily dose (2mg) and reducing dosing frequency. PMID:24793896

Ahmed, Sami; El-Setouhy, Doaa Ahmed; El-Latif Badawi, Alia Abd; El-Nabarawi, Mohamed Ahmed

2014-08-18

219

The 2007 Pisco earthquake (Mw=8.0), Central Peru: Preliminary Field Investigations and Seismotectonic Context  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This epicentral area of the 2007 Pisco earthquake marks a major transition in the characteristics of the Nazca subduction zone: 1) the megathrust dip angle is shallower (15-20) to the north than to the south (25-30); 2) megathrust earthquakes have distinctly smaller magnitudes and are more fragmented to the north; 3) the distance between the trench and the coastline changes abruptly from ~180km to the north to ~80km to the south. These variations are likely related to the oblique subduction of the Nazca ridge - a major bathymetric high - beneath the continental margin. The effect of the subduction of the ridge is obvious in the morphology and tectonics of the forearc, in particular, around the Paracas Peninsula where late Pliocene marine formations are uplifted and the forearc tectonic regime changes from compression to extension. The geometry of the coastline reflects the sweeping of ridge beneath the margin. The coastline also seems to relate to the mode of slip along the subduction interface: modeling of the available interseismic GPS data shows that the plate interface was locked at depth shallower than about 50km, with the downdip end of the Locked Fault Zone (LFZ) corresponding approximately to the coastline. However, the resolution of GPS data is not sufficient to test the idea that the coastline morphology mirrors in detail the variation of the downdip edge of the LFZ. We investigated evidence for uplift or subsidence along the coast and found that the coastline didn't experience any significant vertical displacement compared to the tide range (~40cm). The coastline approximately corresponds to a pivot line marking the transition from coastal uplift in the south to subsidence in the north, as the distance from the trench increases. This model is consistent with the co-seismic slip distribution inferred from waveform modeling, and with the distribution of aftershocks which suggests that the subduction interface ruptured mainly updip of the coastline. To place further constraints on the coseismic slip distribution, we have collected data on the spatial extent of Tsunami waves which hit the coast both south and north of the Paracas peninsula. Finally, our field surveys have also revealed evidence for active faulting of the forearc. In particular, the production of coseismic pressure ridges, with up to 50cm of vertical throw suggests that the east dipping Puente Huamani thrust fault system was reactivated over a distance of about 20km during this event. However, we didn't find evidence for reactivation of any of the normal faults on the Paracas Peninsula, although some had been reactivated by the 2006 Pisco earthquake (Mw6.5). Thus, the structure and deformation of the Peruvian forearc and coastline seems to contain important information on lateral variations of seismic and geodetic coupling along the subduction zone.

Audin, L.; Perfettini, H.; Avouac, J.; Farber, D.; de La Cruz, D.; Chlieh, M.

2004-12-01

220

The 2007 Pisco earthquake (Mw=8.0), Central Peru: Preliminary Field Investigations and Seismotectonic Context  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This epicentral area of the 2007 Pisco earthquake marks a major transition in the characteristics of the Nazca subduction zone: 1) the megathrust dip angle is shallower (15-20) to the north than to the south (25-30); 2) megathrust earthquakes have distinctly smaller magnitudes and are more fragmented to the north; 3) the distance between the trench and the coastline changes abruptly from ~180km to the north to ~80km to the south. These variations are likely related to the oblique subduction of the Nazca ridge - a major bathymetric high - beneath the continental margin. The effect of the subduction of the ridge is obvious in the morphology and tectonics of the forearc, in particular, around the Paracas Peninsula where late Pliocene marine formations are uplifted and the forearc tectonic regime changes from compression to extension. The geometry of the coastline reflects the sweeping of ridge beneath the margin. The coastline also seems to relate to the mode of slip along the subduction interface: modeling of the available interseismic GPS data shows that the plate interface was locked at depth shallower than about 50km, with the downdip end of the Locked Fault Zone (LFZ) corresponding approximately to the coastline. However, the resolution of GPS data is not sufficient to test the idea that the coastline morphology mirrors in detail the variation of the downdip edge of the LFZ. We investigated evidence for uplift or subsidence along the coast and found that the coastline didn't experience any significant vertical displacement compared to the tide range (~40cm). The coastline approximately corresponds to a pivot line marking the transition from coastal uplift in the south to subsidence in the north, as the distance from the trench increases. This model is consistent with the co-seismic slip distribution inferred from waveform modeling, and with the distribution of aftershocks which suggests that the subduction interface ruptured mainly updip of the coastline. To place further constraints on the coseismic slip distribution, we have collected data on the spatial extent of Tsunami waves which hit the coast both south and north of the Paracas peninsula. Finally, our field surveys have also revealed evidence for active faulting of the forearc. In particular, the production of coseismic pressure ridges, with up to 50cm of vertical throw suggests that the east dipping Puente Huamani thrust fault system was reactivated over a distance of about 20km during this event. However, we didn't find evidence for reactivation of any of the normal faults on the Paracas Peninsula, although some had been reactivated by the 2006 Pisco earthquake (Mw6.5). Thus, the structure and deformation of the Peruvian forearc and coastline seems to contain important information on lateral variations of seismic and geodetic coupling along the subduction zone.

Audin, L.; Perfettini, H.; Avouac, J.; Farber, D.; de La Cruz, D.; Chlieh, M.

2007-12-01

221

Investigation of unstabilized polyvinyl chloride (PVC) for use as a long-term UV dosimeter: preliminary results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new chemical UV dosimeter with a larger dose capacity than existing chemical dosimeters has been investigated for long-term UV measurements. Unstabilized polyvinyl chloride (PVC), cast in 40 µm thick film, has been found to respond to at least 745 SED (Standard Erythema Dose = 100 J m-2) of solar UV radiation, which is equivalent to about two to three summer weeks of exposure in subtropical sites. The UV-induced changes in the PVC dosimeter were quantified using a Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer and the decrease in the absorption intensity of the 1064 cm-1 peak was employed to quantify these changes. Dose response curves have been established by relating the decrease in the PVC dosimeter's absorption intensity at 1064 cm-1 to the corresponding absolute and erythemal UV exposure dose.

Amar, Abdurazaq; Parisi, Alfio V.

2012-08-01

222

Preliminary Investigation of an Early Mental Health Intervention for Head Start Programs: Effects of Child Teacher Relationship Training on Children's Behavior Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Head Start teachers and their aides (n = 24) were assigned to either the experimental or active control treatment in this preliminary investigation on the effects of Child Teacher Relationship Training (CTRT) on 52 disadvantaged preschool children identified with behavioral problems. CTRT is based on the principles and procedures of Child Parent…

Morrison, Mary O.; Bratton, Sue C.

2010-01-01

223

Game-Based Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (GB-CBT) Group Program for Children Who Have Experienced Sexual Abuse: A Preliminary Investigation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This preliminary investigation examined the efficacy of a game-based cognitive-behavioral therapy group program for elementary school-aged children who have experienced sexual abuse. Treatment aimed to improve: (a) internalizing symptoms, (b) externalizing behaviors, (c) sexually inappropriate behaviors, (d) social skills deficits, (e) self-esteem…

Misurell, Justin R.; Springer, Craig; Tryon, Warren W.

2011-01-01

224

A Preliminary Investigation of Supplemental Computer-Assisted Reading Instruction on the Oral Reading Fluency and Comprehension of First-Grade African American Urban Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This preliminary investigation examined the effects of a computerized supplemental reading program on the oral reading fluency, reading growth rates, and comprehension of 8 African American first graders. Participants were selected for this study according to scores within risk categories on the Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills…

Gibson, Lenwood; Cartledge, Gwendolyn; Keyes, Starr E.

2011-01-01

225

Health and safety plan for the preliminary site investigation for McMurdo Station, Ross Island, Antarctica  

SciTech Connect

The primary purpose of this health and safety plan is to provide the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) field team with important procedures, regulations, and requirements necessary for performing work at McMurdo Station, Antarctica, with a minimum hazard to its health and safety. Field workers will be required to conduct their operations in a safe environment through specific safety and occupational health procedures. The plan assigns responsibilities and provides for contingencies that may arise at the site. The health and safety plan will also demonstrate to the National Science Foundation (NSF), the US Department of Energy (DOE), the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the US Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), environmental interest groups, and other countries represented in Antarctica that the health and safety of ANL personnel have been given the utmost consideration in planning the work operations, applicable rules and regulations of the area have been met, and the health and safety of the public and the environment have been given significant consideration during field sampling activities. This document represents the final health and safety plan for the preliminary site investigation. A draft version of this report was presented to NSF in January 1991. 16 refs., 3 figs., 8 tabs.

Wozny, M.C.

1991-05-01

226

Isotopic Investigation of Contemporary and Historic Changes in Penguin Trophic Niches and Carrying Capacity of the Southern Indian Ocean  

PubMed Central

A temperature-defined regime shift occurred in the 1970s in the southern Indian Ocean, with simultaneous severe decreases in many predator populations. We tested a possible biological link between the regime shift and predator declines by measuring historic and contemporary feather isotopic signatures of seven penguin species with contrasted foraging strategies and inhabiting a large latitudinal range. We first showed that contemporary penguin isotopic variations and chlorophyll a concentration were positively correlated, suggesting the usefulness of predator ?13C values to track temporal changes in the ecosystem carrying capacity and its associated coupling to consumers. Having controlled for the Suess effect and for increase CO2 in seawater, ?13C values of Antarctic penguins and of king penguins did not change over time, while ?13C of other subantarctic and subtropical species were lower in the 1970s. The data therefore suggest a decrease in ecosystem carrying capacity of the southern Indian Ocean during the temperature regime-shift in subtropical and subantarctic waters but not in the vicinity of the Polar Front and in southward high-Antarctic waters. The resulting lower secondary productivity could be the main driving force explaining the decline of subtropical and subantarctic (but not Antarctic) penguins that occurred in the 1970s. Feather ?15N values did not show a consistent temporal trend among species, suggesting no major change in penguins’ diet. This study highlights the usefulness of developing long-term tissue sampling and data bases on isotopic signature of key marine organisms to track potential changes in their isotopic niches and in the carrying capacity of the environment. PMID:21311756

Jaeger, Audrey; Cherel, Yves

2011-01-01

227

Preliminary geologic investigation of the Apollo 12 landing site: Part A: Geology of the Apollo 12 Landing Site  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report provides a preliminary description of the geologic setting of the lunar samples returned fromt he Apollo 12 mission. A more complete interpretation of the geology of the site will be prepared after thorough analysis of the data.

Shoemaker, E. M.; Batson, R. M.; Bean, A. L.; Conrad, C., Jr.; Dahlem, D. H.; Goddard, E. N.; Hait, M. H.; Larson, K. B.; Schaber, G. G.; Schleicher, D. L.; Sutton, R. L.; Swann, G. A.; Waters, A. C.

1970-01-01

228

Preliminary Results From the CAUGHT Experiment: Investigation of the North Central Andes Subsurface Using Receiver Functions and Ambient Noise Tomography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Jamie Ryan, Kevin M. Ward, Ryan Porter, Susan Beck, George Zandt, Lara Wagner, Estela Minaya, and Hernando Tavera The University of Arizona The University of North Carolina San Calixto Observatorio, La Paz, Bolivia IGP, Lima, Peru In order to investigate the interplay between crustal shortening, lithospheric removal, and surface uplift we have deployed 50 broadband seismometers in northwestern Bolivia and southern Peru as part of the interdisciplinary Central Andean Uplift and Geodynamics of High Topography (CAUGHT) project. The morphotectonic units of the central Andes from west to east, consist of the Western Cordillera, the active volcanic arc, the Altiplano, an internally drained basin (~4 km elevation), the Eastern Cordillera, the high peaks (~6 km elevation) of an older fold and thrust belt, the Subandean zone, the lower elevation active fold and thrust belt, and the foreland Beni basin. Between northwestern Bolivia and southern Peru, the Altiplano pinches out north of Lake Titicaca as the Andes narrow northward. The CAUGHT seismic instruments were deployed between 13° to 18° S latitudes to investigate the crust and mantle lithosphere of the central Andes in this transitional zone. In northwest Bolivia, perpendicular to the strike of the Andes, there is a total of 275 km of documented upper crustal shortening (15° to 17°S) (McQuarrie et al, 2008). Associated with the shortening is crustal thickening and possibly lithospheric removal as the thickening lithospheric root becomes unstable. An important first order study is to compare upper crustal shortening estimates with present day crustal thickness. To estimate crustal thickness, we have calculated receiver functions using an iterative deconvolution method and used common conversion point stacking along the same profile as the geologically based shortening estimates. In our preliminary results, we observed a strong P to S conversion corresponding to the Moho at approximately 60-65 km depth underneath the Altiplano and portions of the Eastern Cordillera, and at approximately 40 under the sub-Andes and westernmost edge of the Beni basin. Unlike previous studies farther south, we do not see an increased crustal thickness beneath the Eastern Cordillera. The CAUGHT station coverage is also ideal for Ambient Noise Tomography (ANT) to investigate the seismic shear wave velocities in the upper crust (<30 km depth). ANT will be used to estimate the depth of basins in the northern Altiplano, and aid in constraining the upper crustal shear wave velocities for improved migration of receiver functions to depth. McQuarrie, N., Barnes, J., and Ehlers, T.A., 2008, Geometric, kinematic and erosional history of the central Andean Plateau (15-17°S), northern Bolivia: Tectonics, v. 27, TC3007, doi:10.1029/2006TC002054.

Ryan, J. C.; Ward, K. M.; Porter, R. C.; Beck, S. L.; Zandt, G.; Wagner, L. S.; Minaya, E.; Tavera, H.

2011-12-01

229

Preliminary on the isotope hydrology investigations at the Nevada test site: Hydrologic resources management program; FY 1992--1993  

SciTech Connect

A comprehensive isotope data base of the NTS groundwaters collected during FY 92-93 is presented with preliminary interpretations. Multiple samples were collected from over 30 sites on pumped wells and open-holes by wireline bailing. Field water level measurements indicate essentially a bimodal distribution separated by water levels at higher elevations (e.g. Pahute Mesa) from water levels of lower elevations (e.g. Yucca and Frenchman Flats). Down hole temperature measurements have confirmed anomalous temperature gradients in the eastern Yucca Flat area and on Pahute Mesa, where horizontal temperature gradients up to 0.33{degrees}F/100ft are found. Consistent with previous reports by others, the major ion geochemistry of the NTS groundwater are dominated by Na-K-HCO{sub 3} and Ca-Mg-HCO{sub 3} water types, where the Na-rich water appears to be related to dissolution in the volcanic tuffs and the Ca-rich water to the Paleozoic carbonates. Increases in dissolved Si also seems to be indicative of groundwater that resides in the volcanic tuffs. Processes controlling the Na/Ca ratios are complex and may include ion exchange reactions with clays, evaporative concentration in the vadose zone, and lithological heterogeneities in addition to simple differential dissolution between the volcanic tuffs and the Paleozoic carbonates. Apparent {sup 14}C ages range between 4000 and 38,000 years for groundwaters at the NTS. The uncertainty is large for exact age determinations at this time. The {sup 14}C abundance decreases with increased dissolved HCO{sub 3}, and {sup 13}C suggests dissolution of the ``dead`` Paleozoic carbonates significantly influence the ages, but more work is needed to investigate the influence of vadose zone carbonate.

Davisson, M.L.; Kenneally, J.M.; Smith, D.K.; Hudson, G.B.; Nimz, G.J.; Rego, J.H.

1994-01-01

230

Summary report: A preliminary investigation into the use of fuzzy logic for the control of redundant manipulators  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Rice University Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Sciences' Robotics Group designed and built an eight degree of freedom redundant manipulator. Fuzzy logic was proposed as a control scheme for tasks not directly controlled by a human operator. In preliminary work, fuzzy logic control was implemented for a camera tracking system and a six degree of freedom manipulator. Both preliminary systems use real time vision data as input to fuzzy controllers. Related projects include integration of tactile sensing and fuzzy control of a redundant snake-like arm that is under construction.

Cheatham, John B., Jr.; Magee, Kevin N.

1991-01-01

231

Game-Based Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (GB-CBT) Group Program for Children Who Have Experienced Sexual Abuse: A Preliminary Investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This preliminary investigation examined the efficacy of a game-based cognitive-behavioral therapy group program for elementary school-aged children who have experienced sexual abuse. Treatment aimed to improve: (a) internalizing symptoms, (b) externalizing behaviors, (c) sexually inappropriate behaviors, (d) social skills deficits, (e) self-esteem problems, and (f) knowledge of healthy sexuality and self-protection skills. Results indicate that game-based cognitive-behavioral therapy was effective

Justin R. Misurell; Craig Springer; Warren W. Tryon

2011-01-01

232

A novel physiological investigation of the functional residual capacity by the bias flow nitrogen washout technique in infants.  

PubMed

The dynamic functional residual capacity (FRC(dyn)), the lung volume most routinely measured in infants, is an unreliable volume landmark. In addition to the FRC(dyn), we measured the (passive) static FRC (FRC(st)) by inducing a brief post-hyperventilation apnea (PHA) in 33 healthy infants aged 7.4-127.2 weeks. A commercial system for nitrogen (N2) washout to measure FRC, and a custom made system to monitor and record flow and airway opening pressure signals in real-time were used in unison. Infants were manually hyperventilated to induce a PHA. After the last passive expiration, FRC(st) was estimated by measuring the volume of N2 expired after end-passive expiratory switching of the inspired gas from room air to 100% oxygen during the post-expiratory apneic pause. Repeatable intrasubject FRC(st) and FRC(dyn) measurements overlapped in most infants including the younger ones (P = 0.2839). Mean (95% confidence interval [CI]) FRC(st) was 21.1 (20.0-22.3), and error-corrected FRC(dyn) was 21.4 (20.4-22.4) ml/kg. Mean (washout time [t]) tFRC(st) was longer than tFRC(dyn) 60 sec (95% CI 55-65) versus 47 sec (95% CI 43-51) (P < 0.0001). The FRC and washout time were dependent on body length, weight and age. We conclude that the FRC(st) is not different from the FRC(dyn) in infants. The FRC(st) is a reliable volume landmark because the PHA stabilizes the end-expiratory level by potentially abolishing the sedated infant's breathing strategies. The FRC(st) lacks potential sources of errors and disadvantages associated with measuring the FRC(dyn). The findings cast significant doubt on the traditional physiology of air trapping in healthy infants' lungs. PMID:19499588

Morris, Mohy G

2009-07-01

233

Preliminary Investigations of Hydrogen Peroxide Treatment of Selected Ornamental Fishes and Efficacy against External Bacteria and Parasites in Green Swordtails  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of these preliminary studies were to evaluate the use of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) for the treatment of selected species of ornamental fishes and its efficacy in treating external bacteria and parasites. In the first part of the study, fish of five species (serpae tetra Hyphessobrycon eques (also known as Serpa tetra H. serpae), tiger barb Puntius tetrazona, blue

Riccardo Russo; Eric W. Curtis; Roy P. E. Yanong

2007-01-01

234

A Preliminary Investigation of the Effects of Giving Testimony and Learning Yogic Breathing Techniques on Battered Women's Feelings of Depression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Researchers have shown that mood and sense of control over one's life are significantly affected by testimony and other forms of disclosure and that learning to control breathing has positive effects on mood and anxiety. This preliminary experiment tests whether African American and European American abused women who give testimony about their…

Franzblau, Susan H.; Echevarria, Sonia; Smith, Michelle; Van Cantfort, Thomas E.

2008-01-01

235

On the accuracy of conservation managers' beliefs and if they learn from evidence-based knowledge: a preliminary investigation.  

PubMed

Despite the significant impetus placed on the need for conservation managers to base their decisions on evidence-based findings, few studies have compared the accuracy of "evidence" versus experience-based knowledge. Furthermore we are not aware of any study that has tested the willingness of managers to change their beliefs after being exposed to evidence-based findings. Here, we tested nine managers' beliefs before-and-after being shown findings from an evidence-based study. The questions centered on the effectiveness of 'Working for Water' (WfW) in reducing invasive alien plant cover in two large catchment projects over a seven year period, as well as the managers' forecasts of WfW's effectiveness of reducing invasive alien plant cover, and the factors that underpin its effectiveness. We also assessed the financial cost of implementing the evidence-based assessment. We found that in comparison to the evidence-based findings, the managers underestimated the ineffectiveness of operations in reducing invasive alien plant cover in the one catchment and overestimated the ineffectiveness of the other catchment. All the managers whose estimates differed from the evidence-based findings were willing to change their beliefs. Surprisingly, however, when it came to forecasting WfW's effectiveness in the catchments, all the managers, with the exception of one project manager, were unwilling to reduce their optimistic estimates of the time required to control invasive alien plants from the two catchments. With regard to the drivers of effectiveness, the managers ranked their performance as the most important criterion whereas the data model emphasized variables related to site suitability for alien plant growth. Finally, we showed that it would only cost between 0.33% and 1.67% of the two projects' annual budgets to assess all sites, depending on the frequency of the monitoring. This preliminary investigation highlights how evidence-based findings alone, even if presented and explained to managers, might not result in managers learning and updating their beliefs. PMID:23722171

McConnachie, Matthew M; Cowling, Richard M

2013-10-15

236

Analysis of the essential oil of Origanum dubium growing wild in Cyprus. Investigation of its antioxidant capacity and antimicrobial activity.  

PubMed

The volatile composition of Origanum dubium in two different maturation stages has been studied. The essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation in a modified Clevenger-type apparatus, and their analyses were performed by GC and GC-MS. Identification of the components was made by comparison of mass spectra and retention indices with literature records and by co-chromatography with authentic compounds. Carvacrol was shown to be the main constituent. The essential oils were evaluated for antimicrobial activity and proved to be active against all tested microorganisms. Furthermore, their potential antioxidant activity was investigated and found to be significant in scavenging O2-. The samples were further evaluated for inhibition of soybean lipoxygenase LOX and showed high inhibitory activity. PMID:17022006

Karioti, A; Vrahimi-Hadjilouca, T; Droushiotis, D; Rancic, A; Hadjipavlou-Litina, D; Skaltsa, H

2006-11-01

237

Study of the Binding Capacity of Heparin Functionalized Magnetic Microparticles for Cardiac Lipoprotein Lipase and their Preliminary Evaluation Ex Vivo in Rat Hearts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic particles were modified with covalently-bound surface heparin (HEPMag). The amount and activity of bound heparin was investigated with the toluidine blue, APTT, Kinetichrome Anti-IIa and western blot assays. The particles bound 40 ?g/mg (0.42 U/mg) and exhibited excellent anticoagulant activity. However, the activity was 5x less than that of free heparin. The HEPMag particles were then utilized to measure their lipoprotein lipase (LPL) binding potential and compared to commercially available heparin-bound particles (SiMAG-Heparin). HEPMag particles bound 98% LPL compared to 79% for SiMAG-Heparin particles. In addition, the HEPMag particles retained the LPL much better: Upon incubation with 5 U/mL free heparin, HEPMag particles released only 7% of the bound LPL compared to 67% for the SiMAG-Heparin particles. Being able to capture LPL in the heart might be useful for the investigation of the fat acid metabolism in diabetes. Ex vivo retrograde heart perfusion studies in rats with the HEPMag particles showed that LPL could be removed from the coronary lumen. These heparin surface modified parties are thus potential tools to magnetically target the coronary arteries and remove LPL in a selective way.

Schmitt, Veronika; Rodrigues, Brian; Häfeli, Urs O.; Saatchi, Katayoun

2010-12-01

238

Carrying Capacity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This one-day activity challenges students to understand the ecological concept of carrying capacity through the physically-active process of role playing. Upon completion, students will be able to formulate and test hypotheses related to ecosystems and carrying capacity as well as describe the significance of carrying capacity.

239

Investigation of the climatic extremes influence on the humane adaptive capacity by mass spectrometric analysis of exhaled breath condensate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global climate change, which causes abnormal fluctuations in temperature and rainfall, has adverse effects on human health. Particularly people suffer with cardiovascular and respiratory system disease. Our research was concentrated on the changes in the regulation and adaptation systems of human organism related to hyperthermia and polluted air influence. Healthy individuals with the age from 22 to 45 years were isolated during 30 days in the ground based experimental facility located at Institute of medico-biological problems RAS (Moscow, Russia). In the ground based facility artificially climatic conditions of August, 2010 in Moscow were created. Exhaled breath condensate was collected before and after isolation by R-Tube collector, freeze dried, treated by trypsin and analyzed by nanoflow LC-MS/MS with a 7-Tesla LTQ-FT Ultra mass spectrometer (Thermo Electron, Bremen, Germany). Database search was performed using Mascot Server 2.2 software (Matrix Science, London, UK). Investigation of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) collected from participants of the 30 days isolation with hyper thermic and polluted air climate conditions was performed. After isolation reduction of the protein number was observed. Loss endothelial C receptor precursor - the main physiological anticoagulant - correlate with the clinical data of physicians to increase the propensity to thrombosis. Also COP9 signalosome protein, positive regulator of ubiquitin was identified in all EBC samples before isolation and was not detected for more than a half of donors after isolation. This phenomena may be due to violation of ubiquitin protection system of the cells from harmful proteins. During isolation the air was cleared from microdisperse particles.

Ryabokon, Anna; Larina, Irina; Kononikhin, Alexey; Starodubtceva, Nataliia; Popov, Igor; Nikolaev, Eugene; Varfolomeev, Sergey

240

Investigation of the capacity of low glass transition temperature excipients to minimize amorphization of sulfadimidine on comilling.  

PubMed

The coprocessing of active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) with an excipient which has a high glass transition temperature (T(g)) is a recognized strategy to stabilize the amorphous form of a drug. This work investigates whether coprocessing a model API, sulfadimidine (SDM) with a series of low T(g) excipients, prevents or reduces amorphization of the crystalline drug. It was hypothesized that these excipients could exert a T(g) lowering effect, resulting in composite T(g) values lower than that of the API alone and promote crystallization of the drug. Milled SDM and comilled SDM with glutaric acid (GA), adipic acid (AA), succinic acid (SA), and malic acid (MA) were characterized with respect to their thermal, X-ray diffraction, spectroscopic, and vapor sorption properties. SDM was predominantly amorphous when milled alone, with an amorphous content of 82%. No amorphous content was detected by dynamic vapor sorption (DVS) on comilling SDM with 50% w/w GA, and amorphous content of the API was reduced by almost 30%, relative to the API milled alone, on comilling with 50% w/w AA. In contrast, amorphization of SDM was promoted on comilling with 50% w/w SA and MA, as indicated by near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy. Results indicated that the API was completely amorphized in the SDM:MA comilled composite. The saturated solubility of GA and AA in the amorphous API was estimated by thermal methods. It was observed that the T(g) of the comelt quenched composites reached a minimum and leveled out at this solubility concentration. Maximum crystallinity of API on comilling was reached at excipient concentrations comparable to the saturated concentration solubility of excipient in the API. Moreover, the closer the Hildebrand solubility parameter of the excipient to the API, the greater the inhibition of API amorphization on comilling. The results reported here indicate that an excipient with a low T(g) coupled with high solubility in the API can prevent or reduce the generation of an amorphous phase on comilling. PMID:23186332

Curtin, Vincent; Amharar, Youness; Hu, Yun; Erxleben, Andrea; McArdle, Patrick; Caron, Vincent; Tajber, Lidia; Corrigan, Owen I; Healy, Anne Marie

2013-01-01

241

Self reported injury patterns among competitive curlers in the United States: a preliminary investigation into the epidemiology of curling injuries  

PubMed Central

Methods: Participants at two curling championship events were asked to complete injury history questionnaires. Results: 76 curlers (39%) participated; 79% of these reported curling related musculoskeletal pain, most commonly involving the knee (54%), back (33%), and shoulder (20%). Sweeping and delivering the stone were most likely to provoke symptoms. Time loss injuries were estimated to occur at a rate of 2 per 1000 athlete exposures. Conclusions: Curling appears to be a relatively safe winter sport. Prospective studies are needed to confirm these preliminary findings and to further define the risk factors for curling related injuries. PMID:15388573

Reeser, J; Berg, R

2004-01-01

242

An Investigation on Forage Yield Capacity of Kermes Oak (Quercus coccifera L.) and Grazing Planning of Mediterranean Maquis Scrublands for Traditional Goat Farming  

PubMed Central

This study investigated grazing capacities of maquis scrubland and preparation principles of grazing management in forest resources. Kermes oak (Quercus coccifera L.), which is widespread as a main shrub species in maquis vegetation in Turkey, and pure hair goats (Capra hircus L.) feeding on shoots and leaves of this shrub were selected for study. The study was conducted in two stages. Green leaf and shoot samples were taken from kermes oaks in the first stage and the amount of green herbage yield (g?m?1) and dry matter yield (kg?ha?1) that may be obtained per unit area from these samples was identified. The considered amount of dry matter consumed by pure hair goats daily and the number of goats being fed within 1 year on land of 1 ha according to different land coverage rates of kermes oaks (goat head?ha?yr) were calculated. In the second stage, grazing capacities of sample areas where kermes oak spread were identified and compared with the grazing plan prepared by the forestry administration for this area. Forage yield variance according to land coverage rates of maquis scrublands should be considered when determining optimum animal numbers for grazing per area for sustainable goat farming. PMID:25379526

Tolunay, Ahmet; Ad?yaman, Elif; Ince, Duygu; Ayhan, Veysel

2014-01-01

243

Self-compassion and fear of self-compassion interact to predict response to eating disorders treatment: A preliminary investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gilbert (2005) proposed that the capacity for self-compassion is integral to overcoming shame and psychopathology. We tested this model among 74 individuals with an eating disorder admitted to specialized treatment. Participants completed measures assessing self-compassion, fear of self-compassion, shame, and eating disorder symptoms at admission and every 3 weeks during treatment. At baseline, lower self-compassion and higher fear of self-compassion

Allison C. Kelly; Jacqueline C. Carter; David C. Zuroff; Sahar Borairi

2012-01-01

244

Preliminary investigation of the altitude performance of pentaborane and a pentaborane : JP-4 blend in an experimental 9.5-inch-diameter tubular combustor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A preliminary investigation was conducted to determine the altitude performance of pentaborane and a blend fuel of 64.2 percent pentaborane in JP-4 fuel in a tubular combustor of a current production type turbojet engine. A combustor was developed that was 4 inches shorter than standard. It contained a porous wire-cloth liner barrel and dome and an air-atomizing fuel nozzle. Deposits on the liner barrel and dome were virtually nonexistent. The combustion efficiency of 90 to 94 percent for pentaborane and approximately 90 percent for the blend. Outlet temperature profiles were marginal; however, the developed combustor provided lower pressure losses than obtained in conventional combustors.

Kaufman, Warner B; Branstetter, J Robert

1957-01-01

245

Investigation of the Aerodynamic Characteristics of Two Preliminary Designs of Scout Research Vehicle at Mach Numbers from 1.77 to 4.65  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A wind-tunnel investigation has been conducted to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of two preliminary designs of the Scout research vehicle. The first model was tested at Mach numbers from 1.77 to 2.87 at Reynolds numbers of 3.7 x 10(exp 6) to 4.0 x 10(exp 6) per foot. A variable angle-of-attack range of -2 degrees to 14 degrees was used in determining the effect of nose shape, size of interstage flare base diameter, size of trapezoidal first-stage fins, and fin tip-control deflection on the aerodynamic characteristics of the model.

Keynton, Robert J.; Fichter, Ann B.

1961-01-01

246

What Determines Absorptive Capacity?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper analyses the effect of R&D activities, human resource and knowl- edge management, and the organisation of knowledge sharing within a firm on absorptive capacity of innovative firms empirically. Using data from the German innovation survey we investigate firms' ability to exploit knowledge from exter- nal partners for successful innovation activities. We distinguish between three types of absorptive capacity

Tobias Schmidt

247

Preliminary investigations of Monte Carlo Simulations of neutron energy and LET spectra for fast neutron therapy facilities  

SciTech Connect

No fast neutron therapy facility has been built with optimized beam quality based on a thorough understanding of the neutron spectrum and its resulting biological effectiveness. A study has been initiated to provide the information necessary for such an optimization. Monte Carlo studies will be used to simulate neutron energy spectra and LET spectra. These studies will be bench-marked with data taken at existing fast neutron therapy facilities. Results will also be compared with radiobiological studies to further support beam quality ptimization. These simulations, anchored by this data, will then be used to determine what parameters might be optimized to take full advantage of the unique LET properties of fast neutron beams. This paper will present preliminary work in generating energy and LET spectra for the Fermilab fast neutron therapy facility.

Kroc, T.K.; /Fermilab

2009-10-01

248

Preliminary investigations of hydrogen peroxide treatment of selected ornamental fishes and efficacy against external bacteria and parasites in green swordtails.  

PubMed

The objectives of these preliminary studies were to evaluate the use of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) for the treatment of selected species of ornamental fishes and its efficacy in treating external bacteria and parasites. In the first part of the study, fish of five species (serpae tetra Hyphessobrycon eques (also known as Serpa tetra H. serpae), tiger barb Puntius tetrazona, blue gourami Trichogaster trichopterus, suckermouth catfish Hypostomus plecostomus, and green swordtail Xiphophorus hellerii) were exposed to H2O2 for 1 h at concentrations between 6 and 34 mg/L or for 24 h at concentrations between 1 and 6 mg/L. The results were species specific: green swordtails tolerated all of the treatments, serpae tetras and tiger barbs were sensitive only to the highest concentration, and mortalities of suckermouth catfish and blue gourami were recorded in every treatment. In the second part of the study, clinically healthy green swordtails and fish infested with external motile rod-shaped bacteria (i.e., Ichthyobodo spp., Trichodina spp., and Gyrodactylus spp.) were treated with several concentrations of H2O2. A single H2O2 treatment of 3.1 mg/L or more for 1 h effectively eliminated external bacteria, concentrations of 6.5 mg/L or more appeared to effectively kill Ichthyobodo spp., and none of the treatments tested was effective against Trichodina spp. or Gyrodactylus spp. These preliminary findings suggest that H2O2 is effective for treating certain external bacterial infections and flagellate infestations in some species of ornamental fish at the dosages tested. Other treatment regimens may need to be tested for effectiveness against Trichodina spp. and Dactylogyrus spp. PMID:18201053

Russo, Riccardo; Curtis, Eric W; Yanong, Roy P E

2007-06-01

249

Coregistration of Ultrasound and Magnetic Resonance Imaging with a Preliminary Investigation of the Spatial Colocalization of VEGFR2 Expression and Tumor Perfusion in a Murine Tumor Model  

PubMed Central

We present an US-MRI coregistration technique and examine its application in a preliminary multi-modal, multi-parametric study in a pre-clinical model of breast cancer. Nine mice were injected with 67NR breast cancer cells and imaged 6 and 9 days later with 4.7T MRI and high frequency US. Tumor volumes from each data set were segmented independently by two investigators and co-registered using an iterative closest point algorithm. In addition to anatomical images, VEGFR2 distribution images from the central tumor slice using VEGFR2-targeted UCA and measurements of perfusion and extravascular-extracellular volume fraction using DCE-MRI were acquired from five mice for multi-parametric coregistration. Parametric maps from each modality were co-registered and examined for spatial correlation. Average registration RMS error was 0.36 mm +/- 0.11 mm, less than approximately two voxels. Segmented volumes were compared between investigators to minimize inter-observer variability; average RMS error was 0.23 mm +/- 0.09 mm. In the preliminary study, VEGFR2-targeted UCA data did not demonstrate direct spatial correlation with MR measures of vascular properties. In summary, a method for accurately co-registering small animal US and MRI has been presented which allows for comparison of quantitative metrics provided by the two modalities. PMID:19728973

Loveless, Mary E.; Whisenant, Jennifer G.; Wilson, Kevin; Lyshchik, Andrej; Sinha, Tuhin K.; Gore, John C.; Yankeelov, Thomas E.

2009-01-01

250

Capacity Value of Solar Power  

SciTech Connect

Evaluating the capacity value of renewable energy sources can pose significant challenges due to their variable and uncertain nature. In this paper the capacity value of solar power is investigated. Solar capacity value metrics and their associated calculation methodologies are reviewed and several solar capacity studies are summarized. The differences between wind and solar power are examined, the economic importance of solar capacity value is discussed and other assessments and recommendations are presented.

Duignan, Roisin; Dent, Chris; Mills, Andrew; Samaan, Nader A.; Milligan, Michael; Keane, Andrew; O'Malley, Mark

2012-11-10

251

An fMRI investigation of analogical mapping in metaphor comprehension: the influence of context and individual cognitive capacities on processing demands.  

PubMed

This study used fMRI to investigate the neural correlates of analogical mapping during metaphor comprehension, with a focus on dynamic configuration of neural networks with changing processing demands and individual abilities. Participants with varying vocabulary sizes and working memory capacities read 3-sentence passages ending in nominal critical utterances of the form "X is a Y." Processing demands were manipulated by varying preceding contexts. Three figurative conditions manipulated difficulty by varying the extent to which preceding contexts mentioned relevant semantic features for relating the vehicle and topic of the critical utterance to one another. In the easy condition, supporting information was mentioned. In the neutral condition, no relevant information was mentioned. In the most difficult condition, opposite features were mentioned, resulting in an ironic interpretation of the critical utterance. A fourth, literal condition included context that supported a literal interpretation of the critical utterance. Activation in lateral and medial frontal regions increased with increasing contextual difficulty. Lower vocabulary readers also had greater activation across conditions in the right inferior frontal gyrus. In addition, volumetric analyses showed increased right temporo-parietal junction and superior medial frontal activation for all figurative conditions over the literal condition. The results from this experiment imply that the cortical regions are dynamically recruited in language comprehension as a function of the processing demands of a task. Individual differences in cognitive capacities were also associated with differences in recruitment and modulation of working memory and executive function regions, highlighting the overlapping computations in metaphor comprehension and general thinking and reasoning. PMID:22122242

Prat, Chantel S; Mason, Robert A; Just, Marcel Adam

2012-03-01

252

Environmental pollen trapped by tobacco leaf as indicators of the provenance of counterfeit cigarette products: a preliminary investigation and test of concept.  

PubMed

The global trade in counterfeit tobacco products is increasingly taking market share from legal brands in many parts of the developed world, with attendant adverse economic, health, criminal, and other societal impacts. Knowing the geographical source is central to developing new strategies for curbing this illicit trade, and here, the potential of environmental pollen extracted from manufactured cigarettes is examined. Two samples representing U.S. and Chinese brands were investigated for their pollen content. Results indicate that tobacco leaf very efficiently captures environmental pollen (about 1800 and 12,600 grains per cigarette, respectively) with no detectable self-contamination by the tobacco plant. In both cases, the flora is typical of open space environments, but pollen type counts indicate very different distributions of species. This preliminary investigation indicates that palynology has the potential to constrain geographical source(s) of tobacco, particularly if regionally localized species can be recognized among the pollen. PMID:20202071

Donaldson, Margaret P; Stephens, William E

2010-05-01

253

Motion Freeze for Respiration Motion Correction in PET/CT: A Preliminary Investigation with Lung Cancer Patient Data  

PubMed Central

Purpose. Respiratory motion presents significant challenges for accurate PET/CT. It often introduces apparent increase of lesion size, reduction of measured standardized uptake value (SUV), and the mismatch in PET/CT fusion images. In this study, we developed the motion freeze method to use 100% of the counts collected by recombining the counts acquired from all phases of gated PET data into a single 3D PET data, with correction of respiration by deformable image registration. Methods. Six patients with diagnosis of lung cancer confirmed by oncologists were recruited. PET/CT scans were performed with Discovery STE system. The 4D PET/CT with the Varian real-time position management for respiratory motion tracking was followed by a clinical 3D PET/CT scan procedure in the static mode. Motion freeze applies the deformation matrices calculated by optical flow method to generate a single 3D effective PET image using the data from all the 4D PET phases. Results. The increase in SUV and decrease in tumor size with motion freeze for all lesions compared to the results from 3D and 4D was observed in the preliminary data of lung cancer patients. In addition, motion freeze substantially reduced tumor mismatch between the CT image and the corresponding PET images. Conclusion. Motion freeze integrating 100% of the PET counts has the potential to eliminate the influences induced by respiratory motion in PET data. PMID:25250313

Huang, Tzung-Chi; Chou, Kuei-Ting; Wang, Yao-Ching

2014-01-01

254

A preliminary spectroscopic investigation on the molecular interaction of metal-diphenylthiocarbazone complex with cellulose biopolymer and its application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biopolymer adsorbents are versatile in their application for removal of heavy metals. The present work is focused towards the preliminary study of the interaction of diphenylthiocarbazone (DTZ) complex of chromium(VI) in acidic medium with cellulose biopolymer. Chromium-DTZ complex could be quantitatively adsorbed on a cellulose column in the pH range 1.0-2.5 and the effect of various experimental parameters such as stability of the column and the complex, column breakthrough volume, and interfering ions have been studied in detail. The probable mechanism of adsorption of complex on the cellulose biopolymer was corroborated using Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) and solid state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance techniques (CP-MAS). The pores formed due to the hydrogen bond between the cellulose layers and then the ensuing occupation of the complex between these layers and on the surface of the biopolymer layer through electrostatic attractive force and ? interaction of aromatic ring with cellulose are expected to play a vital role in the interaction. The cellulose column could be regenerated using environmentally benign polyethylene glycol-400 (PEG-400) in acidic medium. The cellulose biosorbent has been successfully tested to study the removal of chromium as its dithizone complex from synthetic and real waste water samples.

Kalidhasan, S.; KrishnaKumar, A. S.; Rajesh, Vidya; Rajesh, N.

2011-09-01

255

A preliminary investigation of using prior information for potentially improving image reconstruction in few-view CT  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There exists a strong need to reconstruct computed tomographic (CT) images with practically useful quality from a small number of projections in image-guided radiation therapy: for lowering radiation dose delivered to the subject, for shortening the imaging time, and for reducing the imaging-configuration complexity. We have recently developed an iterative image reconstruction algorithm based on total-variation (TV) minimization from incomplete projection data in CT. In numerical studies with a variety of incomplete projection-data sets including truncated data, reduced scan range, and sparse sampling, the developed algorithm seems to yield reasonable reconstruction, as compared to some of the existing algorithms, such as algebraic reconstruction technique (ART) and expectation minimization (EM). The TV-based algorithm begins in general with a uniform image as an initial guess, and goes through iteration steps to minimize the image TV subject to satisfying the given incomplete projection data. In image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT), a patient usually undergoes CT scanning for treatment planning, which can provide the reference image for image guidance. Therefore, we propose a TV-based algorithm with a priori information in few-view CT for IGRT, in an attempt to further reduce the number of projections needed for image reconstruction from what the TV-based algorithm uses when no a priori information is included. In this work, we report the initial results of a preliminary numerical study that we have conducted to demonstrate this approach.

Cho, Seungryong; Sidky, Emil Y.; Bian, Junguo; Pelizzari, Charles A.; Pan, Xiaochuan

2008-03-01

256

A preliminary investigation of the relationship between water quality and Anopheles gambiae larval habitats in western Cameroon  

PubMed Central

Background Water quality and anopheline habitat have received increasing attention due to the possibility that challenges during larval life may translate into adult susceptibility to malaria parasite infection and/or insecticide resistance. Methods A preliminary study of Anopheles gambiae s.s. larval habitats in the north-west and south-west regions of Cameroon was conducted in order to detect associations between An. gambiae s.s. molecular form and 2La inversion distributions with basic water quality parameters. Water quality was measured by temperature, pH, conductivity, total dissolved solids (TDS) at seven sites in Cameroon and one site in Selinkenyi, Mali. Results Principal components and correlation analyses indicated a complex relationship between 2La polymorphism, temperature, conductivity and TDS. Cooler water sites at more inland locations yielded more S form larvae with higher 2La inversion polymorphism while warmer water sites yielded more M form larvae with rare observations of the 2La inversion. Discussion More detailed studies that take into account the population genetics but also multiple life stages, environmental data relative to these life stages and interactions with both humans and the malaria parasite may help us to understand more about how and why this successful mosquito is able to adapt and diverge, and how it can be successfully managed. PMID:23819866

2013-01-01

257

A preliminary investigation of the environmental Control and Life Support Subsystems (EC/LSS) for animal and plant experiment payloads  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A preliminary study of the environmental control and life support subsystems (EC/LSS) necessary for an earth orbital spacecraft to conduct biological experiments is presented. The primary spacecraft models available for conducting these biological experiments are the space shuttle and modular space station. The experiments would be housed in a separate module that would be contained in either the shuttle payload bay or attached to the modular space station. This module would be manned only for experiment-related tasks, and would contain a separate EC/LSS for the crew and animals. Metabolic data were tabulated on various animals that are considered useful for a typical experiment program. The minimum payload for the 30-day space shuttle module was found to require about the equivalent of a one-man EC/LSS; however, the selected two-man shuttle assemblies will give a growth and contingency factor of about 50 percent. The maximum payloads for the space station mission will require at least a seven-man EC/LSS for the laboratory colony and a nine-man EC/LSS for the centrifuge colony. There is practically no room for growth or contingencies in these areas.

Wells, H. B.

1972-01-01

258

A new biomarker of hedonic eating? A preliminary investigation of cortisol and nausea responses to acute opioid blockade.  

PubMed

Overweight and obese individuals differ in their degree of hedonic eating. This may reflect adaptations in reward-related neural circuits, regulated in part by opioidergic activity. We examined an indirect, functional measure of central opioidergic activity by assessing cortisol and nausea responses to acute opioid blockade using the opioid antagonist naltrexone in overweight/obese women (mean BMI=31.1±4.8) prior to the start of a mindfulness-based intervention to reduce stress eating. In addition, we assessed indices of hedonic-related eating, including eating behaviors (binge eating, emotional eating, external eating, restraint) and intake of sweets/desserts and carbohydrates (Block Food Frequency); interoceptive awareness (which is associated with dysregulated eating behavior); and level of adiposity at baseline. Naltrexone-induced increases in cortisol were associated with greater emotional and restrained eating and lower interoceptive awareness. Naltrexone-induced nausea was associated with binge eating and higher adiposity. Furthermore, in a small exploratory analysis, naltrexone-induced nausea predicted treatment response to the mindfulness intervention, as participants with more severe nausea at baseline maintained weight whereas those with little or no nausea responses tended to gain weight. These preliminary data suggest that naltrexone-induced cortisol release and nausea may help identify individuals who have greater underlying food reward dependence, which leads to an excessive drive to eat. Future research is needed to confirm this finding and to test if these markers of opioidergic tone might help predict success in certain types of weight management programs. PMID:24291355

Daubenmier, Jennifer; Lustig, Robert H; Hecht, Frederick M; Kristeller, Jean; Woolley, Josh; Adam, Tanja; Dallman, Mary; Epel, Elissa

2014-03-01

259

Preliminary investigations into the use of trap crops to control Agriotes spp. (Coleoptera: Elateridae) in potato crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

A field trial was conducted to investigate the use of peas (Pisum sativum cv. Valverde), wheat (Triticum aestivum cv. Capo) and oilseed radish (Raphanus sativus var. oleiformis cv. Adagio) as trap crops to control wireworm in potato fields. We investigated the efficacy of trap crops and distance of\\u000a attraction by counting larvae in both potato and trap crop rows. Wireworms

Marion Landl; Johann Glauninger

260

Neurofeedback for Adult Attention-Deficit\\/Hyperactivity Disorder: Investigation of Slow Cortical Potential Neurofeedback—Preliminary Results  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attention deficit\\/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterized by symptoms of inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. Compared to ADHD in children, only a few studies have investigated ADHD in an adult population, and even less have investigated new forms of treatment such as neurofeedback. Neurofeedback has been applied effectively in various areas, especially in the treatment of children with ADHD, and symptom improvements

Kerstin Mayer; Sarah N. Wyckoff; Ulrike Schulz; Ute Strehl

2012-01-01

261

A clinical comparison of the quadhelix appliance and the nickel titanium (tandem loop) palatal expander: a preliminary, prospective investigation.  

PubMed

Maxillary expansion using either a quadhelix appliance (Qx) or a nickel titanium palatal expander (Nt) was prospectively compared in 28 consecutive new patients (19 female, nine male) presenting with posterior buccal segment crossbites. Study models taken at each activation were measured to determine the mean maxillary expansion efficacy (Emax) and the mean expansion rate (m(max)) across the first molars and first premolars. Patient discomfort was assessed using visual analogue scores, and cost-effectiveness was also considered. Neither Emax nor m(max) differed significantly between Qx and Nt across either the first molars or the first premolars. However, both Emax and m(max) were significantly greater across the first molars than across the first premolars only with Qx (Emax: 8.4 +/- 0.7 mm versus 5.1 +/- 0.6 mm, P = 0.001; m(max): 0.09 +/- 0.005 mm/day versus 0.05 +/- 0.006 mm/day, P = 0.0001). In addition, greater variance was apparent in m(max) with Nt than with Qx across both the first molars and the first premolars. Overall, Qx and Nt elicited similar discomfort. However, significantly less was reported with Nt on days 6 (P = 0.04) and 7 (P= 0.03) following the second 'activation'. These preliminary results suggest that Qx and Nt are equally efficacious maxillary expanders. However, Qx expansion appeared significantly more controlled, as well as more individually predictable in expansion rate. Overall, Qx and Nt probably elicit similar discomfort, but significantly less discomfort may be seen with Nt following the second activation. Finally, because more than one appliance is invariably required with Nt, Qx expansion is potentially less costly. PMID:15366386

Donohue, V E; Marshman, L A G; Winchester, L J

2004-08-01

262

Preoperative characteristics of auditory brainstem response in acoustic neuroma with useful hearing: importance as a preliminary investigation for intraoperative monitoring.  

PubMed

We classified the results of preoperative auditory brainstem response (ABR) in 121 patients with useful hearing and considered the utility of preoperative ABR as a preliminary assessment for intraoperative monitoring. Wave V was confirmed in 113 patients and was not confirmed in 8 patients. Intraoperative ABR could not detect wave V in these 8 patients. The 8 patients without wave V were classified into two groups (flat and wave I only), and the reason why wave V could not be detected may have differed between the groups. Because high-frequency hearing was impaired in flat patients, an alternative to click stimulation may be more effective. Monitoring cochlear nerve action potential (CNAP) may be useful because CNAP could be detected in 4 of 5 wave I only patients. Useful hearing was preserved after surgery in 1 patient in the flat group and 2 patients in wave I only group. Among patients with wave V, the mean interaural latency difference of wave V was 0.88 ms in Class A (n = 57) and 1.26 ms in Class B (n = 56). Because the latency of wave V is already prolonged before surgery, to estimate delay in wave V latency during surgery probably underestimates cochlear nerve damage. Recording intraoperative ABR is indispensable to avoid cochlear nerve damage and to provide information for surgical decisions. Confirming the condition of ABR before surgery helps to solve certain problems, such as choosing to monitor the interaural latency difference of wave V, CNAP, or alternative sound-evoked ABR. PMID:24390190

Aihara, Noritaka; Murakami, Shingo; Takahashi, Mariko; Yamada, Kazuo

2014-01-01

263

Evaluation of capacity release transactions in the natural gas industry  

E-print Network

The purpose of this thesis is to analyze capacity release transactions in the natural gas industry and to state some preliminary conclusions about how the capacity release market is functioning. Given FERC's attempt to ...

Lautzenhiser, Stephen

1994-01-01

264

A preliminary investigation on the interaction between sol-gel immobilized glucose oxidase and freely diffusing glucose by means of two-photon microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To study immobilized protein interactions with dissolved substrates is a very important topic both from a fundamental and technological standpoint. In the present report we illustrate the preliminary results obtained on sol-gel immobilized glucose oxidase (GOD) using a standard de-scanned two-photon microscope based on a modified confocal scanhead with internal detectors and a Ti:sapphire laser as a source. Data acquisition conditions were preliminary defined using functionalized beads of different dimensions. Various sol-gel supports were then investigated by monitoring endogeneous fluorescence due to the flavoadenine (FAD) molecules, present in GOD. Linear absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy along with Fourier Transform Infrared microscopy were employed for a full-optical characterization of the samples. The results show that GOD immobilization processes can be successfully monitored in some cases and also the interaction with glucose could be studied by this approach. This assessment holds potentials to better understand the characteristic of immobilized enzymes biocatalysis and to develop new biosensing schemes.

Delfino, I.; Portaccio, M.; De Rosa, M.; Lepore, M.

2013-02-01

265

Preliminary Investigation to Resolve the Shear Velocity Structure of the Mantle Transition Zone beneath the Caroline Plate, Equatorial Western Pacific  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Mantle Transition Zone (MTZ), which lies in the depth range from 410-660 km, is considered to be a region capable of carrying a large amount of water and other volatiles. A unique feature of the MTZ beneath the northwest Pacific rim is the stagnant slab which lies below much of the West Philippine Basin and extends laterally over a distance of thousands of kilometers beneath Korea and northeast China. In recent years, suggestions have been made that explain the seismicity and intra-plate volcanism in this region in terms of hydrous magmatic plumes rising from the MTZ. However, the exact mechanism remains under debate. An equally important, but less well-known, observation is that a stagnant slab appears to exist beneath much of the Caroline Plate in the equatorial western Pacific as well. If a stagnant slab does exist here, it is most likely a result of the long northward migration of the Australian Plate and subduction since its breakaway from the Antarctic. However, due to tectonic complexity and the lack of seismic stations, the structure and properties of the stagnant slab and the MTZ beneath the Caroline plate are not well understood. Also it is unclear if the large volcanic outflows around the Caroline Plate such as the Eurpik Rise can be explained by a hydrous magmatic plume stemming from the MTZ. To understand the shear-wave velocity structure of the MTZ beneath the Caroline Plate, we employ a body wave waveform inversion technique. Fuji et al. (PEPI, 2010) conducted body wave waveform inversion for the mantle transition zone beneath Japan. In this study we present preliminary results for an application of their methods to infer upper mantle and MTZ structure beneath the Caroline plate. We also estimate the resolving power of full-waveform inversion for a dataset obtained from the IRIS (Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology) network for shear velocity structure in the upper mantle, especially for the mantle transition zone beneath the Caroline Plate using transverse component body wave data in order to examine whether it is possible to reliably infer the existence of a high velocity anomaly because the dataset is relatively small and there are not many seismic stations to the east of this region.

Konishi, K.; Kawai, K.; Fuji, N.; Lee, S.; Geller, R. J.

2013-12-01

266

Our Nation's Schools--A Report Card: "A" in School Violence and Vandalism. Preliminary Report of the Subcommittee to Investigate Juvenile Delinquency, Based on Investigations, 1971-1975.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since 1971 the Senate Subcommittee to Investigate Juvenile Delinquency has held 55 days of hearings and received testimony from 419 witnesses on topics including the extent and causes of drug abuse, runaway youth, school dropouts, and the confinement of juveniles in detention and correctional facilities. A questionnaire designed to obtain…

Bayh, Birch

267

Preliminary geologic investigation of the Apollo 17 landing site. [orbital and lunar surface geological surveys during Apollo 17 flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A geological investigation of the Apollo 17 lunar landing site was conducted. The Taurus-Littrow valley is interpreted as a deep graben formed by structural adjustment of lunar crustal material to the Serenitatis impact. Materials of the valley fill were sampled at many stations. Ejecta around many craters on the valley floor consist of basalt, showing that the graben was partly filled by lava flows. The geological objectives of the Apollo 17 mission are divided into orbital and lunar surface data collection. The data obtained for both types of investigation are presented in tables, photographs, and drawings.

Muehlberger, W. R.; Batson, R. M.; Cernan, E. A.; Freeman, V. L.; Hait, M. H.; Holt, H. E.; Howard, K. A.; Jackson, E. D.; Larson, K. B.; Reed, V. S.

1973-01-01

268

Effects of Culturally Consistent Counseling Tasks on American and International Student Observers' Perception of Counselor Credibility: A Preliminary Investigation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated causes of international students' perception of counselor credibility. White American students (n=48) and Asian Indian (n=48) and South Korean (n=33) international students viewed videotapes consistent with either Asian Indian cultural values or mainstream counseling, then completed Counselor Rating Form. Asian Indians found…

Sodowsky, Gargi Roysircar

1991-01-01

269

Preliminary investigation of a sealed, remotely activated silver--zinc battery. Final report. [> 35 wh\\/lb  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods necessary to provide a remotely activated, silver--zinc battery capable of an extended activated stand while in a sealed condition were investigated. These requirements were to be accomplished in a battery package demonstrating an energy density of at least 35 watt-hours per pound. Several methods of gas suppression were considered in view of the primary nature of this unit and

Wheat

1977-01-01

270

Comparing Self-Reported Versus Objectively Measured Physical Activity Behavior: A Preliminary Investigation of Older Filipino American Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The importance of examining health behaviors, such as physical activity, among Filipino Americans is highlighted by their higher rates of chronic disease. As physical inactivity has been linked to chronic diseases (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 1996), this study investigated the physical activity levels of older Filipinas. This…

Atienza, Audie A.; King, Abby C.

2005-01-01

271

The role of religiousness in anxiety, depression, and happiness in a Jewish community sample: A preliminary investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although social scientists have convincingly demonstrated relationships between religious beliefs\\/practices and mental health, almost none of the empirical findings or related theory apply specifically to Jews. To address this limitation, we investigated the role of Jewish religiousness in anxiety, depression, and happiness, in a large Jewish community sample (n = 565). Several facets of global Jewish religiousness were examined, as

David H. Rosmarin; Kenneth I. Pargament; Annette Mahoney

2009-01-01

272

A preliminary investigation of the interaction of a quat with silicones and its conditioning benefits on hair  

Microsoft Academic Search

Silicones, especially dimethicone and dimethiconol of higher molecular weights, have gained acceptance as conditioning agents and are used in several commercial products, frequently in conjunction with quats. In this work, the conditioning benefits of the silicones, as assessed by improvement in wet and dry combing, were investigated as a function of molecular weight as well as amount deposited on bleached

SHRENIK NANAVATI; ANNETTE HAMI; Dow Corning

273

A Preliminary Investigation of Associations between Disorders of Behavior and Language in Children with Chronic Otitis Media.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The relationship between language and behavior disorders was investigated. The teacher and parents of 12 children in a special public preschool for children with documented chronic otitis media and language disorders completed the Louisville Behavior Checklist. Most deviant behavior was reported on scales measuring cognitive and social-interactive…

Funk, Jeanne B.; Ruppert, Elizabeth S.

1986-01-01

274

Finger Forecasting: A Pointer to Athletic Prowess in Women--A Preliminary Investigation by an Undergraduate Biology Class  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With all the technology today, the authors were surprised to read a recent British study that found a connection between the length of a woman's index (2D) and ring (4D) fingers to her athletic ability. Upon further investigation they found that many studies have examined the relationship between the length of the index finger (2D) to the ring…

Latourelle, Sandra M.; Elwess, Nancy L.; Elwess, Jennifer M.

2008-01-01

275

Teachers' Awareness of the Learner-Teacher Interaction: Preliminary Communication of a Study Investigating the Teaching Brain  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A new phase of research on teaching is under way that seeks to understand the teaching brain. In this vein, this study investigated the cognitive processes employed by master teachers. Using an interview protocol influenced by microgenetic techniques, 23 master teachers used the Self-in-Relation-to-Teaching (SiR2T) tool to answer "What are…

Rodriguez, Vanessa; Solis, S. Lynneth

2013-01-01

276

Preliminary result of deep-towed resistivity investigation in a potential gas hydrate area off southwest Taiwan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gas hydrate (GH) is thought to be widely distributed within the active accretionary wedges passive continental margins and permafrost regions of the Earth. These deposits were formed in sub-seafloor sediments at relatively high pressure, low temperature conditions and have the potential to become a significant energy resource in the future. Bottom simulating reflectors (BSRs) from marine seismic reflection surveys are generally associated with the occurrence of gas-hydrate-bearing formations. The presence of BSRs could correspond to the base of the phase boundary between free gases and the solid hydrates. A wide-spread distribution of BSRs, high methane concentrations in the bottom water, shallow sulfate/methane interface, submarine mud volcanoes, diapirs and gas seepages significantly indicate a high potential of gas hydrates existence in the offshore area of southwest Taiwan. BSR is an indicative of a GH deposit and is often used to determine the base of gas hydrate stability zone of the solid-gas boundary where the upper bound of the GH in shallow sediments is still uncertain in the potential areas. The marine resistivity techniques are considered as one of powerful geophysical tools to image GH in upper bound of the GH in shallow portion of the seabed. In the study, we have rebuilt our new deep-towed marine resistivity system based on Goto et al. (2008) experiment. The new system is consisted of three components: 1. deep-towed frame, 2. receivers, and 3. side-scan sonar. The transmitter is mounted on the deep-towed frame and a long cable is towed behind the deep-towed frame in length of 240 m. The maximum of output electric current amplitude is up to 50 amperes. A dipole source of 15 m and two Ag-AgCl electric receivers are respectively installed in 210 m, 223 m and 226 m on the cable. Moreover, eight electric receivers (Ag-AgCl) are set from 0 m to 120 m with a dipole length of 15 m on the cable. A side-scan sonar equipment is attached below the system for the seafloor images. An important function of the side-scan sonar provides a stable towing of the whole system near the seafloor with altitude in range of 10 - 30 m. This configuration of the multidisciplinary geophysical system can roughly provide within 200 m of depth resolution beneath the seafloor according to the numerical modelling. A first multiple channels of deep-towed marine resistivity survey was carried out by R/V OR1-1001 from 21 to 23 June, 2012 to understand the detailed distribution of GH off SW Taiwan. Three survey lines were discovered in total length about 30 km. The towed speed was kept in 1.5 - 2.5 knots for both mapping of resistivity profiles and side-scan sonar images. An extremely high apparent resistivity anomaly appears in pockmark areas that corresponds to the side-scan sonar image. This high resistivity anomaly implies gas and/or gas hydrate reservoirs beneath the seafloor. The preliminary result has shown that our new resistivity system is a useful tool to explore GH deposits.

Chiang, C.; Hsu, S.; Goto, T.; Chen, C.; Chen, S.

2012-12-01

277

Preliminary Results of Simulations and Field Investigations of the Performance of the WISDOM GPR of the ExoMars Rover  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

WISDOM (Water Ice and Subsurface Deposit Observations on Mars) is a ground penetrat-ing radar (GPR) that was selected as one of three survey instruments on the ExoMars Rover Pasteur Payload. Its purpose is to characterize the nature of the shallow subsurface (including geological structure, electromagnetic properties, and potential hydrological state) and identify the most promising locations for investigation and sampling by the Rover's onboard drill - providing information down to a depth of 2 or 3 meters with a vertical resolution of a few centimeters (performance characteristics that will vary, depending on the local permittivity and conductivity of the subsurface). WISDOM is a polarimetric, step-frequency GPR operating over the frequency range of 0.5 - 3 GHz. The polarimetric capability of WISDOM is particularly useful for identifying and characterizing oriented structures like faults, fractures and stratigraphic interface roughness. To achieve this objective, special care has been dedicated to the design of the antenna system, which consists of a pair of Vivaldi antenna to conduct both co- and cross-polar measurements. WISDOM will perform its scientific investigations at each of the sites visited by the Rover and during the intervening traverses. During a traverse between two successive experiment cycles of the mission (drilling and sample analysis), WISDOM soundings will be performed to provide a coarse survey of the structure and nature of the underground and its large-scale variations. This information is required to understand the overall geological context and the properties of the subsurface. When a particular location has been selected for potential investigation by the drill, WISDOM will obtain subsurface profiles on a 2D grid, in order to synthesize a 3D map of subsurface soil characteristics and spatial variabil-ity. Full polarimetric soundings will be performed at 10 cm intervals along each parallel grid line, which will have a line-to-line spacing of 100cm. The typical grid-size for this 3D characterization is 5 m x 5 m. FDTD electromagntic simulations have been run on realistic Martian subsurface models to investigate the likely performances of the instrument once on Mars. In additiona, experi-mental field data was acquired during a 2008 mission to Svalabard, where the performance of the instrument in a permafrost environment was demonstrated. The results of that inves-tigation showed that WISDOM is capable of obtaining accurate data to depths in excess of 2-3 meters in ice-rich environments - successfully soundings through sediment layers, ice, and even into the underlying moraine, with sufficient spatial resolution to identify fine-scale layering within the intervening ice. Further results of these investigations will be presented at the meeting.

Ciarletti, V.; Corbel, C.; Cais, P.; Pltettemeier, D.; Hamran, S. E.; Oyan, M.; Clifford, S.; Reineix, A.

2009-04-01

278

Romero, M. and Mateas, M. 2005. A Preliminary Investigation of Alien Presence. In the Proceedings of Human-Computer Interaction International (HCII 2005), Las Vegas, NV, USA, July 2005.  

E-print Network

Romero, M. and Mateas, M. 2005. A Preliminary Investigation of Alien Presence. In the Proceedings Investigation of Alien Presence Mario Romero College of Computing The Georgia Institute of Technology Atlanta authority. The alien presence provides an alternative model of ambient intelligence; an alien presence

Mateas, Michael

279

A preliminary investigation of the relationships between employee motivation\\/vision, service learning, and perceived service quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most experts agree that a learning organization whose employees have a clear vision of the importance of service quality and are motivated to provide that quality will achieve superior service quality. We develop a theoretical framework and conduct a cross-sectional empirical study to investigate the inter-relationships among these constructs. The results indicate that higher levels of both employees’ motivation\\/vision and

Julie M. Hays; Arthur V. Hill

2001-01-01

280

Evaluation of temperature rise due to joule heating and preliminary investigation of its effect on electromigration reliability  

Microsoft Academic Search

A demand to increase current density of ULSI interconnections with shrinkage of feature sizes inevitably brings about temperature rise due to Joule heating. We studied how temperature distribution changes with an increase in the current density and further investigated its effect on electromigration-induced failures. We evaluated a temperature rise in a single level Al-alloy interconnection by the use of IR-CCD

S. Shingubara; S. Miyazaki; H. Sakaue; T. Takahagi

2002-01-01

281

Cognitive Reactivity, Suicidal Ideation and Future Fluency: Preliminary Investigation of a Differential Activation Theory of Hopelessness\\/Suicidality  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors investigated whether the re-emergence of hopeless\\/suicidal cognitions over time can be explained within a differential\\u000a activation framework. Studies 1 (N = 146) and 2 (N = 136) showed that individuals who reported suicidal ideation when depressed in the past had higher scores on the hopelessness\\/suicidality\\u000a subscale of a measure assessing cognitive reactivity to low mood, the LEIDS. Study 3 (N = 32) demonstrated that

J. M. G. Williams; A. J. W. Van der Does; T. Barnhofer; C. Crane; Z. S. Segal

2008-01-01

282

Preliminary data report of investigations conducted at the Salmon Site, Lamar County, Mississippi. Nevada Environmental Restoration Project  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy (DOE) conducted ecological studies at the Salmon Site (SS), Lamar County, Mississippi, from the middle of June 1992 to the end of April 1993. The studies are part of the Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study (RI/FS) being conducted by the DOE. The RI/FS is the methodology under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980, as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (CERCLA/SARA) for evaluating hazardous waste sites on the National Priorities List (NPL). The Salmon Site is not listed on the NPL but DOE has voluntarily elected to conduct the evaluation of the SS in accordance with CERCLA/SARA. As part of the remedial investigation, baseline human health and ecological risk assessments will be conducted. These baseline risk assessments will evaluate the potential impact on human health and the environment if remedial actions are not conducted, identify locations where additional information needs to be collected, help determine whether remedial actions are necessary, and provide justification for performing remedial actions. This report describes the sampling activities conducted between February and April 1993 to aid in evaluating the possible environmental impacts at the SS tailored to the specific circumstances and conditions found there. The initial investigations included identification of the flora and fauna in and around the SS, with particular emphasis on identifying sensitive environments, endangered species and their habitats, and those species consumed by humans or found in human food chains.

Not Available

1994-04-01

283

Capacity of a MultiBeam, Multi-Satellite CDMA Mobile Radio Network with Interference-Mitigating Receivers  

Microsoft Academic Search

More and more interference-mitigating algorithms are being investigated in an attempt to increase the capacity of code-division multiple-access radio networks. At the moment, the main question about interference-resilient receivers is: Do they really bring forth the capacity increase they promise on theoreti- cal grounds? The aim of this study is to give a preliminary answer to such a question, through

Riccardo De Gaudenzi; Filippo Giannetti; Marco Luise

1997-01-01

284

Preliminary investigation of the efficacy of sublingual verapamil in the management of acute atrial fibrillation and flutter.  

PubMed Central

The antiarrhythmic properties of sublingual verapamil were investigated in seven patients with acute fast atrial flutter (n = 2) or fibrillation (n = 5). A rapid and significant (P < 0.05) reduction in the ventricular rate was achieved in all seven patients. The ventricular rate at peak plasma verapamil concentration (+/- s.d.) was significantly slower than on admission (101.6 +/- 11.3 and 159 +/- 5.3 beats min-1 respectively, P < 0.01). The ventricular rate remained controlled for over 4 h. Sublingual verapamil was rapidly absorbed with the maximum peak plasma concentration (153.3 +/- 15.5 ng ml-1) being achieved after 1.21 +/- 0.18 h. Side-effects of sublingual verapamil were limited to one report of a bitter taste. The sublingual administration of verapamil may provide an alternative method for the control of acute fast atrial fibrillation and flutter in selected patients. PMID:8054253

Fort, S; Lewis, M J; Luscombe, D K; John, D N

1994-01-01

285

A preliminary study for investigating idiopatic normal pressure hydrocephalus by means of statistical parameters classification of intracranial pressure recordings.  

PubMed

The objective of this study is to investigate Id-iopatic Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus (INPH) through a multidimensional and multiparameter analysis of statistical data obtained from accurate analysis of Intracranial Pressure (ICP) recordings. Such a study could permit to detect new factors, correlated with therapeutic response, which are able to validate a predicting significance for infusion test. The algorithm developed by the authors computes 13 ICP parameter trends on each of the recording, afterward 9 statistical information from each trend is determined. All data are transferred to the datamining software WEKA. According to the exploited feature-selection techniques, the WEKA has revealed that the most significant statistical parameter is the maximum of Single-Wave-Amplitude: setting a 27 mmHg threshold leads to over 90% of correct classification. PMID:19965228

Calisto, A; Bramanti, A; Galeano, M; Angileri, F; Campobello, G; Serrano, S; Azzerboni, B

2009-01-01

286

Alterations in autonomic tone during trauma exposure using eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR)--results of a preliminary investigation.  

PubMed

EMDR combines stimuli that evoke divided attention--e.g. eye movements--with exposure to traumatic memories. Our objective was to investigate psycho-physiological correlates of EMDR during treatment sessions. A total of 55 treatment sessions from 10 patients with PTSD was monitored applying impedance cardiography. Onset of every stimulation/exposure period (n=811) was marked and effects within and across stimulation sets on heart rate (HR), heart rate variability (HRV), pre-ejection period (PEP) and respiration rate were examined. At stimulation onsets a sharp increase of HRV and a significant decrease of HR was noticed indicating de-arousal. During ongoing stimulation, PEP and HRV decreased significantly while respiration rate significantly increased, indicating stress-related arousal. However, across entire sessions a significant decrease of psycho-physiological activity was noticed, evidenced by progressively decreasing HR and increasing HRV. These findings suggest that EMDR is associated with patterns of autonomic activity associated with substantial psycho-physiological de-arousal over time. PMID:18314305

Sack, Martin; Lempa, Wolfgang; Steinmetz, Adrian; Lamprecht, Friedhelm; Hofmann, Arne

2008-10-01

287

A preliminary experimental investigation of peer influence on risk-taking among adolescent smokers and non-smokers  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Epidemiological evidence suggests that peer influence plays a significant role in a variety of adolescent risk-taking behaviors, including tobacco use. We attempted to establish this relationship in a controlled laboratory setting. METHOD We modified the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART) task to include a peer component to investigate whether peer influences alter risk-taking behaviors. Thirty-nine adolescents (22 smokers, 17 non-smokers) completed one experimental session during which the standard and peer BART were presented in counterbalanced order, with the dependent measures being adjusted pumps and explosions. We also examined the relationship of changes in the BART (standard-peer) to personality measures of impulsivity (BIS-11) and resistance to peer influence (RPI). RESULTS A significant interaction of BART type and smoking status was present (p = .05); specifically smokers had a greater increase in the number of explosions by 2.27 (SD = 3.12) compared to an increase of .29 (SD = 2.87) by non-smokers. BIS-11 scores were related to peer-influenced BART changes: those who were more impulsive experienced greater changes in risk-taking, but no similar relationships were observed for the RPI. CONCLUSIONS These results suggest that peer influences enhance risk-taking among adolescents, and that smokers may be more susceptible to these influences. PMID:23131775

Cavalca, Eleonora; Kong, Grace; Liss, Thomas; Reynolds, Elizabeth K.; Schepis, Ty S.; Lejuez, C. W.; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra

2012-01-01

288

A preliminary investigation into diet adequacy in senior residents of Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background Adequate dietary intake is essential to maintain good health. This is particularly true for the elderly. This study investigated the dietary intakes of seniors residing in Newfoundland and Labrador (NL) and assessed the adequacy of nutrients which they consumed as food. Methods Between November 2012 and January 2013, we recruited senior residents in NL, aged 65 years or older Participants were required to complete two questionnaires, one food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and one general health questionnaire (GHQ). Macro- and micro- nutrients in foods consumed were estimated using the Elizabeth Stewart Hands and Associations (ESHA) nutrient analysis software. The nutrient intakes were compared with appropriate components of the dietary reference intakes (DRIs) adopted by Health Canada to determine adequacy. Various descriptive statistical analyses were performed using SPSS. Results One hundred-and-eleven participants (69 females and 42 males) completed the surveys and were included in the analysis. A considerable portion of subjects were overweight (41.7%) or obese (25%), and had at least one chronic illness (86.5%). Many seniors studied did not meet the daily recommendations for dietary intakes of nutrients supported by Health Canada, notably vitamin E (84.7%) and vitamin D (68.5%). Our study also suggests that about 40% of participants consumed more dietary energy as fat than is recommended. Conclusion The present study revealed an inadequate consumption of essential nutrients from foods in a noninstitutionalized senior population of NL. PMID:24690512

2014-01-01

289

Investigating the Martian Gullies for Possible Brine Origin: A Preliminary Search for Evaporite Minerals Using THEMIS Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Photographs taken by both the Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) aboard the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) spacecraft and the Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) aboard the Mars Odyssey (MO) spacecraft have shown the presence of young gullies on Mars. These gullies occur at middle and high latitudes (predominantly in the southern hemisphere) in the walls of both impact craters and canyons. They are thought possibly to be formed by the melting of ground ice, groundwater seepage (possibly as brines), surface runoff, or even liquid CO2, activated sporadically as a result of oscillations in Mars orbit. For this work, the hypothesis of gully formation being related to the outflow of brines will be investigated through the observation and study of spacecraft data. Brine rich fluids expunged from underground onto the walls of canyons and craters would either evaporate or freeze and sublimate. Removal of water from a brine by evaporation or sublimation would cause the solutes to precipitate as evaporite minerals on the canyon and crater walls or at the base of the walls, and possibly on the canyon and crater floors. Hence, the gully sites are ideal target areas to search for evaporites using THEMIS data. The objective of this work is to survey the recently acquired THEMIS data for spectral evidence of evaporite minerals, with a focus on areas of gully formation. Identifying salt mineral residues could provide chemical evidence in support of the brine origin of the Martian gullies.

Lane, M. D.; Christensen, P. R.

2003-01-01

290

Detection of silver protein complex injections in the bovine udder using x-ray fluorescence: A preliminary investigation  

PubMed Central

Abstract To determine the feasibility of using x-ray fluorescence (XRF) to detect the presence of silver in the mammary gland of dairy cows injected with mild silver protein suspension. The XRF spectroscopy was conducted on cadaver udders with and without mild silver protein injected. Spectral analysis was performed in order to determine the amplitude of the silver K-alpha peak that was detected. By comparing the amplitude of the K-alpha peak to the background, a minimum time of collection was determined, as a measure of the time required to observe a silver signal that is significantly non-zero. The minimum detection time required for evidence of injected silver suspension was calculated to be 2.8 ± 0.2 s. Even with an additional requirement that the net signal exceed 50 counts, the clear indication of the presence of silver will be observed within 4 min of interrogation. X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy was shown to be a viable method for the detection of injected silver protein in cadaver mammary glands of dairy cows. While these findings are promising, further studies must be conducted to investigate the time dependence of the silver signal when diffusion, absorption, and redistribution are involved, under conditions that better mimic those encountered at an exhibition. This technique, used in conjunction with screening ultrasound examinations, has the potential to confirm sites of injection of silver compounds. PMID:15971676

2005-01-01

291

A Preliminary Investigation into the Impact of a Pesticide Combination on Human Neuronal and Glial Cell Lines In Vitro  

PubMed Central

Many pesticides are used increasingly in combinations during crop protection and their stability ensures the presence of such combinations in foodstuffs. The effects of three fungicides, pyrimethanil, cyprodinil and fludioxonil, were investigated together and separately on U251 and SH-SY5Y cells, which can be representative of human CNS glial and neuronal cells respectively. Over 48h, all three agents showed significant reductions in cellular ATP, at concentrations that were more than tenfold lower than those which significantly impaired cellular viability. The effects on energy metabolism were reflected in their marked toxic effects on mitochondrial membrane potential. In addition, evidence of oxidative stress was seen in terms of a fall in cellular thiols coupled with increases in the expression of enzymes associated with reactive species formation, such as GSH peroxidase and superoxide dismutase. The glial cell line showed significant responsiveness to the toxin challenge in terms of changes in antioxidant gene expression, although the neuronal SH-SY5Y line exhibited greater vulnerability to toxicity, which was reflected in significant increases in caspase-3 expression, which is indicative of the initiation of apoptosis. Cyprodinil was the most toxic agent individually, although oxidative stress-related enzyme gene expression increases appeared to demonstrate some degree of synergy in the presence of the combination of agents. This report suggests that the impact of some pesticides, both individually and in combinations, merits further study in terms of their impact on human cellular health. PMID:22880100

Coleman, Michael D.; O'Neil, John D.; Woehrling, Elizabeth K.; Ndunge, Oscar Bate Akide; Hill, Eric J.; Menache, Andre; Reiss, Claude J.

2012-01-01

292

Preliminary investigation of the potential for transient vapor release events during in situ vitrification based on thermal- hydraulic modeling  

SciTech Connect

This study investigates a possible cause of molten glass displacements that occurred during two recent in situ vitrification (ISV) tests. The study was conducted for the US Department of Energy by Pacific Northwest Laboratory. It is hypothesized that these glass displacements are caused by large gas bubbles rising up through the ISV melt and bursting at its surface. These bubbles cause the molten surface to upwell and possibly overflow. When the bubbles burst, molten glass is thrown from the melt surface and the volume of gas contained in the bubble is released into the hood. Both of these phenomena are undesirable because the molten soil ejected from the melt is dangerous to operating personnel and can damage equipment. The sudden gas release can cause a temporary pressurization of the hood, allowing potentially contaminated gas to escape to the atmosphere. This study attempts to explain the conditions necessary for formation of large gas bubbles in the melt so that future glass displacements can be avoided.

Roberts, J.S.; Woosley, S.L.; Lessor, D.L.; Strachan, C.

1992-07-01

293

Preliminary investigation of the combustion of a 50 percent pentaborane - 50 percent JP-4 fuel blend in a turbojet combustor at simulated altitude conditions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A preliminary investigation was conducted to determine the combustion characteristics of a fuel composed of 50 percent pentaborane and 50 percent JP-4 (MIL-F-5624A) by weight in a turbojet combustor. A combustor designed to fit the housing of a J33-A-23 turbojet engine was selected for convenience. The fuel was evaluated at two engine conditions simulating altitudes of 40,000 and 57,000 feet, an engine speed of 85 percent of rated rpm, and a flight Mach number of 0.6. The pentaborane blend was initially evaluated in combustors developed for pure pentaborane and diborane reported in NACA RM E53B18 and RM E52L15. The performance of the blend was unsatisfactory in these combustors. A new combustor was then developed which provided combustor efficiencies measured from 91 to 101 percent as compared with efficiencies of 92 to 94 percent previously obtained for pentaborane at comparable conditions. Additional refinements of design details are needed to obtain lower oxide deposits and a more uniform outlet temperature profile; however, the combustor is believed to incorporate some of the design principles required to obtain satisfactory over-all performance with the fuel blend investigated.

Branstetter, J Robert; Kaufman, Warner B; Gibbs, James B

1957-01-01

294

Precise ablation of dental hard tissues with ultra-short pulsed lasers. Preliminary exploratory investigation on adequate laser parameters.  

PubMed

This study aimed to evaluate the possibility of introducing ultra-short pulsed lasers (USPL) in restorative dentistry by maintaining the well-known benefits of lasers for caries removal, but also overcoming disadvantages, such as thermal damage of irradiated substrate. USPL ablation of dental hard tissues was investigated in two phases. Phase 1--different wavelengths (355, 532, 1,045, and 1,064 nm), pulse durations (picoseconds and femtoseconds) and irradiation parameters (scanning speed, output power, and pulse repetition rate) were assessed for enamel and dentin. Ablation rate was determined, and the temperature increase measured in real time. Phase 2--the most favorable laser parameters were evaluated to correlate temperature increase to ablation rate and ablation efficiency. The influence of cooling methods (air, air-water spray) on ablation process was further analyzed. All parameters tested provided precise and selective tissue ablation. For all lasers, faster scanning speeds resulted in better interaction and reduced temperature increase. The most adequate results were observed for the 1064-nm ps-laser and the 1045-nm fs-laser. Forced cooling caused moderate changes in temperature increase, but reduced ablation, being considered unnecessary during irradiation with USPL. For dentin, the correlation between temperature increase and ablation efficiency was satisfactory for both pulse durations, while for enamel, the best correlation was observed for fs-laser, independently of the power used. USPL may be suitable for cavity preparation in dentin and enamel, since effective ablation and low temperature increase were observed. If adequate laser parameters are selected, this technique seems to be promising for promoting the laser-assisted, minimally invasive approach. PMID:22565342

Bello-Silva, Marina Stella; Wehner, Martin; Eduardo, Carlos de Paula; Lampert, Friedrich; Poprawe, Reinhart; Hermans, Martin; Esteves-Oliveira, Marcella

2013-01-01

295

Quality of life of people living with HIV, preliminary results from IANUA (Investigation on Antiretroviral Therapy) study  

PubMed Central

Introduction The introduction of combined antiretroviral treatment (cART) has reduced HIV-associated morbidity and mortality, and changed the patients’ perspective of life. As a result, Health Related Quality of Life (HRQOL) has become a crucial clinical issue. Objective Assessment of HRQOL in a sample of Italian patients from IANUA study. Investigate correlation between CD4 cell counts, viral load and changes in HRQOL. Materials and Methods EQ-5D-3L self-reported questionnaire has been used in the evaluation of HRQOL. It assesses five dimensions: “mobility,” “self care,” “usual activities,” “pain/discomfort” and “anxiety/depression.” Each dimension has three levels: no problems, some problems and extreme problems. In addition, it includes a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) where one's own health “today” is rated from 0 “worst imaginable health” to 100 “best imaginable health.” The respondents provide information on marital status, education, employment/unemployment, other treatments used in addition to HAART (1,2,3,4,5 or more) and number of hospitalizations due to HIV/AIDS. Results 684 patients completed the questionnaire: 231 females and 453 males. The mean age of the sample was 51 years (range 21–78). The mean VAS score was 69.9. 558 patients (81.5%) reported no problems in mobility. 642 patients (93.5%) had no problems in self care. 423 patients (61.8%) had no pain/discomfort while 219 had some problems. 326 patients (46.1%) had some problems in anxiety/depression. Conclusions The analysis of self-reported questionnaires indicates that HRQOL in our sample group is not deeply affected by HIV/AIDS. The dimensions that are affected in the least are “mobility” and “self care” while the major problem is “anxiety/depression” with half of the sample reporting moderate or high level. PMID:25394088

Venturini, Alberto; Giannini, Barbara; Montefiori, Marcello; Di Biagio, Antonio; Mazzarello, Giovanni; Cenderello, Giovanni; Giacomini, Mauro; Merlano, Caterina; Orcamo, Patrizia; Setti, Maurizio; Viscoli, Claudio; Cassola, Giovanni

2014-01-01

296

Preliminary investigation fo the non-linear response of image intensifiers used for gamma-ray imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Image intensifiers combined with columnar scintillators have found application in x-ray and gamma-ray, biomedical imaging and other fields. In scintillator imaging, hundreds or thousands of optical photons can illuminate the faceplate of the image intensifier in a small area, essentially simultaneously. This is a situation not found in the typical design application for an image intensifier, night vision or low-light-level imaging. Microchannel plates (MCPs) are known to exhibit gain saturation that could result in non-linear signal response in scintillator imaging, limiting quantitative measurement capabilities. A calibrated LED photon source was developed that can provide a known average number of photons per unit area in a small spot size, similar to that seen due to a gamma-ray interaction in a BazookaSPECT imager. A BazookaSPECT imager is composed of a columnar scintillator and an image intensifier, with output light optically imaged onto a CCD camera. The calibrated source was used to investigate gain-saturation effects for two Proxivision, GmbH image intensifiers, a single-stage BV 2583 EZ and a two stage BV 2583 QZ-V 100N in a BazookaSPECT imaging configuration. No gain saturation was found for the single-stage image intensifier up to more than 100 optical photons per microchannel, but significant gain-saturation non-linearities were measured in the two-stage image intensifier at high gains for >12 optical photons per microchannel. Implications for scintillator imaging using such systems are discussed.

Fastje, David; Barber, H. Bradford; Bora, Vaibhav; Lemieux, Daniel; Miller, Brian; Grim, Gary P.

2013-09-01

297

PRELIMINARY ANALYSIS OF THE FINAL MULTICENTER INVESTIGATION OF RHEOPHERESIS FOR AGE RELATED MACULAR DEGENERATION (AMD) TRIAL (MIRA-1) RESULTS  

PubMed Central

Purpose To present an initial evaluation of the final data from the Multicenter Investigation of Rheopheresis for age-related macular degeneration (AMD) (MIRA-1) trial. This was a 12-month randomized, prospective, multicenter, double-masked, placebo-controlled, Food and Drug Administration approved clinical trial designed to compare rheopheresis treatment with placebo-control treatment. Methods Patients that had nonexudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and certain hemorheologic abnormalities were randomized to either rheopheresis or sham treatment in a 2:1 fashion. Best-corrected visual acuity was determined before and at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months following treatment. Adverse events were also recorded. Results A total of 216 patients were randomized. Of these, 18 were not included in the vision or adverse events evaluation because they did not complete one treatment. This decreased the number of patients that were evaluated for adverse events to 198 patients. In this group, there were 27 serious adverse events, but only 1.8 % of treatments were suspended because of adverse events. At 12 months, there were 104 treated patients and 63 placebo patients that had follow-up. The treated patients had a logMAR vision improvement of 0.02 ± 0.213, and the placebo patients had a vision improvement of 0.02 ± 0.20. This was not statistically significant (P = .977). The repeated measure P value for the entire time interval was not significant (P = .69). There appeared to be patients entered into the study that did not meet inclusion criteria. Excluding 37% of the treated patients and 29% of the placebo data from the analysis, there appeared to be statistically significant improvement in the treated patients compared to the control patients at 1 year with a P value of .001 (repeated measures P value = .01). Conclusions At best this was a flawed study in that 37% of the treated cases did not meet inclusion criteria, and at worst there was no evidence of effect. Even though the number of serious adverse events is small, because this study did not show an effect in the intent-to-treat group, rheopheresis should not be performed for AMD outside of an approved randomized controlled trial. PMID:17471343

Pulido, Jose S.; Winters, Jeffrey L.; Boyer, David

2006-01-01

298

A Fiery Investigation of the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) using Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs): Preliminary Results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) coincided with a global negative carbon isotope excursion, suggesting a massive perturbation to the global carbon cycle and a large release of 13C-depleted carbon to the atmosphere, oceans and biosphere. Several proposed sources of this carbon include ocean-floor methane clathrates, thermogenic methane, permafrost oxidation, and burning of peat and/or shallowly buried coal, but the exact source(s) remain unknown. The Paleocene was a time of extensive terrestrial organic carbon burial and some authors have suggested that a change in climate induced burning of the 13C-depleted carbon deposits. In this study a diverse suite of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), organic compounds produced as aerosols during combustion, were characterized and quantified in order to investigate evidence for fire during the PETM. We sampled intervals of cores from Basin Substation, Bighorn Basin, Wyoming, USA, collected as part of the Bighorn Basin Coring Project (BBCP). PAHs were evaluated using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in selective ion monitoring (SIM) mode. We found a range of two- to seven-ring PAHs from napthalene to coronene. For all samples the abundances of individual PAHs range from 0.1 - 100 ng/g dry sediment. Total PAH abundance (sum of 16 PAHs) is reduced in samples from the body of the PETM carbon isotope excursion relative to samples from the latest Paleocene (300 ng/g and 40 ng/g, respectively), although there is a spike in total PAH concentration (2300 ng/g) at or just before the onset of the PETM. The stratigraphic pattern of PAH abundance is consistent with a peak in wildfires at or just before the onset of the PETM, followed by a decrease in the body of the PETM, but also may reflect decreased preservation of organic matter during the hotter and more seasonally dry climate that this region experienced during the PETM. The latter explanation is consistent with a general decrease in organic matter preservation during the PETM interval in this core. Higher relative abundance of high molecular weight PAHs in PETM samples suggests hotter fire temperatures at that time, regardless of fire occurrence. A literal interpretation of the PAH record from the Basin Substation core would suggest more intense burns but less wildfire activity during the PETM, but the effect of changes in organic matter preservation must be eliminated before this interpretation can be accepted.

Denis, E. H.; Wing, S. L.; Freeman, K. H.

2012-12-01

299

A preliminary investigation of the dynamic characteristics of dried soil layers on the Loess Plateau of China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummarySerious soil desiccation, resulting from climatic conditions and poor land management, may lead to the formation of a dried soil layer (DSL), which can negatively affect ecological and hydrological processes. To mitigate these effects through management, it is necessary to understand property interactions within DSLs, compared with those in the whole soil profile, and DSL formation processes under different land uses. We investigated the relationships between soil water content (SWC) and plant root indices, and other soil properties, under various land uses in the Liudaogou watershed on the Loess Plateau, China. We also studied the development of DSLs as a function of the growth age of two vegetation types. Rate of formation and thickness of DSLs were dependent on vegetation type: DSLs formed after 2 years of alfalfa ( Medicago sativa) growth and 3 years of Caragana korshinskii growth; after 4 years of growth, DSLs under alfalfa were thicker than those under C. korshinskii, but after 31 years the DSL thickness under C. korshinskii (4.4 m) exceeded that formed under alfalfa (3 m). The more persistent DSLs occurred below a 100 cm thick upper soil layer that was seasonally dried and replenished by rainfall under both vegetation types. The degree of soil desiccation under natural vegetation was generally less than that under non-indigenous plant species, and was similarly less over a period of about 30 years for a natural plant succession sequence than for an artificial one. Thus, the use of natural vegetation succession management principles would possibly reduce soil desiccation during vegetative restoration. Densities of root length, weight, and surface area, and the average root diameter of soybean ( Glycine max), alfalfa, Stipa bubgeana, and C. korshinskii all decreased with increases in soil depths below 20 cm. Correlations between SWC and root indices, and various soil physical and chemical properties, were generally weaker within the DSL layers than within the whole soil profile. The only significant correlation was between soil organic carbon and SWC under alfalfa ( r = 0.627, P < 0.05). Soil desiccation may thus interfere with these typical inter-relationships occurring within the whole soil profile. Our findings may provide a helpful base reference for the control and restoration of DSLs occurring on the Loess Plateau and in similar arid and semi-arid regions.

Wang, Yunqiang; Shao, Ming'an; Shao, Hongbo

2010-02-01

300

Reductive dechlorination of chlorinated hydrocarbons as non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL): preliminary investigation on effects of cement doses.  

PubMed

The reactivities of various types of iron mixtures to degrade chlorinated hydrocarbons (PCE, TCE and 1,1,1-TCA) in the form of non-aqueous phase liquids were investigated. The iron mixtures included a mixture of Fe(II) and Portland cement (Fe(II)-C), a mixture of Fe(II), Fe(III) and Ca(OH)(2) (Fe(II/III)-L), and a mixture of Fe(II), Fe(III), Ca(OH)(2), and Portland cement (Fe(II/III)-C). When the same amount of Fe(II) was used, Fe(II)-C was more reactive with chlorinated ethylenes (i.e. PCE and TCE) than Fe(II/III)-L. The reductive pathway for high concentrations of total PCE (i.e. above solubility) with Fe(II)-C was determined to be a combination of two-electron transfer, ?-elimination and hydrogenolysis. Increasing the cement dose from 5% to 10% in Fe(II)-C did not affect PCE dechlorination rates, but it did favor the ?-elimination pathway. In addition, when Fe(II/III)-C with 5%C was used, PCE dechlorination was similar to that by Fe(II)-C, but this mixture did not effectively degrade TCE. A modified second-order kinetic model was developed and shown to appropriately describe degradation of TCE at high concentrations. Fe(II/III)-L effectively degraded high concentrations of 1,1,1-TCA at rates that were similar to those obtained with Fe(II)-C using 10% C. Moreover, both increasing cement doses and the presence of Fe(III) increased dechlorination rates of 1,1,1-TCA, which was mainly through the hydrogenolysis pathway. The reactivity of Fe(II/III)-L was strongly dependent on the target compound (i.e. less reactivity with TCE, more with 1,1,1-TCA). Therefore, Fe(II/III)-L could be a potential mixture for degrading 1,1,1-TCA, but it should be modified to degrade TCE more effectively. PMID:22634553

Do, Si-Hyun; Batchelor, Bill

2012-07-15

301

Preliminary investigations on the determination of three-dimensional dose distributions using scintillator blocks and optical tomography  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Clinical QA in teletherapy as well as the characterization of experimental radiation sources for future medical applications requires effective methods for measuring three-dimensional (3D) dose distributions generated in a water-equivalent medium. Current dosimeters based on ionization chambers, diodes, thermoluminescence detectors, radiochromic films, or polymer gels exhibit various drawbacks: High quality 3D dose determination is either very sophisticated and expensive or requires high amounts of effort and time for the preparation or read out. New detectors based on scintillator blocks in combination with optical tomography are studied, since they have the potential to facilitate the desired cost-effective, transportable, and long-term stable dosimetry system that is able to determine 3D dose distributions with high spatial resolution in a short time.Methods: A portable detector prototype was set up based on a plastic scintillator block and four digital cameras. During irradiation the scintillator emits light, which is detected by the fixed cameras. The light distribution is then reconstructed by optical tomography, using maximum-likelihood expectation maximization. The result of the reconstruction approximates the 3D dose distribution. First performance tests of the prototype using laser light were carried out. Irradiation experiments were performed with ionizing radiation, i.e., bremsstrahlung (6 to 21 MV), electrons (6 to 21 MeV), and protons (68 MeV), provided by clinical and research accelerators.Results: Laser experiments show that the current imaging properties differ from the design specifications: The imaging scale of the optical systems is position dependent, ranging from 0.185 mm/pixel to 0.225 mm/pixel. Nevertheless, the developed dosimetry method is proven to be functional for electron and proton beams. Induced radiation doses of 50 mGy or more made 3D dose reconstructions possible. Taking the imaging properties into account, determined dose profiles are in agreement with reference measurements. An inherent drawback of the scintillator is the nonlinear light output for high stopping-power radiation due to the quenching effect. It impacts the depth dose curves measured with the dosimeter. For single Bragg peak distributions this leads to a peak to plateau ratio of 2.8 instead of 4.5 for the reference ionization chamber measurement. Furthermore, the transmission of the clinical bremsstrahlung beams through the scintillator leads to the saturation of one camera, making dose reconstructions in that case presently not feasible.Conclusions: It is shown that distributions of scintillation light generated by proton or electron beams can be reconstructed by the dosimetry system within minutes. The quenching apparent for proton irradiation, and the yet not precisely determined position dependency of the imaging scale, require further investigation and corrections. Upgrading the prototype with larger or inorganic scintillators would increase the detectable proton and electron energy range. The presented results show that the determination of 3D dose distributions using scintillator blocks and optical tomography is a promising dosimetry method.

Kroll, Florian; Karsch, Leonhard [OncoRay - National Center for Radiation Research in Oncology, Medical Faculty Carl Gustav Carus, TU Dresden, 01307 Dresden (Germany)] [OncoRay - National Center for Radiation Research in Oncology, Medical Faculty Carl Gustav Carus, TU Dresden, 01307 Dresden (Germany); Pawelke, Jörg [OncoRay - National Center for Radiation Research in Oncology, Medical Faculty Carl Gustav Carus, TU Dresden, 01307 Dresden, Germany and Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Institute of Radiation Physics, P.O. Box 510119, 01314 Dresden (Germany)] [OncoRay - National Center for Radiation Research in Oncology, Medical Faculty Carl Gustav Carus, TU Dresden, 01307 Dresden, Germany and Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Institute of Radiation Physics, P.O. Box 510119, 01314 Dresden (Germany)

2013-08-15

302

Thermodynamic investigation by heat capacity measurements of ferrimagnetic A2Mn[Mn(CN)6] (A=K, Rb, Cs) Prussian blue compounds.  

PubMed

Heat capacity measurements of a new series of Prussian blue analogs of A2Mn[Mn(CN)6] (A=K, Rb, Cs) composition were performed using thermal relaxation calorimetry. The Cs compound has a face-centered cubic structure with a linear Mn-C?N-Mn linkage, while the monoclinic Rb and K compounds have nonlinear Mn-C?N-Mn linkages. For all of the compounds, large broad thermal anomalies associated with magnetic transitions were observed in the temperature dependence of the heat capacity. The systematic changes in the heat capacity for the three compounds under magnetic fields of up to 7 T were found to be consistent with ferrimagnetic ordering with large spontaneous magnetization. Although the peak temperatures were slightly lower than reported values obtained by magnetic susceptibility measurements, the magnetic entropy was evaluated to be 22.0 ± 2.5 J K(-1) mol(-1). This value is consistent with an entropy of Rln12 corresponding to full entropy of one low-spin and one high-spin Mn(II) ion in the formula unit, though some ambiguity remains in lattice estimation. Broadening of the peak width of the magnetic heat capacity divided by the temperature was observed as the size of the alkali ions decreased from Cs to K. This behavior is consistent with an increase in the lattice distortion produced by the bending of the C?N-Mn angles. PMID:24263378

Kawamoto, Yuka; Yamashita, Satoshi; Yoshimoto, Ryo; Nakazawa, Yasuhiro; DaSilva, Jack G; Kareis, Christopher M; Miller, Joel S

2014-01-01

303

Preliminary assessment of the geothermal potential of Rosario de la Frontera area (Salta, NW Argentina): Insight from hydro-geological, hydro-geochemical and structural investigations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work is part of a project aimed to the development and application of hydrogeological, hydrogeochemical and geological methodologies for the study of the geothermal system of Rosario de La Frontera (NW Argentina). The surface thermal manifestations of this area, whose temperatures range from 22.6 to 92.6 °C, are mainly located in the northern sector of Sierra de la Candelaria anticline. This regional structure crops out between the provinces of Salta and Tucuman (NW Argentina), at the foothills of the central Andean retro-wedge. The present investigation focuses on hydrogeological and structural data, and isotopic compositions (18O, D and 3H) of thermal springs. Preliminary results allowed to define: i) the meteoric origin of spring water and their long (more than 50 years) residence time at depth, ii) a positive water balance, ranging between 2 and 4 millions of m3/yr, and iii) a conservative geothermal reservoir volume of about 39 km3, iv) a geothermal potential with Er = 5.6*1018 J and Ef = 0.8*1018 J.

Invernizzi, C.; Pierantoni, P. P.; Chiodi, A.; Maffucci, R.; Corrado, S.; Baez, W.; Tassi, F.; Giordano, G.; Viramonte, J.

2014-10-01

304

Preliminary results: Root cause investigation of orbital anomalies and failures in NASA standard 50 ampere-hour nickel-cadmium batteries  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two lots of NASA standard 50 A.H. Ni-Cd battery cells, manufactured by Gates Aerospace Batteries and built into batteries by McDonnell Douglas, have experienced significant performance problems. The two lots were used on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory and the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite. Both of these satellites are Low Earth Orbital (LEO) satellites containing batteries on a parallel bus charged to NASA standard V/T curves using a NASA standard power regulator. The following preliminary conclusions were reached: (1) several plate and cell parameters have migrated within their spec limits over the years (in some cases, from one extreme to the other); (2) several parametric relationships, not generally monitored and therefore not under specification control, have also migrated over the years; (3) many of these changes appear to have taken place as a natural consequence of changes in GE/GAB materials and processes; (4) several of these factors may be 'conspiring' to aggravate known cell failure mechanisms (factors such as heavier plate, less teflon and/or less-uniform teflon, and less electrolyte) but all are still in spec (where specs exist); (5) the weight of the evidence collected to characterize the anomalies and to characterize the negative electrode itself, strongly suggests that alterations to the structure, composition, uniformity, and efficiency of the negative electrode are at the heart of the battery performance problems currently being experienced; and (6) further investigation at all levels (plate, cell, battery, and system) continues to be warranted.

Toft, Mark R.

1993-01-01

305

A preliminary investigation comparing one and eight channels at fast and slow rates on music appraisal in adults with cochlear implants.  

PubMed

Music perception is important to cochlear implant patients, but little effort has been devoted to improving signal processing for music. In this preliminary investigation, we probed the importance of number of channels and stimulus rate. We asked eight users of the Clarion cochlear implant to rate music quality on a scale from 0 to 100 on three different types of music (country and western, pop and classical). Patients rated eight- and one-channel processors running at a fast and slow rate. The stimulus rate was 200 pps for the slow rate. For the eight-channel condition, the fast rate varied from 394 to 765 pps. For the one-channel condition, the fast rate varied from 2601 to 4335 pps. Results indicated that the eight-channel condition was uniformly rated higher than the one-channel condition. However, the results for stimulus rate were less clear. No patients assigned higher ratings with the slow rate, but only three subjects assigned higher ratings with the fast rate. We conclude that music perception can be influenced and probably improved by signal processing. The number of channels, or perhaps spectral representation, is critical for music appreciation by cochlear implant recipients. PMID:18791996

Tyler, R S; Gfeller, K; Mehr, M A

2000-09-01

306

Spiritual Bypass: A Preliminary Investigation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The phenomenon of spiritual bypass has received limited attention in the transpersonal psychology and counseling literature and has not been subjected to empirical inquiry. This study examines the phenomenon of spiritual bypass by considering how spirituality, mindfulness, alexithymia (emotional restrictiveness), and narcissism work together to…

Cashwell, Craig S.; Glosoff, Harriet L.; Hammond, Cheree

2010-01-01

307

A possible link between Balkan endemic nephropathy and the leaching of toxic organic compounds from Pliocene lignite by groundwater: Preliminary investigation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN) is a fatal kidney disease that is known to occur only in clusters of villages in alluvial valleys of tributaries of the Danube River in Bulgaria, Romania, Yugoslavia, Bosnia, and Croatia. The confinement of this disease to a specific geographic area has led to speculation that an environmental factor may be involved in the etiology of BEN. Numerous environmental factors have been suggested as causative agents for producing BEN, including toxic metals in drinking water, metal deficiency in soils of BEN areas, and environmental mycotoxins to name a few. These hypotheses have either been disproved or have failed to conclusively demonstrate a connection to the etiology of BEN, or the clustering of BEN villages. In previous work, we observed a distinct geographic relationship between the distribution of Pliocene lignites in the Balkans and BEN villages. We hypothesized that the long-term consumption of well water containing toxic organic compounds derived from the leaching of nearby Pliocene lignites by groundwater was a primary factor in the etiology of BEN. In our current work, chemical analysis using 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (13CNMR) spectroscopy indicated a high degree of organic functionality in Pliocene lignite from the Balkans, and suggested that groundwater can readily leach organic matter from these coal beds. Semi-quantitative gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy analysis of solvent extracts of groundwater from shallow wells in BEN villages indicated the presence of potentially toxic aromatic compounds, such as napthalene, fluorene, phenanthrene, and pyrene at concentrations in the ppb range. Laboratory leaching of Balkan Pliocene lignites with distilled water yielded soluble organic matter (> 500 MW) containing large amounts of aromatic structures similar to the simple/discrete aromatic compounds detected in well water from BEN villages. These preliminary results are permissive of our hypothesis and suggest that further work on the possible relationship between the etiology of BEN and toxic aromatic substances leached from Pliocene lignites in well water is warranted.A distinct geographic relationship between the distribution of Pliocene lignites in the Balkans and villages where Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN) occurs has been observed, indicating a possible link between BEN and the long-term consumption of well water containing toxic organic compounds derived from the leaching of nearby Pliocene lignites. Preliminary investigations by NMR spectroscopy, gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy and leaching experiments show a high degree of organic functionality in the Pliocene lignites, high-leachability by groundwater of organic matter from these beds, and the presence of toxic aromatic compounds.

Orem, W.H.; Feder, G.L.; Finkelman, R.B.

1999-01-01

308

Drug repositioning as a route to anti-malarial drug discovery: preliminary investigation of the in vitro anti-malarial efficacy of emetine dihydrochloride hydrate  

PubMed Central

Background Drug repurposing or repositioning refers to the usage of existing drugs in diseases other than those it was originally used for. For diseases like malaria, where there is an urgent need for active drug candidates, the strategy offers a route to significantly shorten the traditional drug development pipelines. Preliminary high-throughput screens on patent expired drug libraries have recently been carried out for Plasmodium falciparum. This study reports the systematic and objective further interrogation of selected compounds reported in these studies, to enable their repositioning as novel stand-alone anti-malarials or as combinatorial partners. Methods SYBR Green flow cytometry and micro-titre plate assays optimized in the laboratory were used to monitor drug susceptibility of in vitro cultures of P. falciparum K1 parasite strains. Previously described fixed-ratio methods were adopted to investigate drug interactions. Results Emetine dihydrochloride hydrate, an anti-protozoal drug previously used for intestinal and tissue amoebiasis was shown to have potent inhibitory properties (IC50 doses of?~?47nM) in the multidrug resistant K1 strain of P. falciparum. The sum 50% fractional inhibitory concentration (?FIC50, 90) of the interaction of emetine dihydrochloride hydrate and dihydroartemisinin against the K1 strains of P. falciparum ranged from 0.88-1.48. Conclusion The results warrant further investigation of emetine dihydrochloride hydrate as a potential stand-alone anti-malarial option. The interaction between the drug and the current front line dihydroartemisinin ranged from additive to mildly antagonistic in the fixed drug ratios tested. PMID:24107123

2013-01-01

309

Preliminary investigation of the effects of coal-water slurry fuels on the combustion in GE coal fueled diesel engine (Task 1. 1. 2. 2. 1, Fuels)  

SciTech Connect

In prior work with the coal fired diesel research engine, a necessity to determine the sensitivity of the engine to a wider range of fuels was resolved and included in the R and D Test Plan submitted on 2/9/89. In general, the economic viability and universal acceptance of the commercial engine will be a factor of its ability to tolerate the widest range of source fuels with minimal fuel beneficiation. As detailed in the R and D Test Plan, a preliminary investigation on the effects of coal-water slurry (CWS) fuels on the combustion in a GE single cylinder test engine was conducted. The following conclusions are obtained from this investigation. All the test CWS fuels were successfully burned in the GE engine combustion system. They include: 3 to 15 microns mean particle size; 0.7 to 2.8% ash level; KY Blue Gem and PA Mariana bituminous coal, WY Kemmer and Spring Creek Sub-Bituminous coal; coal beneficiated with physical and chemical processes; two kinds of additives for OTISCA CWS; and burnout is not effected by ash or particle size within the test range. For each kind of CWS fuel, the detail design parameters of the fuel injection system has to be compatible. With sufficiently high fuel injection pressure, the 3 micron mean particle size OTISCA fuel burns faster than the 5 micron ones. For OTISCA fuel, the burn rate using Ammonium Lignosulfonate as additive is faster than using Ammonium Condensed Naphthalene Sulfonate. Appendices contain data on heat release, fuel characterization reports from two laboratories, general engine test data, and particulate size distribution. 3 refs.

Not Available

1990-06-01

310

A preliminary investigation of the Spence Children's Anxiety Parent Scale as a screening tool for anxiety in young people with autism spectrum disorders.  

PubMed

Despite high rates of clinically elevated anxiety difficulties in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), very few studies have systematically examined the usefulness of commonly used caregiver report anxiety screening tools with this population. This study investigated the use of the Spence Children's Anxiety Scale-Parent version (SCAS-P) as a screening tool for anxiety disorders when compared to a standardized DSM-IV-TR-based clinical interview, the Kiddie-Schedule for Schizophrenia and Affective Disorders-Present and Lifetime version (K-SADS-PL). Thirty-two caregivers of youth with a clinical diagnosis of ASD (mean age 10.3 years) attending a specialist autism school participated in this study. They first completed the SCAS-P, a measure of adaptive functioning and a checklist of other emotional and behavioral difficulties. They were then interviewed with the K-SADS-PL. Internal consistency for the SCAS Total score was .88, but Cronbach's alphas were <.70 in three of the six SCAS-P subscales. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of the SCAS-P against K-SADS diagnosis were .75, .71, .27, and .95, respectively. All values were >.70, except for the PPV. Evidence of convergent validity between the SCAS-P, K-SADS-PL and DBC anxiety subscale was also found. The high false positive rates notwithstanding, the preliminary data of acceptable to excellent sensitivity, specificity and NPV values tentatively suggest that the SCAS-P may be useful for screening non-help seeking young people with ASD for elevated anxiety symptoms. Further replication in larger studies is needed and ways in which the SCAS-P could be further developed and investigated for use with youth with ASD are discussed. PMID:24573336

Zainal, Hani; Magiati, Iliana; Tan, Julianne Wen-Li; Sung, Min; Fung, Daniel S S; Howlin, Patricia

2014-08-01

311

Preliminary investigation of soil and ground-water contamination at a U.S. Army Petroleum Training Facility, Fort Lee, Virginia, September-October 1989  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Fuel-oil constituents in the soil and groundwater at the Fort Lee Petroleum Training Facility near Petersburg, Virginia, were studied by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Department of Defense, U.S. Army. The study included installation of 25 groundwater monitoring wells and description of groundwater flow patterns of the shallow-aquifer system underlying the facility. Soil and groundwater samples were collected to determine the concentrations of fuel-oil constituents and to determine the potential for off-site migration of the constituents. Total petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations up to 18,400 mg/km were reported in soil samples. Concentrations of benzene in water from wells at the facility were up to 130 micrograms per liter (ug/L), and concentrations of ethylbenzene and xylene were up to 54 and 120 ug/L, respectively. Potential exists for off-site migration of the contaminants and migration of contaminants downward to deeper aquifers. Further investigations of these potential contamination-migration pathways are warranted. Risk identification at the Petroleum Training Facility cannot be properly addressed because the distribution of the fuel-oil constituents has not been fully characterized. Preliminary identification of risk, however is presented by an examination of toxicity data for the chemical constituents reported in the groundwater at the facility. Concentrations of constituents were compared to the maximum contaminant levels (MCLs) for drinking water established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). Concentrations of benzene in water from wells at the facility exceed the USEPA 's 5 ug/L MCL by as much as 26 times. Sufficient data are not available to fully design the remedial-action plan for the facility; however, general responses to contamination of the type associated with the facility include no-action, monitoring, institutional controls, removal, and treatment. (USGS)

Wright, W. G.; Powell, J. D.

1990-01-01

312

ESI-MS investigation of solvent effects on the chiral recognition capacity of tartar emetic towards neutral side-chain amino acids.  

PubMed

The effect of solvent systems on previously-reported ESI-MS based proton-assisted enantioselective molecular recognition phenomena of tartar emetic, L-antimony(III)-tartrate, was evaluated. This was achieved by carrying out a series of competitive binding experiments using chiral selectors, bis(sodium) D- and -L-antimony(III)-tartrates with chiral selectands, neutral side-chain amino acid enantiomeric isotopomers of alanine (Ala), valine (Val), leucine (Leu) and phenylalanine (Phe), in three different solvent systems, ACN/H(2)O (75/25 v/v), H(2)O (100%) and H(2)O/MeOH (25/75 v/v). Observations from these experiments suggest that the effect of solvent systems on previously reported proton-assisted chiral recognition capacity of D,L-antimony(III)-tartrates is small, but not negligible. It was observed that an ACN/H(2)O (75/25 v/v) solvent system facilitates and enhances the chiral discrimination capacity of protonated {[D,L-Sb(2)-tar(2)][H]}(-) ionic species. Further, amino acid enantiomers showed a general trend of increasing selectivity order, Val ? Ala < Leu ? Phe towards the protonated {[D,L-Sb(2)-tar(2)][H]}(-) ionic species which was independent of the solvent system employed. The lack of enantioselective binding for {[D,L-Sb(2)-tar(2)]}(2-) ionic species was consistently recorded in respective mass spectra from all performed experiments, which suggests that ESI-friendly solvent systems have no effect and do not influence this phenomenon. PMID:21125685

Wijeratne, Aruna B; Yang, Samuel H; Gracia, Jose; Armstrong, Daniel W; Schug, Kevin A

2011-01-01

313

Preliminary Results of British Nene II Engine Altitude-Chamber Performance Investigation. I - Altitude Performance Using Standard 18.75-Inch-Diameter Jet Nozzle. 1; Altitude Performance Using Standard 18.75-Inch-Diameter Jet Nozzle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An investigation is being conducted to determine the altitude performance characteristics of the British Nene II engine and its components. The present paper presents the preliminary results obtained using a standard jet nozzle. The test results presented are for conditions simulating altitudes from sea level to 60,000 feet and ram pressure ratios from 1.0 to 2.3. These ram pressure ratios correspond to flight Mach numbers between zero and 1.16 assuming a 100 percent ram recovery.

Barson, Zelmar; Wilsted, H. D.

1948-01-01

314

Geographical origin differentiation of saffron spice ( Crocus sativus L. stigmas) – Preliminary investigation using chemical and multi-element (H, C, N) stable isotope analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A preliminary study of the bulk hydrogen, carbon and nitrogen stable isotope composition of 28 authentic saffron samples produced from Crocus sativus L. cultivated in the typical production areas of Western Macedonia in Greece (8), Khorasan Province in Iran (7), Sardinia in Italy (6) and Castilla-La Mancha in Spain (7) is described. A chemical characterisation of 16 key quality parameters

Luana Maggi; Manuel Carmona; Simon D. Kelly; Niusa Marigheto; Gonzalo L. Alonso

2011-01-01

315

Preliminary investigation of the effects of low-level dietary inclusion of fragrant essential oils and oleoresins on pig performance and pork quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the tissue characteristics of monogastric species are readily influenced by the composition of the feeds they consume, the objectives of this preliminary study were to assess the performance of finisher pigs on diets containing 0.05% of essential oils or oleoresins of rosemary, garlic, oregano, or ginger, and to determine the effect of these diets on pork quality. The pigs

J. A. M. Janz; P. C. H. Morel; B. H. P. Wilkinson; R. W. Purchas

2007-01-01

316

CAPACITY BUILDING ACTIVITIES Public Health  

E-print Network

CAPACITY BUILDING ACTIVITIES School of Public Health Dean Principal Investigator Community Advisory System Faculty & Students School of Public Health Faculty & Students Prince George's County Washington, D.C. Community Members Practitioners, Residents and Public Health Professionals Research Projects Forum (CAC

Hill, Wendell T.

317

Potencial ostrícola del brazo oeste de Bahía San Quintín: Biomasa actual y estimación preliminar de la capacidad de carga Oyster culture potential in the west arm of San Quintín Bay: Current biomass and preliminary estimate of the carrying capacity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biomass production of cultured Pacific oysters, Crassostrea gigas, from the west arm of San Quintín Bay (SQB) was quantified from 1995 to 1998. Filtration and ingestion rates were also mesured in situ (1999-2000) to estimate the oyster carrying capacity of the west arm. At the end of nine months oyster production varied between 0.8 and 2.8 kg oyster per string.

Zaul García-Esquivel; Marco Aurelio González-Gómez; Francisco Ley-Lou; Adán Mejía-Trejo

318

Investigation of oil adsorption capacity of granular organoclay media and the kinetics of oil removal from oil-in-water emulsions  

E-print Network

-water emulsion. A kinetic model was developed to examine the time dependent behavior of the oil adsorbing characteristics of the organoclay and to investigate how closely the experimentally obtained data matches the kinetic model. It was found that organoclay...

Islam, Sonia

2007-04-25

319

An investigation into the compatibility of some irreversible hydrocolloid impression materials and dental gypsum products. Part I. Capacity to record grooves on the international standard die.  

PubMed

Some alginate impression materials produce rough, chalky, soft surfaces on gypsum casts. This is recognized by various standards, which include tests for an alginate's compatibility with gypsum, and its capacity to record details and impart these to a gypsum cast. These qualities were looked at in this study. The method used closely followed that laid down by International Standard ISO 1563-1978(E) for alginate impression materials. Ten alginates and seven gypsum products were tested. Using the criteria specified by this Standard, it was found that none of the materials tested was able to record the finest (0.020 mm) line on the test block. However, two elastomeric impression materials tested in the same manner also failed to reproduce this line, as did all the gypsum products when tested directly against the block. These findings cast some doubt on the efficacy of utilising such a fine line in the classification of these materials. Only thirty-four of the seventy possible combinations were able to reproduce the 0.050 mm line. Eight combinations reproduced the 0.075 mm line as the finest line, and the remainder (thirty-eight) failed to record any of the lines. Some of the alginate materials were treated with fixing solutions of varying concentrations of potassium sulphate and alum. The results obtained varied, sometimes producing marked improvement, sometimes deterioration in the surface quality of the subsequent gypsum casts, despite the fact that none of the manufacturers of the alginates recommended the use of fixing solutions. PMID:3511200

Owen, C P

1986-01-01

320

Investigation of 3-D ordered materials with a high adsorption capacity for BSA and their potential application as an oral vaccine adjuvant.  

PubMed

3-D ordered macroporous (3DOM) materials were customized for BSA adsorption and further oral immunization. These carriers have a high adsorption capacity and our customized carrier showed a distinctive double-plateau adsorption behavior. Different BSA release rates (between the two plateaus) could be obtained by adjusting the ratio of the protein adsorbed on the internal surface and the external surface. This suggests that the release pattern was determined by the adsorption state. One benefit is that the same carrier could have different release profiles making it possible to study the relationship between the release behavior and adjuvant effects without any distractions. Compared with free BSA alone, a significantly higher level of serum IgG, IgA induced by BSA/3DOM was observed and the release profile had an effect on the immunity. The IgG1 and IgG2a titers suggesting that both the Th1 and Th2 mediated immune response were induced. Therefore, this research could help in the development of a novel inorganic oral adjuvant and provide a new avenue for the administration of oral vaccine. PMID:25170604

Zhang, Qiang; Zhao, Qinfu; Zhang, Ying; Han, Ning; Hu, Liang; Zhang, Chen; Jiang, Tongying; Wang, Siling

2014-11-15

321

An Investigation into the Capacity of Student Motivation and Emotion Regulation Strategies to Predict Engagement and Resilience in the Middle School Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although most of the initial research on self-regulated learning focused on cognitive and meta-cognitive aspects, there has been a growing interest in the emotion and motivation domains of self-regulation. This article reports on research undertaken to investigate specific motivation and emotion regulation strategies used by middle school students…

Fried, Leanne; Chapman, Elaine

2012-01-01

322

Effects of Domain Knowledge, Working Memory Capacity, and Age on Cognitive Performance: An Investigation of the Knowledge-Is-Power Hypothesis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Domain knowledge facilitates performance in many cognitive tasks. However, very little is known about the interplay between domain knowledge and factors that are believed to reflect general, and relatively stable, characteristics of the individual. The primary goal of this study was to investigate the interplay between domain knowledge and one…

Hambrick, David Z.; Engle, Randall W.

2002-01-01

323

Topaz II preliminary safety assessment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (SDIO) decided to investigate the possibility of launching a Russian Topaz 11 space nuclear power system. A preliminary safety assessment was conducted to determine whether or not a space mission could be cond...

A. C. Marshall, V. Standley, S. S. Voss, E. Haskin

1992-01-01

324

Heat capacity, configurational heat capacity and fragility of hydrous magmas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The glassy and liquid heat capacities of four series of dry and hydrous natural glasses and magma as a function of temperature and water content (up to 19.9 mol%) were investigated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The analyzed compositions are basalt, latite, trachyte and pantellerite. The results of this study indicate that the measured heat capacity of glasses (Cpg) is a linear function of composition and is well reproduced by the empirical model of Richet (1987). For the investigated glasses, the partial molar heat capacity of water can be considered as independent of composition, in agreement with Bouhifd et al. (2006). For hydrous liquids, the heat capacity (Cpliq) decreases nonlinearly with increasing water content. Previously published models, combined with the partial molar heat capacity of water from the literature, are not able to reproduce our experimental data in a satisfactory way. We estimated the partial molar heat capacity of water (CpH2O) in hydrous magma over a broad compositional range. The proposed value is 41 ± 3 J mol-1 K-1. Water strongly affects the configurational heat capacity at the glass transition temperature [Cpconf (Tg)]. An increases of Cpconf (Tg) with water content was measured for the polymerized liquids (trachyte and pantellerite), while the opposite behavior was observed for the most depolymerized liquids (basalt and latite). Structural and rheological implications of this behavior are discussed in light of the presented results.

Di Genova, D.; Romano, C.; Giordano, D.; Alletti, M.

2014-10-01

325

Preliminary design of four aircraft to service the California Corridor in the year 2010: The California Condor, California Sky-Hopper, high capacity short range transport tilt rotor aircraft needed to simplify intercity transportation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The major objective of this project was to design an aircraft for use in the California Corridor in the year 2010. The design process, completed by students in a senior design class at California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo, used a Class 1 airplane design analysis from Jan Roskam's Airplane Design. The California Condor (CC-38), a 38 passenger, 400 mph aircraft, was designed to meet the needs of tomorrow's passengers while conforming to the California Corridor's restrictions. Assumptions were made using today's technology with forecasts into 21st Century technology. Doubling today's commuter aircraft passenger capacity, travelling at Mach .57 with improved cruise efficiencies of over 10 percent, with the ability to land within field lengths of 4000 feet, are the CC-38's strongest points. The California Condor has a very promising future in helping to relieve the air traffic and airport congestion in the 21st Century.

1989-01-01

326

Photovoltaics effective capacity: Interim final report 2  

SciTech Connect

The authors provide solid evidence, based on more than 8 million data points, that regional photovoltaic (PV) effective capacity is largely unrelated to the region`s solar resource. They confirm, however, that effective capacity is strongly related to load-shape characteristics. The load-shape effective-capacity relationship appears to be valid for end-use loads as small as 100 kW, except possibly in the case of electrically heated buildings. This relationship was used as a tool to produce a US map of PV`s effective capacity. The regions of highest effective capacities include (1) the central US from the northern Great Plains to the metropolitan areas of Chicago and Detroit, down to the lower Mississippi Valley, (2) California and western Arizona, and (3) the northeast metropolitan corridor. The features of this map are considerably different from the traditional solar resource maps. They tend to reflect the socio-economic and climatic factors that indirectly drive PV`s effective capacity: e.g., commercial air-conditioning, little use of electric heat, and strong summer heat waves. The map provides a new and significant insight to a comprehensive valuation of the PV resource. The authors assembled preliminary evidence showing that end-use load type may be related to PV`s effective capacity. Highest effective capacities were found for (nonelectrically heated) office buildings, followed by hospitals. Lowest capacities were found for airports and residences. Many more data points are needed, however, to ascertain and characterize these preliminary findings.

Perez, R.; Seals, R. [State Univ. of New York, Albany, NY (United States). Atmospheric Sciences Research Center

1997-11-01

327

Shaped Offset QPSK Capacity  

E-print Network

In this work we compute the capacities and the pragmatic capacities of military-standard shaped-offset quadrature phase-shift keying (SOQPSK-MIL) and aeronautical telemetry SOQPSK (SOQPSK-TG). In the pragmatic approach, ...

Sahin, Cenk

2012-08-31

328

[Rapid preliminary diagnosis of anaerobic bacterial infections. II. Investigation of the presence of volatile and non-volatile fatty acids (C1-C6) in pus, purulent fluids and dressing by application of gas chromatography].  

PubMed

Studies were performed in the years 1986-1990 and dealing with 405 clinical materials originating from infections within the abdominal cavity, maxilla, reproductive organ, post-operative wounds as well as dressings, extremities, blood, bile and other types of material and usefulness of analysis by gas chromatography of presence of lower fatty acids in materials for rapid and preliminary diagnostics with strictly anaerobic bacteria was confirmed. Presence in chromatograms of isobutyric, butyric isovaleric, valeric, isocaproic and caproic acid, and partly of propionic acid, is a good indication of infection with strictly anaerobic bacteria. Moreover, presence of succinic acid may suggest presence of anaerobic infection, similarly as presence in chromatograms of three or more various lower fatty acids. Rapid, approximative diagnosis of anaerobic bacteria by application of gas chromatography is worth of broader application. Investigation of clinical material by this method lasts only 1-2 hours and obtained results my present a basis for preliminary diagnosis of the etiological factor and for direction of chemotherapy, which is very important in most early period of treatment of infections. PMID:1297037

Ka?owski, M; Dybicki, J; Korzon, T; Goebel, A; Kedzia, A; Kwapisz, E; Oppeln-Bronikowski, W; Czyz, W; Lukia?ski, M; Kopicki, T

1992-01-01

329

Capacity and Currere  

Microsoft Academic Search

My first epigraph above speaks of an arena little talked about these days of terrorism, acrimony, and road rage. It speaks\\u000a of interiority, that which is within all things and so has “capacity.” The word “capacity” interests me. Capacity suggests\\u000a wideness, not narrowness; openness; space for possibilities not yet even imagined, or if imagined done so with a tremble.\\u000a Capacity

Mary Doll

330

A Preliminary Investigation into Critical Thinking of In-Service and Pre-Service Middle School Chemistry Teachers in Shaanxi Province of China  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research investigated the development of critical thinking of middle school chemistry teachers in Shaanxi province of China. In-service and pre-service teachers' critical thinking are examined in order to provide evidence for establishing teachers' standard. The sample in this study consisted of 69 in-service and 61 pre-service chemistry…

Zhou, Qing; Yan, Chungeng; Zhao, Shuyu; Liu, Liya; Xing, Lijuan

2012-01-01

331

Psychological Distress, Acculturation, and Mental Health-Seeking Attitudes among People of African Descent in the United States: A Preliminary Investigation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article investigates the relationship between psychological distress, acculturation, and help-seeking attitudes among people of African descent (N = 130). Psychological distress was measured using the Global Severity Index from the Brief Symptom Inventory (L. R. Derogatis & N. Melisaratos, 1983), acculturation was measured using the…

Obasi, Ezemenari M.; Leong, Frederick T. L.

2009-01-01

332

Cross-Cultural Investigations into Student Development of Spatial Relations and Abstract Mathematical Thought: Some Preliminary Findings from Australia, Japan and the United States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the development of abstract mathematical thought and spatial relations of 13- and 14-year-old students who attended public schools in Australia, Japan, and the United States. Dependent variables included age, ability grouping, ethnicity, sex, mathematics attitudes, and mathematics classroom behaviors. Significant…

Iben, Miriam F.

333

A Preliminary Investigation of the Spence Children's Anxiety Parent Scale as a Screening Tool for Anxiety in Young People with Autism Spectrum Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite high rates of clinically elevated anxiety difficulties in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), very few studies have systematically examined the usefulness of commonly used caregiver report anxiety screening tools with this population. This study investigated the use of the Spence Children's Anxiety…

Zainal, Hani; Magiati, Iliana; Tan, Julianne Wen-Li; Sung, Min; Fung, Daniel S.; Howlin, Patricia

2014-01-01

334

The Effects of Winter Exposure to Acid Soil Conditions on the Subsequent Survival and Growth of Herbaceous, Forest Perennials: a Preliminary Investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

For many plant species, growth is limited in acid soils, which are characterized by high levels of potentially-toxic elements and low nutrient availability. Although plant-soil interactions are traditionally studied during the growing season, the highest concentrations of toxic elements in the soil may occur during the winter months. The present study investigated the effects of a 3-month exposure to either

URSULA FALKENGREN-GRERUP

1998-01-01

335

A Franco-Italian investigation of funerary rituals in the Roman world, “les rites et la mort à Pompéi”, the plant part: a preliminary report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the botanical study of a family funerary enclosure located in the Porta Nocera necropolis in Pompeii\\u000a (southwestern Italy). This study is part of a Franco-Italian programme investigating Roman funerary rituals. The choice of\\u000a the context was due to the exceptional preservation of the archaeological features, which offered the opportunity to observe\\u000a the remains of the proceedings

Véronique Matterne; Marie Derreumaux

2008-01-01

336

Secret Key Capacity for Optimally Correlated Sources Under Sampling Attack  

Microsoft Academic Search

The capacity for secret key agreement for permutation-invariant and symmetric sources under a sampling attack is investigated. The supremum of the normalized secret key capacity is introduced, where the supremum is taken over all permutation-invariant sources or all symmetric sources and the normalized secret key capacity is the secret key capacity divided by the description length of the symbol. It

Jun Muramatsu; Kazuyuki Yoshimura; Kenichi Arai; Peter Davis

2006-01-01

337

Reconstruction in Aceh: Building whose capacity?  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractOne of the dominant themes in development programmes over the last fifteen years has been a commitment to capacity building. This paper investigates the forms of capacity building in Aceh, Indonesia, since the devastating earthquake and tsunami that hit the province on 26 December 2004. Despite the preference of the Acehnese people for reconstruction processes based on the principles of

Sue Kenny

2007-01-01

338

Preliminary Results of Altitude-Wind-Tunnel Investigation of X24C-4B Turbojet Engine. V - Performance of Modified Engine. V; Performance of Modified Engine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An investigation has been conducted in the NACA Cleveland altitude wind tunnel to evaluate the performance characteristics of a modified X24C-4B turbojet engine over a range of simulated altitudes from 5000 to 45,000 feet, simulated flight Mach numbers from 0.25 to 1.07, and engine speeds from 4000 to 12,500 rpm. The engine was modified by the manufacturer to improve the velocity and temperature profiles within the engine. Performance data are graphically presented to show the effect of altitude at a flight Mach number of 0.25 and the effect of flight Mach number at an altitude of 25,000 feet. Original and modified engine performances for several specific operating conditions are compared. A complete tabulation of average pressures and temperatures throughout the engine, performance data, and lubrication and fuel-system data is presented.

Prince, William R.; Bloomer, Harry E.

1947-01-01

339

MR guided thermal therapy of pancreatic tumors with endoluminal, intraluminal and interstitial catheter-based ultrasound devices: preliminary theoretical and experimental investigations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Image-guided thermal interventions have been proposed for potential palliative and curative treatments of pancreatic tumors. Catheter-based ultrasound devices offer the potential for temporal and 3D spatial control of the energy deposition profile. The objective of this study was to apply theoretical and experimental techniques to investigate the feasibility of endogastric, intraluminal and transgastric catheter-based ultrasound for MR guided thermal therapy of pancreatic tumors. The transgastric approach involves insertion of a catheter-based ultrasound applicator (array of 1.5 mm OD x 10 mm transducers, 360° or sectored 180°, ~7 MHz frequency, 13-14G cooling catheter) directly into the pancreas, either endoscopically or via image-guided percutaneous placement. An intraluminal applicator, of a more flexible but similar construct, was considered for endoscopic insertion directly into the pancreatic or biliary duct. An endoluminal approach was devised based on an ultrasound transducer assembly (tubular, planar, curvilinear) enclosed in a cooling balloon which is endoscopically positioned within the stomach or duodenum, adjacent to pancreatic targets from within the GI tract. A 3D acoustic bio-thermal model was implemented to calculate acoustic energy distributions and used a FEM solver to determine the transient temperature and thermal dose profiles in tissue during heating. These models were used to determine transducer parameters and delivery strategies and to study the feasibility of ablating 1-3 cm diameter tumors located 2-10 mm deep in the pancreas, while thermally sparing the stomach wall. Heterogeneous acoustic and thermal properties were incorporated, including approximations for tumor desmoplasia and dynamic changes during heating. A series of anatomic models based on imaging scans of representative patients were used to investigate the three approaches. Proof of concept (POC) endogastric and transgastric applicators were fabricated and experimentally evaluated in tissue mimicking phantoms, ex vivo tissue and in vivo canine model under multi-slice MR thermometry. RF micro-coils were evaluated to enable active catheter-tracking and prescription of thermometry slice positions. Interstitial and intraluminal ultrasound applicators could be used to ablate (t43>240min) tumors measuring 2.3-3.4 cm in diameter when powered with 20-30 W/cm2 at 7 MHz for 5-10 min. Endoluminal applicators with planar and curvilinear transducers operating at 3-4 MHz could be used to treat tumors up to 20-25 mm deep from the stomach wall within 5 min. POC devices were fabricated and successfully integrated into the MRI environment with catheter tracking, real-time thermometry and closed-loop feedback control.

Prakash, Punit; Salgaonkar, Vasant A.; Scott, Serena J.; Jones, Peter; Hensley, Daniel; Holbrook, Andrew; Plata, Juan; Sommer, Graham; Diederich, Chris J.

2013-02-01

340

MR guided thermal therapy of pancreatic tumors with endoluminal, intraluminal and interstitial catheter-based ultrasound devices: Preliminary theoretical and experimental investigations  

PubMed Central

Image-guided thermal interventions have been proposed for potential palliative and curative treatments of pancreatic tumors. Catheter-based ultrasound devices offer the potential for temporal and 3D spatial control of the energy deposition profile. The objective of this study was to apply theoretical and experimental techniques to investigate the feasibility of endogastric, intraluminal and transgastric catheter-based ultrasound for MR guided thermal therapy of pancreatic tumors. The transgastric approach involves insertion of a catheter-based ultrasound applicator (array of 1.5 mm OD x 10 mm transducers, 360° or sectored 180°, ~7 MHz frequency, 13–14G cooling catheter) directly into the pancreas, either endoscopically or via image-guided percutaneous placement. An intraluminal applicator, of a more flexible but similar construct, was considered for endoscopic insertion directly into the pancreatic or biliary duct. An endoluminal approach was devised based on an ultrasound transducer assembly (tubular, planar, curvilinear) enclosed in a cooling balloon which is endoscopically positioned within the stomach or duodenum, adjacent to pancreatic targets from within the GI tract. A 3D acoustic bio-thermal model was implemented to calculate acoustic energy distributions and used a FEM solver to determine the transient temperature and thermal dose profiles in tissue during heating. These models were used to determine transducer parameters and delivery strategies and to study the feasibility of ablating 1–3 cm diameter tumors located 2–10 mm deep in the pancreas, while thermally sparing the stomach wall. Heterogeneous acoustic and thermal properties were incorporated, including approximations for tumor desmoplasia and dynamic changes during heating. A series of anatomic models based on imaging scans of representative patients were used to investigate the three approaches. Proof of concept (POC) endogastric and transgastric applicators were fabricated and experimentally evaluated in tissue mimicking phantoms, ex vivo tissue and in vivo canine model under multi-slice MR thermometry. RF micro-coils were evaluated to enable active catheter-tracking and prescription of thermometry slice positions. Interstitial and intraluminal ultrasound applicators could be used to ablate (t43>240 min) tumors measuring 2.3–3.4 cm in diameter when powered with 20–30 W/cm2 at 7 MHz for 5–10 min. Endoluminal applicators with planar and curvilinear transducers operating at 3–4 MHz could be used to treat tumors up to 20–25 mm deep from the stomach wall within 5 min. POC devices were fabricated and successfully integrated into the MRI environment with catheter tracking, real-time thermometry and closed-loop feedback control. PMID:24860246

Prakash, Punit; Salgaonkar, Vasant A.; Scott, Serena J.; Jones, Peter; Hensley, Daniel; Holbrook, Andrew; Plata, Juan; Sommer, Graham; Diederich, Chris J.

2014-01-01

341

Construction and preliminary investigation of a novel dengue serotype 4 chimeric virus using Japanese encephalitis vaccine strain SA14-14-2 as the backbone.  

PubMed

For the purpose of developing a novel dengue vaccine candidate, recombinant plasmids were constructed which contained the full length cDNA clone of Japanese encephalitis (JE) vaccine strain SA14-14-2 with its premembrane (PreM) and envelope (E) genes replaced by the counterparts of dengue virus type 4 (DENV4). By transfecting the in vitro transcription products of the recombinant plasmids into BHK-21 cells, a chimeric virus JEV/DENV4 was successfully recovered. The chimeric virus was identified by complete genome sequencing, Western blot and immunofluorescent staining. Growth characteristics revealed it was well adapted to primary hamster kidney (PHK) cells. Its genetic stability was investigated and only one unintentional mutation in 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR) was found after 20 passages in PHK cells. Neurotropism, neurovirulence and immunogenicity of the chimeric virus were tested in mice. Besides, the influence of JE vaccine pre-immunization on the neutralizing antibody level induced by the chimeric virus was illuminated. To our knowledge, this is the first chimeric virus incorporating the JE vaccine stain SA14-14-2 and DENV4. It is probably a potential candidate to compose a tetravalent dengue chimeric vaccine. PMID:25091563

Li, Zhushi; Yang, Huiqiang; Yang, Jian; Lin, Hua; Wang, Wei; Liu, Lina; Zhao, Yu; Liu, Li; Zeng, Xianwu; Yu, Yongxin; Li, Yuhua

2014-10-13

342

The clinical presentation of chronic whiplash and the relationship to findings of MRI fatty infiltrates in the cervical extensor musculature: a preliminary investigation  

PubMed Central

The objective was to determine whether any measurable changes in sensory responses, kinesthetic sense, cervical motion, and psychological features were related to established fatty infiltration values in the cervical extensor musculature in subjects with persistent whiplash. It is unknown if fatty infiltrate is related to any signs or symptoms. Data on motor function, Quantitative Sensory Testing, psychological and general well-being, and pain and disability were collected from 79 female subjects with chronic whiplash. Total fat values were created for all subjects by averaging the muscle fat indices by muscle, level, and side from our MRI dataset of all the cervical extensor muscles. Results of this study indicate the presence of altered physical, kinesthetic, sensory, and psychological features in this cohort of patients with chronic whiplash. Combined factors of sensory, physical, kinesthetic, and psychological features all contributed to a small extent in explaining the varying levels of fatty infiltrate, with cold pain thresholds having the most influence (r2 = 0.28; P = 0.02). Identifying and relating quantifiable muscular alterations to clinical measures in the chronic state, underpin some clinical hypotheses for possible pathophysiological processes in this group with a chronic and recalcitrant whiplash disorder. Future research investigations aimed at accurate identification, sub-classification, prediction, and management of patients with acute and chronic whiplash is warranted and underway. PMID:19672633

Sterling, Michele; Noteboom, Jon Timothy; Treleaven, Julia; Galloway, Graham; Jull, Gwendolen

2009-01-01

343

Photothermal response of CVD synthesized carbon (nano)spheres/aqueous nanofluids for potential application in direct solar absorption collectors: a preliminary investigation.  

PubMed

Direct-absorption solar collectors have the potential to offer an unlimited source of renewable energy with minimal environmental impact. Unfortunately, their performance is limited by the absorption efficiency of the working fluid. Nanoparticles of functionalized carbon nanospheres (CNS) have the potential to improve the photothermal properties of the working fluid. CNS are produced by the pyrolysis of acetylene gas in a tube-based electric furnace/chemical vapor deposition apparatus. The reaction takes place at 1000°C in the presence of nitrogen gas without the use of a catalyst. The synthesized CNS were examined and characterized using field-emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, thermal gravimetric analysis, and ultraviolet-visible analysis. The CNS powders with a mean particle size of 210 nm were then functionalized using tetraethylammonium hydroxide ([C2H5]4 N[OH]) and used to produce a series of aqueous nanofluids with varying mass content. The photothermal response of both the nanofluids and films composed of CNS were investigated under 1000 W/m(2) solar irradiation. PMID:24198496

Poinern, Gérrard Eddy Jai; Brundavanam, Sridevi; Shah, Monaliben; Laava, Iafeta; Fawcett, Derek

2012-01-01

344

Preliminary design of centrifugal compressors  

SciTech Connect

Preliminary design calculations are analyzed for a centrifugal compressor, after choosing as the type of the turbomachine from the curves given by Balje (1981). In impeller calculations, the effect of slip factor on exit conditions, the inducer geometry and the effect of choked flow on relative Mach number are investigated. In discharge calculation vaned diffusers are compared with vaneless diffusers.

Kocak, S. [Selcuk Univ., Konya (Turkey). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

1996-11-01

345

Heterogeneous effect of quinidine on the ventricular depolarization process assessed by the spatial velocity electrocardiogram of the QRS complex. Preliminary report of a new investigative method.  

PubMed

The negative conduction effect of quinidine on each of the successive phases of the ventricular depolarization was investigated using an original noninvasive method: the spatial velocity electrocardiogram of the QRS complex (SVECG-QRS). We performed a randomized placebo-controlled trial in 10 healthy subjects with a single oral dose of quinidine (330 mg) or placebo. Electrocardiographic acquisition and processing (220 recordings for the complete trial) were performed using the Lyon vectorcardiographic program. For each SVECG-QRS curve, the position of seven specific points from A (onset of QRS) to G (end of QRS) were determined precisely. The six successive time intervals between these points (AB-FG) and five velocity values (B-F) were then calculated. The QRS complex was longer under quinidine than placebo (102.4 +/- 1.6 vs. 100.3 +/- 1.5 ms). The difference was at the periphery of statistical significance (p = 0.05), and this lack of statistical difference may be mainly due to the low serum levels of quinidine obtained at the peak of the concentration (1.46 +/- 0.4 mg/1). All six QRS time intervals were longer under quinidine, but only the BC interval was significantly different (9.3 +/- 1.1 vs. 18.8 +/- 1.1 ms; p < 0.05) suggesting a more pronounced negative conduction effect at the onset of ventricular depolarization. No significant modifications were observed for the velocity values. We conclude that (1) the negative conduction effect of quinidine is heterogeneous, but a further study with a higher dose of quinidine (concentration-dependent effect) is required to confirm this hypothesis and (2) the spatial velocity electrocardiogram of the QRS complex allows a detailed analysis of the ventricular conduction phases. The results of the measurement were found to be reproducible. This noninvasive tool could be used in clinical practice to assess effects of antiarrhythmic drugs on successive ventricular depolarization phases. PMID:8653729

Fareh, S; Arnaud, P; Fayn, J; Nony, P; Girard, P; Haugh, M; Girard, I; Ferry, S; Boissel, J P; Rubel, P

1996-01-01

346

A preliminary investigation and evaluation of the thallium environmental impacts of the unmined Xiangquan thallium-only deposit in Hexian, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Xiangquan Thallium-only deposit in Hexian, east China is a newly found near-surface and unmined shallow-seated thallium deposit. The 250t Tl deposit is hosted in Lower Ordovician Lunshan Group as lenticular and confined by northeast F1, F2 faults. The metallic minerals are dominated by pyrite, more than 95% Tl occurs in pyrite as tiny individual grains or as ‘‘invisible thallium”. Tl and other trace elements pollution in ecosystems such as soils, surface and ground waters and water sediments, plants and crops, and animal and human beings in Xiangquan near the Tl ore deposit have been investigated and evaluated. Results show that Tl as well as As and Sb in ecosystems in Xiangquan around the deposit have enriched, they came from Tl-pyrite in the ore bodies and in the parent rocks of weathered soils on top of the ore bodies and went into the nearby ecosystems through weathering, leaching and dissolving. In 2 km2 around the Xiaolongwang Mountain where the Tl ore deposit seated, soils, vegetables, crops have been polluted or heavily polluted by Tl, As and Sb. Farmlands near the ore body are not fit to grow vegetables and crops. Thermal Spring water in Xiangquan town and pond water close to the Tl deposit are not potable. Tl also enriches in human hair and urinate of villagers who live close to the Tl deposit. Even through the Tl-only deposit has put clear environmental impacts on the local environment and ecosystems around it, no serious consequences of Tl pollution have so far taken place due to unmining of the Tl deposit as well as the screen effect of the silicficious breccia cap on top of it. All this work adds new knowledge to understand Tl behavior in unmined Tl deposit, and also benefit to the local environmental protection and the future mineral resources exploration.

Zhou, Taofa; Fan, Yu; Yuan, Feng; Cooke, David; Zhang, Xin; Li, Liangjun

2008-03-01

347

Preliminary investigation of electrodynamic charged droplet processing to couple capillary liquid chromatography with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Charged droplet processing methodology, that utilizes electrodynamic levitation technology to control the trajectories of picoliter volume charged droplets and deliver them to a target plate at atmospheric pressure, has been developed. Termed wall-less sample preparation (WaSP), this methodology offers several features that could prove beneficial to the preparation of sample spots from separation column effluents for matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) analysis. These features include solute pre-concentration factors of 10(1) to 10(3) due to volatile solvent evaporation prior to droplet deposition onto the target plate, high spatial accuracy of the deposition position of each processed droplet (+/-5 microm), and the ability to prepare sample spots as small as 20 microm in diameter from a single droplet. Here a new mode of operation of this methodology is described and used as an offline post-column pre-concentrating interface between capillary liquid chromatography (capLC) and a target plate for offline MALDI-MS. Using a fraction from the capLC separation of peptides produced by the proteolytic digestion of the protein cytidine 5'-triphosphate:phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase, MALDI sample spots were prepared using the dried-droplet method, direct piezoelectric droplet dispensing, and the processing of piezo-dispensed droplets by WaSP. The sample spot morphology was investigated using light microscopy, and peptide ion abundances produced by MALDI were measured using time-of-flight (TOF) MS. The advantages of developing an online capLC/WaSP interface with MALDI-MS in the future are discussed along with some of the challenges that may be encountered in such an endeavor. PMID:15476188

Bogan, Michael J; Agnes, George R

2004-01-01

348

Preliminary Results of Altitude-Wind-Tunnel Investigation of X24C-4B Turbojet Engine. I - Pressure and Temperature Distributions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Pressures and temperatures throughout the X24C-4B turbojet engine are presented in both tabular and graphical forms to show the effect of altitude, flight Mach number, and engine speed on the internal operation of the engine. These data were obtained in the NACA Cleveland altitude wind tunnel at simulated altitudes from 5000 to 45,000 feet, simulated flight Mach numbers from 0.25 to 1.08, and engine speeds from 4000 to 12,500 rpm. Location and detail drawings of the instrumentation installed at seven survey stations in the engine are shown. Application of generalization factors to pressures and temperatures at each measuring station for the range of altitudes investigated showed that the data did not generalize above an altitude of 25,000 feet. Total-pressure distribution at the compressor outlet varied only with change in engine speed. At altitudes above 35,000 feet and engine speeds above 11,000 rpm, the peak temperature at the turbine-outlet annulus moved inward toward the root of the blade, which is undesirable from blade-stress considerations. The temperature levels at the turbine outlet and the exhaust-nozzle outlet were lowered as the Mach number was increased. The static-pressure measurements obtained at each stator stage of the compressor showed a pressure drop through the inlet guide vanes and the first-stage rotor at high engine speeds. The average values measured by the manufacturer's instrumentation werein close agreement with the average values obtained with NACA instrumentation.

Prince, William R.; Hawkins, W. Kent

1947-01-01

349

Retention capacity of correlated surfaces  

E-print Network

We investigate the water retention model [C. L. Knecht \\emph{et al.}, Phys. Rev. Lett. {\\bf 108}, 045703 (2012)] on correlated and uncorrelated random surfaces. We find that the retention capacity of discrete random landscapes is strongly affected by spatial correlations among the heights. This phenomenon is related to the emergence of power-law scaling in the lake volume distribution. We also solve the uncorrelated case exactly for a small lattice.

Schrenk, K J; Ziff, R M; Herrmann, H J

2014-01-01

350

Effects of low and high dose intraarticular tiludronate on synovial fluid and clinical variables in healthy horses-a preliminary investigation.  

PubMed

To determine effects of intraarticularly administered tiludronate on articular cartilage in vivo, eight healthy horses were injected once with tiludronate (low dose tiludronate [LDT] 0.017 mg, n = 4; high dose tiludronate [HDT] 50 mg, n = 4) into one middle carpal joint and with saline into the contralateral joint. Arthrocentesis of both middle carpal joints was performed pre-treatment, and 10 min, 24 h, 48 h, 7 and 14 days after treatment. Synovial nucleated cell counts and total solids, tiludronate, sulfated glycosaminoglycan (sGAG), chondroitin sulfate 846 epitope (CS-846, a measure of aggrecan synthesis), and collagen type II cleavage neoepitope (C2C) concentrations were determined. Histologic analysis of joint tissues and sGAG quantitation in cartilage was performed at 14 days in HDT horses. Data were analyzed by repeated measures non-parametric ANOVA and Wilcoxon signed-rank test. High dose tiludronate administration produced synovial fluid tiludronate concentrations of 2,677,500 ng/mL, exceeding concentrations that were safe for cartilage in vitro, and LDT administration produced synovial fluid concentrations of 1,353 ng/mL, remaining below concentrations considered potentially detrimental to cartilage. With HDT, synovial fluid total solids concentration was higher at 24 h and 7 days and sGAG concentration was higher at 48 h, compared to control joints. Synovial fluid CS-846 concentration was increased over pre-treatment values in HDT control but not in HDT treated joints at 24 and 48 h. All joints (HDT and LDT control and treated) showed a temporary decrease in synovial fluid C2C concentration, compared to pre-treatment values. Histologic features of articular cartilage and synovial membrane did not differ between HDT treated and control joints. High dose tiludronate treatment caused a transient increase in synovial total solids and temporarily increased proteoglycan degradation in cartilage. Although clinical significance of these changes are questionable, as they did not result in articular cartilage damage, further investigation of the safety of intraarticular HDT in a larger number of horses is warranted. PMID:25237596

Duesterdieck-Zellmer, Katja F; Moneta, Lindsey; Ott, Jesse F; Larson, Maureen K; Gorman, Elena M; Hunter, Barbara; Löhr, Christiane V; Payton, Mark E; Morré, Jeffrey T; Maier, Claudia S

2014-01-01

351

Investigation of a hydrological system related to the stability of slope sediments off the Nice Aiport, Ligurian Sea - preliminary data and a sketch for a MSP drilling proposal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The sedimentary instability of submarine slopes poses a major geohazard and threatens coastal infrastructure both on- and offshore. The Ligurian Margin, Southern France, represents such a potentially unstable slope where factors favouring instability include seismicity, groundwater charging, presence of weak minerals, high sediment accumulation rates, anthropogenic impact by construction, and slope oversteepening. On the 16th of October 1979 a major submarine landslide (~8.7 km2) affected the coastal system offshore Nice and resulted in destruction of an embankment at the Nice airport, a debris flow cutting two submarine cables tens of kilometres away from the sliding area, and a tsunami wave of 2-3 m at the nearby coast. It was proposed several years ago that overpressuring linked to the hydrogeological condition could have been the trigger mechanism of the Nice Airport failure, and seawater composition in this area further suggested that fresh ground water is released offshore by coastal aquifers. The hydrogeological triggering model is also supported by sedimentary and seismic data indicating that gently seaward-dipping permeable layers of sediment may provide aquifer pathways down to a maximum depth of 150 m. An investigation of the superficial sediments (max. 30 mbsf) was recently performed in close collaboration between France (e.g. PRISME cruise with RV L'Atalante, 2007) and Germany (e.g. M73 cruise with RV Meteor, 2007). The study included geophysical acquisition, in situ pore pressure and shear strength measurements (CPTU devices, Penfeld penetrometer) as well as gravity coring. For long- and mid-term measurements, piezometers, which acquire the pore pressure at five different depth levels within the sediment, were installed by IFREMER Brest, France. Short-term measurements were carried out with the marine shallow-water FF-CPTU probe by the MARUM Bremen, Germany, while geochemical analysis was performed on pore water extracted from the cores. The main results at this stage include: • Long-term pore pressure measurements (Nov 2006 - Nov 2007) in the scar of the 1979 landslide with a piezometer indicate a direct relationship to precipitation events, as the variability of the measured pore pressure follows the rate of rainfall. • Mid-term pore pressure records (34 h) acquired in the landslide scar at different depth levels show contrasting pore pressure evolutions. At 4.25 m below seafloor an increase of pore pressure (~2 kPa) over time could be observed, whereas the pressure in the other levels steadily decreases over time. • FF-CPTU short-term deployments (25-310 mins) in the area of the Nice Airport indicate higher than hydrostatic pore pressures in sediments in the upper part of the slope, close to the scar of the 1979 landslide. • Geochemical analyses of pore waters from the overpressured sediment layers show salinities of 5-50% seawater (SW) concentration and depletion in other constituents (e.g. Cl, Fe, sulfate). Cores E or W of the landslide scar in the undisturbed slope show regular SW profiles, which reveal that the zone of freshening (i.e. groundwater charging through coarse-grained, permeable sands/gravels) is limited in extension, or lies at a deeper level there than in the landslide scar. • ROV surveys indicate that parts of the surface sediment is currently creeping. The Nice airport area is now the focus of a mission-specific (MSP) drilling proposal to study the regional extension of the fluid-charged, metastable slope along the French Riviera. This portion of the Mediterranean coastline receives millions of tourists each year and comprises valuable infrastructure all along. Understanding the preconditioning factors and governing trigger mechanisms for near-shore submarine slope instability is one of the key objectives to be addressed. We hence propose a low-cost drilling project in an area of highest societal and scientific relevance. Both natural and anthropogenic factors can be easily quantified at this location, and a link to long-term monitoring projects is established through the EU

Henry, P.; Stegmann, S.; Sultan, N.; Sage, F.; Migeon, S.; Kopf, A.

2009-04-01

352

Determining School Capacity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes seven methods of calculating a school's capacity (the number of students that can be instructed without curtailing the educational program), including one devised by the author. (MCG)

Day, C. William

1984-01-01

353

Refinery Capacity Report  

EIA Publications

Data series include fuel, electricity, and steam purchased for consumption at the refinery; refinery receipts of crude oil by method of transportation; and current and projected atmospheric crude oil distillation, downstream charge, and production capacities. Respondents are operators of all operating and idle petroleum refineries (including new refineries under construction) and refineries shut down during the previous year, located in the 50 states, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Guam, and other U.S. possessions. The Refinery Capacity Report does not contain working and shell storage capacity data. This data is now being collected twice a year as of March 31 and September 30 on the Form EIA-810, "Monthly Refinery Report", and is now released as a separate report Working and Net Available Shell Storage Capacity.

2014-01-01

354

Preliminary assessment/site investigation: Tooele Army Depot, Utah. Volume 1. North Area and facilities at Hill Air Force Base. Final technical report, 1 September 1985-1 November 1987  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the Preliminary Assessment/Site Investigation (PA/SI) phase of the U.S. Army Installation Restoration Program for the North Area of Tooele Army Depot (N-TEAD), Utah. The PA/SI for N-TEAD involved the performance of a records search and the development and implementation of a field-sampling and analysis program. The objectives of the PA/SI were to: (1) identify sites at N-TEAD used to store, process, and/or dispose of hazardous waste; (2) determine which of these sites have a low potential for environmental contamination and/or pose no immediate apparent threat to public health and welfare; (3) determine which sites have a high potential for environmental contamination and/or pose a threat to public health and welfare; (4) perform limited sampling of soil, ground water, and/or surface water to determine existence of contamination, if any, and to evaluate potential for offsite migration; and (5) identify off-post sites that may be impacting the environment of N-TEAD.

Lapins, A.; McConnell, L.; Porter, T.

1988-12-12

355

Forward capacity market CONEfusion  

SciTech Connect

In ISO New England and PJM it was assumed that sponsors of new capacity projects would offer them into the newly established forward centralized capacity markets at prices based on their levelized net cost of new entry, or ''Net CONE.'' But the FCCMs have not operated in the way their proponents had expected. To clear up the CONEfusion, FCCM designs should be reconsidered to adapt them to the changing circumstances and to be grounded in realistic expectations of market conduct. (author)

Wilson, James F.

2010-11-15

356

Panama Canal capacity analysis  

SciTech Connect

Predicting the transit capacities of the various Panama Canal alternatives required analyzing data on present Canal operations, adapting and extending an existing computer simulation model, performing simulation runs for each of the alternatives, and using the simulation model outputs to develop capacity estimates. These activities are summarized in this paper. A more complete account may be found in the project final report (TAMS 1993). Some of the material in this paper also appeared in a previously published paper (Rosselli, Bronzini, and Weekly 1994).

Bronzini, M.S. [Oak Ridge National Lab., Knoxville, TN (United States). Center for Transportation Analysis

1995-04-27

357

Measures for persuasion dialogs: A preliminary investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Persuasion is one of the main types of dialogs encountered in everyday life. The basic idea behind a persuasion is that two (or more) agents disagree on a state of affairs, and each one tries to persuade the other to c hange his mind. For that purpose, agents exchange arguments of different strengths. Several systems, grounded on argumentation theory, have

Leila AMGOUD; Florence DUPIN DE SAINT

358

Viking magnetic properties investigation - Preliminary results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Three permanent-magnet arrays are aboard the Viking lander. By sol 35, one array, fixed on a photometric reference test chart on top of the lander, has clearly attracted magnetic particles from airborne dust; two other magnet arrays, one strong and one weak, incorporated in the backhoe of the surface sampler, have both extracted considerable magnetic mineral from the surface as a result of nine insertions associated with sample acquisition. The loose Martian surface material around the landing site is judged to contain 3 to 7 per cent highly magnetic mineral which, pending spectrophotometric study, is thought to be mainly magnetite.

Hargraves, R. B.; Collinson, D. W.; Spitzer, C. R.

1976-01-01

359

Preliminary geothermal investigations in West Virginia  

SciTech Connect

Deep sedimentary basins and warm spring systems are potential geothermal resources in West Virginia. A temperature gradient map based on 800 BHT for WV shows that variation of temperature gradients trend NE parallel to regional structure. Highest temperature gradient values of about 28/sup 0/C/km occur in the eastcentral WV and the lowest gradients (18/sup 0/C/km) are found over the Rome trough. Results of groundwater geochemistry indicate that the warm springs circulate in very shallow aquifers and are subject to seasonal temperature fluctuations. Silica heat flow data in WV varies from about .89 to 1.4 HFU and generally increases towards the west. Bouguer, magnetic and temperature gradient profiles suggest that an ancient rift transects the State and is the site of several deep sedimentary basins.

Hendry, R. (State Univ. of New York/Buffalo, Amherst); Hilfiker, K.; Hodge, D.; Morgan, P.; Swanberg, C.

1981-10-01

360

A Preliminary Investigation of Hall Thruster Technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A three-year, NASA/BMDO-sponsored experimental program to conduct performance and plume plasma property measurements on two Russian Stationary Plasma Thrusters (SPTs) has been completed. The program utilized experimental facilitates at the University of Michigan's Plasmadynamics and Electric Propulsion Laboratory (PEPL). The main features of the proposed effort were as follows: We Characterized Hall thruster [and arcjet] performance by measuring ion exhaust velocity with probes at various thruster conditions. Used a variety of probe diagnostics in the thruster plume to measure plasma properties and flow properties including T(sub e) and n(sub e), ion current density and ion energy distribution, and electric fields by mapping plasma potential. Used emission spectroscopy to identify species within the plume and to measure electron temperatures.

Gallimore, Alec D.

1997-01-01

361

Biofeedback Training and Underachievement: A Preliminary Investigation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

College students experiencing academic difficulties are a major concern to universities. Research has indicated that many underachievers display certain identifiable electroencephalogram (EEG) characteristics. Unlike achieving students, underachievers often exhibit little EEG arousal during normally motivating tasks. These findings suggest that…

Von Bargen, Wayne J.

362

A Preliminary Investigation of Hall Thruster Technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A three-year NASA/BMDO-sponsored experimental program to conduct performance and plume plasma property measurements on two Russian Stationary Plasma Thrusters (SPTs) has been completed. The program utilized experimental facilitates at the University of Michigan's Plasmadynamics and Electric Propulsion Laboratory (PEPL). The main features of the proposed effort were as follows: (1) Characterized Hall thruster (and arcjet) performance by measuring ion exhaust velocity with probes at various thruster conditions; (2) Used a variety of probe diagnostics in the thruster plume to measure plasma properties and flow properties including T(sub e) and n(sub e) ion current density and ion energy distribution, and electric fields by mapping plasma potential; (3) Used emission spectroscopy to identify species within the plume and to measure electron temperatures. A key and unique feature of our research was our collaboration with Russian Hall thruster researcher Dr. Sergey A Khartov, Deputy Dean of International Relations at the Moscow Aviation Institute (MAI). His activities in this program included consulting on and participation in research at PEPL through use of a MAI-built SPT and ion energy probe.

Gallimore, Alec D.

1997-01-01

363

A study design to investigate the effect of short-form Sun-style Tai Chi in improving functional exercise capacity, physical performance, balance and health related quality of life in people with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effectiveness of exercise training in people with COPD is well established. However, alternative methods of training such as Tai Chi have not been widely evaluated. This paper describes the study design of a clinical trial which aims to determine if short form Sun-style Tai Chi improves exercise capacity and quality of life in people with COPD. Method: This randomised

R. W. M. Leung; J. A. Alison; Z. J. McKeough; M. J. Peters

2011-01-01

364

Stochastic capacity modeling to support demand/capacity gap planning  

E-print Network

Capacity strategy has established methods of dealing with uncertainty in future demand. This project advances the concept of capacity strategy under conditions of uncertainty in cases where capacity is the primary source ...

Niles, Augusta (Augusta L.)

2014-01-01

365

77 FR 13631 - Drawn Stainless Steel Sinks From China; Institution and Scheduling of Preliminary Phase...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

[Federal Register Volume 77, Number 45 (Wednesday, March 7...Institution and Scheduling of Preliminary Phase Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Investigations...investigations and commencement of preliminary phase antidumping and countervailing duty...

2012-03-07

366

China ups ethylene capacity  

SciTech Connect

China is continuing with plans to build up its petrochemical sector. Following government approval the Dongying petrochemical complex in Shandong province is expected to get under way early next year. It will be based on a 140,000-m.t./year ethylene plant and will be the second-largest petrochemical complex in the province, after Qilu, about 50 km away. In addition, there are plans to expand capacities of existing ethylene plants. The Dongying complex will be owned by Shengli Oil Field (50%). Shandong province (35%), and the Dongying municipality (15%). Downstream capacities will comprise 80,000 m.t./year of linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE) and 20,000 m.t./year of high-density PE. Butene-1 to be used as comonomer for LLDPE will be shipped from Qilu.

Alperowicz, N.; Wood, A.

1992-12-23

367

Enhancing capacity management.  

PubMed

It is essential for organizations to be able to accept patients requiring care. Capacity planning and management are necessary to ensure an organization has an accepting physician/service, an available bed, and staff to care for the patient and family. This organization implemented strategies including communication plans, staffing guidelines, morning rounds, proactive planning, and an escalation process to reverse the trend of not being able to accept all patients. PMID:24531280

Rees, Susan; Houlahan, Beth; Lavrenz, Dennise

2014-03-01

368

A Brief Investigation of the Hydrodynamic Characteristics of a 1/13.33-Scale Powered Dynamic Model of a Preliminary Design of the Martin XP6M-1 Flying Boat, TED No. NACA DE-385  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The hydrodynamic characteristics of a preliminary design of the Martin XP6M-1 flying boat have been determined. Longitudinal stability during take-off and landing, resistance of the complete model, and behavior during taxiing and landing in rough water are presented.

Blanchard, Ulysse J.

1953-01-01

369

Data use investigations for applications Explorer Mission A (Heat Capacity Mapping Mission): HCMM's role in studies of the urban heat island, Great Lakes thermal phenomena and radiometric calibration of satellite data. [Buffalo, Syracuse, and Rochester New York and Lake Ontario  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The utility of data from NASA'a heat capacity mapping mission satellite for studies of the urban heat island, thermal phenomena in large lakes and radiometric calibration of satellite sensors was assessed. The data were found to be of significant value in all cases. Using HCMM data, the existence and microstructure of the heat island can be observed and associated with land cover within the urban complex. The formation and development of the thermal bar in the Great Lakes can be observed and quantitatively mapped using HCMM data. In addition, the thermal patterns observed can be associated with water quality variations observed both from other remote sensing platforms and in situ. The imaging radiometer on-board the HCMM satellite is shown to be calibratible to within about 1.1 C of actual surface temperatures. These findings, as well as the analytical procedures used in studying the HCMM data, are included.

Schott, J. R. (principal investigator); Schimminger, E. W.

1981-01-01

370

Survey of antioxidant capacity and phenolic composition of blueberry, blackberry, and strawberry in Nanjing*  

PubMed Central

Berries are a good source of natural antioxidants. In the present study, the total antioxidant capacity and phenolic composition of three berry fruits (blueberry, blackberry, and strawberry) cultivated in Nanjing were investigated. Blueberry, with a Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) value of 14.98 mmol Trolox/100 g dry weight (DW), exhibited the strongest total antioxidant capacity using both the 2,2-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) and the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) methods. Blueberry also had the highest total phenolic content (TPC, 9.44 mg gallic acid/g DW), total flavonoid content (TFC, 36.08 mg rutin/g DW), and total anthocyanidin content (TAC, 24.38 mg catechin/g DW). A preliminary analysis using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) showed that the blueberry, blackberry, and strawberry samples tested contained a range of phenolic acids (including gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, ellagic acid, and cinnamic acid) and various types of flavonoids (flavone: luteolin; flavonols: rutin, myricetin, quercetrin, and quercetin; flavanols: gallocatechin, epigallocatechin, catechin, and catechin gallate; anthocyanidins: malvidin-3-galactoside, malvidin-3-glucoside, and cyanidin). In particular, the blueberries had high levels of proanthocyanidins and anthocyanidins, which might be responsible for their strong antioxidant activities. These results indicate a potential market role for berries (especially blueberries) as a functional food ingredient or nutraceutical. PMID:22302422

Huang, Wu-yang; Zhang, Hong-cheng; Liu, Wen-xu; Li, Chun-yang

2012-01-01

371

Quantum reading capacity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The readout of a classical memory can be modelled as a problem of quantum channel discrimination, where a decoder retrieves information by distinguishing the different quantum channels encoded in each cell of the memory (Pirandola 2011 Phys. Rev. Lett. 106 090504). In the case of optical memories, such as CDs and DVDs, this discrimination involves lossy bosonic channels and can be remarkably boosted by the use of nonclassical light (quantum reading). Here we generalize these concepts by extending the model of memory from single-cell to multi-cell encoding. In general, information is stored in a block of cells by using a channel-codeword, i.e. a sequence of channels chosen according to a classical code. Correspondingly, the readout of data is realized by a process of ‘parallel’ channel discrimination, where the entire block of cells is probed simultaneously and decoded via an optimal collective measurement. In the limit of a large block we define the quantum reading capacity of the memory, quantifying the maximum number of readable bits per cell. This notion of capacity is nontrivial when we suitably constrain the physical resources of the decoder. For optical memories (encoding bosonic channels), such a constraint is energetic and corresponds to fixing the mean total number of photons per cell. In this case, we are able to prove a separation between the quantum reading capacity and the maximum information rate achievable by classical transmitters, i.e. arbitrary classical mixtures of coherent states. In fact, we can easily construct nonclassical transmitters that are able to outperform any classical transmitter, thus showing that the advantages of quantum reading persist in the optimal multi-cell scenario.

Pirandola, Stefano; Lupo, Cosmo; Giovannetti, Vittorio; Mancini, Stefano; Braunstein, Samuel L.

2011-11-01

372

Mental capacity Act 2005: assessing decision-making capacity.  

PubMed

In last month's article on the Mental Capacity Act 2005 Richard Griffith and Cassam Tengnah outlined the statutory principles and key powers that underpin the Act. This month's article considers one of the fundamental requirements of the Mental Capacity Act 2005, how and when should district nurses assess decision making capacity. PMID:18773769

Griffith, Richard; Tengnah, Cassam

2008-06-01

373

Preliminary Analysis of Photoreading  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of this project was to provide a preliminary analysis of a reading strategy called PhotoReading. PhotoReading is a technique developed by Paul Scheele that claims to increase reading rate to 25,000 words per minute (Scheele, 1993). PhotoReading itself involves entering a "relaxed state" and looking at, but not reading, each page of a text for a brief moment (about I to 2 seconds). While this technique has received attention in the popular press, there had been no objective examinations of the technique's validity. To examine the effectiveness of PhotoReading, the principal investigator (i.e., trainee) participated in a PhotoReading workshop to learn the technique. Parallel versions of two standardized and three experimenter-created reading comprehension tests were administered to the trainee and an expert user of the PhotoReading technique to compare the use of normal reading strategies and the PhotoReading technique by both readers. The results for all measures yielded no benefits of using the PhotoReading technique. The extremely rapid reading rates claimed by PhotoReaders were not observed; indeed, the reading rates were generally comparable to those for normal reading. Moreover, the PhotoReading expert generally showed an increase in reading time when using the PhotoReading technique in comparison to when using normal reading strategies to process text. This increase in reading time when PhotoReading was accompanied by a decrease in text comprehension.

McNamara, Danielle S.

2000-01-01

374

Perfluoro carbon bromides as contrast media in radiography of the central nervous system. A preliminary experimental report.  

PubMed

A preliminary investigation of the properties of perfluorooctyl bromide in the subarachnoid space revealed this compound to have suitable attenuation capacity and advantageous physical and biologic properties for demonstration of the brain and spinal cord. No acute or chronic neurotoxicity was encountered. Microscopy demonstrated evidence of chronic inflammatory changes subsequent to long term exposure to the compound. It was concluded that the medium was superior to iodophendylate in several respects and that it may provide an alternative to water-soluble contrast media. Perfluorohexyl bromide proved unsuitable for neuroradiologic use because of formation of excessive amounts of non-absorbable gas, leading to high subarachnoid pressure and severe neurologic deficits. PMID:207135

Brahme, F; Sovak, M; Powell, H; Long, D M

1976-01-01

375

The heat capacity mapping mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The first in a series of low cost Atmospheric Explorer Satellites, the Heat Capacity Mapping Mission (HCMM) was designed to evaluate the utility of thermal inertial and other thermal and reflectance data for: (1) discriminating bedrock and unconsolidated regolith types; (2) mapping soil moisture; (3) measuring plant canopy temperatures; (4) examining thermal circulation in large bodies of water; and (5) monitoring urban heat islands. Final reports from the HCMM investigator's program are beginning to define the utility of day/the night thermal data. Under favorable circumstances, some major rock types can be identified, soil moisture in extensive agricultural and alluvial terrains can be detected and at least semiqualitatively assessed; and circulation of currents in large bodies of water can be followed by noting thermal patterns.

Short, N. M.

1981-01-01

376

Storage capacity of correlated perceptrons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider an ensemble of K single-layer perceptrons exposed to random inputs and investigate the conditions under which the couplings of these perceptrons can be chosen such that prescribed correlations between the outputs occur. A general formalism is introduced using a multiperceptron cost function that allows one to determine the maximal number of random inputs as a function of the desired values of the correlations. Replica-symmetric results for K=2 and K=3 are compared with properties of two-layer networks of tree-structure and fixed Boolean function between hidden units and output. The results show which correlations in the hidden layer of multilayer neural networks are crucial for the value of the storage capacity.

Malzahn, D.; Engel, A.; Kanter, I.

1997-06-01

377

DS-SSMA capacity for a mobile satellite system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We consider a cellular satellite system conceived to enhance the capabilities of the pan-European terrestrial system (GSM). The system adopts EHF band and highly-inclined orbits. We present a preliminary assessment of system capacity based on asynchronous direct-sequence spread-spectrum multiple access (DS-SSMA). Performance is measured in terms of error probability achieved by K users simultaneously accessing the system with a given signal-to-noise ratio.

Bartucca, Francesco; Biglieri, Ezio

1993-01-01

378

A computational model of spatial visualization capacity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Visualizing spatial material is a cornerstone of human problem solving, but human visualization capacity is sharply limited. To investigate the sources of this limit, we developed a new task to measure visualization accuracy for verbally-described spatial paths (similar to street directions), and implemented a computational process model to perform it. In this model, developed within the Adaptive Control of Thought-Rational

Don R. Lyon; Glenn Gunzelmann; Kevin A. Gluck

2008-01-01

379

A Preliminary Report on the PLATO V Terminal.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report is a preliminary description of a prototype of a second generation version of the PLATO IV (Programmed Logic for Automated Teaching Operations) student terminal. Development of a new terminal has been pursued with two objectives: to generate a more economic version of the PLATO IV terminal, and to expand capacities and performance of…

Stifle, J. E.

380

Forecasting demand and capacity requirements.  

PubMed

A large health system is using a two-step forecasting approach to project future demand and capacity. Comparing its 10-year demand and capacity forecasts that were completed in 2001 with current data, the system was able to develop a facility master plan that incorporated projected capacity and physician requirements. PMID:15372806

Myers, Chris; Green, Trent

2004-08-01

381

Fair capacity sharing of multiple aperiodic servers  

E-print Network

introduced Capacity sharing protocol, in which a server can use the unused capacity of other servers. Though capacity-sharing protocol minimized the capacity exhaustions in multiple servers, it did not deal with fairness in sharing of capacity among demanding...

Melapudi, Vinod Reddy

2012-06-07

382

Time Schedule Preliminary  

E-print Network

#12;I · Time Schedule Preliminary Autumn Quarter 1985 Prer:egistration: May 21-24, 28 ... ;:,~ . ~ ·.. ',' ; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... 6 Full-time Student 'Rcq~ent (veteran's benefits, Social Security , benefits, intemation~ students

Kaminsky, Werner

383

Preliminary Drill Sites  

DOE Data Explorer

Preliminary locations for intermediate depth temperature gradient holes and/or resource confirmation wells based on compilation of geological, geophysical and geochemical data prior to carrying out the DOE-funded reflection seismic survey.

Michael Lane

384

2012 CBECS Preliminary Results  

EIA Publications

The preliminary results from the Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) show that there were 5.6 million commercial buildings in the United States in 2012, comprising 87.4 billion square feet of floorspace.

2014-01-01

385

Correlation between thermal expansion and heat capacity  

E-print Network

Theoretically predicted linear correlation between the volume coefficient of thermal expansion and the thermal heat capacity was investigated for highly symmetrical atomic arrangements. Normalizing the data of these thermodynamic parameters to the Debye temperature gives practically identical curves from zero Kelvin to the Debye temperature. This result is consistent with the predicted linear correlation. At temperatures higher than the Debye temperature the normalized values of the thermal expansion are always higher than the normalized value of the heat capacity. The detected correlation has significant computational advantage since it allows calculating the volume coefficient of thermal expansion from one experimental data by using the Debye function.

Jozsef Garai

2004-04-25

386

78 FR 44969 - Ferrosilicon From Russia and Venezuela; Institution of Antidumping Duty Investigations and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

[Federal Register Volume 78, Number 143 (Thursday, July 25...Investigations and Scheduling of Preliminary Phase Investigations. AGENCY: United States...investigations and commencement of preliminary phase antidumping investigation Nos....

2013-07-25

387

77 FR 70185 - Silica Bricks and Shapes From China; Institution of an Antidumping Duty Investigation and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

[Federal Register Volume 77, Number 226 (Friday, November 23...Investigation and Scheduling of a Preliminary Phase Investigation AGENCY: United States International...investigation and commencement of a preliminary phase antidumping investigation No....

2012-11-23

388

77 FR 34997 - Xanthan Gum From Austria and China; Institution of Antidumping Duty Investigations and Scheduling...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

[Federal Register Volume 77, Number 113 (Tuesday, June 12...Investigations and Scheduling of Preliminary Phase Investigations AGENCY: United States...investigations and commencement of preliminary phase antidumping investigation Nos....

2012-06-12

389

SERVIR Science Applications for Capacity Building  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SERVIR is a regional visualization and monitoring system using Earth observations to support environmental management, climate adaptation, and disaster response in developing countries. SERVIR is jointly sponsored by NASA and the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID). SERVIR has been instrumental in development of science applications to support the decision-making and capacity building in the developing countries with the help of SERVIR Hubs. In 2011, NASA Research Opportunities in Space and Earth Sciences (ROSES) included a call for proposals to form SERVIR Applied Sciences Team (SERVIR AST) under Applied Sciences Capacity Building Program. Eleven proposals were selected, the Principal Investigators of which comprise the core of the SERVIR AST. The expertise on the Team span several societal benefit areas including agriculture, disasters, public health and air quality, water, climate and terrestrial carbon assessments. This presentation will cover the existing SERVIR science applications, capacity building components, overview of SERVIR AST projects, and anticipated impacts.

Limaye, A. S.; Searby, N. D.; Irwin, D.

2012-12-01

390

Development of a solar-powered residential air conditioner: System optimization preliminary specification  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Investigations aimed at the optimization of a baseline Rankine cycle solar powered air conditioner and the development of a preliminary system specification were conducted. Efforts encompassed the following: (1) investigations of the use of recuperators/regenerators to enhance the performance of the baseline system, (2) development of an off-design computer program for system performance prediction, (3) optimization of the turbocompressor design to cover a broad range of conditions and permit operation at low heat source water temperatures, (4) generation of parametric data describing system performance (COP and capacity), (5) development and evaluation of candidate system augmentation concepts and selection of the optimum approach, (6) generation of auxiliary power requirement data, (7) development of a complete solar collector-thermal storage-air conditioner computer program, (8) evaluation of the baseline Rankine air conditioner over a five day period simulating the NASA solar house operation, and (9) evaluation of the air conditioner as a heat pump.

Rousseau, J.; Hwang, K. C.

1975-01-01

391

Estimating hydraulic conductivity from specific capacity for Hawaii aquifers, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Site-specific relationships between specific capacity and hydraulic parameters (transmissivity and hydraulic conductivity)\\u000a were investigated for volcanic rocks in Maui, Hawaii, USA. Details about well construction were commonly ignored in previous\\u000a studies. To improve on such efforts, specific-capacity values were normalized by the open interval of the well. Correcting\\u000a specific capacity for turbulent head losses using step-drawdown tests and including aquifer

Kolja Rotzoll; Aly I. El-Kadi

2008-01-01

392

Heat capacity of a two-component superfluid Fermi gas  

E-print Network

We investigate mean-field effects in two- component trapped Fermi gases in the superfluid phase, in the vicinity of s-wave Feshbach resonances. Within the resonance superfluidity approach (Holland et al., 2001) we calculate the ground state energy and the heat capacity as function of temperature. Heat capacity is analyzed for different trap aspect ratios. We find that trap anisotropy is an important factor in determining both the value of heat capacity near the transition temperature and the transition temperature itself.

Alexander V. Avdeenkov

2003-09-25

393

Potential and realized absorptive capacities: Their effect on firms' competitive advantage and the role of communication  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on the resource-based view of the firm, this paper investigates the effect of potential absorptive capacity and realized absorptive capacity on the firm's competitive advantage with a sample of 286 corporations in China. Results indicate that both potential and realized absorptive capacities of Chinese corporations contribute to the firms' competitive advantage, yet realized absorptive capacity accounts for most of

Xu Er-ming; Chen Yin; Kwon Sundong; Fang Hua-long

2009-01-01

394

Variability of Judgments of Capacity: Experience of Capacity Evaluators in a Study of Research Consent Capacity  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Assessment of decision-making capacity is a common and important function of psychiatric consultants. However, the sources of variability in evaluators’ judgments have not been well characterized. OBJECTIVE To examine the degree and potential sources of variability in the categorical capacity judgments of experienced psychiatrists. METHOD The setting was a study comparing the decision-making capacities of 188 persons with Alzheimer’s disease to appoint a research proxy and to consent to two hypothetical randomized controlled trials for dementia (a new drug RCT and a neurosurgical RCT). We compared 5 experienced consultation psychiatrists’ capacity judgments for 555 videotaped capacity interviews. Both quantitative and qualitative data were used. RESULTS Pairwise kappa statistics ranged from slight agreement (0.17) to substantial agreement (0.64) with group kappa statistics ranging from fair to moderate agreement (0.40 to 0.45) for the psychiatrists’ judgments regarding the three capacities. The sources of variability included varying “strictness” among judges, moderate test-retest reliability within judges, the relative novelty of assessing decision-making capacity for research participation decisions, as well as the limitations of the methods used to obtain capacity judgments in the study. DISCUSSION There is considerable variability in capacity judgments of experienced consultation psychiatrists regarding the capacities to appoint a research proxy and to consent to research. The potential sources of variability identified in this study may provide starting points for more effective training in capacity assessment. PMID:21777717

Kim, Scott Y. H.; Appelbaum, Paul S.; Kim, H. Myra; Wall, Ian F.; Bourgeois, James A.; Frankel, Bernard; Hails, Kevin C.; Rundell, James R.; Seibel, Kathleen M.; Karlawish, Jason H.

2011-01-01

395

Two Gifted Rapid Readers--Preliminary Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The "page-at-a-glance" reading phenomenon in two gifted readers using only monocular vision was investigated. The specific questions to be answered in this preliminary study were (1) What is the average duration of fixations made by gifted readers while reading a somewhat familiar article? and (2) What degree of comprehension on materials of…

Schale, Florence C.

396

A Preliminary Study on Learning Autonomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This preliminary study, which was carried out with the participation of 408 students and 25 English teachers at a private school in Ankara, aimed to investigate both the students and the teachers' learning autonomy. In the first phase of the study, the students and the teachers' perceptions of autonomous learning were explored. In the second phase, the teachers' states\\/needs of

Nehir Sert

397

The effect of elevated levels of thyroxine on the aerobic capacity of locomotor muscles of the tufted duck, Aythya fuligula  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following extended periods of relative inactivity, or prior to migration, birds are able to increase the aerobic capacity of their locomotory muscles. Thyroid hormones may influence this process. A preliminary study was undertaken to assess the ability of elevated levels of thyroxine to increase the aerobic capacity of the locomotory and cardiac muscles of adult tufted ducks. Administration of thyroxine

C. M. Bishop; P. J. Butler; N. M. Atkinson

1995-01-01

398

Capacity as a consideration for providing aeronautical mobile satellite air traffic services in the US domestic airspace  

Microsoft Academic Search

A preliminary analysis of the capacity (number of aircraft) that could be handled by the first generation American Mobile Satellite Corporation (AMSC) system in the early part of the 21st century is reported. The analysis is based on assumptions for the service demand, the Aeronautical Telecommunication Network (ATN), the communications scheme, the satellite channel and the aircraft Earth station. Capacity

Curtis A. Shively

1992-01-01

399

Bioethics for clinicians: 3. Capacity.  

PubMed Central

In the context of patient consent, "capacity" refers to the patient's ability to understand information relevant to a treatment decision and to appreciate the reasonably foreseeable consequences of a decision or lack of decision. A person may be "capable" with respect to one decision but not with respect to another. Clinicians can usually identify patients who are clearly capable or incapable, but in some cases a clinical capacity assessment is required. Such assessment may consist of cognitive status testing, general impressions of capacity or specific capacity assessment. Specific capacity assessment, in which the clinician evaluates the patient's ability to understand pertinent information and appreciate its implications, is probably the optimal method. When conducting a specific capacity assessment, the clinician must ensure that the disclosure of information is effective and must evaluate the patient's reason for his or her decision. If the assessment suggests that the patient is incapable, further assessment is generally recommended. PMID:8823211

Etchells, E; Sharpe, G; Elliott, C; Singer, P A

1996-01-01

400

Dating human cultural capacity using phylogenetic principles  

E-print Network

principles to date this capacity, integrating evidence from archaeology, genetics, paleoanthropology, paleoanthropology, archaeology, and linguistics to date this capacity. Cultural capacity is customarily dated

Lindenfors, Patrik

401

On Cellular MIMO Channel Capacity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To increase the transmission rate without bandwidth expansion, the multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) technique has recently been attracting much attention. The MIMO channel capacity in a cellular system is affected by the interference from neighboring co-channel cells. In this paper, we introduce the cellular channel capacity and evaluate its outage capacity, taking into account the frequency-reuse factor, path loss exponent, standard deviation of shadowing loss, and transmission power of a base station (BS). Furthermore, we compare the cellular MIMO downlink channel capacity with those of other multi-antenna transmission techniques such as single-input multiple-output (SIMO) and space-time block coded multiple-input single-output (STBC-MISO). We show that the optimum frequency-reuse factor F that maximizes 10%-outage capacity is 3 and both 50%- and 90%-outage capacities is 1 irrespective of the type of multi-antenna transmission technique, where q%-outage capacity is defined as the channel capacity that gives an outage probability of q%. We also show that the cellular MIMO channel capacity is always higher than those of SIMO and STBC-MISO.

Adachi, Koichi; Adachi, Fumiyuki; Nakagawa, Masao

402

Adaptive capacity and its assessment  

SciTech Connect

This paper reviews the concept of adaptive capacity and various approaches to assessing it, particularly with respect to climate variability and change. I find that adaptive capacity is a relatively under-researched topic within the sustainability science and global change communities, particularly since it is uniquely positioned to improve linkages between vulnerability and resilience research. I identify opportunities for advancing the measurement and characterization of adaptive capacity by combining insights from both vulnerability and resilience frameworks, and I suggest several assessment approaches for possible future development that draw from both frameworks and focus on analyzing the governance, institutions, and management that have helped foster adaptive capacity in light of recent climatic events.

Engle, Nathan L.

2011-04-20

403

Antioxidant capacity and phenolic content of cocoa beans  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content of cocoa beans from different countries, namely Malaysia, Ghana, Ivory Coast and Sulawesi. The antioxidant capacity of water and ethanolic extracts prepared from cocoa beans was measured by three different assays. To estimate the total phenolic content, the assay using Folin–Ciocalteu reagent was used. The water extract showed the higher

Azizah Othman; Amin Ismail; Nawalyah Abdul Ghani; Ilham Adenan

2007-01-01

404

Cold Drink Ingestion Improves Exercise Endurance Capacity in the Heat  

Microsoft Academic Search

LEE, J. K. W., S. M. SHIRREFFS, and R. J. MAUGHAN. Cold Drink Ingestion Improves Exercise Endurance Capacity in the Heat. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 40, No. 9, pp. 1637-1644, 2008. Purpose: To investigate the effect of drink temperature on cycling capacity in the heat. Methods: On two separate trials, eight males cycled at 66 T 2% VO2peak (mean

JASON K. W. LEE; SUSAN M. SHIRREFFS; RONALD J. MAUGHAN

2008-01-01

405

Capacity of printed dipole arrays in the MIMO channel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance of printed dipole arrays in the MIMO channel is investigated using a channel model based on the Method of Moments solution of the electric-field integral equation. Comparisons with freestanding dipoles are given in terms of channel capacity. Effects of the electrical properties (such as the dielectric thickness and permittivity) on the MIMO capacity are explored. Various dielectric-substrate configurations

Celal Tunc; Defne Aktas; Vakur Erturk; Ayhan Altintas

2008-01-01

406

The Capacity to Build Organizational Capacity in Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Reformers, policymakers, and researchers have given considerable attention to organizational capacity in schools, especially in those schools that perpetuate or exacerbate achievement gaps among diverse student groups and reproduce social inequalities. There is an emerging consensus about key dimensions of school capacity and how they can…

King, M. Bruce; Bouchard, Kate

2011-01-01

407

A latent variable analysis of working memory capacity, short-term memory capacity, processing speed, and general fluid intelligence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Significant relationships exist between general fluid intelligence and each of the following constructs: short-term memory capacity, working memory capacity (WMC), and processing speed. However, the interrelationship among all four constructs has not been investigated. Multiple measures of each of these constructs were obtained from 120 healthy young adults. Structural equation modeling was then performed to determine which construct served as

Andrew R. A. Conway; Nelson Cowan; Michael F. Bunting; David J. Therriault; Scott R. B. Minkoff

408

A latent variable analysis of working memory capacity, short-term memory capacity, processing speed, and general fluid intelligence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Significant relationships exist between general fluid intelligence and each of the following constructs: short-term memory capacity, working memory capacity (WMC), and processing speed. However, the interrelationship among all four constructs has not been investigated. Multiple measures of each of these constructs were obtained from 120 healthy young adults. Structural equation modeling was then performed to determine which construct served as

Andrew R. a. Conway; Nelson Cowan; Michael F. Bunting; David J. Therriault; Scott R. b. Minkoff

2002-01-01

409

Building Organizational Capacity through Trust  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores the cultivation of collegial trust as a central feature of the capacity-building work of 11 high school principals, nominated for their expertise with capacity building. This qualitative study examined interview data and school documents collected over 18 months. Principals regarded trust as critical and were motivated to…

Cosner, Shelby

2009-01-01

410

MIMO wireless channels: capacity and performance prediction  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a new model for multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) outdoor wireless fading channels which is more general and realistic than the usual i.i.d. model. We investigate the channel capacity as a function of parameters such as the local scattering radius at the transmitter and the receiver, the distance between the transmit (TX) and receive (RX) arrays, and the antenna beamwidths

D. Gesbert; H. Bolcskei; D. Gore; A. Paulraj

2000-01-01

411

Preliminary Results from CONTRAST  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The CONvective TRansport of Active Species in the Tropics (CONTRAST) experiment is designed to quantify how convection redistributes atmospheric gases in the tropical atmosphere. Observations will be obtained by the NSF/NCAR HIAPER aircraft from a series of flights in Guam during January and February 2014. We will describe preliminary results from the CONTRAST experiment.

Salawitch, Ross J.; Pan, Laura; Atlas, Elliot

2014-05-01

412

The additive properties of Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC) assay: the case of essential oils.  

PubMed

The ORAC assay is applied to measure the antioxidant capacity of foods or dietary supplements. Sometimes, the manufacturers claim antioxidant capacities that may not correspond to the constituents of the product. These statements are sheltered by the general understanding that antioxidants might exhibit synergistic properties, but this is not necessarily true when dealing with ORAC assay values. This contribution applies the ORAC assay to measure the antioxidant capacity of ten essential oils typically added to foodstuffs: citronella, dill, basil, red thyme, thyme, rosemary, oregano, clove and cinnamon. The major components of these essential oils were twenty-one chemicals in total. After a preliminary discrimination, the antioxidant capacity of eugenol, carvacrol, thymol, ?-pinene, limonene and linalool was determined. The results showed that 72-115% of the antioxidant capacity of the essential oils corresponded to the addition of the antioxidant capacity of their constituents. Thus, the ORAC assay showed additive properties. PMID:24262547

Bentayeb, Karim; Vera, Paula; Rubio, Carlos; Nerín, Cristina

2014-04-01

413

Creative agencies : a model for building community capacity  

E-print Network

This research investigates how existing initiatives based in artistic and non-artistic disciplines build indigenous capacity for leadership in disenfranchised communities through the application of the creative process. ...

Ramaccia, Elizabeth M. (Elizabeth Marie)

2011-01-01

414

FINANCIAL CAPACITY OF OLDER AFRICAN AMERICANS WITH AMNESTIC MILD COGNITIVE IMPAIRMENT  

PubMed Central

This study investigated financial abilities of 154 patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) (116 Caucasian, 38 African American) using the Financial Capacity Instrument (FCI). In a series of linear regression models, we examined the effect of race on FCI performance and identified preliminary predictor variables that mediated observed racial differences on the FCI. Prior/premorbid abilities were identified. Predictor variables examined in the models included race and other demographic factors (age, education, gender), performance on global cognitive measures (MMSE, DRS-2 Total Score), history of cardiovascular disease (hypertension, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia), and a measure of educational achievement (WRAT-3 Arithmetic). African American patients with MCI performed below Caucasian patients with MCI on six of the seven FCI domains examined and on the FCI total score. WRAT-3 Arithmetic emerged as a partial mediator of group differences on the FCI, accounting for 54% of variance. In contrast, performance on global cognitive measures and history of cardiovascular disease only accounted for 14% and 2%, respectively, of the variance. Racial disparities in financial capacity appear to exist among patients with amnestic MCI. Basic academic math skills related to educational opportunity and quality of education account for a substantial proportion of the group difference in financial performance. PMID:20625268

Triebel, Kristen L.; Okonkwo, Ozioma C.; Martin, Roy; Griffith, H. Randall; Crowther, Martha; Marson, Daniel C.

2010-01-01

415

Topaz II preliminary safety assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (SDIO) decided to investigate the possibility of launching a Russian Topaz II space nuclear power system. A preliminary safety assessment was conducted to determine whether or not a space mission could be conducted safely and within budget constraints. As part of this assessment, a safety policy and safety functional requirements were developed to guide both the safety assessment and future Topaz II activities. A review of the Russian flight safety program was conducted and documented. Our preliminary safety assessment included a top level event tree, neutronic analysis of normal and accident configurations, an evaluation of temperature coefficients of reactivity, a reentry and disposal analysis, and analysis of postulated launch abort impact accidents, and an analysis of postulated propellant fire and explosion accidents. Based on the assessment, it appears that it will be possible to safely launch the Topaz II system in the U.S. with some possible system modifications. The principal system modifications will probably include design changes to preclude water flooded criticality and to assure intact reentry.

Marshall, Albert C.; Standley, Vaughn; Voss, Susan S.; Haskin, Eric

1993-01-01

416

Topaz II preliminary safety assessment  

SciTech Connect

The Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (SDIO) decided to investigate the possibility of launching a Russian Topaz 11 space nuclear power system. A preliminary safety assessment was conducted to determine whether or not a space mission could be conducted safely and within budget constraints. As part of this assessment, a safety policy and safety functional requirements were developed to guide both the safely assessment and future Topaz II activities. A review of the Russian flight safety program was conducted and documented. Our preliminary safety assessment included a top level event tree, neutronic analysis of normal and accident configurations, an evaluation of temperature coefficients of reactivity, a reentry and disposal analysis, and analysis of postulated launch abort impact accidents, and an analysis of postulated propellant fire and explosion accidents. Based on the assessment, it appears that it will be possible to safely launch the Topaz II system in the US with some possible system modifications. The principal system modifications will probably include design changes to preclude water flooded criticality and to assure intact reentry.

Marshall, A.C. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Standley, V. (Air Force Phillips Laboratory, Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Voss, S.S. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Haskin, E. (New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering)

1992-01-01

417

Topaz II preliminary safety assessment  

SciTech Connect

The Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (SDIO) decided to investigate the possibility of launching a Russian Topaz II space nuclear power system. A preliminary safety assessment was conducted to determine whether or not a space mission could be conducted safely and within budget constraints. As part of this assessment, a safety policy and safety functional requirements were developed to guide both the safety assessment and future Topaz II activities. A review of the Russian flight safety program was conducted and documented. Our preliminary safety assessment included a top level event tree, neutronic analysis of normal and accident configurations, an evaluation of temperature coefficients of reactivity, a reentry and disposal analysis, and analysis of postulated launch abort impact accidents, and an analysis of postulated propellant fire and explosion accidents. Based on the assessment, it appears that it will be possible to safely launch the Topaz II system in the U.S. with some possible system modifications. The principal system modifications will probably include design changes to preclude water flooded criticality and to assure intact reentry.

Marshall, A.C. (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States)); Standley, V. (Air Force Phillips Laboratory, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87110 (United States)); Voss, S.S. (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)); Haskin, E. (Department of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering Department, Institute for Nuclear Power Studies, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87110 (United States))

1993-01-10

418

Efficient high-capacity steganography technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Performance indicators characterizing modern steganographic techniques include capacity (i.e. the quantity of data that can be hidden in the cover medium), stego quality (i.e. artifacts visibility), security (i.e. undetectability), and strength or robustness (intended as the resistance against active attacks aimed to destroy the secret message). Fibonacci based embedding techniques have been researched and proposed in the literature to achieve efficient steganography in terms of capacity with respect to stego quality. In this paper, we investigated an innovative idea that extends Fibonacci-like steganography by bit-plane(s) mapping instead of bit-plane(s) replacement. Our proposed algorithm increases embedding capacity using bit-plane mapping to embed two bits of the secret message in three bits of a pixel of the cover, at the expense of a marginal loss in stego quality. While existing Fibonacci embedding algorithms do not use certain intensities of the cover for embedding due to the limitation imposed by the Zeckendorf theorem, our proposal solve this problem and make all intensity values candidates for embedding. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed technique double the embedding capacity when compared to existing Fibonacci methods, and it is secure against statistical attacks such as RS, POV, and difference image histogram (DIH).

Abdulla, Alan A.; Jassim, Sabah A.; Sellahewa, Harin

2013-05-01

419

On network coding capacity : matroidal networks and network capacity regions  

E-print Network

One fundamental problem in the field of network coding is to determine the network coding capacity of networks under various network coding schemes. In this thesis, we address the problem with two approaches: matroidal ...

Kim, Anthony Eli

2010-01-01

420

GC/MS profiling of gamma-hydroxybutyrate and precursors in various animal tissues using automatic solid-phase extraction. Preliminary investigations of its potential interest in postmortem interval determination.  

PubMed

To quantify gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) and its physiological metabolites, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), 1,4-butanediol (1,4-BD), and gamma-butyrolactone (GBL) in various animal tissues (kidney, muscle, heart, liver, blood, brain cortex, thalamus, hypothalamus, hippocampus, or pons), an original gas chromatographic/mass spectrometric method with a automated solid-phase extraction by Oasis MCX cartridges on a Gilson Aspec Xli was developed. Using such apparatus allowed the limit of detection (LOD) of target compounds to be significantly lowered (LOD: 0.027, 0.025, and 5.7 microg/mL for GHB, 1,4-BD, and GABA, respectively, in 200 microL or microg of sample). After validation of each analytical step, the satisfactory performances of the apparatus in conjunction with the rapidity and ease of the extraction step make it suitable for simultaneous assay of GHB, 1,4-BD, GBL, and GABA. The method was used to test the correlation between GHB levels in tissues obtained at different times after death of male Sprague-Dawley rats and the postmortem interval. Preliminary results show a linear increase of GHB levels in relation to time of death in thoracic blood and central nervous system of animals kept at 15 and 20 degrees C. PMID:15732918

Richard, Damien; Ling, Bing; Authier, Nicolas; Faict, Thierry W; Eschalier, Alain; Coudoré, François

2005-03-01

421

Handwriting Capacity in Children Newly Diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Preliminary evidence suggests that children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) may exhibit handwriting difficulties. However, the exact nature of these difficulties and the extent to which they may relate to motor or behavioural difficulties remains unclear. The aim of this study was to describe handwriting capacity in children…

Brossard-Racine, Marie; Majnemer, Annette; Shevell, Michael; Snider, Laurie; Belanger, Stacey Ageranioti

2011-01-01

422

Information capacity of genetic regulatory elements  

PubMed Central

Changes in a cell’s external or internal conditions are usually reflected in the concentrations of the relevant transcription factors. These proteins in turn modulate the expression levels of the genes under their control and sometimes need to perform nontrivial computations that integrate several inputs and affect multiple genes. At the same time, the activities of the regulated genes would fluctuate even if the inputs were held fixed, as a consequence of the intrinsic noise in the system, and such noise must fundamentally limit the reliability of any genetic computation. Here we use information theory to formalize the notion of information transmission in simple genetic regulatory elements in the presence of physically realistic noise sources. The dependence of this “channel capacity” on noise parameters, cooperativity and cost of making signaling molecules is explored systematically. We find that, in the range of parameters probed by recent in vivo measurements, capacities higher than one bit should be achievable. It is of course generally accepted that gene regulatory elements must, in order to function properly, have a capacity of at least one bit. The central point of our analysis is the demonstration that simple physical models of noisy gene transcription, with realistic parameters, can indeed achieve this capacity: it was not self-evident that this should be so. We also demonstrate that capacities significantly greater than one bit are possible, so that transcriptional regulation need not be limited to simple “on-off” components. The question whether real systems actually exploit this richer possibility is beyond the scope of this investigation. PMID:18763985

Tkacik, Gasper; Callan, Curtis G.; Bialek, William

2010-01-01

423

Capacity Value of Wind Power  

SciTech Connect

Power systems are planned such that they have adequate generation capacity to meet the load, according to a defined reliability target. The increase in the penetration of wind generation in recent years has led to a number of challenges for the planning and operation of power systems. A key metric for system adequacy is the capacity value of generation. The capacity value of a generator is the contribution that a given generator makes to overall system adequacy. The variable and stochastic nature of wind sets it apart from conventional energy sources. As a result, the modeling of wind generation in the same manner as conventional generation for capacity value calculations is inappropriate. In this paper a preferred method for calculation of the capacity value of wind is described and a discussion of the pertinent issues surrounding it is given. Approximate methods for the calculation are also described with their limitations highlighted. The outcome of recent wind capacity value analyses in Europe and North America are highlighted with a description of open research questions also given.

Keane, Andrew; Milligan, Michael; Dent, Chris; Hasche, Bernhard; DAnnunzio, Claudine; Dragoon, Ken; Holttinen, Hannele; Samaan, Nader A.; Soder, Lennart; O'Malley, Mark J.

2011-05-04

424

Measuring the Heat Capacity of Greenhouse Gases  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This quantitative experiment involves lab teams in comparing a sample of room air with one of the greenhouse gases - carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, or methane - and measuring their heat capacity. The activity requires an infrared heat source, such as a heat lamp, two 2L beverage bottles, #4 one hole rubber stoppers, and a thermometer or temperature probe, volumetric flasks, a graduated cylinder, and tubing. Nitrous oxide can be obtained from a dentist, methane from gas jets in a chemistry lab, and becomes CO² can be generated using vinegar and baking soda. A worksheet guides student calculations of heat capacity of the different samples. The investigation s is supported by the textbook, Climate Change, part of the Global System Science, an interdisciplinary course for high school students that emphasizes how scientists from a wide variety of fields work together to understand significant problems of global impact.

425

Stardust Interstellar Preliminary Examination  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A. J. Westphal, C. Allen, A. Ansari, S. Bajt, R. S. Bastien, H. A. Bechtel, J. Borg, F. E. Brenker, J. Bridges, D. E. Brownlee, M. Burchell, M. Burghammer, A. L. Butterworth, A. M. Davis, P. Cloetens, C. Floss, G. Flynn, D. Frank, Z. Gainsforth, E. Grün, P. R. Heck, J. K. Hillier, P. Hoppe, G. Huss, J. Huth, B. Hvide, A. Kearsley, A. J. King, B. Lai, J. Leitner, L. Lemelle, H. Leroux, R. Lettieri, W. Marchant, L. R. Nittler, R. Ogliore, F. Postberg, M. C. Price, S. A. Sandford, J.-A. Sans Tresseras, T. Schoonjans, S. Schmitz, G. Silversmit, A. Simionovici, V. A. Solé, R. Srama, T. Stephan, V. Sterken, J. Stodolna, R. M. Stroud, S. Sutton, M. Trieloff, P. Tsou, A. Tsuchiyama, T. Tyliszczak, B. Vekemans, L. Vincze, D. Zevin, M. E. Zolensky, >29,000 Stardust@home dusters ISPE author affiliations are at http://www.ssl.berkeley.edu/~westphal/ISPE/. In 2000 and 2002, a ~0.1m2 array of aerogel tiles and alumi-num foils onboard the Stardust spacecraft was exposed to the interstellar dust (ISD) stream for an integrated time of 200 days. The exposure took place in interplanetary space, beyond the orbit of Mars, and thus was free of the ubiquitous orbital debris in low-earth orbit that precludes effective searches for interstellar dust there. Despite the long exposure of the Stardust collector, <<100 ISD particles are expected to have been captured. The particles are thought to be ~1?m or less in size, and the total ISD collection is probably <10-6 by mass of the collection of cometary dust parti-cles captured in the Stardust cometary dust collector from the coma of the Jupiter-family comet Wild 2. Thus, although the first solid sample from the local interstellar medium is clearly of high interest, the diminutive size of the particles and the low numbers of particles present daunting challenges. Nevertheless, six recent developments have made a Preliminary Examination (PE) of this sample practical: (1) rapid automated digital optical scanning microscopy for three-dimensional imaging of the aerogel collector; (2) rapid automated digital scanning electron microscopy for imaging of the aluminum foils; (3) an effective, massively-distributed search by citizen scientists through the Internet; (4) extraction and sample preparation tech-niques for ?m-sized particles in aerogel; (5) advances in capabili-ties of synchrotron infrared and X-ray microprobes that enable non-destructive analyses of sub-?m particles in situ in aerogel; and (6) the development of focused-ion beam (FIB) milling tech-niques for sample preparation. The Stardust Interstellar PE consists of six related projects: the identification of tracks through automated scanning microscopy and distributed searching by volunteers (Stardust@home); the extraction of tracks from aerogel in "picokeystones"; the analysis of tracks using synchrotron microprobes; the identifica-tion and analysis of impacts in aluminum foils; laboratory investigations of ISD analogs using an electrostatic dust accelerator; and modeling of ISD propagation in the heliosphere. To date we have identified four impacts in the aerogel collector and one on the foils of probable interstellar origin. We will report on our analyses and implications for the solid component of the local interstellar medium.

Westphal, A.; Stardust Interstellar Preliminary Examation Team: http://www. ssl. berkeley. edu/~westphal/ISPE/

2011-12-01

426

Preliminary designs for modular OTEC platform station-keeping subsystems. Final report. MR and S Report No. 6042-6  

SciTech Connect

This volume of the report presents the results of the third through the sixth tasks of the Station Keeping Subsystem (SKSS) design studies for 10/40 MW/sub e/ capacity OTEC Modular Experiment platforms (MEP). Tasks 3 through 6 are: (3) complete preliminary designs for one SKSS for each of the two platforms (SPAR and BARGE); (4) development and testing recommendations for the MEP SKSS; (5) cost-time analysis; and (6) commercial plant recommendations. The overall conclusions and recommendations for the modular, as well as the commercial, OTEC platform station keeping subsystems are delineated. The basic design assumptions made during the process, the technical approach followed, and the results of design iterations, reliability and performance analyses are given. A complete description of the preliminary design SKSS concept is presented. The summary cost estimates for each of the alternative SKSS concepts considered are presented and a time schedule for the recommended concept is provided. The effects of varying some of the important parameters used in SKSS design on the performance and cost of the mooring system are investigated and results presented. The tests required and other developmental recommendations in order to verify and confirm the basic design assumptions are discussed. Finally, the experience gained in the MEP preliminary designs are extended to future commercial OTEC plants' SKSS designs. (WHK)

None

1980-02-29

427

14 CFR 25 - Traffic and Capacity Elements  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Traffic and Capacity Elements Section 25 Section Section 25 ...Requirements Section 25 Traffic and Capacity Elements General Instructions. (a) All prescribed reporting for traffic and capacity elements shall conform with the data...

2012-01-01

428

Sexual Dimorphism in Primate Aerobic Capacity: A Phylogenetic Test  

PubMed Central

Male intrasexual competition should favour increased male physical prowess. This should in turn result in greater aerobic capacity in males than in females (i.e., sexual dimorphism), and a correlation between sexual dimorphism in aerobic capacity and the strength of sexual selection among species. However, physiological scaling laws predict that aerobic capacity should be lower per unit body mass in larger than in smaller animals, potentially reducing or reversing the sex difference and its association with measures of sexual selection. We used measures of hematocrit and red blood cell (RBC) counts from 45 species of primates to test four predictions related to sexual selection and body mass: (i) on average, males should have higher aerobic capacity than females, (ii) aerobic capacity should be higher in adult than juvenile males, (iii) aerobic capacity should increase with increasing sexual selection, but also that (iv) measures of aerobic capacity should covary negatively with body mass. For the first two predictions we used a phylogenetic paired t-test developed for this study. We found support for predictions (i) and (ii). For prediction (iii), however, we found a negative correlation between the degree of sexual selection and aerobic capacity, which was opposite to our prediction. Prediction (iv) was generally supported. We also investigated whether substrate use, basal metabolic rate, and agility influenced physiological measures of oxygen transport, but we found only weak evidence for a correlation between RBC count and agility. PMID:20406346

Lindenfors, Patrik; Revell, Liam J.; Nunn, Charles L.

2010-01-01

429

Sexual dimorphism in primate aerobic capacity: a phylogenetic test.  

PubMed

Male intrasexual competition should favour increased male physical prowess. This should in turn result in greater aerobic capacity in males than in females (i.e. sexual dimorphism) and a correlation between sexual dimorphism in aerobic capacity and the strength of sexual selection among species. However, physiological scaling laws predict that aerobic capacity should be lower per uni