Sample records for capacity preliminary investigation

  1. Effects of short-term ingestion of Russian Tarragon prior to creatine monohydrate supplementation on whole body and muscle creatine retention and anaerobic sprint capacity: a preliminary investigation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Extracts of Russian Tarragon (RT) have been reported to produce anti-hyperglycemic effects and influence plasma creatine (Cr) levels while supplementing with creatine monohydrate (CrM). The purpose of this preliminary study was to determine if short-term, low-dose aqueous RT extract ingestion prior to CrM supplementation influences whole body Cr retention, muscle Cr or measures of anaerobic sprint performance. Methods In a double-blind, randomized, and crossover manner; 10 recreationally trained males (20?±?2 yrs; 179?±?9 cm; 91.3?±?34 kg) ingested 500 mg of aqueous RT extract (Finzelberg, Andernach, Germany) or 500 mg placebo 30-minutes prior to ingesting 5 g of CrM (Creapure®, AlzChem AG, Germany) twice per day for 5-days then repeated after a 6-week wash-out period. Urine was collected at baseline and during each of the 5-days of supplementation to determine urine Cr content. Whole body Cr retention was estimated from urine samples. Muscle biopsies were obtained for determination of muscle free Cr content. Participants also performed two 30-second Wingate anaerobic capacity tests prior to and following supplementation for determination of peak power (PP), mean power (MP), and total work (TW). Data were analysed by repeated measures MANOVA. Results Whole body daily Cr retention increased in both groups following supplementation (0.0?±?0.0; 8.2?±?1.4, 6.5?±?2.4, 5.6?±?3.2, 6.1?±?2.6, 4.8?±?3.2 g?·?d-1; p?=?0.001) with no differences observed between groups (p?=?0.59). After 3 and 5-days of supplementation, respectively, both supplementation protocols demonstrated a significant increase in muscle free Cr content from baseline (4.8?±?16.7, 15.5?±?23.6 mmol?·?kg-1 DW, p?=?0.01) with no significant differences observed between groups (p?=?0.34). Absolute change in MP (9?±?57, 35?±?57 W; p?=?0.031), percent change in MP (2.5?±?10.5, 6.7?±?10.4%; p?=?0.026), absolute change in TW (275?±?1,700, 1,031?±?1,721 J; p?=?0.032), and percent change in TW (2.5?±?10.5, 6.6?±?10.4%; p?=?0.027) increased over time in both groups with no differences observed between groups. Conclusions Short-term CrM supplementation (10 g?·?d-1 for 5-days) significantly increased whole body Cr retention and muscle free Cr content. However, ingesting 500 mg of RT 30-min prior to CrM supplementation did not affect whole body Cr retention, muscle free Cr content, or anaerobic sprint capacity in comparison to ingesting CrM with a placebo. PMID:24568653

  2. The first polish tektites: preliminary sem investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brachaniec, Tomasz; Szopa, Krzysztof; Karwowski, ?ukasz

    2013-09-01

    In Lower Silesia, the first Polish moldavites were discovered. To recognize the primary chemical composition and check the morphology of investigated material SE and BSE images were used. The samples show presence of vesicles, which are one of the most typical features of tektite glass. Referring to the preliminary EDS results and comparing them with literature data, it can be assumed that in all cases the base material for all known moldavites was the same.

  3. Preliminary Investigation of an Active PLZT Lens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lightsey, W. D.; Peters, B. R.; Reardon, P. J.; Wong, J. K.

    2001-01-01

    The design, analysis and preliminary testing of a prototype Adjustable Focus Optical Correction Lens (AFOCL) is described. The AFOCL is an active optical component composed of solid state lead lanthanum-modified zirconate titanate (PLZT) ferroelectric ceramic with patterned indium tin oxide (ITO) transparent surface electrodes that modulate the refractive index of the PLZT to function as an electro-optic lens. The AFOCL was developed to perform optical re-alignment and wavefront correction to enhance the performance of Ultra-Lightweight Structures and Space Observatories (ULSSO). The AFOCL has potential application as an active optical component within a larger optical system. As such, information from a wavefront sensor would be processed to provide input to the AFOCL to drive the sensed wavefront to the desired shape and location. While offering variable and rapid focussing capability (controlled wavefront manipulation) similar to liquid crystal based spatial light modulators (SLM), the AFOCL offers some potential advantages because it is a solid-state, stationary, low-mass, rugged, and thin optical element that can produce wavefront quality comparable to the solid refractive lens it replaces. The AFOCL acts as a positive or negative lens by producing a parabolic phase-shift in the PLZT material through the application of a controlled voltage potential across the ITO electrodes. To demonstrate the technology, a 4 mm diameter lens was fabricated to produce 5-waves of optical power operating at 2.051 micrometer wavelength. Optical metrology was performed on the device to measure focal length, optical quality, and efficiency for a variety of test configurations. The data was analyzed and compared to theoretical data available from computer-based models of the AFOCL.

  4. A Preliminary Investigation of Worm Infections in a Bluetooth Environment

    E-print Network

    Saroiu, Stefan

    of Bluetooth worms. We find that Bluetooth worms can infect a large population of vulnerable devices relativelyA Preliminary Investigation of Worm Infections in a Bluetooth Environment Jing Su , Kelvin K. W exploiting vulnerabilities in the Bluetooth protocol. While the research community has started to investigate

  5. Do Chimpanzees Seek Explanations? Preliminary Comparative Investigations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel J. Povinelli; Sarah Dunphy-Lelii

    2001-01-01

    During the past decade, considerable effort has been devoted to understanding whether chimpanzees reason about unobservable variables as explanations for observable events. With respect to physical causality, these investigations have explored chimpanzees' understanding of gravity, force, mass, shape, and so on. With respect to social causality, this research has focused on the question of whether they reason about mental states

  6. Rotor-airfoil flight investigation - Preliminary results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, C. E. K., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    A flight investigation has been conducted to study the behavior of three advanced-technology airfoils in the three-dimensional, unsteady-flow environment of the helicopter main rotor. Three sets of instrumented main-rotor blades were flown on an AH-1G helicopter. Each set employed one of three airfoils developed with significantly different design technologies. Data are given on performance, rotor loads, and the measurements of chordwise pressure distribution at 90 percent blade radius. The pressure data are compared with theoretical distributions calculated for two-dimensional, steady flow.

  7. Collateral Information for Equating in Small Samples: A Preliminary Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Sooyeon; Livingston, Samuel A.; Lewis, Charles

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a preliminary investigation of an empirical Bayes (EB) procedure for using collateral information to improve equating of scores on test forms taken by small numbers of examinees. Resampling studies were done on two different forms of the same test. In each study, EB and non-EB versions of two equating methods--chained linear…

  8. Heat Capacity Mapping Mission investigation no. 25 (Tellus project)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deparatesi, S. G. (principal investigator); Reiniger, P. (editor)

    1982-01-01

    The TELLUS pilot project, utilizing 0.5 to 1.1 micron and 10.5 to 12.5 micron day and/or night imagery from the Heat Capacity Mapping Mission, is described. The application of remotely sensed data to synoptic evaluation of evapotranspiration and moisture in agricultural soils was considered. The influence of topography, soils, land use, and meteorology on surface temperature distribution was evaluated. Anthropogenic heat release was investigated. Test areas extended from semi-arid land in southern Italy to polders in the Netherlands, and from vine-growing hills in the Rhineland to grasslands in Buckinghamshire.

  9. A preliminary investigation of bird classification by Doppler radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martinson, L. W.

    1973-01-01

    A preliminary study of the application of Doppler radar to the classification of birds is reported. The desirability for improvements in bird classification stems primarily from the hazards they present to jet aircraft in flight and in the vicinity of airports. A secondary need exists in the study of bird migration. The wing body and tail motion of a bird in flight reflect signals which, when analyzed properly present a signature of wing beat pattern which is unique for each bird species. Although the results of this investigation did not validate the feasibility of classifying bird species, they do indicate that a more thorough investigation is warranted. Certain gross characteristics such as wing beat rates, multiple bird patterns, and bird maneuverability, were indicated clearly in the results. Large birds with slow wing beat rates appear to be the most optimum subject for further study with the X-band Doppler radar used in this investigation.

  10. Trained Quantity Abilities in Horses (Equus caballus): A Preliminary Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Miletto Petrazzini, Maria Elena

    2014-01-01

    Once believed to be a human prerogative, the capacity to discriminate between quantities now has also been reported in several vertebrates. To date, only two studies investigated numerical abilities in horses (Equus caballus) but reported contrasting data. To assess whether horses can be trained to discriminate between quantities, I have set up a new experimental protocol using operant conditioning. One adult female was trained to discriminate between 1 and 4 (Test 1) in three different conditions: non-controlled continuous variables (numerical and continuous quantities that co-vary with number are simultaneously available), 50% controlled continuous variables (intermediate condition), and 100% controlled continuous variables (only numerical information available). The subject learned the discrimination in all conditions, showing the capacity to process numerical information. When presented with a higher numerical ratio (2 vs. 4, Test 2), the subject still discriminated between the quantities but its performance was statistically significant only in the non-controlled condition, suggesting that the subject used multiple cues in presence of a more difficult discrimination. On the whole, the results here reported encourage the use of this experimental protocol as a valid tool to investigate the capacity to process numerical and continuous quantities in horses in future research. PMID:25379278

  11. Building partnership capacity for the collaborative management of marine protected areas in the UK: A preliminary analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter J. S. Jones; Jacquelin Burgess

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports the findings of a preliminary analysis of 15 case studies of inshore marine protected areas in the UK. It draws on the common-pool resource (CPR) literature and is premised on the thesis that building partnership capacity amongst relevant authorities and resource users provides a critical basis for overcoming collective action problems (CAPs), through the development of incentive

  12. Preliminary investigations of HE performance characterization using SWIFT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, M. J.; Johnson, C. E.

    2014-05-01

    Preliminary experiments are performed to assess the utility of using the shock wave image framing technique (SWIFT) to characterize high explosive (HE) performance on detonator length and time scales. Columns of XTX 8004, an extrudable RDX-based high explosive, are cured directly within polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) dynamic witness plates, and SWIFT is employed to directly visualize shock waves driven into PMMA through detonation interaction. Current experiments investigate two-dimensional, axisymmetric test geometries that resemble historic aquarium tests, but on millimeter length scales, and the SWIFT system records 16-frame, time-resolved image sequences at 190 ns inter-framing. Detonation wave velocities are accurately calculated from the time-resolved images, and standard aquarium-test analysis is evaluated to investigate calculated shock pressures at the HE/PMMA interface. Experimental SWIFT results are discussed where the charge diameter of XTX 8004 is varied from 2.0 mm to 6.5 mm.

  13. Vocal function following vertical hemilaryngectomy: a preliminary investigation.

    PubMed

    Leeper, H A; Heeneman, H; Reynolds, C

    1990-02-01

    Seven consecutive male patients who received a vertical hemilaryngectomy were examined for vocal function employing video-stroboscopic, aerodynamic and acoustic measurement techniques. The results of this preliminary investigation suggest that with the group of patients studied, vocal quality was rated as "rough", "breathy" and "constricted". While large variability was noted between individuals, the general tendencies for the group included: (a) incomplete glottic closure; (b) supraglottic structures (ventricular folds, arytenoids) fulfilled or aided vibratory action of the remaining fold; (c) high average transglottal airflow; (d) reduced maximum phonation time; (e) high and more variable vocal frequency positioned near the top of the frequency range; (f) a lower, more variable, and restricted vocal intensity range, and (g) a reduced vocal fold diadochokinetic (vocal fold opening and closing action) rate. We are currently attempting to determine factors related to individual patient strategies for using either glottic or supraglottic valving during phonation. PMID:2313787

  14. A Preliminary Investigation of Worry Content in Sexual Minorities

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Brandon J.; Hope, Debra A.

    2011-01-01

    This preliminary study examined the nature of worry content of lesbians, gay men, and bisexual individuals and the relationship between worry related to sexual orientation and mental health. A community sample of 54 individuals identifying as sexual minorities was recruited from two cities in the Great Plains to complete a packet of questionnaires, including a modified Worry Domains Questionnaire (WDQ; Tallis, Eyseck, & Mathews, 1992) with additional items constructed to assess worry over discrimination related to sexual orientation, and participate in a worry induction and verbalization task. The content of self-reported worries was consistent with those reported in prior investigations of worry content, and worry related to sexual orientation was not found to be elevated compared to other topics. However, degree of worry related to sexual orientation was significantly associated with increased negative affect, depressive symptoms, and internalized homophobia and decreased quality of life and positive affect. Implications of these findings, limitations, and future research issues are discussed. PMID:21041061

  15. Preliminary Investigation of the Dosimetric Properties of ‘RadGel’

    PubMed Central

    Newton, J. R.; Thomas, A.; Appleby, A.; Marsden, C.; Christman, E.A.; Wolodzko, J.G.; Oldham, M.

    2010-01-01

    A preliminary investigation into the efficacy of a new 3D dosimetry material, RadGel™, for verification of radiation therapy dose distributions is presented. Small volumes of RadGel™ were found to exhibit a linear, reproducible response to dose. A gradual increase in optical-density (OD) with time was observed, suggesting scanning should be completed within 18 hours to keep a linear correlation of R2 > 0.99. A larger 10 cm diameter volume of RadGel™ was irradiated with a rotationally symmetric “spoke” plan designed to rigorously evaluate scanner/dosimeter combined performance. The dosimeter was imaged with the Duke Mid-sized Optical-CT Scanner (DMOS). Promising OD and corresponding dose maps were obtained. Edge artefacts were observed and are suspected to be exacerbated by the particular container used in this early study. Further studies will evaluate new containers and methods for refractive matching at the gel-container-fluid interface. PMID:21617743

  16. In vivo depression of reserve albumin binding capacity by cadmium: a preliminary evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, C.A.; Clark, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of cadmium upon the depression of reserve albumin binding capacity (%RABC) was investigated in male, New Zealand white rabbits at daily dosages of 0.65 mg and 0.90 mg Cd/kg body weight. Correlations of % RABC to the duration of exposure were strongest at the higher dosage. After 30-35 days exposure, the decline in % RABC was partially reversed. Levels of total protein in urine increased sharply within a few days after the % RABC had been reduced by cadmium to their lowest values.

  17. Preliminary investigation of the 317 Area, ANL-E

    SciTech Connect

    Wescott, J.; Moos, L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Remeikis, A. [ATR Environmental Services Ltd., Lemont, IL (United States)

    1995-06-01

    The 317 Area at Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL-E) is scheduled to undergo a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigation, Act or RFI. Prior to the formal RFI, a voluntary, preliminary characterization of the 317 Area was conducted by ANL-E. The characterization results were used to formulate the RFI work plan and provided a better focus for the formal investigation. This site presents a difficult engineering challenge. The nature of the waste disposed at this site in the past includes both liquid chemicals and radioactive waste. The 317 Area is classified as a radiologically controlled area because of operations currently performed there. Present Department of Energy policy stipulates that waste material from such an area must be considered radioactive. The possible presence of hazardous constituents in the soil and groundwater would require the investigation-derived waste generated at the site be disposed as radioactive mixed waste. Besides the nature of the waste possibly contaminating this site, the geology of the site poses an equally enigmatic situation. The ANL-E site is located in a region of recessional glacial moraine deposits.

  18. Preliminary investigations of the rhizosphere nature of hydroponically grown lettuces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antunes, Inês; Paille, Christel; Lasseur, Christophe

    Due to capabilities of current launchers, future manned exploration beyond the Earth orbit will imply long journeys and extended stays on planet surfaces. For this reason, it is of a great importance to develop a Regenerative Life Support System that enables the crew to be, to a very large extent, metabolic consumables self-sufficient. In this context, the European Space Agency, associated with a scientific and engineering con-sortium, initiated in 1989 the Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative (MELiSSA) project. This concept, inspired on a terrestrial ecosystem (i.e. a lake), comprises five intercon-nected compartments inhabited by micro-organisms and higher-plants aiming to produce food, fresh water, and oxygen from organic waste, carbon dioxide, and minerals. Given the important role of the higher-plant compartment for the consumption of carbon dioxide and the production of oxygen, potable water, and food, it was decided to study the microbial communities present in the root zone of the plants (i.e. the rhizosphere), and their synergistic and antagonistic influences in the plant growth. This understanding is important for later investigations concerning the technology involved in the higher plant compartment, since the final goal is to integrate this compartment inside the MELiSSA loop and to guarantee a healthy and controlled environment for the plants to grow under reduced-gravity conditions. To perform a preliminary assessment of the microbial populations of the root zone, lettuces were grown in a hydroponic system and their growth was characterized in terms of nutrient uptake, plant diameter, and plant wet and dry weights. In parallel, the microbial population, bacteria and fungi, present in the hydroponic medium and also inside and outside the roots were analyzed in terms of quantity and nature. The goal of this presentation is to give a preliminary review in the plant root zone of the micro-organisms communities and as well their proportions. The collected information will then be correlated to each phase of the growth of the lettuces and to the results for the corresponding growth parameters. This will enable characterization of the microbial communities in the rhizosphere and the understanding of how these populations influence each phase of the plant growth. Conclusions are proposed for further investigations.

  19. Preliminary Investigation of Ice Shape Sensitivity to Parameter Variations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Dean R.; Potapczuk, Mark G.; Langhals, Tammy J.

    2005-01-01

    A parameter sensitivity study was conducted at the NASA Glenn Research Center's Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) using a 36 in. chord (0.91 m) NACA-0012 airfoil. The objective of this preliminary work was to investigate the feasibility of using ice shape feature changes to define requirements for the simulation and measurement of SLD icing conditions. It was desired to identify the minimum change (threshold) in a parameter value, which yielded an observable change in the ice shape. Liquid Water Content (LWC), drop size distribution (MVD), and tunnel static temperature were varied about a nominal value, and the effects of these parameter changes on the resulting ice shapes were documented. The resulting differences in ice shapes were compared on the basis of qualitative and quantitative criteria (e.g., mass, ice horn thickness, ice horn angle, icing limits, and iced area). This paper will provide a description of the experimental method, present selected experimental results, and conclude with an evaluation of these results, followed by a discussion of recommendations for future research.

  20. Preliminary Aerodynamic Investigation of Fan Rotor Blade Morphing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tweedt, Daniel L.

    2012-01-01

    Various new technologies currently under development may enable controlled blade shape variability, or so-called blade morphing, to be practically employed in aircraft engine fans and compressors in the foreseeable future. The current study is a relatively brief, preliminary computational fluid dynamics investigation aimed at partially demonstrating and quantifying the aerodynamic potential of fan rotor blade morphing. The investigation is intended to provide information useful for near-term planning, as well as aerodynamic solution data sets that can be subsequently analyzed using advanced acoustic diagnostic tools, for the purpose of making fan noise comparisons. Two existing fan system models serve as baselines for the investigation: the Advanced Ducted Propulsor fan with a design tip speed of 806 ft/sec and a pressure ratio of 1.294, and the Source Diagnostic Test fan with a design tip speed of 1215 ft/sec and a pressure ratio of 1.470. Both are 22-in. sub-scale, low-noise research fan/nacelle models that have undergone extensive experimental testing in the 9- by 15-foot Low Speed Wind Tunnel at the NASA Glenn Research Center. The study, restricted to fan rotor blade morphing only, involves a fairly simple blade morphing technique. Specifically, spanwise-linear variations in rotor blade-section setting angle are applied to alter the blade shape; that is, the blade is linearly retwisted from hub to tip. Aerodynamic performance comparisons are made between morphed-blade and corresponding baseline configurations on the basis of equal fan system thrust, where rotor rotational speed for the morphed-blade fan is varied to change the thrust level for that configuration. The results of the investigation confirm that rotor blade morphing could be a useful technology, with the potential to enable significant improvements in fan aerodynamic performance. Even though the study is very limited in scope and confined to simple geometric perturbations of two existing fan systems, the aerodynamic effectiveness of blade morphing is demonstrated by the configurations analyzed. In particular, for the Advanced Ducted Propulsor fan it is demonstrated that the performance levels of the original variable-pitch baseline design can be achieved using blade morphing instead of variable pitch, and for the Source Diagnostic Test fan the performance at important off-design operating points is substantially increased with blade morphing.

  1. TOXICOLOGY INVESTIGATION Preliminary Efforts Directed Toward the Detection

    E-print Network

    intervene as the cravings develop to prevent drug use. This manuscript describes preliminary data related). Individuals with histories of substance abuse and PTSD wear a sensor band that measure electrodermal activity

  2. Aerobic Capacity Following Long Duration International Spaces Station (ISS) Missions: Preliminary Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Alan D.; Lee, S.M.C.; Everett, M.E.; Guined, J.R.; Knudsen, P.

    2010-01-01

    Maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max) is reduced immediately following space flights lasting <15 d, but has not been measured following long-duration missions. The purpose of this study is to measure VO2max and maximum work rate (WRmax) data from astronauts following ISS flights (91 to 188 d). Methods: Five astronauts [3 M, 2 F: 47+/-6 yr, 174+/-6 cm, 71.9+/-10.9 kg (mean +/- SD)] have participated in the study. Subjects performed upright cycle exercise tests to symptom-limited maximum. An initial test was done approx.270 d before flight to establish work rates for subsequent tests. Subsequent tests, conducted approx.45 d before flight and repeated on the first or second day (R+1/2) and at approx.10 d (R+10) following landing, consisted of 3 5 min stages designed to elicit 25%, 50%, and 75% of preflight VO2max, followed by 25 W(dot)/min increases. VO2, WR, and heart rate (HR) were measured using the ISS Portable Pulmonary Function System [Damec, Odense, DK]. Descriptive statistics are reported. Results: On R+1/2 mean VO2max decreased compared to preflight (Pre: 2.98+/-0.99, R+1/2: 2.63+/-0.56 L(dot)/min); 4 of 5 subjects demonstrated a loss of > 6%. WRmax also decreased on R+1/2 compared to preflight (Pre: 245+/-69, R+1/2: 210+/-45 W). On R+10, VO2max was 2.86+/-0.62 L(dot)/min, with 2 subjects still demonstrating a loss of > 6% from preflight. WRmax on R+10 was 240+/-49 W. HRmax did not change from pre to post-flight. Conclusions: These preliminary results, from the first 5 of 12 planned subjects of an ongoing ISS study, suggest that the majority of astronauts will experience a decrease in VO2max after long-duration space-flight. Interestingly, the two astronauts with the highest preflight VO2max had the greatest loss on R+1/2, and the astronaut with the lowest preflight VO2max increased by 13%. Thus, maintenance of VO2max may be more difficult in astronauts who have a high aerobic capacity, perhaps requiring more intense in-flight exercise countermeasure prescriptions.

  3. Asynchronous Nano-electronics: Preliminary Investigation Alain J. Martin & Piyush Prakash

    E-print Network

    Martin, Alain

    Asynchronous Nano-electronics: Preliminary Investigation Alain J. Martin & Piyush Prakash is a preliminary investigation in implement- ing asynchronous QDI logic in molecular nano-electronics, taking apply to nano-CMOS as well. 1. Introduction Currently, molecular nano-electronics is considered

  4. Investigation of Heat capacity and Specific Heat: Using Different Temperatures of Water and Solids

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This activity is a chemistry lab-based investigation where students apply observational skills and critical thinking skills to finding specific heat and heat capacity using different temperatures of water and solids. A final activity will assess students understanding of specific heat and heat capacity and promote data analysis skills, using real-life situations.

  5. Preliminary Investigation of a Video-Based Stimulus Preference Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Katie; Higbee, Thomas S.; Dayton, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Video clips may be an effective format for presenting complex stimuli in preference assessments. In this preliminary study, we evaluated the correspondence between preference hierarchies generated from preference assessments that included either toys or videos of the toys. The top-ranked item corresponded in both assessments for 5 of the 6…

  6. MIDDLE POTLATCH CREEK, LATAH COUNTY, IDAHO - PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION REPORT, 1993

    EPA Science Inventory

    The 1992 Idaho Water Quality Status Report listed the Middle Potlatch Creek (17060306) as an Idaho Impaired Stream Segment Requiring Further Assessment and listed the creek as a water body not fully supporting at least one beneficial use. This preliminary resource assessment foc...

  7. Automatic encoding into SNOMED III: a preliminary investigation.

    PubMed Central

    Sager, N.; Lyman, M.; Nhàn, N. T.; Tick, L. J.

    1994-01-01

    The Linguistic String Project (LSP) medical language processing (MLP) system converts narrative clinical reports into database tables of patient data. A procedure for mapping the output of the LSP MLP system into SNOMED III codes was developed. Preliminary results and further requirements are discussed. PMID:7949925

  8. An investigation of the ultimate flexural capacity of reinforced lightweight aggregate concrete beams

    E-print Network

    Bridges, James W

    1961-01-01

    AN INVESTIGATION OF THE ULTINATE FLEXURAL CAPACITY OF REINFORCED LIGHTWEIGHT AGGREGATE CONCRETE BEANS A Thesis By James Warwick Bridges, Jr. Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Nechanlcai College of Texas In partial fulfl... 1lnmnt of the requirements for the degree of HASTER OF SCIENCE August 1961 Najor Subject: Civil Engineering AN INVESTIGATION OF THE ULTIMATE FLEXURAL CAPACITY OF REINFORCED LIGHTWE IGHT AGGREGATE CONCRETE BEAMS A Thesis By James Warwick...

  9. Improving CAD performance in pulmonary embolism detection: preliminary investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Sang Cheol; Chapman, Brian; Deible, Christopher; Lee, Sean; Zheng, Bin

    2010-03-01

    In this preliminary study, a new computer-aided detection (CAD) scheme for pulmonary embolism (PE) detection was developed and tested. The scheme applies multiple steps including lung segmentation, candidate extraction using intensity mask and tobogganing method, feature extraction, false positive reduction using a multifeature based artificial neural network (ANN) and a k-nearest neighbor (KNN) classifier to detect and classify suspicious PE lesions. In particular, a new method to define the surrounding background regions of interest (ROI) depicting PE candidates was proposed and tested in an attempt to reduce the detection of false positive regions. In this study, the authors also investigated following methods to improve CAD performance, which include a grouping and scoring method, feature selection using genetic algorithm, and limitation on allowed suspicious lesions to be cued in one examination. To test the scheme performance, a set of 20 chest CT examinations were selected. Among them, 18 are positive cases depicted 44 verified PE lesions and the remaining 2 were negative cases. The dataset was also divided into a training subset (9 examinations) and a testing subset (11 examinations), respectively. The experimental results showed when applying to the testing dataset CAD scheme using tobogganing method alone achieved 2D region-based sensitivity of 72.1% (220/305) and 3D lesion-based sensitivity of 83.3% (20/24) with total 19,653 2D false-positive (FP) PE regions (1,786.6 per case or approximately 6.3 per CT slice). Applying the proposed new method to improve lung region segmentation and better define the surrounding background ROI, the scheme reduced the region-based sensitivity by 6.5% to 65.6% or lesion-based sensitivity by 4.1% to 79.2% while reducing the FP rate by 65.6% to 6,752 regions (or 613.8 per case). After applying the methods of grouping, the maximum scoring, a genetic algorithm (GA) to delete "redundant" features, and limiting the maximum number of cued-lesions in one examination, CAD scheme further reduced FP rate to 50 per case. Based on the FROC curve, an operating threshold was set up in which the CAD scheme could ultimately achieve 63.2% detection sensitivity with 18.4 FP regions per case when applying to the testing dataset. This study investigated the feasibility of several methods applying to the CAD scheme in detecting PE lesions and demonstrated that CAD performance could depend on many factors including better defining candidate ROI and its background, optimizing the 2D region grouping and scoring methods, selecting the optimal feature set, and limiting the number of allowed cueing lesions per examination.

  10. PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION ON THE DISTRIBUTION OF AFRICANIZED HONEY BEES IN ARGENTINA

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION ON THE DISTRIBUTION OF AFRICANIZED HONEY BEES IN ARGENTINA A. DIETZ, R The preliminary results of a survey for Africanized honey bees conducted in 17 provinces of Argentina from January. Morphometric analyses were used to determine the taxonomic status of the collected honey bee samples

  11. Preliminary investigations of protein crystal growth using the Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delucas, L. J.; Suddath, F. L.; Snyder, R.; Naumann, R.; Broom, M. B.; Pusey, M.; Yost, V.; Herren, B .; Carter, D.

    1986-01-01

    Four preliminary Shuttle experiments are described which have been used to develop prototype hardware for a more advanced system that will evaluate effects of gravity on protein crystal growth. The first phase of these experiments has centered on the development of micromethods for protein crystal growth by vapor-diffusion techniques (using a space version of the hanging-drop method) and on dialysis using microdialysis cells. Results suggest that the elimination of density-driven sedimentation can effect crystal morphology. In the dialysis experiment, space-grown crystals of concanavalin B were three times longer and 1/3 the thickness of earth-grown crystals.

  12. A preliminary investigation of diagnosticity effects on responses to the Job Descriptive Index

    E-print Network

    Olson, Kermit Erik

    1992-01-01

    A PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION OF DIAGNOSTICITY EFFECTS ON RESPONSES TO THE JOB DESCRIPTIVE INDEX A Thesis by KERMIT ERIK OLSON Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1992 Major Subject: Psychology A PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION OF DIAGNOSTICITY EFFECTS ON RESPONSES TO THE JOB DESCRIPTIVE INDEX A Thesis by KERMIT ERIK OLSON Approved as to style and content by: ~vi J. Woehr (Chair...

  13. Preliminary geothermal investigations at Manley Hot Springs, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    East, J.; Wescott, E. M.; Turner, D. L.

    1982-04-01

    Shallow, thermally disturbed ground at Manley Hot Springs constitutes an area of 1.2 km by 0.6 km along the lower slopes of Bean Ridge on the north side of the Tanana Valley. This area includes 32 springs and seeps and one warm (29.1 C) well. The hottest springs range in temperature from 61 to 47 C and are presently utilized for space heating and irrigation. The goal was to characterize the geothermal system present at Manley Hot Springs and delineate likely sites for geothermal drilling. Several surveys were conducted over a grid system which included shallow ground temperature, helium soil gas, mercury soil and resistivity surveys. In addition, a reconnaissance ground temperature survey and water chemistry sampling program was undertaken. The preliminary results, including some preliminary water chemistry, show that shallow hydrothermal activity can be delineated by many of the surveys. Three localities are targeted as likely geothermal well sites, and a model is proposed for the geothermal system at Manley Hot Springs.

  14. Preliminary Investigation of Sulfur Loading in Hanford LAW Glass

    SciTech Connect

    Vienna, John D.; Hrma, Pavel R.; Buchmiller, William C.; Ricklefs, Joel S.

    2004-04-01

    A preliminary estimate was developed for loading limits for high-sulfur low-activity waste (LAW) feeds that will be vitrified into borosilicate glass at the Hanford Site in the waste-cleanup effort. Previous studies reported in the literature were consulted to provide a basis for the estimate. The examination of previous studies led to questions about sulfur loading in Hanford LAW glass, and scoping tests were performed to help answer these questions. These results of these tests indicated that a formulation approach developed by Vienna and colleagues shows promise for maximizing LAW loading in glass. However, there is a clear need for follow-on work. The potential for significantly lowering the amount of LAW glass produced at Hanford (after the initial phase of processing) because of higher sulfur tolerances may outweigh the cost and effort required to perform the necessary testing.

  15. Adaptive patterns of stress responsivity: a preliminary investigation.

    PubMed

    Del Giudice, Marco; Hinnant, J Benjamin; Ellis, Bruce J; El-Sheikh, Mona

    2012-05-01

    The adaptive calibration model (ACM) is an evolutionary-developmental theory of individual differences in stress responsivity. In this article, we tested some key predictions of the ACM in a middle childhood sample (N = 256). Measures of autonomic nervous system activity across the sympathetic and parasympathetic branches validated the 4-pattern taxonomy of the ACM via finite mixture modeling. Moreover, the 4 patterns of responsivity showed the predicted associations with family stress levels but no association with measures of ecological stress. Our hypotheses concerning sex differences in responsivity were only partly confirmed. This preliminary study provides initial support for the key predictions of the ACM and highlights some of the methodological challenges that will need to be considered in future research on this topic. PMID:22148947

  16. Adaptive Patterns of Stress Responsivity: A Preliminary Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Del Giudice, Marco; Hinnant, J. Benjamin; Ellis, Bruce J.; El-Sheikh, Mona

    2014-01-01

    The adaptive calibration model (ACM) is an evolutionary–developmental theory of individual differences in stress responsivity. In this article, we tested some key predictions of the ACM in a middle childhood sample (N = 256). Measures of autonomic nervous system activity across the sympathetic and parasympathetic branches validated the 4-pattern taxonomy of the ACM via finite mixture modeling. Moreover, the 4 patterns of responsivity showed the predicted associations with family stress levels but no association with measures of ecological stress. Our hypotheses concerning sex differences in responsivity were only partly confirmed. This preliminary study provides initial support for the key predictions of the ACM and highlights some of the methodological challenges that will need to be considered in future research on this topic. PMID:22148947

  17. Preliminary Investigation of Civil Tiltrotor in NextGen Airspace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Larry A.; Salvano, Dan; Wright, Ken; Chung, William; Young, Ray; Miller, David; Paris, Alfanso; Gao, Huina; Cheng, Victor

    2010-01-01

    Presentation intro: Tiltrotor aircraft have long been envisioned as being a potentially viable means of commercial aviation transport. Preliminary results from an ongoing study into the operational and technological considerations of Civil Tiltrotor (CTR) operation in the Next Generation airspace, circa the 2025 time-frame, are presented and discussed. In particular, a fleet of CTR aircraft has been conceptually designed. The performance characteristics of this CTR fleet was subsequently translated into BADA (Base of Aircraft DAta) models that could be used as input to emulate CTR aircraft operations in the ACES and AvTerminal airspace and terminal area simulation tools. A network of nine North-Eastern corridor airports is the focus of the airspace simulation effort; the results from this airport network viII then be extrapolated to provide insights into systemic impact of CTRs on the National Airspace System (NAS). Future work will also be detailed as to attempts to model the systemic effects of noise and emissions from this fleet of new aircraft as well as assess their leveraged impact on public service missions, in time of need, such as major regional/national disaster relief efforts. The ideal outcome of this study is a set of results whereby Next Gen airspace CONOPs can be refined to reflect potential CTR capabilities and, conversely, CTR technology development efforts can be better informed as to key performance requirement thresholds needed to be met in order to successfully introduce these aircraft into civilian aviation operation.

  18. Preliminary investigations into UHCRE thermal control materials (A0178)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levadou, Francois; Froggatt, Mike; Rott, Martin; Schneider, Eberhard

    1992-01-01

    An overview of the initial work that was done in the ESTEC Materials and Processes Division to evaluate the effect of space environment on the thermal blankets of the Ultra-Heavy Cosmic Ray Nuclei Experiments (UHCRE) is presented. The topics covered include: (1) a preliminary survey of the perforations of the two-thirds of the thermal blanket returned to ESTEC; (2) thermo-optical properties and thickness recessions of three samples cut from each of the third center parts of the 16 thermal blankets were measured and effects of environments (sun illumination and atomic oxygen fluences); (3) contamination was analyzed on trays, external blanket and internal aluminized Kapton foil by IR technique and scanning electron microscopy SEM/EDX examination; (4) the pattern of contamination on the Al Kapton foils was observed, sketched, and related to atomic oxygen flow; and (5) the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) yaw angle misorientation was evaluated from the contaminated areas visible on some of the trays. In addition, impacts of micrometeoroids and space debris were experimentally simulated on spare flight thermal blankets. Relations between penetration/perforation hole characteristics and projectile parameters were established.

  19. A Preliminary Investigation of Affective Interaction in Chronic Pain Couples

    PubMed Central

    Johansen, Ayna Beate; Cano, Annmarie

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this preliminary study was to examine the extent to which affective marital interaction related to depressive symptoms in persons with chronic pain and their spouses and to pain severity in persons with pain. Couples from the community completed self-report surveys and engaged in a videotaped conversation on a topic of mutual disagreement that was coded for three affect types (i.e., anger/contempt, sadness, humor). Humor was positively related to marital satisfaction in both partners. Spouse anger/contempt and sadness were positively related to depressive symptoms in spouses. Several significant interaction effects between couple pain status (i.e., whether one or both partners reported pain) and affect also emerged. Specifically, sadness in the participant designated as the person with pain was associated with greater depressive symptoms and pain severity when only he or she reported pain whereas sadness was related to fewer depressive symptoms and less pain severity when both partners reported pain. The relationships between spouse anger and spouse depressive symptoms and between spouse humor and pain severity in the person with pain were also moderated by couple pain status. These exploratory findings can be interpreted in light of emotion regulation and pain empathy theories. For example, partners who have not experienced pain themselves may fail to empathize with persons in pain, thus preventing effective emotion regulation. When both spouses report chronic pain, expressions of negative affect may instead promote emotion regulation because the affect is experienced with a spouse who may be more empathetic. PMID:17521810

  20. Preliminary estimation of the reservoir capacity and the longevity of the Baca Geothermal Field, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Bodvarsson, G.S.; Vonder Haar, S.; Wilt, M.; Tsang, C.F.

    1980-07-01

    A 50 MW geothermal power plant is currently under development at the Baca site in the Valles Caldera, New Mexico, as a joint venture of the Department of Energy (DOE), Union Oil Company of California, and the Public Service Company of New Mexico (PNM). To date, over 20 wells have been drilled on the prospect, and the data from these wells indicate the presence of a high-temperature liquid dominated reservoir. Data from open literature on the field are used to estimate the amount of hot water in place (reservoir capacity) and the length of time the reservoir can supply steam for a 50 MW power plant (reservoir longevity). The reservoir capacity is estimated by volumetric calculations using existing geological, geophysical, and well data. The criteria used are described and the sensitivity of the results discussed. The longevity of the field is studied using a two-phase numerical simulator (SHAFT79). A number of cases are studied based upon different boundary conditions, and injection and production criteria. Constant or variable mass production is employed in the simulations with closed, semi-infinite or infinite reservoir boundaries. In one of the cases, a fault zone feeding the production region is modeled. The injection strategy depends on the available waste water. The results of these simulations are discussed and the sensitivity of the results, with respect to mesh size and the relative permeability curves used, are briefly studied.

  1. An investigation on the catalytic capacity of dolomite in transesterification and the calculation of kinetic parameters.

    PubMed

    Niu, Sheng-Li; Huo, Meng-Jia; Lu, Chun-Mei; Liu, Meng-Qi; Li, Hui

    2014-04-01

    The catalytic capacity of dolomite in transesterification was investigated and the kinetic parameters were calculated. The activated dolomites as transesterification catalyst were characterized by X-ray diffraction, nitrogen adsorption and desorption and Hammett indicator method, where the original dolomite was analyzed by thermogravimetric and X-ray fluorescence in advance. Its potential catalytic capacity was validated from aspects of the activated temperature and the reused property, where the reliability of the experimental system was also examined. Then, influences of the catalyst added amount, the mole ratio of methanol to oil, the transesterification temperature and the transesterification time on the catalytic capacity were investigated. Finally, kinetic parameters of the transesterification catalyzed by the activated dolomite were calculated. PMID:24583217

  2. Role of Working Memory in Children's Understanding Spoken Narrative: A Preliminary Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, James W.; Polunenko, Anzhela; Marinellie, Sally A.

    2009-01-01

    The role of phonological short-term memory (PSTM), attentional resource capacity/allocation, and processing speed on children's spoken narrative comprehension was investigated. Sixty-seven children (6-11 years) completed a digit span task (PSTM), concurrent verbal processing and storage (CPS) task (resource capacity/allocation), auditory-visual…

  3. An investigation of factors limiting aerobic capacity in patients with ankylosing spondylitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Carter; P. Riantawan; S. W. Banham; R. D. Sturrock

    1999-01-01

    Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) has been shown to produce exercise limitation and breathlessness. The purpose of this study was to investigate factors which may be responsible for limiting aerobic capacity in patients with AS.Twenty patients with no other cardio-respiratory disease performed integrative cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET). The results were compared to 20 age and gender matched healthy controls. Variables that might

  4. A Person-Centered Approach to Financial Capacity Assessment: Preliminary Development of a New Rating Scale

    PubMed Central

    Lichtenberg, Peter A.; Stoltman, Jonathan; Ficker, Lisa J.; Iris, Madelyn; Mast, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    Financial exploitation and financial capacity issues often overlap when a gerontologist assesses whether an older adult’s financial decision is an autonomous, capable choice. Our goal is to describe a new conceptual model for assessing financial decisions using principles of person-centered approaches and to introduce a new instrument, the Lichtenberg Financial Decision Rating Scale (LFDRS). We created a conceptual model, convened meetings of experts from various disciplines to critique the model and provide input on content and structure, and select final items. We then videotaped administration of the LFDRS to five older adults and had 10 experts provide independent ratings. The LFDRS demonstrated good to excellent inter-rater agreement. The LFDRS is a new tool that allows gerontologists to systematically gather information about a specific financial decision and the decisional abilities in question. PMID:25866438

  5. Preliminary investigation on the presence of peptides inhibiting the growth of Listeria innocua and Listeria

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    , salts, and organic acids, prior to freeze-drying. The growth of Listeria innocua LRGIA 01NOTE Preliminary investigation on the presence of peptides inhibiting the growth of Listeria that these peptides can exert an effective antimicrobial effect. The aim of this study was to investigate the anti

  6. A Preliminary Investigation of Asthma Mortality in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greiling, Andrea K.; Boss, Leslie P.; Wheeler, Lani S.

    2005-01-01

    Although asthma deaths in children are rare, most asthma deaths should be preventable. No information has been identified in the professional literature addressing the occurrence of asthma deaths in schools. This investigation identified asthma deaths that occurred in US schools between 1990 and 2003 and the circumstances surrounding those deaths.…

  7. A Preliminary Investigation of Factors Associated with Job Loss Grief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewington, Janice O.; Nassar-McMillan, Sylvia C.; Flowers, Claudia P.; Furr, Susan R.

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated relationships among factors hypothesized as related to job loss grief. A summary grief score correlated positively with time since job loss and number of dependents, and negatively with length of notice. Perceived reemployment prospects and income loss related positively to some grief index subscales, as did the condition…

  8. Map Interpretation Instruction in Introductory Textbooks: A Preliminary Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillen, Jamie; Skryzhevska, Liza; Henry, Mary C.; Green, Jerry

    2010-01-01

    Maps are often understood as the primary tool in geography; however, recent research indicates that the number of students taking map interpretation courses has declined. As geography students are expected to master the uses of maps, this study investigates the materials available in introductory collegiate textbooks that promote the development…

  9. The Privatization of College Counseling Services: A Preliminary Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Larry; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Investigates 31 colleges and 1 state system of 21 colleges that addressed privatizing counseling services. A small number of colleges were found to have adopted different models of outsourcing, and some had considered outsourcing but not pursued it. Discusses advantages, disadvantages, factors affecting decision making, and levels of success. (JPS)

  10. Spirituality and Young Women in Transition: A Preliminary Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livingston, Kimberly A.; Cummings, Anne L.

    2009-01-01

    This study contributes to the growing body of knowledge about spirituality and life transitions. Through qualitative investigation, 9 young women in professional education programs described their definition of spirituality, their spiritual activities, and how they used their spirituality to cope with life transitions as they prepared to enter the…

  11. Preliminary investigation of the nature of hydrocarbon migration and entrapment

    E-print Network

    Bai, Jianyong

    2004-09-30

    migration models. This was essential in order to determine what could reasonably be considered to learn possible in terms of the details regarding the migration of oil and gas through stacked fault-bounded reservoirs. In this investigation the following...-phase systems. Therefore, a better understanding of the role of back doors on hydrocarbon migration and distribution in an oil-gas-water system is essential to identifying possible migration pathways along faults in stacked fault-bounded reservoirs, as well...

  12. Preliminary investigations into the supercritical carbonation of cement pastes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. R. Short; P. Purnell; C. L. Page

    2001-01-01

    Interactions between supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) and hydrated cement pastes, of various water\\/cement ratio, have been investigated. The carbonation process was greatly accelerated in the scCO2 compared to that in natural or CO2 enriched environments. The nature of the reactions was dependent on the amount of water present in the paste. Thus carbonation of samples dried prior to treatment resulted

  13. A Preliminary Geomorphological Analysis of Water storage capacity: The Providence Watershed, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamorro, A.; Giardino, J. R.; Vitek, J. D.

    2013-12-01

    The Critical Zone of Earth, as defined by NSF in 2007, is series of systems that extend from the top of the canopy to the bottom of the aquifer. The soil system has been used as the primary connection between the various systems. Knowledge of water storage capacity is essential for predicting water availability in the critical zone. Soil depth is one of the most important parameters used to study water storage capacity. Unfortunately, it is challenging to obtain an accurate representation of the degree of spatial variability of soil depth in a watershed. To obtain this data requires extensive and expensive surveys, which can be compounded in forested regions. We make the assumption that soil depth is a function of surface and subsurface geomorphological processes. The Providence Watershed, which is a Critical Zone Center (CZO) is located in the Southern Sierra Nevada of California. The Providence Watershed is ~ 2.8 km2. The general trend of the watershed is northeast and ranges in elevation from 1,700 m to 2,100 m. The dominant vegetation cover is coniferous. In this area, we compiled indices from LIDAR imagery and compared these to hand-auguring profiles collected along Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) transects. Auguring profiles exist at a spacing of 123 m. The depths of these profiles varied from 0.5 to 7.0 m. We correlated the auguring data with nine indices. None of the correlations, which ranged from -0.50 to 0.21 (Pearson product-moment), were strong. The most significant finding of this study strengthens the important role that GPR can provide to capture the spatial heterogeneity present. GPR lines complimentary to geomorphological mapping can be used as an approach to obtain more accurate results in soil depth and bedrock topography mapping. The appropriate scale of work, however, depends on the understanding of the scale of processes controlling soil formation and erosion. This work is part of the collaborative effort of the Southern Sierra Critical Zone Observatory.

  14. Preliminary investigation of a two-zone swirl flow combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biaglow, J. A.; Johnson, S. M.; Smith, J. M.

    1984-01-01

    The effect of full-annular swirling-flow on a flow-zone combustor design is investigated. Swirl flow angles of 25, 35, and 45 degrees were investigated in a combustor design envelope typical of those used in modern engines. The two-zone combustor had 24 pilot-zone fuel injectors and 24 main-fuel injectors located in the centerbody between the pilot and swirl passage. Combustor performance was determined at idle, and two parametric 589 K inlet temperature conditions. Combustor performance was highest with the 45 degree swirl vane design; at the idle condition, combustion efficiency was 99.5 percent. The 45 degree swirl vane also produced the lowest pattern factor of the three angles and showed a combustor lean blowout limit below a 0.001 fuel-air ratio. Combustor total pressure drop varied from a low of 4.6 percent for the 25 degree swirl to a high of 4.9 percent for the 45 degree swirl.

  15. Age Dating of Mixed SNM--Preliminary Investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan, D., Guss, P. P., Yfantis, E., Klingensmith, A., Emer, D.

    2011-12-01

    Recently we investigated the nuclear forensics problem of age determination for mixed special nuclear material (SNM). Through limited computational mixing experiments and interactive age analysis, it was observed that age dating results are generally affected by the mixing of samples with different assays or even by small radioactive material contamination. The mixing and contamination can be detected through interactive age analysis, a function provided by the Decay Interaction, Visualization and Analysis (DIVA) software developed by NSTec. It is observed that for mixed SNM with two components, the age estimators typically fall into two distinct clusters on the time axis. This suggests that averaging or other simple statistical methods may not always be suitable for age dating SNM mixtures. Instead, an interactive age analysis would be more suitable for age determination of material components of such SNM mixtures. This work was supported by the National Center for Nuclear Security (NCNS).

  16. Preliminary results of fisheries investigation associated with Skylab-3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savastano, K.; Pastula, E., Jr.; Woods, G.; Faller, K.

    1974-01-01

    The purpose of the 15-month investigation now in the analysis phase is to establish the feasibility of utilizing remotely sensed data acquired from aircraft and satellite platforms to provide information concerning the distribution and abundance of oceanic gamefish. Data from the test area, jointly acquired by private and professional fishermen and NASA and NOAA/NMFS elements, in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico has made possible the identification of significant environmental parameters for white marlin. Predictive models based on catch data and surface truth information have been developed and have demonstrated potential for reducing search significantly by identifying areas which have a high probability of being productive. Three of the parameters utilized by the model, chlorophyll-a, sea surface temperature and turbidity have been inferred from aircraft sensor data.

  17. Visual resolution in incoherent and coherent light: preliminary investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarnowska-Habrat, Katarzyna; Dubik, Boguslawa; Zajac, Marek

    2001-05-01

    In ophthalmology and optometry a number of measures are used for describing quality of human vision such as resolution, visual acuity, contrast sensitivity function, etc. In this paper we will concentrate on the vision quality understood as a resolution of periodic object being a set of equidistant parallel lines of given spacing and direction. The measurement procedure is based on presenting the test to the investigated person and determining the highest spatial frequency he/she can still resolve. In this paper we describe a number of experiments in which we use test tables illuminated with light both coherent and incoherent of different spectral characteristics. Our experiments suggest that while considering incoherent polychromatic illumination the resolution in blue light is substantially worse than in white light. In coherent illumination speckling effect causes worsening of resolution. While using laser light it is easy to generate a sinusoidal interference pattern which can serve as test object. In the paper we compare the results of resolution measurements with test tables and interference fringes.

  18. [Preliminary investigation on reservoir hosts of Borrelia burgdorferi in China].

    PubMed

    Wan, K; Zhang, Z; Wang, H; Hou, X

    1999-01-30

    From 1987 to 1997, the reservoir hosts of Borrelia burdorferi(B.b.) were investigated in 16 provinces, municipalities and autonomous regions of China. Seroepidemiological findings indicated that cattle, sheep, dogs and rats from forest areas had a high antibody titer for B.b. (B31) with positive rates of 18.18%-32.61%, 17.12%-61.21%, 38.50-60.00% and 41.18%-86.05% respectively. Using BSK medium, 20 strains of B.b. were isolated from Apodemus agrarius, Clethrionomys rufocanus, Eutamias sibiricus, Rattus coxingi, Rattus norvegicus, Rattus edwardsi, Rattus confucianus, Rattus fulvescens and Caprolagus sinensis. These spirochetal strains were identified as B.b. by indirect immunofluorescence assay using species and genus specific monoclonal antibodies. Vertical transmission of B.b. was confirmed with B.b. isolated from foetuses of Apodemus agrarius and Rattus edwardsi. The results showed that lyme disease spirochetes, B.b., might be naturally maintained in an enzootic cycle by transplacental transmission. Apodemus agrarius and Clethrionomys rufocanus might serve as major reservoir hosts for B.b. in China. PMID:12712735

  19. Preliminary investigations of thermionic converters utilizing HOTEMA and DFVLR electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Saunders, M.; Danielson, L.; Huffman, F.

    1982-11-01

    Experiment results obtained from three thermionic converters using improved electrodes are reported. Two converters with ZrO/sub 2/-Mo cermet electrodes produced by a low pressure plasma spray technique at the DFVLR in Stuttgart were fabricated and tested. The first of this pair of diodes was outgassed and operated at high temperatures and did not show improved thermionic performance. The second of the two was outgassed and operated at more moderate temperatures. An encouraging barrier index of 2.00 eV at T/sub E/ = 1400/sup 0/K was recorded. Additionally, pre- and postoperational diagnostics confirmed that elemental concentrations on the emitter were nearly equal before and after operation. However, these electrodes did not give stable performance at emitter temperatures corresponding to practical ouput power densities. The Mo-Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, Cr/sub 2/O/sub 3/ eutectic emitter developed by HOTEMA in the Netherlands exhibited stable performance at emitter temperatures up to 1650/sup 0/K. The barrier index at T/sub E/ = 1400/sup 0/K was 2.04 eV. The minimum collector work function as measured by the retarding plot method was 1.53 eV. This low work function may be related to the presence of oxygen (which was verified by postoperational diagnostics) on both the emitter and collector. These results suggest that an emitter of this type has the potential of providing significantly improved thermionic converter performance, and should be investigated further.

  20. Preliminary investigations of active pixel sensors in Nuclear Medicine imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ott, Robert; Evans, Noel; Evans, Phil; Osmond, J.; Clark, A.; Turchetta, R.

    2009-06-01

    Three CMOS active pixel sensors have been investigated for their application to Nuclear Medicine imaging. Startracker with 525×525 25 ?m square pixels has been coupled via a fibre optic stud to a 2 mm thick segmented CsI(Tl) crystal. Imaging tests were performed using 99mTc sources, which emit 140 keV gamma rays. The system was interfaced to a PC via FPGA-based DAQ and optical link enabling imaging rates of 10 f/s. System noise was measured to be >100e and it was shown that the majority of this noise was fixed pattern in nature. The intrinsic spatial resolution was measured to be ˜80 ?m and the system spatial resolution measured with a slit was ˜450 ?m. The second sensor, On Pixel Intelligent CMOS (OPIC), had 64×72 40 ?m pixels and was used to evaluate noise characteristics and to develop a method of differentiation between fixed pattern and statistical noise. The third sensor, Vanilla, had 520×520 25 ?m pixels and a measured system noise of ˜25e. This sensor was coupled directly to the segmented phosphor. Imaging results show that even at this lower level of noise the signal from 140 keV gamma rays is small as the light from the phosphor is spread over a large number of pixels. Suggestions for the 'ideal' sensor are made.

  1. [Preliminary investigation of neurasthenic syndrome induced by occupational hazards].

    PubMed

    Wang, H L

    1989-10-01

    In this article, an investigation on prevalence of neurasthenic syndrome applying the Clinical Operational Diagnostic Criteria formulated by the Editorial Committee of Chinese Journal of Neurology and Psychiatry (1985), in 166 workers exposed to three kinds of occupational hazard including industrial noise, high frequency magnetic field, and benzene compounds, and matching with 166 workers selected from other workshop in same factory as the controls, was carried out in a diesel engine factory at suburban area, Changzhou City. It was found that the prevalence of neurasthenic syndrome in former group were 26.6%, 35.4%, and 33.3%, respectively. In corresponding control group were 1.06%, 4.2%, and zero percent, respectively. The results revealed no statistic difference among three subgroups of the former, but there were significantly higher then that of the control group with P value in 0.01 level. Base on above data, the authors considered that along the development of industrial modernization, the occupational hazardous factors will be seriously affected the workers health from various aspect. Therefore, these occupational health problems, should be concerned as a top priority in industrial hygiene. We also stressed that the personal protective measure must be set up and put into practice immediately, as it may be play an important role to decrease the prevalence of neurasthenic syndrome. Finally, the possible mechanism of occupational hazards damaging the function of C.N.S. and some related questions were briefly discussed. PMID:2636097

  2. Multiscale eddy simulation for moist atmospheric convection: Preliminary investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Stechmann, Samuel N., E-mail: stechmann@wisc.edu [Department of Mathematics, University of Wisconsin-Madison (United States); Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, University of Wisconsin-Madison (United States)

    2014-08-15

    A multiscale computational framework is designed for simulating atmospheric convection and clouds. In this multiscale framework, large eddy simulation (LES) is used to model the coarse scales of 100 m and larger, and a stochastic, one-dimensional turbulence (ODT) model is used to represent the fine scales of 100 m and smaller. Coupled and evolving together, these two components provide a multiscale eddy simulation (MES). Through its fine-scale turbulence and moist thermodynamics, MES allows coarse grid cells to be partially cloudy and to encompass cloudy–clear air mixing on scales down to 1 m; in contrast, in typical LES such fine-scale processes are not represented or are parameterized using bulk deterministic closures. To illustrate MES and investigate its multiscale dynamics, a shallow cumulus cloud field is simulated. The fine-scale variability is seen to take a plausible form, with partially cloudy grid cells prominent near cloud edges and cloud top. From earlier theoretical work, this mixing of cloudy and clear air is believed to have an important impact on buoyancy. However, contrary to expectations based on earlier theoretical studies, the mean statistics of the bulk cloud field are essentially the same in MES and LES; possible reasons for this are discussed, including possible limitations in the present formulation of MES. One difference between LES and MES is seen in the coarse-scale turbulent kinetic energy, which appears to grow slowly in time due to incoherent stochastic fluctuations in the buoyancy. This and other considerations suggest the need for some type of spatial and/or temporal filtering to attenuate undersampling of the stochastic fine-scale processes.

  3. Multiscale eddy simulation for moist atmospheric convection: Preliminary investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stechmann, Samuel N.

    2014-08-01

    A multiscale computational framework is designed for simulating atmospheric convection and clouds. In this multiscale framework, large eddy simulation (LES) is used to model the coarse scales of 100 m and larger, and a stochastic, one-dimensional turbulence (ODT) model is used to represent the fine scales of 100 m and smaller. Coupled and evolving together, these two components provide a multiscale eddy simulation (MES). Through its fine-scale turbulence and moist thermodynamics, MES allows coarse grid cells to be partially cloudy and to encompass cloudy-clear air mixing on scales down to 1 m; in contrast, in typical LES such fine-scale processes are not represented or are parameterized using bulk deterministic closures. To illustrate MES and investigate its multiscale dynamics, a shallow cumulus cloud field is simulated. The fine-scale variability is seen to take a plausible form, with partially cloudy grid cells prominent near cloud edges and cloud top. From earlier theoretical work, this mixing of cloudy and clear air is believed to have an important impact on buoyancy. However, contrary to expectations based on earlier theoretical studies, the mean statistics of the bulk cloud field are essentially the same in MES and LES; possible reasons for this are discussed, including possible limitations in the present formulation of MES. One difference between LES and MES is seen in the coarse-scale turbulent kinetic energy, which appears to grow slowly in time due to incoherent stochastic fluctuations in the buoyancy. This and other considerations suggest the need for some type of spatial and/or temporal filtering to attenuate undersampling of the stochastic fine-scale processes.

  4. Preliminary Investigation of the RAMpage Memory Hierarchy Philip Machanick Pierre Salverda

    E-print Network

    Machanick, Philip

    Preliminary Investigation of the RAMpage Memory Hierarchy Philip Machanick Pierre Salverda The RAMpage memory hierarchy addresses the growing concern about the memory wall ­ the possibility device, while moving the main memory a level up to the lowest level of SRAM. The RAMpage hierarchy

  5. A Preliminary Investigation into Communication in the Special Needs Classroom during Key Stage 3 English Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunning, Karen; Ellis, Martina

    2010-01-01

    A preliminary study was conducted to investigate the communicative roles performed by teacher and pupil during Key Stage 3 (KS3) English lessons. Two classes of a special school were involved in the study. Data collection employed video capture of teacher-pupil communication during timetabled English lessons. The data were transcribed and analysed…

  6. 2.-A PRELIMINARY REPORT UPON SALMON INVESTIGATIONS IN IDAHO By BARTON W. EVERMANN, PH. D.,

    E-print Network

    2.-A PRELIMINARY REPORT UPON SALMON INVESTIGATIONS IN IDAHO IN 1894. By BARTON W. EVERMANN, PH. D, distribution, and spawning habits of the species of salmon which have spawning- grounds in the waters of the State of Idaho. . , The alarming'decrease in the salmon catch of the Columbia River within recent years

  7. Preliminary investigation of self-excited vibrations of single planing surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mottard, Elmo J

    1956-01-01

    A preliminary investigation was made of self-excited vibrations of single planing surfaces. A self-excited oscillation requiring freedom in rise but not in trim occurred with high aspect ratio (order of 10) of the wettedportion. This vibration could be controlled most successfully by methods (such as the use of dead rise) which limited the wetted aspect ratio.

  8. A Quantitative Approach to Investigating Spanish HL Speakers' Characteristics and Motivation: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yanguas, Inigo

    2010-01-01

    The present preliminary study empirically investigated Spanish heritage language (HL) speakers in Spanish for native speakers (SNS) college courses. It focused on their attitudes and motivation to improve their HL and on their varying linguistic competences in that language. A well-established second language acquisition (SLA) motivational model…

  9. Efficacy of Attention Regulation in Preschool-Age Children Who Stutter: A Preliminary Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Kia N.; Conture, Edward G.; Walden, Tedra A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This preliminary investigation assessed the attentional processes of preschool-age children who do (CWS) and do not stutter (CWNS) during Traditional cueing and Affect cueing tasks. Method: Participants consisted of 12 3- to 5-year-old CWS and the same number of CWNS (all boys). Both talker groups participated in two tasks of shifting and…

  10. A Preliminary Investigation on Computer Vision for Telemedicine Systems Using OpenCV

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zenon Chaczko; LaReine A. Yeoh; Venkatesh Mahadevan

    2010-01-01

    OpenCV is typically, an open source vision library suitable for computer vision programs. In this paper, we present some of our preliminary investigation experiences of developing Computer Vision programs using OpenCV for robotic telemedicine cluster system, within the practice based ICTD subject within the undergraduate Software Engineering Program at the Faculty of Engineering, University of Technology Sydney (UTS). Firstly, it

  11. A Preliminary Investigation of Factors Affecting Employment Motivation in People with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Abbye; Rose, John L.

    2010-01-01

    Relatively small numbers of people with intellectual disabilities (ID) are engaging in paid employment and those who are tend to be working only part-time. This preliminary study addressed the question of what factors motivate people with ID to work. The issue was investigated in a sample of 10 young work-age adults attending supported learning…

  12. Analytical and experimental investigation of liquid double drop dynamics: Preliminary design for space shuttle experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The preliminary grant assessed the use of laboratory experiments for simulating low g liquid drop experiments in the space shuttle environment. Investigations were begun of appropriate immiscible liquid systems, design of experimental apparatus and analyses. The current grant continued these topics, completed construction and preliminary testing of the experimental apparatus, and performed experiments on single and compound liquid drops. A continuing assessment of laboratory capabilities, and the interests of project personnel and available collaborators, led to, after consultations with NASA personnel, a research emphasis specializing on compound drops consisting of hollow plastic or elastic spheroids filled with liquids.

  13. Radiation and temperature effects on electronic components investigated under the CSTI High Capacity Power Project

    SciTech Connect

    Shwarze, G.E. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Cleveland, OH (United States). Lewis Research Center; Niedra, J.M. [Sverdrup Technology, Inc., Brook Park, OH (United States) Lewis Research Center Group; Frasca, A.J. [Wittenberg Univ., Springfield, OH (United States); Wieserman, W.R. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, Johnstown, PA (United States)

    1994-09-01

    The effects of nuclear radiation and high temperature environments must be fully known and understood for the electronic components and materials used in both the Power Conditioning and Control subsystem and the reactor Instrumentation and Control subsystem of future high capacity nuclear space power systems. This knowledge is required by the designer of these subsystems in order to develop highly reliable, long-life power systems for future NASA missions. A review and summary of the experimental results obtained for the electronic components and materials investigated under the power management element of the CSTI high capacity power project will be presented in this paper: (1) Neutron, gamma ray, and temperature effects on power semiconductor switches, (2) Temperature and frequency effects on soft magnetic materials; and (3) Temperature effects on rare earth permanent magnets.

  14. Radiation and temperature effects on electronic components investigated under the CSTI high capacity power project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwarze, Gene E.; Niedra, Janis M.; Frasca, Albert J.; Wieserman, William R.

    1993-01-01

    The effects of nuclear radiation and high temperature environments must be fully known and understood for the electronic components and materials used in both the Power Conditioning and Control subsystem and the reactor Instrumentation and Control subsystem of future high capacity nuclear space power systems. This knowledge is required by the designer of these subsystems in order to develop highly reliable, long-life power systems for future NASA missions. A review and summary of the experimental results obtained for the electronic components and materials investigated under the power management element of the Civilian Space Technology Initiative (CSTI) high capacity power project are presented: (1) neutron, gamma ray, and temperature effects on power semiconductor switches, (2) temperature and frequency effects on soft magnetic materials; and (3) temperature effects on rare earth permanent magnets.

  15. Investigation of the carbon dioxide sorption capacity and structural deformation of coal

    SciTech Connect

    Hur, Tae-Bong; Fazio, James; Romanov, Vyacheslav; Harbert, William

    2010-01-01

    Due to increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations causing the global energy and environmental crises, geological sequestration of carbon dioxide is now being actively considered as an attractive option to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. One of the important strategies is to use deep unminable coal seams, for those generally contain significant quantities of coal bed methane that can be recovered by CO2 injection through enhanced coal bed natural gas production, as a method to safely store CO2. It has been well known that the adsorbing CO2 molecules introduce structural deformation, such as distortion, shrinkage, or swelling, of the adsorbent of coal organic matrix. The accurate investigations of CO2 sorption capacity as well as of adsorption behavior need to be performed under the conditions that coals deform. The U.S. Department of Energy-National Energy Technology Laboratory and Regional University Alliance are conducting carbon dioxide sorption isotherm experiments by using manometric analysis method for estimation of CO2 sorption capacity of various coal samples and are constructing a gravimetric apparatus which has a visual window cell. The gravimetric apparatus improves the accuracy of carbon dioxide sorption capacity and provides feasibility for the observation of structural deformation of coal sample while carbon dioxide molecules interact with coal organic matrix. The CO2 sorption isotherm measurements have been conducted for moist and dried samples of the Central Appalachian Basin (Russell County, VA) coal seam, received from the SECARB partnership, at the temperature of 55 C.

  16. Apollo 17 preliminary science report. [Apollo 17 investigation of Taurus-Littrow lunar region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    An analysis of the Apollo 17 flight is presented in the form of a preliminary science report. The subjects discussed are: (1) Apollo 17 site selection, (2) mission description, (3) geological investigation of landing site, (4) lunar experiments, (5) visual flight flash phenomenon, (6) volcanic studies, (7) mare ridges and related studies, (8) remote sensing and photogrammetric studies, and (9) astronomical photography. Extensive photographic data are included for all phases of the mission.

  17. Efficacy of an ultrasonic device as a deterrent to dingoes ( Canis lupus dingo ): a preliminary investigation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jason P. Edgar; Rob G. Appleby; Darryl N. Jones

    2007-01-01

    In April 2001, a 9-year-old child was attacked and killed by dingoes on Fraser Island, Australia. The Dingo Management Strategy\\u000a formulated in response to this incident proposed ultrasonic deterrents as one of a number of non-lethal management techniques\\u000a requiring further investigation. In this paper, we describe a preliminary examination of an ultrasonic deterrent to dingoes\\u000a using four captive animals as

  18. A preliminary investigation of post-traumatic stress symptoms among firefighters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cheryl Haslam; Krissie Mallon

    2003-01-01

    Emergency service personnel are at high risk of developing post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, there is little in-depth information on the psychological responses of firefighters to the daily incidents that they attend. This preliminary study aimed to investigate the PTSD symptoms of firefighters in relation to traumatic events experienced by them, and the availability of social support. Thirty-one UK fire

  19. The effect of Cinnamaldehyde on mucositis and salivary antioxidant capacity in gamma-irradiated rats (a preliminary study)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background and purpose of the study The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of cinnamaldehyde on mucositis and salivary total antioxidant capacity in gamma-irradiated rats. Methods The study was conducted on 28 male Wistar rats, 7–11 weeks of age and 160?±?20 g body weight, divided into four groups of seven rats each. The first group receiving normal saline (S), the second group receiving saline and gamma radiation (SR), the third group receiving 50 mg/kg cinnamaldehyde 98% (C), and the fourth group receiving 50 mg/kg cinnamaldehyde 98% and gamma radiation (CR). SR and CR groups were exposed to 15 Gy gamma irradiation for 7 min and 39 s. Rats were intraperitoneally injected each day during the 10-day period of the experiment, and their tongues and lips were examined to assess the incidence and severity of mucositis. The saliva samples were taken from the animals three times on day zero, six, and ten. Results The mean mucositis incidence appeared to be delayed in the CR than the SR group (P?=?0.024), and the severity was significantly higher in the SR compared to the CR group;the difference was statistically significant on the second?day (P?=?0.027). In the evaluation of salivary antioxidant capacity, salivary antioxidant concentration was significantly higher in the C than the S, SR, and CR groups on the tenth day of the experiment (p <0.05). Conclusion The clinical effects in the CR group seem to be due to antioxidant, anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory effects of cinnamaldehyde; this conclusion, however, requires further investigations. Delayed antioxidant effect in the CR group was evident in ip cinnamaldehyde injection, the exact mechanism is not clear. PMID:23351595

  20. Science misconceptions and working memory capacity among Saudi adolescents: A neo-Piagetian investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Jubaili, Ahmad Yahya

    This study was designed to investigate the relationships between science misconceptions and working memory capacity in Saudi adolescent students. The participants in this study were from eleventh and twelfth grades; both male and female students and natural and social science Saudi comprised the sample. Also investigated in this study were the conceptions and misconceptions of gravity in a non-European culture, that is Saudi culture, and the variables that differentiated those individuals who could overcome their misconceptions from those who could not and the gender differences in science misconceptions in the context of Saudi culture. Another important focus of this study was to investigate the participants' responses and explanations on the science misconceptions tasks (WLT and EGT). As would be expected, there was a strong correlation between WLT and EGT in the responses of students and their explanations. The most successful students on the WLT and EGT were natural science students rather than social science students, and there were no gender differences between male and female participants. Also investigated were the correlations between the dependent variables (i.e., the WLT and EGT; the measures of science misconceptions) and the independent variables, which were the visual working memory capacity tasks (i.e., FIT and VPS), the field independence/dependence (FASP), students' grade point average (GPA), age, academic major, gender, and grade level. It was found that both of the dependent variables (i.e., the WLT and EGT) correlated significantly with the same independent variables, the FIT, VPS, FASP, academic major, and students' grade point average (GPA).

  1. Preliminary investigations on the utility of an erbium, chromium YSGG laser.

    PubMed

    Eversole, L R; Rizoiu, I M

    1995-12-01

    A variety of laser systems are under investigation as potential tools in dentistry. Most of these systems have been shown to be efficacious for soft tissue surgery of the mucous membranes; however, cutting bone and dental hard tissues has only recently been possible. In this report from the University of California at Los Angeles School of Dentistry, a review of laser applications in dentistry is discussed. The utility of a new laser system using an erbium YSGG medium with air water spray to cut soft tissues, bone, enamel and dentin is under investigation and preliminary research findings are presented. PMID:9052027

  2. Preliminary Investigation of Zircaloy-4 as a Research Reactor Cladding Material

    SciTech Connect

    Brian K Castle

    2012-05-01

    As part of a scoping study for the ATR fuel conversion project, an initial comparison of the material properties of Zircaloy-4 and Aluminum-6061 (T6 and O-temper) is performed to provide a preliminary evaluation of Zircaloy-4 for possible inclusion as a candidate cladding material for ATR fuel elements. The current fuel design for the ATR uses Aluminum 6061 (T6 and O temper) as a cladding and structural material in the fuel element and to date, no fuel failures have been reported. Based on this successful and longstanding operating history, Zircaloy-4 properties will be evaluated against the material properties for aluminum-6061. The preliminary investigation will focus on a comparison of density, oxidation rates, water chemistry requirements, mechanical properties, thermal properties, and neutronic properties.

  3. Investigation of an improved relativistic backward wave oscillator in efficiency and power capacity

    SciTech Connect

    Song, W.; Chen, C. H.; Sun, J.; Zhang, X. W.; Shao, H.; Song, Z. M.; Huo, S. F.; Shi, Y. C.; Li, X. Z. [Science and Technology on High Power Microwave Laboratory, Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710024 (China)

    2012-10-15

    Investigation of relativistic backward wave oscillator with high efficiency and power capacity is presented in this paper. To obtain high power and high efficiency, a TM{sub 021} mode resonant reflector is used to reduce the pulse shortening and increase power capacity to about 1.7 times. Meanwhile, an extraction cavity at the end of slow wave structure is employed to improve the efficiency from less than 30% to over 40%, through the beam-wave interaction intensification and better energy conversion from modulated electron beam to the electromagnetic field. Consistent with the numerical results, microwave with a power of 3.2 GW, a frequency of 9.75 GHz, and a pulse width of 27 ns was obtained in the high power microwave generation experiment, where the electron beam energy was configured to be {approx}910 kV and its current to be {approx}8.6 kA. The efficiency of the RBWO exceeds 40% at a voltage range of 870 kV-1000 kV.

  4. The role of capacity assessments in elder abuse investigations and guardianships.

    PubMed

    Falk, Erika; Hoffman, Nancy

    2014-11-01

    Capacity evaluations of older adults assist in determining whether a situation should be considered elder/dependent adult abuse and which type of intervention is warranted. Capacity evaluations must integrate multiple sources of data and focus on functional abilities. Understanding the legal standard underlying the capacity needed for a specific decision is key in making a clinical opinion relevant in legal settings. Capacity evaluations for guardianships help to identify preserved abilities and make recommendations to enhance decisional and functional capacities that promote the dignity and independence of older adults. PMID:25439646

  5. A preliminary investigation on the latency of the goat herpesvirus BHV-6.

    PubMed

    Papanastasopoulou, M; Koptopoulos, G; Lekkas, S; Georgakopoulou, E; Papadopoulos, O

    1990-12-01

    An experiment was designed for a preliminary investigation of the caprine herpesvirus BHV-6 latency. The experiment was carried out in two steps. In the first, the virus inoculated six kids and the control, showed a mild infection and excreted the virus for 4-12 days. The second part started about one month after the cease of all symptoms and the virus isolations of the first part. No immunosuppression and therefore no virus reactivation could be achieved after eight daily administered injections of dexamethasone (0.15-0.50 mg/kg BW), as it was judged by the hematological, virological, pathological and serological findings. PMID:1964526

  6. Preliminary Investigation of Cyclic Behavior at SHADOZ Sites Between the Equator and 5 deg S Latitude

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidlin, F. J.

    2009-01-01

    Investigation of cyclic behavior of temperature and ozone data from five SHADOZ sites between the Equator and 5degS Latitude (Nairobi, Ascension Island, Natal, San Crystobal, and Watukoset) reveal an amazing array of oscillations. In particular, eight years of measurements (1998-2007) reveal changes such as decreasing amounts of ozone at some pressure levels and/or sites, while other levels and/or sites experience increasing ozone. Temperature changes of 1-2 C occur that also experience irregular oscillations. This study is preliminary and only concentrates on the 250-, 200-, 100-, 70-, and 50-hPa pressure surfaces. Surfaces existing below and above the tropopause behave differently.

  7. Preliminary investigation of power flow and electrode phenomena in a multi-megawatt coaxial plasma thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoenberg, Kurt F.; Gerwin, Richard A.; Henins, Ivars; Mayo, Robert; Scheuer, Jay; Wurden, Glen

    1992-01-01

    The present report on preliminary results of theoretical and experimental investigations of power flow in a large, unoptimized, multimegawatt coaxial thruster evaluates the significance of these data for the development of efficient, megawatt-class magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thrusters. The good agreement obtained between thruster operational performance and model predictions suggests that ideal MHD processes, including those of a magnetic nozzle, play an important role in coaxial plasma thruster dynamics at power levels relevant to advanced space propulsion. An optimized magnetic nozzle design would aid the development of efficient, multimegawatt MPD thrusters.

  8. Preliminary results of numerical investigations at SECARB Cranfield, MS field test site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, J.; Nicot, J.; Meckel, T. A.; Chang, K.; Hovorka, S. D.

    2008-12-01

    The Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration partnership sponsored by DOE has chosen the Cranfield, MS field as a test site for its Phase II experiment. It will provide information on CO2 storage in oil and gas fields, in particular on storage permanence, storage capacity, and pressure buildup as well as on sweep efficiency. The 10,300 ft-deep reservoir produced 38 MMbbl of oil and 677 MMSCF of gas from the 1940's to the 1960's and is being retrofitted by Denbury Resources for tertiary recovery. CO2 injection started in July 2008 with a scheduled ramp up during the next few months. The Cranfield modeling team selected the northern section of the field for development of a numerical model using the multiphase-flow, compositional CMG-GEM software. Model structure was determined through interpretation of logs from old and recently-drilled wells and geophysical data. PETREL was used to upscale and export permeability and porosity data to the GEM model. Preliminary sensitivity analyses determined that relative permeability parameters and oil composition had the largest impact on CO2 behavior. The first modeling step consisted in history-matching the total oil, gas, and water production out of the reservoir starting from its natural state to determine the approximate current conditions of the reservoir. The fact that pressure recovered in the 40 year interval since end of initial production helps in constraining boundary conditions. In a second step, the modeling focused on understanding pressure evolution and CO2 transport in the reservoir. The presentation will introduce preliminary results of the simulations and confirm/explain discrepancies with field measurements.

  9. R&D Requirements, RF Gun Mode Studies, FEL-2 Steady-StateStudies, Preliminary FEL-1 Time-Dependent Studies, and Preliminary LayoutOption Investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Byrd, John; Corlett, John; Doolittle, Larry; Fawley, William; Lidia, Steven; Penn, Gregory; Ratti, Alex; Staples, John; Wilcox Russell; Wurtele, Jonathan; Zholents, Alexander

    2005-10-01

    This report constitutes the third deliverable of LBNLs contracted role in the FERMI {at} Elettra Technical Optimization study. It describes proposed R&D activities for the baseline design of the Technical Optimization Study, initial studies of the RF gun mode-coupling and potential effects on beam dynamics, steady-state studies of FEL-2 performance to 10 nm, preliminary studies of time-dependent FEL-1 performance using electron bunch distribution from the start-to-end studies, and a preliminary investigation of a configuration with FEL sinclined at a small angle from the line of the linac.

  10. In-depth investigation of escalator riding accidents in heavy capacity MRT stations.

    PubMed

    Chi, Chia-Fen; Chang, Tin-Chang; Tsou, Chi-Lin

    2006-07-01

    In 2000, the accident rate for escalator riding was about 0.815 accidents per million passenger trips through Taipei Metro Rapid Transit (MRT) heavy capacity stations. In order to reduce the probability and severity of escalator riding accidents and enhance the safety of passengers, the Drury and Brill model [Drury, C.G., Brill, M., 1983. Human factors in consumer product accident investigation. Hum. Factors 25 (3), 329-342] for in-depth investigation was adopted to analyze the 194 escalator riding accidents in terms of victim, task, product and environment. Prevention measures have been developed based on the major causes of accidents and other related contributing factors. The results from the analysis indicated that the majority of the escalator riding accidents was caused by passengers' carrying out other tasks (38 cases, including carrying luggage 24 cases, looking after accompany persons 9 cases, and 5 others), loss of balance (26 cases, 13.4%), not holding the handrail (20 cases, 10.3%), unhealthy passengers (18 cases, 9.3%), followed by people struck by other passenger (16 cases, 8.2%). For female passengers aged 15-64 years, their rushing for trains accidents could have been prevented by wearing safer footwear or by appropriate signing being provided indicating the location and traveling direction of escalators. Female passengers aged 65 years and above whose accidents were caused by loss of balance, should be encouraged to take the elevator instead. To prevent entrapment injuries, following a stricter design code can be most effective. Further in-depth accident investigation is suggested to cover the activity of the victim prior to the accident, any involved product, the location of the accident on the escalator, any medical treatment, what went wrong, opinion of the respondent on the causes of the accident, and personal characteristics of the passengers. Also, management must trade off productivity and safety appropriately to prevent "Organizational Accidents". PMID:16434013

  11. An investigation of Turkish honeys: Their physico-chemical properties, antioxidant capacities and phenolic profiles.

    PubMed

    Can, Zehra; Yildiz, Oktay; Sahin, Huseyin; Akyuz Turumtay, Emine; Silici, Sibel; Kolayli, Sevgi

    2015-08-01

    This study investigated some physico-chemical and biochemical characteristics of different honey types belonging to Turkish flora. Sixty-two honey samples were examined on the basis of pollen analyses, including 11 unifloral honeys (chestnut, heather, chaste tree, rhododendron, common eryngo, lavender, Jerusalem tea, astragalus, clover and acacia), two different honeydew honeys (lime and oak), and 7 different multifloral honeys. Electrical conductivity, moisture, Hunter color values, HMF, proline, diastase number, and sugar analyses of the honey samples were assessed for chemical characterization. Some phenolic components were analyzed by reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) to determine honeys' phenolic profiles. Total phenolic compounds, total flavonoids, ferric reducing antioxidant capacity (FRAP) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity were measured as antioxidant determinants. The study results confirm that physico-chemical and biological characteristics of honeys are closely related to their floral sources, and that dark-colored honeys such as oak, chestnut and heather, have a high therapeutic potential. PMID:25766810

  12. Investigation of fracture-matrix interaction: Preliminary experiments in a simple system

    SciTech Connect

    Foltz, S.D. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Tidwell, V.C.; Glass, R.J.; Sobolik, S.R. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1992-12-31

    Paramount to the modeling of unsaturated flow and transport through fractured porous media is a clear understanding of the processes controlling fracture-matrix interaction. As a first step toward such an understanding, two preliminary experiments have been performed to investigate the influence of matrix imbibition on water percolation through unsaturated fractures in the plane normal to the fracture. Test systems consisted of thin slabs of either tuff or an analog material cut by a single vertical fracture into which a constant fluid flux was introduced. Transient moisture content and solute concentration fields were imaged by means of x-ray absorption. Flow fields associated with the two different media were significantly different owing to differences in material properties relative to the imposed flux. Richards` equation was found to be a valid means of modeling the imbibition of water into the tuff matrix from a saturated fracture for the current experiment.

  13. Preliminary investigation of trypanosomosis in exotic dog breeds from Zambia's Luangwa and Zambezi valleys using LAMP.

    PubMed

    Namangala, Boniface; Oparaocha, Elizabeth; Kajino, Kiichi; Hayashida, Kyoko; Moonga, Ladslav; Inoue, Noboru; Suzuki, Yasuhiko; Sugimoto, Chihiro

    2013-07-01

    Abstract. Canine African trypanosomosis (CAT) is rarely reported in the literature. In this preliminary study, we evaluated the performance of loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) against microscopy to detect CAT in six exotic dog breeds naturally infected with trypanosomes from Zambia's South Luangwa National Park and Chiawa Game Management Area. To our knowledge, this is the first report of CAT in Zambia. The patients exhibited a variety of aspecific clinical signs. The LAMP did not only confirm all six parasitologically positive CAT cases detected passively between April 2010 and January 2012, but was also critical in trypanosome speciation. According to LAMP, the majority of the dogs had monolytic infections with either Trypanosoma congolense or Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense. The LAMP is thus a potential simple and cost-effective tool for trypanosome diagnosis in endemic regions. The rare report of zoonotic trypanosomes in dogs in Zambia has public health implications and justifies further investigations of CAT. PMID:23716412

  14. Scaling the Information Load of Occupations: Preliminary Findings of the Fit between Individual Capacities and Environmental Demands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haase, Richard F.; Ferreira, Joaquim Armando G. A.; Santos, Eduardo J. R.; Aguayo, Gina M.; Fallon, Melissa M.

    2008-01-01

    Person-Environment (P-E) fit models provide a conceptually powerful way to think about career development, vocational choice, and occupational success. The work reported here focuses on yet another pair of P-E criteria: self-reported individual capacity for information processing (the ability to tolerate information overload from a variety of…

  15. An investigation of capacity and safety in near-terminal airspace for guiding information technology adoption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haynie, Rudolph Clinton

    The nation's air traffic infrastructure, operating under current rules, regulations, practices, and technologies, is approaching its capacity. At some future date, it will be unable to accommodate an increase in air traffic. Travellers, airline operators, industry, and government all desire to see capacity increased in order to avoid delays, increased costs, inconveniences, and negative impacts on the economy. Various information technology (IT) based solutions have been proposed and/or fielded as a means to extend or augment human capabilities in an effort to increase capacity. Although there is promise in the ability of IT to increase capacity, there is very little scholarly literature and no verifiable proof that capacity is related to safety. My effort examined the relationship between capacity and safety and illustrates its interactive nature. Understanding this relationship is a major consideration when determining whether to adopt information-based technologies, the employment of which should be aimed at increasing safety and capacity, not as individual entities or quantitative values, but as inextricably related and vital components of the air traffic infrastructure. My thesis was that the differences between increasing or decreasing demand on available capacity influence the levels of safety. Further, information technology solutions will have a direct effect on whether increased demand can be accommodated safely while remaining within the constraints imposed by current operational practices and rules. The primary research effort involved collection and analysis of landing time intervals observed between arrival aircraft at selected locations. This effort assumes that a snapshot of current operating practices and procedures is obtainable by observing and recording how aircraft separation standards are actually employed at various airports. The primary data collection also assumed that audio and visual monitoring of aircraft and tower operations provided insights in establishing a relationship between safety and capacity, because difficulties encountered by aircraft pilots or air traffic controllers at high-demand times can be observed and understood. Historical evidence to support the hypothesis that safety and capacity have a relationship was shown in two ways. The first historical correlation establishes a relationship between historical demands with safety incidents filed at the four airports under study. The second historical correlation relied on near mid-air collision reports filed at the thirty-one busiest airports in the United States and also correlated these reports with the recorded demand on the facility at the time. A potential information technology process was developed and employed to demonstrate that a safety-capacity relationship exists and that selecting the appropriate information technologies for aircrews, aircraft, and controllers is the only viable means of achieving an increase in both safety and capacity. The primary landing time interval data obtained at LaGuardia was used to demonstrate the current state and the benefits of potential improvements. This effort is the only known experimental or empirical effort to establish that a relationship between capacity and safety exists. All the evidence and findings support my thesis and the three additional sub-hypotheses, which hypothesize that there is a relationship between capacity and safety. My research also shows that current rules, technologies, and methods of operation in near-terminal airspace appear to artificially limit the ability of the existing air traffic control system to safely handle the projected growth in aircraft operations. A paradigm shift in the way aircraft are controlled is required if the National Airspace System is to safely accommodate increases in operational demand.

  16. Investigating the growth of the Texas cattle feeding industry and the possible need for additional slaughter capacity

    E-print Network

    Menzies, Max Duery

    2004-01-01

    Losses suffered by Texas feedlots in the fourth quarter of 2001 and the first half of 2002 warranted an investigation into the trends in the Texas cattle industry and the causes behind them. It is hypothesized that tight packer capacity has led...

  17. Preliminary investigation of cement materials in the Taif area, Saudi Arabia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martin, Conrad

    1970-01-01

    A preliminary investigation of possible sources of cement rock in the Taft area was made during the latter part of August 1968. Adequate deposits of limestone, clay, quartz conglomerate and sandstone, and pisolitic iron ore, yet no gypsum, were located to support a Cement plant should it prove feasible to establish one in this area. These materials, made up mostly of Tertiary and later sediments, crop out in isolated, inconspicuous low hills in a north- trending belt, 10 to 15 kilometers wide, lying about 90 kilometers to-the east of At Taft. The belt extends for more than 90 kilometers from the vicinity of Jabal 'An in the south to the crushed rock pits at Radwan and beyond in the north. The area is readily accessible either from the Talf-Riyadh highway or from the Taif-Bishah road presently under construction. The limestone, which is quite pure and dense in some localities but dolomitic, argillaceous, and cherty in others, occurs in a variety of colors and would make suitable decorative building stone. The volcanic rocks of the Harrat Hadan, lying directly to the east of the limestone belt, include volcanic ash beds some of which may have been altered to bentonitlc clays. Others may have been lithified and might be suitable for light-weight aggregate. These possibilities remain to be investigated. Precambrian metamorphic rocks lying directly to the south and southeast of Taif were also investigated as possible cement rock sources, but no suitable material was found here.

  18. Scaling the Information Load of Occupations: Preliminary Findings of the Fit Between Individual Capacities and Environmental Demands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard F. Haase; Joaquim Armando G. A. Ferreira; Eduardo J. R. Santos; Gina M. Aguayo; Melissa M. Fallon

    2008-01-01

    Person—Environment (P-E) fit models provide a conceptually powerful way to think about career development, vocational choice, and occupational success. The work reported here focuses on yet another pair of P-E criteria: self-reported individual capacity for information processing (the ability to tolerate information overload from a variety of stimulus sources), and the corresponding demand characteristics for information processing of the occupational

  19. Preliminary investigation of absent nociceptive flexion reflex responses among more symptomatic women with fibromyalgia syndrome.

    PubMed

    Umeda, Masataka; Corbin, Lisa W; Maluf, Katrina S

    2013-09-01

    Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) is a widespread musculoskeletal pain condition with unclear physiologic mechanisms. The purpose of this investigation was to compare the responsiveness of nociceptive flexion reflex (NFR) pathways between women with and without FMS. A secondary purpose was to examine the influence of depression, fibromyalgia symptom severity, and cardiovascular health on NFR responses among women with FMS. Fifteen women with FMS and 14 healthy controls participated in an experimental session to assess NFR responses to sural nerve stimulation, resting mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR), and scores on the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ). NFR responses were successfully elicited from all healthy individuals, but only eight (53 %) of the women with FMS. These women did not differ in the minimum stimulus intensity required to elicit an NFR response compared to healthy controls (p ? 0.35). Further, these women had lower BDI (p = 0.04) and FIQ (p = 0.02) scores compared to women with FMS from whom NFR responses could not be elicited. Resting HR was higher in both groups of women with FMS compared to healthy individuals (p < 0.05), and MAP was strongly associated with NFR thresholds only among women with FMS (r = 0.88, p < 0.01). Findings from this preliminary investigation suggest that NFR pathways are impaired in women who are more severely impacted by symptoms of depression and fibromyalgia, potentially due to desensitization of NFR pathways with chronic autonomic arousal. PMID:23553516

  20. Preliminary Results from an Investigation into Nanostructured Nuclear Radiation Detectors for Non-Proliferation Applications

    SciTech Connect

    ,

    2012-10-01

    In recent years, the concept of embedding composite scintillators consisting of nanosized inorganic crystals in an organic matrix has been actively pursued. Nanocomposite detectors have the potential to meet many of the homeland security, non-proliferation, and border and cargo-screening needs of the nation and, by virtue of their superior nuclear identification capability over plastic, at roughly the same cost as plastic, have the potential to replace all plastic detectors. Nanocomposites clearly have the potential of being a gamma ray detection material that would be sensitive yet less expensive and easier to produce on a large scale than growing large, whole crystals of similar sensitivity. These detectors would have a broad energy range and a sufficient energy resolution to perform isotopic identification. The material can also be fabricated on an industrial scale, further reducing cost. This investigation focused on designing and fabricating prototype core/shell and quantum dot (QD) detectors. Fourteen core/shell and four QD detectors, all with the basic consistency of a mixture of nanoparticles in a polymer matrix with different densities of nanoparticles, were prepared. Nanoparticles with sizes <10 nm were fabricated, embedded in a polystyrene matrix, and the resultant scintillators’ radiation detector properties were characterized. This work also attempted to extend the gamma energy response on both low- and high-energy regimes by demonstrating the ability to detect low-energy and high-energy gamma rays. Preliminary results of this investigation are consistent with a significant response of these materials to nuclear radiation.

  1. Preliminary investigation of high power microwave plasmas for electrothermal thruster use

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Power, John L.; Sullivan, Daniel J.

    1993-01-01

    Results are reported from preliminary tests to evaluate the high power microwave electrothermal thruster concept, which employs a free-floating plasma discharge maintained by applied CW microwave power to heat a propellant gas flow. Stable plasmas have been created and maintained in He, N2, and H2 as propellants in both the TM(sub 011) and TM(sub 012) modes at discharge pressures from 10 Pa to 69 kPa. Vortical inflow of the propellant gas was observed to cause the formation of on-axis 'spike' plasmas. Operation in the spike plasma condition yields maximum power absorption with minimum wall heating and maximum propellant-heating efficiency; plasmas of the three propellant gases were investigated in the spike condition in an open channel to a maximum applied power level of 11.2 kW (in N2). Microwave power coupling efficiencies of over 90 percent were routinely obtained at absorbed power levels up to 2 kW. Magnetic nozzle effects were investigated with a superconducting solenoid Al magnet applying a high magnetic field to the plasmas in, and exiting from, the discharge tube.

  2. Preliminary investigation of high power microwave plasmas for electrothermal thruster use

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Power, John L.; Sullivan, Daniel J.

    1993-01-01

    Results are reported from preliminary tests to evaluate the high power microwave electrothermal thruster (MET) concept, which employs a free-floating plasma discharge maintained by applied CW microwave power to heat a propellant gas flow. Stable plasmas have been created and maintained in helium (He), nitrogen (N2), and hydrogen (H2) as propellants in both the TM(sub 011) and TM(sub 012) modes at discharge pressures from 10 Pa to 69 kPa. Reproducible starting conditions of pressure and power have been documented for all the plasmas. Vortical inflow of the propellant gas was observed to cause the formation of on-axis 'spike' plasmas. The formation and unformation conditions of these plasmas were studied. Operation in the spike plasma condition enables maximum power absorption with minimum wall heating and offers maximum efficiency in heating the propellant gas. In the spike condition, plasmas of the three propellant gases were investigated in an open channel configuration to a maximum applied power level of 11.2 kW (in N2). Microwave power coupling efficiencies of over 90 percent were routinely obtained at absorbed power levels up to 2 kW. Magnetic nozzle effects were investigated with a superconducting solenoid Al magnet applying a high magnetic field to the plasmas in and exiting from the discharge tube.

  3. Investigation of Metal Oxide/Carbon Nano Material as Anode for High Capacity Lithium-ion Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, James Jianjun; Hong, Haiping

    2014-01-01

    NASA is developing high specific energy and high specific capacity lithium-ion battery (LIB) technology for future NASA missions. Current state-of-art LIBs have issues in terms of safety and thermal stability, and are reaching limits in specific energy capability based on the electrochemical materials selected. For example, the graphite anode has a limited capability to store Li since the theoretical capacity of graphite is 372 mAh/g. To achieve higher specific capacity and energy density, and to improve safety for current LIBs, alternative advanced anode, cathode, and electrolyte materials are pursued under the NASA Advanced Space Power System Project. In this study, the nanostructed metal oxide, such as Fe2O3 on carbon nanotubes (CNT) composite as an LIB anode has been investigated.

  4. A small capacity steamejector refrigerator: experimental investigation of a system using ejector with movable primary nozzle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ian W Eames

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes an experimental study of a steam-ejector refrigerator using an ejector with a primary nozzle that could be moved axially within the mixing chamber section. The effects on coefficient of performance and cooling capacity produced by adjusting the position of the nozzle were studied. The experimental rig and method are described and results are presented which clearly show

  5. Contribution of Working Memory Capacity to Children's Reading Comprehension: A Longitudinal Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seigneuric, Alix; Ehrlich, Marie-France

    2005-01-01

    We examined the contribution of working memory capacity to the development of children's reading comprehension. We present data from three waves of a longitudinal study when the children were 7 years (Grade 1), 8 years (Grade 2) and 9 years (Grade 3). Two questions were raised: The first question concerned the developmental changes of the relative…

  6. The Adaptation of the Mathematics Anxiety Rating Scale-Elementary Form into Turkish, Language Validity, and Preliminary Psychometric Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baloglu, Mustafa; Balgalmis, Esra

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to adapt the Mathematics Anxiety Rating Scale- Elementary Form (MARS-E, Suinn, 1988) into Turkish by first doing the translation of its items and then the preliminary psychometric investigation of the Turkish form. The study included four different samples: 30 bilingual language experts, 50 Turkish language…

  7. A Preliminary Investigation of Within-Year Growth Patterns in Reading and Mathematics Curriculum-Based Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graney, Suzanne B.; Missall, Kristen N.; Martinez, Rebecca S.; Bergstrom, Melissa

    2009-01-01

    This study examined patterns of growth across benchmark assessments for curriculum-based measures (CBM) over 2 academic years, with the twofold purpose of replicating earlier findings of growth patterns on R-CBM and conducting a preliminary investigation of growth patterns on M-CBM and CBM-Maze. The sample included 898 cases from 3rd through 5th…

  8. Cognitive and Linguistic Sources of Variance in 2-Year-Olds' Speech-Sound Discrimination: A Preliminary Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lalonde, Kaylah; Holt, Rachael Frush

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This preliminary investigation explored potential cognitive and linguistic sources of variance in 2- year-olds' speech-sound discrimination by using the toddler change/no-change procedure and examined whether modifications would result in a procedure that can be used consistently with younger 2-year-olds. Method: Twenty typically…

  9. Usefulness of the Human Body as a Metaphor to Study the Resilience of Systems and Enterprises: A Preliminary Investigation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Devanandham Henry; Dinesh Verma

    2009-01-01

    Resilience is an important attribute that systems and enterprises require in order to survive in today's challenging, unpredictable and competitive environment. The human body could be a useful metaphor to study the concept of resilience and to extract resilience lessons. This assumption is tested here in this preliminary investigation, by considering simplified versions of three typical scenarios that humans face:

  10. Preliminary investigation into landslide in the national park Mt. Seorak in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S.-K.; Choi, S.-Y.; Park, K.; Park, H.-D.

    2003-04-01

    There are 20 national parks with a site of superb scenic beauty in Korea. Total area covered by Mt. Seorak of Korean national parks is 354.6 km^2, which is of great value to be preserved naturally. Mt. Seorak is composed of granite, granitic gneiss and porphyroblastic gneiss. Mt. Seorak has been appointed as preservation area by IUCN(International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources) from early 1960's. Although a great number of people have visited to enjoy the beautiful panorama of Mt. Seorak, visitors are exposed to natural hazards, such as rock-fall, rockslide and debris flow. Based on preliminary investigation for total 68 sites on tracking routes, 7 sites were determined to be dangerous for visitors. Recently, rock-fall has occurred at 2 sites and debris flow happened at another 2 sites, where roads and tracking routes have been destroyed completely. In others, there is potential danger of rock-fall and debris flow. In 61 sites except the above sites, though there is no apparent danger, visitors need to be notified whether they pass through potential dangerous site. From future working using GIS technology and continuous monitoring for dangerous sites, small natural hazards can be predicted.

  11. Job Stress and Dyadic Synchrony in Police Marriages: A Preliminary Investigation

    PubMed Central

    ROBERTS, NICOLE A.; LEONARD, RACHEL C.; BUTLER, EMILY A.; LEVENSON, ROBERT W.; KANTER, JONATHAN W.

    2015-01-01

    Despite reports documenting adverse effects of stress on police marriages, few empirical studies focus on actual emotional behaviors of officers and spouses. In this preliminary investigation, 17 male police officers and their nonpolice wives completed daily stress diaries for 1 week and then participated in a laboratory-based discussion about their respective days. Conversations were video-recorded and coded for specific emotional behaviors reflecting hostility and affection, which are strong predictors of marital outcomes. We examined associations between officers’ job stress (per diaries and the Police Stress Survey) and couples’ emotional behavior (mean levels and behavioral synchrony) using a dyadic repeated measures design capitalizing on the large number of observations available for each couple (1020 observations). When officers reported more job stress, they showed less hostility, less synchrony with their wives’ hostility, and more synchrony with their wives’ affection; their wives showed greater synchrony with officers’ hostility and less synchrony with officers’ affection. Therefore, for officers, greater job stress was associated with less behavioral negativity, potentially less attunement to wives’ negativity, but potentially greater attunement to wives’ affection—perhaps a compensatory strategy or attempt to buffer their marriage from stress. These attempts may be less effective, however, if, as our synchrony findings may suggest, wives are focusing on officers’ hostility rather than affection. Although it will be important to replicate these results given the small sample, our findings reveal that patterns of behavioral synchrony may be a key means to better understand how job stress exacts a toll on police marriages. PMID:23763686

  12. Two isoforms of Serratia marcescens nuclease. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray investigation of the enzyme.

    PubMed

    Bannikova, G E; Blagova, E V; Dementiev, A A; Morgunova EYu; Mikchailov, A M; Shlyapnikov, S V; Varlamov, V P; Vainshtein, B K

    1991-07-01

    Two isoforms of an extracellular endonuclease, nucleases Sm1 and Sm2, were purified from culture fluid of Serratia marcescens strain BIO MI by ligand-exchange chromatography on phosphocellulose and DEAE-Toyopearl 650S. The pI-values for nucleases Sm1 and Sm2 were found to be 7.1 and 6.7, respectively. The amino acid analysis and N-terminal amino acid sequencing of the proteins showed a significant degree of homology between the enzymes. The nuclease Sm1 has been crystallized from ammonium sulfate solution by the vapour diffusion technique. The crystals belong to the space group P2(1)2(1)2(1) with unit cell constants a = 69.0, b = 106.7, c = 74.8 A, contain two molecules in an asymmetric unit, packing density Vm = 2.3 A/Da, and diffract to at least 1.5 A resolution. The Pt- and UO2-derivatives of the protein were obtained. Preliminary X-ray investigation of nuclease Sm2 crystals was carried out. PMID:1663739

  13. Preliminary investigation of an improved metal-dielectric cathode for magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaoping; Dang, Fangchao; Zhang, Jun; Fan, Yuwei; Li, Zhiqiang

    2015-02-01

    In order to explore the cathode with good repetition quality for the magnetically insulated transmission line oscillators, an improved metal-dielectric cathode is proposed and investigated experimentally. The cathode is designed to be step-like shape, and thin copper plated boards are periodically and compactly arrayed on the surface of the cathode base, which ensures the uniformity of the electrons emitted from the cusps of the copper plated boards. According to the numerical simulation results, the step-like shape is beneficial to convert the kinetic energy of the magnetic insulating current partially and enhance the beam-wave interaction efficiency. Finally, a preliminary experiment of an L-band magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator (MILO) with the improved metal-dielectric cathode is carried out. A high power microwave (HPM) with an average power of 1.95 GW is generated from the MILO, with an efficiency of 13.5%. Under the same experiment condition, the output power and main frequency with the presented cathode are almost the same to those with the velvet cathode. Apart from that, metal-dielectric cathode has the merits of small outgassing and long lifetime, and all of these make the improved metal-dielectric cathode significantly promising for the MILO repetition operation.

  14. A preliminary investigation of the potential mechanical sensitivity of vertical comb drives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallagher, E.; Moussa, W.

    2014-10-01

    This article describes a preliminary step taken in investigating the potential of vertical comb drives to be used as force-compensation mechanisms in interfacial force microscopes, by exploring the lower limit of the stiffness of the springs the comb drives can be fabricated with. The stiffness of their springs will affect the sensitivity of the microscope. Six vertical comb drives were fabricated for this study; the dimensions of their spring beams were chosen with the intention of giving them stiffnesses of three different orders of magnitude. During fabrication it was found that etching the tops of some of the teeth down to create the vertical offset between the combs can be done using only photoresist to mask the rest of the teeth. The stiffnesses of the fabricated springs were estimated by applying loads to them and measuring their resulting deflections. Weights were applied to the two comb drives with the stiffest springs. Voltages were also applied to them so as to determine the force-voltage relationship for their comb design. Since the other four comb drives had the same comb design, the stiffnesses of their springs could be estimated from the displacements of their movable combs when voltages were applied to them.

  15. A preliminary environmental site investigation for a bridge over the Mississippi River at Moline, Illinois

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Trask, C.B.

    2006-01-01

    The Illinois State Geological Survey completed a preliminary environmental site assessment along the alignment of Interstate 74 (I-74) and its bridge over the Mississippi River for the Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT) in 2002. The objective of the study was to determine if any of the parcels proposed for acquisition or on which soil excavation was intended were sufficiently contaminated to require additional investigation by a commercial environmental consultant under contract to IDOT and to identify potential natural hazards that might have an impact on the proposed construction project. VOC were detected at 13 of 37 sites tested for VOC. These sites included an elevator manufacturer, former foundries, former and active machine shops, former and active gasoline stations, and a former automobile dealer. PAH above TACO Tier 1 residential standards were detected on an island in the Mississippi River. PCB was detected at a former foundry and a control box for a railroad. Magnetic anomalies that might indicate the presence of UST were detected in a park that formerly had been the site of a city garage, adjacent to a parking lot that formerly contained an automobile dealer, and at the sites of three former gasoline stations. These studies helped IDOT to save millions of dollars in highway construction projects. This is an abstract of a paper presented in Contaminated Soils, Sediments and Water: Success and Challenges (Massachusetts Fall 2005).

  16. A Preliminary Investigation of the Cr3Si-Mo Pseudo-Binary Phase Diagram

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickerson, R. M.; Raj, S. V.; Locci, I. E.

    1995-01-01

    An investigation was undertaken to study the phase relations in Cr3Si alloyed with Mo varying from 10 to 83.5 wt. % of the material. Specimens were prepared from arc-melted buttons that were subsequently heat treated at 1673 K for 200 h and air quenched to room temperature to structures. Alloys containing more than 20 wt. % MO were primarily two-phase materials of M3Si and M5Si3, where M is (Cr,Mo). Three alloys contained less than 5% of a third phase, which also had the M5Si3 crystal structure. Differential thermal analysis (DTA) was performed on several specimens at temperatures up to 2073 K in order to determine a solidus curve for the M3Si phase. Since only one DTA peak was observed in each alloy, the M5Si3 phase must melt above 2073 K, the maximum temperature examined. A preliminary pseudo-binary phase diagram for (Cr,Mo)3Si and a portion of the 1673 K isothermal section of the Cr-Mo-Si ternary phase diagram are presented.

  17. Preliminary investigation of Culicidae species in South Pantanal, Brazil and their potential importance in arbovirus transmission.

    PubMed

    Pauvolid-Corrêa, Alex; Tavares, Fernando Neto; Alencar, Jeronimo; Silva, Julia dos Santos; Murta, Michele; Serra-Freire, Nicolau Maués; Pellegrin, Aiesca Oliveira; Gil-Santana, Hélcio; Guimarães, Anthony Erico; Silva, Edson Elias da

    2010-01-01

    In view of the high circulation of migratory birds and the environmental and climatic conditions which favor the proliferation of arthropods, the Brazilian Pantanal is susceptible to circulation of arboviruses. However, the amount of data concerning arbovirus vectors in this area is scarce; therefore the aim of this study was to conduct a preliminary investigation of Culicidae species in the Nhecolândia Sub-region of South Pantanal, Brazil and their potential importance in the arbovirus transmission. A total of 3684 specimens of mosquitoes were captured, 1689 of which caught in the rainy season of 2007, were divided into 78 pools and submitted to viral isolation, Semi-Nested RT-PCR and Nested RT-PCR, with a view to identifying the most important arboviruses in Brazil. Simultaneously, 70 specimens of ticks found blood-feeding on horses were also submitted to the same virological assays. No virus was isolated and viral nucleic-acid detection by RT-PCR was also negative. Nevertheless, a total of 22 Culicidae species were identified, ten of which had previously been reported as vectors of important arboviruses. The diversity of species found blood-feeding on human and horse hosts together with the arboviruses circulation previously reported suggest that the Nhecolândia Sub-region of South Pantanal is an important area for arbovirus surveillance in Brazil. PMID:20305950

  18. Preliminary investigation of the influence of dopamine regulating genes on social working memory

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Sarah K. G.; Wood, Nicholas W.; Meyer, Meghan L.; Lieberman, Matthew D.; Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne

    2014-01-01

    Working memory (WM) refers to mental processes that enable temporary retention and manipulation of information, including information about other people (“social working memory”). Previous studies have demonstrated that nonsocial WM is supported by dopamine neurotransmission. Here, we investigated in 131 healthy adults whether dopamine is similarly involved in social WM by testing whether social and nonsocial WM are influenced by genetic variants in three genes coding for molecules regulating the availability of dopamine in the brain: catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), dopamine active transporter (DAT), and monoamine-oxidase A (MAOA). An advantage for the Met allele of COMT was observed in the two standard WM tasks and in the social WM task. However, the influence of COMT on social WM performance was not accounted for by its influence on either standard WM paradigms. There was no main effect of DAT1 or MAOA, but a significant COMT × DAT1 interaction on social WM performance. This study provides novel preliminary evidence of effects of genetic variants of the dopamine neurotransmitter system on social cognition. The results further suggest that the effects observed on standard WM do not explain the genetic effects on effortful social cognition. PMID:24889756

  19. Preliminary investigation of the hazard faced by Western Australia from tsunami generated along the Sunda Arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burbidge, D.; Cummins, P. R.

    2005-12-01

    Since the Boxing Day tsunami various countries surrounding the Indian Ocean have been investigating the potential hazard from trans-Indian Ocean tsunami generated along the Sunda Arc, south of Indonesia. This study presents some preliminary estimates of the tsunami hazard faced by Western Australia from tsunami generated along the Arc. To estimate the hazard, a suite of tsunami spaced evenly along the subduction zone to the south of Indonesia were numerically modelled. Offshore wave heights from tsunami generated in this region are significantly higher along northwestern part of the Western Australian coast from Exmouth to the Kimberly than they are along the rest of the coast south of Exmouth. Due to the offshore bathymetry, the area around Onslow in particular may face a higher tsunami than other areas the West Australian coast. Earthquakes between Java and Timor are likely to produce the greatest hazard to northwest WA. Earthquakes off Sumatra are likely the main source of tsunami hazard to locations south of Exmouth, however the hazard here is likely to be lower than that along the north western part of the West Australian coast. Tsunami generated by other sources (eg large intra-plate events, volcanoes, landslides and asteroids) could threaten other parts of the coast.

  20. Preliminary Investigation of Over-all Performance of Experimental Turbojet Engine for Guided Missiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eustis, Robert H.; Berkey, William E.

    1947-01-01

    A preliminary investigation of the over-all performance of a simply constructed, short-life, turbojet engine was conducted. The unit was operated at a pressure altitude of 15,000 feet for ram-pressure ratios of 1.2 t o 1.8. The corrected engine speed was varied from the minimum for good combustion to about 17,000 rpm, which is approximately 75 percent of rated speed. The performance is given by generalized parameters that permit the calculation of performance at any altitude. The corrected net thrust of the turbojet engine increased with ram-pressure ratio for a given corrected engine speed above 14,500 rpm and reached a maximum of 425 pounds at a ram-pressure ratio of 1.8 and a corrected engine speed of 16,650 rpm, The corrected thrust specific fuel consumption decreased with flight speed for corrected engine speeds higher than 13,600 rpm, The minimum corrected thrust specific fuel consumption of 1.48 was obtained at a ram-pressure ratio of 1,8 and a corrected engine speed of 15,000 rpm. For all ram-pressure ratios, choking occurred in the engine for corrected engine speeds greater than 14,500 rpm.

  1. A Preliminary Investigation of Supercharging an Air-Cooled Engine in Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ware, Marsden; Schey, Oscar W

    1929-01-01

    This report presents the results of preliminary tests made on the effects of supercharging an air-cooled engine under airplane flight conditions. Service training airplanes were used in the investigation equipped with production types of Wright J engines. A N.A.C.A. Roots type supercharger was driven from the rear of the engine. In addition to measuring those quantities that would enable the determination of the climb performance, measurements were made of the cylinder-head temperatures and the carburetor pressures and temperatures. The supercharging equipment was not removed from the airplane when making flights without supercharging, but a by-pass valve, which controlled the amount of supercharging by returning to the atmosphere the surplus air delivered by the supercharger, was left full open. With the supercharger so geared that ground-level pressure could be maintained to 18,500 feet, it was found that the absolute ceiling was increased from 19,400 to 32,600 feet, that the time to climb to 16,00 feet was decreased from 32 to 16 minutes, and that this amount of supercharging apparently did not injure the engine. (author)

  2. Preliminary results of investigations into the use of artificial neural networks for discriminating gas chromatograph mass spectra of remote samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geller, Harold A.; Norris, Eugene; Warnock, Archibald, III

    1991-01-01

    Neural networks trained using mass spectra data from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) are studied. The investigations also included sample data from the gas chromatograph mass spectrometer (GCMS) instrument aboard the Viking Lander, obtained from the National Space Science Data Center. The work performed to data and the preliminary results from the training and testing of neural networks are described. These preliminary results are presented for the purpose of determining the viability of applying artificial neural networks in discriminating mass spectra samples from remote instrumentation such as the Mars Rover Sample Return Mission and the Cassini Probe.

  3. Preliminary Results of an Experimental Investigation of the Qu Superconducting Heat Pipe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blackmon, James B.; Entrekin, Sean F.

    2006-01-01

    This note on preliminary results of our evaluation of the so-called Qu Tube is prompted in part by recent concerns expressed to the authors by some researchers regarding the performance characteristics of the superconducting, solid-state heat pipe as described in the patents, or on the company's websites. Briefly, the company's claims include: a new type of heat transfer mechanism that is a form of solid state thermal superconductivity, which results in an effective thermal conductivity of the order of tens of thousands of times that of an equivalent solid silver bar, or, tens to hundreds of times that of liquid - vapor heat pipes. The company's website also refers to tests conducted by Stanford Research Institute that substantiate these claims, but the report is apparently not publicly available. We are conducting an investigation of the Qu Tube under a NASA Grant, and in general find that these claims have merit, but our study is not yet complete. We present some of our preliminary results in part to show that it would not be imprudent to conduct such studies, especially for possible future applications requiring exceptional thermal management performance capabilities. Working with HiTek Services, we originally acquired several Qu Tubes, including 17" long, 5/16" diameter copper tubes, one that is 7 7/8" long, 3/16" diameter, and one that is 4" long, 1" diameter. We subjected the smaller tubes to various exploratory tests, including a transient test with electrical band heaters, boiling water tests, and a series of steady state tests with electrical band heaters heating one end with free convective cooling along the remainder of the length. All results indicate a very high thermal conductivity, but the length of these tubes limited our ability to obtain accurate data on temperature gradients, necessary to determine the effective thermal conductivity. We then acquired nine Qu Tubes that are 10' long, 5/16" diameter, and we have recently conducted initial tests, which further support the claims of exceptional thermal conductivity.

  4. Preliminary results of giant pulse investigations from Crab pulsar with Radioastron.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudnitskiy, Alexey; Popov, M.; Soglasnov, Vladimir

    Preliminary results of giant pulse investigations from Crab pulsar with Radioastron. The high flux density of the Crab pulsar's giant pulses and the compactness of their source make them attractive objects for study on the longest baselines. Indeed, the strongest such pulses are visible by the Radioastron spacecraft in single-dish mode. A program of observations of these pulses, starting in the fringe-search phase of the mission, has led to observations of a handful of giant pulses, with surprising and sometimes puzzling properties. We observed the Crab pulsar using Radioastron at L-band in November 2011, on 2 and 6 March 2012, and on 23 Oct 2012. We made the first P-band observations in November 2013. The strongest giant pulse observed in November 2011 reached signal-to-noise ratio of S/N=400, while in March 2012 the strongest had S/N=140. More recent observations have yielded S/N<100, likely because the pulsar has entered an episode of strong scattering, which dilutes the pulses through its associated temporal broadening. We are monitoring the scattering using observations at lambda = 2.7 m at the BSA/LPI telescope in Pushchino; November 2013 results yielded S/N 50 on the smallest baseline. Fringes were detected on Earth-RA baselines for a dozen pulses in the November 2011 observations, but with significant phase variations. We have not yet detected Earth-RA fringes for any pulse from subsequent observations. Based on the preliminary results obtained for L and P bands, we have estimated the angular size of scattering disk and scattering time. These estimations are in good agreement. Also results from our P-band observations in November 2013 showed that the scattering disk seems to be resolved at ground baselines between Arecibo-Kalyazin and Arecibo-WSRT. Visibility amplitude at these baselines is about a half of that measured between WSRT and Kalyazin. The WSRT-Kalyazin visibility functions in delay exhibit notable sidelobes at 0.6 and 1.2 microseconds that look like regular diffraction rings. This is in contradiction with our results obtained for PSR 0329+54 and PSR 0833-45 (Vela), where we have detected fringes on space-ground baselines of 5-20 Earth diameters. Therefore, a major objective of our study is to understand the reason for this contradiction. It might be the GPs emission is much more narrow in angular distribution compared to regular pulsar emission. Another reason might be scattering peculiarities in the Crab nebula.

  5. Sorption of lead, copper, cadmium, zinc, and nickel by marine algal biomass: characterization of biosorptive capacity and investigation of mechanisms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ping Xin Sheng; Yen-Peng Ting; J. Paul Chen; Liang Hong

    2004-01-01

    The marine algae Sargassum sp., Padina sp., Ulva sp., and Gracillaria sp., harvested locally, were investigated for their biosorption performance in the removal of lead, copper, cadmium, zinc, and nickel from dilute aqueous solutions. It was found that the biosorption capacities were significantly affected by solution pH, with higher pH favoring higher metal-ion removal. Kinetic and isotherm experiments were carried

  6. LOD 1 VS. LOD 2 - Preliminary Investigations Into Differences in Mobile Rendering Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellul, C.; Altenbuchner, J.

    2013-09-01

    The increasing availability, size and detail of 3D City Model datasets has led to a challenge when rendering such data on mobile devices. Understanding the limitations to the usability of such models on these devices is particularly important given the broadening range of applications - such as pollution or noise modelling, tourism, planning, solar potential - for which these datasets and resulting visualisations can be utilized. Much 3D City Model data is created by extrusion of 2D topographic datasets, resulting in what is known as Level of Detail (LoD) 1 buildings - with flat roofs. However, in the UK the National Mapping Agency (the Ordnance Survey, OS) is now releasing test datasets to Level of Detail (LoD) 2 - i.e. including roof structures. These datasets are designed to integrate with the LoD 1 datasets provided by the OS, and provide additional detail in particular on larger buildings and in town centres. The availability of such integrated datasets at two different Levels of Detail permits investigation into the impact of the additional roof structures (and hence the display of a more realistic 3D City Model) on rendering performance on a mobile device. This paper describes preliminary work carried out to investigate this issue, for the test area of the city of Sheffield (in the UK Midlands). The data is stored in a 3D spatial database as triangles and then extracted and served as a web-based data stream which is queried by an App developed on the mobile device (using the Android environment, Java and OpenGL for graphics). Initial tests have been carried out on two dataset sizes, for the city centre and a larger area, rendering the data onto a tablet to compare results. Results of 52 seconds for rendering LoD 1 data, and 72 seconds for LoD 1 mixed with LoD 2 data, show that the impact of LoD 2 is significant.

  7. A preliminary investigation of drag reduction and mechanism for a blunt body of revolution with slanted base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xia, Xuejian; Yu, Xiaoshen

    1988-01-01

    This is a preliminary study of the drag reduction effect and its mechanism of a blunt body of revolution with a 21-deg slant angle by using a series of base plates. Drag coefficients were measured to investigate the effect of base installation position and plate height. An effective drag reduction device was found. Through the measurement of base pressure and total pressure distribution and flow pattern display, flow characteristics and drag reduction mechanism in the vortex near the wake were investigated.

  8. Isotope-Dendrochronological Investigation of Tropical Trees from Brazil: A preliminary analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, W. T.; Anderson, W. T.; Evans, S. L.; da Silva, M. L.; Wagener, K.

    2001-12-01

    In order to improve our understanding of paleoclimatic change, it is important to have methods that allow for investigation in all regions, permitting better correlations of significant events among different locations. Trees having a global distribution ranging from the tropics to the subarctic are potentially an ideal medium to develop isotopic records equivalent to those from ice cores. Here we present the preliminary results of an oxygen isotopic investigation of Araucaria angustifolia trees in the State Park of Campos de Jordao, in the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil. With this work we hope to establish the first high-resolution terrestrial isotopic proxy record of climate change from the tropics of Brazil, and to pave the way for future work. The species chosen for this investigation, Auraucaria angustifolia, is one of the few trees in the tropics which has annual rings. Our approach fully exploits this fact, and isotopic analysis of the rings were conducted at a yearly resolution over the last hundred years. Recent work in Europe has demonstrated that trees in temperate settings can record the isotopic composition of precipitation in their ring cellulose, transferred from rain fall to soil water, which the plants access. Our exploratory project will employ this new approach, using trees as isotope-hydrology archives, and apply it for the first time to a tropical species. Additionally, more traditional calibration work will be conducted over the last 30 years when climate parameters (relative humidity, temperature, precipitation, etc.) are available from a weather station within the park. Monthly precipitation samples are currently being collected for isotopic analysis from within the park, for later calibration with our records. Last August we also recovered two soil profiles from the same open and closed forest site where tree rings were recovered the year before. From these samples, an isotopic soil water profile will be constructed to investigate how the isotopic composition of precipitation is transferred to the soils in our study area. In turn, the calibrated oxygen and carbon isotopic time series can be used as a proxy of important climate parameters such as temperature, humidity, and potentially atmospheric circulation.

  9. Investigation of the bond and tensile capacity of synthetic lightweight aggregates embedded in a cement matrix

    E-print Network

    Nichols, Gisela Wagner

    1969-01-01

    OF THE BOND AND TENSILE Ch&ACITY OF SYNTHE1'IC LIG11THEIGHT AGGREGATES E'G1EDDED IN A CEMENT MATRIX A Thesis by OISELA WAGNER NICHOLS Approved as to style and oontent byi Chairm'sn of Committee Head of D psrtment Msy 1969 ABSTRACT INlfESTZQATION OP... THE BOND AND TENSILE CAPACITY OF SYNTHETIC LIGHTWEIGHT AGCRECATES EMBEDDED; IN A C&IENT MATRIX (May 1969) Gieela Wagner Nichols B. S. C. E. University of Massachusetts Directed by: Dr. W. B. Ledbetter Beoause of the inoreasing importance of...

  10. Hazards by shock waves during explosive eruptions: preliminary results of experimental investigations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scolamacchia, Teresa; Alatorre Ibarguengoïtia, Miguel; Spieler, Oliver; Dingwell, Donald B.

    2010-05-01

    A recent study (Scolamacchia and Shouwenaars, 2009) investigated the nature of microscopic craters on the steel surface of a basketball pole left standing in one of the villages destroyed by the 1982 eruption of El Chichón volcano. The craters were attributed to the impacts of ash particles (70-280 ?m) accelerated by shock waves due to an efficient momentum coupling with a gas phase, such that a sudden expansion of the gas, caused by shock wave propagation, drag the particles up to speeds of 710 to 980 m/s. Several open questions existed on this kind of phenomena. Preliminary tests were performed to investigate the correlation between particle size and the high velocities calculated, based on inner deformation of the steel and crater geometry. We used a shock tube apparatus consisting of a high-pressure (HP) steel autoclave, pressurized with Ar gas, and a low pressure (LP) tank at atmospheric conditions. We used ash and lapilli bulk samples from El Chichón trachyandesites, and lapilli with random irregular shapes obtained by crushing and abrading dacitic blocks from pyroclastic flow deposits of Unzen volcano. The samples were placed inside an autoclave at ambient T and P, located between the HP autoclave and the LP tank. Steel plates (same type of the original impacted material), were fixed to the LP tank walls, 10 cm above the autoclave that contained the samples. Shock waves were generated by the sudden decompression of the Ar gas due to the systematical failure of a diaphragm (which separate the LP from the HP section). Air expansion accelerated the particles from below toward the steel plate. The speed of the particles was measured using a system of 4 copper wires conducting an electric signal. The signals dropped when the particles reached the wires. We used low pressure ranges (3.1 to 9.8 MPa) for all experimental runs, obtaining a range of particles velocities between 40 and 257 m/s. These velocities can be attained by pyroclastic density currents. Higher velocities (205 to 257 m/s) were obtained for smaller grain-sizes, in a range of fine lapilli-medium ash (2.8 to 177 ?m). Lower velocities, 40 m/s to 85 m/s, were attained by medium (8 mm) and fine lapilli (4 mm), respectively. These values seem not directly related to the the material composition. Impacts craters on steel plates were experimentally obtained, but we did not observe a modification of the steel inner structure, as observed in the original impacted pole. These results are in agreement with impacts occurred at low particle velocities, typical for gravity driven currents, as those reached in these experiments. We observed a great reduction in grain-size of samples recovered after all experiments with respect to the original material. Such evidence coud be due not only to the disruption of grains when impacting the metal plate, but also to processes stricly related to shock wave propagation and gas expansion. These preliminary results need to be further investigated.

  11. Bearing Capacity of Spatially Random Soils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gordon A. Fenton; D. V. Griffiths

    2000-01-01

    By combining elasto-plastic finiteelement analysis with random fieldtheory, a preliminary investigation has been performed into the bearing capacity of soils with spatially random shear strength. The main issue is to determine the extent to which spatial variability in soil properties affects the distribution of the computed bearing capacity. For vanishing coefficients of variation (C.O.V.) in the soil shear strength, the

  12. Investigating the effect of increased wind generation capacity on investment in transmission infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braswell, Michael G.

    The transmission network that connects electricity generators with consumers is a critical yet often-overlooked component of the nation's electrical power infrastructure. However, the transmission grid has suffered from chronic underinvestment in recent decades due to various economic and regulatory factors that impede timely and efficient investments in transmission. One factor that might help offset these obstacles to transmission is the growth in wind power generation. The assumption among many in the electrical power industry is that wind power investments necessarily require greater investment in transmission due to the fact that wind power is a geographically-restricted resource and cannot always be situated close to areas of high electricity demand. However, to date there have been few, if any, empirical studies to verify this connection. This paper discusses a state-by-state empirical study exploring the relationship between increased wind generation capacity and the level of investment in transmission infrastructure. This study begins with the hypothesis that increases in installed wind generation capacity, in combination with other policies that promote wind energy more generally, should result in higher levels of transmission investment. Using data from the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) and the American Wind Energy Association (AWEA), this paper develops regression models suggesting that wind investment has a small but distinct positive impact on transmission investment. This paper then explores the effects of other state renewable energy promotion policies, and discusses the policy implications of these findings.

  13. Investigating transport capacity equations in sediment yield modelling for the Cariri semi-arid region of Paraiba-PB/Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Figueiredo, E. E.; Souto, C. C. R. A.; Vieira, Z. C.

    2015-03-01

    In the semi arid Cariri region of the state of Paraiba, Brazil, runoff is of the Hortonian type generated by excess of rainfall over infiltration capacity, and soil erosion is governed by rainfall intensity and sediment size. However, the governing sediment transport mechanism is not well understood. Sediment transport generally depends on the load of sediment provided by soil erosion and on the transport capacity of the flow. The latter is mainly governed by mechanisms such as water shear stress, or stream power. Accordingly, the load of sediment transported by the flow may vary depending on the mechanism involved in the equation of estimation. Investigation of the sediment transport capacity of the flow via a distributed physically-based model is an important and necessary task, but quite rare in semi-arid climates, and particularly in the Cariri region of the state of Paraíba/Brazil. In this study, the equations of Yalin, Engelund & Hansen, Laursen, DuBoys and Bagnold have been coupled with the MOSEE distributed physically based model aiming at identifying the mechanisms leading to the best model simulations when compared with data observed at various basin scales and land uses in the study region. The results obtained with the investigated methods were quite similar and satisfactory suggesting the feasibility of the mechanisms involved, but the observed values were better represented with Bagnold's equation, which is physically grounded on the stream power, and we recommend it for simulations of similar climate, runoff generation mechanisms and sediment characteristics as in the study region.

  14. Preliminary Investigations on the Distribution of Leptospira Serovars in Domestic Animals in North-west Morocco.

    PubMed

    Benkirane, A; Noury, S; Hartskeerl, R A; Goris, M G A; Ahmed, A; Nally, J E

    2014-07-26

    Leptospirosis is a neglected zoonosis of global importance with a complex epidemiology that affects humans, domestic and wild mammals. However, due to the diversity of clinical signs and difficulties of establishing a confirmatory laboratory diagnosis, the disease remains poorly investigated, particularly in the developing world. In Morocco, a descriptive study of the seroprevalence of Leptospira infection in animals has never been undertaken. To fill this gap, the current study was conducted on a subset of animals in north-west Morocco as a preliminary step towards understanding the epidemiological patterns of animal leptospirosis in the country. The study was conducted on 289 serum samples collected between January and April 2012 from dogs, cattle, sheep, goats and donkeys in the areas of Rabat-Temara, Sidi Kacem and Oulmes. All serum samples were tested by the MAT with 14 reference strains of the most prevalent pathogenic serovars of Leptospira and two serovars of non-pathogenic Leptospira. The overall seroprevalence of Leptospira in cattle, sheep, goats, dogs and donkeys was 15%, 18%, 20%, 21% and 20%, respectively. The most prevalent serogroups found in each species were Ballum, Sejroe, and Australis in cattle, Ballum, Australis and Sejroe in sheep, Australis and Ballum in goats, Javanica and Australis in donkey and Australis, Ballum and Canicola in dogs. Of all the serogroups tested in this study, Icterohaemorrhagiae, the only serogroup which has been previously reported in humans in Morocco, was rarely reactive. The majority of reactive sera were collected from low land areas. A large number of sera samples classified as seronegative when tested against pathogenic leptospires were positive when tested against non-pathogenic leptospires; this is suggestive of possible novel, as yet unclassified, Leptospira serovars in Morocco. Eleven of thirteen sheep urine samples were positive by real-time PCR confirming their role as Leptospira carriers in Morocco. PMID:25065690

  15. Preliminary Investigation of EarthScope EARS Derived MOHO Topography and Large Scale Faye Gravity Anomaly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crain, K.; Holland, A. A.

    2013-12-01

    This is a preliminary investigation using the EarthScope EARS receiver functions in combination with the Faye gravity anomaly. This includes both qualitative and quantitative comparison of the large scale Faye anomaly with an expected 3D geology interpretation for the southern mid-continent U.S.A. The 3D geology interpretation consists of expected 3D topographies based on National Elevation Data, published formation elevations, measured and published basement topography with geology, and the expected MOHO topography calculated using the EARS estimated crustal thickness. The EARS automated receiver functions provides a large data set of automatically generated receiver functions and models of bulk crustal properties. These bulk crustal properties include crustal thickness, and Vp/Vs given an assumed Vp. The results from this automatic determination can be evaluated through the H-K stacking, and are often a good method to identify where there may be complex structure or poor quality data. Some a priori information is used to constrain the EARS crustal model. The observed Faye gravity anomaly is calculated using the observed gravity value at their observation location from the PACES gravity database and their extracted elevation from the national elevation data set. Then the expected Faye gravity is modeled using the expected 3D geology interpretation. The observed and modeled Faye gravity, along with the expected 3D geologic interpretation with its topographies and geology and their expected uncertainties are used in a simple 3D density inversion to evaluate the consistency of the estimated with the expected crust / MOHO interface. Areas with complex crustal geology and or inconsistent EARS data are identified as areas of higher uncertainty and require further study. Even areas with agreement between the expected MOHO topography and the Faye anomaly have interesting geology implications. For example: in central Oklahoma the 14 km deep Anadarko basin has a positive Faye anomaly associated with it without surface topography at the same location there is a positive qualitative correlation with the EARS derived MOHO topography. The Faye gravity and MOHO topography may imply an extension of the Mid-Continent Rift through Kansas to the Southern Oklahoma Aulacogen and possibly further south and requires further investigation.

  16. Bimanual Elbow Robotic Orthoses: Preliminary Investigations on an Impairment Force-Feedback Rehabilitation Method

    PubMed Central

    Herrnstadt, Gil; Alavi, Nezam; Randhawa, Bubblepreet Kaur; Boyd, Lara A.; Menon, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    Modern rehabilitation practices have begun integrating robots, recognizing their significant role in recovery. New and alternative stroke rehabilitation treatments are essential to enhance efficacy and mitigate associated health costs. Today’s robotic interventions can play a significant role in advancing rehabilitation. In addition, robots have an inherent ability to perform tasks accurately and reliably and are typically well suited to measure and quantify performance. Most rehabilitation strategies predominantly target activation of the paretic arm. However, bimanual upper-limb rehabilitation research suggests potential in enhancing functional recovery. Moreover, studies suggest that limb coordination and synchronization can improve treatment efficacy. In this preliminary study, we aimed to investigate and validate our user-driven bimanual system in a reduced intensity rehab practice. A bimanual wearable robotic device (BWRD) with a Master–Slave configuration for the elbow joint was developed to carry out the investigation. The BWRD incorporates position and force sensors for which respective control loops are implemented, and offers varying modes of operation ranging from passive to active training. The proposed system enables the perception of the movements, as well as the forces applied by the hemiparetic arm, with the non-hemiparetic arm. Eight participants with chronic unilateral stroke were recruited to participate in a total of three 1-h sessions per participant, delivered in a week. Participants underwent pre- and post-training functional assessments along with proprioceptive measures. The post-assessment was performed at the end of the last training session. The protocol was designed to engage the user in an assortment of static and dynamic arm matching and opposing tasks. The training incorporates force-feedback movements, force-feedback positioning, and force matching tasks with same and opposite direction movements. We are able to suggest identification of impairment patterns in the position-force plot results. In addition, we performed a proprioception evaluation with the system. We set out to design innovative and user immersive training tasks that utilize the BWRD capabilities, and we demonstrate that the subjects were able to cooperate and accomplish the protocol. We found that the Fugl–Meyer and Wolf Motor Function Test (pre to post) measured improvements (15 and 19%, respectively). Recognizing the brevity of the training, we focus our report primarily on the proprioception testing (32% significant improvement, pprop?=?0.033) and protocol distinctive features and results. This paper presents the electromechanical features and performance of the BWRD, the testing protocol, and the assessments utilized. Outcome measures and results are presented and demonstrate the successful application and operation of the system.

  17. Bimanual elbow robotic orthoses: preliminary investigations on an impairment force-feedback rehabilitation method.

    PubMed

    Herrnstadt, Gil; Alavi, Nezam; Randhawa, Bubblepreet Kaur; Boyd, Lara A; Menon, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    Modern rehabilitation practices have begun integrating robots, recognizing their significant role in recovery. New and alternative stroke rehabilitation treatments are essential to enhance efficacy and mitigate associated health costs. Today's robotic interventions can play a significant role in advancing rehabilitation. In addition, robots have an inherent ability to perform tasks accurately and reliably and are typically well suited to measure and quantify performance. Most rehabilitation strategies predominantly target activation of the paretic arm. However, bimanual upper-limb rehabilitation research suggests potential in enhancing functional recovery. Moreover, studies suggest that limb coordination and synchronization can improve treatment efficacy. In this preliminary study, we aimed to investigate and validate our user-driven bimanual system in a reduced intensity rehab practice. A bimanual wearable robotic device (BWRD) with a Master-Slave configuration for the elbow joint was developed to carry out the investigation. The BWRD incorporates position and force sensors for which respective control loops are implemented, and offers varying modes of operation ranging from passive to active training. The proposed system enables the perception of the movements, as well as the forces applied by the hemiparetic arm, with the non-hemiparetic arm. Eight participants with chronic unilateral stroke were recruited to participate in a total of three 1-h sessions per participant, delivered in a week. Participants underwent pre- and post-training functional assessments along with proprioceptive measures. The post-assessment was performed at the end of the last training session. The protocol was designed to engage the user in an assortment of static and dynamic arm matching and opposing tasks. The training incorporates force-feedback movements, force-feedback positioning, and force matching tasks with same and opposite direction movements. We are able to suggest identification of impairment patterns in the position-force plot results. In addition, we performed a proprioception evaluation with the system. We set out to design innovative and user immersive training tasks that utilize the BWRD capabilities, and we demonstrate that the subjects were able to cooperate and accomplish the protocol. We found that the Fugl-Meyer and Wolf Motor Function Test (pre to post) measured improvements (15 and 19%, respectively). Recognizing the brevity of the training, we focus our report primarily on the proprioception testing (32% significant improvement, p prop?=?0.033) and protocol distinctive features and results. This paper presents the electromechanical features and performance of the BWRD, the testing protocol, and the assessments utilized. Outcome measures and results are presented and demonstrate the successful application and operation of the system. PMID:25870555

  18. Further investigations on the resilience capacity of Taraxacum officinale Weber growing on mine soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maleci, Laura; Bini, Claudio; Spiandorello, Massimo; Wahsha, Mohammad

    2014-05-01

    Heavy metal accumulation produces significant physiological and biochemical responses in vascular plants. Plants growing on abandoned mine sites are of particular interest, since they are genetically tolerant to high metal concentrations. In this work we examined the effect of heavy metals (HM) on the morphology of T. officinale growing on mine soils, with the following objectives: - to determine the fate of HM within the soil-plant system; - to highlight possible damage at anatomical and cytological level; - to assess the resilience capacity of Taraxacum officinale after three years of pot cultivation. Wild specimens of Taraxacum officinale Web, with their soil clod, were gathered from four sites with different contamination levels by heavy metals (Cu, Fe, Pb, Zn) in the abandoned Imperina Valley mine (Northeast Italy). Plants were cultivated in pots at the botanical garden of the University of Florence (HBF), and appeared macroscopically not affected by toxic signals (e.g. reduced growth, leaf necrosis) possibly induced by soil HM concentration. Leaves and roots taken at the same growing season were observed by light microscopy (LM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Light microscopy observations show a clear difference in the cell organization of not-contaminated and contaminated samples. The unpolluted samples present a well organized palisade tissue and spongy photosynthetic parenchyma. Samples from contaminated sites, instead, present a palisade parenchyma less organized, and a reduction of leaf thickness proportional to HM concentration. The poor structural organisations, and the reduced foliar thickness of the contaminated plants, are related to soil contamination. Differences in roots micromorphology concern the cortical parenchyma. Moreover, all the samples examined present mycorrhiza. Ultrastructure observations of the parenchyma cells show mitochondrial structure alteration, with lacking or reduced cristae of the internal membrane at increasing metal content. Instead, chloroplast organization does not present significant differences, particularly in number and compartmentalization of thylakoids. Although macromorphology does not present evidence of phytotoxicity, the recorded observations of the micromorphological characteristics of leaves and roots, show a suffering state of the plants, strictly related to HM content. Leaching reduced partly the HM content of the soil, therefore decreasing their phytotoxic effect. A gradual restoration of leaf organization suggests that somewhat resilience occurred in plants. Moreover, the presence of stress-tolerant mycorrhizal fungi could contribute to reduce metal toxicity. The resilience capacity suggests that Taraxacum could be a useful species in remediation projects. Keywords: Heavy metals • Mine soils • Plant morphology • Taraxacum officinale • Ultrastructure

  19. Investigation into the erosive capacity of pyroclastic density currents at Mount Saint Helens, Washington (USA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollock, N. M.; Brand, B. D.

    2012-12-01

    Two fundamental aspects of PDC dynamics that remain poorly understood are the primary control(s) on substrate erosion and the effect of erosion on downstream flow dynamics. The gap in understanding reflects the lack of sufficient field exposures with evidence for these processes. In the 32 years since the May 18th, 1980 eruption of Mount St Helens (MSH), kilometers of new outcrops have been exposed throughout the PDC and debris avalanche hummock deposits that provide substantial evidence of substrate erosion and entrainment by the PDCs produced throughout the afternoon of the eruption. Field observations include a reappearance of large lithics (>1 m) in PDC deposits at distances of 4-5 km from the vent, suggesting that these lithics were entrained locally. For this study, detailed componentry and roundness analyses are utilized to determine the source of lithics in PDC deposits and to quantify the erosive capacity of the PDCs at MSH. Comparison of componentry data from the PDC deposits with debris avalanche deposits ~200 m upstream indicate that >50% of the lithics were locally entrained. The entrainment of these lithics appears to have significantly altered the dynamics of the current as contacts between flow units change from purely depositional upstream from the hummocks to erosive and scouring following the entrainment of dense lithics. This evidence suggests that the capacity of a PDC to behave erosively could be a self-perpetuating process; entrainment of dense lithics at the base of the current results in an increased density gradient, which in turn enhances a current's ability to continue to erode. In addition, the presence of locally entrained lithics at various heights within a single flow unit and within close proximity to the source of the lithics suggests both a progressive entrainment of the substrate as well as a progressive aggradation of the deposits, depending on localized flow conditions. While erosion may have initially occurred due to the underpressure associated with the passing of the head of the current, as has been previously speculated (Roche et al., 2010. J Geophys Res 115, B09206), field evidence suggests that erosive conditions continue to exist (at least sporadically) during the passage of the body of the current. The inclusion of erosion and entrainment into models for the dynamics of PDCs will continue to increase our knowledge of these dangerous currents and allow for refined numerical simulations of the hazards associated with PDCs.

  20. Preliminary design and economic investigations of diffuser-augmented wind turbines (DAWT). Executive summary. Final report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Foreman

    1981-01-01

    A preferred design and configuration approach for the DAWT innovative wind energy conversion system is suggested. A preliminary economic assessment is made for limited production rates of units between 5 and 150 kW rated output. Nine point designs are used to arrive at the conclusions regarding best construction material for the diffuser and busbar cost of electricity (COE). It is

  1. Preliminary design and economic investigations of Diffuser-Augmented Wind Turbines (DAWT). Executive summary

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. M. Foreman

    1981-01-01

    A preferred design and configuration approach for the diffuser augmented wind turbine (DAWT) innovative wind energy conversion system is suggested. A preliminary economic assessment is made for limited production rates of units between 5 and 150 kW rated outputs. Nine point designs are used to arrive at the conclusions regarding best construction material for the diffuser and busbar cost of

  2. Preliminary investigations into the mechanical properties of a novel shock absorbing elastomeric composite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. A. Courtney; S. O. Oyadiji

    2001-01-01

    Impact absorbing pads, filled with an elastic fluid, consisting of numerous, small elastomeric capsules and a viscous matrix liquid are described. The capsules can take many forms, including beads of expanded foams, bubble packing and air filled, open ended tubes. The matrix liquid contributes lubrication, viscous damping and pressure equalisation properties. Preliminary experimental results relating to the impact absorbing and

  3. Love Deprivation and Blood Pressure Levels among a College Population: A Preliminary Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sisca, Samuel S.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Viewed within the general context of Selye's theory of environmentally induced stress, we tested the hypothesis that blood pressure levels would vary inversely with the degree of loving responses our subjects received from those with whom they interact on a frequent basis. Preliminary data support this hypothesis, especially among our older…

  4. Parental Choice of Infant Feeding Behaviours in South West Sydney: A Preliminary Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arora, A.; Gay, M.; Thirukumar, D.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to test a research instrument that could possibly be used for longitudinal research on infant feeding and to report on the preliminary results from the data collected. Design: Mixed methods approach--cross-sectional survey and qualitative research. Setting: Mother-infant dyads in South West Sydney,…

  5. Life space mapping: Preliminary results from the development of a new method for investigating counselling outcomes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian Rodgers

    2006-01-01

    Counselling outcomes are often measured in terms of standardised questionnaires. Though efficient for large numbers of participants, this method cannot capture the unique and subtle ‘shifts’ that clients often report when qualitative methods are utilised. Further, such questionnaires usually focus on the individual, missing the wider social implications of therapy. This paper presents the preliminary findings from a study that

  6. A preliminary investigation of the role of self-control in behavioral weight loss treatment

    PubMed Central

    Leahey, Tricia M.; Xu, Xiaomeng; Unick, Jessica L.; Wing, Rena R.

    2013-01-01

    Self-control is associated with positive health outcomes; however, there is limited information on self-control and weight loss. Thus, the purpose of this preliminary research was to examine how objectively measured self-control operates within the context of a behavioral weight loss program (BWL). Results showed that greater self-control and increases in self-control during BWL treatment were associated with greater weight loss (r’s?0.26; p’s<0.05), better treatment attendance (r’s?0.26, p<0.05), adherence to a low fat diet (r’s??0.37; p’s<0.05), and greater increases in physical activity (r’s 0.46; p’s<0.05). These preliminary findings suggest that self-control may play an important role in weight loss success. PMID:24743010

  7. Gravity gradient preliminary investigations, part 2: Lunar tidal gravity gradients and stresses (exhibit C)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houston, M. H.; Thompson, L. G. D.

    1971-01-01

    Preliminary analysis of the gravity gradients associated with gravity tides on the moon caused by the earth indicates that the relative changes in the gradients are very irregular, and large, and about 15 times greater than those experienced on earth. Thus gradients, in preference to gravity tides themselves, may well be an important key in correlating tide effects with lunar transient events and moonquakes, and also in determining triggering mechanisms for crustal movement and faulting. Preliminary analysis of lunar crustal stresses and strains caused by lunar gravity tides indicates that these factors may be more direct causative agents or triggering mechanisms. In particular, the cubic dilation undergoes relatively large changes and is about 11 times greater on the moon than on earth. Thus it should be correspondingly more important.

  8. Preliminary design and economic investigations of Diffuser Augmented Wind Turbines (DAWT)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. M. Foreman

    1981-01-01

    A preferred design and configuration approach for the diffuser augmented wind turbines (DAWT) innovative wind energy conversion system is proposed. A preliminary economic assessment for limited production rates of units between 5 and 150 kw rated output was made. It is estimated that for farm and REA cooperative end users, the COE can range between 2 and 3.5 cents\\/kWh for

  9. Preliminary investigation of power flow and electrode phenomena in a multi-megawatt coaxial plasma thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoenberg, Kurt; Gerwin, Richard; Henins, Ivars; Mayo, Robert; Scheuer, Jay; Nurden, Glen

    1993-01-01

    This paper summarizes preliminary experimental and theoretical research that was directed towards the study of quasisteady-state power flow in a large, un-optimized, multi-megawatt coaxial plasma thruster. The report addresses large coaxial thruster operation and includes evaluation and interpretation of the experimental results with a view to the development of efficient, steady-state megawatt-class magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thrusters.

  10. A Conceptual Model of Coaching Efficacy: Preliminary Investigation and Instrument Development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Deborah L. Feltz; Melissa A. Chase; Sandra E. Moritz; Phillip J. Sullivan

    1999-01-01

    The authors present a conceptual model of coaching efficacy and develop a reliable and valid instrument to measure the concept and to examine its hypothesized sources and outcomes. Coaching efficacy is defined as the extent to which coaches believe they have the capacity to affect the learning and performance of their athletes. Using high school coaches, confirmatory factor analysis supported

  11. An Investigation of the Effect of Graphite Degradation on the Irreversible Capacity in Lithium-ion Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Stevenson, Cynthia; Hardwick, Laurence J.; Marcinek, Marek; Beer, Leanne; Kerr, John B.; Kostecki, Robert

    2008-03-03

    The effect of surface structural damage on graphitic anodes, commonly observed in tested Li-ion cells, was investigated. Similar surface structural disorder was artificially induced in Mag-10 synthetic graphite anodes using argon-ion sputtering. Raman microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Brunauer Emmett Teller (BET) measurements confirmed that Ar-ion sputtered Mag-10 electrodes display similar degree of surface degradation as the anodes from tested Li-ion cells. Artificially modified Mag-10 anodes showed double the irreversible charge capacity during the first formation cycle, compared to fresh un-altered anodes. Impedance spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy on surface modified graphite anodes indicated the formation of a thicker and slightly more resistive SEI layer. Gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS) analysis of solvent extracts from the electrodes detected the presence of new compounds with M{sub w} on the order of 1600 g mol{sup -1} for the surface modified electrode with no evidence of elevated M{sub w} species for the unmodified electrode. The structural disorder induced in the graphite during long-term cycling maybe responsible for the slow and continuous SEI layer reformation, and consequently, the loss of reversible capacity due to the shift of lithium inventory in cycled Li-ion cells.

  12. A new device for reducing diesel engine emissions: a preliminary investigation.

    PubMed

    Mabilia, Rosanna; Cecinato, Angelo; Possanzini, Massimiliano; Di Palo, Vincenzo

    2003-01-01

    A new catalytic converter is compose by a alloy noble metal supported on inert wool and located downstream to combustion chamber appears able to markedly reduce the content of toxic organics, fine particulates and CO emitted by a diesel engine equipped truck. By contrast, emissions of NOx and particulate n-alkanes remain unaltered or increase, according to the driving and operating conditions of the vehicle. Although this tesrs are preliminary the results obtained, however, suggest that the adoption of this device significantly reduce the health risk associated to fine aerosols and carcinogenic PAH. Exhaust concentrations of some unregulated species, e.g. volatile aldehydes, were lowered by the oxidising catalyzer. PMID:12650577

  13. Clinical investigations of leg ulcer treatment by copper vapor laser therapy-a preliminary report of a novel approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Boling; Lin, Xiangda; Li, Feng; Pan, Huoyu; Lin, Meiying; Chi, Xinyin

    1994-02-01

    Lower leg ulcer is sometimes a refractory disease. A recently developed copper vapor laser could be a promising light source for the treatment of these lesions. Preliminary results of clinical investigations of five patients with leg ulcer treated by copper vapor laser phototherapy are reported. Among them, three were cured, one obtained significant response, one had no response. Most patients were cured within 15 laser treatments. It was found that lower irradiation power and energy densities were required to obtain better results. Experiment details are given.

  14. Archaeological Palimpsest Dissection at Cova del Parco (Lleida, Spain) through Microstratigraphic Investigation of Combustion Structures. Preliminary Results.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Égüez, Natalia; Mallol, Carolina; Mangado, Xavier; Tejero, José Miguel; Fullola, Josep Maria

    2014-05-01

    We present preliminary data from ongoing microstratigraphic investigations of Cova del Parco (Lleida, Spain), a Magdalenian karstic cave site in North western Catalonia. Excavations of the Upper Magdalenian levels are currently underway, with radiometric dates between 15,690 and 16,390 cal BP. This period has yielded a complex anthropogenic sedimentary deposit including combustion features and local accumulations of anthropogenic debris near the cave walls. On of the working hypothesis is that the Magdalenian hunter-gatherers who occupied the site did so for short periods, possibly seasonally. Support of this hypothesis comes the presence of overlapping, very thin flat combustion structures, which appear to have been short-lived and close to each other in time. In order to investigate this issue, we carried out micromorphological analysis of some of the mentioned combustion features. Preliminary results show significant microstratification and presence of unburned spherulites mixed in with reprecipitated calcitic wood ash, both of which point towards the existence of hiatuses between combustion events. This is supported by the observation of scattered, lightly burned microscopic flint and bone fragments in the sediment between ash layers, which could represent renewed occupation floor debris. Our case study adds to the growing number of combustion feature microstratigraphic investigations contributing to a correct characterization of anthropogenic palimpsest deposits. Key words: Microstratigraphy; Micromorphology; Magdalenian; Combustion features; Wood ash; Palimpsest; Iberian Peninsula.

  15. Preliminary investigation of thin film polymers exposed to low Earth orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strganac, Thomas; Farrow, Allan; Letton, Alan

    1991-01-01

    Preliminary results of thin film polymers exposed to low-Earth orbit aboard the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) are discussed. Dynamic testing of a 0.92/0.92 mil. polyester laminate film indicated that the modulus loss of the exposed specimens may be very small. When the storage modulus of the exposed specimen was compared to the storage modulus of a control specimen over a temperature range of minus 150 degrees to 100 degrees, there was very little change. Fourier Transform Spectroscopy performed on the same exposed material indicated crosslinking of the polyethylene, which was verified by an increase in the storage modulus above the glass transition temperature. Optical microscopy of the sample showed micrometeoroid strikes and contamination in spots by what is thought to be silicon outgassed from a nearby experiment.

  16. Cigarette advertising in magazines for Latinas, White women, and men, 1998--2002: a preliminary investigation.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Senaida; Hickman, Norval; Klonoff, Elizabeth A; Landrine, Hope; Kashima, Kennon; Parekh, Bina; Brouillard, Catherine R; Zolezzi, Michelle; Jensen, Jennifer A; Weslowski, Zorahna

    2005-04-01

    Cigarette ads in popular magazines play a role in smoking and in brand preferences among women and men, but few studies have analyzed ads directed at women vs men, and no study has examined ads directed at women of different ethnic groups. Hence, we examined cigarette ads in popular magazines for White women, Latinas, and men 1998 through 2002 for the first time. Significant differences in the number of cigarette ads by magazine audience were found, along with significant differences in the type and brands of cigarettes advertised to each group. These preliminary findings suggest that the tobacco industry may target women in a manner that differs from its targeting of men, and may target Latinas in a manner that it does not target White women. Results are discussed in terms of the need for further research on tobacco ads directed at women. PMID:15810566

  17. Investigation of the tetraquark candidate $a_0(980)$: technical aspects and preliminary results

    E-print Network

    Abdou Abdel-Rehim; Constantia Alexandrou; Joshua Berlin; Mattia Dalla Brida; Mario Gravina; Marc Wagner

    2014-10-31

    We discuss technical aspects and first results of a lattice QCD study of the $a_0(980)$ state. We employ various interpolating operators of quark-antiquark, mesonic molecule, diquark-antidiquark and two-meson type. Both connected and disconnected contributions including diagrams with closed fermion loops are computed. To keep statistical errors small, it is essential to optimize the computation of these diagrams by choosing that combination of techniques most appropriate for each type of diagram from the correlation matrix of interpolating operators. We illustrate, how this can be done, by discussing certain diagrams in detail. We also present preliminary results corresponding to a $4\\times 4$ submatrix computed with 2+1 flavors of clover fermions.

  18. Head-up auditory displays for traffic collision avoidance system advisories: a preliminary investigation.

    PubMed

    Begault, D R

    1993-12-01

    The advantage of a head-up auditory display was evaluated in a preliminary experiment designed to measure and compare the acquisition time for capturing visual targets under two auditory conditions: standard one-earpiece presentation and two-earpiece three-dimensional (3D) audio presentation. Twelve commercial airline crews were tested under full mission simulation conditions at the NASA-Ames Man-Vehicle Systems Research Facility advanced concepts flight simulator. Scenario software generated visual targets corresponding to aircraft that would activate a traffic collision avoidance system (TCAS) aural advisory; the spatial auditory position was linked to the visual position with 3D audio presentation. Results showed that crew members using a 3D auditory display acquired targets approximately 2.2 s faster than did crew members who used one-earpiece headsets, but there was no significant difference in the number of targets acquired. PMID:8163283

  19. Head-Up Auditory Displays for Traffic Collision Avoidance System Advisories: A Preliminary Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Begault, Durand R.

    1993-01-01

    The advantage of a head-up auditory display was evaluated in a preliminary experiment designed to measure and compare the acquisition time for capturing visual targets under two auditory conditions: standard one-earpiece presentation and two-earpiece three-dimensional (3D) audio presentation. Twelve commercial airline crews were tested under full mission simulation conditions at the NASA-Ames Man-Vehicle Systems Research Facility advanced concepts flight simulator. Scenario software generated visual targets corresponding to aircraft that would activate a traffic collision avoidance system (TCAS) aural advisory; the spatial auditory position was linked to the visual position with 3D audio presentation. Results showed that crew members using a 3D auditory display acquired targets approximately 2.2 s faster than did crew members who used one-earpiece head- sets, but there was no significant difference in the number of targets acquired.

  20. Preliminary design and economic investigations of Diffuser Augmented Wind Turbines (DAWT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foreman, K. M.

    1981-12-01

    A preferred design and configuration approach for the diffuser augmented wind turbines (DAWT) innovative wind energy conversion system is proposed. A preliminary economic assessment for limited production rates of units between 5 and 150 kw rated output was made. It is estimated that for farm and REA cooperative end users, the COE can range between 2 and 3.5 cents/kWh for sites with annual average wind speeds of 16 and 12 mph respectively and 150 kW rated units. No tax credits are included in these COE figures. For commercial end users of these 150 kW units the COE ranges between 4.0 and 6.5 cents/kWh for 16 and 12 mph sites. These estimates in 1979 dollars are lower than DOE goals set in 1978 for the rating size and end applications.

  1. Preliminary phytochemical investigation and antibacterial activity of Phyllanthus amarus Schum & Thorn.

    PubMed Central

    Dhandapani, R.; Lakshmi, D.; Balakrishnan, V.; Jayakumar, S.; kumar, Anandha

    2007-01-01

    The aqueous extract of Phyllanthus amarus Schum & Thorn, was selected for preliminary phytochemical and antibacterial activity against human pathogens. Minimum inhibitory concentration was performed by broth dilution method and the zone of inhibition was studied by agar disc diffusion method at concentrations of 10 and 20 mg/ml in DMSO (Dimethyl Sulfoxide). The results revealed the antimicrobial activity of extract against the the strains of microorganisms concentrations in ranges of 60 and 500 ?g/ml. Aqueous extract of leaves and roots of Phyllanthus amarus exhibited significant antibacterial activity against eight test bacteria like Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus albus, Streptococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Proteus vulgaris. The plant under study revealed the presence of alkaloids, phytosterols, phenolic compounds and tannins, proteins and amino acids , lignins and saponins. PMID:22557251

  2. Human olfactory sensitivity for bourgeonal and male infertility: a preliminary investigation.

    PubMed

    Ottaviano, G; Zuccarello, D; Menegazzo, M; Perilli, L; Marioni, G; Frigo, A C; Staffieri, A; Foresta, C

    2013-11-01

    Olfactory receptor (OR) expression is also present in the sperm cells and could mediate sperm chemotaxis. OR1D2 was the first OR expressed in the testis demonstrated to be involved in chemotaxis and to be expressed also in the nose with a similar behavior. Bourgeonal is the OR1D2 most potent known agonist. Infertility affects ~15 % of couples in western countries and sometimes it is unexplained. This pilot study compared the bourgeonal olfactory thresholds, the ability of sperm to sense the bourgeonal and the frequency of 13 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of OR1D2 gene in nine males suffering of unexplained infertility with a control group of 15 healthy males. The mean olfactory threshold for bourgeonal was statistically different between the study group (10.5 ± 3.7; median 12.3) and the control group (14.0 ± 2.8; median 15.5) (p = 0.006). Statistical analysis showed a significantly higher percentage of spermatozoa that migrated toward the capillaries filled with bourgeonal in the control group compared to the study group (p < 0.0001). Sperm migration was equally inhibited in both groups of subjects when, together with bourgeonal, capillaries were filled with undecanal, a strong bourgeonal inhibitor (p = 0.42). The 13 SNPs of OR1D2 revealed a statistically significant difference for allele and genotype frequency of rs769423 in study group versus control group (p = 0.02). The present preliminary study seems to confirm the important role of OR1D2 both in nose and spermatozoa and may explain the idiopathic infertility of the study group. Further studies on larger series are mandatory to confirm our preliminary evidence. PMID:23525651

  3. Evaluation of soil corrosivity and aquifer protective capacity using geoelectrical investigation in Bwari basement complex area, Abuja

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adeniji, A. E.; Omonona, O. V.; Obiora, D. N.; Chukudebelu, J. U.

    2014-04-01

    Bwari is one of the six municipal area councils of the Federal Capital Territory (FCT), Abuja with its attendant growing population and infrastructural developments. Groundwater is the main source of water supply in the area, and urbanization and industrialization are the predominant contributors of contaminants to the hydrological systems. In order to guarantee a continuous supply of potable water, there is a need to investigate the vulnerability of the aquifers to contaminants emanating from domestic and industrial wastes. A total of 20 vertical electrical soundings using Schlumberger electrode array with a maximum half current electrodes separation of 300 m was employed. The results show that the area is characterized by 3-6 geoelectric subsurface layers. The measured overburden thickness ranges from 1.0 to 24.3 m, with a mean value of 7.4 m. The resistivity and longitudinal conductance of the overburden units range from 18 to 11,908 ?m and 0.047 to 0.875 mhos, respectively. Areas considered as high corrosivity are the central parts with ? < 180 ?m. The characteristic longitudinal unit conductance was used to classify the area into zones of good (0.7-4.49 mhos), moderate (0.2-0.69 mhos), weak (0.1-0.19 mhos), and poor (<0.1) aquifer protective capacity. Zones characterized by materials of moderate to good protective capacity serve as sealing potential for the underlying hydrogeological system in the area. This study is aimed at delineating zones that are very prone to groundwater contamination from surface contaminants and subsurface soils that are corrosive to utility pipes buried underground. Hence the findings of this work will constitute part of the tools for groundwater development and management and structural/infrastructural development planning of the area.

  4. Preliminary Investigation on Battery Sizing Investigation for Thrust Vector Control on Ares I and Ares V Launch Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Thomas B.

    2011-01-01

    An investigation into the merits of battery powered Electro Hydrostatic Actuation (EHA) for Thrust Vector Control (TVC) of the Ares I and Ares V launch vehicles is described. A top level trade study was conducted to ascertain the technical merits of lithium-ion (Li-ion) and thermal battery performance to determine the preferred choice of an energy storage system chemistry that provides high power discharge capability for a relatively short duration.

  5. Seismic Investigations of the Murci Geothermal Field (Southern Tuscany, Italy): Preliminary Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riedel, M.; Alexandrakis, C.; Buske, S.

    2013-12-01

    The Monte Amiata region in the Southern Tuscany, Central Italy, describes a volcanic complex with great significance in terms of the regional fresh water supply, mining and geothermal power generation. Mainly for the latter purpose, the volcanic area of Mt Amiata has been the subject of extensive geological and geophysical research (e.g. Dini et al., 2010 and references therein). The insights from these studies have led to successful geothermal production in the Mt Amiata region since the early 1960s (e.g. Batini et al., 2003). Today's most important reservoirs in this area are the Bagnore and the Piancastagnaio fields which are both operated by the company Enel Green Power. The work presented here deals with the Murci area, another potential reservoir located about 10 km southwest of the Mt Amiata volcanic complex. Therefore, in order to get a more detailed understanding of this area, five reflection seismic profiles were carried out. We have performed on three of them a preliminary depth-migrated images, through Kirchhoff prestack depth migration (KPSDM). The vital point of depth migration algorithms is the accuracy of the velocity model that is used for the backpropagation of the seismic data. Therefore, we derived a suitable 1D starting model from nearby well logs and VSP measurements. In order to remove the large topography effects along the profiles, we then utilized first-arrival tomography for each seismic line. For the following processing we incorporated these 2D tomographic results into our starting model which compensates for static effects and improves the resolution in the near-surface area. The velocity models were then used in the application of KPSDM to the seismic data for each profile, respectively. The resulting preliminary images show a zone of high seismic reflectivity, known as the 'K-horizon' (e.g. Brogi, 2008), and could improve its geological interpretation. These promising results encourage us to proceed with deeper migration velocity analysis which will reveal more details about the structures of the Murci area. Batini, F. et al., 2003: Geological features of Larderello-Travale and Mt. Amiata geothermal areas (southern Tuscany, Italy), Episodes, 26, 239-244. Brogi, A., 2008. The structure of the Monte Amiata volcano-geothermal area (Northern Apennines, Italy): Neogene-Quaternary compression versus extension, Int J Earth Sci (Geol Rundsch) (2008) 97:677-703 Dini, I. et al., 2010. Geological Evaluation of the Base of the Mt. Amiata Volcanic Complex (Tuscany, Italy), Procedings World Geothermal Congress 2010, Bali, Indonesia, April 2010.

  6. Preliminary design and economic investigations of diffuser-augmented wind turbines (DAWT). Executive summary. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Foreman, K.M.

    1981-12-01

    A preferred design and configuration approach for the DAWT innovative wind energy conversion system is suggested. A preliminary economic assessment is made for limited production rates of units between 5 and 150 kW rated output. Nine point designs are used to arrive at the conclusions regarding best construction material for the diffuser and busbar cost of electricity (COE). It is estimated that for farm and REA cooperative end users, the COE can range between 2 and 3.5 cents/kWh for sites with annual average wind speeds of 16 and 12 mph (25.7 and 19.3 km/h) respectively, and 150 kW rated units. No tax credits are included in these COE figures. For commercial end users of these 150 kW units, the COE ranges between 4.0 and 6.5 cents/kWh for 16 and 12 mph sites. These estimates in 1971 dollars are lower than DOE goals set in 1978 for the rating size and end applications. Recommendations are made for future activities to maintain steady, systematic progress toward mature development of the DAWT.

  7. Preliminary investigation of force-reduced superconducting magnet configurations for advanced technology applications

    SciTech Connect

    Bouillard, J.X.

    1992-12-01

    The feasibility of new high-field low specific weight superconducting magnet designs using force-free fields is being explored analytically and numerically. This report attempts to assess the technical viability of force-free field concepts to produce high-field, low specific weight and large bore volume magnets, which could promote the use of high temperature superconductors. Several force-free/force-reduced magnet configurations are first reviewed, then discussed and assessed. Force-free magnetic fields, fields for which the current flows parallel to the field, have well-known mathematical solutions extending upon infinite domains. These solutions, however, are no longer force-free everywhere for finite geometries. In this preliminary study, force-free solutions such as the Lundquist solutions truncated to a size where the internal field of the coil matches an externally cylindrical magnetic field (also called a Lundquist coil) are numerically modeled and explored. Significant force-reduction for such coils was calculated, which may have some importance for the design of lighter toroidal magnets used in thermonuclear fusion power generation, superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES), and mobile MHD power generation and propulsion.

  8. Purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic investigation of FrnE, a disulfide oxidoreductase from Deinococcus radiodurans.

    PubMed

    Panicker, Lata; Misra, Hari Sharan; Bihani, Subhash Chandra

    2014-11-01

    In prokaryotes, Dsb proteins catalyze the formation of native disulfide bonds through an oxidative folding pathway and are part of the cell machinery that protects proteins from oxidative stress. Deinococcus radiodurans is an extremophile which shows unparalleled resistance to ionizing radiation and oxidative stress. It has a strong mechanism to protect its proteome from oxidative damage. The genome of Deinococcus shows the presence of FrnE, a Dsb protein homologue that potentially provides the bacterium with oxidative stress tolerance. Here, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of FrnE from D. radiodurans are reported. Diffraction-quality single crystals were obtained using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method with reservoir solution consisting of 100?mM sodium acetate pH 5.0, 10% PEG 8000, 15-20% glycerol. Diffraction data were collected on an Agilent SuperNova system using a microfocus sealed-tube X-ray source. The crystal diffracted to 1.8?Å resolution at 100?K. The space group of the crystal was found to be P2?22?, with unit-cell parameters a=47.91, b=62.94, c=86.75?Å, ?=?=?=90°. Based on Matthews coefficient analysis, one monomer per asymmetric unit is present in the crystal, with a solvent content of approximately 45%. PMID:25372826

  9. Mass spectrometric investigation of the vaporization of sodium and potassium chromates: Preliminary results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stearns, C. A.; Kohl, F. J.; Miller, R. A.; Fryburg, G. C.

    1979-01-01

    Knudsen cell mass spectrometry was used to study the vaporization of sodium and potassium chromates. For both salts, the vaporization proceeds predominately by the reactions M2CrO4(c)=2M(g)+5/4O2(g)+1/2 Cr203(s) and M2CrO4(c)=M2CrO4(g) where M = Na or K. The distribution of the ions M(+), O2(+) and M2CrO4(+) in the measured mass spectrum was found to depend on the material used for the Knudsen cell, even for materials such as platinum and gold. In the case of sodium chromate, the decomposition reaction appears to be less important than the molecular vaporization reaction. A preliminary value of 72 kcal/mole at 1141 K was measured for the heat of the molecular vaporization reaction for sodium chromate. In the case of potassium chromate, it has not been possible to conclude which mode of vaporization dominates. For potassium chromate a value of 101 kcal/mole at 1173 K was obtained for the heat of the molecular vaporization reaction.

  10. Synthesis, Characterization, and Preliminary Investigation of Cell Interaction of Magnetic Nanoparticles with Catechol-Containing Shells

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, Kerstin; Seemann, Thomas; Wyrwa, Ralf; Schnabelrauch, Matthias [Biomaterials Department, INNOVENT e. V., Pruessingstrasse 27 B, D-07745 Jena (Germany); Clement, Joachim H. [Department of Internal Medicine II, University Hospital Jena, Erlanger Allee 101, D-07740 Jena (Germany); Mueller, Robert [Institute of Photonic Technology, Albert-Einstein-Strasse 9, D-07745 Jena (Germany); Nietzsche, Sandor [Center for Electron Microscopy, University Hospital Jena, Ziegelmuehlenweg 1, D-07743 Jena (Germany)

    2010-12-02

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide cores were synthesized by co-precipitation of Fe(II) and Fe(III) salts and subsequently stabilized by coating with different catechols (levodopa, dopamine, hydrocaffeic acid, dopamine-containing carboxymethyl dextran) known to act as high-affinity, bidentate ligands for Fe(III). The prepared stable magnetic fluids were characterized with regard to their chemical composition (content of iron and shell material, Fe(II)/Fe(III) ratio) and their physical properties (size, surface charge, magnetic parameters). The nanoparticles showed no or only slight cytotoxic effects within 1 and 4 days of incubation with 3T3 fibroblast cells. Preliminary experiments were performed to study the interaction of the prepared nanoparticles with human MCF-7 breast cancer cells and leukocytes. An intense interaction of the MCF-7 cells with these particles was found whereas the leukocytes showed a lower tendency of interaction. Based on these finding, the novel magnetic nanoparticles possess the potential for use in depletion of tumor cells from peripheral blood.

  11. Preliminary design and economic investigations of Diffuser-Augmented Wind Turbines (DAWT)

    SciTech Connect

    Foreman, K.M.

    1981-12-01

    A preferred design and configuration approach is suggested for the DAWT innovative wind energy conversion system. A preliminary economic asessment is made for limited production rates of units between 5 and 150 kw rated output. Nine point designs are used to arrive at the conclusions regarding best construction material for the diffuser and busbar cost of electricity (COE). It is estimated that for farm and REA cooperative end users, the COE can range between 2 and 3.5 cents/kWh for sites with annual average wind speeds of 16 and 12 mph (25.7 and 19.3 km/h) respectively, and 150 kW rated units. No tax credits are included in these COE figures. For commercial end users of these 150 kW units the COE ranges between 4.0 and 6.5 cents/kWh for 16 and 12 mph sites. These estimates in 1979 dollars are lower than DOE goals set in 1978 for the rating size and end applications. Recommendations are made for future activities to maintain steady, systematic progress toward mature development of the DAWT.

  12. Investigation of human exposure to triclocarban after showering, and preliminary evaluation of its biological effects

    PubMed Central

    Schebb, Nils Helge; Inceoglu, Bora; Ahn, Ki Chang; Morisseau, Christophe; Gee, Shirley; Hammock, Bruce D.

    2012-01-01

    The antibacterial soap additive triclocarban (TCC) is widely used in personal care products. TCC has a high environmental persistence. We developed and validated a sensitive online solid phase extraction-LC-MS/MS method to rapidly analyze TCC and its major metabolites in urine and other biological samples to assess human exposure. We measured human urine concentrations 0–72 h after showering with a commercial bar soap containing 0.6% TCC. The major route of renal elimination was excretion as N-glucuronides. The absorption was estimated at 0.6% of the 70±15 mg TCC in the soap used. The TCC N-glucuronide urine concentration varied widely among the subjects and continuous daily use of the soap led to steady state levels of excretion. In order to assess potential biological effects arising from this exposure we screened TCC for the inhibition of human enzymes in vitro. We demonstrate that TCC is a potent inhibitor of the enzyme soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH), whereas TCC?s major metabolites lack strong inhibitory activity. Topical administration of TCC at similar levels to rats in a preliminary in vivo study however failed to alter plasma biomarkers of sEH activity. Overall the analytical strategy described here revealed that use of TCC soap causes exposure levels that warrant further evaluation. PMID:21381656

  13. Preliminary design and economic investigations of Diffuser-Augmented Wind Turbines (DAWT). Executive summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foreman, K. M.

    1981-12-01

    A preferred design and configuration approach for the diffuser augmented wind turbine (DAWT) innovative wind energy conversion system is suggested. A preliminary economic assessment is made for limited production rates of units between 5 and 150 kW rated outputs. Nine point designs are used to arrive at the conclusions regarding best construction material for the diffuser and busbar cost of electricity (COE). It is estimated that for farm and cooperative end users, the COE can range between 2 and 3.5 cents pr kWh for sites with annual average wind speeds of 16 and 12 mph (25.7 and 19.3 km/h) respectively, and 150 kW rated units. No tax credits are included in these COE figures. For commercial end users of these 150 kW units, the COE ranges between 4.0 and 6.5 cents per kWh for 16 and 12 mph sites. These estimates in 1971 dollars are lower than department of energy goals set in 1978 for the rating size and end applications. Recommendations are made for future activities to maintain steady, systematic progress toward mature development of the DAWT.

  14. Revisiting shyness and sociability: a preliminary investigation of hormone-brain-behavior relations

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Alva; Beaton, Elliott A.; Schulkin, Jay; Hall, Geoffrey B.; Schmidt, LouisA.

    2014-01-01

    Shyness and sociability are two fundamental personality dimensions that are conceptually and empirically orthogonal and are conserved across cultures, development, and phylogeny. However, we know relatively little regarding how shyness and sociability are represented and maintained in the brain. Here we examined neural responses to the processing of different types of social threat using event-related fMRI, the salivary cortisol awakening response (CAR), and sociability in young adults selected for high and low shyness. Shy adults who exhibited a relatively higher CAR displayed neural activity in putative brain regions involved in emotional conflict and awareness, and were more sociable. In contrast, shy adults who displayed a relatively lower CAR exhibited neural activity in putative brain regions linked to fear and withdrawal, and were unsociable. Results revealed no systematic brain responses to social threat processing that correlated with the CAR in non-shy adults. These preliminary results suggest that individual differences in waking morning cortisol levels may influence neural processes that facilitate either social approach or withdrawal among people who are shy. Findings are discussed in relation to their theoretical and clinical implications for moving beyond longstanding descriptive to explanatory models of shyness and sociability and for understanding individual differences in social behavior in general. PMID:25566117

  15. Brief Cognitive Behavior Therapy in Patients with Social Anxiety Disorder: A Preliminary Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Pinjarkar, Ravikant G; Sudhir, Paulomi M; Math, Suresh Bada

    2015-01-01

    Context: Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) is the treatment of choice in anxiety disorders. However, there is little evidence for the effectiveness brief CBT in social anxiety. Aims: We examined the effectiveness of a brief CBT of six sessions in patients with social anxiety disorder. Settings and Design: A single case design study baseline; post and 1 month follow-up was adopted. Materials and Methods: Seven patients with a DSM IV diagnosis of social anxiety underwent 6 weekly sessions of brief CBT. Their diagnosis was confirmed using structured diagnostic interviews. They were assessed at baseline, post and 1-month follow-up on CGI- Severity, Leibowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS), Social Phobia Rating Scale, Brief Fear of Negative Evaluation, and Beck's Depression Inventory. Statistical Analysis: Data were analyzed using the method of clinical significance. Results: Results indicated that brief CBT was effective in reducing social anxiety in all patients. Brief CBT was also effective in reducing social avoidance and self consciousness. However, brief CBT was not effective in reducing fear of negative evaluation in all patients, suggesting the need for longer duration for cognitive changes in some dysfunctional beliefs. Conclusions: This preliminary case series indicates that brief CBT may be a promising and a cost and time effective approach to managing for social anxiety. PMID:25722507

  16. Alu Insertions and Genetic Diversity: A Preliminary Investigation by an Undergraduate Bioinformatics Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elwess, Nancy L.; Duprey, Stephen L.; Harney, Lindesay A.; Langman, Jessie E.; Marino, Tara C.; Martinez, Carolina; McKeon, Lauren L.; Moss, Chantel I. E.; Myrie, Sasha S.; Taylor, Luke Ryan

    2008-01-01

    "Alu"-insertion polymorphisms were used by an undergraduate Bioinformatics class to study how these insertion sites could be the basis for an investigation in human population genetics. Based on the students' investigation, both allele and genotype "Alu" frequencies were determined for African-American and Japanese populations as well as a…

  17. Preliminary results of paleoseismic investigations of Quaternary faults on eastern Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Menges, C.M.; Oswald, J.A.; Coe, J.A. [and others

    1995-12-31

    Site characterization of the potential nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, requires detailed knowledge of the displacement histories of nearby Quaternary faults. Ongoing paleoseismic studies provide data on the amount and rates of Quaternary activity on the Paintbrush Canyon, Bow Ridge, and Stagecoach Road faults along the eastern margin of the mountain over varying time spans of 0-700 ka to perhaps 0-30 ka, depending on the site. Preliminary stratigraphic interpretations of deposits and deformation at many logged trenches and natural exposures indicate that each of these faults have experienced from 3 to 8 surface-rupturing earthquakes associated with variable dip-slip displacements per event ranging from 5 to 115 cm, and commonly in the range of 20 to 85 cm. Cumulative dip-slip offsets of units with broadly assigned ages of 100-200 ka are typically less than 200 cm, although accounting for the effects of possible left normal-oblique slip could increase these displacements by factors of 1.1 to 1.7. Current age constraints indicate recurrence intervals of 10{sup 4} to 10{sup 5} years (commonly between 30 and 80 k.y.) and slip rates of 0.001 to 0.08 mm/yr (typically 0.01-0.02 mm/yr). Based on available timing data, the ages of the most recent ruptures varies among the faults; they appear younger on the Stagecoach Road Fault ({approximately}5-20 ka) relative to the southern Paintbrush Canyon and Bow Ridge faults ({approximately}30-100 ka).

  18. Preliminary investigations of the winter ecology of Long-billed Curlews in coastal Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodin, Marc C.; Skoruppa, Mary Kay; Edwardson, Jeremy W.; Austin, Jane E.

    2012-01-01

    Results from this 1-year pilot study yielded an intriguing combination of findings that warrant further investigation. Observations include reduced numbers of roosting birds along the Texas coast during dry conditions, highly dynamic use of nocturnal roost sites, use of widely divergent habitat types for foraging, low body mass of most captured birds, and apparent fidelity to general feeding areas. Future investigations of this eastern winter population of curlews would benefit from larger sample sizes and monitoring of individual birds.

  19. Radio science investigations of the saturn system with voyager 1: preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Tyler, G L; Eshleman, V R; Anderson, J D; Levy, G S; Lindal, G F; Wood, G E; Croft, T A

    1981-04-10

    Voyager 1 radio occultation measurements of Titan's equatorial atmosphere successfully probed to the surface, which is provisionally placed at a radius of 2570 kilometers. Derived scale heights plus other experimental and theoretical results indicate that molecular nitrogen is the predominant atmospheric constituent. The surface pressure and temperature appear to be about 1.6 bars and 93 K, respectively. The main clouds are probably methane ice, although some condensation of nitrogen cannot be ruled out. Solar abundance arguments suggest and the measurements allow large quantities of surface methane near its triple-point temperature, so that the three phases of methane could play roles in the atmosphere and on the surface of Titan similar to those of water on Earth. Radio occultation measurements of Saturn's atmosphere near 75 degrees south latitude reached a maximum pressure of 1.4 bars, where the temperature is about 156 K. The minimum temperature is about 91 K near the 60-millibar pressure level. The measured part of the polar ionosphere of Saturn has a peak electron concentration of 2.3 x 10(4) per cubic centimeter at an altitude of 2500 kilometers above the 1-bar level in the atmosphere, and a plasma scale height at the top of the ionosphere of 560 kilometers. Attenuation of monochromatic radiation at a wavelength of 3.6 centimeters propagating obliquely through Saturn's rings is consistent with traditional values for the normal optical depth of the rings, but the near-forward scattering of this radiation by the rings indicates effective scattering particles with larger than expected diameters of 10, 8, and 2 meters in the A ring, the outer Cassini division, and the C ring, respectively. Preliminary analysis of the radio tracking data yields new values for the masses of Rhea and Titan of 4.4 +/- 0.3 x 10(-6) and 236.64 +/- 0.08 x 10(-6) times the mass of Saturn. Corresponding values for the mean densities of these objects are 1.33 +/- 0.10 and about 1.89 grams per cubic centimeter. The density of Rhea is consistent with a solar-composition mix of anhydrous rock and volatiles, while Titan is apparently enriched in silicates relative to the solar composition. PMID:17783830

  20. A Preliminary Investigation into Forage Quality Attributes of Several Native Eastern Savanna Species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction: Nutritive attributes of traditional forages are well documented, and benefits of forage condensed tannins (CT) for ruminants have been the subject of numerous investigations. The number of tanniferous forage species that are adapted to humid, temperate climates is limited, and the ro...

  1. A Preliminary Investigation of Heavy Metals in Periwinkles from Warri River, Nigeria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. G. Ayenimo; C. E. Adeeyinwo; I. A. Amoo; F. B. Odukudu

    2005-01-01

    Periwinkles samples (Tympanostomus fuscatus) bought from different major markets in Warri Township were investigated for elemental contaminants. The total levels of iron, copper, barium, lead, cadmium, chromium, nickel and cobalt were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. All the metals except Cr ands Co were present in appreciable quantities in the samples. In descending order of predominance, the overall mean levels

  2. A preliminary investigation of Ehrlichia species in ticks, humans, dogs, and capybaras from Brazil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marcelo B. Labruna; Jere W. McBride; Luis Marcelo A. Camargo; Daniel M. Aguiar; Michael J. Yabsley; William R. Davidson; Ellen Y. Stromdahl; Phillip C. Williamson; Roger W. Stich; S. Wesley Long; Erney P. Camargo; David H. Walker

    2007-01-01

    A molecular epidemiologic investigation in two Brazilian states (Rondônia and São Paulo) was undertaken to determine if Ehrlichia species responsible for human and animal ehrlichioses in North America could be found in Brazilian vectors, potential natural mammalian reservoirs and febrile human patients with a tick bite history. Samples, including 376 ticks comprising 9 Amblyomma species, 29 capybara (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris) spleens,

  3. Preliminary Investigation of the Extent and Effects of Sediment Contamination in White Lake, MI

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1999-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has released this report (in .pdf or HTML formats) on sediment contamination in White Lake, Michigan. The investigation aimed "to define the ecological effects of the heavy metal contamination in Tannery Bay and to assess heavy metal contamination in eastern White Lake." Numerous tables and detailed figures accompany the text.

  4. A Preliminary Investigation of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy as a Treatment for Marijuana Dependence in Adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MICHAEL P. TWOHIG; Deacon Shoenberger; STEVEN C. HAYES

    2007-01-01

    In this investigation, 3 adults who met criteria for marijuana dependence were treated using an abbreviated version of acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT). The treatment was delivered in eight weekly 90-min individual sessions. The effects of the intervention were assessed using a nonconcurrent multiple baseline across participants design. Self-reported marijuana use, confirmed through oral swabs, reached zero levels for all

  5. Impact of Chromosome 4p- Syndrome on Communication and Expressive Language Skills: A Preliminary Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Althea T.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this investigation was to examine the impact of Chromosome 4p- syndrome on the communication and expressive language phenotype of a large cross-cultural population of children, adolescents, and adults. Method: A large-scale survey study was conducted and a descriptive research design was used to analyze quantitative and…

  6. The Role of Visual Mental Imagery in the Speed-Accuracy Tradeoff: A Preliminary Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodes, Carol L.

    This study investigates the relationship between speed of recognition and accuracy of the responses when visual mental imagery is controlled through imagery instructions. The procedure was to compare the achievement of learners where the independent variable was imagery instructions. The subjects were two 20-person groups of undergraduates from a…

  7. Preliminary investigation of the effects of dye concentration on the output of a multiwavelength dye laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, I. O.; Burney, L. G.

    1974-01-01

    The effects of dye concentration on the output wavelength and energy of a multiwavelength dye laser were investigated. The dyes tested were Coumarin 2 in methyl alcohol and Rhodomine 6G, Acridine Red, and 7-diethylamino-4-methyl Coumarin (7DA 4MC) in ethyl alcohol.

  8. Preliminary investigation on a primary energy saving heat supply system for the residential district

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Bechtel; K. Berlinghoff; H. Grossmann; H. Kaschube; F. Reinmuth

    1980-01-01

    Ways and means to operate a heating station by gas motor-driven heat pumps, using river water as heat source are investigated. The economic viability of the scheme is considered. A comparison with conventional technologies clearly shows the feasibility and effectiveness of this application, and at the same time supplies guidelines for design and dimensioning. Because of possible energy saving, the

  9. A Preliminary Investigation of Stimulus Control Training for Worry: Effects on Anxiety and Insomnia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGowan, Sarah Kate; Behar, Evelyn

    2013-01-01

    For individuals with generalized anxiety disorder, worry becomes associated with numerous aspects of life (e.g., time of day, specific stimuli, environmental cues) and is thus under poor discriminative stimulus control (SC). In addition, excessive worry is associated with anxiety, depressed mood, and sleep difficulties. This investigation sought…

  10. A Preliminary Investigation of Prospective Teachers' Reasoning about Case Studies with Expert Commentary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goeke, Jennifer L.

    2008-01-01

    Case methods have emerged as a popular technique in teacher education, proposed as an important means of promoting conceptual change in preservice teachers. This article presents the results of a research study that used a mixed design methodology to investigate the effect of expert commentaries on prospective teachers' reasoning about inclusion…

  11. Theory Driven Hints in the Cheap Necklace Problem: A Preliminary Investigation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yun Chu; Andrew D. Dewald; Edward P. Chronicle

    2007-01-01

    Three experiments investigated the effects of two hints derived from the Criterion for Satisfactory Progress theory (CSP) and Representational Change Theory (RCT) on the cheap necklace problem (insight problem). In Experiment 1, fewer participants given the CSP hint used an incorrect (maximizing) first move than participants given the RCT hint or control participants given no hint on a single attempt

  12. OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH (OSH) IN SMES IN MALAYSIA: A PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lilis Surienty; Khoo Teng Hong; Daisy Kee Mui Hung

    2011-01-01

    Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) issues are increasingly receiving attention and found as important in Malaysian Industrial Relations. In an operational analysis report of the OSH Regulations (2000) has found that 80 percent of workplace investigated failed to adhere fully to regulations (Abdul Rahman, 2007). Mass medias are also continuously reporting various accidents at the workplace which results in deaths.

  13. PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION OF SUBMERGED AQUATIC VEGETATION MAPPING USING HYPERSPECTRAL REMOTE SENSING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The use of airborne hyperspectral remote sensing imagery for automated mapping of submersed aquatic vegetation in the tidal Potomac River was investigated for near to real-time resource assessment and monitoring. Airborne hyperspectral imagery, together with in-situ spectral refl...

  14. Cost-effective deep water archaeology: preliminary investigations in Trondheim Harbour

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fredrik Søreide

    2000-01-01

    In the past few years there has been an increased interest in deep water archaeology, and a growing number of archaeological institutions now use remote sensing equipment and remotely operated vehicles (ROVs) to locate and investigate deep water archaeological sites. The article presents some important projects that have been carried out around the world. These include Norwegian projects. In Trondheim

  15. Preliminary Investigations into Competitive Spawning in the Anabantoid Fish, Colisa fasciata Bloch and Schneider

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawes, John A.

    1975-01-01

    Describes three experiments which investigated the behavior of "Colisa fasciata" males in full breeding condition subjected to competition for nest sites and a single female. Concludes that for these fish territorial dominance is established in a relatively short time, the period varying with the intensity of competition. (MLH)

  16. Preliminary investigation of the pharmacology of the human internal anal sphincter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. G. Parks; D. J. Fishlock; J. D. H. Cameron; H. May

    1969-01-01

    The smooth muscle from the human internal anal sphincter has been investigated pharmacologically in vitro. The upper and lower parts of the sphincter responded to catecholamines in a similar manner. Noradrenaline caused contraction which could be antagonized by phenoxybenzamine. After phenoxybenzamine, noradrenaline caused relaxation which could be blocked by pronethalol. Isoprenaline caused relaxation which could be specifically prevented by pronethalol.

  17. A preliminary investigation of the potential applicability of the IPAD system to non-aerospace industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hulbert, L. E.

    1975-01-01

    A study of the applicability of the planned Integrated Programs for Aerospace-Vehicle Design (IPAD) system to the design activities of non-aerospace industries was carried out. It was determined that IPAD could be of significant benefit to a number of industries, with the most likely users being the heavy construction and automotive industries. Two additional short studies were initiated to investigate the possible impact of IPAD on a national energy program and on urban and regional planning activities of local and state governments. These initial studies indicated the possibility of significant payoff in these areas and the need for further investigations. It was also determined that utilization of IPAD by non-aerospace industries will probably involve a long stepwise process, since these industries maintain a policy of gradual introduction of new technology.

  18. Preliminary investigation in optical resonators based on carbon nano-tube and coupling for optoelectronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salzenstein, Patrice; Makaryan, Taron

    2014-05-01

    We investigate the use of carbon nano-tubes performed by chemical vapor deposition for photonics applications producing samples of various geometries on the same wafer and performing experiments and numerical modeling. Publisher's Note: This paper, originally published on 5/2/14, was replaced with a corrected/revised version on 5/19/14. If you downloaded the original PDF but are unable to access the revision, please contact SPIE Digital Library Customer Service for assistance.

  19. Preliminary Investigations of Joining Technologies for Attaching Refractory Metals to Ni-Based Superalloys

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jerry E. Gould; Frank J. Ritzert; William S. Loewenthal

    2006-01-01

    In this study, a range of joining technologies has been investigated for creating attachments between refractory metal and Ni-based superalloys. Refractory materials of interest include Mo-47%Re, T-111, and Ta-10%W. The Ni-based superalloys include Hastelloy X and MarM 247. During joining with conventional processes, these materials have potential for a range of solidification and intermetallic formation-related defects. For this study, three

  20. Preliminary Investigation of the Heat Shock Resistant Properties of Molybdenum Disilicide Blades Under Centrifugal Load

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Long, Roger A; Frenche, John C

    1952-01-01

    An investigation to determine the heat-shock resistant properties of two molybdenum disilicide turbine blades under centrifugal loads imposed by turbine rotation is presented. Molybdenum disilicide turbine blades fabricated by hot-pressing techniques withstood heat-shock conditions under blade centrifugal stresses up to 5350 pounds per square inch. Additional development is required before the heat-shock resistant properties of molybdenum disilicide are satisfactory for turbine-blade application.

  1. An investigation of lead-free thick-film resistors on LTCC substrates - preliminary results

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marko Hrovat; Konrad Kielbasinski; Kostja Makarovic; Darko Belavic; Malgorzata Jakubowska

    2011-01-01

    The lead-free thick-film resistors with different ratios of conductive and glass phases were investigated. Four resistor materials with nominal sheet resistivities from 50 ohm\\/sq. to 50 kohm\\/sq. were prepared with different combinations of two lead-free glasses with reflow temperatures at 940°C and 1240°C, respectively, and two RuO2 powders (fine grained and coarse grained RuO2). Thick-film resistors were printed and fired

  2. Preliminary optical coherence tomography investigation of the temporo-mandibular joint disc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    M?rc?uteanu, Corina; Demjan, Enikö; Sinescu, Cosmin; Negrutiu, Meda; Motoc, Adrian; Lighezan, Rodica; Vasile, Liliana; Hughes, Mike; Bradu, Adrian; Dobre, George; Podoleanu, Adrian G.

    2010-02-01

    Aim and objectives. The morphology and position of the temporo-mandibular disc are key issues in the diagnosis and treatment of arthrogenous temporo-mandibular disorders. Magnetic resonance imaging and arthroscopy are used today to identify: flattening of the pars posterior of the disc, perforation and/or adhesions in the pars intermedia of the disc and disc displacements. The present study proposes the investigation of the temporo-mandibular joint disc by optical coherence tomography (OCT). Material and methods. 8 human temporo-mandibular joint discs were harvested from dead subjects, under 40 year of age, and conserved in formalin. They had a normal morphology, with a thicker pars posterior (2,6 mm on the average) and a thinner pars intermedia (1mm on the average). We investigated the disc samples using two different OCT systems: an en-face OCT (time domain (TD)-OCT) system, working at 1300 nm (C-scan and B-scan mode) and a spectral OCT system (a Fourier domain (FD)-OCT) system , working at 840 nm (B-scan mode). Results. The OCT investigation of the temporo-mandibular joint discs revealed a homogeneous microstructure. The longer wavelength of the TD-OCT offers a higher penetration depth (2,5 mm in air), which is important for the analysis of the pars posterior, while the FD-OCT is much faster. Conclusions: OCT is a promising imaging method for the microstructural characterization of the temporo-mandibular disc.

  3. Kinetics investigation of oxygen storage capacity in La2O3-CeO2 solid solution.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lili; Wang, Xidong; Guo, Min; Zhang, Mei

    2011-03-01

    La2O3-CeO2 nanopowders with different La2O3 (0-20 mol%) were prepared by the sol-gel method. The modification of the cubic structure of ceria by substituting La3+ for Ce4+ into the lattice of CeO2 has been investigated. The crystal structure of La2O3-CeO2 nanomaterials has been examined by X-ray powder diffraction and analyzed by the Rietveld refinement method. The introduction of La3+ enlarges the octahedral void of unit cell in the cubic CeO2, which favors the oxygen migration in the crystal lattice. Raman characterization results show that the wavenumber of the La2O3-CeO2 solid solution shifted to red and the oxygen vacancy increased with lanthana content in Ce(1-x)La(x)O(2-x/2). The oxygen vacancy, generated by La3+ substituting for Ce4+, could supply more channels for oxygen migration through the lattice. The changes of lattice structure and the oxygen vacancy with La2O3 are correspondence with the results of oxygen storage capacity (OSC) measurement, which indicate that the changes of macro-performance are connected with the microstructure deformation of La2O3-CeO2. The kinetics of Ce0.9La0.2O1.9 nanomaterials with the highest OSC value was studied and the apparent activation energy (E(a)) of reduction and oxidation process was calculated to be 5.6 and 6.0 kJ/mol, respectively. The low E(a) value might be one of the reasons for Ce0.8La0.2O1.9 nanomaterials with the high OSC value. PMID:21449363

  4. Trace elements in urinary stones: a preliminary investigation in Fars province, Iran.

    PubMed

    Keshavarzi, Behnam; Yavarashayeri, Nasrin; Irani, Dariush; Moore, Farid; Zarasvandi, Alireza; Salari, Mehrdad

    2015-04-01

    In view of the high incidence rate of urinary stones in the south and southwest of Iran, this paper investigates trace elements content including heavy metals in 39 urinary stones, collected from patients in Fars province, Iran. The mineralogy of the stones is investigated using X-ray diffractometry. The samples are classified into five mineral groups (calcium oxalate, uric acid, cystine, calcium phosphate and mixed stone). Major and trace elements in each group were determined using ICP-MS method. P and Ca constitute the main elements in urinary stones with Ca being more affine to oxalates while other alkali and alkaline earths precipitate with phosphate. Significant amounts of trace elements, especially Zn and Sr, were found in urinary calculi (calcium oxalate and phosphates) relative to biominerals (uric acid and cystine). Among urinary calculi, calcium phosphate contains greater amounts of trace metal than calcium oxalate. Phosphates seem to be the most important metal-bearing phases in urinary stones. Results indicate that concentrations of elements in urinary stones depend on the type of mineral phases. Significant differences in elements content across various mineralogical groups were found by applying statistical methods. Kruskal-Wallis test reveals significant difference between Ca, P, K, Na, Mg, S, Zn, Sr, Se, Cd, and Co content in different investigated mineral groups. Moreover, Mann-Whitney test differentiates Ca, Na, Zn, Sr, Co, and Ni between minerals in oxalate and uric acid stones. This study shows that urinary stone can provide complementary information on human exposure to elements and estimate the environmental risks involved in urinary stones formation. PMID:25433503

  5. Alkali-free bioactive glasses for bone tissue engineering: A preliminary investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Goel, Ashutosh; Kapoor, Saurabh; Rajagopal, Raghu R.; Pascual, Maria J.; Kim, Hae-Won; Ferreira, Jose M.

    2011-08-25

    An alkali-free series of bioactive glasses has been designed and developed in the glass system CaO-MgO-SiO2-P2O5-CaF2 along diopside (CaMgSi2O6) – fluorapatite [Ca5(PO4)3F] – tricalcium phosphate (3CaO•P2O5) join. The silicate network in all the investigated glasses is predominantly coordinated in Q2 (Si) units while phosphorus tends to remain in orthophosphate (Q0) environment. The in vitro bioactivity analysis of glasses has been made by immersion of glass powders in simulated body fluid (SBF) while chemical degradation has been studied in Tris-HCl in accordance with ISO-10993-14. Some of the investigated glasses exhibit hydroxyapatite (HA) formation on their surface with in 1-12 h of their immersion in SBF solution. The sintering and crystallization kinetics of glasses has been investigated by differential thermal analysis (DTA) and hot-stage microscopy (HSM), respectively while the crystalline phase evolution in resultant glass-ceramics (GCs) has been studied in the temperature range of 800-900 oC using powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The cell growth and osteogenic differentiation for glasses has been studied in vitro on sintered glass powder compacts using rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. The as designed glasses are ideal candidates for their potential applications in bone tissue engineering in the form of bioactive glasses as well as glass/GC scaffolds.

  6. Alkali-free bioactive glasses for bone tissue engineering: a preliminary investigation.

    PubMed

    Goel, Ashutosh; Kapoor, Saurabh; Rajagopal, Raghu Raman; Pascual, Maria J; Kim, Hae-Won; Ferreira, José M F

    2012-01-01

    An alkali-free series of bioactive glasses has been designed and developed in the glass system CaO-MgO-SiO(2)-P(2)O(5)-CaF(2) along the diopside (CaMgSi(2)O(6))-fluorapatite (Ca(5)(PO(4))(3)F)-tricalcium phosphate (3CaO·P(2)O(5)) join. The silicate network in all the investigated glasses is predominantly coordinated in Q(2) (Si) units, while phosphorus tends to remain in an orthophosphate (Q(0)) environment. The in vitro bioactivity analysis of glasses has been made by immersion of glass powders in simulated body fluid (SBF) while chemical degradation has been studied in Tris-HCl in accordance with ISO-10993-14. Some of the investigated glasses exhibit hydroxyapatite formation on their surface within 1-12 h of their immersion in SBF solution. The sintering and crystallization kinetics of glasses has been investigated by differential thermal analysis and hot-stage microscopy, respectively while the crystalline phase evolution in resultant glass-ceramics has been studied in the temperature range of 800-900°C using powder X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The alkaline phosphatase activity and osteogenic differentiation for glasses have been studied in vitro on sintered glass powder compacts using rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. The as-designed glasses are ideal candidates for their potential applications in bone tissue engineering in the form of bioactive glasses as well as glass/glass-ceramic scaffolds. PMID:21925626

  7. Whistle register: a preliminary investigation by HSDI visualization and acoustics on female cases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Corcia, Antonio; Fussi, Franco

    2012-02-01

    In this study we investigated laryngeal behaviors involved during vocal production of highest female vocal ranges in Flute in M3 Register, in Whistle Register and in a newly formulated by us, Hiss Register. Observations were carried with stroboscopy and High Speed Digital Imaging and with spectrographic and psycho-acoustic analysis by means of a software system having a wide spectral range (0-20.000 Hz). Results indicate that at the highest pitch vocal folds vibration is absent or significantly reduced, glottic contact is incomplete. These acoustic form of extreme pitch levels comprised intra-harmonic noise and overtones within 10 to 18 kHz range.

  8. Preliminary dosimetry investigation of Tc-99m diagnostic radionuclide by NIPAM gel dosimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, You-Ruei; Chang, Yuan-Jen; Hsieh, Ling-Ling; Yu, Bi-Wei; Chu, Chien-Hau; Hsieh, Bor-Tsung

    2013-06-01

    The N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAM) gel dosimeter was investigated as a suitable material for measuring absorbed doses from radionuclide sources. In this study, NIPAM gel dosimeter was used to evaluate the dose distributions of the Tc-99m radionuclide in NIPAM gel. The accumulated radioactivity range of the Tc-99m NIPAM gel is from approximately 0 MBq to 13.6 MBq (about 0.37 mCi). The NIPAM gel dosimeter with high stability and high-dose linear and non-energy dependent properties can provide various radiopharmaceutical activity intensities in the conduct of dose assessment in nuclear medicine, thereby producing the most promising dose verification tools.

  9. Preliminary Investigation of Methods to Increase Base Pressure of Plug Nozzles at Mach 0.9

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salmi, Reino J

    1956-01-01

    The effects of various afterbody changes on the base pressure of a nacelle-type isentropic plug nozzle installation operating at lower-than-design jet pressure ratios were investigated at a Mach number of 0.9. Although the estimates of the net propulsive force contain some uncertainties, the results indicate that both a plain-ring base shroud and a circular-arc boattail fairing reduced the loss in net propulsive force experienced with a cylindrical nacelle installation of the plug nozzle.

  10. Preliminary biocompatibility investigation of magnetic albumin nanosphere designed as a potential versatile drug delivery system

    PubMed Central

    Estevanato, Luciana; Cintra, Débora; Baldini, Nayara; Portilho, Flávia; Barbosa, Luzirlane; Martins, Olímpia; Lacava, Bruno; Miranda-Vilela, Ana Luisa; Tedesco, Antônio Cláudio; Báo, Sônia; Morais, Paulo C; Lacava, Zulmira GM

    2011-01-01

    Background: The magnetic albumin nanosphere (MAN), encapsulating maghemite nanoparticles, was designed as a magnetic drug delivery system (MDDS) able to perform a variety of biomedical applications. It is noteworthy that MAN was efficient in treating Ehrlich’s tumors by the magnetohyperthermia procedure. Methods and materials: In this study, several nanotoxicity tests were systematically carried out in mice from 30 minutes until 30 days after MAN injection to investigate their biocompatibility status. Cytometry analysis, viability tests, micronucleus assay, and histological analysis were performed. Results: Cytometry analysis and viability tests revealed MAN promotes only slight and temporary alterations in the frequency of both leukocyte populations and viable peritoneal cells, respectively. Micronucleus assay showed absolutely no genotoxicity or cytotoxicity effects and histological analysis showed no alterations or even nanoparticle clusters in several investigated organs but, interestingly, revealed the presence of MAN clusters in the central nervous system (CNS). Conclusion: The results showed that MAN has desirable in vivo biocompatibility, presenting potential for use as a MDDS, especially in CNS disease therapy. PMID:21980234

  11. Investigation of Halogenated Components Formed from Chlorination of Natural Waters: Preliminary Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Bean, R. M.; Riley, R. G.

    1980-11-01

    Chlorination of power plant cooling water is extensively used as a means of controlling biofouling. This practice presents the potential for formation of halogenated organic compounds hazardous to man and his environment. Accordingly, the organic composition resulting from the chlorination of natural waters (northern Olympic Penn1sula sea water and the Columbia River in Washington State} has been investigated. Nonpolar lipophilic organic halogens were extracted by passing large volumes of water over columns of XAD-2 macroreticular resins. Examination of ether extracts from the resin columns using capillary gas chromatography revealed the presence of halogenated methanes, as well as other electron-capturing components~ that were not found when unchlorinated water was sampled. Examination of the chlorinated water extracts using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry revealed complex mixtures which generally were not separable into individual components~ even when high efficiency WCOT capillary columns were used. The samples were separated into fractions of increasing polarity using a water-deactivated silica gel column. Fractions were thus obtained which were more amenable to GC/MS investigation. Haloforms were identified as the major halogenated product from chlorination of the waters studied. Other halogenated products were found at much lower concentrations.

  12. Investigation Of High Intensity Focused Ultrasound Ablation In Isolated Kidneys By MRI — Preliminary Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenne, J. W.; Risse, F.; Häcker, A.; Peters, K.; Divkovic, G. Wilzbach; Siegler, P.; Fink, C.; Michel, M. S.; Huber, P. E.

    2006-05-01

    High intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) under magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) guidance is an attractive instrument to ablate tissue non-invasively. The aim of this work was to investigate the coagulation volume and the perfusion changes after HIFU-ablation in an isolated kidney model using MRI. Ablation was performed at least at two regions of the renal cortex. Morphological T1-/T2-weighted, temperature sensitive images and contrast-enhanced perfusion measurements were performed. The detection of single HIFU induced coagulation necroses and HIFU induced tissue cavities was feasible. Perfusion changes could only be detected in few experiments because of relatively inhomogeneous kidney perfusion patterns. MR-imaging is a sensitive method to detect and to quantify the HIFU-focus. Moreover, MRI is a valuable approach for the detection of HIFU induced coagulation necroses. The investigation of perfusion changes, particularly important in tumor treatment, was sometimes hampered due to limitations in the used organ model. However, in patients MR perfusion imaging as well as volumetric and morphological imaging can be used to control the outcome of HIFU-therapy.

  13. A preliminary investigation into the prevalence and prediction of problematic cell phone use

    PubMed Central

    Smetaniuk, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims: Likening mobile phone use dependency to the classification of excessive behaviors may be necessarily equivalent in seriousness to previously established addictions such as problematic computing or excessive gambling. The aim of the study explores into the behavior of excessive use of mobile phones as a pathological behavior. Methods: Two studies investigated criteria for problematic mobile phone usage by examining student (Study 1, N = 301) and nonstudent (Study 2, N = 362) responses to a set of adapted mobile phone addiction inventories. Study 1 investigated cell phone addiction inventories as constructs designed to measure problematic cell phone use. Additionally, Study 2 sought to predict age, depression, extraversion, emotional stability, impulse control, and self-esteem as independent variables that augment respondents’ perceptions of problematic use. Results: The results from Study 1 and Study 2 indicate that 10 to 25% of the participants tested exhibited problematic cell phone usage. Additionally, age, depression, extraversion, and low impulse control are the most suitable predictors for problematic use. Conclusions: The results of the two studies indicate that problematic mobile phone use does occur and ought to be taken seriously by the psychological community. Presently, there is limited data providing conclusive evidence for a comprehensible categorization of cell phone addiction, as well as a unified explanatory model specific to problematic mobile phone use. Studies such as this one may contribute substantial findings, adding scientific significance, and offering a valuable submission for the ongoing progress of creating intervention frameworks relative to “virtual addictions”. PMID:25215213

  14. Preliminary investigation to estimate soil NAPL retention using parametric pedotransfer functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernádi, Hilda; Makó, András

    2014-10-01

    Organic liquid retention of soils is a primary input variable for modelling the nonaqueous phase liquid transport and behaviour in the subsurface. In environmental and soil physical practice, it is mainly determined by scaling based on the water retention of soils or with charts of average empirical values of organic liquid retention or the fitting parameters of hydraulic functions. Predicting the fitting parameters of organic liquid retention curves with pedotransfer functions might be a promising alternative method, but this topic has only been researched to a limited extent. Thus we investigated the applicability of different hydraulic functions (3- and 4- parameter form of the van Genuchten equation and Brutsaert equation) for fitting organic liquid retention characteristics. Multivariate linear regression was used to build and develop pedotransfer functions, modelling relations between original and transformed values of basic soil properties and organic liquid retention. We attempted to generate parametric pedotransfer functions. According to our results, the applicability of hydraulic functions for fitting nonaqueous phase liquid retention curves to the experimental data was proven. The investigations gave promising results for the possibility to estimate soil nonaqueous phase liquid retention with parametric pedotransfer functions.

  15. The magnetic field investigation on the Ulysses mission - Instrumentation and preliminary scientific results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balogh, A.; Beek, T. J.; Forsyth, R. J.; Hedgecock, P. C.; Marquedant, R. J.; Smith, E. J.; Southwood, D. J.; Tsurutani, B. T.

    1992-01-01

    A fundamental feature of the heliosphere is the three-dimensional structure of the interplanetary magnetic field. The magnetic field investigation on Ulysses, the first space probe to explore the out-of-ecliptic and polar heliosphere, aims at determining the large-scale features and gradients of the field, as well as the heliolatitude dependence of interplanetary phenomena so far only observed near the ecliptic plane. The Ulysses magnetometer uses two sensors, one a Vector Helium Magnetometer, the other a Fluxgate Magnetometer. Onboard data processing yields measurements of the magnetic field vector with a time resolution up to 2 vectors/second and a sensitivity of about 10 pT. Since the switch-on of the instrument in flight on 25 October 1990, a steady stream of observations has been made, indicating that at this phase of the solar cycle the field is generally disturbed: several shock waves and a large number of discontinuities have been observed, as well as several periods with apparently intense wave activity. The paper gives a brief summary of the scientific objectives of the investigation, followed by a detailed description of the instrument and its characteristics. Examples of wave bursts, interplanetary shocks and crossings of the heliospheric current sheet are given to illustrate the observations made with the instrument.

  16. Preliminary investigation of PAGAT polymer gel radionuclide dosimetry of Tc-99m

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, Kelly; Bailey, Dale; Hill, Brendan; Baldock, Clive

    2009-05-01

    PAGAT polymer gel was investigated as a suitable dosimeter materials for measuring absorbed dose from the unsealed source radionuclide Tc-99m. Differing amounts of Tc-99m over the range of 25-5000 MBq were introduced into a normoxic polymer gel mixture (PAGAT) in sealed nitrogen-filled P6 glass vials. After irradiation the gels were evaluated using MRI more than 48 hours after preparation to allow for radioactive decay. The dose delivered to the vial was also calculated empirically. R2 versus total activity curves were obtained over a number of experiments and these were used to evaluate the relationship between the amount of gel polymerization and the dose deposited by the radionuclide. A linear response up to 1000 MBq (corresponding to 20Gy) was displayed and was still behaving monotonically at 5000 MBq. Polymer gels offer the potential to measure radiation dose three-dimensionally using MRI.

  17. Preliminary Investigation of Candidate Materials for Use in Accident Resistant Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Jason M. Harp; Paul A. Lessing; Blair H. Park; Jakeob Maupin

    2013-09-01

    As part of a Collaborative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) with industry, Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is investigating several options for accident resistant uranium compounds including silicides, and nitrides for use in future light water reactor (LWR) fuels. This work is part of a larger effort to create accident tolerant fuel forms where changes to the fuel pellets, cladding, and cladding treatment are considered. The goal fuel form should have a resistance to water corrosion comparable to UO2, have an equal to or larger thermal conductivity than uranium dioxide, a melting temperature that allows the material to stay solid under power reactor conditions, and a uranium loading that maintains or improves current LWR power densities. During the course of this research, fuel fabricated at INL will be characterized, irradiated at the INL Advanced Test Reactor, and examined after irradiation at INL facilities to help inform industrial partners on candidate technologies.

  18. A preliminary qualitative investigation of voice hearing and its association with dissociation in chronic PTSD.

    PubMed

    Anketell, Caroline; Dorahy, Martin J; Curran, David

    2011-01-01

    Following on from a quantitative study, this research used a qualitative methodology to investigate the lived experience of 3 men with chronic posttraumatic stress disorder associated with the conflict in Northern Ireland who reported auditory hallucinations. Data analysis used the Framework method. Results showed that beliefs about voices, dissociation of identity and body, and interpersonal impact were central superordinate themes associated with auditory hallucinations in posttraumatic stress disorder. Central subordinate themes included feeling a lack of controllability over voices, experiencing them as ego-dystonic, and feeling an increased sense of isolation and shame because of their presence. Results provide an in-depth analysis of participants' lived experiences and enhance understanding of previous quantitative findings. PMID:21240740

  19. A preliminary investigation on reinforced double layer Nafion membranes for high temperature PEFCs application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saccà, A.; Pedicini, R.; Carbone, A.; Gatto, I.; Fracas, P.; Passalacqua, E.

    2014-01-01

    Double layer recast Nafion® membranes reinforced using a polyethyleneterephthalate (PET) support were developed for PEFCs application at Tcell > 110 °C, low humidification and pressure. The investigation of chemical-physical properties suggested a probable interaction between PET and Nafion matrices. Electrochemical tests in a 25 cm2 H2/air PEFC between 80 and 140°C were carried using a pure Nafion as a reference. A short time test supplied an average stable current density of about 400 mA cm-2 (0.5 V) for reinforced membrane against an unstable trend of reference. High current densities of 530 mA cm-2 and 330 mA cm-2 (0.6 V) were obtained for N-PET at unusual temperatures (130-140 °C).

  20. Preliminary investigation on hemocompatibility of poly(vinylidene fluoride) membrane grafted with acryloylmorpholine via ATRP.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xiang; Liu, Jie; Feng, Xia; Zhao, Yiping; Chen, Li

    2014-05-01

    This work provides a promising way to improve the hemocompatibility of PVDF membrane. An amphiphilic copolymer (PVDF-g-PACMO) having PVDF backbones and poly(N-acryloylmorpholine) (PACMO) side chains was synthesized via atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). It is found that the grafting degree of the PACMO increases linearly with the increase of ACMO concentration in the reaction solution. The PVDF-g-PACMO membrane was prepared via immersed phase inversion method. The structure and performances were evaluated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, water contact angle, and filtration experiment. The hemocompatibility of the membranes were preliminarily investigated by protein adsorption, platelet adhesion, anticoagulant evaluation and hemolysis test. The results indicate that the PVDF membrane functionalized by PACMO can suppress the protein adsorption and platelet adhesion, and shows an improved hemocompatibility. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A, 2014. PMID:24789814

  1. Total Dose Effects (TDE) of heavy ionizing radiation in fungus spores and plant seeds: Preliminary investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kranz, A. R.; Zimmermann, M. W.; Stadler, R.; Gartenbach, K. E.; Pickert, M.

    1992-01-01

    The opportunity to compare cosmic radiation effects caused during long and short duration exposure flights in biological objects are limited until now, and data obtained so far are very rare and insufficient. Because of the very long exposure of the experiment during the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) mission (approximately 2000 days) structural changes of the hardware material can be expected which will influence its biocompatibility and, thus, will interact with the radiobiological effects. The aim of the experiment flown on LDEF was a detailed investigation of biological effects caused by cosmic radiation especially of particles of high atomic number Z and high energy. The flight hardware consisted of standard BIOSTACK containers; in these containers a special sandwich construction consisted of visual plastic detectors with seed rsp. spore layers interlocked.

  2. An Examination of the First Oxford House in the UK: A Preliminary Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Majer, John M.; Beers, Kim; Jason, Leonard A.

    2014-01-01

    An exploratory investigation was conducted to examine the implementation of the first self-run, communal-living setting based on the Oxford House model, in the United Kingdom (UK). A cross-sectional, mixed methods design was used to examine the Oxford House model’s total abstinence approach to recovery from substance use disorders among residents (n = 7) living in the first Oxford House established in the UK. Several measures commonly used in addiction research and personal narratives were used to assess residents’ response to Oxford House living. Findings suggest that the Oxford House model is a post-treatment intervention that meets the needs of individuals seeking an abstinence-based recovery from alcohol and/or drug dependence in the UK. PMID:25368450

  3. The preliminary results on the investigation of historic stained glass panels from Grodziec collection, Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walczak, M.; Kaminska, M.; Karaszkiewicz, P.; Szczerbinski, J.; Szymonski, M.

    2013-05-01

    Grodziec collection of stained glass panels consists of fourteen objects depicting figures of saints. Probably they belong to one, uniform set from the one of Lower Silesia churches. Recently eight of them, already after conservatory treatment, are exhibited in Jagiellonian University Museum of Collegium Maius in Krakow, while remaining six, which will be restored in nearest future, are stored in the National Museum in Wroclaw. This paper presents the results of the investigation of composition and corrosion products of glass from three panels of Wroclaw group. Since comparative analysis of historic glass composition is vital for its dating, to obtain the possibly full set of composition data with particular stress on light elements identification, the multi technique approach was necessary. The physicochemical analysis was carried out by X-ray fluorescence (XRF), micro-Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (SEM/EDX). The study revealed that some of stained glasses have composition characteristic of northern medieval glass (potash-lime-silicate) while other pieces could be dated on 16th or 19th century. This confirms the suggestion from the former historic and scientific investigation of Krakow's set that the Wroclaw panels may be of the same medieval origin as the Krakow's ones and that they were already restored, at least in 19th c. The possibility of working on the whole set of panels from the Grodziec collection opens up the opportunity for conducting exceptional scientific study which will lead to the definitive designation of the provenance of this important collection, its history and age.

  4. Origin of elevated water levels encountered in Pahute Mesa emplacement boreholes: Preliminary investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Brikowski, T.; Chapman, J.; Lyles, B.; Hokett, S.

    1993-11-01

    The presence of standing water well above the predicted water table in emplacement boreholes on Pahute Mesa has been a recurring phenomenon at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). If these levels represent naturally perched aquifers, they may indicate a radionuclide migration hazard. In any case, they can pose engineering problems in the performance of underground nuclear tests. The origin of these elevated waters is uncertain. Large volumes of water are introduced during emplacement drilling, providing ample source for artificially perched water, yet elevated water levels can remain constant for years, suggesting a natural origin instead. In an effort to address the issue of unexpected standing water in emplacement boreholes, three different sites were investigated in Area 19 on Pahute Mesa by Desert Research Institute (DRI) staff from 1990-93. These sites were U-19az, U-19ba, and U-19bh. As of this writing, U-19bh remains available for access; however, nuclear tests were conducted at the former two locations subsequent to this investigations. The experiments are discussed in chronological order. Taken together, the experiments indicate that standing water in Pahute Mesa emplacement holes originates from the drainage of small-volume naturally perched zones. In the final study, the fluids used during drilling of the bottom 100 m of emplacement borehole U-19bh were labeled with a chemical tracer. After hole completion, water level rose in the borehole, while tracer concentration decreased. In fact, total mass of tracer in the borehole remained constant, while water levels rose. After water levels stabilized in this hole, no change in tracer mass was observed over two years, indicating that no movement of water out of the borehole is taking place (as at U- 19ba). Continued labeling tests of standing water are recommended to confirm the conclusions made here, and to establish their validity throughout Pahute Mesa.

  5. Predicting diagnostic error in radiology via eye-tracking and image analytics: Preliminary investigation in mammography

    SciTech Connect

    Voisin, Sophie; Tourassi, Georgia D. [Biomedical Science and Engineering Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States)] [Biomedical Science and Engineering Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Pinto, Frank [School of Engineering, Science, and Technology, Virginia State University, Petersburg, Virginia 23806 (United States)] [School of Engineering, Science, and Technology, Virginia State University, Petersburg, Virginia 23806 (United States); Morin-Ducote, Garnetta; Hudson, Kathleen B. [Department of Radiology, University of Tennessee Medical Center at Knoxville, Knoxville, Tennessee 37920 (United States)] [Department of Radiology, University of Tennessee Medical Center at Knoxville, Knoxville, Tennessee 37920 (United States)

    2013-10-15

    Purpose: The primary aim of the present study was to test the feasibility of predicting diagnostic errors in mammography by merging radiologists’ gaze behavior and image characteristics. A secondary aim was to investigate group-based and personalized predictive models for radiologists of variable experience levels.Methods: The study was performed for the clinical task of assessing the likelihood of malignancy of mammographic masses. Eye-tracking data and diagnostic decisions for 40 cases were acquired from four Radiology residents and two breast imaging experts as part of an IRB-approved pilot study. Gaze behavior features were extracted from the eye-tracking data. Computer-generated and BIRADS images features were extracted from the images. Finally, machine learning algorithms were used to merge gaze and image features for predicting human error. Feature selection was thoroughly explored to determine the relative contribution of the various features. Group-based and personalized user modeling was also investigated.Results: Machine learning can be used to predict diagnostic error by merging gaze behavior characteristics from the radiologist and textural characteristics from the image under review. Leveraging data collected from multiple readers produced a reasonable group model [area under the ROC curve (AUC) = 0.792 ± 0.030]. Personalized user modeling was far more accurate for the more experienced readers (AUC = 0.837 ± 0.029) than for the less experienced ones (AUC = 0.667 ± 0.099). The best performing group-based and personalized predictive models involved combinations of both gaze and image features.Conclusions: Diagnostic errors in mammography can be predicted to a good extent by leveraging the radiologists’ gaze behavior and image content.

  6. Preliminary Investigations of Joining Technologies for Attaching Refractory Metals to Ni-Based Superalloys

    SciTech Connect

    Gould, Jerry E. [Edison Welding Institute, 1250 Arthur E. Adams Drive, Columbus, OH 43221 (United States); Ritzert, Frank J. [NASA Glenn Research Center, 21000 Brookpark Road, Mail Stop 49-1, Cleveland, OH 44135 (United States); Loewenthal, William S. [Ohio Aerospace Institute, 21000 Brookpark Road, Mail Stop 49-1, Cleveland, OH 44135 (United States)

    2006-01-20

    In this study, a range of joining technologies has been investigated for creating attachments between refractory metal and Ni-based superalloys. Refractory materials of interest include Mo-47%Re, T-111, and Ta-10%W. The Ni-based superalloys include Hastelloy X and MarM 247. During joining with conventional processes, these materials have potential for a range of solidification and intermetallic formation-related defects. For this study, three non-conventional joining technologies were evaluated. These included inertia welding, electro-spark deposition (ESD) welding, and magnetic pulse welding (MPW). The developed inertia welding practice closely paralleled that typically used for the refractory metals alloys. Metallographic investigations showed that forging during inertia welding occurred predominantly on the refractory metal side. It was also noted that at least some degree of forging on the Ni-based superalloy side of the joint was necessary to achieve consistent bonding. Both refractory metals were readily weldable to the Hastelloy X material. When bonding to the MarM 247, results were inconsistent. This was related to the higher forging temperatures of the MarM 247, and subsequent reduced deformation on that material during welding. ESD trials using a Hastelloy X filler were successful for all material combinations. ESD places down very thin (5- to 10-{mu}m) layers per pass, and interactions between the substrates and the fill were limited (at most) to that layer. For the refractory metals, the fill only appeared to wet the surface, with minimal dilution effects. Microstructures of the deposits showed high weld metal integrity with maximum porosity on the order of a few percent. Some limited success was also obtained with MPW. In these trials, only the T-111 tubes were used. Joints were possible for the T-111 tube to the Hastelloy X bar stock, but the stiffness of the tube (resisting collapse) necessitated the use of very high power levels. These power levels resulted in damage to the equipment (concentrator) during welding. It is of note that the joint made showed the typical wavy bond microstructure associated with magnetic pulse/explosion bond joints. Joints were not possible between the T-111 tube and the MarM 247 bar stock. In this case, the MarM 247 shattered before sufficient impact forces could be developed for bonding.

  7. Preliminary Investigations of Joining Technologies for Attaching Refractory Metals to Ni-Based Superalloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gould, Jerry E.; Ritzert, Frank J.; Loewenthal, William S.

    2006-01-01

    In this study, a range of joining technologies has been investigated for creating attachments between refractory metal and Ni-based superalloys. Refractory materials of interest include Mo-47%Re, T-111, and Ta-10%W. The Ni-based superalloys include Hastelloy X and MarM 247. During joining with conventional processes, these materials have potential for a range of solidification and intermetallic formation-related defects. For this study, three non-conventional joining technologies were evaluated. These included inertia welding, electro-spark deposition (ESD) welding, and magnetic pulse welding (MPW). The developed inertia welding practice closely paralleled that typically used for the refractory metals alloys. Metallographic investigations showed that forging during inertia welding occurred predominantly on the refractory metal side. It was also noted that at least some degree of forging on the Ni-based superalloy side of the joint was necessary to achieve consistent bonding. Both refractory metals were readily weldable to the Hastelloy X material. When bonding to the MarM 247, results were inconsistent. This was related to the higher forging temperatures of the MarM 247, and subsequent reduced deformation on that material during welding. ESD trials using a Hastelloy X filler were successful for all material combinations. ESD places down very thin (5- to 10-?m) layers per pass, and interactions between the substrates and the fill were limited (at most) to that layer. For the refractory metals, the fill only appeared to wet the surface, with minimal dilution effects. Microstructures of the deposits showed high weld metal integrity with maximum porosity on the order of a few percent. Some limited success was also obtained with MPW. In these trials, only the T-111 tubes were used. Joints were possible for the T-111 tube to the Hastelloy X bar stock, but the stiffness of the tube (resisting collapse) necessitated the use of very high power levels. These power levels resulted in damage to the equipment (concentrator) during welding. It is of note that the joint made showed the typical wavy bond microstructure associated with magnetic pulse/explosion bond joints. Joints were not possible between the T-111 tube and the MarM 247 bar stock. In this case, the MarM 247 shattered before sufficient impact forces could be developed for bonding.

  8. Preliminary Investigations of Joining Technologies for Attaching Refractory Metals to Ni-Based Superalloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gould, Jerry E.; Ritzert, Frank J.; Loewenthal, William S.

    2006-01-01

    In this study, a range of joining technologies has been investigated for creating attachments between refractory metal and Ni-based superalloys. Refractory materials of interest include Mo-47%Re, T-111, and Ta-10%W. The Ni-based superalloys include Hastelloy X and MarM 247. During joining with conventional processes, these materials have potential for a range of solidification and intermetallic formation-related defects. For this study, three non-conventional joining technologies were evaluated. These included inertia welding, electro-spark deposition (ESD) welding, and magnetic pulse welding (MPW). The developed inertia welding practice closely paralleled that typically used for the refractory metals alloys. Metallographic investigations showed that forging during inertia welding occurred predominantly on the nickel base alloy side. It was also noted that at least some degree of forging on the refractory metal side of the joint was necessary to achieve consistent bonding. Both refractory metals were readily weldable to the Hastelloy X material. When bonding to the MarM 247, results were inconsistent. This was related to the higher forging temperatures of the MarM 247, and subsequent reduced deformation on that material during welding. ESD trials using a Hastelloy X filler were successful for all material combinations. ESD places down very thin (5- to 10- m) layers per pass, and interactions between the substrates and the fill were limited (at most) to that layer. For the refractory metals, the fill only appeared to wet the surface, with minimal dilution effects. Microstructures of the deposits showed high weld metal integrity with maximum porosity on the order of a few percent. Some limited success was also obtained with MPW. In these trials, only the T-111 tubes were used. Joints were possible for the T-111 tube to the Hastelloy X bar stock, but the stiffness of the tube (resisting collapse) necessitated the use of very high power levels. These power levels resulted in damage to the equipment (concentrator) during welding. It is of note that the joint made showed the typical wavy bond microstructure associated with magnetic pulse/explosion bond joints. Joints were not possible between the T-111 tube and the MarM 247 bar stock. In this case, the MarM 247 shattered before sufficient impact forces could be developed for bonding.

  9. Work plan for preliminary investigation of organic constituents in ground water at the New Rifle site, Rifle, Colorado. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    A special study screening for Appendix 9 (40 CFR Part 264) analytes identified the New Rifle site as a target for additional screening for organic constituents. Because of this recommendation and the findings in a recent independent technical review, the US Department of Energy (DOE) has requested that the Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC) perform a preliminary investigation of the potential presence of organic compounds in the ground water at the New Rifle Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site, Rifle, Colorado. From 1958 to 1972, organic chemicals were used in large quantities during ore processing at the New Rifle site, and it is possible that some fraction was released to the environment. Therefore, the primary objective of this investigation is to determine whether organic chemicals used at the milling facility are present in the ground water. The purpose of this document is to describe the work that will be performed and the procedures that will be followed during installation of ground water well points at the New Rifle site. The selection of analytes and the procedures for collecting ground water samples for analysis of organic constituents are also described.

  10. Preliminary Investigation of an SOI-based Arrayed Waveguide Grating Demodulation Integration Microsystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hongqiang; Zhou, Wenqian; Liu, Yu; Dong, Xiaye; Zhang, Cheng; Miao, Changyun; Zhang, Meiling; Li, Enbang; Tang, Chunxiao

    2014-05-01

    An arrayed waveguide grating (AWG) demodulation integration microsystem is investigated in this study. The system consists of a C-band on-chip LED, a 2 × 2 silicon nanowire-based coupler, a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) array, a 1 × 8 AWG, and a photoelectric detector array. The coupler and AWG are made from silicon-on-insulator wafers using electron beam exposure and response-coupled plasma technology. Experimental results show that the excess loss in the MMI coupler with a footprint of 6 × 100 ?m2 is 0.5423 dB. The 1 × 8 AWG with a footprint of 267 × 381 ?m2 and a waveguide width of 0.4 ?m exhibits a central channel loss of -3.18 dB, insertion loss non-uniformity of -1.34 dB, and crosstalk level of -23.1 dB. The entire system is preliminarily tested. Wavelength measurement precision is observed to reach 0.001 nm. The wavelength sensitivity of each FBG is between 0.04 and 0.06 nm/dB.

  11. Laser vibrometry characterisation of a microfluidic lab-on-a-chip device: a preliminary investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fury, C.; Gélat, P. N.; Jones, P. H.; Memoli, G.

    2014-04-01

    Since their original inception as ultrasound contrast agents, potential applications of microbubbles have evolved to encompass molecular imaging and targeted drug delivery. As these areas develop, so does the need to understand the mechanisms behind the interaction of microbubbles both with biological tissue and with other microbubbles. There is therefore a metrological requirement to develop a controlled environment in which to study these processes. Presented here is the design and characterisation of such a system, which consists of a microfluidic chip, specifically developed for manipulating microbubbles using both optical and acoustic trapping. A laser vibrometer is used to observe the coupling of acoustic energy into the chip from a piezoelectric transducer bonded to the surface. Measurement of the velocity of surface waves on the chip is investigated as a potential method for inferring the nature of the acoustic fields excited within the liquid medium of the device. Comparison of measured surface wavelengths with wave types suggests the observation of anti-symmetric Lamb or Love-Kirchhoff waves. Further visual confirmation of the acoustic fields through bubble aggregation highlights differences between the model and experimental results in predicting the position of acoustic pressure nodes in relation to excitation frequency.

  12. Preliminary Investigation of an SOI-based Arrayed Waveguide Grating Demodulation Integration Microsystem

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hongqiang; Zhou, Wenqian; Liu, Yu; Dong, Xiaye; Zhang, Cheng; Miao, Changyun; Zhang, Meiling; Li, Enbang; Tang, Chunxiao

    2014-01-01

    An arrayed waveguide grating (AWG) demodulation integration microsystem is investigated in this study. The system consists of a C-band on-chip LED, a 2 × 2 silicon nanowire-based coupler, a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) array, a 1 × 8 AWG, and a photoelectric detector array. The coupler and AWG are made from silicon-on-insulator wafers using electron beam exposure and response-coupled plasma technology. Experimental results show that the excess loss in the MMI coupler with a footprint of 6 × 100??m2 is 0.5423?dB. The 1 × 8 AWG with a footprint of 267 × 381??m2 and a waveguide width of 0.4??m exhibits a central channel loss of ?3.18?dB, insertion loss non-uniformity of ?1.34?dB, and crosstalk level of ?23.1?dB. The entire system is preliminarily tested. Wavelength measurement precision is observed to reach 0.001?nm. The wavelength sensitivity of each FBG is between 0.04 and 0.06?nm/dB. PMID:24797561

  13. Preliminary investigation of submerged aquatic vegetation mapping using hyperspectral remote sensing.

    PubMed

    William, David J; Rybicki, Nancy B; Lombana, Alfonso V; O'Brien, Tim M; Gomez, Richard B

    2003-01-01

    The use of airborne hyperspectral remote sensing imagery for automated mapping of submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) in the tidal Potomac River was investigated for near to real-time resource assessment and monitoring. Airborne hyperspectral imagery and field spectrometer measurements were obtained in October of 2000. A spectral library database containing selected ground-based and airborne sensor spectra was developed for use in image processing. The spectral library is used to automate the processing of hyperspectral imagery for potential real-time material identification and mapping. Field based spectra were compared to the airborne imagery using the database to identify and map two species of SAV (Myriophyllum spicatum and Vallisneria americana). Overall accuracy of the vegetation maps derived from hyperspectral imagery was determined by comparison to a product that combined aerial photography and field based sampling at the end of the SAV growing season. The algorithms and databases developed in this study will be useful with the current and forthcoming space-based hyperspectral remote sensing systems. PMID:12620030

  14. A preliminary investigation of anticholinesterase activity of some Iranian medicinal plants commonly used in traditional medicine

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to evaluate acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of some commonly used herbal medicine in Iran to introduce a new source for management of Alzheimer’s disease. A total of 18 aqueous-methanolic extract (1:1; v/v) from the following plants: Brassica alba, Brassica nigra, Camellia sinensis, Cinchona officinalis, Citrus aurantifolia, Citrus x aurantium, Ferula assafoetida, Humulus lupulus, Juglans regia, Juniperus sabina, Myristica fragrans, Pelargonium graveolens, Pistacia vera, Punica granatum, Rheum officinale, Rosa damascena, Salix alba, and Zizyphus vulgaris were prepared and screened for their acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity using in vitro Ellman spectrophotometric method. Results According to the obtained results, the order of inhibitory activity (IC50 values, ?g /ml) of extracts from highest to the lowest was: C. sinensis (5.96), C. aurantifolia (19.57), Z. vulgaris (24.37), B. nigra (84.30) and R. damascena (93.1). Conclusions The results indicated and confirmed the traditional use of these herbs for management of central nervous system disorders. C. sinensis showed the highest activity in inhibition of acetylcholinesterase. However, further investigations on identification of active components in the extracts are needed. PMID:24401532

  15. [Preliminary investigation on acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) cases in Jinan area].

    PubMed

    Xu, A; Li, L; Zhao, S

    1994-06-01

    Eighty AFP cases under 12 years old from 6 hospitals in Jinan were investigated. Among them, there were 17 (21.25%) cases with poliomyelitis (POLIO), 40 (50.00%) cases with Guillian-Barre syndrome (GBS) and 23 (28.75%) cases with other AFP diseases. Most AFP cases occurred from May to October and no significant seasonal difference was found for each kind of AFP cases (P > 0.05), but the average age for POLIO cases (1.55 +/- 1.24) was significantly lower than that for non-POLIO AFP cases (3.76 +/- 2.58) (P < 0.01). The reporting rate from hospitals to each level of epidemic prevention station (EPS) for POLIO, GBS and other AFP cases were 100%, 12.50% and 43.75%, respectively (P < 0.01). Sixty-five AFP cases occurred in 6 prefectures around Jinan city. The average incidence rate (per 100,000) for total AFP, non-POLIO AFP and GBS cases among children under 12 years old were 1.11, 0.89 and 0.53, respectively. The results are helpful to estimate the incidence of AFP cases among children in north provinces of China and also indicate that the POLIO surveillance system in Shandong Province at the present is not sensitive enough, so the AFP cases reporting work of hospitals and the surveillance at each level of EPS should be enhanced. PMID:7834687

  16. Laser cleaning of paintings: from preliminary investigations to a laser cleaning station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apostol, I.; Damian, V.; Garoi, F.; Iordache, I.; Bojan, M.; Apostol, D.; Morais, P. J.; Postolache, D.; Darida, I.

    2010-11-01

    UV laser beam interaction with painting layers in case of aged mock-ups was investigated and ablation and cleaning thresholds were estimated as a function of each layer and sub-layer composition. Ablation depth measurements as a function of incident laser intensities and subsequent irradiation pulse number was measured with white light interferometry (WLI) and profilometric methods, demonstrating a selectivity of the removal of painting layers from submicrometric domain to micrometric domain as a function of surface cleaning needs. The laser cleaning station was designed and developed after careful evaluation of the irradiation conditions proper to the removal of painting layers. A Q-switched Nd:Yag laser radiation is delivered to the artwork through a mirror system consisting in an articulated arm and a laser head. A complete control of the incident laser parameters was envisaged with the laser remote control interface. The system also comprises diagnosis and monitoring tools for the remote control of the cleaning operation. The prototype is controlled by an integrated interface based on a user-friendly software to perform the available operations (e.g. laser cleaning, LIBS, colorimetry, live color monitoring, multispectral analysis, database management). The user interface is also used to start the treatment of a new work, to review or continue a previously started work.

  17. Friction Stir Lap Welding of Magnesium Alloy to Steel: A Preliminary Investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jana, S.; Hovanski, Y.; Grant, G. J.

    2010-12-01

    An initial study was made to evaluate the feasibility of joining magnesium alloy AZ31 sheet to galvanized steel sheet in a lap configuration using friction stir welding (FSW). Two different automotive sheet steels were used for comparative evaluation of the dissimilar joining potential: a 0.8 mm thick, electrogalvanized (EG) mild steel, and a 1.5 mm thick hot-dipped galvanized (HDG) high-strength, low-alloy (HSLA) steel. These steels were joined to 2.33 mm thick AZ31B magnesium sheet. A single FSW tool design was used for both dissimilar welds, and the process parameters were kept the same. The average peak load for the AZ31-1.5 mm steel weld joint in lap shear mode was found to be 6.3 ± 1.0 kN. For the AZ31-0.8 mm steel weld, joint strength was 5.1 ± 1.5 kN. Microstructural investigation indicates melting of the Zn coating present on the steel sheets, and subsequent alloying with the Mg sheet resulted in the formation of a solidified Zn-Mg alloy layer.

  18. Preliminary investigations of toxicity in the Georges Bay catchment, Tasmania, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Bleaney, Alison; Hickey, Christopher W.; Stewart, Michael; Scammell, Marcus; Senjen, Rye

    2015-01-01

    North-eastern Tasmania, Australia has been an area of major production for Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas) for over 25 years. Since the mid-1990s, increased oyster mortality has been observed. The purpose of the present study was to identify the agent causing aquatic toxicity and to investigate whether there is a chemical and/or toxicological link between river foam and monoculture timber plantation forests of exotic eucalypts (Eucalyptus nitens) present in the catchment area. Foam samples from the George River catchment demonstrated high toxicity to a freshwater cladoceran and larvae of a marine blue mussel species. After filtration to remove most particulates, foam samples also demonstrated a marked reduction in toxicity to blue mussels, which suggested that the toxicity is particle associated. Foam and leaf extracts of E. nitens were then fractionated using HPLC and size exclusion chromatography and the resulting fractions were screened for cladoceran and blue mussel toxicity. Toxicity was detected in fractions common to both the foam and the leaf extracts. This study suggests that there may be a chemical and toxicological relationship between foam and E. nitens leaf components. PMID:25745193

  19. Preliminary investigation into the pollution reduction performance of swales used in a stormwater treatment train.

    PubMed

    Kachchu Mohamed, M A; Lucke, T; Boogaard, F

    2014-01-01

    Permeable pavements have been shown to be effective stormwater treatment devices that can greatly reduce surface runoff and significantly improve the quality of stormwater runoff in urban areas. However, the potential problems with sediment clogging and consequent maintenance requirements have been identified as the main barriers to more widespread adoption of permeable pavements in urban developments. This Australian study investigates the effectiveness of using grass swales as pre-treatment devices for permeable pavements in order to reduce clogging and extend the life span of these systems. The results of simulated runoff experiments demonstrated that between 50 and 75% of the total suspended sediment (TSS) was removed within the first 10 m of the swale length. This suggests swales of this length could potentially increase the effective life of permeable pavement systems by reducing clogging, and therefore maintenance. Nutrient removal was also tested in the study and the results indicated the tested swales were of limited effectiveness in the removal of these pollutants. However, in real runoff situations, reduction of TSS will have a direct influence on removing nutrients because a significant proportion of nutrients (and other pollutants) are attached to the sediments. PMID:24622550

  20. Preliminary investigation on CAD system update: effect of selection of new cases on classifier performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muramatsu, Chisako; Nishimura, Kohei; Hara, Takeshi; Fujita, Hiroshi

    2013-02-01

    When a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system is used in clinical practice, it is desirable that the system is constantly and automatically updated with new cases obtained for performance improvement. In this study, the effect of different case selection methods for the system updates was investigated. For the simulation, the data for classification of benign and malignant masses on mammograms were used. Six image features were used for training three classifiers: linear discriminant analysis (LDA), support vector machine (SVM), and k-nearest neighbors (kNN). Three datasets, including dataset I for initial training of the classifiers, dataset T for intermediate testing and retraining, and dataset E for evaluating the classifiers, were randomly sampled from the database. As a result of intermediate testing, some cases from dataset T were selected to be added to the previous training set in the classifier updates. In each update, cases were selected using 4 methods: selection of (a) correctly classified samples, (b) incorrectly classified samples, (c) marginally classified samples, and (d) random samples. For comparison, system updates using all samples in dataset T were also evaluated. In general, the average areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUCs) were almost unchanged with method (a), whereas AUCs generally degraded with method (b). The AUCs were improved with method (c) and (d), although use of all available cases generally provided the best or nearly best AUCs. In conclusion, CAD systems may be improved by retraining with new cases accumulated during practice.

  1. A preliminary investigation of acid-catalyzed polymerization reactions of shale oil distillates

    SciTech Connect

    Netzel, D.A.

    1991-04-01

    Sinor (1989) reported that a major specialty market may exist for shale oil as an asphalt blending material. Shale oil can be converted to an asphalt blending material by acid catalyzed condensation and polymerization reactions of the many molecular species comprising the composition of shale oil. To simplify the investigation, crude shale oil was separated by distillation into three distillates of different hydrocarbon and heteroaromatic compositions. These distillates were then treated with two different types of acids to determine the effect of acid type on the end products. Three western shale oil distillates, a naphtha, a middle distillate, and an atmospheric gas oil, were reacted with anhydrous AlCl{sub 3} and 85% H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} under low-severity conditions. At relatively low temperatures, little change in the hydrocarbon composition was noted for the AlCl{sub 3} reactions. AlCl{sub 3}{center dot} (a polymerized product and/or complex) was formed. However, it is assumed that the sludge was mainly the result of heteroaromatic-AlCl{sub 3} reactions.

  2. A preliminary investigation of acid-catalyzed polymerization reactions of shale oil distillates

    SciTech Connect

    Netzel, D.A.

    1991-04-01

    Sinor (1989) reported that a major specialty market may exist for shale oil as an asphalt blending material. Shale oil can be converted to an asphalt blending material by acid catalyzed condensation and polymerization reactions of the many molecular species comprising the composition of shale oil. To simplify the investigation, crude shale oil was separated by distillation into three distillates of different hydrocarbon and heteroaromatic compositions. These distillates were then treated with two different types of acids to determine the effect of acid type on the end products. Three western shale oil distillates, a naphtha, a middle distillate, and an atmospheric gas oil, were reacted with anhydrous AlCl{sub 3} and 85% H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} under low-severity conditions. At relatively low temperatures, little change in the hydrocarbon composition was noted for the AlCl{sub 3} reactions. AlCl{sub 3}{center_dot} (a polymerized product and/or complex) was formed. However, it is assumed that the sludge was mainly the result of heteroaromatic-AlCl{sub 3} reactions.

  3. A preliminary investigation on the relationship between virtues and pathological internet use among Chinese adolescents

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Pathological Internet Use (PIU) has become a global issue associated with the increasing number of Internet users. Previous studies concerned both the interpersonal and intrapersonal vulnerable factors and the corresponding models. However, a limited amount of research has explored the relationship between positive factors and PIU. Objective The current investigation attempted to clarify the relationship between virtues and PIU among Chinese adolescents; it also sought to explore the specific contributions of the three virtues. Virtue was the core concept in positive psychology and the Values in Action Classification. A recent study demonstrated that there might be three universal virtues (relationship, vitality, and conscientiousness). Methods A cross-sectional sample of adolescents aged 12-17 years were recruited in 2013. A total of 674 adolescents (males?=?302, females?=?372; junior high school?=?296, senior high school?=?378) from eight junior and senior high schools in four provinces of Mainland China completed a package of psychological inventories, including the Chinese Virtues Questionnaire (CVQ) and the Adolescent Pathological Internet Use Scale (APIUS). The mean age of the current sample was 15.10 years (SD?=?1.81) with an average of 5.31 years’ length (SD?=?2.09) of Internet use. Results A total of 9.50% participants exhibited significant symptoms of PIU. Male students (Mmale?=?2.50) had significantly higher scores on PIU than female students (Mfemale?=?2.25). Relationship (??=?-.24) and conscientiousness (??=?-.21) negatively predicted PIU, whereas vitality (??=?.25) positively predicted PIU. Dominance analysis further revealed that relationship and conscientiousness could explain 81% variance of PIU, and vitality only accounted for another 19%. Conclusions Relationship and conscientiousness were possible protective factors of pathological Internet users, while vitality was vulnerable. The results could be helpful in screening “at-risk” Internet users (low relationship and conscientiousness as well as high vitality). Future intervention strategies could focus on how to enhance relationship and conscientiousness and on how to reduce vitality. PMID:24594317

  4. January 26, 2001 Gujrat, India Earthquake - A Report of Preliminary Investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saikia, C. K.; Somerville, P. G.; Ichinose, G.; Thio, H.

    2001-05-01

    A magnitude Mw 7.7 earthquake occurred during the morning hours of India's Republic Day celebration on January 26, 2001 near the margin of the Indian sub-continent in the Kachchh region. The revised hypocentral location for this event by the USGS has an estimated depth of 17 km. Its seismic moment is estimated at 6.2x1028 dyne-cm. The teleseismic P waves are sharp at all stations indicating an abrupt large slip on the fault plane. Within 3-4 minutes Bhuj, Anjar, Bachau, Gandhidham, Kukuma, Ratnar, Lodai, Kottar and many other nearby villages were in ruins. Isolated collapses of mid-size buildings occurred in Ahmedabad located about 240 km away and Surat located at about 360 km. The transverse and longitudinal ground motions recorded at the ground floor of a mid-rise building show motions were as high as 0.11g and lasted for about 30s. These motions are relatively large. There is, however, a suspicion about the performance of the recording station. Using the empirical attenuation relations of Abrahamson and Silva for western North America, we expect about 0.0262g and 0.035g for rock and soil sites, respectively in Ahmedabad. The city itself is located at the bank of Sabarmati River and is built on sediments whose thickness varies between about 2 to 4 km. It is quite likely that the ground motion was amplified by the basin structure. So far, the primary source of waveform data from the mainshock is from the IRIS Data Management Center (DMC) in Seattle, Washington, and includes stations located at upper-mantle and teleseismic distances. Using the teleseismic P-wave seismograms, Yagi and Kikuchi developed initial slip models for the two possible fault planes of this earthquake using a source depth of 10 km. Both of these slip models indicate a westward rupture and 6- 8 meters of displacement at the centroid. We have also inverted the teleseismic P waves independently using a source depth of 18 km to be consistent with the USGS and Harvard hypocentral locations. Based on our inverted slip model, we predict a co- seismic deformation of about 2 m at the bedrock for the south dipping fault. These ground displacements are large enough to have caused the liquefaction phenomena observed by various investigating groups. During our visit to the epicentral region, we were in several location where lateral spreading in sediment was extensively observed. We are at present analyzing regional seismograms recorded from this earthquake.

  5. Preliminary Results From SILVVER '03 - Seismic Investigations of the Las Vegas Valley: Evaluating Risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snelson, C. M.; Sandru, J.; McEwan, D. J.; Hirsch, A.; Zaragoza, S. A.; Draa, A.; Hanson, A. D.; Kaip, G.; Harder, S. H.; Azevedo, S.; McKibben, W.; Rodgers, A.; Lewis, J. P.; Smith, D.; Rock, D.; McCallen, D.

    2003-12-01

    In August 2003, the University of Nevada Las Vegas (UNLV) with the assistance of the several other institutions acquired seismic refraction data and broadband data across the Las Vegas basin, NV. The SILVVER '03 (Seismic Investigations of the Las Vegas Valley: Evaluating Risk) project is in part a continuing effort to characterize the Las Vegas basin for strong ground motion. The objectives of this phase of the Las Vegas Valley Seismic Response (LVVSR) project were to acquire 3-D seismic data across the basin to define the geometry and structure in the sub-surface; to identify sub-basins, which can focus energy in the basin; and test the current basin model, which shows that the northeastern portion of the basin is as deep as 5 km of unconsolidated basin fill and has increased amplification. The experiment consisted of two seismic refraction profiles of about 55 km in length each. One profile extended from the northeast, across the Las Vegas Valley Shear Zone and the transition from the deep to shallow portions of the basin to the southwest. The second profile extended from the southeast from Frenchman Mountain to the northwest towards the Nevada Test Site along a corridor that is thought to focus energy into the Las Vegas Valley. Station spacing along the profile was nominally 100 to 200 m and shot point spacing was on the order of 10 km. There were 8 shots that were successfully recorded ranging in size from 50 to 1000 lb. The overall quality of the data is very high, especially since the majority of the instruments were deployed in the urban area. Initial results show that the basin can be characterized by an average velocity of 4 km/s while the transition into the crust indicates there is a dramatic velocity increase to 6 km/s at the basin/bedrock contact. The data from this experiment will be used to produce a 3-D tomographic velocity model of the Las Vegas basin. In addition to the seismic refraction profiles, we set out 6 broadband stations across the Valley in an effort to record the chemical blasts. These instruments are currently deployed and recording continuously. Only the larger shots were captured by the broadband array. These data will be used to further our understanding of the Las Vegas basin and the potential seismic hazards that the region faces. In addition, these newly acquired datasets will be integrated into a 3-D community model that is being developed by the working group that will identify areas in the Valley where there could be an increase of amplification due to strong ground motion.

  6. Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 1 Expression and Functionality in MCF-7 Cells: A Preliminary Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Barbero, Raffaella; Cuniberti, Barbara; Racca, Silvia; Abbadessa, Giuliana; Piccione, Francesca; Re, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) is a nonselective cation channel belonging to the transient receptor potential family, and it is expressed in different neoplastic tissues. Its activation is associated with regulation of cancer growth and progression. The aim of this research was to study the expression and pharmacological characteristics of TRPV1 in cells derived from human breast cancer MCF-7 cells. Methods TRPV1 presence was assessed by binding studies and Western blotting. Receptor binding characteristics were evaluated through competition assays, while 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5,-dipheyltetrazolium bromide reduction assays were performed to confirm an early hypothesis regarding the modulation of cancer cell proliferation. The functionality of TRPV1 was evaluated by measuring Ca2+ uptake in the presence of increasing concentrations of TRPV1 agonists and antagonists. Results Binding studies identified a single class of TRPV1 (Bmax 1,492±192 fmol/mg protein), and Western blot showed a signal at 100 kDa corresponding to the molecular weight of human TRPV1. Among the different tested agonists and antagonists, anandamide (Ki: 2.8×10-11 M) and 5-iodoresiniferatoxin (5-I-RTX) (Ki: 5.6×10-11 M) showed the highest degrees of affinity for TRPV1, respectively. All tested TRPV1 agonists and antagonists caused a significant (p<0.05) decrease in cell growth rate in MCF-7 cells. For agonists and antagonists, the efficacy of tested compounds displayed the following rank order: resiniferatoxin>anandamide>capsaicin and 5-I-RTX=capsazepine, respectively. Conclusion These data indicate that both TRPV1 agonists and antagonists induce significant inhibition of MCF-7 cell growth. Even though the mechanisms involved in the antiproliferative effects of TRPV1 agonists and antagonists should be further investigated, it has been suggested that agonists cause desensitization of the receptor, leading to alteration in Ca2+-influx regulation. By contrast, antagonists cause a functional block of the receptor with consequent fatal dysregulation of cell homeostasis. PMID:25548580

  7. Provesicular granisetron hydrochloride buccal formulations: in vitro evaluation and preliminary investigation of in vivo performance.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Sami; El-Setouhy, Doaa Ahmed; El-Latif Badawi, Alia Abd; El-Nabarawi, Mohamed Ahmed

    2014-08-18

    Granisetron hydrochloride (granisetron) is a potent antiemetic that has been proven to be effective in acute and delayed emesis in cancer chemotherapy. Granisetron suffers from reduced oral bioavailability (?60%) due to hepatic metabolism. In this study the combined advantage of provesicular carriers and buccal drug delivery has been explored aiming to sustain effect and improve bioavailability of granisetron via development of granisetron provesicular buccoadhesive tablets with suitable quality characteristics (hardness, drug content, in vitro release pattern, exvivo bioadhesion and in vivo bioadhesion behavior). Composition of the reconstituted niosomes from different prepared provesicular carriers regarding type of surfactant used and cholesterol concentration significantly affected both entrapment efficiency (%EE) and vesicle size. Span 80 proniosome-derived niosomes exhibited higher encapsulation efficiency and smaller particle size than those derived from span 20. Also, the effect of %EE and bioadhesive polymer type on in vitro drug release and in vivo performance of buccoadhesive tablets was investigated. Based on achievement of required in vitro release pattern (20-30% at 2h, 40-65% at 6h and 80-95% at 12h), in vivo swelling behavior, and in vivo adhesion time (>14 h) granisetron formulation (F19, 1.4 mg) comprising HPMC:carbopol 974P (7:3) and maltodextrin coated with the vesicular precursors span 80 and cholesterol (9:1) was chosen for in vivo study. In vivo pharmacokinetic study revealed higher bioavailability of buccal formulation relative to conventional oral formulation of granisetron (AUC0-? is 89.97 and 38.18 ng h/ml for buccal and oral formulation, respectively). A significantly lower and delayed Cmax (12.09±4.47 ng/ml, at 8h) was observed after buccal application compared to conventional oral tablet (31.66±10.15 ng/ml, at 0.5 h). The prepared provesicular buccoadhesive tablet of granisetron (F19) might help bypass hepatic first-pass metabolism and improve bioavailability of granisetron with the possibility of reducing reported daily dose (2mg) and reducing dosing frequency. PMID:24793896

  8. Palaeomagnetic, rock-magnetic and mineralogical investigations of metadolerites from Western Svalbard : A preliminary report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michalski, Krzysztof; Nejbert, Krzysztof; Doma?ska-Siuda, Justyna; Manby, Geoffrey

    2014-05-01

    A group of 42 independently oriented palaeomagnetic samples from 7 sites located in central part of the West Spitsbergen Thrust and Fault Belt has been investigated. The samples were collected from 5 distinct metadolerite sheets intruded into the Proterozoic - Lower Paleozoic metamorphic complex of Western Oscar II Land (Western Svalbard Caledonian Terrane - Harland, 1997 division). All analyzed metadolerite samples were metamorphosed under greenschist facies metamorphism. The metamorphic assemblage consist of hornblende, biotite, actinolite, chlorite, epidote, stilpnomelane, titanite, albite, and quartz. Calcite, associated with pyrrhotite, pyrite chalcopyrite, sphalerite, and covellite, that occurs as irregular intergrowths or thin veins, document high activity of H2O-CO2-rich fluids during metamorphism. Primary magmatic phases represented by clinopyroxene occur rarely, and only in thick metadolerite dykes. Accessory oxides change their mineralogical and chemical composition during metamorphism. In all examined samples primary Ti-magnetite and oxy-exsolved hematite break-down completely into titanite or have been dissolved. The ilmenite are also replaced by titanite, but in metadolerites at contact with host metapelites, slightly altered ilmenite grains with preserved hematite exsolution were documented. Basing on mineralogical observations it should be expected that metamorphic processes have almost completely reset the paleomagnetic data record from the time of dolerite crystallization. This stage can document only rare hematite oxy-exsolution preserved within ilmenite, and presumably small inclusion of magnetite still preserved within unaltered clinopyroxene. The paleomagnetic record of metamorphic stage is probably recorded by pyrrhotite, hematite, goethite, and late Ti-free magnetite that can grow during breakdown of pyrrhotite to pyrite (Ramdohr. 1980). The NRM (Natural Remanent Magnetisation) intensities of the palaeomagnetic samples exceed the minimum 10 mA/m. The first AF/thermal demagnetizations have revealed a stable NRM structure. ChRM (Characteristic Remanent Magnetisation) components can be extracted precisely from Zijderveld diagrams (precision parameter - ASD max. 10º). The following magnetic procedures have been applied to identify the ferromagnetic carriers of the samples: SIRM (saturation isothermal remanent magnetization) decay curves (procedure after Kadzia?ko-Hofmokl & Kruczyk, 1976) and the three-component IRM (isothermal remanent magnetization) procedure described by Lowrie (1990). Experimental work has revealed the dominance of pyrrhotite and magnetite phases as carriers with soft-medium coercivity (samples are saturated in 0.2-0.4 T) and distinct unblocking temperatures around 320-350 ºC and 575-600 ºC respectively. Presented study is the part of PALMAG project 2012-2015: "Integration of palaeomagnetic, isotopic and structural data to understand Svalbard Caledonian Terranes assemblage" (see also Michalski et al. 2012), funded by Polish National Science Centre. References: HARLAND,W.B. 1997. The Geology of Svalbard. Geological Society of London, Memoir 17, 521 pp. K?DZIO?KO-HOFMOKL,M. & KRUCZYK,J. 1976. Complete and partial self-reversal of natural remanent magnetization of basaltic rocks from Lower Silesia, Poland. Pure and Applied Geophysics 110, 2031-40. LOWRIE,W. 1990. Identification of ferromagnetic minerals in a rock by coercivity and unblocking temperature properties. Geophysical Research Letters 17, 159-62. MICHALSKI,K., LEWANDOWSKI,M., MANBY,G.M. 2012. New palaeomagnetic, petrographic and 40Ar/39Ar data to test palaeogeographic reconstructions of Caledonide Svalbard. Cambridge University Press. Geological Magazine 149 (4), 696-721. RAMDOHR,P. 1980. The ore minerals and their intergrowths. Pergamon Press, Oxford.

  9. The 2007 Pisco earthquake (Mw=8.0), Central Peru: Preliminary Field Investigations and Seismotectonic Context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Audin, L.; Perfettini, H.; Avouac, J.; Farber, D.; de La Cruz, D.; Chlieh, M.

    2004-12-01

    This epicentral area of the 2007 Pisco earthquake marks a major transition in the characteristics of the Nazca subduction zone: 1) the megathrust dip angle is shallower (15-20) to the north than to the south (25-30); 2) megathrust earthquakes have distinctly smaller magnitudes and are more fragmented to the north; 3) the distance between the trench and the coastline changes abruptly from ~180km to the north to ~80km to the south. These variations are likely related to the oblique subduction of the Nazca ridge - a major bathymetric high - beneath the continental margin. The effect of the subduction of the ridge is obvious in the morphology and tectonics of the forearc, in particular, around the Paracas Peninsula where late Pliocene marine formations are uplifted and the forearc tectonic regime changes from compression to extension. The geometry of the coastline reflects the sweeping of ridge beneath the margin. The coastline also seems to relate to the mode of slip along the subduction interface: modeling of the available interseismic GPS data shows that the plate interface was locked at depth shallower than about 50km, with the downdip end of the Locked Fault Zone (LFZ) corresponding approximately to the coastline. However, the resolution of GPS data is not sufficient to test the idea that the coastline morphology mirrors in detail the variation of the downdip edge of the LFZ. We investigated evidence for uplift or subsidence along the coast and found that the coastline didn't experience any significant vertical displacement compared to the tide range (~40cm). The coastline approximately corresponds to a pivot line marking the transition from coastal uplift in the south to subsidence in the north, as the distance from the trench increases. This model is consistent with the co-seismic slip distribution inferred from waveform modeling, and with the distribution of aftershocks which suggests that the subduction interface ruptured mainly updip of the coastline. To place further constraints on the coseismic slip distribution, we have collected data on the spatial extent of Tsunami waves which hit the coast both south and north of the Paracas peninsula. Finally, our field surveys have also revealed evidence for active faulting of the forearc. In particular, the production of coseismic pressure ridges, with up to 50cm of vertical throw suggests that the east dipping Puente Huamani thrust fault system was reactivated over a distance of about 20km during this event. However, we didn't find evidence for reactivation of any of the normal faults on the Paracas Peninsula, although some had been reactivated by the 2006 Pisco earthquake (Mw6.5). Thus, the structure and deformation of the Peruvian forearc and coastline seems to contain important information on lateral variations of seismic and geodetic coupling along the subduction zone.

  10. The 2007 Pisco earthquake (Mw=8.0), Central Peru: Preliminary Field Investigations and Seismotectonic Context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Audin, L.; Perfettini, H.; Avouac, J.; Farber, D.; de La Cruz, D.; Chlieh, M.

    2007-12-01

    This epicentral area of the 2007 Pisco earthquake marks a major transition in the characteristics of the Nazca subduction zone: 1) the megathrust dip angle is shallower (15-20) to the north than to the south (25-30); 2) megathrust earthquakes have distinctly smaller magnitudes and are more fragmented to the north; 3) the distance between the trench and the coastline changes abruptly from ~180km to the north to ~80km to the south. These variations are likely related to the oblique subduction of the Nazca ridge - a major bathymetric high - beneath the continental margin. The effect of the subduction of the ridge is obvious in the morphology and tectonics of the forearc, in particular, around the Paracas Peninsula where late Pliocene marine formations are uplifted and the forearc tectonic regime changes from compression to extension. The geometry of the coastline reflects the sweeping of ridge beneath the margin. The coastline also seems to relate to the mode of slip along the subduction interface: modeling of the available interseismic GPS data shows that the plate interface was locked at depth shallower than about 50km, with the downdip end of the Locked Fault Zone (LFZ) corresponding approximately to the coastline. However, the resolution of GPS data is not sufficient to test the idea that the coastline morphology mirrors in detail the variation of the downdip edge of the LFZ. We investigated evidence for uplift or subsidence along the coast and found that the coastline didn't experience any significant vertical displacement compared to the tide range (~40cm). The coastline approximately corresponds to a pivot line marking the transition from coastal uplift in the south to subsidence in the north, as the distance from the trench increases. This model is consistent with the co-seismic slip distribution inferred from waveform modeling, and with the distribution of aftershocks which suggests that the subduction interface ruptured mainly updip of the coastline. To place further constraints on the coseismic slip distribution, we have collected data on the spatial extent of Tsunami waves which hit the coast both south and north of the Paracas peninsula. Finally, our field surveys have also revealed evidence for active faulting of the forearc. In particular, the production of coseismic pressure ridges, with up to 50cm of vertical throw suggests that the east dipping Puente Huamani thrust fault system was reactivated over a distance of about 20km during this event. However, we didn't find evidence for reactivation of any of the normal faults on the Paracas Peninsula, although some had been reactivated by the 2006 Pisco earthquake (Mw6.5). Thus, the structure and deformation of the Peruvian forearc and coastline seems to contain important information on lateral variations of seismic and geodetic coupling along the subduction zone.

  11. Preliminary Investigations Into the Geomicrobiology of Iron-Rich Seafloor Sediments Obtained From the Tonga Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langley, S.; Fortin, D.; Hannington, M.; Stoffers, P.; Schwarz-Schampera, U.; Submersible Group, P.

    2005-12-01

    Two samples (designated P5-636 and P5-637) of seafloor sediment were collected from a depth of 900m at Volcano 19 in the Tonga Arc, an area with diffuse active venting at temperatures ranging from 30 to 112 degrees Celsius. Another sample, P640, was collected from a depth of 399m at Volcano 18, an area with no active venting and a maximum sediment temperature of 13.8 degrees Celsius. Macroscopic observations at Volcano 19 indicated white filamentous microbial mats growing in close association with putative iron oxide and silica-rich sediments. Microbial-sediment assemblages formed vertical chimneys up to 2 metres tall which were easily disrupted and collapsed when disturbed. Scanning electron microscopy of sediments P5-636 and P5-637 revealed abundant microbial filaments, 1 to 2 micrometres wide and up to tens of micrometres long which were often, though not always, encrusted by mineral material. Bacilli and coccoid forms were also observed, but at a much lower frequency. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) of non-encrusted cell surfaces revealed light elements commonly associated with biological material and/or saline evaporites (e.g., Na, K, Mg, Ca). EDS of the encrusting mineral phase resulted in large increases in signals for iron, silicon and oxygen. Morphologically, P5-636 and P5-637 were a mixture of amorphous spherical aggregates and abundant, well-defined, acicular and platy crystals measuring several micrometres in length. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis yielded several peaks corresponding to goethite and lepidocrocite, with perhaps some magnetite. This suggests that P5-636 and P5-637 are mixtures of goethite and/or lepidocrocite with a more amorphous phase (e.g., 2-line ferrihydrite). EDS analysis of P640 resulted in large signals for iron, oxygen and silicon. However, the mineral morphology of P640 sediment was largely that of amorphous spherical aggregates. The well-developed goethite/lepidocrocite crystals seen in P5-636 and P5-637 were markedly absent. XRD analyses of P640 sediments yielded only two broad reflections at 2.53 and 1.48 angstroms, suggesting that sediment P640 is composed primarily of 2-line ferrihydrite. Sediment P640 also showed a marked absence of the filamentous organisms seen in the other two samples. The few putative filaments which were observed were heavily encrusted and likely non-viable. Temperature differences between the two fields are an obvious factor in the differences in sediment mineralogy described here, since the higher temperatures recorded for P5-636 and P5-637 would tend to favour a more crystalline iron oxide. It remains to be determined, however, whether the same temperature difference might also account for the difference in microbial abundance seen between the two sediment fields. An intriguing alternative is that the microbes themselves may be exerting an additional (metabolic) control over the nature of the Tonga Arc sediments. Further investigation into the geomicrobiology of this site is clearly warranted. The authors gratefully acknowledge the work of the crew of Support Vessel R/V Ka'imikai-o-Kanaloa in collecting these samples.

  12. An investigation of cooperative dispatching for minimising mean flowtime in a finite-buffer-capacity dynamic flowshop

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ahmed El-Bouri; Subrahmanya Nairy

    2011-01-01

    Scheduling in a dynamic flowshop that receives jobs at random and unforeseen points in time has traditionally been done by using dispatching rules. This study compares the performances of leading dispatching rules with a cooperative dispatching approach, for the objective of minimising mean flowtime in a flowshop, in which the buffers that hold in-process jobs between machines have finite capacities.

  13. Preliminary Investigation of an Early Mental Health Intervention for Head Start Programs: Effects of Child Teacher Relationship Training on Children's Behavior Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Mary O.; Bratton, Sue C.

    2010-01-01

    Head Start teachers and their aides (n = 24) were assigned to either the experimental or active control treatment in this preliminary investigation on the effects of Child Teacher Relationship Training (CTRT) on 52 disadvantaged preschool children identified with behavioral problems. CTRT is based on the principles and procedures of Child Parent…

  14. Testing Positive versus Negative Claims: A Preliminary Investigation of the Role of Cover Story on the Assessment of Experimental Design Skills. CSE Technical Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmerman, Corinne; Glaser, Robert

    This paper presents results from a preliminary investigation in which researchers manipulated the cover story of an open-ended assessment that required students to design an experiment. Participants were 27 sixth graders from a culturally diverse urban school. In one version of the cover story, students were asked to design an experiment to test a…

  15. Preliminary Results of an Altitude-Wind-Tunnel Investigation of an Axial-Flow Gas Turbine-Propeller Engine. 1; Performance Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saari, Martin J.; Wallner, Lewis E.

    1948-01-01

    A preliminary investigation of an axial-flow gas turbine-propeller engine was conduxted. Performance data were obtained for engine speeds from 8000 to 13,000 rpm and altitudes from 5000 to 35,000 feet and compressor inlet ram pressure ratios from 1.00 to 1.17.

  16. A preliminary investigation into the use of biosensors to screen stomach contents for selected poisons and drugs.

    PubMed

    Redshaw, Natalie; Dickson, Stuart J; Ambrose, Vikki; Horswell, Jacqui

    2007-10-25

    The bioluminescence response of two genetically modified (lux-marked) bacteria to potentially toxic compounds (PTCs) in stomach contents was monitored using an in vitro assay. Cells of Escherichia coli HB101 and Salmonella typhimurium both carrying the lux light producing gene on a plasmid (pUDC607) were added to stomach contents containing various concentrations of organic and inorganic compounds. There was some variability in the response of the two biosensors, but both were sensitive to the herbicides glyphosate, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T); pentachlorophenol (PCP), and inorganic poisons arsenic and mercury at a concentration range likely to be found in stomach contents samples submitted for toxicological analysis. This study demonstrates that biosensor bioassays could be a useful preliminary screening tool in forensic toxicology and that such a toxicological screening should include more than one test organism to maximise the number of PTC's detected. The probability of false positive results from samples containing compounds that may interfere with the assay such as over-the-counter (OTC) drugs and caffeine in tea and coffee was also investigated. Of the substances tested only coffee has the potential to cause false positive results. PMID:17276023

  17. Health and safety plan for the preliminary site investigation for McMurdo Station, Ross Island, Antarctica

    SciTech Connect

    Wozny, M.C.

    1991-05-01

    The primary purpose of this health and safety plan is to provide the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) field team with important procedures, regulations, and requirements necessary for performing work at McMurdo Station, Antarctica, with a minimum hazard to its health and safety. Field workers will be required to conduct their operations in a safe environment through specific safety and occupational health procedures. The plan assigns responsibilities and provides for contingencies that may arise at the site. The health and safety plan will also demonstrate to the National Science Foundation (NSF), the US Department of Energy (DOE), the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the US Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), environmental interest groups, and other countries represented in Antarctica that the health and safety of ANL personnel have been given the utmost consideration in planning the work operations, applicable rules and regulations of the area have been met, and the health and safety of the public and the environment have been given significant consideration during field sampling activities. This document represents the final health and safety plan for the preliminary site investigation. A draft version of this report was presented to NSF in January 1991. 16 refs., 3 figs., 8 tabs.

  18. Preliminary Results From the CAUGHT Experiment: Investigation of the North Central Andes Subsurface Using Receiver Functions and Ambient Noise Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, J. C.; Ward, K. M.; Porter, R. C.; Beck, S. L.; Zandt, G.; Wagner, L. S.; Minaya, E.; Tavera, H.

    2011-12-01

    Jamie Ryan, Kevin M. Ward, Ryan Porter, Susan Beck, George Zandt, Lara Wagner, Estela Minaya, and Hernando Tavera The University of Arizona The University of North Carolina San Calixto Observatorio, La Paz, Bolivia IGP, Lima, Peru In order to investigate the interplay between crustal shortening, lithospheric removal, and surface uplift we have deployed 50 broadband seismometers in northwestern Bolivia and southern Peru as part of the interdisciplinary Central Andean Uplift and Geodynamics of High Topography (CAUGHT) project. The morphotectonic units of the central Andes from west to east, consist of the Western Cordillera, the active volcanic arc, the Altiplano, an internally drained basin (~4 km elevation), the Eastern Cordillera, the high peaks (~6 km elevation) of an older fold and thrust belt, the Subandean zone, the lower elevation active fold and thrust belt, and the foreland Beni basin. Between northwestern Bolivia and southern Peru, the Altiplano pinches out north of Lake Titicaca as the Andes narrow northward. The CAUGHT seismic instruments were deployed between 13° to 18° S latitudes to investigate the crust and mantle lithosphere of the central Andes in this transitional zone. In northwest Bolivia, perpendicular to the strike of the Andes, there is a total of 275 km of documented upper crustal shortening (15° to 17°S) (McQuarrie et al, 2008). Associated with the shortening is crustal thickening and possibly lithospheric removal as the thickening lithospheric root becomes unstable. An important first order study is to compare upper crustal shortening estimates with present day crustal thickness. To estimate crustal thickness, we have calculated receiver functions using an iterative deconvolution method and used common conversion point stacking along the same profile as the geologically based shortening estimates. In our preliminary results, we observed a strong P to S conversion corresponding to the Moho at approximately 60-65 km depth underneath the Altiplano and portions of the Eastern Cordillera, and at approximately 40 under the sub-Andes and westernmost edge of the Beni basin. Unlike previous studies farther south, we do not see an increased crustal thickness beneath the Eastern Cordillera. The CAUGHT station coverage is also ideal for Ambient Noise Tomography (ANT) to investigate the seismic shear wave velocities in the upper crust (<30 km depth). ANT will be used to estimate the depth of basins in the northern Altiplano, and aid in constraining the upper crustal shear wave velocities for improved migration of receiver functions to depth. McQuarrie, N., Barnes, J., and Ehlers, T.A., 2008, Geometric, kinematic and erosional history of the central Andean Plateau (15-17°S), northern Bolivia: Tectonics, v. 27, TC3007, doi:10.1029/2006TC002054.

  19. Isotopic Investigation of Contemporary and Historic Changes in Penguin Trophic Niches and Carrying Capacity of the Southern Indian Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Jaeger, Audrey; Cherel, Yves

    2011-01-01

    A temperature-defined regime shift occurred in the 1970s in the southern Indian Ocean, with simultaneous severe decreases in many predator populations. We tested a possible biological link between the regime shift and predator declines by measuring historic and contemporary feather isotopic signatures of seven penguin species with contrasted foraging strategies and inhabiting a large latitudinal range. We first showed that contemporary penguin isotopic variations and chlorophyll a concentration were positively correlated, suggesting the usefulness of predator ?13C values to track temporal changes in the ecosystem carrying capacity and its associated coupling to consumers. Having controlled for the Suess effect and for increase CO2 in seawater, ?13C values of Antarctic penguins and of king penguins did not change over time, while ?13C of other subantarctic and subtropical species were lower in the 1970s. The data therefore suggest a decrease in ecosystem carrying capacity of the southern Indian Ocean during the temperature regime-shift in subtropical and subantarctic waters but not in the vicinity of the Polar Front and in southward high-Antarctic waters. The resulting lower secondary productivity could be the main driving force explaining the decline of subtropical and subantarctic (but not Antarctic) penguins that occurred in the 1970s. Feather ?15N values did not show a consistent temporal trend among species, suggesting no major change in penguins’ diet. This study highlights the usefulness of developing long-term tissue sampling and data bases on isotopic signature of key marine organisms to track potential changes in their isotopic niches and in the carrying capacity of the environment. PMID:21311756

  20. Preliminary on the isotope hydrology investigations at the Nevada test site: Hydrologic resources management program; FY 1992--1993

    SciTech Connect

    Davisson, M.L.; Kenneally, J.M.; Smith, D.K.; Hudson, G.B.; Nimz, G.J.; Rego, J.H.

    1994-01-01

    A comprehensive isotope data base of the NTS groundwaters collected during FY 92-93 is presented with preliminary interpretations. Multiple samples were collected from over 30 sites on pumped wells and open-holes by wireline bailing. Field water level measurements indicate essentially a bimodal distribution separated by water levels at higher elevations (e.g. Pahute Mesa) from water levels of lower elevations (e.g. Yucca and Frenchman Flats). Down hole temperature measurements have confirmed anomalous temperature gradients in the eastern Yucca Flat area and on Pahute Mesa, where horizontal temperature gradients up to 0.33{degrees}F/100ft are found. Consistent with previous reports by others, the major ion geochemistry of the NTS groundwater are dominated by Na-K-HCO{sub 3} and Ca-Mg-HCO{sub 3} water types, where the Na-rich water appears to be related to dissolution in the volcanic tuffs and the Ca-rich water to the Paleozoic carbonates. Increases in dissolved Si also seems to be indicative of groundwater that resides in the volcanic tuffs. Processes controlling the Na/Ca ratios are complex and may include ion exchange reactions with clays, evaporative concentration in the vadose zone, and lithological heterogeneities in addition to simple differential dissolution between the volcanic tuffs and the Paleozoic carbonates. Apparent {sup 14}C ages range between 4000 and 38,000 years for groundwaters at the NTS. The uncertainty is large for exact age determinations at this time. The {sup 14}C abundance decreases with increased dissolved HCO{sub 3}, and {sup 13}C suggests dissolution of the ``dead`` Paleozoic carbonates significantly influence the ages, but more work is needed to investigate the influence of vadose zone carbonate.

  1. Preliminary investigation of the effects of sea-level rise on groundwater levels in New Haven, Connecticut

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bjerklie, David M.; Mullaney, John R.; Stone, Janet R.; Skinner, Brian J.; Ramlow, Matthew A.

    2012-01-01

    Global sea level rose about 0.56 feet (ft) (170 millimeters (mm)) during the 20th century. Since the 1960s, sea level has risen at Bridgeport, Connecticut, about 0.38 ft (115 mm), at a rate of 0.008 ft (2.56 mm + or - 0.58 mm) per year. With regional subsidence, and with predicted global climate change, sea level is expected to continue to rise along the northeast coast of the United States through the 21st century. Increasing sea levels will cause groundwater levels in coastal areas to rise in order to adjust to the new conditions. Some regional climate models predict wetter climate in the northeastern United States under some scenarios. Scenarios for the resulting higher groundwater levels have the potential to inundate underground infrastructure in lowlying coastal cities. New Haven is a coastal city in Connecticut surrounded and bisected by tidally affected waters. Monitoring of water levels in wells in New Haven from August 2009 to July 2010 indicates the complex effects of urban influence on groundwater levels. The response of groundwater levels to recharge and season varied considerably from well to well. Groundwater temperatures varied seasonally, but were warmer than what was typical for Connecticut, and they seem to reflect the influence of the urban setting, including the effects of conduits for underground utilities. Specific conductance was elevated in many of the wells, indicating the influence of urban activities or seawater in Long Island Sound. A preliminary steady-state model of groundwater flow for part of New Haven was constructed using MODFLOW to simulate current groundwater levels (2009-2010) and future groundwater levels based on scenarios with a rise of 3 ft (0.91 meters (m)) in sea level, which is predicted for the end of the 21st century. An additional simulation was run assuming a 3-ft rise in sea level combined with a 12-percent increase in groundwater recharge. The model was constructed from existing hydrogeologic information for the New Haven area and from new information on groundwater levels collected during October 2009-June 2010. For the scenario with a 3-ft rise in sea level and no increase in recharge, simulated groundwater levels near the coast rose 3 ft; this increased water level tapered off toward a discharge area at the only nontidal stream in the study area. Simulated stream discharge increased at the nontidal stream because of the increased gradient. Although groundwater levels rose, the simulated difference between the groundwater levels in the aquifer and the increased sea level declined, indicating that the depth to the interface between freshwater and saltwater may possibly decline. Simulated water levels were affected by rise in sea level even in areas where the water table was at 17-24 ft (5.2-7.3 m) above current (2011) sea level. For the scenario with increased recharge, simulated groundwater levels were as much as an additional foot higher at some locations in the study area. The results of this preliminary investigation indicate that groundwater levels in coastal areas can be expected to rise and may rise higher if groundwater recharge also increases. This finding has implications for the disposal of stormwater through infiltration, a low-impact development practice designed to improve water quality and reduce overland peak discharge. Other implications include increased risk of basement flooding and increased groundwater seepage into underground sewer pipes and utility corridors in some areas. These implications will present engineering challenges to New Haven and Yale University. The preliminary model developed for this study can be the starting point for further simulation of future alternative scenarios for sea-level rise and recharge. Further simulations could identify those areas of New Haven where infrastructure may be at greatest risk from rising levels of groundwater. The simulations described in this report have limitations due to the preliminary scope of the work. Approaches to improve simulations include but are not limited to incorporating: * The variable

  2. Analytic investigation of the AEM-A/HCMM attitude control system performance. [Application Explorer Missions/Heat Capacity Mapping Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lerner, G. M.; Huang, W.; Shuster, M. D.

    1977-01-01

    The Heat Capacity Mapping Mission (HCMM), scheduled for launch in 1978, will be three-axis stabilized relative to the earth in a 600-kilometer altitude, polar orbit. The autonomous attitude control system consists of three torquing coils and a momentum wheel driven in response to error signals computed from data received from an infrared horizon sensor and a magnetometer. This paper presents a simple model of the attitude dynamics and derives the equations that determine the stability of the system during both attitude acquisition (acquisition-mode) and mission operations (mission-mode). Modifications to the proposed mission-mode control laws which speed the system's response to transient attitude errors and reduce the steady-state attitude errors are suggested. Numerical simulations are performed to validate the results obtained with the simple model.

  3. Ultrasonic synthetic technique to manufacture a pHEMA nanopolymeric-based vaccine against the H6N2 avian influenza virus: a preliminary investigation

    PubMed Central

    Poinern, Gérrard Eddy Jai; Le, Xuan Thi; Shan, Songhua; Ellis, Trevor; Fenwick, Stan; Edwards, John; Fawcett, Derek

    2011-01-01

    This preliminary study investigated the use of poly (2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (pHEMA) nanoparticles for the delivery of the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) vaccine pCAG-HAk, which expresses the full length hemagglutinin (HA) gene of the avian influenza A/Eurasian coot/Western Australian/2727/1979 (H6N2) virus with a Kozak sequence which is in the form of a pCAGGS vector. The loaded and unloaded nanoparticles were characterized using field-emission scanning electron microscopy. Further characterizations of the nanoparticles were made using atomic force microscopy and dynamic light scattering, which was used to investigate particle size distributions. This preliminary study suggests that using 100 ?g of pHEMA nanoparticles as a nanocarrier/adjuvant produced a reduction in virus shedding and improved the immune response to the DNA vaccine pCAG-HAk. PMID:22114480

  4. Summary report: A preliminary investigation into the use of fuzzy logic for the control of redundant manipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheatham, John B., Jr.; Magee, Kevin N.

    1991-01-01

    The Rice University Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Sciences' Robotics Group designed and built an eight degree of freedom redundant manipulator. Fuzzy logic was proposed as a control scheme for tasks not directly controlled by a human operator. In preliminary work, fuzzy logic control was implemented for a camera tracking system and a six degree of freedom manipulator. Both preliminary systems use real time vision data as input to fuzzy controllers. Related projects include integration of tactile sensing and fuzzy control of a redundant snake-like arm that is under construction.

  5. Game-Based Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (GB-CBT) Group Program for Children Who Have Experienced Sexual Abuse: A Preliminary Investigation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Justin R. Misurell; Craig Springer; Warren W. Tryon

    2011-01-01

    This preliminary investigation examined the efficacy of a game-based cognitive-behavioral therapy group program for elementary school-aged children who have experienced sexual abuse. Treatment aimed to improve: (a) internalizing symptoms, (b) externalizing behaviors, (c) sexually inappropriate behaviors, (d) social skills deficits, (e) self-esteem problems, and (f) knowledge of healthy sexuality and self-protection skills. Results indicate that game-based cognitive-behavioral therapy was effective

  6. On the accuracy of conservation managers' beliefs and if they learn from evidence-based knowledge: a preliminary investigation.

    PubMed

    McConnachie, Matthew M; Cowling, Richard M

    2013-10-15

    Despite the significant impetus placed on the need for conservation managers to base their decisions on evidence-based findings, few studies have compared the accuracy of "evidence" versus experience-based knowledge. Furthermore we are not aware of any study that has tested the willingness of managers to change their beliefs after being exposed to evidence-based findings. Here, we tested nine managers' beliefs before-and-after being shown findings from an evidence-based study. The questions centered on the effectiveness of 'Working for Water' (WfW) in reducing invasive alien plant cover in two large catchment projects over a seven year period, as well as the managers' forecasts of WfW's effectiveness of reducing invasive alien plant cover, and the factors that underpin its effectiveness. We also assessed the financial cost of implementing the evidence-based assessment. We found that in comparison to the evidence-based findings, the managers underestimated the ineffectiveness of operations in reducing invasive alien plant cover in the one catchment and overestimated the ineffectiveness of the other catchment. All the managers whose estimates differed from the evidence-based findings were willing to change their beliefs. Surprisingly, however, when it came to forecasting WfW's effectiveness in the catchments, all the managers, with the exception of one project manager, were unwilling to reduce their optimistic estimates of the time required to control invasive alien plants from the two catchments. With regard to the drivers of effectiveness, the managers ranked their performance as the most important criterion whereas the data model emphasized variables related to site suitability for alien plant growth. Finally, we showed that it would only cost between 0.33% and 1.67% of the two projects' annual budgets to assess all sites, depending on the frequency of the monitoring. This preliminary investigation highlights how evidence-based findings alone, even if presented and explained to managers, might not result in managers learning and updating their beliefs. PMID:23722171

  7. A Preliminary Investigation of the Components of a Curriculum for the Preparation of Master's-Level Addiction Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whittinghill, David

    2006-01-01

    This study identified the preliminary curriculum components for the preparation of graduate-level addiction counselors. A review of the related literature revealed no agreed upon standards for post baccalaureate instruction of addiction counseling. The Delphi method was used to establish curriculum items from a list of 198 previously identified…

  8. Preliminary Investigations of Hydrogen Peroxide Treatment of Selected Ornamental Fishes and Efficacy against External Bacteria and Parasites in Green Swordtails

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Riccardo Russo; Eric W. Curtis; Roy P. E. Yanong

    2007-01-01

    The objectives of these preliminary studies were to evaluate the use of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) for the treatment of selected species of ornamental fishes and its efficacy in treating external bacteria and parasites. In the first part of the study, fish of five species (serpae tetra Hyphessobrycon eques (also known as Serpa tetra H. serpae), tiger barb Puntius tetrazona, blue

  9. The Boston Safe Shops Project--preliminary findings of a case study in applying the 10 essential services of public health to building environmental health capacity.

    PubMed

    Shoemaker, Paul A; Skogstrom, Tiffany; Shea, John; Bethune, Leon

    2007-01-01

    Boston's more than 500 automotive shops, located primarily in low-income communities of color, are a source both of well-paying jobs and of potential hazardous exposures to employees and residents. The Safe Shops Project works to reduce occupational and environmental health hazards without having to close these businesses. Combining inspections, in-shop trainings, outreach, and technical/financial assistance, it brings shops into compliance with laws and promotes use of safer practices and alternative products. After 18 months, 254 workers at 61 of 124 participating shops had received training. Surveys showed improved worker knowledge: Pre-training, 24.2 percent of the worker survey respondents stated that they knew what an MSDS was, and post-training, 75 percent stated that they knew. The surveys also found improvement in work practices: Pre-training, 48 percent of workers indicated that they used safety goggles in their work, while post-training, 70 percent indicated proper use of safety goggles. The results also showed shops investing in capital improvements such as replacement of PCE-based brake cleaners with aqueous cleaners. The Safe Shops Project has a successfully modeled application of the 10-essential-services framework to the building of public health capacity and community collaboration, and this model can be adapted to other locations and industries. PMID:17802812

  10. A preliminary spectroscopic investigation on the molecular interaction of metal–diphenylthiocarbazone complex with cellulose biopolymer and its application

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Kalidhasan; A. S. KrishnaKumar; Vidya Rajesh; N. Rajesh

    2011-01-01

    Biopolymer adsorbents are versatile in their application for removal of heavy metals. The present work is focused towards the preliminary study of the interaction of diphenylthiocarbazone (DTZ) complex of chromium(VI) in acidic medium with cellulose biopolymer. Chromium–DTZ complex could be quantitatively adsorbed on a cellulose column in the pH range 1.0–2.5 and the effect of various experimental parameters such as

  11. Study of the Binding Capacity of Heparin Functionalized Magnetic Microparticles for Cardiac Lipoprotein Lipase and their Preliminary Evaluation Ex Vivo in Rat Hearts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, Veronika; Rodrigues, Brian; Häfeli, Urs O.; Saatchi, Katayoun

    2010-12-01

    Magnetic particles were modified with covalently-bound surface heparin (HEPMag). The amount and activity of bound heparin was investigated with the toluidine blue, APTT, Kinetichrome Anti-IIa and western blot assays. The particles bound 40 ?g/mg (0.42 U/mg) and exhibited excellent anticoagulant activity. However, the activity was 5x less than that of free heparin. The HEPMag particles were then utilized to measure their lipoprotein lipase (LPL) binding potential and compared to commercially available heparin-bound particles (SiMAG-Heparin). HEPMag particles bound 98% LPL compared to 79% for SiMAG-Heparin particles. In addition, the HEPMag particles retained the LPL much better: Upon incubation with 5 U/mL free heparin, HEPMag particles released only 7% of the bound LPL compared to 67% for the SiMAG-Heparin particles. Being able to capture LPL in the heart might be useful for the investigation of the fat acid metabolism in diabetes. Ex vivo retrograde heart perfusion studies in rats with the HEPMag particles showed that LPL could be removed from the coronary lumen. These heparin surface modified parties are thus potential tools to magnetically target the coronary arteries and remove LPL in a selective way.

  12. Investigation of surfactant/cosurfactant synergism impact on ibuprofen solubilization capacity and drug release characteristics of nonionic microemulsions.

    PubMed

    Djekic, Ljiljana; Primorac, Marija; Filipic, Slavica; Agbaba, Danica

    2012-08-20

    The current study investigates the performances of the multicomponent mixtures of nonionic surfactants regarding the microemulsion stabilisation, drug solubilization and in vitro drug release kinetic. The primary surfactant was PEG-8 caprylic/capric glycerides (Labrasol). The cosurfactants were commercially available mixtures of octoxynol-12 and polysorbate 20 without or with the addition of PEG-40 hydrogenated castor oil (Solubilisant gamma 2421 and Solubilisant gamma 2429, respectively). The oil phase of microemulsions was isopropyl myristate. Phase behaviour study of the pseudo-ternary systems Labrasol/cosurfactant/oil/water at surfactant-to-cosurfactant weight ratios (K(m)) 40:60, 50:50 and 60:40, revealed a strong synergism in the investigated tensides mixtures for stabilisation of microemulsions containing up to 80% (w/w) of water phase at surfactant +cosurfactant-to-oil weight ratio (SCoS/O) 90:10. Solubilization of a model drug ibuprofen in concentration common for topical application (5%, w/w) was achieved at the water contents below 50% (w/w). Drug free and ibuprofen-loaded microemulsions M1-M6, containing 45% (w/w) of water phase, were prepared and characterized by polarized light microscopy, conductivity, pH, rheological and droplet size measurements. In vitro ibuprofen release kinetics from the microemulsions was investigated using paddle-over-enhancer cell method and compared with the commercial 5% (w/w) ibuprofen hydrogel product (Deep Relief, Mentholatum Company Ltd., USA). The investigated microemulsions were isotropic, low viscous Bingham-type liquids with the pH value (4.70-6.61) suitable for topical application. The different efficiency of the tensides mixtures for microemulsion stabilisation was observed, depending on the cosurfactant type and K(m) value. Solubilisant gamma 2429 as well as higher K(m) (i.e., lower relative content of the cosurfactant) provided higher surfactant/cosurfactant synergism. The drug molecules were predominantly solubilized within the interface film. The amount of drug released from the formulations M3 (10.75%, w/w) and M6 (13.45%, w/w) (K(m) 60:40) was limited in comparison with the reference (22.22%, w/w) and follows the Higuchi model. Microemulsions M2 and M5 (K(m) 50:50) gave zero order drug release pattern and ?15% (w/w) ibuprofen released. The release profiles from microemulsions M1 and M4 (K(m) 40:60) did not fit well with the models used for analysis, although the amounts of ibuprofen released (24.47%, w/w) and 17.99% (w/w), respectively) were comparable to that of the reference hydrogel. The drug release mechanism was related with the surfactant/cosurfactant synergism, thus the lower efficiency of the tensides corresponded to the faster drug release. PMID:22579578

  13. Carrying Capacity

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-06-25

    This lesson helps students understand the notion of carrying capacity as it relates to ecosystems by considering an image of a bucket filled with water, and then filled with an "ecosystem." Students are asked to consider the factors on which carrying capacity is determined, and that a ecosystem's carrying capacity can change when certain variables are also changed.

  14. Carrying Capacity

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-06-25

    This one-day activity challenges students to understand the ecological concept of carrying capacity through the physically-active process of role playing. Upon completion, students will be able to formulate and test hypotheses related to ecosystems and carrying capacity as well as describe the significance of carrying capacity.

  15. Self reported injury patterns among competitive curlers in the United States: a preliminary investigation into the epidemiology of curling injuries

    PubMed Central

    Reeser, J; Berg, R

    2004-01-01

    Methods: Participants at two curling championship events were asked to complete injury history questionnaires. Results: 76 curlers (39%) participated; 79% of these reported curling related musculoskeletal pain, most commonly involving the knee (54%), back (33%), and shoulder (20%). Sweeping and delivering the stone were most likely to provoke symptoms. Time loss injuries were estimated to occur at a rate of 2 per 1000 athlete exposures. Conclusions: Curling appears to be a relatively safe winter sport. Prospective studies are needed to confirm these preliminary findings and to further define the risk factors for curling related injuries. PMID:15388573

  16. Investigation of the climatic extremes influence on the humane adaptive capacity by mass spectrometric analysis of exhaled breath condensate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryabokon, Anna; Larina, Irina; Kononikhin, Alexey; Starodubtceva, Nataliia; Popov, Igor; Nikolaev, Eugene; Varfolomeev, Sergey

    Global climate change, which causes abnormal fluctuations in temperature and rainfall, has adverse effects on human health. Particularly people suffer with cardiovascular and respiratory system disease. Our research was concentrated on the changes in the regulation and adaptation systems of human organism related to hyperthermia and polluted air influence. Healthy individuals with the age from 22 to 45 years were isolated during 30 days in the ground based experimental facility located at Institute of medico-biological problems RAS (Moscow, Russia). In the ground based facility artificially climatic conditions of August, 2010 in Moscow were created. Exhaled breath condensate was collected before and after isolation by R-Tube collector, freeze dried, treated by trypsin and analyzed by nanoflow LC-MS/MS with a 7-Tesla LTQ-FT Ultra mass spectrometer (Thermo Electron, Bremen, Germany). Database search was performed using Mascot Server 2.2 software (Matrix Science, London, UK). Investigation of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) collected from participants of the 30 days isolation with hyper thermic and polluted air climate conditions was performed. After isolation reduction of the protein number was observed. Loss endothelial C receptor precursor - the main physiological anticoagulant - correlate with the clinical data of physicians to increase the propensity to thrombosis. Also COP9 signalosome protein, positive regulator of ubiquitin was identified in all EBC samples before isolation and was not detected for more than a half of donors after isolation. This phenomena may be due to violation of ubiquitin protection system of the cells from harmful proteins. During isolation the air was cleared from microdisperse particles.

  17. Preliminary investigation of the altitude performance of pentaborane and a pentaborane : JP-4 blend in an experimental 9.5-inch-diameter tubular combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, Warner B; Branstetter, J Robert

    1957-01-01

    A preliminary investigation was conducted to determine the altitude performance of pentaborane and a blend fuel of 64.2 percent pentaborane in JP-4 fuel in a tubular combustor of a current production type turbojet engine. A combustor was developed that was 4 inches shorter than standard. It contained a porous wire-cloth liner barrel and dome and an air-atomizing fuel nozzle. Deposits on the liner barrel and dome were virtually nonexistent. The combustion efficiency of 90 to 94 percent for pentaborane and approximately 90 percent for the blend. Outlet temperature profiles were marginal; however, the developed combustor provided lower pressure losses than obtained in conventional combustors.

  18. An investigation on forage yield capacity of kermes oak (Quercus coccifera L.) and grazing planning of Mediterranean maquis scrublands for traditional goat farming.

    PubMed

    Tolunay, Ahmet; Ad?yaman, Elif; Akyol, Ayhan; ?nce, Duygu; Türko?lu, Türkay; Ayhan, Veysel

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated grazing capacities of maquis scrubland and preparation principles of grazing management in forest resources. Kermes oak (Quercus coccifera L.), which is widespread as a main shrub species in maquis vegetation in Turkey, and pure hair goats (Capra hircus L.) feeding on shoots and leaves of this shrub were selected for study. The study was conducted in two stages. Green leaf and shoot samples were taken from kermes oaks in the first stage and the amount of green herbage yield (g ? m(-1)) and dry matter yield (kg ? ha(-1)) that may be obtained per unit area from these samples was identified. The considered amount of dry matter consumed by pure hair goats daily and the number of goats being fed within 1 year on land of 1 ha according to different land coverage rates of kermes oaks (goat head ? ha ? yr) were calculated. In the second stage, grazing capacities of sample areas where kermes oak spread were identified and compared with the grazing plan prepared by the forestry administration for this area. Forage yield variance according to land coverage rates of maquis scrublands should be considered when determining optimum animal numbers for grazing per area for sustainable goat farming. PMID:25379526

  19. An Investigation on Forage Yield Capacity of Kermes Oak (Quercus coccifera L.) and Grazing Planning of Mediterranean Maquis Scrublands for Traditional Goat Farming

    PubMed Central

    Tolunay, Ahmet; Ad?yaman, Elif; ?nce, Duygu; Ayhan, Veysel

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated grazing capacities of maquis scrubland and preparation principles of grazing management in forest resources. Kermes oak (Quercus coccifera L.), which is widespread as a main shrub species in maquis vegetation in Turkey, and pure hair goats (Capra hircus L.) feeding on shoots and leaves of this shrub were selected for study. The study was conducted in two stages. Green leaf and shoot samples were taken from kermes oaks in the first stage and the amount of green herbage yield (g?m?1) and dry matter yield (kg?ha?1) that may be obtained per unit area from these samples was identified. The considered amount of dry matter consumed by pure hair goats daily and the number of goats being fed within 1 year on land of 1 ha according to different land coverage rates of kermes oaks (goat head?ha?yr) were calculated. In the second stage, grazing capacities of sample areas where kermes oak spread were identified and compared with the grazing plan prepared by the forestry administration for this area. Forage yield variance according to land coverage rates of maquis scrublands should be considered when determining optimum animal numbers for grazing per area for sustainable goat farming. PMID:25379526

  20. Some investigations of the general instability of stiffened metal cylinders III : continuation of tests of wire-braced specimens and preliminary tests of sheet-covered specimens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1943-01-01

    This is the third of a series of reports covering an investigation of the general instability problem by the California Institute of Technology. The first five reports of this series cover investigations of the general instability problem under the loading conditions of pure bending and were prepared under the sponsorship of the Civil Aeronautics Administration. The succeeding reports of this series cover the work done on other loading conditions under the sponsorship of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics. This report is concerned primarily with the continuation of the tests of wire-braced specimens, and preliminary tests of sheet-covered specimens that had been made in the experimental investigation on the problem of the general instability of stiffened metal cylinders at the C.I.T.

  1. Investigation of the capacity of low glass transition temperature excipients to minimize amorphization of sulfadimidine on comilling.

    PubMed

    Curtin, Vincent; Amharar, Youness; Hu, Yun; Erxleben, Andrea; McArdle, Patrick; Caron, Vincent; Tajber, Lidia; Corrigan, Owen I; Healy, Anne Marie

    2013-01-01

    The coprocessing of active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) with an excipient which has a high glass transition temperature (T(g)) is a recognized strategy to stabilize the amorphous form of a drug. This work investigates whether coprocessing a model API, sulfadimidine (SDM) with a series of low T(g) excipients, prevents or reduces amorphization of the crystalline drug. It was hypothesized that these excipients could exert a T(g) lowering effect, resulting in composite T(g) values lower than that of the API alone and promote crystallization of the drug. Milled SDM and comilled SDM with glutaric acid (GA), adipic acid (AA), succinic acid (SA), and malic acid (MA) were characterized with respect to their thermal, X-ray diffraction, spectroscopic, and vapor sorption properties. SDM was predominantly amorphous when milled alone, with an amorphous content of 82%. No amorphous content was detected by dynamic vapor sorption (DVS) on comilling SDM with 50% w/w GA, and amorphous content of the API was reduced by almost 30%, relative to the API milled alone, on comilling with 50% w/w AA. In contrast, amorphization of SDM was promoted on comilling with 50% w/w SA and MA, as indicated by near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy. Results indicated that the API was completely amorphized in the SDM:MA comilled composite. The saturated solubility of GA and AA in the amorphous API was estimated by thermal methods. It was observed that the T(g) of the comelt quenched composites reached a minimum and leveled out at this solubility concentration. Maximum crystallinity of API on comilling was reached at excipient concentrations comparable to the saturated concentration solubility of excipient in the API. Moreover, the closer the Hildebrand solubility parameter of the excipient to the API, the greater the inhibition of API amorphization on comilling. The results reported here indicate that an excipient with a low T(g) coupled with high solubility in the API can prevent or reduce the generation of an amorphous phase on comilling. PMID:23186332

  2. Capacity Value of Solar Power

    SciTech Connect

    Duignan, Roisin; Dent, Chris; Mills, Andrew; Samaan, Nader A.; Milligan, Michael; Keane, Andrew; O'Malley, Mark

    2012-11-10

    Evaluating the capacity value of renewable energy sources can pose significant challenges due to their variable and uncertain nature. In this paper the capacity value of solar power is investigated. Solar capacity value metrics and their associated calculation methodologies are reviewed and several solar capacity studies are summarized. The differences between wind and solar power are examined, the economic importance of solar capacity value is discussed and other assessments and recommendations are presented.

  3. Preliminary investigations of Monte Carlo Simulations of neutron energy and LET spectra for fast neutron therapy facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Kroc, T.K.; /Fermilab

    2009-10-01

    No fast neutron therapy facility has been built with optimized beam quality based on a thorough understanding of the neutron spectrum and its resulting biological effectiveness. A study has been initiated to provide the information necessary for such an optimization. Monte Carlo studies will be used to simulate neutron energy spectra and LET spectra. These studies will be bench-marked with data taken at existing fast neutron therapy facilities. Results will also be compared with radiobiological studies to further support beam quality ptimization. These simulations, anchored by this data, will then be used to determine what parameters might be optimized to take full advantage of the unique LET properties of fast neutron beams. This paper will present preliminary work in generating energy and LET spectra for the Fermilab fast neutron therapy facility.

  4. Evaluation of capacity release transactions in the natural gas industry

    E-print Network

    Lautzenhiser, Stephen

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to analyze capacity release transactions in the natural gas industry and to state some preliminary conclusions about how the capacity release market is functioning. Given FERC's attempt to ...

  5. A New Biomarker of Hedonic Eating? A Preliminary Investigation of Cortisol and Nausea Responses to Acute Opioid Blockade

    PubMed Central

    Daubenmier, Jennifer; Lustig, Robert H.; Hecht, Frederick M.; Kristeller, Jean; Woolley, Josh; Adam, Tanja; Dallman, Mary; Epel, Elissa

    2014-01-01

    Overweight and obese individuals differ in their degree of hedonic eating. This may reflect adaptations in reward-related neural circuits, regulated in part by opioidergic activity. We examined an indirect, functional measure of central opioidergic activity by assessing cortisol and nausea responses to acute opioid blockade using the opioid antagonist naltrexone in overweight/obese women (mean BMI = 31.1 ± 4.8) prior to the start of a mindful eating intervention to reduce stress eating. In addition, we assessed indices of hedonic-related eating, including eating behaviors (binge eating, emotional eating, external eating, restraint) and intake of sweets/desserts and carbohydrates (Block Food Frequency); interoceptive awareness (which is associated with dysregulated eating behavior); and level of adiposity at baseline. Naltrexone-induced increases in cortisol were associated with greater emotional and restrained eating and lower interoceptive awareness. Naltrexone-induced nausea was associated with binge eating and higher adiposity. Furthermore, in a small exploratory analysis, naltrexone-induced nausea predicted treatment response to the mindful eating intervention, as participants with more severe nausea at baseline maintained weight whereas those without nausea responses tended to gain weight. These preliminary data suggest that naltrexone-induced cortisol release and nausea may help identify individuals who have greater underlying food reward dependence, which leads to an excessive drive to eat. Future research is needed to confirm this finding and to test if these markers of opioidergic tone might help predict success in certain types of weight management programs. PMID:24291355

  6. A preliminary investigation of the relationship between water quality and Anopheles gambiae larval habitats in western Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Water quality and anopheline habitat have received increasing attention due to the possibility that challenges during larval life may translate into adult susceptibility to malaria parasite infection and/or insecticide resistance. Methods A preliminary study of Anopheles gambiae s.s. larval habitats in the north-west and south-west regions of Cameroon was conducted in order to detect associations between An. gambiae s.s. molecular form and 2La inversion distributions with basic water quality parameters. Water quality was measured by temperature, pH, conductivity, total dissolved solids (TDS) at seven sites in Cameroon and one site in Selinkenyi, Mali. Results Principal components and correlation analyses indicated a complex relationship between 2La polymorphism, temperature, conductivity and TDS. Cooler water sites at more inland locations yielded more S form larvae with higher 2La inversion polymorphism while warmer water sites yielded more M form larvae with rare observations of the 2La inversion. Discussion More detailed studies that take into account the population genetics but also multiple life stages, environmental data relative to these life stages and interactions with both humans and the malaria parasite may help us to understand more about how and why this successful mosquito is able to adapt and diverge, and how it can be successfully managed. PMID:23819866

  7. Engineering geological investigations and the preliminary support design for the proposed Ordu Peripheral Highway Tunnel, Ordu, Turkey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Evrim Sopac?; Haluk Akgün

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents engineering geological investigations and the tunnel support design for the Boztepe tunnel of the Ordu Peripheral Highway located in northeast Turkey. In order to characterize the rock masses in Boztepe Tunnel which mainly consist of flysch (mostly alternation of sandstone, marl and siltstone) and pyroclastics (agglomerate and tuff), engineering geological investigations have been carried out in three

  8. Preliminary results of ERTS-investigations by W-German investigations. [multidisciplinary geoscientific experiments in central Germany and hydrogeology of Argentina Pampas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muehlfeld, R.

    1974-01-01

    Results are presented of West German investigations into multidisciplinary geoscientific experiments in central Germany and the Alps, and hydrogeological investigations in the Pampa of Argentina based on ERTS-1 data. The main goals of the investigation were achieved. The studies have given a good idea of the possibilities and limitations of ERTS imagery depending on the objectives in question and on the geographical conditions of the areas under investigation. Even in the well known region of central Europe, ERTS has proven its ability of improving present knowledge. In fields such as pollution monitoring and regional planning the satellite techniques should have distinct practical value. For any regional study of less known areas, the value of ERTS imagery can hardly be overestimated.

  9. A preliminary investigation on the interaction between sol-gel immobilized glucose oxidase and freely diffusing glucose by means of two-photon microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delfino, I.; Portaccio, M.; De Rosa, M.; Lepore, M.

    2013-02-01

    To study immobilized protein interactions with dissolved substrates is a very important topic both from a fundamental and technological standpoint. In the present report we illustrate the preliminary results obtained on sol-gel immobilized glucose oxidase (GOD) using a standard de-scanned two-photon microscope based on a modified confocal scanhead with internal detectors and a Ti:sapphire laser as a source. Data acquisition conditions were preliminary defined using functionalized beads of different dimensions. Various sol-gel supports were then investigated by monitoring endogeneous fluorescence due to the flavoadenine (FAD) molecules, present in GOD. Linear absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy along with Fourier Transform Infrared microscopy were employed for a full-optical characterization of the samples. The results show that GOD immobilization processes can be successfully monitored in some cases and also the interaction with glucose could be studied by this approach. This assessment holds potentials to better understand the characteristic of immobilized enzymes biocatalysis and to develop new biosensing schemes.

  10. Preliminary Free-flight Investigation of the Zero-lift Drag Penalties of Several Missile Nose Shapes for Infrared Seeking Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piland, Robert O

    1952-01-01

    The results of a preliminary investigation to develop a nose shape suitable for housing an infrared seeker are presented. The zero-lift drag characteristics of a missile-like body with various unconventional nose shapes were obtained through a range of Mach numbers from 0.8 to 1.8 and Reynolds numbers, based on body length, from 20 x10 to the 6th power to 70 x 10 to the 6th power, respectively, by using rocket-propelled free-flight models. Results of the test indicate that at supersonic speeds about 70 percent of the drag penalty incurred by using spherical-tip nose shapes may be eliminated by using nose shapes which will still allow the seeker to function.

  11. Preliminary Investigation to Resolve the Shear Velocity Structure of the Mantle Transition Zone beneath the Caroline Plate, Equatorial Western Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konishi, K.; Kawai, K.; Fuji, N.; Lee, S.; Geller, R. J.

    2013-12-01

    The Mantle Transition Zone (MTZ), which lies in the depth range from 410-660 km, is considered to be a region capable of carrying a large amount of water and other volatiles. A unique feature of the MTZ beneath the northwest Pacific rim is the stagnant slab which lies below much of the West Philippine Basin and extends laterally over a distance of thousands of kilometers beneath Korea and northeast China. In recent years, suggestions have been made that explain the seismicity and intra-plate volcanism in this region in terms of hydrous magmatic plumes rising from the MTZ. However, the exact mechanism remains under debate. An equally important, but less well-known, observation is that a stagnant slab appears to exist beneath much of the Caroline Plate in the equatorial western Pacific as well. If a stagnant slab does exist here, it is most likely a result of the long northward migration of the Australian Plate and subduction since its breakaway from the Antarctic. However, due to tectonic complexity and the lack of seismic stations, the structure and properties of the stagnant slab and the MTZ beneath the Caroline plate are not well understood. Also it is unclear if the large volcanic outflows around the Caroline Plate such as the Eurpik Rise can be explained by a hydrous magmatic plume stemming from the MTZ. To understand the shear-wave velocity structure of the MTZ beneath the Caroline Plate, we employ a body wave waveform inversion technique. Fuji et al. (PEPI, 2010) conducted body wave waveform inversion for the mantle transition zone beneath Japan. In this study we present preliminary results for an application of their methods to infer upper mantle and MTZ structure beneath the Caroline plate. We also estimate the resolving power of full-waveform inversion for a dataset obtained from the IRIS (Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology) network for shear velocity structure in the upper mantle, especially for the mantle transition zone beneath the Caroline Plate using transverse component body wave data in order to examine whether it is possible to reliably infer the existence of a high velocity anomaly because the dataset is relatively small and there are not many seismic stations to the east of this region.

  12. Romero, M. and Mateas, M. 2005. A Preliminary Investigation of Alien Presence. In the Proceedings of Human-Computer Interaction International (HCII 2005), Las Vegas, NV, USA, July 2005.

    E-print Network

    Mateas, Michael

    Romero, M. and Mateas, M. 2005. A Preliminary Investigation of Alien Presence. In the Proceedings Investigation of Alien Presence Mario Romero College of Computing The Georgia Institute of Technology Atlanta authority. The alien presence provides an alternative model of ambient intelligence; an alien presence

  13. Preliminary investigation of the ultrasonically enhanced corrosion of stainless steel in the nitric acid\\/chloride system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. O. H. Whillock; B. F. Harvey

    1996-01-01

    The effect of ultrasound (55 kHz) on the corrosion of 304L stainless steel in 2M nitric acid containing small amounts of Cl? was investigated using both gravimetric and electrochemical techniques. In these solutions, stainless steel can exist in either passive or active corrosion states. When the metal is corroding actively, sonication increases the corrosion rate by a factor of between

  14. Temperament and character in a Swiss sample of patients diagnosed with pathological gambling disorder: A preliminary investigation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MEYER DE STADELHOFEN; L. AUFRERE; C. MARTIN-SOELCH; O. SIMON; Cloninger CR; Przybeck TR; Svrakic DM

    2005-01-01

    Introduction: The present study was conducted in order to investigate the similarities and differences between the temperament and character of patients with pathological gambling disorder, in relation to previously published results on other impulse control disorders. Method: A group made up of 34 patients (12 women and 22 men) diagnosed with pathological gambling disorder answered the South Oaks Gambling Screen

  15. Optimizing Speech Production in the Ventilator-Assisted Individual Following Cervical Spinal Cord Injury: A Preliminary Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacBean, Naomi; Ward, Elizabeth; Murdoch, Bruce; Cahill, Louise; Solley, Maura; Geraghty, Timothy; Hukins, Craig

    2009-01-01

    Background: Mechanical ventilation is commonly used during the acute management of cervical spinal cord injury, and is required on an ongoing basis in the majority of patients with injuries at or above C3. However, to date there have been limited systematic investigations of the options available to improve speech while ventilator-assisted…

  16. Comparing Self-Reported Versus Objectively Measured Physical Activity Behavior: A Preliminary Investigation of Older Filipino American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atienza, Audie A.; King, Abby C.

    2005-01-01

    The importance of examining health behaviors, such as physical activity, among Filipino Americans is highlighted by their higher rates of chronic disease. As physical inactivity has been linked to chronic diseases (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 1996), this study investigated the physical activity levels of older Filipinas. This…

  17. Nanophytoplankton Diversity Across the Oligohaline Lake Pontchartrain Basin Estuary: A Preliminary Investigation Utlizing psbA Sequences

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Lake Pontchartrain basin estuary is shallow, wind-driven and comprised of two large embayments (1645 km2). Salinities range from freshwater in the west to 8 ppt in the east near the Gulf of Mexico. Phytoplankton investigations spanning this salinity gradient or examining small photoautotrophs ar...

  18. Some Preliminary Results of Detailed Paleomagnetic Investigations of the Siberian Permian-Triassic Traps in the Kotuy River Valley

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Latyshev; A. Fetisova; R. Veselovskiy

    2009-01-01

    Now essential part of geological investigations is dedicated to revealing of reasons and time relation between the mass extinction on the Paleozoic-Mesozoic boundary and pulses of magmatic activity expressed in forming of the largest Permian-Triassic trap province on the Siberian platform. Thus revealing of the dynamic of the magmatic activity caused formation of the Siberian traps will allow to obtain

  19. Finger Forecasting: A Pointer to Athletic Prowess in Women--A Preliminary Investigation by an Undergraduate Biology Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latourelle, Sandra M.; Elwess, Nancy L.; Elwess, Jennifer M.

    2008-01-01

    With all the technology today, the authors were surprised to read a recent British study that found a connection between the length of a woman's index (2D) and ring (4D) fingers to her athletic ability. Upon further investigation they found that many studies have examined the relationship between the length of the index finger (2D) to the ring…

  20. Planned Changes in Accounting Principles for UK Life Insurance Companies: A Preliminary Investigation of Stock Market Impact

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joanne Horton; Richard Macve

    1998-01-01

    The Association of British Insurers' (ABI) proposals for an 'accruals' method would have the effect of 'front-loading' profits reported on life assurance business compared with the traditional 'statutory solvency' basis. The ABI argued that adoption of the method would lead to a more realistic valuation of life company shares. This research tests this view by investigating, by means of an

  1. Preliminary Investigation of Prebreakdown Phenomena and Chemical Reactions Using a Pulsed High-Voltage Discharge in Water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Sidney Clements; Masayuki Sato; Robert H. Davis

    1987-01-01

    Prebreakdown phenomena in water were investigated for point-plane geometries using high-voltage pulses. Spot discharges, filamentary magenta streamers, isolated microdischarges, and microbubbles were observed and photographed. Emission spectra were obtained using a prism spectrograph. Maximum streamer lengths were determined as a function of applied voltage, pulsewidth (decay constant), and water conductivity. The bubbling of gas through the underwater discharge resulted in

  2. Preliminary result of deep-towed resistivity investigation in a potential gas hydrate area off southwest Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiang, C.; Hsu, S.; Goto, T.; Chen, C.; Chen, S.

    2012-12-01

    Gas hydrate (GH) is thought to be widely distributed within the active accretionary wedges passive continental margins and permafrost regions of the Earth. These deposits were formed in sub-seafloor sediments at relatively high pressure, low temperature conditions and have the potential to become a significant energy resource in the future. Bottom simulating reflectors (BSRs) from marine seismic reflection surveys are generally associated with the occurrence of gas-hydrate-bearing formations. The presence of BSRs could correspond to the base of the phase boundary between free gases and the solid hydrates. A wide-spread distribution of BSRs, high methane concentrations in the bottom water, shallow sulfate/methane interface, submarine mud volcanoes, diapirs and gas seepages significantly indicate a high potential of gas hydrates existence in the offshore area of southwest Taiwan. BSR is an indicative of a GH deposit and is often used to determine the base of gas hydrate stability zone of the solid-gas boundary where the upper bound of the GH in shallow sediments is still uncertain in the potential areas. The marine resistivity techniques are considered as one of powerful geophysical tools to image GH in upper bound of the GH in shallow portion of the seabed. In the study, we have rebuilt our new deep-towed marine resistivity system based on Goto et al. (2008) experiment. The new system is consisted of three components: 1. deep-towed frame, 2. receivers, and 3. side-scan sonar. The transmitter is mounted on the deep-towed frame and a long cable is towed behind the deep-towed frame in length of 240 m. The maximum of output electric current amplitude is up to 50 amperes. A dipole source of 15 m and two Ag-AgCl electric receivers are respectively installed in 210 m, 223 m and 226 m on the cable. Moreover, eight electric receivers (Ag-AgCl) are set from 0 m to 120 m with a dipole length of 15 m on the cable. A side-scan sonar equipment is attached below the system for the seafloor images. An important function of the side-scan sonar provides a stable towing of the whole system near the seafloor with altitude in range of 10 - 30 m. This configuration of the multidisciplinary geophysical system can roughly provide within 200 m of depth resolution beneath the seafloor according to the numerical modelling. A first multiple channels of deep-towed marine resistivity survey was carried out by R/V OR1-1001 from 21 to 23 June, 2012 to understand the detailed distribution of GH off SW Taiwan. Three survey lines were discovered in total length about 30 km. The towed speed was kept in 1.5 - 2.5 knots for both mapping of resistivity profiles and side-scan sonar images. An extremely high apparent resistivity anomaly appears in pockmark areas that corresponds to the side-scan sonar image. This high resistivity anomaly implies gas and/or gas hydrate reservoirs beneath the seafloor. The preliminary result has shown that our new resistivity system is a useful tool to explore GH deposits.

  3. Alterations in autonomic tone during trauma exposure using eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR)—Results of a preliminary investigation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin Sack; Wolfgang Lempa; Adrian Steinmetz; Friedhelm Lamprecht; Arne Hofmann

    2008-01-01

    EMDR combines stimuli that evoke divided attention – e.g. eye movements – with exposure to traumatic memories. Our objective was to investigate psycho-physiological correlates of EMDR during treatment sessions. A total of 55 treatment sessions from 10 patients with PTSD was monitored applying impedance cardiography. Onset of every stimulation\\/exposure period (n=811) was marked and effects within and across stimulation sets

  4. Vibrational spectroscopy investigation of Australian cotton cellulose fibres.Part 2. A Fourier transform near-infrared preliminary study†

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yongliang Liu; Serge Kokot; Tryphone J. Sambi

    1998-01-01

    Raw naturally coloured and white cotton cellulose fibres were investigated by Fourier transform near-infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy and chemometric methods, namely principal component analysis (PCA). In general, the white cotton exhibited bands that could be associated with the structural features of the cotton cellulose polymer. But the FT-NIR spectrum of the green cotton, which is reported for the first time, exhibited

  5. The evacuation of British children during World War II: A preliminary investigation into the long-term psychological effects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Foster; S. Davies; H. Steele

    2003-01-01

    The authors used attachment theory to hypothesize about the possible long-term psychological effects of evacuation during World War II, focusing on children who were evacuated unaccompanied by their parents. The study aimed to establish whether this experience had long-term effects on psychological well-being, and to investigate mediating and moderating factors. The study utilized a retrospective non-randomized design, comparing 169 former

  6. Preliminary study of the oil shales of the Green River formation in the tri-state area of Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming to investigate their utility for disposal of radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1975-05-01

    Results are presented of a preliminary study of the oil shales of the Green River formation in the tri-state area of Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming to investigate their utility for possible disposal of radioactive waste material. The objective of this study was to make a preliminary investigation and to obtain a broad overview of the physical and economic factors which would have an effect on the suitability of the oil shale formations for possible disposal of radioactive waste material. These physical and economic factors are discussed in sections on magnitude of the oil shales, waste disposal relations with oil mining, cavities requirements, hydrological aspects, and study requirements. (JRD)

  7. New observations of infiltration through fractured alluvium in Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site: A preliminary field investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Kao, C.S. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering; Smith, D.K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); McKinnis, W.B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., Mercury, NV (United States)

    1994-02-01

    Regional tectonics coupled with the subsurface detonation of nuclear explosives has caused widespread fracturing of the alluvium of Yucca Flat. Fractures deeper than 30 meters have been observed in boreholes. Some of these fractures are large enough to capture significant amounts of runoff during storm events. Evidence of stream capture by fractures and observations of runoff flowing into open fractures give qualitative evidence of infiltration to depths greater than several meters and possibly to the saturated zone. Our field observations contradict the assumption that little infiltration occurs on Yucca Flat. The larger, hydrologically important fractures are associated with geologic faults or the regional stress field. Additional field studies are needed to investigate the impact of fractures on the transport of contaminants.

  8. Towards Simplified Tools for Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Structures Subjected to Impact and Impulsive Loading: A Preliminary Investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trommels, Heather

    The analysis of reinforced concrete structures under blast and impact loads is an area of research that has become increasingly relevant in recent years. Complex hydrocodes are typically used for impact analyses, although single-degree-of-freedom methods have also been developed. There are a number of disadvantages associated with both methods, and the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) is looking for a tool that can be used in conjunction with hydrocodes to analyze hard and soft missile impacts, with target damage ranging from flexural cracking to perforation. The VecTor programs, a suite of nonlinear finite element programs developed at the University of Toronto for the analysis of reinforced concrete structures, can potentially be developed into such tools. The analytical work done in this study serves to investigate the current impact and impulse loading analysis capabilities in VecTor2 and VecTor3, and to identify areas where work should be focused in the future.

  9. A 3-month intervention of Dance Dance Revolution improves interference control in elderly females: a preliminary investigation.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Lan-Ya; Hung, Hsiao-Yun; Huang, Chung-Ju; Chang, Yu-Kai; Hung, Tsung-Min

    2015-04-01

    Exercise regimens suitable to the elderly remain under investigated; therefore, this study examined the effects of Dance Dance Revolution (DDR) on cognitive control in elderly females. Twenty-six healthy elderly females leading a sedentary lifestyle were assigned to a DDR, brisk walking, or control group. Participants in the DDR and brisk walking groups engaged in moderate physical exercise three times per week for 3 months, whereas the control group maintained a sedentary lifestyle. Each participant performed a flanker task before and after the intervention. The results revealed that both DDR and brisk walking shortened reaction time, N2 latency, and P3 latency relative to those of the control group. These findings suggest that DDR intervention is as effective as that of brisk walking in improving inhibitory control for elderly people. Therefore, DDR can be used as a viable alternative exercise to enhance cognitive function for the elderly and motivate individuals who are less willing to be active. PMID:25595954

  10. A preliminary study for investigating idiopatic normal pressure hydrocephalus by means of statistical parameters classification of intracranial pressure recordings.

    PubMed

    Calisto, A; Bramanti, A; Galeano, M; Angileri, F; Campobello, G; Serrano, S; Azzerboni, B

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate Id-iopatic Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus (INPH) through a multidimensional and multiparameter analysis of statistical data obtained from accurate analysis of Intracranial Pressure (ICP) recordings. Such a study could permit to detect new factors, correlated with therapeutic response, which are able to validate a predicting significance for infusion test. The algorithm developed by the authors computes 13 ICP parameter trends on each of the recording, afterward 9 statistical information from each trend is determined. All data are transferred to the datamining software WEKA. According to the exploited feature-selection techniques, the WEKA has revealed that the most significant statistical parameter is the maximum of Single-Wave-Amplitude: setting a 27 mmHg threshold leads to over 90% of correct classification. PMID:19965228

  11. A multistage approach to improve performance of computer-aided detection of pulmonary embolisms depicted on CT images: preliminary investigation.

    PubMed

    Park, Sang Cheol; Chapman, Brian E; Zheng, Bin

    2011-06-01

    This study developed a computer-aided detection (CAD) scheme for pulmonary embolism (PE) detection and investigated several approaches to improve CAD performance. In the study, 20 computed tomography examinations with various lung diseases were selected, which include 44 verified PE lesions. The proposed CAD scheme consists of five basic steps: 1) lung segmentation; 2) PE candidate extraction using an intensity mask and tobogganing region growing; 3) PE candidate feature extraction; 4) false-positive (FP) reduction using an artificial neural network (ANN); and 5) a multifeature-based k-nearest neighbor for positive/negative classification. In this study, we also investigated the following additional methods to improve CAD performance: 1) grouping 2-D detected features into a single 3-D object; 2) selecting features with a genetic algorithm (GA); and 3) limiting the number of allowed suspicious lesions to be cued in one examination. The results showed that 1) CAD scheme using tobogganing, an ANN, and grouping method achieved the maximum detection sensitivity of 79.2%; 2) the maximum scoring method achieved the superior performance over other scoring fusion methods; 3) GA was able to delete "redundant" features and further improve CAD performance; and 4) limiting the maximum number of cued lesions in an examination reduced FP rate by 5.3 times. Combining these approaches, CAD scheme achieved 63.2% detection sensitivity with 18.4 FP lesions per examination. The study suggested that performance of CAD schemes for PE detection depends on many factors that include 1) optimizing the 2-D region grouping and scoring methods; 2) selecting the optimal feature set; and 3) limiting the number of allowed cueing lesions per examination. PMID:20693106

  12. Investigation of Performance of Axial-Flow Compressor of XT-46 Turbine-Propeller Engine. I - Preliminary Investigation at 50-,70-, and 100-Percent Design Equivalent Speed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Creagh, John W.R.; Sandercrock, Donald M.

    1950-01-01

    An investigation is being conducted to determine the performance of the 12-stage axial-flow compressor of the XT-46 turbine-propeller engine. This compressor was designed to produce a pressure ratio of 9 at an adiabatic efficiency of 0.86. The design pressure ratios per stage were considerably greater than any employed in current aircraft gas-turbine engines using this type of compressor. The compressor performance was evaluated at two stations. The station near the entrance section of the combustors indicated a peak pressure ratio of 6.3 at an adiabatic efficiency of 0.63 for a corrected weight flow of 23.1 pounds per second. The other, located one blade-chord downstream of the last stator row, indicated a peak pressure ratio of 6.97 at an adiabatic efficiency of 0.81 for a corrected weight flow of 30.4 pounds per second. The difference in performance obtained at the two stations is attributed to shock waves in the vicinity of the last stator row. These shock waves and the accompanying flow choking, together with interstage circulatory flows, shift the compressor operating curves into the region where surge would normally occur. The inability of the compressor to meet design pressure ratio is probably due to boundary-layer buildup in the last stages, which cause axial velocities greater than design values that, in turn, adversely affect the angles of attack and turning angles in these blade rows.

  13. Preliminary investigation of the combustion of a 50 percent pentaborane - 50 percent JP-4 fuel blend in a turbojet combustor at simulated altitude conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Branstetter, J Robert; Kaufman, Warner B; Gibbs, James B

    1957-01-01

    A preliminary investigation was conducted to determine the combustion characteristics of a fuel composed of 50 percent pentaborane and 50 percent JP-4 (MIL-F-5624A) by weight in a turbojet combustor. A combustor designed to fit the housing of a J33-A-23 turbojet engine was selected for convenience. The fuel was evaluated at two engine conditions simulating altitudes of 40,000 and 57,000 feet, an engine speed of 85 percent of rated rpm, and a flight Mach number of 0.6. The pentaborane blend was initially evaluated in combustors developed for pure pentaborane and diborane reported in NACA RM E53B18 and RM E52L15. The performance of the blend was unsatisfactory in these combustors. A new combustor was then developed which provided combustor efficiencies measured from 91 to 101 percent as compared with efficiencies of 92 to 94 percent previously obtained for pentaborane at comparable conditions. Additional refinements of design details are needed to obtain lower oxide deposits and a more uniform outlet temperature profile; however, the combustor is believed to incorporate some of the design principles required to obtain satisfactory over-all performance with the fuel blend investigated.

  14. Results of a preliminary investigation of inlet unstart on a high-speed civil transport airplane concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Domack, Christopher S.

    1992-01-01

    The aircraft design engineer of today is tasked with satisfying an increasing number of conflicting requirements. The fact that conflict in these requirements may be technically, economically, or politically motivated usually compounds the difficulty of determining the best solution to a design issue. In this regard, propulsion/airframe integration for supersonic airplanes must rank as one of the most challenging aspects of airplane design. For the cruise Mach numbers currently being considered for High-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) airplanes, the inlet requirements of low drag, low bleed flow, and high pressure recovery appear to be best met with a mixed-compression design. Unfortunately, these desirable attributes come with a highly undesirable companion: the inlet unstart phenomenon. Concern over the effects of a mixed-compression inlet unstart on the vehicle dynamics of large, high-speed aircraft is not new; a comprehensive wind-tunnel study addressing the problem was published in 1962. Additional investigations of the problem were made throughout the United States SST program and the follow-on NASA program into the late 1970's. The current study sought to examine the magnitude of the problem in order to determine if an inlet unstart posed a potential hazard severe enough to preclude the use of mixed-compression inlets on proposed HSCT concepts.

  15. Alterations in autonomic tone during trauma exposure using eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR)--results of a preliminary investigation.

    PubMed

    Sack, Martin; Lempa, Wolfgang; Steinmetz, Adrian; Lamprecht, Friedhelm; Hofmann, Arne

    2008-10-01

    EMDR combines stimuli that evoke divided attention--e.g. eye movements--with exposure to traumatic memories. Our objective was to investigate psycho-physiological correlates of EMDR during treatment sessions. A total of 55 treatment sessions from 10 patients with PTSD was monitored applying impedance cardiography. Onset of every stimulation/exposure period (n=811) was marked and effects within and across stimulation sets on heart rate (HR), heart rate variability (HRV), pre-ejection period (PEP) and respiration rate were examined. At stimulation onsets a sharp increase of HRV and a significant decrease of HR was noticed indicating de-arousal. During ongoing stimulation, PEP and HRV decreased significantly while respiration rate significantly increased, indicating stress-related arousal. However, across entire sessions a significant decrease of psycho-physiological activity was noticed, evidenced by progressively decreasing HR and increasing HRV. These findings suggest that EMDR is associated with patterns of autonomic activity associated with substantial psycho-physiological de-arousal over time. PMID:18314305

  16. A preliminary investigation into diet adequacy in senior residents of Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Adequate dietary intake is essential to maintain good health. This is particularly true for the elderly. This study investigated the dietary intakes of seniors residing in Newfoundland and Labrador (NL) and assessed the adequacy of nutrients which they consumed as food. Methods Between November 2012 and January 2013, we recruited senior residents in NL, aged 65 years or older Participants were required to complete two questionnaires, one food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and one general health questionnaire (GHQ). Macro- and micro- nutrients in foods consumed were estimated using the Elizabeth Stewart Hands and Associations (ESHA) nutrient analysis software. The nutrient intakes were compared with appropriate components of the dietary reference intakes (DRIs) adopted by Health Canada to determine adequacy. Various descriptive statistical analyses were performed using SPSS. Results One hundred-and-eleven participants (69 females and 42 males) completed the surveys and were included in the analysis. A considerable portion of subjects were overweight (41.7%) or obese (25%), and had at least one chronic illness (86.5%). Many seniors studied did not meet the daily recommendations for dietary intakes of nutrients supported by Health Canada, notably vitamin E (84.7%) and vitamin D (68.5%). Our study also suggests that about 40% of participants consumed more dietary energy as fat than is recommended. Conclusion The present study revealed an inadequate consumption of essential nutrients from foods in a noninstitutionalized senior population of NL. PMID:24690512

  17. Submarine geo-hazards on the eastern Sardinia-Corsica continental margin based on preliminary pipeline route investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cecchini, S.; Taliana, D.; Giacomini, L.; Herisson, C.; Bonnemaire, B.

    2011-03-01

    The understanding of the morphology and the shallow geo-hazards of the seafloor is a major focus for both academic and private industry research. On November and December 2009 a geophysical pipeline survey was carried out by Fugro Oceansismica S.p.A. (FOSPA) and FUGRO France (FFSA) for DORIS Engineering on behalf of GRTgaz (Engineering centre, Transmission Pipe Department; http://www.grtgaz.com) which are currently investigating the possibility of laying a pipeline between Sardinia and Corsica as a spur line from the planned GALSI Project. The Project, "Alimentation de la Corse en gaz naturel", consists of a corridor 100 km long and 1.0 km wide along the Corsica-Sardinia shelf. The integration of the multibeam, sidescan sonar and sparker data provided a high resolution seafloor mapping for geo-hazard assessment. In this article the data acquired along a break of slope section (approximately 20 km × 1.5 km), in the eastern sector of the Strait of Bonifacio are described. The area was abandoned during the survey, because of its unsuitability. Indeed, in this area the continental shelf, approximately 100 m deep and deepening gently eastward, is characterized by an uneven morphology, with different seabed features such as Beach- rocks mainly NNW-SSE oriented. Also, the continuity of the continental margin, identified around -110/-115 m, is interrupted by four canyon heads which incise the slope and are associated with glide deposits.

  18. A preliminary investigation of unintentional POP emissions from thermal wire reclamation at industrial scrap metal recycling parks in China.

    PubMed

    Nie, Zhiqiang; Zheng, Minghui; Liu, Guorui; Liu, Wenbin; Lv, Pu; Zhang, Bing; Su, Guijin; Gao, Lirong; Xiao, Ke

    2012-05-15

    Thermal wire reclamation is considered to be a potential source of unintentional persistent organic pollutants (unintentional POPs). In this study, unintentional POP concentrations, including PCDD/Fs, dioxin like PCBs (dl-PCBs), polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs), hexachlorobenzene (HxCBz) and pentachlorobenzene (PeCBz), were quantified in flue gas and residual ash emissions from thermal wire reclamation at scrap metal dismantling parks in Zhejiang Province, China. The total average TEQ emissions of the investigated unintentional POPs from flue gas and residual ash in two typical scrap metal recycling plants ranged from 13.1 to 48.3ngTEQNm(-3) and 0.08 to 2.8ngTEQg(-1), respectively. The dominant PCDD/F congeners were OCDD, 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDD, OCDF and 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF, while PCB-126 and PCB-169 were the main contributors to the toxicity of the dl-PCBs. There were clear differences in the distribution dl-PCBs congeners contributing to the TEQ concentrations in the flue gas samples from the two plants. The PCN TEQs were dominated by PCN-66/67 and PCN-73. Although thermal wire reclamation in incinerators has been proposed as an alternative to open burning, there are still considerable environmental risks associated with regulated incinerators, and unintentional POP emissions from thermal wire reclamation sites need to be controlled by local government agencies. PMID:22436338

  19. Probing in the Dark: Preliminary Results from the Dark Energy Biosphere Investigative Tool (DEBI-T), IODP 336

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salas, E. C.; Bhartia, R.; Reid, R.; Hug, W.; Nguyen, Q.; Oswal, P.; Sullivan, K.; Edwards, K. J.

    2011-12-01

    The subseafloor is host to a significant fraction of the Earth's microbiota, yet there is still uncertainty concerning the distribution of microbes in the deep subsurface. Researchers have relied on molecular techniques to characterize subseafloor microbial communities, but this typically involves the physical removal of cells from the rock matrix in order to process them further. This is inefficient and can lead both to cell loss and the loss of information about the mineralogical context that may influence the microbial ecology. More traditional fluorescence techniques that rely on dyes to produce fluorescence signals have been employed in attempts to elucidate the spatial distribution and abundance of sediment microbiota. However, these methods have proven challenging because of issues such as non-specific binding, which can lead to overestimation of cell abundance, and mineral fluorescence, which can make microbes difficult to differentiate. To address this shortcoming, we have developed the Dark Energy Biosphere Investigative Tool (DEBI-T). This instrument utilizes deep ultraviolet (<250nm) excitation to induce fluorescence (280-430nm) that can distinguish microbes from other organics and the underlying rock matrix. DEBI-T enables the detection of microbes in their native state on natural materials, avoiding background autofluorescence and without the need for fluorescent dyes or tags. We will discuss the results of DEBI-T's first deployment on IODP 336, the Mid-Atlantic Microbiology Expedition.

  20. Preliminary technique assessment for nondestructive evaluation certification of the NNWSI [Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations] disposal container closure

    SciTech Connect

    Day, R.A.

    1988-12-31

    Under the direction of the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) program, the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) project is evaluating a candidate repository site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for permanent disposal of high-level nuclear waste. The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), a participant in the NNWSI project, is developing waste package designs to meet the NRC requirements. One aspect of this waste package is the nondestructive testing of the final closure of the waste container. The container closure weld can best be nondestructively examined (NDE) by a combination of ultrasonics and liquid penetrants. This combination can be applied remotely and can meet stringent quality control requirements common to nuclear applications. Further development in remote systems and inspection will be required to meet anticipated requirements for flaw detection reliability and sensitivity. New research is not required but might reduce cost or inspection time. Ultrasonic and liquid penetrant methods can examine all closure methods currently being considered, which include fusion welding and inertial welding, among others. These NDE methods also have a history of application in high radiation environments and a well developed technology base for remote operation that can be used to reduce development and design costs. 43 refs., 23 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Preliminary results of fisheries investigation associated with Skylab-3. [remotely sensed distribution and abundance of gamefish in Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savastano, K. J. (principal investigator); Pastula, E. J., Jr.; Woods, G.; Faller, K.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. This investigation is to establish the feasibility of utilizing remotely sensed data acquired from aircraft and satellite platforms to provide information concerning the distribution and abundance of oceanic gamefish. Data from the test area in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico has made possible the identification of fisheries significant environmental parameters for white marlin. Predictive models based on catch data and surface truth information have been developed and have demonstrated potential for reducing search significantly by identifying areas which have a high probability of being productive. Three of the parameters utilized by the model, chlorophyll-a, sea surface temperature, and turbidity have been inferred from aircraft sensor data. Cloud cover and delayed receipt have inhibited the use of Skylab data. The first step toward establishing the feasibility of utilizing remotely sensed data to assess amd monitor the distribution of ocean gamefish has been taken with the successful identification of fisheries significant oceanographic parameters and the demonstration of the capability of measuring most of these parameters remotely.

  2. Investigating the heliospheric ion suprathermal tail with Voyager LECP/LEMPA/alpha data: Instrument modeling and preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randol, Brent; Christian, Eric R.

    2015-04-01

    Using publicly available data from the Voyager Low Energy Charged Particle (LECP) instruments, we investigate the form of the solar wind ion suprathermal tail in the outer heliosphere inside the termination shock. This tail has a commonly observed form in the inner heliosphere, that is, a power law with a particular spectral index. The Voyager spacecraft have taken data beyond 100 AU, farther than any other spacecraft. However, during extended periods of time, the data appears to be mostly background. We have developed a technique to self-consistently estimate the background seen by LECP due to cosmic rays using data from the Voyager cosmic ray instruments and a simple, semi-analytical model of the LECP instruments. In this presentation, we present initial results of applying the simple model to solar wind, heliosheath, and interstellar medium data. The results are the following: 1) the basic shape and overall magnitude of the model spectra is consistent with the data, implying that the source of the omnipresent background is indeed cosmic rays; however, the exact shape is not quite matched, 2) the data taken in the heliosheath, when the signal-to-background ratio is significantly higher, is not inconsistent with the “common” spectrum of Fisk and Gloeckler (j~E^-1.5 with an exponential roll-over), a result which is not obvious from the uncorrected data. An estimate of future improvements to the model will also be discussed.

  3. A preliminary investigation into the relationship between functional movement screen scores and athletic physical performance in female team sport athletes.

    PubMed

    Lockie, Rg; Schultz, Ab; Callaghan, Sj; Jordan, Ca; Luczo, Tm; Jeffriess, Md

    2015-03-01

    There is little research investigating relationships between the Functional Movement Screen (FMS) and athletic performance in female athletes. This study analyzed the relationships between FMS (deep squat; hurdle step [HS]; in-line lunge [ILL]; shoulder mobility; active straight-leg raise [ASLR]; trunk stability push-up; rotary stability) scores, and performance tests (bilateral and unilateral sit-and-reach [flexibility]; 20-m sprint [linear speed]; 505 with turns from each leg; modified T-test with movement to left and right [change-of-direction speed]; bilateral and unilateral vertical and standing broad jumps; lateral jumps [leg power]). Nine healthy female recreational team sport athletes (age = 22.67 ± 5.12 years; height = 1.66 ± 0.05 m; body mass = 64.22 ± 4.44 kilograms) were screened in the FMS and completed the afore-mentioned tests. Percentage between-leg differences in unilateral sit-and-reach, 505 turns and the jumps, and difference between the T-test conditions, were also calculated. Spearman's correlations (p ? 0.05) examined relationships between the FMS and performance tests. Stepwise multiple regressions (p ? 0.05) were conducted for the performance tests to determine FMS predictors. Unilateral sit-and-reach positive correlated with the left-leg ASLR (r = 0.704-0.725). However, higher-scoring HS, ILL, and ASLR related to poorer 505 and T-test performance (r = 0.722-0.829). A higher-scored left-leg ASLR related to a poorer unilateral vertical and standing broad jump, which were the only significant relationships for jump performance. Predictive data tended to confirm the correlations. The results suggest limitations in using the FMS to identify movement deficiencies that could negatively impact athletic performance in female team sport athletes. PMID:25729149

  4. Hemocyte responses of Dreissena polymorpha following a short-term in vivo exposure to titanium dioxide nanoparticles: preliminary investigations.

    PubMed

    Couleau, Nicolas; Techer, Didier; Pagnout, Christophe; Jomini, Stéphane; Foucaud, Laurent; Laval-Gilly, Philippe; Falla, Jairo; Bennasroune, Amar

    2012-11-01

    The widespread use of titanium-based nanoparticles and their environmental release may pose a significant risk to aquatic organisms within freshwater ecosystems. Suspension-feeder invertebrates like bivalve molluscs represent a unique target group for nanoparticle toxicology. The aim of this work was to investigate the short-term responses of Dreissena polymorpha hemocytes after in vivo exposure to titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO(2) NP). For this purpose, freshwater mussels were exposed to P25 TiO(2) NP at the concentrations of 0.1, 1, 5 and 25mg/L during 24h. Viability, phagocytosis activity and mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation level of ERK 1/2 and p38 in hemocytes extracted from exposed mussels were compared to those from control specimens. Results demonstrated an inhibition of the phagocytosis activity after exposure to TiO(2) NP at 0.1 and 1mg/L. Similar trends, albeit less pronounced, were reported for higher concentrations of NP. Transmission electron microscopy showed for the first time the internalization of TiO(2) NP into Dreissena polymorpha hemocytes. Besides, exposure to NP increased the ERK 1/2 phosphorylation levels in all treatments. Concerning the phosphorylation level of p38, only exposures to 5 and 25mg/L of NP induced significant p38 activation in comparison to that of the control. Finally, these short-term effects observed at environmentally relevant concentrations highlighted the need for further studies concerning ecotoxicological evaluation of nanoparticle release into an aquatic environment. PMID:23032565

  5. A preliminary investigation into the relationship between functional movement screen scores and athletic physical performance in female team sport athletes

    PubMed Central

    Schultz, AB; Callaghan, SJ; Jordan, CA; Luczo, TM; Jeffriess, MD

    2014-01-01

    There is little research investigating relationships between the Functional Movement Screen (FMS) and athletic performance in female athletes. This study analyzed the relationships between FMS (deep squat; hurdle step [HS]; in-line lunge [ILL]; shoulder mobility; active straight-leg raise [ASLR]; trunk stability push-up; rotary stability) scores, and performance tests (bilateral and unilateral sit-and-reach [flexibility]; 20-m sprint [linear speed]; 505 with turns from each leg; modified T-test with movement to left and right [change-of-direction speed]; bilateral and unilateral vertical and standing broad jumps; lateral jumps [leg power]). Nine healthy female recreational team sport athletes (age = 22.67 ± 5.12 years; height = 1.66 ± 0.05 m; body mass = 64.22 ± 4.44 kilograms) were screened in the FMS and completed the afore-mentioned tests. Percentage between-leg differences in unilateral sit-and-reach, 505 turns and the jumps, and difference between the T-test conditions, were also calculated. Spearman's correlations (p ? 0.05) examined relationships between the FMS and performance tests. Stepwise multiple regressions (p ? 0.05) were conducted for the performance tests to determine FMS predictors. Unilateral sit-and-reach positive correlated with the left-leg ASLR (r = 0.704-0.725). However, higher-scoring HS, ILL, and ASLR related to poorer 505 and T-test performance (r = 0.722-0.829). A higher-scored left-leg ASLR related to a poorer unilateral vertical and standing broad jump, which were the only significant relationships for jump performance. Predictive data tended to confirm the correlations. The results suggest limitations in using the FMS to identify movement deficiencies that could negatively impact athletic performance in female team sport athletes. PMID:25729149

  6. Quality of life of people living with HIV, preliminary results from IANUA (Investigation on Antiretroviral Therapy) study

    PubMed Central

    Venturini, Alberto; Giannini, Barbara; Montefiori, Marcello; Di Biagio, Antonio; Mazzarello, Giovanni; Cenderello, Giovanni; Giacomini, Mauro; Merlano, Caterina; Orcamo, Patrizia; Setti, Maurizio; Viscoli, Claudio; Cassola, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The introduction of combined antiretroviral treatment (cART) has reduced HIV-associated morbidity and mortality, and changed the patients’ perspective of life. As a result, Health Related Quality of Life (HRQOL) has become a crucial clinical issue. Objective Assessment of HRQOL in a sample of Italian patients from IANUA study. Investigate correlation between CD4 cell counts, viral load and changes in HRQOL. Materials and Methods EQ-5D-3L self-reported questionnaire has been used in the evaluation of HRQOL. It assesses five dimensions: “mobility,” “self care,” “usual activities,” “pain/discomfort” and “anxiety/depression.” Each dimension has three levels: no problems, some problems and extreme problems. In addition, it includes a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) where one's own health “today” is rated from 0 “worst imaginable health” to 100 “best imaginable health.” The respondents provide information on marital status, education, employment/unemployment, other treatments used in addition to HAART (1,2,3,4,5 or more) and number of hospitalizations due to HIV/AIDS. Results 684 patients completed the questionnaire: 231 females and 453 males. The mean age of the sample was 51 years (range 21–78). The mean VAS score was 69.9. 558 patients (81.5%) reported no problems in mobility. 642 patients (93.5%) had no problems in self care. 423 patients (61.8%) had no pain/discomfort while 219 had some problems. 326 patients (46.1%) had some problems in anxiety/depression. Conclusions The analysis of self-reported questionnaires indicates that HRQOL in our sample group is not deeply affected by HIV/AIDS. The dimensions that are affected in the least are “mobility” and “self care” while the major problem is “anxiety/depression” with half of the sample reporting moderate or high level. PMID:25394088

  7. A preliminary investigation of the fish food web in the Gironde estuary, France, using dietary and stable isotope analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasquaud, S.; Elie, P.; Jeantet, C.; Billy, I.; Martinez, P.; Girardin, M.

    2008-06-01

    Carbon and Nitrogen stable isotopes and stomach contents analyses were used to investigate an estuarine fish food web and identify the contribution of these two methods to the knowledge and understanding of the food web's structure and its functioning. The nine most abundant fish species during the warm period in the Gironde estuary (southwest France, Europe) are examined. Observation of the stomach contents reflects a variety of feeding modes between fish species that consume a diverse assortment of prey, with limited dietary overlap. Nevertheless, when regarding the whole fish community, few prey species dominate the stomach contents. Nitrogen isotope ratios indicate a high intraspecific variability inducing an interspecific covering of the signatures. However, a tendency to ? 15N enrichment according to the trophic position of the species studied was observed. Fish assemblages show a trend towards enrichment of their carbon isotopic signatures from the upper estuary (-20.8 ± 1.8‰) towards the lower estuary (-18.3 ± 1.6‰). But whatever the capture zone considered, most of the individual ? 13C values for each fish analysed are comprised between -22 and -16‰. Only few specimens, belonging to migratory amphihaline species, have significantly lighter values. The stomach contents method of analysis has the advantage of giving an initial view of the ichthyological trophic structure of the system by describing the food relations between a fish species and its prey. From these results, hypotheses can be drawn about the network's functioning, suggesting a sharing of resources between species and a "wasp-waist" control of this estuarine food web. The stable isotope analysis method enables us to improve our structural knowledge by positioning the different species in a food web, with their position being determined by the number of energy transfers (analysis of ? 15N). Conversely, in environments as complex and changing as estuaries, it appears difficult to precisely identify and quantify the sources of the organic matter at the base of the fish estuarine food webs using analysis of ? 13C isotopic signatures. Nevertheless, the results obtained by using these two methods in parallel suggest that more detailed functional ecological studies could be carried out in future.

  8. Preliminary geochemical, microbiological, and epidemiological investigations into possible linkages between lignite aquifers, pathogenic microbes, and kidney disease in northwestern Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bunnell, Joseph E.; Bushon, Rebecca N.; Stoeckel, Donald M.; Gifford, Amie M.; Beck, Marisa; Lerch, Harry E.; Shi, Runhua; McGee, Benton; Hanson, Bradford C.; Kolak, Jonathan; Warwick, Peter D.

    2003-01-01

    In May 2002, 15 wells and four surface water sites were sampled, and in September 2002, those same wells and sites plus four additional surface sites were sampled in five parishes of northwestern Louisiana. A geographic information system (GIS) was used to select residential water wells for sampling. Well water samples were analyzed for pH, conductivity, organic compounds, and nutrient and anion concentrations. All samples were further tested for presence of fungi (maintained for up to 28 days and colonies counted and identified microscopically), and metal and trace element concentration by inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry and atomic emission spectrometry. Surface water samples were tested for dissolved oxygen and evidence of leptospiral bacterial presence. A polymerase chain reaction protocol was optimized for detection of pathogenic leptospires, and the sensitivity of the assay was determined. The Spearman correlation method was used to assess the association between the endpoints for these field/laboratory analyses and the incidence of cancer of the renal pelvis obtained from the Louisiana Tumor Registry. Significant associations were revealed between the cancer rate and the overall number of organic compounds, the fungi Zygomycetes, the nutrients PO4 and NH3, and thirteen chemical elements (As, B, Br, Cl, Cr, F, Li, Na, P, Rb, Se, Sr, W) from the well water as compared to the controls. Among the species of fungi from the total of 136 isolates were 12 Penicillium spp., at least two Aspergillus spp., a number of other genera (Alternaria sp., Eupenicillium lapidosum, Cladosporium sp., Epicoccum sp., Trichoderma sp., Paecilomyces sp., Chrysosporium sp., Chloridium sp.), and Zygomycetes, and Coelmycetes -- some of which are known mycotoxin producers. The two control wells yielded a mean of 6.5 (SD = 3.5355) individual isolates, while the mean number of isolates from all other sites was 7.6 (SD = 4.4866). Presence of human pathogenic leptospires was detected in 4/8 (50 percent) of the surface water sites sampled. These initial results suggest that additional investigation into these relationships is warranted.

  9. A Fiery Investigation of the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) using Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs): Preliminary Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denis, E. H.; Wing, S. L.; Freeman, K. H.

    2012-12-01

    The Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) coincided with a global negative carbon isotope excursion, suggesting a massive perturbation to the global carbon cycle and a large release of 13C-depleted carbon to the atmosphere, oceans and biosphere. Several proposed sources of this carbon include ocean-floor methane clathrates, thermogenic methane, permafrost oxidation, and burning of peat and/or shallowly buried coal, but the exact source(s) remain unknown. The Paleocene was a time of extensive terrestrial organic carbon burial and some authors have suggested that a change in climate induced burning of the 13C-depleted carbon deposits. In this study a diverse suite of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), organic compounds produced as aerosols during combustion, were characterized and quantified in order to investigate evidence for fire during the PETM. We sampled intervals of cores from Basin Substation, Bighorn Basin, Wyoming, USA, collected as part of the Bighorn Basin Coring Project (BBCP). PAHs were evaluated using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in selective ion monitoring (SIM) mode. We found a range of two- to seven-ring PAHs from napthalene to coronene. For all samples the abundances of individual PAHs range from 0.1 - 100 ng/g dry sediment. Total PAH abundance (sum of 16 PAHs) is reduced in samples from the body of the PETM carbon isotope excursion relative to samples from the latest Paleocene (300 ng/g and 40 ng/g, respectively), although there is a spike in total PAH concentration (2300 ng/g) at or just before the onset of the PETM. The stratigraphic pattern of PAH abundance is consistent with a peak in wildfires at or just before the onset of the PETM, followed by a decrease in the body of the PETM, but also may reflect decreased preservation of organic matter during the hotter and more seasonally dry climate that this region experienced during the PETM. The latter explanation is consistent with a general decrease in organic matter preservation during the PETM interval in this core. Higher relative abundance of high molecular weight PAHs in PETM samples suggests hotter fire temperatures at that time, regardless of fire occurrence. A literal interpretation of the PAH record from the Basin Substation core would suggest more intense burns but less wildfire activity during the PETM, but the effect of changes in organic matter preservation must be eliminated before this interpretation can be accepted.

  10. A Preliminary Investigation of the E-Beam Induced Polymerization of Maleimide and Norbornene End-capped Polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmese, Giuseppe R.; Meador, Michael A. (Technical Monitor)

    2005-01-01

    A research area of high activity in connection with aerospace engineering has been the development of polymer thermosetting resins that can resist temperature as high as 300 C while maintaining adequate toughness, and providing ease of processing to enable low temperature and low cost composite fabrication methods. In order to meet such requirements, sequential interpenetrating polymer networks (IPNs) based on bismaleimide (BMI) and cyanate ester (CE) monomers were investigated. In these systems, a polycyanurate network is first formed in the presence of BMI and appropriate reactive diluent monomers and in a second step, a network based on the BMI is created in the presence of a fully formed polycyanurate network. The materials developed can be processed at relatively low temperature (less than 150 C) and with the aid of electron beam (EB) curing. Of major importance to the success of this work was the identification of a reactive diluent that improves ease of processing and has tailored reactivity to allow for the controlled synthesis of CE-BMI sequential IPNs. Based on solubility and reactivity of a number of reactive diluents, N-acryloylmorpholine (AMP) was selected as a comonomer for BMI copolymerization. A donor-acceptoreaction mechanism was suggested to explain the relative reactivity of a variety of reactive diluents towards maleimide functionality. The optimum processing parameters for the formation of the first network were determined through the study of metal catalyzed cure and hydrolysis of cyanate esters, whereas the reaction behavior for second network formation in terms of the influence of EB dose rate and temperature was elucidated through an in-situ kinetics study of maleimide and AMP copolymerization. Structure-property relationships were developed which allowed for the design of improved resin systems. In particular, appropriate network coupler possessing cyanate ester and maleimide functionality was synthesized to link the polycyanurate first network to the BMI/AMP second network and thus form linked sequential IPNs (LIPNs). Consequently, Tg as high as 370 C was achieved and a fracture toughness of 120 Joules per square meters was obtained for resin systems that possess adequately low viscosity for processing using liquid molding techniques at low temperature.

  11. Pharmacokinetics of oxaliplatin during chronomodulated infusion in metastatic gastrointestinal cancer patients: a pilot investigation with preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Merkel, Ute; Wedding, Ulrich; Roskos, Martin; Höffken, Klaus; Hoffmann, Annemarie

    2003-06-01

    Several clinical trials have demonstrated that the three-drug combination of oxaliplatin, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and leucovorin (LV) administered chronomodulated improved antitumour efficacy in the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer and was better tolerated than constant-rate infusion. However, only a few pharmacokinetic data of 5-FU during chronomodulated infusion are available but up to now not for oxaliplatin. In this pilot study, the platinum levels of plasma ultrafiltrate (PUF) and total plasma were monitored during chronomodulated infusion of oxaliplatin, 5-FU and LV in 7 patients with metastatic gastrointestinal cancer. A cycle of the 4-day chemotherapeutic regimen consisted of 12-h infusions with sinusoidal drug delivery rate of: oxaliplatin (25 mg/m2/d, peak at 16:00 hours), 5-FU and LV (750 mg/m2/d and 150 mg/m2/d, respectively, peak at 4:00 hours), the same scheme was reinitiated on day 15. Blood samples were collected on day 1 and day 4 during different cycles. Concentration-time profiles of ultrafilterable and total platinum in plasma during chronomodulated infusion were characterised. As expected, we found residual platinum levels in total plasma but not in PUF prior next cycle. Comparing day 1 with day 4, Cmax of platinum in PUF was significantly increased (84 +/- 13 ng/ml vs. 131 +/- 22 ng/ml, P = 0.012) as well as AUC0-24h of platinum in PUF (0.97 +/- 0.29 microg x h/ml vs. 1.90 +/- 0.44 microg x h/ml, P = 0.018). The same effect was observed for total plasma platinum suggesting an accumulation within the cycle. The observed interindividual variability of Cmax, tmax, AUC0-24h, t1/2 was moderate. Because of the small sample size in this pilot investigation, the findings need to be confirmed in larger pharmacokinetic studies. In a next step individual pharmacokinetic parameters should be associated with patient specific parameters and treatment-induced toxicity. PMID:12877360

  12. Assessing dry density and gravimetric water content of soils in geotechnics with complex conductivity measurements : preliminary investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaouane, C.; Beck, Y.; Fauchard, C.; Chouteau, M.

    2012-12-01

    Quality controls of geotechnical works need gravimetric water content (w) and dry density (?d) measurements. Afterwards, results are compared to Proctor tests and referred to soil classification. Depending on the class of soils, different objectives must be achieved. Those measurements are usually carried out with neutron and gamma probes. Combined use of theses probes directly access (w, ?d). Theses probes show great disadvantages as: nuclear hazard, heavy on-site, transporation and storage restrictions and low sampling volumes. Last decades showed a strong development of electrical and electromagnetic methods for mapping water content in soils. Still, their use in Geotechnics is limited due to interfacial effects neglected in common models but strong in compacted soils. We first showed that (w, ?d) is equivalent to (?, Sr) assuming density of particles ?s=2.7 (g.cm-3). This assumption is true for common soils used in civil engineering. That first relationship allows us to work with meaningful parameters for geophysicists. Revil&Florsh recently adapted Vinegar&Waxman model for Spectal Induced Polarization (SIP) measurements at low frequencies (<50 kHz). This model relates quantitatively the electrical double layer polarization at the surface of grains. It takes into account saturation, porosity and granulometry. Standard granulometry and mineralogy are generally available in geotechnical campaigns. In-phase conductivity would be mostly related to saturation as quadrature conductivity would be related to porosity and surface conductivity. Although this model was developed for oil-bearing sands, we investigated its potential for compacted soils. Former DC-resistivity (?) measurements were carried out on a silty fined-grained soil (A1 in GTR classification or ML-CL in USCS) in a cylindrical cell (radius ~4 cm, heigth 7 cm). Median diameter of grain was 50 ?m. For each measurement, samples were compacted at Proctor energy. We assessed (w, ?d) by weighting and drying samples. We obtained ?d = 1.6-1.9 (g.cm-3) and w=7-14% which lead to ?=0.3-0.4 and Sr=0.3-0.8. Tap water (?w= 30 ?.m) was used for the experiment. We first evaluated the saturation factor n=1.35 by fitting a power law ?/?w =a*Sr^n+b. a=0.223 agreed with ?^(-n)=F, F being the formation factor. This leads to a mean tortuosity ?=1.47. b=0.5 might be related to surface conductivity. An empirical Rhoades-Corwin model also fit great to data. Revil&Florsh model allows us to predict a phase peak in case of complex conductivity measurements. We predicted a frequency peak at 2.4 Hz. This peak is well located in the frequency range of SIP (from 1 mHz to ~10 Hz). At the frequency peak, this model allows the direct evaluation of saturation and porosity. Hence, complex conductivity measurements might be a fine alternative to nuclear probes. Still, driving in electrodes in compacted soils remains difficult. Ongoing studies are looking further to extend this model to higher frequency range (5-200 kHz) where capacitively coupled resistivity arrays might be used allowing continuous measurements.

  13. Preliminary investigations on the determination of three-dimensional dose distributions using scintillator blocks and optical tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Kroll, Florian; Karsch, Leonhard [OncoRay - National Center for Radiation Research in Oncology, Medical Faculty Carl Gustav Carus, TU Dresden, 01307 Dresden (Germany)] [OncoRay - National Center for Radiation Research in Oncology, Medical Faculty Carl Gustav Carus, TU Dresden, 01307 Dresden (Germany); Pawelke, Jörg [OncoRay - National Center for Radiation Research in Oncology, Medical Faculty Carl Gustav Carus, TU Dresden, 01307 Dresden, Germany and Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Institute of Radiation Physics, P.O. Box 510119, 01314 Dresden (Germany)] [OncoRay - National Center for Radiation Research in Oncology, Medical Faculty Carl Gustav Carus, TU Dresden, 01307 Dresden, Germany and Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Institute of Radiation Physics, P.O. Box 510119, 01314 Dresden (Germany)

    2013-08-15

    Purpose: Clinical QA in teletherapy as well as the characterization of experimental radiation sources for future medical applications requires effective methods for measuring three-dimensional (3D) dose distributions generated in a water-equivalent medium. Current dosimeters based on ionization chambers, diodes, thermoluminescence detectors, radiochromic films, or polymer gels exhibit various drawbacks: High quality 3D dose determination is either very sophisticated and expensive or requires high amounts of effort and time for the preparation or read out. New detectors based on scintillator blocks in combination with optical tomography are studied, since they have the potential to facilitate the desired cost-effective, transportable, and long-term stable dosimetry system that is able to determine 3D dose distributions with high spatial resolution in a short time.Methods: A portable detector prototype was set up based on a plastic scintillator block and four digital cameras. During irradiation the scintillator emits light, which is detected by the fixed cameras. The light distribution is then reconstructed by optical tomography, using maximum-likelihood expectation maximization. The result of the reconstruction approximates the 3D dose distribution. First performance tests of the prototype using laser light were carried out. Irradiation experiments were performed with ionizing radiation, i.e., bremsstrahlung (6 to 21 MV), electrons (6 to 21 MeV), and protons (68 MeV), provided by clinical and research accelerators.Results: Laser experiments show that the current imaging properties differ from the design specifications: The imaging scale of the optical systems is position dependent, ranging from 0.185 mm/pixel to 0.225 mm/pixel. Nevertheless, the developed dosimetry method is proven to be functional for electron and proton beams. Induced radiation doses of 50 mGy or more made 3D dose reconstructions possible. Taking the imaging properties into account, determined dose profiles are in agreement with reference measurements. An inherent drawback of the scintillator is the nonlinear light output for high stopping-power radiation due to the quenching effect. It impacts the depth dose curves measured with the dosimeter. For single Bragg peak distributions this leads to a peak to plateau ratio of 2.8 instead of 4.5 for the reference ionization chamber measurement. Furthermore, the transmission of the clinical bremsstrahlung beams through the scintillator leads to the saturation of one camera, making dose reconstructions in that case presently not feasible.Conclusions: It is shown that distributions of scintillation light generated by proton or electron beams can be reconstructed by the dosimetry system within minutes. The quenching apparent for proton irradiation, and the yet not precisely determined position dependency of the imaging scale, require further investigation and corrections. Upgrading the prototype with larger or inorganic scintillators would increase the detectable proton and electron energy range. The presented results show that the determination of 3D dose distributions using scintillator blocks and optical tomography is a promising dosimetry method.

  14. Chemical State of Surface Oxygen on Carbon and Its Effects on the Capacity of the Carbon Anode in a Lithium-Ion Battery Investigated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hung, Ching-Cheh

    2001-01-01

    In a lithium-ion battery, the lithium-storage capacity of the carbon anode is greatly affected by a surface layer formed during the first half cycle of lithium insertion and release into and out of the carbon anode. The formation of this solid-electrolyte interface, in turn, is affected by the chemistry of the carbon surface. A study at the NASA Glenn Research Center examined the cause-and-effect relations. Information obtained from this research could contribute in designing a high-capacity lithium-ion battery and, therefore, small, powerful spacecraft. In one test, three types of surfaces were examined: (1) a surface with low oxygen content (1.5 at.%) and a high concentration of active sites, (2) a surface with 4.5 at.% -OH or -OC type oxygen, and (3) a surface with 6.5 at.% O=C type oxygen. The samples were made from the same precursor and had similar bulk properties. They were tested under a constant current of 10 mA/g in half cells that used lithium metal as the counter electrode and 0.5 M lithium iodide in 50/50 (vol%) ethylene carbonate and dimethyl carbonate as the electrolyte. For the first cycle of the electrochemical test, the graph describes the voltage of the carbon anode versus the lithium metal as a function of the capacity (amount of lithium insertion or release). From these data, it can be observed that the surface with low oxygen and a high concentration of active sites could result in a high irreversible capacity. Such a high irreversible capacity could be prevented if the active sites were allowed to react with oxygen in air, producing -OH or -OC type oxygen. The O=C type oxygen, on the other hand, could greatly reduce the capacity of lithium intercalation and, therefore, needs to be avoided during battery fabrication.

  15. Preliminary results: Root cause investigation of orbital anomalies and failures in NASA standard 50 ampere-hour nickel-cadmium batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toft, Mark R.

    1993-01-01

    Two lots of NASA standard 50 A.H. Ni-Cd battery cells, manufactured by Gates Aerospace Batteries and built into batteries by McDonnell Douglas, have experienced significant performance problems. The two lots were used on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory and the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite. Both of these satellites are Low Earth Orbital (LEO) satellites containing batteries on a parallel bus charged to NASA standard V/T curves using a NASA standard power regulator. The following preliminary conclusions were reached: (1) several plate and cell parameters have migrated within their spec limits over the years (in some cases, from one extreme to the other); (2) several parametric relationships, not generally monitored and therefore not under specification control, have also migrated over the years; (3) many of these changes appear to have taken place as a natural consequence of changes in GE/GAB materials and processes; (4) several of these factors may be 'conspiring' to aggravate known cell failure mechanisms (factors such as heavier plate, less teflon and/or less-uniform teflon, and less electrolyte) but all are still in spec (where specs exist); (5) the weight of the evidence collected to characterize the anomalies and to characterize the negative electrode itself, strongly suggests that alterations to the structure, composition, uniformity, and efficiency of the negative electrode are at the heart of the battery performance problems currently being experienced; and (6) further investigation at all levels (plate, cell, battery, and system) continues to be warranted.

  16. Preliminary assessment of the geothermal potential of Rosario de la Frontera area (Salta, NW Argentina): Insight from hydro-geological, hydro-geochemical and structural investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Invernizzi, C.; Pierantoni, P. P.; Chiodi, A.; Maffucci, R.; Corrado, S.; Baez, W.; Tassi, F.; Giordano, G.; Viramonte, J.

    2014-10-01

    This work is part of a project aimed to the development and application of hydrogeological, hydrogeochemical and geological methodologies for the study of the geothermal system of Rosario de La Frontera (NW Argentina). The surface thermal manifestations of this area, whose temperatures range from 22.6 to 92.6 °C, are mainly located in the northern sector of Sierra de la Candelaria anticline. This regional structure crops out between the provinces of Salta and Tucuman (NW Argentina), at the foothills of the central Andean retro-wedge. The present investigation focuses on hydrogeological and structural data, and isotopic compositions (18O, D and 3H) of thermal springs. Preliminary results allowed to define: i) the meteoric origin of spring water and their long (more than 50 years) residence time at depth, ii) a positive water balance, ranging between 2 and 4 millions of m3/yr, and iii) a conservative geothermal reservoir volume of about 39 km3, iv) a geothermal potential with Er = 5.6*1018 J and Ef = 0.8*1018 J.

  17. Spiritual Bypass: A Preliminary Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cashwell, Craig S.; Glosoff, Harriet L.; Hammond, Cheree

    2010-01-01

    The phenomenon of spiritual bypass has received limited attention in the transpersonal psychology and counseling literature and has not been subjected to empirical inquiry. This study examines the phenomenon of spiritual bypass by considering how spirituality, mindfulness, alexithymia (emotional restrictiveness), and narcissism work together to…

  18. Preliminary investigation of the effects of coal-water slurry fuels on the combustion in GE coal fueled diesel engine (Task 1. 1. 2. 2. 1, Fuels)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-06-01

    In prior work with the coal fired diesel research engine, a necessity to determine the sensitivity of the engine to a wider range of fuels was resolved and included in the R and D Test Plan submitted on 2/9/89. In general, the economic viability and universal acceptance of the commercial engine will be a factor of its ability to tolerate the widest range of source fuels with minimal fuel beneficiation. As detailed in the R and D Test Plan, a preliminary investigation on the effects of coal-water slurry (CWS) fuels on the combustion in a GE single cylinder test engine was conducted. The following conclusions are obtained from this investigation. All the test CWS fuels were successfully burned in the GE engine combustion system. They include: 3 to 15 microns mean particle size; 0.7 to 2.8% ash level; KY Blue Gem and PA Mariana bituminous coal, WY Kemmer and Spring Creek Sub-Bituminous coal; coal beneficiated with physical and chemical processes; two kinds of additives for OTISCA CWS; and burnout is not effected by ash or particle size within the test range. For each kind of CWS fuel, the detail design parameters of the fuel injection system has to be compatible. With sufficiently high fuel injection pressure, the 3 micron mean particle size OTISCA fuel burns faster than the 5 micron ones. For OTISCA fuel, the burn rate using Ammonium Lignosulfonate as additive is faster than using Ammonium Condensed Naphthalene Sulfonate. Appendices contain data on heat release, fuel characterization reports from two laboratories, general engine test data, and particulate size distribution. 3 refs.

  19. The Tiptop coal-mine fire, Kentucky: Preliminary investigation of the measurement of mercury and other hazardous gases from coal-fire gas vents

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hower, J.C.; Henke, K.; O'Keefe, J. M. K.; Engle, M.A.; Blake, D.R.; Stracher, G.B.

    2009-01-01

    The Tiptop underground coal-mine fire in the Skyline coalbed of the Middle Pennsylvanian Breathitt Formation was investigated in rural northern Breathitt County, Kentucky, in May 2008 and January 2009, for the purpose of determining the concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), and mercury (Hg) in the vent and for measuring gas-vent temperatures. At the time of our visits, concentrations of CO2 peaked at 2.0% and > 6.0% (v/v) and CO at 600 ppm and > 700 ppm during field analysis in May 2008 and January 2009, respectively. For comparison, these concentrations exceed the U.S. Occupational Safety & Health Administration (OSHA) eight-hour safe exposure limits (0.5% CO2 and 50 ppm CO), although the site is not currently mined. Mercury, as Hg0, in excess of 500 and 2100 ??g/m3, in May and January, respectively, in the field, also exceeded the OSHA eight-hour exposure limit (50 ??g/m3). Carbonyl sulfide, dimethyl sulfide, carbon disulfide, and a suite of organic compounds were determined at two vents for the first sampling event. All gases are diluted by air as they exit and migrate away from a gas vent, but temperature inversions and other meteorological conditions could lead to unhealthy concentrations in the nearby towns. Variation in gas temperatures, nearly 300 ??C during the January visit to the fire versus < 50 ??C in May, demonstrates the large temporal variability in fire intensity at the Tiptop mine. These preliminary results suggest that emissions from coal fires may be important, but additional data are required that address the reasons for significant variations in the composition, flow, and temperature of vent gases. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V.

  20. Preliminary investigation of soil and ground-water contamination at a U.S. Army Petroleum Training Facility, Fort Lee, Virginia, September-October 1989

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wright, W.G.; Powell, J.D.

    1990-01-01

    Fuel-oil constituents in the soil and groundwater at the Fort Lee Petroleum Training Facility near Petersburg, Virginia, were studied by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Department of Defense, U.S. Army. The study included installation of 25 groundwater monitoring wells and description of groundwater flow patterns of the shallow-aquifer system underlying the facility. Soil and groundwater samples were collected to determine the concentrations of fuel-oil constituents and to determine the potential for off-site migration of the constituents. Total petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations up to 18,400 mg/km were reported in soil samples. Concentrations of benzene in water from wells at the facility were up to 130 micrograms per liter (ug/L), and concentrations of ethylbenzene and xylene were up to 54 and 120 ug/L, respectively. Potential exists for off-site migration of the contaminants and migration of contaminants downward to deeper aquifers. Further investigations of these potential contamination-migration pathways are warranted. Risk identification at the Petroleum Training Facility cannot be properly addressed because the distribution of the fuel-oil constituents has not been fully characterized. Preliminary identification of risk, however is presented by an examination of toxicity data for the chemical constituents reported in the groundwater at the facility. Concentrations of constituents were compared to the maximum contaminant levels (MCLs) for drinking water established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). Concentrations of benzene in water from wells at the facility exceed the USEPA 's 5 ug/L MCL by as much as 26 times. Sufficient data are not available to fully design the remedial-action plan for the facility; however, general responses to contamination of the type associated with the facility include no-action, monitoring, institutional controls, removal, and treatment. (USGS)

  1. River flood events as natural tracers for investigating the hydrological dynamics of a coupled river-aquifer system: preliminary results from 3D crosshole electrical resistivity monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coscia, I.; Greenhalgh, S. A.; Linde, N.; Doetsch, J.; Vogt, T.; Green, A. G.

    2009-12-01

    This research, on geoelectric monitoring of changing aquifer conditions associated with flood events of the River Thur in Switzerland, forms part of the much wider RECORD (REstored CORridor Dynamics) project. Major precipitation and snow-melt events cause rapid undamped fluctuations of discharge along the entire length of the river. River water that infiltrates the neighbouring aquifer normally has higher electrical resistivity than that of the groundwater during the early stages of flood events. This enables us to use infiltration during such events as a natural tracer in 3D time-lapse electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) experiments. Over a 10 x 15 m areal array, we have installed eighteen 12-m-deep monitoring boreholes spaced 3.5 m apart that completely penetrate the underlying 7-m-thick aquifer. Each borehole has been instrumented with ten 0.7-m-spaced electrodes that span the thickness of the aquifer. A multichannel resistivity meter, programmed to cycle through various 4-point electrode configurations of the 180 electrodes in a rolling sub-sequence, allows the collection of a 15,000-measurement data set every ~7 hours. Fourteen of these boreholes are also equipped with STS sensors that provide time-series of water-table depth and water temperature and electrical conductivity. Three-dimensional static ERT inversion at stable hydrological conditions was performed to investigate the resolving capability of our measuring sequence and to define the main lithological structures within the aquifer. Preliminary analyses of the ERT time series collected during a major flooding event this past summer suggest that the data are sensitive to three factors: water-level fluctuations in the aquifer, water-temperature variations, and electrical conductivity changes associated with changing salinity of the groundwater. The total changes in apparent resistivity are of the order of 20%. Since our primary interest is in the salinity effect that might be used to delineate preferential flowpaths, we need to correct the data for the other two effects. Based on electrical properties inferred from the static inversion and the STS data, we have performed extensive modelling. From the obtained synthetic data we have established the sensitivities to a changing water-table on each electrode configuration, allowing us to compute and apply corrections that help to linearize the time-lapse inverse problem. The temperature effect is generally smaller and can be linearly corrected on the basis of the STS measurements. The corrected data sets correspond well with the temporal variations observed in the electrical conductivity STS data and form an ideal data set for future time-lapse inversions aimed to understand the river-groundwater interactions.

  2. Preliminary investigation of catchment hydrology in response to agricultural water use innovations: A case study of the Potshini catchment South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kongo, V. M.; Jewitt, G. P. W.

    Water use system innovations encompass various techniques for storing and conserving water resources in different mediums for domestic and livestock use including agricultural production. Although, several authors have indicated that rainwater harvesting techniques, especially for upgrading smallholder farming systems, are not new but have been practiced since ancient civilizations, the impacts of such water use innovations on eco-hydrological systems are rarely assessed, especially from a cascading spatial and temporal perspective. The need to quantify the supposedly potential and related hydrological impacts of water use innovations on a catchment and river basin at large, led to the on-going research study aimed at investigating the biophysical consequences at different spatial and temporal scales in the Thukela river basin, of increased productivity in smallholder rainfed agriculture enabled through adoption at larger spatial scale of integrated land use management and water use system innovations. In this paper we discuss and outline the approach used in setting up the research study in one of the catchments in the Thukela river basin, the Potshini catchment, in the KwaZulu-Natal Province of South Africa in an effort to seek answers to the question: “What is the impact of adapting water use innovations in a predominantly agricultural area on catchment ecology and hydrology?” The approach incorporates a catchment monitoring network, hydrological modelling and application of a remote sensing technique, the Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land (SEBAL), for spatially estimating the total evaporation in the region covering the Potshini catchment and beyond. Preliminary results indicate that water use innovations in the Potshini catchment have influenced the partitioning of rainfall, by significantly reducing surface runoff over agricultural lands under conservation tillage practices, with a reduction of above 100%, while encouraging infiltration and deeper percolation into the soil. It is envisaged that, on accomplishment, the study will contribute to formulation of sustainable adaptation of water use innovations and up-scaling strategies to enhance food production and hydro-ecological balance in semi-arid savannahs of Africa, at which stage hydrological modelling will form an important part of the study.

  3. A preliminary investigation of the Environmental Control and Life Support Subsystem (EC/LSS) for the space construction base manufacturing modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wells, H. B.

    1977-01-01

    The preliminary data of the environmental control and life support subsystem for a space construction base manufacturing module was reported. A space processing module, which is capable of performing production biological experiments, was chosen as a baseline configuration. The primary assemblies and components considered for use were humidity and temperature control, ventilation fan, cabin fan, water separator, condensate storage, overboard dumping, distribution system, contaminant monitoring, cabin sensors, and fire and smoke detection.

  4. Effects of Domain Knowledge, Working Memory Capacity, and Age on Cognitive Performance: An Investigation of the Knowledge-Is-Power Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hambrick, David Z.; Engle, Randall W.

    2002-01-01

    Domain knowledge facilitates performance in many cognitive tasks. However, very little is known about the interplay between domain knowledge and factors that are believed to reflect general, and relatively stable, characteristics of the individual. The primary goal of this study was to investigate the interplay between domain knowledge and one…

  5. Integrated workforce capacity and inventory management under labour supply uncertainty

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Fazil Pac; Osman Alp; Tarkan Tan

    2009-01-01

    In a manufacturing environment with volatile demand, inventory management can be coupled with dynamic capacity adjustments for handling the fluctuations more effectively. In this study, we consider the problem of integrated capacity and inventory management under non-stationary stochastic demand and capacity uncertainty. The capacity planning problem is investigated from the workforce planning perspective where the capacity can be temporarily increased

  6. Preliminary design of four aircraft to service the California Corridor in the year 2010: The California Condor, California Sky-Hopper, high capacity short range transport tilt rotor aircraft needed to simplify intercity transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The major objective of this project was to design an aircraft for use in the California Corridor in the year 2010. The design process, completed by students in a senior design class at California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo, used a Class 1 airplane design analysis from Jan Roskam's Airplane Design. The California Condor (CC-38), a 38 passenger, 400 mph aircraft, was designed to meet the needs of tomorrow's passengers while conforming to the California Corridor's restrictions. Assumptions were made using today's technology with forecasts into 21st Century technology. Doubling today's commuter aircraft passenger capacity, travelling at Mach .57 with improved cruise efficiencies of over 10 percent, with the ability to land within field lengths of 4000 feet, are the CC-38's strongest points. The California Condor has a very promising future in helping to relieve the air traffic and airport congestion in the 21st Century.

  7. Fuel efficient train operations: A preliminary investigation with the locomotive data acquisition package on the Union Pacific Railroad. Interim report Jun-Nov 80

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, K.W.

    1981-12-01

    The Locomotive Data Acquisition Package (LDAP) is a research data acquisition system designed for use on board diesel locomotives. Between June 1980 and November 1980, a fuel efficient train operations experiment was conducted in cooperation with the Union Pacific Railroad using the LDAP. The experiment served both as a checkout of the LDAP unit, and as a preliminary study of the relationship between train handling and fuel consumption. The LDAP unit was operated on a Union Pacific Locomotive for 127 days during which data were collected for 53,936 miles of locomotive operation.

  8. Anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) increases frontal-midline theta activity in the human EEG: a preliminary investigation of non-invasive stimulation.

    PubMed

    Miller, Joe; Berger, Barbara; Sauseng, Paul

    2015-02-19

    Rhythmical brain activity in the range between four and eight Hz acquired over frontal-midline EEG recording sites - so called frontal-midline theta activity - is regarded as one of the most prominent neural signatures of sustained attention. It is reported to parametrically increase with cognitive load and is thought to be generated in medial prefrontal cortex. Here we explored the possibility of using anodal transcranial direct current stimulation over frontal sites to enhance frontal-midline theta activity and to increase sustained attention performance. We used a small preliminary sample to test a novel direct current stimulation electrode configuration by which we were able to significantly increase frontal-midline theta amplitude in a resting condition after the end of the stimulation period. Using standardised low resolution electromagnetic tomography analysis the effect in the surface EEG was localised to right prefrontal and left medial prefrontal brain areas. Transcranial direct current stimulation did, however, not have any impact on behavioural performance during a sustained attention task. This most likely was due to a very fast washout of the stimulation's after effect on theta activity. Although these are only preliminary results from a rather small sample, this study demonstrates that transcranial direct current stimulation can be used to rather selectively enhance frontal-midline theta amplitude. PMID:25576699

  9. Tactical capacity management under capacity flexibility

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Osman Alp; Tarkan Tan

    2008-01-01

    In many production systems a certain level of flexibility in the production capacity is either inherent or can be acquired. In that case, system costs may be decreased by managing the capacity and inventory in a joint fashion. In this paper we consider such a make-to-stock production environment with flexible capacity subject to periodic review under non-stationary stochastic demand, where

  10. Investigating the antioxidant capacity of coffee!

    PubMed

    2014-01-01

    In the 1990s we began to understand that free radical damage is involved in artery-clogging atherosclerosis and health problems like vision loss, cancer or chronic diseases. Studies have shown that the damage especially affects people with a low consumption of antioxidant-rich fruits, vegetables...and coffee. Is this just a fairy tale promoted by the coffee industry? Scientists at the Zurich University of Applied Sciences (ZHAW) in Wädenswil wanted to get to the bottom of the question. PMID:24801702

  11. A Preliminary Investigation into the Mitigation of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Tailpipe Emissions Through Supervisory Control Methods Part 1: Analytical Development of Energy Management Strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, David E [ORNL] [ORNL; Lohse-Busch, Henning [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL)] [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Irick, David Kim [ORNL] [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) technologies have the potential for considerable petroleum consumption reductions, possibly at the expense of increased tailpipe emissions due to multiple 'cold' start events and improper use of the engine for PHEV specific operation. PHEVs operate predominantly as electric vehicles (EVs) with intermittent assist from the engine during high power demands. As a consequence, the engine can be subjected to multiple cold start events. These cold start events may have a significant impact on the tailpipe emissions due to degraded catalyst performance and starting the engine under less than ideal conditions. On current hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), the first cold start of the engine dictates whether or not the vehicle will pass federal emissions tests. PHEV operation compounds this problem due to infrequent, multiple engine cold starts. The research is broken down into two (2) distinct phases, involving both analytical and experimental areas. Phase I of the research, addressed in this document, focuses on the design of a vehicle supervisory control system for a pre-transmission parallel PHEV powertrain architecture. A suitable control system architecture is created and implemented into a standard vehicle modeling tool (in this case, the Powertrain Systems Analysis Toolkit). Energy management strategies are evaluated and implemented in a virtual environment for preliminary assessment of petroleum displacement benefits and rudimentary drivability issues. Engine cold start events are aggressively addressed in the development of this control system, which leads to enhanced pre-warming and energy-based engine warming algorithms that provide substantial reductions in tailpipe emissions over the baseline supervisory control strategy. The flexibility of the PHEV powertrain offers the potential for decreased emissions during any engine starting event through powertrain 'torque shaping' algorithms. The analytical work presented here is experimentally validated during Phase 2, the subject of a follow on paper.

  12. The Worker Role Interview—Preliminary Data on the Predictive Validity of Return to Work of Clients After an Insurance Medicine Investigation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elin Ekbladh; Lena Haglund; Lars-Håkan Thorell

    2004-01-01

    The aim was to investigate the predictive validity of the Worker Role Interview (WRI) for return to work at a 2-year follow-up of clients who attended an insurance medicine investigation center. The WRI identifies psychosocial and environmental factors that influence a person's abilities to return to work. Forty-eight of 202 consecutively selected clients constituted the study group. The Mann–Whitney U

  13. In vitro investigations of the potential health benefits of Australian-grown faba beans (Vicia faba L.): chemopreventative capacity and inhibitory effects on the angiotensin-converting enzyme, ?-glucosidase and lipase.

    PubMed

    Siah, Siem D; Konczak, Izabela; Agboola, Samson; Wood, Jennifer A; Blanchard, Christopher L

    2012-08-01

    The functional properties, including antioxidant and chemopreventative capacities as well as the inhibitory effects on angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), ?-glucosidase and pancreatic lipase, of three Australian-grown faba bean genotypes (Nura, Rossa and TF(Ic*As)*483/13) were investigated using an array of in vitro assays. Chromatograms of on-line post column derivatisation assay coupled with HPLC revealed the existence of active phenolics (hump) in the coloured genotypes, which was lacking in the white-coloured breeding line, TF(Ic*As)*483/13. Roasting reduced the phenolic content, and diminished antioxidant activity by 10-40 % as measured by the reagent-based assays (diphenylpicrylhydrazyl, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity) in all genotypes. Cell culture-based antioxidant activity assay (cellular antioxidant activity) showed an increase of activity in the coloured genotypes after roasting. Faba bean extracts demonstrated cellular protection ability against H?O?-induced DNA damage (assessed using RAW264.7 cells), and inhibited the proliferation of all human cancer cell lines (BL13, AGS, Hep G2 and HT-29) evaluated. However, the effect of faba bean extracts on the non-transformed human cells (CCD-18Co) was negligible. Flow cytometric analyses showed that faba bean extracts successfully induced apoptosis of HL-60 (acute promyelocytic leukaemia) cells. The faba bean extracts also exhibited ACE, ?-glucosidase and pancreatic lipase inhibitory activities. Overall, extracts from Nura (buff-coloured) and Rossa (red-coloured) were comparable, while TF(Ic*As)*483/13 (white-coloured) contained the lowest phenolic content and exhibited the least antioxidant and enzyme inhibition activities. These results are important to promote the utilisation of faba beans in human diets for various health benefits. PMID:22916808

  14. 29 CFR 1984.105 - Issuance of findings and preliminary orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...false Issuance of findings and preliminary orders. 1984.105 Section 1984.105 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued...Investigations, Findings and Preliminary Orders § 1984.105 Issuance of findings and preliminary...

  15. 29 CFR 1984.105 - Issuance of findings and preliminary orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...false Issuance of findings and preliminary orders. 1984.105 Section 1984.105 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued...Investigations, Findings and Preliminary Orders § 1984.105 Issuance of findings and preliminary...

  16. Optimal entangling capacity of dynamical processes

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, Earl T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)

    2010-10-15

    We investigate the entangling capacity of dynamical operations when provided with local ancilla. A comparison is made between the entangling capacity with and without the assistance of prior entanglement. An analytic solution is found for the log-negativity entangling capacity of two-qubit gates, which equals the entanglement of the Choi matrix isomorphic to the unitary operator. Surprisingly, the availability of prior entanglement does not affect this result, a property we call resource independence of the entangling capacity. We prove several useful upper bounds on the entangling capacity that hold for general qudit dynamical operations and for a whole family of entanglement monotones including log negativity and log robustness. The log-robustness entangling capacity is shown to be resource independent for general dynamics. We provide numerical results supporting a conjecture that the log-negativity entangling capacity is resource independent for all two-qudit unitary operators.

  17. Testing the Predictions of the Central Capacity Sharing Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tombu, Michael; Jolicoeur, Pierre

    2005-01-01

    The divergent predictions of 2 models of dual-task performance are investigated. The central bottleneck and central capacity sharing models argue that a central stage of information processing is capacity limited, whereas stages before and after are capacity free. The models disagree about the nature of this central capacity limitation. The…

  18. Preliminary Results of an Altitude-Wind-Tunnel Investigation of an Axial-Flow Gas Turbine-Propeller Engine. 5; Combustion-Chamber Characterisitcs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geisenheyner, Robert M.; Berdysz, Joseph J.

    1948-01-01

    An investigation to determine the performance and operational characteristics of an axial-flow gas turbine-propeller engine was conducted in the Cleveland altitude wind tunnel. As part of this investigation, the combustion-chamber performance was determined at pressure altitudes from 5000 to 35,000 feet, compressor-inlet ram-pressure ratios of 1.00 and 1.09, and engine speeds from 8000 to 13,000 rpm. Combustion-chamber performance is presented as a function of corrected engine speed and corrected horsepower. For the range of corrected engine speeds investigated, overall total-pressure-loss ratio, cycle efficiency, and the fractional loss in cycle efficiency resulting from pressure losses in the combustion chambers were unaffected by a change in altitude or compressor-inlet ram-pressure ratio. For the range of corrected horsepowers investigated, the total-pressure-loss ratio and the fractional loss in cycle efficiency resulting from pressure losses in the combustion chambers decreased with an increase in corrected horsepower at a constant corrected engine speed. The combustion efficiency remained constant for the range of corrected horsepowers investigated at all corrected engine speeds.

  19. Individual differences in working memory capacity and workload capacity

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Ju-Chi; Chang, Ting-Yun; Yang, Cheng-Ta

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between working memory capacity (WMC) and workload capacity (WLC). Each participant performed an operation span (OSPAN) task to measure his/her WMC and three redundant-target detection tasks to measure his/her WLC. WLC was computed non-parametrically (Experiments 1 and 2) and parametrically (Experiment 2). Both levels of analyses showed that participants high in WMC had larger WLC than those low in WMC only when redundant information came from visual and auditory modalities, suggesting that high-WMC participants had superior processing capacity in dealing with redundant visual and auditory information. This difference was eliminated when multiple processes required processing for only a single working memory subsystem in a color-shape detection task and a double-dot detection task. These results highlighted the role of executive control in integrating and binding information from the two working memory subsystems for perceptual decision making. PMID:25566143

  20. Building Leadership Capacity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flanary, Dick

    2009-01-01

    The NASSP "Breaking Ranks" framework lays out multiple strategies for building capacity within a school, beginning with the leaders. To change an organization and increase its capacity to produce greater results, the people within the organization must change and increase their capacity. School change begins with changes in the principal, the…

  1. Psychological Distress, Acculturation, and Mental Health-Seeking Attitudes among People of African Descent in the United States: A Preliminary Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obasi, Ezemenari M.; Leong, Frederick T. L.

    2009-01-01

    This article investigates the relationship between psychological distress, acculturation, and help-seeking attitudes among people of African descent (N = 130). Psychological distress was measured using the Global Severity Index from the Brief Symptom Inventory (L. R. Derogatis & N. Melisaratos, 1983), acculturation was measured using the…

  2. A Preliminary Investigation into Critical Thinking of In-Service and Pre-Service Middle School Chemistry Teachers in Shaanxi Province of China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Qing; Yan, Chungeng; Zhao, Shuyu; Liu, Liya; Xing, Lijuan

    2012-01-01

    This research investigated the development of critical thinking of middle school chemistry teachers in Shaanxi province of China. In-service and pre-service teachers' critical thinking are examined in order to provide evidence for establishing teachers' standard. The sample in this study consisted of 69 in-service and 61 pre-service chemistry…

  3. Preliminary Results of an Altitude-Wind-Tunnel Investigation of an Axial-Flow Gas Turbine-Propeller Engine. 2; Windmilling Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conrad, E. W.; Durham, J. D.

    1948-01-01

    Wind tunnel investigations were performed to determine the performance properties of an axial-flow gas turbine-propeller engine II. Windmilling characteristics were determined for a range of altitudes from 5000 to 35,000 feet, true airspeeds from 100 to 273 miles per hour, and propeller blade angles from 4 degrees to 46 degrees.

  4. A Preliminary Investigation of the Spence Children's Anxiety Parent Scale as a Screening Tool for Anxiety in Young People with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zainal, Hani; Magiati, Iliana; Tan, Julianne Wen-Li; Sung, Min; Fung, Daniel S.; Howlin, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Despite high rates of clinically elevated anxiety difficulties in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), very few studies have systematically examined the usefulness of commonly used caregiver report anxiety screening tools with this population. This study investigated the use of the Spence Children's Anxiety…

  5. World nuclear generating capacity

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    Data on the nuclear generating capacity for 1995-1996 of 39 countries are provided in tables and brief summaries. For each nuclear power plant, the operator, reactor supplier, type, net capacity, construction stage, startup and decommissioning dates, and total installed capacity are listed. World totals are provided for 1991, 1996, and 2001 (projected). A total of 424 nuclear power plants operated during this period with a total generating capacity of 347.1 gigawatts electric. Nuclear generating capacity is predicted to be over 365 gigawatts electric by 2001. 105 plants are under construction or planned to begin commercial operation by 2010. 62 plants are scheduled for decommissioning by 2010.

  6. Different Capacities of a Digraph

    E-print Network

    Anna Galluccio; Viale Manzoni; János Körner; Gábor Simonyi; Luisa Gargano

    The Shannon capacity of every induced subgraph of a perfect graph equals its clique number. However, for the co--normal powers of an odd cycle the super--multiplicativity of the clique number makes the determination of capacity one of the hardest problems in combinatorics. We study the asymptotic growth of induced subgraphs of some particular type in powers of a fixed graph. In case of a simple graph we investigate the asymptotic growth in its co--normal powers of the largest induced subgraph on which non--adjacency is an equivalence relation, (equivalence graphs). For directed graphs we introduce a natural generalization of the co--normal product called Sperner product and analyze the directed version of the problem of asymptotic growth both for the clique number (Sperner capacity) and for induced subgraphs corresponding to equivalence--subgraphs with a particular direction of their edges, called waterfalls. A waterfall is an equivalence graph with linearly ordered equivalence classes...

  7. Hybrid Zero-capacity Channels

    E-print Network

    Sergii Strelchuk; Jonathan Oppenheim

    2012-07-04

    There are only two known kinds of zero-capacity channels. The first kind produces entangled states that have positive partial transpose, and the second one - states that are cloneable. We consider the family of 'hybrid' quantum channels, which lies in the intersection of the above classes of channels and investigate its properties. It gives rise to the first explicit examples of the channels, which create bound entangled states that have the property of being cloneable to the arbitrary finite number of parties. Hybrid channels provide the first example of highly cloneable binding entanglement channels, for which known superactivation protocols must fail - superactivation is the effect where two channels each with zero quantum capacity having positive capacity when used together. We give two methods to construct a hybrid channel from any binding entanglement channel. We also find the low-dimensional counterparts of hybrid states - bipartite qubit states which are extendible and possess two-way key.

  8. The effect of aloe vera gel on the anti-acne properties of the essential oil of Ocimum gratissimum Linn leaf – a preliminary clinical investigation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. O Orafidiya; E. O Agbani; A. O Oyedele; O. O Babalola; O Onayemi; F. F Aiyedun

    2004-01-01

    Aim: This study was designed to investigate possible synergistic effect of aloe vera gel on the anti-acne properties of Ocimum gratissimum oil and to compare the activities of both agents singly and in combinations with the anti-acne agent Dalacin™ – a 1% Clindamycin phosphate solution.Methods: 84 subjects presenting with clinically significant Acne vulgaris (mainly undergraduates of a University) were randomly

  9. The Effects of Winter Exposure to Acid Soil Conditions on the Subsequent Survival and Growth of Herbaceous, Forest Perennials: a Preliminary Investigation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    URSULA FALKENGREN-GRERUP

    1998-01-01

    For many plant species, growth is limited in acid soils, which are characterized by high levels of potentially-toxic elements and low nutrient availability. Although plant-soil interactions are traditionally studied during the growing season, the highest concentrations of toxic elements in the soil may occur during the winter months. The present study investigated the effects of a 3-month exposure to either

  10. Quantum Capacities of Channels with small Environment

    E-print Network

    Michael M. Wolf; David Perez-Garcia

    2006-07-11

    We investigate the quantum capacity of noisy quantum channels which can be represented by coupling a system to an effectively small environment. A capacity formula is derived for all cases where both system and environment are two-dimensional--including all extremal qubit channels. Similarly, for channels acting on higher dimensional systems we show that the capacity can be determined if the channel arises from a sufficiently small coupling to a qubit environment. Extensions to instances of channels with larger environment are provided and it is shown that bounds on the capacity with unconstrained environment can be obtained from decompositions into channels with small environment.

  11. Preliminary Results of an Altitude-Wind-Tunnel Investigation of an Axial-Flow Gas Turbine-Propeller Engine. 4; Compressor and Turbine Performance Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallner, Lewis E.; Saari, Martin J.

    1948-01-01

    As part of an investigation of the performance and operational characteristics of the axial-flow gas turbine-propeller engine, conducted in the Cleveland altitude wind tunnel, the performance characteristics of the compressor and the turbine were obtained. The data presented were obtained at a compressor-inlet ram-pressure ratio of 1.00 for altitudes from 5000 to 35,000 feet, engine speeds from 8000 to 13,000 rpm, and turbine-inlet temperatures from 1400 to 2100 R. The highest compressor pressure ratio obtained was 6.15 at a corrected air flow of 23.7 pounds per second and a corrected turbine-inlet temperature of 2475 R. Peak adiabatic compressor efficiencies of about 77 percent were obtained near the value of corrected air flow corresponding to a corrected engine speed of 13,000 rpm. This maximum efficiency may be somewhat low, however, because of dirt accumulations on the compressor blades. A maximum adiabatic turbine efficiency of 81.5 percent was obtained at rated engine speed for all altitudes and turbine-inlet temperatures investigated.

  12. Preliminary design of centrifugal compressors

    SciTech Connect

    Kocak, S. [Selcuk Univ., Konya (Turkey). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1996-11-01

    Preliminary design calculations are analyzed for a centrifugal compressor, after choosing as the type of the turbomachine from the curves given by Balje (1981). In impeller calculations, the effect of slip factor on exit conditions, the inducer geometry and the effect of choked flow on relative Mach number are investigated. In discharge calculation vaned diffusers are compared with vaneless diffusers.

  13. Preliminary Investigation to Determine Propeller Section Characteristics by Measuring the Pressure Distribution on an NACA 10-(3)(08)-03 Propeller Under Operating Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Albert J; Liner, George

    1948-01-01

    An investigation has been made in the Langley 16-foot high-speed tunnel to determine the propeller-section characteristics by measuring the pressure distribution on the airfoil sections of a rotating propeller. The pressures were measured at nine radial stations on an NACA 10-(3)(08)-03 design two-blade propeller. This paper presents the results of the pressure measurements in the form of normal-force and moment coefficients and covers a range of nominal angle of attack (simple blade element theory) from 0 degrees to 4 degrees for a section Mach number range of approximately 0.6 to 1.15 for the outboard stations and approximately 0.3 to 0.6 for inboard stations.

  14. Preliminary Results of Altitude-Wind-Tunnel Investigation of X24C-4B Turbojet Engine. V - Performance of Modified Engine. V; Performance of Modified Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prince, William R.; Bloomer, Harry E.

    1947-01-01

    An investigation has been conducted in the NACA Cleveland altitude wind tunnel to evaluate the performance characteristics of a modified X24C-4B turbojet engine over a range of simulated altitudes from 5000 to 45,000 feet, simulated flight Mach numbers from 0.25 to 1.07, and engine speeds from 4000 to 12,500 rpm. The engine was modified by the manufacturer to improve the velocity and temperature profiles within the engine. Performance data are graphically presented to show the effect of altitude at a flight Mach number of 0.25 and the effect of flight Mach number at an altitude of 25,000 feet. Original and modified engine performances for several specific operating conditions are compared. A complete tabulation of average pressures and temperatures throughout the engine, performance data, and lubrication and fuel-system data is presented.

  15. MR guided thermal therapy of pancreatic tumors with endoluminal, intraluminal and interstitial catheter-based ultrasound devices: preliminary theoretical and experimental investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakash, Punit; Salgaonkar, Vasant A.; Scott, Serena J.; Jones, Peter; Hensley, Daniel; Holbrook, Andrew; Plata, Juan; Sommer, Graham; Diederich, Chris J.

    2013-02-01

    Image-guided thermal interventions have been proposed for potential palliative and curative treatments of pancreatic tumors. Catheter-based ultrasound devices offer the potential for temporal and 3D spatial control of the energy deposition profile. The objective of this study was to apply theoretical and experimental techniques to investigate the feasibility of endogastric, intraluminal and transgastric catheter-based ultrasound for MR guided thermal therapy of pancreatic tumors. The transgastric approach involves insertion of a catheter-based ultrasound applicator (array of 1.5 mm OD x 10 mm transducers, 360° or sectored 180°, ~7 MHz frequency, 13-14G cooling catheter) directly into the pancreas, either endoscopically or via image-guided percutaneous placement. An intraluminal applicator, of a more flexible but similar construct, was considered for endoscopic insertion directly into the pancreatic or biliary duct. An endoluminal approach was devised based on an ultrasound transducer assembly (tubular, planar, curvilinear) enclosed in a cooling balloon which is endoscopically positioned within the stomach or duodenum, adjacent to pancreatic targets from within the GI tract. A 3D acoustic bio-thermal model was implemented to calculate acoustic energy distributions and used a FEM solver to determine the transient temperature and thermal dose profiles in tissue during heating. These models were used to determine transducer parameters and delivery strategies and to study the feasibility of ablating 1-3 cm diameter tumors located 2-10 mm deep in the pancreas, while thermally sparing the stomach wall. Heterogeneous acoustic and thermal properties were incorporated, including approximations for tumor desmoplasia and dynamic changes during heating. A series of anatomic models based on imaging scans of representative patients were used to investigate the three approaches. Proof of concept (POC) endogastric and transgastric applicators were fabricated and experimentally evaluated in tissue mimicking phantoms, ex vivo tissue and in vivo canine model under multi-slice MR thermometry. RF micro-coils were evaluated to enable active catheter-tracking and prescription of thermometry slice positions. Interstitial and intraluminal ultrasound applicators could be used to ablate (t43>240min) tumors measuring 2.3-3.4 cm in diameter when powered with 20-30 W/cm2 at 7 MHz for 5-10 min. Endoluminal applicators with planar and curvilinear transducers operating at 3-4 MHz could be used to treat tumors up to 20-25 mm deep from the stomach wall within 5 min. POC devices were fabricated and successfully integrated into the MRI environment with catheter tracking, real-time thermometry and closed-loop feedback control.

  16. MR guided thermal therapy of pancreatic tumors with endoluminal, intraluminal and interstitial catheter-based ultrasound devices: Preliminary theoretical and experimental investigations.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Punit; Salgaonkar, Vasant A; Scott, Serena J; Jones, Peter; Hensley, Daniel; Holbrook, Andrew; Plata, Juan; Sommer, Graham; Diederich, Chris J

    2013-02-26

    Image-guided thermal interventions have been proposed for potential palliative and curative treatments of pancreatic tumors. Catheter-based ultrasound devices offer the potential for temporal and 3D spatial control of the energy deposition profile. The objective of this study was to apply theoretical and experimental techniques to investigate the feasibility of endogastric, intraluminal and transgastric catheter-based ultrasound for MR guided thermal therapy of pancreatic tumors. The transgastric approach involves insertion of a catheter-based ultrasound applicator (array of 1.5 mm OD x 10 mm transducers, 360° or sectored 180°, ~7 MHz frequency, 13-14G cooling catheter) directly into the pancreas, either endoscopically or via image-guided percutaneous placement. An intraluminal applicator, of a more flexible but similar construct, was considered for endoscopic insertion directly into the pancreatic or biliary duct. An endoluminal approach was devised based on an ultrasound transducer assembly (tubular, planar, curvilinear) enclosed in a cooling balloon which is endoscopically positioned within the stomach or duodenum, adjacent to pancreatic targets from within the GI tract. A 3D acoustic bio-thermal model was implemented to calculate acoustic energy distributions and used a FEM solver to determine the transient temperature and thermal dose profiles in tissue during heating. These models were used to determine transducer parameters and delivery strategies and to study the feasibility of ablating 1-3 cm diameter tumors located 2-10 mm deep in the pancreas, while thermally sparing the stomach wall. Heterogeneous acoustic and thermal properties were incorporated, including approximations for tumor desmoplasia and dynamic changes during heating. A series of anatomic models based on imaging scans of representative patients were used to investigate the three approaches. Proof of concept (POC) endogastric and transgastric applicators were fabricated and experimentally evaluated in tissue mimicking phantoms, ex vivo tissue and in vivo canine model under multi-slice MR thermometry. RF micro-coils were evaluated to enable active catheter-tracking and prescription of thermometry slice positions. Interstitial and intraluminal ultrasound applicators could be used to ablate (t43>240 min) tumors measuring 2.3-3.4 cm in diameter when powered with 20-30 W/cm(2) at 7 MHz for 5-10 min. Endoluminal applicators with planar and curvilinear transducers operating at 3-4 MHz could be used to treat tumors up to 20-25 mm deep from the stomach wall within 5 min. POC devices were fabricated and successfully integrated into the MRI environment with catheter tracking, real-time thermometry and closed-loop feedback control. PMID:24860246

  17. A Preliminary Investigation Regarding the Effect of Tennis Grunting: Does White Noise During a Tennis Shot Have a Negative Impact on Shot Perception?

    PubMed Central

    Sinnett, Scott; Kingstone, Alan

    2010-01-01

    Background There is a growing chorus of critics who complain that many of the top-ranked professional tennis players who grunt when they hit the ball gain an unfair advantage because the sound of the grunt interferes with their opponent's game. However, there is no scientific evidence to support this claim. Methodology/Principal Findings We explored this potential detrimental effect of grunting by presenting videos of a tennis player hitting a ball to either side of a tennis court; the shot either did, or did not, contain a brief sound that occurred at the same time as contact. The participants' task was to respond as quickly as possible, indicating whether the ball was being hit to the left- or right-side of the court. The results were unequivocal: The presence of an extraneous sound interfered with a participants' performance, making their responses both slower and less accurate. Conclusions/Significance Our data suggest that a grunting player has a competitive edge on the professional tennis tour. The mechanism that underlies this effect is a topic for future investigation. Viable alternatives are discussed. For example, the possibility that the interfering auditory stimulus masks the sound of the ball being struck by the racket or it distracts an opponent's attention away from the sound of the ball. PMID:20957210

  18. Preliminary Low-Speed Wind-Tunnel Investigation of Some Aspects of the Aerodynamic Problems Associated with Missiles Carried Externally in Positions Near Airplane Wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alford, William J., Jr.; Silvers, H. Norman; King, Thomas J., Jr.

    1954-01-01

    A low-speed wind-tunnel investigation has been made of some aspects of the aerodynamic problems associated with the use of air-to-air missiles when carried externally on aircraft. Measurements of the forces and moments on a missile model for a range of positions under the mid-semispan location of a 45deg sweptback wing indicated longitudinal and lateral forces with regard to both carriage and release of the missiles. Surveys of the characteristics of the flow field in the region likely to be traversed by the missiles showed abrupt gradients in both flow angularity and in local dynamic pressure. Through the use of aerodynamic data on the isolated missile and the measured flow-field characteristics, the longitudinal forces and moments acting on the missile while in the presence of the wing-fuselage combination could be estimated with fair accuracy. Although the lateral forces and moments predicted were qualitatively correct, there existed some large discrepancies in absolute magnitude.

  19. Photothermal response of CVD synthesized carbon (nano)spheres/aqueous nanofluids for potential application in direct solar absorption collectors: a preliminary investigation.

    PubMed

    Poinern, Gérrard Eddy Jai; Brundavanam, Sridevi; Shah, Monaliben; Laava, Iafeta; Fawcett, Derek

    2012-01-01

    Direct-absorption solar collectors have the potential to offer an unlimited source of renewable energy with minimal environmental impact. Unfortunately, their performance is limited by the absorption efficiency of the working fluid. Nanoparticles of functionalized carbon nanospheres (CNS) have the potential to improve the photothermal properties of the working fluid. CNS are produced by the pyrolysis of acetylene gas in a tube-based electric furnace/chemical vapor deposition apparatus. The reaction takes place at 1000°C in the presence of nitrogen gas without the use of a catalyst. The synthesized CNS were examined and characterized using field-emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, thermal gravimetric analysis, and ultraviolet-visible analysis. The CNS powders with a mean particle size of 210 nm were then functionalized using tetraethylammonium hydroxide ([C2H5]4 N[OH]) and used to produce a series of aqueous nanofluids with varying mass content. The photothermal response of both the nanofluids and films composed of CNS were investigated under 1000 W/m(2) solar irradiation. PMID:24198496

  20. Photothermal response of CVD synthesized carbon (nano)spheres/aqueous nanofluids for potential application in direct solar absorption collectors: a preliminary investigation

    PubMed Central

    Poinern, Gérrard Eddy Jai; Brundavanam, Sridevi; Shah, Monaliben; Laava, Iafeta; Fawcett, Derek

    2012-01-01

    Direct-absorption solar collectors have the potential to offer an unlimited source of renewable energy with minimal environmental impact. Unfortunately, their performance is limited by the absorption efficiency of the working fluid. Nanoparticles of functionalized carbon nanospheres (CNS) have the potential to improve the photothermal properties of the working fluid. CNS are produced by the pyrolysis of acetylene gas in a tube-based electric furnace/chemical vapor deposition apparatus. The reaction takes place at 1000°C in the presence of nitrogen gas without the use of a catalyst. The synthesized CNS were examined and characterized using field-emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, thermal gravimetric analysis, and ultraviolet-visible analysis. The CNS powders with a mean particle size of 210 nm were then functionalized using tetraethylammonium hydroxide ([C2H5]4 N[OH]) and used to produce a series of aqueous nanofluids with varying mass content. The photothermal response of both the nanofluids and films composed of CNS were investigated under 1000 W/m2 solar irradiation. PMID:24198496

  1. A preliminary investigation of pre-dispersal seed predation by Acanthoscelides schrankiae Horn (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) in Mimosa bimucronata (DC.) Kuntze trees.

    PubMed

    Silva, Laura A; Maimoni-Rodella, Rita C S; Rossi, Marcelo N

    2007-01-01

    This is the first record of Acanthoscelides schrankiae Horn. feeding in seeds of Mimosa bimucronata (DC.) Kuntze. We investigated the pattern of oviposition and seed exploitation by A. schrankiae, and the distribution of mature fruits and seed predation in the inflorescences. We also compared the percentage of predated seeds, the total dry weight of fruits and non-predated seeds, the percentage of aborted seeds, and the percentage of non-emergent insects, among different quadrants of the M. bimucronata canopy. To determine the occurring species, the emergence of bruchids and parasitoids was observed in the laboratory, resulting altogether, only in individuals of A. schrankiae and Horismenus sp. (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) species, respectively. Mean number of fruits produced in the median region of inflorescence was significantly higher than in the inferior and superior regions, and the frequencies (observed and expected) of predated and non-predated seeds differed among the different regions of inflorescence. Females of A. schrankiae laid their eggs on fruits, and larvae, after emergence, perforated the exocarp to reach the seeds. Most fruits presented one to three eggs and only one bruchid larva was observed in each seed. The highest value of the rate "number of eggs/fruit" and the highest percentage of predated seeds were recorded in April. Dry weight of fruits (total) and seeds (non-predated), proportions of predated seeds, seed abortions, and non-emergent seed predators, were evenly distributed in the canopy. PMID:17607452

  2. Preliminary investigation on the production of fuels and bio-char from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii biomass residue after bio-hydrogen production.

    PubMed

    Torri, Cristian; Samorì, Chiara; Adamiano, Alessio; Fabbri, Daniele; Faraloni, Cecilia; Torzillo, Giuseppe

    2011-09-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the potential conversion of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii biomass harvested after hydrogen production. The spent algal biomass was converted into nitrogen-rich bio-char, biodiesel and pyrolysis oil (bio-oil). The yield of lipids (algal oil), obtained by solvent extraction, was 15 ± 2% w/w(dry-biomass). This oil was converted into biodiesel with a 8.7 ± 1% w/w(dry-biomass) yield. The extraction residue was pyrolysed in a fixed bed reactor at 350 °C obtaining bio-char as the principal fraction (44 ± 1% w/w(dry-biomass)) and 28 ± 2% w/w(dry-biomass) of bio-oil. Pyrolysis fractions were characterized by elemental analysis, while the chemical composition of bio-oil was fully characterized by GC-MS, using various derivatization techniques. Energy outputs resulting from this approach were distributed in hydrogen (40%), biodiesel (12%) and pyrolysis fractions (48%), whereas bio-char was the largest fraction in terms of mass. PMID:21345670

  3. Preliminary Results of Altitude-Wind-Tunnel Investigation of X24C-4B Turbojet Engine. I - Pressure and Temperature Distributions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prince, William R.; Hawkins, W. Kent

    1947-01-01

    Pressures and temperatures throughout the X24C-4B turbojet engine are presented in both tabular and graphical forms to show the effect of altitude, flight Mach number, and engine speed on the internal operation of the engine. These data were obtained in the NACA Cleveland altitude wind tunnel at simulated altitudes from 5000 to 45,000 feet, simulated flight Mach numbers from 0.25 to 1.08, and engine speeds from 4000 to 12,500 rpm. Location and detail drawings of the instrumentation installed at seven survey stations in the engine are shown. Application of generalization factors to pressures and temperatures at each measuring station for the range of altitudes investigated showed that the data did not generalize above an altitude of 25,000 feet. Total-pressure distribution at the compressor outlet varied only with change in engine speed. At altitudes above 35,000 feet and engine speeds above 11,000 rpm, the peak temperature at the turbine-outlet annulus moved inward toward the root of the blade, which is undesirable from blade-stress considerations. The temperature levels at the turbine outlet and the exhaust-nozzle outlet were lowered as the Mach number was increased. The static-pressure measurements obtained at each stator stage of the compressor showed a pressure drop through the inlet guide vanes and the first-stage rotor at high engine speeds. The average values measured by the manufacturer's instrumentation werein close agreement with the average values obtained with NACA instrumentation.

  4. Incidence of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder after a Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: Preliminary Investigation Using the Brief Neuropsychological Screening Test

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Mi Sun; Seo, Sook Jin; Oh, Chang Hyun; Kim, Se-Hyuk

    2014-01-01

    Objective Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a group of diseases that are observed in patients who had experienced a serious trauma or accident. However, some experienced it even after only a mild traumatic brain injury (TBI), and they are easily ignored due to the relatively favorable course of mild TBI. Herein, the authors investigated the incidence of PTSD in mild TBI using brief neuropsychological screening test (PTSD checklist, PCL). Methods This study was conducted on patients with mild TBI (Glasgow coma scale ?13) who were admitted from January 2012 to December 2012. As for PCL, it was done on patients who showed no difficulties in communication upon admission and agreed to participate in this study. By using sum of PCL, the patients were divided into high-risk group and low-risk group. PTSD was diagnosed as the three major symptoms of PTSD according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth-edifion. Results A total of 314 TBI patients were admitted and 71 of them met the criteria and were included in this study. The mean age was 52.9 years-old (range: 15-94). The mean PCL score was 28.8 (range: 17-68), and 10 patients were classified as high-risk group. During follow-up, 2 patients (2.7%) of high risk group, were confirmed as PTSD and there was no patient who was suspected of PTSD in the low-risk group (p=0.017). Conclusion PTSD is observed 2.8% in mild TBI. Although PTSD after mild TBI is rare, PCL could be considered as a useful tool for screening of PTSD after mild TBI. PMID:25024821

  5. Heat Capacity Analysis Report

    SciTech Connect

    A. Findikakis

    2004-11-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide heat capacity values for the host and surrounding rock layers for the waste repository at Yucca Mountain. The heat capacity representations provided by this analysis are used in unsaturated zone (UZ) flow, transport, and coupled processes numerical modeling activities, and in thermal analyses as part of the design of the repository to support the license application. Among the reports that use the heat capacity values estimated in this report are the ''Multiscale Thermohydrologic Model'' report, the ''Drift Degradation Analysis'' report, the ''Ventilation Model and Analysis Report, the Igneous Intrusion Impacts on Waste Packages and Waste Forms'' report, the ''Dike/Drift Interactions report, the Drift-Scale Coupled Processes (DST and TH Seepage) Models'' report, and the ''In-Drift Natural Convection and Condensation'' report. The specific objective of this study is to determine the rock-grain and rock-mass heat capacities for the geologic stratigraphy identified in the ''Mineralogic Model (MM3.0) Report'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170031], Table 1-1). This report provides estimates of the heat capacity for all stratigraphic layers except the Paleozoic, for which the mineralogic abundance data required to estimate the heat capacity are not available. The temperature range of interest in this analysis is 25 C to 325 C. This interval is broken into three separate temperature sub-intervals: 25 C to 95 C, 95 C to 114 C, and 114 C to 325 C, which correspond to the preboiling, trans-boiling, and postboiling regimes. Heat capacity is defined as the amount of energy required to raise the temperature of a unit mass of material by one degree (Nimick and Connolly 1991 [DIRS 100690], p. 5). The rock-grain heat capacity is defined as the heat capacity of the rock solids (minerals), and does not include the effect of water that exists in the rock pores. By comparison, the rock-mass heat capacity considers the heat capacity of both solids and pore water. For temperatures in the trans-boiling regime (95 C to 114 C), the additional energy required to vaporize the pore water is accounted for in the rock-mass heat capacity. The rock-grain heat capacities are intended to be used in models and analyses that explicitly account for the thermodynamic effects of the water within the rock porosity. The rock-mass heat capacities are intended to be used in models and analyses that do not explicitly account for these thermodynamic effects, particularly boiling. The term specific heat is often used synonymously with heat capacity; however, the latter term is used throughout this document.

  6. Study of intermolecular contacts in proteins and oligomer interfaces and preliminary investigations into the design and production of nanomaterials from proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iyer, Ganesh Hariharan

    The first part of this research involved a study of the nature and extent of nonbonded interactions at crystal and oligomer interfaces. A survey was compiled of several characteristics of intersubunit contacts in 58 different oligomeric proteins, and of the intermolecular contacts in 223 protein crystal structures. Routines written in "S" language were utilized for the generation of the observed and expected contacts. The information in the Protein Data Bank (PDB) was extracted using the database management system, Protein Knowledge Base (PKB). Potentials of mean force for atom-atom contacts and residue-residue contacts were derived by comparison of the number of observed interactions with the number expected by mass action. Preference association matrices and log-linear analyses were applied to determine the different factors that could contribute to the overall interactions at the interfaces of oligomers and crystals. Surface patches at oligomer and crystal interfaces were also studied to further investigate the origin of the differences in their stabilities. Total number of atoms in contact and the secondary structure elements involved are similar in the two types of interfaces. Crystal contacts result from more numerous interactions by polar residues, compared with a tendency toward nonpolar amino acid prominent in oligomer interfaces. Contact potentials indicate that hydrophobic interactions at oligomer interfaces favor aromatic amino acids and methionine over aliphatic amino acids; and that crystal contacts form in such a way as to avoid inclusion of hydrophobic interactions. The second part involved the development of a new class of biomaterials from two-dimensional arrays of ordered proteins. Point mutations were planned to introduce cysteine residues at appropriate locations to enable cross-linking at the molecular interface within given crystallographic planes. Crystallization and subsequent cross-linking of the modified protein would lead to the formation of arrays on subsequent dissociation of the crystal. Novel protein architectures can be generated from these cross-linked nanostructures. Experiments with model protein, maltose-binding protein (MBP) were performed to develop purification, cross-linking and crystallization techniques. The long-term goal of this project is to apply the experience gained with MBP to the fabrication of nanomaterials from other, application-specific proteins for ultrafiltration and microelectronic devices.

  7. 177Lu-labeled HPMA Copolymers Utilizing Cathepsin B and S Cleavable Linkers: Synthesis, Characterization and Preliminary In Vivo Investigation in a Pancreatic Cancer Model

    PubMed Central

    Ogbomo, Sunny M.; Shi, Wen; Wagh, Nilesh K; Zhou, Zhengyuan; Brusnahan, Susan K.; Garrison, Jered C.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction A major barrier to the advancement of therapeutic nanomedicines has been the non-target toxicity caused by the accumulation of the drug delivery systems in organs associated with the reticuloendothelial system, particularly the liver and spleen. Herein, we report the development of peptide based metabolically active linkers (MALs) that are enzymatically cleaved by cysteine cathepsin B and S, two proteases highly expressed in the liver and spleen. The overall goal of this approach is to utilize the MALs to lower the non-target retention and toxicity of radiolabeled drug delivery systems, thus resulting in higher diagnostic and radiotherapeutic efficacy. Methods In this study three MALs (MAL0, MAL1 and MAL2) were investigated. MAL1 and MAL2 are composed of known substrates of cathepsin B and S, respectively, while MAL0 is a non-cleavable control. Both MAL1 and MAL2 were shown to undergo enzymatic cleavage with the appropriate cathepsin protease. Subsequent to conjugation to the HPMA copolymer and radiolabeling with 177Lu, the peptide-polymer conjugates were renamed 177Lu- metabolically active copolymers (177Lu-MACs) with the corresponding designation 177Lu-MAC0, 177Lu-MAC1 and 177Lu-MAC2. Results In vivo evaluation of the 177Lu-MACs was performed in a HPAC human pancreatic cancer xenograft mouse model. 177Lu-MAC1 and 177Lu-MAC2 demonstrated 3.1 and 2.1 fold lower liver retention, respectively, compared to control (177Lu-MAC0) at 72 h post-injection. With regard to spleen retention, 177Lu-MAC1 and 177Lu-MAC2 each exhibited a nearly fourfold lower retention, relative to control, at the 72 h time point. However, the tumor accumulation of the 177Lu-MAC0 was two to three times greater than 177Lu-MAC1 and 177Lu-MAC2 at the same time point. The MAL approach demonstrated the capability of substantially reducing the non-target retention of the 177Lu-labeled HPMA copolymers. Conclusions While further studies are needed to optimize the pharmacokinetics of the 177Lu-MACs design, the ability of the MAL to significantly decrease non-target retention establishes the potential this avenue of research may have for the improvement of diagnostic and radiotherapeutic drug delivery systems. PMID:23622691

  8. Empirical Relation between StochasticEmpirical Relation between Stochastic Capacities and Capacities ObtainedCapacities and Capacities Obtained

    E-print Network

    Bertini, Robert L.

    (veh/h) speed(km/h) Conventional Capacity Analysis Capacity Estimation in the Speed-Flow Diagram: C #12 and Capacities ObtainedCapacities and Capacities Obtained from the Speedfrom the Speed--Flow DiagramFlow Diagram as a constant value · Derivation of design capacities for freeways is usually based on the analysis of speed-flow

  9. Predicint lifting capacity.

    PubMed

    Ayoub, M M; Dryden, R; McDaniel, J; Knipfer, R; Dixon, D

    1979-12-01

    As science and technology become more sophisticated and with the rapid computation capabilities of the modern computer available, it becomes both possible and economically feasible to scientifically study man and his interaction with his working environment. It is now possible for a person seeking employment to expect and obtain a position which will not be unnecessarily hazardous to his immediate health or have detrimental effects over the long run. Manual materials handling is the contributor of over 400,000 back injuries suffered in the U.S. each year. This research is directed at determining the appropriate operator variables to measure for predicting the permissible weight of lift for three ranges of lift: floor to knuckle height, knuckle height to shoulder height, and shoulder height to reach height. A modified psychophysical procedure was used during which the subjects were instructed to adjust the weight in a tote box to the maximum weight they could lift repetitively without excessive strain or fatique. The task consisted of lifting loads under different conditions of task variables, namely, height of lift, frequency of lift, and load size. Industrial workers as well as students of both sexes were used as subjects. Based on the data obtained, the lifting capacity of the worker was determined for the different ranges of lift. In addition, predictive models were developed based on the operator variables and the task variables investigated. PMID:539547

  10. Nonequilibrium heat capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandal, Dibyendu

    2013-12-01

    Development of steady state thermodynamics and statistical mechanics depends crucially on our ability to extend the notions of equilibrium thermodynamics to nonequilibrium steady states (NESS). The present paper considers the extension of heat capacity. A modified definition is proposed which continues to maintain the same relation to steady state Shannon entropy as in equilibrium, thus providing a thermodynamically consistent treatment of NESS heat capacity.

  11. Liquid heat capacity lasers

    DOEpatents

    Comaskey, Brian J. (Walnut Creek, CA); Scheibner, Karl F. (Tracy, CA); Ault, Earl R. (Livermore, CA)

    2007-05-01

    The heat capacity laser concept is extended to systems in which the heat capacity lasing media is a liquid. The laser active liquid is circulated from a reservoir (where the bulk of the media and hence waste heat resides) through a channel so configured for both optical pumping of the media for gain and for light amplification from the resulting gain.

  12. Nanofluid heat capacities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starace, Anne K.; Gomez, Judith C.; Wang, Jun; Pradhan, Sulolit; Glatzmaier, Greg C.

    2011-12-01

    Significant increases in the heat capacity of heat transfer fluids are needed not only to reduce the costs of liquid heating and cooling processes, but also to bring clean energy producing technologies like concentrating solar power (CSP) to price parity with conventional energy generation. It has been postulated that nanofluids could have higher heat capacities than conventional fluids. In this work, nano- and micron-sized particles were added to five base fluids (poly-? olefin, mineral oil, ethylene glycol, a mixture of water and ethylene glycol, and calcium nitrate tetrahydrate), and the resulting heat capacities were measured and compared with those of the neat base fluids and the weighted average of the heat capacities of the components. The particles used were inert metals and metal oxides that did not undergo any phase transitions over the temperature range studied. In the nanofluids studied here, we found no increase in heat capacity upon the addition of the particles larger than the experimental error.

  13. Knudsen heat capacity

    SciTech Connect

    Babac, Gulru, E-mail: babac@itu.edu.tr [Institute of Energy, Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul 34469 (Turkey)] [Institute of Energy, Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul 34469 (Turkey); Reese, Jason M. [School of Engineering, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JL (United Kingdom)] [School of Engineering, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JL (United Kingdom)

    2014-05-15

    We present a “Knudsen heat capacity” as a more appropriate and useful fluid property in micro/nanoscale gas systems than the constant pressure heat capacity. At these scales, different fluid processes come to the fore that are not normally observed at the macroscale. For thermodynamic analyses that include these Knudsen processes, using the Knudsen heat capacity can be more effective and physical. We calculate this heat capacity theoretically for non-ideal monatomic and diatomic gases, in particular, helium, nitrogen, and hydrogen. The quantum modification for para and ortho hydrogen is also considered. We numerically model the Knudsen heat capacity using molecular dynamics simulations for the considered gases, and compare these results with the theoretical ones.

  14. PRELIMINARY VERSION February 4, 1998 PRELIMINARY VERSION

    E-print Network

    Yorke, James

    PRELIMINARY VERSION February 4, 1998 PRELIMINARY VERSION Five Lectures on Supersymmetry Daniel S-graded' and so refer to this as SuperAlgebra. We review the basic idea|the sign rule|and show how fermions is completely standard: a very mildly noncommutative form of algebra. In the second half

  15. Preliminary geothermal investigations in West Virginia

    SciTech Connect

    Hendry, R. (State Univ. of New York/Buffalo, Amherst); Hilfiker, K.; Hodge, D.; Morgan, P.; Swanberg, C.

    1981-10-01

    Deep sedimentary basins and warm spring systems are potential geothermal resources in West Virginia. A temperature gradient map based on 800 BHT for WV shows that variation of temperature gradients trend NE parallel to regional structure. Highest temperature gradient values of about 28/sup 0/C/km occur in the eastcentral WV and the lowest gradients (18/sup 0/C/km) are found over the Rome trough. Results of groundwater geochemistry indicate that the warm springs circulate in very shallow aquifers and are subject to seasonal temperature fluctuations. Silica heat flow data in WV varies from about .89 to 1.4 HFU and generally increases towards the west. Bouguer, magnetic and temperature gradient profiles suggest that an ancient rift transects the State and is the site of several deep sedimentary basins.

  16. VARIATIONS IN SERVICE RELATIONSHIPS: A PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher Medlin; Sally Rao

    In this paper two perspectives of relationship marketing are highlighted and then reasons for variation in relationship types according to industry, product\\/service blend and customer orientation are discussed. Further, interaction and management purpose enter into development of relationships. Together these ideas suggest that no single relationship type exists; rather, at best, classes of relationships may be found and these may

  17. A Preliminary Investigation of Hall Thruster Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallimore, Alec D.

    1997-01-01

    A three-year, NASA/BMDO-sponsored experimental program to conduct performance and plume plasma property measurements on two Russian Stationary Plasma Thrusters (SPTs) has been completed. The program utilized experimental facilitates at the University of Michigan's Plasmadynamics and Electric Propulsion Laboratory (PEPL). The main features of the proposed effort were as follows: We Characterized Hall thruster [and arcjet] performance by measuring ion exhaust velocity with probes at various thruster conditions. Used a variety of probe diagnostics in the thruster plume to measure plasma properties and flow properties including T(sub e) and n(sub e), ion current density and ion energy distribution, and electric fields by mapping plasma potential. Used emission spectroscopy to identify species within the plume and to measure electron temperatures.

  18. A Preliminary Investigation of Hall Thruster Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallimore, Alec D.

    1997-01-01

    A three-year NASA/BMDO-sponsored experimental program to conduct performance and plume plasma property measurements on two Russian Stationary Plasma Thrusters (SPTs) has been completed. The program utilized experimental facilitates at the University of Michigan's Plasmadynamics and Electric Propulsion Laboratory (PEPL). The main features of the proposed effort were as follows: (1) Characterized Hall thruster (and arcjet) performance by measuring ion exhaust velocity with probes at various thruster conditions; (2) Used a variety of probe diagnostics in the thruster plume to measure plasma properties and flow properties including T(sub e) and n(sub e) ion current density and ion energy distribution, and electric fields by mapping plasma potential; (3) Used emission spectroscopy to identify species within the plume and to measure electron temperatures. A key and unique feature of our research was our collaboration with Russian Hall thruster researcher Dr. Sergey A Khartov, Deputy Dean of International Relations at the Moscow Aviation Institute (MAI). His activities in this program included consulting on and participation in research at PEPL through use of a MAI-built SPT and ion energy probe.

  19. Measuring Communities of Faith: A Preliminary Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Krause, Neal; Hayward, R. David

    2013-01-01

    Numerous references are made in the literature to communities of faith, yet there have been relatively few efforts to measure them empirically. The purpose of this study is to address this gap in the literature by estimating a higher-order confirmatory factor model that consists of two tiers. Seven dimensions of church-based social support make up the first tier: emotional support received from rank-and-file church members, emotional support given to fellow church members, tangible support received from rank-and-file church members, tangible support given to fellow congregants, spiritual support received from fellow church members, emotional support received from a pastor, and tangible support received from a pastor. It is hypothesized that these first-order constructs are driven by a higher-order latent variable that denotes a community of faith. Data from a nationwide survey reveal that, for the sample taken as a whole, emotional support represents the way in which a community of faith is most likely to be manifest while tangible support is a less critical component. Moreover, the results indicate that a community of faith is more likely to reside in support exchanged among rank-and-file church members than support received from a pastor. PMID:24039556

  20. A Preliminary Investigation of Alien Presence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mario Romero; Michael Mateas

    2005-01-01

    Work in ubiquitous computing and ambient intelligence tends to focus on information access and task su pport systems informed by the office environment, which t end to view the whole world as an office, or on sur veillance systems that feature asymmetric information access, providing interpretations of activity to a central authority. The alien presence provides an alternative model of

  1. Preliminary investigations into UHCRE thermal control materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levadou, Francois; Froggatt, Mike; Rott, Martin; Schneider, Eberhard

    1991-01-01

    An overview is given of the initial work which has been done in the European Space Research and Technology Center (ESTEC) Materials and Processes Division to evaluate the effect of space environment on the thermal blankets of the Ultra-Heavy Cosmic Ray Nuclei Experiment (UHCRE). Also, an account is given of the simulation of the impacts of micrometeoroids and space debris in a spare flight thermal blanket by means of plasma gun and light gas gun acceleration facilities.

  2. Preliminary subsidence investigation of Sacramento Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lofgren, B.E.; Ireland, R.L.

    1973-01-01

    Although a number of agencies have made leveling surveys in Sacramento Valley and a valleywide network of first- and second-order control exists, few areas have sufficient control for determining whether land subsidence has occurred and if so, how much, within the time span of vertical control. Available data suggest that 0.2 to 0.9 foot (0.06 to 0.3 m) of subsidence probably has occurred from 1935-42 to 1964 in an extensive agricultural area of heavy ground-water pumping between Zamora and Davis, and that as much as 2 feet (0.6 m) of subsidence has occurred in at least two areas of pumping overdraft--east of Zamora, and west of Arbuckle. A comparison of maps showing long-term water-level decline and average annual ground-water pumpage indicates several other areas of probable subsidence. In six general areas--northwest of Sacramento; northeast of Sacramento; southeast of Yuba City; 10 miles (16 km) north of Willows; 20 miles (32 km) north of Willows; and especially in the Arbuckle area,ground-water declines have quite probably produced significant subsidence. In two areas of most intensive pumping, no long-term water-level declines have occurred, and no subsidence is indicated. If problems of land subsidence are of concern in Sacramento Valley, and if estimates of historic subsidence or subsidence potential are needed, serious consideration should be given to a field program of basic-data collection. Second-order leveling along a few carefully selected lines of existing control, and the installation and operation of two or three compaction recorders in areas of continuing water-level decline, would provide helpful data for estimating .past and future subsidence.

  3. Refinery Capacity Report

    EIA Publications

    2014-01-01

    Data series include fuel, electricity, and steam purchased for consumption at the refinery; refinery receipts of crude oil by method of transportation; and current and projected atmospheric crude oil distillation, downstream charge, and production capacities. Respondents are operators of all operating and idle petroleum refineries (including new refineries under construction) and refineries shut down during the previous year, located in the 50 states, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Guam, and other U.S. possessions. The Refinery Capacity Report does not contain working and shell storage capacity data. This data is now being collected twice a year as of March 31 and September 30 on the Form EIA-810, "Monthly Refinery Report", and is now released as a separate report Working and Net Available Shell Storage Capacity.

  4. Panama Canal capacity analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Bronzini, M.S. [Oak Ridge National Lab., Knoxville, TN (United States). Center for Transportation Analysis

    1995-04-27

    Predicting the transit capacities of the various Panama Canal alternatives required analyzing data on present Canal operations, adapting and extending an existing computer simulation model, performing simulation runs for each of the alternatives, and using the simulation model outputs to develop capacity estimates. These activities are summarized in this paper. A more complete account may be found in the project final report (TAMS 1993). Some of the material in this paper also appeared in a previously published paper (Rosselli, Bronzini, and Weekly 1994).

  5. Capacity and mutual information of wideband multipath fading channels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ì. Emre Telatar; David N. C. Tse

    2000-01-01

    We investigate the capacity and mutual information of a broadband fading channel consisting of a finite number of time-varying paths. We show that the capacity of the channel in the wideband limit is the same as that of a wideband Gaussian channel with the same average received power. However, the input signals needed to achieve the capacity must be “peaky”

  6. Stochastic capacity modeling to support demand/capacity gap planning

    E-print Network

    Niles, Augusta (Augusta L.)

    2014-01-01

    Capacity strategy has established methods of dealing with uncertainty in future demand. This project advances the concept of capacity strategy under conditions of uncertainty in cases where capacity is the primary source ...

  7. Uncertainty in adaptive capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adger, W. Neil; Vincent, Katharine

    2005-03-01

    The capacity to adapt is a critical element of the process of adaptation: it is the vector of resources that represent the asset base from which adaptation actions can be made. Adaptive capacity can in theory be identified and measured at various scales, from the individual to the nation. The assessment of uncertainty within such measures comes from the contested knowledge domain and theories surrounding the nature of the determinants of adaptive capacity and the human action of adaptation. While generic adaptive capacity at the national level, for example, is often postulated as being dependent on health, governance and political rights, and literacy, and economic well-being, the determinants of these variables at national levels are not widely understood. We outline the nature of this uncertainty for the major elements of adaptive capacity and illustrate these issues with the example of a social vulnerability index for countries in Africa. To cite this article: W.N. Adger, K. Vincent, C. R. Geoscience 337 (2005).

  8. Dual capacity reciprocating compressor

    DOEpatents

    Wolfe, Robert W. (Wilkinsburg, PA)

    1984-01-01

    A multi-cylinder compressor 10 particularly useful in connection with northern climate heat pumps and in which different capacities are available in accordance with reversing motor 16 rotation is provided with an eccentric cam 38 on a crank pin 34 under a fraction of the connecting rods, and arranged for rotation upon the crank pin between opposite positions 180.degree. apart so that with cam rotation on the crank pin such that the crank throw is at its normal maximum value all pistons pump at full capacity, and with rotation of the crank shaft in the opposite direction the cam moves to a circumferential position on the crank pin such that the overall crank throw is zero. Pistons 24 whose connecting rods 30 ride on a crank pin 36 without a cam pump their normal rate with either crank rotational direction. Thus a small clearance volume is provided for any piston that moves when in either capacity mode of operation.

  9. Dual capacity reciprocating compressor

    DOEpatents

    Wolfe, R.W.

    1984-10-30

    A multi-cylinder compressor particularly useful in connection with northern climate heat pumps and in which different capacities are available in accordance with reversing motor rotation is provided with an eccentric cam on a crank pin under a fraction of the connecting rods, and arranged for rotation upon the crank pin between opposite positions 180[degree] apart so that with cam rotation on the crank pin such that the crank throw is at its normal maximum value all pistons pump at full capacity, and with rotation of the crank shaft in the opposite direction the cam moves to a circumferential position on the crank pin such that the overall crank throw is zero. Pistons whose connecting rods ride on a crank pin without a cam pump their normal rate with either crank rotational direction. Thus a small clearance volume is provided for any piston that moves when in either capacity mode of operation. 6 figs.

  10. Quantum Channel Capacities

    E-print Network

    Graeme Smith

    2010-07-16

    A quantum communication channel can be put to many uses: it can transmit classical information, private classical information, or quantum information. It can be used alone, with shared entanglement, or together with other channels. For each of these settings there is a capacity that quantifies a channel's potential for communication. In this short review, I summarize what is known about the various capacities of a quantum channel, including a discussion of the relevant additivity questions. I also give some indication of potentially interesting directions for future research.

  11. Web Capacity Planning

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Amy Apon

    This course teaches a quantitative approach to analyzing client/server and Web-based systems. Students will learn how to develop performance predictive models for capacity planning. Instead of relying on intuition, ad hoc procedures, and rules of thumb, students will learn a uniform and formal way for dealing with performance problems. The performance models are based on the theory of queuing networks. By the end of the summer each student will complete, as part of a team, a performance capacity planning study on a real computing system.

  12. The Moral Capacity Profile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilks, Duffy; Ratheal, Juli D'Ann

    2011-01-01

    Effective counseling practice continues to be inevitably linked to underlying theories of behavioral causality. In this article, the authors present the Moral Capacity Profile of an individual from the perspective of the Amoral, Moral, Quasi-Moral/Quasi-Immoral, and Immoral Model of Behavior, a model that uniquely expands counseling's theoretical…

  13. OPTIMIZATION OF SURGE CAPACITY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. G. AUFULDISH; S. S. MELSHEIMER

    1994-01-01

    Surge tanks within a process are often necessary to smooth out fluctuations in plant operation and process upsets. The only previous research done on tank sizing for flow smoothing was done by Hiester (1985). In this reseach, a program is developed that specifies the size and location of surge capacity required for different control schemes of chemical processes. Also, an

  14. Dielectric cure monitoring: Preliminary studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, B. E.; Semmel, M. L.

    1984-01-01

    Preliminary studies have been conducted on two types of dielectric cure monitoring systems employing both epoxy resins and phenolic composites. An Audrey System was used for 23 cure monitoring runs with very limited success. Nine complete cure monitoring runs have been investigated using a Micromet System. Two additional measurements were performed to investigate the Micromet's sensitivity to water absorption in a post-cure carbon-phenolic material. While further work is needed to determine data significance, the Micromet system appears to show promise as a feedback control device during processing.

  15. Preliminary Flood Plain Characterization Appendix A

    E-print Network

    Appendix A Preliminary Flood Plain Characterization #12;Appendix A Preliminary Flood Plain ................................................................................................................................. 1 1.1 Flood Plain Preliminary Characterization Objectives.......................................................................1 2 Flood Plain Preliminary Characterization Activities

  16. Low-temperature heat capacity of urea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson, O.; Matsuo, T.; Suga, H.; Ferloni, P.

    1993-01-01

    The heat capacity of urea was measured with an adiabatic calorimeter in the temperature range 15 310 K. The data were extrapolated to 0 K by a model function to derive some standard thermodynamic functions including the enthalpy increments ? {0/T}H, the entropy increments ? {0/T}S, and the Giauque function (= ? {0/TS}- ? {0/T} H/T). A simple model for the reproduction of the experimental heat capacities of urea, based on the Debye and Einstein functions, is described. The Debye characteristic temperature determined in this way was compared with those calculated from properties other than the heat capacity. Any positive evidence of a suggested phase transition in urea around 190 K was not observed in the present heat capacity measurements. Possible existence of a phase with a Gibbs energy lower than that realized in the present investigation is discussed briefly.

  17. Survey of antioxidant capacity and phenolic composition of blueberry, blackberry, and strawberry in Nanjing*

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Wu-yang; Zhang, Hong-cheng; Liu, Wen-xu; Li, Chun-yang

    2012-01-01

    Berries are a good source of natural antioxidants. In the present study, the total antioxidant capacity and phenolic composition of three berry fruits (blueberry, blackberry, and strawberry) cultivated in Nanjing were investigated. Blueberry, with a Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) value of 14.98 mmol Trolox/100 g dry weight (DW), exhibited the strongest total antioxidant capacity using both the 2,2-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) and the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) methods. Blueberry also had the highest total phenolic content (TPC, 9.44 mg gallic acid/g DW), total flavonoid content (TFC, 36.08 mg rutin/g DW), and total anthocyanidin content (TAC, 24.38 mg catechin/g DW). A preliminary analysis using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) showed that the blueberry, blackberry, and strawberry samples tested contained a range of phenolic acids (including gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, ellagic acid, and cinnamic acid) and various types of flavonoids (flavone: luteolin; flavonols: rutin, myricetin, quercetrin, and quercetin; flavanols: gallocatechin, epigallocatechin, catechin, and catechin gallate; anthocyanidins: malvidin-3-galactoside, malvidin-3-glucoside, and cyanidin). In particular, the blueberries had high levels of proanthocyanidins and anthocyanidins, which might be responsible for their strong antioxidant activities. These results indicate a potential market role for berries (especially blueberries) as a functional food ingredient or nutraceutical. PMID:22302422

  18. Magnetic heat capacity in lanthanum manganite single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, P.; Chun, S. H.; Salamon, M. B.; Tomioka, Y.; Tokura, Y.

    2000-05-01

    The heat capacity of single crystal La0.7D0.3MnO3, where D=Ca, Sr, has been measured through the Curie point in fields up to 70 kOe. The magnetic contribution of the Ca sample exhibits a sharp heat capacity peak at TC?218 K in zero field. The peak broadens and decreases in height with increasing field but, unlike an ordinary ferromagnet, the peak shifts substantially in temperature. As a consequence, the heat capacity data cannot be collapsed into a single scaling function. These features indicate that the transition is not an ordinary second-order ferromagnetic transition. Preliminary heat capacity data from the Sr-doped single crystal, with TC?360 K, do not exhibit the same shift in peak position with applied field. We attribute the difference in behavior between Ca- and Sr-doped samples to a change in the nature of the phase transition as TC lowers.

  19. Seismic capacity of switchgear

    SciTech Connect

    Bandyopadhyay, K.; Hofmayer, C.; Kassir, M.; Pepper, S.

    1989-01-01

    As part of a component fragility program sponsored by the USNRC, BNL has collected existing information on the seismic capacity of switchgear assemblies from major manufacturers. Existing seismic test data for both low and medium voltage switchgear assemblies have been evaluated and the generic results are presented in this paper. The failure modes are identified and the corresponding generic lower bound capacity levels are established. The test response spectra have been used as a measure of the test vibration input. The results indicate that relays chatter at a very low input level at the base of the switchgear cabinet. This change of state of devices including relays have been observed. Breaker tripping occurs at a higher vibration level. Although the structural failure of internal elements have been noticed, the overall switchgear cabinet structure withstands a high vibration level. 5 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Heat Capacity Mapping Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nilsson, C. S.; Andrews, J. C.; Scully-Power, P.; Ball, S.; Speechley, G.; Latham, A. R. (principal investigators)

    1980-01-01

    The Tasman Front was delineated by airborne expendable bathythermograph survey; and an Heat Capacity Mapping Mission (HCMM) IR image on the same day shows the same principal features as determined from ground-truth. It is clear that digital enhancement of HCMM images is necessary to map ocean surface temperatures and when done, the Tasman Front and other oceanographic features can be mapped by this method, even through considerable scattered cloud cover.

  1. Improved double-wall artery high capacity heat pipe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponnappan, R.; Beam, J. E.

    1984-06-01

    The double-wall artery heat pipe is a novel commposite wick structure for high capacity heat pipe designs. Encouraged by the initial test results for the proof-of-concept 1.2 m long copper-water prototype, additional work has been performed to improve the transport capacity and overall performance of the double-wall heat pipe. The improved design reported in this paper incorporates segmented grooved inner tube, larger arteries, and screenless adiabatic and condenser sections to allow longer transport length. Artery priming characteristics and preliminary test results of a 2 m long 2.22 cm diameter copper-water heat pipe unit are presented.

  2. Preliminary Analysis of Photoreading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McNamara, Danielle S.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to provide a preliminary analysis of a reading strategy called PhotoReading. PhotoReading is a technique developed by Paul Scheele that claims to increase reading rate to 25,000 words per minute (Scheele, 1993). PhotoReading itself involves entering a "relaxed state" and looking at, but not reading, each page of a text for a brief moment (about I to 2 seconds). While this technique has received attention in the popular press, there had been no objective examinations of the technique's validity. To examine the effectiveness of PhotoReading, the principal investigator (i.e., trainee) participated in a PhotoReading workshop to learn the technique. Parallel versions of two standardized and three experimenter-created reading comprehension tests were administered to the trainee and an expert user of the PhotoReading technique to compare the use of normal reading strategies and the PhotoReading technique by both readers. The results for all measures yielded no benefits of using the PhotoReading technique. The extremely rapid reading rates claimed by PhotoReaders were not observed; indeed, the reading rates were generally comparable to those for normal reading. Moreover, the PhotoReading expert generally showed an increase in reading time when using the PhotoReading technique in comparison to when using normal reading strategies to process text. This increase in reading time when PhotoReading was accompanied by a decrease in text comprehension.

  3. Data use investigations for applications Explorer Mission A (Heat Capacity Mapping Mission): HCMM's role in studies of the urban heat island, Great Lakes thermal phenomena and radiometric calibration of satellite data. [Buffalo, Syracuse, and Rochester New York and Lake Ontario

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schott, J. R. (principal investigator); Schimminger, E. W.

    1981-01-01

    The utility of data from NASA'a heat capacity mapping mission satellite for studies of the urban heat island, thermal phenomena in large lakes and radiometric calibration of satellite sensors was assessed. The data were found to be of significant value in all cases. Using HCMM data, the existence and microstructure of the heat island can be observed and associated with land cover within the urban complex. The formation and development of the thermal bar in the Great Lakes can be observed and quantitatively mapped using HCMM data. In addition, the thermal patterns observed can be associated with water quality variations observed both from other remote sensing platforms and in situ. The imaging radiometer on-board the HCMM satellite is shown to be calibratible to within about 1.1 C of actual surface temperatures. These findings, as well as the analytical procedures used in studying the HCMM data, are included.

  4. RE 0.6Zr 0.4? x Y x O 2 (RE = Ce, Pr; x = 0, 0.05) solid solutions: an investigation on defective structure, oxygen mobility, oxygen storage capacity, and redox properties

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H He; H. X Dai; K. W Wong; C. T Au

    2003-01-01

    We have examined the crystal structures, surface textures, oxygen mobility, oxygen storage capacity, and redox behaviors of RE0.6Zr0.4?xYxO2 (RE=Ce, Pr; x=0, 0.05) solid solutions. According to the results of X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies, there are two cubic phases (Ce0.75Zr0.25O2, major; ZrO1.87, minor) in Ce0.6Zr0.4O2 (denoted as CZ hereafter) and Ce0.6Zr0.35Y0.05O2 (CZY), but only one cubic phase in Pr0.60Zr0.40O2 (PZ) and

  5. DS-SSMA capacity for a mobile satellite system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartucca, Francesco; Biglieri, Ezio

    1993-01-01

    We consider a cellular satellite system conceived to enhance the capabilities of the pan-European terrestrial system (GSM). The system adopts EHF band and highly-inclined orbits. We present a preliminary assessment of system capacity based on asynchronous direct-sequence spread-spectrum multiple access (DS-SSMA). Performance is measured in terms of error probability achieved by K users simultaneously accessing the system with a given signal-to-noise ratio.

  6. Fair capacity sharing of multiple aperiodic servers

    E-print Network

    Melapudi, Vinod Reddy

    2002-01-01

    introduced Capacity sharing protocol, in which a server can use the unused capacity of other servers. Though capacity-sharing protocol minimized the capacity exhaustions in multiple servers, it did not deal with fairness in sharing of capacity among demanding...

  7. The heat capacity mapping mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Short, N. M.

    1981-01-01

    The first in a series of low cost Atmospheric Explorer Satellites, the Heat Capacity Mapping Mission (HCMM) was designed to evaluate the utility of thermal inertial and other thermal and reflectance data for: (1) discriminating bedrock and unconsolidated regolith types; (2) mapping soil moisture; (3) measuring plant canopy temperatures; (4) examining thermal circulation in large bodies of water; and (5) monitoring urban heat islands. Final reports from the HCMM investigator's program are beginning to define the utility of day/the night thermal data. Under favorable circumstances, some major rock types can be identified, soil moisture in extensive agricultural and alluvial terrains can be detected and at least semiqualitatively assessed; and circulation of currents in large bodies of water can be followed by noting thermal patterns.

  8. Preliminary Drill Sites

    DOE Data Explorer

    Lane, Michael

    Preliminary locations for intermediate depth temperature gradient holes and/or resource confirmation wells based on compilation of geological, geophysical and geochemical data prior to carrying out the DOE-funded reflection seismic survey.

  9. Preliminary Drill Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Lane, Michael

    2013-06-28

    Preliminary locations for intermediate depth temperature gradient holes and/or resource confirmation wells based on compilation of geological, geophysical and geochemical data prior to carrying out the DOE-funded reflection seismic survey.

  10. 2012 CBECS Preliminary Results

    EIA Publications

    2014-01-01

    The preliminary results from the Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) show that there were 5.6 million commercial buildings in the United States in 2012, comprising 87.4 billion square feet of floorspace.

  11. High-performance liquid chromatography of amino acids, peptides and proteins. CIX. Investigations on the relation between the ligand density of cibacron blue immobilized porous and non-porous sorbents and protein-binding capacities and association constants.

    PubMed

    Wirth, H J; Unger, K K; Hearn, M T

    1991-07-26

    A porous silica of nominal 5 microns particle diameter and 30 nm pore size (Nucleosil 300-5) and a non-porous silica of nominal 1.5 microns particle diameter were activated with 3-mercaptopropyltriethoxysilane (MPTS), followed by the immobilization of the triazine dye, Cibacron Blue F3GA. Various biomimetic dye sorbents with graduated ligand densities between 1 mumol/m2 and 0.01 mumol/m2 were prepared. The capacities and the association constants associated with the binding of lysozyme to these sorbents were determined by frontal analysis experiments [J. Chromatogr., 476 (1989) 205-225]. Due to the ability of the Cibacron Blue F3GA-modified silicas to act as mixed mode coulombic and hydrophobic interaction sorbents and the highly charged nature of the surface structure of lysozyme (pl 11), two mobile phase conditions were examined. In one case a 0.1 M phosphate buffer, pH 7.8, was used as the equilibration and loading buffer, in the second case 1 M sodium chloride-0.1 M phosphate buffer, pH 7.8 was employed as the equilibration and loading buffer to monitor the influence of ionic interactions. The elution was performed in each case with a 2.5 M potassium thiocyanate solution. With the porous silica dye sorbents and 1 M NaCl present in the loading buffer, the highest capacity was achieved when Cibacron Blue F3GA was immobilised to the level of 0.1 mumol/m2. In the case of the non-porous silica dye sorbents, the maximum protein capacity was achieved when 0.5 mumol/m2 dye were immobilised onto the support. Evaluation of the frontal breakthrough curves confirmed that the kinetics of adsorption of lysozyme onto the non-porous sorbent were substantially faster than the adsorption of lysozyme onto the porous sorbent due to the absence of pore diffusion effects in case of the non-porous support. Furthermore, the adsorption of lysozyme on both sorbents was faster when no salt was added to the loading buffer, indicating that there is either conformational or reorientation effects operating during the specific binding of the protein to the dye ligand, or that the interaction is proceeding through the participation of a second class of binding sites. The magnitude of the association constants, Ka, for the lysozyme-Cibacron Blue F3GA systems were found to be dependent on the ligand density of the sorbent. With decreasing ligand density, the protein-ligand interaction became stronger, e.g. Ka values became larger. These results confirm earlier observations on the effect of ligand steric compression on the affinate-ligand association constant, e.g. the protein needs sufficient space to interact with the ligand in an optimum way.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:1663504

  12. Functional Capacity Evaluation & Disability

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Joseph J

    2007-01-01

    Function, Impairment, and Disability are words in which many physicians have little interest. Most physicians are trained to deal with structure and physiology and not function and disability. The purpose of this article is to address some of the common questions that many physicians have with the use of functional capacity evaluation and disability and also to provide a unifying model that can explain the medical and societal variables in predicting disability. We will first define the functional capacity evaluation (FCE) and explore the different types available as well as their uses. We will review several studies exploring the validity and reliability of the FCE on healthy and chronic pain patients. We will examine the few studies that look into whether an FCE is predictive of return to work and whether an FCE is predictive of disability. In the second half of this article, we will focus on the Assessment of Disability from the origins of the United States Social Security Administration to a bold new concept, the World Health Organization's International Classification of Function, Disability and Health. PMID:17907444

  13. Preliminary design study for an atomospheric science facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutchison, R.

    1972-01-01

    The activities and results of the Atmospheric Science Facility preliminary design study are reported. The objectives of the study were to define the scientific goals, to determine the range of experiment types, and to develop the preliminary instrument design requirements for a reusable, general purpose, optical research facility for investigating the earth's atmosphere from a space shuttle orbital vehicle.

  14. North American fertilizer capacity data

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    This listing of producers and their fertilizer production capacities was compiled in January 1991 with the cooperation of the US and Canadian fertilizer industry. Capacity is only an indicator of supply. Nameplate capacity differs from planned production levels or actual production because plants often operate above or below design capacity. Unless reported otherwise, plant capacities are based on 340 days per year of operation. No adjustment is made for partial year operation. Numerical data for the production of ammonia, ammonium nitrate, nitrogen solutions, urea, phosphate rock, phosphoric acid and ammonium phosphates is included.

  15. The effect of elevated levels of thyroxine on the aerobic capacity of locomotor muscles of the tufted duck, Aythya fuligula

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. M. Bishop; P. J. Butler; N. M. Atkinson

    1995-01-01

    Following extended periods of relative inactivity, or prior to migration, birds are able to increase the aerobic capacity of their locomotory muscles. Thyroid hormones may influence this process. A preliminary study was undertaken to assess the ability of elevated levels of thyroxine to increase the aerobic capacity of the locomotory and cardiac muscles of adult tufted ducks. Administration of thyroxine

  16. SERVIR Science Applications for Capacity Building

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Limaye, A. S.; Searby, N. D.; Irwin, D.

    2012-12-01

    SERVIR is a regional visualization and monitoring system using Earth observations to support environmental management, climate adaptation, and disaster response in developing countries. SERVIR is jointly sponsored by NASA and the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID). SERVIR has been instrumental in development of science applications to support the decision-making and capacity building in the developing countries with the help of SERVIR Hubs. In 2011, NASA Research Opportunities in Space and Earth Sciences (ROSES) included a call for proposals to form SERVIR Applied Sciences Team (SERVIR AST) under Applied Sciences Capacity Building Program. Eleven proposals were selected, the Principal Investigators of which comprise the core of the SERVIR AST. The expertise on the Team span several societal benefit areas including agriculture, disasters, public health and air quality, water, climate and terrestrial carbon assessments. This presentation will cover the existing SERVIR science applications, capacity building components, overview of SERVIR AST projects, and anticipated impacts.

  17. SERVIR Science Applications for Capacity Building

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Limaye, Ashutosh; Searby, Nancy D.; Irwin, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    SERVIR is a regional visualization and monitoring system using Earth observations to support environmental management, climate adaptation, and disaster response in developing countries. SERVIR is jointly sponsored by NASA and the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID). SERVIR has been instrumental in development of science applications to support the decision-making and capacity building in the developing countries with the help of SERVIR Hubs. In 2011, NASA Research Opportunities in Space and Earth Sciences (ROSES) included a call for proposals to form SERVIR Applied Sciences Team (SERVIR AST) under Applied Sciences Capacity Building Program. Eleven proposals were selected, the Principal Investigators of which comprise the core of the SERVIR AST. The expertise on the Team span several societal benefit areas including agriculture, disasters, public health and air quality, water, climate and terrestrial carbon assessments. This presentation will cover the existing SERVIR science applications, capacity building components, overview of SERVIR AST projects, and anticipated impacts.

  18. Continuity of quantum channel capacities

    E-print Network

    Debbie Leung; Graeme Smith

    2009-02-18

    We prove that a broad array of capacities of a quantum channel are continuous. That is, two channels that are close with respect to the diamond norm have correspondingly similar communication capabilities. We first show that the classical capacity, quantum capacity, and private classical capacity are continuous, with the variation on arguments epsilon apart bounded by a simple function of epsilon and the channel's output dimension. Our main tool is an upper bound of the variation of output entropies of many copies of two nearby channels given the same initial state; the bound is linear in the number of copies. Our second proof is concerned with the quantum capacities in the presence of free backward or two-way public classical communication. These capacities are proved continuous on the interior of the set of non-zero capacity channels by considering mutual simulation between similar channels.

  19. Cold Drink Ingestion Improves Exercise Endurance Capacity in the Heat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JASON K. W. LEE; SUSAN M. SHIRREFFS; RONALD J. MAUGHAN

    2008-01-01

    LEE, J. K. W., S. M. SHIRREFFS, and R. J. MAUGHAN. Cold Drink Ingestion Improves Exercise Endurance Capacity in the Heat. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 40, No. 9, pp. 1637-1644, 2008. Purpose: To investigate the effect of drink temperature on cycling capacity in the heat. Methods: On two separate trials, eight males cycled at 66 T 2% VO2peak (mean

  20. Enhanced oxygen storage capacity of Ce{sub 0.88}Mn{sub 0.12}O{sub y} compared to CeO{sub 2}: An experimental and theoretical investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Minhua; Jiang, Dongyu [Key Laboratory for Green Chemical Technology of Ministry of Education, R and D Center for Petrochemical Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)] [Key Laboratory for Green Chemical Technology of Ministry of Education, R and D Center for Petrochemical Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Jiang, Haoxi, E-mail: hxjiang@tju.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Green Chemical Technology of Ministry of Education, R and D Center for Petrochemical Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)] [Key Laboratory for Green Chemical Technology of Ministry of Education, R and D Center for Petrochemical Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2012-12-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ? Ce{sub 0.88}Mn{sub 0.12}O{sub y} and CeO{sub 2} hollow nanospheres were successfully prepared via a supercritical antisolvent process. ? Compared with the pure CeO{sub 2}, the Ce{sub 0.88}Mn{sub 0.12}O{sub y} has nearly the same surface area but more oxygen vacancies. ? DFT calculations shows that the surface oxygen of the CeO{sub 2} gets activated after doping Mn. -- Abstract: Ce{sub 0.88}Mn{sub 0.12}O{sub y} and CeO{sub 2} nanoparticles have been successfully prepared via a supercritical antisolvent process. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy displays the hollow and spherical structures of these nanoparticles. X-ray diffraction analysis demonstrates the formation of Ce{sub 0.88}Mn{sub 0.12}O{sub y} solid solution. N{sub 2} adsorption reveals that the Ce{sub 0.88}Mn{sub 0.12}O{sub y} has nearly the same surface area with the CeO{sub 2}. It is shown that the Ce{sub 0.88}Mn{sub 0.12}O{sub y} has higher oxygen storage capacity (OSC) than the CeO{sub 2}. To understand the mechanism of the improved OSC of the Mn doped CeO{sub 2}, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectra and density functional theoretical (DFT) calculations have been performed. It is found that the Ce{sub 0.88}Mn{sub 0.12}O{sub y} presents more oxygen vacancies, indicating the easier of oxygen mobility from bulk to surface. DFT calculations reveal that structural and electronic modifications are caused by the incorporation of Mn in the CeO{sub 2}, resulting in activated oxygen species. The oxygen vacancy formation energy is lowered by the Mn doping. These changes are responsible for the enhanced OSC of the Ce{sub 0.88}Mn{sub 0.12}O{sub y}.

  1. 29 CFR 1984.104 - Investigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Investigation. 1984.104 Section 1984.104 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued...Investigations, Findings and Preliminary Orders § 1984.104 Investigation. (a) Upon...

  2. 29 CFR 1984.104 - Investigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Investigation. 1984.104 Section 1984.104 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued...Investigations, Findings and Preliminary Orders § 1984.104 Investigation. (a) Upon...

  3. Acoustic Analysis of Tones in Contemporary Standard Slovene: Preliminary Findings

    E-print Network

    Jurgec, Peter

    2007-01-01

    zlogu se F0 najbolj razlikuje v zadnjem zlogu. The author presents preliminary findings of a larger acoustic study into prosodic structure of Slovene. This investigation in acoustic properties of tones in Slovene addresses vowel duration, intensity...

  4. First mideast capacity planned

    SciTech Connect

    Fattah, H.

    1996-11-06

    Kuwait catalyst Co.`s (KCC) plans to build a hydrodesulfurization (HDS) catalysts plant in Kuwait will mark the startup of the first refining catalysts production in the Persian Gulf region. KCC, owned by a conglomerate of Kuwait companies and governmental agencies, has licensed catalyst manufacturing technology from Japan Energy in a deal estimated at more than 7 billion ($62 million). Plant design will be based on technology from Orient Catalyst, Japan Energy`s catalysts division. Construction is expected to begin in January 1997 for production startup by January 1998. A source close to the deal says the new plant will eventually reach a capacity of 5,000 m.t./year of HDS catalysts to supply most of Kuwait`s estimated 3,500-m.t./year demand, driven primarily by Kuwait National Petroleum refineries. KCC also expects to supply demand from other catalyst consumers in the region. Alumina supply will be acquired on the open market. KCC will take all production from the plant and will be responsible for marketing.

  5. Variable-capacity turbocharger

    SciTech Connect

    Houkita, A.; Hokari, T.

    1987-09-01

    A variable-capacity turbocharger is described comprising: (a) a turbine casing having a turbine inlet portion, a turbine outlet portion and a scroll chamber; (b) a turbine impeller located in the scroll chamber and having a multiplicity of blades; (c) a partition wall extending to the vicinity of the turbine inlet portion to partition the scroll chamber into a first scroll chamber and a second scroll chamber and to define a first exhaust introducing passageway and a second exhaust introducing passageway for introducing exhaust gases separately into the first scroll chamber and second chamber respectively; (d) exhaust flow control valve means located at least in the second exhaust introducing passageway and opening in the direction of flow of the exhaust gases; and (e) valve set means formed separately from the turbine casing and located in the turbine inlet portion, the valve seat means cooperating with the exhaust flow control valve means to control the flowrate of exhaust gases flowing into the second exhaust introducing passageway.

  6. Adaptive capacity and its assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Engle, Nathan L.

    2011-04-20

    This paper reviews the concept of adaptive capacity and various approaches to assessing it, particularly with respect to climate variability and change. I find that adaptive capacity is a relatively under-researched topic within the sustainability science and global change communities, particularly since it is uniquely positioned to improve linkages between vulnerability and resilience research. I identify opportunities for advancing the measurement and characterization of adaptive capacity by combining insights from both vulnerability and resilience frameworks, and I suggest several assessment approaches for possible future development that draw from both frameworks and focus on analyzing the governance, institutions, and management that have helped foster adaptive capacity in light of recent climatic events.

  7. Creative agencies : a model for building community capacity

    E-print Network

    Ramaccia, Elizabeth M. (Elizabeth Marie)

    2011-01-01

    This research investigates how existing initiatives based in artistic and non-artistic disciplines build indigenous capacity for leadership in disenfranchised communities through the application of the creative process. ...

  8. A two-part preliminary investigation of encoding-related activation changes after moderate to severe traumatic brain injury: hyperactivation, repetition suppression, and the role of the prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Gillis, M Meredith; Hampstead, Benjamin M

    2014-12-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) survivors typically exhibit significant learning and memory deficits and also frequently demonstrate hyperactivation during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) tasks involving working memory encoding and maintenance. However, it remains unclear whether the hyperactivation observed during such working memory tasks is also present during long-term memory encoding. The preliminary experiments presented here were designed to examine this question. In Experiment 1, 7 healthy controls (HC) and 7 patients with moderate to severe TBI encoded ecologically relevant object location associations (OLA) while undergoing fMRI and then completed a memory test outside of the fMRI environment. fMRI data analysis included only the correctly encoded trials and revealed hyperactivation in the TBI relative to HC group in regions critical for OLA encoding, including bilateral dorsal and ventral visual processing areas, bilateral frontoparietal working memory network regions, and the left medial temporal lobe. There was also an incidental finding that this hyperactivation persisted after multiple exposures to the same stimulus, which may indicate an attenuated repetition suppression effect that could ultimately contribute to cognitive fatigue and inefficient memory encoding after TBI. Experiment 2 directly assessed repetition suppression in some of the same HC and TBI participants. During early encoding trials, the TBI group showed large areas of hyperactivation in the right prefrontal cortex and bilateral posterior parietal cortices relative to the HC. Following additional exposure to these stimuli, the TBI group showed repetition suppression in visual and spatial processing regions, but continued to show hyperactivation in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Findings from these preliminary studies may reflect that increased reliance on cognitive control mechanisms following TBI extends to memory encoding. PMID:25481386

  9. Capacity of Multi-antenna Gaussian Channels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emre Telatar

    1999-01-01

    We investigate the use of multiple transmitting and\\/or receiving antennasfor single user communications over the additive Gaussian channel with andwithout fading. We derive formulas for the capacities and error exponents ofsuch channels, and describe computational procedures to evaluate such formulas.We show that the potential gains of such multi-antenna systems oversingle-antenna systems is rather large under independence assumptions for thefades and

  10. MIMO wireless channels: capacity and performance prediction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Gesbert; H. Bolcskei; D. Gore; A. Paulraj

    2000-01-01

    We present a new model for multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) outdoor wireless fading channels which is more general and realistic than the usual i.i.d. model. We investigate the channel capacity as a function of parameters such as the local scattering radius at the transmitter and the receiver, the distance between the transmit (TX) and receive (RX) arrays, and the antenna beamwidths

  11. California Energy Commission PRELIMINARY

    E-print Network

    Recovery and Reinvestment Act State Energy Program Guidelines 5 A. BackgroundCalifornia Energy Commission PRELIMINARY STATE ENERGY PROGRAM GUIDELINES JULY 16, 2009 CEC-150-2009-004-D American Recovery and Reinvestment Act 2009 #12;3 Table of Contents CHAPTER I: American

  12. Topaz II preliminary safety assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, A.C. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Standley, V. (Air Force Phillips Laboratory, Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Voss, S.S. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Haskin, E. (New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering)

    1992-01-01

    The Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (SDIO) decided to investigate the possibility of launching a Russian Topaz 11 space nuclear power system. A preliminary safety assessment was conducted to determine whether or not a space mission could be conducted safely and within budget constraints. As part of this assessment, a safety policy and safety functional requirements were developed to guide both the safely assessment and future Topaz II activities. A review of the Russian flight safety program was conducted and documented. Our preliminary safety assessment included a top level event tree, neutronic analysis of normal and accident configurations, an evaluation of temperature coefficients of reactivity, a reentry and disposal analysis, and analysis of postulated launch abort impact accidents, and an analysis of postulated propellant fire and explosion accidents. Based on the assessment, it appears that it will be possible to safely launch the Topaz II system in the US with some possible system modifications. The principal system modifications will probably include design changes to preclude water flooded criticality and to assure intact reentry.

  13. Topaz II preliminary safety assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, A.C. (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States)); Standley, V. (Air Force Phillips Laboratory, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87110 (United States)); Voss, S.S. (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)); Haskin, E. (Department of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering Department, Institute for Nuclear Power Studies, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87110 (United States))

    1993-01-10

    The Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (SDIO) decided to investigate the possibility of launching a Russian Topaz II space nuclear power system. A preliminary safety assessment was conducted to determine whether or not a space mission could be conducted safely and within budget constraints. As part of this assessment, a safety policy and safety functional requirements were developed to guide both the safety assessment and future Topaz II activities. A review of the Russian flight safety program was conducted and documented. Our preliminary safety assessment included a top level event tree, neutronic analysis of normal and accident configurations, an evaluation of temperature coefficients of reactivity, a reentry and disposal analysis, and analysis of postulated launch abort impact accidents, and an analysis of postulated propellant fire and explosion accidents. Based on the assessment, it appears that it will be possible to safely launch the Topaz II system in the U.S. with some possible system modifications. The principal system modifications will probably include design changes to preclude water flooded criticality and to assure intact reentry.

  14. Descent Advisor Preliminary Field Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Steven M.; Vivona, Robert A.; Sanford, Beverly

    1995-01-01

    A field test of the Descent Advisor (DA) automation tool was conducted at the Denver Air Route Traffic Control Center in September 1994. DA is being developed to assist Center controllers in the efficient management and control of arrival traffic. DA generates advisories, based on trajectory predictions, to achieve accurate meter-fix arrival times in a fuel efficient manner while assisting the controller with the prediction and resolution of potential conflicts. The test objectives were: (1) to evaluate the accuracy of DA trajectory predictions for conventional and flight-management system equipped jet transports, (2) to identify significant sources of trajectory prediction error, and (3) to investigate procedural and training issues (both air and ground) associated with DA operations. Various commercial aircraft (97 flights total) and a Boeing 737-100 research aircraft participated in the test. Preliminary results from the primary test set of 24 commercial flights indicate a mean DA arrival time prediction error of 2.4 seconds late with a standard deviation of 13.1 seconds. This paper describes the field test and presents preliminary results for the commercial flights.

  15. Enrollment Capacity and Technology Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington Higher Education Coordinating Board, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The 2007-09 Appropriations Act provided funding to the Higher Education Coordinating Board (HECB) to study the state's capital facility and technology capacity. Specifically, "...state appropriation is provided solely to implement a capital facility and technology capacity study which will compare the 10-year enrollment projections with the…

  16. Predicting actual incinerator system capacity

    SciTech Connect

    Zwayyed, S.K. [IT Corp., Knoxville, TN (United States); Novak, R. [RGN Consultants, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Estimating the optimal treatment capacity of a typical incineration system (a kiln plus a secondary combustion chamber) for a specific waste profile is no easy task. This article discusses a two-stage method for determining optimal incineration treatment capacity for a wide range of waste feeds, operating conditions and regulatory requirements. It integrates system design attributes with heat and material balances.

  17. Preliminary Panda Architecture Peter Reiher

    E-print Network

    California at Los Angeles, University of

    Preliminary Panda Architecture Peter Reiher August 12, 1998 1. Introduction The Panda system architecture they are developing sets certain limits on what is possible in Panda. This document describes a preliminary architecture for the Panda system. This preliminary architecture is meant purely to serve

  18. North American fertilizer capacity data

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-01

    This listing of fertilizer producers and their production capacities was compiled in February 1993 with the cooperation of the US and Canadian fertilizer industry. TVA does not guarantee the completeness or accuracy of the information. Capacity is only an indicator of supply. Nameplate capacity differs from planned production levels or actual production because plants often operate above or below design capacity. Unless reported otherwise, plant capacities are based on 340 days per year of operation. No adjustment is made for partial year operation. Information is given on the following types of fertilizers: ammonia, ammonium nitrate, nitrogen solutions, urea, ammonium sulfate, phosphate rock, wet-process phosphoric acid, ammonium phosphates, concentrated superphosphates, potash, nitric acid, superphosphoric acid, upgraded phosphoric acids, normal superphosphate, elemental phosphorus, potassium sulfate, and sulfate of potash/magnesia.

  19. Handwriting Capacity in Children Newly Diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brossard-Racine, Marie; Majnemer, Annette; Shevell, Michael; Snider, Laurie; Belanger, Stacey Ageranioti

    2011-01-01

    Preliminary evidence suggests that children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) may exhibit handwriting difficulties. However, the exact nature of these difficulties and the extent to which they may relate to motor or behavioural difficulties remains unclear. The aim of this study was to describe handwriting capacity in children…

  20. Preliminary designs for modular OTEC platform station-keeping subsystems. Final report. MR and S Report No. 6042-6

    SciTech Connect

    None

    1980-02-29

    This volume of the report presents the results of the third through the sixth tasks of the Station Keeping Subsystem (SKSS) design studies for 10/40 MW/sub e/ capacity OTEC Modular Experiment platforms (MEP). Tasks 3 through 6 are: (3) complete preliminary designs for one SKSS for each of the two platforms (SPAR and BARGE); (4) development and testing recommendations for the MEP SKSS; (5) cost-time analysis; and (6) commercial plant recommendations. The overall conclusions and recommendations for the modular, as well as the commercial, OTEC platform station keeping subsystems are delineated. The basic design assumptions made during the process, the technical approach followed, and the results of design iterations, reliability and performance analyses are given. A complete description of the preliminary design SKSS concept is presented. The summary cost estimates for each of the alternative SKSS concepts considered are presented and a time schedule for the recommended concept is provided. The effects of varying some of the important parameters used in SKSS design on the performance and cost of the mooring system are investigated and results presented. The tests required and other developmental recommendations in order to verify and confirm the basic design assumptions are discussed. Finally, the experience gained in the MEP preliminary designs are extended to future commercial OTEC plants' SKSS designs. (WHK)

  1. GC/MS profiling of gamma-hydroxybutyrate and precursors in various animal tissues using automatic solid-phase extraction. Preliminary investigations of its potential interest in postmortem interval determination.

    PubMed

    Richard, Damien; Ling, Bing; Authier, Nicolas; Faict, Thierry W; Eschalier, Alain; Coudoré, François

    2005-03-01

    To quantify gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) and its physiological metabolites, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), 1,4-butanediol (1,4-BD), and gamma-butyrolactone (GBL) in various animal tissues (kidney, muscle, heart, liver, blood, brain cortex, thalamus, hypothalamus, hippocampus, or pons), an original gas chromatographic/mass spectrometric method with a automated solid-phase extraction by Oasis MCX cartridges on a Gilson Aspec Xli was developed. Using such apparatus allowed the limit of detection (LOD) of target compounds to be significantly lowered (LOD: 0.027, 0.025, and 5.7 microg/mL for GHB, 1,4-BD, and GABA, respectively, in 200 microL or microg of sample). After validation of each analytical step, the satisfactory performances of the apparatus in conjunction with the rapidity and ease of the extraction step make it suitable for simultaneous assay of GHB, 1,4-BD, GBL, and GABA. The method was used to test the correlation between GHB levels in tissues obtained at different times after death of male Sprague-Dawley rats and the postmortem interval. Preliminary results show a linear increase of GHB levels in relation to time of death in thoracic blood and central nervous system of animals kept at 15 and 20 degrees C. PMID:15732918

  2. Integrated capacity and inventory management with capacity acquisition lead times

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gergely Mincsovics; Tarkan Tan; Osman Alp

    2009-01-01

    We model a make-to-stock production system that utilizes permanent and contingent ca- pacity to meet non-stationary stochastic demand, where a constant lead time is associated with the acquisition of contingent capacity. We determine the structure of the optimal solu- tion concerning both the operational decisions of integrated inventory and ?exible capacity management, and the tactical decision of determining the optimal

  3. Global Environmental Change: Carrying Capacity

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Environmental Protection Agency

    1997-01-01

    Carrying Capacity addresses the ability of the Earth to sustain healthy populations of different species. Earth's human population, now past six billion, is expected to reach 10 billion by 2030. This growth will place an even greater strain on the planet's carrying capacity. With your school as a case study, link small-scale biology, ecology, and Earth science to the big picture. Carrying Capacity is one of four books in NSTA Press's Global Environmental Change series, a joint project of NSTA Press and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The other books in the series are Deforestation, Biodiversity, and Introduced Species.

  4. Measuring the Heat Capacity of Greenhouse Gases

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This quantitative experiment involves lab teams in comparing a sample of room air with one of the greenhouse gases - carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, or methane - and measuring their heat capacity. The activity requires an infrared heat source, such as a heat lamp, two 2L beverage bottles, #4 one hole rubber stoppers, and a thermometer or temperature probe, volumetric flasks, a graduated cylinder, and tubing. Nitrous oxide can be obtained from a dentist, methane from gas jets in a chemistry lab, and becomes CO² can be generated using vinegar and baking soda. A worksheet guides student calculations of heat capacity of the different samples. The investigation s is supported by the textbook, Climate Change, part of the Global System Science, an interdisciplinary course for high school students that emphasizes how scientists from a wide variety of fields work together to understand significant problems of global impact.

  5. Reductive capacity of natural reductants.

    PubMed

    Lee, Woojin; Batchelor, Bill

    2003-02-01

    Reductive capacities of soil minerals and soil for Cr(VI) and chlorinated ethylenes were measured and characterized to provide basic knowledge for in-situ and ex-situ treatment using these natural reductants. The reductive capacities of iron-bearing sulfide (pyrite), hydroxide (green rust; GR(SO4)), and oxide (magnetite) minerals for Cr(VI) and tetrachloroethylene (PCE) were 1-3 orders of magnitude greater than those of iron-bearing phyllosilicates (biotite, vermiculite, and montmorillonite). The reductive capacities of surface soil collected from the plains of central Texas were similar and slightly greater than those of iron-bearing phyllosilicates. The reductive capacity of iron-bearing soil minerals for Cr(VI) was roughly 3-16 times greater than that for PCE, implying that Cr(VI) is more susceptible to being reduced by soil minerals than is PCE. GR(SO4) has the greatest reductive capacity for both Cr(VI) and PCE followed by magnetite, pyrite, biotite, montmorillonite, and vermiculite. This order was the same for both target compounds, which indicates that the relative reductive capacities of soil minerals are consistent. The reductive capacities of pyrite and GR(SO4) for chlorinated ethylenes decreased in the order: trichloroethylene (TCE) > PCE > cis-dichloroethylene (c-DCE) > vinyl chloride (VC). Fe(II) content in soil minerals was directly proportional to the reductive capacity of soil minerals for Cr(VI) and PCE, suggesting that Fe(II) content is an important factor that significantly affects reductive transformations of target contaminants in natural systems. PMID:12630469

  6. On Effective Capacity in Time-Varying Wireless Networks Hongxia Sun Carey Williamson

    E-print Network

    Williamson, Carey

    traffic. The network capacity available for low priority traffic thus varies with time based on high. In this paper, we investigate the impacts from stochastic capacity characteristics, using simulation. We explore have adverse impacts on effective capacity. However, correlations in the ca- pacity value process

  7. Impacts of technology on the capacity needs of the US national airspace system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ausrotas, Raymond A.; Simpson, Robert W.

    1992-01-01

    A review of the U.S. air transportation system is undertaken, focusing on airspace and airport capacity. Causes of delay and congestion are investigated. Aircraft noise is identified as the fundamental hindrance to capacity improvement. Research areas for NASA are suggested to improve capacity through technology.

  8. Sexual Dimorphism in Primate Aerobic Capacity: A Phylogenetic Test

    PubMed Central

    Lindenfors, Patrik; Revell, Liam J.; Nunn, Charles L.

    2010-01-01

    Male intrasexual competition should favour increased male physical prowess. This should in turn result in greater aerobic capacity in males than in females (i.e., sexual dimorphism), and a correlation between sexual dimorphism in aerobic capacity and the strength of sexual selection among species. However, physiological scaling laws predict that aerobic capacity should be lower per unit body mass in larger than in smaller animals, potentially reducing or reversing the sex difference and its association with measures of sexual selection. We used measures of hematocrit and red blood cell (RBC) counts from 45 species of primates to test four predictions related to sexual selection and body mass: (i) on average, males should have higher aerobic capacity than females, (ii) aerobic capacity should be higher in adult than juvenile males, (iii) aerobic capacity should increase with increasing sexual selection, but also that (iv) measures of aerobic capacity should covary negatively with body mass. For the first two predictions we used a phylogenetic paired t-test developed for this study. We found support for predictions (i) and (ii). For prediction (iii), however, we found a negative correlation between the degree of sexual selection and aerobic capacity, which was opposite to our prediction. Prediction (iv) was generally supported. We also investigated whether substrate use, basal metabolic rate, and agility influenced physiological measures of oxygen transport, but we found only weak evidence for a correlation between RBC count and agility. PMID:20406346

  9. Cognitive Spare Capacity and Speech Communication: A Narrative Overview

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background noise can make speech communication tiring and cognitively taxing, especially for individuals with hearing impairment. It is now well established that better working memory capacity is associated with better ability to understand speech under adverse conditions as well as better ability to benefit from the advanced signal processing in modern hearing aids. Recent work has shown that although such processing cannot overcome hearing handicap, it can increase cognitive spare capacity, that is, the ability to engage in higher level processing of speech. This paper surveys recent work on cognitive spare capacity and suggests new avenues of investigation. PMID:24971355

  10. Cognitive spare capacity and speech communication: a narrative overview.

    PubMed

    Rudner, Mary; Lunner, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Background noise can make speech communication tiring and cognitively taxing, especially for individuals with hearing impairment. It is now well established that better working memory capacity is associated with better ability to understand speech under adverse conditions as well as better ability to benefit from the advanced signal processing in modern hearing aids. Recent work has shown that although such processing cannot overcome hearing handicap, it can increase cognitive spare capacity, that is, the ability to engage in higher level processing of speech. This paper surveys recent work on cognitive spare capacity and suggests new avenues of investigation. PMID:24971355

  11. Magnetic heat capacity in lanthanum manganite single crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, P. [Department of Physics and Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1110 West Green Street, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)] [Department of Physics and Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1110 West Green Street, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Chun, S. H. [Department of Physics and Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1110 West Green Street, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)] [Department of Physics and Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1110 West Green Street, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Salamon, M. B. [Department of Physics and Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1110 West Green Street, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)] [Department of Physics and Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1110 West Green Street, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Tomioka, Y. [Joint Research Center for Atom Technology, 1-1-4 Higashi, Tsukuba 305-0046, (Japan)] [Joint Research Center for Atom Technology, 1-1-4 Higashi, Tsukuba 305-0046, (Japan); Tokura, Y. [Joint Research Center for Atom Technology, 1-1-4 Higashi, Tsukuba 305-0046, (Japan)] [Joint Research Center for Atom Technology, 1-1-4 Higashi, Tsukuba 305-0046, (Japan)

    2000-05-01

    The heat capacity of single crystal La{sub 0.7}D{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3}, where D=Ca, Sr, has been measured through the Curie point in fields up to 70 kOe. The magnetic contribution of the Ca sample exhibits a sharp heat capacity peak at T{sub C}(approx =)218 K in zero field. The peak broadens and decreases in height with increasing field but, unlike an ordinary ferromagnet, the peak shifts substantially in temperature. As a consequence, the heat capacity data cannot be collapsed into a single scaling function. These features indicate that the transition is not an ordinary second-order ferromagnetic transition. Preliminary heat capacity data from the Sr-doped single crystal, with T{sub C}{approx_equal}360 K, do not exhibit the same shift in peak position with applied field. We attribute the difference in behavior between Ca- and Sr-doped samples to a change in the nature of the phase transition as T{sub C} lowers. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics.

  12. Bearing capacity factor, N ? , for unsaturated soils by ZEL method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Jahanandish; G. Habibagahi; M. Veiskarami

    2010-01-01

    Bearing capacity of foundations is often determined for saturated state of the soil, regarding its simple and conservative\\u000a results. This assumption, however, results in very uneconomic and overconservative design for a wide range of climates in\\u000a the world. In this paper, plasticity equations were employed and extended for unsaturated soils to establish a theoretical\\u000a approach to investigate the bearing capacity

  13. Environmental Survey preliminary report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-04-01

    This report presents the preliminary findings from the first phase of the Environmental Survey of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Sandia National Laboratories conducted August 17 through September 4, 1987. The objective of the Survey is to identify environmental problems and areas of environmental risk associated with Sandia National Laboratories-Albuquerque (SNLA). The Survey covers all environmental media and all areas of environmental regulation. It is being performed in accordance with the DOE Environmental Survey Manual. This phase of the Survey involves the review of existing site environmental data, observations of the operations carried on at SNLA, and interviews with site personnel. 85 refs., 49 figs., 48 tabs.

  14. Optimal Capacity Adjustments for Supply Chain Control

    E-print Network

    Budiman, Benny

    Decisions on capacity are often treated separately from those of production and inventory. In most situations, capacity issues are longer-term, so capacity-related decisions are considered strategic and thus not part of ...

  15. Accessible Capacity of Secondary Users

    E-print Network

    Ma, Xiao; Lin, Lei; Bai, Baoming

    2010-01-01

    A new problem formulation is presented for the Gaussian interference channels (GIFC) with two pairs of users, which are distinguished as primary users and secondary users, respectively. The primary users employ a pair of encoder and decoder that were originally designed to satisfy a given error performance requirement under the assumption that no interference exists from other users. In the case when the secondary users attempt to access the same medium, we are interested in the maximum transmission rate (defined as {\\em accessible capacity}) at which secondary users can communicate reliably without affecting the error performance requirement by the primary users under the constraint that the primary encoder (not the decoder) is kept unchanged. By modeling the primary encoder as a generalized trellis code (GTC), we are then able to treat the secondary link as a finite state channel (FSC). The relation of the accessible capacity to the capacity region of the GIFC is revealed. Upper and lower bounds on the acce...

  16. Cogeneration: regulation economics and capacity. Volume 2. Economics and capacity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Jess; F. Mayes

    1983-01-01

    This report provides a framework for analysis of the role of cogeneration in providing electric generating capacity. Cogeneration can be defined as the dual production of useful thermal and power energy from a single heat source. In most applications, cogeneration is used to produce electricity and some other form of useful heat. The report has been published in 2 volumes.

  17. Rural research capacity building program: capacity building outcomes.

    PubMed

    Webster, Emma; Thomas, Margaret; Ong, Narelle; Cutler, Linda

    2011-01-01

    The Rural Research Capacity Building Program commenced in 2006 with the aim of developing research skills in rural health workers. The program was based on the capacity building principles of workforce development, organisational development, resource allocation, partnership and leadership. Qualitative methods were used to assess capacity building outcomes. A sample of candidates from the 2006 and 2007 cohorts were selected for interview using stratified random sampling and supplemental purposive sampling. Twenty-five individual semi-structured interviews were conducted with candidates, their managers and mentors. Interviews were thematically analysed. The program components of teaching, mentoring and networking led to the development of research skills in candidates undertaking the program. This workforce development resulted in workplace change, particularly where the candidate's project was 'close to practice' and they had management support. The leadership shown and partnerships developed by the program managers enhanced the workforce development and organisational change outcomes. Resources, such as backfill and incidentals, were useful for candidates, but practicalities, such as availability of replacement staff, limited effectiveness. This study showed the value of using a capacity building framework and demonstrated that undertaking research on a topic close to practice positioned candidates to drive change within their organisation. PMID:21616034

  18. Spray dryer capacity stretched 50%

    SciTech Connect

    Paraskevas, J.

    1983-01-01

    This article describes plant equipment modifications which has resulted in a 50% increase in spray drying capacity. The installation of a new atomizer and screening system in NL Chemicals' Newberry Springs plant which produces natural clays for use as rheological additives in industrial coatings, cosmetics and other products, resulted in a 50% increase in spray drying capacity. Energy consumption per pound of product was reduced by 7%, and product quality improved. This was achieved in less than three months at an investment of less than 10% of what an additional spray dryer would have cost.

  19. An Evaluation of the Rheumatology Coverage of Index Medicus. A Preliminary Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorpe, Peter

    1972-01-01

    A preliminary investigation which revealed the omission of four full length articles on rheumatology from Index Medicus'' is reported upon. Further investigations are in progress and will be reported at a later date. (Author/SJ)

  20. Antioxidant capacity and phenolic content of four Myrtaceae plants of the south of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Salvador, Marcos José; de Lourenço, Caroline C; Andreazza, Nathalia Luiza; Pascoal, Aislan C R F; Stefanello, Maria Elida Alves

    2011-07-01

    Antioxidant compounds can be useful to prevent several degenerative diseases or as preservative in food and toiletries. Species of the Myrtaceae family are able to accumulate phenolic substances and those are closely related to the antioxidant activity due to their capacity to scavenge free radicals, protect against lipid peroxidation and quench reactive oxygen species. These facts prompted us to investigate the antioxidant capacity of the ethanolic extracts of the leaves of four Myrtaceae plants collected of the south of Brazil: Eugenia chlorophylla O. Berg., Eugenia pyriformis Cambess, Myrcia laruotteana Cambess and Myrcia obtecta (Berg) Kiacrsk. The antioxidant potential was performed using the DPPH (a single electron transfer reaction based assay) and ORAC (Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity, a hydrogen atom transfer reaction based assay) assays. Moreover, the total soluble phenolic content was also measured using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. A preliminary evaluation of the ethanolic extracts of these Myrtaceae plants revealed high levels of phenolic compounds (343.7-429.3 mg GAE) as well as high antioxidant activity according to both methods (1338 a 3785 micromol of TE/g of extract in ORAC and SC50 in the range of 1.70 and 33.7 microg/mL in the DPPH). The highest antioxidant activity obtained by DPPH assay was exhibited by ethanol extract of the leaves of E. pyriformis (1.70 microg/mL), followed by extracts of M. laruotteana (3.38 microg/mL) and M. obtecta (6.66 microg/mL). In comparison with controls, in the DPPH assay, the extract of E. pyriformis was more active than trolox (SC50 = 2.55 microg/mL), while the extracts of M. laruotteana and M. obtecta were more actives than quercetin (SC50 = 7.80 microg/mL). In the ORAC assay, all species also show good antioxidant capacity (>1000 micromol of TE/g). Initial HPLC-UV/DAD and ESI-MS confirmed the presence of phenolic acids constituents in the ethanol extracts. The results indicate the presence of compounds possessing promising antioxidant/free-radical scavenging activity in the analyzed extracts of Myrcia and Eugenia plants of the south of Brazil. PMID:21834237

  1. Molecular-dynamics simulation of the heat capacity for nickel and copper clusters: Shape and size effects

    SciTech Connect

    Gafner, S. L.; Redel, L. V.; Gafner, Yu. Ya., E-mail: ygafner@khsu.ru [Katanov Khakassian State University (Russian Federation)

    2012-03-15

    We have investigated the heat capacity of ideal Cu and Ni fcc clusters with diameters from 2 to 6 nm in the temperature range 200-800 K by the molecular-dynamics method using a modified tight-binding potential. Our analysis has shown consistency with the experimental results at temperatures of 200-300 K. The data obtained are also indicative of several regularities that are in agreement with the analytical calculations. We have concluded from the results of our computer simulations that the heat capacity in the case of isolated free clusters can exceed that of a bulk material, with this difference decreasing as the nanoparticle grows proportionally to the reduction in the fraction of surface atoms. The excess of the heat capacity for ideal copper and nickel nanoclusters with D = 6 nm at T = 200 K has been found to be 10% and 13%, respectively. Consequently, the large heat capacities of copper and nickel nanostructures observed in some real experiments cannot be related to the characteristics of free clusters. We hypothesize that these properties of a nanomaterial depend on the degree of agglomeration of its constituent particles, i.e., the surfaces and interphase boundaries of interconnected nanoclusters can have a strong effect. To test this hypothesis, we took nickel and copper clusters of various sizes (4000-7200 atoms) produced through the simulation of condensation from the gas phase. At high temperatures, we failed to adequately assess the role of the interphase boundaries in calculating the heat capacity of nanoparticles. The reason was the mass diffusion of Ni or Cu atoms to impart an energetically more favorable shape and structure to the synthesized clusters. At low temperatures, the heat capacity of such clusters exceeded that of clusters with an ideal shape and structure by a value from 3.2% to 10.6%. We have concluded that the Ni and Cu clusters produced in real experiments cannot be applied in devices using the thermal energy of such clusters without a preliminary optimization stage, because their external shape and interior structure are nonideal.

  2. CAPACITY UTILIZATION IN INDIAN AIRLINES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Danish A. Hashim

    2003-01-01

    The financial performance of the state -owned Indian Airlines has deteriorated since 1989- 90. The main reasons cited for the poor financial performance of Indian Airlines include: rising fuel prices, excess staff, serving uneconomic routes and increasing expenses on insurance. However, low capacity utilization has rarely been cited as one of the main reasons for the poor performance. The present

  3. Better reciprocating compressor capacity control

    SciTech Connect

    Steinrueck, P.; Ottitsch, F. [Hoerbiger Ventilwerke AG, Vienna (Austria); Oberhuber, A.; Linskeseder, M. [OMV Refinery, Vienna (Austria)

    1997-02-01

    A better method for controlling reciprocating compressor capacity utilizes a very fast, digitally controlled, hydraulic solenoid valve to control suction valve opening time. Development and system operation are discussed as well as installation experience at an ethylene plant (OMV refinery, Vienna).

  4. Data aggregation for capacity management

    E-print Network

    Lee, Yong Woo

    2004-09-30

    This thesis presents a methodology for data aggregation for capacity management. It is assumed that there are a very large number of products manufactured in a company and that every product is stored in the database with its standard unit per hour...

  5. Total Antioxidant Capacity of Fruits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hong Wang; Guohua Cao; Ronald L. Prior

    1996-01-01

    The total antioxidant activity of 12 fruits and 5 commercial fruit juices was measured in this study using automated oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay. On the basis of the wet weight of the fruits (edible portion), strawberry had the highest ORAC activity (micromoles of Trolox equivalents per gram) followed by plum, orange, red grape, kiwi fruit, pink grapefruit, white

  6. North American fertilizer capacity data

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-01

    This listing of producers and their fertilizer production capacities was compiled in October 1991 with the cooperation of the US and Canadian fertilizer industry. Fertilizers production is reported or forecasted for the years 1987 through 1997. The fertilizers reported on are: ammonia, ammonium nitrate, nitrogen solutions, urea, phosphate rock, wet-process phosphoric acid, ammonium phosphates, concentrated superphosphates, and potash.

  7. North American fertilizer capacity data

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-01

    This listing of producers and their fertilizer production capacities was compiled in October 1991 with the cooperation of the US and Canadian fertilizer industries. Yearly production and forecasts are given for 1987 through 1997. Fertilizers reported on include: ammonium sulfate, nitric acid, wet-process superphosphoric acid, normal superphosphate, elemental phosphorus, potassium sulfate, and sulfate of potash/magnesia.

  8. Properties of volume-capacity ratio in congested complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Zhi-Hong; Zheng, Jian-Feng; Gao, Zi-You; Du, Hao-Ming

    2014-04-01

    The volume-capacity ratio (v/c) is one of the most important indexes to measure the congestion of a traffic network. If v/c is very small, the traffic demand is deficient and/or the transportation supply or capacity is surplus, leading to a waste of capacity; on the contrary, a large value of v/c means that the traffic network is seriously congested. This paper investigates the properties of v/c in complex small-world and scale-free networks by introducing the congestion effects, described by link cost functions. The relationship between v/c and the degree of the node is mainly discussed. Finally, a simple strategy is presented to balance the tradeoff between traffic congestion and a waste of capacity.

  9. Nitrogen expander cycles for large capacity liquefaction of natural gas

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Ho-Myung; Park, Jae Hoon; Gwak, Kyung Hyun [Hong Ik University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Seoul, 121-791 (Korea, Republic of); Choe, Kun Hyung [Korea Gas Corporation, Incheon, 406-130 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-01-29

    Thermodynamic study is performed on nitrogen expander cycles for large capacity liquefaction of natural gas. In order to substantially increase the capacity, a Brayton refrigeration cycle with nitrogen expander was recently added to the cold end of the reputable propane pre-cooled mixed-refrigerant (C3-MR) process. Similar modifications with a nitrogen expander cycle are extensively investigated on a variety of cycle configurations. The existing and modified cycles are simulated with commercial process software (Aspen HYSYS) based on selected specifications. The results are compared in terms of thermodynamic efficiency, liquefaction capacity, and estimated size of heat exchangers. The combination of C3-MR with partial regeneration and pre-cooling of nitrogen expander cycle is recommended to have a great potential for high efficiency and large capacity.

  10. Nitrogen expander cycles for large capacity liquefaction of natural gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Ho-Myung; Park, Jae Hoon; Gwak, Kyung Hyun; Choe, Kun Hyung

    2014-01-01

    Thermodynamic study is performed on nitrogen expander cycles for large capacity liquefaction of natural gas. In order to substantially increase the capacity, a Brayton refrigeration cycle with nitrogen expander was recently added to the cold end of the reputable propane pre-cooled mixed-refrigerant (C3-MR) process. Similar modifications with a nitrogen expander cycle are extensively investigated on a variety of cycle configurations. The existing and modified cycles are simulated with commercial process software (Aspen HYSYS) based on selected specifications. The results are compared in terms of thermodynamic efficiency, liquefaction capacity, and estimated size of heat exchangers. The combination of C3-MR with partial regeneration and pre-cooling of nitrogen expander cycle is recommended to have a great potential for high efficiency and large capacity.

  11. Description and Preliminary Training Evaluation of an Arc Welding Simulator. Research Report SRR 73-23.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrams, Macy L.; And Others

    A prototype arc welding training simulator was designed to provide immediate, discriminative feedback and the capacity for concentrated practice. Two randomly selected groups of welding trainees were compared to evaluate the simulator, one group being trained using the simulator and the other using conventional practice. Preliminary data indicated…

  12. An Attachment-based Parenting Program for Caregivers of Severely Conduct-disordered Adolescents: Preliminary Findings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marlene Moretti; Roy Holland; Ken Moore; Sue McKay

    Security of attachment is associated with healthy adjustment and successful transition to autonomy during adolescence. This paper reports on findings on an attachment- focused parenting group developed to enhance security in the relationships of parents (or other caregivers) with their severely conduct- disordered adolescents. This brief psycho-educational program focused on promoting enhanced parental-reflective capacity, attunement, and empathy. Preliminary findings show

  13. On the optimum capacity of capacity expansion problems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chao Yang; Chunyan Hao; Jianzhong Zhang

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we consider problems of the following type: Let E = { e\\u000a 1, e\\u000a 2,..., e\\u000a \\u000a n\\u000a } be a finite set and $${\\\\mathcal {F}}$$ be a family of subsets of E. For each element e\\u000a \\u000a i\\u000a in E, c\\u000a \\u000a i\\u000a is a given capacity and $${\\\\mathcal {w}}$$\\u000a \\u000a i\\u000a is the cost of increasing capacity c\\u000a \\u000a i\\u000a by one

  14. Preliminary Iron Distribution on Vesta

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mittlefehldt, David W.; Mittlefehldt, David W.

    2013-01-01

    The distribution of iron on the surface of the asteroid Vesta was investigated using Dawn's Gamma Ray and Neutron Detector (GRaND) [1,2]. Iron varies predictably with rock type for the howardite, eucrite, and diogenite (HED) meteorites, thought to be representative of Vesta. The abundance of Fe in howardites ranges from about 12 to 15 wt.%. Basaltic eucrites have the highest abundance, whereas, lower crustal and upper mantle materials (cumulate eucrites and diogenites) have the lowest, and howardites are intermediate [3]. We have completed a mapping study of 7.6 MeV gamma rays produced by neutron capture by Fe as measured by the bismuth germanate (BGO) detector of GRaND [1]. The procedures to determine Fe counting rates are presented in detail here, along with a preliminary distribution map, constituting the necessary initial step to quantification of Fe abundances. We find that the global distribution of Fe counting rates is generally consistent with independent mineralogical and compositional inferences obtained by other instruments on Dawn such as measurements of pyroxene absorption bands by the Visual and Infrared Spectrometer (VIR) [4] and Framing Camera (FC) [5] and neutron absorption measurements by GRaND [6].

  15. Bearing capacity of spatially random soil: the undrained clay Prandtl problem revisited

    E-print Network

    Bearing capacity of spatially random soil: the undrained clay Prandtl problem revisited D. V, an investigation has been performed into the bearing capacity of undrained clays with spatially vary- ing shear strength. The object of the investigation is to determine the extent to which variance and spatial correla

  16. Bearing capacity of spatially random soil: the undrained clay Prandtl problem revisited

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. V. Griths; Gordon A. Fenton

    2001-01-01

    By merging elasto-plastic finite element analysis with random field the- ory, an investigation has been performed into the bearing capacity of undrained clays with spatially varying shear strength. The object of the investigation is to de- termine the extent to which variance and spatial correlation of the soil's undrained shear strength impacts on the statistics of the bearing capacity. Throughout

  17. Preliminary investigation of the contribution of CYP2A6, CYP2B6, and UGT1A9 polymorphisms on artesunate-mefloquine treatment response in Burmese patients with Plasmodium falciparum malaria.

    PubMed

    Phompradit, Papichaya; Muhamad, Poonuch; Cheoymang, Anurak; Na-Bangchang, Kesara

    2014-08-01

    CYP2A6, CYP2B6, and UGT1A9 genetic polymorphisms and treatment response after a three-day course of artesunate-mefloquine was investigated in 71 Burmese patients with uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Results provide evidence for the possible link between CYP2A6 and CYP2B6 polymorphisms and plasma concentrations of artesunate/dihydroartemisinin and treatment response. In one patient who had the CYP2A6*1A/*4C genotype (decreased enzyme activity), plasma concentration of artesunate at one hour appeared to be higher, and the concentration of dihydroartemisinin was lower than for those carrying other genotypes (415 versus 320 ng/mL). The proportion of patients with adequate clinical and parasitologic response who had the CYP2B6*9/*9 genotype (mutant genotype) was significantly lower compared with those with late parasitologic failure (14.0% versus 19.0%). Confirmation through a larger study in various malaria-endemic areas is required before a definite conclusion on the role of genetic polymorphisms of these drug-metabolizing enzymes on treatment response after artesunate-based combination therapy can be made. PMID:24891466

  18. The Worksite Health Promotion Capacity Instrument (WHPCI): development, validation and approaches for determining companies' levels of health promotion capacity

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The Worksite Health Promotion Capacity Instrument (WHPCI) was developed to assess two key factors for effective worksite health promotion: collective willingness and the systematic implementation of health promotion activities in companies. This study evaluates the diagnostic qualities of the WHPCI based on its subscales Health Promotion Willingness and Health Promotion Management, which can be used to place companies into four different categories based on their level of health promotion capacity. Methods Psychometric evaluation was conducted using exploratory factor and reliability analyses with data taken from a random sample of managers from n = 522 German information and communication technology (ICT) companies. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses were conducted to determine further diagnostic qualities of the instrument and to establish the cut-off scores used to determine each company's level of health promotion capacity. Results The instrument's subscales, Health Promotion Willingness and Health Promotion Management, are based on one-dimensional constructs, each with very good reliability (Cronbach's alpha = 0.83/0.91). ROC analyses demonstrated satisfactory diagnostic accuracy with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.76 (SE = 0.021; 95% CI 0.72-0.80) for the Health Promotion Willingness scale and 0.81 (SE = 0.021; 95% CI 0.77-0.86) for the Health Promotion Management scale. A cut-off score with good sensitivity (71%/76%) and specificity (69%/75%) was determined for each scale. Both scales were found to have good predictive power and exhibited good efficiency. Conclusions Our findings indicate preliminary evidence for the validity and reliability of both subscales of the WHPCI. The goodness of each cut-off score suggests that the scales are appropriate for determining companies' levels of health promotion capacity. Support in implementing (systematic) worksite health promotion can then be tailored to each company's needs based on their current capacity level. PMID:20831838

  19. Seismic capacity evaluation of unreinforced masonry residential buildings in Albania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilgin, H.; Korini, O.

    2012-12-01

    This study evaluates seismic capacity of the unreinforced masonry buildings with the selected template designs constructed per pre-modern code in Albania considering nonlinear behaviour of masonry. Three residential buildings with template designs were selected to represent an important percentage of residential buildings in medium-size cities located in seismic regions of Albania. Selection of template designed buildings and material properties were based on archive and site survey in several cities of Albania. Capacity curves of investigated buildings were determined by pushover analyses conducted in two principal directions. The seismic performances of these buildings have been determined for various earthquake levels. Seismic capacity evaluation was carried out in accordance with FEMA (Federal Emergency Management Agency) 440 guidelines. Reasons for building damages in past earthquakes are examined using the results of capacity assessment of investigated buildings. It is concluded that of the residential buildings with the template design, with the exception of one, are far from satisfying required performance criteria. Furthermore, deficiencies and possible solutions to improve the capacity of investigated buildings are discussed.

  20. Anaerobic Capacities of Leaf Litter

    PubMed Central

    Kusel, K.; Drake, H. L.

    1996-01-01

    Leaf litter displayed a capacity to spontaneously form organic acids, alcohols, phenolic compounds, H(inf2), and CO(inf2) when incubated anaerobically at 20(deg)C either as buffered suspensions or in a moistened condition in microcosms. Acetate was the predominant organic product formed regardless of the degree of litter decomposition. Initial rates of acetate formation in litter suspensions and microcosms approximated 2.6 and 0.53 (mu)mol of acetate per g (dry weight) of litter per h, respectively. Supplemental H(inf2) was directed towards the apparent acetogenic synthesis of acetate. Acetoclastic methanogenesis was induced by partially decomposed litter after extended lag phases; freshly fallen litter did not display this capacity. PMID:16535448