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1

Effects of short-term ingestion of Russian Tarragon prior to creatine monohydrate supplementation on whole body and muscle creatine retention and anaerobic sprint capacity: a preliminary investigation  

PubMed Central

Background Extracts of Russian Tarragon (RT) have been reported to produce anti-hyperglycemic effects and influence plasma creatine (Cr) levels while supplementing with creatine monohydrate (CrM). The purpose of this preliminary study was to determine if short-term, low-dose aqueous RT extract ingestion prior to CrM supplementation influences whole body Cr retention, muscle Cr or measures of anaerobic sprint performance. Methods In a double-blind, randomized, and crossover manner; 10 recreationally trained males (20?±?2 yrs; 179?±?9 cm; 91.3?±?34 kg) ingested 500 mg of aqueous RT extract (Finzelberg, Andernach, Germany) or 500 mg placebo 30-minutes prior to ingesting 5 g of CrM (Creapure®, AlzChem AG, Germany) twice per day for 5-days then repeated after a 6-week wash-out period. Urine was collected at baseline and during each of the 5-days of supplementation to determine urine Cr content. Whole body Cr retention was estimated from urine samples. Muscle biopsies were obtained for determination of muscle free Cr content. Participants also performed two 30-second Wingate anaerobic capacity tests prior to and following supplementation for determination of peak power (PP), mean power (MP), and total work (TW). Data were analysed by repeated measures MANOVA. Results Whole body daily Cr retention increased in both groups following supplementation (0.0?±?0.0; 8.2?±?1.4, 6.5?±?2.4, 5.6?±?3.2, 6.1?±?2.6, 4.8?±?3.2 g?·?d-1; p?=?0.001) with no differences observed between groups (p?=?0.59). After 3 and 5-days of supplementation, respectively, both supplementation protocols demonstrated a significant increase in muscle free Cr content from baseline (4.8?±?16.7, 15.5?±?23.6 mmol?·?kg-1 DW, p?=?0.01) with no significant differences observed between groups (p?=?0.34). Absolute change in MP (9?±?57, 35?±?57 W; p?=?0.031), percent change in MP (2.5?±?10.5, 6.7?±?10.4%; p?=?0.026), absolute change in TW (275?±?1,700, 1,031?±?1,721 J; p?=?0.032), and percent change in TW (2.5?±?10.5, 6.6?±?10.4%; p?=?0.027) increased over time in both groups with no differences observed between groups. Conclusions Short-term CrM supplementation (10 g?·?d-1 for 5-days) significantly increased whole body Cr retention and muscle free Cr content. However, ingesting 500 mg of RT 30-min prior to CrM supplementation did not affect whole body Cr retention, muscle free Cr content, or anaerobic sprint capacity in comparison to ingesting CrM with a placebo.

2014-01-01

2

Terraballistic Projectiles Simplify Remote Preliminary Investigations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A subsurface-sensing device which can be used for preliminary investigations of remote and inaccessible areas has been under development. The technique involves dropping or otherwise propelling a projectile which penetrates the ground. The projectile, whi...

R. L. McNeill B. E. Margason

1968-01-01

3

Capacity-to-Consent in Psychiatric Research: Development and Preliminary Testing of a Screening Tool  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Assuring research participants' capacity to provide informed consent has become increasingly important in health and mental health research, and each study faces unique capacity-assessment challenges, possibly requiring its own screening tool. This article describes the development and preliminary testing of a capacity-to-consent tool…

Zayas, Luis H.; Cabassa, Leopoldo J.; Perez, M. Carmela

2005-01-01

4

An investigation of antioxidant capacity of fruits in Singapore markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antioxidant capacity of a group of fruits obtained in the Singapore markets was investigated. A total of 27 fruit pulps were tested for their general antioxidant capacity based on their ability to scavenge 2,2?-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) free radical. The contribution of l-ascorbic acid (AA) to the total antioxidant activity of fruits was investigated by using RP-HPLC. The antioxidant capacity

L. P Leong; G Shui

2002-01-01

5

The Viking biological investigation - Preliminary results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A preliminary progress report is presented for the Viking biological investigation through its first month. The carbon assimilation, gas exchange, and labeled release experiments are described in detail, and the chronology of the experiments is outlined. For the first experiment, it is found that a small amount of gas was converted into organic material in one sample and that heat treatment of a duplicate sample prevented such conversion. In the second experiment, a substantial amount of O2 was detected along with significant increases in CO2 and small changes in N2. In the third experiment, a significant amount of radioactive gas was evolved from one sample, but not from a duplicate heat-treated sample. Possible biological and nonbiological interpretations are considered for these results. It is concluded that while the experiments provide clear evidence for the occurrence of chemical reactions and while the results do not violate any prima facie criteria for biological processes, a definitive answer cannot yet be given to the question of whether life exists on Mars.

Klein, H. P.; Oyama, V. I.; Berdahl, B. J.; Horowitz, N. H.; Hobby, G. L.; Levin, G. V.; Straat, P. A.; Lederberg, J.; Rich, A.; Hubbard, J. S.

1976-01-01

6

HLH Ground Support Equipment (GSE) Preliminary Investigation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The preliminary study was conducted to determine the GSE required for the heavy-lift helicopter (HLH) early enough in the program to allow ample time for development/procurement of long lead time items. The HLH aircraft systems were analyzed during the pr...

F. J. Kozloski J. M. Corso T. S. Hammer

1973-01-01

7

A Preliminary Genetic Investigation of VOLVOX CARTERI  

PubMed Central

A preliminary genetic analysis of a number of genetic variants of Volvox carteri f. nagariensis is presented. Techniques are outlined for mutagenesis of Volvox, isolation of mutants and routine genetic analysis. All of the mutants show simple Mendelian segregation patterns and have been tentatively placed in 14 linkage groups.

Huskey, Robert J.; Griffin, Barbara E.; Cecil, Patricia O.; Callahan, Ann M.

1979-01-01

8

A Preliminary Investigation into Racing Motorcycle Aerodynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This paper attempts to guide readers through the development of equipment and related testing procedures at the RMIT University\\u000a Industrial Wind Tunnel facility designed to replicate and assess flow mechanics relevant to motorcycles. The paper particularly\\u000a addresses design and development of the preliminary test rig to support both motorcycle and rider. A Cobra probe, the University’s\\u000a own 13-hole probe and

Angelo Tempia; Riccardo Pagliarella

9

The Language of Intoxication: Preliminary Investigations  

PubMed Central

Background The extensive vocabulary individuals use to describe alcohol’s subjective effects has largely gone unexamined in contemporary alcohol research. The present study examined the language drinkers use to describe their own intoxication. It is argued that this language can provide a more complete characterization of alcohol’s subjective effects than is available from existing objective and subjective measures of alcohol use and can inform future self-report research. Method Toward this goal, a preliminary, cross-sectional, web-based study of the familiarity and usage of current intoxication-related words was conducted in 2 different samples (n = 290 and 146, respectively) of university undergraduates. Results Exploratory factor analyses using data from the first sample and confirmatory factor analyses using data from the second sample similarly showed that commonly used terms loaded onto 2 factors, which directly reflected the number of drinks required to be considered moderately or heavily intoxicated, respectively. Gender differences were also found in the familiarity and self-use of some terms across both samples. Conclusions The findings suggest that alcohol researchers include multiple intoxication-related terms in future self-report research, and to periodically assess current intoxication-related vocabulary considering demographic, generational, and socio-cultural differences.

Levit, Ash; Sher, Kenneth J.; Bartholow, Bruce D.

2009-01-01

10

Preliminary Investigation of an Active PLZT Lens  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design, analysis and preliminary testing of a prototype Adjustable Focus Optical Correction Lens (AFOCL) is described. The AFOCL is an active optical component composed of solid state lead lanthanum-modified zirconate titanate (PLZT) ferroelectric ceramic with patterned indium tin oxide (ITO) transparent surface electrodes that modulate the refractive index of the PLZT to function as an electro-optic lens. The AFOCL was developed to perform optical re-alignment and wavefront correction to enhance the performance of Ultra-Lightweight Structures and Space Observatories (ULSSO). The AFOCL has potential application as an active optical component within a larger optical system. As such, information from a wavefront sensor would be processed to provide input to the AFOCL to drive the sensed wavefront to the desired shape and location. While offering variable and rapid focussing capability (controlled wavefront manipulation) similar to liquid crystal based spatial light modulators (SLM), the AFOCL offers some potential advantages because it is a solid-state, stationary, low-mass, rugged, and thin optical element that can produce wavefront quality comparable to the solid refractive lens it replaces. The AFOCL acts as a positive or negative lens by producing a parabolic phase-shift in the PLZT material through the application of a controlled voltage potential across the ITO electrodes. To demonstrate the technology, a 4 mm diameter lens was fabricated to produce 5-waves of optical power operating at 2.051 micrometer wavelength. Optical metrology was performed on the device to measure focal length, optical quality, and efficiency for a variety of test configurations. The data was analyzed and compared to theoretical data available from computer-based models of the AFOCL.

Lightsey, W. D.; Peters, B. R.; Reardon, P. J.; Wong, J. K.

2001-01-01

11

A Preliminary Investigation into Lorry Tyre Noise.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Recent research has indicated the possibility that with reduced power unit noise, tire to road surface noise could become the predominant source of lorry noise. An investigation at the Transport and Road Research Laboratory has shown that, although tire n...

M. C. P. Underwood

1973-01-01

12

Stress amongst district nurses: a preliminary investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary • This paper presents the results of a pilot study investigating stress among district nurses in the north-west of England. Nurses completed questionnaires covering job satisfaction, mental health, stress, Type A behaviour, health behaviour, coping skills and demographic details. • A specific measure of stress was developed following in-depth interviews with primary care professionals, including district nurses. A total

USHA USHA; RANI ROUT; M Sc

13

Natural fibers/polypropylene composite: processing and preliminary structural investigations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biodegradation and physico-mechanical properties allow us to predict a wide application of cellulosic/thermoplastic composites and it is an essential motive for investigations on structure-properties relationship. The preliminary investigations on the structure of composites containing isotactic polypropylene with hemp or flax are presented.

Paukszta, Dominik; Garbarczyk, Jozef

1997-02-01

14

Preliminary findings of the LDEF materials special investigation group  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Presented here are the charter and scope of the Long Duration Exposure Facility's (LDEF) Space Environmental Effects on Materials Special Investigation Group (MSIG) activities, and an overview of of preliminary observations. These observations of low-Earth orbit environmental effects on material were made in space during during LDEF retrieval and during LDEF tray deintegration. Also included are initial findings of laboratory analysis of LDEF materials.

Stein, Bland A.; Pippin, H. Gary

1991-01-01

15

Preliminary investigation on Mycoplasma maculosum isolated from chickens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mycoplasma maculosum which is generally a canine Mycoplasma, was isolated for the first time from respiratory tract, knee and hock joints of layer chickens with standing difficulty. Preliminary investigation to determine its role as potential pathogen in chickens and embryonated eggs was performed. Specific-pathogen-free (SPF) seven-day-old embryonated eggs and day-old chicks were artificially infected with various doses of the organisms

Z. Mohd-Zain; L. J. Tan

16

Preliminary phase relations involving glaucophane and applications to high pressure petrology: new heat capacity and thermodynamic data  

Microsoft Academic Search

New heat capacity measurements and cell volume data are presented for a very magnesian glaucophane from a Tauern Window eclogite. These data are combined with estimated entropy, thermal expansion, and compressibility data to generate an enthalpy of formation for glaucophane from experimentally determined phase equilibria. The data are supported by preliminary experiments of the author and provide consistent calculations on

Timothy J. B. Holland

1988-01-01

17

A preliminary investigation of bird classification by Doppler radar  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A preliminary study of the application of Doppler radar to the classification of birds is reported. The desirability for improvements in bird classification stems primarily from the hazards they present to jet aircraft in flight and in the vicinity of airports. A secondary need exists in the study of bird migration. The wing body and tail motion of a bird in flight reflect signals which, when analyzed properly present a signature of wing beat pattern which is unique for each bird species. Although the results of this investigation did not validate the feasibility of classifying bird species, they do indicate that a more thorough investigation is warranted. Certain gross characteristics such as wing beat rates, multiple bird patterns, and bird maneuverability, were indicated clearly in the results. Large birds with slow wing beat rates appear to be the most optimum subject for further study with the X-band Doppler radar used in this investigation.

Martinson, L. W.

1973-01-01

18

Preliminary investigations of HE performance characterization using SWIFT  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Preliminary experiments are performed to assess the utility of using the shock wave image framing technique (SWIFT) to characterize high explosive (HE) performance on detonator length and time scales. Columns of XTX 8004, an extrudable RDX-based high explosive, are cured directly within polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) dynamic witness plates, and SWIFT is employed to directly visualize shock waves driven into PMMA through detonation interaction. Current experiments investigate two-dimensional, axisymmetric test geometries that resemble historic aquarium tests, but on millimeter length scales, and the SWIFT system records 16-frame, time-resolved image sequences at 190 ns inter-framing. Detonation wave velocities are accurately calculated from the time-resolved images, and standard aquarium-test analysis is evaluated to investigate calculated shock pressures at the HE/PMMA interface. Experimental SWIFT results are discussed where the charge diameter of XTX 8004 is varied from 2.0 mm to 6.5 mm.

Murphy, M. J.; Johnson, C. E.

2014-05-01

19

Preliminary investigation of the 317 Area, ANL-E  

SciTech Connect

The 317 Area at Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL-E) is scheduled to undergo a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigation, Act or RFI. Prior to the formal RFI, a voluntary, preliminary characterization of the 317 Area was conducted by ANL-E. The characterization results were used to formulate the RFI work plan and provided a better focus for the formal investigation. This site presents a difficult engineering challenge. The nature of the waste disposed at this site in the past includes both liquid chemicals and radioactive waste. The 317 Area is classified as a radiologically controlled area because of operations currently performed there. Present Department of Energy policy stipulates that waste material from such an area must be considered radioactive. The possible presence of hazardous constituents in the soil and groundwater would require the investigation-derived waste generated at the site be disposed as radioactive mixed waste. Besides the nature of the waste possibly contaminating this site, the geology of the site poses an equally enigmatic situation. The ANL-E site is located in a region of recessional glacial moraine deposits.

Wescott, J.; Moos, L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Remeikis, A. [ATR Environmental Services Ltd., Lemont, IL (United States)

1995-06-01

20

Aerobic Capacity Following Long Duration International Spaces Station (ISS) Missions: Preliminary Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max) is reduced immediately following space flights lasting <15 d, but has not been measured following long-duration missions. The purpose of this study is to measure VO2max and maximum work rate (WRmax) data from astronauts following ISS flights (91 to 188 d). Methods: Five astronauts [3 M, 2 F: 47+/-6 yr, 174+/-6 cm, 71.9+/-10.9 kg (mean +/- SD)] have participated in the study. Subjects performed upright cycle exercise tests to symptom-limited maximum. An initial test was done approx.270 d before flight to establish work rates for subsequent tests. Subsequent tests, conducted approx.45 d before flight and repeated on the first or second day (R+1/2) and at approx.10 d (R+10) following landing, consisted of 3 5 min stages designed to elicit 25%, 50%, and 75% of preflight VO2max, followed by 25 W(dot)/min increases. VO2, WR, and heart rate (HR) were measured using the ISS Portable Pulmonary Function System [Damec, Odense, DK]. Descriptive statistics are reported. Results: On R+1/2 mean VO2max decreased compared to preflight (Pre: 2.98+/-0.99, R+1/2: 2.63+/-0.56 L(dot)/min); 4 of 5 subjects demonstrated a loss of > 6%. WRmax also decreased on R+1/2 compared to preflight (Pre: 245+/-69, R+1/2: 210+/-45 W). On R+10, VO2max was 2.86+/-0.62 L(dot)/min, with 2 subjects still demonstrating a loss of > 6% from preflight. WRmax on R+10 was 240+/-49 W. HRmax did not change from pre to post-flight. Conclusions: These preliminary results, from the first 5 of 12 planned subjects of an ongoing ISS study, suggest that the majority of astronauts will experience a decrease in VO2max after long-duration space-flight. Interestingly, the two astronauts with the highest preflight VO2max had the greatest loss on R+1/2, and the astronaut with the lowest preflight VO2max increased by 13%. Thus, maintenance of VO2max may be more difficult in astronauts who have a high aerobic capacity, perhaps requiring more intense in-flight exercise countermeasure prescriptions.

Moore, Alan D.; Lee, S.M.C.; Everett, M.E.; Guined, J.R.; Knudsen, P.

2010-01-01

21

Preliminary investigations of the rhizosphere nature of hydroponically grown lettuces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to capabilities of current launchers, future manned exploration beyond the Earth orbit will imply long journeys and extended stays on planet surfaces. For this reason, it is of a great importance to develop a Regenerative Life Support System that enables the crew to be, to a very large extent, metabolic consumables self-sufficient. In this context, the European Space Agency, associated with a scientific and engineering con-sortium, initiated in 1989 the Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative (MELiSSA) project. This concept, inspired on a terrestrial ecosystem (i.e. a lake), comprises five intercon-nected compartments inhabited by micro-organisms and higher-plants aiming to produce food, fresh water, and oxygen from organic waste, carbon dioxide, and minerals. Given the important role of the higher-plant compartment for the consumption of carbon dioxide and the production of oxygen, potable water, and food, it was decided to study the microbial communities present in the root zone of the plants (i.e. the rhizosphere), and their synergistic and antagonistic influences in the plant growth. This understanding is important for later investigations concerning the technology involved in the higher plant compartment, since the final goal is to integrate this compartment inside the MELiSSA loop and to guarantee a healthy and controlled environment for the plants to grow under reduced-gravity conditions. To perform a preliminary assessment of the microbial populations of the root zone, lettuces were grown in a hydroponic system and their growth was characterized in terms of nutrient uptake, plant diameter, and plant wet and dry weights. In parallel, the microbial population, bacteria and fungi, present in the hydroponic medium and also inside and outside the roots were analyzed in terms of quantity and nature. The goal of this presentation is to give a preliminary review in the plant root zone of the micro-organisms communities and as well their proportions. The collected information will then be correlated to each phase of the growth of the lettuces and to the results for the corresponding growth parameters. This will enable characterization of the microbial communities in the rhizosphere and the understanding of how these populations influence each phase of the plant growth. Conclusions are proposed for further investigations.

Antunes, Inês; Paille, Christel; Lasseur, Christophe

22

Preliminary investigations into triazole derived androgen receptor antagonists.  

PubMed

A range of 1,4-substituted-1,2,3-N-phenyltriazoles were synthesized and evaluated as non-steroidal androgen receptor (AR) antagonists. The motivation for this study was to replace the N-phenyl amide portion of small molecule antiandrogens with a 1,2,3-triazole and determine effects, if any, on biological activity. The synthetic methodology presented herein is robust, high yielding and extremely rapid. Using this methodology a series of 17 N-aryl triazoles were synthesized from commercially available starting materials in less than 3h. After preliminary biological screening at 20 and 40?M, the most promising three compounds were found to display IC50 values of 40-50?M against androgen dependent (LNCaP) cells and serve as a starting point for further structure-activity investigations. All compounds in this work were the focus of an in silico study to dock the compounds into the human androgen receptor ligand binding domain (hARLBD) and compare their predicted binding affinity with known antiandrogens. A comparison of receptor-ligand interactions for the wild type and T877A mutant AR revealed two novel polar interactions. One with Q738 of the wild type site and the second with the mutated A877 residue. PMID:24726305

Altimari, Jarrad M; Niranjan, Birunthi; Risbridger, Gail P; Schweiker, Stephanie S; Lohning, Anna E; Henderson, Luke C

2014-05-01

23

Preliminary findings of the LDEF Materials Special Investigation Group  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The retrieval of NASA's LDEF from low Earth orbit provided an opportunity for the study of long duration space environmental effects on materials. The five year, nine month flight of the LDEF greatly enhanced the potential value of most LDEF materials. NASA recognized this potential by forming the LDEF Space Environmental Effects on Materials Special Investigation Group (MSIG). Its goal is to explore the expanded materials analysis opportunities available in the LDEF structure and on experiment trays. The charter and scope of MSIG activities is presented, followed by an overview of the preliminary MSIG observations. These observations of low Earth orbit environmental effects on materials were made in-space during LDEF retrieval and during LDEF tray disintegration. Also presented are initial findings of lab analyses of LDEF materials. Included are effects of individual environmental parameters: atomic oxygen, ultraviolet radiation, meteoroid and debris impacts, thermal cycling, vacuum, and contamination, plus combined effects of these parameters. Materials considered include anodized aluminum, polymer matrix composites, polymer films, silvered Teflon thermal blankets, and a white thermal control paint.

Stein, Bland A.; Pippin, H. Gary

1992-01-01

24

Preliminary investigation tests of novel antifungal topical aerosol.  

PubMed

Spray formulation can minimize pain and irritation experience during the application of conventional dosage forms. Econazole Nitrate is an active ingredient of the aerosol concentrate to be used for twice-daily application because of its long durability in the superficial layers of the fungal infected skin. The aim of this study is preliminary investigation of Econazole Nitrate spray by varying the concentrations of different constituents of the spray. The ratios of Propylene glycol (PG) and isopropyl myristate (IPM) were selected as independent variables in 2(2) full factorial designs, keeping the concentration of solvent, co-solvent and propellant LPG constant. Aerosol also contained Ethanol as solvent and Isopropyl alcohol as co-solvent. All ingredients of the aerosol were packaged in an aluminum container fitted with continuous-spray valves. Physical properties evaluated for the Econazole Nitrate spray included delivery rate, delivery amount, pressure, minimum fill, leakage, flammability, spray patterns, particle image and plume angle. Glass containers were used to study incompatibility between concentrate and propellant due to the ease of visible inspection. Isopropyl myristate at lower concentrate showed turbidity, while at high concentration it met the requirements for aerosol and produced Econazole Nitrate spray with expected characteristics. PMID:23066214

Kapadia, Monali M; Solanki, S T; Parmar, V; Thosar, M M; Pancholi, S S

2012-03-01

25

Preliminary investigation tests of novel antifungal topical aerosol  

PubMed Central

Spray formulation can minimize pain and irritation experience during the application of conventional dosage forms. Econazole Nitrate is an active ingredient of the aerosol concentrate to be used for twice-daily application because of its long durability in the superficial layers of the fungal infected skin. The aim of this study is preliminary investigation of Econazole Nitrate spray by varying the concentrations of different constituents of the spray. The ratios of Propylene glycol (PG) and isopropyl myristate (IPM) were selected as independent variables in 22 full factorial designs, keeping the concentration of solvent, co-solvent and propellant LPG constant. Aerosol also contained Ethanol as solvent and Isopropyl alcohol as co-solvent. All ingredients of the aerosol were packaged in an aluminum container fitted with continuous-spray valves. Physical properties evaluated for the Econazole Nitrate spray included delivery rate, delivery amount, pressure, minimum fill, leakage, flammability, spray patterns, particle image and plume angle. Glass containers were used to study incompatibility between concentrate and propellant due to the ease of visible inspection. Isopropyl myristate at lower concentrate showed turbidity, while at high concentration it met the requirements for aerosol and produced Econazole Nitrate spray with expected characteristics.

Kapadia, Monali M.; Solanki, S. T.; Parmar, V.; Thosar, M. M.; Pancholi, S. S.

2012-01-01

26

Preliminary Investigation of Ice Shape Sensitivity to Parameter Variations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A parameter sensitivity study was conducted at the NASA Glenn Research Center's Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) using a 36 in. chord (0.91 m) NACA-0012 airfoil. The objective of this preliminary work was to investigate the feasibility of using ice shape feature changes to define requirements for the simulation and measurement of SLD icing conditions. It was desired to identify the minimum change (threshold) in a parameter value, which yielded an observable change in the ice shape. Liquid Water Content (LWC), drop size distribution (MVD), and tunnel static temperature were varied about a nominal value, and the effects of these parameter changes on the resulting ice shapes were documented. The resulting differences in ice shapes were compared on the basis of qualitative and quantitative criteria (e.g., mass, ice horn thickness, ice horn angle, icing limits, and iced area). This paper will provide a description of the experimental method, present selected experimental results, and conclude with an evaluation of these results, followed by a discussion of recommendations for future research.

Miller, Dean R.; Potapczuk, Mark G.; Langhals, Tammy J.

2005-01-01

27

Preliminary geologic investigation of the Apollo 16 landing site  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Preliminary results of examining the lunar rock samples from the Apollo 16 flight are reported. Topics discussed include: premission geologic studies, geologic objectives, description of the site and traverse routes, superficial deposits, and station descriptions.

Muehlberger, W. R.; Batson, R. M.; Boudette, E. L.; Duke, C. M.; Eggleton, R. E.; Elston, D. P.; England, A. W.; Freeman, V. L.; Hait, M. H.; Hall, T. A.

1972-01-01

28

Preliminary Investigation of Civil Tiltrotor in NextGen Airspace.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Presentation intro: Tiltrotor aircraft have long been envisioned as being a potentially viable means of commercial aviation transport. Preliminary results from an ongoing study into the operational and technological considerations of Civil Tiltrotor (CTR)...

A. Paris D. Miller D. Salvano H. Gao K. Wright L. A. Young R. Young V. Cheng W. Chung

2010-01-01

29

Capacity investigation of brine-bearing sands of the Fwwm formation for geologic sequestration of COâ  

Microsoft Academic Search

The capacity of fluvial brine-bearing formations to sequester COâ is investigated using numerical simulations of COâ injection and storage. Capacity is defined as the volume fraction of the subsurface available for COâ storage and is conceptualized as a product of factors that account for two-phase flow and transport processes, formation geometry, formation heterogeneity, and formation porosity. The space and time

Christine Doughty; Karsten Pruess; Sally M. Benson; Susan D. Hovorka; Paul R. Knox; Christopher T. Green

2001-01-01

30

Investigation of Heat capacity and Specific Heat: Using Different Temperatures of Water and Solids  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is a chemistry lab-based investigation where students apply observational skills and critical thinking skills to finding specific heat and heat capacity using different temperatures of water and solids. A final activity will assess students understanding of specific heat and heat capacity and promote data analysis skills, using real-life situations.

31

Preliminary Aerodynamic Investigation of Fan Rotor Blade Morphing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Various new technologies currently under development may enable controlled blade shape variability, or so-called blade morphing, to be practically employed in aircraft engine fans and compressors in the foreseeable future. The current study is a relatively brief, preliminary computational fluid dynamics investigation aimed at partially demonstrating and quantifying the aerodynamic potential of fan rotor blade morphing. The investigation is intended to provide information useful for near-term planning, as well as aerodynamic solution data sets that can be subsequently analyzed using advanced acoustic diagnostic tools, for the purpose of making fan noise comparisons. Two existing fan system models serve as baselines for the investigation: the Advanced Ducted Propulsor fan with a design tip speed of 806 ft/sec and a pressure ratio of 1.294, and the Source Diagnostic Test fan with a design tip speed of 1215 ft/sec and a pressure ratio of 1.470. Both are 22-in. sub-scale, low-noise research fan/nacelle models that have undergone extensive experimental testing in the 9- by 15-foot Low Speed Wind Tunnel at the NASA Glenn Research Center. The study, restricted to fan rotor blade morphing only, involves a fairly simple blade morphing technique. Specifically, spanwise-linear variations in rotor blade-section setting angle are applied to alter the blade shape; that is, the blade is linearly retwisted from hub to tip. Aerodynamic performance comparisons are made between morphed-blade and corresponding baseline configurations on the basis of equal fan system thrust, where rotor rotational speed for the morphed-blade fan is varied to change the thrust level for that configuration. The results of the investigation confirm that rotor blade morphing could be a useful technology, with the potential to enable significant improvements in fan aerodynamic performance. Even though the study is very limited in scope and confined to simple geometric perturbations of two existing fan systems, the aerodynamic effectiveness of blade morphing is demonstrated by the configurations analyzed. In particular, for the Advanced Ducted Propulsor fan it is demonstrated that the performance levels of the original variable-pitch baseline design can be achieved using blade morphing instead of variable pitch, and for the Source Diagnostic Test fan the performance at important off-design operating points is substantially increased with blade morphing.

Tweedt, Daniel L.

2012-01-01

32

Preliminary Investigation of an Underwater Ramjet Powered by Compressed Air  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Part I contains the results of a preliminary experimental investigation of a particular design of an underwater ramjet or hydroduct powered by compressed air. The hydroduct is a propulsion device in which the energy of an expanding gas imparts additional momentum to a stream of water through mixing. The hydroduct model had a fineness ratio of 5.9, a maximum diameter of 3.2 inches, and a ratio of inlet area to frontal area of 0.32. The model was towed at a depth of 1 inch at forward speeds between 20 and 60 feet per second for airflow rates from 0.1 to 0.3 pound per second. Longitudinal force and pressures at the inlet and in the mixing chamber were determined. The hydroduct produced a positive thrust-minus-drag force at every test speed. The force and pressure coefficients were functions primarily of the ratio of weight airflow to free-stream velocity. The maximum propulsive efficiency based on the net internal thrust and an isothermal expansion of the air was approximately 53 percent at a thrust coefficient of 0.10. The performance of the test model may have been influenced by choking of the exit flow. Part II is a theoretical development of an underwater ramjet using air as "fuel." The basic assumption of the theoretical analysis is that a mixture of water and air can be treated as a compressible gas. More information on the properties of air-water mixtures is required to confirm this assumption or to suggest another approach. A method is suggested from which a more complete theoretical development, with the effects of choking included, may be obtained. An exploratory computation, in which this suggested method was used, indicated that the effect of choked flow on the thrust coefficient was minor.

Mottard, Elmo J.; Shoemaker, Charles J.

1961-01-01

33

Self-Esteem in the Foreign Language: A Preliminary Investigation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents preliminary attempt to gain insight into the self-perceptions of students and the teachers' observations regarding their students' abilities in English as a second language. Results show students and teachers do not view the students' language ability similarly. Suggests self-esteem may be a factor in motivating students. (Author/BK)

Anderson, Pamela L.

1982-01-01

34

Preliminary Results of an Investigation of Transverse Excited Atmospheric Lasers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report describes the design of two types of CO2, transverse excited atmospheric (TEA) pulsed lasers and preliminary experimental results achieved. The pin-rod laser is compared with the flat electrode double discharge laser. A program for TEA laser mo...

C. J. Bickart J. N. Fulton

1972-01-01

35

Midlife Transition and Women's Spirituality Groups: A Preliminary Investigation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this preliminary study was to describe midlife transition, spirituality, and healing of relationships for members of women's spirituality groups. Ten women completed the Spiritual Well-Being Scale (R. Paloutzian & C. Ellison, 1982) and a 45-minute interview about spirituality, religion, life transitions, relationships, and…

Geertsma, Elisabeth J.; Cummings, Anne L.

2004-01-01

36

A Preliminary Experimental Investigation of the Manganin Stress Transducer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report contains the preliminary development of a manganin foil stress gage for use in monitoring one dimensional stress waves occurring in axially impacted rods. The results of tests used to calibrate the manganin foil gage to uniform radial strain ar...

R. S. Steele R. A. Douglas

1973-01-01

37

PREDICTING THE ENTREPRENEURIAL INTENTIONS OF NONBUSINESS MAJORS: A PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports preliminary results of an ongoing project to profile entrepreneurial intentions of Family and Consumer Sciences (FCS) majors. The study used a self-administered questionnaire to explore the influence of vicarious experience, entrepreneurial orientation, image of entrepreneurship, and subjective norms on EI in a non business student sample. Students who expressed stronger interest in entrepreneurial careers are proactive, creative,

Barbara J. Frazier; Linda S. Niehm

38

MIDDLE POTLATCH CREEK, LATAH COUNTY, IDAHO - PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION REPORT, 1993  

EPA Science Inventory

The 1992 Idaho Water Quality Status Report listed the Middle Potlatch Creek (17060306) as an Idaho Impaired Stream Segment Requiring Further Assessment and listed the creek as a water body not fully supporting at least one beneficial use. This preliminary resource assessment foc...

39

Preliminary Investigation of Linkages Between Arctic Pingos and Subsurface Stratigraphy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This NASA-SETI supported study investigates the distribution of pingos (elliptically-shaped ice-rich topographic mounds) across 2300 square kilometers of the central coastal plain of Arctic Alaska in relation to the shallow geological framework that exists immediately beneath them. Pingos in the central North Slope of Alaska are classified as being of the closed or hydrostatic type. Their genesis is often assigned to freezing and cryogenic uplift of near-surface saturated thaw lake sediments that are exposed as lakes are drained and/or become choked with sediments. Although thaw lakes appear rather ubiquitous across the study area, pingos do not. Pingo distributions can be categorized as either clusters of elements or as relatively dispersed. Spatial statistical analysis reveals that pingo distribution is non-random and clustered. The analysis also took into account that pingo distribution is a function of preferential preservation between modern rivers channels that cross the study area. Pingo distributions and frequency were tested in relation to the location and type of stratigraphic and sedimentological features that characterized the shallow subsurface across the study area. Subsurface interpretation was derived mostly from oil well wireline logs. Gamma ray logs for more than 160 wells were used to define, correlate and assess the connectivity and conductivity of shallow and near-surface stratigraphic units between wells. Assessed also were major facies changes and the type and locations of subsurface structures such as major basement-to-surface faults and folds. The surface and near-surface truncation and subcropping of tilted, alternating units of permeable coarse-grained and confining fine- grained units were also mapped in relation to pingo locations. Preliminary and intriguing findings will be presented which contribute to the hypothesis that pingo genesis, location, and variations in morphology could be, in part, linked to a well-documented and active subsurface geohydrologic system. This system is characterized by multiple stacked hydrocarbon-, saline- and freshwater-rich reservoirs. Processes include fault reactivation and basin subsidence that drive episodic basin expulsion, and upward migration and mixing of deep basin and phreatic fluids along basin margins. Endpoints of the system include demonstrable gas hydrates deposits that occur below and within the permafrost, and documented seepage of hydrocarbons and groundwater at the surface. Our hypothesis entertains the idea that closed pingos might also be endpoints of the petroluem system as basin and phreatic fluids migrate vertically within a thick and leaky permafrost interval along faults and tilted reservoir sand-rich units, which intersect and differentially charge frozen near-surface sedimentary units. Future field-based sampling and geophysical studies may shed additional light on this model's application for pingo genesis and resource exploration on Mars.

Casavant, R.; Skirvin, S.; Patel, C.; Burr, D.

2008-12-01

40

Improving CAD performance in pulmonary embolism detection: preliminary investigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this preliminary study, a new computer-aided detection (CAD) scheme for pulmonary embolism (PE) detection was developed and tested. The scheme applies multiple steps including lung segmentation, candidate extraction using intensity mask and tobogganing method, feature extraction, false positive reduction using a multifeature based artificial neural network (ANN) and a k-nearest neighbor (KNN) classifier to detect and classify suspicious PE lesions. In particular, a new method to define the surrounding background regions of interest (ROI) depicting PE candidates was proposed and tested in an attempt to reduce the detection of false positive regions. In this study, the authors also investigated following methods to improve CAD performance, which include a grouping and scoring method, feature selection using genetic algorithm, and limitation on allowed suspicious lesions to be cued in one examination. To test the scheme performance, a set of 20 chest CT examinations were selected. Among them, 18 are positive cases depicted 44 verified PE lesions and the remaining 2 were negative cases. The dataset was also divided into a training subset (9 examinations) and a testing subset (11 examinations), respectively. The experimental results showed when applying to the testing dataset CAD scheme using tobogganing method alone achieved 2D region-based sensitivity of 72.1% (220/305) and 3D lesion-based sensitivity of 83.3% (20/24) with total 19,653 2D false-positive (FP) PE regions (1,786.6 per case or approximately 6.3 per CT slice). Applying the proposed new method to improve lung region segmentation and better define the surrounding background ROI, the scheme reduced the region-based sensitivity by 6.5% to 65.6% or lesion-based sensitivity by 4.1% to 79.2% while reducing the FP rate by 65.6% to 6,752 regions (or 613.8 per case). After applying the methods of grouping, the maximum scoring, a genetic algorithm (GA) to delete "redundant" features, and limiting the maximum number of cued-lesions in one examination, CAD scheme further reduced FP rate to 50 per case. Based on the FROC curve, an operating threshold was set up in which the CAD scheme could ultimately achieve 63.2% detection sensitivity with 18.4 FP regions per case when applying to the testing dataset. This study investigated the feasibility of several methods applying to the CAD scheme in detecting PE lesions and demonstrated that CAD performance could depend on many factors including better defining candidate ROI and its background, optimizing the 2D region grouping and scoring methods, selecting the optimal feature set, and limiting the number of allowed cueing lesions per examination.

Park, Sang Cheol; Chapman, Brian; Deible, Christopher; Lee, Sean; Zheng, Bin

2010-03-01

41

Sampling Open Source Projects from Portals: Some Preliminary Investigations  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we provide a preliminary evaluation of the quality and quantity of data on 50 000 open source (OS) projects hosted at the SourceForge.net portal. Using several indicators of project activity, we identify one sample from the entire dataset: the 'most- broadly-active' OS projects. The number of projects that are active across all of our main indicators of

Austen Rainer; Stephen Gale

2005-01-01

42

Preliminary investigation of possible low-temperature fusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preliminary tests have been made with electrolytic cells utilizing 0.2N LiOD in D2O as the electrolyte and a palladium cathode surrounded by a wire-wound platinum anode operating at cathode current densities\\u000a of 100–400 mA\\/cm2. The cathodes were swaged to diameters of 2.8 or 5.5 mm with 8.5 cm of active length. The electrolyte temperature was controlled,\\u000a heat was removed by

Charles E. Scott; Elias Greenbaum; Gordon E. Michaels; John E. Mrochek; Eugene Newman; Milica Petek; Timothy C. Scott

1990-01-01

43

Preliminary investigations of protein crystal growth using the Space Shuttle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Four preliminary Shuttle experiments are described which have been used to develop prototype hardware for a more advanced system that will evaluate effects of gravity on protein crystal growth. The first phase of these experiments has centered on the development of micromethods for protein crystal growth by vapor-diffusion techniques (using a space version of the hanging-drop method) and on dialysis using microdialysis cells. Results suggest that the elimination of density-driven sedimentation can effect crystal morphology. In the dialysis experiment, space-grown crystals of concanavalin B were three times longer and 1/3 the thickness of earth-grown crystals.

Delucas, L. J.; Suddath, F. L.; Snyder, R.; Naumann, R.; Broom, M. B.; Pusey, M.; Yost, V.; Herren, B .; Carter, D.

1986-01-01

44

Preliminary geothermal investigations at Manley Hot Springs, Alaska  

SciTech Connect

Manley Hot Springs is one of several hot springs which form a belt extending from the Seward Peninsula to east-central Alaska. All of the hot springs are low-temperature, water-dominated geothermal systems, having formed as the result of circulation of meteoric water along deepseated fractures near or within granitic intrusives. Shallow, thermally disturbed ground at Manley Hot Springs constitutes an area of 1.2 km by 0.6 km along the lower slopes of Bean Ridge on the north side of the Tanana Valley. This area includes 32 springs and seeps and one warm (29.1/sup 0/C) well. The hottest springs range in temperature from 61/sup 0/ to 47/sup 0/C and are presently utilized for space heating and irrigation. This study was designed to characterize the geothermal system present at Manley Hot Springs and delineate likely sites for geothermal drilling. Several surveys were conducted over a grid system which included shallow ground temperature, helium soil gas, mercury soil and resistivity surveys. In addition, a reconnaissance ground temperature survey and water chemistry sampling program was undertaken. The preliminary results, including some preliminary water chemistry, show that shallow hydrothermal activity can be delineated by many of the surveys. Three localities are targeted as likely geothermal well sites, and a model is proposed for the geothermal system at Manley Hot Springs.

East, J.

1982-04-01

45

Preliminary Investigation into the Exterior use of Elastomeric Acrylic Coatings for Naval Facilities.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This effort is in response to a request by the Naval Facilities Engineering Command (Atlantic Division) to conduct a preliminary investigation into elastomeric acrylic coatings for exterior use by Naval facilities. Findings are as follows: (a) A water-bas...

J. H. Brandon C. D. Gaughen

2000-01-01

46

Adaptive Patterns of Stress Responsivity: A Preliminary Investigation  

PubMed Central

The adaptive calibration model (ACM) is an evolutionary–developmental theory of individual differences in stress responsivity. In this article, we tested some key predictions of the ACM in a middle childhood sample (N = 256). Measures of autonomic nervous system activity across the sympathetic and parasympathetic branches validated the 4-pattern taxonomy of the ACM via finite mixture modeling. Moreover, the 4 patterns of responsivity showed the predicted associations with family stress levels but no association with measures of ecological stress. Our hypotheses concerning sex differences in responsivity were only partly confirmed. This preliminary study provides initial support for the key predictions of the ACM and highlights some of the methodological challenges that will need to be considered in future research on this topic.

Del Giudice, Marco; Hinnant, J. Benjamin; Ellis, Bruce J.; El-Sheikh, Mona

2014-01-01

47

An investigation on the catalytic capacity of dolomite in transesterification and the calculation of kinetic parameters.  

PubMed

The catalytic capacity of dolomite in transesterification was investigated and the kinetic parameters were calculated. The activated dolomites as transesterification catalyst were characterized by X-ray diffraction, nitrogen adsorption and desorption and Hammett indicator method, where the original dolomite was analyzed by thermogravimetric and X-ray fluorescence in advance. Its potential catalytic capacity was validated from aspects of the activated temperature and the reused property, where the reliability of the experimental system was also examined. Then, influences of the catalyst added amount, the mole ratio of methanol to oil, the transesterification temperature and the transesterification time on the catalytic capacity were investigated. Finally, kinetic parameters of the transesterification catalyzed by the activated dolomite were calculated. PMID:24583217

Niu, Sheng-Li; Huo, Meng-Jia; Lu, Chun-Mei; Liu, Meng-Qi; Li, Hui

2014-04-01

48

An investigation into the vehicle routing problem with time windows and link capacity constraints  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, we investigate a new, yet practical, variant of the vehicle routing problem called the vehicle routing problem with time windows and link capacity constraints (VRPTWLC). The problem considers new constraints imposed on road links with regard to vehicle passing tonnage, which is motivated by a business project with a Hong Kong transportation company that transports hazardous materials

Hong Ma; Brenda Cheang; Andrew Lim; Lei Zhang; Yi Zhu

2012-01-01

49

Methods and Practices of Investigators for Determining Participants' Decisional Capacity and Comprehension of Protocols  

PubMed Central

Ethicists recommend that investigators assess subjects’ comprehension prior to accepting their consent as valid. Because children represent an at-risk population, ensuring adequate comprehension in pediatric research is vital. We surveyed all corresponding authors of research articles published over a six-month period in five leading adult and pediatric journals. Our goal was to assess how often subject’s comprehension or decisional capacity was assessed in the consent process, whether there was any difference between adult and pediatric research projects, and the rate at which investigators use formal or validated tools to assess capacity. Responses from 102 authors were analyzed (response rate 56%). Approximately two-thirds of respondents stated that they assessed comprehension or decisional capacity prior to accepting consent, and we found no difference between adult and pediatric researchers. Nine investigators used a formal questionnaire, and three used a validated tool. These findings suggest that fewer than expected investigators assess comprehension and decisional capacity, and that the use of standardized and validated tools is the exception rather than the rule.

Kon, Alexander A.; Klug, Michael

2010-01-01

50

Preliminary investigation of possible low-temperature fusion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Preliminary tests have been made with electrolytic cells utilizing 0.2 N LiOD in D2O as the electrolyte and a palladium cathode surrounded by a wire-wound platinum anode operating at cathode current densities of 100-400 mA/cm2. The cathodes were swaged to diameters of 2.8 or 5.5 mm with 8.5 cm of active length. The electrolyte temperature was controlled, heat was removed by flowing water in a cooling jacket, and the cell was insulated. Cooling water and electrolyte temperatures were measured by thermocouples, and neutron and gamma-ray spectra were recorded. The electrolyte level was periodically monitored and replenished with D2O. Tests up to 2 weeks in duration were made with no sustained release of energy in excess of the electrical power input, although there was one period of 12 h when an unaccountable heat excess was observed. In another test, an anomalous neutron flux was measured during the first few hours that was 3.5 standard deviations above the background.

Scott, Charles E.; Greenbaum, Elias; Michaels, Gordon E.; Mrochek, John E.; Newman, Eugene; Petek, Milica; Scott, Timothy C.

1990-06-01

51

Dientamoeba fragilis in swine population: a preliminary investigation.  

PubMed

Dientamoeba fragilis, a protozoan with worldwide distribution is considered to be responsible for enteric disease in humans. A wide spectrum of clinical symptoms including; diarrhoea (acute or prolonged), flatulence, abdominal pains and other unspecific bowel symptoms have been ascribed to this parasite. Asymptomatic infection has also been reported. Dientamoeba fragilis is as its name indicates an extremely delicate protozoon and only the trophozoite has ever been demonstrated in stool samples. The definitive diagnosis of this infection is based on demonstration in permanently stained stool samples. In Italy examination of ova and parasite (O&P) samples are not currently performed. This protozoan is extremely difficult to cultivate but molecular techniques such as the Polymerase Chain Reaction offer promise as a means of diagnosing infection. The epidemiology of Dientamoebiasis is not clear. This paper will present preliminary results from a study looking for the parasite's presence in swine faeces. The possible role of pigs as a reservoir of infection was studied; 121 faecal samples from breeding and fattening pigs were examined using a Giemsa permanent stain. Dientamoeba fragilis was found in 53 (43.8%) of the stool samples examined. PMID:17314011

Crotti, D; Sensi, M; Crotti, S; Grelloni, V; Manuali, E

2007-04-30

52

Preliminary Investigation of Civil Tiltrotor in NextGen Airspace  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Presentation intro: Tiltrotor aircraft have long been envisioned as being a potentially viable means of commercial aviation transport. Preliminary results from an ongoing study into the operational and technological considerations of Civil Tiltrotor (CTR) operation in the Next Generation airspace, circa the 2025 time-frame, are presented and discussed. In particular, a fleet of CTR aircraft has been conceptually designed. The performance characteristics of this CTR fleet was subsequently translated into BADA (Base of Aircraft DAta) models that could be used as input to emulate CTR aircraft operations in the ACES and AvTerminal airspace and terminal area simulation tools. A network of nine North-Eastern corridor airports is the focus of the airspace simulation effort; the results from this airport network viII then be extrapolated to provide insights into systemic impact of CTRs on the National Airspace System (NAS). Future work will also be detailed as to attempts to model the systemic effects of noise and emissions from this fleet of new aircraft as well as assess their leveraged impact on public service missions, in time of need, such as major regional/national disaster relief efforts. The ideal outcome of this study is a set of results whereby Next Gen airspace CONOPs can be refined to reflect potential CTR capabilities and, conversely, CTR technology development efforts can be better informed as to key performance requirement thresholds needed to be met in order to successfully introduce these aircraft into civilian aviation operation.

Young, Larry A.; Salvano, Dan; Wright, Ken; Chung, William; Young, Ray; Miller, David; Paris, Alfanso; Gao, Huina; Cheng, Victor

2010-01-01

53

Preliminary investigations into UHCRE thermal control materials (A0178)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An overview of the initial work that was done in the ESTEC Materials and Processes Division to evaluate the effect of space environment on the thermal blankets of the Ultra-Heavy Cosmic Ray Nuclei Experiments (UHCRE) is presented. The topics covered include: (1) a preliminary survey of the perforations of the two-thirds of the thermal blanket returned to ESTEC; (2) thermo-optical properties and thickness recessions of three samples cut from each of the third center parts of the 16 thermal blankets were measured and effects of environments (sun illumination and atomic oxygen fluences); (3) contamination was analyzed on trays, external blanket and internal aluminized Kapton foil by IR technique and scanning electron microscopy SEM/EDX examination; (4) the pattern of contamination on the Al Kapton foils was observed, sketched, and related to atomic oxygen flow; and (5) the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) yaw angle misorientation was evaluated from the contaminated areas visible on some of the trays. In addition, impacts of micrometeoroids and space debris were experimentally simulated on spare flight thermal blankets. Relations between penetration/perforation hole characteristics and projectile parameters were established.

Levadou, Francois; Froggatt, Mike; Rott, Martin; Schneider, Eberhard

1992-01-01

54

Mixing of Salinity-Stratified Water by Pneumatic Barriers. Report 1. Preliminary Investigations. Hydraulic Model Investigation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Preliminary tests were conducted at the U. S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station to identify the process involved in mixing salinity-stratified bodies of water by means of a pneumatic (bubble) screen. Salinity, velocity, and photographic data from...

W. H. McAnally

1973-01-01

55

Publication by Australian LIS Academics and Practitioners: A Preliminary Investigation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Much has been written about scholarly communication with studies investigating the drivers for research and publishing. For academics in particular, publication is a major determinant of a successful case for continuing employment, promotion and the winning of competitive research funding. The purpose of this paper is to inform understanding of…

Willard, Patricia; Kennan, Mary Anne; Wilson, Concepcion S.; White, Howard D.

2008-01-01

56

Spirituality and Young Women in Transition: A Preliminary Investigation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study contributes to the growing body of knowledge about spirituality and life transitions. Through qualitative investigation, 9 young women in professional education programs described their definition of spirituality, their spiritual activities, and how they used their spirituality to cope with life transitions as they prepared to enter the…

Livingston, Kimberly A.; Cummings, Anne L.

2009-01-01

57

Map Interpretation Instruction in Introductory Textbooks: A Preliminary Investigation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Maps are often understood as the primary tool in geography; however, recent research indicates that the number of students taking map interpretation courses has declined. As geography students are expected to master the uses of maps, this study investigates the materials available in introductory collegiate textbooks that promote the development…

Gillen, Jamie; Skryzhevska, Liza; Henry, Mary C.; Green, Jerry

2010-01-01

58

Preliminary investigation of somatosensory evoked potentials in equine headshaking  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to develop a technique for recording electrical activity of the equine cerebral cortex following application of a noxious electrical stimulus to the maxillary branch of the trigeminal nerve in order to investigate trigeminal nerve neurophysiology in control and headshaking horses. Triphasic somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) were recorded using subcutaneous needle electrodes in four control

K. J. Pickles; T. J. Gibson; C. B. Johnson; V. Walsh; J. C. Murrell; J. E. Madigan

2011-01-01

59

Persulfates from China. Investigation No. 731-TA-749 (Preliminary).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

On the basis of the record developed in the subject investigations, the Commission determines, pursuant to section 733(b) of the Tariff Act of 1930 (19 U.S.C. section 1673(b)), that is reasonable indication that an industry United States is threatened wit...

1996-01-01

60

Gambling Behaviors Among Oxford House Residents: A Preliminary Investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study investigated the prevalence of gambling behaviors among 71 individuals recovering from substance-dependent disorders and living in self-run recovery homes (Oxford Houses). Residents were given the South Oaks Gambling Screen to assess gambling behaviors and pathological gambling, and 19.7% of the sample was identified as having probable pathological gambling. These residents reported proportionately more involvement in a variety

John M. Majer; Robert S. Angulo; Darrin M. Aase; Leonard A. Jason

2011-01-01

61

Experimental Investigation of Shear Capacity of Precast Reinforced Concrete Box Culverts  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study presents an experimental program to investigate the shear capacity of precast reinforced concrete box culverts. Each culvert was subjected to monotonically increasing load through a 254 mm508 mm 10 in.20 in. load plate in order to simulate the HS20 truckload per AASHTO 2005. Instrumentation included strain gauges, high-resolution laser deflection sensor, and automated data acquisition. Four tests were

Anil K. Garg; Ali Abolmaali; Raul Fernandez

2007-01-01

62

Preliminary experimental investigation of boundary layer in decelerating flow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Investigations of characteristics of turbulence inside boundary layer under decelerating flow were studied by means of constant temperature anemometer. The decelerating flow was simulated in the closed circuit wind tunnel 0.9 m × 0.5 m at IT AS CR. The free stream turbulence was either natural o risen up by square mesh plane grid. The details of experimental settings and measurement procedures of the instantaneous longitudinal velocity component are described and the distributions of intensity, skewness and kurtosis of turbulent fluctuations are discussed in the contribution.

Hladík, O.; Jonáš, P.; P?íhoda, J.

2013-04-01

63

A Preliminary Investigation of the Predictors of Tanning Dependence  

PubMed Central

Objectives To investigate possible predictors of tanning dependence including demographic variables, exposure and protective behaviors, and other health-related behaviors. Methods This study consisted of an online survey of 400 students and other volunteers from a university community. Results Twenty-seven percent of the sample was classified as tanning dependent. Tanning dependence was predicted by ethnicity and skin type, indoor and outdoor tanning and burning, and lower skin protective behaviors, as well as smoking and body mass index. Conclusions Young adults are at risk for tanning dependence, which can be predicted by specific demographic and behavioral variables.

Heckman, Carolyn J.; Egleston, Brian L.; Wilson, Diane B.; Ingersoll, Karen S.

2014-01-01

64

Altered Passive Eruption and Familial Trait: A Preliminary Investigation  

PubMed Central

Altered passive eruption is described as a condition in which the relationship between teeth, alveolar bone, and the soft tissues creates an excessive gingival display and, in turn, in some circumstances, it may reveal a clinical aspect also known as the “gummy smile.” The surgical management of such cases is well understood and has been widely described, with mucogingival and osseous resective procedures being predictable surgical means leading to more balanced aesthetics and proper display of the teeth anatomy. The possible familial trait in case of passive eruption and therefore the possibility of recurrence of the same condition in families of siblings or parents of affected patients have been investigated in this study. 20 patients have been selected and treated in both a private practice and university settings and their immediate family trees were evaluated in order to understand the incidence of the condition. 65% of the treated patients had one or more family members with the same condition leading to seeking further investigation on the possible genetic correlation.

Brunelli, Giorgio; Piras, Vincenzo

2014-01-01

65

Preliminary investigation of a two-zone swirl flow combustor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effect of full-annular swirling-flow on a flow-zone combustor design is investigated. Swirl flow angles of 25, 35, and 45 degrees were investigated in a combustor design envelope typical of those used in modern engines. The two-zone combustor had 24 pilot-zone fuel injectors and 24 main-fuel injectors located in the centerbody between the pilot and swirl passage. Combustor performance was determined at idle, and two parametric 589 K inlet temperature conditions. Combustor performance was highest with the 45 degree swirl vane design; at the idle condition, combustion efficiency was 99.5 percent. The 45 degree swirl vane also produced the lowest pattern factor of the three angles and showed a combustor lean blowout limit below a 0.001 fuel-air ratio. Combustor total pressure drop varied from a low of 4.6 percent for the 25 degree swirl to a high of 4.9 percent for the 45 degree swirl.

Biaglow, J. A.; Johnson, S. M.; Smith, J. M.

1984-01-01

66

Preliminary results of fisheries investigation associated with Skylab-3  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of the 15-month investigation now in the analysis phase is to establish the feasibility of utilizing remotely sensed data acquired from aircraft and satellite platforms to provide information concerning the distribution and abundance of oceanic gamefish. Data from the test area, jointly acquired by private and professional fishermen and NASA and NOAA/NMFS elements, in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico has made possible the identification of significant environmental parameters for white marlin. Predictive models based on catch data and surface truth information have been developed and have demonstrated potential for reducing search significantly by identifying areas which have a high probability of being productive. Three of the parameters utilized by the model, chlorophyll-a, sea surface temperature and turbidity have been inferred from aircraft sensor data.

Savastano, K.; Pastula, E., Jr.; Woods, G.; Faller, K.

1974-01-01

67

Preliminary investigation of somatosensory evoked potentials in equine headshaking.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to develop a technique for recording electrical activity of the equine cerebral cortex following application of a noxious electrical stimulus to the maxillary branch of the trigeminal nerve in order to investigate trigeminal nerve neurophysiology in control and headshaking horses. Triphasic somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) were recorded using subcutaneous needle electrodes in four control and four headshaking horses under general anaesthesia. Dural electroencephalography electrodes were used to record SEPs in one further control and one further headshaking horse. Headshaking horses appeared to have decreased middle latency and inter-peak intervals following stimulation of the trigeminal nerve compared with control horses, supporting abnormal trigeminal nerve physiology in equine headshaking. PMID:21546406

Pickles, K J; Gibson, T J; Johnson, C B; Walsh, V; Murrell, J C; Madigan, J E

2011-05-14

68

Age Dating of Mixed SNM--Preliminary Investigations  

SciTech Connect

Recently we investigated the nuclear forensics problem of age determination for mixed special nuclear material (SNM). Through limited computational mixing experiments and interactive age analysis, it was observed that age dating results are generally affected by the mixing of samples with different assays or even by small radioactive material contamination. The mixing and contamination can be detected through interactive age analysis, a function provided by the Decay Interaction, Visualization and Analysis (DIVA) software developed by NSTec. It is observed that for mixed SNM with two components, the age estimators typically fall into two distinct clusters on the time axis. This suggests that averaging or other simple statistical methods may not always be suitable for age dating SNM mixtures. Instead, an interactive age analysis would be more suitable for age determination of material components of such SNM mixtures. This work was supported by the National Center for Nuclear Security (NCNS).

Yuan, D., Guss, P. P., Yfantis, E., Klingensmith, A., Emer, D.

2011-12-01

69

Preliminary Investigation of Climate Change Impact on the New York City Water Supply  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Future climates projected by different General Circulation Models (GCMs) are used as input to watershed and reservoir water quality models. Results from these models are used as part of the OASIS model framework to simulate operations for the New York City (NYC) water supply system. Other components of the NYC OASIS framework include reservoir capacities, reservoir operating rules, and system demands. The state and performance of the system are evaluated for different time scales based on system indicators. The indicators provide information needed for the decision process for both, daily operations and long term planning. This presentation focuses on presenting preliminary results that link future climate and hydrologic model simulations to the NYC OASIS model framework while assuming water supply operation rules and water demands remain the same as under current conditions. These results for the west of Hudson basin suggest that future climate change will impact regional hydrology and ultimately, affect water system indicators on a seasonal basis. Projected increases in winter air temperatures, increased winter rain, and earlier (and more consistent) snowmelt resulted in more runoff during winter and earlier reservoir refill in the spring. At a subsystem level reservoir storage levels, water releases and spills appear to increase during the winter months and slightly reduce during summer. Inflows to the system, demands and operational rules within OASIS determine patterns for system indicators at a reservoir level. For the future and in order to reduce uncertainty in our results, more investigation is necessary to: (i) improve projection of future climate at a level that satisfy the needs of daily operations and (ii) optimize the rules within OASIS to achieve the best performance of the system given the new environment imposed by climate change.

Matonse, A. H.; Frei, A.; Pierson, D. C.; Zion, M. S.

2009-12-01

70

Immunohistochemical study of human costotransverse joints: A preliminary investigation.  

PubMed

The human costotransverse joint (CTJ) is the articulation between the posterior tubercle of the ribs with the first through tenth costal facet of the thoracic transverse processes. While the CTJ is well defined anatomically and considered a synovial joint, the human CTJ as a pain generating structure is controversial and not supported from a histological perspective. The objective of the present study was to investigate the histological pain producing properties of CTJ capsule tissue. Ten micron cross-sections at each level (1-10) were stained with H & E or immunostained with antisera against Substance P (SP), calcitonin-gene-related peptide (CGRP), and neuropeptide Y (NPY). Immunoreactivity was confirmed for SP, CGRP, and NPY within the CTJ tissue samples of two unembalmed male cadavers. The presence of previously mentioned neuropeptides suggests that human CTJ is capable of producing pain through somatic and autonomic nervous systems. Therefore, clinicians should consider the CTJ as a differential diagnostic possibility when examining and treating painful thoracic conditions. PMID:21400610

Dedrick, G S; Sizer, P S; Sawyer, B G; Brismeè, J M; Smith, M P

2011-09-01

71

Investigation of Mg modified mesoporous silicas and their CO 2 adsorption capacities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CO 2 adsorption properties on Mg modified silica mesoporous materials were investigated. By using the methods of co-condensation, dispersion and ion-exchange, Mg 2+ was introduced into SBA-15 and MCM-41, and transformed into MgO in the calcination process. The basic MgO can provide active sites to enhance the acidic CO 2 adsorption capacity. To improve the amount and the dispersion state of the loading MgO, the optimized modification conditions were also investigated. The XRD and TEM characteristic results, as well as the CO 2 adsorption performance showed that the CO 2 adsorption capacity not only depended on the pore structures of MCM-41 and SBA-15, but also on the improvement of the dispersion state of MgO by modification. Among various Mg modified silica mesoporous materials, the CO 2 adsorption capacity increased from 0.42 mmol g -1 of pure silica SBA-15 to 1.35 mmol g -1 of Mg-Al-SBA-15-I1 by the ion-exchange method enhanced with Al 3+ synergism. Moreover, it also increased from 0.67 mmol g -1 of pure silica MCM-41 to 1.32 mmol g -1 of Mg-EDA-MCM-41-D10 by the dispersion method enhanced with the incorporation of ethane diamine. The stability test by 10 CO 2 adsorption/desorption cycles showed Mg-urea-MCM-41-D10 possessed quite good recyclability.

Zhao, Huiling; Yan, Wei; Bian, Zijun; Hu, Jun; Liu, Honglai

2012-02-01

72

Multiscale eddy simulation for moist atmospheric convection: Preliminary investigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A multiscale computational framework is designed for simulating atmospheric convection and clouds. In this multiscale framework, large eddy simulation (LES) is used to model the coarse scales of 100 m and larger, and a stochastic, one-dimensional turbulence (ODT) model is used to represent the fine scales of 100 m and smaller. Coupled and evolving together, these two components provide a multiscale eddy simulation (MES). Through its fine-scale turbulence and moist thermodynamics, MES allows coarse grid cells to be partially cloudy and to encompass cloudy-clear air mixing on scales down to 1 m; in contrast, in typical LES such fine-scale processes are not represented or are parameterized using bulk deterministic closures. To illustrate MES and investigate its multiscale dynamics, a shallow cumulus cloud field is simulated. The fine-scale variability is seen to take a plausible form, with partially cloudy grid cells prominent near cloud edges and cloud top. From earlier theoretical work, this mixing of cloudy and clear air is believed to have an important impact on buoyancy. However, contrary to expectations based on earlier theoretical studies, the mean statistics of the bulk cloud field are essentially the same in MES and LES; possible reasons for this are discussed, including possible limitations in the present formulation of MES. One difference between LES and MES is seen in the coarse-scale turbulent kinetic energy, which appears to grow slowly in time due to incoherent stochastic fluctuations in the buoyancy. This and other considerations suggest the need for some type of spatial and/or temporal filtering to attenuate undersampling of the stochastic fine-scale processes.

Stechmann, Samuel N.

2014-08-01

73

Maxillary expansion with the memory screw: a preliminary investigation  

PubMed Central

Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a newly developed rapid maxillary expansion screw-the memory screw-over 6 months. Methods Five subjects, aged between 11.7 and 13.75 years, were enrolled in this study. All subjects underwent placement of a maxillary expansion appliance containing superelastic nickel-titanium open-coil springs in its screw bed. The parents of the patients and/or the patients themselves were instructed to activate the expansion screw by 2 quarter-turns 3 times a day (morning, midday, and evening; 6 quarter-turns a day). The mean expansion period was 7.52 ± 1.04 days. Dentoskeletal effects of the procedure, including dentoalveolar inclination, were evaluated. Measurements of all the parameters were repeated after 6 months of retention in order to check for relapse. Results Sella-Nasion-A point (SNA) and Sella-Nasion/Gonion-Menton angles increased, and Sella-Nasion-B point (SNB) angle decreased in all the subjects during the expansion phase. However, they approximated to the initial values at the end of 6 months. On the other hand, the increments in maxillary apical base (Mxr-Mxl) and intermolar widths was quite stable. As expected, some amount of dentoalveolar tipping was observed. Conclusions The newly developed memory expansion screw offers advantages of both rapid and slow expansion procedures. It widens the midpalatal suture and expands the maxilla with relatively lighter forces and within a short time. In addition, the resultant increments in the maxillary apical base and intermolar width remained quite stable even after 6 months of retention.

Halicioglu, Koray; Kiki, Ali

2012-01-01

74

Radiation and temperature effects on electronic components investigated under the CSTI High Capacity Power Project  

SciTech Connect

The effects of nuclear radiation and high temperature environments must be fully known and understood for the electronic components and materials used in both the Power Conditioning and Control subsystem and the reactor Instrumentation and Control subsystem of future high capacity nuclear space power systems. This knowledge is required by the designer of these subsystems in order to develop highly reliable, long-life power systems for future NASA missions. A review and summary of the experimental results obtained for the electronic components and materials investigated under the power management element of the CSTI high capacity power project will be presented in this paper: (1) Neutron, gamma ray, and temperature effects on power semiconductor switches, (2) Temperature and frequency effects on soft magnetic materials; and (3) Temperature effects on rare earth permanent magnets.

Shwarze, G.E. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Cleveland, OH (United States). Lewis Research Center; Niedra, J.M. [Sverdrup Technology, Inc., Brook Park, OH (United States) Lewis Research Center Group; Frasca, A.J. [Wittenberg Univ., Springfield, OH (United States); Wieserman, W.R. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, Johnstown, PA (United States)

1994-09-01

75

Music therapy assessment in school settings: a preliminary investigation.  

PubMed

The present investigation was undertaken in response to music therapists working in school settings for information relating to the availability of music therapy assessments and the feasibility of standardizing an assessment instrument for music therapists to use in school settings. Five research questions were identified, and the music therapy literature was surveyed to compile responses to those questions. Three different online data bases (ERIC, PsycINFO, and Article 1st) were used, covering articles published between 1980 and 1997. Individual hand searches were done of the Arts in Psychotherapy, Journal of Music Therapy, Journal of Research in Music Education, Journal of the International Association of Music for the Handicapped, Music Therapy and Music Therapy Perspectives. The questions and responses were as follows: 1. Which music-based assessment tools are being used with children with disabilities? Little commonality in assessment tools being used by music therapists and researchers was discovered. Of the total 41 studies, 20 (49%) reported using a "named" or "titled" assessment tool, and in the remaining 51% of studies, the authors reported using an untitled, and usually experimenter-designed, original assessment tool. 2. Have certain assessments been used in more than one study? Very limited replication of existing assessments was found. Of the 16 "named" assessments, only 3 were found to be used in more than one research study. 3. Are the actual assessments published along with the articles describing their use? Only 3 of the 20 studies using named assessments were published along with the journal article. Of the remaining 21 studies using original, experimenter-designed assessment tools, only 6 (28%) had the assessment instrument published with the article. 4. What is the primary purpose for using the assessment? Six primary purposes emerged from the review of the literature: to compare with data obtained from other assessment measures or from other populations (39%), as a baseline or pretest measure (29%), to determine eligibility for services or the receipt of treatment (12%), to determine the psychometric properties of the assessment (7%), suitability of the instrument for the given population (7%), and the identification of musical preferences (5%). 5. What are the musical or nonmusic elements being assessed? Musical elements were: music perception (37%), musical aptitude (29%), musical preferences (12%), and attention to/enjoyment of music (2%). Nonmusical behaviors/responses were: self-expression (10%), motor responses (10%), behavioral responses (7%), cognitive development (2%), and acts of communication (2%). 6. What subject populations are being assessed? Subject populations were: children with developmental disabilities/mental retardation (44%), children with autism (10%), children with hearing impairments (17%), "psychiatric" clients or emotionally disturbed (22%), individuals described as "handicapped" (5%), individuals with physical disabilities (2%), and a student with a speech impairment (2%). Nondisabled individuals were also included in 12 of the aforementioned studies. PMID:10932124

Wilson, B L; Smith, D S

2000-01-01

76

A Preliminary Investigation into Communication in the Special Needs Classroom during Key Stage 3 English Lessons  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A preliminary study was conducted to investigate the communicative roles performed by teacher and pupil during Key Stage 3 (KS3) English lessons. Two classes of a special school were involved in the study. Data collection employed video capture of teacher-pupil communication during timetabled English lessons. The data were transcribed and analysed…

Bunning, Karen; Ellis, Martina

2010-01-01

77

Groundwater flow analyses in preliminary site investigations. Modelling strategy and computer codes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The analyses of groundwater flow comprised a part of the preliminary site investigations which were carried out by Teollisuuden Voima Oy (TVO) for five areas in Finland during 1987 -1992. The main objective of the flow analyses was to characterize groundw...

V. Taivassalo L. Koskinen K. Meling

1994-01-01

78

A Quantitative Approach to Investigating Spanish HL Speakers' Characteristics and Motivation: A Preliminary Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present preliminary study empirically investigated Spanish heritage language (HL) speakers in Spanish for native speakers (SNS) college courses. It focused on their attitudes and motivation to improve their HL and on their varying linguistic competences in that language. A well-established second language acquisition (SLA) motivational model…

Yanguas, Inigo

2010-01-01

79

The Effects of Adaptive Stepping Criterion on Tracking Performance: A Preliminary Investigation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study constitutes a preliminary investigation of several important factors in the design and implementation of adaptive training research. The effects of using various adaptive stepping criteria upon performance were studied. Comparison of adaptive and nonadaptive training techniques were also made. The tested hypotheses were that: (1) there…

Bancroft, Norris R.; Duva, James S.

80

Preliminary thermal-hydraulic phenomena investigation during total instantaneous blockage accident for CEFR  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Chinese Experimental Fast Reactor (CEFR) is under installation and commissioning right now. It is essential to investigate core disruptive accidents (CDAs) for the evaluation of CEFR's safety characteristic. As part-I preliminary investigation, accident of total instantaneous blockage (TIB) in single subassembly scale is modeled and analyzed. The degradation scenario has been calculated by a fluid-dynamics analysis code for liquid–metal

Z. Wang; X. W. Cao

2007-01-01

81

Investigation of an improved relativistic backward wave oscillator in efficiency and power capacity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Investigation of relativistic backward wave oscillator with high efficiency and power capacity is presented in this paper. To obtain high power and high efficiency, a TM021 mode resonant reflector is used to reduce the pulse shortening and increase power capacity to about 1.7 times. Meanwhile, an extraction cavity at the end of slow wave structure is employed to improve the efficiency from less than 30% to over 40%, through the beam-wave interaction intensification and better energy conversion from modulated electron beam to the electromagnetic field. Consistent with the numerical results, microwave with a power of 3.2 GW, a frequency of 9.75 GHz, and a pulse width of 27 ns was obtained in the high power microwave generation experiment, where the electron beam energy was configured to be ~910 kV and its current to be ~8.6 kA. The efficiency of the RBWO exceeds 40% at a voltage range of 870 kV-1000 kV.

Song, W.; Chen, C. H.; Sun, J.; Zhang, X. W.; Shao, H.; Song, Z. M.; Huo, S. F.; Shi, Y. C.; Li, X. Z.

2012-10-01

82

Investigation of an improved relativistic backward wave oscillator in efficiency and power capacity  

SciTech Connect

Investigation of relativistic backward wave oscillator with high efficiency and power capacity is presented in this paper. To obtain high power and high efficiency, a TM{sub 021} mode resonant reflector is used to reduce the pulse shortening and increase power capacity to about 1.7 times. Meanwhile, an extraction cavity at the end of slow wave structure is employed to improve the efficiency from less than 30% to over 40%, through the beam-wave interaction intensification and better energy conversion from modulated electron beam to the electromagnetic field. Consistent with the numerical results, microwave with a power of 3.2 GW, a frequency of 9.75 GHz, and a pulse width of 27 ns was obtained in the high power microwave generation experiment, where the electron beam energy was configured to be {approx}910 kV and its current to be {approx}8.6 kA. The efficiency of the RBWO exceeds 40% at a voltage range of 870 kV-1000 kV.

Song, W.; Chen, C. H.; Sun, J.; Zhang, X. W.; Shao, H.; Song, Z. M.; Huo, S. F.; Shi, Y. C.; Li, X. Z. [Science and Technology on High Power Microwave Laboratory, Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710024 (China)

2012-10-15

83

Detection of Darbepoetin Alfa Misuse in Urine and Blood: A Preliminary Investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

MORKEBERG, J., C. LUNDBY, G. NISSEN-LIE, T. K. NIELSEN, P. HEMMERSBACH, and R. DAMSGAARD. Detection of Darbepoetin Alfa Misuse in Urine and Blood: A Preliminary Investigation. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 39, No. 10, pp. 1742-1747, 2007. Introduction: Darbepoetin alfa is a modified erythropoietin (EPO) molecule with a longer serum half-life than recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO). Because the detection period

JAKOB MORKEBERG; CARSTEN LUNDBY; GRO NISSEN-LIE; THOMAS KJAEREM NIELSEN; PETER HEMMERSBACH; RASMUS DAMSGAARD

84

A preliminary investigation of post-traumatic stress symptoms among firefighters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emergency service personnel are at high risk of developing post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, there is little in-depth information on the psychological responses of firefighters to the daily incidents that they attend. This preliminary study aimed to investigate the PTSD symptoms of firefighters in relation to traumatic events experienced by them, and the availability of social support. Thirty-one UK fire

Cheryl Haslam; Krissie Mallon

2003-01-01

85

Hypnotically Assisted Diaphragmatic Exercises in the Treatment of Stuttering: A Preliminary Investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This preliminary study investigates the combined effect of intensive hypnotherapy and diaphragmatic exercises in the management of stuttering. Fifty-nine clients with stuttering were trained to practice abdominal weightlifting to strengthen their respiratory muscles and to improve their diaphragmatic movements. The weightlifting exercises involved lifting a dumbbell (2.0–4.0 kg) with the abdomen for 2 hours daily for 8 consecutive days. Hypnotherapy

Yalcin Kaya; Assen Alladin

2012-01-01

86

Membrane electrode assemblies based on sol–gel hybrid membranes — A preliminary investigation on fabrication aspects  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports the preliminary results on fabrication of membrane electrode assemblies (MEA) for proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) based on sol–gel hybrid membranes. In order to identify a suitable method, various fabrication strategies were investigated. For this purpose, hybrid membranes made from alkoxysilane-endcapped poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) precursor consisting of monophenyl trimethoxysilane (MPh) as silica phase modifier and 4-dodecylbenzene

R. Thangamuthu; C. W. Lin

2005-01-01

87

Preliminary investigation of cycle-to-cycle variations in a nonair-breathing diesel engine  

SciTech Connect

The effect of nonair mixtures on cycle-to-cycle variations of cylinder pressure characteristics was investigated experimentally with an indirect-injected (IDI) diesel engine. The engine intake temperature and pressure were maintained at normal air-breathing conditions when operated with nonair mixtures. Preliminary results indicate that increases in carbon dioxide concentration can cause significant cyclic variations. Moreover, the extent of such cyclic variations is notably influenced by the oxygen concentration and inert gas constitutents of the working fluids.

Zheng, M.; Reader, G.T. [Univ. of Calgary, Alberta (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

1995-03-01

88

Preliminary investigations on available and potentially available phosphorus using electro-ultrafiltration (EUF)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Preliminary investigations were carried out on calcareous silty loam (clay content 25%, pH 8.0) at the Cotton Research Institute,\\u000a Multan to determine the solubility and desorption rates of phosphorus at various soil depths throughout the cotton growing\\u000a season using the EUF technique. The treatments included two applications of single superphosphate, equivalent to 0, 75, 150,\\u000a 250 and 350 kg P2O5\\/ha.

M. A. Taha; M. N. Malik; M. I. Makhdum; F. I. Chaudhry

1982-01-01

89

A Preliminary Investigation of the Management of Alcohol Dependence With Naltrexone by Primary Care Providers  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: To describe a preliminary investigation of a model of naltrexone therapy and counselling for use by primary care providers and evaluate its impact on drinking behaviors in a cohort of alcohol-dependent subjects.PATIENTS AND METHODS: The subjects enrolled in this study were 29 alcohol-dependent individuals. They were managed within a primary care treatment model located at a university-affiliated substance research

Patrick G O’Connor; Conor K Farren; Bruce J Rounsaville; Stephanie S O’Malley

1997-01-01

90

Hydrobiology of a flooding ecosystem, Lake Chenhu in Hanyang, Hubei, with preliminary estimation of its potential fishery production capacity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the purpose of fishery development, a hydrobiological investigation of Lake Chenhu was carried out in 1983 with reference to the productivity of various food organisms as well as fish. Of the entire lake, the annual net primary production was determined to be 27,818×106 kcal for phytoplankton, 2,898×106 kcal for macrophytes and 64,840×106 kcal for wet land vegetation. The annual secondary production chiefly from gastropods was 2,632×106 kcal. On the basis of 1981 1982 fishery data, the production of the main stocked fishes in the lake was also roughly computed. Analysing all obtained production data, we find the energy conversion rate of food organisms to fish in the water at the present stage is fairly low. Even in 1982, the year of better fishery management, food energy converted to plankton feeders or herbivores was only 1.6 1.8%; energy converted to fish yield was even lower, only 0.2 0.8%. To get a potential fish output of the ecosystem, a tentative estimation of fishery capacity of Lake Chenhu was made by using the index of food quotients and relevant conversion factors. The theoretical fish production in the lake is estimated to be around 6,000 t and, through the improvement of fishery management, an annual fish yield of 2,000 t can be expected.

Liang, Yanling; Wang, Ji; Hu, Chuanlin

1988-03-01

91

Work plan for the preliminary site investigation for McMurdo Station, Ross Island, Antarctica  

SciTech Connect

This document presents the final work plan for the preliminary site investigation to be conducted at McMurdo Station, Ross Island, Antarctica. A draft version of this report was presented to the National Science Foundation (NSF) in January 1991. This work plan includes a brief site description and background, a discussion of the environmental setting, a sampling and analytical program for data collection, and a brief description of sampling and data management procedures. A description of the geologic and geophysical investigation to be conducted is also included. 18 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

Stefano, J.E.; Patton, T.L.; McGinnis, L.D.; Bebrich, C.A.; Knudson, D.A.; Picel, K.C.

1991-05-01

92

Preliminary Investigation of Zircaloy-4 as a Research Reactor Cladding Material  

SciTech Connect

As part of a scoping study for the ATR fuel conversion project, an initial comparison of the material properties of Zircaloy-4 and Aluminum-6061 (T6 and O-temper) is performed to provide a preliminary evaluation of Zircaloy-4 for possible inclusion as a candidate cladding material for ATR fuel elements. The current fuel design for the ATR uses Aluminum 6061 (T6 and O temper) as a cladding and structural material in the fuel element and to date, no fuel failures have been reported. Based on this successful and longstanding operating history, Zircaloy-4 properties will be evaluated against the material properties for aluminum-6061. The preliminary investigation will focus on a comparison of density, oxidation rates, water chemistry requirements, mechanical properties, thermal properties, and neutronic properties.

Brian K Castle

2012-05-01

93

The Innovative Capacity of Secondary Schools: A Qualitative Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents the results of a preliminary investigation into the innovative capacities of Dutch secondary schools. Defines "innovative capacity" based on a number of factors found in a review of the literature. Finds that transformational school leadership plays a particularly crucial role in the development of the innovative capacities of schools.…

Berg, Rudolf van den; Sleegers, Peter

1996-01-01

94

Preliminary Investigation of the Thermal Behavior of High-Speed Helical Gear Trains  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A preliminary experimental investigation of the thermal behavior of high-speed helical gears will be presented. A full-scale torque regenerative test stand has been built to test a representative helical gear train as that used in tiltrotor aircraft. Power loss and temperature data from a wide range of operating conditions were measured. Loop power ranged up to 3730 kW (5000 hp). Drive system components representative of flight quality hardware were used in the test program. The results attained in this initial study indicated that windage losses due to the high rotational speeds that were tested were far more important than the losses due to the gear meshing losses.

Handschuh, Robert F.; Kilmain, Charles J.

2002-01-01

95

A preliminary investigation of serological tools for the detection of Onchocerca lupi infection in dogs.  

PubMed

Onchocerca lupi is a neglected filarioid causing nodular lesions associated with acute or chronic ocular disease in dogs. Despite the recent appraisal of its zoonotic potential, human cases are increasingly reported in the Old and New Worlds. Therefore, the development of accurate tools for the rapid diagnosis of O. lupi infections in dogs is becoming a priority. In this study, we conducted a preliminary investigation aimed at evaluating the usefulness of a commercially available ELISA test for the detection of O. lupi antigens in canine sera. The potential use of this tool for larger epidemiological studies of canine onchocerciasis is discussed. PMID:24647986

Giannelli, Alessio; Cantacessi, Cinzia; Graves, Patricia; Becker, Luke; Campbell, Bronwyn Evelyn; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Otranto, Domenico

2014-05-01

96

Preliminary Investigation of Cyclic Behavior at SHADOZ Sites Between the Equator and 5 deg S Latitude  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Investigation of cyclic behavior of temperature and ozone data from five SHADOZ sites between the Equator and 5degS Latitude (Nairobi, Ascension Island, Natal, San Crystobal, and Watukoset) reveal an amazing array of oscillations. In particular, eight years of measurements (1998-2007) reveal changes such as decreasing amounts of ozone at some pressure levels and/or sites, while other levels and/or sites experience increasing ozone. Temperature changes of 1-2 C occur that also experience irregular oscillations. This study is preliminary and only concentrates on the 250-, 200-, 100-, 70-, and 50-hPa pressure surfaces. Surfaces existing below and above the tropopause behave differently.

Schmidlin, F. J.

2009-01-01

97

Capacity investigation of brine-bearing sands of the Fwwm formation for geologic sequestration of CO{sub 2}  

SciTech Connect

The capacity of fluvial brine-bearing formations to sequester CO{sub 2} is investigated using numerical simulations of CO{sub 2} injection and storage. Capacity is defined as the volume fraction of the subsurface available for CO{sub 2} storage and is conceptualized as a product of factors that account for two-phase flow and transport processes, formation geometry, formation heterogeneity, and formation porosity. The space and time domains used to define capacity must be chosen with care to obtain meaningful results, especially when comparing different authors' work. Physical factors that impact capacity include permeability anisotropy and relative permeability to CO{sub 2}, brine/CO{sub 2} density and viscosity ratios, the shape of the trapping structure, formation porosity and the presence of low-permeability layering.

Doughty, Christine; Pruess, Karsten; Benson, Sally M.; Hovorka, Susan D.; Knox, Paul R.; Green, Christopher T.

2001-05-01

98

Wind-load correlation and estimates of the capacity credit of wind power - An empirical investigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Capacity credit for wind-derived electricity is discussed in terms of a measure of the availability of wind power during peak load hours. Consideration is given to the reduction of the loss of load probability (LOLP) when wind-derived electricity is available in the grid. A formulation is developed which requires the input of wind and load data while aiding in estimates of the capacity credit. A sample problem is presented for hourly loads on an Australian grid where wind data had been recorded for 8 yr. Attention was given to unlimited wind power in the grid, as well as partial contributions to capacity. A constancy was observed in the relative wind resource and load over the years, although little correlation was found between wind speed occurrence and load. Suggestions for adjustments to previous indices used to establish capacity credits are presented.

Martin, B.; Carlin, J.

99

Scaling the Information Load of Occupations: Preliminary Findings of the Fit between Individual Capacities and Environmental Demands  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Person-Environment (P-E) fit models provide a conceptually powerful way to think about career development, vocational choice, and occupational success. The work reported here focuses on yet another pair of P-E criteria: self-reported individual capacity for information processing (the ability to tolerate information overload from a variety of…

Haase, Richard F.; Ferreira, Joaquim Armando G. A.; Santos, Eduardo J. R.; Aguayo, Gina M.; Fallon, Melissa M.

2008-01-01

100

R&D Requirements, RF Gun Mode Studies, FEL-2 Steady-StateStudies, Preliminary FEL-1 Time-Dependent Studies, and Preliminary LayoutOption Investigation  

SciTech Connect

This report constitutes the third deliverable of LBNLs contracted role in the FERMI {at} Elettra Technical Optimization study. It describes proposed R&D activities for the baseline design of the Technical Optimization Study, initial studies of the RF gun mode-coupling and potential effects on beam dynamics, steady-state studies of FEL-2 performance to 10 nm, preliminary studies of time-dependent FEL-1 performance using electron bunch distribution from the start-to-end studies, and a preliminary investigation of a configuration with FEL sinclined at a small angle from the line of the linac.

Byrd, John; Corlett, John; Doolittle, Larry; Fawley, William; Lidia, Steven; Penn, Gregory; Ratti, Alex; Staples, John; Wilcox Russell; Wurtele, Jonathan; Zholents, Alexander

2005-10-01

101

Mental Strategies, Mental Capacity, and Instruction: A Neo-Piagetian Investigation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Pascual-Leone's neo-Piagetian theory of development is used to predict the pre- and postinstruction distributions of scores on a subject-controlled digit placement task as a function of three parameters dealing with mental strategy and capacity. (Author/ED)

Case, Robbie

1974-01-01

102

Contribution of Working Memory Capacity to Children's Reading Comprehension: A Longitudinal Investigation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We examined the contribution of working memory capacity to the development of children's reading comprehension. We present data from three waves of a longitudinal study when the children were 7 years (Grade 1), 8 years (Grade 2) and 9 years (Grade 3). Two questions were raised: The first question concerned the developmental changes of the relative…

Seigneuric, Alix; Ehrlich, Marie-France

2005-01-01

103

A small capacity steamejector refrigerator: experimental investigation of a system using ejector with movable primary nozzle  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an experimental study of a steam-ejector refrigerator using an ejector with a primary nozzle that could be moved axially within the mixing chamber section. The effects on coefficient of performance and cooling capacity produced by adjusting the position of the nozzle were studied. The experimental rig and method are described and results are presented which clearly show

Ian W Eames

1997-01-01

104

Preliminary Investigation of the Thermal Decomposition of Ablefoam and EF-AR20 Foam (Ablefoam Replacement)  

SciTech Connect

Preliminary thermal decomposition experiments with Ablefoam and EF-AR20 foam (Ablefoam replacement) were done to determine the important chemical and associated physical phenomena that should be investigated to develop the foam decomposition chemistry sub-models that are required in numerical simulations of the fire-induced response of foam-filled engineered systems for nuclear safety applications. Although the two epoxy foams are physically and chemically similar, the thermal decomposition of each foam involves different chemical mechanisms, and the associated physical behavior of the foams, particularly ''foaming'' and ''liquefaction,'' have significant implications for modeling. A simplified decomposition chemistry sub-model is suggested that, subject to certain caveats, may be appropriate for ''scoping-type'' calculations.

ULIBARRI, TAMARA A.; DERZON, DORA K.; ERICKSON, KENNETH L.; CASTANEDA, JAIME N.; BOREK III, THEODORE T.; RENLUND, ANITA M.; MILLER, JILL C.; CLAYTON, DANIEL; FLETCHER, THOMAS H.

2002-01-01

105

Investigation of fracture-matrix interaction: Preliminary experiments in a simple system  

SciTech Connect

Paramount to the modeling of unsaturated flow and transport through fractured porous media is a clear understanding of the processes controlling fracture-matrix interaction. As a first step toward such an understanding, two preliminary experiments have been performed to investigate the influence of matrix imbibition on water percolation through unsaturated fractures in the plane normal to the fracture. Test systems consisted of thin slabs of either tuff or an analog material cut by a single vertical fracture into which a constant fluid flux was introduced. Transient moisture content and solute concentration fields were imaged by means of x-ray absorption. Flow fields associated with the two different media were significantly different owing to differences in material properties relative to the imposed flux. Richards` equation was found to be a valid means of modeling the imbibition of water into the tuff matrix from a saturated fracture for the current experiment.

Foltz, S.D. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Tidwell, V.C.; Glass, R.J.; Sobolik, S.R. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1992-12-31

106

A preliminary investigation of powered prostheses for improved walking biomechanics in bilateral transfemoral amputees.  

PubMed

The authors conducted a preliminary investigation of the extent to which a pair of powered prostheses can provide improved gait biomechanics in bilateral transfemoral amputee walking. Specifically, a finite state-based impedance controller for level ground walking was implemented in a pair of powered knee and ankle prostheses. The efficacy of the powered prostheses and impedance-based controllers was tested on a healthy subject using able-body adapters. Motion capture data was collected while the subject performed treadmill walking with the powered prostheses. This kinematic data is compared to that of healthy subjects, and also to previously published data for bilateral transfemoral amputee gait with passive prostheses. The comparison indicates that the powered prostheses are able to provide a walking gait that is considerably more representative of healthy biomechanical gait relative to passive prostheses. PMID:23366845

Lawson, Brian E; Huff, Amanda; Goldfarb, Michael

2012-01-01

107

Hypnotically assisted diaphragmatic exercises in the treatment of stuttering: a preliminary investigation.  

PubMed

This preliminary study investigates the combined effect of intensive hypnotherapy and diaphragmatic exercises in the management of stuttering. Fifty-nine clients with stuttering were trained to practice abdominal weightlifting to strengthen their respiratory muscles and to improve their diaphragmatic movements. The weightlifting exercises involved lifting a dumbbell (2.0-4.0 kg) with the abdomen for 2 hours daily for 8 consecutive days. Hypnotherapy was utilized to alleviate anxiety, to boost self-confidence, and to increase motivation for weightlifting exercise. The pre- and postmeasures were statistically significant (p < .001). Results of the study provide support for the effectiveness of hypnotically assisted diaphragmatic training in the management of stuttering but should be further studied in controlled trials. PMID:22443525

Kaya, Yalcin; Alladin, Assen

2012-01-01

108

Evaluation of CO2 migration and formation storage capacity in the Dalders formations, Baltic Sea - Preliminary analysis by means of models of increasing complexity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present preliminary data analysis and modeling of CO2 injection into selected parts of the Dalders Monocline and Dalders Structure, formations situated under the Baltic Sea and of potential interest for CO2 geological storage. The approach taken is to use models of increasing complexity successively, thereby increasing the confidence and reliability of the predictions. The objective is to get order-of-magnitude estimates of the behavior of the formations during potential industrial scale CO2 injection and subsequent storage periods. The focus has been in regions with best cap-rock characteristics, according to the present knowledge. Data has been compiled from various sources available, such as boreholes within the region. As the first approximation we use analytical solutions, in order to get an initial estimate the CO2 injection rates that can be used without causing unacceptable pressure increases. These preliminary values are then used as basis for more detailed numerical analyses with TOUGH2/TOUGH2-MP (e.g. Zhang et al, 2008) simulator and vertical equilibrium based (e.g. Gasda et al, 2009) models. With the numerical models the variations in material properties, formation thickness etc., as well as more processes such as CO2 dissolution can also be taken into account. The presentation discusses results from these preliminary analyses in terms of estimated storage capacity, CO2 and pressure plume extent caused by various injection scenarios, as well as CO2 travel time after the end of the injection. The effect of factors such as number of injection wells and the positioning of these, the effect of formation properties and the boundary conditions are discussed as are the benefits and disadvantages of the various modeling approaches used. References: Gasda S.E. et al, 2009. Computational Geosciences 13, 469-481. Zhang et al, 2008. Report LBNL-315E, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.

Niemi, Auli; Yang, Zhibing; Tian, Liang; Jung, Byeongju; Fagerlund, Fritjof; Joodaki, Saba; Pasquali, Riccardo; O'Neill, Nick; Vernon, Richard

2014-05-01

109

Investigation of the Capacity of Underground Water Pumping Using Wind Energy in Dhahran  

Microsoft Academic Search

The capacity of pumping ground water with wind energy conversion systems in Dhahran, Saudi Arabia was statistically analyzed.\\u000a Experimental data of half-hourly wind energy measurements made for a period of 5 years (1995–2000) were used in the analysis.\\u000a Seven horizontal-axis wind turbines with different power ratings were considered in the study. Eight water pumps with different\\u000a power ratings to be powered

Ahmet Z. Sahin; Ahmet Bolat; Abdulrahman Al-Ahmari

110

Contribution of Working Memory Capacity to Children’s Reading Comprehension: A Longitudinal Investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the contribution of working memory capacity to the development of children’s reading comprehension. We present\\u000a data from three waves of a longitudinal study when the children were 7 years (Grade 1), 8 years (Grade 2) and 9 years (Grade\\u000a 3). Two questions were raised: The first question concerned the developmental changes of the relative contribution of working\\u000a memory in predicting reading

Alix Seigneuric; Marie-France Ehrlich

2005-01-01

111

75 FR 13761 - Fact Finding Investigation No. 26; Vessel Capacity and Equipment Availability in the United...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...orders a non-adjudicatory investigation into current conditions and...information obtained in this investigation and recommendations of the...4. Current practices and plans of VOCCs regarding the deployment...291, a non-adjudicatory investigation is hereby instituted...

2010-03-23

112

Preliminary investigation of cement materials in the Taif area, Saudi Arabia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A preliminary investigation of possible sources of cement rock in the Taft area was made during the latter part of August 1968. Adequate deposits of limestone, clay, quartz conglomerate and sandstone, and pisolitic iron ore, yet no gypsum, were located to support a Cement plant should it prove feasible to establish one in this area. These materials, made up mostly of Tertiary and later sediments, crop out in isolated, inconspicuous low hills in a north- trending belt, 10 to 15 kilometers wide, lying about 90 kilometers to-the east of At Taft. The belt extends for more than 90 kilometers from the vicinity of Jabal 'An in the south to the crushed rock pits at Radwan and beyond in the north. The area is readily accessible either from the Talf-Riyadh highway or from the Taif-Bishah road presently under construction. The limestone, which is quite pure and dense in some localities but dolomitic, argillaceous, and cherty in others, occurs in a variety of colors and would make suitable decorative building stone. The volcanic rocks of the Harrat Hadan, lying directly to the east of the limestone belt, include volcanic ash beds some of which may have been altered to bentonitlc clays. Others may have been lithified and might be suitable for light-weight aggregate. These possibilities remain to be investigated. Precambrian metamorphic rocks lying directly to the south and southeast of Taif were also investigated as possible cement rock sources, but no suitable material was found here.

Martin, Conrad

1970-01-01

113

Preliminary Results from an Investigation into Nanostructured Nuclear Radiation Detectors for Non-Proliferation Applications  

SciTech Connect

In recent years, the concept of embedding composite scintillators consisting of nanosized inorganic crystals in an organic matrix has been actively pursued. Nanocomposite detectors have the potential to meet many of the homeland security, non-proliferation, and border and cargo-screening needs of the nation and, by virtue of their superior nuclear identification capability over plastic, at roughly the same cost as plastic, have the potential to replace all plastic detectors. Nanocomposites clearly have the potential of being a gamma ray detection material that would be sensitive yet less expensive and easier to produce on a large scale than growing large, whole crystals of similar sensitivity. These detectors would have a broad energy range and a sufficient energy resolution to perform isotopic identification. The material can also be fabricated on an industrial scale, further reducing cost. This investigation focused on designing and fabricating prototype core/shell and quantum dot (QD) detectors. Fourteen core/shell and four QD detectors, all with the basic consistency of a mixture of nanoparticles in a polymer matrix with different densities of nanoparticles, were prepared. Nanoparticles with sizes <10 nm were fabricated, embedded in a polystyrene matrix, and the resultant scintillators’ radiation detector properties were characterized. This work also attempted to extend the gamma energy response on both low- and high-energy regimes by demonstrating the ability to detect low-energy and high-energy gamma rays. Preliminary results of this investigation are consistent with a significant response of these materials to nuclear radiation.

,

2012-10-01

114

Preliminary investigation of high power microwave plasmas for electrothermal thruster use  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results are reported from preliminary tests to evaluate the high power microwave electrothermal thruster (MET) concept, which employs a free-floating plasma discharge maintained by applied CW microwave power to heat a propellant gas flow. Stable plasmas have been created and maintained in helium (He), nitrogen (N2), and hydrogen (H2) as propellants in both the TM(sub 011) and TM(sub 012) modes at discharge pressures from 10 Pa to 69 kPa. Reproducible starting conditions of pressure and power have been documented for all the plasmas. Vortical inflow of the propellant gas was observed to cause the formation of on-axis 'spike' plasmas. The formation and unformation conditions of these plasmas were studied. Operation in the spike plasma condition enables maximum power absorption with minimum wall heating and offers maximum efficiency in heating the propellant gas. In the spike condition, plasmas of the three propellant gases were investigated in an open channel configuration to a maximum applied power level of 11.2 kW (in N2). Microwave power coupling efficiencies of over 90 percent were routinely obtained at absorbed power levels up to 2 kW. Magnetic nozzle effects were investigated with a superconducting solenoid Al magnet applying a high magnetic field to the plasmas in and exiting from the discharge tube.

Power, John L.; Sullivan, Daniel J.

1993-01-01

115

Preliminary results from an investigation into nanostructured nuclear radiation detectors for non-proliferation applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, the concept of embedding composite scintillators consisting of nanosized inorganic crystals in an organic matrix has been actively pursued. Nanocomposite detectors have the potential to meet many of the homeland security, non-proliferation, and border and cargo-screening needs of the nation and, by virtue of their superior nuclear identification capability over plastic, at roughly the same cost as plastic, have the potential to replace all plastic detectors. Nanocomposites clearly have the potential of being a gamma ray detection material that would be sensitive yet less expensive and easier to produce on a large scale than growing large, whole crystals of similar sensitivity. These detectors would have a broad energy range and a sufficient energy resolution to perform isotopic identification. The material can also be fabricated on an industrial scale, further reducing cost. This investigation focused on designing and fabricating prototype core/shell and quantum dot (QD) detectors. Fourteen core/shell and four QD detectors, all with the basic consistency of a mixture of nanoparticles in a polymer matrix with different densities of nanoparticles, were prepared. Nanoparticles with sizes <10 nm were fabricated, embedded in a polystyrene matrix, and the resultant scintillators' radiation detector properties were characterized. This work also attempted to extend the gamma energy response on both low- and high-energy regimes by demonstrating the ability to detect low-energy and high-energy gamma rays. Preliminary results of this investigation are consistent with a significant response of these materials to nuclear radiation.

Guss, Paul; Guise, Ronald; Yuan, Ding; Mukhopadhyay, Sanjoy

2012-10-01

116

Investigation of Increased Load Capacity of Spur and Helical Gears with Increased Contact Ratio.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this project was to investigate the relative load-carrying capabilities of spur and helical gears with increased-profile contact ratio (greater than 2) by carrying out a program of experimental investigation to assess the influence of incre...

J. P. Alberti A. J. Lemanski

1970-01-01

117

Further investigations on the resilience capacity of Taraxacum officinale Weber growing on mine soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Heavy metal accumulation produces significant physiological and biochemical responses in vascular plants. Plants growing on abandoned mine sites are of particular interest, since they are genetically tolerant to high metal concentrations. In this work we examined the effect of heavy metals (HM) on the morphology of T. officinale growing on mine soils, with the following objectives: - to determine the fate of HM within the soil-plant system; - to highlight possible damage at anatomical and cytological level; - to assess the resilience capacity of Taraxacum officinale after three years of pot cultivation. Wild specimens of Taraxacum officinale Web, with their soil clod, were gathered from four sites with different contamination levels by heavy metals (Cu, Fe, Pb, Zn) in the abandoned Imperina Valley mine (Northeast Italy). Plants were cultivated in pots at the botanical garden of the University of Florence (HBF), and appeared macroscopically not affected by toxic signals (e.g. reduced growth, leaf necrosis) possibly induced by soil HM concentration. Leaves and roots taken at the same growing season were observed by light microscopy (LM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Light microscopy observations show a clear difference in the cell organization of not-contaminated and contaminated samples. The unpolluted samples present a well organized palisade tissue and spongy photosynthetic parenchyma. Samples from contaminated sites, instead, present a palisade parenchyma less organized, and a reduction of leaf thickness proportional to HM concentration. The poor structural organisations, and the reduced foliar thickness of the contaminated plants, are related to soil contamination. Differences in roots micromorphology concern the cortical parenchyma. Moreover, all the samples examined present mycorrhiza. Ultrastructure observations of the parenchyma cells show mitochondrial structure alteration, with lacking or reduced cristae of the internal membrane at increasing metal content. Instead, chloroplast organization does not present significant differences, particularly in number and compartmentalization of thylakoids. Although macromorphology does not present evidence of phytotoxicity, the recorded observations of the micromorphological characteristics of leaves and roots, show a suffering state of the plants, strictly related to HM content. Leaching reduced partly the HM content of the soil, therefore decreasing their phytotoxic effect. A gradual restoration of leaf organization suggests that somewhat resilience occurred in plants. Moreover, the presence of stress-tolerant mycorrhizal fungi could contribute to reduce metal toxicity. The resilience capacity suggests that Taraxacum could be a useful species in remediation projects. Keywords: Heavy metals • Mine soils • Plant morphology • Taraxacum officinale • Ultrastructure

Maleci, Laura; Bini, Claudio; Spiandorello, Massimo; Wahsha, Mohammad

2014-05-01

118

Investigation into the erosive capacity of pyroclastic density currents at Mount Saint Helens, Washington (USA)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two fundamental aspects of PDC dynamics that remain poorly understood are the primary control(s) on substrate erosion and the effect of erosion on downstream flow dynamics. The gap in understanding reflects the lack of sufficient field exposures with evidence for these processes. In the 32 years since the May 18th, 1980 eruption of Mount St Helens (MSH), kilometers of new outcrops have been exposed throughout the PDC and debris avalanche hummock deposits that provide substantial evidence of substrate erosion and entrainment by the PDCs produced throughout the afternoon of the eruption. Field observations include a reappearance of large lithics (>1 m) in PDC deposits at distances of 4-5 km from the vent, suggesting that these lithics were entrained locally. For this study, detailed componentry and roundness analyses are utilized to determine the source of lithics in PDC deposits and to quantify the erosive capacity of the PDCs at MSH. Comparison of componentry data from the PDC deposits with debris avalanche deposits ~200 m upstream indicate that >50% of the lithics were locally entrained. The entrainment of these lithics appears to have significantly altered the dynamics of the current as contacts between flow units change from purely depositional upstream from the hummocks to erosive and scouring following the entrainment of dense lithics. This evidence suggests that the capacity of a PDC to behave erosively could be a self-perpetuating process; entrainment of dense lithics at the base of the current results in an increased density gradient, which in turn enhances a current's ability to continue to erode. In addition, the presence of locally entrained lithics at various heights within a single flow unit and within close proximity to the source of the lithics suggests both a progressive entrainment of the substrate as well as a progressive aggradation of the deposits, depending on localized flow conditions. While erosion may have initially occurred due to the underpressure associated with the passing of the head of the current, as has been previously speculated (Roche et al., 2010. J Geophys Res 115, B09206), field evidence suggests that erosive conditions continue to exist (at least sporadically) during the passage of the body of the current. The inclusion of erosion and entrainment into models for the dynamics of PDCs will continue to increase our knowledge of these dangerous currents and allow for refined numerical simulations of the hazards associated with PDCs.

Pollock, N. M.; Brand, B. D.

2012-12-01

119

Preliminary investigation of using volatile organic compounds from human expired air, blood and urine for locating entrapped people in earthquakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A preliminary investigation on the possibility of using volatile organic compounds (VOCs) determination of expired air, blood and urine, for the early location of entrapped people in earthquakes, has been carried out. A group of 15 healthy subjects has been sampled. The identification of a common “core” of substances might provide indications of human presence that can be used for

M. Statheropoulos; E. Sianos; A. Agapiou; A. Georgiadou; A. Pappa; N. Tzamtzis; H. Giotaki; C. Papageorgiou; D. Kolostoumbis

2005-01-01

120

A Preliminary Investigation of Supercharging an Air-Cooled Engine in Flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report presents the results of preliminary tests made on the effects of supercharging an air-cooled engine under airplane flight conditions. Service training airplanes were used in the investigation equipped with production types of Wright J engines. A N.A.C.A. Roots type supercharger was driven from the rear of the engine. In addition to measuring those quantities that would enable the determination of the climb performance, measurements were made of the cylinder-head temperatures and the carburetor pressures and temperatures. The supercharging equipment was not removed from the airplane when making flights without supercharging, but a by-pass valve, which controlled the amount of supercharging by returning to the atmosphere the surplus air delivered by the supercharger, was left full open. With the supercharger so geared that ground-level pressure could be maintained to 18,500 feet, it was found that the absolute ceiling was increased from 19,400 to 32,600 feet, that the time to climb to 16,00 feet was decreased from 32 to 16 minutes, and that this amount of supercharging apparently did not injure the engine. (author)

Ware, Marsden; Schey, Oscar W

1929-01-01

121

Preliminary investigation of the influence of dopamine regulating genes on social working memory.  

PubMed

Working memory (WM) refers to mental processes that enable temporary retention and manipulation of information, including information about other people ("social working memory"). Previous studies have demonstrated that nonsocial WM is supported by dopamine neurotransmission. Here, we investigated in 131 healthy adults whether dopamine is similarly involved in social WM by testing whether social and nonsocial WM are influenced by genetic variants in three genes coding for molecules regulating the availability of dopamine in the brain: catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), dopamine active transporter (DAT), and monoamine-oxidase A (MAOA). An advantage for the Met allele of COMT was observed in the two standard WM tasks and in the social WM task. However, the influence of COMT on social WM performance was not accounted for by its influence on either standard WM paradigms. There was no main effect of DAT1 or MAOA, but a significant COMT x DAT1 interaction on social WM performance. This study provides novel preliminary evidence of effects of genetic variants of the dopamine neurotransmitter system on social cognition. The results further suggest that the effects observed on standard WM do not explain the genetic effects on effortful social cognition. PMID:24889756

Dumontheil, Iroise; Jensen, Sarah K G; Wood, Nicholas W; Meyer, Meghan L; Lieberman, Matthew D; Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne

2014-10-01

122

A Preliminary Investigation of the Cr3Si-Mo Pseudo-Binary Phase Diagram  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An investigation was undertaken to study the phase relations in Cr3Si alloyed with Mo varying from 10 to 83.5 wt. % of the material. Specimens were prepared from arc-melted buttons that were subsequently heat treated at 1673 K for 200 h and air quenched to room temperature to structures. Alloys containing more than 20 wt. % MO were primarily two-phase materials of M3Si and M5Si3, where M is (Cr,Mo). Three alloys contained less than 5% of a third phase, which also had the M5Si3 crystal structure. Differential thermal analysis (DTA) was performed on several specimens at temperatures up to 2073 K in order to determine a solidus curve for the M3Si phase. Since only one DTA peak was observed in each alloy, the M5Si3 phase must melt above 2073 K, the maximum temperature examined. A preliminary pseudo-binary phase diagram for (Cr,Mo)3Si and a portion of the 1673 K isothermal section of the Cr-Mo-Si ternary phase diagram are presented.

Dickerson, R. M.; Raj, S. V.; Locci, I. E.

1995-01-01

123

Continuous simulation modelling for design flood estimation in South Africa: Preliminary investigations in the Thukela catchment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several recent literature reviews highlight the need for improvements in procedures for design flood estimation [Cordery, I., Pilgrim, D.H., 2000. The state of the art of flood prediction. In: Parker, D.J. (Ed.), Floods. vol. II. Routledge, London, UK, pp. 185-197; Smithers, J.C., Schulze, R.E., 2001. Design runoff estimation: a review with references to practices in South Africa. In: Tenth South African National Hydrological Symposium. SANCIAHS, Pietermaritzburg, RSA]. In general, these reviews indicate that internationally the trend is to adopt a continuous simulation modeling approach for design flood estimation. The continuous simulation modelling (CSM) approach to design flood estimation has many advantages and has the potential to overcome many of the limitations of the often used design event approach. A pilot study into the development of a continuous simulation modelling system for design flood estimation is being undertaken in the Thukela catchment in South Africa. Preliminary studies using the ACRU agrohydrological modelling system are detailed in this paper and include investigations into the appropriate scale and levels of soil and land cover information required for use in a CSM approach for design flood estimation. Results indicate that CSM with the ACRU model requires quaternary catchments to be further divided into sub-quaternary catchments, and that using area weighted soils and land cover information gives better results than using modal soils information or single dominant soil or land cover information.

Chetty, Kershani; Smithers, Jeff

124

Membrane electrode assemblies based on sol-gel hybrid membranes — A preliminary investigation on fabrication aspects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reports the preliminary results on fabrication of membrane electrode assemblies (MEA) for proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) based on sol-gel hybrid membranes. In order to identify a suitable method, various fabrication strategies were investigated. For this purpose, hybrid membranes made from alkoxysilane-endcapped poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) precursor consisting of monophenyl trimethoxysilane (MPh) as silica phase modifier and 4-dodecylbenzene sulfonic acid (DBSA) as proton source (PEG/SiO 2/DBSA); and MPh and 12-phosphotungstic acid (PWA) (PEG/SiO 2/PWA) are used as model compounds. For the better interface of MEA, impregnation solutions of similar chemical nature with hybrid membranes were examined. Polarization curves are exclusively used to evaluate the quality of MEA. A maximum current density of 80 mA cm -2, obtained with hot-pressed MEA, is the highest performance among the five different preparation methods. Good contact between the hybrid membrane as an electrolyte and the catalyst coated carbon cloth as electrodes in the MEA is achieved by coating electrodes as well as membrane with precursor sol. The flexibility of sol-gel hybrid membranes shows scope for further improvement in performance compared to hybrid membranes from solution-blending. The implications of each preparation methods are analyzed.

Thangamuthu, R.; Lin, C. W.

125

Erbium:YAG laser contouring of the nasal dorsum: a preliminary investigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In conventional aesthetic rhinoplasty operations, manual or powered rasps are used to reduce the osseo-cartilagenous nasal dorsum. This tactile method requires palpation of the instrument and the dorsum during surgery to estimate the degree of volume reduction, and often requires forceful manipulation of the dorsum which may illicit pain during surgery and contribute to post-operative edema and echymosis. In this preliminary study, we investigated the use of the Erbium:YAG laser ((lambda) equals294 micrometers ) to reduce bone and cartilage using ex-vivo porcine nasal dorsum and human cadaveric tissues. The short pulsed length and high absorption of this laser in biologic tissues results in minimization of thermal injury which are ideal for non- contact optical contouring of osseous and cartilagenous tissues in the face. Two Erbium:YAG lasers were used to ablate fresh porcine nasal bone and compared for their use. One Erbium:YAG laser, the Fidelis Laser, Fontana Medical Lasers, Ljubljana, Slovenija with variable pulse repetition rates (2 to 50 Hz), pulse energy (80 to 1000 mJ), and pulse duration (100, 300, 750 and 1000 microsecond(s) ) was used and compared to the Ultrafine Erbium:YAG laser, Coherent Inc., Santa Clara California, with variable pulse repetition rate (2 to 10 Hz), pulse energy (2-16 J/cm2), and spot diameter (2-6 mm). Only laser parameters approximating the conditions for thermal confinement were evaluated.

Truong, Mai T.; Majaron, Boris; Pandhoh, Nidhi; Wong, Brian J.

2001-05-01

126

Eastern Mediterranean high resolution paleoclimate investigations using south Adriatic finely laminated sediment: preliminary data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The formation of distinct organic-rich units (sapropels) in the Medditerenean is well-known, and intensively studied , however less is known of the smaller scale variability during their formation. Multicore GeoB 107-39-03 was taken in 2006, in the central part of the straits of Otranto, south Adriatic. Over the main part of the core, fine, sub-milimetric scale laminae are found. Preliminary dating indicates a Sapropel 1 age for these sediments. The fine, laminae permit high-resolution climate variability to be studied in this area during sapropel formation. Besides conventional geochemical analyses on discrete samples (XRF, ICP-OES, organic C/N, 13C) a novel technique was used to investigate the sediment chemistry at the laminae scale: the sediment has been resin-impregnated to enable laser ablation coupled to ICP-MS analyses (LA-ICP-MS). This method recently developed (Jilbert et al., 2008) permits extremely high resolution geochemical profiling of the laminated sediment, to unravel the forcing mechanisms generating the laminae. Furthermore, in order to compare the data to modern sediment geochemistry, a series of analyses were carried out on a batch of sediment surface samples in collaboration with the MOCCHA project partners (see Posters/Talks in session OS15). This work is supported by the EUROCORES/EUROMARC Program of the European Science Foundation (NWO.817.01.002 MOCCHA project).

Goudeau, Marie-Louise; Robert, Brice; Jilbert, Tom; Fhlaithearta, Shauna Ni; Zonneveld, K. A. F.; Versteegh, G. J. M.; Grauel, A.; Bernasconi, S.; de Lange, G. J.

2010-05-01

127

Preliminary investigation of the frequency response and distortion properties of nonlinear image processing algorithms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Assessment of the resolution properties of nonlinear imaging systems is a useful but challenging task. While the modulation transfer function (MTF) fully describes contrast resolution as a function of spatial frequency for linear systems, an equivalent metric does not exist for systems with significant nonlinearity. Therefore, this preliminary investigation attempts to classify and quantify the amount of scaling and distortion imposed on a given image signal as the result of a nonlinear process (nonlinear image processing algorithm). As a proof-of-concept, a median filter is assessed in terms of its principle frequency response (PFR) and distortion response (DR) functions. These metrics are derived in frequency space using a sinusoidal basis function, and it is shown that, for a narrow-band sinusoidal input signal, the scaling and distortion properties of the nonlinear filter are described exactly by PFR and DR, respectively. The use of matched sinusoidal basis and input functions accurately reveals the frequency response to long linear structures of different scale. However, when more complex (multi-band) input signals are considered, PFR and DR fail to adequately characterize the frequency response due to nonlinear interaction effects between different frequency components during processing. Overall, the results reveal the context-dependent nature of nonlinear image processing algorithm performance, and they emphasize the importance of the basis function choice in algorithm assessment. In the future, more complex forms of nonlinear systems analysis may be necessary to fully characterize the frequency response properties of nonlinear algorithms in a context-dependent manner.

Wells, Jered R.; Dobbins, James T.

2013-03-01

128

Preliminary investigation of the hazard faced by Western Australia from tsunami generated along the Sunda Arc  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the Boxing Day tsunami various countries surrounding the Indian Ocean have been investigating the potential hazard from trans-Indian Ocean tsunami generated along the Sunda Arc, south of Indonesia. This study presents some preliminary estimates of the tsunami hazard faced by Western Australia from tsunami generated along the Arc. To estimate the hazard, a suite of tsunami spaced evenly along the subduction zone to the south of Indonesia were numerically modelled. Offshore wave heights from tsunami generated in this region are significantly higher along northwestern part of the Western Australian coast from Exmouth to the Kimberly than they are along the rest of the coast south of Exmouth. Due to the offshore bathymetry, the area around Onslow in particular may face a higher tsunami than other areas the West Australian coast. Earthquakes between Java and Timor are likely to produce the greatest hazard to northwest WA. Earthquakes off Sumatra are likely the main source of tsunami hazard to locations south of Exmouth, however the hazard here is likely to be lower than that along the north western part of the West Australian coast. Tsunami generated by other sources (eg large intra-plate events, volcanoes, landslides and asteroids) could threaten other parts of the coast.

Burbidge, D.; Cummins, P. R.

2005-12-01

129

Preliminary Tests in the NACA Tank to Investigate the Fundamental Characteristics of Hydrofoils  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This preliminary investigation was made to study the hydrodynamic properties and general behavior of simple hydrofoils. Six 5- by 30-inch plain, rectangular hydrofoils were tested in the NACA tank at various speeds, angles of attack and depths below the water surface. Two of the hydrofoils had sections representing the sections of commonly used airfoils, one had a section similar to one developed Guidoni for use with hydrofoil-equipped seaplane floats, and three had sections designed to have constant chordwise pressure distributions at given values of the lift coefficient for the purpose of delaying the speed at which cavitation begins. The experimental results are presented as curves of the lift and drag coefficients plotted against speed for the various angles of attack and depths for which the hydrofoils were tested. A number of derived curves are included for the purpose of better comparing the characteristics of the hydrofoils and to show the effects of depth. Several representative photographs show the development of cavitation on the the upper surface of the hydrofoils. The results indicate that properly designed hydrofoil sections will have excellent characteristics and that the speed at which cavitation occurs may be delayed to an appreciable extent by the use of suitable sections.

Ward, Kenneth E.; Land, Norman S.

1940-01-01

130

Investigating the Evolution of Greenland Ablation Zone Surface Morphology: Implications for Supraglacial Lake Basin Storage Capacity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent estimates show that Greenland’s contribution to sea level more than doubled in the past decade with the majority of this mass loss is due to changes in the dynamics of a few large outlet glaciers. Coincident with the changes in flow dynamics on Jakobshavn Isbræ is an increase in surface melt along the margins of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GIS). The importance of supraglacial lake hydraulics and its impact on ice sheet mass balance is still not fully understood. In an effort to understand how ablation zone surface morphology evolves and influences supraglacial hydrology, we employ a simple, first-order 1-D diffusion-advection model to a longitudinal transect along the margins of GIS in the vicinity of Jakobshavn Isbræ. Surface diffusive forcing were prescribed by a fixed and adaptable, spatially variable melt rate based on the last 15 years of measured melt rates derived from the Greenland climate network (GC-Net), automated weather stations. Advective flux was determined by regional, historic ice sheet surface velocities, acquired from RADARSAT Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) interferometric measurements. The model was initialized with surface elevation data derived from the SPOT digital terrain model, acquired during the 2007 melt season. The model is run over several scenarios designed to evaluate the relative impact of diffusive and advective forcing on evolving the morphology of local topographic depression and water storage capacity.

Amador, N. S.; Lampkin, D. J.

2010-12-01

131

First principles investigation on carbon nanostructures functionalized with borane: An analysis on their hydrogen storage capacity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

From first principles calculation, we have shown that the large radius single walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) functionalized with borane can have appreciable hydrogen storage capacity. In addition, the average binding energy (0.21 eV/H 2) lies within the range recommended for the reversible adsorption. The BH 3 molecules adsorbed on the SWCNT do not undergo clustering, which has been a major hindrance for the functionalized SWCNT to get qualified as a hydrogen storage medium. The borane molecules absorbed on the SWCNT and carbon atoms in the SWCNT form borane organic scaffolds that adsorb hydrogen molecules via charge induced dipole interaction apart from the van der Waals interaction. We have extended the study to other carbon nanostructures namely, graphene and C 60. We have analyzed whether these systems are capable of absorbing borane and then adsorb hydrogen molecules. In the case of graphene and C 60, we could achieve functionalization to some extent but not hydrogenation. These results highlight the curvature dependent interactions present in these graphitic materials.

Surya, V. J.; Iyakutti, K.; Prasanna Venkatesh, V.; Mizuseki, H.; Kawazoe, Y.

2011-06-01

132

Preliminary Results of an Experimental Investigation of the Qu Superconducting Heat Pipe  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This note on preliminary results of our evaluation of the so-called Qu Tube is prompted in part by recent concerns expressed to the authors by some researchers regarding the performance characteristics of the superconducting, solid-state heat pipe as described in the patents, or on the company's websites. Briefly, the company's claims include: a new type of heat transfer mechanism that is a form of solid state thermal superconductivity, which results in an effective thermal conductivity of the order of tens of thousands of times that of an equivalent solid silver bar, or, tens to hundreds of times that of liquid - vapor heat pipes. The company's website also refers to tests conducted by Stanford Research Institute that substantiate these claims, but the report is apparently not publicly available. We are conducting an investigation of the Qu Tube under a NASA Grant, and in general find that these claims have merit, but our study is not yet complete. We present some of our preliminary results in part to show that it would not be imprudent to conduct such studies, especially for possible future applications requiring exceptional thermal management performance capabilities. Working with HiTek Services, we originally acquired several Qu Tubes, including 17" long, 5/16" diameter copper tubes, one that is 7 7/8" long, 3/16" diameter, and one that is 4" long, 1" diameter. We subjected the smaller tubes to various exploratory tests, including a transient test with electrical band heaters, boiling water tests, and a series of steady state tests with electrical band heaters heating one end with free convective cooling along the remainder of the length. All results indicate a very high thermal conductivity, but the length of these tubes limited our ability to obtain accurate data on temperature gradients, necessary to determine the effective thermal conductivity. We then acquired nine Qu Tubes that are 10' long, 5/16" diameter, and we have recently conducted initial tests, which further support the claims of exceptional thermal conductivity.

Blackmon, James B.; Entrekin, Sean F.

2006-01-01

133

Preliminary results of investigations into the use of artificial neural networks for discriminating gas chromatograph mass spectra of remote samples  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Neural networks trained using mass spectra data from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) are studied. The investigations also included sample data from the gas chromatograph mass spectrometer (GCMS) instrument aboard the Viking Lander, obtained from the National Space Science Data Center. The work performed to data and the preliminary results from the training and testing of neural networks are described. These preliminary results are presented for the purpose of determining the viability of applying artificial neural networks in discriminating mass spectra samples from remote instrumentation such as the Mars Rover Sample Return Mission and the Cassini Probe.

Geller, Harold A.; Norris, Eugene; Warnock, Archibald, III

1991-01-01

134

Preliminary investigations on the defluoridation of water using fired clay chips  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The adsorption of fluoride ions on ground fired clay pot has been investigated. The maximum efficiency of the adsorbent for defluoridating 1-2 litres of water was found to be 200 mg fluoride kg -1 adsorbent. The investigation showed that 5-20 mg l -1 fluoride, from 1 litre of water, could be reduced to less than 1.5 mg l -1 using 120-240 g of the adsorbing medium. The effects of the dose of the medium, the pH, the contact time and the initial fluoride content were studied in relation to defluoridation efficiency. Comparison of fluoride removal capacity of the adsorbent was also made with those of fired brick, clay soil and red ash. The latter exhibited practically no adsorption. A packed column of the same ground clay pot was saturated with 285 mg fluoride kg -1 of adsorbent when 20 litres of water containing 10 mg l -1 F was allowed to pass through it. This column defluoridated 6 litres of tap water containing 10 ppm F - to below 1.5 mg l -1.

Moges, G.; Zewge, F.; Socher, M.

1996-05-01

135

A preliminary investigation of drag reduction and mechanism for a blunt body of revolution with slanted base  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is a preliminary study of the drag reduction effect and its mechanism of a blunt body of revolution with a 21-deg slant angle by using a series of base plates. Drag coefficients were measured to investigate the effect of base installation position and plate height. An effective drag reduction device was found. Through the measurement of base pressure and total pressure distribution and flow pattern display, flow characteristics and drag reduction mechanism in the vortex near the wake were investigated.

Xia, Xuejian; Yu, Xiaoshen

1988-01-01

136

The load capacity of PC\\/ABS spur gears and investigation of gear damage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, Polyamide 66 and Teflon as plastic materials are widely used at the manufacturing of gear mechanism. The using of PC\\/ ABC materials provides many advantages due to fire, air and ultraviolet light durability and low moisture holding properties. In this study, the usability of PC\\/ABS composite plastic materials as spur gear was investigated. PC\\/ABS gears were tested by applying

Rifat Yakut; Mehmet Turan Demirci

137

Preliminary investigation of KTN as a surface acoustic wave infrared/thermal detector  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the results of preliminary investigations of thin films of KTN (KTa1 xNbxO3) surface acoustic wave (SAW) structures for their suitability as thermal detectors. The goal is to use the technique for infrared (IR) detection and imaging. The thin films (0.6 m) of K(Ta1 xNbx)O3 [x = 0.5] epitaxial films were grown and polished on KTaO3 (0 0 1) substrates approximately 1mm thick. SAW resonators with a center frequency of approximately 480MHz were fabricated using these substrates. To form the basis of comparison to commonly used, thermally sensitive SAW substrates, SAW devices using lithium niobate (LiNbO3) as the substrate material were also fabricated. The phase response as a function of temperature for the KTN as well as the LiNbO3 SAW devices was measured with a network analyzer. The largest phase change exhibited by the LiNbO3 was about 4.7 / C, whereas the largest phase change exhibited by the KTN was about twice as much (11 / C). Assuming a worst case network analyzer phase resolution of 0.5 , this corresponds to a temperature resolution of 0.1 C for the LiNbO3 and 0.05 C for the KTN. By comparison, typical sensitivity of (uncooled) microbolometers is of the order of 50 mK. We believe that with improved fabrication and signal processing, the KTN/SAW-based detection approach can achieve a temperature resolution of better than 50 mK.

Korsah, Kofi [ORNL; Kisner, Roger [ORNL; Boatner, Lynn A [ORNL; Christen, Hans M [ORNL; Paris, Deidre E [ORNL

2005-01-01

138

Preliminary investigation of KTN as a surface acoustic wave infrared/thermal detector  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the results of preliminary investigations of thin films of KTN (KTa1?xNbxO3) surface acoustic wave (SAW) structures for their suitability as thermal detectors. The goal is to use the technique for infrared (IR) detection and imaging. The thin films (0.6 m) of K(Ta1?xNbx)O3 [x = 0.5] epitaxial films were grown and polished on KTaO3 (0 0 1) substrates approximately 1 mm thick. SAW resonators with a center frequency of approximately 480 MHz were fabricated using these substrates. To form the basis of comparison to commonly used, thermally sensitive SAW substrates, SAW devices using lithium niobate (LiNbO3) as the substrate material were also fabricated. The phase response as a function of temperature for the KTN as well as the LiNbO3 SAW devices was measured with a network analyzer. The largest phase change exhibited by the LiNbO3 was about ?4.7 / C, whereas the largest phase change exhibited by the KTN was about twice as much (11 / C). Assuming a worst case network analyzer phase resolution of 0.5 , this corresponds to a temperature resolution of 0.1 C for the LiNbO3 and 0.05 C for the KTN. By comparison, typical sensitivity of (uncooled) microbolometers is of the order of 50 mK. We believe that with improved fabrication and signal processing, the KTN/SAW-based detection approach can achieve a temperature resolution of better than 50 mK.

Korsah, Kofi [ORNL

2005-01-01

139

Investigation of psychophysical measure for evaluation of similar images for mammographic masses: Preliminary results  

SciTech Connect

We investigated a psychophysical similarity measure for selection of images similar to those of unknown masses on mammograms, which may assist radiologists in the distinction between benign and malignant masses. Sixty pairs of masses were selected from 1445 mass images prepared for this study, which were obtained from the Digital Database for Screening Mammography by the University of South Florida. Five radiologists provided subjective similarity ratings for these 60 pairs of masses based on the overall impression for diagnosis. Radiologists' subjective ratings were marked on a continuous rating scale and quantified between 0 and 1, which correspond to pairs not similar at all and pairs almost identical, respectively. By use of the subjective ratings as 'gold standard', similarity measures based on the Euclidean distance between pairs in feature space and the psychophysical measure were determined. For determination of the psychophysical similarity measure, an artificial neural network (ANN) was employed to learn the relationship between radiologists' average subjective similarity ratings and computer-extracted image features. To evaluate the usefulness of the similarity measures, the agreement with the radiologists' subjective similarity ratings was assessed in terms of correlation coefficients between the average subjective ratings and the similarity measures. A commonly used similarity measure based on the Euclidean distance was moderately correlated (r=0.644) with the radiologists' average subjective ratings, whereas the psychophysical measure by use of the ANN was highly correlated (r=0.798). The preliminary result indicates that a psychophysical similarity measure would be useful in the selection of images similar to those of unknown masses on mammograms.

Muramatsu, Chisako; Li Qiang; Suzuki, Kenji; Schmidt, Robert A.; Shiraishi, Junji; Newstead, Gillian M.; Doi, Kunio [Kurt Rossmann Laboratories for Radiologic Image Research, Department of Radiology, University of Chicago, 5841 S. Maryland Avenue, MC 2026, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States)

2005-07-15

140

Preliminary Investigation of EarthScope EARS Derived MOHO Topography and Large Scale Faye Gravity Anomaly  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This is a preliminary investigation using the EarthScope EARS receiver functions in combination with the Faye gravity anomaly. This includes both qualitative and quantitative comparison of the large scale Faye anomaly with an expected 3D geology interpretation for the southern mid-continent U.S.A. The 3D geology interpretation consists of expected 3D topographies based on National Elevation Data, published formation elevations, measured and published basement topography with geology, and the expected MOHO topography calculated using the EARS estimated crustal thickness. The EARS automated receiver functions provides a large data set of automatically generated receiver functions and models of bulk crustal properties. These bulk crustal properties include crustal thickness, and Vp/Vs given an assumed Vp. The results from this automatic determination can be evaluated through the H-K stacking, and are often a good method to identify where there may be complex structure or poor quality data. Some a priori information is used to constrain the EARS crustal model. The observed Faye gravity anomaly is calculated using the observed gravity value at their observation location from the PACES gravity database and their extracted elevation from the national elevation data set. Then the expected Faye gravity is modeled using the expected 3D geology interpretation. The observed and modeled Faye gravity, along with the expected 3D geologic interpretation with its topographies and geology and their expected uncertainties are used in a simple 3D density inversion to evaluate the consistency of the estimated with the expected crust / MOHO interface. Areas with complex crustal geology and or inconsistent EARS data are identified as areas of higher uncertainty and require further study. Even areas with agreement between the expected MOHO topography and the Faye anomaly have interesting geology implications. For example: in central Oklahoma the 14 km deep Anadarko basin has a positive Faye anomaly associated with it without surface topography at the same location there is a positive qualitative correlation with the EARS derived MOHO topography. The Faye gravity and MOHO topography may imply an extension of the Mid-Continent Rift through Kansas to the Southern Oklahoma Aulacogen and possibly further south and requires further investigation.

Crain, K.; Holland, A. A.

2013-12-01

141

Investigations of the oxidation capacities of polar atmospheres with multiple oxygen isotopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study provides new perspectives on the atmospheric chemistry in Polar Regions using multiple oxygen isotopes of nitrate and sulfate. Despite their remote locations, these unique environments play an important role in the present state of global climate and contain invaluable clues to observing past relationships between earth's atmosphere and surface temperature. With current temperatures and greenhouse gas concentrations rising rapidly as a result of human activities, continued investigation of the effects on polar environments will elucidate their relationship to the global climate system. Three studies are presented here to constrain the oxidation pathways of nitrogen and sulfur compounds in polar atmospheres. These findings provide a new means to observe current and past oxidation conditions of tropospheric and stratospheric polar atmospheres. Currently, two uncertain aspects of climate are the projected changes in tropospheric and stratospheric oxidation chemistry and the role of aerosols in cloud formation and the global radiation budget. Because the levels of oxidants in the atmosphere directly influence greenhouse gas concentrations and aerosol distribution, the following work presents results implicit to improving knowledge of the climate system. The results presented in this dissertation include measurements of oxygen isotopes (delta17O, delta18O, and Delta 17O) in nitrate and sulfate from South Pole, Antarctica and Alert, Canada, respectively. In addition, a photochemistry experiment was conducted to measure the effects of ultraviolet (UV) irradiation on oxygen isotopes of nitrate in water and ice. Chapter 2 compares oxygen isotopes in sulfate aerosol collected at Alert, Canada over the course of one year (July 1999--June 2000) to a chemical transport model describing sulfate formation. Chapter 3 presents the results from the nitrate photochemistry experiments conducted at California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, California. Chapter 4 contains results and interpretations of nitrate oxygen isotopes from South Pole, Antarctica measured in aerosol and surface snow during 2004 and a 6-meter snow pit that provides a record 1977 to 2003. The isotope measurements from South Pole are compared to instrumental measurements of October-November-December column ozone, October-November-December UV, annual surface ozone, the quasi-biennial oscillation, and solar variability. A summary of related work on the oxygen and sulfur isotopic composition of volcanic sulfate from the Masaya volcano in Nicaragua is presented in the appendix along with measurements of ion chemistry used to establish a chronology in the South Pole snow pit. The nitrogen cycle has been drastically altered by human influence; however the sources of nitrogen to the Antarctic are expected to be relatively unaffected by human activity and may provide a means of establishing natural variability of nitrogen sources. Unfortunately, two significant problems exist. One, the sources to Antarctica are quite uncertain, and two, the records are difficult to interpret as a result of post-depositional effects in the ice. Through the use of multiple oxygen isotopes, the present work provides new insights into Antarctic nitrate records. The results suggest that greater knowledge of the influence of post-depositional effects (volatilization, photochemistry and diffusion) emerges from multiple oxygen isotope measurements in aerosol, surface snow and firn nitrate. The seasonal variation in winter stratospheric and summer tropospheric values of oxygen isotopes in Antarctic nitrate aerosol is preserved in surface snow. Evidence of stratospheric nitrate in snow at the South Pole suggests the potential for a proxy of ozone hole variability and solar variability; however, the location and meteorology of the South Pole create a site best suited for understanding boundary layer oxidation conditions across the Antarctic plateau. Changes in these conditions are driven by variations in total column springtime ozone. Investigations of oxygen isotopes in nitrate at other loc

McCabe, Justin R.

142

An Investigation of the Relationship between College Chinese EFL Students' Autonomous Learning Capacity and Motivation in Using Computer-Assisted Language Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the study was to investigate the relationship between college EFL students' autonomous learning capacity and motivation in using web-based Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL) in China. This study included three questionnaires: the student background questionnaire, the questionnaire on student autonomous learning capacity, and…

Pu, Minran

2009-01-01

143

Performance of Steel Pipe-to-Concrete Bent Cap Connections Subject to Seismic or High Transverse Loading. Phase 1: Preliminary Investigation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A preliminary investigation was conducted on the behavior of steel pipe pile-to-concrete pile cap connections for bridge structures subjected to extreme seismic and ice forces. This investigation consisted of reviewing available information on the analysi...

D. Rabern D. VanLuchene J. Hicks J. Stephens L. McKittrick

1998-01-01

144

Techniques for delivery of arachidonic acid to Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas, spat: a preliminary investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study tested two techniques for dietary supplementation of Crassostrea gigas spat with PUFA, such as arachidonic acid (AA). The first technique consisted of a preliminary enrichment and growth of an algal concentrate (T-ISO, Isochrysis sp.) with AA dissolved in an ethanol solution, the whole culture then being fed to the spat. This enrichment increased the AA weight percentage

C. Seguineau; P. Soudant; J. Moal; M. Delaporte; C. Quéré; J.-F. Samain

2006-01-01

145

Preliminary Investigation of Manganese-Catalyzed Ozonation for the Destruction of Atrazine  

Microsoft Academic Search

A preliminary experimental study conducted with a conventional bubble ozonation contactor column has shown that small amounts of Mn(II) greatly enhanced the destruction of atrazine by ozone. There is an inversely linear relationship between the dosed Mn(II) concentration and the residual ozone concentration at a specific reaction time. The ozone transfer efficiency into water is greater with the increase of

Jun Ma; Nigel J. D. Graham

1997-01-01

146

Characterising Developmental Language Impairment in Serbian-Speaking Children: A Preliminary Investigation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of the article is to provide preliminary data on the use of auxiliaries and clitics in Serbian-speaking children with developmental language impairment. Two groups of children (a group of 30 children with developmental language impairment and a group of 30 typically developing children) aged between 48 and 83 months and matched on IQ took…

Vukovic, Mile; Stojanovik, Vesna

2011-01-01

147

The Implications of E-Commerce for Software Project Risk: A preliminary investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

When a business introduces the use of e-commerce applications the software related business risks the business faces change. A corresponding change may also occur in the risks faced by the developers of the e-commerce applications. Unrecognised changes in the risks involved in software projects have considerable implications for a business. This paper reports the outcomes of the preliminary phase of

Kenneth J. Stevens; Greg Timbrell

2002-01-01

148

Parental Choice of Infant Feeding Behaviours in South West Sydney: A Preliminary Investigation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The purpose of this study was to test a research instrument that could possibly be used for longitudinal research on infant feeding and to report on the preliminary results from the data collected. Design: Mixed methods approach--cross-sectional survey and qualitative research. Setting: Mother-infant dyads in South West Sydney,…

Arora, A.; Gay, M.; Thirukumar, D.

2012-01-01

149

A Preliminary Investigation into Light-Modulated Replication of Nanobacteria and Heart Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The purpose of this preliminary study is to evaluate the effect of various wavelengths of light on nanobacteria (NB). Background Data: NB and mitochondria use light for biological processes. NB have been described as multifunctional primordial nanovesicles with the potential to utilize solar energy for replication. NB produce slime, a process common to living bacteria. Slime release is an

Andrei P. Sommer; Uri Oron; Anne-Marie Pretorius; David S. McKay; Neva Ciftcioglu; Adam R. Mester; E. Olavi Kajander; Harry T. Whelan

2003-01-01

150

Adaptation Processes during the Implementation of an Information System: Preliminary Results from a Longitudinal Investigation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes preliminary results of a longitudinal study that examined implementation of an automated library system in a three-college consortium, focusing on technical services departments. Mutual adaptation research and factors affecting implementation are discussed. Findings on organizational issues, changes in work and workflow, role changes,…

Lopata, Cynthia

1991-01-01

151

A Preliminary Investigation of the Effects of Experimentally Induced Mindfulness on Emotional Responding to Film Clips  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite encouraging preliminary findings regarding the efficacy of mindfulness and acceptance-based treatments for a range of psychological presentations, we have yet to elucidate mechanisms of action within these treatments. One mechanism through which mindfulness may reduce psychological symptoms and promote functioning is enhancing emotional responding and regulation. In this study, we used multimodal assessment to examine the effects of a

Shannon M. Erisman; Lizabeth Roemer

2010-01-01

152

An investigation on industry-sponsored design projects' effectiveness at the first-year level: potential issues and preliminary results  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the preliminary work for developing guidelines to ensure that industry-sponsored projects in first-year courses aid, not hamper, retention of students. Specifically, the overall research plan includes the following steps: (1) investigating the appropriateness of industry projects in a required introduction to engineering design course (approximately 1000 students per year), (2) assessing the impact of industry-sponsored projects on

Gül E. Okudan; Susan Mohammed; Madara Ogot

2006-01-01

153

Investigation of salt properties with electro-acoustic measurements and their effect on dynamic binding capacity in hydrophobic interaction chromatography.  

PubMed

The pH dependence in hydrophobic interaction chromatography (HIC) is usually discussed exclusively in terms of protein dependence and there are no clear defined trends. Many of the deviations from an ideal solution are caused solely by the high salt concentration, as protein concentration is usually negligible. So pH dependency in hydrophobic interaction chromatography could also be the result of pH dependent changes of ion properties from the salt solution. The possibility that pH dependent ion hydration or ion association in highly concentrated salt solutions may influence the dynamic protein binding capacity onto HIC resins was investigated. In buffer solutions commonly used in HIC e.g. sodium chloride, ammonium sulphate and sodium citrate pH dependent maxima in the electro-acoustic signals were found. These maxima are related to an increase of the ion sizes by hydration or ion association. At low ionic strength the maxima are in the range between 4.5 and 6 and they increased in concentrated electrolyte solutions to values between 6 and 8. The range of these maxima is in the same region as dynamic protein binding capacity maxima often observed in HIC. For a qualitative interpretation of this phenomenon of increased protein stabilization by volume exclusion effect extended scaling theory can be used. This theory predicts a maximum of protein stabilization if the ratio of salt ion diameter to water is 1.8. According to the hypothesis raised here, if the pH dependent ratio of salt ion diameter to water approaches this value the transport of the protein in the pore system is less restricted and an increase in binding capacity can be produced. PMID:18037423

Müller, Egbert; Faude, Alexander

2008-01-11

154

An Investigation of the Effect of Graphite Degradation on the Irreversible Capacity in Lithium-ion Cells  

SciTech Connect

The effect of surface structural damage on graphitic anodes, commonly observed in tested Li-ion cells, was investigated. Similar surface structural disorder was artificially induced in Mag-10 synthetic graphite anodes using argon-ion sputtering. Raman microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Brunauer Emmett Teller (BET) measurements confirmed that Ar-ion sputtered Mag-10 electrodes display similar degree of surface degradation as the anodes from tested Li-ion cells. Artificially modified Mag-10 anodes showed double the irreversible charge capacity during the first formation cycle, compared to fresh un-altered anodes. Impedance spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy on surface modified graphite anodes indicated the formation of a thicker and slightly more resistive SEI layer. Gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS) analysis of solvent extracts from the electrodes detected the presence of new compounds with M{sub w} on the order of 1600 g mol{sup -1} for the surface modified electrode with no evidence of elevated M{sub w} species for the unmodified electrode. The structural disorder induced in the graphite during long-term cycling maybe responsible for the slow and continuous SEI layer reformation, and consequently, the loss of reversible capacity due to the shift of lithium inventory in cycled Li-ion cells.

Stevenson, Cynthia; Hardwick, Laurence J.; Marcinek, Marek; Beer, Leanne; Kerr, John B.; Kostecki, Robert

2008-03-03

155

Process-oriented investigation of the nitrate-removal-capacity of the aquifers in the Hessian Ried  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The quarternary sediments of the Hessian Ried, a part of the Rhine valley, hold an important groundwater resource for the densely populated Rhine-Main region in germany. Studies related to the implementation of the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD) have shown high nitrate concentrations in the groundwater, especially in the upper parts of the aquifers. Recently, there are signs which indicate that the nitrate-removal-capacity may be exhausted and the denitrification is slowing down. In aquifers, microbial autolitho- and heterotrophic denitrification is coupled to the consumption of the reactive phases pyrite (FeS2) and organic carbon (TOC), respectively. These reducing phases occur often only in trace amounts which makes it difficult to determine their distribution, reactivity and content in the field. However, a process-based knowledge of the occurring reactions and the quantification of the nitrate-removal-capacity and -kinetic is required to predict future nitrate fate. For this aim we combined different methods on a laboratory and field scale to identify the relevant nitrate degradation processes in the Hessian Ried. For determining the reactive phases (TOC and pyrite) in sediment samples, we modified and validated a combination of methods, ranging from sequential combustion for TOC and XRF for elemental and chromium reducible sulphur (CRS) for sulphide/disulphide determination. The analyses of core samples from different field sites in the Hessian Ried (forest and agricultural area) showed that especially the sediments under agricultural areas have much lower pyrite contents. Laboratory batch experiments with these sediment samples showed a much faster denitrification for sediments having higher sulphide content. ?34S isotope analyses of solid-phase sulphide and water-phase sulphate proved to be a good tool for determining the progress of the autolithotrophic denitrification. With in-situ multi-parameter measurements (Eh, pH, nitrate, temperature and conductivity) in several monitoring wells in combination with water analyses, especially sulphur-isotopic-ratios, we were able to identify high risk areas with a low nitrate-removal-capacity which is mainly caused by the consumption of the pyrite during the denitrification process. Furthermore, we are focusing on process-based investigations of denitrification using ?15N-isotopes and N2/Ar-measurements. The identified high risk areas allow intensifying the implementation of programs planed under the WFD in agricultural areas with low nitrate removal capacity.

Kludt, Christoph; Weber, Frank-Andreas; Bergmann, Axel; Knipp, Elena; Preiß, Indriani; Schüth, Christoph

2013-04-01

156

Gravity gradient preliminary investigations, part 2: Lunar tidal gravity gradients and stresses (exhibit C)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Preliminary analysis of the gravity gradients associated with gravity tides on the moon caused by the earth indicates that the relative changes in the gradients are very irregular, and large, and about 15 times greater than those experienced on earth. Thus gradients, in preference to gravity tides themselves, may well be an important key in correlating tide effects with lunar transient events and moonquakes, and also in determining triggering mechanisms for crustal movement and faulting. Preliminary analysis of lunar crustal stresses and strains caused by lunar gravity tides indicates that these factors may be more direct causative agents or triggering mechanisms. In particular, the cubic dilation undergoes relatively large changes and is about 11 times greater on the moon than on earth. Thus it should be correspondingly more important.

Houston, M. H.; Thompson, L. G. D.

1971-01-01

157

A Preliminary Investigation of Diffusion of Volatile Atmospheric Acids in Snow  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT A preliminary coldroom,experiment was conducted to determine the diffusion rate of several reactive atmospheric chemical contaminants in snow at –7? C. These species included formaldehyde, p-nitrotoluene (PNT), HNO3, and HCl. Because of detection or contamination problems we could not quantify diffusion rate for formaldehyde, PNT, or HNO3. However, the diffusivity of HCl in snow (? = 0.38 g\\/cm, \\/s.

James H. Cragin; Daniel C. Leggett

158

Preliminary investigation of power flow and electrode phenomena in a multi-megawatt coaxial plasma thruster  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper summarizes preliminary experimental and theoretical research that was directed towards the study of quasisteady-state power flow in a large, un-optimized, multi-megawatt coaxial plasma thruster. The report addresses large coaxial thruster operation and includes evaluation and interpretation of the experimental results with a view to the development of efficient, steady-state megawatt-class magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thrusters.

Schoenberg, Kurt; Gerwin, Richard; Henins, Ivars; Mayo, Robert; Scheuer, Jay; Nurden, Glen

1993-01-01

159

Evaluation of soil corrosivity and aquifer protective capacity using geoelectrical investigation in Bwari basement complex area, Abuja  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bwari is one of the six municipal area councils of the Federal Capital Territory (FCT), Abuja with its attendant growing population and infrastructural developments. Groundwater is the main source of water supply in the area, and urbanization and industrialization are the predominant contributors of contaminants to the hydrological systems. In order to guarantee a continuous supply of potable water, there is a need to investigate the vulnerability of the aquifers to contaminants emanating from domestic and industrial wastes. A total of 20 vertical electrical soundings using Schlumberger electrode array with a maximum half current electrodes separation of 300 m was employed. The results show that the area is characterized by 3-6 geoelectric subsurface layers. The measured overburden thickness ranges from 1.0 to 24.3 m, with a mean value of 7.4 m. The resistivity and longitudinal conductance of the overburden units range from 18 to 11,908 ?m and 0.047 to 0.875 mhos, respectively. Areas considered as high corrosivity are the central parts with ? < 180 ?m. The characteristic longitudinal unit conductance was used to classify the area into zones of good (0.7-4.49 mhos), moderate (0.2-0.69 mhos), weak (0.1-0.19 mhos), and poor (<0.1) aquifer protective capacity. Zones characterized by materials of moderate to good protective capacity serve as sealing potential for the underlying hydrogeological system in the area. This study is aimed at delineating zones that are very prone to groundwater contamination from surface contaminants and subsurface soils that are corrosive to utility pipes buried underground. Hence the findings of this work will constitute part of the tools for groundwater development and management and structural/infrastructural development planning of the area.

Adeniji, A. E.; Omonona, O. V.; Obiora, D. N.; Chukudebelu, J. U.

2014-04-01

160

Evaluation of soil corrosivity and aquifer protective capacity using geoelectrical investigation in Bwari basement complex area, Abuja  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bwari is one of the six municipal area councils of the Federal Capital Territory (FCT), Abuja with its attendant growing population and infrastructural developments. Groundwater is the main source of water supply in the area, and urbanization and industrialization are the predominant contributors of contaminants to the hydrological systems. In order to guarantee a continuous supply of potable water, there is a need to investigate the vulnerability of the aquifers to contaminants emanating from domestic and industrial wastes. A total of 20 vertical electrical soundings using Schlumberger electrode array with a maximum half current electrodes separation of 300 m was employed. The results show that the area is characterized by 3-6 geoelectric subsurface layers. The measured overburden thickness ranges from 1.0 to 24.3 m, with a mean value of 7.4 m. The resistivity and longitudinal conductance of the overburden units range from 18 to 11,908 ?m and 0.047 to 0.875 mhos, respectively. Areas considered as high corrosivity are the central parts with ? < 180 ?m. The characteristic longitudinal unit conductance was used to classify the area into zones of good (0.7-4.49 mhos), moderate (0.2-0.69 mhos), weak (0.1-0.19 mhos), and poor (<0.1) aquifer protective capacity. Zones characterized by materials of moderate to good protective capacity serve as sealing potential for the underlying hydrogeological system in the area. This study is aimed at delineating zones that are very prone to groundwater contamination from surface contaminants and subsurface soils that are corrosive to utility pipes buried underground. Hence the findings of this work will constitute part of the tools for groundwater development and management and structural/infrastructural development planning of the area.

Adeniji, A. E.; Omonona, O. V.; Obiora, D. N.; Chukudebelu, J. U.

2014-05-01

161

Clinical and electrophysiological investigation of the results of operation for lumbar disc hernia. Preliminary results.  

PubMed

The long-term results of operations to remove disc hernias were assessed clinically and electrophysiologically in two groups of patients treated by different surgical techniques. The electrophysiological parameters determined were the motor conduction speed of the sciatic nerve, the H reflex, the minimum latency of the F wave and quantitative analysis of the EMG by the Willison method. The preliminary results reported in the present paper are related to two comparable samples of patients who underwent hemilaminoarthrectomy or hemilaminectomy for disc hernia at L5-S1. They show that the incidence of after effects was lower in the patients treated by simple hemilaminectomy. PMID:3830967

Zirattu, G; Fadda, M; Patta, G; Aiello, I; Demurtas, A; Turtas, S

1985-12-01

162

Preliminary investigation of Zagros thrust-fold-belt deformation using SAR interferometry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Most of the Zagros deformation resulting from the convergence of Arabia and Eurasia takes place in the Southeast Zagros. To apply the SAR interferometry geodetic technique, a few ERS 1 & 2 satellite images were used to map this continuing deformation proven by GPS. Interferograms over 7 years show surprisingly high coherence. The unwrapped phases display a high correlation with topography reflecting atmospheric noise in addition to the desired tectonic signal. We estimate two simple linear trends and remove them from interferograms. The preliminary results show local uplift rates with a likely minimum of 1-2 mm/yr. These early crude results will be tested by more data in project No. 3174.

Nilforoushan, Faramarz; Talbot, Christopher J.; Fielding, Eric J.

2005-01-01

163

A new device for reducing diesel engine emissions: a preliminary investigation.  

PubMed

A new catalytic converter is compose by a alloy noble metal supported on inert wool and located downstream to combustion chamber appears able to markedly reduce the content of toxic organics, fine particulates and CO emitted by a diesel engine equipped truck. By contrast, emissions of NOx and particulate n-alkanes remain unaltered or increase, according to the driving and operating conditions of the vehicle. Although this tesrs are preliminary the results obtained, however, suggest that the adoption of this device significantly reduce the health risk associated to fine aerosols and carcinogenic PAH. Exhaust concentrations of some unregulated species, e.g. volatile aldehydes, were lowered by the oxidising catalyzer. PMID:12650577

Mabilia, Rosanna; Cecinato, Angelo; Possanzini, Massimiliano; Di Palo, Vincenzo

2003-01-01

164

Kinetic Roughening and Energetics of Tetragonal Lysozyme Crystal Growth: A Preliminary Atomic Force Microscopy Investigation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We examined particulars of crystal growth from measurements obtained at both microscopic and molecular levels. The crystal growth measurements performed at the microscopic level are well characterized by a model that balances the flux of macromolecules towards the crystal surface with the flux of the crystal surface. Numerical evaluation of model with measurements of crystal growth, in time, provided accurate estimates for the average growth velocities. Growth velocities thus obtained were also interpreted using well-established phenomenological theories. Moreover, we find that microscopic measurements of growth velocity measurements obtained as a function of temperature best characterizes changes in crystal growth modes, when present. We also examined the possibility of detecting a change in crystal growth modes at the molecular level using atomic force microscopy, AFM. From preliminary AFM measurements performed at various supersaturations, we find that magnitude of surface height fluctuations, h(x), increases with supersaturation. Further examination of surface height fluctuations using methods established for fluctuation spectroscopy also enabled the discovery of the existence of a characteristic length, c, which may possibly determine the mode of crystal growth. Although the results are preliminary, we establish the non- critical divergence of 5 and the root-mean-square (rms) magnitude of height-height fluctuations as the kinetic roughening transition temperatures are approached. Moreover, we also examine approximate models for interpreting the non-critical behavior of both 6 and rms magnitude of height-height fluctuations, as the solution supersaturation is increased towards the kinetic roughening supersaturation.

Gorti, Sridhar; Forsythe, Elizabeth L.; Pusey, Marc L.

2004-01-01

165

Preliminary investigation of power flow and performance phenomena in a multi megawatt coaxial plasma thruster  

SciTech Connect

This paper summarizes preliminary experimental and theoretical research that was directed toward the study of quasi-steady-state power flow in a large, unoptimized, multi-megawatt coaxial plasma thruster. The paper addresses large coaxial thruster operation and includes evaluation and interpretation of the experimental results with a view to the development of efficient, steady-state, megawatt-class magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thrusters. Experimental studies utilized the Coaxial Thruster Experiment (CTX) facility at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Highlights of this study include the observations that the measured longitudinal flow velocity of the propellant was in essential agreement with the prediction of self-field nozzle theory, achieving Alfvenic flow velocities of {approximately}10{sup 5} m/s. Furthermore, radiative emission was a negligible power loss mechanism (< 10%) over the operational power range studied. Preliminary measurements indicate that the magnetic topology between anode and cathode can produce a substantial influence on the electrode sheath potentials, especially on the anode fall. This thereby suggests a means for influencing the power deposited on the electrodes, with concomitant benefits to thruster efficiency, without relinquishing axisymmetry.

Schoenberg, K.F.; Gerwin, R.A.; Henins, I.; Scheuer, J.T.; Wurden, G.A.; Mayo, R.M. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)] [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

1993-12-01

166

Archaeological Palimpsest Dissection at Cova del Parco (Lleida, Spain) through Microstratigraphic Investigation of Combustion Structures. Preliminary Results.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present preliminary data from ongoing microstratigraphic investigations of Cova del Parco (Lleida, Spain), a Magdalenian karstic cave site in North western Catalonia. Excavations of the Upper Magdalenian levels are currently underway, with radiometric dates between 15,690 and 16,390 cal BP. This period has yielded a complex anthropogenic sedimentary deposit including combustion features and local accumulations of anthropogenic debris near the cave walls. On of the working hypothesis is that the Magdalenian hunter-gatherers who occupied the site did so for short periods, possibly seasonally. Support of this hypothesis comes the presence of overlapping, very thin flat combustion structures, which appear to have been short-lived and close to each other in time. In order to investigate this issue, we carried out micromorphological analysis of some of the mentioned combustion features. Preliminary results show significant microstratification and presence of unburned spherulites mixed in with reprecipitated calcitic wood ash, both of which point towards the existence of hiatuses between combustion events. This is supported by the observation of scattered, lightly burned microscopic flint and bone fragments in the sediment between ash layers, which could represent renewed occupation floor debris. Our case study adds to the growing number of combustion feature microstratigraphic investigations contributing to a correct characterization of anthropogenic palimpsest deposits. Key words: Microstratigraphy; Micromorphology; Magdalenian; Combustion features; Wood ash; Palimpsest; Iberian Peninsula.

Égüez, Natalia; Mallol, Carolina; Mangado, Xavier; Tejero, José Miguel; Fullola, Josep Maria

2014-05-01

167

Preliminary investigations into the bioconversion of gamma irradiated agricultural waste by Pleurotus spp.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The application of gamma irradiation for pretreatment of lignocellulosic materials for their hydrolysis and to increase their digestibility for rumen animal have been reported in the literature. Gamma irradiation of corn stover in combination with sodium hydroxide for bioconversion of polysaccharide into protein by Pleurotus spp has also been reported. In this study experiments were designed to find out whether gamma radiation could serve both as a decontaminating agent as well as hydrolytic agent of sawdust for the bioconversion of four varieties of Pleurotus spp. Preliminary results indicate that a dose of 20kGy of gamma irradiation increase the yield of Pleurotus eous var ET-8 whilst decreasing the yield of other varieties.

Gbedemah, C. M.; Obodai, M.; Sawyerr, L. C.

1998-06-01

168

Preliminary investigation of some large landslides triggered by the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake, Sichuan Province, China  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The M s 8.0 Wenchuan earthquake or "Great Sichuan Earthquake" occurred at 14:28 p.m. local time on 12 May 2008 in Sichuan Province, China. Damage by earthquake-induced landslides was an important part of the total earthquake damage. This report presents preliminary observations on the Hongyan Resort slide located southwest of the main epicenter, shallow mountain surface failures in Xuankou village of Yingxiu Town, the Jiufengchun slide near Longmenshan Town, the Hongsong Hydro-power Station slide near Hongbai Town, the Xiaojiaqiao slide in Chaping Town, two landslides in Beichuan County-town which destroyed a large part of the town, and the Donghekou and Shibangou slides in Qingchuan County which formed the second biggest landslide lake formed in this earthquake. The influences of seismic, topographic, geologic, and hydro-geologic conditions are discussed. ?? 2009 Springer-Verlag.

Wang, F.; Cheng, Q.; Highland, L.; Miyajima, M.; Wang, H.; Yan, C.

2009-01-01

169

Preliminary phytochemical investigation and antibacterial activity of Phyllanthus amarus Schum & Thorn.  

PubMed

The aqueous extract of Phyllanthus amarus Schum & Thorn, was selected for preliminary phytochemical and antibacterial activity against human pathogens. Minimum inhibitory concentration was performed by broth dilution method and the zone of inhibition was studied by agar disc diffusion method at concentrations of 10 and 20 mg/ml in DMSO (Dimethyl Sulfoxide). The results revealed the antimicrobial activity of extract against the the strains of microorganisms concentrations in ranges of 60 and 500 ?g/ml. Aqueous extract of leaves and roots of Phyllanthus amarus exhibited significant antibacterial activity against eight test bacteria like Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus albus, Streptococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Proteus vulgaris. The plant under study revealed the presence of alkaloids, phytosterols, phenolic compounds and tannins, proteins and amino acids , lignins and saponins. PMID:22557251

Dhandapani, R; Lakshmi, D; Balakrishnan, V; Jayakumar, S; Kumar, Anandha

2007-07-01

170

Preliminary phytochemical investigation and antibacterial activity of Phyllanthus amarus Schum & Thorn.  

PubMed Central

The aqueous extract of Phyllanthus amarus Schum & Thorn, was selected for preliminary phytochemical and antibacterial activity against human pathogens. Minimum inhibitory concentration was performed by broth dilution method and the zone of inhibition was studied by agar disc diffusion method at concentrations of 10 and 20 mg/ml in DMSO (Dimethyl Sulfoxide). The results revealed the antimicrobial activity of extract against the the strains of microorganisms concentrations in ranges of 60 and 500 ?g/ml. Aqueous extract of leaves and roots of Phyllanthus amarus exhibited significant antibacterial activity against eight test bacteria like Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus albus, Streptococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Proteus vulgaris. The plant under study revealed the presence of alkaloids, phytosterols, phenolic compounds and tannins, proteins and amino acids , lignins and saponins.

Dhandapani, R.; Lakshmi, D.; Balakrishnan, V.; Jayakumar, S.; kumar, Anandha

2007-01-01

171

Preliminary design and economic investigations of Diffuser Augmented Wind Turbines (DAWT)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A preferred design and configuration approach for the diffuser augmented wind turbines (DAWT) innovative wind energy conversion system is proposed. A preliminary economic assessment for limited production rates of units between 5 and 150 kw rated output was made. It is estimated that for farm and REA cooperative end users, the COE can range between 2 and 3.5 cents/kWh for sites with annual average wind speeds of 16 and 12 mph respectively and 150 kW rated units. No tax credits are included in these COE figures. For commercial end users of these 150 kW units the COE ranges between 4.0 and 6.5 cents/kWh for 16 and 12 mph sites. These estimates in 1979 dollars are lower than DOE goals set in 1978 for the rating size and end applications.

Foreman, K. M.

1981-12-01

172

Preliminary thermoluminescence and optically stimulated luminescence investigation of commercial pharmaceutical preparations towards the drug sterilization dosimetry.  

PubMed

Drug sterilization with ionizing radiation is a well-established technology and is gaining ground the last decades due to its numerous advantages. Identification of irradiated drugs would be interesting and, in this respect, the present work aims, for the first time to the authors' best knowledge, to explore whether OSL and TL can be employed as methods for post-sterilization dosimetry on commercial drugs, i.e., as tools for the detection of irradiated drugs. Five widely used drugs, i.e., Daktarin(®), Aspirin(®), Panadol(®), Brufen(®) and Procef(®), are used for this purpose. Preliminary findings are very promising towards the post-sterilization dosimetry and the use of commercial drugs for normal and/or accidental dosimetry. PMID:24922552

Kazakis, Nikolaos A; Tsirliganis, Nestor C; Kitis, George

2014-09-01

173

Human olfactory sensitivity for bourgeonal and male infertility: a preliminary investigation.  

PubMed

Olfactory receptor (OR) expression is also present in the sperm cells and could mediate sperm chemotaxis. OR1D2 was the first OR expressed in the testis demonstrated to be involved in chemotaxis and to be expressed also in the nose with a similar behavior. Bourgeonal is the OR1D2 most potent known agonist. Infertility affects ~15 % of couples in western countries and sometimes it is unexplained. This pilot study compared the bourgeonal olfactory thresholds, the ability of sperm to sense the bourgeonal and the frequency of 13 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of OR1D2 gene in nine males suffering of unexplained infertility with a control group of 15 healthy males. The mean olfactory threshold for bourgeonal was statistically different between the study group (10.5 ± 3.7; median 12.3) and the control group (14.0 ± 2.8; median 15.5) (p = 0.006). Statistical analysis showed a significantly higher percentage of spermatozoa that migrated toward the capillaries filled with bourgeonal in the control group compared to the study group (p < 0.0001). Sperm migration was equally inhibited in both groups of subjects when, together with bourgeonal, capillaries were filled with undecanal, a strong bourgeonal inhibitor (p = 0.42). The 13 SNPs of OR1D2 revealed a statistically significant difference for allele and genotype frequency of rs769423 in study group versus control group (p = 0.02). The present preliminary study seems to confirm the important role of OR1D2 both in nose and spermatozoa and may explain the idiopathic infertility of the study group. Further studies on larger series are mandatory to confirm our preliminary evidence. PMID:23525651

Ottaviano, G; Zuccarello, D; Menegazzo, M; Perilli, L; Marioni, G; Frigo, A C; Staffieri, A; Foresta, C

2013-11-01

174

An initial investigation into the anti-inflammatory activity and antioxidant capacity of alpha-cyclodextrin-complexed Manuka honey.  

PubMed

The bioactive properties of Manuka honey are now well recognised, but the nature of honey (a sticky, viscous fluid) can make it hard to use as a health remedy. A new technology using encapsulation of Manuka honey with alpha-cyclodextrin molecules has been developed, creating a free-flowing powder that can easily be added to foods and beverages, or tableted / made into capsules for use in health. In this study, we investigated for antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity. Antioxidant capacity of raw Manuka honeys and matched complexes was measured using the CUPRAC method. Results showed that the antioxidant activity of honey decreased when complexed, this being directly related to dilution of the final product with alpha-cyclodextrin. Anti-inflammatory activity was assessed by measuring inhibition of neutrophil TNF-alpha secretion. Contradictory results were produced, with both stimulation and inhibition of TNF-alpha being observed. Data from this study indicate that the formation of cyclodextrin-based complexes of Manuka honey may potentiate the anti-inflammatory activity of honey, but this may differ depending on methylglyoxal content and the presence of other factors. PMID:23023642

Chepulis, Lynne M; Francis, Evelyn

2012-01-01

175

Preliminary Investigation on Battery Sizing Investigation for Thrust Vector Control on Ares I and Ares V Launch Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An investigation into the merits of battery powered Electro Hydrostatic Actuation (EHA) for Thrust Vector Control (TVC) of the Ares I and Ares V launch vehicles is described. A top level trade study was conducted to ascertain the technical merits of lithium-ion (Li-ion) and thermal battery performance to determine the preferred choice of an energy storage system chemistry that provides high power discharge capability for a relatively short duration.

Miller, Thomas B.

2011-01-01

176

A preliminary investigation into the nature of shock absorbency in synthetic sports materials.  

PubMed

Tests were conducted on three athletic shoe midsole materials and on three synthetic sports surfaces. All specimens were found to absorb energy when loaded. For a specific maximum load the amount of energy absorbed by each material was found to decrease as the load application rate increased. The materials exhibited different capacities to dissipate energy under the application of the same impulse. This may be a consideration for the injury protection afforded. The development of rheological models from the results of the tests aided an explanation of how force is resisted and energy absorbed by synthetic sports materials. Their shock absorbing properties were associated with the rheological elements of elasticity and viscosity. PMID:4094021

McCullagh, P J; Graham, I D

1985-01-01

177

Preliminary investigation of interconnected systems interactions for the safety injection system of Indian Point-3  

SciTech Connect

The rich diversity of ideas and techniques for analyzing interconnected systems interaction has presented the NRC with the problem of identifying methods appropriate for their own review and audit. This report presents the findings of a preliminary study using the Digraph Matrix Analysis method to evaluate interconnected systems interactions for the safety injection system of Indian Point-3. The analysis effort in this study was subjected to NRC constraints regarding the use of Boolean logic, the construction of simplified plant representations or maps, and the development of heuristic measures as specified by the NRC. The map and heuristic measures were found to be an unsuccessful approach. However, from the effort to model and analyze the Indian Point-3 safety injection system, including Boolean logic in the model, singleton and doubleton cut-sets were identified. It is recommended that efforts excluding Boolean logic and utilizing the NRC heuristic measures not be pursed further and that the Digraph Matrix approach (or other comparable risk assessment technique) with Boolean logic included to conduct the audit of the Indian Point-3 systems interaction study.

Alesso, H.P.; Lappa, D.A.; Smith, C.F.; Sacks, I.J.

1983-03-04

178

Preliminary investigation of force-reduced superconducting magnet configurations for advanced technology applications  

SciTech Connect

The feasibility of new high-field low specific weight superconducting magnet designs using force-free fields is being explored analytically and numerically. This report attempts to assess the technical viability of force-free field concepts to produce high-field, low specific weight and large bore volume magnets, which could promote the use of high temperature superconductors. Several force-free/force-reduced magnet configurations are first reviewed, then discussed and assessed. Force-free magnetic fields, fields for which the current flows parallel to the field, have well-known mathematical solutions extending upon infinite domains. These solutions, however, are no longer force-free everywhere for finite geometries. In this preliminary study, force-free solutions such as the Lundquist solutions truncated to a size where the internal field of the coil matches an externally cylindrical magnetic field (also called a Lundquist coil) are numerically modeled and explored. Significant force-reduction for such coils was calculated, which may have some importance for the design of lighter toroidal magnets used in thermonuclear fusion power generation, superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES), and mobile MHD power generation and propulsion.

Bouillard, J.X.

1992-12-01

179

Preliminary investigation of the impulsive and neuroanatomical characteristics of compulsive sexual behavior  

PubMed Central

In recent years there has been increased attention in a clinical syndrome characterized by excessive sexual thoughts, sexual urges, and/or sexual behaviors that has many aspects in common with impulse control disorders. This study provides a preliminary examination of the impulsive aspects of this syndrome, Compulsive Sexual Behavior (CSB), as conceptualized by Coleman and colleagues. Sixteen male subjects, 8 CSB patients and 8 non-patient controls, completed psychometric measures of impulsivity and compulsive sexual behavior, a behavioral task designed to assess impulse control (go/no-go task), and underwent diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) procedures. The results indicated that CSB patients were significantly more impulsive; whether measured by psychometric testing or the go/no-go procedure than controls. The results also indicate that CSB patients showed significantly higher superior frontal region mean diffusivity (MD) than controls. A correlational analysis indicated significant associations between impulsivity measures and inferior frontal region fractional anisotrophy (FA) and MD, but no associations with superior frontal region measures. Similar analyses indicated a significant negative association between superior frontal lobe MD and the compulsive sexual behavior inventory. Thus, while CSB patients were more impulsive than controls, the DTI results were not consistent with impulse control disorders.

Miner, Michael H.; Raymond, Nancy; Mueller, Bryon A.; Lloyd, Martin; Lim, Kelvin O.

2009-01-01

180

Preliminary design and economic investigations of diffuser-augmented wind turbines (DAWT). Executive summary. Final report  

SciTech Connect

A preferred design and configuration approach for the DAWT innovative wind energy conversion system is suggested. A preliminary economic assessment is made for limited production rates of units between 5 and 150 kW rated output. Nine point designs are used to arrive at the conclusions regarding best construction material for the diffuser and busbar cost of electricity (COE). It is estimated that for farm and REA cooperative end users, the COE can range between 2 and 3.5 cents/kWh for sites with annual average wind speeds of 16 and 12 mph (25.7 and 19.3 km/h) respectively, and 150 kW rated units. No tax credits are included in these COE figures. For commercial end users of these 150 kW units, the COE ranges between 4.0 and 6.5 cents/kWh for 16 and 12 mph sites. These estimates in 1971 dollars are lower than DOE goals set in 1978 for the rating size and end applications. Recommendations are made for future activities to maintain steady, systematic progress toward mature development of the DAWT.

Foreman, K.M.

1981-12-01

181

Examining emotional modulation of pain and spinal nociception in Native Americans: a preliminary investigation.  

PubMed

Pain problems are more prevalent in Native Americans than in any other group in the U.S., and this might result from group differences in pain modulation. This study was designed to examine emotional modulation of pain and spinal nociception in healthy, pain-free Native Americans (n = 21) relative to non-Hispanic Whites (n = 20). To assess emotional modulation of pain and the nociceptive flexion reflex (NFR, a physiological measure of spinal nociception), participants underwent a well-validated emotional picture-viewing paradigm during which suprathreshold pain stimuli were delivered to the ankle. Compared to Whites, Native Americans reported less pleasure to erotic pictures and failed to show corrugator reactivity to mutilation pictures. Unlike Whites, Native Americans only evidenced pain inhibition in response to erotica, but no pain facilitation (disinhibition) to mutilation pictures. Emotional modulation of NFR was similar in both groups. These preliminary findings suggest that Native Americans failed to disinhibit pain, perhaps due to over-activation of pain inhibitory mechanisms. Chronic over-activation of this system could ultimately exhaust it, thus putting Native Americans at future risk for chronic pain. PMID:23994207

Palit, Shreela; Kerr, Kara L; Kuhn, Bethany L; DelVentura, Jennifer L; Terry, Ellen L; Bartley, Emily J; Shadlow, Joanna O; Rhudy, Jamie L

2013-11-01

182

Preliminary investigation of crosslinked chitosan sponges for tailorable drug delivery and infection control.  

PubMed

Local versus systemic antibiotic delivery may be an effective strategy for treating musculoskeletal infections, especially when antibiotic-resistant bacteria are present. Lyophilized uncrosslinked, genipin crosslinked, and genipin crosslinked with poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) chitosan sponges were analyzed for their in vitro degradation rate, chemical crosslinking, antibiotic uptake, elution, biologic activity, and cytotoxicity. These evaluations were pursued to determine if crosslinking with genipin could be used to create a tailorable point of care loaded sponge for local infection control. Crosslinking the chitosan sponges decreased degradation in phosphate-buffered saline from 4.48 ± 2.28 wt % remaining of the uncrosslinked sponges to 78.82 ± 1.15 and 73.87 ± 1.27 wt % remaining at week 1 for the genipin and PNIPAM/genipin crosslinked sponges, respectively. The PNIPAM/genipin crosslinked sponges exhibited the most sustained release of biologically active antibiotics, with an average antibiotic release 63% higher than uncrosslinked and 37% higher than genipin crosslinked sponges, after 96 h. No significant cytotoxic effects from sponges or eluates were exhibited with NIH 3T3 fibroblasts. These preliminary results indicate that genipin crosslinked chitosan sponges, with or without PNIPAM, have potential as local delivery systems for adjunctive therapy for infection control, especially when longer degradation periods and higher antibiotic elutions are desired. PMID:22997172

Parker, Ashley C; Jennings, Jessica A; Bumgardner, Joel D; Courtney, Harry S; Lindner, Ernö; Haggard, Warren O

2013-01-01

183

Preliminary investigation of the feasibility of magnetic propulsion for future microdevices in blood vessels.  

PubMed

The Magnetic Resonance Submarine (MR-Sub) project is a first attempt to validate a new propulsion method for future small magnetically controlled microdevices suited for minimally invasive applications in blood vessels. A Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) system provides the driving force in three dimensions to a ferromagnetic core that could be embedded onto a specialised microdevice. The paper describes preliminary tests made to match the magnetic force induced by an MRI system on a ferromagnetic sphere with the drag force it encompasses in a cylindrical tube. These tests provide a proof of concept demonstrating that this new method of propulsion is very promising within the constraints of such types of operations. This conclusion is based on specific measurements showing that 1010/1020 carbon steel spheres (3.175 mm and 2.381 mm in diameter) can withstand a maximum flow of 0.370 +/- 0.0064 l/min (19.5 cm/s) and 0.311 +/- 0.01209 l/min (16.4 cm/s) respectively when placed inside a 6.35 mm diameter PMMA tube and subjected to a 18 mT/m magnetic field gradient. PMID:16179757

Mathieu, Jean-Baptiste; Martel, Sylvain; Yahia, L'Hocine; Soulez, Gilles; Beaudoin, Gilles

2005-01-01

184

Preliminary design and economic investigations of Diffuser-Augmented Wind Turbines (DAWT). Executive summary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A preferred design and configuration approach for the diffuser augmented wind turbine (DAWT) innovative wind energy conversion system is suggested. A preliminary economic assessment is made for limited production rates of units between 5 and 150 kW rated outputs. Nine point designs are used to arrive at the conclusions regarding best construction material for the diffuser and busbar cost of electricity (COE). It is estimated that for farm and cooperative end users, the COE can range between 2 and 3.5 cents pr kWh for sites with annual average wind speeds of 16 and 12 mph (25.7 and 19.3 km/h) respectively, and 150 kW rated units. No tax credits are included in these COE figures. For commercial end users of these 150 kW units, the COE ranges between 4.0 and 6.5 cents per kWh for 16 and 12 mph sites. These estimates in 1971 dollars are lower than department of energy goals set in 1978 for the rating size and end applications. Recommendations are made for future activities to maintain steady, systematic progress toward mature development of the DAWT.

Foreman, K. M.

1981-12-01

185

Kinetics investigation of oxygen storage capacity in La2O3-CeO2 solid solution.  

PubMed

La2O3-CeO2 nanopowders with different La2O3 (0-20 mol%) were prepared by the sol-gel method. The modification of the cubic structure of ceria by substituting La3+ for Ce4+ into the lattice of CeO2 has been investigated. The crystal structure of La2O3-CeO2 nanomaterials has been examined by X-ray powder diffraction and analyzed by the Rietveld refinement method. The introduction of La3+ enlarges the octahedral void of unit cell in the cubic CeO2, which favors the oxygen migration in the crystal lattice. Raman characterization results show that the wavenumber of the La2O3-CeO2 solid solution shifted to red and the oxygen vacancy increased with lanthana content in Ce(1-x)La(x)O(2-x/2). The oxygen vacancy, generated by La3+ substituting for Ce4+, could supply more channels for oxygen migration through the lattice. The changes of lattice structure and the oxygen vacancy with La2O3 are correspondence with the results of oxygen storage capacity (OSC) measurement, which indicate that the changes of macro-performance are connected with the microstructure deformation of La2O3-CeO2. The kinetics of Ce0.9La0.2O1.9 nanomaterials with the highest OSC value was studied and the apparent activation energy (E(a)) of reduction and oxidation process was calculated to be 5.6 and 6.0 kJ/mol, respectively. The low E(a) value might be one of the reasons for Ce0.8La0.2O1.9 nanomaterials with the high OSC value. PMID:21449363

Liu, Lili; Wang, Xidong; Guo, Min; Zhang, Mei

2011-03-01

186

Preliminary investigation of oil and source rock organic geochemistry from selected Tertiary basins of Thailand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Selected samples of crude oils and extracts from source rocks obtained from six Thailand Tertiary basins of the central plain and of the Gulf of Thailand regions were examined for geochemical properties and molecular compositions. Analyses were performed using GC, C?GC?MS and carbon isotope mass spectrometry. Though these results should be viewed as preliminary, the results are significant in terms of a regional understanding of the petroleum geochemistry of Thailand. Results from bulk geochemical properties and biomarker assemblages characterize derivatives of organic sources deposited in lacustrine environments. The organic matter is mainly derived from algae with varying amounts of higher plant material. However, an observed variation in the pristane/phytane ratios among the samples may imply differences in depositional oxicity. On the other hand, basinal differences in sedimentation rates, or in the oxygen concentration of the varying waters and/or sediment pore-waters resulted in spatial heterogeneities in the quantity and degree of preservation of the organic matter. In addition, a degree of physical separation between these paleo-lacustrine environments is indicated by differences in paleosalinity, e.g. the hypersaline biomarker, gammacerane, which is restricted to samples from the offshore Gulf of Thailand basins. Maturity parameters for these Tertiary oils and source rock extracts were determined using biomarker analyses of T s/T m, 22S/22S + 22R C 31 hopane, C 30 moretane/hopane, 20R/20S + 20R C 29 sterane, and aromatic compounds. Though the samples demonstrate an overall relatively low level of maturity as specified by the biomarker index, a degree of individual basinal variability is also distinguishable. The observed differences in the maturity values indicate regional heterogeneity among the basin thermal histories, suggesting differences in geothermal gradients and/or in the basin subsidence rates.

Lawwongngam, Kulwadee; Philp, R. P.

187

PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION ON ACID GENERATING POTENTIAL OF COALS FROM BENUE TROUGH, NIGERIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coals and other lithological units in the coal bearing successions of some selected areas of Benue Trough namely: the lower (LBC), middle (MBC) and upper (UBC) had been investigated. Major elements (lithium- metaborate\\/tetraborate fusion), inductively coupled plasma optical emission mass spectrometry (ICP-OES), combustion infra-red (LECO) and modified acid-base accounting were employed to investigate the potential of the coal and coal-bearing

O. A. Ehinola; T. M. Adene

188

Field-Theoretical Investigations of the Influence of Mutual Coupling Effects on the Capacity of MIMO Wireless Links  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a MIMO channel model which takes into account mutual coupling effects at the receiver and transmitter array in order to assess the influence of mutual coupling effects on the capacity of MIMO channels. We evaluate the mutual impedances using a general approach based on the electric field integral equation (EFIE) and its implementation by the method of moments (MOM). We compute the capacity of a 2x2-MIMO system in a one path scenario for square half wavelength patch antenna elements and half wavelength dipole antenna elements. The capacity of the MIMO system with and without coupling increases compared to the single antenna transmission for the patch antenna elements. On the contrary for half wavelength dipole antenna elements we have found that the MIMO system degenerates to a one-transmitting, one-receiving antenna system due to mutual coupling.

Ndoumbè Mbonjo Mbonjo, H.; Wu, G.; Hansen, V.

2005-05-01

189

Preliminary investigation on monitoring transportation effects by full field methods: a digital holographic speckle pattern interferometry study on canvas paintings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A preliminary investigation has taken place employing Digital Holographic Speckle Pattern Interferometry (DHSPI) in order to assess the effect of handling and transportation on canvas paintings. Canvas dummies were used on a series of measurements on a transport simulator which allows reproducible simulation of any transport logs in the laboratory. A number of cycles of controlled vibrations were applied on the samples and after each cycle a measurement with DHSPI was taken to monitor the behavior of the samples while increasing the vibration loading and also to record the conditions under which the first crack appears. The transport simulations in combination with DHSPI monitoring revealed the amplitude of oscillation where the first cracks appear on new canvas paintings and also the way these cracks grow. During the tests it was also feasible to locate areas at risk of future deterioration.

Tsiranidou, Elsa; Bernikola, Eirini; Tornari, Vivi; Fankhauser, Thomas; Läuchli, Matthias; Palmbach, Cornelius; Bäschlin, Nathalie

2011-06-01

190

Paleontologic investigations at Big Bone Lick State Park, Kentucky: A preliminary report  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Big Bone Lick area in Kentucky, the first widely known collecting locality for vertebrate fossils in North America, is being investigated for further faunal and geologic evidence. Mammal bones, ranging in age from Wisconsin (Tazewell?) to Recent, were recovered in 1962 from four different faunal zones in two terrace fills.

Schultz, C. B.; Tanner, L. G.; Whitmore, Jr. , F. C.; Ray, L. L.; Crawford, E. C.

1963-01-01

191

Preliminary investigation of the effect of peppermint oil on an objective measure of daytime sleepiness  

Microsoft Academic Search

The assertion, often quoted in the popular literature, that peppermint has invigorating properties has been investigated through objective assessment of daytime sleepiness. Pupillary fatigue oscillations have been used to give an index of pupillary unrest that can be used as a reliable measure of daytime sleepiness. When compared with a no-odour condition, the presence of peppermint oil limited the increase

Mark Ian Keith Norrish; Katie Louise Dwyer

2005-01-01

192

A preliminary investigation of the variation of vitamin B12 in oceanic and coastal waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence in the sea of vitamin Bm or of its analogues, has been found necessary for the growth of several species of unicellular plants (e.g. Provasoli & Pintner, 1953; Droop, 1954, 1955). Bioassaysof the quantities in inshore waters during winter have been made by Lewin (1954)and by Droop (1954).The present investigation, carried out in 1955,wasdesigned to extend this study

C. B. Cowey

1956-01-01

193

A Preliminary Investigation of Phonological Encoding Skills in Children Who Stutter  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The present study investigated phonological encoding skills in children who stutter (CWS) and those who do not (CNS). Participants were 9 CWS (M=11.8 years, SD=1.5) and 9 age and sex matched CNS (M=11.8 years, SD=1.5). Method: Participants monitored target phonemes located at syllable onsets and offsets of bisyllabic words. Performance in…

Sasisekaran, Jayanthi; Brady, Alison; Stein, Jillian

2013-01-01

194

Preliminary Investigation of Two Types of Hydrophones up to 15 MHz.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Investigations on two different types of hydrophones were carried out: three units of a polymer needle hydrophone; and three units of a coplanar membrane hydrophone both with an active element 1 mm in diameter. The free-field sensitivities of these six hy...

K. Brendel G. Ludwig

1986-01-01

195

A Preliminary Investigation of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy as a Treatment for Marijuana Dependence in Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this investigation, 3 adults who met criteria for marijuana dependence were treated using an abbreviated version of acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT). The treatment was delivered in eight weekly 90-min individual sessions. The effects of the intervention were assessed using a nonconcurrent multiple baseline across participants design.…

Twohig, Michael P.; Shoenberger, Deacon; Hayes, Steven C.

2007-01-01

196

Impact of Chromosome 4p- Syndrome on Communication and Expressive Language Skills: A Preliminary Investigation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this investigation was to examine the impact of Chromosome 4p- syndrome on the communication and expressive language phenotype of a large cross-cultural population of children, adolescents, and adults. Method: A large-scale survey study was conducted and a descriptive research design was used to analyze quantitative and…

Marshall, Althea T.

2010-01-01

197

New near-infrared photosensitizers based on bacteriochlorin p derivatives: preliminary results of in vivo investigations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work is devoted to investigation of several new photosensitizers on a base of bacteriochlorin p macrocycle. Investigations of photosensitizers in vivo and experimental PDT were performed on F1 mice bearing Erlich tumor and BDF1 mice bearing B16 melanoma. Spectra of fluorescence and absorption of tissue were studied in vivo using fiberoptic spectroanalyzer LESA. All investigated photosensitizers possess intensive absorption in a range of 730-800 nm, where the intrinsic absorption of the biological tissue has its minimum. Dynamics and selectivity of sensitizer accumulation in tumor and normal tissue were estimated from spectra of absorption or fluorescence of sensitized tissue in vivo. The investigation has shown that the optimum time range to start PDT irradiation of tumor is 10-30 min after administration. All photosensitizers clear from the normal tissue in less than 24 hours. Photodynamic efficiency was estimated by comparison of the tumor volume growth in control and treated animal groups. All studied photosensitizers have shown high photodynamic efficiency of relatively large tumors, index of tumor growth inhibition exceeded 70%. Bacteriochlorin p N-methoxycycloimide oxyme methyl ester was also shown to be efficient for PDT of B16 melanoma, causing tumor growth inhibition more than 90%.

Meerovich, Igor G.; Grin, Michail A.; Tsyprovskiy, Alexander G.; Meerovich, Gennady A.; Barkanova, Svetlana V.; Borisova, Larisa M.; Oborotova, Natalia A.; Baryshnikov, Anatoly Yu.; Mironov, Andrey F.

2007-02-01

198

A Preliminary Investigation of Stimulus Control Training for Worry: Effects on Anxiety and Insomnia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For individuals with generalized anxiety disorder, worry becomes associated with numerous aspects of life (e.g., time of day, specific stimuli, environmental cues) and is thus under poor discriminative stimulus control (SC). In addition, excessive worry is associated with anxiety, depressed mood, and sleep difficulties. This investigation sought…

McGowan, Sarah Kate; Behar, Evelyn

2013-01-01

199

Lemon Juice from Argentina and Mexico. Investigation Nos. 731-TA-1105-1106 (Preliminary).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

On the basis of the record developed in the subject investigations, the United States International Trade Commission determines, pursuant to Section 733(a) of the Tariff Act of 1930, that there is a reasonable indication that an industry in the United Sta...

2006-01-01

200

A PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION OF THE GULLY FEATURES IN THE TSOLWANA GAME RESERVE, CISKEI, SOUTHERN AFRICA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gully forms in the Tsolwana region of the Ciskei, Southern Africa, have been investigated using the SARCCUS (1981) classification system, followed by a ground survey. The gullies are found to be preferentially located within recent alluvial fan material. The implications of this for erosion remedial measures are outlined. Gully wall stratigraphies were examined in detail from a representative gully within

DALE A. COBBAN; ALEX VAN B. WEAVER

1993-01-01

201

Preliminary investigation of the effects of dye concentration on the output of a multiwavelength dye laser  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of dye concentration on the output wavelength and energy of a multiwavelength dye laser were investigated. The dyes tested were Coumarin 2 in methyl alcohol and Rhodomine 6G, Acridine Red, and 7-diethylamino-4-methyl Coumarin (7DA 4MC) in ethyl alcohol.

Clark, I. O.; Burney, L. G.

1974-01-01

202

Preliminary investigations on pathogenicity of European Bursaphelenchus species in comparison to Bursaphelenchus xylophilus from Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Laboratory studies were conducted to investigate pathogenicity of different European Bursaphelenchus species in comparison to Bursaphelenchus xylophilus from Japan. Inoculation tests revealed that B. mucronatus from Nonvay can cause death to Young Pinus sylvestris, if test plants were inoculated with 12 500 nematodes each and the chosen day\\/night temperatures reached 23 k 2 \\

Marlies SCHAUER-BLUME

203

Certain Laminated Hardwood Flooring from Canada. Investigation No. 701-TA-367 (Preliminary).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

On the basis of the record developed in the subject investigation, the Commission determines that there is a reasonable indication that an industry in the United States is materially injured or threatened with material injury by reason of imports from Can...

1996-01-01

204

The Role of Visual Mental Imagery in the Speed-Accuracy Tradeoff: A Preliminary Investigation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates the relationship between speed of recognition and accuracy of the responses when visual mental imagery is controlled through imagery instructions. The procedure was to compare the achievement of learners where the independent variable was imagery instructions. The subjects were two 20-person groups of undergraduates from a…

Hodes, Carol L.

205

Study Abroad Experiences and Intercultural Sensitivity among Graduate Theological Students: A Preliminary and Exploratory Investigation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study reported in this paper investigated the impact of study abroad experiences on graduate theological student intercultural sensitivity and the role that pedagogical approaches play in the development of intercultural sensitivity. It is widely held that study abroad contributes to student development of intercultural sensitivity (Jenkins &…

Fuller, Thomas L.

2007-01-01

206

Preliminary Investigation of the Extent and Effects of Sediment Contamination in White Lake, MI  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has released this report (in .pdf or HTML formats) on sediment contamination in White Lake, Michigan. The investigation aimed "to define the ecological effects of the heavy metal contamination in Tannery Bay and to assess heavy metal contamination in eastern White Lake." Numerous tables and detailed figures accompany the text.

1999-01-01

207

Superalloy Degassed Chromium from Japan. Investigation No. 731-TA-1090 (Preliminary).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

On the basis of the record developed in the subject investigation, the United States International Trade Commission determines, pursuant to section 733(a) of the Tariff Act of 1930 (19 U.S.C. Section 1673b(a)) (the Act), that there is a reasonable indicat...

2005-01-01

208

PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION OF UNCOMBUSTED AUTO FUEL VAPOR DISPERSION WITHIN A RESIDENTIAL GARAGE MICROENVIRONMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Evaporative emissions from vehicles in an attached garage may represent a significant source of indoor pollution and human exposure. ilot field study was undertaken to investigate potential in-house dispersion of evaporative emissions of uncombusted fuels from a vehicle parked in...

209

Failure of Prospective Memory after Acquired Brain Damage: Preliminary Investigation and Suggestions for Future Directions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the premise that the greater frequency of errors after acquired brain damage will facilitate identification of essential components of successful prospective memory. It examines performance by patients with recent acquired non-progressive brain damage and age-matched control subjects on two experimental measures of prospective memory. A significant difference between patients and control subjects arises mainly from performance on

Janet Cockburn

1996-01-01

210

A preliminary investigation of the potential applicability of the IPAD system to non-aerospace industry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A study of the applicability of the planned Integrated Programs for Aerospace-Vehicle Design (IPAD) system to the design activities of non-aerospace industries was carried out. It was determined that IPAD could be of significant benefit to a number of industries, with the most likely users being the heavy construction and automotive industries. Two additional short studies were initiated to investigate the possible impact of IPAD on a national energy program and on urban and regional planning activities of local and state governments. These initial studies indicated the possibility of significant payoff in these areas and the need for further investigations. It was also determined that utilization of IPAD by non-aerospace industries will probably involve a long stepwise process, since these industries maintain a policy of gradual introduction of new technology.

Hulbert, L. E.

1975-01-01

211

Preliminary Investigations of Joining Technologies for Attaching Refractory Metals to Ni-Based Superalloys  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, a range of joining technologies has been investigated for creating attachments between refractory metal and Ni-based superalloys. Refractory materials of interest include Mo-47%Re, T-111, and Ta-10%W. The Ni-based superalloys include Hastelloy X and MarM 247. During joining with conventional processes, these materials have potential for a range of solidification and intermetallic formation-related defects. For this study, three

Jerry E. Gould; Frank J. Ritzert; William S. Loewenthal

2006-01-01

212

Preliminary investigation of some commercial alloys for hydrogen evolution in alkaline water electrolysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electrolytical behavior of 16 commercial alloys was investigated as cathodic material to hydrogen evolution. The results were compared with SAE1020 and NI200, used as standards. The electrolytic experiments were carried out in controlled current (240 and 345mAcm?2), intercalated by polarization at undercurrent condition. The analysis of the potential stability during the electrolytic process shows that the following alloys are

Márcio Henrique dos Santos Andrade; Mariana Lima Acioli; José Ginaldo da Silva Júnior; José Carlos Pereira Silva; Eudésio Oliveira Vilar; Josealdo Tonholo

2004-01-01

213

Preliminary investigation in optical resonators based on carbon nano-tube and coupling for optoelectronics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the use of carbon nano-tubes performed by chemical vapor deposition for photonics applications producing samples of various geometries on the same wafer and performing experiments and numerical modeling. Publisher's Note: This paper, originally published on 5/2/14, was replaced with a corrected/revised version on 5/19/14. If you downloaded the original PDF but are unable to access the revision, please contact SPIE Digital Library Customer Service for assistance.

Salzenstein, Patrice; Makaryan, Taron

2014-05-01

214

Preliminary Investigation by Raman Spectroscopy of Some Polymeric Matrix with Pharmaceutical Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The possibility to use poly(ethylene oxide) as a polymeric matrix for some pharmaceutical products was analyzed. The behavior of the polymer in the aqueous solutions and the possible interactions between the polymer and the clotrimazole were investigated by Raman spectroscopy. Repeated action of the water on the polymeric conformation is a reversible process and the introduction of the clotrimazole in the polymeric gel do not modify the properties of the active substance of the pharmaceutical product.

Todica, M.; Pop, C. V.; Dinte, E.; Farcau, C.; Astilean, S.

215

The magnetic field investigation on the ULYSSES mission - Instrumentation and preliminary scientific results  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fundamental feature of the heliosphere is the three-dimensional structure of the interplanetary magnetic field. The magnetic field investigation on Ulysses, the first space probe to explore the out-of-ecliptic and polar heliosphere, aims at determining the large-scale features and gradients of the field, as well as the heliolatitude dependence of interplanetary phenomena so far only observed near the ecliptic plane.

A. Balogh; T. J. Beek; R. J. Forsyth; P. C. Hedgecock; R. J. Marquedant; E. J. Smith; D. J. Southwood; B. T. Tsurutani

1992-01-01

216

Preliminary optical coherence tomography investigation of the temporo-mandibular joint disc  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aim and objectives. The morphology and position of the temporo-mandibular disc are key issues in the diagnosis and treatment of arthrogenous temporo-mandibular disorders. Magnetic resonance imaging and arthroscopy are used today to identify: flattening of the pars posterior of the disc, perforation and/or adhesions in the pars intermedia of the disc and disc displacements. The present study proposes the investigation of the temporo-mandibular joint disc by optical coherence tomography (OCT). Material and methods. 8 human temporo-mandibular joint discs were harvested from dead subjects, under 40 year of age, and conserved in formalin. They had a normal morphology, with a thicker pars posterior (2,6 mm on the average) and a thinner pars intermedia (1mm on the average). We investigated the disc samples using two different OCT systems: an en-face OCT (time domain (TD)-OCT) system, working at 1300 nm (C-scan and B-scan mode) and a spectral OCT system (a Fourier domain (FD)-OCT) system , working at 840 nm (B-scan mode). Results. The OCT investigation of the temporo-mandibular joint discs revealed a homogeneous microstructure. The longer wavelength of the TD-OCT offers a higher penetration depth (2,5 mm in air), which is important for the analysis of the pars posterior, while the FD-OCT is much faster. Conclusions: OCT is a promising imaging method for the microstructural characterization of the temporo-mandibular disc.

M?rc?uteanu, Corina; Demjan, Enikö; Sinescu, Cosmin; Negrutiu, Meda; Motoc, Adrian; Lighezan, Rodica; Vasile, Liliana; Hughes, Mike; Bradu, Adrian; Dobre, George; Podoleanu, Adrian G.

2010-02-01

217

Preliminary Investigation of Cyclic De-Icing of an Airfoil Using an External Electric Heater  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An investigation was conducted in the NACA Lewis icing research tunnel to determine the characteristics and requirements of cyclic deicing of a 65,2-216 airfoil by use of an external electric heater. The present investigation was limited to an airspeed of 175 miles per hour. Data are presented to show the effects of variations in heat-on and heat-off periods, ambient air temperature, liquid-water content, angle of attack, and. heating distribution on the requirements for cyclic deicing. The external heat flow at various icing and heating conditions is also presented. A continuously heated parting strip at the airfoil leading edge was found necessary for quick, complete, and consistent ice removal. The cyclic power requirements were found to be primarily a function of the datum temperature and heat-on time, with the other operating and meteorological variables having a second-order effect. Short heat-on periods and high power densities resulted in the most efficient ice removal, the minimum energy input, and the minimum runback ice formations. The optimum chordwise heating distribution pattern was found to consist of a uniform distribution of cycled power density in the impingement region. Downstream of the impingement region the power density decreased to the limits of heating which, for the conditions investigated, extended from 5.7 percent chord on the upper surface of the airfoil to 8.9 percent chord on the lower surface. Ice removal did not take place at a heater surface temperature of 32 F; surface temperatures of approximately 50 to 100 F were required to effect removal. Better de-icing performance and greater energy savings would be possible with a heater having a higher thermal efficiency.

Lewis, James P.; Bowden, Dean T.

1952-01-01

218

A Preliminary Investigation of the Effect of Bumpers as a Means of Reducing Projectile Penetration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of an investigation to determine the effect of bumpers on projectile penetration indicate that for impact velocities up to 12,500 feet per second, the penetration of 0.062-inch-diameter copper projectiles in to aluminum targets can be definitely reduced by using a properly selected bumper spaced a short distance in front of the main target surface. Bumpers and main targets were made of 2024-T4 aluminum alloy, and spherical projectiles made of 0.062-inch-diameter copper were used in all tests.

Funkhouser, John O.

1961-01-01

219

[Preliminary investigations on fauna of mosquitoes (Culicinae) in Lód? and environs].  

PubMed

Species composition of mosquitoes (Diptera, Culicinae) was investigated in 2000 year. The mosquitoes were caugh from april till october, twice a month, at 6 stations. Seven species from genus Aedes were found: A. beclemishevi, A. ciprinus, A. cantans, A. flavescens, A. communis A. punctor, and A. vexans. A. cantans was most numerous (32,4). From genus Culex only one soecies was found (Culex pipiens). Furthermoce, Mansonia richardii and Culiseta annulata were caugh. The agresiveness toward men showed by mosquitoes was highest in august. PMID:16886446

Szkudli?ski, J

2001-01-01

220

Preliminary dosimetry investigation of Tc-99m diagnostic radionuclide by NIPAM gel dosimeter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAM) gel dosimeter was investigated as a suitable material for measuring absorbed doses from radionuclide sources. In this study, NIPAM gel dosimeter was used to evaluate the dose distributions of the Tc-99m radionuclide in NIPAM gel. The accumulated radioactivity range of the Tc-99m NIPAM gel is from approximately 0 MBq to 13.6 MBq (about 0.37 mCi). The NIPAM gel dosimeter with high stability and high-dose linear and non-energy dependent properties can provide various radiopharmaceutical activity intensities in the conduct of dose assessment in nuclear medicine, thereby producing the most promising dose verification tools.

Huang, You-Ruei; Chang, Yuan-Jen; Hsieh, Ling-Ling; Yu, Bi-Wei; Chu, Chien-Hau; Hsieh, Bor-Tsung

2013-06-01

221

Preliminary investigation of parasitic radioisotope production using the LANL IPF secondary neutron flux  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to ascertain the potential for radioisotope production and material science studies using the Isotope Production Facility at Los Alamos National Lab, a two-pronged investigation has been initiated. The Monte Carlo for Neutral Particles eXtended (MCNPX) code has been used in conjunction with the CINDER 90 burnup code to predict neutron flux energy distributions as a result of routine irradiations and to estimate yields of radioisotopes of interest for hypothetical irradiation conditions. A threshold foil activation experiment is planned to study the neutron flux using measured yields of radioisotopes, quantified by HPGe gamma spectroscopy, from representative nuclear reactions with known thresholds up to 50 MeV.

Engle, J. W.; Kelsey, C. T.; Bach, H.; Ballard, B. D.; Fassbender, M. E.; John, K. D.; Birnbaum, E. R.; Nortier, F. M.

2012-12-01

222

Whistle register: a preliminary investigation by HSDI visualization and acoustics on female cases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study we investigated laryngeal behaviors involved during vocal production of highest female vocal ranges in Flute in M3 Register, in Whistle Register and in a newly formulated by us, Hiss Register. Observations were carried with stroboscopy and High Speed Digital Imaging and with spectrographic and psycho-acoustic analysis by means of a software system having a wide spectral range (0-20.000 Hz). Results indicate that at the highest pitch vocal folds vibration is absent or significantly reduced, glottic contact is incomplete. These acoustic form of extreme pitch levels comprised intra-harmonic noise and overtones within 10 to 18 kHz range.

Di Corcia, Antonio; Fussi, Franco

2012-02-01

223

AEROBIC CAPACITY, MUSCLE STRENGTH AND HEALTH-RELATED QUALITY OF LIFE BEFORE AND AFTER ORTHOTOPIC LIVER TRANSPLANTATION: PRELIMINARY DATA OF AN AUSTRIAN TRANSPLANTATION CENTRE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Patients before orthotopic liver transplantation usually show a reduced physical performance status, which impacts on their daily life and social participation. This pilot study aimed to evaluate endurance capacity, muscle strength, and quality of life before and after orthotopic liver transplan- tation in patients in an Austrian transplantation centre. Subjects: Fifteen patients (male\\/female \\/10:5) were included in the pilot

Karin Pieber; Richard Crevenna; Martin J. Nuhr; Michael Quittan; Markus Peck-Radosavljevic; Veronika Fialka-Moser; Günther Wiesinger

2006-01-01

224

Preliminary investigation of the effect of peppermint oil on an objective measure of daytime sleepiness.  

PubMed

The assertion, often quoted in the popular literature, that peppermint has invigorating properties has been investigated through objective assessment of daytime sleepiness. Pupillary fatigue oscillations have been used to give an index of pupillary unrest that can be used as a reliable measure of daytime sleepiness. When compared with a no-odour condition, the presence of peppermint oil limited the increase in sleepiness during 11 min spent in a darkened room. This significant difference in sleepiness between the peppermint oil and the no-odour conditions was shown not to be related to differences in subjective ratings of initial sleepiness, from the Stanford Sleepiness Scale (SSS). Neither was it related to differences in initial pupillary unrest or mean pupil size. It seems that in conditions that favour an increase in daytime sleepiness, peppermint oil can indeed reduce sleepiness. However, the mechanisms by which peppermint oil has its effect and the applicability of these findings to situations in everyday life will require further empirical investigation. PMID:15708642

Norrish, Mark Ian Keith; Dwyer, Katie Louise

2005-03-01

225

A preliminary investigation of cell growth after irradiation using a modulated x-ray intensity pattern  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study we have investigated a spatial distribution of cell growth after their irradiation using a modulated x-ray intensity pattern. An A549 human non-small cell lung cancer cell line was grown in a 6-well culture. Two of the wells were the unirradiated control wells, whilst another two wells were irradiated with a modulated x-ray intensity pattern and the third two wells were uniformly irradiated. A number of plates were incubated for various times after irradiation and stained with crystal violet. The spatial distribution of the stained cells within each well was determined by measurement of the crystal violet optical density at multiple positions in the plate using a microplate photospectrometer. The crystal violet optical density for a range of cell densities was measured for the unirradiated well and this correlated with cell viability as determined by the MTT cell viability assay. An exponential dose response curve was measured for A549 cells from the average crystal violet optical density in the uniformly irradiated well up to a dose of 30 Gy. By measuring the crystal violet optical density distribution within a well the spatial distribution of cell growth after irradiation with a modulated x-ray intensity pattern can be plotted. This method can be used for in vitro investigation into the changes in radiation response associated with treatment using intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT).

Bromley, Regina; Davey, Ross; Oliver, Lyn; Harvie, Rozelle; Baldock, Clive

2006-08-01

226

Preliminary biocompatibility investigation of magnetic albumin nanosphere designed as a potential versatile drug delivery system  

PubMed Central

Background: The magnetic albumin nanosphere (MAN), encapsulating maghemite nanoparticles, was designed as a magnetic drug delivery system (MDDS) able to perform a variety of biomedical applications. It is noteworthy that MAN was efficient in treating Ehrlich’s tumors by the magnetohyperthermia procedure. Methods and materials: In this study, several nanotoxicity tests were systematically carried out in mice from 30 minutes until 30 days after MAN injection to investigate their biocompatibility status. Cytometry analysis, viability tests, micronucleus assay, and histological analysis were performed. Results: Cytometry analysis and viability tests revealed MAN promotes only slight and temporary alterations in the frequency of both leukocyte populations and viable peritoneal cells, respectively. Micronucleus assay showed absolutely no genotoxicity or cytotoxicity effects and histological analysis showed no alterations or even nanoparticle clusters in several investigated organs but, interestingly, revealed the presence of MAN clusters in the central nervous system (CNS). Conclusion: The results showed that MAN has desirable in vivo biocompatibility, presenting potential for use as a MDDS, especially in CNS disease therapy.

Estevanato, Luciana; Cintra, Debora; Baldini, Nayara; Portilho, Flavia; Barbosa, Luzirlane; Martins, Olimpia; Lacava, Bruno; Miranda-Vilela, Ana Luisa; Tedesco, Antonio Claudio; Bao, Sonia; Morais, Paulo C; Lacava, Zulmira GM

2011-01-01

227

A Preliminary Investigation of Rapid Depressurization Phenomena Following a Sudden DLOFC in a VHTR  

SciTech Connect

Air ingress has been identified as a potential threat for Very High Temperature gas-cooled Reactors (VHTR). Reactor components constructed of graphite will, at high temperatures, produce exothermic reactions in the presence of oxygen. The danger lies in the possibility of fuel element damage and core structural failure. Previous investigations of air ingress mechanisms have focused on thermal and molecular diffusion, density-driven stratified flow due to hydrodynamic instability, and natural convection. Here, we investigate the possibility of a rapid flow reversal of helium coolant due to a Taylor (rarefaction) wave expansion after a hypothetical sudden Depressurized Loss of Forced Cooling (DLOFC) scenario in a VHTR. Conceivably, flow reversal of the helium coolant could entrain significant quantities of air into the reactor vessel. Our analysis starts with a one-dimensional shock tube simulation to simply illustrate the development of a Taylor wave with resulting reentrant flow. Then, a simulation is performed of an idealized two-dimensional axisymmetric representation of the lower plenum of General Atomics GT-MHR subjected to a hypothetical catastrophic break of the hot duct. Analysis shows the potential for significant and rapid air ingress into the reactor vessel in the case of a large break in the cooling system.

Richard C. Martineau; Ray A. Berry

2010-05-01

228

A Preliminary Investigation of Rapid Depressurization Phenomena Following a Sudden DLOFC in a VHTR  

SciTech Connect

Air ingress has been identified as a potential threat for Very High Temperature gas-cooled Reactors (VHTR). Reactor components constructed of graphite will, at high temperatures, produce exothermic reactions in the presence of oxygen. The danger lies in the possibility of fuel element damage and core structural failure. Previous investigations of air ingress mechanisms have focused on thermal and molecular diffusion, density-driven stratified flow, and natural convection. Here, we investigate the possibility of a rapid ingress of air due to a Taylor wave expansion after a hypothetical sudden loss of coolant accident (LOCA) scenario in a VHTR. Our analysis starts with a one-dimensional shock tube simulation to simply illustrate the development of a Taylor wave with resulting reentrant flow. Then, a simulation is performed of an idealized two-dimensional axisymmetric representation of the lower plenum of General Atomics GT-MHR subjected to a hypothetical catastrophic break of the hot duct. Analysis shows the potential for significant and rapid air ingress into the reactor vessel in the case of a large break in the cooling system.

Richard C. Martineau; Ray A. Berry; Dana A. Knoll

2009-03-01

229

The magnetic field investigation on the Ulysses mission - Instrumentation and preliminary scientific results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A fundamental feature of the heliosphere is the three-dimensional structure of the interplanetary magnetic field. The magnetic field investigation on Ulysses, the first space probe to explore the out-of-ecliptic and polar heliosphere, aims at determining the large-scale features and gradients of the field, as well as the heliolatitude dependence of interplanetary phenomena so far only observed near the ecliptic plane. The Ulysses magnetometer uses two sensors, one a Vector Helium Magnetometer, the other a Fluxgate Magnetometer. Onboard data processing yields measurements of the magnetic field vector with a time resolution up to 2 vectors/second and a sensitivity of about 10 pT. Since the switch-on of the instrument in flight on 25 October 1990, a steady stream of observations has been made, indicating that at this phase of the solar cycle the field is generally disturbed: several shock waves and a large number of discontinuities have been observed, as well as several periods with apparently intense wave activity. The paper gives a brief summary of the scientific objectives of the investigation, followed by a detailed description of the instrument and its characteristics. Examples of wave bursts, interplanetary shocks and crossings of the heliospheric current sheet are given to illustrate the observations made with the instrument.

Balogh, A.; Beek, T. J.; Forsyth, R. J.; Hedgecock, P. C.; Marquedant, R. J.; Smith, E. J.; Southwood, D. J.; Tsurutani, B. T.

1992-01-01

230

A preliminary investigation of the pragmatic abilities of a group of language disordered children.  

PubMed

The communicative acts, conversational acts, and breakdown repair abilities of six language-disordered children with a syntactic age of +/- 3 years old as determined by the LARSP (Crystal, Fletcher, Garman: 1976) were investigated. Sampling of each subject involved two separate naturalistic interactions with a familiar adult and a language disordered peer. The data obtained from the transcriptions were analysed in terms of linguistic and nonlinguistic behaviours on the Communication Profile by Wollner and Geller (1982). Specific patterns of deficit and strengths were observed and these trends were related to recent literature in this area. The study emphasises that there is as much heterogeneity in the pragmatic skills as in the other communication skills of language disordered children, although this is due to some extent to the limitations of assessment in naturalistic settings. It also indicates individual areas of pragmatic deficit that require remediation. PMID:2595409

Rosen, L; Keen, R

1989-01-01

231

Preliminary investigation of a Bayesian network for mammographic diagnosis of breast cancer.  

PubMed Central

Bayesian networks use the techniques of probability theory to reason under conditions of uncertainty. We investigated the use of Bayesian networks for radiological decision support. A Bayesian network for the interpretation of mammograms (MammoNet) was developed based on five patient-history features, two physical findings, and 15 mammographic features extracted by experienced radiologists. Conditional-probability data, such as sensitivity and specificity, were derived from peer-reviewed journal articles and from expert opinion. In testing with a set of 77 cases from a mammography atlas and a clinical teaching file, MammoNet performed well in distinguishing between benign and malignant lesions, and yielded a value of 0.881 (+/- 0.045) for the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. We conclude that Bayesian networks provide a potentially useful tool for mammographic decision support.

Kahn, C. E.; Roberts, L. M.; Wang, K.; Jenks, D.; Haddawy, P.

1995-01-01

232

Preliminary investigations on laminin coatings for flexible polyimide/platinum thin films for PNS applications.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to investigate the possibility to obtain stable bioactive coatings for polyimide/platinum neural interfaces based on thin film technology for applications into the peripheral nervous system (PNS). Laminin (LI), a glycoprotein of the extracellular matrix, which guides and promotes differentiation and growth of neurons, was selected to deposit bioactive coatings. Dip-coating was performed on dummy structures at different LI concentrations. Indirect methods allowed to identify and characterize laminin on coated samples. Mechanical stability was also confirmed by indirect evaluations. Pilot experiments with differentiated PC12 cells, by the addition of nerve growth factor (NGF), showed improved neurite outgrowth on the coated probes compared to bare polyimide samples. PMID:21096373

Bossi, S; Benvenuto, A; Wieringa, P; Di Pino, G; Guglielmelli, E; Boretius, T; Stieglitz, T; Navarro, X; Micera, S

2010-01-01

233

Total Dose Effects (TDE) of heavy ionizing radiation in fungus spores and plant seeds: Preliminary investigations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The opportunity to compare cosmic radiation effects caused during long and short duration exposure flights in biological objects are limited until now, and data obtained so far are very rare and insufficient. Because of the very long exposure of the experiment during the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) mission (approximately 2000 days) structural changes of the hardware material can be expected which will influence its biocompatibility and, thus, will interact with the radiobiological effects. The aim of the experiment flown on LDEF was a detailed investigation of biological effects caused by cosmic radiation especially of particles of high atomic number Z and high energy. The flight hardware consisted of standard BIOSTACK containers; in these containers a special sandwich construction consisted of visual plastic detectors with seed rsp. spore layers interlocked.

Kranz, A. R.; Zimmermann, M. W.; Stadler, R.; Gartenbach, K. E.; Pickert, M.

1992-01-01

234

A preliminary investigation on reinforced double layer Nafion membranes for high temperature PEFCs application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Double layer recast Nafion® membranes reinforced using a polyethyleneterephthalate (PET) support were developed for PEFCs application at Tcell > 110 °C, low humidification and pressure. The investigation of chemical-physical properties suggested a probable interaction between PET and Nafion matrices. Electrochemical tests in a 25 cm2 H2/air PEFC between 80 and 140°C were carried using a pure Nafion as a reference. A short time test supplied an average stable current density of about 400 mA cm-2 (0.5 V) for reinforced membrane against an unstable trend of reference. High current densities of 530 mA cm-2 and 330 mA cm-2 (0.6 V) were obtained for N-PET at unusual temperatures (130-140 °C).

Saccà, A.; Pedicini, R.; Carbone, A.; Gatto, I.; Fracas, P.; Passalacqua, E.

2014-01-01

235

The preliminary results on the investigation of historic stained glass panels from Grodziec collection, Poland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Grodziec collection of stained glass panels consists of fourteen objects depicting figures of saints. Probably they belong to one, uniform set from the one of Lower Silesia churches. Recently eight of them, already after conservatory treatment, are exhibited in Jagiellonian University Museum of Collegium Maius in Krakow, while remaining six, which will be restored in nearest future, are stored in the National Museum in Wroclaw. This paper presents the results of the investigation of composition and corrosion products of glass from three panels of Wroclaw group. Since comparative analysis of historic glass composition is vital for its dating, to obtain the possibly full set of composition data with particular stress on light elements identification, the multi technique approach was necessary. The physicochemical analysis was carried out by X-ray fluorescence (XRF), micro-Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (SEM/EDX). The study revealed that some of stained glasses have composition characteristic of northern medieval glass (potash-lime-silicate) while other pieces could be dated on 16th or 19th century. This confirms the suggestion from the former historic and scientific investigation of Krakow's set that the Wroclaw panels may be of the same medieval origin as the Krakow's ones and that they were already restored, at least in 19th c. The possibility of working on the whole set of panels from the Grodziec collection opens up the opportunity for conducting exceptional scientific study which will lead to the definitive designation of the provenance of this important collection, its history and age.

Walczak, M.; Kaminska, M.; Karaszkiewicz, P.; Szczerbinski, J.; Szymonski, M.

2013-05-01

236

Buffer-gas-cooled ion clouds in a classical Paul trap: superimposed stability diagrams and trapping capacity investigations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ion clouds of different species and variable size are stored in a 3D Paul trap and detected after extraction from the trap. We report on measurements of the superimposed stability regions of four simultaneously stored ion species. We determine the operating conditions for trapping capacity under variation of buffer gas pressure and observe space charge shifts for a specific ion in the presence of other elements.

Leuthner, H.; Werth, G.

2014-01-01

237

Preliminary Investigations of Joining Technologies for Attaching Refractory Metals to Ni-Based Superalloys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, a range of joining technologies has been investigated for creating attachments between refractory metal and Ni-based superalloys. Refractory materials of interest include Mo-47%Re, T-111, and Ta-10%W. The Ni-based superalloys include Hastelloy X and MarM 247. During joining with conventional processes, these materials have potential for a range of solidification and intermetallic formation-related defects. For this study, three non-conventional joining technologies were evaluated. These included inertia welding, electro-spark deposition (ESD) welding, and magnetic pulse welding (MPW). The developed inertia welding practice closely paralleled that typically used for the refractory metals alloys. Metallographic investigations showed that forging during inertia welding occurred predominantly on the refractory metal side. It was also noted that at least some degree of forging on the Ni-based superalloy side of the joint was necessary to achieve consistent bonding. Both refractory metals were readily weldable to the Hastelloy X material. When bonding to the MarM 247, results were inconsistent. This was related to the higher forging temperatures of the MarM 247, and subsequent reduced deformation on that material during welding. ESD trials using a Hastelloy X filler were successful for all material combinations. ESD places down very thin (5- to 10-?m) layers per pass, and interactions between the substrates and the fill were limited (at most) to that layer. For the refractory metals, the fill only appeared to wet the surface, with minimal dilution effects. Microstructures of the deposits showed high weld metal integrity with maximum porosity on the order of a few percent. Some limited success was also obtained with MPW. In these trials, only the T-111 tubes were used. Joints were possible for the T-111 tube to the Hastelloy X bar stock, but the stiffness of the tube (resisting collapse) necessitated the use of very high power levels. These power levels resulted in damage to the equipment (concentrator) during welding. It is of note that the joint made showed the typical wavy bond microstructure associated with magnetic pulse/explosion bond joints. Joints were not possible between the T-111 tube and the MarM 247 bar stock. In this case, the MarM 247 shattered before sufficient impact forces could be developed for bonding.

Gould, Jerry E.; Ritzert, Frank J.; Loewenthal, William S.

2006-01-01

238

Preliminary Investigations of Joining Technologies for Attaching Refractory Metals to Ni-Based Superalloys  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this study, a range of joining technologies has been investigated for creating attachments between refractory metal and Ni-based superalloys. Refractory materials of interest include Mo-47%Re, T-111, and Ta-10%W. The Ni-based superalloys include Hastelloy X and MarM 247. During joining with conventional processes, these materials have potential for a range of solidification and intermetallic formation-related defects. For this study, three non-conventional joining technologies were evaluated. These included inertia welding, electro-spark deposition (ESD) welding, and magnetic pulse welding (MPW). The developed inertia welding practice closely paralleled that typically used for the refractory metals alloys. Metallographic investigations showed that forging during inertia welding occurred predominantly on the nickel base alloy side. It was also noted that at least some degree of forging on the refractory metal side of the joint was necessary to achieve consistent bonding. Both refractory metals were readily weldable to the Hastelloy X material. When bonding to the MarM 247, results were inconsistent. This was related to the higher forging temperatures of the MarM 247, and subsequent reduced deformation on that material during welding. ESD trials using a Hastelloy X filler were successful for all material combinations. ESD places down very thin (5- to 10- m) layers per pass, and interactions between the substrates and the fill were limited (at most) to that layer. For the refractory metals, the fill only appeared to wet the surface, with minimal dilution effects. Microstructures of the deposits showed high weld metal integrity with maximum porosity on the order of a few percent. Some limited success was also obtained with MPW. In these trials, only the T-111 tubes were used. Joints were possible for the T-111 tube to the Hastelloy X bar stock, but the stiffness of the tube (resisting collapse) necessitated the use of very high power levels. These power levels resulted in damage to the equipment (concentrator) during welding. It is of note that the joint made showed the typical wavy bond microstructure associated with magnetic pulse/explosion bond joints. Joints were not possible between the T-111 tube and the MarM 247 bar stock. In this case, the MarM 247 shattered before sufficient impact forces could be developed for bonding.

Gould, Jerry E.; Ritzert, Frank J.; Loewenthal, William S.

2006-01-01

239

Preliminary Investigations of Joining Technologies for Attaching Refractory Metals to Ni-Based Superalloys  

SciTech Connect

In this study, a range of joining technologies has been investigated for creating attachments between refractory metal and Ni-based superalloys. Refractory materials of interest include Mo-47%Re, T-111, and Ta-10%W. The Ni-based superalloys include Hastelloy X and MarM 247. During joining with conventional processes, these materials have potential for a range of solidification and intermetallic formation-related defects. For this study, three non-conventional joining technologies were evaluated. These included inertia welding, electro-spark deposition (ESD) welding, and magnetic pulse welding (MPW). The developed inertia welding practice closely paralleled that typically used for the refractory metals alloys. Metallographic investigations showed that forging during inertia welding occurred predominantly on the refractory metal side. It was also noted that at least some degree of forging on the Ni-based superalloy side of the joint was necessary to achieve consistent bonding. Both refractory metals were readily weldable to the Hastelloy X material. When bonding to the MarM 247, results were inconsistent. This was related to the higher forging temperatures of the MarM 247, and subsequent reduced deformation on that material during welding. ESD trials using a Hastelloy X filler were successful for all material combinations. ESD places down very thin (5- to 10-{mu}m) layers per pass, and interactions between the substrates and the fill were limited (at most) to that layer. For the refractory metals, the fill only appeared to wet the surface, with minimal dilution effects. Microstructures of the deposits showed high weld metal integrity with maximum porosity on the order of a few percent. Some limited success was also obtained with MPW. In these trials, only the T-111 tubes were used. Joints were possible for the T-111 tube to the Hastelloy X bar stock, but the stiffness of the tube (resisting collapse) necessitated the use of very high power levels. These power levels resulted in damage to the equipment (concentrator) during welding. It is of note that the joint made showed the typical wavy bond microstructure associated with magnetic pulse/explosion bond joints. Joints were not possible between the T-111 tube and the MarM 247 bar stock. In this case, the MarM 247 shattered before sufficient impact forces could be developed for bonding.

Gould, Jerry E. [Edison Welding Institute, 1250 Arthur E. Adams Drive, Columbus, OH 43221 (United States); Ritzert, Frank J. [NASA Glenn Research Center, 21000 Brookpark Road, Mail Stop 49-1, Cleveland, OH 44135 (United States); Loewenthal, William S. [Ohio Aerospace Institute, 21000 Brookpark Road, Mail Stop 49-1, Cleveland, OH 44135 (United States)

2006-01-20

240

Suicide by oxygen deprivation with helium: a preliminary study of British Columbia coroner investigations.  

PubMed

This article researches a relatively new suicide method advanced by right-to-die organizations: oxygen deprivation by breathing helium inside a plastic hood. The article begins with a review of the role of the coroner and the history of oxygen deprivation with helium; it then examines 20 Judgements of Inquiry (JOI) by British Columbia coroners into this form of suicide. The JOI were obtained through the Freedom of Information and Protection of Privacy Act and cover the period of 1999 to 2007. Findings raise concerns about the coding system used by coroners as well as adherence to internal documentation guidelines. The British Columbia Coroners Service (BCCS) has a public safety mandate to investigate all unnatural deaths and to make recommendations to prevent deaths in similar circumstances. It is a concern that BCCS has no recommendations to prevent suicides by oxygen deprivation with helium. More in-depth, systematic research is recommended to determine the prevalence of suicide by oxygen deprivation and to develop strategies to benefit public health and safety. PMID:24501824

Ogden, Russel D; Hassan, Shereen

2011-04-01

241

Preliminary investigation of submerged aquatic vegetation mapping using hyperspectral remote sensing.  

PubMed

The use of airborne hyperspectral remote sensing imagery for automated mapping of submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) in the tidal Potomac River was investigated for near to real-time resource assessment and monitoring. Airborne hyperspectral imagery and field spectrometer measurements were obtained in October of 2000. A spectral library database containing selected ground-based and airborne sensor spectra was developed for use in image processing. The spectral library is used to automate the processing of hyperspectral imagery for potential real-time material identification and mapping. Field based spectra were compared to the airborne imagery using the database to identify and map two species of SAV (Myriophyllum spicatum and Vallisneria americana). Overall accuracy of the vegetation maps derived from hyperspectral imagery was determined by comparison to a product that combined aerial photography and field based sampling at the end of the SAV growing season. The algorithms and databases developed in this study will be useful with the current and forthcoming space-based hyperspectral remote sensing systems. PMID:12620030

William, David J; Rybicki, Nancy B; Lombana, Alfonso V; O'Brien, Tim M; Gomez, Richard B

2003-01-01

242

Preliminary experimental investigation of a dual-band relativistic backward wave oscillator with dual beams  

SciTech Connect

A dual-band relativistic backward wave oscillator with dual electron beams generating C-band and X-band microwaves is investigated experimentally. The frequencies, powers, and radiation patterns of the dual-band microwaves are measured. With the diode voltage of 657 kV and the total beam current of 14 kA guided by a magnetic field of about 1.7 T, the dual-band microwaves are generated with dominant frequencies of 4.58 and 8.30 GHz close to the results from the particle-in-cell simulation. The powers of the C-band and X-band microwaves are 520 and 113 MW, respectively. The effects of variations in the guiding magnetic field and diode voltage on the powers of the dual-band microwaves are presented and discussed. The radiation patterns of the dual-band microwaves from the radiating antenna are tested both corresponding to a TM{sub 01} mode and the independency of the operation processes of them is discussed.

Wang Ting; Qian Baoliang; Zhang Jiande; Zhang Xiaoping; Cao Yibing; Zhang Qiang [College of Optoelectronic Science and Engineering, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China)

2011-01-15

243

Resilience and successful community reintegration among female forensic psychiatric patients: a preliminary investigation.  

PubMed

Research on resiliency and recovery in forensic psychiatric patients is still limited. Information pertaining to factors associated with successful community reintegration would contribute to a more comprehensive assessment of functioning and informed treatment planning that fits within a recovery approach of service provision. Using a retrospective design involving file reviews and a 3-year follow-up period, the authors investigated the rate of successful/unsuccessful community reintegration (defined by the presence or absence of an absolute discharge/readmission to hospital) in female forensic psychiatric patients (N?=?48). The study evaluated the extent to which the risk and protective factors captured in the Short-Term Assessment of Risk and Treatability (START) predicted a range of positive and negative outcomes in the study sample. Results showed that 47.9% of the women qualified as having successfully reintegrated into the community, with the remaining 52.1% qualifying as still being in recovery. Successful individuals possessed significantly more protective factors and significantly fewer risk factors than individuals still in recovery. Furthermore, both the vulnerability and the strength scale of the START demonstrated good predictive validity, however we did not find evidence of incremental validity of the strength scale. PMID:21796675

Viljoen, Simone; Nicholls, Tonia; Greaves, Caroline; Ruiter, Corine; Brink, Johann

2011-01-01

244

Preliminary investigation of residual-limb fluid volume changes within one day.  

PubMed

The purpose of this research was to investigate rates of residual-limb fluid volume change within one day for people with transtibial limb loss. Rates of fluid volume change during 30 min test sessions of sitting, standing, and walking activities were measured twice a day, once in the morning and once in the afternoon, on 12 regular prosthesis users with the use of bioimpedance analysis. Between test sessions, all subjects consumed food and drink, and subject activity ranged from low to high. The rate of fluid volume change within sessions ranged from -8.5 to 5.9 %/h (median: -2.2%/h). The rate of fluid volume change between sessions ranged from -2.7 to 0.9 %/h (median: -1.0%/h). The between-session rate of fluid volume change correlated highly with afternoon within-session rates of change (r = 0.9) but was not well correlated with morning within-session rates of change (r = 0.8). Subjects with peripheral arterial complications showed greater fluid volume loss rates during test sessions than between sessions. Rate of fluid volume change may be affected by sitting, standing, and walking activities; presence of peripheral arterial complications; being female; time since amputation; and wearing the socket without doffing for extended periods. PMID:23516051

Sanders, Joan E; Allyn, Katheryn J; Harrison, Daniel S; Myers, Timothy R; Ciol, Marcia A; Tsai, Elaine C

2012-01-01

245

Preliminary Investigation for Engine Performance by Using Tire-Derived Pyrolysis Oil-Diesel Blended Fuels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the first phase of the present study, the pyrolysis oil derived from light automotive tire waste has been characterized including fuel properties, elemental analyses, FT-IR, 1H-NMR, GC-MS and distillation. The studies on the oil show that it can be used as liquid fuel with a gross calorific value (GCV) of 42.00 MJ/kg and empirical formula of CH1.27O0.025N0.006. In the second phase of the investigation, the performance of a diesel engine was studied blending the pyrolysis oil with diesel fuel in different ratios. The experimental results show that the bsfc of pyrolysis oil-diesel blended fuels slightly increases and hence the brake thermal efficiency decreases compared to those of neat diesel. The pyrolysis oil-diesel blends show lower carbon monoxide (CO) emission but higher oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions than those of neat diesel. However, NOx emissions with pyrolysis oil-diesel blended fuels reduced when EGR was applied.

Rofiqul, Islam M.; Haniu, Hiroyuki; Alam, Beg R.; Takai, Kazunori

246

Changes of substance P in the crevicular fluid in relation to orthodontic movement preliminary investigation.  

PubMed

Substance P (SP) is a tachykinin released from both the central and the peripheral endings of primary afferent neurons and functions as a neurotransmitter. As a transmitter signaling pain, substance P is involved in nociception and is an extremely potent vasodilator. We found several studies about this neuropeptide especially in relation to parodontology and a few orthodontic reviews. This is because in the past the importance of this neuropeptide in dental element undergoing periodontal inflammation was observed. The aims of the present pilot study was to investigate whether the substance P was present in gingival crevicular fluid in dental elements undergoing orthodontic treatment with Invisalign technique compared to teeth belonging to the same series but not undergoing orthodontic movement. We analysed gengival crevicular fluid (GCF) collected from four young subjects, using a paper cone for a time of 60 seconds. The results showed that SP is present in the gengival sulcus in elements undergoing orthodontic forces during treatment with Invisalign technique and not in the control teeth. During the literature analysis, we have found a lot of papers describing involvement of SP in periodontitis and inflammatory diseases, but further studies are needed in order to demonstrate the role of this neuropeptide during teeth movement. PMID:23737731

Levrini, Luca; Sacerdote, Paola; Moretti, Sarah; Panzi, Silvia; Caprioglio, Alberto

2013-01-01

247

Laser vibrometry characterisation of a microfluidic lab-on-a-chip device: a preliminary investigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since their original inception as ultrasound contrast agents, potential applications of microbubbles have evolved to encompass molecular imaging and targeted drug delivery. As these areas develop, so does the need to understand the mechanisms behind the interaction of microbubbles both with biological tissue and with other microbubbles. There is therefore a metrological requirement to develop a controlled environment in which to study these processes. Presented here is the design and characterisation of such a system, which consists of a microfluidic chip, specifically developed for manipulating microbubbles using both optical and acoustic trapping. A laser vibrometer is used to observe the coupling of acoustic energy into the chip from a piezoelectric transducer bonded to the surface. Measurement of the velocity of surface waves on the chip is investigated as a potential method for inferring the nature of the acoustic fields excited within the liquid medium of the device. Comparison of measured surface wavelengths with wave types suggests the observation of anti-symmetric Lamb or Love-Kirchhoff waves. Further visual confirmation of the acoustic fields through bubble aggregation highlights differences between the model and experimental results in predicting the position of acoustic pressure nodes in relation to excitation frequency.

Fury, C.; Gélat, P. N.; Jones, P. H.; Memoli, G.

2014-04-01

248

A preliminary investigation of acid-catalyzed polymerization reactions of shale oil distillates  

SciTech Connect

Sinor (1989) reported that a major specialty market may exist for shale oil as an asphalt blending material. Shale oil can be converted to an asphalt blending material by acid catalyzed condensation and polymerization reactions of the many molecular species comprising the composition of shale oil. To simplify the investigation, crude shale oil was separated by distillation into three distillates of different hydrocarbon and heteroaromatic compositions. These distillates were then treated with two different types of acids to determine the effect of acid type on the end products. Three western shale oil distillates, a naphtha, a middle distillate, and an atmospheric gas oil, were reacted with anhydrous AlCl{sub 3} and 85% H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} under low-severity conditions. At relatively low temperatures, little change in the hydrocarbon composition was noted for the AlCl{sub 3} reactions. AlCl{sub 3}{center_dot} (a polymerized product and/or complex) was formed. However, it is assumed that the sludge was mainly the result of heteroaromatic-AlCl{sub 3} reactions.

Netzel, D.A.

1991-04-01

249

A preliminary investigation of acid-catalyzed polymerization reactions of shale oil distillates  

SciTech Connect

Sinor (1989) reported that a major specialty market may exist for shale oil as an asphalt blending material. Shale oil can be converted to an asphalt blending material by acid catalyzed condensation and polymerization reactions of the many molecular species comprising the composition of shale oil. To simplify the investigation, crude shale oil was separated by distillation into three distillates of different hydrocarbon and heteroaromatic compositions. These distillates were then treated with two different types of acids to determine the effect of acid type on the end products. Three western shale oil distillates, a naphtha, a middle distillate, and an atmospheric gas oil, were reacted with anhydrous AlCl{sub 3} and 85% H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} under low-severity conditions. At relatively low temperatures, little change in the hydrocarbon composition was noted for the AlCl{sub 3} reactions. AlCl{sub 3}{center dot} (a polymerized product and/or complex) was formed. However, it is assumed that the sludge was mainly the result of heteroaromatic-AlCl{sub 3} reactions.

Netzel, D.A.

1991-04-01

250

Investigation of the effects of Aloe barbadensis on rat ovaries: a preliminary study.  

PubMed

Effects of Aloe barbadensis, a type of Aloe vera, on ovaries were investigated during pregnancy. A. vera gel, a commercial and nontherapeutic form of A. barbadensis, was used for this purpose. Three groups (one control and two test groups) of female Wistar albino rats with no prior births were studied. Group I was administered 25 mg (140 mg/kg) of A. barbadensis/day both orally and through gavage. A. barbadensis was contained in capsules with 500 mg of soybean oil; therefore Group II was administered 500 mg of soybean oil. Group III was the control group. All three groups were given normal food and water ad libitum. The substance had been administered for 20 days until birth. Ovaries were examined histologically. Vascular increase and the hyperemic form of ovary in the group administered A. barbadensis were notable. Decrease in primary follicle numbers, increase in secondary follicle numbers, and diminishment of secondary follicle diameters occurred in ovaries. The histological changes imply an angiogenesis effect of A. barbadensis and an effect like that of follicle-stimulating hormone in ovaries. PMID:20041799

Kosif, Rengin; Aktas, R Gülhan

2009-12-01

251

Does using an ejector chair affect muscle activation patterns in rheumatoid arthritic patients? A preliminary investigation.  

PubMed

The present study examined knee and arm extensor muscle activation patterns displayed by 12 elderly female rheumatoid arthritic patients (mean age = 65.5 +/- 8.6 yr) rising from an instrumented Eser ejector chair under four conditions: high seat (540 mm), low seat (450 mm), with and without ejector assistance. Electromyographic (EMG) signals were sampled (1000 Hz) for vastus lateralis (VL), vastus medialis (VM), rectus femoris (RF) and triceps brachii (TB) using a Noraxon Telemyo System (bandwidth 0-340 Hz). Muscle onset, offset and peak activity relative to loss of seat contact (SS), and integrated EMG, were calculated for each muscle burst before SS. A high seat significantly (p < or = 005) decreased VL and TB intensity but did not change muscle activation patterns compared with rising from a low seat. Ejector assistance significantly increased VM and RF burst duration and RF intensity but had no effect on vastii muscle intensity. It was concluded that concerns pertaining to muscle disuse when rising with ejector assistance were unfounded in the present study. However, further research is required to investigate the effects of habitual use of a mechanical ejector device on muscle activation patterns. PMID:10659447

Munro, B J; Steele, J R

2000-02-01

252

Changes of Substance P in the Crevicular Fluid in relation to Orthodontic Movement Preliminary Investigation  

PubMed Central

Substance P (SP) is a tachykinin released from both the central and the peripheral endings of primary afferent neurons and functions as a neurotransmitter. As a transmitter signaling pain, substance P is involved in nociception and is an extremely potent vasodilator. We found several studies about this neuropeptide especially in relation to parodontology and a few orthodontic reviews. This is because in the past the importance of this neuropeptide in dental element undergoing periodontal inflammation was observed. The aims of the present pilot study was to investigate whether the substance P was present in gingival crevicular fluid in dental elements undergoing orthodontic treatment with Invisalign technique compared to teeth belonging to the same series but not undergoing orthodontic movement. We analysed gengival crevicular fluid (GCF) collected from four young subjects, using a paper cone for a time of 60 seconds. The results showed that SP is present in the gengival sulcus in elements undergoing orthodontic forces during treatment with Invisalign technique and not in the control teeth. During the literature analysis, we have found a lot of papers describing involvement of SP in periodontitis and inflammatory diseases, but further studies are needed in order to demonstrate the role of this neuropeptide during teeth movement.

Levrini, Luca; Sacerdote, Paola; Moretti, Sarah; Panzi, Silvia; Caprioglio, Alberto

2013-01-01

253

[Preliminary investigation into the mechanism of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy induced by visfatin].  

PubMed

The aim of the current study is to investigate the effect of visfatin on cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Cultured H9c2 cardiomyocytes were exposed to visfatin at different concentrations for different periods of time, and the markers of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy were detected. Moreover, pravastatin, the inhibitor of endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) or thapsigargin, an ERS agonist was used respectively to pre-treat the cells before visfatin stimulation. F-actin staining was performed to measure the cell surface change. The mRNA expressions of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) and ERS markers including glucose-regulated protein 78(GRP78), C/EPB homologous protein (CHOP) and activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6) were assessed by real time RT-PCR. The change of protein level of GRP78 and CHOP was detected by Western blot. The experimental data demonstrated that exposure to 100 or 150 ng/mL concentrations of visfatin for 24 h, or 100 ng/mL of visfatin for 24 or 48 h, significantly increased the expression of markers for cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Visfatin stimulation provoked ERS in H9c2 cells. Furthermore, pre-treatment with pravastatin partially inhibited the visfatin-induced mRNA expression of ANP and BNP in H9c2 cells, whereas thapsigargin promoted the visfatin-induced expression of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy markers. The results suggest that visfatin might induce cardiomyocyte hypertrophy via ERS -dependent pathways. PMID:25039146

Li, Junli; Liao, Yanbiao; Lu, Lihui; Lu, Lihui; Feng, Jun; Wu, Wenchao; Liu, Xiaojing

2014-04-01

254

Friction Stir Lap Welding of Magnesium Alloy to Steel: A Preliminary Investigation  

SciTech Connect

An initial study was made to evaluate the feasibility of joining Magnesium alloy AZ31 sheet to galvanized steel sheet in lap configuration using friction stir welding (FSW). Two different automotive sheet steels were used for comparative evaluation of the dissimilar joining potential; a 0.8mm thick, electro galvanized (EG) mild steel, and a 1.5mm thick hot dipped galvanized (HDG) high-strength, low-alloy steel (HSLA). These steels were joined to 2.33mm thick AZ31B magnesium sheet. A single FSW tool design was used for both dissimilar welds, and process parameters were kept the same. Average peak load for the AZ31-1.5 mm steel weld joint in lap shear mode was found to be 6.3 ± 1.0 kN. For the AZ31-0.8 mm steel weld, joint strength was 5.1 ± 1.5 kN. Microstructural investigation indicates melting of the Zn coating at the interface and subsequent alloying with the Mg sheet resulting in formation of solidified Zn-Mg alloy layer at AZ31/steel interface.

Jana, Saumyadeep; Hovanski, Yuri; Grant, Glenn J.

2010-12-01

255

Preliminary investigation of mutations in 21-hydroxylase gene in patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia in Russia.  

PubMed

Mutations in 21 hydroxylase gene were investigated in 40 Russian patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia. Quantitative amplification/restriction procedure was used for detection of mutations involving promoter region, 3 and 8 exons. For affected chromosomes alleles of tightly linked HLA A and B genes were defined, as well as 5 different alleles or allele combinations HLA DQA1 gene. The most frequent (> 20% of chromosomes) cause of salt wasting adrenal hyperplasia in Russia is a chimeric CYP21A-CYP21B gene with normal copy of a pseudogene which results from gene conversion in chromosome with B14-DQA1 0101/0102 haplotype. The second common mutation (about 10%) is a result of intragenic recombination well-known deletion of the gene linked with A3-B47-DQA1 0201/0601 haplotype. Two other mutations were linked with A3-B35-DQA1 0401/0402 and A3-B40-DQA1 0201/0601 haplotypes. PMID:7749411

Evgrafov, O V; Polyakov, A V; Dzenis, I G; Baharev, V A

1995-01-01

256

Investigation on the high efficiency volume Bragg gratings performances for spectrometry in space environment: preliminary results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The special properties of Volume Bragg Gratings (VBGs) make them good candidates for spectrometry applications where high spectral resolution, low level of straylight and low polarisation sensitivity are required. Therefore it is of interest to assess the maturity and suitability of VBGs as enabling technology for future ESA missions with demanding requirements for spectrometry. The VBGs suitability for space application is being investigated in the frame of a project led by CSL and funded by the European Space Agency. The goal of this work is twofold: first the theoretical advantages and drawbacks of VBGs with respect to other technologies with identical functionalities are assessed, and second the performances of VBG samples in a representative space environment are experimentally evaluated. The performances of samples of two VBGs technologies, the Photo-Thermo-Refractive (PTR) glass and the DiChromated Gelatine (DCG), are assessed and compared in the H?, O2-B and NIR bands. The tests are performed under vacuum condition combined with temperature cycling in the range of 200 K to 300K. A dedicated test bench experiment is designed to evaluate the impact of temperature on the spectral efficiency and to determine the optical wavefront error of the diffracted beam. Furthermore the diffraction efficiency degradation under gamma irradiation is assessed. Finally the straylight, the diffraction efficiency under conical incidence and the polarisation sensitivity is evaluated.

Loicq, Jérôme; Gaspar Venancio, Luis Miguel; Georges, Marc

2012-09-01

257

Preliminary investigation into the pollution reduction performance of swales used in a stormwater treatment train.  

PubMed

Permeable pavements have been shown to be effective stormwater treatment devices that can greatly reduce surface runoff and significantly improve the quality of stormwater runoff in urban areas. However, the potential problems with sediment clogging and consequent maintenance requirements have been identified as the main barriers to more widespread adoption of permeable pavements in urban developments. This Australian study investigates the effectiveness of using grass swales as pre-treatment devices for permeable pavements in order to reduce clogging and extend the life span of these systems. The results of simulated runoff experiments demonstrated that between 50 and 75% of the total suspended sediment (TSS) was removed within the first 10 m of the swale length. This suggests swales of this length could potentially increase the effective life of permeable pavement systems by reducing clogging, and therefore maintenance. Nutrient removal was also tested in the study and the results indicated the tested swales were of limited effectiveness in the removal of these pollutants. However, in real runoff situations, reduction of TSS will have a direct influence on removing nutrients because a significant proportion of nutrients (and other pollutants) are attached to the sediments. PMID:24622550

Kachchu Mohamed, M A; Lucke, T; Boogaard, F

2014-01-01

258

Preliminary investigations into the ethological relevance of round-pen (round-yard) training of horses.  

PubMed

Recently, training horses within round-pens has increased in popularity. Practitioners often maintain that the responses they elicit from horses are similar to signals used with senior conspecifics. To audit the responses of horses to conspecifics, 6 mare-young-horse dyads, this study introduced them to each other in a round-pen and videoed them for 8 min. These dyads spent significantly more time farther than 10 m apart than they did less than 1 m apart (p < .001). The time they spent less than 1 m apart decreased over the 8-min test period (p = .018). Mares occupied the center of the round-pen and chased youngsters for 0.73% of the test period (p < .001). Mares made all agonistic approaches (p < .001), and youngsters (p = .018) made all investigative approaches. Head lowering and licking-and-chewing were exhibited most when the youngsters were facing away from the mares (p < .001). The frequency of head lowering increased during the test period (p = .027), whereas the frequency of licking-and-chewing did not change. The results bring into question the popular interpretation and ethological relevance of equine responses commonly described in round-pen training and show that mares did not condition young horses to remain in close proximity to them. PMID:18569224

Warren-Smith, Amanda K; McGreevy, Paul D

2008-01-01

259

Preliminary Investigation of an SOI-based Arrayed Waveguide Grating Demodulation Integration Microsystem.  

PubMed

An arrayed waveguide grating (AWG) demodulation integration microsystem is investigated in this study. The system consists of a C-band on-chip LED, a 2 × 2 silicon nanowire-based coupler, a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) array, a 1 × 8 AWG, and a photoelectric detector array. The coupler and AWG are made from silicon-on-insulator wafers using electron beam exposure and response-coupled plasma technology. Experimental results show that the excess loss in the MMI coupler with a footprint of 6 × 100??m(2) is 0.5423?dB. The 1 × 8 AWG with a footprint of 267 × 381??m(2) and a waveguide width of 0.4??m exhibits a central channel loss of -3.18?dB, insertion loss non-uniformity of -1.34?dB, and crosstalk level of -23.1?dB. The entire system is preliminarily tested. Wavelength measurement precision is observed to reach 0.001?nm. The wavelength sensitivity of each FBG is between 0.04 and 0.06?nm/dB. PMID:24797561

Li, Hongqiang; Zhou, Wenqian; Liu, Yu; Dong, Xiaye; Zhang, Cheng; Miao, Changyun; Zhang, Meiling; Li, Enbang; Tang, Chunxiao

2014-01-01

260

Preliminary Investigation of an SOI-based Arrayed Waveguide Grating Demodulation Integration Microsystem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An arrayed waveguide grating (AWG) demodulation integration microsystem is investigated in this study. The system consists of a C-band on-chip LED, a 2 × 2 silicon nanowire-based coupler, a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) array, a 1 × 8 AWG, and a photoelectric detector array. The coupler and AWG are made from silicon-on-insulator wafers using electron beam exposure and response-coupled plasma technology. Experimental results show that the excess loss in the MMI coupler with a footprint of 6 × 100 ?m2 is 0.5423 dB. The 1 × 8 AWG with a footprint of 267 × 381 ?m2 and a waveguide width of 0.4 ?m exhibits a central channel loss of -3.18 dB, insertion loss non-uniformity of -1.34 dB, and crosstalk level of -23.1 dB. The entire system is preliminarily tested. Wavelength measurement precision is observed to reach 0.001 nm. The wavelength sensitivity of each FBG is between 0.04 and 0.06 nm/dB.

Li, Hongqiang; Zhou, Wenqian; Liu, Yu; Dong, Xiaye; Zhang, Cheng; Miao, Changyun; Zhang, Meiling; Li, Enbang; Tang, Chunxiao

2014-05-01

261

Preliminary Investigation of an SOI-based Arrayed Waveguide Grating Demodulation Integration Microsystem  

PubMed Central

An arrayed waveguide grating (AWG) demodulation integration microsystem is investigated in this study. The system consists of a C-band on-chip LED, a 2 × 2 silicon nanowire-based coupler, a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) array, a 1 × 8 AWG, and a photoelectric detector array. The coupler and AWG are made from silicon-on-insulator wafers using electron beam exposure and response-coupled plasma technology. Experimental results show that the excess loss in the MMI coupler with a footprint of 6 × 100??m2 is 0.5423?dB. The 1 × 8 AWG with a footprint of 267 × 381??m2 and a waveguide width of 0.4??m exhibits a central channel loss of ?3.18?dB, insertion loss non-uniformity of ?1.34?dB, and crosstalk level of ?23.1?dB. The entire system is preliminarily tested. Wavelength measurement precision is observed to reach 0.001?nm. The wavelength sensitivity of each FBG is between 0.04 and 0.06?nm/dB.

Li, Hongqiang; Zhou, Wenqian; Liu, Yu; Dong, Xiaye; Zhang, Cheng; Miao, Changyun; Zhang, Meiling; Li, Enbang; Tang, Chunxiao

2014-01-01

262

A preliminary investigation of strong-motion data from the French Antilles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Strong-motion networks have been operating in the Caribbean region since the 1970s, however, until the mid-1990s only a few analogue stations were operational and the quantity of data recorded was very low. Since the mid-1990s, digital accelerometric networks have been established on islands within the region. At present there are thought to be about 160 stations operating in this region with a handful on Cuba, 65 on the French Antilles (mainly Guadeloupe and Martinique), eight on Jamaica, 78 on Puerto Rico (plus others on adjacent islands) and four on Trinidad. After briefly summarising the available data from the Caribbean islands, this article is mainly concerned with analysing the data that has been recorded by the networks operating on the French Antilles in terms of their distribution with respect to magnitude, source-to-site distance, focal depth and event type; site effects at certain stations; and also with respect to their predictability by ground motion estimation equations developed using data from different regions of the world. More than 300 good quality triaxial acceleration time-histories have been recorded on Guadeloupe and Martinique at a large number of stations from earthquakes with magnitudes larger than 4.8, however, most of the records are from considerable source-to-site distances. From the data available it is found that many of the commonly-used ground motion estimation equations for shallow crustal earthquakes poorly estimate the observed ground motions on the two islands; ground motions on Guadeloupe and Martinique have smaller amplitudes and are more variable than expected. This difference could be due to regional dependence of ground motions because of, for example, differing tectonics or crustal structures or because the ground motions so far recorded are, in general, from smaller earthquakes and greater distances than the range of applicability of the investigated equations.

Douglas, John; Bertil, Didier; Roullé, Agathe; Dominique, Pascal; Jousset, Philippe

2006-07-01

263

A preliminary investigation on the relationship between virtues and pathological internet use among Chinese adolescents  

PubMed Central

Background Pathological Internet Use (PIU) has become a global issue associated with the increasing number of Internet users. Previous studies concerned both the interpersonal and intrapersonal vulnerable factors and the corresponding models. However, a limited amount of research has explored the relationship between positive factors and PIU. Objective The current investigation attempted to clarify the relationship between virtues and PIU among Chinese adolescents; it also sought to explore the specific contributions of the three virtues. Virtue was the core concept in positive psychology and the Values in Action Classification. A recent study demonstrated that there might be three universal virtues (relationship, vitality, and conscientiousness). Methods A cross-sectional sample of adolescents aged 12-17 years were recruited in 2013. A total of 674 adolescents (males?=?302, females?=?372; junior high school?=?296, senior high school?=?378) from eight junior and senior high schools in four provinces of Mainland China completed a package of psychological inventories, including the Chinese Virtues Questionnaire (CVQ) and the Adolescent Pathological Internet Use Scale (APIUS). The mean age of the current sample was 15.10 years (SD?=?1.81) with an average of 5.31 years’ length (SD?=?2.09) of Internet use. Results A total of 9.50% participants exhibited significant symptoms of PIU. Male students (Mmale?=?2.50) had significantly higher scores on PIU than female students (Mfemale?=?2.25). Relationship (??=?-.24) and conscientiousness (??=?-.21) negatively predicted PIU, whereas vitality (??=?.25) positively predicted PIU. Dominance analysis further revealed that relationship and conscientiousness could explain 81% variance of PIU, and vitality only accounted for another 19%. Conclusions Relationship and conscientiousness were possible protective factors of pathological Internet users, while vitality was vulnerable. The results could be helpful in screening “at-risk” Internet users (low relationship and conscientiousness as well as high vitality). Future intervention strategies could focus on how to enhance relationship and conscientiousness and on how to reduce vitality.

2014-01-01

264

Multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis of human EEG: preliminary investigation and comparison with the wavelet transform modulus maxima technique.  

PubMed

Recently, many lines of investigation in neuroscience and statistical physics have converged to raise the hypothesis that the underlying pattern of neuronal activation which results in electroencephalography (EEG) signals is nonlinear, with self-affine dynamics, while scalp-recorded EEG signals themselves are nonstationary. Therefore, traditional methods of EEG analysis may miss many properties inherent in such signals. Similarly, fractal analysis of EEG signals has shown scaling behaviors that may not be consistent with pure monofractal processes. In this study, we hypothesized that scalp-recorded human EEG signals may be better modeled as an underlying multifractal process. We utilized the Physionet online database, a publicly available database of human EEG signals as a standardized reference database for this study. Herein, we report the use of multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis on human EEG signals derived from waking and different sleep stages, and show evidence that supports the use of multifractal methods. Next, we compare multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis to a previously published multifractal technique, wavelet transform modulus maxima, using EEG signals from waking and sleep, and demonstrate that multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis has lower indices of variability. Finally, we report a preliminary investigation into the use of multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis as a pattern classification technique on human EEG signals from waking and different sleep stages, and demonstrate its potential utility for automatic classification of different states of consciousness. Therefore, multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis may be a useful pattern classification technique to distinguish among different states of brain function. PMID:23844189

Zorick, Todd; Mandelkern, Mark A

2013-01-01

265

Preliminary investigation into the design of thermally responsive Forster resonance energy transfer colloids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While nuclear imaging techniques (Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Computed Tomography, and Positron Emission Tomography) have proven effective for diagnosis and treatment of disease in the human body, fluorescence-enhanced optical imaging offers additional benefits. Fluorescent imaging provides high resolution with real-time response, persistent lifetime (hours to days), cell targeting, and transdermal penetration with minimal physical encumbrance. Malignant cells can be targeted by absorbance of exogenous fluorescent nanoprobe contrast agents. Imaging is improved by fluorescent enhancement, especially by energy transfer between attached dyes. Also for use against cancer are heat-active treatments, such as hyperthermal, photothermal, and chemothermal therapies. Helpful to these treatments is the thermal response from nanoprobes, within human cells, which provide real-time feedback. The present study investigates the design and feasibility of a nanoprobe molecular device, absorbable into malignant human cells, which provides real-time tracking and thermal response, as indicated by enhanced fluorescence by energy transfer. A poly(propargyl acrylate) colloidal suspension was synthesized. The particles were modified with a triblock copolymer, previously shown to be thermally responsive, and an end-attached fluorescent dye. A second dye was modeled for attachment in subsequent work. When two fluorescent dyes are brought within sufficiently close proximity, and excitation light is supplied, energy can be transferred between dyes to give enhanced fluorescence with a large Stokes shift (increase in wavelength between excitation and emission). The dye pair was modeled for overlap of emission and absorbance wavelengths, and energy transfer was demonstrated with 23% efficiency and a 209 nm Stokes shift. The quantum yield of the donor dye was determined at 70%, and the distance for 50% energy transfer was calculated at 2.9 nm, consistent with reports for similar compounds. When the donor/acceptor dye pair is brought within close proximity (Förster Resonance Energy Transfer or FRET distance), energy transfer is enabled. The current design is that thermal response of an attached copolymer/dye ligand would cause closer packing of the colloidal particle, resulting in FRET distance for the attached dye pair. The first test of the hypothesis was to track the change in diameter under temperature change. Using Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS), it was shown that the particle diameter decreased from 100 to 82 nm (32 to 44 oC) and then to 60 nm (60 °C). The observed changes correspond with literature and support the hypothesis, that the thermal response and close proximity would enable energy transfer, resulting in the enhanced fluorescence needed as a contrast nanoprobe for hyperthermia treatments.

Bedford, Monte Scott

266

January 26, 2001 Gujrat, India Earthquake - A Report of Preliminary Investigations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A magnitude Mw 7.7 earthquake occurred during the morning hours of India's Republic Day celebration on January 26, 2001 near the margin of the Indian sub-continent in the Kachchh region. The revised hypocentral location for this event by the USGS has an estimated depth of 17 km. Its seismic moment is estimated at 6.2x1028 dyne-cm. The teleseismic P waves are sharp at all stations indicating an abrupt large slip on the fault plane. Within 3-4 minutes Bhuj, Anjar, Bachau, Gandhidham, Kukuma, Ratnar, Lodai, Kottar and many other nearby villages were in ruins. Isolated collapses of mid-size buildings occurred in Ahmedabad located about 240 km away and Surat located at about 360 km. The transverse and longitudinal ground motions recorded at the ground floor of a mid-rise building show motions were as high as 0.11g and lasted for about 30s. These motions are relatively large. There is, however, a suspicion about the performance of the recording station. Using the empirical attenuation relations of Abrahamson and Silva for western North America, we expect about 0.0262g and 0.035g for rock and soil sites, respectively in Ahmedabad. The city itself is located at the bank of Sabarmati River and is built on sediments whose thickness varies between about 2 to 4 km. It is quite likely that the ground motion was amplified by the basin structure. So far, the primary source of waveform data from the mainshock is from the IRIS Data Management Center (DMC) in Seattle, Washington, and includes stations located at upper-mantle and teleseismic distances. Using the teleseismic P-wave seismograms, Yagi and Kikuchi developed initial slip models for the two possible fault planes of this earthquake using a source depth of 10 km. Both of these slip models indicate a westward rupture and 6- 8 meters of displacement at the centroid. We have also inverted the teleseismic P waves independently using a source depth of 18 km to be consistent with the USGS and Harvard hypocentral locations. Based on our inverted slip model, we predict a co- seismic deformation of about 2 m at the bedrock for the south dipping fault. These ground displacements are large enough to have caused the liquefaction phenomena observed by various investigating groups. During our visit to the epicentral region, we were in several location where lateral spreading in sediment was extensively observed. We are at present analyzing regional seismograms recorded from this earthquake.

Saikia, C. K.; Somerville, P. G.; Ichinose, G.; Thio, H.

2001-05-01

267

Provesicular granisetron hydrochloride buccal formulations: in vitro evaluation and preliminary investigation of in vivo performance.  

PubMed

Granisetron hydrochloride (granisetron) is a potent antiemetic that has been proven to be effective in acute and delayed emesis in cancer chemotherapy. Granisetron suffers from reduced oral bioavailability (?60%) due to hepatic metabolism. In this study the combined advantage of provesicular carriers and buccal drug delivery has been explored aiming to sustain effect and improve bioavailability of granisetron via development of granisetron provesicular buccoadhesive tablets with suitable quality characteristics (hardness, drug content, in vitro release pattern, exvivo bioadhesion and in vivo bioadhesion behavior). Composition of the reconstituted niosomes from different prepared provesicular carriers regarding type of surfactant used and cholesterol concentration significantly affected both entrapment efficiency (%EE) and vesicle size. Span 80 proniosome-derived niosomes exhibited higher encapsulation efficiency and smaller particle size than those derived from span 20. Also, the effect of %EE and bioadhesive polymer type on in vitro drug release and in vivo performance of buccoadhesive tablets was investigated. Based on achievement of required in vitro release pattern (20-30% at 2h, 40-65% at 6h and 80-95% at 12h), in vivo swelling behavior, and in vivo adhesion time (>14 h) granisetron formulation (F19, 1.4 mg) comprising HPMC:carbopol 974P (7:3) and maltodextrin coated with the vesicular precursors span 80 and cholesterol (9:1) was chosen for in vivo study. In vivo pharmacokinetic study revealed higher bioavailability of buccal formulation relative to conventional oral formulation of granisetron (AUC0-? is 89.97 and 38.18 ng h/ml for buccal and oral formulation, respectively). A significantly lower and delayed Cmax (12.09±4.47 ng/ml, at 8h) was observed after buccal application compared to conventional oral tablet (31.66±10.15 ng/ml, at 0.5 h). The prepared provesicular buccoadhesive tablet of granisetron (F19) might help bypass hepatic first-pass metabolism and improve bioavailability of granisetron with the possibility of reducing reported daily dose (2mg) and reducing dosing frequency. PMID:24793896

Ahmed, Sami; El-Setouhy, Doaa Ahmed; El-Latif Badawi, Alia Abd; El-Nabarawi, Mohamed Ahmed

2014-08-18

268

Investigation of unstabilized polyvinyl chloride (PVC) for use as a long-term UV dosimeter: preliminary results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new chemical UV dosimeter with a larger dose capacity than existing chemical dosimeters has been investigated for long-term UV measurements. Unstabilized polyvinyl chloride (PVC), cast in 40 µm thick film, has been found to respond to at least 745 SED (Standard Erythema Dose = 100 J m-2) of solar UV radiation, which is equivalent to about two to three summer weeks of exposure in subtropical sites. The UV-induced changes in the PVC dosimeter were quantified using a Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer and the decrease in the absorption intensity of the 1064 cm-1 peak was employed to quantify these changes. Dose response curves have been established by relating the decrease in the PVC dosimeter's absorption intensity at 1064 cm-1 to the corresponding absolute and erythemal UV exposure dose.

Amar, Abdurazaq; Parisi, Alfio V.

2012-08-01

269

Preliminary Investigations of the Distribution and Resources of Coal in the Kaiparowits Plateau, Southern Utah  

USGS Publications Warehouse

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY This report on the coal resources of the Kaiparowits Plateau, Utah is a contribution to the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) 'National Coal Resource Assessment' (NCRA), a five year effort to identify and characterize the coal beds and coal zones that could potentially provide the fuel for the Nation's coal-derived energy during the first quarter of the twenty-first century. For purposes of the NCRA study, the Nation is divided into regions. Teams of geoscientists, knowledgeable about each region, are developing the data bases and assessing the coal within each region. The five major coal-producing regions of the United States under investigation are: (1) the Appalachian Basin; (2) the Illinois Basin; (3) the Gulf of Mexico Coastal Plain; (4) the Powder River Basin and the Northern Great Plains; and (5) the Rocky Mountains and the Colorado Plateau. Six areas containing coal deposits in the Rocky Mountain and Colorado Plateau Region have been designated as high priority because of their potential for development. This report on the coal resources of the Kaiparowits Plateau is the first of the six to be completed. The coal quantities reported in this study are entirely 'resources' and represent, as accurately as the data allow, all the coal in the ground in beds greater than one foot thick. These resources are qualified and subdivided by thickness of coal beds, depth to the coal, distance from known data points, and inclination (dip) of the beds. The USGS has not attempted to estimate coal 'reserves' for this region. Reserves are that subset of the resource that could be economically produced at the present time. The coal resources are differentiated into 'identified' and 'hypothetical' following the standard classification system of the USGS (Wood and others, 1983). Identified resources are those within three miles of a measured thickness value, and hypothetical resources are further than three miles from a data point. Coal beds in the Kaiparowits Plateau are laterally discontinuous relative to many other coal bearing regions of the United States. That is, they end more abruptly and are more likely to fragment or split into thinner beds. Because of these characteristics, the data from approximately 160 drill holes and 40 measured sections available for use in this study are not sufficient to determine what proportion of the resources is technologically and economically recoverable. The Kaiparowits Plateau contains an original resource of 62 billion short tons of coal in the ground. Original resource is defined to include all coal beds greater than one foot thick in the area studied. None of the resource is recoverable by surface mining. However, the total resource figure must be regarded with caution because it does not reflect geologic, technological, land-use, and environmental restrictions that may affect the availability and the recoverability of the coal. At least 32 billion tons of coal are unlikely to be mined in the foreseeable future because the coal beds are either too deep, too thin to mine, inclined at more than 12?, or in beds that are too thick to be completely recovered in underground mining. The estimated balance of 30 billion tons of coal resources does not reflect land use or environmental restrictions, does not account for coal that would be bypassed due to mining of adjacent coal beds, does not consider the amount of coal that must remain in the ground for roof support, and does not take into consideration the continuity of beds for mining. Although all of these factors will reduce the amount of coal that could be recovered, there is not sufficient data available to estimate recoverable coal resources. For purposes of comparison, studies of coal resources in the eastern United States have determined that less than 10 percent of the original coal resource, in the areas studied, could be mined economically at today's prices (Rohrbacher and others, 1994).

Hettinger, Robert D.; Roberts, L. N. R.; Biewick, L. R. H.; Kirschbaum, M. A.

1996-01-01

270

Preliminary Investigations of C-O-H Solubility at Reduced Condition in a Haplobasaltic Liquid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dissolved C-O-H magmatic species have a key influence on the locus of melting in planetary mantles as well as on the fluxes of volatiles from planetary interiors to the exosphere. Although the solubility and speciation of oxidized C-O-H volatiles in silicate melts are comparatively well-known, much less is known at reducing conditions that are of importance to magma oceans that are in equilibrium with Fe-metal, the deeper parts of Earth’s mantle and to the mantles of other planetary bodies such as Mars. Because the solubility of carbon in magmas at reduced conditions is poorly understood, we are investigating the dissolution and speciation of reduced C-O-H fluids in a model basalt composition Di40An42Ab18. Experimental charges contain 1 wt.% C, added as Si5C12H36 + H2O to produce SiO2+ CH4 + H2. We employ a Pt double capsule with Fe+FeO+H2O in the outer capsule providing oxygen fugacities near IW. Experiments were performed at 1450-1525 °C and 1.5 and 2 GPa. The experimental glasses were analyzed by electron microprobe to verify major element compositions and by microRaman spectroscopy to qualitatively observe the volatile concentrations and speciation. Quantitative analyses of the dissolved volatile species are planned. Glasses quenched from 30 min experiments are transparent and contain equilibrium bubbles from 10 to 250 ?m in diameter as well as dendritic black precipitates. Raman spectroscopy of the precipitates reveals peaks at ~1450 cm-1, ~1600 cm-1, ~2550 cm-1, and 2700 -1, consistent with C-nanotubes or fibers. A second population of bubbles, 1-2 ?m in diameter are homogeneously distributed throughout the charge together with ?m-sized black precipitates. These are interpreted as quench features. Glasses quenched from 2-6 hour experiments show increasing growth of equilibrium bubbles (up to 1 mm) and segregation of these bubbles to the top of the capsule, with corresponding segregation of the carbon nanofibers to the capsule bottom. The longer experiments lack quench bubbles, but quench precipitates persist. The addition of 3 wt.% water to the starting material results in clear glass with a smaller number of C nanofibers. The quench bubbles contain chiefly CH4 (~2900 cm-1) with a smaller amount of a CH3-- species (~3070 cm-1) and are seemingly devoid of water or H2. Analyses of glasses indicate dissolved CH4, H2O and H2 and in longer time experiments (2, 6 h), dissolved CH3-. With time, the relative peak heights of CH4 change little, that of H2 increases slightly, OH- increases noticeably and H2O slightly decreases. For the H2O-added experiments, quench bubbles have two distinct compositions indicating the presence of CH4, CH3- and H2 or just H2O. The glass has dissolved water and CH3- and minor amounts of CH4 and H2. The changes in dissolved volatiles and in the occurrence of quench bubbles suggest that the oxygen fugacity in the melt evolves as the IW buffer is imposed gradually on the inner capsule. These changes result in evolving vapor composition and dissolved volatile speciation and concentrations. The carbon nanofibers indicate that the charges are close to graphite saturation. Further experiments and quantification of total dissolved carbon are required for a complete interpretation of the results.

Ardia, P.; Hirschmann, M. M.

2009-12-01

271

Palaeomagnetic, rock-magnetic and mineralogical investigations of metadolerites from Western Svalbard : A preliminary report  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A group of 42 independently oriented palaeomagnetic samples from 7 sites located in central part of the West Spitsbergen Thrust and Fault Belt has been investigated. The samples were collected from 5 distinct metadolerite sheets intruded into the Proterozoic - Lower Paleozoic metamorphic complex of Western Oscar II Land (Western Svalbard Caledonian Terrane - Harland, 1997 division). All analyzed metadolerite samples were metamorphosed under greenschist facies metamorphism. The metamorphic assemblage consist of hornblende, biotite, actinolite, chlorite, epidote, stilpnomelane, titanite, albite, and quartz. Calcite, associated with pyrrhotite, pyrite chalcopyrite, sphalerite, and covellite, that occurs as irregular intergrowths or thin veins, document high activity of H2O-CO2-rich fluids during metamorphism. Primary magmatic phases represented by clinopyroxene occur rarely, and only in thick metadolerite dykes. Accessory oxides change their mineralogical and chemical composition during metamorphism. In all examined samples primary Ti-magnetite and oxy-exsolved hematite break-down completely into titanite or have been dissolved. The ilmenite are also replaced by titanite, but in metadolerites at contact with host metapelites, slightly altered ilmenite grains with preserved hematite exsolution were documented. Basing on mineralogical observations it should be expected that metamorphic processes have almost completely reset the paleomagnetic data record from the time of dolerite crystallization. This stage can document only rare hematite oxy-exsolution preserved within ilmenite, and presumably small inclusion of magnetite still preserved within unaltered clinopyroxene. The paleomagnetic record of metamorphic stage is probably recorded by pyrrhotite, hematite, goethite, and late Ti-free magnetite that can grow during breakdown of pyrrhotite to pyrite (Ramdohr. 1980). The NRM (Natural Remanent Magnetisation) intensities of the palaeomagnetic samples exceed the minimum 10 mA/m. The first AF/thermal demagnetizations have revealed a stable NRM structure. ChRM (Characteristic Remanent Magnetisation) components can be extracted precisely from Zijderveld diagrams (precision parameter - ASD max. 10º). The following magnetic procedures have been applied to identify the ferromagnetic carriers of the samples: SIRM (saturation isothermal remanent magnetization) decay curves (procedure after Kadzia?ko-Hofmokl & Kruczyk, 1976) and the three-component IRM (isothermal remanent magnetization) procedure described by Lowrie (1990). Experimental work has revealed the dominance of pyrrhotite and magnetite phases as carriers with soft-medium coercivity (samples are saturated in 0.2-0.4 T) and distinct unblocking temperatures around 320-350 ºC and 575-600 ºC respectively. Presented study is the part of PALMAG project 2012-2015: "Integration of palaeomagnetic, isotopic and structural data to understand Svalbard Caledonian Terranes assemblage" (see also Michalski et al. 2012), funded by Polish National Science Centre. References: HARLAND,W.B. 1997. The Geology of Svalbard. Geological Society of London, Memoir 17, 521 pp. K?DZIO?KO-HOFMOKL,M. & KRUCZYK,J. 1976. Complete and partial self-reversal of natural remanent magnetization of basaltic rocks from Lower Silesia, Poland. Pure and Applied Geophysics 110, 2031-40. LOWRIE,W. 1990. Identification of ferromagnetic minerals in a rock by coercivity and unblocking temperature properties. Geophysical Research Letters 17, 159-62. MICHALSKI,K., LEWANDOWSKI,M., MANBY,G.M. 2012. New palaeomagnetic, petrographic and 40Ar/39Ar data to test palaeogeographic reconstructions of Caledonide Svalbard. Cambridge University Press. Geological Magazine 149 (4), 696-721. RAMDOHR,P. 1980. The ore minerals and their intergrowths. Pergamon Press, Oxford.

Michalski, Krzysztof; Nejbert, Krzysztof; Doma?ska-Siuda, Justyna; Manby, Geoffrey

2014-05-01

272

Investigating short-term exposure to electromagnetic fields on reproductive capacity of invertebrates in the field situation.  

PubMed

Organisms are exposed to electromagnetic fields from the introduction of wireless networks that send information all over the world. In this study we examined the impact of exposure to the fields from mobile phone base stations (GSM 900?MHz) on the reproductive capacity of small, virgin, invertebrates. A field experiment was performed exposing four different invertebrate species at different distances from a radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF EMF) transmitter for a 48-h period. The control groups were isolated from EMF exposure by use of Faraday cages. The response variables as measured in the laboratory were fecundity and number of offspring. Results showed that distance was not an adequate proxy to explain dose-response regressions. No significant impact of the exposure matrices, measures of central tendency and temporal variability of EMF, on reproductive endpoints was found. Finding no impact on reproductive capacity does not fully exclude the existence of EMF impact, since mechanistically models hypothesizing non-thermal-induced biological effects from RF exposure are still to be developed. The exposure to RF EMF is ubiquitous and is still increasing rapidly over large areas. We plea for more attention toward the possible impacts of EMF on biodiversity. PMID:23781930

Vijver, Martina G; Bolte, John F B; Evans, Tracy R; Tamis, Wil L M; Peijnenburg, Willie J G M; Musters, C J M; de Snoo, Geert R

2014-01-01

273

Preliminary Investigation of Rare-Earth-Element-Bearing Veins, Breccias, and Carbonatites in the Laughlin Peak Area, Colfax County, New Mexico.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In 1989, the U.S. Bureau of Mines conducted a preliminary field investigation to evaluate the rare-earth and associated element resources in the Laughlin Peak area, Colfax County, New Mexico. Bureau personnel mapped and sampled prospects and mineralized z...

R. A. Schreiner

1991-01-01

274

Game-Based Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (GB-CBT) Group Program for Children Who Have Experienced Sexual Abuse: A Preliminary Investigation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This preliminary investigation examined the efficacy of a game-based cognitive-behavioral therapy group program for elementary school-aged children who have experienced sexual abuse. Treatment aimed to improve: (a) internalizing symptoms, (b) externalizing behaviors, (c) sexually inappropriate behaviors, (d) social skills deficits, (e) self-esteem…

Misurell, Justin R.; Springer, Craig; Tryon, Warren W.

2011-01-01

275

Testing Positive versus Negative Claims: A Preliminary Investigation of the Role of Cover Story on the Assessment of Experimental Design Skills. CSE Technical Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents results from a preliminary investigation in which researchers manipulated the cover story of an open-ended assessment that required students to design an experiment. Participants were 27 sixth graders from a culturally diverse urban school. In one version of the cover story, students were asked to design an experiment to test a…

Zimmerman, Corinne; Glaser, Robert

276

Preliminary Investigation of an Early Mental Health Intervention for Head Start Programs: Effects of Child Teacher Relationship Training on Children's Behavior Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Head Start teachers and their aides (n = 24) were assigned to either the experimental or active control treatment in this preliminary investigation on the effects of Child Teacher Relationship Training (CTRT) on 52 disadvantaged preschool children identified with behavioral problems. CTRT is based on the principles and procedures of Child Parent…

Morrison, Mary O.; Bratton, Sue C.

2010-01-01

277

Preliminary Results of an Altitude-Wind-Tunnel Investigation of an Axial-Flow Gas Turbine-Propeller Engine. 1; Performance Characteristics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A preliminary investigation of an axial-flow gas turbine-propeller engine was conduxted. Performance data were obtained for engine speeds from 8000 to 13,000 rpm and altitudes from 5000 to 35,000 feet and compressor inlet ram pressure ratios from 1.00 to 1.17.

Saari, Martin J.; Wallner, Lewis E.

1948-01-01

278

Preliminary investigation into the use of the cross Wigner-Ville distribution to detect high impedance earth faults in power systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the results of a preliminary investigation into the viability of using the cross Wigner-Ville distribution (XWVD) in the detection of high impedance earth faults in power systems. High impedance earth faults are characterised an extremely low current with a time varying spectral characteristic superimposed on the mains current. It is shown that the XWVD provides a good

E. Palmer; G. Ledwich; M. Deriche

2003-01-01

279

The administration of psilocybin to healthy, hallucinogen-experienced volunteers in a mock-functional magnetic resonance imaging environment: a preliminary investigation of tolerability  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study sought to assess the tolerability of intravenously administered psilocybin in healthy, hallucinogen-experienced volunteers in a mock-magnetic resonance imaging environment as a preliminary stage to a controlled investigation using functional magnetic resonance imaging to explore the effects of psilocybin on cerebral blood flow and activity. The present pilot study demonstrated that up to 2 mg of psilocybin delivered as

Robin L Carhart-Harris; Tim M Williams; Ben Sessa; Robin J Tyacke; Ann S Rich; Amanda Feilding; David J Nutt

2011-01-01

280

Health and safety plan for the preliminary site investigation for McMurdo Station, Ross Island, Antarctica  

SciTech Connect

The primary purpose of this health and safety plan is to provide the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) field team with important procedures, regulations, and requirements necessary for performing work at McMurdo Station, Antarctica, with a minimum hazard to its health and safety. Field workers will be required to conduct their operations in a safe environment through specific safety and occupational health procedures. The plan assigns responsibilities and provides for contingencies that may arise at the site. The health and safety plan will also demonstrate to the National Science Foundation (NSF), the US Department of Energy (DOE), the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the US Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), environmental interest groups, and other countries represented in Antarctica that the health and safety of ANL personnel have been given the utmost consideration in planning the work operations, applicable rules and regulations of the area have been met, and the health and safety of the public and the environment have been given significant consideration during field sampling activities. This document represents the final health and safety plan for the preliminary site investigation. A draft version of this report was presented to NSF in January 1991. 16 refs., 3 figs., 8 tabs.

Wozny, M.C.

1991-05-01

281

Multitasking capacities in persons diagnosed with schizophrenia: A preliminary examination of their neurocognitive underpinnings and ability to predict real world functioning.  

PubMed

Difficulties in everyday life activities are core features of persons diagnosed with schizophrenia and in particular during multitasking activities. However, at present, patients? multitasking capacities have not been adequately examined in the literature due to the absence of suitable assessment strategies. We thus recently developed a computerized real-life activity task designed to take into account the complex and multitasking nature of certain everyday life activities where participants are required to prepare a room for a meeting. Twenty-one individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia and 20 matched healthy controls completed the computerized task. Patients were also evaluated with a cognitive battery, measures of symptomatology and real world functioning. To examine the ecological validity, 14 other patients were recruited and were given the computerized version and a real version of the meeting preparation task. Results showed that performance on the computerized task was significantly correlated with executive functioning, pointing to the major implication of these cognitive processes in multitasking situations. Performance on the computerized task also significantly predicted up to 50% of real world functioning. Moreover, the computerized task demonstrated good ecological validity. These findings suggest the importance of evaluating multitasking capacities in patients diagnosed with schizophrenia in order to predict real world functioning. PMID:24731876

Laloyaux, Julien; Van der Linden, Martial; Levaux, Marie-Noëlle; Mourad, Haitham; Pirri, Anthony; Bertrand, Hervé; Domken, Marc-André; Adam, Stéphane; Larøi, Frank

2014-07-30

282

Analytic investigation of the AEM-A/HCMM attitude control system performance. [Application Explorer Missions/Heat Capacity Mapping Mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Heat Capacity Mapping Mission (HCMM), scheduled for launch in 1978, will be three-axis stabilized relative to the earth in a 600-kilometer altitude, polar orbit. The autonomous attitude control system consists of three torquing coils and a momentum wheel driven in response to error signals computed from data received from an infrared horizon sensor and a magnetometer. This paper presents a simple model of the attitude dynamics and derives the equations that determine the stability of the system during both attitude acquisition (acquisition-mode) and mission operations (mission-mode). Modifications to the proposed mission-mode control laws which speed the system's response to transient attitude errors and reduce the steady-state attitude errors are suggested. Numerical simulations are performed to validate the results obtained with the simple model.

Lerner, G. M.; Huang, W.; Shuster, M. D.

1977-01-01

283

A Preliminary Experimental Investigation of the Overland Behavior of the JEFF-B Amphibious Assault Landing Craft.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A series of preliminary experiments performed to evaluate the overland behavior of the Amphibious Assault Landing Craft Model designated as the JEFF-B are described. The experiments were designed to establish design criteria for a complete overland test p...

D. D. Moran T. M. Pemberton K. S. Knight

1975-01-01

284

Preliminary geologic investigation of the Apollo 12 landing site: Part A: Geology of the Apollo 12 Landing Site  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report provides a preliminary description of the geologic setting of the lunar samples returned fromt he Apollo 12 mission. A more complete interpretation of the geology of the site will be prepared after thorough analysis of the data.

Shoemaker, E. M.; Batson, R. M.; Bean, A. L.; Conrad, C., Jr.; Dahlem, D. H.; Goddard, E. N.; Hait, M. H.; Larson, K. B.; Schaber, G. G.; Schleicher, D. L.; Sutton, R. L.; Swann, G. A.; Waters, A. C.

1970-01-01

285

GCMC investigation into adamantane-based aromatic frameworks with diamond-like structure as high-capacity hydrogen storage materials.  

PubMed

A new class of 3D adamantane-based aromatic framework (AAF) with diamond-like structure was computationally designed with the aid of density functional theory (DFT) calculation and molecular mechanics (MM) methods. The hydrogen storage capacities of these AAFs were studied by the method of grand canonical Monte Carlo (GCMC) simulations. The calculated pore sizes of three AAFs reveal that AAF-1 and AAF-2 belong to microporous materials, while AAF-3 is a member of mesoporous materials. The GCMC results reveal that at 77 K and 100 bar, AAF-3 exhibits the highest gravimetric hydrogen uptake of 29.50 wt%, while AAF-1 shows the highest volumetric hydrogen uptake of 63.04 g L(-1). In particular, the gravimetric hydrogen uptake of AAF-3 reaches the Department of Energy's target of 6 wt% at room temperature. The extraordinary performances of these new AAFs in hydrogen storage have made them enter the list of top hydrogen storage materials up to now. PMID:22245956

Li, Xiao-Dong; Zhang, Hong; Tang, Yong-Jian; Cheng, Xin-Lu

2012-02-21

286

Speech Perception and Phonological Short-Term Memory Capacity in Language Impairment: Preliminary Evidence from Adolescents with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) and Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The cognitive bases of language impairment in specific language impairment (SLI) and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) were investigated in a novel non-word comparison task which manipulated phonological short-term memory (PSTM) and speech perception, both implicated in poor non-word repetition. Aims: This study aimed to investigate the…

Loucas, Tom; Riches, Nick Greatorex; Charman, Tony; Pickles, Andrew; Simonoff, Emily; Chandler, Susie; Baird, Gillian

2010-01-01

287

Preliminary Results From the CAUGHT Experiment: Investigation of the North Central Andes Subsurface Using Receiver Functions and Ambient Noise Tomography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Jamie Ryan, Kevin M. Ward, Ryan Porter, Susan Beck, George Zandt, Lara Wagner, Estela Minaya, and Hernando Tavera The University of Arizona The University of North Carolina San Calixto Observatorio, La Paz, Bolivia IGP, Lima, Peru In order to investigate the interplay between crustal shortening, lithospheric removal, and surface uplift we have deployed 50 broadband seismometers in northwestern Bolivia and southern Peru as part of the interdisciplinary Central Andean Uplift and Geodynamics of High Topography (CAUGHT) project. The morphotectonic units of the central Andes from west to east, consist of the Western Cordillera, the active volcanic arc, the Altiplano, an internally drained basin (~4 km elevation), the Eastern Cordillera, the high peaks (~6 km elevation) of an older fold and thrust belt, the Subandean zone, the lower elevation active fold and thrust belt, and the foreland Beni basin. Between northwestern Bolivia and southern Peru, the Altiplano pinches out north of Lake Titicaca as the Andes narrow northward. The CAUGHT seismic instruments were deployed between 13° to 18° S latitudes to investigate the crust and mantle lithosphere of the central Andes in this transitional zone. In northwest Bolivia, perpendicular to the strike of the Andes, there is a total of 275 km of documented upper crustal shortening (15° to 17°S) (McQuarrie et al, 2008). Associated with the shortening is crustal thickening and possibly lithospheric removal as the thickening lithospheric root becomes unstable. An important first order study is to compare upper crustal shortening estimates with present day crustal thickness. To estimate crustal thickness, we have calculated receiver functions using an iterative deconvolution method and used common conversion point stacking along the same profile as the geologically based shortening estimates. In our preliminary results, we observed a strong P to S conversion corresponding to the Moho at approximately 60-65 km depth underneath the Altiplano and portions of the Eastern Cordillera, and at approximately 40 under the sub-Andes and westernmost edge of the Beni basin. Unlike previous studies farther south, we do not see an increased crustal thickness beneath the Eastern Cordillera. The CAUGHT station coverage is also ideal for Ambient Noise Tomography (ANT) to investigate the seismic shear wave velocities in the upper crust (<30 km depth). ANT will be used to estimate the depth of basins in the northern Altiplano, and aid in constraining the upper crustal shear wave velocities for improved migration of receiver functions to depth. McQuarrie, N., Barnes, J., and Ehlers, T.A., 2008, Geometric, kinematic and erosional history of the central Andean Plateau (15-17°S), northern Bolivia: Tectonics, v. 27, TC3007, doi:10.1029/2006TC002054.

Ryan, J. C.; Ward, K. M.; Porter, R. C.; Beck, S. L.; Zandt, G.; Wagner, L. S.; Minaya, E.; Tavera, H.

2011-12-01

288

The Boston Safe Shops Project--preliminary findings of a case study in applying the 10 essential services of public health to building environmental health capacity.  

PubMed

Boston's more than 500 automotive shops, located primarily in low-income communities of color, are a source both of well-paying jobs and of potential hazardous exposures to employees and residents. The Safe Shops Project works to reduce occupational and environmental health hazards without having to close these businesses. Combining inspections, in-shop trainings, outreach, and technical/financial assistance, it brings shops into compliance with laws and promotes use of safer practices and alternative products. After 18 months, 254 workers at 61 of 124 participating shops had received training. Surveys showed improved worker knowledge: Pre-training, 24.2 percent of the worker survey respondents stated that they knew what an MSDS was, and post-training, 75 percent stated that they knew. The surveys also found improvement in work practices: Pre-training, 48 percent of workers indicated that they used safety goggles in their work, while post-training, 70 percent indicated proper use of safety goggles. The results also showed shops investing in capital improvements such as replacement of PCE-based brake cleaners with aqueous cleaners. The Safe Shops Project has a successfully modeled application of the 10-essential-services framework to the building of public health capacity and community collaboration, and this model can be adapted to other locations and industries. PMID:17802812

Shoemaker, Paul A; Skogstrom, Tiffany; Shea, John; Bethune, Leon

2007-01-01

289

Summary report: A preliminary investigation into the use of fuzzy logic for the control of redundant manipulators  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Rice University Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Sciences' Robotics Group designed and built an eight degree of freedom redundant manipulator. Fuzzy logic was proposed as a control scheme for tasks not directly controlled by a human operator. In preliminary work, fuzzy logic control was implemented for a camera tracking system and a six degree of freedom manipulator. Both preliminary systems use real time vision data as input to fuzzy controllers. Related projects include integration of tactile sensing and fuzzy control of a redundant snake-like arm that is under construction.

Cheatham, John B., Jr.; Magee, Kevin N.

1991-01-01

290

Preliminary investigations on a NTP cargo shuttle for earth to moon orbit payload transfer based on a particle bed reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

MAPS, a 3-year study program on NTP has recently been launched at CEA following the conclusions of a preliminary scoping study of an NTP system for earth to moon orbit cargo shuttle missions. This paper presents the main results of this scoping study, and gives an outline of the MAPS program.

X. Raepsaet; E. Proust; F. Gervaise; L. Baraer; S. Naury; F. L. Linet; C. F. Bresson; C. C. de Coriolis; I. T. A. Bergeron; L. V. Bourquin; L. V. Clech; L. V. Devaux; L. V. Chevillot; E. V. Augier

1995-01-01

291

A Preliminary Investigation of the Effects of Giving Testimony and Learning Yogic Breathing Techniques on Battered Women's Feelings of Depression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Researchers have shown that mood and sense of control over one's life are significantly affected by testimony and other forms of disclosure and that learning to control breathing has positive effects on mood and anxiety. This preliminary experiment tests whether African American and European American abused women who give testimony about their…

Franzblau, Susan H.; Echevarria, Sonia; Smith, Michelle; Van Cantfort, Thomas E.

2008-01-01

292

Microfiltration of bovine and ovine milk for the reduction of microbial content in a tubular membrane: a preliminary investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present work a preliminary study on bovine and ovine milk microfiltration is reported. The study was aimed at the reduction of milk microbial content through a “cold technology” (i.e. at temperatures not higher than 40°C), with the obvious advantages for the preservation of essential elements. Considering the system's fouling characteristics, membrane washing was firstly optimised: Ultrasil 25 resulted

F. Beolchini; D. Barba

2004-01-01

293

Peer collaboration and virtual environments: a preliminary investigation of multi-participant virtual reality applied in science education  

Microsoft Academic Search

In researching educational applications of virtual reality, it is now possible to place several students within a single virtual environment simultaneously. This raises questions regarding the impact of collaboration within the virtual environment on overall learning processes. A preliminary study of 18 sixth graders was conducted for the purpose of examining peer collaboration within a virtual environment (VE). Students worked

Randolph L. Jackson; Wayne Taylor; William Winn

1999-01-01

294

Investigation of surfactant/cosurfactant synergism impact on ibuprofen solubilization capacity and drug release characteristics of nonionic microemulsions.  

PubMed

The current study investigates the performances of the multicomponent mixtures of nonionic surfactants regarding the microemulsion stabilisation, drug solubilization and in vitro drug release kinetic. The primary surfactant was PEG-8 caprylic/capric glycerides (Labrasol). The cosurfactants were commercially available mixtures of octoxynol-12 and polysorbate 20 without or with the addition of PEG-40 hydrogenated castor oil (Solubilisant gamma 2421 and Solubilisant gamma 2429, respectively). The oil phase of microemulsions was isopropyl myristate. Phase behaviour study of the pseudo-ternary systems Labrasol/cosurfactant/oil/water at surfactant-to-cosurfactant weight ratios (K(m)) 40:60, 50:50 and 60:40, revealed a strong synergism in the investigated tensides mixtures for stabilisation of microemulsions containing up to 80% (w/w) of water phase at surfactant +cosurfactant-to-oil weight ratio (SCoS/O) 90:10. Solubilization of a model drug ibuprofen in concentration common for topical application (5%, w/w) was achieved at the water contents below 50% (w/w). Drug free and ibuprofen-loaded microemulsions M1-M6, containing 45% (w/w) of water phase, were prepared and characterized by polarized light microscopy, conductivity, pH, rheological and droplet size measurements. In vitro ibuprofen release kinetics from the microemulsions was investigated using paddle-over-enhancer cell method and compared with the commercial 5% (w/w) ibuprofen hydrogel product (Deep Relief, Mentholatum Company Ltd., USA). The investigated microemulsions were isotropic, low viscous Bingham-type liquids with the pH value (4.70-6.61) suitable for topical application. The different efficiency of the tensides mixtures for microemulsion stabilisation was observed, depending on the cosurfactant type and K(m) value. Solubilisant gamma 2429 as well as higher K(m) (i.e., lower relative content of the cosurfactant) provided higher surfactant/cosurfactant synergism. The drug molecules were predominantly solubilized within the interface film. The amount of drug released from the formulations M3 (10.75%, w/w) and M6 (13.45%, w/w) (K(m) 60:40) was limited in comparison with the reference (22.22%, w/w) and follows the Higuchi model. Microemulsions M2 and M5 (K(m) 50:50) gave zero order drug release pattern and ?15% (w/w) ibuprofen released. The release profiles from microemulsions M1 and M4 (K(m) 40:60) did not fit well with the models used for analysis, although the amounts of ibuprofen released (24.47%, w/w) and 17.99% (w/w), respectively) were comparable to that of the reference hydrogel. The drug release mechanism was related with the surfactant/cosurfactant synergism, thus the lower efficiency of the tensides corresponded to the faster drug release. PMID:22579578

Djekic, Ljiljana; Primorac, Marija; Filipic, Slavica; Agbaba, Danica

2012-08-20

295

A preliminary investigation of olfactory function in olfactory and auditory-verbal hallucinators with schizophrenia, and normal controls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction. It is well established that people with schizophrenia have impaired olfactory perception. However, another olfactory abnormality that occurs in schizophrenia—olfactory hallucinations (OHs)—has received almost no attention.Methods. This preliminary study compared a small sample of olfactory (OH; n=14) and auditory-verbal (AVH; n=11) hallucinators with schizophrenia, with matched healthy controls (NC; n=21), on tests of odour detection threshold, identification, and hedonics,

Richard J. Stevenson; Robyn Langdon

2012-01-01

296

A preliminary investigation of olfactory function in olfactory and auditory-verbal hallucinators with schizophrenia, and normal controls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction. It is well established that people with schizophrenia have impaired olfactory perception. However, another olfactory abnormality that occurs in schizophrenia—olfactory hallucinations (OHs)—has received almost no attention.Methods. This preliminary study compared a small sample of olfactory (OH; n=14) and auditory-verbal (AVH; n=11) hallucinators with schizophrenia, with matched healthy controls (NC; n=21), on tests of odour detection threshold, identification, and hedonics,

Richard J. Stevenson; Robyn Langdon

2011-01-01

297

Capacity of a multibeam, multisatellite CDMA mobile radio network with interference-mitigating receivers  

Microsoft Academic Search

More and more interference-mitigating algorithms are being investigated in an attempt to increase the capacity of code-division multiple-access radio networks. At the moment, the main question about interference-resilient receivers is: do they really bring forth the capacity increase they promise on theoretical grounds? The aim of this study is to give a preliminary answer to such a question, through the

Riccardo De Gaudenzi; Filippo Giannetti; Marco Luise

1999-01-01

298

Influence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains on wine total antioxidant capacity evaluated by photochemiluminescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

A preliminary investigation on 20 Aglianico del Vulture commercial wines from the Basilicata region proved the existence of\\u000a a significant variability in total antioxidant capacity which can exert a potential impact on wine quality. Nineteen Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains were tested in Aglianico del Vulture on pilot scale fermentation and the experimental wines obtained were evaluated\\u000a for the antioxidant capacity, ethanol

Vincenzo Brandolini; Concetta Fiore; Annalisa Maietti; Paola Tedeschi; Patrizia Romano

2007-01-01

299

Preliminary Investigation of the Role of Cellular Immunity in Estrous Cycle Modulation of Post-Resection Breast Cancer Spread.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

It is proposed to use this breast cancer of C(3)H mice to determine whether or not hormone dependent immunocyte suppression is, in part, responsible for the mammalian fertility cycle modulation of the capacity of the cancer to spread after attempted surgi...

W. J. Hrushesky

1999-01-01

300

Capacity Value of Solar Power  

SciTech Connect

Evaluating the capacity value of renewable energy sources can pose significant challenges due to their variable and uncertain nature. In this paper the capacity value of solar power is investigated. Solar capacity value metrics and their associated calculation methodologies are reviewed and several solar capacity studies are summarized. The differences between wind and solar power are examined, the economic importance of solar capacity value is discussed and other assessments and recommendations are presented.

Duignan, Roisin; Dent, Chris; Mills, Andrew; Samaan, Nader A.; Milligan, Michael; Keane, Andrew; O'Malley, Mark

2012-11-10

301

The administration of psilocybin to healthy, hallucinogen-experienced volunteers in a mock-functional magnetic resonance imaging environment: a preliminary investigation of tolerability.  

PubMed

This study sought to assess the tolerability of intravenously administered psilocybin in healthy, hallucinogen-experienced volunteers in a mock-magnetic resonance imaging environment as a preliminary stage to a controlled investigation using functional magnetic resonance imaging to explore the effects of psilocybin on cerebral blood flow and activity. The present pilot study demonstrated that up to 2 mg of psilocybin delivered as a slow intravenous injection produces short-lived but typical drug effects that are psychologically and physiologically well tolerated. With appropriate care, this study supports the viability of functional magnetic resonance imaging work with psilocybin. PMID:20395317

Carhart-Harris, Robin L; Williams, Tim M; Sessa, Ben; Tyacke, Robin J; Rich, Ann S; Feilding, Amanda; Nutt, David J

2011-11-01

302

Investigation of the Aerodynamic Characteristics of Two Preliminary Designs of Scout Research Vehicle at Mach Numbers from 1.77 to 4.65  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A wind-tunnel investigation has been conducted to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of two preliminary designs of the Scout research vehicle. The first model was tested at Mach numbers from 1.77 to 2.87 at Reynolds numbers of 3.7 x 10(exp 6) to 4.0 x 10(exp 6) per foot. A variable angle-of-attack range of -2 degrees to 14 degrees was used in determining the effect of nose shape, size of interstage flare base diameter, size of trapezoidal first-stage fins, and fin tip-control deflection on the aerodynamic characteristics of the model.

Keynton, Robert J.; Fichter, Ann B.

1961-01-01

303

An fMRI investigation of analogical mapping in metaphor comprehension: the influence of context and individual cognitive capacities on processing demands.  

PubMed

This study used fMRI to investigate the neural correlates of analogical mapping during metaphor comprehension, with a focus on dynamic configuration of neural networks with changing processing demands and individual abilities. Participants with varying vocabulary sizes and working memory capacities read 3-sentence passages ending in nominal critical utterances of the form "X is a Y." Processing demands were manipulated by varying preceding contexts. Three figurative conditions manipulated difficulty by varying the extent to which preceding contexts mentioned relevant semantic features for relating the vehicle and topic of the critical utterance to one another. In the easy condition, supporting information was mentioned. In the neutral condition, no relevant information was mentioned. In the most difficult condition, opposite features were mentioned, resulting in an ironic interpretation of the critical utterance. A fourth, literal condition included context that supported a literal interpretation of the critical utterance. Activation in lateral and medial frontal regions increased with increasing contextual difficulty. Lower vocabulary readers also had greater activation across conditions in the right inferior frontal gyrus. In addition, volumetric analyses showed increased right temporo-parietal junction and superior medial frontal activation for all figurative conditions over the literal condition. The results from this experiment imply that the cortical regions are dynamically recruited in language comprehension as a function of the processing demands of a task. Individual differences in cognitive capacities were also associated with differences in recruitment and modulation of working memory and executive function regions, highlighting the overlapping computations in metaphor comprehension and general thinking and reasoning. PMID:22122242

Prat, Chantel S; Mason, Robert A; Just, Marcel Adam

2012-03-01

304

Environmental pollen trapped by tobacco leaf as indicators of the provenance of counterfeit cigarette products: a preliminary investigation and test of concept.  

PubMed

The global trade in counterfeit tobacco products is increasingly taking market share from legal brands in many parts of the developed world, with attendant adverse economic, health, criminal, and other societal impacts. Knowing the geographical source is central to developing new strategies for curbing this illicit trade, and here, the potential of environmental pollen extracted from manufactured cigarettes is examined. Two samples representing U.S. and Chinese brands were investigated for their pollen content. Results indicate that tobacco leaf very efficiently captures environmental pollen (about 1800 and 12,600 grains per cigarette, respectively) with no detectable self-contamination by the tobacco plant. In both cases, the flora is typical of open space environments, but pollen type counts indicate very different distributions of species. This preliminary investigation indicates that palynology has the potential to constrain geographical source(s) of tobacco, particularly if regionally localized species can be recognized among the pollen. PMID:20202071

Donaldson, Margaret P; Stephens, William E

2010-05-01

305

A preliminary investigation of using prior information for potentially improving image reconstruction in few-view CT  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There exists a strong need to reconstruct computed tomographic (CT) images with practically useful quality from a small number of projections in image-guided radiation therapy: for lowering radiation dose delivered to the subject, for shortening the imaging time, and for reducing the imaging-configuration complexity. We have recently developed an iterative image reconstruction algorithm based on total-variation (TV) minimization from incomplete projection data in CT. In numerical studies with a variety of incomplete projection-data sets including truncated data, reduced scan range, and sparse sampling, the developed algorithm seems to yield reasonable reconstruction, as compared to some of the existing algorithms, such as algebraic reconstruction technique (ART) and expectation minimization (EM). The TV-based algorithm begins in general with a uniform image as an initial guess, and goes through iteration steps to minimize the image TV subject to satisfying the given incomplete projection data. In image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT), a patient usually undergoes CT scanning for treatment planning, which can provide the reference image for image guidance. Therefore, we propose a TV-based algorithm with a priori information in few-view CT for IGRT, in an attempt to further reduce the number of projections needed for image reconstruction from what the TV-based algorithm uses when no a priori information is included. In this work, we report the initial results of a preliminary numerical study that we have conducted to demonstrate this approach.

Cho, Seungryong; Sidky, Emil Y.; Bian, Junguo; Pelizzari, Charles A.; Pan, Xiaochuan

2008-04-01

306

A preliminary investigation of the environmental Control and Life Support Subsystems (EC/LSS) for animal and plant experiment payloads  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A preliminary study of the environmental control and life support subsystems (EC/LSS) necessary for an earth orbital spacecraft to conduct biological experiments is presented. The primary spacecraft models available for conducting these biological experiments are the space shuttle and modular space station. The experiments would be housed in a separate module that would be contained in either the shuttle payload bay or attached to the modular space station. This module would be manned only for experiment-related tasks, and would contain a separate EC/LSS for the crew and animals. Metabolic data were tabulated on various animals that are considered useful for a typical experiment program. The minimum payload for the 30-day space shuttle module was found to require about the equivalent of a one-man EC/LSS; however, the selected two-man shuttle assemblies will give a growth and contingency factor of about 50 percent. The maximum payloads for the space station mission will require at least a seven-man EC/LSS for the laboratory colony and a nine-man EC/LSS for the centrifuge colony. There is practically no room for growth or contingencies in these areas.

Wells, H. B.

1972-01-01

307

A Preliminary Investigation of the Effects of Experimentally-Induced Mindfulness on Emotional Responding to Film Clips  

PubMed Central

Despite encouraging preliminary findings regarding the efficacy of mindfulness and acceptance-based treatments for a range of psychological presentations, we have yet to elucidate mechanisms of action within these treatments. One mechanism through which mindfulness may reduce psychological symptoms and promote functioning is through enhancing emotional responding and regulation. In this study, we used multimodal assessment to examine the effects of a brief mindfulness intervention in a laboratory setting on emotional experiences and regulation in response to distressing, positive, and affectively mixed film clips. Although there were no condition (mindfulness versus control) effects on reports of difficulties in emotional response or regulation after the distressing film clip, participants in the mindfulness condition reported significantly greater positive affect in response to the positive film. Additionally, participants in the mindfulness condition reported more adaptive regulation (approaching significance, medium to large effect size) in response to the affectively mixed clip, and also reported significantly less negative affect immediately following this clip, although not after a recovery period. No significant differences emerged between conditions on physiological measures (skin conductance and heart rate) throughout the study.

Erisman, Shannon M.; Roemer, Lizabeth

2010-01-01

308

Neurofeedback for Adult Attention-Deficit\\/Hyperactivity Disorder: Investigation of Slow Cortical Potential Neurofeedback—Preliminary Results  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attention deficit\\/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterized by symptoms of inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. Compared to ADHD in children, only a few studies have investigated ADHD in an adult population, and even less have investigated new forms of treatment such as neurofeedback. Neurofeedback has been applied effectively in various areas, especially in the treatment of children with ADHD, and symptom improvements

Kerstin Mayer; Sarah N. Wyckoff; Ulrike Schulz; Ute Strehl

2012-01-01

309

Preliminary results of ERTS-investigations by W-German investigations. [multidisciplinary geoscientific experiments in central Germany and hydrogeology of Argentina Pampas  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results are presented of West German investigations into multidisciplinary geoscientific experiments in central Germany and the Alps, and hydrogeological investigations in the Pampa of Argentina based on ERTS-1 data. The main goals of the investigation were achieved. The studies have given a good idea of the possibilities and limitations of ERTS imagery depending on the objectives in question and on the geographical conditions of the areas under investigation. Even in the well known region of central Europe, ERTS has proven its ability of improving present knowledge. In fields such as pollution monitoring and regional planning the satellite techniques should have distinct practical value. For any regional study of less known areas, the value of ERTS imagery can hardly be overestimated.

Muehlfeld, R.

1974-01-01

310

Preoperative characteristics of auditory brainstem response in acoustic neuroma with useful hearing: importance as a preliminary investigation for intraoperative monitoring.  

PubMed

We classified the results of preoperative auditory brainstem response (ABR) in 121 patients with useful hearing and considered the utility of preoperative ABR as a preliminary assessment for intraoperative monitoring. Wave V was confirmed in 113 patients and was not confirmed in 8 patients. Intraoperative ABR could not detect wave V in these 8 patients. The 8 patients without wave V were classified into two groups (flat and wave I only), and the reason why wave V could not be detected may have differed between the groups. Because high-frequency hearing was impaired in flat patients, an alternative to click stimulation may be more effective. Monitoring cochlear nerve action potential (CNAP) may be useful because CNAP could be detected in 4 of 5 wave I only patients. Useful hearing was preserved after surgery in 1 patient in the flat group and 2 patients in wave I only group. Among patients with wave V, the mean interaural latency difference of wave V was 0.88 ms in Class A (n = 57) and 1.26 ms in Class B (n = 56). Because the latency of wave V is already prolonged before surgery, to estimate delay in wave V latency during surgery probably underestimates cochlear nerve damage. Recording intraoperative ABR is indispensable to avoid cochlear nerve damage and to provide information for surgical decisions. Confirming the condition of ABR before surgery helps to solve certain problems, such as choosing to monitor the interaural latency difference of wave V, CNAP, or alternative sound-evoked ABR. PMID:24390190

Aihara, Noritaka; Murakami, Shingo; Takahashi, Mariko; Yamada, Kazuo

2014-01-01

311

A preliminary investigation on the interaction between sol-gel immobilized glucose oxidase and freely diffusing glucose by means of two-photon microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To study immobilized protein interactions with dissolved substrates is a very important topic both from a fundamental and technological standpoint. In the present report we illustrate the preliminary results obtained on sol-gel immobilized glucose oxidase (GOD) using a standard de-scanned two-photon microscope based on a modified confocal scanhead with internal detectors and a Ti:sapphire laser as a source. Data acquisition conditions were preliminary defined using functionalized beads of different dimensions. Various sol-gel supports were then investigated by monitoring endogeneous fluorescence due to the flavoadenine (FAD) molecules, present in GOD. Linear absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy along with Fourier Transform Infrared microscopy were employed for a full-optical characterization of the samples. The results show that GOD immobilization processes can be successfully monitored in some cases and also the interaction with glucose could be studied by this approach. This assessment holds potentials to better understand the characteristic of immobilized enzymes biocatalysis and to develop new biosensing schemes.

Delfino, I.; Portaccio, M.; De Rosa, M.; Lepore, M.

2013-02-01

312

Capacity of a MultiBeam, Multi-Satellite CDMA Mobile Radio Network with Interference-Mitigating Receivers  

Microsoft Academic Search

More and more interference-mitigating algorithms are being investigated in an attempt to increase the capacity of code-division multiple-access radio networks. At the moment, the main question about interference-resilient receivers is: Do they really bring forth the capacity increase they promise on theoreti- cal grounds? The aim of this study is to give a preliminary answer to such a question, through

Riccardo De Gaudenzi; Filippo Giannetti; Marco Luise

1997-01-01

313

A preliminary investigation of farm-level risk factors for cattle condemnation at the slaughterhouse: a case-control study on French farms.  

PubMed

The financial impact of condemnation for farmers and the importance of efficiency in the meat inspection process to guarantee food safety are well known. Identifying farm-level risk factors for condemnation are useful in order to find a way for farmers to potentially reduce their condemnation rates and to build a risk-based farm classification for veterinary services to target both meat inspection and farms inspections. To our knowledge, this has not yet been done, probably due to a lack of available meat inspection data. A preliminary investigation was performed through a case-control study on 36 French farms, from a dairy production region to identify farm-level risk factors for high condemnation rates (i.e. more than 45% of cattle with at least one portion of the carcass condemned). Multivariable exact logistic regression was performed to take into account the small sample size. The final model identified two significant risk factors. The odds of having a high condemnation rate was at least twice as greater for farmers who did not adhere to the quality charter of an international retailer and was significantly higher when the most qualified worker on the farm had a degree in agriculture. This latter effect was unexpected and is reviewed in the discussion section. The protective effect of the quality charter could be explained by the annual control of farms performed to guarantee compliance with good farming practices in the adhering farms. It led us to believe that compliance with well known good farming practices could be a way for farmers to reduce their condemnation rates. This study is a preliminary investigation performed on a small sample size of farms that were mainly dairy farms. It is a first step for further investigations that need to be done on this topic at a larger scale to fill the current lack of knowledge. PMID:24120177

Deschamps, Jean-Baptiste; Calavas, Didier; Mialet, Sylvie; Gay, Emilie; Dupuy, Céline

2013-11-01

314

Electrolytic Manganese Dioxide from Australia, China, Greece, Ireland, Japan, and South Africa. Investigations Nos. 731-TA-1048-1053 (Preliminary).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

On the basis of the record developed in the subject investigation, the United States International Trade Commission determines that there is a reasonable indication that an industry in the United States is materially injured by reason of imports from Aust...

2003-01-01

315

Preliminary geologic investigation of the Apollo 17 landing site. [orbital and lunar surface geological surveys during Apollo 17 flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A geological investigation of the Apollo 17 lunar landing site was conducted. The Taurus-Littrow valley is interpreted as a deep graben formed by structural adjustment of lunar crustal material to the Serenitatis impact. Materials of the valley fill were sampled at many stations. Ejecta around many craters on the valley floor consist of basalt, showing that the graben was partly filled by lava flows. The geological objectives of the Apollo 17 mission are divided into orbital and lunar surface data collection. The data obtained for both types of investigation are presented in tables, photographs, and drawings.

Muehlberger, W. R.; Batson, R. M.; Cernan, E. A.; Freeman, V. L.; Hait, M. H.; Holt, H. E.; Howard, K. A.; Jackson, E. D.; Larson, K. B.; Reed, V. S.

1973-01-01

316

Preliminary investigation of a sealed, remotely activated silver--zinc battery. Final report. [> 35 wh\\/lb  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods necessary to provide a remotely activated, silver--zinc battery capable of an extended activated stand while in a sealed condition were investigated. These requirements were to be accomplished in a battery package demonstrating an energy density of at least 35 watt-hours per pound. Several methods of gas suppression were considered in view of the primary nature of this unit and

Wheat

1977-01-01

317

A preliminary investigation of the interaction of a quat with silicones and its conditioning benefits on hair  

Microsoft Academic Search

Silicones, especially dimethicone and dimethiconol of higher molecular weights, have gained acceptance as conditioning agents and are used in several commercial products, frequently in conjunction with quats. In this work, the conditioning benefits of the silicones, as assessed by improvement in wet and dry combing, were investigated as a function of molecular weight as well as amount deposited on bleached

SHRENIK NANAVATI; ANNETTE HAMI; Dow Corning

318

Optimizing Speech Production in the Ventilator-Assisted Individual Following Cervical Spinal Cord Injury: A Preliminary Investigation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Mechanical ventilation is commonly used during the acute management of cervical spinal cord injury, and is required on an ongoing basis in the majority of patients with injuries at or above C3. However, to date there have been limited systematic investigations of the options available to improve speech while ventilator-assisted…

MacBean, Naomi; Ward, Elizabeth; Murdoch, Bruce; Cahill, Louise; Solley, Maura; Geraghty, Timothy; Hukins, Craig

2009-01-01

319

Preliminary Results of Simulations and Field Investigations of the Performance of the WISDOM GPR of the ExoMars Rover  

Microsoft Academic Search

WISDOM (Water Ice and Subsurface Deposit Observations on Mars) is a ground penetrat-ing radar (GPR) that was selected as one of three survey instruments on the ExoMars Rover Pasteur Payload. Its purpose is to characterize the nature of the shallow subsurface (including geological structure, electromagnetic properties, and potential hydrological state) and identify the most promising locations for investigation and sampling

V. Ciarletti; C. Corbel; P. Cais; D. Pltettemeier; S. E. Hamran; M. Oyan; S. Clifford; A. Reineix

2009-01-01

320

Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 from China and India. Investigation Nos. 701-TA-437 and 731-TA-1060 (Preliminary).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

On the basis of the record developed in the subject investigation, the United States International Trade Commission (Commission) determines, pursuant to section 703(a) and 733 (a) of the Tariff Act of 1930 (19 U.S.C. section 1671b(a) and 1673b(a)), (the A...

2004-01-01

321

A Preliminary Investigation of the Role of Differential Complexity and Response Style in Measuring Attitudes Toward People With Disabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report investigated a potentially complex relationship between cognitive complexity and attitudes towards people with disabilities in a 3-part study using two undergraduate student samples. In Study 1 (n = 126), subjects' responses to the Attitudes Toward Disabled Persons Scale (ATDP-O) were not significantly correlated with the Repertory Grid Test (RGT). This finding suggests no relationship between attitudes and a

Michael J. Millington; Douglas C. Strohmer; Chris A. Reid; Paul M. Spengler

1996-01-01

322

Pet Film from India and Taiwan. Investigations Nos. 701-TA-415 and 731-TA-933-934 (Preliminary).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

On the basis of the record developed in the subject investigations, the United States International Trade Commission determines, pursuant to sections 703(a) and 733(a) of the Tariff Act of 1930 (the Act), respectively, that there is a reasonable indicatio...

2001-01-01

323

Comparing Self-Reported Versus Objectively Measured Physical Activity Behavior: A Preliminary Investigation of Older Filipino American Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The importance of examining health behaviors, such as physical activity, among Filipino Americans is highlighted by their higher rates of chronic disease. As physical inactivity has been linked to chronic diseases (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 1996), this study investigated the physical activity levels of older Filipinas. This…

Atienza, Audie A.; King, Abby C.

2005-01-01

324

Preliminary investigation of the nature and origin of the Sierra Mojada Non-sulfide Zn deposits, Coahuila, Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Sierra Mojada district consists of multiple types of mineral concentrations ranging from polymetallic sulfide deposits, 'non-sulfide Zn' deposits (separate smithsonite and hemimorphite zones), and a Pb carbonate manto hosted by Upper Jurassic to Lower Cretaceous carbonates. The district is typically grouped with other polymetallic carbonate replacement deposits of southwestern North America, but the intrusive rocks that commonly are associated with these types of deposits are not known at Sierra Mojada. The Sierra Mojada district located near the boundary of the Coahuila Platform and the Sabinas Basin that formed during Late Jurassic and Cretaceous tectonic extension. The east-trending San Marcos fault runs through the Sierra Mojada district and is thought to have acted as the major conduit for basinal fluids, responsible for local dolomitization, sulfide mineralization, and petroleum in the region. The polymetallic sulfides are the stratigraphically and structurally highest ore zone and occur north of the San Marcos fault. Non-sulfide Zn (hemimorphite, smithsonite and sauconite) and lead (cerussite) concentrations occur south of the fault in the Aurora and La Pena Formations. The Iron Oxide Manto consists of stratabound zones of dominantly of hemimorphite pore-filling in Fe-oxide rich dolostones giving the ore a distinct red to orange color. The Smithsonite Manto has distinct karst features, including internal sediments interbanded with smithsonite in the lower part of the orebody. The non-sulfide Zn ores are being studied to document their morphologies, growth patterns, and paragenetic relationships using conventional petrography, SEM, and CL-based ESEM. In the Smithsonite Manto, banded and colloform smithsonite consists of aggregates of rhombohedral crystals that grew into open space and also occurs within internal sediment bands with hemimorphite or Zn clays and Zn oxides. Black dendrites of Mn oxides with Fe oxides are encased in banded smithsonite. Euhedral hemimorphite is present in both mantos, although it is most abundant in the Iron Oxide Manto. Hemimorphite occurs in the Smithsonite Manto as layers with smithsonite suggesting that they may have precipitated together, although locally hemimorphite cross-cuts smithsonite bands. Locally, hemimorphite and smithsonite have been altered to sauconite and hydrozincite. Associated minerals include barite and calcite that seem to have formed later than the major Zn mineral formation. Preliminary isotope studies reveal that smithsonites from Sierra Mojada have ?18OVSMOW values ranging from 19.1 to 22.1 ‰ and ?13CVPDB values of -7.0 to +1.0 ‰. While the range of carbon isotope values is typical for supergene smithsonites, the oxygen isotope values are much lower than those recorded in most supergene deposits. The unusually low oxygen isotope values in smithsonite require either highly 18O- depleted waters of less than -12 ‰ if oxidation occurred at temperatures of less than 20C° or elevated temperatures (>40C°) during oxidation if waters had isotope compositions similar to present- day ground waters in the area. Studies are in progress to further constrain the paragenesis, mineralizing fluid character, and timing of mineralization in the Sierra Mojada district.

Ahn, H.; Kyle, J.; Gilg, H.; Kolvoord, R.

2009-05-01

325

Preliminary result of deep-towed resistivity investigation in a potential gas hydrate area off southwest Taiwan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gas hydrate (GH) is thought to be widely distributed within the active accretionary wedges passive continental margins and permafrost regions of the Earth. These deposits were formed in sub-seafloor sediments at relatively high pressure, low temperature conditions and have the potential to become a significant energy resource in the future. Bottom simulating reflectors (BSRs) from marine seismic reflection surveys are generally associated with the occurrence of gas-hydrate-bearing formations. The presence of BSRs could correspond to the base of the phase boundary between free gases and the solid hydrates. A wide-spread distribution of BSRs, high methane concentrations in the bottom water, shallow sulfate/methane interface, submarine mud volcanoes, diapirs and gas seepages significantly indicate a high potential of gas hydrates existence in the offshore area of southwest Taiwan. BSR is an indicative of a GH deposit and is often used to determine the base of gas hydrate stability zone of the solid-gas boundary where the upper bound of the GH in shallow sediments is still uncertain in the potential areas. The marine resistivity techniques are considered as one of powerful geophysical tools to image GH in upper bound of the GH in shallow portion of the seabed. In the study, we have rebuilt our new deep-towed marine resistivity system based on Goto et al. (2008) experiment. The new system is consisted of three components: 1. deep-towed frame, 2. receivers, and 3. side-scan sonar. The transmitter is mounted on the deep-towed frame and a long cable is towed behind the deep-towed frame in length of 240 m. The maximum of output electric current amplitude is up to 50 amperes. A dipole source of 15 m and two Ag-AgCl electric receivers are respectively installed in 210 m, 223 m and 226 m on the cable. Moreover, eight electric receivers (Ag-AgCl) are set from 0 m to 120 m with a dipole length of 15 m on the cable. A side-scan sonar equipment is attached below the system for the seafloor images. An important function of the side-scan sonar provides a stable towing of the whole system near the seafloor with altitude in range of 10 - 30 m. This configuration of the multidisciplinary geophysical system can roughly provide within 200 m of depth resolution beneath the seafloor according to the numerical modelling. A first multiple channels of deep-towed marine resistivity survey was carried out by R/V OR1-1001 from 21 to 23 June, 2012 to understand the detailed distribution of GH off SW Taiwan. Three survey lines were discovered in total length about 30 km. The towed speed was kept in 1.5 - 2.5 knots for both mapping of resistivity profiles and side-scan sonar images. An extremely high apparent resistivity anomaly appears in pockmark areas that corresponds to the side-scan sonar image. This high resistivity anomaly implies gas and/or gas hydrate reservoirs beneath the seafloor. The preliminary result has shown that our new resistivity system is a useful tool to explore GH deposits.

Chiang, C.; Hsu, S.; Goto, T.; Chen, C.; Chen, S.

2012-12-01

326

Preliminary Results of Simulations and Field Investigations of the Performance of the WISDOM GPR of the ExoMars Rover  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

WISDOM (Water Ice and Subsurface Deposit Observations on Mars) is a ground penetrat-ing radar (GPR) that was selected as one of three survey instruments on the ExoMars Rover Pasteur Payload. Its purpose is to characterize the nature of the shallow subsurface (including geological structure, electromagnetic properties, and potential hydrological state) and identify the most promising locations for investigation and sampling by the Rover's onboard drill - providing information down to a depth of 2 or 3 meters with a vertical resolution of a few centimeters (performance characteristics that will vary, depending on the local permittivity and conductivity of the subsurface). WISDOM is a polarimetric, step-frequency GPR operating over the frequency range of 0.5 - 3 GHz. The polarimetric capability of WISDOM is particularly useful for identifying and characterizing oriented structures like faults, fractures and stratigraphic interface roughness. To achieve this objective, special care has been dedicated to the design of the antenna system, which consists of a pair of Vivaldi antenna to conduct both co- and cross-polar measurements. WISDOM will perform its scientific investigations at each of the sites visited by the Rover and during the intervening traverses. During a traverse between two successive experiment cycles of the mission (drilling and sample analysis), WISDOM soundings will be performed to provide a coarse survey of the structure and nature of the underground and its large-scale variations. This information is required to understand the overall geological context and the properties of the subsurface. When a particular location has been selected for potential investigation by the drill, WISDOM will obtain subsurface profiles on a 2D grid, in order to synthesize a 3D map of subsurface soil characteristics and spatial variabil-ity. Full polarimetric soundings will be performed at 10 cm intervals along each parallel grid line, which will have a line-to-line spacing of 100cm. The typical grid-size for this 3D characterization is 5 m x 5 m. FDTD electromagntic simulations have been run on realistic Martian subsurface models to investigate the likely performances of the instrument once on Mars. In additiona, experi-mental field data was acquired during a 2008 mission to Svalabard, where the performance of the instrument in a permafrost environment was demonstrated. The results of that inves-tigation showed that WISDOM is capable of obtaining accurate data to depths in excess of 2-3 meters in ice-rich environments - successfully soundings through sediment layers, ice, and even into the underlying moraine, with sufficient spatial resolution to identify fine-scale layering within the intervening ice. Further results of these investigations will be presented at the meeting.

Ciarletti, V.; Corbel, C.; Cais, P.; Pltettemeier, D.; Hamran, S. E.; Oyan, M.; Clifford, S.; Reineix, A.

2009-04-01

327

A Preliminary Investigation into the Impact of a Pesticide Combination on Human Neuronal and Glial Cell Lines In Vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many pesticides are used increasingly in combinations during crop protection and their stability ensures the presence of such combinations in foodstuffs. The effects of three fungicides, pyrimethanil, cyprodinil and fludioxonil, were investigated together and separately on U251 and SH-SY5Y cells, which can be representative of human CNS glial and neuronal cells respectively. Over 48h, all three agents showed significant reductions

Michael D. Coleman; John D. ONeil; Elizabeth K. Woehrling; Oscar Bate Akide Ndunge; Eric J. Hill; Andre Menache; Claude J. Reiss

2012-01-01

328

The evacuation of British children during World War II: A preliminary investigation into the long-term psychological effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors used attachment theory to hypothesize about the possible long-term psychological effects of evacuation during World War II, focusing on children who were evacuated unaccompanied by their parents. The study aimed to establish whether this experience had long-term effects on psychological well-being, and to investigate mediating and moderating factors. The study utilized a retrospective non-randomized design, comparing 169 former

D. Foster; S. Davies; H. Steele

2003-01-01

329

An investigation of mortars affected by alkali-silica reaction by X-ray synchrotron microtomography: a preliminary study  

Microsoft Academic Search

A first attempt to investigate samples affected by alkali-silica reaction (ASR) by synchrotron X-ray microtomography has been\\u000a made. The setup available at the SYRMEP beamline, at the third generation synchrotron Elettra (Trieste, Italy), allowed collecting\\u000a phase-contrast enhanced images, with a detectability approaching that of optical microscopy (a few microns). In this study,\\u000a mortar cylinders were prepared and immersed in a

Nicoletta Marinoni; Marco Voltolini; Lucia Mancini; Pietro Vignola; Andrea Pagani; Alessandro Pavese

2009-01-01

330

Comparing Personality Characteristics of Juvenile Sex Offenders and Non-Sex Offending Delinquent Peers: A Preliminary Investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

There exists a paucity of research on psychopathology among Juvenile Sex Offenders (JSOs) as measured by standardized instruments, particularly as compared to nonclinical and other clinical populations. The current investigation involved a comparison of scores on the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory—Adolescent Version (MMPI-A) between a group of JSOs and non-sex offending delinquent peers. Thirty-six youth from a staff-secure residential facilitate

Kurt A. Freeman; Elizabeth T. Dexter-Mazza; Kerry C. Hoffman

2005-01-01

331

A preliminary investigation into the physical and chemical properties of biomass ashes used as aggregate fillers for bituminous mixtures.  

PubMed

Fly and bottom ashes are the main by-products arising from the combustion of solid biomass. Since the production of energy from this source is increasing, the processing and disposal of the resulting ashes has become an environmental and economic issue. Such ashes are of interest as a construction material because they are composed of very fine particles similar to fillers normally employed in bituminous and cementitious mixtures. This research investigates the potential use of ash from biomass as filler in bituminous mixtures. The morphological, physical and chemical characteristics of 21 different ashes and two traditional fillers (calcium carbonate and "recovered" plant filler) were evaluated and discussed. Leaching tests, performed in order to quantify the release of pollutants, revealed that five ashes do not comply with the Italian environmental re-use limits. Experimental results show a wide range of values for almost all the investigated properties and a low correlation with biomass type in terms of origin and chemical composition. Furthermore, sieving and milling processes were found to improve the properties of the raw material in terms of grading and sample porosity. The effectiveness of these treatments and the low content of organic matter and harmful fines suggest that most of the biomass ashes investigated may be regarded as potential replacements for natural filler in bituminous mixtures. PMID:23790672

Melotti, Roberto; Santagata, Ezio; Bassani, Marco; Salvo, Milena; Rizzo, Stefano

2013-09-01

332

Standard form contracts and contract schemas: a preliminary investigation of the effects of exculpatory clauses on consumers' propensity to sue.  

PubMed

This study investigated the extent to which exculpatory clauses deter consumers from pursuing their legal rights. Undergraduate participants (N = 101) were presented with two written vignettes and asked to imagine themselves as a consumer harmed by a contracted for service. Participants then read a contract and responded to questions assessing their likelihood of seeking compensation and their perceptions of the contract. The presence of exculpatory clauses, the severity of the harm, and the nature of the harm were varied. The data suggest that exculpatory clauses, if read, have a deterrent effect on propensity to seek compensation. Development of a psychological definition of contract schemas and implications for legal policy are discussed. PMID:9160991

Stolle, D P; Slain, A J

1997-01-01

333

Chemical State of Surface Oxygen on Carbon and Its Effects on the Capacity of the Carbon Anode in a Lithium-Ion Battery Investigated  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In a lithium-ion battery, the lithium-storage capacity of the carbon anode is greatly affected by a surface layer formed during the first half cycle of lithium insertion and release into and out of the carbon anode. The formation of this solid-electrolyte interface, in turn, is affected by the chemistry of the carbon surface. A study at the NASA Glenn Research Center examined the cause-and-effect relations. Information obtained from this research could contribute in designing a high-capacity lithium-ion battery and, therefore, small, powerful spacecraft. In one test, three types of surfaces were examined: (1) a surface with low oxygen content (1.5 at.%) and a high concentration of active sites, (2) a surface with 4.5 at.% -OH or -OC type oxygen, and (3) a surface with 6.5 at.% O=C type oxygen. The samples were made from the same precursor and had similar bulk properties. They were tested under a constant current of 10 mA/g in half cells that used lithium metal as the counter electrode and 0.5 M lithium iodide in 50/50 (vol%) ethylene carbonate and dimethyl carbonate as the electrolyte. For the first cycle of the electrochemical test, the graph describes the voltage of the carbon anode versus the lithium metal as a function of the capacity (amount of lithium insertion or release). From these data, it can be observed that the surface with low oxygen and a high concentration of active sites could result in a high irreversible capacity. Such a high irreversible capacity could be prevented if the active sites were allowed to react with oxygen in air, producing -OH or -OC type oxygen. The O=C type oxygen, on the other hand, could greatly reduce the capacity of lithium intercalation and, therefore, needs to be avoided during battery fabrication.

Hung, Ching-Cheh

2001-01-01

334

Preliminary investigation on the use of a light-trap for sampling malaria vectors in the Gambia  

PubMed Central

Light-traps have been used successfully as mechanical sampling tools for insects of agricultural importance but medical entomologists have had only limited success because of the assumption that light-traps would attract vectors, even when sited in open fields well away from hosts. The investigations reported in this paper suggest that vectors are attracted primarily by their hosts and that only when light-traps are placed in the immediate vicinity of hosts, or in the narrow flight paths followed by host-seeking females, are appreciable numbers caught. When the CDC miniature light-trap was placed at various distances from hosts, the number of anopheline and culicine species captured decreased as the distance from the host increased. There were statistically significant differences between the means of catches in light-traps suspended on or in human dwellings, placed inside village compounds, and placed near the breeding site about 1.6 km from the nearest house. The maximum catch of Anopheles gambiae s.l. and culicines exceeded 3000 and 7000 per trap per night, respectively, and the average was in excess of 1200 A. gambiae s.l. The investigations showed that 6 anopheline species could be caught in appreciable numbers in human dwellings and thus demonstrated that light-traps could be used for sampling both endophilic and exophilic anophelines. It also appears that the effective range of the CDC miniature light-trap is about 5 m.

Odetoyinbo, J. A.

1969-01-01

335

A preliminary study for investigating idiopatic normal pressure hydrocephalus by means of statistical parameters classification of intracranial pressure recordings.  

PubMed

The objective of this study is to investigate Id-iopatic Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus (INPH) through a multidimensional and multiparameter analysis of statistical data obtained from accurate analysis of Intracranial Pressure (ICP) recordings. Such a study could permit to detect new factors, correlated with therapeutic response, which are able to validate a predicting significance for infusion test. The algorithm developed by the authors computes 13 ICP parameter trends on each of the recording, afterward 9 statistical information from each trend is determined. All data are transferred to the datamining software WEKA. According to the exploited feature-selection techniques, the WEKA has revealed that the most significant statistical parameter is the maximum of Single-Wave-Amplitude: setting a 27 mmHg threshold leads to over 90% of correct classification. PMID:19965228

Calisto, A; Bramanti, A; Galeano, M; Angileri, F; Campobello, G; Serrano, S; Azzerboni, B

2009-01-01

336

Towards Simplified Tools for Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Structures Subjected to Impact and Impulsive Loading: A Preliminary Investigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The analysis of reinforced concrete structures under blast and impact loads is an area of research that has become increasingly relevant in recent years. Complex hydrocodes are typically used for impact analyses, although single-degree-of-freedom methods have also been developed. There are a number of disadvantages associated with both methods, and the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) is looking for a tool that can be used in conjunction with hydrocodes to analyze hard and soft missile impacts, with target damage ranging from flexural cracking to perforation. The VecTor programs, a suite of nonlinear finite element programs developed at the University of Toronto for the analysis of reinforced concrete structures, can potentially be developed into such tools. The analytical work done in this study serves to investigate the current impact and impulse loading analysis capabilities in VecTor2 and VecTor3, and to identify areas where work should be focused in the future.

Trommels, Heather

337

The helpfulness of spiritually influenced group work in developing self-awareness and self-esteem: a preliminary investigation.  

PubMed

This paper discusses an exploratory study that investigated the helpfulness of spiritually influenced group work with eight adult women who shared a history of substance abuse. The overall purpose of the group was to help participants develop their self-awareness and self-esteem. The group, which was contextualized in transpersonal theory, was organized around the following themes and experiential exercises: meditation, mindfulness practice, dream work, stream of consciousness writing, the shadow self, and other arts-based processes. Grounded-theory analysis of group sessions and individual interviews with the participants found that the participants perceived the group to be helpful in developing their self-awareness and self-esteem. While the participants identified different aspects of the group as spiritual, making-meaning was one practice that was consistently described as a spiritually sensitive process. The results of this study in this emergent field are promising and suggestions are provided for future research. PMID:16200326

Coholic, Diana

2005-09-28

338

Preliminary numerical simulation investigation of the cone effect in an adaptive optics system using a laser guide star  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

So-called cone effect or focus anisoplanatism is produced by the limited distance of a laser guide star (LGS) which is created within the Earth atmosphere and consequently located at a finite distance from the observer. We believe this is the first time to investigate the cone effect of the LGS by means of a pure numerical simulation. In this paper, the cone effect of the LGS for different vertical profiles of the refractive index structure constant C2n is numerically investigated by using a revised computer program of atmospheric propagation of optical wave and an adaptive optics (AO) system including dynamic control process. It is surprisingly found that the effect of altitudes of the LGS on the AO phase compensation effectiveness by using the commonly-available vertical profiles of C2n and the lateral wind speed in the atmosphere is relatively weak, and the cone effect for some C2n profiles is even negligible. It is found that the cone effect seems not have obvious relationship with the turbulence strength, however, it depends on the vertical distribution profile of C2n apparently. On the other hand, the cone effect depends on the vertical distribution of the lateral wind speed as well. The cone effect becomes more obvious as the zenith angle increases. In comparison to a near infrared wavelength, the cone effect becomes larger in the case of the visible wavelength. In all cases concerned in this paper, an AO system by using a sodium guide star has almost same phase compensation effectiveness as that by using the astronomical target itself as a beacon.

Yan, Hai-Xing; Li, Shu-Shan; Chen, She

2004-12-01

339

Thermodynamic investigation by heat capacity measurements of ferrimagnetic A2Mn[Mn(CN)6] (A=K, Rb, Cs) Prussian blue compounds.  

PubMed

Heat capacity measurements of a new series of Prussian blue analogs of A2Mn[Mn(CN)6] (A=K, Rb, Cs) composition were performed using thermal relaxation calorimetry. The Cs compound has a face-centered cubic structure with a linear Mn-C?N-Mn linkage, while the monoclinic Rb and K compounds have nonlinear Mn-C?N-Mn linkages. For all of the compounds, large broad thermal anomalies associated with magnetic transitions were observed in the temperature dependence of the heat capacity. The systematic changes in the heat capacity for the three compounds under magnetic fields of up to 7 T were found to be consistent with ferrimagnetic ordering with large spontaneous magnetization. Although the peak temperatures were slightly lower than reported values obtained by magnetic susceptibility measurements, the magnetic entropy was evaluated to be 22.0 ± 2.5 J K(-1) mol(-1). This value is consistent with an entropy of Rln12 corresponding to full entropy of one low-spin and one high-spin Mn(II) ion in the formula unit, though some ambiguity remains in lattice estimation. Broadening of the peak width of the magnetic heat capacity divided by the temperature was observed as the size of the alkali ions decreased from Cs to K. This behavior is consistent with an increase in the lattice distortion produced by the bending of the C?N-Mn angles. PMID:24263378

Kawamoto, Yuka; Yamashita, Satoshi; Yoshimoto, Ryo; Nakazawa, Yasuhiro; DaSilva, Jack G; Kareis, Christopher M; Miller, Joel S

2014-01-01

340

Thermodynamic investigation by heat capacity measurements of ferrimagnetic A2Mn[Mn(CN)6] (A=K, Rb, Cs) Prussian blue compounds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Heat capacity measurements of a new series of Prussian blue analogs of A2Mn[Mn(CN)6] (A=K, Rb, Cs) composition were performed using thermal relaxation calorimetry. The Cs compound has a face-centered cubic structure with a linear Mn-C?N-Mn linkage, while the monoclinic Rb and K compounds have nonlinear Mn-C?N-Mn linkages. For all of the compounds, large broad thermal anomalies associated with magnetic transitions were observed in the temperature dependence of the heat capacity. The systematic changes in the heat capacity for the three compounds under magnetic fields of up to 7 T were found to be consistent with ferrimagnetic ordering with large spontaneous magnetization. Although the peak temperatures were slightly lower than reported values obtained by magnetic susceptibility measurements, the magnetic entropy was evaluated to be 22.0 ± 2.5 J K-1 mol-1. This value is consistent with an entropy of Rln12 corresponding to full entropy of one low-spin and one high-spin MnII ion in the formula unit, though some ambiguity remains in lattice estimation. Broadening of the peak width of the magnetic heat capacity divided by the temperature was observed as the size of the alkali ions decreased from Cs to K. This behavior is consistent with an increase in the lattice distortion produced by the bending of the C?N-Mn angles.

Kawamoto, Yuka; Yamashita, Satoshi; Yoshimoto, Ryo; Nakazawa, Yasuhiro; DaSilva, Jack G.; Kareis, Christopher M.; Miller, Joel S.

2014-01-01

341

Comparing personality characteristics of juvenile sex offenders and non-sex offending delinquent peers: a preliminary investigation.  

PubMed

There exists a paucity of research on psychopathology among Juvenile Sex Offenders (JSOs) as measured by standardized instruments, particularly as compared to nonclinical and other clinical populations. The current investigation involved a comparison of scores on the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-Adolescent Version (MMPI-A) between a group of JSOs and non-sex offending delinquent peers. Thirty-six youth from a staff-secure residential facilitate participated, 18 JSOs and 18 non-sex offending delinquent peers. Results revealed that the mean score on clinical Scale 4 (Psychopathic Deviant) was in the clinically significant range for non-sex offending peers and not for JSOs, although the difference between the mean scores was not statistically significant. Chi-square analysis indicated that a significantly greater number of non-sex offending delinquents had scores in the clinical range on this scale as compared to JSOs. Results are discussed in the context of current research on psychopathology among JSOs. PMID:15757001

Freeman, Kurt A; Dexter-Mazza, Elizabeth T; Hoffman, Kerry C

2005-01-01

342

Submarine geo-hazards on the eastern Sardinia-Corsica continental margin based on preliminary pipeline route investigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The understanding of the morphology and the shallow geo-hazards of the seafloor is a major focus for both academic and private industry research. On November and December 2009 a geophysical pipeline survey was carried out by Fugro Oceansismica S.p.A. (FOSPA) and FUGRO France (FFSA) for DORIS Engineering on behalf of GRTgaz (Engineering centre, Transmission Pipe Department; http://www.grtgaz.com) which are currently investigating the possibility of laying a pipeline between Sardinia and Corsica as a spur line from the planned GALSI Project. The Project, "Alimentation de la Corse en gaz naturel", consists of a corridor 100 km long and 1.0 km wide along the Corsica-Sardinia shelf. The integration of the multibeam, sidescan sonar and sparker data provided a high resolution seafloor mapping for geo-hazard assessment. In this article the data acquired along a break of slope section (approximately 20 km × 1.5 km), in the eastern sector of the Strait of Bonifacio are described. The area was abandoned during the survey, because of its unsuitability. Indeed, in this area the continental shelf, approximately 100 m deep and deepening gently eastward, is characterized by an uneven morphology, with different seabed features such as Beach- rocks mainly NNW-SSE oriented. Also, the continuity of the continental margin, identified around -110/-115 m, is interrupted by four canyon heads which incise the slope and are associated with glide deposits.

Cecchini, S.; Taliana, D.; Giacomini, L.; Herisson, C.; Bonnemaire, B.

2011-03-01

343

Preliminary results of fisheries investigation associated with Skylab-3. [remotely sensed distribution and abundance of gamefish in Gulf of Mexico  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. This investigation is to establish the feasibility of utilizing remotely sensed data acquired from aircraft and satellite platforms to provide information concerning the distribution and abundance of oceanic gamefish. Data from the test area in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico has made possible the identification of fisheries significant environmental parameters for white marlin. Predictive models based on catch data and surface truth information have been developed and have demonstrated potential for reducing search significantly by identifying areas which have a high probability of being productive. Three of the parameters utilized by the model, chlorophyll-a, sea surface temperature, and turbidity have been inferred from aircraft sensor data. Cloud cover and delayed receipt have inhibited the use of Skylab data. The first step toward establishing the feasibility of utilizing remotely sensed data to assess amd monitor the distribution of ocean gamefish has been taken with the successful identification of fisheries significant oceanographic parameters and the demonstration of the capability of measuring most of these parameters remotely.

Savastano, K. J. (principal investigator); Pastula, E. J., Jr.; Woods, G.; Faller, K.

1974-01-01

344

A preliminary investigation of unintentional POP emissions from thermal wire reclamation at industrial scrap metal recycling parks in China.  

PubMed

Thermal wire reclamation is considered to be a potential source of unintentional persistent organic pollutants (unintentional POPs). In this study, unintentional POP concentrations, including PCDD/Fs, dioxin like PCBs (dl-PCBs), polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs), hexachlorobenzene (HxCBz) and pentachlorobenzene (PeCBz), were quantified in flue gas and residual ash emissions from thermal wire reclamation at scrap metal dismantling parks in Zhejiang Province, China. The total average TEQ emissions of the investigated unintentional POPs from flue gas and residual ash in two typical scrap metal recycling plants ranged from 13.1 to 48.3ngTEQNm(-3) and 0.08 to 2.8ngTEQg(-1), respectively. The dominant PCDD/F congeners were OCDD, 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDD, OCDF and 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF, while PCB-126 and PCB-169 were the main contributors to the toxicity of the dl-PCBs. There were clear differences in the distribution dl-PCBs congeners contributing to the TEQ concentrations in the flue gas samples from the two plants. The PCN TEQs were dominated by PCN-66/67 and PCN-73. Although thermal wire reclamation in incinerators has been proposed as an alternative to open burning, there are still considerable environmental risks associated with regulated incinerators, and unintentional POP emissions from thermal wire reclamation sites need to be controlled by local government agencies. PMID:22436338

Nie, Zhiqiang; Zheng, Minghui; Liu, Guorui; Liu, Wenbin; Lv, Pu; Zhang, Bing; Su, Guijin; Gao, Lirong; Xiao, Ke

2012-05-15

345

A preliminary investigation into the impact of a pesticide combination on human neuronal and glial cell lines in vitro.  

PubMed

Many pesticides are used increasingly in combinations during crop protection and their stability ensures the presence of such combinations in foodstuffs. The effects of three fungicides, pyrimethanil, cyprodinil and fludioxonil, were investigated together and separately on U251 and SH-SY5Y cells, which can be representative of human CNS glial and neuronal cells respectively. Over 48h, all three agents showed significant reductions in cellular ATP, at concentrations that were more than tenfold lower than those which significantly impaired cellular viability. The effects on energy metabolism were reflected in their marked toxic effects on mitochondrial membrane potential. In addition, evidence of oxidative stress was seen in terms of a fall in cellular thiols coupled with increases in the expression of enzymes associated with reactive species formation, such as GSH peroxidase and superoxide dismutase. The glial cell line showed significant responsiveness to the toxin challenge in terms of changes in antioxidant gene expression, although the neuronal SH-SY5Y line exhibited greater vulnerability to toxicity, which was reflected in significant increases in caspase-3 expression, which is indicative of the initiation of apoptosis. Cyprodinil was the most toxic agent individually, although oxidative stress-related enzyme gene expression increases appeared to demonstrate some degree of synergy in the presence of the combination of agents. This report suggests that the impact of some pesticides, both individually and in combinations, merits further study in terms of their impact on human cellular health. PMID:22880100

Coleman, Michael D; O'Neil, John D; Woehrling, Elizabeth K; Ndunge, Oscar Bate Akide; Hill, Eric J; Menache, Andre; Reiss, Claude J

2012-01-01

346

A Preliminary Investigation into the Impact of a Pesticide Combination on Human Neuronal and Glial Cell Lines In Vitro  

PubMed Central

Many pesticides are used increasingly in combinations during crop protection and their stability ensures the presence of such combinations in foodstuffs. The effects of three fungicides, pyrimethanil, cyprodinil and fludioxonil, were investigated together and separately on U251 and SH-SY5Y cells, which can be representative of human CNS glial and neuronal cells respectively. Over 48h, all three agents showed significant reductions in cellular ATP, at concentrations that were more than tenfold lower than those which significantly impaired cellular viability. The effects on energy metabolism were reflected in their marked toxic effects on mitochondrial membrane potential. In addition, evidence of oxidative stress was seen in terms of a fall in cellular thiols coupled with increases in the expression of enzymes associated with reactive species formation, such as GSH peroxidase and superoxide dismutase. The glial cell line showed significant responsiveness to the toxin challenge in terms of changes in antioxidant gene expression, although the neuronal SH-SY5Y line exhibited greater vulnerability to toxicity, which was reflected in significant increases in caspase-3 expression, which is indicative of the initiation of apoptosis. Cyprodinil was the most toxic agent individually, although oxidative stress-related enzyme gene expression increases appeared to demonstrate some degree of synergy in the presence of the combination of agents. This report suggests that the impact of some pesticides, both individually and in combinations, merits further study in terms of their impact on human cellular health.

Coleman, Michael D.; O'Neil, John D.; Woehrling, Elizabeth K.; Ndunge, Oscar Bate Akide; Hill, Eric J.; Menache, Andre; Reiss, Claude J.

2012-01-01

347

Results of a preliminary investigation of inlet unstart on a high-speed civil transport airplane concept  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The aircraft design engineer of today is tasked with satisfying an increasing number of conflicting requirements. The fact that conflict in these requirements may be technically, economically, or politically motivated usually compounds the difficulty of determining the best solution to a design issue. In this regard, propulsion/airframe integration for supersonic airplanes must rank as one of the most challenging aspects of airplane design. For the cruise Mach numbers currently being considered for High-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) airplanes, the inlet requirements of low drag, low bleed flow, and high pressure recovery appear to be best met with a mixed-compression design. Unfortunately, these desirable attributes come with a highly undesirable companion: the inlet unstart phenomenon. Concern over the effects of a mixed-compression inlet unstart on the vehicle dynamics of large, high-speed aircraft is not new; a comprehensive wind-tunnel study addressing the problem was published in 1962. Additional investigations of the problem were made throughout the United States SST program and the follow-on NASA program into the late 1970's. The current study sought to examine the magnitude of the problem in order to determine if an inlet unstart posed a potential hazard severe enough to preclude the use of mixed-compression inlets on proposed HSCT concepts.

Domack, Christopher S.

1992-01-01

348

Preliminary investigation of the potential for transient vapor release events during in situ vitrification based on thermal- hydraulic modeling  

SciTech Connect

This study investigates a possible cause of molten glass displacements that occurred during two recent in situ vitrification (ISV) tests. The study was conducted for the US Department of Energy by Pacific Northwest Laboratory. It is hypothesized that these glass displacements are caused by large gas bubbles rising up through the ISV melt and bursting at its surface. These bubbles cause the molten surface to upwell and possibly overflow. When the bubbles burst, molten glass is thrown from the melt surface and the volume of gas contained in the bubble is released into the hood. Both of these phenomena are undesirable because the molten soil ejected from the melt is dangerous to operating personnel and can damage equipment. The sudden gas release can cause a temporary pressurization of the hood, allowing potentially contaminated gas to escape to the atmosphere. This study attempts to explain the conditions necessary for formation of large gas bubbles in the melt so that future glass displacements can be avoided.

Roberts, J.S.; Woosley, S.L.; Lessor, D.L.; Strachan, C.

1992-07-01

349

Preliminary technique assessment for nondestructive evaluation certification of the NNWSI [Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations] disposal container closure  

SciTech Connect

Under the direction of the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) program, the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) project is evaluating a candidate repository site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for permanent disposal of high-level nuclear waste. The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), a participant in the NNWSI project, is developing waste package designs to meet the NRC requirements. One aspect of this waste package is the nondestructive testing of the final closure of the waste container. The container closure weld can best be nondestructively examined (NDE) by a combination of ultrasonics and liquid penetrants. This combination can be applied remotely and can meet stringent quality control requirements common to nuclear applications. Further development in remote systems and inspection will be required to meet anticipated requirements for flaw detection reliability and sensitivity. New research is not required but might reduce cost or inspection time. Ultrasonic and liquid penetrant methods can examine all closure methods currently being considered, which include fusion welding and inertial welding, among others. These NDE methods also have a history of application in high radiation environments and a well developed technology base for remote operation that can be used to reduce development and design costs. 43 refs., 23 figs., 3 tabs.

Day, R.A.

1988-12-31

350

Polymer gel dosimeters with reduced toxicity: a preliminary investigation of the NMR and optical dose-response using different monomers.  

PubMed

In this work, three new polymer gel dosimeter recipes were investigated that may be more suitable for widespread applications than polyacrylamide gel dosimeters, since the extremely toxic acrylamide has been replaced with the less harmful monomers N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAM), diacetone acrylamide and N-vinylformamide. The new gel dosimeters studied contained gelatin (5 wt%), monomer (3 wt%), N,N'-methylene-bis-acrylamide crosslinker (3 wt%) and tetrakis (hydroxymethyl) phosphonium chloride antioxidant (10 mM). The NMR response (R2) of the dosimeters was analysed for conditions of varying dose, dose rate, time post-irradiation, and temperature during irradiation and scanning. It was shown that the dose-response behaviour of the NIPAM/Bis gel dosimeter is comparable to that of normoxic polyacrylamide gel (PAGAT) in terms of high dose-sensitivity and low dependence on dose rate and irradiation temperature, within the ranges considered. The dose-response (R2) of NIPAM/Bis appears to be linear over a greater dose range than the PAGAT gel dosimeter. The effects of time post-irradiation (temporal instability) and temperature during NMR scanning on the R2 response were more significant for NIPAM/Bis dosimeters. Diacetone acrylamide and N-vinylformamide gel dosimeters possessed considerably lower dose-sensitivities. The optical dose-response, measured in terms of the attenuation coefficient for each polymer gel dosimeter, showed potential for the use of optical imaging techniques in future studies. PMID:16825731

Senden, R J; De Jean, P; McAuley, K B; Schreiner, L J

2006-07-21

351

Preliminary investigation fo the non-linear response of image intensifiers used for gamma-ray imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Image intensifiers combined with columnar scintillators have found application in x-ray and gamma-ray, biomedical imaging and other fields. In scintillator imaging, hundreds or thousands of optical photons can illuminate the faceplate of the image intensifier in a small area, essentially simultaneously. This is a situation not found in the typical design application for an image intensifier, night vision or low-light-level imaging. Microchannel plates (MCPs) are known to exhibit gain saturation that could result in non-linear signal response in scintillator imaging, limiting quantitative measurement capabilities. A calibrated LED photon source was developed that can provide a known average number of photons per unit area in a small spot size, similar to that seen due to a gamma-ray interaction in a BazookaSPECT imager. A BazookaSPECT imager is composed of a columnar scintillator and an image intensifier, with output light optically imaged onto a CCD camera. The calibrated source was used to investigate gain-saturation effects for two Proxivision, GmbH image intensifiers, a single-stage BV 2583 EZ and a two stage BV 2583 QZ-V 100N in a BazookaSPECT imaging configuration. No gain saturation was found for the single-stage image intensifier up to more than 100 optical photons per microchannel, but significant gain-saturation non-linearities were measured in the two-stage image intensifier at high gains for >12 optical photons per microchannel. Implications for scintillator imaging using such systems are discussed.

Fastje, David; Barber, H. Bradford; Bora, Vaibhav; Lemieux, Daniel; Miller, Brian; Grim, Gary P.

2013-09-01

352

A preliminary investigation into the comparison of dissolution/digestion techniques for the chemical characterization of polyurethane foam.  

PubMed

Due to their widespread use in domestic and commercial premises, polyurethane foams, as either fragmented or bulk foam, are types of evidence commonly found at crime scenes. The traditional approach to determining the evidential value of polyurethane foam (PF) involves comparing recovered and control fragments under low and high magnification, under various lighting conditions, as well as the comparison of their respective dye spectra. As with most forms of trace evidence, chemical comparison is also desirable. In this work, two approaches to chemically comparing foam fragments were investigated, i.e. inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) analysis of the Tin (Sn) content in different foam types; and gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID) analysis of soluble components in PFs mobilized by dichloromethane. Seven different foam types were studied and their Sn content was found to be different. They also produced characteristic GC-FID chromatographic profiles whose compounds were identified with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. This study suggests that incorporating chemical data obtained from GC-FID/GC-MS and ICP-OES into a case involving PF could be advantageous, as this will enable the forensic scientist to broaden the comparison between control and recovered fragments, and further assess the strength of the evidence. However, ICP-OES analysis is a destructive technique with a relatively short sample turnaround time, whilst GC-FID analysis is more time-consuming and non-destructive, requiring corroboration with GC-MS data. The values of these two analytical techniques in the forensic chemical characterization of PFs are discussed. PMID:21075294

Parsons, N S; Lam, M H W; Hamilton, S E; Hui, F

2010-12-01

353

Preliminary Investigations on the Effect of Humidity on the Reception of Visible Solar Radiation and the Effect of Humidity and Wind Speed on PV Module Output  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to improve the accuracy of methods currently used for characterizing the performance of photovoltaic (PV) arrays in their actual use environment, it is of importance to investigate the effect of ambient variables on the PV module output. Malaysia is a hot and humid country with relative humidity (RH) of 100% during rainfall and wind speed of greater than 4.0 ms-1 occurred about 8.4% in five years time. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to do a preliminary investigation on the effects of RH on the reception of solar radiation and the effect of humidity and wind speed on the PV module output. Outdoor field testing was conducted at Photovoltaic Monitoring Centre (PVMC), Universiti Teknologi MARA, of a BPSX-30U polycrystalline under variation of RH and wind speed separately. From the field testing, it was found that humidity reduced the amount of visible solar radiation reception, while humidity and wind speed both acts as cooling agents that increase the output of a PV module by reducing the module temperature.

Zainuddin, Hedzlin; Shaari, Sulaiman; Omar, Ahmad Maliki; Zain, Zainazlan Md.; Soumin, Jonson; Surat, Zainizam

2010-07-01

354

A preliminary investigation of the dynamic characteristics of dried soil layers on the Loess Plateau of China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummarySerious soil desiccation, resulting from climatic conditions and poor land management, may lead to the formation of a dried soil layer (DSL), which can negatively affect ecological and hydrological processes. To mitigate these effects through management, it is necessary to understand property interactions within DSLs, compared with those in the whole soil profile, and DSL formation processes under different land uses. We investigated the relationships between soil water content (SWC) and plant root indices, and other soil properties, under various land uses in the Liudaogou watershed on the Loess Plateau, China. We also studied the development of DSLs as a function of the growth age of two vegetation types. Rate of formation and thickness of DSLs were dependent on vegetation type: DSLs formed after 2 years of alfalfa ( Medicago sativa) growth and 3 years of Caragana korshinskii growth; after 4 years of growth, DSLs under alfalfa were thicker than those under C. korshinskii, but after 31 years the DSL thickness under C. korshinskii (4.4 m) exceeded that formed under alfalfa (3 m). The more persistent DSLs occurred below a 100 cm thick upper soil layer that was seasonally dried and replenished by rainfall under both vegetation types. The degree of soil desiccation under natural vegetation was generally less than that under non-indigenous plant species, and was similarly less over a period of about 30 years for a natural plant succession sequence than for an artificial one. Thus, the use of natural vegetation succession management principles would possibly reduce soil desiccation during vegetative restoration. Densities of root length, weight, and surface area, and the average root diameter of soybean ( Glycine max), alfalfa, Stipa bubgeana, and C. korshinskii all decreased with increases in soil depths below 20 cm. Correlations between SWC and root indices, and various soil physical and chemical properties, were generally weaker within the DSL layers than within the whole soil profile. The only significant correlation was between soil organic carbon and SWC under alfalfa ( r = 0.627, P < 0.05). Soil desiccation may thus interfere with these typical inter-relationships occurring within the whole soil profile. Our findings may provide a helpful base reference for the control and restoration of DSLs occurring on the Loess Plateau and in similar arid and semi-arid regions.

Wang, Yunqiang; Shao, Ming'an; Shao, Hongbo

2010-02-01

355

A preliminary investigation of the fish food web in the Gironde estuary, France, using dietary and stable isotope analyses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon and Nitrogen stable isotopes and stomach contents analyses were used to investigate an estuarine fish food web and identify the contribution of these two methods to the knowledge and understanding of the food web's structure and its functioning. The nine most abundant fish species during the warm period in the Gironde estuary (southwest France, Europe) are examined. Observation of the stomach contents reflects a variety of feeding modes between fish species that consume a diverse assortment of prey, with limited dietary overlap. Nevertheless, when regarding the whole fish community, few prey species dominate the stomach contents. Nitrogen isotope ratios indicate a high intraspecific variability inducing an interspecific covering of the signatures. However, a tendency to ? 15N enrichment according to the trophic position of the species studied was observed. Fish assemblages show a trend towards enrichment of their carbon isotopic signatures from the upper estuary (-20.8 ± 1.8‰) towards the lower estuary (-18.3 ± 1.6‰). But whatever the capture zone considered, most of the individual ? 13C values for each fish analysed are comprised between -22 and -16‰. Only few specimens, belonging to migratory amphihaline species, have significantly lighter values. The stomach contents method of analysis has the advantage of giving an initial view of the ichthyological trophic structure of the system by describing the food relations between a fish species and its prey. From these results, hypotheses can be drawn about the network's functioning, suggesting a sharing of resources between species and a "wasp-waist" control of this estuarine food web. The stable isotope analysis method enables us to improve our structural knowledge by positioning the different species in a food web, with their position being determined by the number of energy transfers (analysis of ? 15N). Conversely, in environments as complex and changing as estuaries, it appears difficult to precisely identify and quantify the sources of the organic matter at the base of the fish estuarine food webs using analysis of ? 13C isotopic signatures. Nevertheless, the results obtained by using these two methods in parallel suggest that more detailed functional ecological studies could be carried out in future.

Pasquaud, S.; Elie, P.; Jeantet, C.; Billy, I.; Martinez, P.; Girardin, M.

2008-06-01

356

Investigating the effects of microbial communities on electrical properties of soils: preliminary results from a pilot scale column experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we describe the results of a mesoscale pilot experiment designed to investigate the influence of biogeochemical processes on electrical conductivity of soils impacted by hydrocarbons. This is an interdisciplinary study integrating geophysics, geochemistry, and microbiology which was undertaken to: 1) verify microbial hydrocarbon degradation by monitoring changes in microbial types, population, and community structure, 2) document temporal changes in the electrical conductivity of soils, and 3) document changes in pore fluid geochemistry using major ions and stable carbon isotopes. We constructed duplicate soil columns as follows: Columns 1 and 2 had no bacteria, no diesel; columns 3 and 4 had diesel and no bacteria; columns 5 and 6 had bacteria and no diesel; and columns 7 and 8 had bacteria and diesel. Soil cores were sampled at 5 cm intervals and analyzed for bacteria using the most probable number (MPN) and the rDNA intergenic spacer region analyses (RISA) techniques. The MPN method showed an increase in the percentage of alkane degraders with time, and accounted for 1.2x (120%) the number of heterotrophic bacteria in colums 7 and 8 compared to less than 15% for the other columns. The RISA analysis of the communities in columns 7 and 8 showed a shift towards less diversity over time in response to the contaminant stress to a composition that is more capable of the utilization of an alkane as a carbon source. These results confirm microbial mineralization of diesel within contaminated columns. Electrical conductivity measurements were made using a Wenner array at 2 cm spacing. The electrical measurements show an initial decrease in conductivity. This is consistent with the diesel replacing the more conductive pore waters and changes in water saturation, especially within the unsaturated zone. However, a slow increase in conductivity was observed in column 7 overtime compared to the other columns. The slight increase in electrical conductivity for the contaminated column may be attributed to microbial degradation of hydrocarbon and secondary weathering of the soil minerals. However, the magnitude in the shift of the pore fluid chemistry does not appear to directly translate to changes in soil electrical conductivity. At present, since the experiment is still ongoing, we expect that as more degradation and mineral weathering occur in the soils columns, we should be able to model the magnitude of the pore fluid chemical change on the soil conductivity.

Atekwana, E.; Atekwana, E.; Werkema, D.; Duris, J.; Rossbach, S.; Sauck, W.; Koretsky, C.; Cassidy, D.; Means, J.; Sherrod, L.

2003-04-01

357

A Preliminary Investigation of the E-Beam Induced Polymerization of Maleimide and Norbornene End-capped Polyimides  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A research area of high activity in connection with aerospace engineering has been the development of polymer thermosetting resins that can resist temperature as high as 300 C while maintaining adequate toughness, and providing ease of processing to enable low temperature and low cost composite fabrication methods. In order to meet such requirements, sequential interpenetrating polymer networks (IPNs) based on bismaleimide (BMI) and cyanate ester (CE) monomers were investigated. In these systems, a polycyanurate network is first formed in the presence of BMI and appropriate reactive diluent monomers and in a second step, a network based on the BMI is created in the presence of a fully formed polycyanurate network. The materials developed can be processed at relatively low temperature (less than 150 C) and with the aid of electron beam (EB) curing. Of major importance to the success of this work was the identification of a reactive diluent that improves ease of processing and has tailored reactivity to allow for the controlled synthesis of CE-BMI sequential IPNs. Based on solubility and reactivity of a number of reactive diluents, N-acryloylmorpholine (AMP) was selected as a comonomer for BMI copolymerization. A donor-acceptoreaction mechanism was suggested to explain the relative reactivity of a variety of reactive diluents towards maleimide functionality. The optimum processing parameters for the formation of the first network were determined through the study of metal catalyzed cure and hydrolysis of cyanate esters, whereas the reaction behavior for second network formation in terms of the influence of EB dose rate and temperature was elucidated through an in-situ kinetics study of maleimide and AMP copolymerization. Structure-property relationships were developed which allowed for the design of improved resin systems. In particular, appropriate network coupler possessing cyanate ester and maleimide functionality was synthesized to link the polycyanurate first network to the BMI/AMP second network and thus form linked sequential IPNs (LIPNs). Consequently, Tg as high as 370 C was achieved and a fracture toughness of 120 Joules per square meters was obtained for resin systems that possess adequately low viscosity for processing using liquid molding techniques at low temperature.

Palmese, Giuseppe R.; Meador, Michael A. (Technical Monitor)

2005-01-01

358

A Fiery Investigation of the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) using Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs): Preliminary Results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) coincided with a global negative carbon isotope excursion, suggesting a massive perturbation to the global carbon cycle and a large release of 13C-depleted carbon to the atmosphere, oceans and biosphere. Several proposed sources of this carbon include ocean-floor methane clathrates, thermogenic methane, permafrost oxidation, and burning of peat and/or shallowly buried coal, but the exact source(s) remain unknown. The Paleocene was a time of extensive terrestrial organic carbon burial and some authors have suggested that a change in climate induced burning of the 13C-depleted carbon deposits. In this study a diverse suite of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), organic compounds produced as aerosols during combustion, were characterized and quantified in order to investigate evidence for fire during the PETM. We sampled intervals of cores from Basin Substation, Bighorn Basin, Wyoming, USA, collected as part of the Bighorn Basin Coring Project (BBCP). PAHs were evaluated using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in selective ion monitoring (SIM) mode. We found a range of two- to seven-ring PAHs from napthalene to coronene. For all samples the abundances of individual PAHs range from 0.1 - 100 ng/g dry sediment. Total PAH abundance (sum of 16 PAHs) is reduced in samples from the body of the PETM carbon isotope excursion relative to samples from the latest Paleocene (300 ng/g and 40 ng/g, respectively), although there is a spike in total PAH concentration (2300 ng/g) at or just before the onset of the PETM. The stratigraphic pattern of PAH abundance is consistent with a peak in wildfires at or just before the onset of the PETM, followed by a decrease in the body of the PETM, but also may reflect decreased preservation of organic matter during the hotter and more seasonally dry climate that this region experienced during the PETM. The latter explanation is consistent with a general decrease in organic matter preservation during the PETM interval in this core. Higher relative abundance of high molecular weight PAHs in PETM samples suggests hotter fire temperatures at that time, regardless of fire occurrence. A literal interpretation of the PAH record from the Basin Substation core would suggest more intense burns but less wildfire activity during the PETM, but the effect of changes in organic matter preservation must be eliminated before this interpretation can be accepted.

Denis, E. H.; Wing, S. L.; Freeman, K. H.

2012-12-01

359

Preliminary investigations on the determination of three-dimensional dose distributions using scintillator blocks and optical tomography  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Clinical QA in teletherapy as well as the characterization of experimental radiation sources for future medical applications requires effective methods for measuring three-dimensional (3D) dose distributions generated in a water-equivalent medium. Current dosimeters based on ionization chambers, diodes, thermoluminescence detectors, radiochromic films, or polymer gels exhibit various drawbacks: High quality 3D dose determination is either very sophisticated and expensive or requires high amounts of effort and time for the preparation or read out. New detectors based on scintillator blocks in combination with optical tomography are studied, since they have the potential to facilitate the desired cost-effective, transportable, and long-term stable dosimetry system that is able to determine 3D dose distributions with high spatial resolution in a short time.Methods: A portable detector prototype was set up based on a plastic scintillator block and four digital cameras. During irradiation the scintillator emits light, which is detected by the fixed cameras. The light distribution is then reconstructed by optical tomography, using maximum-likelihood expectation maximization. The result of the reconstruction approximates the 3D dose distribution. First performance tests of the prototype using laser light were carried out. Irradiation experiments were performed with ionizing radiation, i.e., bremsstrahlung (6 to 21 MV), electrons (6 to 21 MeV), and protons (68 MeV), provided by clinical and research accelerators.Results: Laser experiments show that the current imaging properties differ from the design specifications: The imaging scale of the optical systems is position dependent, ranging from 0.185 mm/pixel to 0.225 mm/pixel. Nevertheless, the developed dosimetry method is proven to be functional for electron and proton beams. Induced radiation doses of 50 mGy or more made 3D dose reconstructions possible. Taking the imaging properties into account, determined dose profiles are in agreement with reference measurements. An inherent drawback of the scintillator is the nonlinear light output for high stopping-power radiation due to the quenching effect. It impacts the depth dose curves measured with the dosimeter. For single Bragg peak distributions this leads to a peak to plateau ratio of 2.8 instead of 4.5 for the reference ionization chamber measurement. Furthermore, the transmission of the clinical bremsstrahlung beams through the scintillator leads to the saturation of one camera, making dose reconstructions in that case presently not feasible.Conclusions: It is shown that distributions of scintillation light generated by proton or electron beams can be reconstructed by the dosimetry system within minutes. The quenching apparent for proton irradiation, and the yet not precisely determined position dependency of the imaging scale, require further investigation and corrections. Upgrading the prototype with larger or inorganic scintillators would increase the detectable proton and electron energy range. The presented results show that the determination of 3D dose distributions using scintillator blocks and optical tomography is a promising dosimetry method.

Kroll, Florian; Karsch, Leonhard [OncoRay - National Center for Radiation Research in Oncology, Medical Faculty Carl Gustav Carus, TU Dresden, 01307 Dresden (Germany)] [OncoRay - National Center for Radiation Research in Oncology, Medical Faculty Carl Gustav Carus, TU Dresden, 01307 Dresden (Germany); Pawelke, Jörg [OncoRay - National Center for Radiation Research in Oncology, Medical Faculty Carl Gustav Carus, TU Dresden, 01307 Dresden, Germany and Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Institute of Radiation Physics, P.O. Box 510119, 01314 Dresden (Germany)] [OncoRay - National Center for Radiation Research in Oncology, Medical Faculty Carl Gustav Carus, TU Dresden, 01307 Dresden, Germany and Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Institute of Radiation Physics, P.O. Box 510119, 01314 Dresden (Germany)

2013-08-15

360

Assessing dry density and gravimetric water content of soils in geotechnics with complex conductivity measurements : preliminary investigations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quality controls of geotechnical works need gravimetric water content (w) and dry density (?d) measurements. Afterwards, results are compared to Proctor tests and referred to soil classification. Depending on the class of soils, different objectives must be achieved. Those measurements are usually carried out with neutron and gamma probes. Combined use of theses probes directly access (w, ?d). Theses probes show great disadvantages as: nuclear hazard, heavy on-site, transporation and storage restrictions and low sampling volumes. Last decades showed a strong development of electrical and electromagnetic methods for mapping water content in soils. Still, their use in Geotechnics is limited due to interfacial effects neglected in common models but strong in compacted soils. We first showed that (w, ?d) is equivalent to (?, Sr) assuming density of particles ?s=2.7 (g.cm-3). This assumption is true for common soils used in civil engineering. That first relationship allows us to work with meaningful parameters for geophysicists. Revil&Florsh recently adapted Vinegar&Waxman model for Spectal Induced Polarization (SIP) measurements at low frequencies (<50 kHz). This model relates quantitatively the electrical double layer polarization at the surface of grains. It takes into account saturation, porosity and granulometry. Standard granulometry and mineralogy are generally available in geotechnical campaigns. In-phase conductivity would be mostly related to saturation as quadrature conductivity would be related to porosity and surface conductivity. Although this model was developed for oil-bearing sands, we investigated its potential for compacted soils. Former DC-resistivity (?) measurements were carried out on a silty fined-grained soil (A1 in GTR classification or ML-CL in USCS) in a cylindrical cell (radius ~4 cm, heigth 7 cm). Median diameter of grain was 50 ?m. For each measurement, samples were compacted at Proctor energy. We assessed (w, ?d) by weighting and drying samples. We obtained ?d = 1.6-1.9 (g.cm-3) and w=7-14% which lead to ?=0.3-0.4 and Sr=0.3-0.8. Tap water (?w= 30 ?.m) was used for the experiment. We first evaluated the saturation factor n=1.35 by fitting a power law ?/?w =a*Sr^n+b. a=0.223 agreed with ?^(-n)=F, F being the formation factor. This leads to a mean tortuosity ?=1.47. b=0.5 might be related to surface conductivity. An empirical Rhoades-Corwin model also fit great to data. Revil&Florsh model allows us to predict a phase peak in case of complex conductivity measurements. We predicted a frequency peak at 2.4 Hz. This peak is well located in the frequency range of SIP (from 1 mHz to ~10 Hz). At the frequency peak, this model allows the direct evaluation of saturation and porosity. Hence, complex conductivity measurements might be a fine alternative to nuclear probes. Still, driving in electrodes in compacted soils remains difficult. Ongoing studies are looking further to extend this model to higher frequency range (5-200 kHz) where capacitively coupled resistivity arrays might be used allowing continuous measurements.

Kaouane, C.; Beck, Y.; Fauchard, C.; Chouteau, M.

2012-12-01

361

Preliminary Investigation in the NACA Low-Turbulence Tunnel of Low-Drag Airfoil Sections Suitable for Admitting Air at the Leading Edge  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An investigation was carried out in the NACA low-turbulence tunnel to develop low-drag airfoil sections suitable for admitting air at the leading edge. A thickness distribution having the desired type of pressure distribution was found from tests of a flexible model. Other airfoil shapes were derived from this original shape by varying the thickness, the camper, the leading-edge radius, and the size of the leading-edge opening. Data are presented giving the characteristics of the airfoil shapes in the range of lift coefficients for high-speed and cruising flight. Shapes have been developed which show no substantial increases in drag over that of the same position along the chord. Many of these shapes appear to have higher critical compressibility speeds than plain airfoils of the same thickness. Low-drag airfoil sections have been developed with openings in the leading edge as large as 41.5 percent of the maximum thickness. The range of lift coefficients for low drag in several cases is nearly as large as that of the corresponding plain airfoil sections. Preliminary measurements of maximum lift characteristics indicate that nose-opening sections of the type herein considered may not produce any marked effects on the maximum lift coefficient.

von Doenhoff, Albert E.; Horton, Elmer A.

1942-01-01

362

Spiritual Bypass: A Preliminary Investigation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The phenomenon of spiritual bypass has received limited attention in the transpersonal psychology and counseling literature and has not been subjected to empirical inquiry. This study examines the phenomenon of spiritual bypass by considering how spirituality, mindfulness, alexithymia (emotional restrictiveness), and narcissism work together to…

Cashwell, Craig S.; Glosoff, Harriet L.; Hammond, Cheree

2010-01-01

363

The stethoscope: some preliminary investigations  

PubMed Central

Textbooks, clinicians, and medical teachers differ as to whether the stethoscope bell or diaphragm should be used for auscultating respiratory sounds at the chest wall. Logic and our results suggest that stethoscope diaphragms are more appropriate.

Welsby, P; Parry, G; Smith, D

2003-01-01

364

A possible link between Balkan endemic nephropathy and the leaching of toxic organic compounds from Pliocene lignite by groundwater: Preliminary investigation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN) is a fatal kidney disease that is known to occur only in clusters of villages in alluvial valleys of tributaries of the Danube River in Bulgaria, Romania, Yugoslavia, Bosnia, and Croatia. The confinement of this disease to a specific geographic area has led to speculation that an environmental factor may be involved in the etiology of BEN. Numerous environmental factors have been suggested as causative agents for producing BEN, including toxic metals in drinking water, metal deficiency in soils of BEN areas, and environmental mycotoxins to name a few. These hypotheses have either been disproved or have failed to conclusively demonstrate a connection to the etiology of BEN, or the clustering of BEN villages. In previous work, we observed a distinct geographic relationship between the distribution of Pliocene lignites in the Balkans and BEN villages. We hypothesized that the long-term consumption of well water containing toxic organic compounds derived from the leaching of nearby Pliocene lignites by groundwater was a primary factor in the etiology of BEN. In our current work, chemical analysis using 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (13CNMR) spectroscopy indicated a high degree of organic functionality in Pliocene lignite from the Balkans, and suggested that groundwater can readily leach organic matter from these coal beds. Semi-quantitative gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy analysis of solvent extracts of groundwater from shallow wells in BEN villages indicated the presence of potentially toxic aromatic compounds, such as napthalene, fluorene, phenanthrene, and pyrene at concentrations in the ppb range. Laboratory leaching of Balkan Pliocene lignites with distilled water yielded soluble organic matter (> 500 MW) containing large amounts of aromatic structures similar to the simple/discrete aromatic compounds detected in well water from BEN villages. These preliminary results are permissive of our hypothesis and suggest that further work on the possible relationship between the etiology of BEN and toxic aromatic substances leached from Pliocene lignites in well water is warranted.A distinct geographic relationship between the distribution of Pliocene lignites in the Balkans and villages where Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN) occurs has been observed, indicating a possible link between BEN and the long-term consumption of well water containing toxic organic compounds derived from the leaching of nearby Pliocene lignites. Preliminary investigations by NMR spectroscopy, gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy and leaching experiments show a high degree of organic functionality in the Pliocene lignites, high-leachability by groundwater of organic matter from these beds, and the presence of toxic aromatic compounds.

Orem, W. H.; Feder, G. L.; Finkelman, R. B.

1999-01-01

365

Preliminary investigation of the effects of coal-water slurry fuels on the combustion in GE coal fueled diesel engine (Task 1. 1. 2. 2. 1, Fuels)  

SciTech Connect

In prior work with the coal fired diesel research engine, a necessity to determine the sensitivity of the engine to a wider range of fuels was resolved and included in the R and D Test Plan submitted on 2/9/89. In general, the economic viability and universal acceptance of the commercial engine will be a factor of its ability to tolerate the widest range of source fuels with minimal fuel beneficiation. As detailed in the R and D Test Plan, a preliminary investigation on the effects of coal-water slurry (CWS) fuels on the combustion in a GE single cylinder test engine was conducted. The following conclusions are obtained from this investigation. All the test CWS fuels were successfully burned in the GE engine combustion system. They include: 3 to 15 microns mean particle size; 0.7 to 2.8% ash level; KY Blue Gem and PA Mariana bituminous coal, WY Kemmer and Spring Creek Sub-Bituminous coal; coal beneficiated with physical and chemical processes; two kinds of additives for OTISCA CWS; and burnout is not effected by ash or particle size within the test range. For each kind of CWS fuel, the detail design parameters of the fuel injection system has to be compatible. With sufficiently high fuel injection pressure, the 3 micron mean particle size OTISCA fuel burns faster than the 5 micron ones. For OTISCA fuel, the burn rate using Ammonium Lignosulfonate as additive is faster than using Ammonium Condensed Naphthalene Sulfonate. Appendices contain data on heat release, fuel characterization reports from two laboratories, general engine test data, and particulate size distribution. 3 refs.

Not Available

1990-06-01

366

Pesticide/herbicide pollutants in the Kafue River and a preliminary investigation into their biological effect through catalase levels in fish.  

PubMed

The study determined the types of pesticide/herbicide pollutants in water, sediment and fish from the Kafue River. A preliminary investigation of the oxidative stress from these pesticides/herbicides was also assessed by measurement of catalase activity. Water, sediment and fish samples were collected upstream, midstream and downstream the Kafue river in Chingola, Kitwe, Kafue National Park and Kafue Town. Water, sediment and fish muscle were sampled and analysed for pesticides using Gas chromatography. For catalase activity fish liver samples only were examined. The pesticides/herbicides detected in all samples collectively included: Heptachlor, pp'-DDE, Cypermethrin, Chlordane, Toxaphene, Terbufos, Kelthane, Endosulfan, Dieldrin, pp'-DDD, pp'-DDT, Atrazine, Disulfoton, d-trans-Allethrin and Endrin. On the other hand, catalase activity was detected in all fish liver samples from all sites. Its levels increased significantly from Chingola upstream to sites downstream with highest being in Kafue town. This study therefore, demonstrates that there is widespread contamination of the Kafue River with pesticides/ herbicides. It also demonstrates that organochlorides are found throughout the river especially in fish samples. The spectrum of pesticides/herbicides was much wider in fish probably due to bioaccumulation. It was also observed that fish are subjected to oxidative stress as determined by catalase levels. The stress is more pronounced downstream where the catalase levels were significantly higher than Chingola. The observation that more pesticide varieties are also found downstream may suggest a likely causative effect of the pesticides on oxidative stress although this needs further investigation. This study further tentatively highlights the potential dangers of these agro-related substances to dependants of the Kafue River water body and the need to carry out risk assessments and thereafter institute corrective measures to help reduce contamination and adverse effects. PMID:17201197

Syakalima, Michelo; Choongo, Kennedy; Mwenechanya, Roy; Wepener, Victor; Yamasaki, Masahiro; Maede, Yoshimitsu

2006-11-01

367

A Preliminary Investigation of the Spence Children's Anxiety Parent Scale as a Screening Tool for Anxiety in Young People with Autism Spectrum Disorders.  

PubMed

Despite high rates of clinically elevated anxiety difficulties in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), very few studies have systematically examined the usefulness of commonly used caregiver report anxiety screening tools with this population. This study investigated the use of the Spence Children's Anxiety Scale-Parent version (SCAS-P) as a screening tool for anxiety disorders when compared to a standardized DSM-IV-TR-based clinical interview, the Kiddie-Schedule for Schizophrenia and Affective Disorders-Present and Lifetime version (K-SADS-PL). Thirty-two caregivers of youth with a clinical diagnosis of ASD (mean age 10.3 years) attending a specialist autism school participated in this study. They first completed the SCAS-P, a measure of adaptive functioning and a checklist of other emotional and behavioral difficulties. They were then interviewed with the K-SADS-PL. Internal consistency for the SCAS Total score was .88, but Cronbach's alphas were <.70 in three of the six SCAS-P subscales. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of the SCAS-P against K-SADS diagnosis were .75, .71, .27, and .95, respectively. All values were >.70, except for the PPV. Evidence of convergent validity between the SCAS-P, K-SADS-PL and DBC anxiety subscale was also found. The high false positive rates notwithstanding, the preliminary data of acceptable to excellent sensitivity, specificity and NPV values tentatively suggest that the SCAS-P may be useful for screening non-help seeking young people with ASD for elevated anxiety symptoms. Further replication in larger studies is needed and ways in which the SCAS-P could be further developed and investigated for use with youth with ASD are discussed. PMID:24573336

Zainal, Hani; Magiati, Iliana; Tan, Julianne Wen-Li; Sung, Min; Fung, Daniel S S; Howlin, Patricia

2014-08-01

368

Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod from Egypt, South Africa, and Venezuela. Investigation Nos. 731-TA-955, 960 and 963 (Preliminary) (Second Remand).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

By decision dated June 7, 2005, the Court of International Trade (the 'Court') remanded the Commission's preliminary determinations that subject imports of carbon and certain alloy steel wire rod ('wire rod') from South Africa individually, and Egypt, Sou...

2005-01-01

369

Preliminary investigation of soil and ground-water contamination at a U.S. Army Petroleum Training Facility, Fort Lee, Virginia, September-October 1989  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Fuel-oil constituents in the soil and groundwater at the Fort Lee Petroleum Training Facility near Petersburg, Virginia, were studied by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Department of Defense, U.S. Army. The study included installation of 25 groundwater monitoring wells and description of groundwater flow patterns of the shallow-aquifer system underlying the facility. Soil and groundwater samples were collected to determine the concentrations of fuel-oil constituents and to determine the potential for off-site migration of the constituents. Total petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations up to 18,400 mg/km were reported in soil samples. Concentrations of benzene in water from wells at the facility were up to 130 micrograms per liter (ug/L), and concentrations of ethylbenzene and xylene were up to 54 and 120 ug/L, respectively. Potential exists for off-site migration of the contaminants and migration of contaminants downward to deeper aquifers. Further investigations of these potential contamination-migration pathways are warranted. Risk identification at the Petroleum Training Facility cannot be properly addressed because the distribution of the fuel-oil constituents has not been fully characterized. Preliminary identification of risk, however is presented by an examination of toxicity data for the chemical constituents reported in the groundwater at the facility. Concentrations of constituents were compared to the maximum contaminant levels (MCLs) for drinking water established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). Concentrations of benzene in water from wells at the facility exceed the USEPA 's 5 ug/L MCL by as much as 26 times. Sufficient data are not available to fully design the remedial-action plan for the facility; however, general responses to contamination of the type associated with the facility include no-action, monitoring, institutional controls, removal, and treatment. (USGS)

Wright, W. G.; Powell, J. D.

1990-01-01

370

The Tiptop coal-mine fire, Kentucky: Preliminary investigation of the measurement of mercury and other hazardous gases from coal-fire gas vents  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Tiptop underground coal-mine fire in the Skyline coalbed of the Middle Pennsylvanian Breathitt Formation was investigated in rural northern Breathitt County, Kentucky, in May 2008 and January 2009, for the purpose of determining the concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), and mercury (Hg) in the vent and for measuring gas-vent temperatures. At the time of our visits, concentrations of CO2 peaked at 2.0% and > 6.0% (v/v) and CO at 600 ppm and > 700 ppm during field analysis in May 2008 and January 2009, respectively. For comparison, these concentrations exceed the U.S. Occupational Safety & Health Administration (OSHA) eight-hour safe exposure limits (0.5% CO2 and 50 ppm CO), although the site is not currently mined. Mercury, as Hg0, in excess of 500 and 2100 ??g/m3, in May and January, respectively, in the field, also exceeded the OSHA eight-hour exposure limit (50 ??g/m3). Carbonyl sulfide, dimethyl sulfide, carbon disulfide, and a suite of organic compounds were determined at two vents for the first sampling event. All gases are diluted by air as they exit and migrate away from a gas vent, but temperature inversions and other meteorological conditions could lead to unhealthy concentrations in the nearby towns. Variation in gas temperatures, nearly 300 ??C during the January visit to the fire versus < 50 ??C in May, demonstrates the large temporal variability in fire intensity at the Tiptop mine. These preliminary results suggest that emissions from coal fires may be important, but additional data are required that address the reasons for significant variations in the composition, flow, and temperature of vent gases. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V.

Hower, J. C.; Henke, K.; O'Keefe, J. M. K.; Engle, M. A.; Blake, D. R.; Stracher, G. B.

2009-01-01

371

Preliminary investigation of plasma levels of sex hormones and human growth factor(s), and P300 latency as correlates to cognitive decline as a function of gender  

PubMed Central

Background Aging is marked by declines in levels of many sex hormones and growth factors, as well as in cognitive function. The P300 event-related potential has been established as a predictor of cognitive decline. We decided to determine if this measure, as well as 2 standard tests of memory and attention, may be correlated with serum levels of sex hormones and growth factors, and if there are any generalizations that could be made based on these parameters and the aging process. Findings In this large clinically based preliminary study several sex-stratified associations between hormone levels and cognition were observed, including (1) for males aged 30 to 49, both IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 significantly associated negatively with prolonged P300 latency; (2) for males aged 30 to 49, the spearman correlation between prolonged P300 latency and low free testosterone was significant; (3) for males aged 60 to 69, there was a significant negative correlation between P300 latency and DHEA levels; (4) for females aged 50 to 59 IGFBP-3 significantly associated negatively with prolonged P300 latency; (5) for females at all age periods, estrogen and progesterone were uncorrelated with P300 latency; and (6) for females aged 40 to 69, there was significant negative correlation between DHEA levels and P300 latency. Moreover there were no statistically significant correlations between any hormone and Wechsler Memory Scale-III (WMS-111). However, in females, there was a significant positive correlation between estrogen levels and the number of Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) complaints. Conclusion Given certain caveats including confounding factors involving psychiatric and other chronic diseases as well as medications, the results may still have important value. If these results could be confirmed in a more rigorously controlled investigation, it may have important value in the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of cognitive impairments and decline.

Braverman, Eric R; Chen, Thomas JH; Chen, Amanda LC; Kerner, Mallory M; Tung, Howard; Waite, Roger L; Schoolfield, John; Blum, Kenneth

2009-01-01

372

AN INVESTIGATION OF ATTITUDINAL AND CREATIVITY FACTORS RELATED TO ACHIEVING AND NONACHIEVING CULTURALLY DISADVANTAGED YOUTH. PROJECT POTENTIAL PRELIMINARY DOCUMENTATION, VOLUME I.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THIS DOCUMENT EXTENSIVELY DESCRIBES THE PRELIMINARY PROGRESS OF A PROJECT TO IDENTIFY THE ATTITUDINAL AND CREATIVITY FACTORS WHICH AFFECT THE MOTIVATION OF CULTURALLY DISADVANTAGED STUDENTS (MEXICAN-AMERICANS, PARTICULARLY). THE PROJECT ASSUMES THAT AN AWARENESS OF THE MANIFESTATIONS OF A STUDENT'S CREATIVITY CAN GUIDE TEACHERS IN PREDICTING HIS…

METFESSEL, NEWTON S.

373

An Investigation into the Capacity of Student Motivation and Emotion Regulation Strategies to Predict Engagement and Resilience in the Middle School Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although most of the initial research on self-regulated learning focused on cognitive and meta-cognitive aspects, there has been a growing interest in the emotion and motivation domains of self-regulation. This article reports on research undertaken to investigate specific motivation and emotion regulation strategies used by middle school students…

Fried, Leanne; Chapman, Elaine

2012-01-01

374

River flood events as natural tracers for investigating the hydrological dynamics of a coupled river-aquifer system: preliminary results from 3D crosshole electrical resistivity monitoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research, on geoelectric monitoring of changing aquifer conditions associated with flood events of the River Thur in Switzerland, forms part of the much wider RECORD (REstored CORridor Dynamics) project. Major precipitation and snow-melt events cause rapid undamped fluctuations of discharge along the entire length of the river. River water that infiltrates the neighbouring aquifer normally has higher electrical resistivity than that of the groundwater during the early stages of flood events. This enables us to use infiltration during such events as a natural tracer in 3D time-lapse electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) experiments. Over a 10 x 15 m areal array, we have installed eighteen 12-m-deep monitoring boreholes spaced 3.5 m apart that completely penetrate the underlying 7-m-thick aquifer. Each borehole has been instrumented with ten 0.7-m-spaced electrodes that span the thickness of the aquifer. A multichannel resistivity meter, programmed to cycle through various 4-point electrode configurations of the 180 electrodes in a rolling sub-sequence, allows the collection of a 15,000-measurement data set every ~7 hours. Fourteen of these boreholes are also equipped with STS sensors that provide time-series of water-table depth and water temperature and electrical conductivity. Three-dimensional static ERT inversion at stable hydrological conditions was performed to investigate the resolving capability of our measuring sequence and to define the main lithological structures within the aquifer. Preliminary analyses of the ERT time series collected during a major flooding event this past summer suggest that the data are sensitive to three factors: water-level fluctuations in the aquifer, water-temperature variations, and electrical conductivity changes associated with changing salinity of the groundwater. The total changes in apparent resistivity are of the order of 20%. Since our primary interest is in the salinity effect that might be used to delineate preferential flowpaths, we need to correct the data for the other two effects. Based on electrical properties inferred from the static inversion and the STS data, we have performed extensive modelling. From the obtained synthetic data we have established the sensitivities to a changing water-table on each electrode configuration, allowing us to compute and apply corrections that help to linearize the time-lapse inverse problem. The temperature effect is generally smaller and can be linearly corrected on the basis of the STS measurements. The corrected data sets correspond well with the temporal variations observed in the electrical conductivity STS data and form an ideal data set for future time-lapse inversions aimed to understand the river-groundwater interactions.

Coscia, I.; Greenhalgh, S. A.; Linde, N.; Doetsch, J.; Vogt, T.; Green, A. G.

2009-12-01

375

Preliminary design of four aircraft to service the California Corridor in the year 2010: The California Condor, California Sky-Hopper, high capacity short range transport tilt rotor aircraft needed to simplify intercity transportation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The major objective of this project was to design an aircraft for use in the California Corridor in the year 2010. The design process, completed by students in a senior design class at California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo, used a Class 1 airplane design analysis from Jan Roskam's Airplane Design. The California Condor (CC-38), a 38 passenger, 400 mph aircraft, was designed to meet the needs of tomorrow's passengers while conforming to the California Corridor's restrictions. Assumptions were made using today's technology with forecasts into 21st Century technology. Doubling today's commuter aircraft passenger capacity, travelling at Mach .57 with improved cruise efficiencies of over 10 percent, with the ability to land within field lengths of 4000 feet, are the CC-38's strongest points. The California Condor has a very promising future in helping to relieve the air traffic and airport congestion in the 21st Century.

1989-01-01

376

A preliminary investigation of the Environmental Control and Life Support Subsystem (EC/LSS) for the space construction base manufacturing modules  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The preliminary data of the environmental control and life support subsystem for a space construction base manufacturing module was reported. A space processing module, which is capable of performing production biological experiments, was chosen as a baseline configuration. The primary assemblies and components considered for use were humidity and temperature control, ventilation fan, cabin fan, water separator, condensate storage, overboard dumping, distribution system, contaminant monitoring, cabin sensors, and fire and smoke detection.

Wells, H. B.

1977-01-01

377

Challenges for Capacity Building  

Microsoft Academic Search

For me then, the fundamental questions are two: what on earth is capacity building and what value can it add to current efforts by society to promote, preserve and protect the health of its people? Others have questions, too, including: why build capacity, how does capacity building differ from community development, why invest in capacity building - will it make

Stephen Leeder

378

Preliminary in-situ major and trace element and isotopic investigation of carbonatites and associated alkaline silica-undersaturated rocks from the Oka complex, Québec (Canada)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Oka carbonatite complex is one of the most westerly intrusions of the Monteregian Igneous Province (MIP), which is composed of plutons and dykes of alkaline compositions emplaced within southern Québec. Oka is geologically significant because: i. it is one of the youngest carbonatites in North America (between 109 ±2 and 131 ±7 Ma), ii. contains both a variety of carbonatitic and silicate rocks (e.g. alnöite, okaite), and iii. mined in the past for Nb (pyrochlore). The exact origin of the MIP alkaline intrusions still remains unknown and has been attributed to either melting of lithospheric mantle during the opening of the North Atlantic Ocean, a mantle plume origin, or linked to magmatism associated with the Vermont White Mountains and the New England seamounts. However, there remains much debate as to the exact origin of parental melts to carbonatites; i.e. models include derivation from lithosphere, a mixture between lithosphere and asthenosphere, or an asthenospheric (plume) origin. Whole rock Nd, Sr, and Pb isotope data from previous investigations of the Oka carbonatites indicate derivation from a time-integrated depleted mantle source. However, deciphering mantle sources and melt crystallization histories based on whole rock isotopic data is rendered difficult since previous studies of carbonatite-bearing, alkaline complexes indicate isotopic disequilibrium amongst co-existing minerals and/or with their corresponding host rock. Consequently, a multi-faceted study was initiated involving in-situ chemical (major and trace element) and isotopic (C, O, Sr, Nd, Pb, U-Pb) characterization of the dominant minerals at the micron scale in the carbonatites and associated alkaline Si-undersaturated rocks from Oka. Preliminary major and trace element analyses (electron microprobe analysis and laser ablation-ICP-MS) and in-situ Sr isotope analyses (laser ablation-MC-ICP-MS) of mainly carbonates were obtained for several carbonatites and a melilite-bearing okaite. Major element analyses reveal that carbonates are calcite and apatite is REE-enriched (>4 wt% total REEs). In-situ trace element analyses of calcite within 5 distinct areas of carbonatite sample Oka2.2 indicate similar REE abundances, and corresponding in-situ 87Sr/86Sr isotope values are extremely uniform (0.70322-0.70339; given associated uncertainties). In contrast, in-situ trace element analyses of calcite from okaite (Oka2.3) show variable REE abundances that correlate positively with their 87Sr/86Sr values (0.70270 - 0.70303). Apatite blades from sample Oka2.3 have higher 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.70325 - 0.70345) that overlap those for calcite from sample Oka2.2. Thus, the chemical and Sr isotope data obtained for calcites from samples Oka2.2 and Oka2.3 cannot be explained by either simple closed system crystal fractionation, assimilation-fractional crystallization (AFC), derivation by liquid immiscibility, or partial melting from the same mantle source. These first results clearly demonstrate that a complex crystallization history must be invoked, perhaps mixing of melts derived from isotopically distinct mantle reservoirs.

Simonetti, A.; Chen, W.

2010-12-01

379

Bearing capacity of desiccated tailings  

SciTech Connect

The development of matric suctions in soils contributes to their shear strength, resulting in an enhanced factor of safety against bearing-capacity failure. In this paper, matric suction profiles of desiccated mine tailings are predicted from a steady-state solution for evaporative conditions, and from an isothermal mathematical model that simulates liquid and vapor water flow through soils. The shear-strength envelope with respect to matric suction is established by testing reconstituted tailings samples in a modified triaxial cell, in which matric suction can be controlled. The contribution of matric suction to the shear strength is interpreted as an additional apparent cohesion for use in bearing-capacity calculations. Because of the nonlinearity of the shear-strength profile, a numerical method of analysis is adopted to predict the ultimate bearing capacity of the desiccated tailings. A subsequent decrease in bearing capacity following 2D water infiltration into a partially capped tailings deposit and accompanying suction loss is investigated.

Rassam, D.W.; Williams, D.J. [Univ. of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland (Australia). Dept. of Civil Engineering] [Univ. of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland (Australia). Dept. of Civil Engineering

1999-07-01

380

Preliminary Investigation of the Static Longitudinal and Lateral Stability Characteristics of a 0.05-Scale Model of the Convair F2Y-1 Airplane at High Subsonic Speeds  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

At the request of the Bureau of Aeronautics, Department of the Navy, National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics has conducted a preliminary investigation at high subsonic speeds of the static longitudinal and lateral stability characteristics of a 0.05-scale model of the Convair F2Y-1 water-based fighter airplane. The tests covered a Mach number range from 0.5 to 0.94 and corresponding Reynolds numbers, based on the wing mean aerodynamic chord, from 3.3 x 10(exp 6) to 4.3 x 10(exp 6). The maximum angle-of-attack range (obtained at the lower Mach numbers) was from -2 degrees to 25 degrees. Sideslip angles from -4 degrees to 12 degrees also were investigated. The investigation included effects of various arrangements of wing fences and of rocket packages.

Spreemann, Kenneth P.; Few, Albert G., Jr.

1954-01-01

381

Isotope phallogram: preliminary communication.  

PubMed Central

The isotope phallogram is an investigation which uses radioisotope-labelled red cells in the imaging of penile arterial blood flow. In a preliminary series of 12 impotent patients undergoing both internal iliac arteriography and isotope phallography, the penogram index described by Fannous et al. (1982) has been modified to derive an accurate indicator of vascular disease. Images Figure 1. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. A Figure 5. B

Townell, N H; Siraj, Q H; Hilson, A J; Dick, R; Morgan, R J

1985-01-01

382

In vitro investigations of the potential health benefits of Australian-grown faba beans (Vicia faba L.): chemopreventative capacity and inhibitory effects on the angiotensin-converting enzyme, ?-glucosidase and lipase.  

PubMed

The functional properties, including antioxidant and chemopreventative capacities as well as the inhibitory effects on angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), ?-glucosidase and pancreatic lipase, of three Australian-grown faba bean genotypes (Nura, Rossa and TF(Ic*As)*483/13) were investigated using an array of in vitro assays. Chromatograms of on-line post column derivatisation assay coupled with HPLC revealed the existence of active phenolics (hump) in the coloured genotypes, which was lacking in the white-coloured breeding line, TF(Ic*As)*483/13. Roasting reduced the phenolic content, and diminished antioxidant activity by 10-40 % as measured by the reagent-based assays (diphenylpicrylhydrazyl, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity) in all genotypes. Cell culture-based antioxidant activity assay (cellular antioxidant activity) showed an increase of activity in the coloured genotypes after roasting. Faba bean extracts demonstrated cellular protection ability against H?O?-induced DNA damage (assessed using RAW264.7 cells), and inhibited the proliferation of all human cancer cell lines (BL13, AGS, Hep G2 and HT-29) evaluated. However, the effect of faba bean extracts on the non-transformed human cells (CCD-18Co) was negligible. Flow cytometric analyses showed that faba bean extracts successfully induced apoptosis of HL-60 (acute promyelocytic leukaemia) cells. The faba bean extracts also exhibited ACE, ?-glucosidase and pancreatic lipase inhibitory activities. Overall, extracts from Nura (buff-coloured) and Rossa (red-coloured) were comparable, while TF(Ic*As)*483/13 (white-coloured) contained the lowest phenolic content and exhibited the least antioxidant and enzyme inhibition activities. These results are important to promote the utilisation of faba beans in human diets for various health benefits. PMID:22916808

Siah, Siem D; Konczak, Izabela; Agboola, Samson; Wood, Jennifer A; Blanchard, Christopher L

2012-08-01

383

Optimal entangling capacity of dynamical processes  

SciTech Connect

We investigate the entangling capacity of dynamical operations when provided with local ancilla. A comparison is made between the entangling capacity with and without the assistance of prior entanglement. An analytic solution is found for the log-negativity entangling capacity of two-qubit gates, which equals the entanglement of the Choi matrix isomorphic to the unitary operator. Surprisingly, the availability of prior entanglement does not affect this result, a property we call resource independence of the entangling capacity. We prove several useful upper bounds on the entangling capacity that hold for general qudit dynamical operations and for a whole family of entanglement monotones including log negativity and log robustness. The log-robustness entangling capacity is shown to be resource independent for general dynamics. We provide numerical results supporting a conjecture that the log-negativity entangling capacity is resource independent for all two-qudit unitary operators.

Campbell, Earl T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)

2010-10-15

384

Quantum capacities of bosonic channels.  

PubMed

We investigate the capacity of bosonic quantum channels for the transmission of quantum information. We calculate the quantum capacity for a class of Gaussian channels, including channels describing optical fibers with photon losses, by proving that Gaussian encodings are optimal. For arbitrary channels we show that achievable rates can be determined from few measurable parameters by proving that every channel can asymptotically simulate a Gaussian channel which is characterized by second moments of the initial channel. Along the way we provide a complete characterization of degradable Gaussian channels and those arising from teleportation protocols. PMID:17501173

Wolf, Michael M; Pérez-García, David; Giedke, Geza

2007-03-30

385

A preliminary investigation of insect colonization and succession on remains of rabbits treated with an organophosphate insecticide in El-Qalyubiya Governorate of Egypt.  

PubMed

A preliminary field study in the summer in a rural village in El-Qalyubiya Governorate (Egypt) compared the necrophagous insects colonizing the cadavers of two male rabbits (Oryctolagus cunicullus domesticus L.) killed by asphyxia (control), with two poisoned by the organophosphate (OP) pesticide pirimiphos-methyl (test). Decay of control carcasses was rapid since they reached the skeletal stage in only 19 days. Test carcasses did not decay completely, even 40 days post-killing. Insect species colonizing both carcasses types were not different, indicating that despite its odor, the OP were not masking the decomposition odors which were drawing the species to the bodies. The blowfly Chrysomya albiceps (Weidemann) constituted 76.6% of all samples collected. They were the first colonizers and played a major role in the decomposition process of control carcasses and in the partial decay of the test ones. They were significantly fewer numbers of immature stages developing on the test carcasses which probably contributed to their distinct lag and poor decomposition. Samples indicate that 17.3% of the insects were members of the Formicidae. This family was present in all carcasses, mostly in the early stages of decomposition. Formicidae may be considered omnivorous, and one of the fauna which use the cadaver as a refuge, to obtain humidity and food. This study provides additional knowledge in the context of Egyptian forensic entomology and the influence of OP which is of relevance to forensic science. PMID:21130587

Abd El-bar, M M; Sawaby, R F

2011-05-20

386

A preliminary investigation into a simple method for the determination of the mean ionisation energy of gas mixtures used in the NPL primary gas counting system.  

PubMed

The activity concentration of gaseous beta-emitting radionuclides such as (3)H, (85)Kr and, more recently, (11)C, is measured at NPL using a set of length-compensated proportional counters. The active gas is mixed with argon-methane (P-10) and passed to the counters. Adding gases to P-10 changes the mean ionisation energy, W, of the gas mixture. Estimation of the counting losses using the Monte Carlo model requires a knowledge of W. Unfortunately, only a limited amount of published data is available. This paper describes the initial experimental studies performed to enable the extension of the MC model based loss correction method to gases other than carbon dioxide in P-10. Preliminary measurements have been made to determine the W value for a gas mixture containing (85)Kr in nitrogen and P-10. The DC current through the counters is measured; the counters are also operated in the normal way with pulse amplifiers, discriminators and scalers. The value of W is derived from a knowledge of activity, counter current and mean beta energy. PMID:22609128

Phillips, H C; Sephton, J P; Johansson, L C; Dean, J C J

2012-09-01

387

A preliminary investigation of the mechanisms underlying the effect of berberine in preventing high-fat diet-induced insulin resistance in rats.  

PubMed

Berberine exerts insulin resistance-improving effects, the underlying mechanism of which is not well understood. We herein aimed to examine the effects of berberine on mediators of insulin signaling in pancreatic ?- and ?- islet cells and hepatocytes using a rat obesity model. Rats were fed the following diets for 22 weeks: normal control (NC); normal+berberine (NC+BBR 200 mg/kg/day); high-fat (HF); HF+BBR(1) (BBR 100 mg/kg/day); HF+BBR(2) (BBR 200 mg/kg/day). Metabolic parameters were assessed and mediators of insulin signaling were quantified by immunohistochemistry. The HF diet significantly increased body weight (BW), visceral fat (VF), the visceral fat to BW ratio (VF/BW), and insulin resistance index in the HF group compared with the NC group. Both doses of BBR significantly reduced HF diet-induced increases in BW, VF, and VF/BW. IR and IRS-1 expression in ?-cells was significantly lower in the HF group, but not the HF+BBR groups, compared with the NC and NC+BBR groups. Glucagon expression in ?-cells was significantly higher in the HF group compared with all other groups. IR expression in ?-cells was significantly lower in the HF group compared with the NC, NC+BBR, and HF+BBR(2) groups. IR expression in hepatocytes was significantly lower in the HF group compared with all groups. Our preliminary findings suggest that berberine may ameliorate the development of insulin resistance by differentially preventing alterations in expression of IR, IRS-1, and glucagon in ?-cells, ?-cells, and hepatocytes. PMID:23211304

Gu, J-J; Gao, F-Y; Zhao, T Y

2012-10-01

388

A full-scale pilot study to investigate the remediation potential of air sparging through a horizontal well oriented perpendicular to a contaminant plume: Preliminary results  

SciTech Connect

A full-scale, one-year pilot study of a new design of air sparging system is being conducted at a site in the Midwest where plumes of TCE-contaminated ground water have been identified in an unconfined sand and gravel aquifer in which ground water flows at approximately 0.5 feet/day. TCE concentrations in the ground water range up to several thousand {micro}g/L. A horizontal sparging well and associated soil vapor extraction (SVE) system have been constructed perpendicular to a contaminant plume immediately downgradient from its source. In addition, a vertical sparging well and SVE system have been constructed at the source to accelerate volatilization of TCE from the soil and ground water in the area of greatest contamination. All 24 SVE wells installed for the study are vertical. Although sparging from horizontal wells has been shown to be effective at other sites, this pilot study represents the first time to the authors knowledge that a horizontal sparging well has been oriented perpendicular to the ground water flow direction in order to intercept a contaminant plume. In this design, the horizontal air sparging well takes advantage of the natural ground water flow to maximize its zone of influence. Preliminary data from a network of 24 ground water monitoring wells and 15 vadose zone monitoring wells show that for a given air sparing flow rate, the radius of influence (lateral distance air travels through the aquifer) of the horizontal well is significantly greater than the radius of influence of the vertical well, although both wells are screened in similar sediments at the same depth below the water table.

Wade, A.; Wallace, G.W.; Seigwald, S.F. [Woodward-Clyde Consultants, Overland Park, KS (United States)

1995-09-01

389

Some investigations of the general instability of stiffened metal cylinders II : preliminary tests of wire-braced specimens and theoretical studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is the second of a series of reports covering an investigation of the general instability problem by the California Institute of Technology. The first five reports of this series cover investigations of the general instability problem under the loading conditions of pure bending and were prepared under the sponsorship of the Civil Aeronautics Administration. The succeeding reports of this series cover the work done on other loading conditions under the sponsorship of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics.

1943-01-01

390

Functionality of Fish Muscle: Emulsification Capacity.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The emulsification capacity of white muscle of Oregon groundfish was investigated--English sole, sand sole, petrale sole, lingcod, and orange rockfish emulsified 75-80 ml oil/g muscle. Little variation was found in the emulsifying capacity of samples from...

E. A. Childs

1973-01-01

391

Thought suppression, intelligence, and working memory capacity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The importance of individual differences in intelligence and working memory capacity in predicting the ability to intentionally suppress thoughts was investigated. Sixty participants completed a thought suppression task, and measures of working memory capacity (OSPAN), fluid intelligence (Raven’s Matrices), and crystallised intelligence (the National Adult Reading Test). As predicted, the results indicated that more effective thought suppression was independently related

C. R. Brewin; A. Beaton

2002-01-01

392

Isochoric Heat Capacity of Water and Steam.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Short review of the methods of determination of (C sub v); Method of experimental determination of heat capacity (C sub v) in the case of high parameters; Results of experimental investigations of isochoric heat capacity of water and steam; Heat...

K. I. Amirkhanov G. V. Stepanov B. G. Alibekov

1974-01-01

393

Storage capacity of the Tilinglike Learning Algorithm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The storage capacity of an incremental learning algorithm for the parity machine, the Tilinglike Learning Algorithm, is analytically determined in the limit of a large number of hidden perceptrons. Different learning rules for the simple perceptron are investigated. The usual Gardner-Derrida rule leads to a storage capacity close to the upper bound, which is independent of the learning algorithm considered. .

Buhot, Arnaud; Gordon, Mirta B.

2001-02-01

394

Reconstruction in Aceh: Building whose capacity?  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractOne of the dominant themes in development programmes over the last fifteen years has been a commitment to capacity building. This paper investigates the forms of capacity building in Aceh, Indonesia, since the devastating earthquake and tsunami that hit the province on 26 December 2004. Despite the preference of the Acehnese people for reconstruction processes based on the principles of

Sue Kenny

2007-01-01

395

The Relationship of Resting Cerebral Blood Flow and Brain Activation during a Social Cognition Task in Adolescents with Chronic Moderate to Severe Traumatic Brain Injury: A Preliminary Investigation  

PubMed Central

Alterations in cerebrovascular function are evident acutely in moderate to severe traumatic brain injury (TBI), although less is known about their chronic effects. Adolescent and adult patients with moderate to severe TBI have been reported to demonstrate diffuse activation throughout the brain during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Because fMRI is a measure related to blood flow, it is possible that any deficits in blood flow may alter activation. An arterial spin labeling (ASL) perfusion sequence was performed on seven adolescents with chronic moderate to severe TBI and seven typically developing (TD) adolescents during the same session in which they had performed a social cognition task during fMRI. In the TD group, prefrontal CBF was positively related to prefrontal activation and negatively related to non-prefrontal, posterior, brain activation. This relationship was not seen in the TBI group, who demonstrated a greater relationship between prefrontal CBF and non-prefrontal activation than the TD group. An analysis of CBF data independent of fMRI showed reduced CBF in the right non-prefrontal region (p<.055) in the TBI group. To understand any role reduced CBF may play in diffuse, extra-activation, we then related the right non-prefrontal CBF to activation. CBF in the right non-prefrontal region in the TD group was positively associated with prefrontal activation, suggesting an interactive role of non-prefrontal and prefrontal blood flow throughout the right hemisphere in healthy brains. However, the TBI group demonstrated a positive association with activation constrained to the right non-prefrontal region. These data suggest a relationship between impaired non-prefrontal CBF and the presence of non-prefrontal extra-activation, where the region with more limited blood flow is associated with activation limited to that region. In a secondary analysis, pathology associated with hyperintensities on T2-weighted FLAIR imaging over the whole brain was related to whole brain activation, revealing a negative relationship between lesion volume and frontal activation, and a positive relationship between lesion volume and posterior activation. These preliminary data, albeit collected with small sample sizes, suggest that reduced non-prefrontal CBF, and possibly pathological tissue associated with T2-hyperintensities, may provide contributions to the diffuse, primarily posterior extra-activation observed in adolescents following moderate to severe TBI.

Newsome, Mary R.; Scheibel, Randall S.; Chu, Zili; Hunter, Jill V.; Li, Xiaoqi; Wilde, Elisabeth A.; Lu, Hanzhang; Wang, Zhiyue J.; Lin, Xiaodi; Steinberg, Joel L.; Vasquez, Ana C.; Cook, Lori; Levin, Harvey S.

2011-01-01

396

Preliminary Results of an Altitude-Wind-Tunnel Investigation of a TG-100A Gas Turbine-Propeller Engine. V; Combustion-Chamber Characteristics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An investigation to determine the performance and operational characteristics of the TG-1OOA gas turbine-propeller engine was conducted in the Cleveland altitude wind tunnel. As part of this investigation, the combustion-chamber performance was determined at pressure altitudes from 5000 to 35,000 feet, compressor-inlet rm-pressure ratios of 1.00 and 1.09, and engine speeds from 8000 to 13,000 rpm. Combustion-chamber performance is presented as a function of corrected engine speed and.correcte& horsepower. For the range of corrected engine speeds investigated, over-all total-pressure-loss ratio, cycle efficiency, ana the frac%ional loss in cycle efficiency resulting from pressure losses in the combustion chambers were unaffected by a change in altitude or compressor-inlet ram-pressure ratio. The scatter of combustion- efficiency data tended to obscure any effect of altitude or ram-pressure ratio. For the range of corrected horse-powers investigated, the total-pressure-loss ratio an& the fractional loss in cycle efficiency resulting from pressure losses in the combustion chambers decreased with an increase in corrected horsepower at a constant corrected engine speed. The combustion efficiency remained constant for the range of corrected horse-powers investigated at all corrected engine speeds.

Gensenheyner, Robert M.; Berdysz, Joseph J.

1947-01-01

397

Preliminary Results of an Altitude-Wind-Tunnel Investigation of an Axial-Flow Gas Turbine-Propeller Engine. 5; Combustion-Chamber Characterisitcs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An investigation to determine the performance and operational characteristics of an axial-flow gas turbine-propeller engine was conducted in the Cleveland altitude wind tunnel. As part of this investigation, the combustion-chamber performance was determined at pressure altitudes from 5000 to 35,000 feet, compressor-inlet ram-pressure ratios of 1.00 and 1.09, and engine speeds from 8000 to 13,000 rpm. Combustion-chamber performance is presented as a function of corrected engine speed and corrected horsepower. For the range of corrected engine speeds investigated, overall total-pressure-loss ratio, cycle efficiency, and the fractional loss in cycle efficiency resulting from pressure losses in the combustion chambers were unaffected by a change in altitude or compressor-inlet ram-pressure ratio. For the range of corrected horsepowers investigated, the total-pressure-loss ratio and the fractional loss in cycle efficiency resulting from pressure losses in the combustion chambers decreased with an increase in corrected horsepower at a constant corrected engine speed. The combustion efficiency remained constant for the range of corrected horsepowers investigated at all corrected engine speeds.

Geisenheyner, Robert M.; Berdysz, Joseph J.

1948-01-01

398

Nonequilibrium heat capacity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Development of steady state thermodynamics and statistical mechanics depends crucially on our ability to extend the notions of equilibrium thermodynamics to nonequilibrium steady states (NESS). The present paper considers the extension of heat capacity. A modified definition is proposed which continues to maintain the same relation to steady state Shannon entropy as in equilibrium, thus providing a thermodynamically consistent treatment of NESS heat capacity.

Mandal, Dibyendu

2013-12-01

399

Problems of excess capacity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The problems of excess capacity in the airline industry are discussed with focus on the following topics: load factors; fair rate of return on investment; service-quality rivalry among airlines; pricing (fare) policies; aircraft production; and the impacts of excess capacity on operating costs. Also included is a discussion of the interrelationships among these topics.

Douglas, G.

1972-01-01

400

Liquid heat capacity lasers  

DOEpatents

The heat capacity laser concept is extended to systems in which the heat capacity lasing media is a liquid. The laser active liquid is circulated from a reservoir (where the bulk of the media and hence waste heat resides) through a channel so configured for both optical pumping of the media for gain and for light amplification from the resulting gain.

Comaskey, Brian J. (Walnut Creek, CA); Scheibner, Karl F. (Tracy, CA); Ault, Earl R. (Livermore, CA)

2007-05-01

401

Accurate watermarking capacity evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Defined as the maximum amount of information which can be inserted in an original media for prescribed transparency and robustness, watermarking capacity has been a challenging research topic in the last years. The present paper allows several current limitations in this respect to be overcame. As the capacity strongly depends on the attack statistical behaviour, the first part of our

O. Dumitru; M. Mitrea

2007-01-01

402

Knudsen heat capacity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a "Knudsen heat capacity" as a more appropriate and useful fluid property in micro/nanoscale gas systems than the constant pressure heat capacity. At these scales, different fluid processes come to the fore that are not normally observed at the macroscale. For thermodynamic analyses that include these Knudsen processes, using the Knudsen heat capacity can be more effective and physical. We calculate this heat capacity theoretically for non-ideal monatomic and diatomic gases, in particular, helium, nitrogen, and hydrogen. The quantum modification for para and ortho hydrogen is also considered. We numerically model the Knudsen heat capacity using molecular dynamics simulations for the considered gases, and compare these results with the theoretical ones.

Babac, Gulru; Reese, Jason M.

2014-05-01

403

Nanofluid heat capacities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Significant increases in the heat capacity of heat transfer fluids are needed not only to reduce the costs of liquid heating and cooling processes, but also to bring clean energy producing technologies like concentrating solar power (CSP) to price parity with conventional energy generation. It has been postulated that nanofluids could have higher heat capacities than conventional fluids. In this work, nano- and micron-sized particles were added to five base fluids (poly-? olefin, mineral oil, ethylene glycol, a mixture of water and ethylene glycol, and calcium nitrate tetrahydrate), and the resulting heat capacities were measured and compared with those of the neat base fluids and the weighted average of the heat capacities of the components. The particles used were inert metals and metal oxides that did not undergo any phase transitions over the temperature range studied. In the nanofluids studied here, we found no increase in heat capacity upon the addition of the particles larger than the experimental error.

Starace, Anne K.; Gomez, Judith C.; Wang, Jun; Pradhan, Sulolit; Glatzmaier, Greg C.

2011-12-01

404

Combined SEM (secondary electrons, backscatter, cathodoluminescence) and atomic force microscope investigation of fracture surfaces in Martian meteorite ALH84001: preliminary results  

Microsoft Academic Search

A variety of microscope techniques have been used to study surficial phenomena on the fracture surfaces of the Martian meteorite ALH84001. The aim of the investigation was to determine the most useful microscopy methods in the search for morphological signs of biogenic activity. Emphasis was placed on scanning electron microscopy (SEM) using secondary, backscatter and cathodoluminescence modes combined with observation

Frances Westall; Pier Giorgio Gobbi; Giovanni Mazzoti; Dane Gerneke; Robert W. Stark; Tanya Dobrek; Wolfgang M. Heckl; Everett J. Gibson; David S. McKay; Carlton Allen; Andrew Steele; Kathy L. Thomas-Keprta

1998-01-01

405

Polyethylene Tererphthalate (PET) Resin from India, Indonesia, Taiwan, and Thailand. Investigations Nos. 701-TA-439-440 and 731-TA-1077-1080 (Preliminary).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Based on the record in these investigations, the Commission finds that there is a reasonable indication that an industry in the United State sis materially injured by reason of imports of bottle-grade polyethylene terephthalate resin (PET resin) from Indi...

2004-01-01

406

A Preliminary Investigation of Second- and Fourth-Grade African American Students' Performance on the Gray Oral Reading Test-Fourth Edition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Research has established that African American (AA) children are lagging behind other children in their reading skills. A number of factors have been proposed to account for the literacy gap; however no single factor has entirely explained this disparity. This investigation examined the appropriateness of the Gray Oral Reading Test-Fourth…

Champion, Tempii B.; Rosa-Lugo, Linda I.; Rivers, Kenyatta O.; McCabe, Allyssa

2010-01-01

407

Preliminary Results of an Altitude-Wind-Tunnel Investigation of an Axial-Flow Gas Turbine-Propeller Engine. 2; Windmilling Characteristics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Wind tunnel investigations were performed to determine the performance properties of an axial-flow gas turbine-propeller engine II. Windmilling characteristics were determined for a range of altitudes from 5000 to 35,000 feet, true airspeeds from 100 to 273 miles per hour, and propeller blade angles from 4 degrees to 46 degrees.

Conrad, E. W.; Durham, J. D.

1948-01-01

408

A Preliminary Investigation into the Effects of a Brief Mindfulness Induction on Perceptions of Attention, Aesthetic Response, and Flow during Music Listening  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a brief mindfulness induction technique on subjective reports of attention, aesthetic response, and flow during music listening as measured by Continuous Response Digital Interface (CRDI) and questionnaire. Additionally, differences between aesthetic response and flow were explored in the context of verbal and CRDI responses. Participants were undergraduate and graduate

Frank Michael Diaz

2010-01-01

409

Certain Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bars from Austria, Belarus, China, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Latvia, Moldova, Poland, Russia, Ukraine, and Venezuela. Investigation Nos. 731-TA-872-883 (Preliminary).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

On the basis of the record developed in the subject investigations, the United States International Trade Commission determines, pursuant to section 733(a) of the Tariff Act of 1930 (19 U.S.C. paragraph 1673b(a)), that there is a reasonable indication tha...

2000-01-01

410

Psychological Distress, Acculturation, and Mental Health-Seeking Attitudes among People of African Descent in the United States: A Preliminary Investigation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article investigates the relationship between psychological distress, acculturation, and help-seeking attitudes among people of African descent (N = 130). Psychological distress was measured using the Global Severity Index from the Brief Symptom Inventory (L. R. Derogatis & N. Melisaratos, 1983), acculturation was measured using the…

Obasi, Ezemenari M.; Leong, Frederick T. L.

2009-01-01

411

A capacity evaluation and trading model for semiconductor foundry manufacturing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study addresses a capacity-trading problem for semiconductor foundry manufacturing. Because of the geographic proximity\\u000a of fabs, a semiconductor foundry with insufficient capacity can purchase capacity from partner fabs as a short-term solution\\u000a if a capacity-trading agreement has been established. Capacity-trading with partners could be considered as a source for enhancing\\u000a competitiveness of factory clusters. This investigation presents several linear

Ai-Hsuan Chiang; Yon-Chun Chou; Wun-Hwa Chen

2011-01-01

412

Photoprotective capacities of lichen metabolites: a joint theoretical and experimental study.  

PubMed

The adaptative capacity of lichens to UV radiation could be expressed by the production of photo-absorbing secondary metabolites in thalli. A preliminary screening performed on twelve lichen species by high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) revealed five major compounds absorbing in the UVA (315-400nm) or UVB (280-315nm) ranges in Diploicia canescens. After phytochemical investigation of this lichen, twelve metabolites have been isolated and characterized. Those obtained in sufficient quantities were evaluated for their photoprotective capacities and compared to three referent sunscreens. Experimental spectra were compared to theoretical spectra as obtained at the TD-DFT level of theory. Different DFT functionals were tested to accurately reproduce the UV/Vis spectra of five depsidones, one diphenylether and two bisxanthones. Results indicate that absorption wavelengths and molecular extinction coefficients (oscillator strengths) obtained for the bisxanthones were similar to those of the UVA referent sunscreen. PMID:22516892

Millot, Marion; Di Meo, Florent; Tomasi, Sophie; Boustie, Joël; Trouillas, Patrick

2012-06-01

413

The effect of aloe vera gel on the anti-acne properties of the essential oil of Ocimum gratissimum Linn leaf – a preliminary clinical investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim: This study was designed to investigate possible synergistic effect of aloe vera gel on the anti-acne properties of Ocimum gratissimum oil and to compare the activities of both agents singly and in combinations with the anti-acne agent Dalacin™ – a 1% Clindamycin phosphate solution.Methods: 84 subjects presenting with clinically significant Acne vulgaris (mainly undergraduates of a University) were randomly

L. O Orafidiya; E. O Agbani; A. O Oyedele; O. O Babalola; O Onayemi; F. F Aiyedun

2004-01-01

414

Effects of Psychophysical Lifting Training on Maximal Repetitive Lifting Capacity.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effectiveness of psychophysical lifting training on maximal repetitive lifting capacity. Maximal repetitive lifting capacity was defined as the maximum box mass that could be lifted for a full hour to...

M. A. Sharp S. J. Legg

1987-01-01

415

Preliminary Results of an Altitude-Wind-Tunnel Investigation of an Axial-Flow Gas Turbine-Propeller Engine. 4; Compressor and Turbine Performance Characteristics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As part of an investigation of the performance and operational characteristics of the axial-flow gas turbine-propeller engine, conducted in the Cleveland altitude wind tunnel, the performance characteristics of the compressor and the turbine were obtained. The data presented were obtained at a compressor-inlet ram-pressure ratio of 1.00 for altitudes from 5000 to 35,000 feet, engine speeds from 8000 to 13,000 rpm, and turbine-inlet temperatures from 1400 to 2100 R. The highest compressor pressure ratio obtained was 6.15 at a corrected air flow of 23.7 pounds per second and a corrected turbine-inlet temperature of 2475 R. Peak adiabatic compressor efficiencies of about 77 percent were obtained near the value of corrected air flow corresponding to a corrected engine speed of 13,000 rpm. This maximum efficiency may be somewhat low, however, because of dirt accumulations on the compressor blades. A maximum adiabatic turbine efficiency of 81.5 percent was obtained at rated engine speed for all altitudes and turbine-inlet temperatures investigated.

Wallner, Lewis E.; Saari, Martin J.

1948-01-01

416

Reducing Excess Hospital Capacity.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Hospital capacity, defined as the capability of a given hospital to perform services and generate costs, is discussed. This report, which is based on a review of the literature and on interviews with planners, hospital administrators, and other experts, c...

W. McClure

1976-01-01

417

Measurement of the visual attention patterns of people with aphasia: a preliminary investigation of two types of human engagement in photographic images.  

PubMed

Abstract The focus of this investigation was to examine the visual attention patterns of adults with aphasia on task-engaged contextualized images in which a human figure was engaged with the context of the image and camera-engaged contextualized images in which a human figure was looking forward toward the camera. Analysis revealed that adults with aphasia tend to fixate rapidly and frequently on human figures in contextualized images regardless of the type of engagement in the image. In addition, they responded to engagement cues when viewing task-engaged contextualized images by fixating more frequently and more rapidly on the object area of interest for these images than for camera-engaged contextualized images. PMID:24785409

Thiessen, Amber; Beukelman, David; Ullman, Cara; Longenecker, Maria

2014-06-01

418

Panama Canal capacity analysis  

SciTech Connect

Predicting the transit capacities of the various Panama Canal alternatives required analyzing data on present Canal operations, adapting and extending an existing computer simulation model, performing simulation runs for each of the alternatives, and using the simulation model outputs to develop capacity estimates. These activities are summarized in this paper. A more complete account may be found in the project final report (TAMS 1993). Some of the material in this paper also appeared in a previously published paper (Rosselli, Bronzini, and Weekly 1994).

Bronzini, M.S. [Oak Ridge National Lab., Knoxville, TN (United States). Center for Transportation Analysis

1995-04-27