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Sample records for capacity preliminary investigation

  1. 33 CFR 116.15 - Preliminary investigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...the necessity of a Detailed Investigation, to the Administrator... (b) The Preliminary Investigation Report will include a...and future navigation, the type and volume of waterway traffic...will review the Preliminary Investigation Report and make a...

  2. 33 CFR 116.15 - Preliminary investigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...the necessity of a Detailed Investigation, to the Administrator... (b) The Preliminary Investigation Report will include a...and future navigation, the type and volume of waterway traffic...will review the Preliminary Investigation Report and make a...

  3. 18 CFR 1b.6 - Preliminary investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Preliminary investigations. 1b.6 Section 1b.6 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.6 Preliminary investigations....

  4. 18 CFR 1b.6 - Preliminary investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Preliminary investigations. 1b.6 Section 1b.6 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.6 Preliminary investigations....

  5. 18 CFR 1b.6 - Preliminary investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Preliminary investigations. 1b.6 Section 1b.6 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.6 Preliminary investigations....

  6. Explosive volcanic deposits on Mars: Preliminary investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crown, D. A.; Leshin, L. A.; Greeley, Ronald

    1987-01-01

    Two investigations were undertaken to examine possible large scale explosive volcanic deposits on Mars. The first includes an analysis of Viking Infrared Thermal Mapper (IRTM) data covering the vast deposits in the Amazonis, Memnonia, and Aeolis regions. These postulated ignimbrites have been previously mapped, and at least five high resolution nighttime IRTM data tracks cross the deposits. Preliminary analysis of the data covering Amazonis Planitia show that local features have anomalous thermal inertias but the ignimbrites as a whole do not consistently have significantly different thermal inertias from their surroundings. Preliminary photogeologic and IRTM studies of the large and small highland paterae have also begun. The purpose of IRTM studies of postulated Martian explosive volcanic deposits is to determine the physical properties of the proposed ignimbrites. If volcanic deposits are exposed at the surface, high thermal inertias, as are observed for Apollinaris Patera, should be present.

  7. Capacity-to-Consent in Psychiatric Research: Development and Preliminary Testing of a Screening Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zayas, Luis H.; Cabassa, Leopoldo J.; Perez, M. Carmela

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Assuring research participants' capacity to provide informed consent has become increasingly important in health and mental health research, and each study faces unique capacity-assessment challenges, possibly requiring its own screening tool. This article describes the development and preliminary testing of a capacity-to-consent tool…

  8. Preliminary Investigation of an Active PLZT Lens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lightsey, W. D.; Peters, B. R.; Reardon, P. J.; Wong, J. K.

    2001-01-01

    The design, analysis and preliminary testing of a prototype Adjustable Focus Optical Correction Lens (AFOCL) is described. The AFOCL is an active optical component composed of solid state lead lanthanum-modified zirconate titanate (PLZT) ferroelectric ceramic with patterned indium tin oxide (ITO) transparent surface electrodes that modulate the refractive index of the PLZT to function as an electro-optic lens. The AFOCL was developed to perform optical re-alignment and wavefront correction to enhance the performance of Ultra-Lightweight Structures and Space Observatories (ULSSO). The AFOCL has potential application as an active optical component within a larger optical system. As such, information from a wavefront sensor would be processed to provide input to the AFOCL to drive the sensed wavefront to the desired shape and location. While offering variable and rapid focussing capability (controlled wavefront manipulation) similar to liquid crystal based spatial light modulators (SLM), the AFOCL offers some potential advantages because it is a solid-state, stationary, low-mass, rugged, and thin optical element that can produce wavefront quality comparable to the solid refractive lens it replaces. The AFOCL acts as a positive or negative lens by producing a parabolic phase-shift in the PLZT material through the application of a controlled voltage potential across the ITO electrodes. To demonstrate the technology, a 4 mm diameter lens was fabricated to produce 5-waves of optical power operating at 2.051 micrometer wavelength. Optical metrology was performed on the device to measure focal length, optical quality, and efficiency for a variety of test configurations. The data was analyzed and compared to theoretical data available from computer-based models of the AFOCL.

  9. Multiscale Eddy Simulation for Moist Atmospheric Convection: Preliminary Investigation

    E-print Network

    Stechmann, Samuel N.

    Multiscale Eddy Simulation for Moist Atmospheric Convection: Preliminary Investigation Samuel N convection and clouds. In this multi- scale framework, large eddy simulation (LES) is used to model deterministic closures. To illustrate MES and investigate its multiscale dynamics, a shallow cumulus cloud field

  10. Heat Capacity Mapping Mission investigation no. 25 (Tellus project)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deparatesi, S. G. (principal investigator); Reiniger, P. (editor)

    1982-01-01

    The TELLUS pilot project, utilizing 0.5 to 1.1 micron and 10.5 to 12.5 micron day and/or night imagery from the Heat Capacity Mapping Mission, is described. The application of remotely sensed data to synoptic evaluation of evapotranspiration and moisture in agricultural soils was considered. The influence of topography, soils, land use, and meteorology on surface temperature distribution was evaluated. Anthropogenic heat release was investigated. Test areas extended from semi-arid land in southern Italy to polders in the Netherlands, and from vine-growing hills in the Rhineland to grasslands in Buckinghamshire.

  11. 49 CFR 850.10 - Preliminary investigation by the Coast Guard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...Preliminary investigation by the Coast Guard. 850.10 Section 850.10...NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD COAST GUARD-NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SAFETY...Preliminary investigation by the Coast Guard. (a) The Coast Guard...

  12. 49 CFR 850.10 - Preliminary investigation by the Coast Guard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...Preliminary investigation by the Coast Guard. 850.10 Section 850.10...NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD COAST GUARD-NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SAFETY...Preliminary investigation by the Coast Guard. (a) The Coast Guard...

  13. 49 CFR 850.10 - Preliminary investigation by the Coast Guard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...Preliminary investigation by the Coast Guard. 850.10 Section 850.10...NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD COAST GUARD-NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SAFETY...Preliminary investigation by the Coast Guard. (a) The Coast Guard...

  14. 49 CFR 850.10 - Preliminary investigation by the Coast Guard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...Preliminary investigation by the Coast Guard. 850.10 Section 850.10...NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD COAST GUARD-NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SAFETY...Preliminary investigation by the Coast Guard. (a) The Coast Guard...

  15. 49 CFR 850.10 - Preliminary investigation by the Coast Guard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...Preliminary investigation by the Coast Guard. 850.10 Section 850.10...NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD COAST GUARD-NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SAFETY...Preliminary investigation by the Coast Guard. (a) The Coast Guard...

  16. 19 CFR 207.12 - Notice of preliminary phase of investigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...NONADJUDICATIVE INVESTIGATIONS INVESTIGATIONS OF WHETHER INJURY TO DOMESTIC INDUSTRIES RESULTS FROM IMPORTS SOLD AT LESS THAN FAIR VALUE OR FROM SUBSIDIZED EXPORTS TO THE UNITED STATES Preliminary Determinations § 207.12 Notice of preliminary...

  17. 19 CFR 207.12 - Notice of preliminary phase of investigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...NONADJUDICATIVE INVESTIGATIONS INVESTIGATIONS OF WHETHER INJURY TO DOMESTIC INDUSTRIES RESULTS FROM IMPORTS SOLD AT LESS THAN FAIR VALUE OR FROM SUBSIDIZED EXPORTS TO THE UNITED STATES Preliminary Determinations § 207.12 Notice of preliminary...

  18. 19 CFR 207.12 - Notice of preliminary phase of investigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...NONADJUDICATIVE INVESTIGATIONS INVESTIGATIONS OF WHETHER INJURY TO DOMESTIC INDUSTRIES RESULTS FROM IMPORTS SOLD AT LESS THAN FAIR VALUE OR FROM SUBSIDIZED EXPORTS TO THE UNITED STATES Preliminary Determinations § 207.12 Notice of preliminary...

  19. 19 CFR 207.12 - Notice of preliminary phase of investigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...NONADJUDICATIVE INVESTIGATIONS INVESTIGATIONS OF WHETHER INJURY TO DOMESTIC INDUSTRIES RESULTS FROM IMPORTS SOLD AT LESS THAN FAIR VALUE OR FROM SUBSIDIZED EXPORTS TO THE UNITED STATES Preliminary Determinations § 207.12 Notice of preliminary...

  20. 19 CFR 207.12 - Notice of preliminary phase of investigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notice of preliminary phase of investigation. 207... of preliminary phase of investigation. Upon receipt by the Commission of a petition under § 207.10 or... administering authority, institute an investigation and commence the preliminary phase of the...

  1. 19 CFR 207.12 - Notice of preliminary phase of investigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Notice of preliminary phase of investigation. 207... of preliminary phase of investigation. Upon receipt by the Commission of a petition under § 207.10 or... administering authority, institute an investigation and commence the preliminary phase of the...

  2. 19 CFR 207.12 - Notice of preliminary phase of investigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Notice of preliminary phase of investigation. 207... of preliminary phase of investigation. Upon receipt by the Commission of a petition under § 207.10 or... administering authority, institute an investigation and commence the preliminary phase of the...

  3. 19 CFR 207.12 - Notice of preliminary phase of investigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Notice of preliminary phase of investigation. 207... of preliminary phase of investigation. Upon receipt by the Commission of a petition under § 207.10 or... administering authority, institute an investigation and commence the preliminary phase of the...

  4. 19 CFR 207.12 - Notice of preliminary phase of investigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Notice of preliminary phase of investigation. 207... of preliminary phase of investigation. Upon receipt by the Commission of a petition under § 207.10 or... administering authority, institute an investigation and commence the preliminary phase of the...

  5. A preliminary investigation of bird classification by Doppler radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martinson, L. W.

    1973-01-01

    A preliminary study of the application of Doppler radar to the classification of birds is reported. The desirability for improvements in bird classification stems primarily from the hazards they present to jet aircraft in flight and in the vicinity of airports. A secondary need exists in the study of bird migration. The wing body and tail motion of a bird in flight reflect signals which, when analyzed properly present a signature of wing beat pattern which is unique for each bird species. Although the results of this investigation did not validate the feasibility of classifying bird species, they do indicate that a more thorough investigation is warranted. Certain gross characteristics such as wing beat rates, multiple bird patterns, and bird maneuverability, were indicated clearly in the results. Large birds with slow wing beat rates appear to be the most optimum subject for further study with the X-band Doppler radar used in this investigation.

  6. 19 CFR 207.13 - Cooperation with administering authority; preliminary phase of investigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...; preliminary phase of investigation. 207.13 Section 207.13 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE... Determinations § 207.13 Cooperation with administering authority; preliminary phase of investigation. Subsequent.... Notwithstanding §§ 201.11(c) and 201.14(b) of this chapter, late filings in the preliminary phase of...

  7. 19 CFR 207.13 - Cooperation with administering authority; preliminary phase of investigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...; preliminary phase of investigation. 207.13 Section 207.13 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE... Determinations § 207.13 Cooperation with administering authority; preliminary phase of investigation. Subsequent.... Notwithstanding §§ 201.11(c) and 201.14(b) of this chapter, late filings in the preliminary phase of...

  8. 19 CFR 207.13 - Cooperation with administering authority; preliminary phase of investigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...; preliminary phase of investigation. 207.13 Section 207.13 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE... Determinations § 207.13 Cooperation with administering authority; preliminary phase of investigation. Subsequent.... Notwithstanding §§ 201.11(c) and 201.14(b) of this chapter, late filings in the preliminary phase of...

  9. 19 CFR 207.13 - Cooperation with administering authority; preliminary phase of investigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...; preliminary phase of investigation. 207.13 Section 207.13 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE... Determinations § 207.13 Cooperation with administering authority; preliminary phase of investigation. Subsequent.... Notwithstanding §§ 201.11(c) and 201.14(b) of this chapter, late filings in the preliminary phase of...

  10. Preliminary investigations of HE performance characterization using SWIFT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, M. J.; Johnson, C. E.

    2014-05-01

    Preliminary experiments are performed to assess the utility of using the shock wave image framing technique (SWIFT) to characterize high explosive (HE) performance on detonator length and time scales. Columns of XTX 8004, an extrudable RDX-based high explosive, are cured directly within polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) dynamic witness plates, and SWIFT is employed to directly visualize shock waves driven into PMMA through detonation interaction. Current experiments investigate two-dimensional, axisymmetric test geometries that resemble historic aquarium tests, but on millimeter length scales, and the SWIFT system records 16-frame, time-resolved image sequences at 190 ns inter-framing. Detonation wave velocities are accurately calculated from the time-resolved images, and standard aquarium-test analysis is evaluated to investigate calculated shock pressures at the HE/PMMA interface. Experimental SWIFT results are discussed where the charge diameter of XTX 8004 is varied from 2.0 mm to 6.5 mm.

  11. Preliminary investigation of the 317 Area, ANL-E

    SciTech Connect

    Wescott, J.; Moos, L.; Remeikis, A.

    1995-06-01

    The 317 Area at Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL-E) is scheduled to undergo a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigation, Act or RFI. Prior to the formal RFI, a voluntary, preliminary characterization of the 317 Area was conducted by ANL-E. The characterization results were used to formulate the RFI work plan and provided a better focus for the formal investigation. This site presents a difficult engineering challenge. The nature of the waste disposed at this site in the past includes both liquid chemicals and radioactive waste. The 317 Area is classified as a radiologically controlled area because of operations currently performed there. Present Department of Energy policy stipulates that waste material from such an area must be considered radioactive. The possible presence of hazardous constituents in the soil and groundwater would require the investigation-derived waste generated at the site be disposed as radioactive mixed waste. Besides the nature of the waste possibly contaminating this site, the geology of the site poses an equally enigmatic situation. The ANL-E site is located in a region of recessional glacial moraine deposits.

  12. Emotion Understanding in Clinically Anxious Children: A Preliminary Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Bender, Patrick K.; Pons, Francisco; Harris, Paul L.; Esbjørn, Barbara H.; Reinholdt-Dunne, Marie L.

    2015-01-01

    Children’s understanding of the nature, origins and consequences of emotions has been intensively investigated over the last 30–40 years. However, few empirical studies have looked at the relation between emotion understanding and anxiety in children and their results are mixed. The aim of the present study was to perform a preliminary investigation of the relationships between emotion understanding, anxiety, emotion dysregulation, and attachment security in clinically anxious children. A sample of 16 clinically anxious children (age 8–12, eight girls/boys) was assessed for emotion understanding (Test of Emotion Comprehension), anxiety (Screening for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders-Revised and Anxiety Disorder Interview Schedule), emotion dysregulation (Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale) and attachment security (Security Scale). Children who reported more overall anxiety also reported greater difficulties in regulating their emotions, and were less securely attached to their parents. The results also showed that more specific symptoms of anxiety (i.e., OCD and PTSD) correlated not only with emotion dysregulation and attachment insecurity but also with emotion understanding. Finally, there were interrelations among emotion understanding, attachment security, and emotion dysregulation. The present results provide the first comprehensive evidence for a socio-emotional framework and its relevance to childhood anxiety.

  13. 49 CFR 850.10 - Preliminary investigation by the Coast Guard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Preliminary investigation by the Coast Guard. 850... TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD COAST GUARD-NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD MARINE CASUALTY INVESTIGATIONS § 850.10 Preliminary investigation by the Coast Guard. (a) The Coast Guard conducts the...

  14. 49 CFR 850.10 - Preliminary investigation by the Coast Guard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Preliminary investigation by the Coast Guard. 850... TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD COAST GUARD-NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD MARINE CASUALTY INVESTIGATIONS § 850.10 Preliminary investigation by the Coast Guard. (a) The Coast Guard conducts the...

  15. 49 CFR 850.10 - Preliminary investigation by the Coast Guard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Preliminary investigation by the Coast Guard. 850... TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD COAST GUARD-NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD MARINE CASUALTY INVESTIGATIONS § 850.10 Preliminary investigation by the Coast Guard. (a) The Coast Guard conducts the...

  16. 49 CFR 850.10 - Preliminary investigation by the Coast Guard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Preliminary investigation by the Coast Guard. 850... TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD COAST GUARD-NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD MARINE CASUALTY INVESTIGATIONS § 850.10 Preliminary investigation by the Coast Guard. (a) The Coast Guard conducts the...

  17. 49 CFR 850.10 - Preliminary investigation by the Coast Guard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Preliminary investigation by the Coast Guard. 850... TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD COAST GUARD-NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD MARINE CASUALTY INVESTIGATIONS § 850.10 Preliminary investigation by the Coast Guard. (a) The Coast Guard conducts the...

  18. Preliminary investigations of the rhizosphere nature of hydroponically grown lettuces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antunes, Inês; Paille, Christel; Lasseur, Christophe

    Due to capabilities of current launchers, future manned exploration beyond the Earth orbit will imply long journeys and extended stays on planet surfaces. For this reason, it is of a great importance to develop a Regenerative Life Support System that enables the crew to be, to a very large extent, metabolic consumables self-sufficient. In this context, the European Space Agency, associated with a scientific and engineering con-sortium, initiated in 1989 the Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative (MELiSSA) project. This concept, inspired on a terrestrial ecosystem (i.e. a lake), comprises five intercon-nected compartments inhabited by micro-organisms and higher-plants aiming to produce food, fresh water, and oxygen from organic waste, carbon dioxide, and minerals. Given the important role of the higher-plant compartment for the consumption of carbon dioxide and the production of oxygen, potable water, and food, it was decided to study the microbial communities present in the root zone of the plants (i.e. the rhizosphere), and their synergistic and antagonistic influences in the plant growth. This understanding is important for later investigations concerning the technology involved in the higher plant compartment, since the final goal is to integrate this compartment inside the MELiSSA loop and to guarantee a healthy and controlled environment for the plants to grow under reduced-gravity conditions. To perform a preliminary assessment of the microbial populations of the root zone, lettuces were grown in a hydroponic system and their growth was characterized in terms of nutrient uptake, plant diameter, and plant wet and dry weights. In parallel, the microbial population, bacteria and fungi, present in the hydroponic medium and also inside and outside the roots were analyzed in terms of quantity and nature. The goal of this presentation is to give a preliminary review in the plant root zone of the micro-organisms communities and as well their proportions. The collected information will then be correlated to each phase of the growth of the lettuces and to the results for the corresponding growth parameters. This will enable characterization of the microbial communities in the rhizosphere and the understanding of how these populations influence each phase of the plant growth. Conclusions are proposed for further investigations.

  19. Preliminary investigations into triazole derived androgen receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Altimari, Jarrad M; Niranjan, Birunthi; Risbridger, Gail P; Schweiker, Stephanie S; Lohning, Anna E; Henderson, Luke C

    2014-05-01

    A range of 1,4-substituted-1,2,3-N-phenyltriazoles were synthesized and evaluated as non-steroidal androgen receptor (AR) antagonists. The motivation for this study was to replace the N-phenyl amide portion of small molecule antiandrogens with a 1,2,3-triazole and determine effects, if any, on biological activity. The synthetic methodology presented herein is robust, high yielding and extremely rapid. Using this methodology a series of 17 N-aryl triazoles were synthesized from commercially available starting materials in less than 3h. After preliminary biological screening at 20 and 40 ?M, the most promising three compounds were found to display IC50 values of 40-50 ?M against androgen dependent (LNCaP) cells and serve as a starting point for further structure-activity investigations. All compounds in this work were the focus of an in silico study to dock the compounds into the human androgen receptor ligand binding domain (hARLBD) and compare their predicted binding affinity with known antiandrogens. A comparison of receptor-ligand interactions for the wild type and T877A mutant AR revealed two novel polar interactions. One with Q738 of the wild type site and the second with the mutated A877 residue. PMID:24726305

  20. Preliminary investigation of CTH:YAG laser for cochlear implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, Udayan K.; Pawel, Bruce R.; Potsic, William P.

    2000-05-01

    Cochlear implantation is a treatment for deafness that requires the surgical placement of electrodes within the cochlea, using a high-speed drill. While the drill is effective, the tip of the drill or the drill shaft may damage critical adjacent structures, such as the facial nerve. In addition, the narrow working spaces involved in this surgery make the drill a relatively cumbersome tool for such delicate work. The use of a flexible fiber to deliver the laser energy may make the surgery easier by allowing a more maneuverable instrument to access the region, while reducing the risk of injuring adjacent structures. We report our preliminary investigation of fiber delivery of CTH:YAG energy ((lambda) equals 2091 nm) for the purpose of bony ablation. A 550 micron diameter low-OH silica fiber was used to drill through up to 2.5 mm thick human temporal bone specimens. An average of 14 pulses was required for 1 mm thick bones, and an average of 33 pulses required to ablate 2 mm of bone. The holes drilled were precise, and showed limited adjacent tissue effect by gross and histopathologic evaluation. This work demonstrates the effective fiberoptic delivery of CTH:YAG energy for bone ablation. Further work is warranted to explore the clinical possibilities offered by this technique for precise bony ablation with limited adjacent tissue effect.

  1. Preliminary clinical investigations of a new noninvasive venous pulse oximeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Daniel; Smith, Peter R.; Caine, Michael P.; Spyt, Tomasz; Boehm, Maria; Machin, David

    2003-10-01

    For decades, the monitoring of mixed venous oxygen saturation, SvO2 has been performed invasively using fibre-optic catheters. This procedure is not without risk as complications may arise from catheterisation. The group has devised a new non-invasive venous oximetry method which involves inducing regular modulations of the venous blood volume and associated measurement of those modulations using optical means. A clinical investigation was conducted in Glenfield Hospital, UK to evaluate the sensitivity of the new technique to haemodynamic changes such as Cardiac Output (CO) in intraoperative and postoperative cardiac patients. Preliminary trials on patients recovering from cardiac surgery yielded an average correlation of r = 0.72 between CO at different Intra Aortic Balloon Pump (IABP) augmentation levels and SvO2 measured by the new venous oximeter. In intraoperative patients undergoing off-pump cardiac surgery, SvO2 recorded by the new technique responded to unplanned events such as a cardiac arrest. CONCLUSION: The new venous oximetry technique is a promising technique which responds to haemodynamic changes such as CO and with further development might offer an alternative means of monitoring SvO2 non-invasively.

  2. Preliminary investigations into solutal flow about growing tetragonal lysozyme crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pusey, Marc; Witherow, William; Naumann, Robert

    1988-01-01

    A series of preliminary experiments were done to investigate solutal flow about growing lysozyme crystals and its effects. Density-gradient-driven flow was observed using a schlieren optical system. Crystals used ranged from 0.3 to 1.72 mm across the (110) face, and protein concentrations were from 3.7 to 23.7 mg/ml. The convective plume velocities were found to be from 10 to 50 microns/s, which correlated with those predicted to occur based upon a diffusive-convective model. When microcrystals of lysozyme, less than 20 microns across the (110) face were subjected to directed solution flows, the growth rate was found to rapidly decrease over the 8-20 h course of the experiment. Solution flow rates used ranged from 18 to 40 microns/s, and protein concentrations were from 7.3 to 11.7 mg/ml, conditions typical of larger (greater than 0.5 mm) crystals in the terminal phases of a typical crystal growth procedure.

  3. Preliminary Aerodynamic Investigation of Fan Rotor Blade Morphing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tweedt, Daniel L.

    2012-01-01

    Various new technologies currently under development may enable controlled blade shape variability, or so-called blade morphing, to be practically employed in aircraft engine fans and compressors in the foreseeable future. The current study is a relatively brief, preliminary computational fluid dynamics investigation aimed at partially demonstrating and quantifying the aerodynamic potential of fan rotor blade morphing. The investigation is intended to provide information useful for near-term planning, as well as aerodynamic solution data sets that can be subsequently analyzed using advanced acoustic diagnostic tools, for the purpose of making fan noise comparisons. Two existing fan system models serve as baselines for the investigation: the Advanced Ducted Propulsor fan with a design tip speed of 806 ft/sec and a pressure ratio of 1.294, and the Source Diagnostic Test fan with a design tip speed of 1215 ft/sec and a pressure ratio of 1.470. Both are 22-in. sub-scale, low-noise research fan/nacelle models that have undergone extensive experimental testing in the 9- by 15-foot Low Speed Wind Tunnel at the NASA Glenn Research Center. The study, restricted to fan rotor blade morphing only, involves a fairly simple blade morphing technique. Specifically, spanwise-linear variations in rotor blade-section setting angle are applied to alter the blade shape; that is, the blade is linearly retwisted from hub to tip. Aerodynamic performance comparisons are made between morphed-blade and corresponding baseline configurations on the basis of equal fan system thrust, where rotor rotational speed for the morphed-blade fan is varied to change the thrust level for that configuration. The results of the investigation confirm that rotor blade morphing could be a useful technology, with the potential to enable significant improvements in fan aerodynamic performance. Even though the study is very limited in scope and confined to simple geometric perturbations of two existing fan systems, the aerodynamic effectiveness of blade morphing is demonstrated by the configurations analyzed. In particular, for the Advanced Ducted Propulsor fan it is demonstrated that the performance levels of the original variable-pitch baseline design can be achieved using blade morphing instead of variable pitch, and for the Source Diagnostic Test fan the performance at important off-design operating points is substantially increased with blade morphing.

  4. Asynchronous Nano-electronics: Preliminary Investigation Alain J. Martin & Piyush Prakash

    E-print Network

    Martin, Alain

    Asynchronous Nano-electronics: Preliminary Investigation Alain J. Martin & Piyush Prakash is a preliminary investigation in implement- ing asynchronous QDI logic in molecular nano-electronics, taking apply to nano-CMOS as well. 1. Introduction Currently, molecular nano-electronics is considered

  5. The HMO Cancer Research Network: Capacity, Collaboration, & Investigation (April 2010)

    Cancer.gov

    This April 2010 version contains a new section describing the CRN's comparative effectiveness research (CER). It also highlights the CRN Scholars Program, showcases the CRN's many fruitful collaborations, and summarizes the diverse projects that this group of investigators is working on, including those that received stimulus funding from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act.

  6. Preliminary Investigation of an Underwater Ramjet Powered by Compressed Air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mottard, Elmo J.; Shoemaker, Charles J.

    1961-01-01

    Part I contains the results of a preliminary experimental investigation of a particular design of an underwater ramjet or hydroduct powered by compressed air. The hydroduct is a propulsion device in which the energy of an expanding gas imparts additional momentum to a stream of water through mixing. The hydroduct model had a fineness ratio of 5.9, a maximum diameter of 3.2 inches, and a ratio of inlet area to frontal area of 0.32. The model was towed at a depth of 1 inch at forward speeds between 20 and 60 feet per second for airflow rates from 0.1 to 0.3 pound per second. Longitudinal force and pressures at the inlet and in the mixing chamber were determined. The hydroduct produced a positive thrust-minus-drag force at every test speed. The force and pressure coefficients were functions primarily of the ratio of weight airflow to free-stream velocity. The maximum propulsive efficiency based on the net internal thrust and an isothermal expansion of the air was approximately 53 percent at a thrust coefficient of 0.10. The performance of the test model may have been influenced by choking of the exit flow. Part II is a theoretical development of an underwater ramjet using air as "fuel." The basic assumption of the theoretical analysis is that a mixture of water and air can be treated as a compressible gas. More information on the properties of air-water mixtures is required to confirm this assumption or to suggest another approach. A method is suggested from which a more complete theoretical development, with the effects of choking included, may be obtained. An exploratory computation, in which this suggested method was used, indicated that the effect of choked flow on the thrust coefficient was minor.

  7. 19 CFR 207.13 - Cooperation with administering authority; preliminary phase of investigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...NONADJUDICATIVE INVESTIGATIONS INVESTIGATIONS OF WHETHER INJURY TO DOMESTIC INDUSTRIES RESULTS FROM IMPORTS SOLD AT LESS THAN FAIR VALUE OR FROM SUBSIDIZED EXPORTS TO THE UNITED STATES Preliminary Determinations § 207.13 Cooperation with...

  8. 19 CFR 207.13 - Cooperation with administering authority; preliminary phase of investigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...NONADJUDICATIVE INVESTIGATIONS INVESTIGATIONS OF WHETHER INJURY TO DOMESTIC INDUSTRIES RESULTS FROM IMPORTS SOLD AT LESS THAN FAIR VALUE OR FROM SUBSIDIZED EXPORTS TO THE UNITED STATES Preliminary Determinations § 207.13 Cooperation with...

  9. 19 CFR 207.13 - Cooperation with administering authority; preliminary phase of investigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...NONADJUDICATIVE INVESTIGATIONS INVESTIGATIONS OF WHETHER INJURY TO DOMESTIC INDUSTRIES RESULTS FROM IMPORTS SOLD AT LESS THAN FAIR VALUE OR FROM SUBSIDIZED EXPORTS TO THE UNITED STATES Preliminary Determinations § 207.13 Cooperation with...

  10. 19 CFR 207.13 - Cooperation with administering authority; preliminary phase of investigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...NONADJUDICATIVE INVESTIGATIONS INVESTIGATIONS OF WHETHER INJURY TO DOMESTIC INDUSTRIES RESULTS FROM IMPORTS SOLD AT LESS THAN FAIR VALUE OR FROM SUBSIDIZED EXPORTS TO THE UNITED STATES Preliminary Determinations § 207.13 Cooperation with...

  11. 19 CFR 207.13 - Cooperation with administering authority; preliminary phase of investigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...NONADJUDICATIVE INVESTIGATIONS INVESTIGATIONS OF WHETHER INJURY TO DOMESTIC INDUSTRIES RESULTS FROM IMPORTS SOLD AT LESS THAN FAIR VALUE OR FROM SUBSIDIZED EXPORTS TO THE UNITED STATES Preliminary Determinations § 207.13 Cooperation with...

  12. Aerobic Capacity Following Long Duration International Spaces Station (ISS) Missions: Preliminary Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Alan D.; Lee, S.M.C.; Everett, M.E.; Guined, J.R.; Knudsen, P.

    2010-01-01

    Maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max) is reduced immediately following space flights lasting <15 d, but has not been measured following long-duration missions. The purpose of this study is to measure VO2max and maximum work rate (WRmax) data from astronauts following ISS flights (91 to 188 d). Methods: Five astronauts [3 M, 2 F: 47+/-6 yr, 174+/-6 cm, 71.9+/-10.9 kg (mean +/- SD)] have participated in the study. Subjects performed upright cycle exercise tests to symptom-limited maximum. An initial test was done approx.270 d before flight to establish work rates for subsequent tests. Subsequent tests, conducted approx.45 d before flight and repeated on the first or second day (R+1/2) and at approx.10 d (R+10) following landing, consisted of 3 5 min stages designed to elicit 25%, 50%, and 75% of preflight VO2max, followed by 25 W(dot)/min increases. VO2, WR, and heart rate (HR) were measured using the ISS Portable Pulmonary Function System [Damec, Odense, DK]. Descriptive statistics are reported. Results: On R+1/2 mean VO2max decreased compared to preflight (Pre: 2.98+/-0.99, R+1/2: 2.63+/-0.56 L(dot)/min); 4 of 5 subjects demonstrated a loss of > 6%. WRmax also decreased on R+1/2 compared to preflight (Pre: 245+/-69, R+1/2: 210+/-45 W). On R+10, VO2max was 2.86+/-0.62 L(dot)/min, with 2 subjects still demonstrating a loss of > 6% from preflight. WRmax on R+10 was 240+/-49 W. HRmax did not change from pre to post-flight. Conclusions: These preliminary results, from the first 5 of 12 planned subjects of an ongoing ISS study, suggest that the majority of astronauts will experience a decrease in VO2max after long-duration space-flight. Interestingly, the two astronauts with the highest preflight VO2max had the greatest loss on R+1/2, and the astronaut with the lowest preflight VO2max increased by 13%. Thus, maintenance of VO2max may be more difficult in astronauts who have a high aerobic capacity, perhaps requiring more intense in-flight exercise countermeasure prescriptions.

  13. Preliminary Investigation of Linkages Between Arctic Pingos and Subsurface Stratigraphy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casavant, R.; Skirvin, S.; Patel, C.; Burr, D.

    2008-12-01

    This NASA-SETI supported study investigates the distribution of pingos (elliptically-shaped ice-rich topographic mounds) across 2300 square kilometers of the central coastal plain of Arctic Alaska in relation to the shallow geological framework that exists immediately beneath them. Pingos in the central North Slope of Alaska are classified as being of the closed or hydrostatic type. Their genesis is often assigned to freezing and cryogenic uplift of near-surface saturated thaw lake sediments that are exposed as lakes are drained and/or become choked with sediments. Although thaw lakes appear rather ubiquitous across the study area, pingos do not. Pingo distributions can be categorized as either clusters of elements or as relatively dispersed. Spatial statistical analysis reveals that pingo distribution is non-random and clustered. The analysis also took into account that pingo distribution is a function of preferential preservation between modern rivers channels that cross the study area. Pingo distributions and frequency were tested in relation to the location and type of stratigraphic and sedimentological features that characterized the shallow subsurface across the study area. Subsurface interpretation was derived mostly from oil well wireline logs. Gamma ray logs for more than 160 wells were used to define, correlate and assess the connectivity and conductivity of shallow and near-surface stratigraphic units between wells. Assessed also were major facies changes and the type and locations of subsurface structures such as major basement-to-surface faults and folds. The surface and near-surface truncation and subcropping of tilted, alternating units of permeable coarse-grained and confining fine- grained units were also mapped in relation to pingo locations. Preliminary and intriguing findings will be presented which contribute to the hypothesis that pingo genesis, location, and variations in morphology could be, in part, linked to a well-documented and active subsurface geohydrologic system. This system is characterized by multiple stacked hydrocarbon-, saline- and freshwater-rich reservoirs. Processes include fault reactivation and basin subsidence that drive episodic basin expulsion, and upward migration and mixing of deep basin and phreatic fluids along basin margins. Endpoints of the system include demonstrable gas hydrates deposits that occur below and within the permafrost, and documented seepage of hydrocarbons and groundwater at the surface. Our hypothesis entertains the idea that closed pingos might also be endpoints of the petroluem system as basin and phreatic fluids migrate vertically within a thick and leaky permafrost interval along faults and tilted reservoir sand-rich units, which intersect and differentially charge frozen near-surface sedimentary units. Future field-based sampling and geophysical studies may shed additional light on this model's application for pingo genesis and resource exploration on Mars.

  14. Public Relations Ethics and Communitarianism: A Preliminary Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leeper, Kathie A.

    1996-01-01

    Presents a preliminary examination of communitarianism and its emphasis on community and responsibility as an ethical base for public relations. Suggests that the emphasis business currently places on quality, social responsibility, and stewardship may fit within a communitarian approach. Argues that a communitarian base to public relations may…

  15. Students' Entrepreneurial Inclination at a Malaysian Polytechnic: A Preliminary Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yasin, Ahmad Yasruddin Md; Mahmood, Nik Abdul Aziz Nik; Jaafar, Nik Azyyati Nik

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports preliminary results of an ongoing project to examine students' inclination towards entrepreneurship at a Malaysian polytechnic. The study used a self-administered questionnaire to explore the influence of entrepreneurial intent, perceived behavioral control, self-efficacy, perceived barriers, perceived support factors and…

  16. Preliminary Investigation of a Video-Based Stimulus Preference Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Katie; Higbee, Thomas S.; Dayton, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Video clips may be an effective format for presenting complex stimuli in preference assessments. In this preliminary study, we evaluated the correspondence between preference hierarchies generated from preference assessments that included either toys or videos of the toys. The top-ranked item corresponded in both assessments for 5 of the 6…

  17. A Preliminary Study Examining the Binding Capacity of Akkermansia muciniphila and Desulfovibrio spp., to Colonic Mucin in Health and Ulcerative Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Lokesh; Carrington, Stephen; Martin, Sean T.; Coffey, J. Calvin; Winter, Desmond C.; O’Connell, P. Ronan

    2015-01-01

    Background Akkermansia muciniphila and Desulfovibrio spp. are commensal microbes colonising the mucus gel layer of the colon. Both species have the capacity to utilise colonic mucin as a substrate. A. muciniphila degrades colonic mucin, while Desulfovibrio spp. metabolise the sulfate moiety of sulfated mucins. Altered abundances of these microorganisms have been reported in ulcerative colitis (UC). However their capacity to bind to human colonic mucin, and whether this binding capacity is affected by changes in mucin associated with UC, remain to be defined. Methods Mucin was isolated from resected colon from control patients undergoing resection for colonic cancer (n = 7) and patients undergoing resection for UC (n = 5). Isolated mucin was purified and printed onto mucin microarrays. Binding of reference strains and three clinical isolates of A. muciniphila and Desulfovibrio spp. to purified mucin was investigated. Results Both A. muciniphila and Desulfovibro spp. bound to mucin. The reference strain and all clinical isolates of A. muciniphila showed increased binding capacity for UC mucin (p < .005). The Desulfovibrio reference strain showed increased affinity for UC mucin. The mucin binding profiles of clinical isolates of Desulfovibrio spp. were specific to each isolate. Two isolates showed no difference in binding. One UC isolate bound with increased affinity to UC mucin (p < .005). Conclusion These preliminary data suggest that differences exist in the mucin binding capacity of isolates of A. muciniphila and Desulfovibrio spp. This study highlights the mucin microarray platform as a means of studying the ability of bacteria to interact with colonic mucin in health and disease. PMID:26491870

  18. Preliminary investigations of protein crystal growth using the Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delucas, L. J.; Suddath, F. L.; Snyder, R.; Naumann, R.; Broom, M. B.; Pusey, M.; Yost, V.; Herren, B .; Carter, D.

    1986-01-01

    Four preliminary Shuttle experiments are described which have been used to develop prototype hardware for a more advanced system that will evaluate effects of gravity on protein crystal growth. The first phase of these experiments has centered on the development of micromethods for protein crystal growth by vapor-diffusion techniques (using a space version of the hanging-drop method) and on dialysis using microdialysis cells. Results suggest that the elimination of density-driven sedimentation can effect crystal morphology. In the dialysis experiment, space-grown crystals of concanavalin B were three times longer and 1/3 the thickness of earth-grown crystals.

  19. Preliminary geothermal investigations at Manley Hot Springs, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    East, J.

    1982-04-01

    Manley Hot Springs is one of several hot springs which form a belt extending from the Seward Peninsula to east-central Alaska. All of the hot springs are low-temperature, water-dominated geothermal systems, having formed as the result of circulation of meteoric water along deepseated fractures near or within granitic intrusives. Shallow, thermally disturbed ground at Manley Hot Springs constitutes an area of 1.2 km by 0.6 km along the lower slopes of Bean Ridge on the north side of the Tanana Valley. This area includes 32 springs and seeps and one warm (29.1/sup 0/C) well. The hottest springs range in temperature from 61/sup 0/ to 47/sup 0/C and are presently utilized for space heating and irrigation. This study was designed to characterize the geothermal system present at Manley Hot Springs and delineate likely sites for geothermal drilling. Several surveys were conducted over a grid system which included shallow ground temperature, helium soil gas, mercury soil and resistivity surveys. In addition, a reconnaissance ground temperature survey and water chemistry sampling program was undertaken. The preliminary results, including some preliminary water chemistry, show that shallow hydrothermal activity can be delineated by many of the surveys. Three localities are targeted as likely geothermal well sites, and a model is proposed for the geothermal system at Manley Hot Springs.

  20. 19 CFR 207.13 - Cooperation with administering authority; preliminary phase of investigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cooperation with administering authority; preliminary phase of investigation. 207.13 Section 207.13 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION NONADJUDICATIVE INVESTIGATIONS INVESTIGATIONS OF WHETHER INJURY TO DOMESTIC INDUSTRIES RESULTS FROM IMPORTS SOLD AT LESS THAN FAIR VALUE...

  1. 19 CFR 207.20 - Investigative activity following preliminary determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...NONADJUDICATIVE INVESTIGATIONS INVESTIGATIONS OF WHETHER INJURY TO DOMESTIC INDUSTRIES RESULTS FROM IMPORTS SOLD AT LESS THAN FAIR VALUE OR FROM SUBSIDIZED EXPORTS TO THE UNITED STATES Final Determinations, Short Life Cycle Products § 207.20...

  2. 19 CFR 207.20 - Investigative activity following preliminary determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...NONADJUDICATIVE INVESTIGATIONS INVESTIGATIONS OF WHETHER INJURY TO DOMESTIC INDUSTRIES RESULTS FROM IMPORTS SOLD AT LESS THAN FAIR VALUE OR FROM SUBSIDIZED EXPORTS TO THE UNITED STATES Final Determinations, Short Life Cycle Products § 207.20...

  3. 19 CFR 207.20 - Investigative activity following preliminary determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...NONADJUDICATIVE INVESTIGATIONS INVESTIGATIONS OF WHETHER INJURY TO DOMESTIC INDUSTRIES RESULTS FROM IMPORTS SOLD AT LESS THAN FAIR VALUE OR FROM SUBSIDIZED EXPORTS TO THE UNITED STATES Final Determinations, Short Life Cycle Products § 207.20...

  4. 19 CFR 207.20 - Investigative activity following preliminary determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...NONADJUDICATIVE INVESTIGATIONS INVESTIGATIONS OF WHETHER INJURY TO DOMESTIC INDUSTRIES RESULTS FROM IMPORTS SOLD AT LESS THAN FAIR VALUE OR FROM SUBSIDIZED EXPORTS TO THE UNITED STATES Final Determinations, Short Life Cycle Products § 207.20...

  5. Preliminary investigation of elongational flow of dilute polymer solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peng, S. T. J.; Landel, R. F.

    1976-01-01

    A tubeless siphon apparatus has been set up to measure extensional flow. In this apparatus, the liquid is continuously drawn into a capillary and, after steady flow has been established, the tube is raised above the liquid surface. With viscoelastic liquids, the flow continues and a column can be lifted from the reservoir. At the capillary entrance, an oscillating bead of excess liquid collects which interferes with both the flow and the measurements. This can be minimized by careful control of the liquid-column height. For homogeneous solutions, the column is symmetrical and tapers steadily from the liquid surface to the capillary entrance, with no bulging. Preliminary results show tensile viscosities 1000 times that of the Trouton coefficient and having a very strong dependence on deformation rate. A concentration-stretch rate-reduced variable scheme is proposed.

  6. Preliminary investigations into UHCRE thermal control materials (A0178)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levadou, Francois; Froggatt, Mike; Rott, Martin; Schneider, Eberhard

    1992-01-01

    An overview of the initial work that was done in the ESTEC Materials and Processes Division to evaluate the effect of space environment on the thermal blankets of the Ultra-Heavy Cosmic Ray Nuclei Experiments (UHCRE) is presented. The topics covered include: (1) a preliminary survey of the perforations of the two-thirds of the thermal blanket returned to ESTEC; (2) thermo-optical properties and thickness recessions of three samples cut from each of the third center parts of the 16 thermal blankets were measured and effects of environments (sun illumination and atomic oxygen fluences); (3) contamination was analyzed on trays, external blanket and internal aluminized Kapton foil by IR technique and scanning electron microscopy SEM/EDX examination; (4) the pattern of contamination on the Al Kapton foils was observed, sketched, and related to atomic oxygen flow; and (5) the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) yaw angle misorientation was evaluated from the contaminated areas visible on some of the trays. In addition, impacts of micrometeoroids and space debris were experimentally simulated on spare flight thermal blankets. Relations between penetration/perforation hole characteristics and projectile parameters were established.

  7. Preliminary Investigation of Civil Tiltrotor in NextGen Airspace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Larry A.; Salvano, Dan; Wright, Ken; Chung, William; Young, Ray; Miller, David; Paris, Alfanso; Gao, Huina; Cheng, Victor

    2010-01-01

    Presentation intro: Tiltrotor aircraft have long been envisioned as being a potentially viable means of commercial aviation transport. Preliminary results from an ongoing study into the operational and technological considerations of Civil Tiltrotor (CTR) operation in the Next Generation airspace, circa the 2025 time-frame, are presented and discussed. In particular, a fleet of CTR aircraft has been conceptually designed. The performance characteristics of this CTR fleet was subsequently translated into BADA (Base of Aircraft DAta) models that could be used as input to emulate CTR aircraft operations in the ACES and AvTerminal airspace and terminal area simulation tools. A network of nine North-Eastern corridor airports is the focus of the airspace simulation effort; the results from this airport network viII then be extrapolated to provide insights into systemic impact of CTRs on the National Airspace System (NAS). Future work will also be detailed as to attempts to model the systemic effects of noise and emissions from this fleet of new aircraft as well as assess their leveraged impact on public service missions, in time of need, such as major regional/national disaster relief efforts. The ideal outcome of this study is a set of results whereby Next Gen airspace CONOPs can be refined to reflect potential CTR capabilities and, conversely, CTR technology development efforts can be better informed as to key performance requirement thresholds needed to be met in order to successfully introduce these aircraft into civilian aviation operation.

  8. Reconnaissance Investigation of Caribbean Extreme Wave Deposits--Preliminary Observations, Interpretations, and Research Directions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morton, Robert A.; Richmond, Bruce M.; Jaffe, Bruce E.; Gelfenbaum, Guy

    2006-01-01

    Summary: This report presents an overview of preliminary geological investigations and recommended future research activities in the Caribbean region pertaining to coastal hazards with an emphasis on establishing tsunami risk for U.S. territories. Fieldwork was conducted in March 2006 on the islands of Bonaire, Puerto Rico, and Guadeloupe to evaluate the stratigraphic records of extreme wave deposits as possible indicators of paleotsunami recurrence. Morphological, sedimentological, and stratigraphic evidence indicate that shore-parallel coral rubble deposits composed of coarse clasts and sand that are 10s of meters wide and several meters thick are depositional complexes that have accumulated for a few centuries or millennia, and are not entirely the result of one or a few tsunamis as previously reported. The origins of boulder fields on elevated rock platforms of the Caribbean islands are more complicated than the origins of ridge complexes because boulder fields can be constructed by either storm waves or tsunamis. What is needed now for more conclusive interpretations is a systematic sedimentological approach to deposit analysis and a set of criteria for distinguishing between coarse clast storm and tsunami deposits. Assembling more field data from other Caribbean islands, analyzing stratigraphic deposits on Puerto Rico and Bonaire, and investigating boulder field deposits resulting from a historical tsunami can accomplish this. Also needed are improved sediment transport models for coarse clasts that can be used to estimate the competence and capacity of tsunamis and storms waves and to determine whether a deposit likely was created by a tsunami or extreme storm. Improved models may also be useful for reconstructing the magnitude of extreme wave events.

  9. 46 CFR 4.40-10 - Preliminary investigation by the Coast Guard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Preliminary investigation by the Coast Guard. 4.40-10 Section 4.40-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC MARINE CASUALTIES AND INVESTIGATIONS Coast Guard-National Transportation Safety Board Marine...

  10. 46 CFR 4.40-10 - Preliminary investigation by the Coast Guard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Preliminary investigation by the Coast Guard. 4.40-10 Section 4.40-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC MARINE CASUALTIES AND INVESTIGATIONS Coast Guard-National Transportation Safety Board Marine...

  11. 46 CFR 4.40-10 - Preliminary investigation by the Coast Guard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Preliminary investigation by the Coast Guard. 4.40-10 Section 4.40-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC MARINE CASUALTIES AND INVESTIGATIONS Coast Guard-National Transportation Safety Board Marine...

  12. 46 CFR 4.40-10 - Preliminary investigation by the Coast Guard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Preliminary investigation by the Coast Guard. 4.40-10 Section 4.40-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC MARINE CASUALTIES AND INVESTIGATIONS Coast Guard-National Transportation Safety Board Marine...

  13. 46 CFR 4.40-10 - Preliminary investigation by the Coast Guard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Preliminary investigation by the Coast Guard. 4.40-10 Section 4.40-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC MARINE CASUALTIES AND INVESTIGATIONS Coast Guard-National Transportation Safety Board Marine...

  14. Map Interpretation Instruction in Introductory Textbooks: A Preliminary Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillen, Jamie; Skryzhevska, Liza; Henry, Mary C.; Green, Jerry

    2010-01-01

    Maps are often understood as the primary tool in geography; however, recent research indicates that the number of students taking map interpretation courses has declined. As geography students are expected to master the uses of maps, this study investigates the materials available in introductory collegiate textbooks that promote the development…

  15. Spirituality and Young Women in Transition: A Preliminary Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livingston, Kimberly A.; Cummings, Anne L.

    2009-01-01

    This study contributes to the growing body of knowledge about spirituality and life transitions. Through qualitative investigation, 9 young women in professional education programs described their definition of spirituality, their spiritual activities, and how they used their spirituality to cope with life transitions as they prepared to enter the…

  16. Introducing the Teaching Portfolio in the University: A Preliminary Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cosser, Michael

    1996-01-01

    Describes a survey of faculty members at the University of Witwatersrand (South Africa) which investigated the extent of support for use of teaching portfolios, in addition to student evaluations, as a method for evaluating faculty for promotion, and based on responses, development of a profile of portfolio content and procedures for its review.…

  17. A Preliminary Investigation of Asthma Mortality in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greiling, Andrea K.; Boss, Leslie P.; Wheeler, Lani S.

    2005-01-01

    Although asthma deaths in children are rare, most asthma deaths should be preventable. No information has been identified in the professional literature addressing the occurrence of asthma deaths in schools. This investigation identified asthma deaths that occurred in US schools between 1990 and 2003 and the circumstances surrounding those deaths.…

  18. A Person-Centered Approach to Financial Capacity Assessment: Preliminary Development of a New Rating Scale

    PubMed Central

    Lichtenberg, Peter A.; Stoltman, Jonathan; Ficker, Lisa J.; Iris, Madelyn; Mast, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    Financial exploitation and financial capacity issues often overlap when a gerontologist assesses whether an older adult’s financial decision is an autonomous, capable choice. Our goal is to describe a new conceptual model for assessing financial decisions using principles of person-centered approaches and to introduce a new instrument, the Lichtenberg Financial Decision Rating Scale (LFDRS). We created a conceptual model, convened meetings of experts from various disciplines to critique the model and provide input on content and structure, and select final items. We then videotaped administration of the LFDRS to five older adults and had 10 experts provide independent ratings. The LFDRS demonstrated good to excellent inter-rater agreement. The LFDRS is a new tool that allows gerontologists to systematically gather information about a specific financial decision and the decisional abilities in question. PMID:25866438

  19. A Preliminary Investigation of the Predictors of Tanning Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Heckman, Carolyn J.; Egleston, Brian L.; Wilson, Diane B.; Ingersoll, Karen S.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To investigate possible predictors of tanning dependence including demographic variables, exposure and protective behaviors, and other health-related behaviors. Methods This study consisted of an online survey of 400 students and other volunteers from a university community. Results Twenty-seven percent of the sample was classified as tanning dependent. Tanning dependence was predicted by ethnicity and skin type, indoor and outdoor tanning and burning, and lower skin protective behaviors, as well as smoking and body mass index. Conclusions Young adults are at risk for tanning dependence, which can be predicted by specific demographic and behavioral variables. PMID:18241130

  20. Preliminary Investigation on Carbon Nanotube Membranes for Photon Solar Sails

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vulpetti, G.; Santoli, S.; Mocci, G.

    This paper is sail-material oriented. Starting from what the sailcraft trajectory equation allows and adding requirements coming from the deep-space telecommunication between sailcraft and ground stations on the Earth (or the Moon), a pathfinder for new materials has been emphasized. Such investigation is not based on some unknown (though desirable) materials, but starts from the latest achievements in the so-called Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Technology. Today, this research in nanotechnology regards materials for future electronics, but one should fairly get materials with characteristic very appropri- ate to ultra-high performance solar-sail propulsion and, at the same time, mitigating problems in deep-space communication between sailcraft and Earth. Sailcraft sail loading stemming from such new materials is carried out.

  1. Age Dating of Mixed SNM--Preliminary Investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan, D., Guss, P. P., Yfantis, E., Klingensmith, A., Emer, D.

    2011-12-01

    Recently we investigated the nuclear forensics problem of age determination for mixed special nuclear material (SNM). Through limited computational mixing experiments and interactive age analysis, it was observed that age dating results are generally affected by the mixing of samples with different assays or even by small radioactive material contamination. The mixing and contamination can be detected through interactive age analysis, a function provided by the Decay Interaction, Visualization and Analysis (DIVA) software developed by NSTec. It is observed that for mixed SNM with two components, the age estimators typically fall into two distinct clusters on the time axis. This suggests that averaging or other simple statistical methods may not always be suitable for age dating SNM mixtures. Instead, an interactive age analysis would be more suitable for age determination of material components of such SNM mixtures. This work was supported by the National Center for Nuclear Security (NCNS).

  2. Preliminary results investigating mix in colliding-shock experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Offermann, Dustin; Keiter, Paul; Loomis, Eric; Welser-Sherrill, Leslie; Fincke, Jim; Lanier, Nick

    2011-10-01

    Experiments have been performed at the Omega laser facility to investigate turbulence-driven mix from two colliding shocks, such as expected in ICF ignition capsules. Two shocks were generated at either end of a cylindrical, CH foam. The evolution of an Al tracer layer at one end of the foam was measured using point-projection radiography. Comparison of this data with simulations from the code, RAGE has been done to improve its predictive capability for ICF experiments. RAGE implements the Besnard-Harlow-Rauenzahn (BHR) model, which is intended for turbulent transport in fluids with large density variations. Los Alamos National Laboratory, an affirmative action/equal opportunity employer, is operated by the Los Alamos National Security, LLC for the National Nuclear Security Administration of the U.S. Department of Energy under contract DE-AC52-06NA25396.

  3. Preliminary results of fisheries investigation associated with Skylab-3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savastano, K.; Pastula, E., Jr.; Woods, G.; Faller, K.

    1974-01-01

    The purpose of the 15-month investigation now in the analysis phase is to establish the feasibility of utilizing remotely sensed data acquired from aircraft and satellite platforms to provide information concerning the distribution and abundance of oceanic gamefish. Data from the test area, jointly acquired by private and professional fishermen and NASA and NOAA/NMFS elements, in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico has made possible the identification of significant environmental parameters for white marlin. Predictive models based on catch data and surface truth information have been developed and have demonstrated potential for reducing search significantly by identifying areas which have a high probability of being productive. Three of the parameters utilized by the model, chlorophyll-a, sea surface temperature and turbidity have been inferred from aircraft sensor data.

  4. Visual resolution in incoherent and coherent light: preliminary investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarnowska-Habrat, Katarzyna; Dubik, Boguslawa; Zajac, Marek

    2001-05-01

    In ophthalmology and optometry a number of measures are used for describing quality of human vision such as resolution, visual acuity, contrast sensitivity function, etc. In this paper we will concentrate on the vision quality understood as a resolution of periodic object being a set of equidistant parallel lines of given spacing and direction. The measurement procedure is based on presenting the test to the investigated person and determining the highest spatial frequency he/she can still resolve. In this paper we describe a number of experiments in which we use test tables illuminated with light both coherent and incoherent of different spectral characteristics. Our experiments suggest that while considering incoherent polychromatic illumination the resolution in blue light is substantially worse than in white light. In coherent illumination speckling effect causes worsening of resolution. While using laser light it is easy to generate a sinusoidal interference pattern which can serve as test object. In the paper we compare the results of resolution measurements with test tables and interference fringes.

  5. Multiscale eddy simulation for moist atmospheric convection: Preliminary investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Stechmann, Samuel N.

    2014-08-15

    A multiscale computational framework is designed for simulating atmospheric convection and clouds. In this multiscale framework, large eddy simulation (LES) is used to model the coarse scales of 100 m and larger, and a stochastic, one-dimensional turbulence (ODT) model is used to represent the fine scales of 100 m and smaller. Coupled and evolving together, these two components provide a multiscale eddy simulation (MES). Through its fine-scale turbulence and moist thermodynamics, MES allows coarse grid cells to be partially cloudy and to encompass cloudy–clear air mixing on scales down to 1 m; in contrast, in typical LES such fine-scale processes are not represented or are parameterized using bulk deterministic closures. To illustrate MES and investigate its multiscale dynamics, a shallow cumulus cloud field is simulated. The fine-scale variability is seen to take a plausible form, with partially cloudy grid cells prominent near cloud edges and cloud top. From earlier theoretical work, this mixing of cloudy and clear air is believed to have an important impact on buoyancy. However, contrary to expectations based on earlier theoretical studies, the mean statistics of the bulk cloud field are essentially the same in MES and LES; possible reasons for this are discussed, including possible limitations in the present formulation of MES. One difference between LES and MES is seen in the coarse-scale turbulent kinetic energy, which appears to grow slowly in time due to incoherent stochastic fluctuations in the buoyancy. This and other considerations suggest the need for some type of spatial and/or temporal filtering to attenuate undersampling of the stochastic fine-scale processes.

  6. Multiscale eddy simulation for moist atmospheric convection: Preliminary investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stechmann, Samuel N.

    2014-08-01

    A multiscale computational framework is designed for simulating atmospheric convection and clouds. In this multiscale framework, large eddy simulation (LES) is used to model the coarse scales of 100 m and larger, and a stochastic, one-dimensional turbulence (ODT) model is used to represent the fine scales of 100 m and smaller. Coupled and evolving together, these two components provide a multiscale eddy simulation (MES). Through its fine-scale turbulence and moist thermodynamics, MES allows coarse grid cells to be partially cloudy and to encompass cloudy-clear air mixing on scales down to 1 m; in contrast, in typical LES such fine-scale processes are not represented or are parameterized using bulk deterministic closures. To illustrate MES and investigate its multiscale dynamics, a shallow cumulus cloud field is simulated. The fine-scale variability is seen to take a plausible form, with partially cloudy grid cells prominent near cloud edges and cloud top. From earlier theoretical work, this mixing of cloudy and clear air is believed to have an important impact on buoyancy. However, contrary to expectations based on earlier theoretical studies, the mean statistics of the bulk cloud field are essentially the same in MES and LES; possible reasons for this are discussed, including possible limitations in the present formulation of MES. One difference between LES and MES is seen in the coarse-scale turbulent kinetic energy, which appears to grow slowly in time due to incoherent stochastic fluctuations in the buoyancy. This and other considerations suggest the need for some type of spatial and/or temporal filtering to attenuate undersampling of the stochastic fine-scale processes.

  7. 2.-A PRELIMINARY REPORT UPON SALMON INVESTIGATIONS IN IDAHO By BARTON W. EVERMANN, PH. D.,

    E-print Network

    2.-A PRELIMINARY REPORT UPON SALMON INVESTIGATIONS IN IDAHO IN 1894. By BARTON W. EVERMANN, PH. D, distribution, and spawning habits of the species of salmon which have spawning- grounds in the waters of the State of Idaho. . , The alarming'decrease in the salmon catch of the Columbia River within recent years

  8. A Preliminary Investigation of Factors Affecting Employment Motivation in People with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Abbye; Rose, John L.

    2010-01-01

    Relatively small numbers of people with intellectual disabilities (ID) are engaging in paid employment and those who are tend to be working only part-time. This preliminary study addressed the question of what factors motivate people with ID to work. The issue was investigated in a sample of 10 young work-age adults attending supported learning…

  9. Who Cares about Diversity? A Preliminary Investigation of Diversity Exposure in Teacher Preparation Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Elena; Butler, Bettie Ray

    2015-01-01

    The existing literature has extensively documented the urgency for educators to raise their cultural awareness and become more culturally responsive; yet the importance placed on cultural competence in teacher education programs has been surprisingly weak. The present study, therefore, provides a preliminary investigation of diversity exposure,…

  10. Miller et al. p.1 4B.1 PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION INTO LIGHTNING HAZARD

    E-print Network

    Miller et al. p.1 4B.1 PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION INTO LIGHTNING HAZARD PREDICTION FROM HIGH for the explicit prediction of lightning using physical means in operational deterministic models, but one has with 0000 UTC data for 36 h forecasts (e.g., Kain et al. 2010). The lightning prediction algorithm is known

  11. Efficacy of Attention Regulation in Preschool-Age Children Who Stutter: A Preliminary Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Kia N.; Conture, Edward G.; Walden, Tedra A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This preliminary investigation assessed the attentional processes of preschool-age children who do (CWS) and do not stutter (CWNS) during Traditional cueing and Affect cueing tasks. Method: Participants consisted of 12 3- to 5-year-old CWS and the same number of CWNS (all boys). Both talker groups participated in two tasks of shifting and…

  12. Music therapy assessment in school settings: a preliminary investigation.

    PubMed

    Wilson, B L; Smith, D S

    2000-01-01

    The present investigation was undertaken in response to music therapists working in school settings for information relating to the availability of music therapy assessments and the feasibility of standardizing an assessment instrument for music therapists to use in school settings. Five research questions were identified, and the music therapy literature was surveyed to compile responses to those questions. Three different online data bases (ERIC, PsycINFO, and Article 1st) were used, covering articles published between 1980 and 1997. Individual hand searches were done of the Arts in Psychotherapy, Journal of Music Therapy, Journal of Research in Music Education, Journal of the International Association of Music for the Handicapped, Music Therapy and Music Therapy Perspectives. The questions and responses were as follows: 1. Which music-based assessment tools are being used with children with disabilities? Little commonality in assessment tools being used by music therapists and researchers was discovered. Of the total 41 studies, 20 (49%) reported using a "named" or "titled" assessment tool, and in the remaining 51% of studies, the authors reported using an untitled, and usually experimenter-designed, original assessment tool. 2. Have certain assessments been used in more than one study? Very limited replication of existing assessments was found. Of the 16 "named" assessments, only 3 were found to be used in more than one research study. 3. Are the actual assessments published along with the articles describing their use? Only 3 of the 20 studies using named assessments were published along with the journal article. Of the remaining 21 studies using original, experimenter-designed assessment tools, only 6 (28%) had the assessment instrument published with the article. 4. What is the primary purpose for using the assessment? Six primary purposes emerged from the review of the literature: to compare with data obtained from other assessment measures or from other populations (39%), as a baseline or pretest measure (29%), to determine eligibility for services or the receipt of treatment (12%), to determine the psychometric properties of the assessment (7%), suitability of the instrument for the given population (7%), and the identification of musical preferences (5%). 5. What are the musical or nonmusic elements being assessed? Musical elements were: music perception (37%), musical aptitude (29%), musical preferences (12%), and attention to/enjoyment of music (2%). Nonmusical behaviors/responses were: self-expression (10%), motor responses (10%), behavioral responses (7%), cognitive development (2%), and acts of communication (2%). 6. What subject populations are being assessed? Subject populations were: children with developmental disabilities/mental retardation (44%), children with autism (10%), children with hearing impairments (17%), "psychiatric" clients or emotionally disturbed (22%), individuals described as "handicapped" (5%), individuals with physical disabilities (2%), and a student with a speech impairment (2%). Nondisabled individuals were also included in 12 of the aforementioned studies. PMID:10932124

  13. Analytical and experimental investigation of liquid double drop dynamics: Preliminary design for space shuttle experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The preliminary grant assessed the use of laboratory experiments for simulating low g liquid drop experiments in the space shuttle environment. Investigations were begun of appropriate immiscible liquid systems, design of experimental apparatus and analyses. The current grant continued these topics, completed construction and preliminary testing of the experimental apparatus, and performed experiments on single and compound liquid drops. A continuing assessment of laboratory capabilities, and the interests of project personnel and available collaborators, led to, after consultations with NASA personnel, a research emphasis specializing on compound drops consisting of hollow plastic or elastic spheroids filled with liquids.

  14. Investigation of Mg modified mesoporous silicas and their CO 2 adsorption capacities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Huiling; Yan, Wei; Bian, Zijun; Hu, Jun; Liu, Honglai

    2012-02-01

    CO 2 adsorption properties on Mg modified silica mesoporous materials were investigated. By using the methods of co-condensation, dispersion and ion-exchange, Mg 2+ was introduced into SBA-15 and MCM-41, and transformed into MgO in the calcination process. The basic MgO can provide active sites to enhance the acidic CO 2 adsorption capacity. To improve the amount and the dispersion state of the loading MgO, the optimized modification conditions were also investigated. The XRD and TEM characteristic results, as well as the CO 2 adsorption performance showed that the CO 2 adsorption capacity not only depended on the pore structures of MCM-41 and SBA-15, but also on the improvement of the dispersion state of MgO by modification. Among various Mg modified silica mesoporous materials, the CO 2 adsorption capacity increased from 0.42 mmol g -1 of pure silica SBA-15 to 1.35 mmol g -1 of Mg-Al-SBA-15-I1 by the ion-exchange method enhanced with Al 3+ synergism. Moreover, it also increased from 0.67 mmol g -1 of pure silica MCM-41 to 1.32 mmol g -1 of Mg-EDA-MCM-41-D10 by the dispersion method enhanced with the incorporation of ethane diamine. The stability test by 10 CO 2 adsorption/desorption cycles showed Mg-urea-MCM-41-D10 possessed quite good recyclability.

  15. Radiation and temperature effects on electronic components investigated under the CSTI High Capacity Power Project

    SciTech Connect

    Shwarze, G.E.; Niedra, J.M.; Frasca, A.J.; Wieserman, W.R.

    1994-09-01

    The effects of nuclear radiation and high temperature environments must be fully known and understood for the electronic components and materials used in both the Power Conditioning and Control subsystem and the reactor Instrumentation and Control subsystem of future high capacity nuclear space power systems. This knowledge is required by the designer of these subsystems in order to develop highly reliable, long-life power systems for future NASA missions. A review and summary of the experimental results obtained for the electronic components and materials investigated under the power management element of the CSTI high capacity power project will be presented in this paper: (1) Neutron, gamma ray, and temperature effects on power semiconductor switches, (2) Temperature and frequency effects on soft magnetic materials; and (3) Temperature effects on rare earth permanent magnets.

  16. Radiation and temperature effects on electronic components investigated under the CSTI high capacity power project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwarze, Gene E.; Niedra, Janis M.; Frasca, Albert J.; Wieserman, William R.

    1993-01-01

    The effects of nuclear radiation and high temperature environments must be fully known and understood for the electronic components and materials used in both the Power Conditioning and Control subsystem and the reactor Instrumentation and Control subsystem of future high capacity nuclear space power systems. This knowledge is required by the designer of these subsystems in order to develop highly reliable, long-life power systems for future NASA missions. A review and summary of the experimental results obtained for the electronic components and materials investigated under the power management element of the Civilian Space Technology Initiative (CSTI) high capacity power project are presented: (1) neutron, gamma ray, and temperature effects on power semiconductor switches, (2) temperature and frequency effects on soft magnetic materials; and (3) temperature effects on rare earth permanent magnets.

  17. Investigation of the carbon dioxide sorption capacity and structural deformation of coal

    SciTech Connect

    Hur, Tae-Bong; Fazio, James; Romanov, Vyacheslav; Harbert, William

    2010-01-01

    Due to increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations causing the global energy and environmental crises, geological sequestration of carbon dioxide is now being actively considered as an attractive option to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. One of the important strategies is to use deep unminable coal seams, for those generally contain significant quantities of coal bed methane that can be recovered by CO2 injection through enhanced coal bed natural gas production, as a method to safely store CO2. It has been well known that the adsorbing CO2 molecules introduce structural deformation, such as distortion, shrinkage, or swelling, of the adsorbent of coal organic matrix. The accurate investigations of CO2 sorption capacity as well as of adsorption behavior need to be performed under the conditions that coals deform. The U.S. Department of Energy-National Energy Technology Laboratory and Regional University Alliance are conducting carbon dioxide sorption isotherm experiments by using manometric analysis method for estimation of CO2 sorption capacity of various coal samples and are constructing a gravimetric apparatus which has a visual window cell. The gravimetric apparatus improves the accuracy of carbon dioxide sorption capacity and provides feasibility for the observation of structural deformation of coal sample while carbon dioxide molecules interact with coal organic matrix. The CO2 sorption isotherm measurements have been conducted for moist and dried samples of the Central Appalachian Basin (Russell County, VA) coal seam, received from the SECARB partnership, at the temperature of 55 C.

  18. Investigation of polarized-proton target materials by differential calorimetry: preliminary results

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, D.A.; Hill, J.J.

    1980-10-15

    A simple differential calorimeter was designed and operated for an investigation of the thermodynamic properties of polarized target materials. The calibration and use of the calorimeter are discussed, after a brief exposition of our motivation for this work. The results of a preliminary study of target materials is presented with emphasis on the relevance of the glass state to dynamic polarization in chemically-doped targets.

  19. Apollo 17 preliminary science report. [Apollo 17 investigation of Taurus-Littrow lunar region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    An analysis of the Apollo 17 flight is presented in the form of a preliminary science report. The subjects discussed are: (1) Apollo 17 site selection, (2) mission description, (3) geological investigation of landing site, (4) lunar experiments, (5) visual flight flash phenomenon, (6) volcanic studies, (7) mare ridges and related studies, (8) remote sensing and photogrammetric studies, and (9) astronomical photography. Extensive photographic data are included for all phases of the mission.

  20. The effect of Cinnamaldehyde on mucositis and salivary antioxidant capacity in gamma-irradiated rats (a preliminary study)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background and purpose of the study The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of cinnamaldehyde on mucositis and salivary total antioxidant capacity in gamma-irradiated rats. Methods The study was conducted on 28 male Wistar rats, 7–11 weeks of age and 160?±?20 g body weight, divided into four groups of seven rats each. The first group receiving normal saline (S), the second group receiving saline and gamma radiation (SR), the third group receiving 50 mg/kg cinnamaldehyde 98% (C), and the fourth group receiving 50 mg/kg cinnamaldehyde 98% and gamma radiation (CR). SR and CR groups were exposed to 15 Gy gamma irradiation for 7 min and 39 s. Rats were intraperitoneally injected each day during the 10-day period of the experiment, and their tongues and lips were examined to assess the incidence and severity of mucositis. The saliva samples were taken from the animals three times on day zero, six, and ten. Results The mean mucositis incidence appeared to be delayed in the CR than the SR group (P?=?0.024), and the severity was significantly higher in the SR compared to the CR group;the difference was statistically significant on the second?day (P?=?0.027). In the evaluation of salivary antioxidant capacity, salivary antioxidant concentration was significantly higher in the C than the S, SR, and CR groups on the tenth day of the experiment (p <0.05). Conclusion The clinical effects in the CR group seem to be due to antioxidant, anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory effects of cinnamaldehyde; this conclusion, however, requires further investigations. Delayed antioxidant effect in the CR group was evident in ip cinnamaldehyde injection, the exact mechanism is not clear. PMID:23351595

  1. Investigation of considerable stability increase of composite superconductors doped with extremely large heat capacity substances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alekseev, P. A.; Keilin, V. E.; Kovalev, I. A.; Kruglov, S. L.; Lazukov, V. N.; Medvedev, M. I.; Shutova, D. I.

    2007-01-01

    The influence of doping NbTi-based composite superconductors with extremely large capacity substances (LHCSs) on their stability towards electromagnetic disturbances was investigated both experimentally and numerically. The samples comprised of standard NbTi 0.85 mm diameter wires soft-soldered with copper wires of the same diameter that contained one or several LHCS filaments. Some compounds (CeCu6, HoCu2, CeAl2, PrB6, Gd2O2S) with extremely large heat capacities at 4.2 K were introduced into the copper matrix by the powder-in-tube (PIT) method. The comparison sample (without LHCS doping) was made by soft-soldering of the 0.85 mm diameter NbTi wire with the copper wire without any LHCSs. The samples were placed in a transverse magnetic field and at several values of the transport current were subjected to longitudinal electromagnetic disturbances. The typical disturbance times varied in a broad range: from 50 µs to 1.2 ms. It was found that the critical current densities for the samples with LHCS doping were considerably higher than those for the comparison sample. It was also shown that the gain in stability remains even when the samples were directly liquid helium (LHe) cooled.

  2. Preliminary Investigation of Zircaloy-4 as a Research Reactor Cladding Material

    SciTech Connect

    Brian K Castle

    2012-05-01

    As part of a scoping study for the ATR fuel conversion project, an initial comparison of the material properties of Zircaloy-4 and Aluminum-6061 (T6 and O-temper) is performed to provide a preliminary evaluation of Zircaloy-4 for possible inclusion as a candidate cladding material for ATR fuel elements. The current fuel design for the ATR uses Aluminum 6061 (T6 and O temper) as a cladding and structural material in the fuel element and to date, no fuel failures have been reported. Based on this successful and longstanding operating history, Zircaloy-4 properties will be evaluated against the material properties for aluminum-6061. The preliminary investigation will focus on a comparison of density, oxidation rates, water chemistry requirements, mechanical properties, thermal properties, and neutronic properties.

  3. Preliminary Investigation of Cyclic Behavior at SHADOZ Sites Between the Equator and 5 deg S Latitude

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidlin, F. J.

    2009-01-01

    Investigation of cyclic behavior of temperature and ozone data from five SHADOZ sites between the Equator and 5degS Latitude (Nairobi, Ascension Island, Natal, San Crystobal, and Watukoset) reveal an amazing array of oscillations. In particular, eight years of measurements (1998-2007) reveal changes such as decreasing amounts of ozone at some pressure levels and/or sites, while other levels and/or sites experience increasing ozone. Temperature changes of 1-2 C occur that also experience irregular oscillations. This study is preliminary and only concentrates on the 250-, 200-, 100-, 70-, and 50-hPa pressure surfaces. Surfaces existing below and above the tropopause behave differently.

  4. Preliminary investigation of power flow and electrode phenomena in a multi-megawatt coaxial plasma thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoenberg, Kurt F.; Gerwin, Richard A.; Henins, Ivars; Mayo, Robert; Scheuer, Jay; Wurden, Glen

    1992-01-01

    The present report on preliminary results of theoretical and experimental investigations of power flow in a large, unoptimized, multimegawatt coaxial thruster evaluates the significance of these data for the development of efficient, megawatt-class magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thrusters. The good agreement obtained between thruster operational performance and model predictions suggests that ideal MHD processes, including those of a magnetic nozzle, play an important role in coaxial plasma thruster dynamics at power levels relevant to advanced space propulsion. An optimized magnetic nozzle design would aid the development of efficient, multimegawatt MPD thrusters.

  5. R&D Requirements, RF Gun Mode Studies, FEL-2 Steady-StateStudies, Preliminary FEL-1 Time-Dependent Studies, and Preliminary LayoutOption Investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Byrd, John; Corlett, John; Doolittle, Larry; Fawley, William; Lidia, Steven; Penn, Gregory; Ratti, Alex; Staples, John; Wilcox Russell; Wurtele, Jonathan; Zholents, Alexander

    2005-10-01

    This report constitutes the third deliverable of LBNLs contracted role in the FERMI {at} Elettra Technical Optimization study. It describes proposed R&D activities for the baseline design of the Technical Optimization Study, initial studies of the RF gun mode-coupling and potential effects on beam dynamics, steady-state studies of FEL-2 performance to 10 nm, preliminary studies of time-dependent FEL-1 performance using electron bunch distribution from the start-to-end studies, and a preliminary investigation of a configuration with FEL sinclined at a small angle from the line of the linac.

  6. An investigation of Turkish honeys: their physico-chemical properties, antioxidant capacities and phenolic profiles.

    PubMed

    Can, Zehra; Yildiz, Oktay; Sahin, Huseyin; Turumtay, Emine Akyuz; Silici, Sibel; Kolayli, Sevgi

    2015-08-01

    This study investigated some physico-chemical and biochemical characteristics of different honey types belonging to Turkish flora. Sixty-two honey samples were examined on the basis of pollen analyses, including 11 unifloral honeys (chestnut, heather, chaste tree, rhododendron, common eryngo, lavender, Jerusalem tea, astragalus, clover and acacia), two different honeydew honeys (lime and oak), and 7 different multifloral honeys. Electrical conductivity, moisture, Hunter color values, HMF, proline, diastase number, and sugar analyses of the honey samples were assessed for chemical characterization. Some phenolic components were analyzed by reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) to determine honeys' phenolic profiles. Total phenolic compounds, total flavonoids, ferric reducing antioxidant capacity (FRAP) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity were measured as antioxidant determinants. The study results confirm that physico-chemical and biological characteristics of honeys are closely related to their floral sources, and that dark-colored honeys such as oak, chestnut and heather, have a high therapeutic potential. PMID:25766810

  7. Capacity investigation of brine-bearing sands of the Fwwm formation for geologic sequestration of CO{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Doughty, Christine; Pruess, Karsten; Benson, Sally M.; Hovorka, Susan D.; Knox, Paul R.; Green, Christopher T.

    2001-05-01

    The capacity of fluvial brine-bearing formations to sequester CO{sub 2} is investigated using numerical simulations of CO{sub 2} injection and storage. Capacity is defined as the volume fraction of the subsurface available for CO{sub 2} storage and is conceptualized as a product of factors that account for two-phase flow and transport processes, formation geometry, formation heterogeneity, and formation porosity. The space and time domains used to define capacity must be chosen with care to obtain meaningful results, especially when comparing different authors' work. Physical factors that impact capacity include permeability anisotropy and relative permeability to CO{sub 2}, brine/CO{sub 2} density and viscosity ratios, the shape of the trapping structure, formation porosity and the presence of low-permeability layering.

  8. Preliminary investigation of zirconium boride ceramals for gas-turbine blade applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, Charles A

    1953-01-01

    Zirconium boride ZrB2 ceramals were investigated for possible gas-turbine-blade application. Included in the study were thermal shock evaluations of disks, preliminary turbine-blade operation, and observations of oxidation resistance. Thermal shock disks of the following three compositions were studied: (a) 97.5 percent ZrB2 plus 2.5 percent B by weight; (b) 92.5 percent ZrB2 plus 7.5 percent B by weight; and (c) 100 percent ZrB2. Thermal shock disks were quenched from temperatures of 1800 degrees, 2000 degrees, 2200 degrees, and 2400 degrees F. The life of turbine blades containing 93 percent ZrB2 plus 7 percent B by weight was determined in gas-turbine tests. The blades were run at approximately 1600 degrees F and 15,000 to 26,000 rpm. The thermal shock resistance of the 97.5 percent ZrB2 plus 2.5 percent boron ceramals compares favorably with that of TiC plus Co and TiC plus Ni ceramals. Oxidation of the disks during the thermal shock evaluation was slight for the comparatively short time (8.3 hr) up through 2000 degrees F. Oxidation of a specimen was severe, however, after 100 hours at 2000 degrees F. The turbine blade performance evaluation of the 93 percent ZrB2 plus 7 percent B composition was preliminary in scope ; no conclusions can be drawn.

  9. Preliminary experimental investigation of a Ku-band radial line oscillator based on transition radiation effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dang, Fangchao; Zhang, Xiaoping; Zhong, Huihuang; Li, Yangmei

    2015-09-01

    A Ku-band radial line oscillator (RLO) with low guiding magnetic field was proposed in our previous work. In order to weaken the impedance mismatch between the oscillator and an intense electron accelerator with higher impedance, a transverse electromagnetic reflector is added to improve the RLO, which is favorable to increase the Q-factor and accelerate the device saturation. A preliminary experiment is carried out to investigate the performance of the improved RLO. The radial-radiated electron beam is restrained well under the designed guiding magnetic field of 0.52 T. The preliminary experimental results indicates that high power microwaves with a power of 120 MW and a frequency of 14.12 GHz are generated when the diode voltage is 420 kV and the beam current 14.2 kA. The experimental results suggest the feasibility of the presented RLO generating high power microwaves at a high frequency band. Additionally, more work is needed regarding promotion of the electron beam quality and the impedance match between the electron beam accelerator and the oscillator.

  10. 75 FR 13761 - Fact Finding Investigation No. 26; Vessel Capacity and Equipment Availability in the United...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-23

    .... 40101. Like many sectors of the global economy, in 2009 shippers and ocean carriers experienced one of... of the global fleet capacity. Reflecting the worldwide uptick in economic activity during the...

  11. Experimental Investigation of Cooling Capacity of 4K GM Cryocoolers in Magnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morie, Takaaki; Shiraishi, Taisuke; Xu, Mingyao

    4K GM cryocoolers are inevitably exposed to the magnetic field inMRI systems. The cooling capacity of a 4K GM cryocooler is strongly dependent on the heat capacity of the magnetic regenerator materials, such as HoCu2, Er3Ni and Gd2O2S(GOS). In order to clarify the effect of the magnetic field on acryocooler's performance, we measured the cooling capacity of Sumitomo Heavy Industries, Ltd. (SHI) 1W 4K GM cryocoolers in magnetic fields up to 2.0 T. It is found that the impact of a magnetic field on the cooling capacity with a HoCu2/GOS hybrid regenerator is much smaller than that with a HoCu2 regenerator.

  12. A preliminary investigation of the use of throttles for emergency flight control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burcham, F. W., Jr.; Fullerton, C. Gordon; Gilyard, Glenn B.; Wolf, Thomas D.; Stewart, James F.

    1991-01-01

    A preliminary investigation was conducted regarding the use of throttles for emergency flight control of a multiengine aircraft. Several airplanes including a light twin-engine piston-powered airplane, jet transports, and a high performance fighter were studied during flight and piloted simulations. Simulation studies used the B-720, B-727, MD-11, and F-15 aircraft. Flight studies used the Lear 24, Piper PA-30, and F-15 airplanes. Based on simulator and flight results, all the airplanes exhibited some control capability with throttles. With piloted simulators, landings using manual throttles-only control were extremely difficult. An augmented control system was developed that converts conventional pilot stick inputs into appropriate throttle commands. With the augmented system, the B-720 and F-15 simulations were evaluated and could be landed successfully. Flight and simulation data were compared for the F-15 airplane.

  13. Preliminary results from the investigation of thermal effects in electrokinetics soil remediation

    SciTech Connect

    Krause, T.R.; Tarman, B.

    1993-10-01

    Electrokinetics is an emerging soil remediation technology. Contaminants are extracted from the soil as a result of a complex set of phenomena that occur when an electric gradient is imposed across a soil-water system. The primary phenomena include electroosmosis, electromigration, and electrophoresis. Secondary phenomena, such as changes in solubility or speciation of various chemical components, may occur as a result of electrically induced changes in the chemical environment of the system. Numerous factors, such as temperature, may affect each of these phenomena and, consequently, the overall process efficiency. We have begun an investigation of thermal effects in the extraction of potassium dichromate from kaolinite soils under conditions of constant saturation and dewatering. Preliminary results suggest that increasing the soil temperature from 21 to 55{degrees}C may decrease the processing time under saturated conditions. However, increasing the soil temperature under dewatering, conditions causes soil cracking, which reduces the overall process efficiency.

  14. The effects of high sustained acceleration on the acoustic phonetic structure of speech: A preliminary investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bond, Z. S.; Moore, T. J.; Anderson, T. R.

    1986-05-01

    The acoustic-phonetic structure of speech produced under adverse circumstances such as high levels of noise, vibration, and stress, has received little investigation. The purpose of this study was to provide some preliminary data concerning speech produced under high sustained acceleration. Acoustical measurements were made of a set of words spoken by two subjects at 1 G and +6 Gz. Words produced under acceleration differed from words produced at 1 G in both spectral and durational characteristics. The formant shifts observed were similar for both speakers. The first format increased for the majority of vowels. The second format tended to be lower for the front vowels /i, epsilon/ and higher for the back vowel (u). Acceleration resulted in a raising of the first formant and a lowering of the second formant relative to the same diphthongs produced at 1 G.

  15. Investigation of fracture-matrix interaction: Preliminary experiments in a simple system

    SciTech Connect

    Foltz, S.D.; Tidwell, V.C.; Glass, R.J.; Sobolik, S.R.

    1992-12-31

    Paramount to the modeling of unsaturated flow and transport through fractured porous media is a clear understanding of the processes controlling fracture-matrix interaction. As a first step toward such an understanding, two preliminary experiments have been performed to investigate the influence of matrix imbibition on water percolation through unsaturated fractures in the plane normal to the fracture. Test systems consisted of thin slabs of either tuff or an analog material cut by a single vertical fracture into which a constant fluid flux was introduced. Transient moisture content and solute concentration fields were imaged by means of x-ray absorption. Flow fields associated with the two different media were significantly different owing to differences in material properties relative to the imposed flux. Richards` equation was found to be a valid means of modeling the imbibition of water into the tuff matrix from a saturated fracture for the current experiment.

  16. Preliminary Modelling of the Effect of Impurity in CO2 Streams on the Storage Capacity and the Plume Migration in Pohang Basin, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Yongchan; Choi, Byoungyoung; Shinn, Youngjae

    2015-04-01

    Captured CO2 streams contain various levels of impurities which vary depending on the combustion technology and CO2 sources such as a power plant and iron and steel production processes. Common impurities or contaminants are non-condensable gases like nitrogen, oxygen and hydrogen, and are also air pollutants like sulphur and nitrogen oxides. Specifically for geological storage, the non-condensable gases in CO2 streams are not favourable because they can decrease density of the injected CO2 stream and can affect buoyancy of the plume. However, separation of these impurities to obtain the CO2 purity higher than 99% would greatly increase the cost of capture. In 2010, the Korean Government announced a national framework to develop CCS, with the aim of developing two large scale integrated CCS projects by 2020. In order to achieve this goal, a small scale injection project into Pohang basin near shoreline has begun which is seeking the connection with a capture project, especially at a steel company. Any onshore sites that are suitable for the geological storage are not identified by this time so we turned to the shallow offshore Pohang basin where is close to a large-scale CO2 source. Currently, detailed site surveys are being undertaken and the collected data were used to establish a geological model of the basin. In this study, we performed preliminary modelling study on the effect of impurities on the geological storage using the geological model. Using a potential compositions of impurities in CO2 streams from the steel company, we firstly calculated density and viscosity of CO2 streams as a function of various pressure and temperature conditions with CMG-WINPROP and then investigated the effect of the non-condensable gases on storage capacity, injectivity and plume migrations with CMG-GEM. Further simulations to evaluate the areal and vertical sweep efficiencies by impurities were perform in a 2D vertical cross section as well as in a 3D simulation grid. Also, pressure increases caused by the impurities and the partitioning between CO2 and other non-condensable gases were explored. In addition, the possibility of using these contaminants as a tracer were examined.

  17. Preliminary investigation of cement materials in the Taif area, Saudi Arabia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martin, Conrad

    1970-01-01

    A preliminary investigation of possible sources of cement rock in the Taft area was made during the latter part of August 1968. Adequate deposits of limestone, clay, quartz conglomerate and sandstone, and pisolitic iron ore, yet no gypsum, were located to support a Cement plant should it prove feasible to establish one in this area. These materials, made up mostly of Tertiary and later sediments, crop out in isolated, inconspicuous low hills in a north- trending belt, 10 to 15 kilometers wide, lying about 90 kilometers to-the east of At Taft. The belt extends for more than 90 kilometers from the vicinity of Jabal 'An in the south to the crushed rock pits at Radwan and beyond in the north. The area is readily accessible either from the Talf-Riyadh highway or from the Taif-Bishah road presently under construction. The limestone, which is quite pure and dense in some localities but dolomitic, argillaceous, and cherty in others, occurs in a variety of colors and would make suitable decorative building stone. The volcanic rocks of the Harrat Hadan, lying directly to the east of the limestone belt, include volcanic ash beds some of which may have been altered to bentonitlc clays. Others may have been lithified and might be suitable for light-weight aggregate. These possibilities remain to be investigated. Precambrian metamorphic rocks lying directly to the south and southeast of Taif were also investigated as possible cement rock sources, but no suitable material was found here.

  18. Scaling the Information Load of Occupations: Preliminary Findings of the Fit between Individual Capacities and Environmental Demands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haase, Richard F.; Ferreira, Joaquim Armando G. A.; Santos, Eduardo J. R.; Aguayo, Gina M.; Fallon, Melissa M.

    2008-01-01

    Person-Environment (P-E) fit models provide a conceptually powerful way to think about career development, vocational choice, and occupational success. The work reported here focuses on yet another pair of P-E criteria: self-reported individual capacity for information processing (the ability to tolerate information overload from a variety of…

  19. Investigation of Metal Oxide/Carbon Nano Material as Anode for High Capacity Lithium-ion Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, James Jianjun; Hong, Haiping

    2014-01-01

    NASA is developing high specific energy and high specific capacity lithium-ion battery (LIB) technology for future NASA missions. Current state-of-art LIBs have issues in terms of safety and thermal stability, and are reaching limits in specific energy capability based on the electrochemical materials selected. For example, the graphite anode has a limited capability to store Li since the theoretical capacity of graphite is 372 mAh/g. To achieve higher specific capacity and energy density, and to improve safety for current LIBs, alternative advanced anode, cathode, and electrolyte materials are pursued under the NASA Advanced Space Power System Project. In this study, the nanostructed metal oxide, such as Fe2O3 on carbon nanotubes (CNT) composite as an LIB anode has been investigated.

  20. Preliminary Results from an Investigation into Nanostructured Nuclear Radiation Detectors for Non-Proliferation Applications

    SciTech Connect

    ,

    2012-10-01

    In recent years, the concept of embedding composite scintillators consisting of nanosized inorganic crystals in an organic matrix has been actively pursued. Nanocomposite detectors have the potential to meet many of the homeland security, non-proliferation, and border and cargo-screening needs of the nation and, by virtue of their superior nuclear identification capability over plastic, at roughly the same cost as plastic, have the potential to replace all plastic detectors. Nanocomposites clearly have the potential of being a gamma ray detection material that would be sensitive yet less expensive and easier to produce on a large scale than growing large, whole crystals of similar sensitivity. These detectors would have a broad energy range and a sufficient energy resolution to perform isotopic identification. The material can also be fabricated on an industrial scale, further reducing cost. This investigation focused on designing and fabricating prototype core/shell and quantum dot (QD) detectors. Fourteen core/shell and four QD detectors, all with the basic consistency of a mixture of nanoparticles in a polymer matrix with different densities of nanoparticles, were prepared. Nanoparticles with sizes <10 nm were fabricated, embedded in a polystyrene matrix, and the resultant scintillators’ radiation detector properties were characterized. This work also attempted to extend the gamma energy response on both low- and high-energy regimes by demonstrating the ability to detect low-energy and high-energy gamma rays. Preliminary results of this investigation are consistent with a significant response of these materials to nuclear radiation.

  1. Preliminary investigation of high power microwave plasmas for electrothermal thruster use

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Power, John L.; Sullivan, Daniel J.

    1993-01-01

    Results are reported from preliminary tests to evaluate the high power microwave electrothermal thruster concept, which employs a free-floating plasma discharge maintained by applied CW microwave power to heat a propellant gas flow. Stable plasmas have been created and maintained in He, N2, and H2 as propellants in both the TM(sub 011) and TM(sub 012) modes at discharge pressures from 10 Pa to 69 kPa. Vortical inflow of the propellant gas was observed to cause the formation of on-axis 'spike' plasmas. Operation in the spike plasma condition yields maximum power absorption with minimum wall heating and maximum propellant-heating efficiency; plasmas of the three propellant gases were investigated in the spike condition in an open channel to a maximum applied power level of 11.2 kW (in N2). Microwave power coupling efficiencies of over 90 percent were routinely obtained at absorbed power levels up to 2 kW. Magnetic nozzle effects were investigated with a superconducting solenoid Al magnet applying a high magnetic field to the plasmas in, and exiting from, the discharge tube.

  2. Preliminary investigation of high power microwave plasmas for electrothermal thruster use

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Power, John L.; Sullivan, Daniel J.

    1993-01-01

    Results are reported from preliminary tests to evaluate the high power microwave electrothermal thruster (MET) concept, which employs a free-floating plasma discharge maintained by applied CW microwave power to heat a propellant gas flow. Stable plasmas have been created and maintained in helium (He), nitrogen (N2), and hydrogen (H2) as propellants in both the TM(sub 011) and TM(sub 012) modes at discharge pressures from 10 Pa to 69 kPa. Reproducible starting conditions of pressure and power have been documented for all the plasmas. Vortical inflow of the propellant gas was observed to cause the formation of on-axis 'spike' plasmas. The formation and unformation conditions of these plasmas were studied. Operation in the spike plasma condition enables maximum power absorption with minimum wall heating and offers maximum efficiency in heating the propellant gas. In the spike condition, plasmas of the three propellant gases were investigated in an open channel configuration to a maximum applied power level of 11.2 kW (in N2). Microwave power coupling efficiencies of over 90 percent were routinely obtained at absorbed power levels up to 2 kW. Magnetic nozzle effects were investigated with a superconducting solenoid Al magnet applying a high magnetic field to the plasmas in and exiting from the discharge tube.

  3. P 4.72 A PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION OF DERECHO-PRODUCING MCSs IN ENVIRONMENTS OF VERY LOW DEWPOINTS

    E-print Network

    P 4.72 A PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION OF DERECHO-PRODUCING MCSs IN ENVIRONMENTS OF VERY LOW DEWPOINTS winds and other severe weather threats with which they are associated, derecho-producing mesoscale and summer, derecho MCSs typically occur in environments of substantial convective instability, with very

  4. The Adaptation of the Mathematics Anxiety Rating Scale-Elementary Form into Turkish, Language Validity, and Preliminary Psychometric Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baloglu, Mustafa; Balgalmis, Esra

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to adapt the Mathematics Anxiety Rating Scale- Elementary Form (MARS-E, Suinn, 1988) into Turkish by first doing the translation of its items and then the preliminary psychometric investigation of the Turkish form. The study included four different samples: 30 bilingual language experts, 50 Turkish language…

  5. Mindfulness meditation, well-being, and heart rate variability: A preliminary investigation into the impact of intensive

    E-print Network

    Gross, James J.

    Mindfulness meditation, well-being, and heart rate variability: A preliminary investigation into the impact of intensive Vipassana meditation Jonathan R. Krygier a,b , James A.J. Heathers b , Sara June 2013 Available online 22 June 2013 Keywords: Meditation Mindfulness Vipassana Heart rate

  6. An Investigation on Industry-Sponsored Design Projects' Effectiveness at the First-Year Level: Potential Issues and Preliminary Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okudan, Gul E.; Mohammed, Susan; Ogot, Madara

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the preliminary work for developing guidelines to ensure that industry-sponsored projects in first-year courses aid, not hamper, retention of students. Specifically, the overall research plan includes the following steps: (1) investigating the appropriateness of industry projects in a required introduction to engineering design…

  7. Preliminary results of investigations into the use of artificial neural networks for discriminating gas chromatograph mass spectra of remote samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geller, Harold A.; Norris, Eugene; Warnock, Archibald, III

    1991-01-01

    Neural networks trained using mass spectra data from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) are studied. The investigations also included sample data from the gas chromatograph mass spectrometer (GCMS) instrument aboard the Viking Lander, obtained from the National Space Science Data Center. The work performed to data and the preliminary results from the training and testing of neural networks are described. These preliminary results are presented for the purpose of determining the viability of applying artificial neural networks in discriminating mass spectra samples from remote instrumentation such as the Mars Rover Sample Return Mission and the Cassini Probe.

  8. A Preliminary Investigation of the Cr3Si-Mo Pseudo-Binary Phase Diagram

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickerson, R. M.; Raj, S. V.; Locci, I. E.

    1995-01-01

    An investigation was undertaken to study the phase relations in Cr3Si alloyed with Mo varying from 10 to 83.5 wt. % of the material. Specimens were prepared from arc-melted buttons that were subsequently heat treated at 1673 K for 200 h and air quenched to room temperature to structures. Alloys containing more than 20 wt. % MO were primarily two-phase materials of M3Si and M5Si3, where M is (Cr,Mo). Three alloys contained less than 5% of a third phase, which also had the M5Si3 crystal structure. Differential thermal analysis (DTA) was performed on several specimens at temperatures up to 2073 K in order to determine a solidus curve for the M3Si phase. Since only one DTA peak was observed in each alloy, the M5Si3 phase must melt above 2073 K, the maximum temperature examined. A preliminary pseudo-binary phase diagram for (Cr,Mo)3Si and a portion of the 1673 K isothermal section of the Cr-Mo-Si ternary phase diagram are presented.

  9. Preliminary Investigation of Over-all Performance of Experimental Turbojet Engine for Guided Missiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eustis, Robert H.; Berkey, William E.

    1947-01-01

    A preliminary investigation of the over-all performance of a simply constructed, short-life, turbojet engine was conducted. The unit was operated at a pressure altitude of 15,000 feet for ram-pressure ratios of 1.2 t o 1.8. The corrected engine speed was varied from the minimum for good combustion to about 17,000 rpm, which is approximately 75 percent of rated speed. The performance is given by generalized parameters that permit the calculation of performance at any altitude. The corrected net thrust of the turbojet engine increased with ram-pressure ratio for a given corrected engine speed above 14,500 rpm and reached a maximum of 425 pounds at a ram-pressure ratio of 1.8 and a corrected engine speed of 16,650 rpm, The corrected thrust specific fuel consumption decreased with flight speed for corrected engine speeds higher than 13,600 rpm, The minimum corrected thrust specific fuel consumption of 1.48 was obtained at a ram-pressure ratio of 1,8 and a corrected engine speed of 15,000 rpm. For all ram-pressure ratios, choking occurred in the engine for corrected engine speeds greater than 14,500 rpm.

  10. A Preliminary Investigation of the Effects of the Unified Protocol on Temperament

    PubMed Central

    Carl, Jenna R.; Gallagher, Matthew W.; Sauer-Zavala, Shannon E.; Bentley, Kate H.; Barlow, David H.

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has shown that two dimensions of temperament referred to as neuroticism/behavioral inhibition (N/BI) and extraversion/behavioral activation (E/BA) are key risk factors in the development and maintenance of anxiety and mood disorders (Brown & Barlow, 2009). Given such findings, these temperamental dimensions may represent promising treatment targets for individuals with emotional disorders; however, to date, few studies have investigated the effects of psychological treatments on temperamental constructs generally assumed to be “stable, inflexible, and pervasive” (American Psychiatric Association, 2000). The present study addresses this gap in the literature by examining the effects of the Unified Protocol for Transdiagnostic Treatment of Emotional Disorders (UP; Barlow et al., 2011), a cognitive-behavioral therapy designed to target core processes of N/BI and E/BA temperaments, in a sample of adults with principal anxiety disorders and a range of comorbid conditions. Results revealed small effects of the UP on N/BI and E/BA compared with a waitlist control group at post-treatment. Additionally, decreases in N/BI and increases in E/BA during treatment were associated with improvements in symptoms, functioning, and quality of life. Findings provide preliminary support for the notion that the UP treatment facilitates beneficial changes in dimensions of temperament. PMID:24933653

  11. Preliminary investigation of the hazard faced by Western Australia from tsunami generated along the Sunda Arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burbidge, D.; Cummins, P. R.

    2005-12-01

    Since the Boxing Day tsunami various countries surrounding the Indian Ocean have been investigating the potential hazard from trans-Indian Ocean tsunami generated along the Sunda Arc, south of Indonesia. This study presents some preliminary estimates of the tsunami hazard faced by Western Australia from tsunami generated along the Arc. To estimate the hazard, a suite of tsunami spaced evenly along the subduction zone to the south of Indonesia were numerically modelled. Offshore wave heights from tsunami generated in this region are significantly higher along northwestern part of the Western Australian coast from Exmouth to the Kimberly than they are along the rest of the coast south of Exmouth. Due to the offshore bathymetry, the area around Onslow in particular may face a higher tsunami than other areas the West Australian coast. Earthquakes between Java and Timor are likely to produce the greatest hazard to northwest WA. Earthquakes off Sumatra are likely the main source of tsunami hazard to locations south of Exmouth, however the hazard here is likely to be lower than that along the north western part of the West Australian coast. Tsunami generated by other sources (eg large intra-plate events, volcanoes, landslides and asteroids) could threaten other parts of the coast.

  12. Preliminary investigation of differential tapelifting for sampling forensically relevant layered deposits.

    PubMed

    Verdon, Timothy J; Mitchell, R John; van Oorschot, Roland A H

    2015-11-01

    The analysis of DNA mixtures can be problematic, especially when in trace quantities such as when a biological sample is deposited onto a substrate which contains background DNA (for example, in the case of touch DNA deposited onto a garment containing the wearer's DNA). We conducted a preliminary investigation into the possibility of removing such multi-donor deposits layer by layer using a differential tape-lifting method. Two types of tape were tested using two different numbers of applications for sampling layered deposits of touch DNA/touch DNA and touch DNA/saliva, both on the same polyester-cotton plain woven material. The data showed that there was no significant increase in the ratio of secondary to primary deposit when sampled in this manner, compared to direct extraction from cuttings of the touched fabric. A similar result was also obtained even when the deposits were on opposing surfaces of the fabric and the sampling was carried out on the secondary deposit side. These findings indicate that biological material, whether touch DNA or saliva, does not predominantly remain on the side of the fabric on which it is deposited (at least for plain-woven polyester-cotton). They also highlight the importance of considering substrate properties when making assumptions as to the resulting location of biological materials from a deposition event, and the necessity to conduct further research on the interactions between substrates and deposits. PMID:26152832

  13. A preliminary environmental site investigation for a bridge over the Mississippi River at Moline, Illinois

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Trask, C.B.

    2006-01-01

    The Illinois State Geological Survey completed a preliminary environmental site assessment along the alignment of Interstate 74 (I-74) and its bridge over the Mississippi River for the Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT) in 2002. The objective of the study was to determine if any of the parcels proposed for acquisition or on which soil excavation was intended were sufficiently contaminated to require additional investigation by a commercial environmental consultant under contract to IDOT and to identify potential natural hazards that might have an impact on the proposed construction project. VOC were detected at 13 of 37 sites tested for VOC. These sites included an elevator manufacturer, former foundries, former and active machine shops, former and active gasoline stations, and a former automobile dealer. PAH above TACO Tier 1 residential standards were detected on an island in the Mississippi River. PCB was detected at a former foundry and a control box for a railroad. Magnetic anomalies that might indicate the presence of UST were detected in a park that formerly had been the site of a city garage, adjacent to a parking lot that formerly contained an automobile dealer, and at the sites of three former gasoline stations. These studies helped IDOT to save millions of dollars in highway construction projects. This is an abstract of a paper presented in Contaminated Soils, Sediments and Water: Success and Challenges (Massachusetts Fall 2005).

  14. Erbium:YAG laser contouring of the nasal dorsum: a preliminary investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Truong, Mai T.; Majaron, Boris; Pandoh, Nidhi S.; Wong, Brian J.

    2001-05-01

    In conventional aesthetic rhinoplasty operations, manual or powered rasps are used to reduce the osseo-cartilagenous nasal dorsum. This tactile method requires palpation of the instrument and the dorsum during surgery to estimate the degree of volume reduction, and often requires forceful manipulation of the dorsum which may illicit pain during surgery and contribute to post-operative edema and echymosis. In this preliminary study, we investigated the use of the Erbium:YAG laser ((lambda) equals294 micrometers ) to reduce bone and cartilage using ex-vivo porcine nasal dorsum and human cadaveric tissues. The short pulsed length and high absorption of this laser in biologic tissues results in minimization of thermal injury which are ideal for non- contact optical contouring of osseous and cartilagenous tissues in the face. Two Erbium:YAG lasers were used to ablate fresh porcine nasal bone and compared for their use. One Erbium:YAG laser, the Fidelis Laser, Fontana Medical Lasers, Ljubljana, Slovenija with variable pulse repetition rates (2 to 50 Hz), pulse energy (80 to 1000 mJ), and pulse duration (100, 300, 750 and 1000 microsecond(s) ) was used and compared to the Ultrafine Erbium:YAG laser, Coherent Inc., Santa Clara California, with variable pulse repetition rate (2 to 10 Hz), pulse energy (2-16 J/cm2), and spot diameter (2-6 mm). Only laser parameters approximating the conditions for thermal confinement were evaluated.

  15. Preliminary immunohistochemical investigations of thyroid C cells in an experimental model of hyperthyroidism.

    PubMed

    Dadan, Jacek; Zbucki R, Robert ?; Sawicki, Bogus?aw; Bialuk, Izabela; Zawadzka, Agnieszka; Winnicka, Maria M; Puchalski, Zbigniew

    2003-11-01

    The role of the parafollicular (C) cells, the second most important cells in the thyroid gland, has not hitherto been clarified. They are considered to be disperse neuroendocrine cells of the APUD system and synthesise and release many of the regulatory peptides. Few publications are concerned with the evaluation of the structure and function of C cells in the thyroid gland or the probable relationship between these cells and the follicular cells in physiological and pathological conditions. For this reason immunohistochemical investigations were carried out into the activity of the C cells in rats in an experimental model of hyperthyroidism caused by chronic thyroxine influence. This C-cell activity was then evaluated. Differences in the quantity, distribution and calcitonin immunoreactivity of C cells were observed in hyperthyroid rats in comparison to the control group, together with a significant diminution of plasma TSH and calcitonin levels. Our preliminary study may indicate a functional interaction between follicular and parafollicular cells in the thyroid gland. PMID:14655110

  16. Preliminary investigation of an improved metal-dielectric cathode for magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoping; Dang, Fangchao; Zhang, Jun; Fan, Yuwei; Li, Zhiqiang

    2015-02-01

    In order to explore the cathode with good repetition quality for the magnetically insulated transmission line oscillators, an improved metal-dielectric cathode is proposed and investigated experimentally. The cathode is designed to be step-like shape, and thin copper plated boards are periodically and compactly arrayed on the surface of the cathode base, which ensures the uniformity of the electrons emitted from the cusps of the copper plated boards. According to the numerical simulation results, the step-like shape is beneficial to convert the kinetic energy of the magnetic insulating current partially and enhance the beam-wave interaction efficiency. Finally, a preliminary experiment of an L-band magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator (MILO) with the improved metal-dielectric cathode is carried out. A high power microwave (HPM) with an average power of 1.95 GW is generated from the MILO, with an efficiency of 13.5%. Under the same experiment condition, the output power and main frequency with the presented cathode are almost the same to those with the velvet cathode. Apart from that, metal-dielectric cathode has the merits of small outgassing and long lifetime, and all of these make the improved metal-dielectric cathode significantly promising for the MILO repetition operation. PMID:25725868

  17. Preliminary Results of an Experimental Investigation of the Qu Superconducting Heat Pipe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blackmon, James B.; Entrekin, Sean F.

    2006-01-01

    This note on preliminary results of our evaluation of the so-called Qu Tube is prompted in part by recent concerns expressed to the authors by some researchers regarding the performance characteristics of the superconducting, solid-state heat pipe as described in the patents, or on the company's websites. Briefly, the company's claims include: a new type of heat transfer mechanism that is a form of solid state thermal superconductivity, which results in an effective thermal conductivity of the order of tens of thousands of times that of an equivalent solid silver bar, or, tens to hundreds of times that of liquid - vapor heat pipes. The company's website also refers to tests conducted by Stanford Research Institute that substantiate these claims, but the report is apparently not publicly available. We are conducting an investigation of the Qu Tube under a NASA Grant, and in general find that these claims have merit, but our study is not yet complete. We present some of our preliminary results in part to show that it would not be imprudent to conduct such studies, especially for possible future applications requiring exceptional thermal management performance capabilities. Working with HiTek Services, we originally acquired several Qu Tubes, including 17" long, 5/16" diameter copper tubes, one that is 7 7/8" long, 3/16" diameter, and one that is 4" long, 1" diameter. We subjected the smaller tubes to various exploratory tests, including a transient test with electrical band heaters, boiling water tests, and a series of steady state tests with electrical band heaters heating one end with free convective cooling along the remainder of the length. All results indicate a very high thermal conductivity, but the length of these tubes limited our ability to obtain accurate data on temperature gradients, necessary to determine the effective thermal conductivity. We then acquired nine Qu Tubes that are 10' long, 5/16" diameter, and we have recently conducted initial tests, which further support the claims of exceptional thermal conductivity.

  18. LOD 1 VS. LOD 2 - Preliminary Investigations Into Differences in Mobile Rendering Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellul, C.; Altenbuchner, J.

    2013-09-01

    The increasing availability, size and detail of 3D City Model datasets has led to a challenge when rendering such data on mobile devices. Understanding the limitations to the usability of such models on these devices is particularly important given the broadening range of applications - such as pollution or noise modelling, tourism, planning, solar potential - for which these datasets and resulting visualisations can be utilized. Much 3D City Model data is created by extrusion of 2D topographic datasets, resulting in what is known as Level of Detail (LoD) 1 buildings - with flat roofs. However, in the UK the National Mapping Agency (the Ordnance Survey, OS) is now releasing test datasets to Level of Detail (LoD) 2 - i.e. including roof structures. These datasets are designed to integrate with the LoD 1 datasets provided by the OS, and provide additional detail in particular on larger buildings and in town centres. The availability of such integrated datasets at two different Levels of Detail permits investigation into the impact of the additional roof structures (and hence the display of a more realistic 3D City Model) on rendering performance on a mobile device. This paper describes preliminary work carried out to investigate this issue, for the test area of the city of Sheffield (in the UK Midlands). The data is stored in a 3D spatial database as triangles and then extracted and served as a web-based data stream which is queried by an App developed on the mobile device (using the Android environment, Java and OpenGL for graphics). Initial tests have been carried out on two dataset sizes, for the city centre and a larger area, rendering the data onto a tablet to compare results. Results of 52 seconds for rendering LoD 1 data, and 72 seconds for LoD 1 mixed with LoD 2 data, show that the impact of LoD 2 is significant.

  19. Hazards by shock waves during explosive eruptions: preliminary results of experimental investigations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scolamacchia, Teresa; Alatorre Ibarguengoïtia, Miguel; Spieler, Oliver; Dingwell, Donald B.

    2010-05-01

    A recent study (Scolamacchia and Shouwenaars, 2009) investigated the nature of microscopic craters on the steel surface of a basketball pole left standing in one of the villages destroyed by the 1982 eruption of El Chichón volcano. The craters were attributed to the impacts of ash particles (70-280 ?m) accelerated by shock waves due to an efficient momentum coupling with a gas phase, such that a sudden expansion of the gas, caused by shock wave propagation, drag the particles up to speeds of 710 to 980 m/s. Several open questions existed on this kind of phenomena. Preliminary tests were performed to investigate the correlation between particle size and the high velocities calculated, based on inner deformation of the steel and crater geometry. We used a shock tube apparatus consisting of a high-pressure (HP) steel autoclave, pressurized with Ar gas, and a low pressure (LP) tank at atmospheric conditions. We used ash and lapilli bulk samples from El Chichón trachyandesites, and lapilli with random irregular shapes obtained by crushing and abrading dacitic blocks from pyroclastic flow deposits of Unzen volcano. The samples were placed inside an autoclave at ambient T and P, located between the HP autoclave and the LP tank. Steel plates (same type of the original impacted material), were fixed to the LP tank walls, 10 cm above the autoclave that contained the samples. Shock waves were generated by the sudden decompression of the Ar gas due to the systematical failure of a diaphragm (which separate the LP from the HP section). Air expansion accelerated the particles from below toward the steel plate. The speed of the particles was measured using a system of 4 copper wires conducting an electric signal. The signals dropped when the particles reached the wires. We used low pressure ranges (3.1 to 9.8 MPa) for all experimental runs, obtaining a range of particles velocities between 40 and 257 m/s. These velocities can be attained by pyroclastic density currents. Higher velocities (205 to 257 m/s) were obtained for smaller grain-sizes, in a range of fine lapilli-medium ash (2.8 to 177 ?m). Lower velocities, 40 m/s to 85 m/s, were attained by medium (8 mm) and fine lapilli (4 mm), respectively. These values seem not directly related to the the material composition. Impacts craters on steel plates were experimentally obtained, but we did not observe a modification of the steel inner structure, as observed in the original impacted pole. These results are in agreement with impacts occurred at low particle velocities, typical for gravity driven currents, as those reached in these experiments. We observed a great reduction in grain-size of samples recovered after all experiments with respect to the original material. Such evidence coud be due not only to the disruption of grains when impacting the metal plate, but also to processes stricly related to shock wave propagation and gas expansion. These preliminary results need to be further investigated.

  20. Reconnaissance investigation of the rough diamond resource potential and production capacity of Côte d’Ivoire

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chirico, Peter G.; Malpeli, Katherine C.

    2013-01-01

    Ethnic and political conflict developed into open civil war in Côte d’Ivoire in 2002, leading to a de facto partitioning of the country into the government-controlled south and the rebel-controlled north. Côte d’Ivoire’s two main diamond mining areas, Séguéla and Tortiya, are located in the north, under what was, until recently, rebel-controlled territory. In an effort to prevent proceeds from diamond mining from funding the conflict, the United Nations (UN) placed an embargo on the export of rough diamonds from Côte d’Ivoire in 2005. That same year, the Kimberley Process (KP), the international initiative charged with stemming the flow of conflict diamonds, acted to enforce this ban by adopting the Moscow Resolution on Côte d’Ivoire, which contained measures to prevent the infiltration of Ivorian diamonds into the legitimate global rough diamond trade. Though under scrutiny by the international community, diamond mining activities continued in Côte d’Ivoire, with artisanal miners exploiting both alluvial deposits in fluvial systems and primary kimberlitic dike deposits. However, because of the embargo, there has been no official record of diamond production since the conflict began in 2002. This lack of production statistics represents a significant data gap and hinders efforts by the KP to understand how illicitly produced diamonds may be entering the legitimate trade. This study presents the results of a multiyear effort to monitor the diamond mining activities of Côte d’Ivoire’s two main diamond mining areas, Séguéla and Tortiya. An innovative approach was developed that integrates data acquired from archival reports and maps, high-resolution satellite imagery, and digital terrain modeling to assess the total diamond endowment of the Séguéla and Tortiya deposits and to calculate annual diamond production from 2006 to 2013. On the basis of currently available data, this study estimates that a total of 10,100,000 carats remain in Séguéla and a total of 1,100,000 carats remain in Tortiya. Production capacity was calculated for the two study areas for the years 2006–2010 and 2012–2013. Production capacity was found to range from between 38,000 carats and 375,000 carats in Séguéla and from 13,000 carats and 20,000 carats in Tortiya. Further, this study demonstrates that artisanal mining activities can be successfully monitored by using remote sensing and geologic modeling techniques. The production capacity estimates presented here fill a significant data gap and provide policy makers, the UN, and the KP with important information not otherwise available.

  1. Further investigations on the resilience capacity of Taraxacum officinale Weber growing on mine soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maleci, Laura; Bini, Claudio; Spiandorello, Massimo; Wahsha, Mohammad

    2014-05-01

    Heavy metal accumulation produces significant physiological and biochemical responses in vascular plants. Plants growing on abandoned mine sites are of particular interest, since they are genetically tolerant to high metal concentrations. In this work we examined the effect of heavy metals (HM) on the morphology of T. officinale growing on mine soils, with the following objectives: - to determine the fate of HM within the soil-plant system; - to highlight possible damage at anatomical and cytological level; - to assess the resilience capacity of Taraxacum officinale after three years of pot cultivation. Wild specimens of Taraxacum officinale Web, with their soil clod, were gathered from four sites with different contamination levels by heavy metals (Cu, Fe, Pb, Zn) in the abandoned Imperina Valley mine (Northeast Italy). Plants were cultivated in pots at the botanical garden of the University of Florence (HBF), and appeared macroscopically not affected by toxic signals (e.g. reduced growth, leaf necrosis) possibly induced by soil HM concentration. Leaves and roots taken at the same growing season were observed by light microscopy (LM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Light microscopy observations show a clear difference in the cell organization of not-contaminated and contaminated samples. The unpolluted samples present a well organized palisade tissue and spongy photosynthetic parenchyma. Samples from contaminated sites, instead, present a palisade parenchyma less organized, and a reduction of leaf thickness proportional to HM concentration. The poor structural organisations, and the reduced foliar thickness of the contaminated plants, are related to soil contamination. Differences in roots micromorphology concern the cortical parenchyma. Moreover, all the samples examined present mycorrhiza. Ultrastructure observations of the parenchyma cells show mitochondrial structure alteration, with lacking or reduced cristae of the internal membrane at increasing metal content. Instead, chloroplast organization does not present significant differences, particularly in number and compartmentalization of thylakoids. Although macromorphology does not present evidence of phytotoxicity, the recorded observations of the micromorphological characteristics of leaves and roots, show a suffering state of the plants, strictly related to HM content. Leaching reduced partly the HM content of the soil, therefore decreasing their phytotoxic effect. A gradual restoration of leaf organization suggests that somewhat resilience occurred in plants. Moreover, the presence of stress-tolerant mycorrhizal fungi could contribute to reduce metal toxicity. The resilience capacity suggests that Taraxacum could be a useful species in remediation projects. Keywords: Heavy metals • Mine soils • Plant morphology • Taraxacum officinale • Ultrastructure

  2. Bimanual Elbow Robotic Orthoses: Preliminary Investigations on an Impairment Force-Feedback Rehabilitation Method

    PubMed Central

    Herrnstadt, Gil; Alavi, Nezam; Randhawa, Bubblepreet Kaur; Boyd, Lara A.; Menon, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    Modern rehabilitation practices have begun integrating robots, recognizing their significant role in recovery. New and alternative stroke rehabilitation treatments are essential to enhance efficacy and mitigate associated health costs. Today’s robotic interventions can play a significant role in advancing rehabilitation. In addition, robots have an inherent ability to perform tasks accurately and reliably and are typically well suited to measure and quantify performance. Most rehabilitation strategies predominantly target activation of the paretic arm. However, bimanual upper-limb rehabilitation research suggests potential in enhancing functional recovery. Moreover, studies suggest that limb coordination and synchronization can improve treatment efficacy. In this preliminary study, we aimed to investigate and validate our user-driven bimanual system in a reduced intensity rehab practice. A bimanual wearable robotic device (BWRD) with a Master–Slave configuration for the elbow joint was developed to carry out the investigation. The BWRD incorporates position and force sensors for which respective control loops are implemented, and offers varying modes of operation ranging from passive to active training. The proposed system enables the perception of the movements, as well as the forces applied by the hemiparetic arm, with the non-hemiparetic arm. Eight participants with chronic unilateral stroke were recruited to participate in a total of three 1-h sessions per participant, delivered in a week. Participants underwent pre- and post-training functional assessments along with proprioceptive measures. The post-assessment was performed at the end of the last training session. The protocol was designed to engage the user in an assortment of static and dynamic arm matching and opposing tasks. The training incorporates force-feedback movements, force-feedback positioning, and force matching tasks with same and opposite direction movements. We are able to suggest identification of impairment patterns in the position-force plot results. In addition, we performed a proprioception evaluation with the system. We set out to design innovative and user immersive training tasks that utilize the BWRD capabilities, and we demonstrate that the subjects were able to cooperate and accomplish the protocol. We found that the Fugl–Meyer and Wolf Motor Function Test (pre to post) measured improvements (15 and 19%, respectively). Recognizing the brevity of the training, we focus our report primarily on the proprioception testing (32% significant improvement, pprop?=?0.033) and protocol distinctive features and results. This paper presents the electromechanical features and performance of the BWRD, the testing protocol, and the assessments utilized. Outcome measures and results are presented and demonstrate the successful application and operation of the system. PMID:25870555

  3. Bimanual elbow robotic orthoses: preliminary investigations on an impairment force-feedback rehabilitation method.

    PubMed

    Herrnstadt, Gil; Alavi, Nezam; Randhawa, Bubblepreet Kaur; Boyd, Lara A; Menon, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    Modern rehabilitation practices have begun integrating robots, recognizing their significant role in recovery. New and alternative stroke rehabilitation treatments are essential to enhance efficacy and mitigate associated health costs. Today's robotic interventions can play a significant role in advancing rehabilitation. In addition, robots have an inherent ability to perform tasks accurately and reliably and are typically well suited to measure and quantify performance. Most rehabilitation strategies predominantly target activation of the paretic arm. However, bimanual upper-limb rehabilitation research suggests potential in enhancing functional recovery. Moreover, studies suggest that limb coordination and synchronization can improve treatment efficacy. In this preliminary study, we aimed to investigate and validate our user-driven bimanual system in a reduced intensity rehab practice. A bimanual wearable robotic device (BWRD) with a Master-Slave configuration for the elbow joint was developed to carry out the investigation. The BWRD incorporates position and force sensors for which respective control loops are implemented, and offers varying modes of operation ranging from passive to active training. The proposed system enables the perception of the movements, as well as the forces applied by the hemiparetic arm, with the non-hemiparetic arm. Eight participants with chronic unilateral stroke were recruited to participate in a total of three 1-h sessions per participant, delivered in a week. Participants underwent pre- and post-training functional assessments along with proprioceptive measures. The post-assessment was performed at the end of the last training session. The protocol was designed to engage the user in an assortment of static and dynamic arm matching and opposing tasks. The training incorporates force-feedback movements, force-feedback positioning, and force matching tasks with same and opposite direction movements. We are able to suggest identification of impairment patterns in the position-force plot results. In addition, we performed a proprioception evaluation with the system. We set out to design innovative and user immersive training tasks that utilize the BWRD capabilities, and we demonstrate that the subjects were able to cooperate and accomplish the protocol. We found that the Fugl-Meyer and Wolf Motor Function Test (pre to post) measured improvements (15 and 19%, respectively). Recognizing the brevity of the training, we focus our report primarily on the proprioception testing (32% significant improvement, p prop?=?0.033) and protocol distinctive features and results. This paper presents the electromechanical features and performance of the BWRD, the testing protocol, and the assessments utilized. Outcome measures and results are presented and demonstrate the successful application and operation of the system. PMID:25870555

  4. Investigation of the Regenerative Capacity of an Acellular Porcine Medial Meniscus for Tissue Engineering Applications

    PubMed Central

    Ingram, Joanne; Fisher, John; Ingham, Eileen

    2011-01-01

    Previously, we have described the development of an acellular porcine meniscal scaffold. The aims of this study were to determine the immunocompatibility of the scaffold and capacity for cellular attachment and infiltration to gain insight into its potential for meniscal repair and replacement. Porcine menisci were decellularized by exposing the tissue to freeze–thaw cycles, incubation in hypotonic tris buffer, 0.1% (w/v) sodium dodecyl sulfate in hypotonic buffer plus protease inhibitors, nucleases, hypertonic buffer followed by disinfection using 0.1% (v/v) peracetic, and final washing in phosphate-buffered saline. In vivo immunocompatibility was assessed after implantation of the acellular meniscal scaffold subcutaneously into galactosyltransferase knockout mice for 3 months in comparison to fresh and acellular tissue treated with ?-galactosidase (negative control). The cellular infiltrates in the explants were assessed by histology and characterized using monoclonal antibodies against: CD3, CD4, CD34, F4/80, and C3c. Static culture was used to assess the potential of acellular porcine meniscal scaffold to support the attachment and infiltration of primary human dermal fibroblasts and primary porcine meniscal cells in vitro. The explants were surrounded by capsules that were more pronounced for the fresh meniscal tissue compared to the acellular tissues. Cellular infiltrates compromised mononuclear phagocytes, CD34-positive cells, and nonlabeled fibroblastic cells. T-lymphocytes were sparse in all explanted tissue types and there was no evidence of C3c deposition. The analysis revealed an absence of a specific immune response to all of the implanted tissues. Acellular porcine meniscus was shown to be capable of supporting the attachment and infiltration of primary human fibroblasts and primary porcine meniscal cells. In conclusion, acellular porcine meniscal tissue exhibits excellent immunocompatibility and potential for cellular regeneration in the longer term. PMID:20695759

  5. The Enhancement of Resilience via a Wilderness Therapy Program. A Preliminary Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillespie, E.; Allen-Craig, Sandy

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the findings of a recent preliminary study into the effects of a wilderness therapy program on the resilience of male youth at-risk. The study focused on participants who completed a wilderness therapy program at Typo Station. The residential program involved a five-week stay at the Typo Station property in north east Victoria,…

  6. A Preliminary Qualitative Investigation of Group Processes in Group Supervision: Perspectives of Master's Level Practicum Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linton, Jeremy M.

    2003-01-01

    Despite its wide use, group supervision remains a poorly understood component of counselor training programs. Using qualitative methods, this preliminary study attempted to add to the group supervision literature and develop hypotheses for further study. Four counselors in training enrolled in a practicum participated in the study. Participants…

  7. Gender Differences in Spatial Awareness in Immersive Virtual Environments: A Preliminary Investigation

    E-print Network

    Mania, Katerina

    Gender Differences in Spatial Awareness in Immersive Virtual Environments: A Preliminary.mania@ced.tuc.gr Abstract This paper presents an experiment exploring gender differences in spatial navigation, memory. Participants were separated in two groups based on their gender. After being exposed to the VE, they completed

  8. Love Deprivation and Blood Pressure Levels among a College Population: A Preliminary Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sisca, Samuel S.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Viewed within the general context of Selye's theory of environmentally induced stress, we tested the hypothesis that blood pressure levels would vary inversely with the degree of loving responses our subjects received from those with whom they interact on a frequent basis. Preliminary data support this hypothesis, especially among our older…

  9. Parental Choice of Infant Feeding Behaviours in South West Sydney: A Preliminary Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arora, A.; Gay, M.; Thirukumar, D.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to test a research instrument that could possibly be used for longitudinal research on infant feeding and to report on the preliminary results from the data collected. Design: Mixed methods approach--cross-sectional survey and qualitative research. Setting: Mother-infant dyads in South West Sydney,…

  10. Characterising Developmental Language Impairment in Serbian-Speaking Children: A Preliminary Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vukovic, Mile; Stojanovik, Vesna

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the article is to provide preliminary data on the use of auxiliaries and clitics in Serbian-speaking children with developmental language impairment. Two groups of children (a group of 30 children with developmental language impairment and a group of 30 typically developing children) aged between 48 and 83 months and matched on IQ took…

  11. Plant and Soil-Based Carbon Sequestration in Urban Areas Objective: Investigate current research into plant and soil carbon storage capacities,

    E-print Network

    Wolberg, George

    and their respective carbon sequestration capacities. From an urban landscape design perspective, perform an urban land-of-ways and transportation easement zones) and the capacities of urban land areas to serve as biomass/soil carbon sinksPlant and Soil-Based Carbon Sequestration in Urban Areas Objective: Investigate current research

  12. Supporting early career health investigators in Kenya: A qualitative study of HIV/AIDS research capacity building

    PubMed Central

    Daniels, Joseph; Nduati, Ruth; Kiarie, James; Farquhar, Carey

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Strategies to transfer international health research training programs to sub-Saharan African institutions focus on developing cadres of local investigators who will lead such programs. Using a critical leadership theory framework, we conducted a qualitative study of one program to understand how collaborative training and research can support early career investigators in Kenya toward the program transfer goal. Methods We used purposive sampling methods and a semi-structured protocol to conduct in-depth interviews with US (N = 5) and Kenyan (N = 5) independent investigators. Transcripts were coded using a two-step process, and then compared with each other to identify major themes. Results A limited local research environment, funding needs and research career mentorship were identified as major influences on early career researchers. Institutional demands on Kenyan faculty to teach rather than complete research restricted investigators’ ability to develop research careers. This was coupled with lack of local funding to support research. Sustainable collaborations between Kenyan, US and other international investigators were perceived to mitigate these challenges and support early career investigators who would help build a robust local research environment for training. Conclusion Mutually beneficial collaborations between Kenyan and US investigators developed during training mitigate these challenges and build a supportive research environment for training. In these collaborations, early career investigators learn how to navigate the complex international research environment to build local HIV research capacity. Shared and mutually beneficial resources within international research collaborations are required to support early career investigators and plans to transfer health research training to African institutions. PMID:26113923

  13. A preliminary investigation of the role of self-control in behavioral weight loss treatment.

    PubMed

    Leahey, Tricia M; Xu, Xiaomeng; Unick, Jessica L; Wing, Rena R

    2014-01-01

    Self-control is associated with positive health outcomes; however, there is limited information on self-control and weight loss. Thus, the purpose of this preliminary research was to examine how objectively measured self-control operates within the context of a behavioral weight loss program (BWL). Results showed that greater self-control and increases in self-control during BWL treatment were associated with greater weight loss (r's â?¥ 0.26; p's < 0.05), better treatment attendance (r's â?¥ 0.26; p < 0.05), adherence to a low fat diet (r'sâ?¤-0.37; p's < 0.05), and greater increases in physical activity (r's â?¥ 0.46; p's < 0.05). These preliminary findings suggest that self-control may play an important role in weight loss success. PMID:24743010

  14. A preliminary investigation of the role of self-control in behavioral weight loss treatment

    PubMed Central

    Leahey, Tricia M.; Xu, Xiaomeng; Unick, Jessica L.; Wing, Rena R.

    2013-01-01

    Self-control is associated with positive health outcomes; however, there is limited information on self-control and weight loss. Thus, the purpose of this preliminary research was to examine how objectively measured self-control operates within the context of a behavioral weight loss program (BWL). Results showed that greater self-control and increases in self-control during BWL treatment were associated with greater weight loss (r’s?0.26; p’s<0.05), better treatment attendance (r’s?0.26, p<0.05), adherence to a low fat diet (r’s??0.37; p’s<0.05), and greater increases in physical activity (r’s 0.46; p’s<0.05). These preliminary findings suggest that self-control may play an important role in weight loss success. PMID:24743010

  15. Gravity gradient preliminary investigations, part 2: Lunar tidal gravity gradients and stresses (exhibit C)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houston, M. H.; Thompson, L. G. D.

    1971-01-01

    Preliminary analysis of the gravity gradients associated with gravity tides on the moon caused by the earth indicates that the relative changes in the gradients are very irregular, and large, and about 15 times greater than those experienced on earth. Thus gradients, in preference to gravity tides themselves, may well be an important key in correlating tide effects with lunar transient events and moonquakes, and also in determining triggering mechanisms for crustal movement and faulting. Preliminary analysis of lunar crustal stresses and strains caused by lunar gravity tides indicates that these factors may be more direct causative agents or triggering mechanisms. In particular, the cubic dilation undergoes relatively large changes and is about 11 times greater on the moon than on earth. Thus it should be correspondingly more important.

  16. Preliminary investigation of power flow and electrode phenomena in a multi-megawatt coaxial plasma thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoenberg, Kurt; Gerwin, Richard; Henins, Ivars; Mayo, Robert; Scheuer, Jay; Nurden, Glen

    1993-01-01

    This paper summarizes preliminary experimental and theoretical research that was directed towards the study of quasisteady-state power flow in a large, un-optimized, multi-megawatt coaxial plasma thruster. The report addresses large coaxial thruster operation and includes evaluation and interpretation of the experimental results with a view to the development of efficient, steady-state megawatt-class magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thrusters.

  17. An Investigation of the Effect of Graphite Degradation on the Irreversible Capacity in Lithium-ion Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Stevenson, Cynthia; Hardwick, Laurence J.; Marcinek, Marek; Beer, Leanne; Kerr, John B.; Kostecki, Robert

    2008-03-03

    The effect of surface structural damage on graphitic anodes, commonly observed in tested Li-ion cells, was investigated. Similar surface structural disorder was artificially induced in Mag-10 synthetic graphite anodes using argon-ion sputtering. Raman microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Brunauer Emmett Teller (BET) measurements confirmed that Ar-ion sputtered Mag-10 electrodes display similar degree of surface degradation as the anodes from tested Li-ion cells. Artificially modified Mag-10 anodes showed double the irreversible charge capacity during the first formation cycle, compared to fresh un-altered anodes. Impedance spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy on surface modified graphite anodes indicated the formation of a thicker and slightly more resistive SEI layer. Gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS) analysis of solvent extracts from the electrodes detected the presence of new compounds with M{sub w} on the order of 1600 g mol{sup -1} for the surface modified electrode with no evidence of elevated M{sub w} species for the unmodified electrode. The structural disorder induced in the graphite during long-term cycling maybe responsible for the slow and continuous SEI layer reformation, and consequently, the loss of reversible capacity due to the shift of lithium inventory in cycled Li-ion cells.

  18. Road-map to plan and structure the preliminary site investigation program for a geological repository in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Deguchi, Akira; Tsuchi, Hiroyuki; Kitayama, Kazumi; Chapman, Neil; Andersson, Johan; Tanaka, Tatsuya

    2007-07-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: A stepwise site selection process has been adopted for geological disposal of HLW in Japan. Literature surveys (LS), followed by preliminary investigations (PI) and, finally, detailed investigations (DI) in underground facilities will be carried out in the successive selection stages. In the PI stage, surface-based investigations such as borehole surveys and geophysical prospecting will be implemented with two main objectives. The first is to obtain information relating to legal requirements on siting, such as the occurrence of igneous or fault activity, and to confirm the extremely low likelihood of adverse impacts on the candidate site resulting from such phenomena. The second is to obtain the information required for the design and performance assessment of the engineered barrier system and the repository. In order to implement these preliminary investigations rigorously and efficiently within the constraints of a limited time period, budget and resources, PI planning before commencing investigations and on-site PI management during the investigation phase are very important issues. The planning and management of PI have to be performed by NUMO staff, but not all staff have sufficient experience in the range of disciplines involved. NUMO therefore decided to compile existing knowledge and experience in the planning and management of investigations in the form of manuals to be used to improve and maintain internal expertise. Experts with experience in overseas investigation programs were requested to prepare these manuals. This paper outlines the structure and scope of the upper level manual (road-map) and discusses NUMO's experience in applying it in 'dry-runs' to model sites. (authors)

  19. 75 FR 38079 - Postponement of Preliminary Determination of Antidumping Duty Investigation: Polyvinyl Alcohol...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-01

    ...Antidumping Duty Investigation: Polyvinyl Alcohol From Taiwan AGENCY: Import...antidumping duty investigation on polyvinyl alcohol from Taiwan. See Initiation...Anti-Dumping Duty Investigation: Polyvinyl Alcohol From Taiwan, 69 FR...

  20. Preliminary Results on the Experimental Investigation of the Structure Functions of Bound Nucleons

    SciTech Connect

    Bodek, Arie

    2015-09-01

    We present preliminary results on an experimental study of the nuclear modification of the longitudinal (sL) and transverse (sT ) structure functions of nucleons bound in nuclear targets. The origin of these modifications (commonly referred as as the EMC effect) is not fully understood. Our measurements of R= sL=sT for nuclei (RA) and for deuterium (RD) indicate that nuclear modifications of the structure functions of bound nucleons are different for the longitudinal and transverse structure functions, and that contrary to expectation from several theoretical models, RA < RD.

  1. Preliminary Investigation of a Translating Cowl Technique for Improving Take-off Performance of a Sharp-lip Supersonic Diffuser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cortright, Edgar M , Jr

    1951-01-01

    A preliminary investigation was conducted in quiescent air on a translating cowl technique for improving the take-off performance of a sharp-lip supersonic diffuser. The technique consists of cutting the cowling in a plane normal to its axis and then translating the forepart of the cowling in the forward direction. The leading edge of the fixed portion of the cowling is rounded. Appreciable improved inlet performance was obtained with a cowling translation corresponding to a gap of only 1/4 inlet radius.

  2. Archaeological Palimpsest Dissection at Cova del Parco (Lleida, Spain) through Microstratigraphic Investigation of Combustion Structures. Preliminary Results.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Égüez, Natalia; Mallol, Carolina; Mangado, Xavier; Tejero, José Miguel; Fullola, Josep Maria

    2014-05-01

    We present preliminary data from ongoing microstratigraphic investigations of Cova del Parco (Lleida, Spain), a Magdalenian karstic cave site in North western Catalonia. Excavations of the Upper Magdalenian levels are currently underway, with radiometric dates between 15,690 and 16,390 cal BP. This period has yielded a complex anthropogenic sedimentary deposit including combustion features and local accumulations of anthropogenic debris near the cave walls. On of the working hypothesis is that the Magdalenian hunter-gatherers who occupied the site did so for short periods, possibly seasonally. Support of this hypothesis comes the presence of overlapping, very thin flat combustion structures, which appear to have been short-lived and close to each other in time. In order to investigate this issue, we carried out micromorphological analysis of some of the mentioned combustion features. Preliminary results show significant microstratification and presence of unburned spherulites mixed in with reprecipitated calcitic wood ash, both of which point towards the existence of hiatuses between combustion events. This is supported by the observation of scattered, lightly burned microscopic flint and bone fragments in the sediment between ash layers, which could represent renewed occupation floor debris. Our case study adds to the growing number of combustion feature microstratigraphic investigations contributing to a correct characterization of anthropogenic palimpsest deposits. Key words: Microstratigraphy; Micromorphology; Magdalenian; Combustion features; Wood ash; Palimpsest; Iberian Peninsula.

  3. Kinetic Roughening and Energetics of Tetragonal Lysozyme Crystal Growth: A Preliminary Atomic Force Microscopy Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorti, Sridhar; Forsythe, Elizabeth L.; Pusey, Marc L.

    2004-01-01

    We examined particulars of crystal growth from measurements obtained at both microscopic and molecular levels. The crystal growth measurements performed at the microscopic level are well characterized by a model that balances the flux of macromolecules towards the crystal surface with the flux of the crystal surface. Numerical evaluation of model with measurements of crystal growth, in time, provided accurate estimates for the average growth velocities. Growth velocities thus obtained were also interpreted using well-established phenomenological theories. Moreover, we find that microscopic measurements of growth velocity measurements obtained as a function of temperature best characterizes changes in crystal growth modes, when present. We also examined the possibility of detecting a change in crystal growth modes at the molecular level using atomic force microscopy, AFM. From preliminary AFM measurements performed at various supersaturations, we find that magnitude of surface height fluctuations, h(x), increases with supersaturation. Further examination of surface height fluctuations using methods established for fluctuation spectroscopy also enabled the discovery of the existence of a characteristic length, c, which may possibly determine the mode of crystal growth. Although the results are preliminary, we establish the non- critical divergence of 5 and the root-mean-square (rms) magnitude of height-height fluctuations as the kinetic roughening transition temperatures are approached. Moreover, we also examine approximate models for interpreting the non-critical behavior of both 6 and rms magnitude of height-height fluctuations, as the solution supersaturation is increased towards the kinetic roughening supersaturation.

  4. An Investigation on Load Bearing Capacities of Cement and Resin Grouted Rock Bolts Installed in Weak Rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalyoncu Erguler, Guzide; Abiddin Erguler, Zeynal

    2015-04-01

    Rock bolts have been considered one of indispensable support method to improve load bearing capacity of many underground engineering projects, and thus, various types of them have been developed until now for different purposes. Although mechanically anchored rock bolts can be successfully installed to prevent structurally controlled instabilities in hard rocks, in comparison with cement and resin grouted rock bolts, these types of anchors are not so effective in weak rocks characterized by relatively low mechanical properties. In order to investigate the applicability and to measure relative performance of cement and resin grouted rock bolts into weak and heavily jointed rock mass, a research program mainly consisting of pull-out tests was performed in a metal mine in Turkey. The rock materials excavated in this underground mining were described as basalt, tuff, ore dominated volcanic rocks and dacite. To achieve more representative results for rock materials found in this mining and openings excavated in varied dimensions, the pull-out tests were conducted on rock bolts used in many different locations where more convergences were measured and deformation dependent instability was expected to cause greater engineering problems. It is well known that the capacity of rock bolts depends on the length, diameter and density of the bolt pattern, and so considering the thickness of plastic zone in the studied openings, the length and diameter of rock bolts were taken as 2.4 m. and 25 mm., respectively. The spacing between rows changed between 70 and 180 cm. In this study, totally twenty five pull-out tests were performed to have a general understanding about axial load bearing capacity and support reaction curves of cement and resin grouted rock bolts. When pull load-displacement curves belongs to cement and resin grouted rock bolts were compared with each other, it was determined that cement grouted rock bolts carry more load ranging between 115.6 kN and 127.5 kN with a mean value of 119.4 kN. However, the axial pull-load obtained from resin grouted rock bolts ranged from 2.9 to 110.9 kN with a mean value of 45.7 kN. Achieving relatively lower axial pull loads for resin grouted rock bolts were attributed to the tendency of resin to flow easily throughout surfaces of discontinuities. During site investigation, it was concluded that 27 of 72 resin grouted rock bolts and 8 of 56 cement grouted rock bolts were determined to lose their support capacities. According to these observations, it was found that while support recovery of cement grouted increase to 85.7%, this ratio decreased to about 62.5% for resin grouted rock bolts. When these observations and pull-out test results are considered, it can be concluded that installing cement grouted rock bolts can be more effective than resin grouted rock bolts to support mining operated in weak and heavily jointed rock masses.

  5. Evaluation of soil corrosivity and aquifer protective capacity using geoelectrical investigation in Bwari basement complex area, Abuja

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adeniji, A. E.; Omonona, O. V.; Obiora, D. N.; Chukudebelu, J. U.

    2014-04-01

    Bwari is one of the six municipal area councils of the Federal Capital Territory (FCT), Abuja with its attendant growing population and infrastructural developments. Groundwater is the main source of water supply in the area, and urbanization and industrialization are the predominant contributors of contaminants to the hydrological systems. In order to guarantee a continuous supply of potable water, there is a need to investigate the vulnerability of the aquifers to contaminants emanating from domestic and industrial wastes. A total of 20 vertical electrical soundings using Schlumberger electrode array with a maximum half current electrodes separation of 300 m was employed. The results show that the area is characterized by 3-6 geoelectric subsurface layers. The measured overburden thickness ranges from 1.0 to 24.3 m, with a mean value of 7.4 m. The resistivity and longitudinal conductance of the overburden units range from 18 to 11,908 ?m and 0.047 to 0.875 mhos, respectively. Areas considered as high corrosivity are the central parts with ? < 180 ?m. The characteristic longitudinal unit conductance was used to classify the area into zones of good (0.7-4.49 mhos), moderate (0.2-0.69 mhos), weak (0.1-0.19 mhos), and poor (<0.1) aquifer protective capacity. Zones characterized by materials of moderate to good protective capacity serve as sealing potential for the underlying hydrogeological system in the area. This study is aimed at delineating zones that are very prone to groundwater contamination from surface contaminants and subsurface soils that are corrosive to utility pipes buried underground. Hence the findings of this work will constitute part of the tools for groundwater development and management and structural/infrastructural development planning of the area.

  6. Preliminary investigation of some large landslides triggered by the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake, Sichuan Province, China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, F.; Cheng, Q.; Highland, L.; Miyajima, M.; Wang, Hongfang; Yan, C.

    2009-01-01

    The M s 8.0 Wenchuan earthquake or "Great Sichuan Earthquake" occurred at 14:28 p.m. local time on 12 May 2008 in Sichuan Province, China. Damage by earthquake-induced landslides was an important part of the total earthquake damage. This report presents preliminary observations on the Hongyan Resort slide located southwest of the main epicenter, shallow mountain surface failures in Xuankou village of Yingxiu Town, the Jiufengchun slide near Longmenshan Town, the Hongsong Hydro-power Station slide near Hongbai Town, the Xiaojiaqiao slide in Chaping Town, two landslides in Beichuan County-town which destroyed a large part of the town, and the Donghekou and Shibangou slides in Qingchuan County which formed the second biggest landslide lake formed in this earthquake. The influences of seismic, topographic, geologic, and hydro-geologic conditions are discussed. ?? 2009 Springer-Verlag.

  7. Preliminary phytochemical investigation and antibacterial activity of Phyllanthus amarus Schum & Thorn.

    PubMed Central

    Dhandapani, R.; Lakshmi, D.; Balakrishnan, V.; Jayakumar, S.; kumar, Anandha

    2007-01-01

    The aqueous extract of Phyllanthus amarus Schum & Thorn, was selected for preliminary phytochemical and antibacterial activity against human pathogens. Minimum inhibitory concentration was performed by broth dilution method and the zone of inhibition was studied by agar disc diffusion method at concentrations of 10 and 20 mg/ml in DMSO (Dimethyl Sulfoxide). The results revealed the antimicrobial activity of extract against the the strains of microorganisms concentrations in ranges of 60 and 500 ?g/ml. Aqueous extract of leaves and roots of Phyllanthus amarus exhibited significant antibacterial activity against eight test bacteria like Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus albus, Streptococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Proteus vulgaris. The plant under study revealed the presence of alkaloids, phytosterols, phenolic compounds and tannins, proteins and amino acids , lignins and saponins. PMID:22557251

  8. Preliminary investigation of thin film polymers exposed to low Earth orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strganac, Thomas; Farrow, Allan; Letton, Alan

    1991-01-01

    Preliminary results of thin film polymers exposed to low-Earth orbit aboard the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) are discussed. Dynamic testing of a 0.92/0.92 mil. polyester laminate film indicated that the modulus loss of the exposed specimens may be very small. When the storage modulus of the exposed specimen was compared to the storage modulus of a control specimen over a temperature range of minus 150 degrees to 100 degrees, there was very little change. Fourier Transform Spectroscopy performed on the same exposed material indicated crosslinking of the polyethylene, which was verified by an increase in the storage modulus above the glass transition temperature. Optical microscopy of the sample showed micrometeoroid strikes and contamination in spots by what is thought to be silicon outgassed from a nearby experiment.

  9. Activity of thyroid parafollicular (C) cells in rats with hyperthyroidism--preliminary ultrastructural investigations.

    PubMed

    Dadan, J; Zbucki, R; Andrzejewska, A; Winnicka, M M; Puchalski, Z

    2004-01-01

    In the thyroid gland of mammals, except the basic follicular (F) cells, parafollicular (C) cells are detected. They belong to disperse neuroendocrine cells of the APUD system. Co-localisation of F and C cells in the thyroid gland is not accidental. It seems possible that there is an interaction between them, mediated by the peptidergic hormones. Calcitonin (CT) is proposed as an essential indicator of C cells. The role of C cells in the function of the thyroid gland has been not clarified till now, especially in hyperthyroid state. There are only a few data which document the ultrastructure of C cells in the physiological and pathological state. In the present study, the ultrastructure of thyroid C cells in an experimental model of hyperthyroidism was evaluated. Our preliminary study may confirm the functional interaction between follicular and parafollicular cells in the thyroid gland. PMID:15638398

  10. Preliminary investigation of greenhouse gas emissions from the environmental sector in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Fukushima, Yasuhiro; Liu, Pao-Wen Grace; Tsai, Jiun-Horng; Lee, Cheng Feng; Tseng, Ting Ke

    2008-01-01

    The United Nations Framework Conventions on Climate Change (UNFCCC) asks their Parties to submit a National Inventory Report (NIR) for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions on an annual basis. However, when many countries are quickly growing their economy, resulting in substantial GHG emissions, their inventory reporting systems either have not been established or been able to be linked to planning of mitigation measures at national administration levels. The present research was aimed to quantify the GHG emissions from an environmental sector in Taiwan and also to establish a linkage between the developed inventories and development of mitigation plans. The "environmental sector" consists of public service under jurisdiction of the Taiwan Environmental Protection Administration: landfilling, composting, waste transportation, wastewater treatment, night soil treatment, and solid waste incineration. The preliminary results were compared with that of the United States, Germany, Japan, United Kingdom, and Korea, considering the gaps in the scopes of the sectors. The GHG emissions from the Taiwanese environmental sector were mostly estimated by following the default methodology in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change guideline, except that of night soil treatment and waste transportation that were modified or newly developed. The GHG emissions from the environmental sectors in 2004 were 10,225 kilotons of CO2 equivalent (kt CO2 Eq.). Landfilling (48.86%), solid waste incineration (27%), and wastewater treatment (21.5%) were the major contributors. Methane was the most significant GHG (70.6%), followed by carbon dioxide (27.8%) and nitrous oxide (1.6%). In summary, the GHG emissions estimated for the environmental sector in Taiwan provided reasonable preliminary results that were consistent and comparable with the existing authorized data. On the basis of the inventory results and the comparisons with the other countries, recommendations of mitigation plans were made, including wastewater and solid waste recycling, methane recovery for energy, and waste reduction/sorting. PMID:18236798

  11. Preliminary Investigation on Battery Sizing Investigation for Thrust Vector Control on Ares I and Ares V Launch Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Thomas B.

    2011-01-01

    An investigation into the merits of battery powered Electro Hydrostatic Actuation (EHA) for Thrust Vector Control (TVC) of the Ares I and Ares V launch vehicles is described. A top level trade study was conducted to ascertain the technical merits of lithium-ion (Li-ion) and thermal battery performance to determine the preferred choice of an energy storage system chemistry that provides high power discharge capability for a relatively short duration.

  12. Seismic Investigations of the Murci Geothermal Field (Southern Tuscany, Italy): Preliminary Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riedel, M.; Alexandrakis, C.; Buske, S.

    2013-12-01

    The Monte Amiata region in the Southern Tuscany, Central Italy, describes a volcanic complex with great significance in terms of the regional fresh water supply, mining and geothermal power generation. Mainly for the latter purpose, the volcanic area of Mt Amiata has been the subject of extensive geological and geophysical research (e.g. Dini et al., 2010 and references therein). The insights from these studies have led to successful geothermal production in the Mt Amiata region since the early 1960s (e.g. Batini et al., 2003). Today's most important reservoirs in this area are the Bagnore and the Piancastagnaio fields which are both operated by the company Enel Green Power. The work presented here deals with the Murci area, another potential reservoir located about 10 km southwest of the Mt Amiata volcanic complex. Therefore, in order to get a more detailed understanding of this area, five reflection seismic profiles were carried out. We have performed on three of them a preliminary depth-migrated images, through Kirchhoff prestack depth migration (KPSDM). The vital point of depth migration algorithms is the accuracy of the velocity model that is used for the backpropagation of the seismic data. Therefore, we derived a suitable 1D starting model from nearby well logs and VSP measurements. In order to remove the large topography effects along the profiles, we then utilized first-arrival tomography for each seismic line. For the following processing we incorporated these 2D tomographic results into our starting model which compensates for static effects and improves the resolution in the near-surface area. The velocity models were then used in the application of KPSDM to the seismic data for each profile, respectively. The resulting preliminary images show a zone of high seismic reflectivity, known as the 'K-horizon' (e.g. Brogi, 2008), and could improve its geological interpretation. These promising results encourage us to proceed with deeper migration velocity analysis which will reveal more details about the structures of the Murci area. Batini, F. et al., 2003: Geological features of Larderello-Travale and Mt. Amiata geothermal areas (southern Tuscany, Italy), Episodes, 26, 239-244. Brogi, A., 2008. The structure of the Monte Amiata volcano-geothermal area (Northern Apennines, Italy): Neogene-Quaternary compression versus extension, Int J Earth Sci (Geol Rundsch) (2008) 97:677-703 Dini, I. et al., 2010. Geological Evaluation of the Base of the Mt. Amiata Volcanic Complex (Tuscany, Italy), Procedings World Geothermal Congress 2010, Bali, Indonesia, April 2010.

  13. Alu Insertions and Genetic Diversity: A Preliminary Investigation by an Undergraduate Bioinformatics Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elwess, Nancy L.; Duprey, Stephen L.; Harney, Lindesay A.; Langman, Jessie E.; Marino, Tara C.; Martinez, Carolina; McKeon, Lauren L.; Moss, Chantel I. E.; Myrie, Sasha S.; Taylor, Luke Ryan

    2008-01-01

    "Alu"-insertion polymorphisms were used by an undergraduate Bioinformatics class to study how these insertion sites could be the basis for an investigation in human population genetics. Based on the students' investigation, both allele and genotype "Alu" frequencies were determined for African-American and Japanese populations as well as a…

  14. An initial investigation into the anti-inflammatory activity and antioxidant capacity of alpha-cyclodextrin-complexed Manuka honey.

    PubMed

    Chepulis, Lynne M; Francis, Evelyn

    2012-01-01

    The bioactive properties of Manuka honey are now well recognised, but the nature of honey (a sticky, viscous fluid) can make it hard to use as a health remedy. A new technology using encapsulation of Manuka honey with alpha-cyclodextrin molecules has been developed, creating a free-flowing powder that can easily be added to foods and beverages, or tableted / made into capsules for use in health. In this study, we investigated for antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity. Antioxidant capacity of raw Manuka honeys and matched complexes was measured using the CUPRAC method. Results showed that the antioxidant activity of honey decreased when complexed, this being directly related to dilution of the final product with alpha-cyclodextrin. Anti-inflammatory activity was assessed by measuring inhibition of neutrophil TNF-alpha secretion. Contradictory results were produced, with both stimulation and inhibition of TNF-alpha being observed. Data from this study indicate that the formation of cyclodextrin-based complexes of Manuka honey may potentiate the anti-inflammatory activity of honey, but this may differ depending on methylglyoxal content and the presence of other factors. PMID:23023642

  15. Preliminary investigation of force-reduced superconducting magnet configurations for advanced technology applications

    SciTech Connect

    Bouillard, J.X.

    1992-12-01

    The feasibility of new high-field low specific weight superconducting magnet designs using force-free fields is being explored analytically and numerically. This report attempts to assess the technical viability of force-free field concepts to produce high-field, low specific weight and large bore volume magnets, which could promote the use of high temperature superconductors. Several force-free/force-reduced magnet configurations are first reviewed, then discussed and assessed. Force-free magnetic fields, fields for which the current flows parallel to the field, have well-known mathematical solutions extending upon infinite domains. These solutions, however, are no longer force-free everywhere for finite geometries. In this preliminary study, force-free solutions such as the Lundquist solutions truncated to a size where the internal field of the coil matches an externally cylindrical magnetic field (also called a Lundquist coil) are numerically modeled and explored. Significant force-reduction for such coils was calculated, which may have some importance for the design of lighter toroidal magnets used in thermonuclear fusion power generation, superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES), and mobile MHD power generation and propulsion.

  16. A detailed X-ray investigation of zeta Puppis I. The dataset and some preliminary results

    E-print Network

    Naze, Yael; Rauw, Gregor

    2011-01-01

    Aims: zeta Puppis, one of the closest and brightest massive stars, was the first early-type object observed by the current generation of X-ray observatories. These data provided some surprising results, confirming partly the theoretical predictions while simultaneously unveiling some problematic mismatches with expectations. In this series of papers, we perform a thorough study of zeta Puppis in X-rays, using a decade of XMM observations. Methods: zeta Puppis was observed 18 times by XMM, totaling 1Ms in exposure. This provides the highest-quality high-resolution X-ray spectrum of a massive star to date, as well as a perfect dataset for studying X-ray variability in an "archetype" object. Results: This first paper reports on the data reduction of this unique dataset and provides a few preliminary results. On the one hand, the analysis of EPIC low-resolution spectra shows the star to have a remarkably stable X-ray emission from one observation to the next. On the other hand, the fitting by a wind model of indi...

  17. Preliminary thermoluminescence investigation of commercial pharmaceutical glass containers towards the sterilization dosimetry of liquid drugs.

    PubMed

    Kazakis, Nikolaos A; Tsirliganis, Nestor C; Kitis, George

    2015-11-01

    Drug sterilization with ionizing radiation is a well-established technology, which is constantly extending to several products due to its numerous advantages, since it allows the heat-free sterilization of heat-sensitive pharmaceutical preparations. In a previous study, the possibility to identify irradiated solid-state drugs by means of OSL and TL was examined with very promising findings. In the same respect, the present work aims, for the first time to the authors' best knowledge, to explore whether TL can be employed as a method for post-sterilization dosimetry on commercial liquid-state drugs, by studying the properties of their glass containers. Two different types of glass containers (bottle and ampoule) of two widely used liquid drugs, i.e., Hexalen® and Voltaren®, are used for this purpose. Both glass containers exhibit a linear TL dose response for doses up to 6kGy with a stable behavior through time, while no significant sensitization of the main peaks is observed. Thus, preliminary findings are very promising towards the post-sterilization dosimetry of liquid drugs and the use of the containers of commercial liquid drugs for normal and/or accidental dosimetry. PMID:26296060

  18. Synthesis, Characterization, and Preliminary Investigation of Cell Interaction of Magnetic Nanoparticles with Catechol-Containing Shells

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, Kerstin; Seemann, Thomas; Wyrwa, Ralf; Schnabelrauch, Matthias; Clement, Joachim H.; Mueller, Robert; Nietzsche, Sandor

    2010-12-02

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide cores were synthesized by co-precipitation of Fe(II) and Fe(III) salts and subsequently stabilized by coating with different catechols (levodopa, dopamine, hydrocaffeic acid, dopamine-containing carboxymethyl dextran) known to act as high-affinity, bidentate ligands for Fe(III). The prepared stable magnetic fluids were characterized with regard to their chemical composition (content of iron and shell material, Fe(II)/Fe(III) ratio) and their physical properties (size, surface charge, magnetic parameters). The nanoparticles showed no or only slight cytotoxic effects within 1 and 4 days of incubation with 3T3 fibroblast cells. Preliminary experiments were performed to study the interaction of the prepared nanoparticles with human MCF-7 breast cancer cells and leukocytes. An intense interaction of the MCF-7 cells with these particles was found whereas the leukocytes showed a lower tendency of interaction. Based on these finding, the novel magnetic nanoparticles possess the potential for use in depletion of tumor cells from peripheral blood.

  19. Preliminary investigation of interconnected systems interactions for the safety injection system of Indian Point-3

    SciTech Connect

    Alesso, H.P.; Lappa, D.A.; Smith, C.F.; Sacks, I.J.

    1983-03-04

    The rich diversity of ideas and techniques for analyzing interconnected systems interaction has presented the NRC with the problem of identifying methods appropriate for their own review and audit. This report presents the findings of a preliminary study using the Digraph Matrix Analysis method to evaluate interconnected systems interactions for the safety injection system of Indian Point-3. The analysis effort in this study was subjected to NRC constraints regarding the use of Boolean logic, the construction of simplified plant representations or maps, and the development of heuristic measures as specified by the NRC. The map and heuristic measures were found to be an unsuccessful approach. However, from the effort to model and analyze the Indian Point-3 safety injection system, including Boolean logic in the model, singleton and doubleton cut-sets were identified. It is recommended that efforts excluding Boolean logic and utilizing the NRC heuristic measures not be pursed further and that the Digraph Matrix approach (or other comparable risk assessment technique) with Boolean logic included to conduct the audit of the Indian Point-3 systems interaction study.

  20. Exercise adherence in breast cancer survivors training for a dragon boat race competition: a preliminary investigation.

    PubMed

    Courneya, K S; Blanchard, C M; Laing, D M

    2001-01-01

    Recent research has applied the theory of planned behavior (TPB) to understanding exercise after a cancer diagnosis, but studies are few and have been limited by retrospective designs, self-report measures of exercise and varied results. In the present study, we extended this research by using a prospective design and an objective measure of exercise adherence. Participants were a convenience sample of 24 breast cancer survivors attending a twice weekly, 12-week training program in preparation for a dragon boat race competition. Participants completed a baseline questionnaire that assessed demographic and medical variables, past exercise, and the TPB (i.e. beliefs, subjective norm, attitude, perceived behavioral control and intention). Program attendance was monitored over a 12-week period by the class instructor. Overall, participants attended 66% of the training sessions. Multiple regression analyses indicated that: (a) intention was the sole determinant of program attendance and explained 35% of the variance; (b) the TPB constructs explained 49% of the variance in intention with subjective norm being the most important determinant; and (c) the key underlying beliefs were support from physician, spouse, and friends, and confidence in being able to attend the training class when having limited time, no one to exercise with, fatigue, and other health problems. Based on this preliminary study, it was concluded that the TPB may provide a good framework on which to base interventions designed to promote exercise in breast cancer survivors. PMID:11536423

  1. Physiological Markers of Arousal Change with Psychological Treatment for Insomnia: A Preliminary Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Christopher B.; Kyle, Simon D.; Gordon, Christopher J.; Espie, Colin A.; Grunstein, Ronald R.; Mullins, Anna E.; Postnova, Svetlana; Bartlett, Delwyn J.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this preliminary study was to evaluate if Sleep Restriction Therapy for insomnia is associated with modifications to physiological arousal, indexed through overnight measures of plasma cortisol concentrations and core body temperature. Methods In a pre-to-post open label study design, eleven patients with chronic and severe Psychophysiological Insomnia underwent 5 weeks of Sleep Restriction Therapy. Results Eight (73%) patients out of 11 consented completed therapy and showed a decrease in insomnia severity pre-to-post treatment (mean (SD): 18.1 (2.8) versus 8.4 (4.8); p = .001). Six patients were analyzed with pre-to-post overnight measures of temperature and cortisol. Contrary to our hypothesis, significantly higher levels of plasma cortisol concentrations were found during the early morning at post-treatment compared to baseline (p < .01), while no change was observed in the pre-sleep phase or early part of the night. Core body temperature during sleep was however reduced significantly (overall mean [95% CI]: 36.54 (°C) [36.3, 36.8] versus 36.45 [36.2, 36.7]; p < .05). Conclusions Sleep Restriction Therapy therefore was associated with increased early morning cortisol concentrations and decreased core body temperature, supporting the premise of physiological changes in functioning after effective therapy. Future work should evaluate change in physiological variables associated with clinical treatment response. Trial Registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ANZCTR 12612000049875 PMID:26683607

  2. Mass spectrometric investigation of the vaporization of sodium and potassium chromates: Preliminary results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stearns, C. A.; Kohl, F. J.; Miller, R. A.; Fryburg, G. C.

    1979-01-01

    Knudsen cell mass spectrometry was used to study the vaporization of sodium and potassium chromates. For both salts, the vaporization proceeds predominately by the reactions M2CrO4(c)=2M(g)+5/4O2(g)+1/2 Cr203(s) and M2CrO4(c)=M2CrO4(g) where M = Na or K. The distribution of the ions M(+), O2(+) and M2CrO4(+) in the measured mass spectrum was found to depend on the material used for the Knudsen cell, even for materials such as platinum and gold. In the case of sodium chromate, the decomposition reaction appears to be less important than the molecular vaporization reaction. A preliminary value of 72 kcal/mole at 1141 K was measured for the heat of the molecular vaporization reaction for sodium chromate. In the case of potassium chromate, it has not been possible to conclude which mode of vaporization dominates. For potassium chromate a value of 101 kcal/mole at 1173 K was obtained for the heat of the molecular vaporization reaction.

  3. Preliminary design and economic investigations of Diffuser-Augmented Wind Turbines (DAWT)

    SciTech Connect

    Foreman, K.M.

    1981-12-01

    A preferred design and configuration approach is suggested for the DAWT innovative wind energy conversion system. A preliminary economic asessment is made for limited production rates of units between 5 and 150 kw rated output. Nine point designs are used to arrive at the conclusions regarding best construction material for the diffuser and busbar cost of electricity (COE). It is estimated that for farm and REA cooperative end users, the COE can range between 2 and 3.5 cents/kWh for sites with annual average wind speeds of 16 and 12 mph (25.7 and 19.3 km/h) respectively, and 150 kW rated units. No tax credits are included in these COE figures. For commercial end users of these 150 kW units the COE ranges between 4.0 and 6.5 cents/kWh for 16 and 12 mph sites. These estimates in 1979 dollars are lower than DOE goals set in 1978 for the rating size and end applications. Recommendations are made for future activities to maintain steady, systematic progress toward mature development of the DAWT.

  4. Childhood Fitness and Academic Performance: An Investigation into the Effect of Aerobic Capacity on Academic Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobbs, Mark

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitate ve study was to determine whether or not students in fifth grade who meet the healthy fitness zone (HFZ) for aerobic capacity on the fall 2013 FITNESSGRAM® Test scored higher on the math portion of the 2013 fall Measures of Academic Progress (MAP) test, than students that failed to reach the HFZ for aerobic capacity

  5. Preliminary Investigation of Microdosimetric Track Structure Physics Models in Geant4-DNA and RITRACKS

    PubMed Central

    Bezak, Eva

    2015-01-01

    The major differences between the physics models in Geant4-DNA and RITRACKS Monte Carlo packages are investigated. Proton and electron ionisation interactions and electron excitation interactions in water are investigated in the current work. While these packages use similar semiempirical physics models for inelastic cross-sections, the implementation of these models is demonstrated to be significantly different. This is demonstrated in a simple Monte Carlo simulation designed to identify differences in interaction cross-sections. PMID:26124856

  6. Paleoseismic investigations of the Paintbrush Canyon fault in southern Midway Valley, Yucca Mountain, Nevada: Preliminary results

    SciTech Connect

    Swan, F.H.; Wesling, J.R.; Thomas, A.P. )

    1993-04-01

    Trench mapping in southern Midway Valley provides evidence of multiple surface-faulting events on a western splay of the Paintbrush Canyon fault during the middle to late Pleistocene. The 6-m-wide fault zone exposed in the trench strikes N30-45E and dips steeply ([approximately]78[degree]) to the west, although some shears within the zone dip to the east. Tertiary volcanic bedrock is exposed only on the footwall block within the trench. Unconsolidated colluvial and eolian deposits are present in the hanging-wall block and above bedrock in the footwall block. These deposits tentatively are assigned, respectively, mid Pleistocene and late Pleistocene ages based on correlations with surficial map units in Midway Valley. Three to five displacement events are inferred based on faulted colluvial and eolian deposits, and scarp-derived colluvial wedges. Total cumulative dip-slip displacement of the oldest middle Pleistocene subunit is estimated to be about 170 to 270 cm. The dip-slip displacement associated with the youngest event is about 15 cm. The earlier displacements are estimated to have produced between 40 and 85 cm of dip-slip displacement per event. The most recent event occurred after deposition of late Pleistocene colluvium deposited against the fault scarp but before deposition of an overlying hillslope-derived colluvium of probable late pleistocene age. Based on the preliminary results of the authors study, the middle to late Quaternary rate of dip-slip displacement is approximately 0.01 m/kyr or less. Ongoing work, including soil-stratigraphic studies and numerical dating of deposits, should better constrain the timing and a rate of faulting along this western splay of the Paintbrush Canyon fault.

  7. Preliminary results of paleoseismic investigations of Quaternary faults on eastern Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Menges, C.M.; Oswald, J.A.; Coe, J.A.

    1995-12-31

    Site characterization of the potential nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, requires detailed knowledge of the displacement histories of nearby Quaternary faults. Ongoing paleoseismic studies provide data on the amount and rates of Quaternary activity on the Paintbrush Canyon, Bow Ridge, and Stagecoach Road faults along the eastern margin of the mountain over varying time spans of 0-700 ka to perhaps 0-30 ka, depending on the site. Preliminary stratigraphic interpretations of deposits and deformation at many logged trenches and natural exposures indicate that each of these faults have experienced from 3 to 8 surface-rupturing earthquakes associated with variable dip-slip displacements per event ranging from 5 to 115 cm, and commonly in the range of 20 to 85 cm. Cumulative dip-slip offsets of units with broadly assigned ages of 100-200 ka are typically less than 200 cm, although accounting for the effects of possible left normal-oblique slip could increase these displacements by factors of 1.1 to 1.7. Current age constraints indicate recurrence intervals of 10{sup 4} to 10{sup 5} years (commonly between 30 and 80 k.y.) and slip rates of 0.001 to 0.08 mm/yr (typically 0.01-0.02 mm/yr). Based on available timing data, the ages of the most recent ruptures varies among the faults; they appear younger on the Stagecoach Road Fault ({approximately}5-20 ka) relative to the southern Paintbrush Canyon and Bow Ridge faults ({approximately}30-100 ka).

  8. Synthesis, physical properties and preliminary investigation of hemocompatibility of polyurethanes from aliphatic resources with castor oil participation.

    PubMed

    Szelest-Lewandowska, A; Masiulanis, B; Klocke, A; Glasmacher, B

    2003-01-01

    The synthesis of polyurethanes (PURs) from oligoetherdiol, two low molecular diols, castor oil and 4,4'-Methylenebis(cyclohexylisocyanate) is described. These polymers are characterized by measurements of the mechanical bulk and surface properties, preliminary investigation of compatibility with human blood and calcification in static conditions. The critical surface energy of synthesized PURs is similar to the critical surface energy of natural surfaces. Material-induced hemolysis and the changes of platelet counts in blood samples after contact with PURs are very low. Static seven-weeks-calcification testing in a synthetic calcification fluid did not indicate calcification by optical density measurements and by visual inspection and computer image processing of the X-ray films for PURs with and without castor oil. PMID:12614086

  9. Radio science investigations of the saturn system with voyager 1: preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Tyler, G L; Eshleman, V R; Anderson, J D; Levy, G S; Lindal, G F; Wood, G E; Croft, T A

    1981-04-10

    Voyager 1 radio occultation measurements of Titan's equatorial atmosphere successfully probed to the surface, which is provisionally placed at a radius of 2570 kilometers. Derived scale heights plus other experimental and theoretical results indicate that molecular nitrogen is the predominant atmospheric constituent. The surface pressure and temperature appear to be about 1.6 bars and 93 K, respectively. The main clouds are probably methane ice, although some condensation of nitrogen cannot be ruled out. Solar abundance arguments suggest and the measurements allow large quantities of surface methane near its triple-point temperature, so that the three phases of methane could play roles in the atmosphere and on the surface of Titan similar to those of water on Earth. Radio occultation measurements of Saturn's atmosphere near 75 degrees south latitude reached a maximum pressure of 1.4 bars, where the temperature is about 156 K. The minimum temperature is about 91 K near the 60-millibar pressure level. The measured part of the polar ionosphere of Saturn has a peak electron concentration of 2.3 x 10(4) per cubic centimeter at an altitude of 2500 kilometers above the 1-bar level in the atmosphere, and a plasma scale height at the top of the ionosphere of 560 kilometers. Attenuation of monochromatic radiation at a wavelength of 3.6 centimeters propagating obliquely through Saturn's rings is consistent with traditional values for the normal optical depth of the rings, but the near-forward scattering of this radiation by the rings indicates effective scattering particles with larger than expected diameters of 10, 8, and 2 meters in the A ring, the outer Cassini division, and the C ring, respectively. Preliminary analysis of the radio tracking data yields new values for the masses of Rhea and Titan of 4.4 +/- 0.3 x 10(-6) and 236.64 +/- 0.08 x 10(-6) times the mass of Saturn. Corresponding values for the mean densities of these objects are 1.33 +/- 0.10 and about 1.89 grams per cubic centimeter. The density of Rhea is consistent with a solar-composition mix of anhydrous rock and volatiles, while Titan is apparently enriched in silicates relative to the solar composition. PMID:17783830

  10. PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION OF UNCOMBUSTED AUTO FUEL VAPOR DISPERSION WITHIN A RESIDENTIAL GARAGE MICROENVIRONMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Evaporative emissions from vehicles in an attached garage may represent a significant source of indoor pollution and human exposure. ilot field study was undertaken to investigate potential in-house dispersion of evaporative emissions of uncombusted fuels from a vehicle parked in...

  11. Study Abroad Experiences and Intercultural Sensitivity among Graduate Theological Students: A Preliminary and Exploratory Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Thomas L.

    2007-01-01

    The study reported in this paper investigated the impact of study abroad experiences on graduate theological student intercultural sensitivity and the role that pedagogical approaches play in the development of intercultural sensitivity. It is widely held that study abroad contributes to student development of intercultural sensitivity (Jenkins &…

  12. Impact of Chromosome 4p- Syndrome on Communication and Expressive Language Skills: A Preliminary Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Althea T.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this investigation was to examine the impact of Chromosome 4p- syndrome on the communication and expressive language phenotype of a large cross-cultural population of children, adolescents, and adults. Method: A large-scale survey study was conducted and a descriptive research design was used to analyze quantitative and…

  13. The Role of Visual Mental Imagery in the Speed-Accuracy Tradeoff: A Preliminary Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodes, Carol L.

    This study investigates the relationship between speed of recognition and accuracy of the responses when visual mental imagery is controlled through imagery instructions. The procedure was to compare the achievement of learners where the independent variable was imagery instructions. The subjects were two 20-person groups of undergraduates from a…

  14. Paleontologic investigations at Big Bone Lick State Park, Kentucky: A preliminary report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schultz, C.B.; Tanner, L.G.; Whitmore, F.C., Jr.; Ray, L.L.; Crawford, E.C.

    1963-01-01

    The Big Bone Lick area in Kentucky, the first widely known collecting locality for vertebrate fossils in North America, is being investigated for further faunal and geologic evidence. Mammal bones, ranging in age from Wisconsin (Tazewell?) to Recent, were recovered in 1962 from four different faunal zones in two terrace fills.

  15. Generalization of Sight Word Accuracy Using a Common Stimulus Procedure: A Preliminary Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mesmer, Eric M.; Duhon, Gary J.; Hogan, Karen; Newry, Brandi; Hommema, Savannah; Fletcher, Courtney; Boso, Maggie

    2010-01-01

    The need to investigate strategies promoting the generalization of reading skills is well documented. The current study builds upon previous literature by examining the impact of a common stimulus procedure on accuracy of reading generalization words in isolation. The common stimulus procedure used in this study intended to enhance the salience of…

  16. New near-infrared photosensitizers based on bacteriochlorin p derivatives: preliminary results of in vivo investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meerovich, Igor G.; Grin, Michail A.; Tsyprovskiy, Alexander G.; Meerovich, Gennady A.; Barkanova, Svetlana V.; Borisova, Larisa M.; Oborotova, Natalia A.; Baryshnikov, Anatoly Yu.; Mironov, Andrey F.

    2007-02-01

    This work is devoted to investigation of several new photosensitizers on a base of bacteriochlorin p macrocycle. Investigations of photosensitizers in vivo and experimental PDT were performed on F I mice bearing Erlich tumor and BDF I mice bearing B16 melanoma. Spectra of fluorescence and absorption of tissue were studied in vivo using fiberoptic spectroanalyzer LESA. All investigated photosensitizers possess intensive absorption in a range of 730-800 nm, where the intrinsic absorption of the biological tissue has its minimum. Dynamics and selectivity of sensitizer accumulation in tumor and normal tissue were estimated from spectra of absorption or fluorescence of sensitized tissue in vivo. The investigation has shown that the optimum time range to start PDT irradiation of tumor is 10-30 min after administration. All photosensitizers clear from the normal tissue in less than 24 hours. Photodynamic efficiency was estimated by comparison of the tumor volume growth in control and treated animal groups. All studied photosensitizers have shown high photodynamic efficiency of relatively large tumors, index of tumor growth inhibition exceeded 70%. Bacteriochlorin p N-methoxycycloimide oxyme methyl ester was also shown to be efficient for PDT of B16 melanoma, causing tumor growth inhibition more than 90%.

  17. A Preliminary Investigation of Stimulus Control Training for Worry: Effects on Anxiety and Insomnia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGowan, Sarah Kate; Behar, Evelyn

    2013-01-01

    For individuals with generalized anxiety disorder, worry becomes associated with numerous aspects of life (e.g., time of day, specific stimuli, environmental cues) and is thus under poor discriminative stimulus control (SC). In addition, excessive worry is associated with anxiety, depressed mood, and sleep difficulties. This investigation sought…

  18. Blacks' and Whites' Perceptions of Real-Life Scenarios: A Preliminary Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brinson, Jesse A.; Morris, Joseph R.

    2001-01-01

    This study investigated the perceptual differences between Black and White counselor trainees toward 12 real-life scenarios featuring Black and White individuals. The authors hypothesized that the two groups would differ in their perceptions of most of the scenarios. The results reveal significant differences in perceptions on 4 out of 12…

  19. PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION OF SUBMERGED AQUATIC VEGETATION MAPPING USING HYPERSPECTRAL REMOTE SENSING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The use of airborne hyperspectral remote sensing imagery for automated mapping of submersed aquatic vegetation in the tidal Potomac River was investigated for near to real-time resource assessment and monitoring. Airborne hyperspectral imagery, together with in-situ spectral refl...

  20. 75 FR 38079 - Postponement of Preliminary Determination of Antidumping Duty Investigation: Polyvinyl Alcohol...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-01

    ...-Dumping Duty Investigation: Polyvinyl Alcohol From Taiwan, 69 FR 59204 (October 4, 2004). On October 22... injury due to imports of the subject merchandise. The CIT affirmed the ITC's remand determination. DuPont... From Taiwan; Determination, 75 FR 15726 (March 30, 2010). The ITC notified the Department of...

  1. Preliminary Investigation of the Relationships between Involvement in Student Affairs Professional Development and Margin in Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lagana, Brandon T.

    2007-01-01

    Involvement in student affairs professional development was investigated using McClusky's (1963) Power Load Margin (PLM) theory from the adult education field. The PLM theory is a framework for identifying sources of stress (load) and power in one's life; the amount of power available to handle stress is called margin in life (MIL). This study…

  2. Investigation of broadband over power line channel capacity of shipboard power system cables for ship communications networks 

    E-print Network

    Akinnikawe, Ayorinde

    2009-05-15

    U.S. Navy ship management concepts geared toward reducing ship manning while improving operational efficiency. This thesis presents an analytical model developed to examine the channel response characteristics and estimated throughput capacity of SPS...

  3. A preliminary investigation of the potential applicability of the IPAD system to non-aerospace industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hulbert, L. E.

    1975-01-01

    A study of the applicability of the planned Integrated Programs for Aerospace-Vehicle Design (IPAD) system to the design activities of non-aerospace industries was carried out. It was determined that IPAD could be of significant benefit to a number of industries, with the most likely users being the heavy construction and automotive industries. Two additional short studies were initiated to investigate the possible impact of IPAD on a national energy program and on urban and regional planning activities of local and state governments. These initial studies indicated the possibility of significant payoff in these areas and the need for further investigations. It was also determined that utilization of IPAD by non-aerospace industries will probably involve a long stepwise process, since these industries maintain a policy of gradual introduction of new technology.

  4. Preliminary Results from Initial Investigations of Ceres' Cratering Record from Dawn Imaging Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmedemann, Nico; Michael, Gregory; Ivanov, Boris A.; Kneissl, Thomas; Neesemann, Adrian; Hiesinger, Harald; Jaumann, Ralf; Raymond, Carol A.; Russell, Christopher T.

    2015-04-01

    The highly successful Dawn mission [1] finished data collection at Vesta in 2012 and is now on its way to the dwarf planet Ceres. According to the current Ceres approach timeline of the Dawn mission, the ground resolution of the Dawn FC camera [2] will be about 10 times better than Hubble data [3] at the time of the presentation of this work. This may allow for identification of craters about 15 km in diameter. Initial mapping of sample areas may provide enough information of the cratering record in order to compare it with the theoretical Ceres crater production function we present at the 46th LPSC conference (March 16-20, 2015, The Woodlands, Texas) [4]. Our preliminary crater production function for Ceres is derived from the assumption of an icy crust just below a thin surface layer of dust [5], and a projectile population that is very similar to the one that impacted the Moon [6]. In order to scale the lunar cratering record to Ceres we use the Ivanov scaling laws [7], which allow for crater scaling based on parameters that can be derived from observations. The lunar-like approach gave reasonable good results for the crater production function on the asteroids Vesta, Ida, Lutetia and Gaspra [8]. Since the lunar surface is of basaltic composition, the correct scaling between the different materials is challenging. One crucial parameter is the transition diameter from simple to complex craters. Based on the simple to complex transition diameter on Iapetus, an icy satellite of Saturn, we expect this transition at about 12 km crater size at Ceres. This value may be slightly different due to the different temperatures at Ceres and Iapetus. If the simple to complex transition is observed at much larger diameters, the reason could be a substantial fraction of rock in the shallow subsurface of Ceres. In an ice-rich surface material high relaxation rates may also be expected that could change the shape of the crater production function. A thorough geological mapping takes much more time than is available and, thus, will not be available at the time of the presentation. First hi-res imaging data will also provide details about crater morphologies and the major geologic units that will be analyzed during later stages of the Dawn mission. Acknowledgment: This work has been supported by the German Space Agency (DLR) on behalf of the Federal Ministry of Economic Affairs and Energy, grants 50OW1101 (NS, TK, AN) and 50QM1301 (GM). BAI is supported by Program 22 RAS. References: [1] Russell C.T. et al. (2012) Science, 336, 684-686; [2] Sierks H. et al. (2011) Space Science Reviews, 163, 263-327; [3] Li J.Y. et al. (2006) Icarus, 182, 143-160; [4] Schmedemann N. et al. (2015): 46.LPSC, The Woodlands, #1418; [5] McCord T.B. et al. (2012) Ceres: Its Origin, Evolution and Structure and Dawn's Potential Contribution. In: Russell, C.T, Raymond, C.A. (eds.) The Dawn Mission to Minor Planets 4 Vesta and 1 Ceres. Springer, New York, 63-76; [6] Neukum G. and Ivanov B. A. (1994) Crater size distribu-tions and impact probabilities on Earth from Lunar, terrestrial planet, and asteroid cratering data. In: Gehrels T. (ed) Hazards due to comets and asteroids. University of Arizona Press, Tucson, 359-416. [7] Ivanov B.A. (2001) Space Science Reviews, 96, 87-104; [8] Schmedemann N. et al. (2014), 103, 104-130.

  5. Preliminary investigation in optical resonators based on carbon nano-tube and coupling for optoelectronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salzenstein, Patrice; Makaryan, Taron

    2014-05-01

    We investigate the use of carbon nano-tubes performed by chemical vapor deposition for photonics applications producing samples of various geometries on the same wafer and performing experiments and numerical modeling. Publisher's Note: This paper, originally published on 5/2/14, was replaced with a corrected/revised version on 5/19/14. If you downloaded the original PDF but are unable to access the revision, please contact SPIE Digital Library Customer Service for assistance.

  6. Preliminary Investigation of Cyclic De-Icing of an Airfoil Using an External Electric Heater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, James P.; Bowden, Dean T.

    1952-01-01

    An investigation was conducted in the NACA Lewis icing research tunnel to determine the characteristics and requirements of cyclic deicing of a 65,2-216 airfoil by use of an external electric heater. The present investigation was limited to an airspeed of 175 miles per hour. Data are presented to show the effects of variations in heat-on and heat-off periods, ambient air temperature, liquid-water content, angle of attack, and. heating distribution on the requirements for cyclic deicing. The external heat flow at various icing and heating conditions is also presented. A continuously heated parting strip at the airfoil leading edge was found necessary for quick, complete, and consistent ice removal. The cyclic power requirements were found to be primarily a function of the datum temperature and heat-on time, with the other operating and meteorological variables having a second-order effect. Short heat-on periods and high power densities resulted in the most efficient ice removal, the minimum energy input, and the minimum runback ice formations. The optimum chordwise heating distribution pattern was found to consist of a uniform distribution of cycled power density in the impingement region. Downstream of the impingement region the power density decreased to the limits of heating which, for the conditions investigated, extended from 5.7 percent chord on the upper surface of the airfoil to 8.9 percent chord on the lower surface. Ice removal did not take place at a heater surface temperature of 32 F; surface temperatures of approximately 50 to 100 F were required to effect removal. Better de-icing performance and greater energy savings would be possible with a heater having a higher thermal efficiency.

  7. Trace elements in urinary stones: a preliminary investigation in Fars province, Iran.

    PubMed

    Keshavarzi, Behnam; Yavarashayeri, Nasrin; Irani, Dariush; Moore, Farid; Zarasvandi, Alireza; Salari, Mehrdad

    2015-04-01

    In view of the high incidence rate of urinary stones in the south and southwest of Iran, this paper investigates trace elements content including heavy metals in 39 urinary stones, collected from patients in Fars province, Iran. The mineralogy of the stones is investigated using X-ray diffractometry. The samples are classified into five mineral groups (calcium oxalate, uric acid, cystine, calcium phosphate and mixed stone). Major and trace elements in each group were determined using ICP-MS method. P and Ca constitute the main elements in urinary stones with Ca being more affine to oxalates while other alkali and alkaline earths precipitate with phosphate. Significant amounts of trace elements, especially Zn and Sr, were found in urinary calculi (calcium oxalate and phosphates) relative to biominerals (uric acid and cystine). Among urinary calculi, calcium phosphate contains greater amounts of trace metal than calcium oxalate. Phosphates seem to be the most important metal-bearing phases in urinary stones. Results indicate that concentrations of elements in urinary stones depend on the type of mineral phases. Significant differences in elements content across various mineralogical groups were found by applying statistical methods. Kruskal-Wallis test reveals significant difference between Ca, P, K, Na, Mg, S, Zn, Sr, Se, Cd, and Co content in different investigated mineral groups. Moreover, Mann-Whitney test differentiates Ca, Na, Zn, Sr, Co, and Ni between minerals in oxalate and uric acid stones. This study shows that urinary stone can provide complementary information on human exposure to elements and estimate the environmental risks involved in urinary stones formation. PMID:25433503

  8. Alkali-free bioactive glasses for bone tissue engineering: A preliminary investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Goel, Ashutosh; Kapoor, Saurabh; Rajagopal, Raghu R.; Pascual, Maria J.; Kim, Hae-Won; Ferreira, Jose M.

    2011-08-25

    An alkali-free series of bioactive glasses has been designed and developed in the glass system CaO-MgO-SiO2-P2O5-CaF2 along diopside (CaMgSi2O6) – fluorapatite [Ca5(PO4)3F] – tricalcium phosphate (3CaO•P2O5) join. The silicate network in all the investigated glasses is predominantly coordinated in Q2 (Si) units while phosphorus tends to remain in orthophosphate (Q0) environment. The in vitro bioactivity analysis of glasses has been made by immersion of glass powders in simulated body fluid (SBF) while chemical degradation has been studied in Tris-HCl in accordance with ISO-10993-14. Some of the investigated glasses exhibit hydroxyapatite (HA) formation on their surface with in 1-12 h of their immersion in SBF solution. The sintering and crystallization kinetics of glasses has been investigated by differential thermal analysis (DTA) and hot-stage microscopy (HSM), respectively while the crystalline phase evolution in resultant glass-ceramics (GCs) has been studied in the temperature range of 800-900 oC using powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The cell growth and osteogenic differentiation for glasses has been studied in vitro on sintered glass powder compacts using rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. The as designed glasses are ideal candidates for their potential applications in bone tissue engineering in the form of bioactive glasses as well as glass/GC scaffolds.

  9. Preliminary investigation of parasitic radioisotope production using the LANL IPF secondary neutron flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engle, J. W.; Kelsey, C. T.; Bach, H.; Ballard, B. D.; Fassbender, M. E.; John, K. D.; Birnbaum, E. R.; Nortier, F. M.

    2012-12-01

    In order to ascertain the potential for radioisotope production and material science studies using the Isotope Production Facility at Los Alamos National Lab, a two-pronged investigation has been initiated. The Monte Carlo for Neutral Particles eXtended (MCNPX) code has been used in conjunction with the CINDER 90 burnup code to predict neutron flux energy distributions as a result of routine irradiations and to estimate yields of radioisotopes of interest for hypothetical irradiation conditions. A threshold foil activation experiment is planned to study the neutron flux using measured yields of radioisotopes, quantified by HPGe gamma spectroscopy, from representative nuclear reactions with known thresholds up to 50 MeV.

  10. Preliminary dosimetry investigation of Tc-99m diagnostic radionuclide by NIPAM gel dosimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, You-Ruei; Chang, Yuan-Jen; Hsieh, Ling-Ling; Yu, Bi-Wei; Chu, Chien-Hau; Hsieh, Bor-Tsung

    2013-06-01

    The N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAM) gel dosimeter was investigated as a suitable material for measuring absorbed doses from radionuclide sources. In this study, NIPAM gel dosimeter was used to evaluate the dose distributions of the Tc-99m radionuclide in NIPAM gel. The accumulated radioactivity range of the Tc-99m NIPAM gel is from approximately 0 MBq to 13.6 MBq (about 0.37 mCi). The NIPAM gel dosimeter with high stability and high-dose linear and non-energy dependent properties can provide various radiopharmaceutical activity intensities in the conduct of dose assessment in nuclear medicine, thereby producing the most promising dose verification tools.

  11. A Summary of Preliminary Investigations into the Characteristics of Combustion Screech in Ducted Burners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1958-01-01

    Increasing demands for higher afterburner performance have required operation at progressively higher fuel-air ratios, which has increased the occurrence and intensity of screeching combustion. The onset of screech may be followed by rapid destruction of the combustor shell and other combustor parts. Because of its destructive characteristics, considerable effort has been expended to understand and eliminate screech. NACA work on the screeching combustion problem prior to 1954 is summarized herein. These studies showed that resonant acoustic oscillations are a primary component of the screech mechanism in the burners thus far investigated

  12. Preliminary Investigation of Momentary Bed Failure Using a Multi-dimensional Eulerian Two-phase Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Z.; Hsu, T. J.; Calantoni, J.

    2014-12-01

    In the past decade, researchers have clearly been making progress in predicting coastal erosion/recovery; however, evidences are also clear that existing coastal evolution models cannot predict coastal responses subject to extreme storm events. In this study, we investigate the dynamics of momentary bed failure driven by large horizontal pressure gradients, which may be the dominant sediment transport mechanism under intense storm condition. Recently, a multi-dimensional two-phase Eulerian sediment transport model has been developed and disseminated to the research community as an open-source code. The numerical model is based on extending an open-source CFD library of solvers, OpenFOAM. Model results were validated with published sediment concentration and velocity data measured in steady and oscillatory flow. The 2DV Reynolds-averaged model showed wave-like bed instabilities when the criteria of momentary bed failure was exceeded. These bed instabilities were responsible for the large transport rate observed during plug flow and the onset of the instabilities was associated with a large erosion depth. To better resolve the onset of bed instabilities, subsequent energy cascade and the resulting large sediment transport rate and sediment pickup flux, 3D turbulence-resolving simulations were also carried out. Detailed validation of the 3D turbulence-resolving Eulerian two-phase model will be presented along with the expanded investigation on the dynamics of momentary bed failure.

  13. Investigation of Halogenated Components Formed from Chlorination of Natural Waters: Preliminary Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Bean, R. M.; Riley, R. G.

    1980-11-01

    Chlorination of power plant cooling water is extensively used as a means of controlling biofouling. This practice presents the potential for formation of halogenated organic compounds hazardous to man and his environment. Accordingly, the organic composition resulting from the chlorination of natural waters (northern Olympic Penn1sula sea water and the Columbia River in Washington State} has been investigated. Nonpolar lipophilic organic halogens were extracted by passing large volumes of water over columns of XAD-2 macroreticular resins. Examination of ether extracts from the resin columns using capillary gas chromatography revealed the presence of halogenated methanes, as well as other electron-capturing components~ that were not found when unchlorinated water was sampled. Examination of the chlorinated water extracts using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry revealed complex mixtures which generally were not separable into individual components~ even when high efficiency WCOT capillary columns were used. The samples were separated into fractions of increasing polarity using a water-deactivated silica gel column. Fractions were thus obtained which were more amenable to GC/MS investigation. Haloforms were identified as the major halogenated product from chlorination of the waters studied. Other halogenated products were found at much lower concentrations.

  14. A Preliminary Investigation of Rapid Depressurization Phenomena Following a Sudden DLOFC in a VHTR

    SciTech Connect

    Richard C. Martineau; Ray A. Berry

    2010-05-01

    Air ingress has been identified as a potential threat for Very High Temperature gas-cooled Reactors (VHTR). Reactor components constructed of graphite will, at high temperatures, produce exothermic reactions in the presence of oxygen. The danger lies in the possibility of fuel element damage and core structural failure. Previous investigations of air ingress mechanisms have focused on thermal and molecular diffusion, density-driven stratified flow due to hydrodynamic instability, and natural convection. Here, we investigate the possibility of a rapid flow reversal of helium coolant due to a Taylor (rarefaction) wave expansion after a hypothetical sudden Depressurized Loss of Forced Cooling (DLOFC) scenario in a VHTR. Conceivably, flow reversal of the helium coolant could entrain significant quantities of air into the reactor vessel. Our analysis starts with a one-dimensional shock tube simulation to simply illustrate the development of a Taylor wave with resulting reentrant flow. Then, a simulation is performed of an idealized two-dimensional axisymmetric representation of the lower plenum of General Atomics GT-MHR subjected to a hypothetical catastrophic break of the hot duct. Analysis shows the potential for significant and rapid air ingress into the reactor vessel in the case of a large break in the cooling system.

  15. A preliminary investigation into the prevalence and prediction of problematic cell phone use

    PubMed Central

    Smetaniuk, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims: Likening mobile phone use dependency to the classification of excessive behaviors may be necessarily equivalent in seriousness to previously established addictions such as problematic computing or excessive gambling. The aim of the study explores into the behavior of excessive use of mobile phones as a pathological behavior. Methods: Two studies investigated criteria for problematic mobile phone usage by examining student (Study 1, N = 301) and nonstudent (Study 2, N = 362) responses to a set of adapted mobile phone addiction inventories. Study 1 investigated cell phone addiction inventories as constructs designed to measure problematic cell phone use. Additionally, Study 2 sought to predict age, depression, extraversion, emotional stability, impulse control, and self-esteem as independent variables that augment respondents’ perceptions of problematic use. Results: The results from Study 1 and Study 2 indicate that 10 to 25% of the participants tested exhibited problematic cell phone usage. Additionally, age, depression, extraversion, and low impulse control are the most suitable predictors for problematic use. Conclusions: The results of the two studies indicate that problematic mobile phone use does occur and ought to be taken seriously by the psychological community. Presently, there is limited data providing conclusive evidence for a comprehensible categorization of cell phone addiction, as well as a unified explanatory model specific to problematic mobile phone use. Studies such as this one may contribute substantial findings, adding scientific significance, and offering a valuable submission for the ongoing progress of creating intervention frameworks relative to “virtual addictions”. PMID:25215213

  16. A Preliminary Investigation of Abnormal Personality Traits in MS Using the MCMI-III.

    PubMed

    Incerti, Chiara C; Argento, Ornella; Pisani, Valerio; Mannu, Rosalba; Magistrale, Giuseppe; Battista, Giancarlo Di; Caltagirone, Carlo; Nocentini, Ugo

    2015-01-01

    Neuropsychiatric abnormalities are frequently reported in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Previous studies have investigated the neurotic aspects of psychopathology, and the importance of the personality structure underlying neurotic symptoms has only recently been reconsidered. The aim of our study was to investigate the frequency and type of personality profiles in MS using the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III (MCMI-III). We evaluated 77 nondemented patients with MS using physical disability scales and self-report questionnaires focused on mood, fatigue, and personality. In our cohort study, we found a personality scale score greater than 85 in 62.3% of enrolled participants. In particular, high scores on the Histrionic and Narcissistic scales emerged, respectively, in 20.8% and 15.6% of the sample. The presence of moderate abnormal elevation scores in MCMI personality scales in MS does not seem to be influenced by age, the Expanded Disability Status Scale score, disease course, or disease duration. Our research study focused on the importance of identifying personality maladaptation in patients with MS. PMID:25996849

  17. Effect of tone-based sound stimulation on balance performance of normal subjects: preliminary investigation.

    PubMed

    Pagnacco, Guido; Klotzek, Adam S; Carrick, Frederick R; Wright, Cameron H G; Oggero, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Sound is known to affect the human brain, hence sound or music therapy is sometimes used to improve a subject's physicaland mental health. In this study, the effects sound stimulation has on balance were investigated by means of computerizeddynamic posturography tests performed with eyes closed on an unstable surface using a CAPS® system, exceeding theInternational Society for Posture and Gait Research (ISPGR) recommended metrological performance standards. Subjectswere tested without listening to any music (baseline), listening to ?pure music?, and listening to the same music with differenttones embedded into it (one for each key). We found that different subjects react differently to different tones. Music alonedid not have a statistically significant effect on balance compared to the baseline, but the ?best? tone significantly improvedbalance compared to the baseline or the ?pure music? conditions. Furthermore, the ?worst? tone reduced the balancecompared to ?pure music?, but the reduction was not statistically significant relative to the baseline. The results thereforeindicate that, at least relative to balance performance, the tone-based sound stimulation we investigated is effective andinherently safe, but that tone selection depends on the individual subject. PMID:25996699

  18. A Preliminary Investigation of Rapid Depressurization Phenomena Following a Sudden DLOFC in a VHTR

    SciTech Connect

    Richard C. Martineau; Ray A. Berry; Dana A. Knoll

    2009-03-01

    Air ingress has been identified as a potential threat for Very High Temperature gas-cooled Reactors (VHTR). Reactor components constructed of graphite will, at high temperatures, produce exothermic reactions in the presence of oxygen. The danger lies in the possibility of fuel element damage and core structural failure. Previous investigations of air ingress mechanisms have focused on thermal and molecular diffusion, density-driven stratified flow, and natural convection. Here, we investigate the possibility of a rapid ingress of air due to a Taylor wave expansion after a hypothetical sudden loss of coolant accident (LOCA) scenario in a VHTR. Our analysis starts with a one-dimensional shock tube simulation to simply illustrate the development of a Taylor wave with resulting reentrant flow. Then, a simulation is performed of an idealized two-dimensional axisymmetric representation of the lower plenum of General Atomics GT-MHR subjected to a hypothetical catastrophic break of the hot duct. Analysis shows the potential for significant and rapid air ingress into the reactor vessel in the case of a large break in the cooling system.

  19. [Investigation on Mobile Phone Based Thermal Imaging System and Its Preliminary Application].

    PubMed

    Li, Fufeng; Chen, Feng; Liu, Jing

    2015-03-01

    The technical structure of a low-cost thermal imaging system (TIM) lunched on a mobile phone was investigated, which consists of a thermal infrared module and mobile phone and application software. The designing strategies and technical factors toward realizing various TIM array performances are interpreted, including sensor cost and Noise Equivalent Temperature Difference (NETD). In the software algorithm, a mechanism for scene-change detection was implemented to optimize the efficiency of non-uniformity correction (NUC). The performance experiments and analysis indicate that the NETD of the system can be smaller than 150 mK when the integration time is larger than 16 frames. Furthermore, a practical application for human temperature monitoring during physical exercise is proposed and interpreted. The measurement results support the feasibility and facility of the system in the medical application. PMID:26524779

  20. Total Dose Effects (TDE) of heavy ionizing radiation in fungus spores and plant seeds: Preliminary investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kranz, A. R.; Zimmermann, M. W.; Stadler, R.; Gartenbach, K. E.; Pickert, M.

    1992-01-01

    The opportunity to compare cosmic radiation effects caused during long and short duration exposure flights in biological objects are limited until now, and data obtained so far are very rare and insufficient. Because of the very long exposure of the experiment during the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) mission (approximately 2000 days) structural changes of the hardware material can be expected which will influence its biocompatibility and, thus, will interact with the radiobiological effects. The aim of the experiment flown on LDEF was a detailed investigation of biological effects caused by cosmic radiation especially of particles of high atomic number Z and high energy. The flight hardware consisted of standard BIOSTACK containers; in these containers a special sandwich construction consisted of visual plastic detectors with seed rsp. spore layers interlocked.

  1. Preliminary investigation of a sealed, remotely activated silver-zinc battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheat, C. G.

    1977-01-01

    Methods necessary to provide a remotely activated, silver zinc battery capable of an extended activated stand while in a sealed condition were investigated. These requirements were to be accomplished in a battery package demonstrating an energy density of at least 35 watt hours per pound. Several methods of gas suppression were considered in view of the primary nature of this unit and utilized the electroplated dendritic zinc electrode. Amalgamation of the electrode provided the greatest suppression of gas at the zinc electrode. The approach to extending the activated stand capability of the remotely activated battery was through evaluation of three basic methods of remote, multi-cell activation; 1) the electrolyte manifold, 2) the gas manifold and 3) the individual cell. All three methods of activation can be incorporated into units which will meet the minimum energy density requirement.

  2. Preliminary investigation of PAGAT polymer gel radionuclide dosimetry of Tc-99m

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, Kelly; Bailey, Dale; Hill, Brendan; Baldock, Clive

    2009-05-01

    PAGAT polymer gel was investigated as a suitable dosimeter materials for measuring absorbed dose from the unsealed source radionuclide Tc-99m. Differing amounts of Tc-99m over the range of 25-5000 MBq were introduced into a normoxic polymer gel mixture (PAGAT) in sealed nitrogen-filled P6 glass vials. After irradiation the gels were evaluated using MRI more than 48 hours after preparation to allow for radioactive decay. The dose delivered to the vial was also calculated empirically. R2 versus total activity curves were obtained over a number of experiments and these were used to evaluate the relationship between the amount of gel polymerization and the dose deposited by the radionuclide. A linear response up to 1000 MBq (corresponding to 20Gy) was displayed and was still behaving monotonically at 5000 MBq. Polymer gels offer the potential to measure radiation dose three-dimensionally using MRI.

  3. Preliminary investigations into surface molecularly imprinted nanoparticles for Helicobacter pylori eradication

    PubMed Central

    Han, Jiaying; Sun, Yinjing; Hou, Jiapeng; Wang, Yuyan; Liu, Yu; Xie, Cao; Lu, Weiyue; Pan, Jun

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports investigations into the preparation and characterization of surface molecularly imprinted nanoparticles (SMINs) designed to adhere to Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). Imprinted nanoparticles were prepared by the inverse microemulsion polymerization method. A fraction of Lpp20, an outer membrane protein of H. pylori known as NQA, was chosen as template and modified with myristic acid to facilitate its localization on the surface of the nanoparticles. The interaction between these SMINs with the template NQA were evaluated using surface plasmon resonance (SPR), change in zeta potential and fluorescence polarization (FP). The results were highly consistent in demonstrating a preferential recognition of the template NQA for SMINs compared with the control nanoparticles. In vitro experiments also indicate that such SMINs are able to adhere to H. pylori and may be useful for H. pylori eradication. PMID:26713273

  4. Preliminary Investigation of Candidate Materials for Use in Accident Resistant Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Jason M. Harp; Paul A. Lessing; Blair H. Park; Jakeob Maupin

    2013-09-01

    As part of a Collaborative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) with industry, Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is investigating several options for accident resistant uranium compounds including silicides, and nitrides for use in future light water reactor (LWR) fuels. This work is part of a larger effort to create accident tolerant fuel forms where changes to the fuel pellets, cladding, and cladding treatment are considered. The goal fuel form should have a resistance to water corrosion comparable to UO2, have an equal to or larger thermal conductivity than uranium dioxide, a melting temperature that allows the material to stay solid under power reactor conditions, and a uranium loading that maintains or improves current LWR power densities. During the course of this research, fuel fabricated at INL will be characterized, irradiated at the INL Advanced Test Reactor, and examined after irradiation at INL facilities to help inform industrial partners on candidate technologies.

  5. Preliminary investigation of seismic damage to two steel space structures during the 2013 Lushan earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Junwu; Qu, Zhe; Zhang, Chenxiao; Weng, Xuran

    2013-09-01

    Severe damage to steel space structures is rarely reported when compared to other structural systems damaged during past major earthquakes around the world. Two gymnasiums of steel space structures in downtown Lushan County that were damaged during the 2013 M7.0 Lushan earthquake in China were investigated and the observations are summarized in this paper. Typical damage to these two steel space structures ranges from moderate to severe. Moderate damage includes global buckling and dislocation of bolted connections of truss members, and inelastic elongation of anchor bolts and sliding of pedestal plates of supports. Severe damage includes member fracture caused by local buckling, and fracture failure of anchor bolts and welds. The distribution of structural damage to these two structures is described in detail and future research opportunities are suggested.

  6. A preliminary investigation of materialism and impulsiveness as predictors of technological addictions among young adults.

    PubMed

    Roberts, James A; Pirog, Stephen F

    2013-03-01

    Background and aims The primary objective of the present research is to investigate the drivers of technological addiction in college students - heavy users of Information and Communication Technology (ICT). The study places cell phone and instant messaging addiction in the broader context of consumption pathologies, investigating the influence of materialism and impulsiveness on these two technologies. Clearly, cell phones serve more than just a utilitarian purpose. Cell phones are used in public and play a vital role in the lives of young adults. The accessibility of new technologies, like cell phones, which have the advantages of portability and an ever increasing array of functions, makes their over-use increasingly likely. Methods College undergraduates (N = 191) from two U.S. universities completed a paper and pencil survey instrument during class. The questionnaire took approximately 15-20 minutes to complete and contained scales that measured materialism, impulsiveness, and mobile phone and instant messaging addiction. Results Factor analysis supported the discriminant validity of Ehrenberg, Juckes, White and Walsh's (2008) Mobile Phone and Instant Messaging Addictive Tendencies Scale. The path model indicates that both materialism and impulsiveness impact the two addictive tendencies, and that materialism's direct impact on these addictions has a noticeably larger effect on cell phone use than instant messaging. Conclusions The present study finds that materialism and impulsiveness drive both a dependence on cell phones and instant messaging. As Griffiths (2012) rightly warns, however, researchers must be aware that one's addiction may not simply be to the cell phone, but to a particular activity or function of the cell phone. The emergence of multi-function smart phones requires that research must dig beneath the technology being used to the activities that draw the user to the particular technology. PMID:26165772

  7. A Preliminary Mixed-Method Investigation of Trust and Hidden Signals in Medical Consultations

    PubMed Central

    Riva, Silvia; Monti, Marco; Iannello, Paola; Pravettoni, Gabriella; Schulz, Peter J.; Antonietti, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    Background Several factors influence patients' trust, and trust influences the doctor-patient relationship. Recent literature has investigated the quality of the personal relationship and its dynamics by considering the role of communication and the elements that influence trust giving in the frame of general practitioner (GP) consultations. Objective We analysed certain aspects of the interaction between patients and GPs to understand trust formation and maintenance by focusing on communication channels. The impact of socio-demographic variables in trust relationships was also evaluated. Method A cross-sectional design using concurrent mixed qualitative and quantitative research methods was employed. One hundred adults were involved in a semi-structured interview composed of both qualitative and quantitative items for descriptive and exploratory purposes. The study was conducted in six community-based departments adjacent to primary care clinics in Trento, Italy. Results The findings revealed that patients trusted their GP to a high extent by relying on simple signals that were based on the quality of the one-to-one communication and on behavioural and relational patterns. Patients inferred the ability of their GP by adopting simple heuristics based mainly on the so-called social “honest signals” rather than on content-dependent features. Furthermore, socio-demographic variables affected trust: less literate and elderly people tended to trust more. Conclusions This study is unique in attempting to explore the role of simple signals in trust relationships within medical consultation: people shape trust and give meaning to their relationships through a powerful channel of communication that orbits not around words but around social relations. The findings have implications for both clinicians and researchers. For doctors, these results suggest a way of thinking about encounters with patients. For researchers, the findings underline the importance of analysing some new key factors around trust for future investigations in medical practice and education. PMID:24618683

  8. Predicting diagnostic error in radiology via eye-tracking and image analytics: Preliminary investigation in mammography

    SciTech Connect

    Voisin, Sophie; Tourassi, Georgia D.; Pinto, Frank; Morin-Ducote, Garnetta; Hudson, Kathleen B.

    2013-10-15

    Purpose: The primary aim of the present study was to test the feasibility of predicting diagnostic errors in mammography by merging radiologists’ gaze behavior and image characteristics. A secondary aim was to investigate group-based and personalized predictive models for radiologists of variable experience levels.Methods: The study was performed for the clinical task of assessing the likelihood of malignancy of mammographic masses. Eye-tracking data and diagnostic decisions for 40 cases were acquired from four Radiology residents and two breast imaging experts as part of an IRB-approved pilot study. Gaze behavior features were extracted from the eye-tracking data. Computer-generated and BIRADS images features were extracted from the images. Finally, machine learning algorithms were used to merge gaze and image features for predicting human error. Feature selection was thoroughly explored to determine the relative contribution of the various features. Group-based and personalized user modeling was also investigated.Results: Machine learning can be used to predict diagnostic error by merging gaze behavior characteristics from the radiologist and textural characteristics from the image under review. Leveraging data collected from multiple readers produced a reasonable group model [area under the ROC curve (AUC) = 0.792 ± 0.030]. Personalized user modeling was far more accurate for the more experienced readers (AUC = 0.837 ± 0.029) than for the less experienced ones (AUC = 0.667 ± 0.099). The best performing group-based and personalized predictive models involved combinations of both gaze and image features.Conclusions: Diagnostic errors in mammography can be predicted to a good extent by leveraging the radiologists’ gaze behavior and image content.

  9. Work plan for preliminary investigation of organic constituents in ground water at the New Rifle site, Rifle, Colorado. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-01

    A special study screening for Appendix 9 (40 CFR Part 264) analytes identified the New Rifle site as a target for additional screening for organic constituents. Because of this recommendation and the findings in a recent independent technical review, the US Department of Energy (DOE) has requested that the Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC) perform a preliminary investigation of the potential presence of organic compounds in the ground water at the New Rifle Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site, Rifle, Colorado. From 1958 to 1972, organic chemicals were used in large quantities during ore processing at the New Rifle site, and it is possible that some fraction was released to the environment. Therefore, the primary objective of this investigation is to determine whether organic chemicals used at the milling facility are present in the ground water. The purpose of this document is to describe the work that will be performed and the procedures that will be followed during installation of ground water well points at the New Rifle site. The selection of analytes and the procedures for collecting ground water samples for analysis of organic constituents are also described.

  10. Preliminary Investigations of Joining Technologies for Attaching Refractory Metals to Ni-Based Superalloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gould, Jerry E.; Ritzert, Frank J.; Loewenthal, William S.

    2006-01-01

    In this study, a range of joining technologies has been investigated for creating attachments between refractory metal and Ni-based superalloys. Refractory materials of interest include Mo-47%Re, T-111, and Ta-10%W. The Ni-based superalloys include Hastelloy X and MarM 247. During joining with conventional processes, these materials have potential for a range of solidification and intermetallic formation-related defects. For this study, three non-conventional joining technologies were evaluated. These included inertia welding, electro-spark deposition (ESD) welding, and magnetic pulse welding (MPW). The developed inertia welding practice closely paralleled that typically used for the refractory metals alloys. Metallographic investigations showed that forging during inertia welding occurred predominantly on the nickel base alloy side. It was also noted that at least some degree of forging on the refractory metal side of the joint was necessary to achieve consistent bonding. Both refractory metals were readily weldable to the Hastelloy X material. When bonding to the MarM 247, results were inconsistent. This was related to the higher forging temperatures of the MarM 247, and subsequent reduced deformation on that material during welding. ESD trials using a Hastelloy X filler were successful for all material combinations. ESD places down very thin (5- to 10- m) layers per pass, and interactions between the substrates and the fill were limited (at most) to that layer. For the refractory metals, the fill only appeared to wet the surface, with minimal dilution effects. Microstructures of the deposits showed high weld metal integrity with maximum porosity on the order of a few percent. Some limited success was also obtained with MPW. In these trials, only the T-111 tubes were used. Joints were possible for the T-111 tube to the Hastelloy X bar stock, but the stiffness of the tube (resisting collapse) necessitated the use of very high power levels. These power levels resulted in damage to the equipment (concentrator) during welding. It is of note that the joint made showed the typical wavy bond microstructure associated with magnetic pulse/explosion bond joints. Joints were not possible between the T-111 tube and the MarM 247 bar stock. In this case, the MarM 247 shattered before sufficient impact forces could be developed for bonding.

  11. Preliminary Investigations of Joining Technologies for Attaching Refractory Metals to Ni-Based Superalloys

    SciTech Connect

    Gould, Jerry E.; Ritzert, Frank J.; Loewenthal, William S.

    2006-01-20

    In this study, a range of joining technologies has been investigated for creating attachments between refractory metal and Ni-based superalloys. Refractory materials of interest include Mo-47%Re, T-111, and Ta-10%W. The Ni-based superalloys include Hastelloy X and MarM 247. During joining with conventional processes, these materials have potential for a range of solidification and intermetallic formation-related defects. For this study, three non-conventional joining technologies were evaluated. These included inertia welding, electro-spark deposition (ESD) welding, and magnetic pulse welding (MPW). The developed inertia welding practice closely paralleled that typically used for the refractory metals alloys. Metallographic investigations showed that forging during inertia welding occurred predominantly on the refractory metal side. It was also noted that at least some degree of forging on the Ni-based superalloy side of the joint was necessary to achieve consistent bonding. Both refractory metals were readily weldable to the Hastelloy X material. When bonding to the MarM 247, results were inconsistent. This was related to the higher forging temperatures of the MarM 247, and subsequent reduced deformation on that material during welding. ESD trials using a Hastelloy X filler were successful for all material combinations. ESD places down very thin (5- to 10-{mu}m) layers per pass, and interactions between the substrates and the fill were limited (at most) to that layer. For the refractory metals, the fill only appeared to wet the surface, with minimal dilution effects. Microstructures of the deposits showed high weld metal integrity with maximum porosity on the order of a few percent. Some limited success was also obtained with MPW. In these trials, only the T-111 tubes were used. Joints were possible for the T-111 tube to the Hastelloy X bar stock, but the stiffness of the tube (resisting collapse) necessitated the use of very high power levels. These power levels resulted in damage to the equipment (concentrator) during welding. It is of note that the joint made showed the typical wavy bond microstructure associated with magnetic pulse/explosion bond joints. Joints were not possible between the T-111 tube and the MarM 247 bar stock. In this case, the MarM 247 shattered before sufficient impact forces could be developed for bonding.

  12. Friction Stir Lap Welding of Magnesium Alloy to Steel: A Preliminary Investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Jana, Saumyadeep; Hovanski, Yuri; Grant, Glenn J.

    2010-12-01

    An initial study was made to evaluate the feasibility of joining Magnesium alloy AZ31 sheet to galvanized steel sheet in lap configuration using friction stir welding (FSW). Two different automotive sheet steels were used for comparative evaluation of the dissimilar joining potential; a 0.8mm thick, electro galvanized (EG) mild steel, and a 1.5mm thick hot dipped galvanized (HDG) high-strength, low-alloy steel (HSLA). These steels were joined to 2.33mm thick AZ31B magnesium sheet. A single FSW tool design was used for both dissimilar welds, and process parameters were kept the same. Average peak load for the AZ31-1.5 mm steel weld joint in lap shear mode was found to be 6.3 ± 1.0 kN. For the AZ31-0.8 mm steel weld, joint strength was 5.1 ± 1.5 kN. Microstructural investigation indicates melting of the Zn coating at the interface and subsequent alloying with the Mg sheet resulting in formation of solidified Zn-Mg alloy layer at AZ31/steel interface.

  13. [Preliminary investigation into the mechanism of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy induced by visfatin].

    PubMed

    Li, Junli; Liao, Yanbiao; Lu, Lihui; Lu, Lihui; Feng, Jun; Wu, Wenchao; Liu, Xiaojing

    2014-04-01

    The aim of the current study is to investigate the effect of visfatin on cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Cultured H9c2 cardiomyocytes were exposed to visfatin at different concentrations for different periods of time, and the markers of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy were detected. Moreover, pravastatin, the inhibitor of endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) or thapsigargin, an ERS agonist was used respectively to pre-treat the cells before visfatin stimulation. F-actin staining was performed to measure the cell surface change. The mRNA expressions of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) and ERS markers including glucose-regulated protein 78(GRP78), C/EPB homologous protein (CHOP) and activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6) were assessed by real time RT-PCR. The change of protein level of GRP78 and CHOP was detected by Western blot. The experimental data demonstrated that exposure to 100 or 150 ng/mL concentrations of visfatin for 24 h, or 100 ng/mL of visfatin for 24 or 48 h, significantly increased the expression of markers for cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Visfatin stimulation provoked ERS in H9c2 cells. Furthermore, pre-treatment with pravastatin partially inhibited the visfatin-induced mRNA expression of ANP and BNP in H9c2 cells, whereas thapsigargin promoted the visfatin-induced expression of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy markers. The results suggest that visfatin might induce cardiomyocyte hypertrophy via ERS -dependent pathways. PMID:25039146

  14. Preliminary investigation of an SOI-based arrayed waveguide grating demodulation integration microsystem.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongqiang; Zhou, Wenqian; Liu, Yu; Dong, Xiaye; Zhang, Cheng; Miao, Changyun; Zhang, Meiling; Li, Enbang; Tang, Chunxiao

    2014-01-01

    An arrayed waveguide grating (AWG) demodulation integration microsystem is investigated in this study. The system consists of a C-band on-chip LED, a 2 × 2 silicon nanowire-based coupler, a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) array, a 1 × 8 AWG, and a photoelectric detector array. The coupler and AWG are made from silicon-on-insulator wafers using electron beam exposure and response-coupled plasma technology. Experimental results show that the excess loss in the MMI coupler with a footprint of 6 × 100 ?m(2) is 0.5423 dB. The 1 × 8 AWG with a footprint of 267 × 381 ?m(2) and a waveguide width of 0.4 ?m exhibits a central channel loss of -3.18 dB, insertion loss non-uniformity of -1.34 dB, and crosstalk level of -23.1 dB. The entire system is preliminarily tested. Wavelength measurement precision is observed to reach 0.001 nm. The wavelength sensitivity of each FBG is between 0.04 and 0.06 nm/dB. PMID:24797561

  15. Preliminary investigation of radon concentration in surface water and drinking water in Shenzhen City, South China.

    PubMed

    Li, Ting; Wang, Nanping; Li, Shijun

    2015-11-01

    A radon survey in surface water and drinking water was conducted using a portable degassing system associated with an ionisation chamber AlphaGUARD (PQ2000) for understanding levels of dissolved radon ((222)Rn) concentration in different types of water sources and risk assessment of radon in drinking water in Shenzhen City (SC) with a population of 10 628 900 in 2013, Guangdong Province of China. The measurements show that arithmetic means ± standard deviations of radon ((222)Rn) concentration are 52.05 ± 6.64, 0.29 ± 0.26, 0.15 ± 0.23 and 0.37 ± 0.42 kBq m(-3) in spring water, surface water, large and small public water supplies, respectively. Only radon concentrations of two water samples collected in mountainous areas are more than 11.10 kBq m(-3), exceeding the limit of radon concentration in drinking water stipulated by the national standard of China (GB5749-2006). The annual effective doses due to radon in drinking water were also calculated. The investigation suggests that there are no risks caused by radon in the drinking water in SC. PMID:25904699

  16. Preliminary Investigation of Performance and Starting Characteristics of Liquid Fluorine : Liquid Oxygen Mixtures with Jet Fuel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothenberg, Edward A; Ordin, Paul M

    1954-01-01

    The performance of jet fuel with an oxidant mixture containing 70 percent liquid fluorine and 30 percent liquid oxygen by weight was investigated in a 500-pound-thrust engine operating at a chamber pressure of 300 pounds per square inch absolute. A one-oxidant-on-one-fuel skewed-hole impinging-jet injector was evaluated in a chamber of characteristic length equal to 50 inches. A maximum experimental specific impulse of 268 pound-seconds per pound was obtained at 25 percent fuel, which corresponds to 96 percent of the maximum theoretical specific impulse based on frozen composition expansion. The maximum characteristic velocity obtained was 6050 feet per second at 23 percent fuel, or 94 percent of the theoretical maximum. The average thrust coefficient was 1.38 for the 500-pound thrust combustion-chamber nozzle used, which was 99 percent of the theoretical (frozen) maximum. Mixtures of fluorine and oxygen were found to be self-igniting with jet fuel with fluorine concentrations as low as 4 percent, when low starting propellant flow rated were used.

  17. Preliminary investigations of toxicity in the Georges Bay catchment, Tasmania, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Bleaney, Alison; Hickey, Christopher W.; Stewart, Michael; Scammell, Marcus; Senjen, Rye

    2015-01-01

    North-eastern Tasmania, Australia has been an area of major production for Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas) for over 25 years. Since the mid-1990s, increased oyster mortality has been observed. The purpose of the present study was to identify the agent causing aquatic toxicity and to investigate whether there is a chemical and/or toxicological link between river foam and monoculture timber plantation forests of exotic eucalypts (Eucalyptus nitens) present in the catchment area. Foam samples from the George River catchment demonstrated high toxicity to a freshwater cladoceran and larvae of a marine blue mussel species. After filtration to remove most particulates, foam samples also demonstrated a marked reduction in toxicity to blue mussels, which suggested that the toxicity is particle associated. Foam and leaf extracts of E. nitens were then fractionated using HPLC and size exclusion chromatography and the resulting fractions were screened for cladoceran and blue mussel toxicity. Toxicity was detected in fractions common to both the foam and the leaf extracts. This study suggests that there may be a chemical and toxicological relationship between foam and E. nitens leaf components. PMID:25745193

  18. A Preliminary Investigation of a New Method for Testing Aerofoils in Free Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norton, F H

    1922-01-01

    This report is a description of a new method of testing aerofoils in free flight devised by the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics. The method consists in lowering below a flying airplane a large inverted aerofoil on three small steel wires in such a way that the lift on the aerofoil always keeps the wires tight. The resultant force is measured by the tension in the wires, and the direction of the resultant by the amount the wing trails backwards. A test was made on an aerofoil of the N.A.C.A. #64 section, 6 ft. in span and the results are compared with a similar section tested in the wind tunnel. This investigation indicates that by the use of suitable recording apparatus aerofoils may be accurately and conveniently tested at a Reynolds number, a velocity and a degree of turbulence, comparable with that on the full-sized airplane. Satisfactory experiments were also made in trailing a sphere and a streamlined body on single wires.

  19. Changes of Substance P in the Crevicular Fluid in relation to Orthodontic Movement Preliminary Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Levrini, Luca; Sacerdote, Paola; Moretti, Sarah; Panzi, Silvia; Caprioglio, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Substance P (SP) is a tachykinin released from both the central and the peripheral endings of primary afferent neurons and functions as a neurotransmitter. As a transmitter signaling pain, substance P is involved in nociception and is an extremely potent vasodilator. We found several studies about this neuropeptide especially in relation to parodontology and a few orthodontic reviews. This is because in the past the importance of this neuropeptide in dental element undergoing periodontal inflammation was observed. The aims of the present pilot study was to investigate whether the substance P was present in gingival crevicular fluid in dental elements undergoing orthodontic treatment with Invisalign technique compared to teeth belonging to the same series but not undergoing orthodontic movement. We analysed gengival crevicular fluid (GCF) collected from four young subjects, using a paper cone for a time of 60 seconds. The results showed that SP is present in the gengival sulcus in elements undergoing orthodontic forces during treatment with Invisalign technique and not in the control teeth. During the literature analysis, we have found a lot of papers describing involvement of SP in periodontitis and inflammatory diseases, but further studies are needed in order to demonstrate the role of this neuropeptide during teeth movement. PMID:23737731

  20. A preliminary investigation of acid-catalyzed polymerization reactions of shale oil distillates

    SciTech Connect

    Netzel, D.A.

    1991-04-01

    Sinor (1989) reported that a major specialty market may exist for shale oil as an asphalt blending material. Shale oil can be converted to an asphalt blending material by acid catalyzed condensation and polymerization reactions of the many molecular species comprising the composition of shale oil. To simplify the investigation, crude shale oil was separated by distillation into three distillates of different hydrocarbon and heteroaromatic compositions. These distillates were then treated with two different types of acids to determine the effect of acid type on the end products. Three western shale oil distillates, a naphtha, a middle distillate, and an atmospheric gas oil, were reacted with anhydrous AlCl{sub 3} and 85% H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} under low-severity conditions. At relatively low temperatures, little change in the hydrocarbon composition was noted for the AlCl{sub 3} reactions. AlCl{sub 3}{center dot} (a polymerized product and/or complex) was formed. However, it is assumed that the sludge was mainly the result of heteroaromatic-AlCl{sub 3} reactions.

  1. A preliminary investigation of acid-catalyzed polymerization reactions of shale oil distillates

    SciTech Connect

    Netzel, D.A.

    1991-04-01

    Sinor (1989) reported that a major specialty market may exist for shale oil as an asphalt blending material. Shale oil can be converted to an asphalt blending material by acid catalyzed condensation and polymerization reactions of the many molecular species comprising the composition of shale oil. To simplify the investigation, crude shale oil was separated by distillation into three distillates of different hydrocarbon and heteroaromatic compositions. These distillates were then treated with two different types of acids to determine the effect of acid type on the end products. Three western shale oil distillates, a naphtha, a middle distillate, and an atmospheric gas oil, were reacted with anhydrous AlCl{sub 3} and 85% H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} under low-severity conditions. At relatively low temperatures, little change in the hydrocarbon composition was noted for the AlCl{sub 3} reactions. AlCl{sub 3}{center_dot} (a polymerized product and/or complex) was formed. However, it is assumed that the sludge was mainly the result of heteroaromatic-AlCl{sub 3} reactions.

  2. Preliminary Investigation of an SOI-based Arrayed Waveguide Grating Demodulation Integration Microsystem

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hongqiang; Zhou, Wenqian; Liu, Yu; Dong, Xiaye; Zhang, Cheng; Miao, Changyun; Zhang, Meiling; Li, Enbang; Tang, Chunxiao

    2014-01-01

    An arrayed waveguide grating (AWG) demodulation integration microsystem is investigated in this study. The system consists of a C-band on-chip LED, a 2 × 2 silicon nanowire-based coupler, a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) array, a 1 × 8 AWG, and a photoelectric detector array. The coupler and AWG are made from silicon-on-insulator wafers using electron beam exposure and response-coupled plasma technology. Experimental results show that the excess loss in the MMI coupler with a footprint of 6 × 100??m2 is 0.5423?dB. The 1 × 8 AWG with a footprint of 267 × 381??m2 and a waveguide width of 0.4??m exhibits a central channel loss of ?3.18?dB, insertion loss non-uniformity of ?1.34?dB, and crosstalk level of ?23.1?dB. The entire system is preliminarily tested. Wavelength measurement precision is observed to reach 0.001?nm. The wavelength sensitivity of each FBG is between 0.04 and 0.06?nm/dB. PMID:24797561

  3. A preliminary investigation into the genetic variation and population structure of Taenia hydatigena from Sardinia, Italy.

    PubMed

    Boufana, Belgees; Scala, Antonio; Lahmar, Samia; Pointing, Steve; Craig, Philip S; Dessì, Giorgia; Zidda, Antonella; Pipia, Anna Paola; Varcasia, Antonio

    2015-11-30

    Cysticercosis caused by the metacestode stage of Taenia hydatigena is endemic in Sardinia. Information on the genetic variation of this parasite is important for epidemiological studies and implementation of control programs. Using two mitochondrial genes, the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) and the NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (ND1) we investigated the genetic variation and population structure of Cysticercus tenuicollis from Sardinian intermediate hosts and compared it to that from other hosts from various geographical regions. The parsimony cox1 network analysis indicated the existence of a common lineage for T. hydatigena and the overall diversity and neutrality indices indicated demographic expansion. Using the cox1 sequences, low pairwise fixation index (Fst) values were recorded for Sardinian, Iranian and Palestinian sheep C. tenuicollis which suggested the absence of genetic differentiation. Using the ND1 sequences, C. tenuicollis from Sardinian sheep appeared to be differentiated from those of goat and pig origin. In addition, goat C. tenuicollis were genetically different from adult T. hydatigena as indicated by the statistically significant Fst value. Our results are consistent with biochemical and morphological studies that suggest the existence of variants of T. hydatigena. PMID:26296591

  4. Preliminary results from the investigation of the Pymatuning earthquake of September 25, 1998

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Armbruster, John; Barton, Henry; Bodin, Paul; Buckwalter, Theodore; Cox, Jon; Cranswick, Edward; Dewey, James; Fleeger, Gary; Hopper, Margaret; Horton, Stephen; Hoskins, Donald; Kilb, Deborah; Meremonte, Mark; Metzger, Ann; Risser, Dennis; Seeber, Leonardo; Shedlock, Kaye; Stanley, Katherine; Withers, Mitchell; Zirbes, Madeleine

    1998-01-01

    The Pymatuning earthquake occurred on Friday, September 25, 1998, at 19:52:52 Universal Coordinated Time (UTC), or 3:52:52 p.m. EDT, near Jamestown, Pa., at the southern end of the Pymatuning Reservoir, which straddles the Ohio-Pennsylvania border. The National Earthquake Information Center (NEIC) determined that the event had a magnitude of 5.2 mbLg (a magnitude scale used to measure the size of earthquakes that are regional distances away [100 to 1,000 km, or 60 to 600 mi]), an epicenter of 41.5°N latitude, 80.4°W longitude, and an estimated depth of 5 km (3 mi). One person was reported injured as a result of being thrown to the ground by the earthquake, and it caused minor damage to buildings and seriously disrupted many water wells in the GreenvilleJamestown, Pa., area. The earthquake was generally felt over an area of approximately 200,000 km2 (77,230 mi2) throughout northern Ohio, western Pennsylvania and New York, and much of southern Ontario, Canada (see map on back cover). It was also felt as far west as Illinois and Wisconsin, as far east as New Jersey, Connecticut, and the District of Columbia, and as far south as Kentucky and Virginia. During the aftershock field investigation that commenced within 12 hours of the main shock, a World Wide Web site, http://groundmotion.cr.usgs.gov/pym/pym.htm>, was established from the field headquarters. The web site was used not only to transmit investigation results to the world in near real time but also to receive information from the local community as new earthquake effects were reported. As of March 1999, at least 11 aftershocks have occurred, the largest being a magnitude 2.3. The largest recent previous earthquake in the region was the northeastern Ohio (Leroy) earthquake of magnitude 5.0 that occurred on January 31, 1986, about 65 km (40 mi) west-northwest of the Pymatuning shock. This event was also felt by many of those who felt the Pymatuning earthquake. Similar to most of the seismicity east of the Rocky Mountains, earthquakes in the region are probably shallow (5 to 10 km, or 3 to 6 mi), and Seeber and Armbruster (1993) hypothesized that the earthquakes occurred along preexisting zones of weakness in Precambrian rocks. Wegweiser and others (1998) suggested that seismicity in northwestern Pennsylvania may be associated with the northwest-trending “cross-strike discontinuities” that are recognized in Paleozoic rocks and may represent reactivation of faults in the Precambrian basement. Using structure-contour maps constructed on the tops of lower Paleozoic strata, Alexandrowicz and Cole (1999) found evidence of preexisting northwest-striking faults in the epicentral region of the Pymatuning shock. The Harvard focal mechanism for the Pymatuning earthquake (a method used to infer the slip and orientation of the fault that generated an earthquake) indicates thrust faulting on a northwest striking plane, which is consistent with the regional northeast-southwest compressive stress regime observed in the area. Seeber and Armbruster (1993) plotted three prior earthquakes in the epicentral area having magnitudes greater than 3; two were instrumentally located near the Pymatuning earthquake, and the third event occurred 20 to 30 km (12 to 19 mi) to the northeast in 1852 (Figure 1).

  5. A preliminary investigation on the relationship between virtues and pathological internet use among Chinese adolescents

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Pathological Internet Use (PIU) has become a global issue associated with the increasing number of Internet users. Previous studies concerned both the interpersonal and intrapersonal vulnerable factors and the corresponding models. However, a limited amount of research has explored the relationship between positive factors and PIU. Objective The current investigation attempted to clarify the relationship between virtues and PIU among Chinese adolescents; it also sought to explore the specific contributions of the three virtues. Virtue was the core concept in positive psychology and the Values in Action Classification. A recent study demonstrated that there might be three universal virtues (relationship, vitality, and conscientiousness). Methods A cross-sectional sample of adolescents aged 12-17 years were recruited in 2013. A total of 674 adolescents (males?=?302, females?=?372; junior high school?=?296, senior high school?=?378) from eight junior and senior high schools in four provinces of Mainland China completed a package of psychological inventories, including the Chinese Virtues Questionnaire (CVQ) and the Adolescent Pathological Internet Use Scale (APIUS). The mean age of the current sample was 15.10 years (SD?=?1.81) with an average of 5.31 years’ length (SD?=?2.09) of Internet use. Results A total of 9.50% participants exhibited significant symptoms of PIU. Male students (Mmale?=?2.50) had significantly higher scores on PIU than female students (Mfemale?=?2.25). Relationship (??=?-.24) and conscientiousness (??=?-.21) negatively predicted PIU, whereas vitality (??=?.25) positively predicted PIU. Dominance analysis further revealed that relationship and conscientiousness could explain 81% variance of PIU, and vitality only accounted for another 19%. Conclusions Relationship and conscientiousness were possible protective factors of pathological Internet users, while vitality was vulnerable. The results could be helpful in screening “at-risk” Internet users (low relationship and conscientiousness as well as high vitality). Future intervention strategies could focus on how to enhance relationship and conscientiousness and on how to reduce vitality. PMID:24594317

  6. Testing Positive versus Negative Claims: A Preliminary Investigation of the Role of Cover Story on the Assessment of Experimental Design Skills. CSE Technical Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmerman, Corinne; Glaser, Robert

    This paper presents results from a preliminary investigation in which researchers manipulated the cover story of an open-ended assessment that required students to design an experiment. Participants were 27 sixth graders from a culturally diverse urban school. In one version of the cover story, students were asked to design an experiment to test a…

  7. Game-Based Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (GB-CBT) Group Program for Children Who Have Experienced Sexual Abuse: A Preliminary Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Misurell, Justin R.; Springer, Craig; Tryon, Warren W.

    2011-01-01

    This preliminary investigation examined the efficacy of a game-based cognitive-behavioral therapy group program for elementary school-aged children who have experienced sexual abuse. Treatment aimed to improve: (a) internalizing symptoms, (b) externalizing behaviors, (c) sexually inappropriate behaviors, (d) social skills deficits, (e) self-esteem…

  8. Preliminary Results of an Altitude-Wind-Tunnel Investigation of an Axial-Flow Gas Turbine-Propeller Engine. 1; Performance Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saari, Martin J.; Wallner, Lewis E.

    1948-01-01

    A preliminary investigation of an axial-flow gas turbine-propeller engine was conduxted. Performance data were obtained for engine speeds from 8000 to 13,000 rpm and altitudes from 5000 to 35,000 feet and compressor inlet ram pressure ratios from 1.00 to 1.17.

  9. A preliminary investigation assessing the viability of classifying hand postures in seniors

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Fear of frailty is a main concern for seniors. Surface electromyography (sEMG) controlled assistive devices for the upper extremities could potentially be used to augment seniors' force while training their muscles and reduce their fear of frailty. In fact, these devices could both improve self confidence and facilitate independent leaving in domestic environments. The successful implementation of sEMG controlled devices for the elderly strongly relies on the capability of properly determining seniors' actions from their sEMG signals. In this research we investigated the viability of classifying hand postures in seniors from sEMG signals of their forearm muscles. Methods Nineteen volunteers, including seniors (70 years old in average) and young people (27 years old in average), participated in this study and sEMG signals from four of their forearm muscles (i.e. Extensor Digitorum, Palmaris Longus, Flexor Carpi Ulnaris and Extensor Carpi Radialis) were recorded. The feature vectors were built by extracting features from each channel of sEMG including autoregressive (AR) model coefficients, waveform length and root mean square (RMS). Multi-class support vector machines (SVM) was used as a classifier to distinguish between fifteen different essential hand gestures including finger pinching. Results Classification of hand gestures both in the pronation and supination positions of the arm was possible. Classified hand gestures were: rest, ulnar deviation, radial deviation, grasp and four different finger pinching configurations. The obtained average classification accuracy was 90.6% for the seniors and 97.6% for the young volunteers. Conclusions The obtained results proved that the pattern recognition of sEMG signals in seniors is feasible for both pronation and supination positions of the arm and the use of only four EMG channel is sufficient. The outcome of this study therefore validates the hypothesis that, although there are significant neurological and physical changes occurring in humans while ageing, sEMG controlled hand assistive devices could potentially be used by the older people. PMID:21906316

  10. Palaeomagnetic, rock-magnetic and mineralogical investigations of metadolerites from Western Svalbard : A preliminary report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michalski, Krzysztof; Nejbert, Krzysztof; Doma?ska-Siuda, Justyna; Manby, Geoffrey

    2014-05-01

    A group of 42 independently oriented palaeomagnetic samples from 7 sites located in central part of the West Spitsbergen Thrust and Fault Belt has been investigated. The samples were collected from 5 distinct metadolerite sheets intruded into the Proterozoic - Lower Paleozoic metamorphic complex of Western Oscar II Land (Western Svalbard Caledonian Terrane - Harland, 1997 division). All analyzed metadolerite samples were metamorphosed under greenschist facies metamorphism. The metamorphic assemblage consist of hornblende, biotite, actinolite, chlorite, epidote, stilpnomelane, titanite, albite, and quartz. Calcite, associated with pyrrhotite, pyrite chalcopyrite, sphalerite, and covellite, that occurs as irregular intergrowths or thin veins, document high activity of H2O-CO2-rich fluids during metamorphism. Primary magmatic phases represented by clinopyroxene occur rarely, and only in thick metadolerite dykes. Accessory oxides change their mineralogical and chemical composition during metamorphism. In all examined samples primary Ti-magnetite and oxy-exsolved hematite break-down completely into titanite or have been dissolved. The ilmenite are also replaced by titanite, but in metadolerites at contact with host metapelites, slightly altered ilmenite grains with preserved hematite exsolution were documented. Basing on mineralogical observations it should be expected that metamorphic processes have almost completely reset the paleomagnetic data record from the time of dolerite crystallization. This stage can document only rare hematite oxy-exsolution preserved within ilmenite, and presumably small inclusion of magnetite still preserved within unaltered clinopyroxene. The paleomagnetic record of metamorphic stage is probably recorded by pyrrhotite, hematite, goethite, and late Ti-free magnetite that can grow during breakdown of pyrrhotite to pyrite (Ramdohr. 1980). The NRM (Natural Remanent Magnetisation) intensities of the palaeomagnetic samples exceed the minimum 10 mA/m. The first AF/thermal demagnetizations have revealed a stable NRM structure. ChRM (Characteristic Remanent Magnetisation) components can be extracted precisely from Zijderveld diagrams (precision parameter - ASD max. 10º). The following magnetic procedures have been applied to identify the ferromagnetic carriers of the samples: SIRM (saturation isothermal remanent magnetization) decay curves (procedure after Kadzia?ko-Hofmokl & Kruczyk, 1976) and the three-component IRM (isothermal remanent magnetization) procedure described by Lowrie (1990). Experimental work has revealed the dominance of pyrrhotite and magnetite phases as carriers with soft-medium coercivity (samples are saturated in 0.2-0.4 T) and distinct unblocking temperatures around 320-350 ºC and 575-600 ºC respectively. Presented study is the part of PALMAG project 2012-2015: "Integration of palaeomagnetic, isotopic and structural data to understand Svalbard Caledonian Terranes assemblage" (see also Michalski et al. 2012), funded by Polish National Science Centre. References: HARLAND,W.B. 1997. The Geology of Svalbard. Geological Society of London, Memoir 17, 521 pp. K?DZIO?KO-HOFMOKL,M. & KRUCZYK,J. 1976. Complete and partial self-reversal of natural remanent magnetization of basaltic rocks from Lower Silesia, Poland. Pure and Applied Geophysics 110, 2031-40. LOWRIE,W. 1990. Identification of ferromagnetic minerals in a rock by coercivity and unblocking temperature properties. Geophysical Research Letters 17, 159-62. MICHALSKI,K., LEWANDOWSKI,M., MANBY,G.M. 2012. New palaeomagnetic, petrographic and 40Ar/39Ar data to test palaeogeographic reconstructions of Caledonide Svalbard. Cambridge University Press. Geological Magazine 149 (4), 696-721. RAMDOHR,P. 1980. The ore minerals and their intergrowths. Pergamon Press, Oxford.

  11. Health and safety plan for the preliminary site investigation for McMurdo Station, Ross Island, Antarctica

    SciTech Connect

    Wozny, M.C.

    1991-05-01

    The primary purpose of this health and safety plan is to provide the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) field team with important procedures, regulations, and requirements necessary for performing work at McMurdo Station, Antarctica, with a minimum hazard to its health and safety. Field workers will be required to conduct their operations in a safe environment through specific safety and occupational health procedures. The plan assigns responsibilities and provides for contingencies that may arise at the site. The health and safety plan will also demonstrate to the National Science Foundation (NSF), the US Department of Energy (DOE), the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the US Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), environmental interest groups, and other countries represented in Antarctica that the health and safety of ANL personnel have been given the utmost consideration in planning the work operations, applicable rules and regulations of the area have been met, and the health and safety of the public and the environment have been given significant consideration during field sampling activities. This document represents the final health and safety plan for the preliminary site investigation. A draft version of this report was presented to NSF in January 1991. 16 refs., 3 figs., 8 tabs.

  12. Investigating wind power`s effective capacity: A case study in the Caribbean Island of La Martinique

    SciTech Connect

    Perez, R.; Germa, J.M.; Bailey, B.

    1996-12-31

    In this paper, we report on the experimental determination of the effective capacity of wind and photovoltaic (PV) power generation with respect to the utility load requirements of the Island of La Martinique. La Martinique is a French Overseas Department in the Caribbean Sea. The case study spans two years, 1990 and 1991. We consider wind generation at three locations in different wind regimes, and PV generation for fixed and tracking flat plate systems. The results presented include: (1) An overview of typical solar and wind power output at each considered site, presented in contrast to the Island`s electric load requirements; and (2) Effective capacities quantified for each resource as a function of penetration in the utility generation mix. 7 refs., 6 figs.

  13. Preliminary geologic investigation of the Apollo 12 landing site: Part A: Geology of the Apollo 12 Landing Site

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shoemaker, E.M.; Batson, R.M.; Bean, A.L.; Conrad, C., Jr.; Dahlem, D.H.; Goddard, E.N.; Hait, M.H.; Larson, K.B.; Schaber, G.G.; Schleicher, D.L.; Sutton, R.L.; Swann, G.A.; Waters, A.C.

    1970-01-01

    This report provides a preliminary description of the geologic setting of the lunar samples returned fromt he Apollo 12 mission. A more complete interpretation of the geology of the site will be prepared after thorough analysis of the data.

  14. Investigating short-term exposure to electromagnetic fields on reproductive capacity of invertebrates in the field situation.

    PubMed

    Vijver, Martina G; Bolte, John F B; Evans, Tracy R; Tamis, Wil L M; Peijnenburg, Willie J G M; Musters, C J M; de Snoo, Geert R

    2014-01-01

    Organisms are exposed to electromagnetic fields from the introduction of wireless networks that send information all over the world. In this study we examined the impact of exposure to the fields from mobile phone base stations (GSM 900?MHz) on the reproductive capacity of small, virgin, invertebrates. A field experiment was performed exposing four different invertebrate species at different distances from a radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF EMF) transmitter for a 48-h period. The control groups were isolated from EMF exposure by use of Faraday cages. The response variables as measured in the laboratory were fecundity and number of offspring. Results showed that distance was not an adequate proxy to explain dose-response regressions. No significant impact of the exposure matrices, measures of central tendency and temporal variability of EMF, on reproductive endpoints was found. Finding no impact on reproductive capacity does not fully exclude the existence of EMF impact, since mechanistically models hypothesizing non-thermal-induced biological effects from RF exposure are still to be developed. The exposure to RF EMF is ubiquitous and is still increasing rapidly over large areas. We plea for more attention toward the possible impacts of EMF on biodiversity. PMID:23781930

  15. Investigation of the preparation and use of low-capacity anion exchangers in single-column ion chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Barron, R.E.

    1984-01-01

    The preparation and uses of strong-base anion exchangers of low capacity are reviewed. A new adaptation of known reactions is presented for the reproducible preparation of Type I anion exchangers of low capacity and it is explored in some detail. The resins are based on the macroreticular copolymer known as XAD-1. It is shown that the same reaction scheme may be used on any porous styrene-divinylbenzene copolymer. Procedures are described for the preparation of twelve other strong-base resins with various structural differences in the quaternary ammonium functional group. These resins are then evaluated to determine the effect of chemical structure on selectivity for a number of common monovalent and divalent anions. It is shown that the structure of the quaternary ammonium ion has a definite effect on selectivity. It is also shown that surface modification can affect selectivity. The implications for single-column ion chromatography are discussed and some examples are given where a change in the chemical structure of the functional group is of practical value in the separation of anions. The factors influencing the choice of an eluent acid are outlined and it is shown that some acids are better than others on the basis on their lack of interaction with the copolymer matrix.

  16. Investigation of the role of MMP3 -1171insA polymorphism in cutaneous malignant melanoma – a preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Vlaykova, Tatyana; Kurzawski, Mateusz; Tacheva, Tanya; Dimov, Dimo; Gulubova, Maya; Yovchev, Yovcho; Chakarov, Stoyan; Drozdzik, Marek

    2014-01-01

    Coetaneous malignant melanoma is the most aggressive cancer of the skin with a high rate of mortality worldwide. Degradation of basement membranes and extracellular matrix is an essential step in cancer invasion and metastasis. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their tissue inhibitors (TIMPs) play key roles in this step. MMP-3 also called stromelysin-1 was one of the first proteinases found to be associated with cancer. In the gene of MMP-3 (MMP3), an insertion/deletion of an A nucleotide at position -1171 in promoter region has been identified and shown to effect the expression activity of the gene. The present study was conducted to investigate the relation of MMP3 -1171insA polymorphism with skin malignant melanoma risk in a pilot case-control study of Bulgarian patients (n = 26) and unaffected controls (n = 172). The genotypes of controls and melanoma patients were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The results showed no statistically significant difference both in genotype and allele frequencies of MMP3 -1171insA polymorphism between melanoma patients and healthy controls either in crude analyses (p = 0.360 and 0.790, c2-test) or after adjustment for age and sex. The comparison of some clinical characteristics between the patients with different genotypes showed a trend for longer survival of patients with 6A/6A genotype compared to the carriers of 5A allele (5A/5A+5A/6A genotypes, p = 0.118, Log rank test). The results of our current preliminary study do not provide evidence for the role of the promoter polymorphism -1171insA in MMP3 as a risk factor for development of coetaneous melanoma, but suggest its implication in progression of the diseases. PMID:26019576

  17. Infrasound Observations at USArray Sites - A Preliminary Investigation of the Utility of Seismo-Acoustic Observations on a Regional Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, R. M.; Sauter, A.; Busby, R. W.; Kim, T.; Hayward, C.; Stump, B. W.

    2008-12-01

    An exploratory investigation is underway to quantify acoustic to seismic coupling and infrasound signals at four USArray Transportable Array sites in Colorado. Three new data channels were added to each of four US Array sites (TA-025A, TA-P25A, TA-N25A, and TA-N24A) and consist of a Paroscientific microbarometer (10 s/sample) in the seismometer vault, a Validyne DP250 or DP350 acoustic gauge (0.025 s/sample) in the vault, and a Chaparral 2.5 acoustic gauge (0.025 s/sample) connected to ten, twenty-five foot porous hoses at the surface for noise reduction. The three gauges record infrasound signals in overlapping bands from periods of days to 1/10 second with resolutions down to expected infrasound noise levels and record pressure levels both in the vault and on the surface. In addition to these four installations, a six-element infrasound array was deployed in the same region to assess infrasound phase velocities and back azimuths for correlation with the single station observations. The data from these sites is being telemetered and will be stored at the IRIS DMC. While there have been previous studies of seismo-acoustic arrays, little is known about the difference between infrasound observations within a shallow underground vault and those recorded in the open at surface. Data from these new installations are being used to address two initial questions: (1) What is the utility of acoustic and barometric measurements for identifying and removing infrasound noise from long-period seismic data and (2) Can adiabatic generated infrasound vortices in severe storm cells be recognized and tracked on infrasound arrays and stations. Preliminary analysis has quantified correlated long-period barometric signals between neighboring USArray sites with periods of hours. Higher frequency signals are not correlated as might be expected for signals dominated by either local noise or regional signals.

  18. Delayed P100-Like Latencies in Multiple Sclerosis: A Preliminary Investigation Using Visual Evoked Spread Spectrum Analysis.

    PubMed

    Kiiski, Hanni S M; Ní Riada, Sinéad; Lalor, Edmund C; Gonçalves, Nuno R; Nolan, Hugh; Whelan, Robert; Lonergan, Róisín; Kelly, Siobhán; O'Brien, Marie Claire; Kinsella, Katie; Bramham, Jessica; Burke, Teresa; Ó Donnchadha, Seán; Hutchinson, Michael; Tubridy, Niall; Reilly, Richard B

    2016-01-01

    Conduction along the optic nerve is often slowed in multiple sclerosis (MS). This is typically assessed by measuring the latency of the P100 component of the Visual Evoked Potential (VEP) using electroencephalography. The Visual Evoked Spread Spectrum Analysis (VESPA) method, which involves modulating the contrast of a continuous visual stimulus over time, can produce a visually evoked response analogous to the P100 but with a higher signal-to-noise ratio and potentially higher sensitivity to individual differences in comparison to the VEP. The main objective of the study was to conduct a preliminary investigation into the utility of the VESPA method for probing and monitoring visual dysfunction in multiple sclerosis. The latencies and amplitudes of the P100-like VESPA component were compared between healthy controls and multiple sclerosis patients, and multiple sclerosis subgroups. The P100-like VESPA component activations were examined at baseline and over a 3-year period. The study included 43 multiple sclerosis patients (23 relapsing-remitting MS, 20 secondary-progressive MS) and 42 healthy controls who completed the VESPA at baseline. The follow-up sessions were conducted 12 months after baseline with 24 MS patients (15 relapsing-remitting MS, 9 secondary-progressive MS) and 23 controls, and again at 24 months post-baseline with 19 MS patients (13 relapsing-remitting MS, 6 secondary-progressive MS) and 14 controls. The results showed P100-like VESPA latencies to be delayed in multiple sclerosis compared to healthy controls over the 24-month period. Secondary-progressive MS patients had most pronounced delay in P100-like VESPA latency relative to relapsing-remitting MS and controls. There were no longitudinal P100-like VESPA response differences. These findings suggest that the VESPA method is a reproducible electrophysiological method that may have potential utility in the assessment of visual dysfunction in multiple sclerosis. PMID:26726800

  19. Preliminary investigation of the effects of sea-level rise on groundwater levels in New Haven, Connecticut

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bjerklie, David M.; Mullaney, John R.; Stone, Janet R.; Skinner, Brian J.; Ramlow, Matthew A.

    2012-01-01

    Global sea level rose about 0.56 feet (ft) (170 millimeters (mm)) during the 20th century. Since the 1960s, sea level has risen at Bridgeport, Connecticut, about 0.38 ft (115 mm), at a rate of 0.008 ft (2.56 mm + or - 0.58 mm) per year. With regional subsidence, and with predicted global climate change, sea level is expected to continue to rise along the northeast coast of the United States through the 21st century. Increasing sea levels will cause groundwater levels in coastal areas to rise in order to adjust to the new conditions. Some regional climate models predict wetter climate in the northeastern United States under some scenarios. Scenarios for the resulting higher groundwater levels have the potential to inundate underground infrastructure in lowlying coastal cities. New Haven is a coastal city in Connecticut surrounded and bisected by tidally affected waters. Monitoring of water levels in wells in New Haven from August 2009 to July 2010 indicates the complex effects of urban influence on groundwater levels. The response of groundwater levels to recharge and season varied considerably from well to well. Groundwater temperatures varied seasonally, but were warmer than what was typical for Connecticut, and they seem to reflect the influence of the urban setting, including the effects of conduits for underground utilities. Specific conductance was elevated in many of the wells, indicating the influence of urban activities or seawater in Long Island Sound. A preliminary steady-state model of groundwater flow for part of New Haven was constructed using MODFLOW to simulate current groundwater levels (2009-2010) and future groundwater levels based on scenarios with a rise of 3 ft (0.91 meters (m)) in sea level, which is predicted for the end of the 21st century. An additional simulation was run assuming a 3-ft rise in sea level combined with a 12-percent increase in groundwater recharge. The model was constructed from existing hydrogeologic information for the New Haven area and from new information on groundwater levels collected during October 2009-June 2010. For the scenario with a 3-ft rise in sea level and no increase in recharge, simulated groundwater levels near the coast rose 3 ft; this increased water level tapered off toward a discharge area at the only nontidal stream in the study area. Simulated stream discharge increased at the nontidal stream because of the increased gradient. Although groundwater levels rose, the simulated difference between the groundwater levels in the aquifer and the increased sea level declined, indicating that the depth to the interface between freshwater and saltwater may possibly decline. Simulated water levels were affected by rise in sea level even in areas where the water table was at 17-24 ft (5.2-7.3 m) above current (2011) sea level. For the scenario with increased recharge, simulated groundwater levels were as much as an additional foot higher at some locations in the study area. The results of this preliminary investigation indicate that groundwater levels in coastal areas can be expected to rise and may rise higher if groundwater recharge also increases. This finding has implications for the disposal of stormwater through infiltration, a low-impact development practice designed to improve water quality and reduce overland peak discharge. Other implications include increased risk of basement flooding and increased groundwater seepage into underground sewer pipes and utility corridors in some areas. These implications will present engineering challenges to New Haven and Yale University. The preliminary model developed for this study can be the starting point for further simulation of future alternative scenarios for sea-level rise and recharge. Further simulations could identify those areas of New Haven where infrastructure may be at greatest risk from rising levels of groundwater. The simulations described in this report have limitations due to the preliminary scope of the work. Approaches to improve simulations include but are not limited to incorporating: * The variable

  20. Summary of the reconnaissance investigation of the diamond resource potential and production capacity of Côte d’Ivoire

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chirico, Peter G.; Malpeli, Katherine C.

    2012-01-01

    This study presents the results of a multiyear effort to monitor the diamond mining activities of Côte d’Ivoire’s two main diamond regions, Séguéla and Tortiya. The innovative approach developed for this study integrates archival reports and maps, high-resolution satellite imagery, and terrain modeling to assess the diamond resource potential and production capacity of the Séguéla and Tortiya deposits. A geologic resource assessment was conducted to calculate the remaining diamond reserves for Séguéla and Tortiya using archival geologic data, including gravel grade and thickness recorded by the Ivorian mining company Société pour le Développement Minier (SODEMI). These data were combined with terrain analysis and geomorphological maps in a geological process-driven model. After accounting for previous production, a total of 10,100,000 carats are estimated to be remaining in Séguéla and a total of 1,100,000 carats are estimated to be remaining in Tortiya, based on currently known deposits.

  1. Summary report: A preliminary investigation into the use of fuzzy logic for the control of redundant manipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheatham, John B., Jr.; Magee, Kevin N.

    1991-01-01

    The Rice University Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Sciences' Robotics Group designed and built an eight degree of freedom redundant manipulator. Fuzzy logic was proposed as a control scheme for tasks not directly controlled by a human operator. In preliminary work, fuzzy logic control was implemented for a camera tracking system and a six degree of freedom manipulator. Both preliminary systems use real time vision data as input to fuzzy controllers. Related projects include integration of tactile sensing and fuzzy control of a redundant snake-like arm that is under construction.

  2. Experimental Investigations of the Energy and Environmental Indices of Operation of a Low-Capacity Combined Gas Producer and Hot-Water Boiler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodnar, L. A.; Stepanov, D. V.; Dovgal?, A. N.

    2015-07-01

    It has been shown that the introduction of combined gas producers and boilers on renewable energy sources is a pressing issue. A structural diagram of a low-capacity combined gas producer and boiler on renewable energy sources has been given; a bench and procedures for investigation and processing of results have been developed. Experimental investigations of the energy and environmental indices of a 40-kW combined gas producer and hotwater boiler burning wood have been carried out. Results of the experimental investigations have been analyzed. Distinctive features have been established and a procedure of thermal calculation of the double furnace of a lowcapacity combined gas producer and boiler burning solid fuel has been proposed. The calculated coefficients of heat transfer from the gases in the convection bank have been compared with the obtained experimental results. A calculation dependence for the heat transfer from the gases in convection banks of low-capacity hot-water boilers has been proposed. The quantities of harmful emissions from the combined gas producer and boiler on renewable energy sources have been compared with the existing Ukrainian and foreign standards. It has been established that the environmental efficiency of the boiler under study complies with most of the standard requirements of European countries.

  3. A Preliminary Investigation of the Components of a Curriculum for the Preparation of Master's-Level Addiction Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whittinghill, David

    2006-01-01

    This study identified the preliminary curriculum components for the preparation of graduate-level addiction counselors. A review of the related literature revealed no agreed upon standards for post baccalaureate instruction of addiction counseling. The Delphi method was used to establish curriculum items from a list of 198 previously identified…

  4. A Preliminary Investigation of the Effects of Giving Testimony and Learning Yogic Breathing Techniques on Battered Women's Feelings of Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franzblau, Susan H.; Echevarria, Sonia; Smith, Michelle; Van Cantfort, Thomas E.

    2008-01-01

    Researchers have shown that mood and sense of control over one's life are significantly affected by testimony and other forms of disclosure and that learning to control breathing has positive effects on mood and anxiety. This preliminary experiment tests whether African American and European American abused women who give testimony about their…

  5. Speech Perception and Phonological Short-Term Memory Capacity in Language Impairment: Preliminary Evidence from Adolescents with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) and Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loucas, Tom; Riches, Nick Greatorex; Charman, Tony; Pickles, Andrew; Simonoff, Emily; Chandler, Susie; Baird, Gillian

    2010-01-01

    Background: The cognitive bases of language impairment in specific language impairment (SLI) and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) were investigated in a novel non-word comparison task which manipulated phonological short-term memory (PSTM) and speech perception, both implicated in poor non-word repetition. Aims: This study aimed to investigate the…

  6. A novel physiological investigation of the functional residual capacity by the bias flow nitrogen washout technique in infants.

    PubMed

    Morris, Mohy G

    2009-07-01

    The dynamic functional residual capacity (FRC(dyn)), the lung volume most routinely measured in infants, is an unreliable volume landmark. In addition to the FRC(dyn), we measured the (passive) static FRC (FRC(st)) by inducing a brief post-hyperventilation apnea (PHA) in 33 healthy infants aged 7.4-127.2 weeks. A commercial system for nitrogen (N2) washout to measure FRC, and a custom made system to monitor and record flow and airway opening pressure signals in real-time were used in unison. Infants were manually hyperventilated to induce a PHA. After the last passive expiration, FRC(st) was estimated by measuring the volume of N2 expired after end-passive expiratory switching of the inspired gas from room air to 100% oxygen during the post-expiratory apneic pause. Repeatable intrasubject FRC(st) and FRC(dyn) measurements overlapped in most infants including the younger ones (P = 0.2839). Mean (95% confidence interval [CI]) FRC(st) was 21.1 (20.0-22.3), and error-corrected FRC(dyn) was 21.4 (20.4-22.4) ml/kg. Mean (washout time [t]) tFRC(st) was longer than tFRC(dyn) 60 sec (95% CI 55-65) versus 47 sec (95% CI 43-51) (P < 0.0001). The FRC and washout time were dependent on body length, weight and age. We conclude that the FRC(st) is not different from the FRC(dyn) in infants. The FRC(st) is a reliable volume landmark because the PHA stabilizes the end-expiratory level by potentially abolishing the sedated infant's breathing strategies. The FRC(st) lacks potential sources of errors and disadvantages associated with measuring the FRC(dyn). The findings cast significant doubt on the traditional physiology of air trapping in healthy infants' lungs. PMID:19499588

  7. Investigation of surfactant/cosurfactant synergism impact on ibuprofen solubilization capacity and drug release characteristics of nonionic microemulsions.

    PubMed

    Djekic, Ljiljana; Primorac, Marija; Filipic, Slavica; Agbaba, Danica

    2012-08-20

    The current study investigates the performances of the multicomponent mixtures of nonionic surfactants regarding the microemulsion stabilisation, drug solubilization and in vitro drug release kinetic. The primary surfactant was PEG-8 caprylic/capric glycerides (Labrasol). The cosurfactants were commercially available mixtures of octoxynol-12 and polysorbate 20 without or with the addition of PEG-40 hydrogenated castor oil (Solubilisant gamma 2421 and Solubilisant gamma 2429, respectively). The oil phase of microemulsions was isopropyl myristate. Phase behaviour study of the pseudo-ternary systems Labrasol/cosurfactant/oil/water at surfactant-to-cosurfactant weight ratios (K(m)) 40:60, 50:50 and 60:40, revealed a strong synergism in the investigated tensides mixtures for stabilisation of microemulsions containing up to 80% (w/w) of water phase at surfactant +cosurfactant-to-oil weight ratio (SCoS/O) 90:10. Solubilization of a model drug ibuprofen in concentration common for topical application (5%, w/w) was achieved at the water contents below 50% (w/w). Drug free and ibuprofen-loaded microemulsions M1-M6, containing 45% (w/w) of water phase, were prepared and characterized by polarized light microscopy, conductivity, pH, rheological and droplet size measurements. In vitro ibuprofen release kinetics from the microemulsions was investigated using paddle-over-enhancer cell method and compared with the commercial 5% (w/w) ibuprofen hydrogel product (Deep Relief, Mentholatum Company Ltd., USA). The investigated microemulsions were isotropic, low viscous Bingham-type liquids with the pH value (4.70-6.61) suitable for topical application. The different efficiency of the tensides mixtures for microemulsion stabilisation was observed, depending on the cosurfactant type and K(m) value. Solubilisant gamma 2429 as well as higher K(m) (i.e., lower relative content of the cosurfactant) provided higher surfactant/cosurfactant synergism. The drug molecules were predominantly solubilized within the interface film. The amount of drug released from the formulations M3 (10.75%, w/w) and M6 (13.45%, w/w) (K(m) 60:40) was limited in comparison with the reference (22.22%, w/w) and follows the Higuchi model. Microemulsions M2 and M5 (K(m) 50:50) gave zero order drug release pattern and ?15% (w/w) ibuprofen released. The release profiles from microemulsions M1 and M4 (K(m) 40:60) did not fit well with the models used for analysis, although the amounts of ibuprofen released (24.47%, w/w) and 17.99% (w/w), respectively) were comparable to that of the reference hydrogel. The drug release mechanism was related with the surfactant/cosurfactant synergism, thus the lower efficiency of the tensides corresponded to the faster drug release. PMID:22579578

  8. Investigation of the climatic extremes influence on the humane adaptive capacity by mass spectrometric analysis of exhaled breath condensate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryabokon, Anna; Larina, Irina; Kononikhin, Alexey; Starodubtceva, Nataliia; Popov, Igor; Nikolaev, Eugene; Varfolomeev, Sergey

    Global climate change, which causes abnormal fluctuations in temperature and rainfall, has adverse effects on human health. Particularly people suffer with cardiovascular and respiratory system disease. Our research was concentrated on the changes in the regulation and adaptation systems of human organism related to hyperthermia and polluted air influence. Healthy individuals with the age from 22 to 45 years were isolated during 30 days in the ground based experimental facility located at Institute of medico-biological problems RAS (Moscow, Russia). In the ground based facility artificially climatic conditions of August, 2010 in Moscow were created. Exhaled breath condensate was collected before and after isolation by R-Tube collector, freeze dried, treated by trypsin and analyzed by nanoflow LC-MS/MS with a 7-Tesla LTQ-FT Ultra mass spectrometer (Thermo Electron, Bremen, Germany). Database search was performed using Mascot Server 2.2 software (Matrix Science, London, UK). Investigation of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) collected from participants of the 30 days isolation with hyper thermic and polluted air climate conditions was performed. After isolation reduction of the protein number was observed. Loss endothelial C receptor precursor - the main physiological anticoagulant - correlate with the clinical data of physicians to increase the propensity to thrombosis. Also COP9 signalosome protein, positive regulator of ubiquitin was identified in all EBC samples before isolation and was not detected for more than a half of donors after isolation. This phenomena may be due to violation of ubiquitin protection system of the cells from harmful proteins. During isolation the air was cleared from microdisperse particles.

  9. An Investigation of the Growth Inhibitory Capacity of Several Medicinal Plants From Iran on Tumor Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Esmaeilbeig, Maryam; Kouhpayeh, Seyed Amin; Amirghofran, Zahra

    2015-01-01

    Background: Traditional herbal medicine is a valuable resource that provides new drugs for cancer treatment. Objectives: In this study we aim to screen and investigate the in vitro anti-tumor activities of ten species of plants commonly grown in Southern Iran. Materials and Methods: We used the MTT colorimetric assay to evaluate the cytotoxic activities of the methanol extracts of these plants on various tumor cell lines. The IC50 was calculated as a scale for this evaluation. Results: Satureja bachtiarica, Satureja hortensis, Thymus vulgaris, Thymus daenensis and Mentha lonigfolia showed the inhibitoriest effects on Jurkat cells with > 80% inhibition at 200 µg/mL. Satureja hortensis (IC50: 66.7 µg/mL) was the most effective. These plants also strongly inhibited K562 cell growth; Satureja bachtiarica (IC50: 28.3 µg/mL), Satureja hortensis (IC50: 52 µg/mL) and Thymus vulgaris (IC50: 87 µg/mL) were the most effective extracts. Cichorium intybus, Rheum ribes, Alhagi pseudalhagi and Glycyrrihza glabra also showed notable effects on the leukemia cell lines. The Raji cell line was mostly inhibited by Satureja bachtiarica and Thymus vulgaris with approximately 40% inhibition at 200µg/ml. The influence of these extracts on solid tumor cell lines was not strong. Fen cells were mostly affected by Glycyrrihza glabra (IC50: 182 µg/mL) and HeLa cells by Satureja hortensis (31.6% growth inhibitory effect at 200 µg/mL). Conclusions: Leukemic cell lines were more sensitive to the extracts than the solid tumor cell lines; Satureja hortensis, Satureja bachtiarica, Thymus vulgaris, Thymus daenensis and Mentha lonigfolia showed remarkable inhibitory potential. PMID:26634114

  10. A Preliminary Investigation Of Ancient Pigments From The Mortuary Temple Of Seti I, El-Qurna (Luxor, Egypt)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marey Mahmoud, H. H.

    The present paper aims to apply different analytical techniques to characterize some ancient pigments from the first group of samples collected on the wall paintings of the mortuary temple of Seti I (c.1291-1278 BC), El-Qurna (Luxor, Egypt). The analytical characterization has been carried out by means of optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with anenergy dispersive X-ray detector (EDS), ?-Raman spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The results allowed the identification of different pigments used in the polychromatic decorations of the temple and to establish a preliminary analytical database of the chromatic palette used in this period of the Egyptian history.

  11. Preliminary investigation of the altitude performance of pentaborane and a pentaborane : JP-4 blend in an experimental 9.5-inch-diameter tubular combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, Warner B; Branstetter, J Robert

    1957-01-01

    A preliminary investigation was conducted to determine the altitude performance of pentaborane and a blend fuel of 64.2 percent pentaborane in JP-4 fuel in a tubular combustor of a current production type turbojet engine. A combustor was developed that was 4 inches shorter than standard. It contained a porous wire-cloth liner barrel and dome and an air-atomizing fuel nozzle. Deposits on the liner barrel and dome were virtually nonexistent. The combustion efficiency of 90 to 94 percent for pentaborane and approximately 90 percent for the blend. Outlet temperature profiles were marginal; however, the developed combustor provided lower pressure losses than obtained in conventional combustors.

  12. Some investigations of the general instability of stiffened metal cylinders III : continuation of tests of wire-braced specimens and preliminary tests of sheet-covered specimens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1943-01-01

    This is the third of a series of reports covering an investigation of the general instability problem by the California Institute of Technology. The first five reports of this series cover investigations of the general instability problem under the loading conditions of pure bending and were prepared under the sponsorship of the Civil Aeronautics Administration. The succeeding reports of this series cover the work done on other loading conditions under the sponsorship of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics. This report is concerned primarily with the continuation of the tests of wire-braced specimens, and preliminary tests of sheet-covered specimens that had been made in the experimental investigation on the problem of the general instability of stiffened metal cylinders at the C.I.T.

  13. Preliminary structural investigations of the Eut-L shell protein of the ethanolamine ammonia-lyase metabolosome of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Nikolakakis, Kiel; Ohtaki, Akashi; Newton, Keith; Chworos, Arkadiusz; Sagermann, Martin

    2009-02-01

    The ethanolamine ammonia-lyase microcompartment is composed of five different shell proteins that have been proposed to assemble into symmetrically shaped polyhedral particles of varying sizes. Here, preliminary X-ray analysis of crystals of the bacterial microcompartment shell protein Eut-L from Escherichia coli is reported. Cloning, overexpression and purification resulted in highly pure protein that crystallized readily under many different conditions. In all cases the protein forms thin hexagonal plate-shaped crystals belonging to space group P3 that are of unusually high stability against different solvent conditions. The crystals diffracted to a resolution of 2.0 A using synchrotron radiation but proved to be radiation-sensitive. Preparations of heavy-atom-derivatized crystals for use in determining the three-dimensional structure are under way. PMID:19194002

  14. Preliminary structural investigations of the Eut-L shell protein of the ethanolamine ammonia-lyase metabolosome of Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Nikolakakis, Kiel; Ohtaki, Akashi; Newton, Keith; Chworos, Arkadiusz; Sagermann, Martin

    2009-01-01

    The ethanolamine ammonia-lyase microcompartment is composed of five different shell proteins that have been proposed to assemble into symmetrically shaped polyhedral particles of varying sizes. Here, preliminary X-ray analysis of crystals of the bacterial microcompartment shell protein Eut-L from Escherichia coli is reported. Cloning, overexpression and purification resulted in highly pure protein that crystallized readily under many different conditions. In all cases the protein forms thin hexagonal plate-shaped crystals belonging to space group P3 that are of unusually high stability against different solvent conditions. The crystals diffracted to a resolution of 2.0?Å using synchrotron radiation but proved to be radiation-sensitive. Preparations of heavy-atom-derivatized crystals for use in determining the three-dimensional structure are under way. PMID:19194002

  15. Cutaneous exposure scenarios for engineered nanoparticles used in semiconductor fabrication: a preliminary investigation of workplace surface contamination

    PubMed Central

    Shepard, Michele; Brenner, Sara

    2014-01-01

    Background: Numerous studies are ongoing in the fields of nanotoxicology and exposure science; however, gaps remain in identifying and evaluating potential exposures from skin contact with engineered nanoparticles in occupational settings. Objectives: The aim of this study was to identify potential cutaneous exposure scenarios at a workplace using engineered nanoparticles (alumina, ceria, amorphous silica) and evaluate the presence of these materials on workplace surfaces. Methods: Process review, workplace observations, and preliminary surface sampling were conducted using microvacuum and wipe sample collection methods and transmission electron microscopy with elemental analysis. Results: Exposure scenarios were identified with potential for incidental contact. Nanoparticles of silica or silica and/or alumina agglomerates (or aggregates) were identified in surface samples from work areas where engineered nanoparticles were used or handled. Conclusions: Additional data are needed to evaluate occupational exposures from skin contact with engineered nanoparticles; precautionary measures should be used to minimize potential cutaneous exposures in the workplace. PMID:25000112

  16. A preliminary investigation of pollution in the River Yamuna, Delhi, India: Metal concentrations in river bank soils and plants.

    PubMed

    Farago, M E; Mehra, A; Banerjee, D K

    1989-12-01

    A preliminary study of inorganic elements in the river bank soil and plants from the River Yamuna in Delhi has been carried out. Soil at Okhla, near the Water Works plant has a high zinc content (1,215 ?g g(-1) and this is reflected in the high concentration of zinc (2,029 ?g g(-1)) in Eichhornia plants growing in the river at this point. Although in general the aluminium content of the soils is low in comparison with the world mean, soil near the effluent from the ash settling basins of the Indraprathsa Power Station contains elevated aluminium.Eichhornia plants growing near this effluent are stunted and unhealthy, and is suggested that, taking into account the high pH, possible causes are toxicity from aluminium or boron. PMID:24202425

  17. Preliminary investigations of Monte Carlo Simulations of neutron energy and LET spectra for fast neutron therapy facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Kroc, T.K.

    2009-10-01

    No fast neutron therapy facility has been built with optimized beam quality based on a thorough understanding of the neutron spectrum and its resulting biological effectiveness. A study has been initiated to provide the information necessary for such an optimization. Monte Carlo studies will be used to simulate neutron energy spectra and LET spectra. These studies will be bench-marked with data taken at existing fast neutron therapy facilities. Results will also be compared with radiobiological studies to further support beam quality ptimization. These simulations, anchored by this data, will then be used to determine what parameters might be optimized to take full advantage of the unique LET properties of fast neutron beams. This paper will present preliminary work in generating energy and LET spectra for the Fermilab fast neutron therapy facility.

  18. Reduced Cardiovascular Capacity and Resting Metabolic Rate in Men with Prostate Cancer Undergoing Androgen Deprivation: A Comprehensive Cross-Sectional Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Wall, Bradley A.; Galvão, Daniel A.; Fatehee, Naeem; Taaffe, Dennis R.; Spry, Nigel; Joseph, David; Newton, Robert U.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. To investigate if androgen deprivation therapy exposure is associated with additional risk factors for cardiovascular disease and metabolic treatment-related toxicities. Methods. One hundred and seven men (42–89 years) with prostate cancer undergoing androgen deprivation therapy completed a maximal graded objective exercise test to determine maximal oxygen uptake, assessments for resting metabolic rate, body composition, blood pressure and arterial stiffness, and blood biomarker analysis. A cross-sectional analysis was undertaken to investigate the potential impact of therapy exposure with participants stratified into two groups according to duration of androgen deprivation therapy (<3 months and ?3 months). Results. Maximal oxygen uptake (26.1 ± 6.0?mL/kg/min versus 23.2 ± 5.8?mL/kg/min, p = 0.020) and resting metabolic rate (1795 ± 256?kcal/d versus 1647 ± 236?kcal/d, p = 0.005) were significantly higher in those with shorter exposure to androgen deprivation. There were no differences between groups for peripheral and central blood pressure, arterial stiffness, or metabolic profile. Conclusion. Three months or longer exposure to androgen deprivation therapy was associated with reduced cardiorespiratory capacity and resting metabolic rate, but not in a range of blood biomarkers. These findings suggest that prolonged exposure to androgen deprivation therapy is associated with negative alterations in cardiovascular outcomes. Trial registry is: ACTRN12609000200280. PMID:26587019

  19. Self-compassion and fear of self-compassion interact to predict response to eating disorders treatment: a preliminary investigation.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Allison C; Carter, Jacqueline C; Zuroff, David C; Borairi, Sahar

    2013-01-01

    Gilbert (2005) proposed that the capacity for self-compassion is integral to overcoming shame and psychopathology. We tested this model among 74 individuals with an eating disorder admitted to specialized treatment. Participants completed measures assessing self-compassion, fear of self-compassion, shame, and eating disorder symptoms at admission and every 3 weeks during treatment. At baseline, lower self-compassion and higher fear of self-compassion were associated with more shame and eating disorder pathology. Multilevel modeling also revealed that patients with combinations of low self-compassion and high fear of self-compassion at baseline had significantly poorer treatment responses, showing no significant change in shame or eating disorder symptoms over 12 weeks. Results highlight a new subset of treatment-resistant eating disorder patients. PMID:22917037

  20. Preliminary results of ERTS-investigations by W-German investigations. [multidisciplinary geoscientific experiments in central Germany and hydrogeology of Argentina Pampas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muehlfeld, R.

    1974-01-01

    Results are presented of West German investigations into multidisciplinary geoscientific experiments in central Germany and the Alps, and hydrogeological investigations in the Pampa of Argentina based on ERTS-1 data. The main goals of the investigation were achieved. The studies have given a good idea of the possibilities and limitations of ERTS imagery depending on the objectives in question and on the geographical conditions of the areas under investigation. Even in the well known region of central Europe, ERTS has proven its ability of improving present knowledge. In fields such as pollution monitoring and regional planning the satellite techniques should have distinct practical value. For any regional study of less known areas, the value of ERTS imagery can hardly be overestimated.

  1. A preliminary spectroscopic investigation on the molecular interaction of metal-diphenylthiocarbazone complex with cellulose biopolymer and its application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalidhasan, S.; KrishnaKumar, A. S.; Rajesh, Vidya; Rajesh, N.

    2011-09-01

    Biopolymer adsorbents are versatile in their application for removal of heavy metals. The present work is focused towards the preliminary study of the interaction of diphenylthiocarbazone (DTZ) complex of chromium(VI) in acidic medium with cellulose biopolymer. Chromium-DTZ complex could be quantitatively adsorbed on a cellulose column in the pH range 1.0-2.5 and the effect of various experimental parameters such as stability of the column and the complex, column breakthrough volume, and interfering ions have been studied in detail. The probable mechanism of adsorption of complex on the cellulose biopolymer was corroborated using Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) and solid state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance techniques (CP-MAS). The pores formed due to the hydrogen bond between the cellulose layers and then the ensuing occupation of the complex between these layers and on the surface of the biopolymer layer through electrostatic attractive force and ? interaction of aromatic ring with cellulose are expected to play a vital role in the interaction. The cellulose column could be regenerated using environmentally benign polyethylene glycol-400 (PEG-400) in acidic medium. The cellulose biosorbent has been successfully tested to study the removal of chromium as its dithizone complex from synthetic and real waste water samples.

  2. A New Biomarker of Hedonic Eating? A Preliminary Investigation of Cortisol and Nausea Responses to Acute Opioid Blockade

    PubMed Central

    Daubenmier, Jennifer; Lustig, Robert H.; Hecht, Frederick M.; Kristeller, Jean; Woolley, Josh; Adam, Tanja; Dallman, Mary; Epel, Elissa

    2014-01-01

    Overweight and obese individuals differ in their degree of hedonic eating. This may reflect adaptations in reward-related neural circuits, regulated in part by opioidergic activity. We examined an indirect, functional measure of central opioidergic activity by assessing cortisol and nausea responses to acute opioid blockade using the opioid antagonist naltrexone in overweight/obese women (mean BMI = 31.1 ± 4.8) prior to the start of a mindful eating intervention to reduce stress eating. In addition, we assessed indices of hedonic-related eating, including eating behaviors (binge eating, emotional eating, external eating, restraint) and intake of sweets/desserts and carbohydrates (Block Food Frequency); interoceptive awareness (which is associated with dysregulated eating behavior); and level of adiposity at baseline. Naltrexone-induced increases in cortisol were associated with greater emotional and restrained eating and lower interoceptive awareness. Naltrexone-induced nausea was associated with binge eating and higher adiposity. Furthermore, in a small exploratory analysis, naltrexone-induced nausea predicted treatment response to the mindful eating intervention, as participants with more severe nausea at baseline maintained weight whereas those without nausea responses tended to gain weight. These preliminary data suggest that naltrexone-induced cortisol release and nausea may help identify individuals who have greater underlying food reward dependence, which leads to an excessive drive to eat. Future research is needed to confirm this finding and to test if these markers of opioidergic tone might help predict success in certain types of weight management programs. PMID:24291355

  3. A preliminary investigation of the environmental Control and Life Support Subsystems (EC/LSS) for animal and plant experiment payloads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wells, H. B.

    1972-01-01

    A preliminary study of the environmental control and life support subsystems (EC/LSS) necessary for an earth orbital spacecraft to conduct biological experiments is presented. The primary spacecraft models available for conducting these biological experiments are the space shuttle and modular space station. The experiments would be housed in a separate module that would be contained in either the shuttle payload bay or attached to the modular space station. This module would be manned only for experiment-related tasks, and would contain a separate EC/LSS for the crew and animals. Metabolic data were tabulated on various animals that are considered useful for a typical experiment program. The minimum payload for the 30-day space shuttle module was found to require about the equivalent of a one-man EC/LSS; however, the selected two-man shuttle assemblies will give a growth and contingency factor of about 50 percent. The maximum payloads for the space station mission will require at least a seven-man EC/LSS for the laboratory colony and a nine-man EC/LSS for the centrifuge colony. There is practically no room for growth or contingencies in these areas.

  4. Preliminary analyses of the excavation investigation experiments proposed for the exploratory shaft at Yucca Mountain, Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Costin, L.S.; Bauer, S.J.

    1988-12-01

    The Yucca Mountain Project (YMP), is examining the feasibility of siting a repository for high-level nuclear waste at Yucca Mountain on and adjacent to the Nevada Test Site. Three excavation experiments, Shaft Convergence, Demonstration Breakout Rooms, and Sequential Drift Mining, will provide some of the data required to (1) assess the mechanical behavior of repository-size openings and (2) validate numerical models that may be used in the repository design process. In this report, the results of preliminary analyses of the three excavation experiments are presented. The major objective of these analyses was to provide some guidance to the experiment planners regarding the expected displacements and stresses near the experimental drifts so that selection and placement of instrumentation could be optimized. Further, successful completion of these analyses demonstrates the ability to model the experiments, given the simplifying assumptions presented. Limitations of the analyses performed and the experiments as currently designed are also discussed. Finally, the results of these analyses provided some indication of how the variation of some key geometric and material parameters would affect the predicted results. Once the experiment design is finalized and site-specific material data are collected, pretest predictive analyses will be conducted using the mechanical and material models that require validation. 15 refs., 123 figs., 13 tabs.

  5. A preliminary investigation of farm-level risk factors for cattle condemnation at the slaughterhouse: a case-control study on French farms.

    PubMed

    Deschamps, Jean-Baptiste; Calavas, Didier; Mialet, Sylvie; Gay, Emilie; Dupuy, Céline

    2013-11-01

    The financial impact of condemnation for farmers and the importance of efficiency in the meat inspection process to guarantee food safety are well known. Identifying farm-level risk factors for condemnation are useful in order to find a way for farmers to potentially reduce their condemnation rates and to build a risk-based farm classification for veterinary services to target both meat inspection and farms inspections. To our knowledge, this has not yet been done, probably due to a lack of available meat inspection data. A preliminary investigation was performed through a case-control study on 36 French farms, from a dairy production region to identify farm-level risk factors for high condemnation rates (i.e. more than 45% of cattle with at least one portion of the carcass condemned). Multivariable exact logistic regression was performed to take into account the small sample size. The final model identified two significant risk factors. The odds of having a high condemnation rate was at least twice as greater for farmers who did not adhere to the quality charter of an international retailer and was significantly higher when the most qualified worker on the farm had a degree in agriculture. This latter effect was unexpected and is reviewed in the discussion section. The protective effect of the quality charter could be explained by the annual control of farms performed to guarantee compliance with good farming practices in the adhering farms. It led us to believe that compliance with well known good farming practices could be a way for farmers to reduce their condemnation rates. This study is a preliminary investigation performed on a small sample size of farms that were mainly dairy farms. It is a first step for further investigations that need to be done on this topic at a larger scale to fill the current lack of knowledge. PMID:24120177

  6. Investigating Compositional Variation of Ceramic Materials during the Late Neolithic on the Great Hungarian Plain - Preliminary LA-ICP-MS Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riebe, Danielle J.; Niziolek, Lisa C.

    2015-10-01

    Investigations have been undertaken to assess the extent to which compositional analysis can be used to determine trade and interaction on the Great Hungarian Plain during the Late Neolithic. Ceramic and clay samples in the Körös and Berettyó River Basins were analyzed at the Elemental Analysis Facilities (EAF) at The Field Museum of Natural History in Chicago, IL, USA. With the use of laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), the aim of the project was to ascertain if micro-regional or site-specific compositional signatures could be determined in a region that is typically characterized as highly geologically homogenous. Identifying site-specific signatures enables archaeologists to model prehistoric interactions and, in turn, determine the relationship between interaction and various socio-cultural changes. This paper focuses on the preliminary compositional results of materials analyzed from three different sites across the Plain and the methodological implications for future anthropological research in the region.

  7. Preliminary Free-flight Investigation of the Zero-lift Drag Penalties of Several Missile Nose Shapes for Infrared Seeking Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piland, Robert O

    1952-01-01

    The results of a preliminary investigation to develop a nose shape suitable for housing an infrared seeker are presented. The zero-lift drag characteristics of a missile-like body with various unconventional nose shapes were obtained through a range of Mach numbers from 0.8 to 1.8 and Reynolds numbers, based on body length, from 20 x10 to the 6th power to 70 x 10 to the 6th power, respectively, by using rocket-propelled free-flight models. Results of the test indicate that at supersonic speeds about 70 percent of the drag penalty incurred by using spherical-tip nose shapes may be eliminated by using nose shapes which will still allow the seeker to function.

  8. Effects of pre-existing hearing loss and gender on proposed ANSI S12.13 outcomes for characterizing hearing conservation program effectiveness: preliminary investigation.

    PubMed

    Amos, N E; Simpson, T H

    1995-11-01

    Draft American National Standard "Evaluating the Effectiveness of Hearing Conservation Programs" identifies potentially important links between audiometric threshold variability outcomes and occupational hearing conservation program (HCP) practices. Unacceptable threshold variability in annual audiograms may identify poor testing practices and temporary threshold shifts. This preliminary investigation reveals pre-existing hearing loss to be a potentially important confounding viable to interpreting ANSI S12.13 outcomes. Poor hearing groups in this study consistently yielded greater threshold variability (i.e., "poorer" HCP performance) than better hearing groups. Gender may also be a confounding variable, however, to a far lesser degree. HCP managers should exercise caution when interpreting relative ANSI S12.13 outcomes among HCPs differing in baseline hearing sensitivity. Potential causes for these findings are discussed, and implications for future research are identified. PMID:8580500

  9. Teachers' Awareness of the Learner-Teacher Interaction: Preliminary Communication of a Study Investigating the Teaching Brain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Vanessa; Solis, S. Lynneth

    2013-01-01

    A new phase of research on teaching is under way that seeks to understand the teaching brain. In this vein, this study investigated the cognitive processes employed by master teachers. Using an interview protocol influenced by microgenetic techniques, 23 master teachers used the Self-in-Relation-to-Teaching (SiR2T) tool to answer "What are…

  10. Finger Forecasting: A Pointer to Athletic Prowess in Women--A Preliminary Investigation by an Undergraduate Biology Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latourelle, Sandra M.; Elwess, Nancy L.; Elwess, Jennifer M.

    2008-01-01

    With all the technology today, the authors were surprised to read a recent British study that found a connection between the length of a woman's index (2D) and ring (4D) fingers to her athletic ability. Upon further investigation they found that many studies have examined the relationship between the length of the index finger (2D) to the ring…

  11. Nanophytoplankton Diversity Across the Oligohaline Lake Pontchartrain Basin Estuary: A Preliminary Investigation Utlizing psbA Sequences

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Lake Pontchartrain basin estuary is shallow, wind-driven and comprised of two large embayments (1645 km2). Salinities range from freshwater in the west to 8 ppt in the east near the Gulf of Mexico. Phytoplankton investigations spanning this salinity gradient or examining small photoautotrophs ar...

  12. Optimizing Speech Production in the Ventilator-Assisted Individual Following Cervical Spinal Cord Injury: A Preliminary Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacBean, Naomi; Ward, Elizabeth; Murdoch, Bruce; Cahill, Louise; Solley, Maura; Geraghty, Timothy; Hukins, Craig

    2009-01-01

    Background: Mechanical ventilation is commonly used during the acute management of cervical spinal cord injury, and is required on an ongoing basis in the majority of patients with injuries at or above C3. However, to date there have been limited systematic investigations of the options available to improve speech while ventilator-assisted…

  13. When It Comes to Explaining: A Preliminary Investigation of the Expository Language Skills of African American School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koonce, Nicole M.

    2015-01-01

    This research investigated the expository language of school-age speakers of African American English. Specifically, the study describes the language productivity, syntax, and pragmatic features present in expository language samples produced by African American children and compares their performance with White children in the extant literature.…

  14. A preliminary investigation of the growth of an aneurysm with a multiscale monolithic Fluid-Structure interaction solver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerroni, D.; Manservisi, S.; Pozzetti, G.

    2015-11-01

    In this work we investigate the potentialities of multi-scale engineering techniques to approach complex problems related to biomedical and biological fields. In particular we study the interaction between blood and blood vessel focusing on the presence of an aneurysm. The study of each component of the cardiovascular system is very difficult due to the fact that the movement of the fluid and solid is determined by the rest of system through dynamical boundary conditions. The use of multi-scale techniques allows us to investigate the effect of the whole loop on the aneurysm dynamic. A three-dimensional fluid-structure interaction model for the aneurysm is developed and coupled to a mono-dimensional one for the remaining part of the cardiovascular system, where a point zero-dimensional model for the heart is provided. In this manner it is possible to achieve rigorous and quantitative investigations of the cardiovascular disease without loosing the system dynamic. In order to study this biomedical problem we use a monolithic fluid-structure interaction (FSI) model where the fluid and solid equations are solved together. The use of a monolithic solver allows us to handle the convergence issues caused by large deformations. By using this monolithic approach different solid and fluid regions are treated as a single continuum and the interface conditions are automatically taken into account. In this way the iterative process characteristic of the commonly used segregated approach, it is not needed any more.

  15. Preliminary investigation on the requirements of the first wall and limiter of HL-2M prior to its detailed design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Laizhong; Li, Jiaxian; the HL-2M Team

    2015-02-01

    Some plasma facing components (PFCs) have to face extreme environments with high heat load as well as high particle flux during tokamak operations. Specifying the conditions of the PFCs of a tokamak during discharges is a critical issue prior to detailed design of a new device. Heat loads on different regions of PFCs are the most important parameters for PFCs and have to be provided as input into the engineering design. Particularly for the limiter, more investigations of heat loads are required since a number of accidents, including the one involving the JET limiter, have occurred due to underestimation of heat loads. In this paper, the factors affecting the heat loads of the first wall and the limiter of HL-2M are discussed. Several typical operation scenarios, including the first plasma, the start-up phase and flat-top phase of normal operations, and the key transient conditions, specifically disruptions and vertical displacement events, are analyzed for HL-2M, and the heat load specifications of different regions of PFCs are presented. Then the temperature rise and material erosion of PFCs are also evaluated. The results show that under the typical operation scenarios discussed in this paper, heat loads on the PFCs except the limiter are tolerable and temperature rise and material erosion are acceptable too. As for the limiter, the results reveal that the plasma current has to be lower than 0.5 MA if the plasma is operated in a limiter configuration. The investigation also implies that it is feasible to implement the first plasma without the first wall of graphite for the first plasma discussed in this analysis. However, the values obtained in this paper are based on a few simplifications, and further simulations are required involving ripple loss, start-up evolution, and the influence of ELMs on PFCs during further investigations.

  16. Preliminary wind-tunnel investigation of an NACA 23012 airfoil with various arrangements of venetian-blind flaps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wenzinger, Carl J; Harris, Thomas A

    1940-01-01

    Report presents the results of an investigation made in the NACA 7 by 10-foot wind tunnel of a large-chord NACA 23012 airfoil with several arrangements of venetian-blind flaps to determine the aerodynamic section characteristics as affected by the over-all flap chord, the chords of the slats used to form the flap, the slat spacing, the number of slats and the position of the flap with respect to the wing. Complete section data are given in the form of graphs for all the combinations tested.

  17. Preliminary investigation on the use of a light-trap for sampling malaria vectors in the Gambia

    PubMed Central

    Odetoyinbo, J. A.

    1969-01-01

    Light-traps have been used successfully as mechanical sampling tools for insects of agricultural importance but medical entomologists have had only limited success because of the assumption that light-traps would attract vectors, even when sited in open fields well away from hosts. The investigations reported in this paper suggest that vectors are attracted primarily by their hosts and that only when light-traps are placed in the immediate vicinity of hosts, or in the narrow flight paths followed by host-seeking females, are appreciable numbers caught. When the CDC miniature light-trap was placed at various distances from hosts, the number of anopheline and culicine species captured decreased as the distance from the host increased. There were statistically significant differences between the means of catches in light-traps suspended on or in human dwellings, placed inside village compounds, and placed near the breeding site about 1.6 km from the nearest house. The maximum catch of Anopheles gambiae s.l. and culicines exceeded 3000 and 7000 per trap per night, respectively, and the average was in excess of 1200 A. gambiae s.l. The investigations showed that 6 anopheline species could be caught in appreciable numbers in human dwellings and thus demonstrated that light-traps could be used for sampling both endophilic and exophilic anophelines. It also appears that the effective range of the CDC miniature light-trap is about 5 m. PMID:5306720

  18. Investigation of Performance of Axial-Flow Compressor of XT-46 Turbine-Propeller Engine. I - Preliminary Investigation at 50-,70-, and 100-Percent Design Equivalent Speed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Creagh, John W.R.; Sandercrock, Donald M.

    1950-01-01

    An investigation is being conducted to determine the performance of the 12-stage axial-flow compressor of the XT-46 turbine-propeller engine. This compressor was designed to produce a pressure ratio of 9 at an adiabatic efficiency of 0.86. The design pressure ratios per stage were considerably greater than any employed in current aircraft gas-turbine engines using this type of compressor. The compressor performance was evaluated at two stations. The station near the entrance section of the combustors indicated a peak pressure ratio of 6.3 at an adiabatic efficiency of 0.63 for a corrected weight flow of 23.1 pounds per second. The other, located one blade-chord downstream of the last stator row, indicated a peak pressure ratio of 6.97 at an adiabatic efficiency of 0.81 for a corrected weight flow of 30.4 pounds per second. The difference in performance obtained at the two stations is attributed to shock waves in the vicinity of the last stator row. These shock waves and the accompanying flow choking, together with interstage circulatory flows, shift the compressor operating curves into the region where surge would normally occur. The inability of the compressor to meet design pressure ratio is probably due to boundary-layer buildup in the last stages, which cause axial velocities greater than design values that, in turn, adversely affect the angles of attack and turning angles in these blade rows.

  19. Preliminary Investigations on the Effect of Humidity on the Reception of Visible Solar Radiation and the Effect of Humidity and Wind Speed on PV Module Output

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zainuddin, Hedzlin; Shaari, Sulaiman; Omar, Ahmad Maliki; Zain, Zainazlan Md.; Soumin, Jonson; Surat, Zainizam

    2010-07-01

    In order to improve the accuracy of methods currently used for characterizing the performance of photovoltaic (PV) arrays in their actual use environment, it is of importance to investigate the effect of ambient variables on the PV module output. Malaysia is a hot and humid country with relative humidity (RH) of 100% during rainfall and wind speed of greater than 4.0 ms-1 occurred about 8.4% in five years time. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to do a preliminary investigation on the effects of RH on the reception of solar radiation and the effect of humidity and wind speed on the PV module output. Outdoor field testing was conducted at Photovoltaic Monitoring Centre (PVMC), Universiti Teknologi MARA, of a BPSX-30U polycrystalline under variation of RH and wind speed separately. From the field testing, it was found that humidity reduced the amount of visible solar radiation reception, while humidity and wind speed both acts as cooling agents that increase the output of a PV module by reducing the module temperature.

  20. Preliminary investigation of the combustion of a 50 percent pentaborane - 50 percent JP-4 fuel blend in a turbojet combustor at simulated altitude conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Branstetter, J Robert; Kaufman, Warner B; Gibbs, James B

    1957-01-01

    A preliminary investigation was conducted to determine the combustion characteristics of a fuel composed of 50 percent pentaborane and 50 percent JP-4 (MIL-F-5624A) by weight in a turbojet combustor. A combustor designed to fit the housing of a J33-A-23 turbojet engine was selected for convenience. The fuel was evaluated at two engine conditions simulating altitudes of 40,000 and 57,000 feet, an engine speed of 85 percent of rated rpm, and a flight Mach number of 0.6. The pentaborane blend was initially evaluated in combustors developed for pure pentaborane and diborane reported in NACA RM E53B18 and RM E52L15. The performance of the blend was unsatisfactory in these combustors. A new combustor was then developed which provided combustor efficiencies measured from 91 to 101 percent as compared with efficiencies of 92 to 94 percent previously obtained for pentaborane at comparable conditions. Additional refinements of design details are needed to obtain lower oxide deposits and a more uniform outlet temperature profile; however, the combustor is believed to incorporate some of the design principles required to obtain satisfactory over-all performance with the fuel blend investigated.

  1. Probing in the Dark: Preliminary Results from the Dark Energy Biosphere Investigative Tool (DEBI-T), IODP 336

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salas, E. C.; Bhartia, R.; Reid, R.; Hug, W.; Nguyen, Q.; Oswal, P.; Sullivan, K.; Edwards, K. J.

    2011-12-01

    The subseafloor is host to a significant fraction of the Earth's microbiota, yet there is still uncertainty concerning the distribution of microbes in the deep subsurface. Researchers have relied on molecular techniques to characterize subseafloor microbial communities, but this typically involves the physical removal of cells from the rock matrix in order to process them further. This is inefficient and can lead both to cell loss and the loss of information about the mineralogical context that may influence the microbial ecology. More traditional fluorescence techniques that rely on dyes to produce fluorescence signals have been employed in attempts to elucidate the spatial distribution and abundance of sediment microbiota. However, these methods have proven challenging because of issues such as non-specific binding, which can lead to overestimation of cell abundance, and mineral fluorescence, which can make microbes difficult to differentiate. To address this shortcoming, we have developed the Dark Energy Biosphere Investigative Tool (DEBI-T). This instrument utilizes deep ultraviolet (<250nm) excitation to induce fluorescence (280-430nm) that can distinguish microbes from other organics and the underlying rock matrix. DEBI-T enables the detection of microbes in their native state on natural materials, avoiding background autofluorescence and without the need for fluorescent dyes or tags. We will discuss the results of DEBI-T's first deployment on IODP 336, the Mid-Atlantic Microbiology Expedition.

  2. Results of a preliminary investigation of inlet unstart on a high-speed civil transport airplane concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Domack, Christopher S.

    1992-01-01

    The aircraft design engineer of today is tasked with satisfying an increasing number of conflicting requirements. The fact that conflict in these requirements may be technically, economically, or politically motivated usually compounds the difficulty of determining the best solution to a design issue. In this regard, propulsion/airframe integration for supersonic airplanes must rank as one of the most challenging aspects of airplane design. For the cruise Mach numbers currently being considered for High-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) airplanes, the inlet requirements of low drag, low bleed flow, and high pressure recovery appear to be best met with a mixed-compression design. Unfortunately, these desirable attributes come with a highly undesirable companion: the inlet unstart phenomenon. Concern over the effects of a mixed-compression inlet unstart on the vehicle dynamics of large, high-speed aircraft is not new; a comprehensive wind-tunnel study addressing the problem was published in 1962. Additional investigations of the problem were made throughout the United States SST program and the follow-on NASA program into the late 1970's. The current study sought to examine the magnitude of the problem in order to determine if an inlet unstart posed a potential hazard severe enough to preclude the use of mixed-compression inlets on proposed HSCT concepts.

  3. Preliminary palaeomagnetic investigation of riverine tufa: is riverine tufa a reliable recorder of the geomagnetic field direction?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morinaga, Hayao; Toda, Mizuki; Fujino, Hirooki; Hasegawa, Natsuki

    2010-12-01

    Riverine tufas are freshwater carbonate deposits that precipitate in springs and streams distributed in limestone areas. They are noteworthy for their annual laminations that contain both dense and porous laminae and their fast precipitation rate. These features indicate that riverine tufa may be an excellent material for recording the secular variation of the geomagnetic field. Part of recently deposited tufas in Nagaya in Okayama Prefecture, Japan have a stable natural remanent magnetization (NRM), which is a reliable record of the average geomagnetic field direction. However, only the dense laminae in the recent tufa, however, carry a faithful record of the geomagnetic field direction; the porous laminae do not. The NRM of the porous laminae seems to be affected considerably by the dip direction of the slope on which the tufa is deposited. Based on the results of isothermal remanent magnetization acquisition experiments and microscopic observations, the dominant magnetic mineral in the recent tufa was determined to be magnetite. A Holocene palaeotufa, which was formed 2000-2800 years ago, was found to have no stable remanent magnetization. This is possibly due to the absence of dense layers where magnetic particles are tightly fixed. Since it is very important in palaeomagnetic secular variation studies to be able to reconstruct much older, continuous records of the variation of the geomagnetic field, tufa deposits are not ideal materials and their applicability for this purpose is rather low, although the further investigation is needed.

  4. Polymer gel dosimeters with reduced toxicity: a preliminary investigation of the NMR and optical dose response using different monomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senden, R. J.; DeJean, P.; McAuley, K. B.; Schreiner, L. J.

    2006-07-01

    In this work, three new polymer gel dosimeter recipes were investigated that may be more suitable for widespread applications than polyacrylamide gel dosimeters, since the extremely toxic acrylamide has been replaced with the less harmful monomers N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAM), diacetone acrylamide and N-vinylformamide. The new gel dosimeters studied contained gelatin (5 wt%), monomer (3 wt%), N,N'-methylene-bis-acrylamide crosslinker (3 wt%) and tetrakis (hydroxymethyl) phosphonium chloride antioxidant (10 mM). The NMR response (R2) of the dosimeters was analysed for conditions of varying dose, dose rate, time post-irradiation, and temperature during irradiation and scanning. It was shown that the dose-response behaviour of the NIPAM/Bis gel dosimeter is comparable to that of normoxic polyacrylamide gel (PAGAT) in terms of high dose-sensitivity and low dependence on dose rate and irradiation temperature, within the ranges considered. The dose-response (R2) of NIPAM/Bis appears to be linear over a greater dose range than the PAGAT gel dosimeter. The effects of time post-irradiation (temporal instability) and temperature during NMR scanning on the R2 response were more significant for NIPAM/Bis dosimeters. Diacetone acrylamide and N-vinylformamide gel dosimeters possessed considerably lower dose-sensitivities. The optical dose-response, measured in terms of the attenuation coefficient for each polymer gel dosimeter, showed potential for the use of optical imaging techniques in future studies.

  5. Polymer gel dosimeters with reduced toxicity: a preliminary investigation of the NMR and optical dose-response using different monomers.

    PubMed

    Senden, R J; De Jean, P; McAuley, K B; Schreiner, L J

    2006-07-21

    In this work, three new polymer gel dosimeter recipes were investigated that may be more suitable for widespread applications than polyacrylamide gel dosimeters, since the extremely toxic acrylamide has been replaced with the less harmful monomers N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAM), diacetone acrylamide and N-vinylformamide. The new gel dosimeters studied contained gelatin (5 wt%), monomer (3 wt%), N,N'-methylene-bis-acrylamide crosslinker (3 wt%) and tetrakis (hydroxymethyl) phosphonium chloride antioxidant (10 mM). The NMR response (R2) of the dosimeters was analysed for conditions of varying dose, dose rate, time post-irradiation, and temperature during irradiation and scanning. It was shown that the dose-response behaviour of the NIPAM/Bis gel dosimeter is comparable to that of normoxic polyacrylamide gel (PAGAT) in terms of high dose-sensitivity and low dependence on dose rate and irradiation temperature, within the ranges considered. The dose-response (R2) of NIPAM/Bis appears to be linear over a greater dose range than the PAGAT gel dosimeter. The effects of time post-irradiation (temporal instability) and temperature during NMR scanning on the R2 response were more significant for NIPAM/Bis dosimeters. Diacetone acrylamide and N-vinylformamide gel dosimeters possessed considerably lower dose-sensitivities. The optical dose-response, measured in terms of the attenuation coefficient for each polymer gel dosimeter, showed potential for the use of optical imaging techniques in future studies. PMID:16825731

  6. Investigating the Martian Gullies for Possible Brine Origin: A Preliminary Search for Evaporite Minerals Using THEMIS Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, M. D.; Christensen, P. R.

    2003-01-01

    Photographs taken by both the Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) aboard the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) spacecraft and the Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) aboard the Mars Odyssey (MO) spacecraft have shown the presence of young gullies on Mars. These gullies occur at middle and high latitudes (predominantly in the southern hemisphere) in the walls of both impact craters and canyons. They are thought possibly to be formed by the melting of ground ice, groundwater seepage (possibly as brines), surface runoff, or even liquid CO2, activated sporadically as a result of oscillations in Mars orbit. For this work, the hypothesis of gully formation being related to the outflow of brines will be investigated through the observation and study of spacecraft data. Brine rich fluids expunged from underground onto the walls of canyons and craters would either evaporate or freeze and sublimate. Removal of water from a brine by evaporation or sublimation would cause the solutes to precipitate as evaporite minerals on the canyon and crater walls or at the base of the walls, and possibly on the canyon and crater floors. Hence, the gully sites are ideal target areas to search for evaporites using THEMIS data. The objective of this work is to survey the recently acquired THEMIS data for spectral evidence of evaporite minerals, with a focus on areas of gully formation. Identifying salt mineral residues could provide chemical evidence in support of the brine origin of the Martian gullies.

  7. Fabrication of silk mesh with enhanced cytocompatibility: preliminary in vitro investigation toward cell-based therapy for hernia repair.

    PubMed

    Guillaume, O; Park, J; Monforte, X; Gruber-Blum, S; Redl, H; Petter-Puchner, A; Teuschl, A H

    2016-02-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that combining cells with meshes prior to implantation successfully enhanced hernia repair. The idea is to create a biologic coating surrounding the mesh with autologous cells, before transplantation into the patient. However, due to the lack of a prompt and robust cell adhesion to the meshes, extensive in vitro cultivation is required to obtain a homogenous cell layer covering the mesh. In this context, the objective of this publication is to manufacture meshes made of silk fibres and to enhance the cytoadhesion and cytocompatibility of the biomaterial by surface immobilization of a pro-adhesive wheat germ agglutinin (lectin WGA). We first investigated the affinity between the glycoprotein WGA and cells, in solution and then after covalent immobilization of WGA on silk films. Then, we manufactured meshes made of silk fibres, tailored them with WGA grafting and finally evaluated the cytocompatibility and the inflammatory response of silk and silk-lectin meshes compared to common polypropylene mesh, using fibroblasts and peripheral blood mononuclear cells, respectively. The in vitro experiments revealed that the cytocompatibility of silk can be enhanced by surface immobilization with lectin WGA without exhibiting negative response in terms of pro-inflammatory reaction. Grafting lectin to silk meshes could bring advantages to facilitate cell-coating of meshes prior to implantation, which is an imperative prerequisite for abdominal wall tissue regeneration using cell-based therapy. PMID:26704554

  8. Preliminary investigation of the potential for transient vapor release events during in situ vitrification based on thermal- hydraulic modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, J.S.; Woosley, S.L.; Lessor, D.L.; Strachan, C.

    1992-07-01

    This study investigates a possible cause of molten glass displacements that occurred during two recent in situ vitrification (ISV) tests. The study was conducted for the US Department of Energy by Pacific Northwest Laboratory. It is hypothesized that these glass displacements are caused by large gas bubbles rising up through the ISV melt and bursting at its surface. These bubbles cause the molten surface to upwell and possibly overflow. When the bubbles burst, molten glass is thrown from the melt surface and the volume of gas contained in the bubble is released into the hood. Both of these phenomena are undesirable because the molten soil ejected from the melt is dangerous to operating personnel and can damage equipment. The sudden gas release can cause a temporary pressurization of the hood, allowing potentially contaminated gas to escape to the atmosphere. This study attempts to explain the conditions necessary for formation of large gas bubbles in the melt so that future glass displacements can be avoided.

  9. Multiple stakeholder perspectives on teletherapy delivery of speech pathology services in rural schools: a preliminary, qualitative investigation.

    PubMed

    Lincoln, Michelle; Hines, Monique; Fairweather, Craig; Ramsden, Robyn; Martinovich, Julia

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate stakeholders' views on the feasibility and acceptability of a pilot speech pathology teletherapy program for children attending schools in rural New South Wales, Australia. Nine children received speech pathology sessions delivered via Adobe Connect® web-conferencing software. During semi-structured interviews, school principals (n = 3), therapy facilitators (n = 7), and parents (n = 6) described factors that promoted or threatened the program's feasibility and acceptability. Themes were categorized according to whether they related to (a) the use of technology; (b) the school-based nature of the program; or (c) the combination of using technology with a school-based program. Despite frequent reports of difficulties with technology, teletherapy delivery of speech pathology services in schools was highly acceptable to stakeholders. However, the use of technology within a school environment increased the complexities of service delivery. Service providers should pay careful attention to planning processes and lines of communication in order to promote efficiency and acceptability of teletherapy programs. PMID:25945230

  10. Preliminary results of fisheries investigation associated with Skylab-3. [remotely sensed distribution and abundance of gamefish in Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savastano, K. J. (principal investigator); Pastula, E. J., Jr.; Woods, G.; Faller, K.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. This investigation is to establish the feasibility of utilizing remotely sensed data acquired from aircraft and satellite platforms to provide information concerning the distribution and abundance of oceanic gamefish. Data from the test area in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico has made possible the identification of fisheries significant environmental parameters for white marlin. Predictive models based on catch data and surface truth information have been developed and have demonstrated potential for reducing search significantly by identifying areas which have a high probability of being productive. Three of the parameters utilized by the model, chlorophyll-a, sea surface temperature, and turbidity have been inferred from aircraft sensor data. Cloud cover and delayed receipt have inhibited the use of Skylab data. The first step toward establishing the feasibility of utilizing remotely sensed data to assess amd monitor the distribution of ocean gamefish has been taken with the successful identification of fisheries significant oceanographic parameters and the demonstration of the capability of measuring most of these parameters remotely.

  11. Multiple Stakeholder Perspectives on Teletherapy Delivery of Speech Pathology Services in Rural Schools: A Preliminary, Qualitative Investigation

    PubMed Central

    LINCOLN, MICHELLE; HINES, MONIQUE; FAIRWEATHER, CRAIG; RAMSDEN, ROBYN; MARTINOVICH, JULIA

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate stakeholders’ views on the feasibility and acceptability of a pilot speech pathology teletherapy program for children attending schools in rural New South Wales, Australia. Nine children received speech pathology sessions delivered via Adobe Connect® web-conferencing software. During semi-structured interviews, school principals (n = 3), therapy facilitators (n = 7), and parents (n = 6) described factors that promoted or threatened the program’s feasibility and acceptability. Themes were categorized according to whether they related to (a) the use of technology; (b) the school-based nature of the program; or (c) the combination of using technology with a school-based program. Despite frequent reports of difficulties with technology, teletherapy delivery of speech pathology services in schools was highly acceptable to stakeholders. However, the use of technology within a school environment increased the complexities of service delivery. Service providers should pay careful attention to planning processes and lines of communication in order to promote efficiency and acceptability of teletherapy programs. PMID:25945230

  12. A preliminary investigation of unintentional POP emissions from thermal wire reclamation at industrial scrap metal recycling parks in China.

    PubMed

    Nie, Zhiqiang; Zheng, Minghui; Liu, Guorui; Liu, Wenbin; Lv, Pu; Zhang, Bing; Su, Guijin; Gao, Lirong; Xiao, Ke

    2012-05-15

    Thermal wire reclamation is considered to be a potential source of unintentional persistent organic pollutants (unintentional POPs). In this study, unintentional POP concentrations, including PCDD/Fs, dioxin like PCBs (dl-PCBs), polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs), hexachlorobenzene (HxCBz) and pentachlorobenzene (PeCBz), were quantified in flue gas and residual ash emissions from thermal wire reclamation at scrap metal dismantling parks in Zhejiang Province, China. The total average TEQ emissions of the investigated unintentional POPs from flue gas and residual ash in two typical scrap metal recycling plants ranged from 13.1 to 48.3ngTEQNm(-3) and 0.08 to 2.8ngTEQg(-1), respectively. The dominant PCDD/F congeners were OCDD, 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDD, OCDF and 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF, while PCB-126 and PCB-169 were the main contributors to the toxicity of the dl-PCBs. There were clear differences in the distribution dl-PCBs congeners contributing to the TEQ concentrations in the flue gas samples from the two plants. The PCN TEQs were dominated by PCN-66/67 and PCN-73. Although thermal wire reclamation in incinerators has been proposed as an alternative to open burning, there are still considerable environmental risks associated with regulated incinerators, and unintentional POP emissions from thermal wire reclamation sites need to be controlled by local government agencies. PMID:22436338

  13. A Preliminary Investigation of Reversing RML: From an RDF dataset to its Column-Based data source

    PubMed Central

    Gougousis, Alexandros

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background A large percentage of scientific data with tabular structure are published on the Web of Data as interlinked RDF datasets. When we come to the issue of long-term preservation of such RDF-based digital objects, it is important to provide full support for reusing them in the future. In particular, it should include means for both players who have no familiarity with RDF data model and, at the same time, who by working only with the native format of the data still provide sufficient information. To achieve this, we need mechanisms to bring the data back to their original format and structure. New information In this paper, we investigate how to perform the reverse process for column-based data sources. In particular, we devise an algorithm, RML2CSV, and exemplify its implementation in transforming an RDF dataset into its CSV tabular structure, through the use of the same RML mapping document that was used to generate the set of RDF triples. Through a set of content-based criteria, we attempt a comparative evaluation to measure the similarity between the rebuilt CSV and the original one. The results are promising and show that, under certain assumptions, RML2CSV reconstructs the same data with the same structure, offering more advanced digital preservation services. PMID:26312054

  14. Localization of epileptogenic zones in Lennox-Gastaut syndrome using frequency domain source imaging of intracranial electroencephalography: a preliminary investigation.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jae-Hyun; Kang, Hoon-Chul; Jung, Young-Jin; Kim, Jeong-Youn; Kim, Heung Dong; Yoon, Dae Sung; Lee, Yong-Ho; Im, Chang-Hwan

    2013-02-01

    Although intracranial electroencephalography (iEEG) has been widely used to localize epileptogenic zones in epilepsy, visual inspection of iEEG recordings does not always result in a favorable surgical outcome, especially in secondary generalized epilepsy such as Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (LGS). Various computational iEEG analysis methods have recently been introduced to confirm the visual inspection results. Of these methods, high gamma oscillation in iEEG has attracted interest because a series of studies have reported a close relationship between epileptogenic zones and cortical areas with high gamma oscillation. Meanwhile, frequency domain source imaging of EEG and MEG oscillations has proven to be a useful auxiliary tool for identifying rough locations of epileptogenic zones. To the best of our knowledge, however, frequency domain source imaging of high gamma iEEG oscillations has not been studied. In this study, we investigated whether the iEEG-based frequency domain source imaging of high gamma oscillation (60-100 Hz) would be a useful supplementary tool for identifying epileptogenic zones in patients with secondary generalized epilepsy. The method was applied to three successfully operated on LGS patients, whose iEEG contained some ictal events with distinct high gamma oscillations before seizure onset. The resultant cortical source distributions were compared with surgical resection areas and with high gamma spectral power distributions on the intracranial sensor plane. While the results of the sensor-level analyses contained many spurious activities, the results of frequency domain source imaging coincided better with the surgical resection areas, suggesting that the frequency domain source imaging of iEEG high gamma oscillations might help enhance the accuracy of pre-surgical evaluations of patients with secondary generalized epilepsy. PMID:23354062

  15. A preliminary investigation into the relationship between functional movement screen scores and athletic physical performance in female team sport athletes

    PubMed Central

    Schultz, AB; Callaghan, SJ; Jordan, CA; Luczo, TM; Jeffriess, MD

    2014-01-01

    There is little research investigating relationships between the Functional Movement Screen (FMS) and athletic performance in female athletes. This study analyzed the relationships between FMS (deep squat; hurdle step [HS]; in-line lunge [ILL]; shoulder mobility; active straight-leg raise [ASLR]; trunk stability push-up; rotary stability) scores, and performance tests (bilateral and unilateral sit-and-reach [flexibility]; 20-m sprint [linear speed]; 505 with turns from each leg; modified T-test with movement to left and right [change-of-direction speed]; bilateral and unilateral vertical and standing broad jumps; lateral jumps [leg power]). Nine healthy female recreational team sport athletes (age = 22.67 ± 5.12 years; height = 1.66 ± 0.05 m; body mass = 64.22 ± 4.44 kilograms) were screened in the FMS and completed the afore-mentioned tests. Percentage between-leg differences in unilateral sit-and-reach, 505 turns and the jumps, and difference between the T-test conditions, were also calculated. Spearman's correlations (p ? 0.05) examined relationships between the FMS and performance tests. Stepwise multiple regressions (p ? 0.05) were conducted for the performance tests to determine FMS predictors. Unilateral sit-and-reach positive correlated with the left-leg ASLR (r = 0.704-0.725). However, higher-scoring HS, ILL, and ASLR related to poorer 505 and T-test performance (r = 0.722-0.829). A higher-scored left-leg ASLR related to a poorer unilateral vertical and standing broad jump, which were the only significant relationships for jump performance. Predictive data tended to confirm the correlations. The results suggest limitations in using the FMS to identify movement deficiencies that could negatively impact athletic performance in female team sport athletes. PMID:25729149

  16. Preliminary geochemical, microbiological, and epidemiological investigations into possible linkages between lignite aquifers, pathogenic microbes, and kidney disease in northwestern Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bunnell, Joseph E.; Bushon, Rebecca N.; Stoeckel, Donald M.; Gifford, Amie M.; Beck, Marisa; Lerch, Harry E.; Shi, Runhua; McGee, Benton; Hanson, Bradford C.; Kolak, Jonathan; Warwick, Peter D.

    2003-01-01

    In May 2002, 15 wells and four surface water sites were sampled, and in September 2002, those same wells and sites plus four additional surface sites were sampled in five parishes of northwestern Louisiana. A geographic information system (GIS) was used to select residential water wells for sampling. Well water samples were analyzed for pH, conductivity, organic compounds, and nutrient and anion concentrations. All samples were further tested for presence of fungi (maintained for up to 28 days and colonies counted and identified microscopically), and metal and trace element concentration by inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry and atomic emission spectrometry. Surface water samples were tested for dissolved oxygen and evidence of leptospiral bacterial presence. A polymerase chain reaction protocol was optimized for detection of pathogenic leptospires, and the sensitivity of the assay was determined. The Spearman correlation method was used to assess the association between the endpoints for these field/laboratory analyses and the incidence of cancer of the renal pelvis obtained from the Louisiana Tumor Registry. Significant associations were revealed between the cancer rate and the overall number of organic compounds, the fungi Zygomycetes, the nutrients PO4 and NH3, and thirteen chemical elements (As, B, Br, Cl, Cr, F, Li, Na, P, Rb, Se, Sr, W) from the well water as compared to the controls. Among the species of fungi from the total of 136 isolates were 12 Penicillium spp., at least two Aspergillus spp., a number of other genera (Alternaria sp., Eupenicillium lapidosum, Cladosporium sp., Epicoccum sp., Trichoderma sp., Paecilomyces sp., Chrysosporium sp., Chloridium sp.), and Zygomycetes, and Coelmycetes -- some of which are known mycotoxin producers. The two control wells yielded a mean of 6.5 (SD = 3.5355) individual isolates, while the mean number of isolates from all other sites was 7.6 (SD = 4.4866). Presence of human pathogenic leptospires was detected in 4/8 (50 percent) of the surface water sites sampled. These initial results suggest that additional investigation into these relationships is warranted.

  17. A preliminary investigation of the fish food web in the Gironde estuary, France, using dietary and stable isotope analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasquaud, S.; Elie, P.; Jeantet, C.; Billy, I.; Martinez, P.; Girardin, M.

    2008-06-01

    Carbon and Nitrogen stable isotopes and stomach contents analyses were used to investigate an estuarine fish food web and identify the contribution of these two methods to the knowledge and understanding of the food web's structure and its functioning. The nine most abundant fish species during the warm period in the Gironde estuary (southwest France, Europe) are examined. Observation of the stomach contents reflects a variety of feeding modes between fish species that consume a diverse assortment of prey, with limited dietary overlap. Nevertheless, when regarding the whole fish community, few prey species dominate the stomach contents. Nitrogen isotope ratios indicate a high intraspecific variability inducing an interspecific covering of the signatures. However, a tendency to ? 15N enrichment according to the trophic position of the species studied was observed. Fish assemblages show a trend towards enrichment of their carbon isotopic signatures from the upper estuary (-20.8 ± 1.8‰) towards the lower estuary (-18.3 ± 1.6‰). But whatever the capture zone considered, most of the individual ? 13C values for each fish analysed are comprised between -22 and -16‰. Only few specimens, belonging to migratory amphihaline species, have significantly lighter values. The stomach contents method of analysis has the advantage of giving an initial view of the ichthyological trophic structure of the system by describing the food relations between a fish species and its prey. From these results, hypotheses can be drawn about the network's functioning, suggesting a sharing of resources between species and a "wasp-waist" control of this estuarine food web. The stable isotope analysis method enables us to improve our structural knowledge by positioning the different species in a food web, with their position being determined by the number of energy transfers (analysis of ? 15N). Conversely, in environments as complex and changing as estuaries, it appears difficult to precisely identify and quantify the sources of the organic matter at the base of the fish estuarine food webs using analysis of ? 13C isotopic signatures. Nevertheless, the results obtained by using these two methods in parallel suggest that more detailed functional ecological studies could be carried out in future.

  18. Geothermal Potential of the Si?acik Gulf (Seferihisar) and Preliminary investigations with Seismic and Magnetic Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakak, Özde; Özel, Erdeniz; Ergün, Mustafa

    2015-04-01

    The Aegean region, including both W. Turkey and Central Greece, is one of the world's most rapidly-deforming regions of continental crust and has a seismic rate is exceptional on a world scale. SW Turkey is one of the most rapidly extending regions in the world where the extension appears to have commenced in middle or late Miocene time. Paleomagnetic work in W Turkey and Aegean islands has revealed the horizontal rotation of some crustal blocks. In W Turkey clockwise rotation on Karaburun peninsula west of Izmir by 44° in the last few Ma is detected, and anticlockwise rotation of 37° for the Seferihisar region. The area of W Turkey and the Aegean islands has very strong geothermal gradient in the world scale. S??ac?k Gulf is located on south of Karaburun Peninsula, and it is restricted by two important ridges as Karaburun and Seferihisar Ridges. Recent geological and geophysical studies suggested that this area is both E-W trending normal and NE-SW trending strike-slip faulting caused deformation. The Seferihisar earthquake series were occurred here during 17-20 October 2005. For investigation of geothermal potential and hot water outlets on the seafloor, shallow seismic and magnetic surveys are preferred, which were carried out onboard Dokuz Eylül-1 vessel belongs to Dokuz Eylül University, in 2011. Approximately 250km seismic reflection data was collected along 27 lines. During seismic method used Sparker system which has 1 channel and 12 hydrophone with 17 m long streamer, as a seismic source used SIG Seismic Marine ELC 80 (4 kV & 3.2 KV DC). Seismic data processing (band pass filter, bottom mute, top mute, true amplitude recovery, time migration) was made using Promax program in the Seismic Laboratory in the Institute of Marine Science and Technology. The basement topography map was prepared using Kingdom Suite program drawing seabed line on these sections. Sea floor topography changes between 30-120 m, and this increases towards Ikaria Basin. Penetration depth is maximum 90 meter from the seafloor. The seismic sections reveal both the lens structures represented as current accumulation areas, and deformation areas located in upper unit. At the same time, the marine magnetic survey was applied using SDM 4000 magnetometer of Shark Marine Technologies Company. The magnetic measurements were collected along the same seismic lines, and magnetic anomaly map shows the low magnetic anomaly value which is between -50nT and -90 nT, in east of S??ac?k Gulf. In the light of shallow seismic and magnetic surveys, it is thought that the east of gulf may have geothermal activity on seafloor.

  19. A Preliminary Investigation of the E-Beam Induced Polymerization of Maleimide and Norbornene End-capped Polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmese, Giuseppe R.; Meador, Michael A. (Technical Monitor)

    2005-01-01

    A research area of high activity in connection with aerospace engineering has been the development of polymer thermosetting resins that can resist temperature as high as 300 C while maintaining adequate toughness, and providing ease of processing to enable low temperature and low cost composite fabrication methods. In order to meet such requirements, sequential interpenetrating polymer networks (IPNs) based on bismaleimide (BMI) and cyanate ester (CE) monomers were investigated. In these systems, a polycyanurate network is first formed in the presence of BMI and appropriate reactive diluent monomers and in a second step, a network based on the BMI is created in the presence of a fully formed polycyanurate network. The materials developed can be processed at relatively low temperature (less than 150 C) and with the aid of electron beam (EB) curing. Of major importance to the success of this work was the identification of a reactive diluent that improves ease of processing and has tailored reactivity to allow for the controlled synthesis of CE-BMI sequential IPNs. Based on solubility and reactivity of a number of reactive diluents, N-acryloylmorpholine (AMP) was selected as a comonomer for BMI copolymerization. A donor-acceptoreaction mechanism was suggested to explain the relative reactivity of a variety of reactive diluents towards maleimide functionality. The optimum processing parameters for the formation of the first network were determined through the study of metal catalyzed cure and hydrolysis of cyanate esters, whereas the reaction behavior for second network formation in terms of the influence of EB dose rate and temperature was elucidated through an in-situ kinetics study of maleimide and AMP copolymerization. Structure-property relationships were developed which allowed for the design of improved resin systems. In particular, appropriate network coupler possessing cyanate ester and maleimide functionality was synthesized to link the polycyanurate first network to the BMI/AMP second network and thus form linked sequential IPNs (LIPNs). Consequently, Tg as high as 370 C was achieved and a fracture toughness of 120 Joules per square meters was obtained for resin systems that possess adequately low viscosity for processing using liquid molding techniques at low temperature.

  20. Chemical State of Surface Oxygen on Carbon and Its Effects on the Capacity of the Carbon Anode in a Lithium-Ion Battery Investigated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hung, Ching-Cheh

    2001-01-01

    In a lithium-ion battery, the lithium-storage capacity of the carbon anode is greatly affected by a surface layer formed during the first half cycle of lithium insertion and release into and out of the carbon anode. The formation of this solid-electrolyte interface, in turn, is affected by the chemistry of the carbon surface. A study at the NASA Glenn Research Center examined the cause-and-effect relations. Information obtained from this research could contribute in designing a high-capacity lithium-ion battery and, therefore, small, powerful spacecraft. In one test, three types of surfaces were examined: (1) a surface with low oxygen content (1.5 at.%) and a high concentration of active sites, (2) a surface with 4.5 at.% -OH or -OC type oxygen, and (3) a surface with 6.5 at.% O=C type oxygen. The samples were made from the same precursor and had similar bulk properties. They were tested under a constant current of 10 mA/g in half cells that used lithium metal as the counter electrode and 0.5 M lithium iodide in 50/50 (vol%) ethylene carbonate and dimethyl carbonate as the electrolyte. For the first cycle of the electrochemical test, the graph describes the voltage of the carbon anode versus the lithium metal as a function of the capacity (amount of lithium insertion or release). From these data, it can be observed that the surface with low oxygen and a high concentration of active sites could result in a high irreversible capacity. Such a high irreversible capacity could be prevented if the active sites were allowed to react with oxygen in air, producing -OH or -OC type oxygen. The O=C type oxygen, on the other hand, could greatly reduce the capacity of lithium intercalation and, therefore, needs to be avoided during battery fabrication.

  1. Assessing dry density and gravimetric water content of soils in geotechnics with complex conductivity measurements : preliminary investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaouane, C.; Beck, Y.; Fauchard, C.; Chouteau, M.

    2012-12-01

    Quality controls of geotechnical works need gravimetric water content (w) and dry density (?d) measurements. Afterwards, results are compared to Proctor tests and referred to soil classification. Depending on the class of soils, different objectives must be achieved. Those measurements are usually carried out with neutron and gamma probes. Combined use of theses probes directly access (w, ?d). Theses probes show great disadvantages as: nuclear hazard, heavy on-site, transporation and storage restrictions and low sampling volumes. Last decades showed a strong development of electrical and electromagnetic methods for mapping water content in soils. Still, their use in Geotechnics is limited due to interfacial effects neglected in common models but strong in compacted soils. We first showed that (w, ?d) is equivalent to (?, Sr) assuming density of particles ?s=2.7 (g.cm-3). This assumption is true for common soils used in civil engineering. That first relationship allows us to work with meaningful parameters for geophysicists. Revil&Florsh recently adapted Vinegar&Waxman model for Spectal Induced Polarization (SIP) measurements at low frequencies (<50 kHz). This model relates quantitatively the electrical double layer polarization at the surface of grains. It takes into account saturation, porosity and granulometry. Standard granulometry and mineralogy are generally available in geotechnical campaigns. In-phase conductivity would be mostly related to saturation as quadrature conductivity would be related to porosity and surface conductivity. Although this model was developed for oil-bearing sands, we investigated its potential for compacted soils. Former DC-resistivity (?) measurements were carried out on a silty fined-grained soil (A1 in GTR classification or ML-CL in USCS) in a cylindrical cell (radius ~4 cm, heigth 7 cm). Median diameter of grain was 50 ?m. For each measurement, samples were compacted at Proctor energy. We assessed (w, ?d) by weighting and drying samples. We obtained ?d = 1.6-1.9 (g.cm-3) and w=7-14% which lead to ?=0.3-0.4 and Sr=0.3-0.8. Tap water (?w= 30 ?.m) was used for the experiment. We first evaluated the saturation factor n=1.35 by fitting a power law ?/?w =a*Sr^n+b. a=0.223 agreed with ?^(-n)=F, F being the formation factor. This leads to a mean tortuosity ?=1.47. b=0.5 might be related to surface conductivity. An empirical Rhoades-Corwin model also fit great to data. Revil&Florsh model allows us to predict a phase peak in case of complex conductivity measurements. We predicted a frequency peak at 2.4 Hz. This peak is well located in the frequency range of SIP (from 1 mHz to ~10 Hz). At the frequency peak, this model allows the direct evaluation of saturation and porosity. Hence, complex conductivity measurements might be a fine alternative to nuclear probes. Still, driving in electrodes in compacted soils remains difficult. Ongoing studies are looking further to extend this model to higher frequency range (5-200 kHz) where capacitively coupled resistivity arrays might be used allowing continuous measurements.

  2. Preliminary investigations on the determination of three-dimensional dose distributions using scintillator blocks and optical tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Kroll, Florian; Karsch, Leonhard; Pawelke, Jörg

    2013-08-15

    Purpose: Clinical QA in teletherapy as well as the characterization of experimental radiation sources for future medical applications requires effective methods for measuring three-dimensional (3D) dose distributions generated in a water-equivalent medium. Current dosimeters based on ionization chambers, diodes, thermoluminescence detectors, radiochromic films, or polymer gels exhibit various drawbacks: High quality 3D dose determination is either very sophisticated and expensive or requires high amounts of effort and time for the preparation or read out. New detectors based on scintillator blocks in combination with optical tomography are studied, since they have the potential to facilitate the desired cost-effective, transportable, and long-term stable dosimetry system that is able to determine 3D dose distributions with high spatial resolution in a short time.Methods: A portable detector prototype was set up based on a plastic scintillator block and four digital cameras. During irradiation the scintillator emits light, which is detected by the fixed cameras. The light distribution is then reconstructed by optical tomography, using maximum-likelihood expectation maximization. The result of the reconstruction approximates the 3D dose distribution. First performance tests of the prototype using laser light were carried out. Irradiation experiments were performed with ionizing radiation, i.e., bremsstrahlung (6 to 21 MV), electrons (6 to 21 MeV), and protons (68 MeV), provided by clinical and research accelerators.Results: Laser experiments show that the current imaging properties differ from the design specifications: The imaging scale of the optical systems is position dependent, ranging from 0.185 mm/pixel to 0.225 mm/pixel. Nevertheless, the developed dosimetry method is proven to be functional for electron and proton beams. Induced radiation doses of 50 mGy or more made 3D dose reconstructions possible. Taking the imaging properties into account, determined dose profiles are in agreement with reference measurements. An inherent drawback of the scintillator is the nonlinear light output for high stopping-power radiation due to the quenching effect. It impacts the depth dose curves measured with the dosimeter. For single Bragg peak distributions this leads to a peak to plateau ratio of 2.8 instead of 4.5 for the reference ionization chamber measurement. Furthermore, the transmission of the clinical bremsstrahlung beams through the scintillator leads to the saturation of one camera, making dose reconstructions in that case presently not feasible.Conclusions: It is shown that distributions of scintillation light generated by proton or electron beams can be reconstructed by the dosimetry system within minutes. The quenching apparent for proton irradiation, and the yet not precisely determined position dependency of the imaging scale, require further investigation and corrections. Upgrading the prototype with larger or inorganic scintillators would increase the detectable proton and electron energy range. The presented results show that the determination of 3D dose distributions using scintillator blocks and optical tomography is a promising dosimetry method.

  3. Preliminary results: Root cause investigation of orbital anomalies and failures in NASA standard 50 ampere-hour nickel-cadmium batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toft, Mark R.

    1993-01-01

    Two lots of NASA standard 50 A.H. Ni-Cd battery cells, manufactured by Gates Aerospace Batteries and built into batteries by McDonnell Douglas, have experienced significant performance problems. The two lots were used on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory and the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite. Both of these satellites are Low Earth Orbital (LEO) satellites containing batteries on a parallel bus charged to NASA standard V/T curves using a NASA standard power regulator. The following preliminary conclusions were reached: (1) several plate and cell parameters have migrated within their spec limits over the years (in some cases, from one extreme to the other); (2) several parametric relationships, not generally monitored and therefore not under specification control, have also migrated over the years; (3) many of these changes appear to have taken place as a natural consequence of changes in GE/GAB materials and processes; (4) several of these factors may be 'conspiring' to aggravate known cell failure mechanisms (factors such as heavier plate, less teflon and/or less-uniform teflon, and less electrolyte) but all are still in spec (where specs exist); (5) the weight of the evidence collected to characterize the anomalies and to characterize the negative electrode itself, strongly suggests that alterations to the structure, composition, uniformity, and efficiency of the negative electrode are at the heart of the battery performance problems currently being experienced; and (6) further investigation at all levels (plate, cell, battery, and system) continues to be warranted.

  4. A preliminary investigation comparing one and eight channels at fast and slow rates on music appraisal in adults with cochlear implants.

    PubMed

    Tyler, R S; Gfeller, K; Mehr, M A

    2000-09-01

    Music perception is important to cochlear implant patients, but little effort has been devoted to improving signal processing for music. In this preliminary investigation, we probed the importance of number of channels and stimulus rate. We asked eight users of the Clarion cochlear implant to rate music quality on a scale from 0 to 100 on three different types of music (country and western, pop and classical). Patients rated eight- and one-channel processors running at a fast and slow rate. The stimulus rate was 200 pps for the slow rate. For the eight-channel condition, the fast rate varied from 394 to 765 pps. For the one-channel condition, the fast rate varied from 2601 to 4335 pps. Results indicated that the eight-channel condition was uniformly rated higher than the one-channel condition. However, the results for stimulus rate were less clear. No patients assigned higher ratings with the slow rate, but only three subjects assigned higher ratings with the fast rate. We conclude that music perception can be influenced and probably improved by signal processing. The number of channels, or perhaps spectral representation, is critical for music appreciation by cochlear implant recipients. PMID:18791996

  5. Investigation of oil adsorption capacity of granular organoclay media and the kinetics of oil removal from oil-in-water emulsions 

    E-print Network

    Islam, Sonia

    2007-04-25

    to desalination. Organoclay also pre-polishes the waste water before further treatment. This research studies the efficacy of using organoclay to remove oil by measuring its adsorption capacity to remove the oil from a SAE 30 (Golden West Superior) motor oil...

  6. A possible link between Balkan endemic nephropathy and the leaching of toxic organic compounds from Pliocene lignite by groundwater: Preliminary investigation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Orem, W.H.; Feder, G.L.; Finkelman, R.B.

    1999-01-01

    Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN) is a fatal kidney disease that is known to occur only in clusters of villages in alluvial valleys of tributaries of the Danube River in Bulgaria, Romania, Yugoslavia, Bosnia, and Croatia. The confinement of this disease to a specific geographic area has led to speculation that an environmental factor may be involved in the etiology of BEN. Numerous environmental factors have been suggested as causative agents for producing BEN, including toxic metals in drinking water, metal deficiency in soils of BEN areas, and environmental mycotoxins to name a few. These hypotheses have either been disproved or have failed to conclusively demonstrate a connection to the etiology of BEN, or the clustering of BEN villages. In previous work, we observed a distinct geographic relationship between the distribution of Pliocene lignites in the Balkans and BEN villages. We hypothesized that the long-term consumption of well water containing toxic organic compounds derived from the leaching of nearby Pliocene lignites by groundwater was a primary factor in the etiology of BEN. In our current work, chemical analysis using 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (13CNMR) spectroscopy indicated a high degree of organic functionality in Pliocene lignite from the Balkans, and suggested that groundwater can readily leach organic matter from these coal beds. Semi-quantitative gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy analysis of solvent extracts of groundwater from shallow wells in BEN villages indicated the presence of potentially toxic aromatic compounds, such as napthalene, fluorene, phenanthrene, and pyrene at concentrations in the ppb range. Laboratory leaching of Balkan Pliocene lignites with distilled water yielded soluble organic matter (> 500 MW) containing large amounts of aromatic structures similar to the simple/discrete aromatic compounds detected in well water from BEN villages. These preliminary results are permissive of our hypothesis and suggest that further work on the possible relationship between the etiology of BEN and toxic aromatic substances leached from Pliocene lignites in well water is warranted.A distinct geographic relationship between the distribution of Pliocene lignites in the Balkans and villages where Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN) occurs has been observed, indicating a possible link between BEN and the long-term consumption of well water containing toxic organic compounds derived from the leaching of nearby Pliocene lignites. Preliminary investigations by NMR spectroscopy, gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy and leaching experiments show a high degree of organic functionality in the Pliocene lignites, high-leachability by groundwater of organic matter from these beds, and the presence of toxic aromatic compounds.

  7. The 1911 Chon-Kemin (M 8.3) earthquake in the Tien-Shan region*: preliminary investigation results by means of historical data.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulikova, G.; Krüger, F.

    2012-04-01

    For many years the Tien-Shan region* attracts attention of geophysicists and geologists due to complexity and uniqueness of its tectonics. At the turn of the XIX. to the XX. century several destructive earthquakes have occurred in the region with estimated magnitudes between 7 and 8 and two of them even exceeding the magnitude of 8. Our main goal is to investigate the deformation processes responsible for this significant earthquake sequence and the possible interrelation between the single events. Here we present preliminary results of the Chon-Kemin earthquake as an example. On 3rd January 1911 the M 8.3 Chon-Kemin earthquake hit the Tien-Shan region. It is the strongest event in the history of Tien-Shan region for which instrumental recordings are available and one of the strongest intracontinental earthquakes in XX. century. Historical analog data were collected from different seismic archives in European and non-European countries. The data from 20 seismic station were collected, mostly stations at that time had only horizontal components although there are some vertical recordings as well. Preprocessing the analog data brings several difficulties, e.g. limited information on instrument characteristics. Digitization is the most time-consuming part among preprocessing. The quality of seismograms is not always good enough this is why it was necessary to combine different methods of data processing. Since at that time localizations have been done on the base of intensity distributions, the epicenter is poorly determined. Several localizations, differed in the value of up to 80 km, are available. The surface rupture was also estimated in previous studies (about 200 km) and the deformation on the surface can be still observed nowadays, which gives opportunity to calibrate new localization comparing it to the geological data. Thus, we located the earthquake epicenter and determined the magnitude again based on the digitized seismograms. From first motion body wave polarities and amplitude ratios we determine a focal mechanism solution. Preliminary results will be presented here. * Tien-Shan region: For this study we consider the Tien-Shan region not to be exactly the Tien-Shan mountain belt but the rectangular area from 38°N to 45°N and from 68°E to 90°E.

  8. Visual-spatial memory may be enhanced with theta burst deep brain stimulation of the fornix: a preliminary investigation with four cases.

    PubMed

    Miller, Jonathan P; Sweet, Jennifer A; Bailey, Christopher M; Munyon, Charles N; Luders, Hans O; Fastenau, Philip S

    2015-07-01

    Memory loss after brain injury can be a source of considerable morbidity, but there are presently few therapeutic options for restoring memory function. We have previously demonstrated that burst stimulation of the fornix is able to significantly improve memory in a rodent model of traumatic brain injury. The present study is a preliminary investigation with a small group of cases to explore whether theta burst stimulation of the fornix might improve memory in humans. Four individuals undergoing stereo-electroencephalography evaluation for drug-resistant epilepsy were enrolled. All participants were implanted with an electrode into the proximal fornix and dorsal hippocampal commissure on the language dominant (n = 3) or language non-dominant (n = 1) side, and stimulation of this electrode reliably produced a diffuse evoked potential in the head and body of the ipsilateral hippocampus. Each participant underwent testing of verbal memory (Rey Auditory-Verbal Learning Test), visual-spatial memory (Medical College of Georgia Complex Figure Test), and visual confrontational naming (Boston Naming Test Short Form) once per day over at least two consecutive days using novel test forms each day. For 50% of the trials, the fornix electrode was continuously stimulated using a burst pattern (200 Hz in 100 ms trains, five trains per second, 100 µs, 7 mA) and was compared with sham stimulation. Participants and examiners were blinded to whether stimulation was active or not, and the order of stimulation was randomized. The small sample size precluded use of inferential statistics; therefore, data were analysed using descriptive statistics and graphic analysis. Burst stimulation of the fornix was not perceived by any of the participants but was associated with a robust reversible improvement in immediate and delayed performance on the Medical College of Georgia Complex Figure Test. There were no apparent differences on either Rey Auditory-Verbal Learning Test or Boston Naming Test. There was no apparent relationship between performance and side of stimulation (language dominant or non-dominant). There were no complications. Preliminary evidence in this small sample of patients with drug-resistant epilepsy suggests that theta burst stimulation of the fornix may be associated with improvement in visual-spatial memory. PMID:26106097

  9. Preliminary investigation of the effects of coal-water slurry fuels on the combustion in GE coal fueled diesel engine (Task 1. 1. 2. 2. 1, Fuels)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-06-01

    In prior work with the coal fired diesel research engine, a necessity to determine the sensitivity of the engine to a wider range of fuels was resolved and included in the R and D Test Plan submitted on 2/9/89. In general, the economic viability and universal acceptance of the commercial engine will be a factor of its ability to tolerate the widest range of source fuels with minimal fuel beneficiation. As detailed in the R and D Test Plan, a preliminary investigation on the effects of coal-water slurry (CWS) fuels on the combustion in a GE single cylinder test engine was conducted. The following conclusions are obtained from this investigation. All the test CWS fuels were successfully burned in the GE engine combustion system. They include: 3 to 15 microns mean particle size; 0.7 to 2.8% ash level; KY Blue Gem and PA Mariana bituminous coal, WY Kemmer and Spring Creek Sub-Bituminous coal; coal beneficiated with physical and chemical processes; two kinds of additives for OTISCA CWS; and burnout is not effected by ash or particle size within the test range. For each kind of CWS fuel, the detail design parameters of the fuel injection system has to be compatible. With sufficiently high fuel injection pressure, the 3 micron mean particle size OTISCA fuel burns faster than the 5 micron ones. For OTISCA fuel, the burn rate using Ammonium Lignosulfonate as additive is faster than using Ammonium Condensed Naphthalene Sulfonate. Appendices contain data on heat release, fuel characterization reports from two laboratories, general engine test data, and particulate size distribution. 3 refs.

  10. A preliminary investigation of the Spence Children's Anxiety Parent Scale as a screening tool for anxiety in young people with autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Zainal, Hani; Magiati, Iliana; Tan, Julianne Wen-Li; Sung, Min; Fung, Daniel S S; Howlin, Patricia

    2014-08-01

    Despite high rates of clinically elevated anxiety difficulties in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), very few studies have systematically examined the usefulness of commonly used caregiver report anxiety screening tools with this population. This study investigated the use of the Spence Children's Anxiety Scale-Parent version (SCAS-P) as a screening tool for anxiety disorders when compared to a standardized DSM-IV-TR-based clinical interview, the Kiddie-Schedule for Schizophrenia and Affective Disorders-Present and Lifetime version (K-SADS-PL). Thirty-two caregivers of youth with a clinical diagnosis of ASD (mean age 10.3 years) attending a specialist autism school participated in this study. They first completed the SCAS-P, a measure of adaptive functioning and a checklist of other emotional and behavioral difficulties. They were then interviewed with the K-SADS-PL. Internal consistency for the SCAS Total score was .88, but Cronbach's alphas were <.70 in three of the six SCAS-P subscales. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of the SCAS-P against K-SADS diagnosis were .75, .71, .27, and .95, respectively. All values were >.70, except for the PPV. Evidence of convergent validity between the SCAS-P, K-SADS-PL and DBC anxiety subscale was also found. The high false positive rates notwithstanding, the preliminary data of acceptable to excellent sensitivity, specificity and NPV values tentatively suggest that the SCAS-P may be useful for screening non-help seeking young people with ASD for elevated anxiety symptoms. Further replication in larger studies is needed and ways in which the SCAS-P could be further developed and investigated for use with youth with ASD are discussed. PMID:24573336

  11. Spiritual Bypass: A Preliminary Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cashwell, Craig S.; Glosoff, Harriet L.; Hammond, Cheree

    2010-01-01

    The phenomenon of spiritual bypass has received limited attention in the transpersonal psychology and counseling literature and has not been subjected to empirical inquiry. This study examines the phenomenon of spiritual bypass by considering how spirituality, mindfulness, alexithymia (emotional restrictiveness), and narcissism work together to…

  12. Experimental Investigation of the Properties of Lime-Based Plaster-Containing PCM for Enhancing the Heat-Storage Capacity of Building Envelopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlík, Zbyšek; Trník, Anton; Keppert, Martin; Pavlíková, Milena; Žumár, Jaromír; ?erný, Robert

    2014-04-01

    Experimental analysis of a wide range of properties of a lightweight plaster which should enhance the heat-storage capacity of building envelopes is presented. The basic physical characteristics, namely, the bulk density, matrix density, total open porosity, and pore-size distribution are measured at first. Then, the compressive strength is determined for an assessment of mechanical performance of the plaster. The thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity are studied using an impulse technique. Differential scanning calorimetry measurements are performed as well, in order to identify the temperature range and latent heat of the phase change and to determine the specific heat capacity as a function of temperature. Durability properties are assessed using the measurement of the water absorption coefficient and sorption and desorption isotherms. The experimental results indicate a good capability of the designed plaster to moderate effectively the interior climate of buildings.

  13. Preliminary investigation of soil and ground-water contamination at a U.S. Army Petroleum Training Facility, Fort Lee, Virginia, September-October 1989

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wright, W.G.; Powell, J.D.

    1990-01-01

    Fuel-oil constituents in the soil and groundwater at the Fort Lee Petroleum Training Facility near Petersburg, Virginia, were studied by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Department of Defense, U.S. Army. The study included installation of 25 groundwater monitoring wells and description of groundwater flow patterns of the shallow-aquifer system underlying the facility. Soil and groundwater samples were collected to determine the concentrations of fuel-oil constituents and to determine the potential for off-site migration of the constituents. Total petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations up to 18,400 mg/km were reported in soil samples. Concentrations of benzene in water from wells at the facility were up to 130 micrograms per liter (ug/L), and concentrations of ethylbenzene and xylene were up to 54 and 120 ug/L, respectively. Potential exists for off-site migration of the contaminants and migration of contaminants downward to deeper aquifers. Further investigations of these potential contamination-migration pathways are warranted. Risk identification at the Petroleum Training Facility cannot be properly addressed because the distribution of the fuel-oil constituents has not been fully characterized. Preliminary identification of risk, however is presented by an examination of toxicity data for the chemical constituents reported in the groundwater at the facility. Concentrations of constituents were compared to the maximum contaminant levels (MCLs) for drinking water established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). Concentrations of benzene in water from wells at the facility exceed the USEPA 's 5 ug/L MCL by as much as 26 times. Sufficient data are not available to fully design the remedial-action plan for the facility; however, general responses to contamination of the type associated with the facility include no-action, monitoring, institutional controls, removal, and treatment. (USGS)

  14. Investigation of the H reflexes, F waves and sympathetic skin response with electromyography (EMG) in patients with stroke and the determination of the relationship with functional capacity.

    PubMed

    Çak?r, Tuncay; Evcik, Fatma Deniz; Suba??, Volkan; Demirdal, Ümit Seçil; Kavuncu, Vural

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the relationship between sympathetic skin responses (SSR), electrodiagnostic reflex activities (F wave, H reflex), and functional capacity in post-stroke patients. The study comprised 40 hemiplegia patients (mean age 57.8 ± 10.9 years) and 40 healthy volunteers (mean age 557 ± 85 years). In electrophysiological studies, SSR, F wave and H reflex were evaluated and for the functional capacities of patients, FIM scores and Brunnstrom stages were calculated. There was no statistical significant difference between SSR latency and amplitude in the hemiplegic and non-hemiplegic extremities of patients (p > 0.05). SSR latency values of patients were higher than those of controls (p < 0.05). Amplitude values of paretic arms were significantly lower than the control group extremities (p < 0.05). There was a significant correlation between SSR amplitude values and FIM scores. A significant increase in H max/M max amplitude rate was detected in the affected side (p < 0.05) and F-wave mean latency values of the affected side were found to be significantly lower in the control group (p < 0.05). PMID:25481720

  15. CAPACITY BUILDING ACTIVITIES Public Health

    E-print Network

    Hill, Wendell T.

    CAPACITY BUILDING ACTIVITIES School of Public Health Dean Principal Investigator Community Advisory System Faculty & Students School of Public Health Faculty & Students Prince George's County Washington, D.C. Community Members Practitioners, Residents and Public Health Professionals Research Projects Forum (CAC

  16. Beyond Capacity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boerner, Heather

    2012-01-01

    Over the past few years, 300,000 students have been turned away from California community colleges. Those that remain jockey for classes with ever-narrower registration deadlines. City College of San Francisco may be forced to close its doors to its 90,000 students after a state investigation found that the administration hadn't managed budget…

  17. Investigation of the capacity retention mechanisms in novel composite sulfur copolymer-base cathodes for high-energy density Li-S batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oleshko, Vladimir; Kim, Jenny; Masser, Kevin; Hudson, Steven; Soles, Christopher; Griebel, Jared; Chung, Woo Jin; Simmonds, Adam; Pyun, Jeffrey

    2013-03-01

    Utilization of the active cathode material in high-energy density Li-S batteries limited by the insulating nature of sulfur and losses in the form of insoluble polysulfides was improved by the use of 1,3-diisopropenylbenzene (DIB) copolymerized with molten sulfur. This approach termed, inverse vulcanization, transforms elemental sulfur into chemically stable processable copolymer forms with tunable thermomechanical properties. According to dielectric spectroscopy and dc conductivity measurements, composite sulfur-DIB copolymer cathodes exhibit a glassy-state beta relaxation related to short sulfur segments or to the DIB cross-linker. High-resolution AEM and FESEM studies down to the atomic scale reveal multiscale 3D-architectures created within the pristine and cycled composite cathodes with various contents of the electroactive copolymers. The morphology, structures, bonding and local compositional distributions of the constituents (sulfur, copolymers, aggregated conductive carbon nanoparticles) as well as extended pore structures and their transformations under cycling have been examined to provide insights into mechanisms of the enhanced capacity retention in the modified Li-S cells. NIST support under grant MML12-1053-N00

  18. Preliminary investigations for technology assessment of /sup 99/Mo production from LEU (low enriched uranium) targets. [For production of /sup 99m/Tc; by different methods

    SciTech Connect

    Vandegrift, G.F.; Chaiko, D.J.; Heinrich, R.R.; Kucera, E.T.; Jensen, K.J.; Poa, D.S.; Varma, R.; Vissers, D.R.

    1986-11-01

    This paper presents the results of preliminary studies on the effects of substituting low enriched uranium (LEU) for highly enriched uranium (HEU) in targets for the production of fission product /sup 99/Mo. Issues that were addressed are: (1) purity and yield of the /sup 99/Mo//sup 99m/Tc product, (2) fabrication of LEU targets and related concerns, and (3) radioactive waste. Laboratory experimentation was part of the efforts for issues (1) and (2); thus far, radioactive waste disposal has only been addressed in a paper study. Although the reported results are still preliminary, there is reason to be optimistic about the feasibility of utilizing LEU targets for /sup 99/Mo production. 37 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  19. An Investigation into the Capacity of Student Motivation and Emotion Regulation Strategies to Predict Engagement and Resilience in the Middle School Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fried, Leanne; Chapman, Elaine

    2012-01-01

    Although most of the initial research on self-regulated learning focused on cognitive and meta-cognitive aspects, there has been a growing interest in the emotion and motivation domains of self-regulation. This article reports on research undertaken to investigate specific motivation and emotion regulation strategies used by middle school students…

  20. A preliminary investigation of the Environmental Control and Life Support Subsystem (EC/LSS) for the space construction base manufacturing modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wells, H. B.

    1977-01-01

    The preliminary data of the environmental control and life support subsystem for a space construction base manufacturing module was reported. A space processing module, which is capable of performing production biological experiments, was chosen as a baseline configuration. The primary assemblies and components considered for use were humidity and temperature control, ventilation fan, cabin fan, water separator, condensate storage, overboard dumping, distribution system, contaminant monitoring, cabin sensors, and fire and smoke detection.

  1. Heat capacity, configurational heat capacity and fragility of hydrous magmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Genova, D.; Romano, C.; Giordano, D.; Alletti, M.

    2014-10-01

    The glassy and liquid heat capacities of four series of dry and hydrous natural glasses and magma as a function of temperature and water content (up to 19.9 mol%) were investigated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The analyzed compositions are basalt, latite, trachyte and pantellerite. The results of this study indicate that the measured heat capacity of glasses (Cpg) is a linear function of composition and is well reproduced by the empirical model of Richet (1987). For the investigated glasses, the partial molar heat capacity of water can be considered as independent of composition, in agreement with Bouhifd et al. (2006). For hydrous liquids, the heat capacity (Cpliq) decreases nonlinearly with increasing water content. Previously published models, combined with the partial molar heat capacity of water from the literature, are not able to reproduce our experimental data in a satisfactory way. We estimated the partial molar heat capacity of water (CpH2O) in hydrous magma over a broad compositional range. The proposed value is 41 ± 3 J mol-1 K-1. Water strongly affects the configurational heat capacity at the glass transition temperature [Cpconf (Tg)]. An increases of Cpconf (Tg) with water content was measured for the polymerized liquids (trachyte and pantellerite), while the opposite behavior was observed for the most depolymerized liquids (basalt and latite). Structural and rheological implications of this behavior are discussed in light of the presented results.

  2. 19 CFR 207.18 - Notice of preliminary determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...NONADJUDICATIVE INVESTIGATIONS INVESTIGATIONS OF WHETHER INJURY TO DOMESTIC INDUSTRIES RESULTS FROM IMPORTS SOLD AT LESS THAN FAIR VALUE OR FROM SUBSIDIZED EXPORTS TO THE UNITED STATES Preliminary Determinations § 207.18 Notice of preliminary...

  3. 19 CFR 207.18 - Notice of preliminary determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...NONADJUDICATIVE INVESTIGATIONS INVESTIGATIONS OF WHETHER INJURY TO DOMESTIC INDUSTRIES RESULTS FROM IMPORTS SOLD AT LESS THAN FAIR VALUE OR FROM SUBSIDIZED EXPORTS TO THE UNITED STATES Preliminary Determinations § 207.18 Notice of preliminary...

  4. 19 CFR 207.18 - Notice of preliminary determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...NONADJUDICATIVE INVESTIGATIONS INVESTIGATIONS OF WHETHER INJURY TO DOMESTIC INDUSTRIES RESULTS FROM IMPORTS SOLD AT LESS THAN FAIR VALUE OR FROM SUBSIDIZED EXPORTS TO THE UNITED STATES Preliminary Determinations § 207.18 Notice of preliminary...

  5. 19 CFR 207.18 - Notice of preliminary determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...NONADJUDICATIVE INVESTIGATIONS INVESTIGATIONS OF WHETHER INJURY TO DOMESTIC INDUSTRIES RESULTS FROM IMPORTS SOLD AT LESS THAN FAIR VALUE OR FROM SUBSIDIZED EXPORTS TO THE UNITED STATES Preliminary Determinations § 207.18 Notice of preliminary...

  6. 19 CFR 207.18 - Notice of preliminary determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...NONADJUDICATIVE INVESTIGATIONS INVESTIGATIONS OF WHETHER INJURY TO DOMESTIC INDUSTRIES RESULTS FROM IMPORTS SOLD AT LESS THAN FAIR VALUE OR FROM SUBSIDIZED EXPORTS TO THE UNITED STATES Preliminary Determinations § 207.18 Notice of preliminary...

  7. Investigation of the characteristics of the nickle oxide electrode under the conditions of operation of high-capacity storage batteries of the TNZhK type

    SciTech Connect

    Leshcheva, E.N.; Glazatova, T.N.; Aguf, I.A.

    1982-07-01

    There have been virtually no investigations of the behavior of laminated NOE at elevated temperatures. It was therefore desirable to study the joint influence of electrolyte temperature and addition of cobalt on the behavior of NOE at high discharge rates and in the course of charging; this was the purpose of the present work. Laminated NOE 36 x 14 x 3.5 mm in size were taken for the investigation. The content of active material in each electrode was 3 g. Cobalt was introduced into the prepared material in the form of sulfate solution in the ratio of 3% Co/Ni. The tests were conducted in a gastight cell made of transparent plastic and connected to a buret for collecting the gas. The electrolyte consisted of NaOH solution (d = 1.20 g/cm/sup 3/) + 5 g/liter LiOH. The auxiliary electrodes were made of Ni foil. The anode and cathode currents were chosen in accordance with the conditions of operation of TNZhK batteries. The potentials were measured against a mercury oxide reference electrode in the same solution. Two series of experiments were carried out. In the first series the electrodes were charged in the temperature range 25 to 70/sup 0/, with simultaneous collection of gas. The discharge temperature was 25/sup 0/. In the second series the electrodes were charged at 25/sup 0/ and discharged at temperatures in the range 25 to 70/sup 0/.

  8. The sealing capacity of the cap rock above the Torre Alfina geothermal reservoir (Central Italy) revealed by soil CO2 flux investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carapezza, Maria Luisa; Ranaldi, Massimo; Gattuso, Alessandro; Pagliuca, Nicola Mauro; Tarchini, Luca

    2015-01-01

    Torre Alfina is a medium enthalpy (T = 140 °C) geothermal field in Central Italy, hosted in buried fractured Mesozoic limestones, extensively explored in the 1970s and 1980s, but which so far has not been exploited. A detailed diffuse soil CO2 flux investigation (1336 measurements over a surface of 12.6 km2) and the periodic monitoring of soil CO2 flux from target areas indicate that in most of the area, even above a pressurized gas cap existing at the reservoir top, the soil CO2 flux is low and mostly within the background threshold (48 g m- 2 day- 1) and is likely generated by biological soil respiration. Anomalous values (up to 30.250 g m- 2 day- 1) are found only in the proximity of a small zone with gas vents whose composition is identical to that of the gas produced by the geothermal wells tapping the reservoir. This is the only zone where a fault connecting the deep geothermal reservoir with the surface does exist. These data are compared with those of the near Latera high enthalpy geothermal field (T = 210 °C), where anomalous soil CO2 flux is recorded above the productive reservoir. The difference of soil CO2 release in the two fields is attributed to the differences in the impervious cover (allochthonous flysch deposits) above the carbonate reservoir, which is thin and locally lacking at Latera, and continuous and thick (> 400 m) at Torre Alfina. Results demonstrate that soil CO2 flux investigations are useful in geothermal exploration, but only high flux values likely indicate the presence of a geothermal reservoir at depth, whereas low flux values can indicate either the lack of an active geothermal reservoir at depth or the presence of a very effective impervious cover above the reservoir.

  9. Anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) increases frontal-midline theta activity in the human EEG: a preliminary investigation of non-invasive stimulation.

    PubMed

    Miller, Joe; Berger, Barbara; Sauseng, Paul

    2015-02-19

    Rhythmical brain activity in the range between four and eight Hz acquired over frontal-midline EEG recording sites - so called frontal-midline theta activity - is regarded as one of the most prominent neural signatures of sustained attention. It is reported to parametrically increase with cognitive load and is thought to be generated in medial prefrontal cortex. Here we explored the possibility of using anodal transcranial direct current stimulation over frontal sites to enhance frontal-midline theta activity and to increase sustained attention performance. We used a small preliminary sample to test a novel direct current stimulation electrode configuration by which we were able to significantly increase frontal-midline theta amplitude in a resting condition after the end of the stimulation period. Using standardised low resolution electromagnetic tomography analysis the effect in the surface EEG was localised to right prefrontal and left medial prefrontal brain areas. Transcranial direct current stimulation did, however, not have any impact on behavioural performance during a sustained attention task. This most likely was due to a very fast washout of the stimulation's after effect on theta activity. Although these are only preliminary results from a rather small sample, this study demonstrates that transcranial direct current stimulation can be used to rather selectively enhance frontal-midline theta amplitude. PMID:25576699

  10. Preliminary design of four aircraft to service the California Corridor in the year 2010: The California Condor, California Sky-Hopper, high capacity short range transport tilt rotor aircraft needed to simplify intercity transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The major objective of this project was to design an aircraft for use in the California Corridor in the year 2010. The design process, completed by students in a senior design class at California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo, used a Class 1 airplane design analysis from Jan Roskam's Airplane Design. The California Condor (CC-38), a 38 passenger, 400 mph aircraft, was designed to meet the needs of tomorrow's passengers while conforming to the California Corridor's restrictions. Assumptions were made using today's technology with forecasts into 21st Century technology. Doubling today's commuter aircraft passenger capacity, travelling at Mach .57 with improved cruise efficiencies of over 10 percent, with the ability to land within field lengths of 4000 feet, are the CC-38's strongest points. The California Condor has a very promising future in helping to relieve the air traffic and airport congestion in the 21st Century.

  11. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic investigations on a ??-crystallin domain of absent in melanoma 1 (AIM1), a protein from Homo sapiens

    SciTech Connect

    Aravind, Penmatsa; Rajini, Bheemreddy; Sharma, Yogendra; Sankaranarayanan, Rajan

    2006-03-01

    The crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of AIM1g1, a ??-crystallin domain of absent in melanoma (AIM1) protein from H. sapiens, is reported. AIM1g1 is a single ??-crystallin domain from the protein absent in melanoma 1 (AIM1), which appears to play a role in the suppression of melanomas. This domain is known to bind calcium and its structure would help in identifying calcium-coordinating sites in vertebrate crystallins, which have hitherto been believed to have lost this ability during evolution. Crystallization of this domain was performed by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. Crystals diffracted to a maximum resolution of 1.86 Å and were found to belong to space group P6{sub 1} or P6{sub 5}, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 54.98, c = 59.73 Å. Solvent-content analysis indicated the presence of one monomer per asymmetric unit.

  12. Preliminary investigations of the colonisation of upper respiratory tract tissues of infants using a paediatric formulation of the oral probiotic Streptococcus salivarius K12.

    PubMed

    Power, D A; Burton, J P; Chilcott, C N; Dawes, P J; Tagg, J R

    2008-12-01

    A powder preparation of the oral probiotic Streptococcus salivarius K12 has been given to 19 young otitis media-prone children following a 3-day course of amoxicillin administered as a preliminary to ventilation tube placement. In two subjects, the use of strain K12 appeared to effect the expansion of an indigenous population of inhibitory S. salivarius. In other children, strain K12 colonisation extended beyond the oral cavity to also include the nasopharynx or adenoid tissue. The relatively low proportion (33%) of subjects that colonised was attributed to failure of the amoxicillin pre-treatment to sufficiently reduce the indigenous S. salivarius populations prior to dosing with strain K12 powder. PMID:18560907

  13. 19 CFR 202.3 - Preliminary inquiry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Preliminary inquiry. 202.3 Section 202.3 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION NONADJUDICATIVE INVESTIGATIONS INVESTIGATIONS OF COSTS OF PRODUCTION § 202.3 Preliminary inquiry. Upon the receipt of an application properly filed,...

  14. 19 CFR 202.3 - Preliminary inquiry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Preliminary inquiry. 202.3 Section 202.3 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION NONADJUDICATIVE INVESTIGATIONS INVESTIGATIONS OF COSTS OF PRODUCTION § 202.3 Preliminary inquiry. Upon the receipt of an application properly filed,...

  15. 19 CFR 202.3 - Preliminary inquiry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Preliminary inquiry. 202.3 Section 202.3 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION NONADJUDICATIVE INVESTIGATIONS INVESTIGATIONS OF COSTS OF PRODUCTION § 202.3 Preliminary inquiry. Upon the receipt of an application properly filed,...

  16. 19 CFR 202.3 - Preliminary inquiry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Preliminary inquiry. 202.3 Section 202.3 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION NONADJUDICATIVE INVESTIGATIONS INVESTIGATIONS OF COSTS OF PRODUCTION § 202.3 Preliminary inquiry. Upon the receipt of an application properly filed,...

  17. 19 CFR 202.3 - Preliminary inquiry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Preliminary inquiry. 202.3 Section 202.3 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION NONADJUDICATIVE INVESTIGATIONS INVESTIGATIONS OF COSTS OF PRODUCTION § 202.3 Preliminary inquiry. Upon the receipt of an application properly filed,...

  18. Phytoremediative Capacity of Plants Enriched with Melatonin

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Dun-Xian; Manchester, Lucien C; Helton, Pat

    2007-01-01

    Melatonin is an environmentally friendly-molecule with broad spectrum antioxidant capacity. Melatonin is widely present in the plant kingdom. High levels of melatonin exist in an aquatic plant, the water hyacinth, which is highly tolerant of environmental pollutants. Elevated levels of melatonin probably help plants to protect against environmental stress caused by water and soil pollutants. To investigate the potential relationships between melatonin supplementation and environmental tolerance in plants, pea plants were treated with high levels of copper in the soil. The results show that copper contamination kills pea plants; however, melatonin added to the soil significantly enhanced their tolerance to the copper contamination and, therefore, increased their survival. Based on the theory and these preliminary data, we speculate that melatonin could be used to improve the phytoremediative efficiency of plants against different pollutants. Since melatonin is safe to animals and humans as well as being inexpensive, it may be a feasible and cost-effective approach to clean environmental contaminations. PMID:19704544

  19. A preliminary investigation of insect colonization and succession on remains of rabbits treated with an organophosphate insecticide in El-Qalyubiya Governorate of Egypt.

    PubMed

    Abd El-bar, M M; Sawaby, R F

    2011-05-20

    A preliminary field study in the summer in a rural village in El-Qalyubiya Governorate (Egypt) compared the necrophagous insects colonizing the cadavers of two male rabbits (Oryctolagus cunicullus domesticus L.) killed by asphyxia (control), with two poisoned by the organophosphate (OP) pesticide pirimiphos-methyl (test). Decay of control carcasses was rapid since they reached the skeletal stage in only 19 days. Test carcasses did not decay completely, even 40 days post-killing. Insect species colonizing both carcasses types were not different, indicating that despite its odor, the OP were not masking the decomposition odors which were drawing the species to the bodies. The blowfly Chrysomya albiceps (Weidemann) constituted 76.6% of all samples collected. They were the first colonizers and played a major role in the decomposition process of control carcasses and in the partial decay of the test ones. They were significantly fewer numbers of immature stages developing on the test carcasses which probably contributed to their distinct lag and poor decomposition. Samples indicate that 17.3% of the insects were members of the Formicidae. This family was present in all carcasses, mostly in the early stages of decomposition. Formicidae may be considered omnivorous, and one of the fauna which use the cadaver as a refuge, to obtain humidity and food. This study provides additional knowledge in the context of Egyptian forensic entomology and the influence of OP which is of relevance to forensic science. PMID:21130587

  20. A preliminary investigation into the effectiveness of a group-delivered sleep management intervention for parents of children with intellectual disabilities.

    PubMed

    Stuttard, Lucy; Beresford, Bryony; Clarke, Sue; Beecham, Jeni; Curtis, Julie

    2015-12-01

    Sleep problems are more prevalent and severe among children with intellectual disabilities and autism compared to typically developing children. Training parents in behavioural approaches to manage sleep problems is advocated. However, delivering such interventions via groups is novel. This article reports the findings from a preliminary evaluation of a group-delivered intervention routinely delivered by a Child and Adolescent Mental Health Service Learning Disability team in England. For this purpose, parents (n = 23) of children with intellectual disabilities were recruited. The Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire, Parents' Sense of Competence Scale and parent-set goals captured outcomes at pre-intervention, post-intervention and 3- and 6-month follow-up. Intervention delivery costs were collected. Take-up was high (86%), and no parent dropped out. Statistically significant improvements in night wakings, parent-set goals and parents' sense of efficacy were observed. The estimated mean cost of delivering each intervention was British (GBP) £1570. Findings suggest the intervention is a low-cost, acceptable service warranting further evaluation. PMID:25792540

  1. Preliminary X-ray investigations of several crystal forms of the ferripyoverdine FpvA outer membrane receptor from Pseudomonas aeruginosa bound to ferripyoverdine

    SciTech Connect

    Wirth, Christophe; Hoegy, Françoise; Pattus, Franc; Cobessi, David

    2006-05-01

    The crystallization and X-ray data analysis of three crystal forms of the outer membrane pyoverdine transducer FpvA from P. aeruginosa bound to ferripyoverdine are described. The resolution of the crystals ranges from 3.15 to 2.7 Å depending on the crystal form; all were obtained in the presence of C{sub 8}E{sub 4} detergent. Ferripyoverdine transport across the outer membrane of Pseudomonas aeruginosa by the pyoverdine receptor FpvA and the transcriptional regulation of FpvA involve interactions of the FpvA N-terminal TonB box and signalling domain with proteins from the inner membrane. Several crystallization conditions of FpvA–Pvd-Fe solubilized in C{sub 8}E{sub 4} detergent were obtained and X-ray data were collected from three crystal forms. The resolution limits range from 3.15 to 2.7 Å depending on the crystal form. From preliminary analysis of the electron-density maps, the first full-length structure of an outer membrane receptor including a signalling domain should be determined.

  2. Implications of Scheduled ITC Reversion for RPS Compliance: Preliminary Results

    SciTech Connect

    Lowder, Travis; Miller, John; O'Shaughnessy, Eric; Heeter, Jenny

    2015-09-14

    This poster presents DRAFT initial results of a forthcoming NREL analysis. The analysis investigates the impacts of the scheduled investment tax credit (ITC) reversion from 30 percent to 10 percent for certain solar photovoltaic projects. Specifically, it considers whether the reversion will result in increased use of alternative compliance payments (ACPs) in lieu of solar renewable energy credits (SRECs) for renewable portfolio standard (RPS) compliance. The analysis models the effect of a 10 percent ITC on power purchase agreement (PPA) prices for non-residential systems in the eight states with solar carve-outs and solar ACPs. Our preliminary results suggest that states will likely install sufficient capacity to meet long-term targets through SRECs rather than ACPs following the ITC reversion. However, the analysis shows that the ITC reversion could affect project economics such that capacity shortfalls in certain states could temporarily increase the use of ACPs. NREL anticipates publishing a full report of this analysis in fall 2015. credits (SRECs) for renewable portfolio standard (RPS) compliance. The analysis models the effect of a 10 percent ITC on power purchase agreement (PPA) prices for non-residential systems in the eight states with solar carve-outs and solar ACPs. Our preliminary results suggest that states will likely install sufficient capacity to meet long-term targets through SRECs rather than ACPs following the ITC reversion. However, the analysis shows that the ITC reversion could affect project economics such that capacity shortfalls in certain states could temporarily increase the use of ACPs. NREL anticipates publishing a full report of this analysis in fall 2015.

  3. Testing the Predictions of the Central Capacity Sharing Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tombu, Michael; Jolicoeur, Pierre

    2005-01-01

    The divergent predictions of 2 models of dual-task performance are investigated. The central bottleneck and central capacity sharing models argue that a central stage of information processing is capacity limited, whereas stages before and after are capacity free. The models disagree about the nature of this central capacity limitation. The…

  4. Some Investigations of the General Instability of Stiffened Metal Cylinders II : Preliminary Tests of Wire-braced Specimens and Theoretical Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1943-01-01

    This is the second of a series of reports covering an investigation of the general instability problem by the California Institute of Technology. The first five reports of this series cover investigations of the general instability problem under the loading conditions of pure bending and were prepared under the sponsorship of the Civil Aeronautics Administration. The succeeding reports of this series cover the work done on other loading conditions under the sponsorship of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics.

  5. Reducing negative interpretations in adolescents with anxiety disorders: a preliminary study investigating the effects of a single session of cognitive bias modification training.

    PubMed

    Fu, Xiaoxue; Du, Yasong; Au, Shun; Lau, Jennifer Y F

    2013-04-01

    Anxiety disorders are globally prevalent, debilitating and onset in early life. Cognitive bias modification of interpretations (CBM-I) training has emerged as a targeted intervention for early emerging anxiety problems. While CBM-I can alter interpretational styles in unselected and clinical-analogue samples of adolescents, no studies have assessed its capacity to change biases in clinical samples. Here, we assessed training efficacy in ameliorating interpretation biases and anxious mood in adolescents with anxiety disorders. Twenty-eight Chinese adolescents meeting criteria for a current anxiety disorder were randomly assigned to receive positive or neutral CBM-I training. Training involved completing a word-fragment to resolve the outcomes of sixty ambiguous scenarios. During positive training, scenarios ended with benign/positive resolutions, but during neutral training, half of the scenarios were resolved positively and half negatively. Positively trained patients interpreted new ambiguous scenarios less negatively than the neutral training group although training effects were not observed on a questionnaire measure of interpretation bias. Training effects on mood were also absent. Before the clinical implications of CBM-I can be considered in adolescents, research needs to establish optimal training parameters for symptom-changes to occur. PMID:23219491

  6. Individual differences in working memory capacity and workload capacity

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Ju-Chi; Chang, Ting-Yun; Yang, Cheng-Ta

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between working memory capacity (WMC) and workload capacity (WLC). Each participant performed an operation span (OSPAN) task to measure his/her WMC and three redundant-target detection tasks to measure his/her WLC. WLC was computed non-parametrically (Experiments 1 and 2) and parametrically (Experiment 2). Both levels of analyses showed that participants high in WMC had larger WLC than those low in WMC only when redundant information came from visual and auditory modalities, suggesting that high-WMC participants had superior processing capacity in dealing with redundant visual and auditory information. This difference was eliminated when multiple processes required processing for only a single working memory subsystem in a color-shape detection task and a double-dot detection task. These results highlighted the role of executive control in integrating and binding information from the two working memory subsystems for perceptual decision making. PMID:25566143

  7. Preliminary Results of an Altitude-Wind-Tunnel Investigation of a TG-100A Gas Turbine-Propeller Engine. V; Combustion-Chamber Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gensenheyner, Robert M.; Berdysz, Joseph J.

    1947-01-01

    An investigation to determine the performance and operational characteristics of the TG-1OOA gas turbine-propeller engine was conducted in the Cleveland altitude wind tunnel. As part of this investigation, the combustion-chamber performance was determined at pressure altitudes from 5000 to 35,000 feet, compressor-inlet rm-pressure ratios of 1.00 and 1.09, and engine speeds from 8000 to 13,000 rpm. Combustion-chamber performance is presented as a function of corrected engine speed and.correcte& horsepower. For the range of corrected engine speeds investigated, over-all total-pressure-loss ratio, cycle efficiency, ana the frac%ional loss in cycle efficiency resulting from pressure losses in the combustion chambers were unaffected by a change in altitude or compressor-inlet ram-pressure ratio. The scatter of combustion- efficiency data tended to obscure any effect of altitude or ram-pressure ratio. For the range of corrected horse-powers investigated, the total-pressure-loss ratio an& the fractional loss in cycle efficiency resulting from pressure losses in the combustion chambers decreased with an increase in corrected horsepower at a constant corrected engine speed. The combustion efficiency remained constant for the range of corrected horse-powers investigated at all corrected engine speeds.

  8. Preliminary Results of an Altitude-Wind-Tunnel Investigation of an Axial-Flow Gas Turbine-Propeller Engine. 5; Combustion-Chamber Characterisitcs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geisenheyner, Robert M.; Berdysz, Joseph J.

    1948-01-01

    An investigation to determine the performance and operational characteristics of an axial-flow gas turbine-propeller engine was conducted in the Cleveland altitude wind tunnel. As part of this investigation, the combustion-chamber performance was determined at pressure altitudes from 5000 to 35,000 feet, compressor-inlet ram-pressure ratios of 1.00 and 1.09, and engine speeds from 8000 to 13,000 rpm. Combustion-chamber performance is presented as a function of corrected engine speed and corrected horsepower. For the range of corrected engine speeds investigated, overall total-pressure-loss ratio, cycle efficiency, and the fractional loss in cycle efficiency resulting from pressure losses in the combustion chambers were unaffected by a change in altitude or compressor-inlet ram-pressure ratio. For the range of corrected horsepowers investigated, the total-pressure-loss ratio and the fractional loss in cycle efficiency resulting from pressure losses in the combustion chambers decreased with an increase in corrected horsepower at a constant corrected engine speed. The combustion efficiency remained constant for the range of corrected horsepowers investigated at all corrected engine speeds.

  9. Preliminary Use of the Seismo-Lineament Analysis Method (SLAM) to Investigate Seismogenic Faulting in the Grand Canyon Area, Northern Arizona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cronin, V. S.; Cleveland, D. M.; Prochnow, S. J.

    2007-12-01

    This is a progress report on our application of the Seismo-Lineament Analysis Method (SLAM) to the eastern Grand Canyon area of northern Arizona. SLAM is a new integrated method for identifying potentially seismogenic faults using earthquake focal-mechanism solutions, geomorphic analysis and field work. There are two nodal planes associated with any double-couple focal-mechanism solution, one of which is thought to coincide with the fault that produced the earthquake; the slip vector is normal to the other (auxiliary) plane. When no uncertainty in the orientation of the fault-plane solution is reported, we use the reported vertical and horizontal uncertainties in the focal location to define a tabular uncertainty volume whose orientation coincides with that of the fault-plane solution. The intersection of the uncertainty volume and the ground surface (represented by the DEM) is termed a seismo-lineament. An image of the DEM surface is illuminated perpendicular to the strike of the seismo- lineament to accentuate geomorphic features within the seismo-lineament that may be related to seismogenic faulting. This evaluation of structural geomorphology is repeated for several different azimuths and elevations of illumination. A map is compiled that includes possible geomorphic indicators of faulting as well as previously mapped faults within each seismo-lineament, constituting a set of hypotheses for the possible location of seismogenic fault segments that must be evaluated through fieldwork. A fault observed in the field that is located within a seismo-lineament, and that has an orientation and slip characteristics that are statistically compatible with the fault-plane solution, is considered potentially seismogenic. We compiled a digital elevation model (DEM) of the Grand Canyon area from published data sets. We used earthquake focal-mechanism solutions produced by David Brumbaugh (2005, BSSA, v. 95, p. 1561-1566) for five M > 3.5 events reported between 1989 and 1995. Fieldwork to test our hypotheses is planned for the spring of 2008. Based on a preliminary analysis, the northwest-trending Muav, Tipoff, Cremation and Phantom Faults are all located within northwest-trending seismo-lineaments associated with recorded earthquakes that are characterized by normal (slightly oblique) focal mechanism solutions. This is consistent with Brumbaugh's suggestion that present-day seismicity in the eastern Grand Canyon is concentrated on faults with a northwest trend.

  10. A Preliminary Investigation into Critical Thinking of In-Service and Pre-Service Middle School Chemistry Teachers in Shaanxi Province of China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Qing; Yan, Chungeng; Zhao, Shuyu; Liu, Liya; Xing, Lijuan

    2012-01-01

    This research investigated the development of critical thinking of middle school chemistry teachers in Shaanxi province of China. In-service and pre-service teachers' critical thinking are examined in order to provide evidence for establishing teachers' standard. The sample in this study consisted of 69 in-service and 61 pre-service chemistry…

  11. Preliminary Results of an Altitude-Wind-Tunnel Investigation of an Axial-Flow Gas Turbine-Propeller Engine. 2; Windmilling Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conrad, E. W.; Durham, J. D.

    1948-01-01

    Wind tunnel investigations were performed to determine the performance properties of an axial-flow gas turbine-propeller engine II. Windmilling characteristics were determined for a range of altitudes from 5000 to 35,000 feet, true airspeeds from 100 to 273 miles per hour, and propeller blade angles from 4 degrees to 46 degrees.

  12. Preliminary Results of an Altitude-Wind-Tunnel Investigation of a TG-100A Gas Turbine-Propeller Engine II - Windmilling Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conrad, E. W.; Durham, J. D.

    1947-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to determine the operational and performance characteristics of the TG-100A gas turbine-propeller engine II. Windmilling characteristics were deterined for a range of altitudes from 5000 to 35,000 feet, true airspeeds from 100 to 273 miles per hour, and propeller blade angles from 4 degrees to 46 degrees.

  13. A Preliminary Investigation of the Spence Children's Anxiety Parent Scale as a Screening Tool for Anxiety in Young People with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zainal, Hani; Magiati, Iliana; Tan, Julianne Wen-Li; Sung, Min; Fung, Daniel S.; Howlin, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Despite high rates of clinically elevated anxiety difficulties in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), very few studies have systematically examined the usefulness of commonly used caregiver report anxiety screening tools with this population. This study investigated the use of the Spence Children's Anxiety…

  14. Improving the Capacity of Sodium Ion Battery Using a Virus-Templated Nanostructured Composite Cathode

    SciTech Connect

    Moradi, M; Li, Z; Qi, JF; Xing, WT; Xiang, K; Chiang, YM; Belcher, AM

    2015-05-01

    In this work we investigated an energy-efficient biotemplated route to synthesize nanostructured FePO4 for sodium-based batteries. Self-assembled M13 viruses and single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) have been used as a template to grow amorphous FePO4 nanoparticles at room temperature (the active composite is denoted as Bio-FePO4-CNT) to enhance the electronic conductivity of the active material. Preliminary tests demonstrate a discharge capacity as high as 166 mAh/g at C/10 rate, corresponding to composition Na0.9FePO4, which along with higher C-rate tests show this material to have the highest capacity and power performance reported for amorphous FePO4 electrodes to date.

  15. Photoprotective capacities of lichen metabolites: a joint theoretical and experimental study.

    PubMed

    Millot, Marion; Di Meo, Florent; Tomasi, Sophie; Boustie, Joël; Trouillas, Patrick

    2012-06-01

    The adaptative capacity of lichens to UV radiation could be expressed by the production of photo-absorbing secondary metabolites in thalli. A preliminary screening performed on twelve lichen species by high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) revealed five major compounds absorbing in the UVA (315-400nm) or UVB (280-315nm) ranges in Diploicia canescens. After phytochemical investigation of this lichen, twelve metabolites have been isolated and characterized. Those obtained in sufficient quantities were evaluated for their photoprotective capacities and compared to three referent sunscreens. Experimental spectra were compared to theoretical spectra as obtained at the TD-DFT level of theory. Different DFT functionals were tested to accurately reproduce the UV/Vis spectra of five depsidones, one diphenylether and two bisxanthones. Results indicate that absorption wavelengths and molecular extinction coefficients (oscillator strengths) obtained for the bisxanthones were similar to those of the UVA referent sunscreen. PMID:22516892

  16. Improving the capacity of sodium ion battery using a virus-templated nanostructured composite cathode.

    PubMed

    Moradi, Maryam; Li, Zheng; Qi, Jifa; Xing, Wenting; Xiang, Kai; Chiang, Yet-Ming; Belcher, Angela M

    2015-05-13

    In this work we investigated an energy-efficient biotemplated route to synthesize nanostructured FePO4 for sodium-based batteries. Self-assembled M13 viruses and single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) have been used as a template to grow amorphous FePO4 nanoparticles at room temperature (the active composite is denoted as Bio-FePO4-CNT) to enhance the electronic conductivity of the active material. Preliminary tests demonstrate a discharge capacity as high as 166 mAh/g at C/10 rate, corresponding to composition Na0.9FePO4, which along with higher C-rate tests show this material to have the highest capacity and power performance reported for amorphous FePO4 electrodes to date. PMID:25811762

  17. A Preliminary Investigation of the Yallalie Basin: A Buried 15 KM Diameter Structure of Possible Impact Origin in the Perth Basin, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dentith, M. C.; Bevan, A. W. R.; McInerney, K. B.

    1992-07-01

    In late 1990, Ampol Exploration drew the attention of the senior author to an enigmatic structure located in Mesozoic rocks in the Dandaragan Trough of the Perth Basin about 200 km north of Perth, Western Australia. The basin-like Yallalie structure, centred on coordinates ca. 30 degrees 28'S, 115 degrees 47'E, is subcircular in plan view and about 15 km in diameter. Recognizing structures beneath the basin likely to contain oil, Ampol carried out an intensive geophysical survey of the area, and subsequently drilled a well (Yallalie 1). The well proved to be dry and exploration ceased. Generously, Ampol and their partners have made available the results of their exploration for a research project into the nature of the structure. Geology and regional setting: The exposed geology of the Yallalie basin area comprises discontinuous sequences of sedimentary rocks (sandstones, siltstones and shales) of Middle Jurassic to Late Cretaceous age that are capped by laterite and locally covered by thin (<50 m) Cenozoic eolian, colluvial and alluvial deposits (Cockbain, 1990). Modern, high-resolution, seismic reflection profiles across the Yallalie structure show a basin-shaped area of chaotic reflections that extend down to a depth of approximately 2 km below the surface. The structure has sharp boundaries with surrounding faulted, but otherwise relatively undisturbed rocks. At the base of the structure there is a central uplifted area approximately 3-4 km across similar to those described from complex impact structures (Dence et al., 1977). A preliminary survey of the area has shown that exposed rocks of the Yarragadee Formation (Middle Jurassic to Lower Cretaceous) and the succeeding Warnbro (Lower Cretaceous) and Coolyena (Late Cretaceous) Groups dip gently and their deposition appears to have postdated the underlying structure of intensely disturbed rocks. Although the structure is "draped" by a thin (a few hundred metres) veneer of late Jurassic to Cretaceous rocks it has some surface expression. A broad depression approximately 120 m deep is centered on Yallalie Well and is bounded to the west and north by a marked "rim." The area is characterized by a radial pattern of drainage that flows into the depression and which is gradually exhuming the buried structure. A southerly flowing stream drains the depression and has breached the "rim" to the south. Evidence for impact at Yallalie: Quartz grains taken from the core at a depth of 430-460 m in the Yallalie 1 well show widesprad development of prismatic cleavage fractures and irregular, slightly curved planes formed by brittle fracture. Quartz grains from a depth of 150-180 m in the well are essentially undeformed (McInerney, 1991). However, multiple sets of closely spaced planar features in quartz, characteristic of highly shocked rocks, have yet to be observed in core material from the Yallalie structure. Nevertheless, the morphology of the Yallalie structure determined from geophysical data suggests strongly that it is of impact origin. Work is continuing on the core material to search for diagnostic shock-metamorhic effects, and to constrain the age of the structure. References Cockbain A. E. (1990) In Geology and Mineral Resources of Western Australia, Western Australia Geological Survey, Memoir 3, pp. 514-516. Dence M. R., Grieve R. A. F., and Robertson P. B. (1977) In Impact and Explosion Cratering (eds. D. J. Roddy, R. O. Pepin, and R. B. Merrill), Pergamon Press, pp. 247-275. McInerney K. B. (1991) Honors Thesis (unpublished), University of Western Australia.

  18. Preliminary Results of an Altitude-Wind-Tunnel Investigation of a TG-100A Gas Turbine-Propeller Engine. 3; Pressure and Temperature Distributions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geisenheyner, Robert M.; Berdysz, Joseph J.

    1947-01-01

    An altitude-wind-tunnel investigation of a TG-100A gas turbine-propeller engine was performed. Pressure and temperature data were obtained at altitudes from 5000 to 35000 feet, compressor inlet ram-pressure ratios from 1.00 to 1.17, and engine speeds from 800 to 13000 rpm. The effect of engine speed, shaft horsepower, and compressor-inlet ram-pressure ratio on pressure and temperature distribution at each measuring station are presented graphically.

  19. Quantum Capacities of Channels with small Environment

    E-print Network

    Michael M. Wolf; David Perez-Garcia

    2006-07-11

    We investigate the quantum capacity of noisy quantum channels which can be represented by coupling a system to an effectively small environment. A capacity formula is derived for all cases where both system and environment are two-dimensional--including all extremal qubit channels. Similarly, for channels acting on higher dimensional systems we show that the capacity can be determined if the channel arises from a sufficiently small coupling to a qubit environment. Extensions to instances of channels with larger environment are provided and it is shown that bounds on the capacity with unconstrained environment can be obtained from decompositions into channels with small environment.

  20. A preliminary investigation of the additivity of pi-pi or pi+-pi stacking and T-shaped interactions between natural or damaged DNA nucleobases and histidine.

    PubMed

    Rutledge, Lesley R; Churchill, Cassandra D M; Wetmore, Stacey D

    2010-03-11

    Previous computational studies have examined pi-pi and pi(+)-pi stacking and T-shaped interactions in nucleobase-amino acid dimers, yet it is important to investigate how additional amino acids affect these interactions since simultaneous contacts often appear in nature. Therefore, this paper investigates the geometries and binding strengths of amino acid-nucleobase-amino acid trimers, which are compared to the corresponding nucleobase-amino acid dimer interactions. We concentrate on systems containing the natural nucleobase adenine or its (cationic) damaged counterpart, 3-methyladenine, and the aromatic amino acid histidine, in both the neutral and protonated forms. This choice of molecules provides information about pi-pi and pi(+)-pi stacking and T-shaped interactions in asymmetric, biologically relevant systems. We determined that both stacked and T-shaped interactions, as well as both pi-pi and pi(+)-pi interactions, exhibit geometric additivity. To investigate the energetic additivity in our trimers, the synergy (E(syn)) and the additivity (E(add)) energy were examined. E(add) reveals that it is important to consider the interaction between the two amino acids when examining the additivity of nucleobase-amino acid interactions. Additionally, E(syn) and E(add) indicate that pi(+)-pi interactions are quite different from pi-pi interactions. The magnitude of E(add) is generally less than 2 kJ mol(-1), which suggests that these interactions are additive. However, the interaction energy analysis does not provide information about the individual interactions in the trimers. Therefore, the quantum theory of atoms in molecules (QTAIM) was implemented. We find inconsistent conclusions from our QTAIM analysis and interaction energy evaluation. However, the magnitudes of the differences between the dimer and trimer critical point properties are extremely small and therefore may not be able to yield conclusive descriptions of differences (if any) between the dimer and trimer interactions. We hypothesize that, due to the limited number of investigations of this type, it is currently unclear how QTAIM can improve our understanding of pi-pi and pi(+)-pi dimers and trimers. Therefore, future work must systematically alter the pi-pi or pi(+)-pi system to definitively determine how the geometry, symmetry, and system size alter the QTAIM analysis, which can then be used to understand biologically relevant complexes. PMID:20151654

  1. Preliminary Results of an Altitude-Wind-Tunnel Investigation of an Axial-Flow Gas Turbine-Propeller Engine. 4; Compressor and Turbine Performance Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallner, Lewis E.; Saari, Martin J.

    1948-01-01

    As part of an investigation of the performance and operational characteristics of the axial-flow gas turbine-propeller engine, conducted in the Cleveland altitude wind tunnel, the performance characteristics of the compressor and the turbine were obtained. The data presented were obtained at a compressor-inlet ram-pressure ratio of 1.00 for altitudes from 5000 to 35,000 feet, engine speeds from 8000 to 13,000 rpm, and turbine-inlet temperatures from 1400 to 2100 R. The highest compressor pressure ratio obtained was 6.15 at a corrected air flow of 23.7 pounds per second and a corrected turbine-inlet temperature of 2475 R. Peak adiabatic compressor efficiencies of about 77 percent were obtained near the value of corrected air flow corresponding to a corrected engine speed of 13,000 rpm. This maximum efficiency may be somewhat low, however, because of dirt accumulations on the compressor blades. A maximum adiabatic turbine efficiency of 81.5 percent was obtained at rated engine speed for all altitudes and turbine-inlet temperatures investigated.

  2. Preliminary Results of an Altitude-Wind-Tunnel Investigation of a TG-100A Gas Turbine-Propeller Engine. 4; Compressor and Turbine Performance Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallner, Lewis E.; Saari, Martin J.

    1947-01-01

    As part of an investigation of the performance and operational characteristics of the TG-100A gas turbine-propeller engine, conducted in the Cleveland altitude wind tunnel, the performance characteristics of the compressor and the turbine were obtained. The data presented were obtained at a compressor-inlet ram-pressure ratio of 1.00 for altitudes from 5000 to 35,000 feet, engine speeds from 8000 to 13,000 rpm, and turbine-inlet temperatures from 1400 to 2100R. The highest compressor pressure ratio was 6.15 at a corrected air flow of 23.7 pounds per second and a corrected turbine-inlet temperature of 2475R. Peak adiabatic compressor efficiencies of about 77 percent were obtained near the value of corrected air flow corresponding to a corrected engine speed of 13,000 rpm. This maximum efficiency may be somewhat low, however, because of dirt accumulations on the compressor blades. A maximum adiabatic turbine efficiency of 81.5 percent was obtained at rated engine speed for all altitudes and turbine-inlet temperatures investigated.

  3. USING ISOTHERMS TO PREDICT GAC'S CAPACITY FOR SYNTHETIC ORGANICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This investigation involved operating a pilot granular activated carbon (GAC) plant to obtain capacity data under typical field conditions, determining isotherms for selected synthetic organic chemicals, and comparing the capacity predicted by the isotherm data with the pilot-pla...

  4. Preliminary Results of Altitude-Wind-Tunnel Investigation of X24C-4B Turbojet Engine. IV - Performance of Modified Compressor. Part 4; Performance of Modified Compressor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thorman, H. Carl; Dupree, David T.

    1947-01-01

    The performance of the 11-stage axial-flow compressor, modified to improve the compressor-outlet velocity, in a revised X24C-4B turbojet engine is presented and compared with the performance of the compressor in the original engine. Performance data were obtained from an investigation of the revised engine in the MACA Cleveland altitude wind tunnel. Compressor performance data were obtained for engine operation with four exhaust nozzles of different outlet area at simulated altitudes from 15,OOO to 45,000 feet, simulated flight Mach numbers from 0.24 to 1.07, and engine speeds from 4000 to 12,500 rpm. The data cover a range of corrected engine speeds from 4100 to 13,500 rpm, which correspond to compressor Mach numbers from 0.30 to 1.00.

  5. MR guided thermal therapy of pancreatic tumors with endoluminal, intraluminal and interstitial catheter-based ultrasound devices: preliminary theoretical and experimental investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakash, Punit; Salgaonkar, Vasant A.; Scott, Serena J.; Jones, Peter; Hensley, Daniel; Holbrook, Andrew; Plata, Juan; Sommer, Graham; Diederich, Chris J.

    2013-02-01

    Image-guided thermal interventions have been proposed for potential palliative and curative treatments of pancreatic tumors. Catheter-based ultrasound devices offer the potential for temporal and 3D spatial control of the energy deposition profile. The objective of this study was to apply theoretical and experimental techniques to investigate the feasibility of endogastric, intraluminal and transgastric catheter-based ultrasound for MR guided thermal therapy of pancreatic tumors. The transgastric approach involves insertion of a catheter-based ultrasound applicator (array of 1.5 mm OD x 10 mm transducers, 360° or sectored 180°, ~7 MHz frequency, 13-14G cooling catheter) directly into the pancreas, either endoscopically or via image-guided percutaneous placement. An intraluminal applicator, of a more flexible but similar construct, was considered for endoscopic insertion directly into the pancreatic or biliary duct. An endoluminal approach was devised based on an ultrasound transducer assembly (tubular, planar, curvilinear) enclosed in a cooling balloon which is endoscopically positioned within the stomach or duodenum, adjacent to pancreatic targets from within the GI tract. A 3D acoustic bio-thermal model was implemented to calculate acoustic energy distributions and used a FEM solver to determine the transient temperature and thermal dose profiles in tissue during heating. These models were used to determine transducer parameters and delivery strategies and to study the feasibility of ablating 1-3 cm diameter tumors located 2-10 mm deep in the pancreas, while thermally sparing the stomach wall. Heterogeneous acoustic and thermal properties were incorporated, including approximations for tumor desmoplasia and dynamic changes during heating. A series of anatomic models based on imaging scans of representative patients were used to investigate the three approaches. Proof of concept (POC) endogastric and transgastric applicators were fabricated and experimentally evaluated in tissue mimicking phantoms, ex vivo tissue and in vivo canine model under multi-slice MR thermometry. RF micro-coils were evaluated to enable active catheter-tracking and prescription of thermometry slice positions. Interstitial and intraluminal ultrasound applicators could be used to ablate (t43>240min) tumors measuring 2.3-3.4 cm in diameter when powered with 20-30 W/cm2 at 7 MHz for 5-10 min. Endoluminal applicators with planar and curvilinear transducers operating at 3-4 MHz could be used to treat tumors up to 20-25 mm deep from the stomach wall within 5 min. POC devices were fabricated and successfully integrated into the MRI environment with catheter tracking, real-time thermometry and closed-loop feedback control.

  6. Preliminary Low-Speed Wind-Tunnel Investigation of Some Aspects of the Aerodynamic Problems Associated with Missiles Carried Externally in Positions Near Airplane Wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alford, William J., Jr.; Silvers, H. Norman; King, Thomas J., Jr.

    1954-01-01

    A low-speed wind-tunnel investigation has been made of some aspects of the aerodynamic problems associated with the use of air-to-air missiles when carried externally on aircraft. Measurements of the forces and moments on a missile model for a range of positions under the mid-semispan location of a 45deg sweptback wing indicated longitudinal and lateral forces with regard to both carriage and release of the missiles. Surveys of the characteristics of the flow field in the region likely to be traversed by the missiles showed abrupt gradients in both flow angularity and in local dynamic pressure. Through the use of aerodynamic data on the isolated missile and the measured flow-field characteristics, the longitudinal forces and moments acting on the missile while in the presence of the wing-fuselage combination could be estimated with fair accuracy. Although the lateral forces and moments predicted were qualitatively correct, there existed some large discrepancies in absolute magnitude.

  7. Radiographic Determination of Hip Rotation Center and Femoral Offset in Japanese Adults: A Preliminary Investigation toward the Preoperative Implications in Total Hip Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Takamatsu, Taichiro; Shishido, Takaaki; Takahashi, Yasuhito; Masaoka, Toshinori; Tateiwa, Toshiyuki; Kubo, Kosuke; Endo, Kenji; Aoki, Masaya; Yamamoto, Kengo

    2015-01-01

    The values of hip rotation center (HRC) and femoral offset (FO) evaluated according to Caucasian anatomical landmarks have been regarded as a useful reference also for Japanese patients in total hip arthroplasty (THA). In a strict sense, however, since there can be racial differences among their anatomical morphologies, it is clinically important to reconsider those parameters for the Japanese. In the present study, in order to investigate correlations among hip and pelvic morphometric parameters, frontal radiographs were taken from 98 Japanese adults (60 males and 38 females) without acetabular dysplasia and arthropathy in the standing position. Their mean age was 62.0 ± 16.7 years. The horizontal position of HRC was significantly correlated with the pelvic width in both genders (P = 0.0026 and 0.0010 for the males and the females, resp.). The vertical position of HRC was significantly correlated with the teardrop-sacroiliac distance in the males (P = 0.0003) and with the pelvic cavity height in the females (P = 0.0067). However, in both genders, there were no correlations among FO and the other parameters analyzed in this study. Our present findings might contribute to theoretical implications of an appropriate HRC position for Japanese OA patients in THA. PMID:26576428

  8. Technetium removal: preliminary flowsheet options

    SciTech Connect

    Eager, K.M.

    1995-10-24

    This document presents the results of a preliminary investigation into options for preliminary flowsheets for 99Tc removal from Hanford Site tank waste. A model is created to show the path of 99Tc through pretreatment to disposal. The Tank Waste Remediation (TWRS) flowsheet (Orme 1995) is used as a baseline. Ranges of important inputs to the model are developed, such as 99Tc inventory in the tanks and important splits through the TWRS flowsheet. Several technetium removal options are discussed along with sensitivities of the removal schemes to important model parameters

  9. Preliminary investigation of the NMR, optical and x-ray CT dose-response of polymer gel dosimeters incorporating cosolvents to improve dose sensitivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koeva, V. I.; Olding, T.; Jirasek, A.; Schreiner, L. J.; McAuley, K. B.

    2009-05-01

    This study reports on efforts to increase the dose sensitivity of polymer gel dosimeters used in 3D radiation dosimetry. The potential of several different cosolvents is investigated, with the aim of increasing the solubility of N,N'-methylene-bisacrylamide crosslinker in polymer gel dosimeters. Glycerol and isopropanol increase the limit for the crosslinker solubility from approximately 3% to 5% and 10% by weight, respectively. This enables the manufacture of polymer gel dosimeters with much higher levels of crosslinking than was previously possible. New dosimeter recipes containing up to 5 wt% N,N'-methylene-bisacrylamide were subjected to spatially uniform radiation and were studied using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), as well as x-ray and optical CT techniques. The resulting dosimeters exhibit dose sensitivities that are up to 2.7 times higher than measured for a typical dosimeters with 3% N,N'-methylene-bisacrylamide without the addition of cosolvent. Two additional cosolvents (n-propanol and sec-butanol) were deemed unsuitable for practical dosimeters due to incompatibility with gelatin, cloudiness prior to irradiation, and immiscibility with water when large quantities of cosolvent were used. The dosimeters with high N,N'-methylene-bisacrylamide content that used isopropanol or glycerol as cosolvents had high optical clarity prior to irradiation, but did not produce suitable optical CT results for non-uniformly irradiated gels due to polymer development outside of the high dose regions of the pencil beams and significant light scatter. Further experiments are required to determine whether cosolvents can be used to manufacture gels with sufficiently high dose sensitivity for readout using x-ray computed tomography.

  10. Will urban expansion lead to an increase in future water pollution loads?--a preliminary investigation of the Haihe River Basin in northeastern China.

    PubMed

    Dong, Yang; Liu, Yi; Chen, Jining

    2014-01-01

    Urban expansion is a major driving force changing regional hydrology and nonpoint source pollution. The Haihe River Basin, the political, economic, and cultural center of northeastern China, has undergone rapid urbanization in recent decades. To investigate the consequences of future urban sprawl on nonpoint source water pollutant emissions in the river basin, the urban sprawl in 2030 was estimated, and the annual runoff and nonpoint source pollution in the Haihe River basin were simulated. The Integrated Model of Non-Point Sources Pollution Processes (IMPULSE) was used to simulate the effects of urban sprawl on nonpoint source pollution emissions. The outcomes indicated that the urban expansion through 2030 increased the nonpoint source total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorous (TP), and chemical oxygen demand (COD) emissions by 8.08, 0.14, and 149.57 kg/km(2), respectively. Compared to 2008, the total nonpoint emissions rose by 15.33, 0.57, and 12.39 %, respectively. Twelve percent of the 25 cities in the basin would increase by more than 50 % in nonpoint source TN and COD emissions in 2030. In particular, the nonpoint source TN emissions in Xinxiang, Jiaozuo, and Puyang would rise by 73.31, 67.25, and 58.61 %, and the nonpoint source COD emissions in these cities would rise by 74.02, 51.99, and 53.27 %, respectively. The point source pollution emissions in 2008 and 2030 were also estimated to explore the effects of urban sprawl on total water pollution loads. Urban sprawl through 2030 would bring significant structural changes of total TN, TP, and COD emissions for each city in the area. The results of this study could provide insights into the effects of urbanization in the study area and the methods could help to recognize the role that future urban sprawl plays in the total water pollution loads in the water quality management process. PMID:24532209

  11. Preliminary Results of Altitude-Wind-Tunnel Investigation of X24C-4B Turbojet Engine. I - Pressure and Temperature Distributions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prince, William R.; Hawkins, W. Kent

    1947-01-01

    Pressures and temperatures throughout the X24C-4B turbojet engine are presented in both tabular and graphical forms to show the effect of altitude, flight Mach number, and engine speed on the internal operation of the engine. These data were obtained in the NACA Cleveland altitude wind tunnel at simulated altitudes from 5000 to 45,000 feet, simulated flight Mach numbers from 0.25 to 1.08, and engine speeds from 4000 to 12,500 rpm. Location and detail drawings of the instrumentation installed at seven survey stations in the engine are shown. Application of generalization factors to pressures and temperatures at each measuring station for the range of altitudes investigated showed that the data did not generalize above an altitude of 25,000 feet. Total-pressure distribution at the compressor outlet varied only with change in engine speed. At altitudes above 35,000 feet and engine speeds above 11,000 rpm, the peak temperature at the turbine-outlet annulus moved inward toward the root of the blade, which is undesirable from blade-stress considerations. The temperature levels at the turbine outlet and the exhaust-nozzle outlet were lowered as the Mach number was increased. The static-pressure measurements obtained at each stator stage of the compressor showed a pressure drop through the inlet guide vanes and the first-stage rotor at high engine speeds. The average values measured by the manufacturer's instrumentation werein close agreement with the average values obtained with NACA instrumentation.

  12. Heat Capacity Analysis Report

    SciTech Connect

    A. Findikakis

    2004-11-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide heat capacity values for the host and surrounding rock layers for the waste repository at Yucca Mountain. The heat capacity representations provided by this analysis are used in unsaturated zone (UZ) flow, transport, and coupled processes numerical modeling activities, and in thermal analyses as part of the design of the repository to support the license application. Among the reports that use the heat capacity values estimated in this report are the ''Multiscale Thermohydrologic Model'' report, the ''Drift Degradation Analysis'' report, the ''Ventilation Model and Analysis Report, the Igneous Intrusion Impacts on Waste Packages and Waste Forms'' report, the ''Dike/Drift Interactions report, the Drift-Scale Coupled Processes (DST and TH Seepage) Models'' report, and the ''In-Drift Natural Convection and Condensation'' report. The specific objective of this study is to determine the rock-grain and rock-mass heat capacities for the geologic stratigraphy identified in the ''Mineralogic Model (MM3.0) Report'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170031], Table 1-1). This report provides estimates of the heat capacity for all stratigraphic layers except the Paleozoic, for which the mineralogic abundance data required to estimate the heat capacity are not available. The temperature range of interest in this analysis is 25 C to 325 C. This interval is broken into three separate temperature sub-intervals: 25 C to 95 C, 95 C to 114 C, and 114 C to 325 C, which correspond to the preboiling, trans-boiling, and postboiling regimes. Heat capacity is defined as the amount of energy required to raise the temperature of a unit mass of material by one degree (Nimick and Connolly 1991 [DIRS 100690], p. 5). The rock-grain heat capacity is defined as the heat capacity of the rock solids (minerals), and does not include the effect of water that exists in the rock pores. By comparison, the rock-mass heat capacity considers the heat capacity of both solids and pore water. For temperatures in the trans-boiling regime (95 C to 114 C), the additional energy required to vaporize the pore water is accounted for in the rock-mass heat capacity. The rock-grain heat capacities are intended to be used in models and analyses that explicitly account for the thermodynamic effects of the water within the rock porosity. The rock-mass heat capacities are intended to be used in models and analyses that do not explicitly account for these thermodynamic effects, particularly boiling. The term specific heat is often used synonymously with heat capacity; however, the latter term is used throughout this document.

  13. Effects of low and high dose intraarticular tiludronate on synovial fluid and clinical variables in healthy horses—a preliminary investigation

    PubMed Central

    Moneta, Lindsey; Ott, Jesse F.; Larson, Maureen K.; Gorman, Elena M.; Hunter, Barbara; Löhr, Christiane V.; Payton, Mark E.; Morré, Jeffrey T.; Maier, Claudia S.

    2014-01-01

    To determine effects of intraarticularly administered tiludronate on articular cartilage in vivo, eight healthy horses were injected once with tiludronate (low dose tiludronate [LDT] 0.017 mg, n = 4; high dose tiludronate [HDT] 50 mg, n = 4) into one middle carpal joint and with saline into the contralateral joint. Arthrocentesis of both middle carpal joints was performed pre-treatment, and 10 min, 24 h, 48 h, 7 and 14 days after treatment. Synovial nucleated cell counts and total solids, tiludronate, sulfated glycosaminoglycan (sGAG), chondroitin sulfate 846 epitope (CS-846, a measure of aggrecan synthesis), and collagen type II cleavage neoepitope (C2C) concentrations were determined. Histologic analysis of joint tissues and sGAG quantitation in cartilage was performed at 14 days in HDT horses. Data were analyzed by repeated measures non-parametric ANOVA and Wilcoxon signed-rank test. High dose tiludronate administration produced synovial fluid tiludronate concentrations of 2,677,500 ng/mL, exceeding concentrations that were safe for cartilage in vitro, and LDT administration produced synovial fluid concentrations of 1,353 ng/mL, remaining below concentrations considered potentially detrimental to cartilage. With HDT, synovial fluid total solids concentration was higher at 24 h and 7 days and sGAG concentration was higher at 48 h, compared to control joints. Synovial fluid CS-846 concentration was increased over pre-treatment values in HDT control but not in HDT treated joints at 24 and 48 h. All joints (HDT and LDT control and treated) showed a temporary decrease in synovial fluid C2C concentration, compared to pre-treatment values. Histologic features of articular cartilage and synovial membrane did not differ between HDT treated and control joints. High dose tiludronate treatment caused a transient increase in synovial total solids and temporarily increased proteoglycan degradation in cartilage. Although clinical significance of these changes are questionable, as they did not result in articular cartilage damage, further investigation of the safety of intraarticular HDT in a larger number of horses is warranted. PMID:25237596

  14. Liquid heat capacity lasers

    DOEpatents

    Comaskey, Brian J. (Walnut Creek, CA); Scheibner, Karl F. (Tracy, CA); Ault, Earl R. (Livermore, CA)

    2007-05-01

    The heat capacity laser concept is extended to systems in which the heat capacity lasing media is a liquid. The laser active liquid is circulated from a reservoir (where the bulk of the media and hence waste heat resides) through a channel so configured for both optical pumping of the media for gain and for light amplification from the resulting gain.

  15. Nonequilibrium heat capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandal, Dibyendu

    2013-12-01

    Development of steady state thermodynamics and statistical mechanics depends crucially on our ability to extend the notions of equilibrium thermodynamics to nonequilibrium steady states (NESS). The present paper considers the extension of heat capacity. A modified definition is proposed which continues to maintain the same relation to steady state Shannon entropy as in equilibrium, thus providing a thermodynamically consistent treatment of NESS heat capacity.

  16. Knudsen heat capacity

    SciTech Connect

    Babac, Gulru; Reese, Jason M.

    2014-05-15

    We present a “Knudsen heat capacity” as a more appropriate and useful fluid property in micro/nanoscale gas systems than the constant pressure heat capacity. At these scales, different fluid processes come to the fore that are not normally observed at the macroscale. For thermodynamic analyses that include these Knudsen processes, using the Knudsen heat capacity can be more effective and physical. We calculate this heat capacity theoretically for non-ideal monatomic and diatomic gases, in particular, helium, nitrogen, and hydrogen. The quantum modification for para and ortho hydrogen is also considered. We numerically model the Knudsen heat capacity using molecular dynamics simulations for the considered gases, and compare these results with the theoretical ones.

  17. Nanofluid heat capacities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starace, Anne K.; Gomez, Judith C.; Wang, Jun; Pradhan, Sulolit; Glatzmaier, Greg C.

    2011-12-01

    Significant increases in the heat capacity of heat transfer fluids are needed not only to reduce the costs of liquid heating and cooling processes, but also to bring clean energy producing technologies like concentrating solar power (CSP) to price parity with conventional energy generation. It has been postulated that nanofluids could have higher heat capacities than conventional fluids. In this work, nano- and micron-sized particles were added to five base fluids (poly-? olefin, mineral oil, ethylene glycol, a mixture of water and ethylene glycol, and calcium nitrate tetrahydrate), and the resulting heat capacities were measured and compared with those of the neat base fluids and the weighted average of the heat capacities of the components. The particles used were inert metals and metal oxides that did not undergo any phase transitions over the temperature range studied. In the nanofluids studied here, we found no increase in heat capacity upon the addition of the particles larger than the experimental error.

  18. Who needs capacity?

    PubMed

    Buchanan, Alec

    2015-01-01

    The UK Law Commission's Discussion Paper, Criminal Liability: Insanity and Automatism, recommends introducing the concept of capacity to the insanity defence. The concept of capacity has an established role in those parts of the law that concern the validity of the decisions that people make, for instance in composing a will or entering into a contract. Making mental capacity a criterion for criminal responsibility in a mentally disordered defendant, however, is potentially problematic. First, the term capacity already has several different meanings in the literature on the jurisprudence of mental abnormality. Second, using the concept of capacity in the way that the Law Commission proposes poses difficulties that relate to the provision of testimony by expert witnesses. PMID:25939285

  19. Preliminary Voting -- Prevoting

    E-print Network

    Rivest, Ronald L.

    2005-08-06

    We introduce the notion of preliminary voting, or pre-voting, wherein a voter deposits—perhaps over the Internet—a preliminary vote or prevote with election authorities at some time before the close of elections. Prevotes ...

  20. Preliminary investigations into UHCRE thermal control materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levadou, Francois; Froggatt, Mike; Rott, Martin; Schneider, Eberhard

    1991-01-01

    An overview is given of the initial work which has been done in the European Space Research and Technology Center (ESTEC) Materials and Processes Division to evaluate the effect of space environment on the thermal blankets of the Ultra-Heavy Cosmic Ray Nuclei Experiment (UHCRE). Also, an account is given of the simulation of the impacts of micrometeoroids and space debris in a spare flight thermal blanket by means of plasma gun and light gas gun acceleration facilities.

  1. A Preliminary Investigation of Hall Thruster Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallimore, Alec D.

    1997-01-01

    A three-year, NASA/BMDO-sponsored experimental program to conduct performance and plume plasma property measurements on two Russian Stationary Plasma Thrusters (SPTs) has been completed. The program utilized experimental facilitates at the University of Michigan's Plasmadynamics and Electric Propulsion Laboratory (PEPL). The main features of the proposed effort were as follows: We Characterized Hall thruster [and arcjet] performance by measuring ion exhaust velocity with probes at various thruster conditions. Used a variety of probe diagnostics in the thruster plume to measure plasma properties and flow properties including T(sub e) and n(sub e), ion current density and ion energy distribution, and electric fields by mapping plasma potential. Used emission spectroscopy to identify species within the plume and to measure electron temperatures.

  2. Preliminary geothermal investigations in West Virginia

    SciTech Connect

    Hendry, R.; Hilfiker, K.; Hodge, D.; Morgan, P.; Swanberg, C.

    1981-10-01

    Deep sedimentary basins and warm spring systems are potential geothermal resources in West Virginia. A temperature gradient map based on 800 BHT for WV shows that variation of temperature gradients trend NE parallel to regional structure. Highest temperature gradient values of about 28/sup 0/C/km occur in the eastcentral WV and the lowest gradients (18/sup 0/C/km) are found over the Rome trough. Results of groundwater geochemistry indicate that the warm springs circulate in very shallow aquifers and are subject to seasonal temperature fluctuations. Silica heat flow data in WV varies from about .89 to 1.4 HFU and generally increases towards the west. Bouguer, magnetic and temperature gradient profiles suggest that an ancient rift transects the State and is the site of several deep sedimentary basins.

  3. A Preliminary Investigation of Hall Thruster Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallimore, Alec D.

    1997-01-01

    A three-year NASA/BMDO-sponsored experimental program to conduct performance and plume plasma property measurements on two Russian Stationary Plasma Thrusters (SPTs) has been completed. The program utilized experimental facilitates at the University of Michigan's Plasmadynamics and Electric Propulsion Laboratory (PEPL). The main features of the proposed effort were as follows: (1) Characterized Hall thruster (and arcjet) performance by measuring ion exhaust velocity with probes at various thruster conditions; (2) Used a variety of probe diagnostics in the thruster plume to measure plasma properties and flow properties including T(sub e) and n(sub e) ion current density and ion energy distribution, and electric fields by mapping plasma potential; (3) Used emission spectroscopy to identify species within the plume and to measure electron temperatures. A key and unique feature of our research was our collaboration with Russian Hall thruster researcher Dr. Sergey A Khartov, Deputy Dean of International Relations at the Moscow Aviation Institute (MAI). His activities in this program included consulting on and participation in research at PEPL through use of a MAI-built SPT and ion energy probe.

  4. Preliminary subsidence investigation of Sacramento Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lofgren, B.E.; Ireland, R.L.

    1973-01-01

    Although a number of agencies have made leveling surveys in Sacramento Valley and a valleywide network of first- and second-order control exists, few areas have sufficient control for determining whether land subsidence has occurred and if so, how much, within the time span of vertical control. Available data suggest that 0.2 to 0.9 foot (0.06 to 0.3 m) of subsidence probably has occurred from 1935-42 to 1964 in an extensive agricultural area of heavy ground-water pumping between Zamora and Davis, and that as much as 2 feet (0.6 m) of subsidence has occurred in at least two areas of pumping overdraft--east of Zamora, and west of Arbuckle. A comparison of maps showing long-term water-level decline and average annual ground-water pumpage indicates several other areas of probable subsidence. In six general areas--northwest of Sacramento; northeast of Sacramento; southeast of Yuba City; 10 miles (16 km) north of Willows; 20 miles (32 km) north of Willows; and especially in the Arbuckle area,ground-water declines have quite probably produced significant subsidence. In two areas of most intensive pumping, no long-term water-level declines have occurred, and no subsidence is indicated. If problems of land subsidence are of concern in Sacramento Valley, and if estimates of historic subsidence or subsidence potential are needed, serious consideration should be given to a field program of basic-data collection. Second-order leveling along a few carefully selected lines of existing control, and the installation and operation of two or three compaction recorders in areas of continuing water-level decline, would provide helpful data for estimating .past and future subsidence.

  5. Odor of the muskox : A preliminary investigation.

    PubMed

    Flood, P F; Abrams, S R; Muir, G D; Rowell, J E

    1989-08-01

    The behavior of captive male muskoxen was observed closely during their characteristic superiority display, the anatomy of the preputial region was studied in two adults and three calves, and preputial washings and preorbital gland secretion were subjected to gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy. During the superiority display, the prepuce was everted to form a pendulous tube tipped with a fringe of matted hair. Owing to the movement of the animal, the urine that dribbled from the preputial opening was liberally applied to the long guard hairs of the belly. The superiority display was almost exclusively confined to dominant males and apparently accounted for their odor. In the quiescent state, the hair seen around the preputial opening was drawn inside and formed an 8 cm-wide band on the lining of the prepuce. The preputial washings contained large amounts of benzoic acid andp-cresol. The infraorbital gland secretion contained cholesterol, benzaldehyde, and a homologous series of saturated ?-lactones ranging from 8 to 12 carbons. The latter compounds and the natural secretion smell similar to the human nose. PMID:24272381

  6. A preliminary investigation of Jilantai chondrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Y.; Yang, X.

    In the afternoon on March 15, 1979, a chondrite, 20.5 kg in total weight, fell in the Jilantai People's Commune at Alxa Zuoqi, Inner Mongolia, China. In terms of mineralogic identification and chemical analysis, this meteorite should be assigned to L-group ordinary chondrites.

  7. Cheating in Online Classes: A Preliminary Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker Bemmel, Mirella

    2014-01-01

    This applied dissertation was an inquiry into the phenomenon of cheating among students who take their classes online. There is a common perception that cheating is rampant in online classes and the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools, the accreditation association in the South, implemented policies, which mandate stricter monitoring of…

  8. Refinery Capacity Report

    EIA Publications

    2015-01-01

    Data series include fuel, electricity, and steam purchased for consumption at the refinery; refinery receipts of crude oil by method of transportation; and current and projected atmospheric crude oil distillation, downstream charge, and production capacities. Respondents are operators of all operating and idle petroleum refineries (including new refineries under construction) and refineries shut down during the previous year, located in the 50 states, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Guam, and other U.S. possessions. The Refinery Capacity Report does not contain working and shell storage capacity data. This data is now being collected twice a year as of March 31 and September 30 on the Form EIA-810, "Monthly Refinery Report", and is now released as a separate report Working and Net Available Shell Storage Capacity.

  9. Forward capacity market CONEfusion

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, James F.

    2010-11-15

    In ISO New England and PJM it was assumed that sponsors of new capacity projects would offer them into the newly established forward centralized capacity markets at prices based on their levelized net cost of new entry, or ''Net CONE.'' But the FCCMs have not operated in the way their proponents had expected. To clear up the CONEfusion, FCCM designs should be reconsidered to adapt them to the changing circumstances and to be grounded in realistic expectations of market conduct. (author)

  10. Panama Canal capacity analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Bronzini, M.S.

    1995-04-27

    Predicting the transit capacities of the various Panama Canal alternatives required analyzing data on present Canal operations, adapting and extending an existing computer simulation model, performing simulation runs for each of the alternatives, and using the simulation model outputs to develop capacity estimates. These activities are summarized in this paper. A more complete account may be found in the project final report (TAMS 1993). Some of the material in this paper also appeared in a previously published paper (Rosselli, Bronzini, and Weekly 1994).

  11. Nonequilibrium heat capacity.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Dibyendu

    2013-12-01

    Development of steady state thermodynamics and statistical mechanics depends crucially on our ability to extend the notions of equilibrium thermodynamics to nonequilibrium steady states (NESS). The present paper considers the extension of heat capacity. A modified definition is proposed which continues to maintain the same relation to steady state Shannon entropy as in equilibrium, thus providing a thermodynamically consistent treatment of NESS heat capacity. PMID:24483414

  12. Stochastic capacity modeling to support demand/capacity gap planning

    E-print Network

    Niles, Augusta (Augusta L.)

    2014-01-01

    Capacity strategy has established methods of dealing with uncertainty in future demand. This project advances the concept of capacity strategy under conditions of uncertainty in cases where capacity is the primary source ...

  13. Geothermal Plant Capacity Factors

    SciTech Connect

    Greg Mines; Jay Nathwani; Christopher Richard; Hillary Hanson; Rachel Wood

    2015-01-01

    The capacity factors recently provided by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) indicated this plant performance metric had declined for geothermal power plants since 2008. Though capacity factor is a term commonly used by geothermal stakeholders to express the ability of a plant to produce power, it is a term frequently misunderstood and in some instances incorrectly used. In this paper we discuss how this capacity factor is defined and utilized by the EIA, including discussion on the information that the EIA requests from operations in their 923 and 860 forms that are submitted both monthly and annually by geothermal operators. A discussion is also provided regarding the entities utilizing the information in the EIA reports, and how those entities can misinterpret the data being supplied by the operators. The intent of the paper is to inform the facility operators as the importance of the accuracy of the data that they provide, and the implications of not providing the correct information.

  14. Capacity Maximizing Constellations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barsoum, Maged; Jones, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Some non-traditional signal constellations have been proposed for transmission of data over the Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN) channel using such channel-capacity-approaching codes as low-density parity-check (LDPC) or turbo codes. Computational simulations have shown performance gains of more than 1 dB over traditional constellations. These gains could be translated to bandwidth- efficient communications, variously, over longer distances, using less power, or using smaller antennas. The proposed constellations have been used in a bit-interleaved coded modulation system employing state-ofthe-art LDPC codes. In computational simulations, these constellations were shown to afford performance gains over traditional constellations as predicted by the gap between the parallel decoding capacity of the constellations and the Gaussian capacity

  15. Dual capacity reciprocating compressor

    DOEpatents

    Wolfe, R.W.

    1984-10-30

    A multi-cylinder compressor particularly useful in connection with northern climate heat pumps and in which different capacities are available in accordance with reversing motor rotation is provided with an eccentric cam on a crank pin under a fraction of the connecting rods, and arranged for rotation upon the crank pin between opposite positions 180[degree] apart so that with cam rotation on the crank pin such that the crank throw is at its normal maximum value all pistons pump at full capacity, and with rotation of the crank shaft in the opposite direction the cam moves to a circumferential position on the crank pin such that the overall crank throw is zero. Pistons whose connecting rods ride on a crank pin without a cam pump their normal rate with either crank rotational direction. Thus a small clearance volume is provided for any piston that moves when in either capacity mode of operation. 6 figs.

  16. Dual capacity reciprocating compressor

    DOEpatents

    Wolfe, Robert W. (Wilkinsburg, PA)

    1984-01-01

    A multi-cylinder compressor 10 particularly useful in connection with northern climate heat pumps and in which different capacities are available in accordance with reversing motor 16 rotation is provided with an eccentric cam 38 on a crank pin 34 under a fraction of the connecting rods, and arranged for rotation upon the crank pin between opposite positions 180.degree. apart so that with cam rotation on the crank pin such that the crank throw is at its normal maximum value all pistons pump at full capacity, and with rotation of the crank shaft in the opposite direction the cam moves to a circumferential position on the crank pin such that the overall crank throw is zero. Pistons 24 whose connecting rods 30 ride on a crank pin 36 without a cam pump their normal rate with either crank rotational direction. Thus a small clearance volume is provided for any piston that moves when in either capacity mode of operation.

  17. Quantum Channel Capacities

    E-print Network

    Graeme Smith

    2010-07-16

    A quantum communication channel can be put to many uses: it can transmit classical information, private classical information, or quantum information. It can be used alone, with shared entanglement, or together with other channels. For each of these settings there is a capacity that quantifies a channel's potential for communication. In this short review, I summarize what is known about the various capacities of a quantum channel, including a discussion of the relevant additivity questions. I also give some indication of potentially interesting directions for future research.

  18. Testing the predictions of the central capacity sharing model.

    PubMed

    Tombu, Michael; Jolicoeur, Pierre

    2005-08-01

    The divergent predictions of 2 models of dual-task performance are investigated. The central bottleneck and central capacity sharing models argue that a central stage of information processing is capacity limited, whereas stages before and after are capacity free. The models disagree about the nature of this central capacity limitation. The central bottleneck model claims that central processing acts on only 1 task at a time and, therefore, constitutes a bottleneck that processes tasks serially. The central capacity sharing model postulates that the central stage is a limited-capacity parallel processor that divides resources among to-be-performed tasks. As a result of this difference, in the psychological refractory period paradigm, the central capacity sharing model predicts that lengthening Task 2 precentral processing will improve Task 1 performance at short stimulus onset asynchronies, whereas the central bottleneck model does not. Results of 2 experiments confirm the prediction of the central capacity sharing model. PMID:16131250

  19. Reduction of adsorption capacity of coconut shell activated carbon for organic vapors due to moisture contents.

    PubMed

    Abiko, Hironobu; Furuse, Mitsuya; Takano, Tsuguo

    2010-01-01

    In occupational hygiene, activated carbon produced from coconut shell is a common adsorbent material for harmful substances including organic vapors due to its outstanding adsorption capacity and cost advantage. However, moisture adsorption of the carbon generally decreases the adsorption capacity for organic vapors. In a previous report, we prepared several coconut shell activated carbons which had been preconditioned by equilibration with moisture at different relative humidities and measured the breakthrough times for 6 kinds of organic vapor, in order to clarify the effect of preliminary moisture content in activated carbon on the adsorption capacity in detail. We found that the relative percent weight increase due to moisture adsorption of the carbon specimen had a quantitative effect, reducing the breakthrough time. In this report, we carried out further measurements of the effect of moisture content on the adsorption of 13 kinds of organic vapor, and investigated the relationship between moisture adsorption and the reduction of the breakthrough time of activated carbon specimens. We also applied the data to the Wood's breakthrough time estimation model which is an extension of the Wheeler-Jonas equation. PMID:20720334

  20. The Moral Capacity Profile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilks, Duffy; Ratheal, Juli D'Ann

    2011-01-01

    Effective counseling practice continues to be inevitably linked to underlying theories of behavioral causality. In this article, the authors present the Moral Capacity Profile of an individual from the perspective of the Amoral, Moral, Quasi-Moral/Quasi-Immoral, and Immoral Model of Behavior, a model that uniquely expands counseling's theoretical…

  1. 76 FR 67179 - Spartanburg Water System; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-31

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Spartanburg Water System; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted..., Spartanburg Water System (Spartanburg) filed an application for a preliminary permit, pursuant to section 4(f... capacity of 150.0 kilowatts (kW); (5) a 70-foot-long, 10-foot-wide bedrock tailrace structure; and (6)...

  2. A Brief Investigation of the Hydrodynamic Characteristics of a 1/13.33-Scale Powered Dynamic Model of a Preliminary Design of the Martin XP6M-1 Flying Boat, TED No. NACA DE-385

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanchard, Ulysse J.

    1953-01-01

    The hydrodynamic characteristics of a preliminary design of the Martin XP6M-1 flying boat have been determined. Longitudinal stability during take-off and landing, resistance of the complete model, and behavior during taxiing and landing in rough water are presented.

  3. 75 FR 20813 - Certain Magnesia Carbon Bricks from the People's Republic of China: Amended Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-21

    ... Determination, 75 FR 11847 (March 12, 2010) (``Preliminary Determination''). We are amending our Preliminary... International Trade Administration Certain Magnesia Carbon Bricks from the People's Republic of China: Amended... value (``LTFV'') in the antidumping duty investigation of certain magnesia carbon bricks...

  4. 29 CFR 1981.105 - Issuance of findings and preliminary orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...CONTINUED) PROCEDURES FOR THE HANDLING OF DISCRIMINATION COMPLAINTS UNDER SECTION 6 OF THE PIPELINE SAFETY IMPROVEMENT ACT OF 2002 Complaints, Investigations, Findings, and Preliminary Orders § 1981.105 Issuance of findings and preliminary...

  5. 29 CFR 1981.105 - Issuance of findings and preliminary orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...CONTINUED) PROCEDURES FOR THE HANDLING OF DISCRIMINATION COMPLAINTS UNDER SECTION 6 OF THE PIPELINE SAFETY IMPROVEMENT ACT OF 2002 Complaints, Investigations, Findings, and Preliminary Orders § 1981.105 Issuance of findings and preliminary...

  6. 29 CFR 1981.105 - Issuance of findings and preliminary orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...CONTINUED) PROCEDURES FOR THE HANDLING OF DISCRIMINATION COMPLAINTS UNDER SECTION 6 OF THE PIPELINE SAFETY IMPROVEMENT ACT OF 2002 Complaints, Investigations, Findings, and Preliminary Orders § 1981.105 Issuance of findings and preliminary...

  7. 78 FR 33349 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Indonesia: Negative Preliminary Countervailing Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-04

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Indonesia: Negative Preliminary... (frozen shrimp) from Indonesia. The period of investigation is January 1, 2011, through December 31, 2011... Shrimp from the Republic of Indonesia,'' dated concurrently with this notice (Preliminary...

  8. Seismic capacity of switchgear

    SciTech Connect

    Bandyopadhyay, K.; Hofmayer, C.; Kassir, M.; Pepper, S.

    1989-01-01

    As part of a component fragility program sponsored by the USNRC, BNL has collected existing information on the seismic capacity of switchgear assemblies from major manufacturers. Existing seismic test data for both low and medium voltage switchgear assemblies have been evaluated and the generic results are presented in this paper. The failure modes are identified and the corresponding generic lower bound capacity levels are established. The test response spectra have been used as a measure of the test vibration input. The results indicate that relays chatter at a very low input level at the base of the switchgear cabinet. This change of state of devices including relays have been observed. Breaker tripping occurs at a higher vibration level. Although the structural failure of internal elements have been noticed, the overall switchgear cabinet structure withstands a high vibration level. 5 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. PRELIMINARY REPORT PROPRIETARY INFORMATION

    E-print Network

    PROGRAM ENGINEERING PRELIMINARY REPORT NO. 1 1989 #12;OCEAN DRILLING PROGRAM LEG 124E PRELIMINARY REPORT&M University College Station, TX 77840 Michael A. Storms Supervisor of Development Engineering, Leg 124E Ocean/TAMU March 1989 #12;This informal report was prepared from the shipboard files by the engineers

  10. CSTI high capacity power

    SciTech Connect

    Winter, J.M.

    1994-09-01

    The SP-100 program was established in 1983 by DOD, DOE, and NASA as a joint program to develop the technology necessary for space nuclear power systems for military and civil application. During FY86 and 87, the NASA SP-100 Advanced Technology Program was devised to maintain the momentum of promising technology advancement efforts started during Phase I of SP-100 and to strengthen, in key areas, the chances for successful development and growth capability of space nuclear reactor power systems for future space applications. In FY88, the Advanced Technology Program was incorporated into NASA`s new Civil Space Technology Initiative (CSTI). The CSTI Program was established to provide the foundation for technology development in automation and robotics, information, propulsion, and power. The CSTI High Capacity Power Program builds on the technology efforts of the SP-100 program, incorporates the previous NASA SP-100 Advanced Technology project, and provides a bridge to NASA Project Pathfinder. The elements of CSTI High Capacity Power development include Conversion Systems, Thermal Management, Power Management, System Diagnostics, and Environmental Interactions. Technology advancement in all areas, including materials, is required to assure the high reliability and 7 to 10 year lifetime demanded for future space nuclear power systems. The overall program will develop and demonstrate the technology base required to provide a wide range of modular power systems as well as allowing mission independence from solar and orbital attitude requirements. Several recent advancements in CSTI High Capacity power development will be discussed.

  11. Data use investigations for applications Explorer Mission A (Heat Capacity Mapping Mission): HCMM's role in studies of the urban heat island, Great Lakes thermal phenomena and radiometric calibration of satellite data. [Buffalo, Syracuse, and Rochester New York and Lake Ontario

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schott, J. R. (principal investigator); Schimminger, E. W.

    1981-01-01

    The utility of data from NASA'a heat capacity mapping mission satellite for studies of the urban heat island, thermal phenomena in large lakes and radiometric calibration of satellite sensors was assessed. The data were found to be of significant value in all cases. Using HCMM data, the existence and microstructure of the heat island can be observed and associated with land cover within the urban complex. The formation and development of the thermal bar in the Great Lakes can be observed and quantitatively mapped using HCMM data. In addition, the thermal patterns observed can be associated with water quality variations observed both from other remote sensing platforms and in situ. The imaging radiometer on-board the HCMM satellite is shown to be calibratible to within about 1.1 C of actual surface temperatures. These findings, as well as the analytical procedures used in studying the HCMM data, are included.

  12. A Computational Model of Spatial Visualization Capacity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyon, Don R.; Gunzelmann, Glenn; Gluck, Kevin A.

    2008-01-01

    Visualizing spatial material is a cornerstone of human problem solving, but human visualization capacity is sharply limited. To investigate the sources of this limit, we developed a new task to measure visualization accuracy for verbally-described spatial paths (similar to street directions), and implemented a computational process model to…

  13. Development of a solar-powered residential air conditioner: System optimization preliminary specification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rousseau, J.; Hwang, K. C.

    1975-01-01

    Investigations aimed at the optimization of a baseline Rankine cycle solar powered air conditioner and the development of a preliminary system specification were conducted. Efforts encompassed the following: (1) investigations of the use of recuperators/regenerators to enhance the performance of the baseline system, (2) development of an off-design computer program for system performance prediction, (3) optimization of the turbocompressor design to cover a broad range of conditions and permit operation at low heat source water temperatures, (4) generation of parametric data describing system performance (COP and capacity), (5) development and evaluation of candidate system augmentation concepts and selection of the optimum approach, (6) generation of auxiliary power requirement data, (7) development of a complete solar collector-thermal storage-air conditioner computer program, (8) evaluation of the baseline Rankine air conditioner over a five day period simulating the NASA solar house operation, and (9) evaluation of the air conditioner as a heat pump.

  14. Preliminary Analysis of Photoreading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McNamara, Danielle S.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to provide a preliminary analysis of a reading strategy called PhotoReading. PhotoReading is a technique developed by Paul Scheele that claims to increase reading rate to 25,000 words per minute (Scheele, 1993). PhotoReading itself involves entering a "relaxed state" and looking at, but not reading, each page of a text for a brief moment (about I to 2 seconds). While this technique has received attention in the popular press, there had been no objective examinations of the technique's validity. To examine the effectiveness of PhotoReading, the principal investigator (i.e., trainee) participated in a PhotoReading workshop to learn the technique. Parallel versions of two standardized and three experimenter-created reading comprehension tests were administered to the trainee and an expert user of the PhotoReading technique to compare the use of normal reading strategies and the PhotoReading technique by both readers. The results for all measures yielded no benefits of using the PhotoReading technique. The extremely rapid reading rates claimed by PhotoReaders were not observed; indeed, the reading rates were generally comparable to those for normal reading. Moreover, the PhotoReading expert generally showed an increase in reading time when using the PhotoReading technique in comparison to when using normal reading strategies to process text. This increase in reading time when PhotoReading was accompanied by a decrease in text comprehension.

  15. Fair capacity sharing of multiple aperiodic servers 

    E-print Network

    Melapudi, Vinod Reddy

    2002-01-01

    introduced Capacity sharing protocol, in which a server can use the unused capacity of other servers. Though capacity-sharing protocol minimized the capacity exhaustions in multiple servers, it did not deal with fairness in sharing of capacity among demanding...

  16. Preliminary design study for an atomospheric science facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutchison, R.

    1972-01-01

    The activities and results of the Atmospheric Science Facility preliminary design study are reported. The objectives of the study were to define the scientific goals, to determine the range of experiment types, and to develop the preliminary instrument design requirements for a reusable, general purpose, optical research facility for investigating the earth's atmosphere from a space shuttle orbital vehicle.

  17. How to Build Leadership Capacity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Linda

    1998-01-01

    Building capacity in schools means developing a new understanding of leadership capacity--broad-based, skillful participation in the work of leadership. Leadership capacity can be seen as a complex, interactive framework, with four types of schools and school communities. Leadership is everyone's work, but it does not require extraordinary…

  18. Albermarle boosts MASC capacity

    SciTech Connect

    D`Amico, E.

    1996-07-17

    Albemarle plans to triple capacity for methylaluminum sesquichloride (MASC) at its Houston complex. The move is in response to growing demand for aluminum alkyl catalyst systems, says Greg Lambeth, product manager/organometallics North America. MASC is the key raw material for trimethylaluminum (TMA), a Ziegler-Natta cocatalyst, and for methylaluminoxane (MAO), a cocatalyst for metallocene polyolefin catalysts. {open_quotes}This is a very competitive area because of the growing importance of metallocenes in polyolefin production,{close_quotes} Lambeth says. Several companies-including Exxon Chemical, Dow Chemical, and Hoechst - have invested in metallocene catalysts this year. Others have announced plans either to convert technology from conventional Ziegler-Natta catalyst systems or to build new facilities for metallocene catalyst production. Albemarle, the largest producer of TMA and other aluminum alkyls, completed a debottlenecking project in Houston earlier this year that increased its capacity 50%. The company also expects to complete a TMA expansion project at its Orangeburg, SC facility soon.

  19. Early hominin auditory capacities

    PubMed Central

    Quam, Rolf; Martínez, Ignacio; Rosa, Manuel; Bonmatí, Alejandro; Lorenzo, Carlos; de Ruiter, Darryl J.; Moggi-Cecchi, Jacopo; Conde Valverde, Mercedes; Jarabo, Pilar; Menter, Colin G.; Thackeray, J. Francis; Arsuaga, Juan Luis

    2015-01-01

    Studies of sensory capacities in past life forms have offered new insights into their adaptations and lifeways. Audition is particularly amenable to study in fossils because it is strongly related to physical properties that can be approached through their skeletal structures. We have studied the anatomy of the outer and middle ear in the early hominin taxa Australopithecus africanus and Paranthropus robustus and estimated their auditory capacities. Compared with chimpanzees, the early hominin taxa are derived toward modern humans in their slightly shorter and wider external auditory canal, smaller tympanic membrane, and lower malleus/incus lever ratio, but they remain primitive in the small size of their stapes footplate. Compared with chimpanzees, both early hominin taxa show a heightened sensitivity to frequencies between 1.5 and 3.5 kHz and an occupied band of maximum sensitivity that is shifted toward slightly higher frequencies. The results have implications for sensory ecology and communication, and suggest that the early hominin auditory pattern may have facilitated an increased emphasis on short-range vocal communication in open habitats. PMID:26601261

  20. Working memory's workload capacity.

    PubMed

    Heathcote, Andrew; Coleman, James R; Eidels, Ami; Watson, Jason M; Houpt, Joseph; Strayer, David L

    2015-10-01

    We examined the role of dual-task interference in working memory using a novel dual two-back task that requires a redundant-target response (i.e., a response that neither the auditory nor the visual stimulus occurred two back versus a response that one or both occurred two back) on every trial. Comparisons with performance on single two-back trials (i.e., with only auditory or only visual stimuli) showed that dual-task demands reduced both speed and accuracy. Our task design enabled a novel application of Townsend and Nozawa's (Journal of Mathematical Psychology 39: 321-359, 1995) workload capacity measure, which revealed that the decrement in dual two-back performance was mediated by the sharing of a limited amount of processing capacity. Relative to most other single and dual n-back tasks, performance measures for our task were more reliable, due to the use of a small stimulus set that induced a high and constant level of proactive interference. For a version of our dual two-back task that minimized response bias, accuracy was also more strongly correlated with complex span than has been found for most other single and dual n-back tasks. PMID:25962602

  1. SERVIR Science Applications for Capacity Building

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Limaye, Ashutosh; Searby, Nancy D.; Irwin, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    SERVIR is a regional visualization and monitoring system using Earth observations to support environmental management, climate adaptation, and disaster response in developing countries. SERVIR is jointly sponsored by NASA and the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID). SERVIR has been instrumental in development of science applications to support the decision-making and capacity building in the developing countries with the help of SERVIR Hubs. In 2011, NASA Research Opportunities in Space and Earth Sciences (ROSES) included a call for proposals to form SERVIR Applied Sciences Team (SERVIR AST) under Applied Sciences Capacity Building Program. Eleven proposals were selected, the Principal Investigators of which comprise the core of the SERVIR AST. The expertise on the Team span several societal benefit areas including agriculture, disasters, public health and air quality, water, climate and terrestrial carbon assessments. This presentation will cover the existing SERVIR science applications, capacity building components, overview of SERVIR AST projects, and anticipated impacts.

  2. Preliminary Drill Sites

    DOE Data Explorer

    Lane, Michael

    2013-06-28

    Preliminary locations for intermediate depth temperature gradient holes and/or resource confirmation wells based on compilation of geological, geophysical and geochemical data prior to carrying out the DOE-funded reflection seismic survey.

  3. North American fertilizer capacity data

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    This listing of producers and their fertilizer production capacities was compiled in January 1991 with the cooperation of the US and Canadian fertilizer industry. Capacity is only an indicator of supply. Nameplate capacity differs from planned production levels or actual production because plants often operate above or below design capacity. Unless reported otherwise, plant capacities are based on 340 days per year of operation. No adjustment is made for partial year operation. Numerical data for the production of ammonia, ammonium nitrate, nitrogen solutions, urea, phosphate rock, phosphoric acid and ammonium phosphates is included.

  4. Metapopulation capacity of evolving fluvial landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertuzzo, Enrico; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio; Rinaldo, Andrea

    2015-04-01

    The form of fluvial landscapes is known to attain stationary network configurations that settle in dynamically accessible minima of total energy dissipation by landscape-forming discharges. Recent studies have highlighted the role of the dendritic structure of river networks in controlling population dynamics of the species they host and large-scale biodiversity patterns. Here, we systematically investigate the relation between energy dissipation, the physical driver for the evolution of river networks, and the ecological dynamics of their embedded biota. To that end, we use the concept of metapopulation capacity, a measure to link landscape structures with the population dynamics they host. Technically, metapopulation capacity is the leading eigenvalue ?M of an appropriate "landscape" matrix subsuming whether a given species is predicted to persist in the long run. ?M can conveniently be used to rank different landscapes in terms of their capacity to support viable metapopulations. We study how ?M changes in response to the evolving network configurations of spanning trees. Such sequence of configurations is theoretically known to relate network selection to general landscape evolution equations through imperfect searches for dynamically accessible states frustrated by the vagaries of Nature. Results show that the process shaping the metric and the topological properties of river networks, prescribed by physical constraints, leads to a progressive increase in the corresponding metapopulation capacity and therefore on the landscape capacity to support metapopulations—with implications on biodiversity in fluvial ecosystems.

  5. Enhanced oxygen storage capacity of Ce{sub 0.88}Mn{sub 0.12}O{sub y} compared to CeO{sub 2}: An experimental and theoretical investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Minhua; Jiang, Dongyu; Jiang, Haoxi

    2012-12-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ? Ce{sub 0.88}Mn{sub 0.12}O{sub y} and CeO{sub 2} hollow nanospheres were successfully prepared via a supercritical antisolvent process. ? Compared with the pure CeO{sub 2}, the Ce{sub 0.88}Mn{sub 0.12}O{sub y} has nearly the same surface area but more oxygen vacancies. ? DFT calculations shows that the surface oxygen of the CeO{sub 2} gets activated after doping Mn. -- Abstract: Ce{sub 0.88}Mn{sub 0.12}O{sub y} and CeO{sub 2} nanoparticles have been successfully prepared via a supercritical antisolvent process. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy displays the hollow and spherical structures of these nanoparticles. X-ray diffraction analysis demonstrates the formation of Ce{sub 0.88}Mn{sub 0.12}O{sub y} solid solution. N{sub 2} adsorption reveals that the Ce{sub 0.88}Mn{sub 0.12}O{sub y} has nearly the same surface area with the CeO{sub 2}. It is shown that the Ce{sub 0.88}Mn{sub 0.12}O{sub y} has higher oxygen storage capacity (OSC) than the CeO{sub 2}. To understand the mechanism of the improved OSC of the Mn doped CeO{sub 2}, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectra and density functional theoretical (DFT) calculations have been performed. It is found that the Ce{sub 0.88}Mn{sub 0.12}O{sub y} presents more oxygen vacancies, indicating the easier of oxygen mobility from bulk to surface. DFT calculations reveal that structural and electronic modifications are caused by the incorporation of Mn in the CeO{sub 2}, resulting in activated oxygen species. The oxygen vacancy formation energy is lowered by the Mn doping. These changes are responsible for the enhanced OSC of the Ce{sub 0.88}Mn{sub 0.12}O{sub y}.

  6. Creative agencies : a model for building community capacity

    E-print Network

    Ramaccia, Elizabeth M. (Elizabeth Marie)

    2011-01-01

    This research investigates how existing initiatives based in artistic and non-artistic disciplines build indigenous capacity for leadership in disenfranchised communities through the application of the creative process. ...

  7. The additive properties of Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC) assay: the case of essential oils.

    PubMed

    Bentayeb, Karim; Vera, Paula; Rubio, Carlos; Nerín, Cristina

    2014-04-01

    The ORAC assay is applied to measure the antioxidant capacity of foods or dietary supplements. Sometimes, the manufacturers claim antioxidant capacities that may not correspond to the constituents of the product. These statements are sheltered by the general understanding that antioxidants might exhibit synergistic properties, but this is not necessarily true when dealing with ORAC assay values. This contribution applies the ORAC assay to measure the antioxidant capacity of ten essential oils typically added to foodstuffs: citronella, dill, basil, red thyme, thyme, rosemary, oregano, clove and cinnamon. The major components of these essential oils were twenty-one chemicals in total. After a preliminary discrimination, the antioxidant capacity of eugenol, carvacrol, thymol, ?-pinene, limonene and linalool was determined. The results showed that 72-115% of the antioxidant capacity of the essential oils corresponded to the addition of the antioxidant capacity of their constituents. Thus, the ORAC assay showed additive properties. PMID:24262547

  8. Potential capacities of quantum channels

    E-print Network

    Andreas Winter; Dong Yang

    2015-08-15

    We introduce the notion of potential capacities of quantum channels in an operational way and provide upper bounds for these quantities, which quantify the ultimate limit of usefulness of a channel for a given task in the best possible context. Unfortunately, except for a few isolated cases, potential capacities seem to be as hard to compute as their "plain" analogues. We thus study upper bounds on some potential capacities: For the classical capacity, we give an upper bound in terms of the entanglement of formation. To establish a bound for the quantum and private capacity, we first "lift" the channel to a Hadamard channel and then prove that the quantum and private capacity of Hadamard channel is strongly additive, implying that for these channels, potential and plain capacity are equal. Employing these upper bounds we show that if a channel is noisy, however close it is to the noiseless channel, then it cannot be activated into the noiseless channel by any other contextual channel; this conclusion holds for all the three capacities. Although it is of less importance, we also discuss the so-called environment-assisted quantum capacity, because we are able to characterize its "potential" version.

  9. Adaptive capacity and its assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Engle, Nathan L.

    2011-04-20

    This paper reviews the concept of adaptive capacity and various approaches to assessing it, particularly with respect to climate variability and change. I find that adaptive capacity is a relatively under-researched topic within the sustainability science and global change communities, particularly since it is uniquely positioned to improve linkages between vulnerability and resilience research. I identify opportunities for advancing the measurement and characterization of adaptive capacity by combining insights from both vulnerability and resilience frameworks, and I suggest several assessment approaches for possible future development that draw from both frameworks and focus on analyzing the governance, institutions, and management that have helped foster adaptive capacity in light of recent climatic events.

  10. CHP Installed Capacity Optimizer Software

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2004-11-30

    The CHP Installed Capacity Optimizer is a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet application that determines the most economic amount of capacity of distributed generation and thermal utilization equipment (e.g., absorption chillers) to install for any user-defined set of load and cost data. Installing the optimum amount of capacity is critical to the life-cycle economic viability of a distributed generation/cooling heat and power (CHP) application. Using advanced optimization algorithms, the software accesses the loads, utility tariffs, equipment costs,more »etc., and provides to the user the most economic amount of system capacity to install.« less

  11. A two-part preliminary investigation of encoding-related activation changes after moderate to severe traumatic brain injury: hyperactivation, repetition suppression, and the role of the prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Gillis, M Meredith; Hampstead, Benjamin M

    2015-12-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) survivors typically exhibit significant learning and memory deficits and also frequently demonstrate hyperactivation during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) tasks involving working memory encoding and maintenance. However, it remains unclear whether the hyperactivation observed during such working memory tasks is also present during long-term memory encoding. The preliminary experiments presented here were designed to examine this question. In Experiment 1, 7 healthy controls (HC) and 7 patients with moderate to severe TBI encoded ecologically relevant object location associations (OLA) while undergoing fMRI and then completed a memory test outside of the fMRI environment. fMRI data analysis included only the correctly encoded trials and revealed hyperactivation in the TBI relative to HC group in regions critical for OLA encoding, including bilateral dorsal and ventral visual processing areas, bilateral frontoparietal working memory network regions, and the left medial temporal lobe. There was also an incidental finding that this hyperactivation persisted after multiple exposures to the same stimulus, which may indicate an attenuated repetition suppression effect that could ultimately contribute to cognitive fatigue and inefficient memory encoding after TBI. Experiment 2 directly assessed repetition suppression in some of the same HC and TBI participants. During early encoding trials, the TBI group showed large areas of hyperactivation in the right prefrontal cortex and bilateral posterior parietal cortices relative to the HC. Following additional exposure to these stimuli, the TBI group showed repetition suppression in visual and spatial processing regions, but continued to show hyperactivation in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Findings from these preliminary studies may reflect that increased reliance on cognitive control mechanisms following TBI extends to memory encoding. PMID:25481386

  12. Enrollment Capacity and Technology Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington Higher Education Coordinating Board, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The 2007-09 Appropriations Act provided funding to the Higher Education Coordinating Board (HECB) to study the state's capital facility and technology capacity. Specifically, "...state appropriation is provided solely to implement a capital facility and technology capacity study which will compare the 10-year enrollment projections with the…

  13. Measuring Capacities for Community Resilience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherrieb, Kathleen; Norris, Fran H.; Galea, Sandro

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure the sets of adaptive capacities for Economic Development and Social Capital in the Norris et al. (2008) community resilience model with publicly accessible population indicators. Our approach involved five steps. First, we conducted a literature review on measurements of the capacities. Second, we created…

  14. Building Organizational Capacity through Trust

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cosner, Shelby

    2009-01-01

    This article explores the cultivation of collegial trust as a central feature of the capacity-building work of 11 high school principals, nominated for their expertise with capacity building. This qualitative study examined interview data and school documents collected over 18 months. Principals regarded trust as critical and were motivated to…

  15. Topaz II preliminary safety assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, A.C. ); Standley, V. ); Voss, S.S. ); Haskin, E. . Dept. of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering)

    1992-01-01

    The Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (SDIO) decided to investigate the possibility of launching a Russian Topaz 11 space nuclear power system. A preliminary safety assessment was conducted to determine whether or not a space mission could be conducted safely and within budget constraints. As part of this assessment, a safety policy and safety functional requirements were developed to guide both the safely assessment and future Topaz II activities. A review of the Russian flight safety program was conducted and documented. Our preliminary safety assessment included a top level event tree, neutronic analysis of normal and accident configurations, an evaluation of temperature coefficients of reactivity, a reentry and disposal analysis, and analysis of postulated launch abort impact accidents, and an analysis of postulated propellant fire and explosion accidents. Based on the assessment, it appears that it will be possible to safely launch the Topaz II system in the US with some possible system modifications. The principal system modifications will probably include design changes to preclude water flooded criticality and to assure intact reentry.

  16. Topaz II preliminary safety assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, A.C. ); Standley, V. ); Voss, S.S. ); Haskin, E. )

    1993-01-10

    The Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (SDIO) decided to investigate the possibility of launching a Russian Topaz II space nuclear power system. A preliminary safety assessment was conducted to determine whether or not a space mission could be conducted safely and within budget constraints. As part of this assessment, a safety policy and safety functional requirements were developed to guide both the safety assessment and future Topaz II activities. A review of the Russian flight safety program was conducted and documented. Our preliminary safety assessment included a top level event tree, neutronic analysis of normal and accident configurations, an evaluation of temperature coefficients of reactivity, a reentry and disposal analysis, and analysis of postulated launch abort impact accidents, and an analysis of postulated propellant fire and explosion accidents. Based on the assessment, it appears that it will be possible to safely launch the Topaz II system in the U.S. with some possible system modifications. The principal system modifications will probably include design changes to preclude water flooded criticality and to assure intact reentry.

  17. Descent Advisor Preliminary Field Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Steven M.; Vivona, Robert A.; Sanford, Beverly

    1995-01-01

    A field test of the Descent Advisor (DA) automation tool was conducted at the Denver Air Route Traffic Control Center in September 1994. DA is being developed to assist Center controllers in the efficient management and control of arrival traffic. DA generates advisories, based on trajectory predictions, to achieve accurate meter-fix arrival times in a fuel efficient manner while assisting the controller with the prediction and resolution of potential conflicts. The test objectives were: (1) to evaluate the accuracy of DA trajectory predictions for conventional and flight-management system equipped jet transports, (2) to identify significant sources of trajectory prediction error, and (3) to investigate procedural and training issues (both air and ground) associated with DA operations. Various commercial aircraft (97 flights total) and a Boeing 737-100 research aircraft participated in the test. Preliminary results from the primary test set of 24 commercial flights indicate a mean DA arrival time prediction error of 2.4 seconds late with a standard deviation of 13.1 seconds. This paper describes the field test and presents preliminary results for the commercial flights.

  18. Descent advisor preliminary field test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Steven M.; Vivona, Robert A.; Sanford, Beverly

    1995-01-01

    A field test of the Descent Advisor (DA) automation tool was conducted at the Denver Air Route Traffic Control Center in September 1994. DA is being developed to assist Center controllers in the efficient management and control of arrival traffic. DA generates advisories, based on trajectory predictions, to achieve accurate meter-fix arrival times in a fuel efficient manner while assisting the controller with the prediction and resolution of potential conflicts. The test objectives were to evaluate the accuracy of DA trajectory predictions for conventional- and flight-management-system-equipped jet transports, to identify significant sources of trajectory prediction error, and to investigate procedural and training issues (both air and ground) associated with DA operations. Various commercial aircraft (97 flights total) and a Boeing 737-100 research aircraft participated in the test. Preliminary results from the primary test set of 24 commercial flights indicate a mean DA arrival time prediction error of 2.4 sec late with a standard deviation of 13.1 sec. This paper describes the field test and presents preliminary results for the commercial flights.

  19. 29 CFR 1981.104 - Investigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...CONTINUED) PROCEDURES FOR THE HANDLING OF DISCRIMINATION COMPLAINTS UNDER SECTION 6 OF THE PIPELINE SAFETY IMPROVEMENT ACT OF 2002 Complaints, Investigations, Findings, and Preliminary Orders § 1981.104 Investigation. (a) Upon...

  20. 29 CFR 1981.104 - Investigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...CONTINUED) PROCEDURES FOR THE HANDLING OF DISCRIMINATION COMPLAINTS UNDER SECTION 6 OF THE PIPELINE SAFETY IMPROVEMENT ACT OF 2002 Complaints, Investigations, Findings, and Preliminary Orders § 1981.104 Investigation. (a) Upon...

  1. 29 CFR 1981.104 - Investigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...CONTINUED) PROCEDURES FOR THE HANDLING OF DISCRIMINATION COMPLAINTS UNDER SECTION 6 OF THE PIPELINE SAFETY IMPROVEMENT ACT OF 2002 Complaints, Investigations, Findings, and Preliminary Orders § 1981.104 Investigation. (a) Upon...

  2. 29 CFR 1980.104 - Investigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...LABOR (CONTINUED) PROCEDURES FOR THE HANDLING OF RETALIATION COMPLAINTS UNDER SECTION 806 OF THE SARBANES-OXLEY ACT OF 2002, AS AMENDED Complaints, Investigations, Findings and Preliminary Orders § 1980.104 Investigation....

  3. North American fertilizer capacity data

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-01

    This listing of fertilizer producers and their production capacities was compiled in February 1993 with the cooperation of the US and Canadian fertilizer industry. TVA does not guarantee the completeness or accuracy of the information. Capacity is only an indicator of supply. Nameplate capacity differs from planned production levels or actual production because plants often operate above or below design capacity. Unless reported otherwise, plant capacities are based on 340 days per year of operation. No adjustment is made for partial year operation. Information is given on the following types of fertilizers: ammonia, ammonium nitrate, nitrogen solutions, urea, ammonium sulfate, phosphate rock, wet-process phosphoric acid, ammonium phosphates, concentrated superphosphates, potash, nitric acid, superphosphoric acid, upgraded phosphoric acids, normal superphosphate, elemental phosphorus, potassium sulfate, and sulfate of potash/magnesia.

  4. Handwriting Capacity in Children Newly Diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brossard-Racine, Marie; Majnemer, Annette; Shevell, Michael; Snider, Laurie; Belanger, Stacey Ageranioti

    2011-01-01

    Preliminary evidence suggests that children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) may exhibit handwriting difficulties. However, the exact nature of these difficulties and the extent to which they may relate to motor or behavioural difficulties remains unclear. The aim of this study was to describe handwriting capacity in children…

  5. Preliminary designs for modular OTEC platform station-keeping subsystems. Final report. MR and S Report No. 6042-6

    SciTech Connect

    1980-02-29

    This volume of the report presents the results of the third through the sixth tasks of the Station Keeping Subsystem (SKSS) design studies for 10/40 MW/sub e/ capacity OTEC Modular Experiment platforms (MEP). Tasks 3 through 6 are: (3) complete preliminary designs for one SKSS for each of the two platforms (SPAR and BARGE); (4) development and testing recommendations for the MEP SKSS; (5) cost-time analysis; and (6) commercial plant recommendations. The overall conclusions and recommendations for the modular, as well as the commercial, OTEC platform station keeping subsystems are delineated. The basic design assumptions made during the process, the technical approach followed, and the results of design iterations, reliability and performance analyses are given. A complete description of the preliminary design SKSS concept is presented. The summary cost estimates for each of the alternative SKSS concepts considered are presented and a time schedule for the recommended concept is provided. The effects of varying some of the important parameters used in SKSS design on the performance and cost of the mooring system are investigated and results presented. The tests required and other developmental recommendations in order to verify and confirm the basic design assumptions are discussed. Finally, the experience gained in the MEP preliminary designs are extended to future commercial OTEC plants' SKSS designs. (WHK)

  6. Preliminary Panda Architecture Peter Reiher

    E-print Network

    California at Los Angeles, University of

    Preliminary Panda Architecture Peter Reiher August 12, 1998 1. Introduction The Panda system architecture they are developing sets certain limits on what is possible in Panda. This document describes a preliminary architecture for the Panda system. This preliminary architecture is meant purely to serve

  7. Legal capacity of the elderly in Greece.

    PubMed

    Giannouli, Vaitsa; Tsolaki, Magda

    2014-01-01

    Legal capacity of the elderly people in Greece is of great legal, medical and social importance, but has received little attention till now from medical literature. This paper aims to study whether elderly people with dementia are able to participate in legal contracts like sales, purchases, loans, leases, donations and testaments. We tried to introduce a new test for the above legal-financial contracts and show some preliminary findings. The test consists of six examined relevant domains concerning basic monetary skills, cash transactions, bank statement management, financial conceptual knowledge, knowledge of potential heirs (beneficiaries) and assets/estate and finally the decision making process for different dilemmas on sales, purchases, loans, leases, donations and testaments. We studied 203 people. Eighty three people were healthy, 64 with Alzheimer's disease (AD) (10 with severe AD, 22 with moderate, and 32 with mild AD), 10 with Parkinson's disease (PD), and 46 with amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (aMCI). Individuals were included in the study only if they were aged 60 and over and only if they had a partner or a guardian who could give information on the individual's daily living. The exclusion criteria were predefined as follows: history of any other mental health disease and/or any other serious somatic health disease except for their official diagnosis of dementia. Results showed statistically significant differences with all three groups of patients characterized as incapable for legal-financial actions. Patients with severe AD (P<0.001), patients with moderate AD (P<0.001), patients with mild AD (P<0.001), patients with PD (P<0.001) and aMCI patients (P<0.001) differed significantly from healthy controls. Further research should include more extensive sampling of elderly patients with varying demographic characteristics in Greece, to confirm and expand our initial findings. In conclusion, our new test which is based on Marson's theoretical model of financial capacity seems to be highly correlated with the so far use of MMSE/HMSE scores, but it gives more specific information that is of interest in the field of civil forensics for characterizing someone as legally (in) capable for large and/or small scale financial acts. Our preliminary results show for the first time in Greece that: a) four groups of elderly people (suffering from Alzheimer's disease at different stages, Parkinson's disease and amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment and healthy elders) show a significantly different profile on all examined domains of this new test according to their diagnosis, b) people with MCI from Greece do face problems in the domains outlined above (mainly financial decision making problems), and that c) subsequent changes in the Greek law should be made. PMID:24392459

  8. Effects of cervical self-stretching on slow vital capacity.

    PubMed

    Han, Dongwook; Yoon, Nayoon; Jeong, Yeongran; Ha, Misook; Nam, Kunwoo

    2015-07-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the effects of self-stretching of cervical muscles, because the accessory inspiratory muscle is considered to improve pulmonary function. [Subjects] The subjects were 30 healthy university students 19-21?years old who did not have any lung disease, respiratory dysfunction, cervical injury, or any problems upon cervical stretching. [Methods] Spirometry was used as a pulmonary function test to measure the slow vital capacity before and after stretching. The slow vital capacity of the experimental group was measured before and after cervical self-stretching. Meanwhile, the slow vital capacity of the control group, which did not perform stretching, was also measured before and after the intervention. [Results] The expiratory vital capacity, inspiratory reserve volume, and expiratory reserve volume of the experimental group increased significantly after the cervical self-stretching. [Conclusion] Self-stretching of the cervical muscle (i.e., the inspiratory accessory muscle) improves slow vital capacity. PMID:26311984

  9. Effects of cervical self-stretching on slow vital capacity

    PubMed Central

    Han, Dongwook; Yoon, Nayoon; Jeong, Yeongran; Ha, Misook; Nam, Kunwoo

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the effects of self-stretching of cervical muscles, because the accessory inspiratory muscle is considered to improve pulmonary function. [Subjects] The subjects were 30 healthy university students 19–21?years old who did not have any lung disease, respiratory dysfunction, cervical injury, or any problems upon cervical stretching. [Methods] Spirometry was used as a pulmonary function test to measure the slow vital capacity before and after stretching. The slow vital capacity of the experimental group was measured before and after cervical self-stretching. Meanwhile, the slow vital capacity of the control group, which did not perform stretching, was also measured before and after the intervention. [Results] The expiratory vital capacity, inspiratory reserve volume, and expiratory reserve volume of the experimental group increased significantly after the cervical self-stretching. [Conclusion] Self-stretching of the cervical muscle (i.e., the inspiratory accessory muscle) improves slow vital capacity. PMID:26311984

  10. A computational model of spatial visualization capacity.

    PubMed

    Lyon, Don R; Gunzelmann, Glenn; Gluck, Kevin A

    2008-09-01

    Visualizing spatial material is a cornerstone of human problem solving, but human visualization capacity is sharply limited. To investigate the sources of this limit, we developed a new task to measure visualization accuracy for verbally-described spatial paths (similar to street directions), and implemented a computational process model to perform it. In this model, developed within the Adaptive Control of Thought-Rational (ACT-R) architecture, visualization capacity is limited by three mechanisms. Two of these (associative interference and decay) are longstanding characteristics of ACT-R's declarative memory. A third (spatial interference) is a new mechanism motivated by spatial proximity effects in our data. We tested the model in two experiments, one with parameter-value fitting, and a replication without further fitting. Correspondence between model and data was close in both experiments, suggesting that the model may be useful for understanding why visualizing new, complex spatial material is so difficult. PMID:18314098

  11. Bearing capacity of spatially random soil: the undrained clay Prandtl problem revisited

    E-print Network

    Bearing capacity of spatially random soil: the undrained clay Prandtl problem revisited D. V, an investigation has been performed into the bearing capacity of undrained clays with spatially vary- ing shear- tion of the soil's undrained shear strength impact on the statistics of the bearing capacity

  12. Impacts of technology on the capacity needs of the US national airspace system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ausrotas, Raymond A.; Simpson, Robert W.

    1992-01-01

    A review of the U.S. air transportation system is undertaken, focusing on airspace and airport capacity. Causes of delay and congestion are investigated. Aircraft noise is identified as the fundamental hindrance to capacity improvement. Research areas for NASA are suggested to improve capacity through technology.

  13. To build capacity, build confidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hewitson, Bruce

    2015-07-01

    The history of attempts to spread scientific know-how beyond western centres of excellence is littered with failures. Capacity building needs long-term commitment, a critical mass of trainees, and a supportive home environment.

  14. 7 CFR 983.27 - Proprietary capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Proprietary capacity. 983.27 Section 983.27..., ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Definitions § 983.27 Proprietary capacity. Proprietary capacity means the capacity... the interest in that capacity as an individual, a shareholder, member of a cooperative,...

  15. Cognitive Spare Capacity and Speech Communication: A Narrative Overview

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background noise can make speech communication tiring and cognitively taxing, especially for individuals with hearing impairment. It is now well established that better working memory capacity is associated with better ability to understand speech under adverse conditions as well as better ability to benefit from the advanced signal processing in modern hearing aids. Recent work has shown that although such processing cannot overcome hearing handicap, it can increase cognitive spare capacity, that is, the ability to engage in higher level processing of speech. This paper surveys recent work on cognitive spare capacity and suggests new avenues of investigation. PMID:24971355

  16. Preliminary Safety Analysis for the IRIS Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Ricotti, M.E.; Cammi, A.; Cioncolini, A.; Lombardi, C.; Cipollaro, A.; Orioto, F.; Conway, L.E.; Barroso, A.C.

    2002-07-01

    A deterministic analysis of the IRIS safety features has been carried out by means of the best-estimate code RELAP (ver. RELAP5 mod3.2). First, the main system components were modeled and tested separately, namely: the Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV), the modular helical-coil Steam Generators (SG) and the Passive (natural circulation) Emergency Heat Removal System (PEHRS). Then, a preliminary set of accident transients for the whole primary and safety systems was investigated. Since the project was in a conceptual phase, the reported analyses must be considered preliminary. In fact, neither the reactor components, nor the safety systems and the reactor signal logics were completely defined at that time. Three 'conventional' design basis accidents have been preliminary evaluated: a Loss Of primary Flow Accident, a Loss Of Coolant Accident and a Loss Of Feed Water accident. The results show the effectiveness of the safety systems also in LOCA conditions; the core remains covered for the required grace period. This provides the basis to move forward to the preliminary design. (authors)

  17. Stardust Interstellar Preliminary Examination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westphal, A.; Stardust Interstellar Preliminary Examation Team: http://www. ssl. berkeley. edu/~westphal/ISPE/

    2011-12-01

    A. J. Westphal, C. Allen, A. Ansari, S. Bajt, R. S. Bastien, H. A. Bechtel, J. Borg, F. E. Brenker, J. Bridges, D. E. Brownlee, M. Burchell, M. Burghammer, A. L. Butterworth, A. M. Davis, P. Cloetens, C. Floss, G. Flynn, D. Frank, Z. Gainsforth, E. Grün, P. R. Heck, J. K. Hillier, P. Hoppe, G. Huss, J. Huth, B. Hvide, A. Kearsley, A. J. King, B. Lai, J. Leitner, L. Lemelle, H. Leroux, R. Lettieri, W. Marchant, L. R. Nittler, R. Ogliore, F. Postberg, M. C. Price, S. A. Sandford, J.-A. Sans Tresseras, T. Schoonjans, S. Schmitz, G. Silversmit, A. Simionovici, V. A. Solé, R. Srama, T. Stephan, V. Sterken, J. Stodolna, R. M. Stroud, S. Sutton, M. Trieloff, P. Tsou, A. Tsuchiyama, T. Tyliszczak, B. Vekemans, L. Vincze, D. Zevin, M. E. Zolensky, >29,000 Stardust@home dusters ISPE author affiliations are at http://www.ssl.berkeley.edu/~westphal/ISPE/. In 2000 and 2002, a ~0.1m2 array of aerogel tiles and alumi-num foils onboard the Stardust spacecraft was exposed to the interstellar dust (ISD) stream for an integrated time of 200 days. The exposure took place in interplanetary space, beyond the orbit of Mars, and thus was free of the ubiquitous orbital debris in low-earth orbit that precludes effective searches for interstellar dust there. Despite the long exposure of the Stardust collector, <<100 ISD particles are expected to have been captured. The particles are thought to be ~1?m or less in size, and the total ISD collection is probably <10-6 by mass of the collection of cometary dust parti-cles captured in the Stardust cometary dust collector from the coma of the Jupiter-family comet Wild 2. Thus, although the first solid sample from the local interstellar medium is clearly of high interest, the diminutive size of the particles and the low numbers of particles present daunting challenges. Nevertheless, six recent developments have made a Preliminary Examination (PE) of this sample practical: (1) rapid automated digital optical scanning microscopy for three-dimensional imaging of the aerogel collector; (2) rapid automated digital scanning electron microscopy for imaging of the aluminum foils; (3) an effective, massively-distributed search by citizen scientists through the Internet; (4) extraction and sample preparation tech-niques for ?m-sized particles in aerogel; (5) advances in capabili-ties of synchrotron infrared and X-ray microprobes that enable non-destructive analyses of sub-?m particles in situ in aerogel; and (6) the development of focused-ion beam (FIB) milling tech-niques for sample preparation. The Stardust Interstellar PE consists of six related projects: the identification of tracks through automated scanning microscopy and distributed searching by volunteers (Stardust@home); the extraction of tracks from aerogel in "picokeystones"; the analysis of tracks using synchrotron microprobes; the identifica-tion and analysis of impacts in aluminum foils; laboratory investigations of ISD analogs using an electrostatic dust accelerator; and modeling of ISD propagation in the heliosphere. To date we have identified four impacts in the aerogel collector and one on the foils of probable interstellar origin. We will report on our analyses and implications for the solid component of the local interstellar medium.

  18. Magnetotelluric Investigations of Convergent Margins and of Incipient Rifting: Preliminary Results from the EarthScope MT Transportable Array and MT FlexArray Deployments in Cascadia and in the North American Mid-Continent Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, A.; Bedrosian, P.; Key, K.; Livelybrooks, D.; Egbert, G. D.; Bowles-martinez, E.; Wannamaker, P. E.

    2014-12-01

    We report on preliminary analyses of data from the EarthScope MT Transportable Array, and from two high-resolution EarthScope MT studies in Cascadia. The first of these, iMUSH, is acquiring wideband MT data at 150 sites, as well as active and passive seismic data in SW Washington (including Mounts Saint Helens, Adams and Rainier). iMUSH seeks to determine details of crustal magma transport and storage, and to resolve major tectonic controls on volcanism along the arc. iMUSH may help to settle a debate over the origin of the SW Washington Crustal Conductor (SWCC), which covers ~5000 km2and that has alternately been attributed to accreted Eocene metasediments or to an extensive region of partial melt in the lower crust beneath the three volcanoes. The iMUSH array is continguous with an amphibious ~150 station MT experiment (MOCHA) onshore and offshore of the Washington and Oregon forearc. MOCHA iwill image the crust and upper mantle of the subduction system in 3D, constraining the fluid input to the system from offshore and the distribution of fluids released from the down-going slab, including along the transitional zone where Episodic Tremor and Slip occurs. Our goal is to refine our understanding of the segmentation, structure and fluid distribution along the convergent margin segments, and their relationship to the spatial pattern of ETS. In contrast to the active Cascadia margin, the Mid-Continent Rift (MCR) is the trace of a massive igneous event that nearly split North America 1.1 billion years ago. Initial results from 3D inversion of MT Transportable Array data show less fine-scale heterogeneity in the upper mantle (250 km depth) than is evident in western, tectonic North America, but a division at the base of thick lithosphere, with higher conductivities beneath and immediately south of the Great Lakes, than to the south. From the base of the lithosphere to the Moho, this high conductivity feature narrows, ultimately disappearing in the mid-crust. In the upper crust above this feature, an E-W elongated conductive feature appears that maps to surface expressions of the MCR. The significance of this deep feature, and its relationship to the failed rifting event of the mesoproterozoic era will be discussed.

  19. Investigation of a portable performance measurement system for neurologic screening in clinics.

    PubMed

    Kondraske, George V; Mulukutla, Rahul; Stewart, R Malcolm

    2006-01-01

    Motivated by the need for clinical screening for early detection of neurologic disease, a prototype portable instrument dubbed the human performance multimeter (HPMM) was developed. The HPMM is based on a set of lab-based performance capacity tests developed and evaluated over the last two decades. We attempted to integrate selected functionality of a set of modular lab-based instruments into a single, small package. In the present study, a 4th generation prototype was developed and evaluated for usability, measurement repeatability, and preliminary measurement validity. Five performance capacity tests (upper extremity coordination, isometric grip strength, simple response speed, rapid alternating movement, and steadiness/tremor) were administered to twenty healthy adult volunteers. Short-term reliability was investigated using a test-retest protocol. Most measures were found to possess good test-retest reliability (r>0.75). Preliminary validity was investigated by comparing results to those obtained with non-portable devices that served as models for the HPMM. Results were in good agreement with those instruments. It is concluded that measures of good fidelity can be obtained with this type of instrument. PMID:17946212

  20. Evidence for capacity sharing when stopping.

    PubMed

    Verbruggen, Frederick; Logan, Gordon D

    2015-09-01

    Research on multitasking indicates that central processing capacity is limited, resulting in a performance decrement when central processes overlap in time. A notable exception seems to be stopping responses. The main theoretical and computational accounts of stop performance assume that going and stopping do not share processing capacity. This independence assumption has been supported by many behavioral studies and by studies modeling the processes underlying going and stopping. However, almost all previous investigations of capacity sharing between stopping and going have manipulated the difficulty of the go task while keeping the stop task simple. In the present study, we held the difficulty of the go task constant and manipulated the difficulty of the stop task. We report the results of four experiments in which subjects performed a selective stop-change task, which required them to stop and change a go response if a valid signal occurred, but to execute the go response if invalid signals occurred. In the consistent-mapping condition, the valid signal stayed the same throughout the whole experiment; in the varied-mapping condition, the valid signal changed regularly, so the demands on the rule-based system remained high. We found strong dependence between stopping and going, especially in the varied-mapping condition. We propose that in selective stop tasks, the decision to stop or not will share processing capacity with the go task. This idea can account for performance differences between groups, subjects, and conditions. We discuss implications for the wider stop-signal and dual-task literature. PMID:26036922

  1. 77 FR 33181 - Large Residential Washers From the Republic of Korea: Preliminary Affirmative Countervailing Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-05

    ... Washers From the Republic of Korea: Initiation of Countervailing Duty Investigation, 77 FR 4279 (January... Korea: Postponement of Preliminary Determination in the Countervailing Duty Investigation, 77 FR 13559... Korea: Final Affirmative Countervailing Duty Determination, 77 FR 17410 (March 26, 2012)...

  2. Ruiz Volcano: Preliminary report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz Volcano, Colombia (4.88°N, 75.32°W). All times are local (= GMT -5 hours).An explosive eruption on November 13, 1985, melted ice and snow in the summit area, generating lahars that flowed tens of kilometers down flank river valleys, killing more than 20,000 people. This is history's fourth largest single-eruption death toll, behind only Tambora in 1815 (92,000), Krakatau in 1883 (36,000), and Mount Pelée in May 1902 (28,000). The following briefly summarizes the very preliminary and inevitably conflicting information that had been received by press time.

  3. Environmental Survey preliminary report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-04-01

    This report presents the preliminary findings from the first phase of the Environmental Survey of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Sandia National Laboratories conducted August 17 through September 4, 1987. The objective of the Survey is to identify environmental problems and areas of environmental risk associated with Sandia National Laboratories-Albuquerque (SNLA). The Survey covers all environmental media and all areas of environmental regulation. It is being performed in accordance with the DOE Environmental Survey Manual. This phase of the Survey involves the review of existing site environmental data, observations of the operations carried on at SNLA, and interviews with site personnel. 85 refs., 49 figs., 48 tabs.

  4. Rural research capacity building program: capacity building outcomes.

    PubMed

    Webster, Emma; Thomas, Margaret; Ong, Narelle; Cutler, Linda

    2011-01-01

    The Rural Research Capacity Building Program commenced in 2006 with the aim of developing research skills in rural health workers. The program was based on the capacity building principles of workforce development, organisational development, resource allocation, partnership and leadership. Qualitative methods were used to assess capacity building outcomes. A sample of candidates from the 2006 and 2007 cohorts were selected for interview using stratified random sampling and supplemental purposive sampling. Twenty-five individual semi-structured interviews were conducted with candidates, their managers and mentors. Interviews were thematically analysed. The program components of teaching, mentoring and networking led to the development of research skills in candidates undertaking the program. This workforce development resulted in workplace change, particularly where the candidate's project was 'close to practice' and they had management support. The leadership shown and partnerships developed by the program managers enhanced the workforce development and organisational change outcomes. Resources, such as backfill and incidentals, were useful for candidates, but practicalities, such as availability of replacement staff, limited effectiveness. This study showed the value of using a capacity building framework and demonstrated that undertaking research on a topic close to practice positioned candidates to drive change within their organisation. PMID:21616034

  5. Molecular-dynamics simulation of the heat capacity for nickel and copper clusters: Shape and size effects

    SciTech Connect

    Gafner, S. L.; Redel, L. V.; Gafner, Yu. Ya.

    2012-03-15

    We have investigated the heat capacity of ideal Cu and Ni fcc clusters with diameters from 2 to 6 nm in the temperature range 200-800 K by the molecular-dynamics method using a modified tight-binding potential. Our analysis has shown consistency with the experimental results at temperatures of 200-300 K. The data obtained are also indicative of several regularities that are in agreement with the analytical calculations. We have concluded from the results of our computer simulations that the heat capacity in the case of isolated free clusters can exceed that of a bulk material, with this difference decreasing as the nanoparticle grows proportionally to the reduction in the fraction of surface atoms. The excess of the heat capacity for ideal copper and nickel nanoclusters with D = 6 nm at T = 200 K has been found to be 10% and 13%, respectively. Consequently, the large heat capacities of copper and nickel nanostructures observed in some real experiments cannot be related to the characteristics of free clusters. We hypothesize that these properties of a nanomaterial depend on the degree of agglomeration of its constituent particles, i.e., the surfaces and interphase boundaries of interconnected nanoclusters can have a strong effect. To test this hypothesis, we took nickel and copper clusters of various sizes (4000-7200 atoms) produced through the simulation of condensation from the gas phase. At high temperatures, we failed to adequately assess the role of the interphase boundaries in calculating the heat capacity of nanoparticles. The reason was the mass diffusion of Ni or Cu atoms to impart an energetically more favorable shape and structure to the synthesized clusters. At low temperatures, the heat capacity of such clusters exceeded that of clusters with an ideal shape and structure by a value from 3.2% to 10.6%. We have concluded that the Ni and Cu clusters produced in real experiments cannot be applied in devices using the thermal energy of such clusters without a preliminary optimization stage, because their external shape and interior structure are nonideal.

  6. Spray dryer capacity stretched 50%

    SciTech Connect

    Paraskevas, J.

    1983-01-01

    This article describes plant equipment modifications which has resulted in a 50% increase in spray drying capacity. The installation of a new atomizer and screening system in NL Chemicals' Newberry Springs plant which produces natural clays for use as rheological additives in industrial coatings, cosmetics and other products, resulted in a 50% increase in spray drying capacity. Energy consumption per pound of product was reduced by 7%, and product quality improved. This was achieved in less than three months at an investment of less than 10% of what an additional spray dryer would have cost.

  7. Superadditivity of classical capacity revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Pilyavets, Oleg V.; Karpov, Evgueni A.; Schäfer, Joachim

    2014-12-04

    We introduce new type of superadditivity for classical capacity of quantum channels, which involves the properties of channels’ environment. By imposing different restrictions on the total energy contained in channels’ environment we can consider different types of superadditivity. Using lossy bosonic and additive noise quantum channels as examples, we demonstrate that their capacities can be either additive or superadditive depending on the values of channels parameters. The parameters corresponding to transition between the additive and superadditive cases are related with recently found critical and supercritical parameters for Gaussian channels.

  8. Nitrogen expander cycles for large capacity liquefaction of natural gas

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Ho-Myung; Park, Jae Hoon; Gwak, Kyung Hyun; Choe, Kun Hyung

    2014-01-29

    Thermodynamic study is performed on nitrogen expander cycles for large capacity liquefaction of natural gas. In order to substantially increase the capacity, a Brayton refrigeration cycle with nitrogen expander was recently added to the cold end of the reputable propane pre-cooled mixed-refrigerant (C3-MR) process. Similar modifications with a nitrogen expander cycle are extensively investigated on a variety of cycle configurations. The existing and modified cycles are simulated with commercial process software (Aspen HYSYS) based on selected specifications. The results are compared in terms of thermodynamic efficiency, liquefaction capacity, and estimated size of heat exchangers. The combination of C3-MR with partial regeneration and pre-cooling of nitrogen expander cycle is recommended to have a great potential for high efficiency and large capacity.

  9. North American fertilizer capacity data

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-01

    This listing of producers and their fertilizer production capacities was compiled in October 1991 with the cooperation of the US and Canadian fertilizer industry. Fertilizers production is reported or forecasted for the years 1987 through 1997. The fertilizers reported on are: ammonia, ammonium nitrate, nitrogen solutions, urea, phosphate rock, wet-process phosphoric acid, ammonium phosphates, concentrated superphosphates, and potash.

  10. Network Routing Capacity Jillian Cannons

    E-print Network

    Zeger, Kenneth

    Westerra Court San Diego, CA 92121-1969 Email: rdough@ccrwest.org Christopher Freiling Department message throughputs achievable by routing. We prove that the routing capacity of every network node messages, and sink node demands. Each message is an arbitrary element of a fixed finite alphabet

  11. Kampung Capacity Local Solutions for

    E-print Network

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    with a large-scale hydropower plan for the river basin. Keywords: South East Asia, Malaysia, Rural EnergyKampung Capacity Local Solutions for Sustainable Rural Energy in the Baram River Basin, Sarawak Energy Laboratory (RAEL) & Energy and Resources Group and Goldman School of Public Policy Release Date

  12. Poster — Thur Eve — 64: Preliminary investigation of arc configurations for optimal sparing of normal tissue in hypofractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (HF-SRT) of multiple brain metastases using a 5mm interdigitating micro-multileaf collimator

    SciTech Connect

    Leavens, C; Wronski, M; Lee, YK; Ruschin, M; Soliman, H; Sahgal, A

    2014-08-15

    Purpose: To evaluate normal tissue sparing in intra-cranial HF-SRT, comparing various arc configurations with the Synergy Beam Modulator (SynBM) and Agility linacs, the latter incorporating leaf interdigitation and backup jaws. Methods: Five patients with multiple brain metastases (BMs), (5 BMs (n=2), 3 BMs (n=3)) treated with HF-SRT using 25 Gy (n=2) or 30 Gy (n=3) in 5 fractions, were investigated. Clinical treatment plans used the SynBM. Each patient was retrospectively re-planned on Agility, employing three planning strategies: (A) one isocenter and dedicated arc for each BM; (B) a single isocenter, centrally placed with respect to BMs; (C) the isocenter and arc configuration used in the SynBM plan, where closely spaced (<5cm) BMs used a dedicated isocenter and arcs. Agility plans were normalized for PTV coverage and heterogeneity. Results and Conclusion: Strategy A obtained the greatest improvements over the SynBM plan, where the maximum OAR dose, and mean dose to normal brain (averaged for all patients) were reduced by 55cGy and 25cGy, respectively. Strategy B was limited by having a single isocenter, hence less jaw shielding and increased MLC leakage. The maximum OAR dose was reduced by 13cGy, however mean dose to normal brain increased by 84cGy. Strategy C reduced the maximum OAR dose and mean dose to normal brain by 32cGy and 9cGy, respectively. The results from this study indicate that, for intra-cranial HF-SRT of multiple BMs, Agility plans are equal or better than SynBM plans. Further planning is needed to investigate dose sparing using Strategy A and the SynBM.

  13. Remarks on entanglement assisted classical capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Heng

    2003-06-01

    The property of the optimal signal ensembles of entanglement assisted channel capacity is studied. A relationship between entanglement assisted channel capacity and one-shot capacity of unassisted channel is obtained. The data processing inequalities, convexity and additivity of the entanglement assisted channel capacity are reformulated by simple methods.

  14. 10 CFR 904.9 - Excess capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Excess capacity. 904.9 Section 904.9 Energy DEPARTMENT OF... Marketing § 904.9 Excess capacity. (a) If the Uprating Program results in Excess Capacity, Western shall be entitled to such Excess Capacity to integrate the operation of the Boulder City Area Projects and...

  15. Biological Preliminaries The Mathematical Model

    E-print Network

    Maryland at College Park, University of

    Biological Preliminaries The Mathematical Model Discussion A Mathematical Model of Cancer Stem Cell Vanderbilt University Feb 17, 2012 Georgi Kapitanov A Mathematical Model of Cancer Stem Cell Lineage Preliminaries Telomeres Stem Cells and Differentiation Cell Mutations and Cancer 2 The Mathematical Model

  16. Whole-body vibration improves functional capacity and quality of life in patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD): a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Braz Júnior, Donato S; Dornelas de Andrade, Arméle; Teixeira, Andrei S; Cavalcanti, Cléssyo A; Morais, André B; Marinho, Patrícia EM

    2015-01-01

    Background Exercise intolerance is a common development in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). There is little data on the use of an isolated program using vibration platform training on functional capacity in these patients, which is an area that deserves investigation. Aim To investigate the effect of training on a vibrating platform (whole-body vibration [WBV]) on functional performance and quality of life of subjects with COPD. Methods A randomized controlled crossover pilot study with eleven subjects with COPD (forced expiratory volume in 1 second [FEV1]% predicted =14.63±11.14; forced vital capacity [FVC]% predicted =48.84±15.21; FEV1/FVC =47.39±11.63) underwent a 12-week WBV training program. Participants were randomized into the intervention group (IG) undergoing three sessions per week for a total of 12 weeks and control group (CG) without intervention. We evaluated the 6-minute walk test (6MWT), distance walked (DW), duration of the walk (TW), and index of perceived exertion (IPE), quality of life using St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) and developed a 12-week program of training on a vibrating platform. Results The mean age was 62.91±8.82 years old (72.7% male). The DW increased at the end of training with a difference between groups of 75 m; all domains of the SGRQ improved at the end of training. The effect size Cohen’s d ranged from small to large for all the measured results. Conclusion These preliminary results suggest that WBV may potentially be a safe and feasible way to improve functional capacity in the 6MWT of patients with COPD undergoing a training program on the vibrating platform as well as in all domains of the SGRQ quality of life. However, further studies with a larger number of patients are needed to establish the long-term effect on functional capacity and quality of life in these patients. PMID:25624756

  17. 77 FR 19279 - Long Canyon Pumped Storage Project; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-30

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Long Canyon Pumped Storage Project; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application...-foot-high by 730-foot-long, RCC dam, having a total storage capacity of 5,530 acre-feet and a water... Storage Project to be located near the town of Moab, Grand County, Utah. The ] project would...

  18. Preliminary Design of a Smart Battery Controller for SLI Batteries Xiquan Wang and Pritpal Singh

    E-print Network

    Singh, Pritpal

    Preliminary Design of a Smart Battery Controller for SLI Batteries Xiquan Wang and Pritpal Singh Automotive start, light, ignition (SLI) lead acid batteries are prone to capacity loss due to low of these batteries can be improved by using the concept of a smart battery system (SBS). In a SBS, battery data from

  19. 75 FR 70730 - Natural Currents Energy Services, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-18

    ... preliminary permit, pursuant to section 4(f) of the Federal Power Act, proposing to study the feasibility of the Salem Tidal Energy Project, which would be located on the Salem River, in Salem County, New Jersey... NC Sea Dragon or Red Hawk tidal turbines at a rated capacity of 100 kilowatts (kW). The exact...

  20. Description and Preliminary Training Evaluation of an Arc Welding Simulator. Research Report SRR 73-23.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrams, Macy L.; And Others

    A prototype arc welding training simulator was designed to provide immediate, discriminative feedback and the capacity for concentrated practice. Two randomly selected groups of welding trainees were compared to evaluate the simulator, one group being trained using the simulator and the other using conventional practice. Preliminary data indicated…