Sample records for capacity preliminary investigation

  1. 18 CFR 1b.6 - Preliminary investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 2010-04-01 false Preliminary investigations. 1b.6 Section 1b.6 Conservation...ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.6 Preliminary investigations. The Commission or its staff...

  2. Explosive volcanic deposits on Mars: Preliminary investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crown, D. A.; Leshin, L. A.; Greeley, Ronald

    1987-01-01

    Two investigations were undertaken to examine possible large scale explosive volcanic deposits on Mars. The first includes an analysis of Viking Infrared Thermal Mapper (IRTM) data covering the vast deposits in the Amazonis, Memnonia, and Aeolis regions. These postulated ignimbrites have been previously mapped, and at least five high resolution nighttime IRTM data tracks cross the deposits. Preliminary analysis of the data covering Amazonis Planitia show that local features have anomalous thermal inertias but the ignimbrites as a whole do not consistently have significantly different thermal inertias from their surroundings. Preliminary photogeologic and IRTM studies of the large and small highland paterae have also begun. The purpose of IRTM studies of postulated Martian explosive volcanic deposits is to determine the physical properties of the proposed ignimbrites. If volcanic deposits are exposed at the surface, high thermal inertias, as are observed for Apollinaris Patera, should be present.

  3. The Language of Intoxication: Preliminary Investigations

    PubMed Central

    Levit, Ash; Sher, Kenneth J.; Bartholow, Bruce D.

    2009-01-01

    Background The extensive vocabulary individuals use to describe alcohol’s subjective effects has largely gone unexamined in contemporary alcohol research. The present study examined the language drinkers use to describe their own intoxication. It is argued that this language can provide a more complete characterization of alcohol’s subjective effects than is available from existing objective and subjective measures of alcohol use and can inform future self-report research. Method Toward this goal, a preliminary, cross-sectional, web-based study of the familiarity and usage of current intoxication-related words was conducted in 2 different samples (n = 290 and 146, respectively) of university undergraduates. Results Exploratory factor analyses using data from the first sample and confirmatory factor analyses using data from the second sample similarly showed that commonly used terms loaded onto 2 factors, which directly reflected the number of drinks required to be considered moderately or heavily intoxicated, respectively. Gender differences were also found in the familiarity and self-use of some terms across both samples. Conclusions The findings suggest that alcohol researchers include multiple intoxication-related terms in future self-report research, and to periodically assess current intoxication-related vocabulary considering demographic, generational, and socio-cultural differences. PMID:19120056

  4. Preliminary Investigation of an Active PLZT Lens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lightsey, W. D.; Peters, B. R.; Reardon, P. J.; Wong, J. K.

    2001-01-01

    The design, analysis and preliminary testing of a prototype Adjustable Focus Optical Correction Lens (AFOCL) is described. The AFOCL is an active optical component composed of solid state lead lanthanum-modified zirconate titanate (PLZT) ferroelectric ceramic with patterned indium tin oxide (ITO) transparent surface electrodes that modulate the refractive index of the PLZT to function as an electro-optic lens. The AFOCL was developed to perform optical re-alignment and wavefront correction to enhance the performance of Ultra-Lightweight Structures and Space Observatories (ULSSO). The AFOCL has potential application as an active optical component within a larger optical system. As such, information from a wavefront sensor would be processed to provide input to the AFOCL to drive the sensed wavefront to the desired shape and location. While offering variable and rapid focussing capability (controlled wavefront manipulation) similar to liquid crystal based spatial light modulators (SLM), the AFOCL offers some potential advantages because it is a solid-state, stationary, low-mass, rugged, and thin optical element that can produce wavefront quality comparable to the solid refractive lens it replaces. The AFOCL acts as a positive or negative lens by producing a parabolic phase-shift in the PLZT material through the application of a controlled voltage potential across the ITO electrodes. To demonstrate the technology, a 4 mm diameter lens was fabricated to produce 5-waves of optical power operating at 2.051 micrometer wavelength. Optical metrology was performed on the device to measure focal length, optical quality, and efficiency for a variety of test configurations. The data was analyzed and compared to theoretical data available from computer-based models of the AFOCL.

  5. Suicide among Minority Elderly: A Preliminary Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntosh, John L.; Santos, John F.

    1981-01-01

    An investigation of official 1976 suicide statistics among minority elderly revealed that suicide rates are highest among the old for Chinese, Japanese, and Filipino Americans. Among Blacks and Native Americans, however, suicide rates are extremely low for the aged. Suggests explanations for these findings. (Author)

  6. Investigation of the absorption capacity of working solar oil

    SciTech Connect

    Kulyasova, S.V.; Koptev, G.P.; Mikhno, S.I.

    1982-01-01

    The use of a petroleum distillate, commonly referred to as solar wash oil, with a boiling range of 265-350/sup 0/C for the recovery of benzol hydrocarbons from coke oven gas was investigated. Chromatography was used for the chemical analysis in all experiments. The absorption capacity of the solar oil for various aromatics (toluene, xylenes, indene, styrene, etc.) was investigated with respect to temperature dependence. Six tables of data were included in the work.

  7. Preliminary Heat Capacity and Vapor Pressure Measurements of 2D 4He on ZYX Graphite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, S.; Matsui, K.; Matsui, T.; Fukuyama, Hiroshi

    2013-06-01

    We report preliminary heat capacity and vapor pressure measurements of the first and second layers of 4He adsorbed on ZYX graphite. ZYX is known to have much better crystallinity than Grafoil, the most commonly-used exfoliated graphite substrate, such as a ten-times larger platelet size. This allows us to distinguish different phases in 2D 4He much more clearly and may provide qualitatively different insights into this system. We found a significantly asymmetric density-dependence of the heat-capacity peak associated with the sqrt{3}×sqrt{3} phase formation comparing with that obtained with Grafoil. The 2nd-layer promotion density is determined as 11.8±0.3 nm-2 from the heat-capacity measurement of low density samples in the 2nd layer and vapor pressure measurement.

  8. Learning Environment Dynamics From Self-Adaptation A preliminary investigation

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Learning Environment Dynamics From Self-Adaptation A preliminary investigation Amine Boumaza LORIA be extracted. Categories and Subject Descriptors I.2.6 [Learning]: Parameter learning; G.1.6 [Optimization, Self-adaptation, Dynamic envi- ronments 1. INTRODUCTION Self-adaptation has become a very important

  9. Heat Capacity Mapping Mission investigation no. 25 (Tellus project)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deparatesi, S. G. (principal investigator); Reiniger, P. (editor)

    1982-01-01

    The TELLUS pilot project, utilizing 0.5 to 1.1 micron and 10.5 to 12.5 micron day and/or night imagery from the Heat Capacity Mapping Mission, is described. The application of remotely sensed data to synoptic evaluation of evapotranspiration and moisture in agricultural soils was considered. The influence of topography, soils, land use, and meteorology on surface temperature distribution was evaluated. Anthropogenic heat release was investigated. Test areas extended from semi-arid land in southern Italy to polders in the Netherlands, and from vine-growing hills in the Rhineland to grasslands in Buckinghamshire.

  10. 19 CFR 207.12 - Notice of preliminary phase of investigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...NONADJUDICATIVE INVESTIGATIONS INVESTIGATIONS OF WHETHER INJURY TO DOMESTIC INDUSTRIES RESULTS FROM IMPORTS SOLD AT LESS THAN FAIR VALUE OR FROM SUBSIDIZED EXPORTS TO THE UNITED STATES Preliminary Determinations § 207.12 Notice of preliminary...

  11. 49 CFR 850.10 - Preliminary investigation by the Coast Guard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...Preliminary investigation by the Coast Guard. 850.10 Section 850.10...NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD COAST GUARD-NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SAFETY...Preliminary investigation by the Coast Guard. (a) The Coast Guard...

  12. Trained Quantity Abilities in Horses (Equus caballus): A Preliminary Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Miletto Petrazzini, Maria Elena

    2014-01-01

    Once believed to be a human prerogative, the capacity to discriminate between quantities now has also been reported in several vertebrates. To date, only two studies investigated numerical abilities in horses (Equus caballus) but reported contrasting data. To assess whether horses can be trained to discriminate between quantities, I have set up a new experimental protocol using operant conditioning. One adult female was trained to discriminate between 1 and 4 (Test 1) in three different conditions: non-controlled continuous variables (numerical and continuous quantities that co-vary with number are simultaneously available), 50% controlled continuous variables (intermediate condition), and 100% controlled continuous variables (only numerical information available). The subject learned the discrimination in all conditions, showing the capacity to process numerical information. When presented with a higher numerical ratio (2 vs. 4, Test 2), the subject still discriminated between the quantities but its performance was statistically significant only in the non-controlled condition, suggesting that the subject used multiple cues in presence of a more difficult discrimination. On the whole, the results here reported encourage the use of this experimental protocol as a valid tool to investigate the capacity to process numerical and continuous quantities in horses in future research. PMID:25379278

  13. Trained Quantity Abilities in Horses (Equus caballus): A Preliminary Investigation.

    PubMed

    Miletto Petrazzini, Maria Elena

    2014-09-01

    Once believed to be a human prerogative, the capacity to discriminate between quantities now has also been reported in several vertebrates. To date, only two studies investigated numerical abilities in horses (Equus caballus) but reported contrasting data. To assess whether horses can be trained to discriminate between quantities, I have set up a new experimental protocol using operant conditioning. One adult female was trained to discriminate between 1 and 4 (Test 1) in three different conditions: non-controlled continuous variables (numerical and continuous quantities that co-vary with number are simultaneously available), 50% controlled continuous variables (intermediate condition), and 100% controlled continuous variables (only numerical information available). The subject learned the discrimination in all conditions, showing the capacity to process numerical information. When presented with a higher numerical ratio (2 vs. 4, Test 2), the subject still discriminated between the quantities but its performance was statistically significant only in the non-controlled condition, suggesting that the subject used multiple cues in presence of a more difficult discrimination. On the whole, the results here reported encourage the use of this experimental protocol as a valid tool to investigate the capacity to process numerical and continuous quantities in horses in future research. PMID:25379278

  14. Preliminary analysis to guide the choice of the power capacity of the future French Sodium Fast Reactor prototype

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Mignot; M. S. Chenaud; N. Devictor; L. Paret; G. Rodriguez; P. Dubuisson; J. Rouault

    This paper presents a preliminary analysis aiming to guide the choice of the power capacity of the future French Sodium Fast Reactor (SFR) prototype. Given the French background on SFRs, the reactor prototype, called ASTRID (Advanced Sodium Technological Reactor for Industrial Demonstration), will be a demonstration reactor to validate at an industrial scale, the future commercial reactor technologies (1) mainly

  15. Preliminary phase relations involving glaucophane and applications to high pressure petrology: new heat capacity and thermodynamic data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Timothy J. B. Holland

    1988-01-01

    New heat capacity measurements and cell volume data are presented for a very magnesian glaucophane from a Tauern Window eclogite. These data are combined with estimated entropy, thermal expansion, and compressibility data to generate an enthalpy of formation for glaucophane from experimentally determined phase equilibria. The data are supported by preliminary experiments of the author and provide consistent calculations on

  16. A Preliminary Investigation of Worry Content in Sexual Minorities

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Brandon J.; Hope, Debra A.

    2011-01-01

    This preliminary study examined the nature of worry content of lesbians, gay men, and bisexual individuals and the relationship between worry related to sexual orientation and mental health. A community sample of 54 individuals identifying as sexual minorities was recruited from two cities in the Great Plains to complete a packet of questionnaires, including a modified Worry Domains Questionnaire (WDQ; Tallis, Eyseck, & Mathews, 1992) with additional items constructed to assess worry over discrimination related to sexual orientation, and participate in a worry induction and verbalization task. The content of self-reported worries was consistent with those reported in prior investigations of worry content, and worry related to sexual orientation was not found to be elevated compared to other topics. However, degree of worry related to sexual orientation was significantly associated with increased negative affect, depressive symptoms, and internalized homophobia and decreased quality of life and positive affect. Implications of these findings, limitations, and future research issues are discussed. PMID:21041061

  17. Preliminary Investigation of the Dosimetric Properties of ‘RadGel’

    PubMed Central

    Newton, J. R.; Thomas, A.; Appleby, A.; Marsden, C.; Christman, E.A.; Wolodzko, J.G.; Oldham, M.

    2010-01-01

    A preliminary investigation into the efficacy of a new 3D dosimetry material, RadGel™, for verification of radiation therapy dose distributions is presented. Small volumes of RadGel™ were found to exhibit a linear, reproducible response to dose. A gradual increase in optical-density (OD) with time was observed, suggesting scanning should be completed within 18 hours to keep a linear correlation of R2 > 0.99. A larger 10 cm diameter volume of RadGel™ was irradiated with a rotationally symmetric “spoke” plan designed to rigorously evaluate scanner/dosimeter combined performance. The dosimeter was imaged with the Duke Mid-sized Optical-CT Scanner (DMOS). Promising OD and corresponding dose maps were obtained. Edge artefacts were observed and are suspected to be exacerbated by the particular container used in this early study. Further studies will evaluate new containers and methods for refractive matching at the gel-container-fluid interface. PMID:21617743

  18. Preliminary results from Radiation Environment Investigations on GIOVE-A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Underwood, C. I.; Taylor, B.; Ryden, K. A.; Rodgers, D. J.; Dyer, C. S.; Evans, H. D. R.; Daly, E. J.

    GIOVE-A is a small satellite build by SSTL UK for the European Space Agency as a first element of its Galileo satellite navigation programme GIOVE-A s primary payload is a navigation payload to secure use of the frequencies allocated by the International Telecommunications Union ITU for the Galileo system and to demonstrate critical technologies for the navigation payload of future operational Galileo satellites It also includes radiation environments and effects experiments constructed by the University of Surrey CEDEX and QinetiQ MERLIN to characterise the hazardous MEO environment GIOVE-A was launched 28 December 2005 into a 24000 km circular orbit with 56 degree inclination The environment experiments contain detectors to register the electron proton and ion signals and also to investigate the resulting total dose and charging environments The payloads will be described and preliminary results will be presented

  19. Preliminary investigation of the 317 Area, ANL-E

    SciTech Connect

    Wescott, J.; Moos, L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Remeikis, A. [ATR Environmental Services Ltd., Lemont, IL (United States)

    1995-06-01

    The 317 Area at Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL-E) is scheduled to undergo a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigation, Act or RFI. Prior to the formal RFI, a voluntary, preliminary characterization of the 317 Area was conducted by ANL-E. The characterization results were used to formulate the RFI work plan and provided a better focus for the formal investigation. This site presents a difficult engineering challenge. The nature of the waste disposed at this site in the past includes both liquid chemicals and radioactive waste. The 317 Area is classified as a radiologically controlled area because of operations currently performed there. Present Department of Energy policy stipulates that waste material from such an area must be considered radioactive. The possible presence of hazardous constituents in the soil and groundwater would require the investigation-derived waste generated at the site be disposed as radioactive mixed waste. Besides the nature of the waste possibly contaminating this site, the geology of the site poses an equally enigmatic situation. The ANL-E site is located in a region of recessional glacial moraine deposits.

  20. Preliminary investigation of CTH:YAG laser for cochlear implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, Udayan K.; Pawel, Bruce R.; Potsic, William P.

    2000-05-01

    Cochlear implantation is a treatment for deafness that requires the surgical placement of electrodes within the cochlea, using a high-speed drill. While the drill is effective, the tip of the drill or the drill shaft may damage critical adjacent structures, such as the facial nerve. In addition, the narrow working spaces involved in this surgery make the drill a relatively cumbersome tool for such delicate work. The use of a flexible fiber to deliver the laser energy may make the surgery easier by allowing a more maneuverable instrument to access the region, while reducing the risk of injuring adjacent structures. We report our preliminary investigation of fiber delivery of CTH:YAG energy ((lambda) equals 2091 nm) for the purpose of bony ablation. A 550 micron diameter low-OH silica fiber was used to drill through up to 2.5 mm thick human temporal bone specimens. An average of 14 pulses was required for 1 mm thick bones, and an average of 33 pulses required to ablate 2 mm of bone. The holes drilled were precise, and showed limited adjacent tissue effect by gross and histopathologic evaluation. This work demonstrates the effective fiberoptic delivery of CTH:YAG energy for bone ablation. Further work is warranted to explore the clinical possibilities offered by this technique for precise bony ablation with limited adjacent tissue effect.

  1. Preliminary investigations into solutal flow about growing tetragonal lysozyme crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pusey, Marc; Witherow, William; Naumann, Robert

    1988-01-01

    A series of preliminary experiments were done to investigate solutal flow about growing lysozyme crystals and its effects. Density-gradient-driven flow was observed using a schlieren optical system. Crystals used ranged from 0.3 to 1.72 mm across the (110) face, and protein concentrations were from 3.7 to 23.7 mg/ml. The convective plume velocities were found to be from 10 to 50 microns/s, which correlated with those predicted to occur based upon a diffusive-convective model. When microcrystals of lysozyme, less than 20 microns across the (110) face were subjected to directed solution flows, the growth rate was found to rapidly decrease over the 8-20 h course of the experiment. Solution flow rates used ranged from 18 to 40 microns/s, and protein concentrations were from 7.3 to 11.7 mg/ml, conditions typical of larger (greater than 0.5 mm) crystals in the terminal phases of a typical crystal growth procedure.

  2. Preliminary Aerodynamic Investigation of Fan Rotor Blade Morphing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tweedt, Daniel L.

    2012-01-01

    Various new technologies currently under development may enable controlled blade shape variability, or so-called blade morphing, to be practically employed in aircraft engine fans and compressors in the foreseeable future. The current study is a relatively brief, preliminary computational fluid dynamics investigation aimed at partially demonstrating and quantifying the aerodynamic potential of fan rotor blade morphing. The investigation is intended to provide information useful for near-term planning, as well as aerodynamic solution data sets that can be subsequently analyzed using advanced acoustic diagnostic tools, for the purpose of making fan noise comparisons. Two existing fan system models serve as baselines for the investigation: the Advanced Ducted Propulsor fan with a design tip speed of 806 ft/sec and a pressure ratio of 1.294, and the Source Diagnostic Test fan with a design tip speed of 1215 ft/sec and a pressure ratio of 1.470. Both are 22-in. sub-scale, low-noise research fan/nacelle models that have undergone extensive experimental testing in the 9- by 15-foot Low Speed Wind Tunnel at the NASA Glenn Research Center. The study, restricted to fan rotor blade morphing only, involves a fairly simple blade morphing technique. Specifically, spanwise-linear variations in rotor blade-section setting angle are applied to alter the blade shape; that is, the blade is linearly retwisted from hub to tip. Aerodynamic performance comparisons are made between morphed-blade and corresponding baseline configurations on the basis of equal fan system thrust, where rotor rotational speed for the morphed-blade fan is varied to change the thrust level for that configuration. The results of the investigation confirm that rotor blade morphing could be a useful technology, with the potential to enable significant improvements in fan aerodynamic performance. Even though the study is very limited in scope and confined to simple geometric perturbations of two existing fan systems, the aerodynamic effectiveness of blade morphing is demonstrated by the configurations analyzed. In particular, for the Advanced Ducted Propulsor fan it is demonstrated that the performance levels of the original variable-pitch baseline design can be achieved using blade morphing instead of variable pitch, and for the Source Diagnostic Test fan the performance at important off-design operating points is substantially increased with blade morphing.

  3. Asynchronous Nano-electronics: Preliminary Investigation Alain J. Martin & Piyush Prakash

    E-print Network

    Martin, Alain

    Asynchronous Nano-electronics: Preliminary Investigation Alain J. Martin & Piyush Prakash is a preliminary investigation in implement- ing asynchronous QDI logic in molecular nano-electronics, taking apply to nano-CMOS as well. 1. Introduction Currently, molecular nano-electronics is considered

  4. Preliminary Investigation of an Underwater Ramjet Powered by Compressed Air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mottard, Elmo J.; Shoemaker, Charles J.

    1961-01-01

    Part I contains the results of a preliminary experimental investigation of a particular design of an underwater ramjet or hydroduct powered by compressed air. The hydroduct is a propulsion device in which the energy of an expanding gas imparts additional momentum to a stream of water through mixing. The hydroduct model had a fineness ratio of 5.9, a maximum diameter of 3.2 inches, and a ratio of inlet area to frontal area of 0.32. The model was towed at a depth of 1 inch at forward speeds between 20 and 60 feet per second for airflow rates from 0.1 to 0.3 pound per second. Longitudinal force and pressures at the inlet and in the mixing chamber were determined. The hydroduct produced a positive thrust-minus-drag force at every test speed. The force and pressure coefficients were functions primarily of the ratio of weight airflow to free-stream velocity. The maximum propulsive efficiency based on the net internal thrust and an isothermal expansion of the air was approximately 53 percent at a thrust coefficient of 0.10. The performance of the test model may have been influenced by choking of the exit flow. Part II is a theoretical development of an underwater ramjet using air as "fuel." The basic assumption of the theoretical analysis is that a mixture of water and air can be treated as a compressible gas. More information on the properties of air-water mixtures is required to confirm this assumption or to suggest another approach. A method is suggested from which a more complete theoretical development, with the effects of choking included, may be obtained. An exploratory computation, in which this suggested method was used, indicated that the effect of choked flow on the thrust coefficient was minor.

  5. Aerobic exercise equipment preferences among older adults: a preliminary investigation.

    PubMed

    Looney, Marilyn A; Rimmer, James H

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an instrument that would measure the aerobic exercise equipment preferences of a frail older population and to see, despite a small sample size, if a many-facet Rasch analysis would provide useful information concerning the construct validity of the instrument and the equipment preferences of the sample. Sixteen ambulatory seniors (M = 82.0 yr +/- 6.6; 4 males and 12 females), who resided in a local retirement community and were involved in a structured fitness program, evaluated the following exercise equipment: Schwinn Air-Dyne, Nu-Step Recumbent Stepper; Monark bicycle ergometer; Stairmaster; and PTS Turbo Recumbent Bicycle. Participants used the equipment for 5 min. and then completed the survey via a structured interview technique. Test-retest reliability coefficients indicated the participants' responses were stable across days for each piece of exercise equipment (proportions of agreement >.83; km >.77). A many-facet (equipment, items, participants) Rasch analysis verified that 12 closed format items defined a linear construct of equipment preference (separation = 1.8; reliability =.77). The pieces of equipment were placed on the linear continuum according to their equipment preference measures (separation = 3.21; reliability =.91) derived from the participants' response patterns to the items (separation = 1.43; reliability =.67). Although the MNSQ infit and outfit statistics were acceptable for each facet, the items did not target the equipment very well. Suggested changes to the instrument include converting questions to statements to use with Likert response categories; converting negative wording to positive phrasing, and adding items related to seat comfort, foot pedal placement, and visibility of display panel. The Nu-Step and Schwinn were the most preferred pieces of equipment while the Stairmaster was the least preferred. This preliminary investigation illustrates how useful information can be obtained from a many-facet Rasch analysis to guide instrument revision and better understand exercise equipment preferences among a frail older population. PMID:12700430

  6. 19 CFR 207.13 - Cooperation with administering authority; preliminary phase of investigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...NONADJUDICATIVE INVESTIGATIONS INVESTIGATIONS OF WHETHER INJURY TO DOMESTIC INDUSTRIES RESULTS FROM IMPORTS SOLD AT LESS THAN FAIR VALUE OR FROM SUBSIDIZED EXPORTS TO THE UNITED STATES Preliminary Determinations § 207.13 Cooperation with...

  7. 19 CFR 207.13 - Cooperation with administering authority; preliminary phase of investigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...NONADJUDICATIVE INVESTIGATIONS INVESTIGATIONS OF WHETHER INJURY TO DOMESTIC INDUSTRIES RESULTS FROM IMPORTS SOLD AT LESS THAN FAIR VALUE OR FROM SUBSIDIZED EXPORTS TO THE UNITED STATES Preliminary Determinations § 207.13 Cooperation with...

  8. Preliminary investigation results on fabrics and related physical properties of an anisotropic gneiss

    E-print Network

    Fritz, Harald

    Preliminary investigation results on fabrics and related physical properties of an anisotropic is attributed primarily to a highly anisotropic microcrack pattern, the distinct gneissose banding orientation of minerals (LPO, SPO) has been extensively investigated (Wenk, 1985; Wenk and Christie, 1991

  9. Aerobic Capacity Following Long Duration International Spaces Station (ISS) Missions: Preliminary Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Alan D.; Lee, S.M.C.; Everett, M.E.; Guined, J.R.; Knudsen, P.

    2010-01-01

    Maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max) is reduced immediately following space flights lasting <15 d, but has not been measured following long-duration missions. The purpose of this study is to measure VO2max and maximum work rate (WRmax) data from astronauts following ISS flights (91 to 188 d). Methods: Five astronauts [3 M, 2 F: 47+/-6 yr, 174+/-6 cm, 71.9+/-10.9 kg (mean +/- SD)] have participated in the study. Subjects performed upright cycle exercise tests to symptom-limited maximum. An initial test was done approx.270 d before flight to establish work rates for subsequent tests. Subsequent tests, conducted approx.45 d before flight and repeated on the first or second day (R+1/2) and at approx.10 d (R+10) following landing, consisted of 3 5 min stages designed to elicit 25%, 50%, and 75% of preflight VO2max, followed by 25 W(dot)/min increases. VO2, WR, and heart rate (HR) were measured using the ISS Portable Pulmonary Function System [Damec, Odense, DK]. Descriptive statistics are reported. Results: On R+1/2 mean VO2max decreased compared to preflight (Pre: 2.98+/-0.99, R+1/2: 2.63+/-0.56 L(dot)/min); 4 of 5 subjects demonstrated a loss of > 6%. WRmax also decreased on R+1/2 compared to preflight (Pre: 245+/-69, R+1/2: 210+/-45 W). On R+10, VO2max was 2.86+/-0.62 L(dot)/min, with 2 subjects still demonstrating a loss of > 6% from preflight. WRmax on R+10 was 240+/-49 W. HRmax did not change from pre to post-flight. Conclusions: These preliminary results, from the first 5 of 12 planned subjects of an ongoing ISS study, suggest that the majority of astronauts will experience a decrease in VO2max after long-duration space-flight. Interestingly, the two astronauts with the highest preflight VO2max had the greatest loss on R+1/2, and the astronaut with the lowest preflight VO2max increased by 13%. Thus, maintenance of VO2max may be more difficult in astronauts who have a high aerobic capacity, perhaps requiring more intense in-flight exercise countermeasure prescriptions.

  10. Preliminary Investigation of Linkages Between Arctic Pingos and Subsurface Stratigraphy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casavant, R.; Skirvin, S.; Patel, C.; Burr, D.

    2008-12-01

    This NASA-SETI supported study investigates the distribution of pingos (elliptically-shaped ice-rich topographic mounds) across 2300 square kilometers of the central coastal plain of Arctic Alaska in relation to the shallow geological framework that exists immediately beneath them. Pingos in the central North Slope of Alaska are classified as being of the closed or hydrostatic type. Their genesis is often assigned to freezing and cryogenic uplift of near-surface saturated thaw lake sediments that are exposed as lakes are drained and/or become choked with sediments. Although thaw lakes appear rather ubiquitous across the study area, pingos do not. Pingo distributions can be categorized as either clusters of elements or as relatively dispersed. Spatial statistical analysis reveals that pingo distribution is non-random and clustered. The analysis also took into account that pingo distribution is a function of preferential preservation between modern rivers channels that cross the study area. Pingo distributions and frequency were tested in relation to the location and type of stratigraphic and sedimentological features that characterized the shallow subsurface across the study area. Subsurface interpretation was derived mostly from oil well wireline logs. Gamma ray logs for more than 160 wells were used to define, correlate and assess the connectivity and conductivity of shallow and near-surface stratigraphic units between wells. Assessed also were major facies changes and the type and locations of subsurface structures such as major basement-to-surface faults and folds. The surface and near-surface truncation and subcropping of tilted, alternating units of permeable coarse-grained and confining fine- grained units were also mapped in relation to pingo locations. Preliminary and intriguing findings will be presented which contribute to the hypothesis that pingo genesis, location, and variations in morphology could be, in part, linked to a well-documented and active subsurface geohydrologic system. This system is characterized by multiple stacked hydrocarbon-, saline- and freshwater-rich reservoirs. Processes include fault reactivation and basin subsidence that drive episodic basin expulsion, and upward migration and mixing of deep basin and phreatic fluids along basin margins. Endpoints of the system include demonstrable gas hydrates deposits that occur below and within the permafrost, and documented seepage of hydrocarbons and groundwater at the surface. Our hypothesis entertains the idea that closed pingos might also be endpoints of the petroluem system as basin and phreatic fluids migrate vertically within a thick and leaky permafrost interval along faults and tilted reservoir sand-rich units, which intersect and differentially charge frozen near-surface sedimentary units. Future field-based sampling and geophysical studies may shed additional light on this model's application for pingo genesis and resource exploration on Mars.

  11. Alkali Activated Geopolymeric Binder Using Tungsten Mine Waste: Preliminary Investigation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Pacheco-Torgal; J. P. Castro-Gomes; S. Jalali

    This paper reports preliminary results of a PhD research project related to the development of an alkali- activated geopolymeric binder using mineral waste mud from the Portuguese tungsten mine Panasqueira which is still operating. Mineralogical analysis indicates that the waste mud is compose mainly of muscovite and quartz with a high content of iron and alkali metals. Results of the

  12. Single-Session Consultations for Parents: A Preliminary Investigation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Sommers-Flanagan

    2007-01-01

    Many parents want child-rearing information and emotional sup port from mental health professionals but are reluctant to attend group parenting classes or commit to long -term counseling. This study evaluated the efficacy of a specific, brief parent consultation intervention. Preliminary data were collected during routine single - session parenting consultations offered through a community ag ency. Preconsultation and postconsultation data

  13. Preliminary Investigation of Combustion of Diborane in a Turbojet Combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, Warner B; Gibbs, James B; Branstetter, J Robert

    1957-01-01

    Boron and its hydrides offer increased flight range relative to conventional fuels for turbojet engines. Preliminary evaluation has been made of the combustion characteristics and deposition problems resulting from burning diborone in a single, modified J33 combustor. A combustor relatively free of deposits for the limited test conditions has been developed. Three possible methods of alleviating deposits on the turbine blades are reported.

  14. Students' Entrepreneurial Inclination at a Malaysian Polytechnic: A Preliminary Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yasin, Ahmad Yasruddin Md; Mahmood, Nik Abdul Aziz Nik; Jaafar, Nik Azyyati Nik

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports preliminary results of an ongoing project to examine students' inclination towards entrepreneurship at a Malaysian polytechnic. The study used a self-administered questionnaire to explore the influence of entrepreneurial intent, perceived behavioral control, self-efficacy, perceived barriers, perceived support factors and…

  15. MIDDLE POTLATCH CREEK, LATAH COUNTY, IDAHO - PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION REPORT, 1993

    EPA Science Inventory

    The 1992 Idaho Water Quality Status Report listed the Middle Potlatch Creek (17060306) as an Idaho Impaired Stream Segment Requiring Further Assessment and listed the creek as a water body not fully supporting at least one beneficial use. This preliminary resource assessment foc...

  16. Examining the Reinforcing Properties of Making Sense: A Preliminary Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wray, Alisha M.; Dougher, Michael J.; Hamilton, Derek A.; Guinther, Paul M.

    2012-01-01

    Acceptance and commitment therapy asserts that in clinical problems such as rumination and depression, making sense continues despite accompanying aversive consequences, because sense-making is reinforcing, particularly when it leads to experiential avoidance. The following series of experiments aimed to provide preliminary empirical evidence for…

  17. Investigation of load carriage capacity of journal bearings by surface texturing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cem Sinanoglu

    2009-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate and discuss the influence of the pattern, size and orientation of textures on journal bearing load carriage capacity. An important development in load carriage capacity of journal bearings can be obtained by forming regular surface structure in the form of threaded on their shaft surfaces. This is performed both theoretically

  18. Improving CAD performance in pulmonary embolism detection: preliminary investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Sang Cheol; Chapman, Brian; Deible, Christopher; Lee, Sean; Zheng, Bin

    2010-03-01

    In this preliminary study, a new computer-aided detection (CAD) scheme for pulmonary embolism (PE) detection was developed and tested. The scheme applies multiple steps including lung segmentation, candidate extraction using intensity mask and tobogganing method, feature extraction, false positive reduction using a multifeature based artificial neural network (ANN) and a k-nearest neighbor (KNN) classifier to detect and classify suspicious PE lesions. In particular, a new method to define the surrounding background regions of interest (ROI) depicting PE candidates was proposed and tested in an attempt to reduce the detection of false positive regions. In this study, the authors also investigated following methods to improve CAD performance, which include a grouping and scoring method, feature selection using genetic algorithm, and limitation on allowed suspicious lesions to be cued in one examination. To test the scheme performance, a set of 20 chest CT examinations were selected. Among them, 18 are positive cases depicted 44 verified PE lesions and the remaining 2 were negative cases. The dataset was also divided into a training subset (9 examinations) and a testing subset (11 examinations), respectively. The experimental results showed when applying to the testing dataset CAD scheme using tobogganing method alone achieved 2D region-based sensitivity of 72.1% (220/305) and 3D lesion-based sensitivity of 83.3% (20/24) with total 19,653 2D false-positive (FP) PE regions (1,786.6 per case or approximately 6.3 per CT slice). Applying the proposed new method to improve lung region segmentation and better define the surrounding background ROI, the scheme reduced the region-based sensitivity by 6.5% to 65.6% or lesion-based sensitivity by 4.1% to 79.2% while reducing the FP rate by 65.6% to 6,752 regions (or 613.8 per case). After applying the methods of grouping, the maximum scoring, a genetic algorithm (GA) to delete "redundant" features, and limiting the maximum number of cued-lesions in one examination, CAD scheme further reduced FP rate to 50 per case. Based on the FROC curve, an operating threshold was set up in which the CAD scheme could ultimately achieve 63.2% detection sensitivity with 18.4 FP regions per case when applying to the testing dataset. This study investigated the feasibility of several methods applying to the CAD scheme in detecting PE lesions and demonstrated that CAD performance could depend on many factors including better defining candidate ROI and its background, optimizing the 2D region grouping and scoring methods, selecting the optimal feature set, and limiting the number of allowed cueing lesions per examination.

  19. Detection of 99Tc by accelerator mass spectrometry: preliminary investigations

    SciTech Connect

    McAninch, J. E., LLNL

    1997-04-01

    Accelerator mass spectrometry is an established technique for the detection of long-lived radionuclides at environmental levels. At LLNL, planned facility upgrades and advances in detection techniques are allowing us to explore the applicability of AMS to isotopes not previously pursued. One such isotope is technetium-99. We have performed a number of preliminary tests to examine the technical feasibility of AMS for the detection of {sup 99}Tc. The questions addressed were negative ion production in the cesium sputter source, transport efficiency for the ions through the spectrometer, and detection efficiency for {sup 99}Tc ions after the spectrometer. Based on the positive results of these tests, we have begun to develop a measurement protocol. Technetium is co-precipitated with rhodium, added as a carrier, which provides a sample form appropriate for sputtering and an isotope for AMS normalization. The {sup 99}Tc is determined from the measured {sup 99}Tc/{sup 103}Rh ratio. To reduce interference from the isobar {sup 99}Ru, an oxidation/distillation method was employed to lower ruthenium in the rhodium stock solution. Characteristic projectile L x-rays are used for ion detection to allow further subtraction of {sup 99}Ru. Results for a series of standards demonstrated linearity and reproducibility. A sensitivity of {approx}500 fg {sup 99}Tc was obtained in this preliminary work, and indications are that a sensitivity in the low femtogram range should be achievable.

  20. Preliminary Investigation of Sulfur Loading in Hanford LAW Glass

    SciTech Connect

    Vienna, John D.; Hrma, Pavel R.; Buchmiller, William C.; Ricklefs, Joel S.

    2004-04-01

    A preliminary estimate was developed for loading limits for high-sulfur low-activity waste (LAW) feeds that will be vitrified into borosilicate glass at the Hanford Site in the waste-cleanup effort. Previous studies reported in the literature were consulted to provide a basis for the estimate. The examination of previous studies led to questions about sulfur loading in Hanford LAW glass, and scoping tests were performed to help answer these questions. These results of these tests indicated that a formulation approach developed by Vienna and colleagues shows promise for maximizing LAW loading in glass. However, there is a clear need for follow-on work. The potential for significantly lowering the amount of LAW glass produced at Hanford (after the initial phase of processing) because of higher sulfur tolerances may outweigh the cost and effort required to perform the necessary testing.

  1. Adaptive Patterns of Stress Responsivity: A Preliminary Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Del Giudice, Marco; Hinnant, J. Benjamin; Ellis, Bruce J.; El-Sheikh, Mona

    2014-01-01

    The adaptive calibration model (ACM) is an evolutionary–developmental theory of individual differences in stress responsivity. In this article, we tested some key predictions of the ACM in a middle childhood sample (N = 256). Measures of autonomic nervous system activity across the sympathetic and parasympathetic branches validated the 4-pattern taxonomy of the ACM via finite mixture modeling. Moreover, the 4 patterns of responsivity showed the predicted associations with family stress levels but no association with measures of ecological stress. Our hypotheses concerning sex differences in responsivity were only partly confirmed. This preliminary study provides initial support for the key predictions of the ACM and highlights some of the methodological challenges that will need to be considered in future research on this topic. PMID:22148947

  2. Preliminary investigations into UHCRE thermal control materials (A0178)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levadou, Francois; Froggatt, Mike; Rott, Martin; Schneider, Eberhard

    1992-01-01

    An overview of the initial work that was done in the ESTEC Materials and Processes Division to evaluate the effect of space environment on the thermal blankets of the Ultra-Heavy Cosmic Ray Nuclei Experiments (UHCRE) is presented. The topics covered include: (1) a preliminary survey of the perforations of the two-thirds of the thermal blanket returned to ESTEC; (2) thermo-optical properties and thickness recessions of three samples cut from each of the third center parts of the 16 thermal blankets were measured and effects of environments (sun illumination and atomic oxygen fluences); (3) contamination was analyzed on trays, external blanket and internal aluminized Kapton foil by IR technique and scanning electron microscopy SEM/EDX examination; (4) the pattern of contamination on the Al Kapton foils was observed, sketched, and related to atomic oxygen flow; and (5) the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) yaw angle misorientation was evaluated from the contaminated areas visible on some of the trays. In addition, impacts of micrometeoroids and space debris were experimentally simulated on spare flight thermal blankets. Relations between penetration/perforation hole characteristics and projectile parameters were established.

  3. Preliminary Investigations of Eddy Current Effects on a Spinning Disk

    SciTech Connect

    Piggott, W T; Walston, S; Mayhall, D

    2006-09-08

    The design of the positron source target for the International Linear Collider (ILC) envisions a Ti6Al4V wheel rotating in a large magnetic field (5-10 Tesla) being impacted by a photon beam to produce positrons. One of the many challenges for this system is determining how large a motor will be needed to spin the shaft. The wheel spinning in the magnetic field induces an eddy current in the wheel, which retards the spinning motion of the wheel. Earlier calculations by Mayhall [1] have shown that those eddy forces could be quite large, and resulted in the preliminary design being moved from a solid disk to a rim and spoke design, as shown in Figure 1. A series of experiments with a spinning metal disk were run at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) to provide experimental validation of the Maxwell 3D simulations. This report will give a brief outline of the experimental setup and results. In addition, earlier work by Smythe [2] will be used to compare with the experimental results.

  4. Reconnaissance Investigation of Caribbean Extreme Wave Deposits--Preliminary Observations, Interpretations, and Research Directions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morton, Robert A.; Richmond, Bruce M.; Jaffe, Bruce E.; Gelfenbaum, Guy

    2006-01-01

    Summary: This report presents an overview of preliminary geological investigations and recommended future research activities in the Caribbean region pertaining to coastal hazards with an emphasis on establishing tsunami risk for U.S. territories. Fieldwork was conducted in March 2006 on the islands of Bonaire, Puerto Rico, and Guadeloupe to evaluate the stratigraphic records of extreme wave deposits as possible indicators of paleotsunami recurrence. Morphological, sedimentological, and stratigraphic evidence indicate that shore-parallel coral rubble deposits composed of coarse clasts and sand that are 10s of meters wide and several meters thick are depositional complexes that have accumulated for a few centuries or millennia, and are not entirely the result of one or a few tsunamis as previously reported. The origins of boulder fields on elevated rock platforms of the Caribbean islands are more complicated than the origins of ridge complexes because boulder fields can be constructed by either storm waves or tsunamis. What is needed now for more conclusive interpretations is a systematic sedimentological approach to deposit analysis and a set of criteria for distinguishing between coarse clast storm and tsunami deposits. Assembling more field data from other Caribbean islands, analyzing stratigraphic deposits on Puerto Rico and Bonaire, and investigating boulder field deposits resulting from a historical tsunami can accomplish this. Also needed are improved sediment transport models for coarse clasts that can be used to estimate the competence and capacity of tsunamis and storms waves and to determine whether a deposit likely was created by a tsunami or extreme storm. Improved models may also be useful for reconstructing the magnitude of extreme wave events.

  5. Plasma effects on Heliac configurations: a preliminary investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Mondt, J.P.

    1983-08-01

    Plasma effects on equilibrium, stability, and transport properties of helical stellarators with a hardcore current through the center (Heliac) are investigated, mainly analytically and with an emphasis on understanding the underlying physics and rough scaling rather than on accuracy and completeness. The presently reported results provide a focus in parameter space for further detailed research on the feasibility of the Heliac concept, as well as some tools with which to carry out such investigations.

  6. Informed consent in psychiatric research: Preliminary findings from an ongoing investigation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul R. Benson; Loren H. Roth; William J. Winslade

    1985-01-01

    Preliminary findings from an investigation of informed consent processes in four psychiatric research projects (two being carried out at a university medical center and two at a public psychiatric hospital) are reported. Study methods include the systematic observation of investigator\\/subject information disclosure sessions using audio and videotape, as well as the use of standardized interaction rating forms and subject understanding

  7. A PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION OF THE EFFECTS OF TRAFFIC OSCILLATIONS ON FREEWAY SAFETY

    E-print Network

    Bertini, Robert L.

    A PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION OF THE EFFECTS OF TRAFFIC OSCILLATIONS ON FREEWAY SAFETY by SANDEEP Investigation of the Effects of Traffic Oscillations on Freeway Safety Traffic oscillations are the typical stop between traffic oscillations and safety by studying a location (I-5 North) that experienced a large number

  8. A Preliminary Investigation of Asthma Mortality in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greiling, Andrea K.; Boss, Leslie P.; Wheeler, Lani S.

    2005-01-01

    Although asthma deaths in children are rare, most asthma deaths should be preventable. No information has been identified in the professional literature addressing the occurrence of asthma deaths in schools. This investigation identified asthma deaths that occurred in US schools between 1990 and 2003 and the circumstances surrounding those deaths.…

  9. The Privatization of College Counseling Services: A Preliminary Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Larry; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Investigates 31 colleges and 1 state system of 21 colleges that addressed privatizing counseling services. A small number of colleges were found to have adopted different models of outsourcing, and some had considered outsourcing but not pursued it. Discusses advantages, disadvantages, factors affecting decision making, and levels of success. (JPS)

  10. Publication by Australian LIS Academics and Practitioners: A Preliminary Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willard, Patricia; Kennan, Mary Anne; Wilson, Concepcion S.; White, Howard D.

    2008-01-01

    Much has been written about scholarly communication with studies investigating the drivers for research and publishing. For academics in particular, publication is a major determinant of a successful case for continuing employment, promotion and the winning of competitive research funding. The purpose of this paper is to inform understanding of…

  11. Virtual Manipulatives on the Interactive Whiteboard: A Preliminary Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mildenhall, Paula; Swan, Paul; Northcote, Maria; Marshall, Linda

    2008-01-01

    As part of the project titled "Hands-On Heads-On: The Effective Use of Manipulatives Both Virtual and Physical" being undertaken at Edith Cowan University, there was an investigation into the use of virtual manipulatives and the interactive whiteboard (IWB). Virtual manipulatives may be defined as a virtual representation of a physical…

  12. An investigation on the catalytic capacity of dolomite in transesterification and the calculation of kinetic parameters.

    PubMed

    Niu, Sheng-Li; Huo, Meng-Jia; Lu, Chun-Mei; Liu, Meng-Qi; Li, Hui

    2014-04-01

    The catalytic capacity of dolomite in transesterification was investigated and the kinetic parameters were calculated. The activated dolomites as transesterification catalyst were characterized by X-ray diffraction, nitrogen adsorption and desorption and Hammett indicator method, where the original dolomite was analyzed by thermogravimetric and X-ray fluorescence in advance. Its potential catalytic capacity was validated from aspects of the activated temperature and the reused property, where the reliability of the experimental system was also examined. Then, influences of the catalyst added amount, the mole ratio of methanol to oil, the transesterification temperature and the transesterification time on the catalytic capacity were investigated. Finally, kinetic parameters of the transesterification catalyzed by the activated dolomite were calculated. PMID:24583217

  13. Preliminary estimation of the reservoir capacity and the longevity of the Baca Geothermal Field, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Bodvarsson, G.S.; Vonder Haar, S.; Wilt, M.; Tsang, C.F.

    1980-07-01

    A 50 MW geothermal power plant is currently under development at the Baca site in the Valles Caldera, New Mexico, as a joint venture of the Department of Energy (DOE), Union Oil Company of California, and the Public Service Company of New Mexico (PNM). To date, over 20 wells have been drilled on the prospect, and the data from these wells indicate the presence of a high-temperature liquid dominated reservoir. Data from open literature on the field are used to estimate the amount of hot water in place (reservoir capacity) and the length of time the reservoir can supply steam for a 50 MW power plant (reservoir longevity). The reservoir capacity is estimated by volumetric calculations using existing geological, geophysical, and well data. The criteria used are described and the sensitivity of the results discussed. The longevity of the field is studied using a two-phase numerical simulator (SHAFT79). A number of cases are studied based upon different boundary conditions, and injection and production criteria. Constant or variable mass production is employed in the simulations with closed, semi-infinite or infinite reservoir boundaries. In one of the cases, a fault zone feeding the production region is modeled. The injection strategy depends on the available waste water. The results of these simulations are discussed and the sensitivity of the results, with respect to mesh size and the relative permeability curves used, are briefly studied.

  14. A preliminary investigation into the acquisition of fingerprints on food.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Sarah; Nicholson, Lynsey; Farrugia, Kevin; Bremner, David; Gentles, Dennis

    2013-03-01

    The potential for enhancement and recovery of latent fingerprints on a variety of foodstuffs has been investigated. In general, black magnetic powder and black powder suspensions appear to be the most successful enhancement techniques with a high number of ridge detail-developed prints over a selected time scale. Banana, apple and tomato surfaces showed enhancement of latent prints but potato and egg surfaces proved to be less successful. PMID:23380065

  15. Narcissism and Sensitivity to Criticism: A Preliminary Investigation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gordon D. Atlas; Melissa A. Them

    2008-01-01

    Two studies investigated the connection between narcissism and sensitivity to criticism. In study 1, participants completed\\u000a the Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI) and the Sensitivity to Criticism Scale (SCS) and were asked to construct and\\u000a deliver speeches to be rated by performance judges. They were then asked whether they would like to receive evaluative feedback.\\u000a Narcissism and sensitivity to criticism were

  16. A Preliminary Investigation of the Predictors of Tanning Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Heckman, Carolyn J.; Egleston, Brian L.; Wilson, Diane B.; Ingersoll, Karen S.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To investigate possible predictors of tanning dependence including demographic variables, exposure and protective behaviors, and other health-related behaviors. Methods This study consisted of an online survey of 400 students and other volunteers from a university community. Results Twenty-seven percent of the sample was classified as tanning dependent. Tanning dependence was predicted by ethnicity and skin type, indoor and outdoor tanning and burning, and lower skin protective behaviors, as well as smoking and body mass index. Conclusions Young adults are at risk for tanning dependence, which can be predicted by specific demographic and behavioral variables. PMID:18241130

  17. Preliminary results investigating mix in colliding-shock experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Offermann, Dustin; Keiter, Paul; Loomis, Eric; Welser-Sherrill, Leslie; Fincke, Jim; Lanier, Nick

    2011-10-01

    Experiments have been performed at the Omega laser facility to investigate turbulence-driven mix from two colliding shocks, such as expected in ICF ignition capsules. Two shocks were generated at either end of a cylindrical, CH foam. The evolution of an Al tracer layer at one end of the foam was measured using point-projection radiography. Comparison of this data with simulations from the code, RAGE has been done to improve its predictive capability for ICF experiments. RAGE implements the Besnard-Harlow-Rauenzahn (BHR) model, which is intended for turbulent transport in fluids with large density variations. Los Alamos National Laboratory, an affirmative action/equal opportunity employer, is operated by the Los Alamos National Security, LLC for the National Nuclear Security Administration of the U.S. Department of Energy under contract DE-AC52-06NA25396.

  18. A Preliminary Geomorphological Analysis of Water storage capacity: The Providence Watershed, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamorro, A.; Giardino, J. R.; Vitek, J. D.

    2013-12-01

    The Critical Zone of Earth, as defined by NSF in 2007, is series of systems that extend from the top of the canopy to the bottom of the aquifer. The soil system has been used as the primary connection between the various systems. Knowledge of water storage capacity is essential for predicting water availability in the critical zone. Soil depth is one of the most important parameters used to study water storage capacity. Unfortunately, it is challenging to obtain an accurate representation of the degree of spatial variability of soil depth in a watershed. To obtain this data requires extensive and expensive surveys, which can be compounded in forested regions. We make the assumption that soil depth is a function of surface and subsurface geomorphological processes. The Providence Watershed, which is a Critical Zone Center (CZO) is located in the Southern Sierra Nevada of California. The Providence Watershed is ~ 2.8 km2. The general trend of the watershed is northeast and ranges in elevation from 1,700 m to 2,100 m. The dominant vegetation cover is coniferous. In this area, we compiled indices from LIDAR imagery and compared these to hand-auguring profiles collected along Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) transects. Auguring profiles exist at a spacing of 123 m. The depths of these profiles varied from 0.5 to 7.0 m. We correlated the auguring data with nine indices. None of the correlations, which ranged from -0.50 to 0.21 (Pearson product-moment), were strong. The most significant finding of this study strengthens the important role that GPR can provide to capture the spatial heterogeneity present. GPR lines complimentary to geomorphological mapping can be used as an approach to obtain more accurate results in soil depth and bedrock topography mapping. The appropriate scale of work, however, depends on the understanding of the scale of processes controlling soil formation and erosion. This work is part of the collaborative effort of the Southern Sierra Critical Zone Observatory.

  19. Multiscale eddy simulation for moist atmospheric convection: Preliminary investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Stechmann, Samuel N., E-mail: stechmann@wisc.edu [Department of Mathematics, University of Wisconsin-Madison (United States); Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, University of Wisconsin-Madison (United States)

    2014-08-15

    A multiscale computational framework is designed for simulating atmospheric convection and clouds. In this multiscale framework, large eddy simulation (LES) is used to model the coarse scales of 100 m and larger, and a stochastic, one-dimensional turbulence (ODT) model is used to represent the fine scales of 100 m and smaller. Coupled and evolving together, these two components provide a multiscale eddy simulation (MES). Through its fine-scale turbulence and moist thermodynamics, MES allows coarse grid cells to be partially cloudy and to encompass cloudy–clear air mixing on scales down to 1 m; in contrast, in typical LES such fine-scale processes are not represented or are parameterized using bulk deterministic closures. To illustrate MES and investigate its multiscale dynamics, a shallow cumulus cloud field is simulated. The fine-scale variability is seen to take a plausible form, with partially cloudy grid cells prominent near cloud edges and cloud top. From earlier theoretical work, this mixing of cloudy and clear air is believed to have an important impact on buoyancy. However, contrary to expectations based on earlier theoretical studies, the mean statistics of the bulk cloud field are essentially the same in MES and LES; possible reasons for this are discussed, including possible limitations in the present formulation of MES. One difference between LES and MES is seen in the coarse-scale turbulent kinetic energy, which appears to grow slowly in time due to incoherent stochastic fluctuations in the buoyancy. This and other considerations suggest the need for some type of spatial and/or temporal filtering to attenuate undersampling of the stochastic fine-scale processes.

  20. A Preliminary Investigation of Factors Affecting Employment Motivation in People with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Abbye; Rose, John L.

    2010-01-01

    Relatively small numbers of people with intellectual disabilities (ID) are engaging in paid employment and those who are tend to be working only part-time. This preliminary study addressed the question of what factors motivate people with ID to work. The issue was investigated in a sample of 10 young work-age adults attending supported learning…

  1. Efficacy of Attention Regulation in Preschool-Age Children Who Stutter: A Preliminary Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Kia N.; Conture, Edward G.; Walden, Tedra A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This preliminary investigation assessed the attentional processes of preschool-age children who do (CWS) and do not stutter (CWNS) during Traditional cueing and Affect cueing tasks. Method: Participants consisted of 12 3- to 5-year-old CWS and the same number of CWNS (all boys). Both talker groups participated in two tasks of shifting and…

  2. A Quantitative Approach to Investigating Spanish HL Speakers' Characteristics and Motivation: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yanguas, Inigo

    2010-01-01

    The present preliminary study empirically investigated Spanish heritage language (HL) speakers in Spanish for native speakers (SNS) college courses. It focused on their attitudes and motivation to improve their HL and on their varying linguistic competences in that language. A well-established second language acquisition (SLA) motivational model…

  3. A preliminary experimental investigation of display patterns for driver-in-vehicle information system in Taiwan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chee Chung Tong; Ares Chiou

    1994-01-01

    The focus of this paper is part of an ongoing research project regarding the driver's dynamic route choice\\/switching behavior interacting with ADIS. The major topic investigated in this paper is a preliminary study to understand the suitability of various display patterns of ADIS for native drivers in Taiwan. The effort is performed through controlled laboratory experiments from which participants' behavior

  4. 2.-A PRELIMINARY REPORT UPON SALMON INVESTIGATIONS IN IDAHO By BARTON W. EVERMANN, PH. D.,

    E-print Network

    2.-A PRELIMINARY REPORT UPON SALMON INVESTIGATIONS IN IDAHO IN 1894. By BARTON W. EVERMANN, PH. D, distribution, and spawning habits of the species of salmon which have spawning- grounds in the waters of the State of Idaho. . , The alarming'decrease in the salmon catch of the Columbia River within recent years

  5. Exploring More Than 24 Hours a Day: A Preliminary Investigation of Polychronic Time Use

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carol Felker Kaufman; Jay D. Lindquist

    1991-01-01

    The present exploratory study investigates the concept of polychronic time use through the development and preliminary testing of a proposed scale, the Polychronic Attitude Index (PAI). Polychronic time use is defined and reviewed in relation to role overload and household demographic characteristics. When a sample of consumers in New Jersey was surveyed, both the PAI and role overload were found

  6. A Preliminary Investigation on Computer Vision for Telemedicine Systems Using OpenCV

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zenon Chaczko; LaReine A. Yeoh; Venkatesh Mahadevan

    2010-01-01

    OpenCV is typically, an open source vision library suitable for computer vision programs. In this paper, we present some of our preliminary investigation experiences of developing Computer Vision programs using OpenCV for robotic telemedicine cluster system, within the practice based ICTD subject within the undergraduate Software Engineering Program at the Faculty of Engineering, University of Technology Sydney (UTS). Firstly, it

  7. Preliminary Investigation Into the Effects of Cross-Flow on Low Reynolds Number Transition

    E-print Network

    Peraire, Jaime

    Preliminary Investigation Into the Effects of Cross-Flow on Low Reynolds Number Transition into the effects of cross-flow on transition at low Reynolds numbers, an area which has essentially remained and cross-flow instabilities are observed. The level of coupling between cross-flow and streamwise boundary

  8. Postmortem electrical excitability of skeletal muscle: preliminary investigation of an animal model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. D. Jones; W. S. James; S. Barasi; L. D. M. Nokes

    1995-01-01

    Presented is a preliminary study of the feasibility of using an animal model to investigate the postmortem time-dependent decay in muscular response, when subjected to electrical stimulation and to develop an animal model for the assessment of the use of electrical excitability as a method for determining the postmortem period of a human corpse. Analysis of the results shows a

  9. Bioinspired actuation of the eyeballs of an android robotic face: concept and preliminary investigations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Federico Carpi; Danilo DeRossi

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the concept and preliminary investigations related to the development of simple bioinspired actuation mechanisms for the eyeballs of an android robotic face. Two design solutions for a one-degree-of-freedom mechanism are proposed and analytically studied according to linear models. Both of them are based on new contractile actuators made of electroactive polymers, employed as pseudomuscular devices. The actuators

  10. Injury consequences from participation in professional rugby league: a preliminary investigation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rudi A Meir; K N McDonald; R Russell

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To conduct a preliminary investigation to determine if injuries sustained while playing professional rugby league have long term consequences for players after retirement from their playing careers. METHOD: Twenty eight retired players, who had competed in the professional Australian Rugby League competition, responded to a 23 item survey. Respondents were asked to recall all injuries that resulted in them

  11. Preliminary investigation of the inhibitory effects of mechanical stress in tumor growth

    E-print Network

    Miga, Michael I.

    Preliminary investigation of the inhibitory effects of mechanical stress in tumor growth Ishita the growth of the tumor as two separate components- a proliferative component and an invasive component to describe tumor growth, and the affect of mechanical stresses caused by the mass effect of tumor cells

  12. Investigation of the absorption and polymerization capacity of coal wash oils

    SciTech Connect

    Gogoleva, T.Ya.; Kovalev, E.T.; Butsinskaya, L.I.; Golovina, G.G.

    1981-01-01

    The absorption and polymerization capacity of coal gas wash oils is important when they are used as an absorber to recover benzol from coke-oven gas. The absorption capacity characterizes the property of the oil for dissolving benzol at normal temperature and a high benzol concentration in the coke-oven gas and for easily separating the benzol on heating. The polymerization capacity of the oil characterizes its property of forming polymer products, usually dissolving in the oil and intensifying its color, under the influence of temperature. The acceleration of polymerization processing of individual components of the oil is affected by its repeated heating to 130 to 140/sup 0/C during distillation of the benzol. The accumulation of polymer products in the oil impairs its quality: for example, the density increases (to 1.1 g/cm/sup 3/), the molecular weight and viscosity increase and the absorption capacity decreases. Investigations permitted more precise determination of the most characteristic temperature interval for determination and evaluation of the absorption capacity of the oils, determination of the components which largely determine the formation of polymer products in the oil and determination of certain functions for the absorption and polymerization properties of various wash oils. The principal specifications were determined for oil with sufficient absorption capacity and low polymerization capacity: density at 20/sup 0/C of not over 1.047 g/cm/sup 3/, not less than 95% distillation in the 230 to 280/sup 0/C range, concentration, wt %: naphthalene not over 10%, monomethylnaphthalenes not less than 25%, high-boiling compounds (acenaphthene, diphenylene oxide and fluorene) not over 25%; no precipitation at 5/sup 0/C. Oil of this quality may be obtained by additional purification of the standard industrial coal wash oil.

  13. Analytical and experimental investigation of liquid double drop dynamics: Preliminary design for space shuttle experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The preliminary grant assessed the use of laboratory experiments for simulating low g liquid drop experiments in the space shuttle environment. Investigations were begun of appropriate immiscible liquid systems, design of experimental apparatus and analyses. The current grant continued these topics, completed construction and preliminary testing of the experimental apparatus, and performed experiments on single and compound liquid drops. A continuing assessment of laboratory capabilities, and the interests of project personnel and available collaborators, led to, after consultations with NASA personnel, a research emphasis specializing on compound drops consisting of hollow plastic or elastic spheroids filled with liquids.

  14. Experimental Investigation of Shear Capacity of Precast Reinforced Concrete Box Culverts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anil K. Garg; Ali Abolmaali; Raul Fernandez

    2007-01-01

    This study presents an experimental program to investigate the shear capacity of precast reinforced concrete box culverts. Each culvert was subjected to monotonically increasing load through a 254 mm508 mm 10 in.20 in. load plate in order to simulate the HS20 truckload per AASHTO 2005. Instrumentation included strain gauges, high-resolution laser deflection sensor, and automated data acquisition. Four tests were

  15. An update on investigations into storage capacity loss of advanced aerospace nickel-cadmium battery cells

    SciTech Connect

    Scoles, D.L.; Hayden, J.W.; Johnson, Z.W.; Seo, E.T. [Eagle-Picher Industries, Inc., Colorado Springs, CO (United States)

    1995-12-31

    On occasion, advanced nickel-cadmium cells undergo a capacity loss during storage which is sometimes recoverable and other times not recoverable. The phenomenon appears to be random and is unexplained, although theories abound. Investigations have been undertaken at Eagle-Picher Industries in an attempt to determine the causes of this anomaly, and to eliminate or control it. An outline of methodology and results to date are presented.

  16. Preliminary investigation towards optimal use of the tactile sense as communication channel.

    PubMed

    Wang, X; Leliveld, W H

    1989-01-01

    A brief survey is given on the current development of tactile stimulation systems for profoundly deaf people. The problems that exist in the current state of the art are analysed, and our philosophy for making a tactile stimulation device is explained. An applied psychophysical study of the tactile sense is in progress, and the preliminary results of an investigation into the ability of the tactile sense to recognize graphic shapes are presented. PMID:2733016

  17. Work plan for the preliminary site investigation for McMurdo Station, Ross Island, Antarctica

    SciTech Connect

    Stefano, J.E.; Patton, T.L.; McGinnis, L.D.; Bebrich, C.A.; Knudson, D.A.; Picel, K.C.

    1991-05-01

    This document presents the final work plan for the preliminary site investigation to be conducted at McMurdo Station, Ross Island, Antarctica. A draft version of this report was presented to the National Science Foundation (NSF) in January 1991. This work plan includes a brief site description and background, a discussion of the environmental setting, a sampling and analytical program for data collection, and a brief description of sampling and data management procedures. A description of the geologic and geophysical investigation to be conducted is also included. 18 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  18. Preliminary Investigation of Zircaloy-4 as a Research Reactor Cladding Material

    SciTech Connect

    Brian K Castle

    2012-05-01

    As part of a scoping study for the ATR fuel conversion project, an initial comparison of the material properties of Zircaloy-4 and Aluminum-6061 (T6 and O-temper) is performed to provide a preliminary evaluation of Zircaloy-4 for possible inclusion as a candidate cladding material for ATR fuel elements. The current fuel design for the ATR uses Aluminum 6061 (T6 and O temper) as a cladding and structural material in the fuel element and to date, no fuel failures have been reported. Based on this successful and longstanding operating history, Zircaloy-4 properties will be evaluated against the material properties for aluminum-6061. The preliminary investigation will focus on a comparison of density, oxidation rates, water chemistry requirements, mechanical properties, thermal properties, and neutronic properties.

  19. Science misconceptions and working memory capacity among Saudi adolescents: A neo-Piagetian investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Jubaili, Ahmad Yahya

    This study was designed to investigate the relationships between science misconceptions and working memory capacity in Saudi adolescent students. The participants in this study were from eleventh and twelfth grades; both male and female students and natural and social science Saudi comprised the sample. Also investigated in this study were the conceptions and misconceptions of gravity in a non-European culture, that is Saudi culture, and the variables that differentiated those individuals who could overcome their misconceptions from those who could not and the gender differences in science misconceptions in the context of Saudi culture. Another important focus of this study was to investigate the participants' responses and explanations on the science misconceptions tasks (WLT and EGT). As would be expected, there was a strong correlation between WLT and EGT in the responses of students and their explanations. The most successful students on the WLT and EGT were natural science students rather than social science students, and there were no gender differences between male and female participants. Also investigated were the correlations between the dependent variables (i.e., the WLT and EGT; the measures of science misconceptions) and the independent variables, which were the visual working memory capacity tasks (i.e., FIT and VPS), the field independence/dependence (FASP), students' grade point average (GPA), age, academic major, gender, and grade level. It was found that both of the dependent variables (i.e., the WLT and EGT) correlated significantly with the same independent variables, the FIT, VPS, FASP, academic major, and students' grade point average (GPA).

  20. Preliminary Investigation of the Thermal Behavior of High-Speed Helical Gear Trains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Handschuh, Robert F.; Kilmain, Charles J.

    2002-01-01

    A preliminary experimental investigation of the thermal behavior of high-speed helical gears will be presented. A full-scale torque regenerative test stand has been built to test a representative helical gear train as that used in tiltrotor aircraft. Power loss and temperature data from a wide range of operating conditions were measured. Loop power ranged up to 3730 kW (5000 hp). Drive system components representative of flight quality hardware were used in the test program. The results attained in this initial study indicated that windage losses due to the high rotational speeds that were tested were far more important than the losses due to the gear meshing losses.

  1. Preliminary Investigation of Cyclic Behavior at SHADOZ Sites Between the Equator and 5 deg S Latitude

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidlin, F. J.

    2009-01-01

    Investigation of cyclic behavior of temperature and ozone data from five SHADOZ sites between the Equator and 5degS Latitude (Nairobi, Ascension Island, Natal, San Crystobal, and Watukoset) reveal an amazing array of oscillations. In particular, eight years of measurements (1998-2007) reveal changes such as decreasing amounts of ozone at some pressure levels and/or sites, while other levels and/or sites experience increasing ozone. Temperature changes of 1-2 C occur that also experience irregular oscillations. This study is preliminary and only concentrates on the 250-, 200-, 100-, 70-, and 50-hPa pressure surfaces. Surfaces existing below and above the tropopause behave differently.

  2. Investigation of an improved relativistic backward wave oscillator in efficiency and power capacity

    SciTech Connect

    Song, W.; Chen, C. H.; Sun, J.; Zhang, X. W.; Shao, H.; Song, Z. M.; Huo, S. F.; Shi, Y. C.; Li, X. Z. [Science and Technology on High Power Microwave Laboratory, Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710024 (China)

    2012-10-15

    Investigation of relativistic backward wave oscillator with high efficiency and power capacity is presented in this paper. To obtain high power and high efficiency, a TM{sub 021} mode resonant reflector is used to reduce the pulse shortening and increase power capacity to about 1.7 times. Meanwhile, an extraction cavity at the end of slow wave structure is employed to improve the efficiency from less than 30% to over 40%, through the beam-wave interaction intensification and better energy conversion from modulated electron beam to the electromagnetic field. Consistent with the numerical results, microwave with a power of 3.2 GW, a frequency of 9.75 GHz, and a pulse width of 27 ns was obtained in the high power microwave generation experiment, where the electron beam energy was configured to be {approx}910 kV and its current to be {approx}8.6 kA. The efficiency of the RBWO exceeds 40% at a voltage range of 870 kV-1000 kV.

  3. Efficacy of attention regulation in preschool-age children who stutter: A preliminary investigation

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Kia N.; Conture, Edward G.; Walden, Tedra A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose This preliminary investigation assessed the attentional processes of preschoolage children who do (CWS) and do not stutter (CWNS) during Traditional cueing and Affect cueing tasks. Method Participants consisted of 12 3- to 5-year-old CWS and the same number of CWNS (all boys). Both talker groups participated in two tasks of shifting and focusing attention: (a) Traditional cueing and (b) Affect cueing. The Affect cueing task was preceded by stress-heightening instructions intended to influence participants' emotionality. In both tasks participants provided non-speech motor responses (i.e., button pressing) to computer-presented target stimuli. Targets were preceded by a visual cue (i.e., highlighted box) occurring in the same (i.e., Valid trials) or opposite (i.e., Invalid trials) location as the target stimuli. Reaction times (RT) were measured (in ms) from the onset of the target stimuli to the onset of the non-speech motor response. Errors were tallied for both experimental conditions and were categorized by type. Results Findings of this preliminary investigation indicated that there were no significant between-group differences in RT or frequency of erroneous responses. There were differences in error type that were correlated with RT for both CWS and CWNS when stress-heightening instructions were introduced. Conclusion Preliminary findings suggest that speed of attentional disengaging, shifting and re-engaging does not differ between preschool-age CWS and CWNS during the experimental paradigm employed in this study and that introducing stress-heightening instructions does affect components of performance for both preschool-age CWS and CWNS. Caveats for the present study include a limited sample size of young preschool-aged children as well as methodological concerns. Learning outcomes Readers will be able to: (1) Define attention regulation and describe findings that investigate the role of attention regulation in developmental stuttering of preschool-age children; (2) Describe the components of attention regulation employed during a Posner Cueing Task; (3) Describe the findings of the present study in relation to other studies investigating attention regulation and developmental stuttering in preschool-age children. PMID:22560538

  4. Preliminary investigation of zirconium boride ceramals for gas-turbine blade applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, Charles A

    1953-01-01

    Zirconium boride ZrB2 ceramals were investigated for possible gas-turbine-blade application. Included in the study were thermal shock evaluations of disks, preliminary turbine-blade operation, and observations of oxidation resistance. Thermal shock disks of the following three compositions were studied: (a) 97.5 percent ZrB2 plus 2.5 percent B by weight; (b) 92.5 percent ZrB2 plus 7.5 percent B by weight; and (c) 100 percent ZrB2. Thermal shock disks were quenched from temperatures of 1800 degrees, 2000 degrees, 2200 degrees, and 2400 degrees F. The life of turbine blades containing 93 percent ZrB2 plus 7 percent B by weight was determined in gas-turbine tests. The blades were run at approximately 1600 degrees F and 15,000 to 26,000 rpm. The thermal shock resistance of the 97.5 percent ZrB2 plus 2.5 percent boron ceramals compares favorably with that of TiC plus Co and TiC plus Ni ceramals. Oxidation of the disks during the thermal shock evaluation was slight for the comparatively short time (8.3 hr) up through 2000 degrees F. Oxidation of a specimen was severe, however, after 100 hours at 2000 degrees F. The turbine blade performance evaluation of the 93 percent ZrB2 plus 7 percent B composition was preliminary in scope ; no conclusions can be drawn.

  5. The effects of high sustained acceleration on the acoustic phonetic structure of speech: A preliminary investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bond, Z. S.; Moore, T. J.; Anderson, T. R.

    1986-05-01

    The acoustic-phonetic structure of speech produced under adverse circumstances such as high levels of noise, vibration, and stress, has received little investigation. The purpose of this study was to provide some preliminary data concerning speech produced under high sustained acceleration. Acoustical measurements were made of a set of words spoken by two subjects at 1 G and +6 Gz. Words produced under acceleration differed from words produced at 1 G in both spectral and durational characteristics. The formant shifts observed were similar for both speakers. The first format increased for the majority of vowels. The second format tended to be lower for the front vowels /i, epsilon/ and higher for the back vowel (u). Acceleration resulted in a raising of the first formant and a lowering of the second formant relative to the same diphthongs produced at 1 G.

  6. Investigation of fracture-matrix interaction: Preliminary experiments in a simple system

    SciTech Connect

    Foltz, S.D. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Tidwell, V.C.; Glass, R.J.; Sobolik, S.R. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1992-12-31

    Paramount to the modeling of unsaturated flow and transport through fractured porous media is a clear understanding of the processes controlling fracture-matrix interaction. As a first step toward such an understanding, two preliminary experiments have been performed to investigate the influence of matrix imbibition on water percolation through unsaturated fractures in the plane normal to the fracture. Test systems consisted of thin slabs of either tuff or an analog material cut by a single vertical fracture into which a constant fluid flux was introduced. Transient moisture content and solute concentration fields were imaged by means of x-ray absorption. Flow fields associated with the two different media were significantly different owing to differences in material properties relative to the imposed flux. Richards` equation was found to be a valid means of modeling the imbibition of water into the tuff matrix from a saturated fracture for the current experiment.

  7. An investigation of Turkish honeys: their physico-chemical properties, antioxidant capacities and phenolic profiles.

    PubMed

    Can, Zehra; Yildiz, Oktay; Sahin, Huseyin; Turumtay, Emine Akyuz; Silici, Sibel; Kolayli, Sevgi

    2015-08-01

    This study investigated some physico-chemical and biochemical characteristics of different honey types belonging to Turkish flora. Sixty-two honey samples were examined on the basis of pollen analyses, including 11 unifloral honeys (chestnut, heather, chaste tree, rhododendron, common eryngo, lavender, Jerusalem tea, astragalus, clover and acacia), two different honeydew honeys (lime and oak), and 7 different multifloral honeys. Electrical conductivity, moisture, Hunter color values, HMF, proline, diastase number, and sugar analyses of the honey samples were assessed for chemical characterization. Some phenolic components were analyzed by reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) to determine honeys' phenolic profiles. Total phenolic compounds, total flavonoids, ferric reducing antioxidant capacity (FRAP) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity were measured as antioxidant determinants. The study results confirm that physico-chemical and biological characteristics of honeys are closely related to their floral sources, and that dark-colored honeys such as oak, chestnut and heather, have a high therapeutic potential. PMID:25766810

  8. Preliminary investigation on Mgbede-20 oil-polluted site in Niger Delta, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Osuji, Leo C; Idung, Iniobong D; Ojinnaka, Chukwunnoye M

    2006-05-01

    Soil physicochemical properties (pH, electrical conductivity (EC), % moisture, total organic carbon (TOC), total organic matter (TOM)), total extractable hydrocarbon content (THC), and micronutrient (Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn) levels of the Mgbede-20 oil-impacted site in Niger Delta, Nigeria, were investigated. Both oil-impacted and their background control soils were found to be acidic especially at surface depth. A slightly higher EC value of 107.4+/-15.0 microS cm(-1) was obtained for the subsurface-polluted soils. Of the micronutrients investigated, only Fe exceeded its acceptable limit (>100 mg/kg). The observed increase in moisture content resulting from the oil's aggregation of soil particles may lower soil porosity, and increase resistance to penetration and hydrophobicity. Soil pH can be adjusted by aeration to complete the microbially mediated oxidation of the organic acids, followed by the addition of agricultural lime to provide some buffering capacity to the soil. PMID:17193292

  9. Capacity investigation of brine-bearing sands of the Fwwm formation for geologic sequestration of CO{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Doughty, Christine; Pruess, Karsten; Benson, Sally M.; Hovorka, Susan D.; Knox, Paul R.; Green, Christopher T.

    2001-05-01

    The capacity of fluvial brine-bearing formations to sequester CO{sub 2} is investigated using numerical simulations of CO{sub 2} injection and storage. Capacity is defined as the volume fraction of the subsurface available for CO{sub 2} storage and is conceptualized as a product of factors that account for two-phase flow and transport processes, formation geometry, formation heterogeneity, and formation porosity. The space and time domains used to define capacity must be chosen with care to obtain meaningful results, especially when comparing different authors' work. Physical factors that impact capacity include permeability anisotropy and relative permeability to CO{sub 2}, brine/CO{sub 2} density and viscosity ratios, the shape of the trapping structure, formation porosity and the presence of low-permeability layering.

  10. Preliminary Modelling of the Effect of Impurity in CO2 Streams on the Storage Capacity and the Plume Migration in Pohang Basin, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Yongchan; Choi, Byoungyoung; Shinn, Youngjae

    2015-04-01

    Captured CO2 streams contain various levels of impurities which vary depending on the combustion technology and CO2 sources such as a power plant and iron and steel production processes. Common impurities or contaminants are non-condensable gases like nitrogen, oxygen and hydrogen, and are also air pollutants like sulphur and nitrogen oxides. Specifically for geological storage, the non-condensable gases in CO2 streams are not favourable because they can decrease density of the injected CO2 stream and can affect buoyancy of the plume. However, separation of these impurities to obtain the CO2 purity higher than 99% would greatly increase the cost of capture. In 2010, the Korean Government announced a national framework to develop CCS, with the aim of developing two large scale integrated CCS projects by 2020. In order to achieve this goal, a small scale injection project into Pohang basin near shoreline has begun which is seeking the connection with a capture project, especially at a steel company. Any onshore sites that are suitable for the geological storage are not identified by this time so we turned to the shallow offshore Pohang basin where is close to a large-scale CO2 source. Currently, detailed site surveys are being undertaken and the collected data were used to establish a geological model of the basin. In this study, we performed preliminary modelling study on the effect of impurities on the geological storage using the geological model. Using a potential compositions of impurities in CO2 streams from the steel company, we firstly calculated density and viscosity of CO2 streams as a function of various pressure and temperature conditions with CMG-WINPROP and then investigated the effect of the non-condensable gases on storage capacity, injectivity and plume migrations with CMG-GEM. Further simulations to evaluate the areal and vertical sweep efficiencies by impurities were perform in a 2D vertical cross section as well as in a 3D simulation grid. Also, pressure increases caused by the impurities and the partitioning between CO2 and other non-condensable gases were explored. In addition, the possibility of using these contaminants as a tracer were examined.

  11. Scaling the Information Load of Occupations: Preliminary Findings of the Fit between Individual Capacities and Environmental Demands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haase, Richard F.; Ferreira, Joaquim Armando G. A.; Santos, Eduardo J. R.; Aguayo, Gina M.; Fallon, Melissa M.

    2008-01-01

    Person-Environment (P-E) fit models provide a conceptually powerful way to think about career development, vocational choice, and occupational success. The work reported here focuses on yet another pair of P-E criteria: self-reported individual capacity for information processing (the ability to tolerate information overload from a variety of…

  12. Preliminary Investigation of Stagnation Point Liquid Injection Influence on Blunt Body Aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woods, William C.; Jones, Kenneth M.; Genzel, Noah N.

    2002-01-01

    A preliminary investigation has been performed to determine the influence of stagnation point water injection on the hypersonic aerodynamic forces and moments for two-dimensional blunt bodies. This investigation was performed in the Langley 20-Inch Mach 6 Air Tunnel, and represents the qualitative first phase of a study to examine the potential benefits of water injection to reduce aerodynamic drag and aero-heating. Tests with a 4-inch diameter hemisphere cylinder and a 4-inch diameter cylinder with a span 1.5 times the diameter were performed over a range of free-stream unit Reynolds number from two million to six million per ft and of angle of attack (-5 deg to 5 deg) with water and gaseous nitrogen injection at the geometric stagnation point. The momentum flux ratio, that is, the ratio of the momentum flux of the jet to that of the free-stream flow, was varied from the non-blowing value of zero up to 0.00031 by maintaining the jet momentum fixed and varying the free-stream momentum, hence Reynolds number. The effect of water injection on the aerodynamic drag coefficient for the hemisphere cylinder was observed to be negligible as the momentum flux ratio was increased to 0.00017, but decreased significantly as this ratio increased above 0.00017; a nearly 50 percent reduction in drag occurred for a factor of two increase in momentum flux ratio.

  13. A preliminary investigation into the development of 3-D printing of prosthetic sockets.

    PubMed

    Herbert, Nicholas; Simpson, David; Spence, William D; Ion, William

    2005-01-01

    The socket is considered an element of major importance in the makeup of a prosthesis. Each socket is a tailor-made device, designed to fit the unique geometry of the patient's residual limb. The design and manufacture of a prosthetic socket traditionally has been a manual process that relies on the use of plaster of Paris casts to capture the shape of the patient's residual limb and then artisan fabrication techniques to manufacture the socket. Computer-aided design and manufacturing technologies have overcome some of the shortcomings of the traditional process, but the final manufacture of the prosthetic socket is still performed manually. Rapid prototyping (RP), a relatively new class of manufacturing technologies, creates physical models directly from three-dimensional (3-D) computer data. Previous research into the application of RP systems to the manufacture of prosthetic sockets has focused on expensive, high-end technologies that have proven too expensive. This paper investigates the use of a cheaper, low-end RP technology known as 3-D printing. Our investigation was an initial approach to using a technology that is normally associated with producing prototypes quickly, some of which could not be manufactured by alternative means. Under normal circumstances, these printed components are weak and relatively fragile. However, comfortable prosthetic sockets manufactured with 3-D printing have been used in preliminary fittings with patients. PMID:15944878

  14. Preliminary Results from an Investigation into Nanostructured Nuclear Radiation Detectors for Non-Proliferation Applications

    SciTech Connect

    ,

    2012-10-01

    In recent years, the concept of embedding composite scintillators consisting of nanosized inorganic crystals in an organic matrix has been actively pursued. Nanocomposite detectors have the potential to meet many of the homeland security, non-proliferation, and border and cargo-screening needs of the nation and, by virtue of their superior nuclear identification capability over plastic, at roughly the same cost as plastic, have the potential to replace all plastic detectors. Nanocomposites clearly have the potential of being a gamma ray detection material that would be sensitive yet less expensive and easier to produce on a large scale than growing large, whole crystals of similar sensitivity. These detectors would have a broad energy range and a sufficient energy resolution to perform isotopic identification. The material can also be fabricated on an industrial scale, further reducing cost. This investigation focused on designing and fabricating prototype core/shell and quantum dot (QD) detectors. Fourteen core/shell and four QD detectors, all with the basic consistency of a mixture of nanoparticles in a polymer matrix with different densities of nanoparticles, were prepared. Nanoparticles with sizes <10 nm were fabricated, embedded in a polystyrene matrix, and the resultant scintillators’ radiation detector properties were characterized. This work also attempted to extend the gamma energy response on both low- and high-energy regimes by demonstrating the ability to detect low-energy and high-energy gamma rays. Preliminary results of this investigation are consistent with a significant response of these materials to nuclear radiation.

  15. The effect of selegiline on total scavenger capacity and liver fat content: a preliminary study in an animal model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gabor BekesiZsolt; Zsolt Tulassay; Gabriella Lengyel; Zsuzsa Schaff; Dezso Szombath; Julia Stark; Istvan Marczell; Peter Nagy-Repas; Ildiko Adler; Elek Dinya; Karoly Racz; Kalman Magyar

    Selegiline is a selective irreversible inhibitor of the B-type of monoamine oxidase (MAO-B). The spectrum of its pharmacological\\u000a activity is wide, possesses antioxidant, antiapoptotic and neuroprotective properties and, additionally, we found it is effective\\u000a on the total scavenger capacity (TSC), and the regulation of fat content in rat liver kept on lipid-rich diet. Our aim was\\u000a to clarify whether the

  16. A Preliminary Investigation of Within-Year Growth Patterns in Reading and Mathematics Curriculum-Based Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graney, Suzanne B.; Missall, Kristen N.; Martinez, Rebecca S.; Bergstrom, Melissa

    2009-01-01

    This study examined patterns of growth across benchmark assessments for curriculum-based measures (CBM) over 2 academic years, with the twofold purpose of replicating earlier findings of growth patterns on R-CBM and conducting a preliminary investigation of growth patterns on M-CBM and CBM-Maze. The sample included 898 cases from 3rd through 5th…

  17. P 4.72 A PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION OF DERECHO-PRODUCING MCSs IN ENVIRONMENTS OF VERY LOW DEWPOINTS

    E-print Network

    P 4.72 A PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION OF DERECHO-PRODUCING MCSs IN ENVIRONMENTS OF VERY LOW DEWPOINTS winds and other severe weather threats with which they are associated, derecho-producing mesoscale and summer, derecho MCSs typically occur in environments of substantial convective instability, with very

  18. Preliminary investigation into the analytical potential of a multiwavelength fiber drop analyzer with special reference to applications in medical diagnostics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Norman D. McMillan; Eon O'Mongain; James E. Walsh; Liam Breen; Duncan G. McMillan; Michael J. Power; John P. O'Dea; Seamus M. Kinsella; Mairead P. Kelly; Conor Hammil; Dermot Orr

    1994-01-01

    A preliminary investigation into the use of multiwavelength fiber drop analyzer (FDA) for the measurement of viscosity, spectral absorbance and refractive index is made with a view to obtaining conservative estimates of the instrumental capability of the FDA for these measurands. Some important new insights into drop vibrations are made from studies on the fiber drop traces (FDTs) of mechanically

  19. Evaluation of CO2 migration and formation storage capacity in the Dalders formations, Baltic Sea - Preliminary analysis by means of models of increasing complexity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niemi, Auli; Yang, Zhibing; Tian, Liang; Jung, Byeongju; Fagerlund, Fritjof; Joodaki, Saba; Pasquali, Riccardo; O'Neill, Nick; Vernon, Richard

    2014-05-01

    We present preliminary data analysis and modeling of CO2 injection into selected parts of the Dalders Monocline and Dalders Structure, formations situated under the Baltic Sea and of potential interest for CO2 geological storage. The approach taken is to use models of increasing complexity successively, thereby increasing the confidence and reliability of the predictions. The objective is to get order-of-magnitude estimates of the behavior of the formations during potential industrial scale CO2 injection and subsequent storage periods. The focus has been in regions with best cap-rock characteristics, according to the present knowledge. Data has been compiled from various sources available, such as boreholes within the region. As the first approximation we use analytical solutions, in order to get an initial estimate the CO2 injection rates that can be used without causing unacceptable pressure increases. These preliminary values are then used as basis for more detailed numerical analyses with TOUGH2/TOUGH2-MP (e.g. Zhang et al, 2008) simulator and vertical equilibrium based (e.g. Gasda et al, 2009) models. With the numerical models the variations in material properties, formation thickness etc., as well as more processes such as CO2 dissolution can also be taken into account. The presentation discusses results from these preliminary analyses in terms of estimated storage capacity, CO2 and pressure plume extent caused by various injection scenarios, as well as CO2 travel time after the end of the injection. The effect of factors such as number of injection wells and the positioning of these, the effect of formation properties and the boundary conditions are discussed as are the benefits and disadvantages of the various modeling approaches used. References: Gasda S.E. et al, 2009. Computational Geosciences 13, 469-481. Zhang et al, 2008. Report LBNL-315E, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.

  20. Preliminary results of investigations into the use of artificial neural networks for discriminating gas chromatograph mass spectra of remote samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geller, Harold A.; Norris, Eugene; Warnock, Archibald, III

    1991-01-01

    Neural networks trained using mass spectra data from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) are studied. The investigations also included sample data from the gas chromatograph mass spectrometer (GCMS) instrument aboard the Viking Lander, obtained from the National Space Science Data Center. The work performed to data and the preliminary results from the training and testing of neural networks are described. These preliminary results are presented for the purpose of determining the viability of applying artificial neural networks in discriminating mass spectra samples from remote instrumentation such as the Mars Rover Sample Return Mission and the Cassini Probe.

  1. Investigations of current-carrying capacity and quench behavior of a composite superconductor by magnetic flux pumping method

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanov, S.S.; Balashov, N.N.; Pukhov, A.A.; Shchegolev, I.O. (Inst. for High Temperatures, Moscow (Russian Federation))

    1994-07-01

    The current-carrying capacity investigations for high-current (> 10 kA) superconducting cables are of great importance for the large scale magnet system design. Here, results of current-carrying capacity measurements and the quench behavior analysis for a single Cu/NbTi composite super-conducting wire under adiabatic cooling conditions are presented.d The data are received using as well the usual resistive method as the contactless flux pumping method. The results obtained show that the latter method may be used not only for current-carrying capacity measurements but also for cryostability parameters determination. These results may be important for stability tests of high-current cables for large-scale applications (such as SMES, pulsed magnet systems etc.).

  2. Investigation of Metal Oxide/Carbon Nano Material as Anode for High Capacity Lithium-ion Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, James Jianjun; Hong, Haiping

    2014-01-01

    NASA is developing high specific energy and high specific capacity lithium-ion battery (LIB) technology for future NASA missions. Current state-of-art LIBs have issues in terms of safety and thermal stability, and are reaching limits in specific energy capability based on the electrochemical materials selected. For example, the graphite anode has a limited capability to store Li since the theoretical capacity of graphite is 372 mAh/g. To achieve higher specific capacity and energy density, and to improve safety for current LIBs, alternative advanced anode, cathode, and electrolyte materials are pursued under the NASA Advanced Space Power System Project. In this study, the nanostructed metal oxide, such as Fe2O3 on carbon nanotubes (CNT) composite as an LIB anode has been investigated.

  3. Preliminary investigation of an improved metal-dielectric cathode for magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoping; Dang, Fangchao; Zhang, Jun; Fan, Yuwei; Li, Zhiqiang

    2015-02-01

    In order to explore the cathode with good repetition quality for the magnetically insulated transmission line oscillators, an improved metal-dielectric cathode is proposed and investigated experimentally. The cathode is designed to be step-like shape, and thin copper plated boards are periodically and compactly arrayed on the surface of the cathode base, which ensures the uniformity of the electrons emitted from the cusps of the copper plated boards. According to the numerical simulation results, the step-like shape is beneficial to convert the kinetic energy of the magnetic insulating current partially and enhance the beam-wave interaction efficiency. Finally, a preliminary experiment of an L-band magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator (MILO) with the improved metal-dielectric cathode is carried out. A high power microwave (HPM) with an average power of 1.95 GW is generated from the MILO, with an efficiency of 13.5%. Under the same experiment condition, the output power and main frequency with the presented cathode are almost the same to those with the velvet cathode. Apart from that, metal-dielectric cathode has the merits of small outgassing and long lifetime, and all of these make the improved metal-dielectric cathode significantly promising for the MILO repetition operation. PMID:25725868

  4. A preliminary environmental site investigation for a bridge over the Mississippi River at Moline, Illinois

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Trask, C.B.

    2006-01-01

    The Illinois State Geological Survey completed a preliminary environmental site assessment along the alignment of Interstate 74 (I-74) and its bridge over the Mississippi River for the Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT) in 2002. The objective of the study was to determine if any of the parcels proposed for acquisition or on which soil excavation was intended were sufficiently contaminated to require additional investigation by a commercial environmental consultant under contract to IDOT and to identify potential natural hazards that might have an impact on the proposed construction project. VOC were detected at 13 of 37 sites tested for VOC. These sites included an elevator manufacturer, former foundries, former and active machine shops, former and active gasoline stations, and a former automobile dealer. PAH above TACO Tier 1 residential standards were detected on an island in the Mississippi River. PCB was detected at a former foundry and a control box for a railroad. Magnetic anomalies that might indicate the presence of UST were detected in a park that formerly had been the site of a city garage, adjacent to a parking lot that formerly contained an automobile dealer, and at the sites of three former gasoline stations. These studies helped IDOT to save millions of dollars in highway construction projects. This is an abstract of a paper presented in Contaminated Soils, Sediments and Water: Success and Challenges (Massachusetts Fall 2005).

  5. A preliminary investigation of segmentation and rime abilities of children who stutter

    PubMed Central

    Sasisekaran, Jayanthi; Byrd, Courtney T.

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated segmentation and rhyme abilities, skills critical for phonological encoding, of children who stutter (CWS) and those who do not (CNS). Participants were 9 CWS (8 males and 1 female, Mean Age = 11.1, SD = 2.31) in the age range of 7 and 13 years and 9 age and sex matched CNS (Mean Age = 11.2, SD = 2.19). Participants performed two verbal monitoring tasks, phoneme and rhyme monitoring, in silent naming. Performances in the verbal monitoring tasks were compared to a neutral, nonverbal tone monitoring task. Additionally, the complexity of the phoneme monitoring task was varied such that participants had to monitor for singletons vs. consonant clusters. Repeated measures analysis of the response time data did not reveal significant differences between the groups in the three monitoring tasks. Analysis of the complexity data revealed a trend for slower monitoring of the consonant clusters in the CWS group compared to the CNS. Present findings do not support a deficit in segmentation and rhyme abilities in CWS, although there was some preliminary evidence of segmentation difficulties with increasing phonological complexity of the stimuli. PMID:23773673

  6. A Preliminary Investigation of the Cr3Si-Mo Pseudo-Binary Phase Diagram

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickerson, R. M.; Raj, S. V.; Locci, I. E.

    1995-01-01

    An investigation was undertaken to study the phase relations in Cr3Si alloyed with Mo varying from 10 to 83.5 wt. % of the material. Specimens were prepared from arc-melted buttons that were subsequently heat treated at 1673 K for 200 h and air quenched to room temperature to structures. Alloys containing more than 20 wt. % MO were primarily two-phase materials of M3Si and M5Si3, where M is (Cr,Mo). Three alloys contained less than 5% of a third phase, which also had the M5Si3 crystal structure. Differential thermal analysis (DTA) was performed on several specimens at temperatures up to 2073 K in order to determine a solidus curve for the M3Si phase. Since only one DTA peak was observed in each alloy, the M5Si3 phase must melt above 2073 K, the maximum temperature examined. A preliminary pseudo-binary phase diagram for (Cr,Mo)3Si and a portion of the 1673 K isothermal section of the Cr-Mo-Si ternary phase diagram are presented.

  7. Preliminary investigation of the hazard faced by Western Australia from tsunami generated along the Sunda Arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burbidge, D.; Cummins, P. R.

    2005-12-01

    Since the Boxing Day tsunami various countries surrounding the Indian Ocean have been investigating the potential hazard from trans-Indian Ocean tsunami generated along the Sunda Arc, south of Indonesia. This study presents some preliminary estimates of the tsunami hazard faced by Western Australia from tsunami generated along the Arc. To estimate the hazard, a suite of tsunami spaced evenly along the subduction zone to the south of Indonesia were numerically modelled. Offshore wave heights from tsunami generated in this region are significantly higher along northwestern part of the Western Australian coast from Exmouth to the Kimberly than they are along the rest of the coast south of Exmouth. Due to the offshore bathymetry, the area around Onslow in particular may face a higher tsunami than other areas the West Australian coast. Earthquakes between Java and Timor are likely to produce the greatest hazard to northwest WA. Earthquakes off Sumatra are likely the main source of tsunami hazard to locations south of Exmouth, however the hazard here is likely to be lower than that along the north western part of the West Australian coast. Tsunami generated by other sources (eg large intra-plate events, volcanoes, landslides and asteroids) could threaten other parts of the coast.

  8. Preliminary Tests in the NACA Tank to Investigate the Fundamental Characteristics of Hydrofoils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ward, Kenneth E.; Land, Norman S.

    1940-01-01

    This preliminary investigation was made to study the hydrodynamic properties and general behavior of simple hydrofoils. Six 5- by 30-inch plain, rectangular hydrofoils were tested in the NACA tank at various speeds, angles of attack and depths below the water surface. Two of the hydrofoils had sections representing the sections of commonly used airfoils, one had a section similar to one developed Guidoni for use with hydrofoil-equipped seaplane floats, and three had sections designed to have constant chordwise pressure distributions at given values of the lift coefficient for the purpose of delaying the speed at which cavitation begins. The experimental results are presented as curves of the lift and drag coefficients plotted against speed for the various angles of attack and depths for which the hydrofoils were tested. A number of derived curves are included for the purpose of better comparing the characteristics of the hydrofoils and to show the effects of depth. Several representative photographs show the development of cavitation on the the upper surface of the hydrofoils. The results indicate that properly designed hydrofoil sections will have excellent characteristics and that the speed at which cavitation occurs may be delayed to an appreciable extent by the use of suitable sections.

  9. Preliminary neutronics investigation of the delayed neutron nondestructive assay of an integral fast reactor waste canister

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, C.W.; Henderson, D.L. (Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering and Engineering Physics); Bennett, E.F. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States))

    1994-11-01

    An innovative liquid-metal reactor, the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR), is being developed at Argonne National Laboratory. One characteristic of the IFR is the fuel cycle closure. Fissile material bred and fissionable material produced in the reactor are recycled back into the reactor. Waste generated during fuel reprocessing will be packaged into special waste canisters and will be shipped to a repository for final disposal. Prior to its removal from the facility, a measurements of the fissile content will be necessary as a part of an overall fissile material inventory accountability system. A particular form of nondestructive assay called delayed neutron nondestructive assay (DNNDA) is being developed to assist in the establishment of an accountability system. A preliminary neutronics investigation for the current DNNDA has been made to assist and verify the characteristics of the design from a neutronic aspect. A 10[sup 11] n/s, 14-MeV neutron source would provide adequate counting statistics for fissile material at the milligram to gram level.

  10. Erbium:YAG laser contouring of the nasal dorsum: a preliminary investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Truong, Mai T.; Majaron, Boris; Pandoh, Nidhi S.; Wong, Brian J.

    2001-05-01

    In conventional aesthetic rhinoplasty operations, manual or powered rasps are used to reduce the osseo-cartilagenous nasal dorsum. This tactile method requires palpation of the instrument and the dorsum during surgery to estimate the degree of volume reduction, and often requires forceful manipulation of the dorsum which may illicit pain during surgery and contribute to post-operative edema and echymosis. In this preliminary study, we investigated the use of the Erbium:YAG laser ((lambda) equals294 micrometers ) to reduce bone and cartilage using ex-vivo porcine nasal dorsum and human cadaveric tissues. The short pulsed length and high absorption of this laser in biologic tissues results in minimization of thermal injury which are ideal for non- contact optical contouring of osseous and cartilagenous tissues in the face. Two Erbium:YAG lasers were used to ablate fresh porcine nasal bone and compared for their use. One Erbium:YAG laser, the Fidelis Laser, Fontana Medical Lasers, Ljubljana, Slovenija with variable pulse repetition rates (2 to 50 Hz), pulse energy (80 to 1000 mJ), and pulse duration (100, 300, 750 and 1000 microsecond(s) ) was used and compared to the Ultrafine Erbium:YAG laser, Coherent Inc., Santa Clara California, with variable pulse repetition rate (2 to 10 Hz), pulse energy (2-16 J/cm2), and spot diameter (2-6 mm). Only laser parameters approximating the conditions for thermal confinement were evaluated.

  11. Preliminary investigation of the influence of dopamine regulating genes on social working memory

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Sarah K. G.; Wood, Nicholas W.; Meyer, Meghan L.; Lieberman, Matthew D.; Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne

    2014-01-01

    Working memory (WM) refers to mental processes that enable temporary retention and manipulation of information, including information about other people (“social working memory”). Previous studies have demonstrated that nonsocial WM is supported by dopamine neurotransmission. Here, we investigated in 131 healthy adults whether dopamine is similarly involved in social WM by testing whether social and nonsocial WM are influenced by genetic variants in three genes coding for molecules regulating the availability of dopamine in the brain: catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), dopamine active transporter (DAT), and monoamine-oxidase A (MAOA). An advantage for the Met allele of COMT was observed in the two standard WM tasks and in the social WM task. However, the influence of COMT on social WM performance was not accounted for by its influence on either standard WM paradigms. There was no main effect of DAT1 or MAOA, but a significant COMT × DAT1 interaction on social WM performance. This study provides novel preliminary evidence of effects of genetic variants of the dopamine neurotransmitter system on social cognition. The results further suggest that the effects observed on standard WM do not explain the genetic effects on effortful social cognition. PMID:24889756

  12. A preliminary investigation of the effects of the unified protocol on temperament.

    PubMed

    Carl, Jenna R; Gallagher, Matthew W; Sauer-Zavala, Shannon E; Bentley, Kate H; Barlow, David H

    2014-08-01

    Previous research has shown that two dimensions of temperament referred to as neuroticism/behavioral inhibition (N/BI) and extraversion/behavioral activation (E/BA) are key risk factors in the development and maintenance of anxiety and mood disorders (Brown & Barlow, 2009). Given such findings, these temperamental dimensions may represent promising treatment targets for individuals with emotional disorders; however, to date, few studies have investigated the effects of psychological treatments on temperamental constructs generally assumed to be "stable, inflexible, and pervasive" (American Psychiatric Association, 2000). The present study addresses this gap in the literature by examining the effects of the Unified Protocol for Transdiagnostic Treatment of Emotional Disorders (UP; Barlow et al., 2011), a cognitive-behavioral therapy designed to target core processes of N/BI and E/BA temperaments, in a sample of adults with principal anxiety disorders and a range of comorbid conditions. Results revealed small effects of the UP on N/BI and E/BA compared with a waitlist control group at post-treatment. Additionally, decreases in N/BI and increases in E/BA during treatment were associated with improvements in symptoms, functioning, and quality of life. Findings provide preliminary support for the notion that the UP treatment facilitates beneficial changes in dimensions of temperament. PMID:24933653

  13. Preliminary investigation of an improved metal-dielectric cathode for magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaoping; Dang, Fangchao; Zhang, Jun; Fan, Yuwei; Li, Zhiqiang

    2015-02-01

    In order to explore the cathode with good repetition quality for the magnetically insulated transmission line oscillators, an improved metal-dielectric cathode is proposed and investigated experimentally. The cathode is designed to be step-like shape, and thin copper plated boards are periodically and compactly arrayed on the surface of the cathode base, which ensures the uniformity of the electrons emitted from the cusps of the copper plated boards. According to the numerical simulation results, the step-like shape is beneficial to convert the kinetic energy of the magnetic insulating current partially and enhance the beam-wave interaction efficiency. Finally, a preliminary experiment of an L-band magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator (MILO) with the improved metal-dielectric cathode is carried out. A high power microwave (HPM) with an average power of 1.95 GW is generated from the MILO, with an efficiency of 13.5%. Under the same experiment condition, the output power and main frequency with the presented cathode are almost the same to those with the velvet cathode. Apart from that, metal-dielectric cathode has the merits of small outgassing and long lifetime, and all of these make the improved metal-dielectric cathode significantly promising for the MILO repetition operation.

  14. Preliminary Results of an Experimental Investigation of the Qu Superconducting Heat Pipe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blackmon, James B.; Entrekin, Sean F.

    2006-01-01

    This note on preliminary results of our evaluation of the so-called Qu Tube is prompted in part by recent concerns expressed to the authors by some researchers regarding the performance characteristics of the superconducting, solid-state heat pipe as described in the patents, or on the company's websites. Briefly, the company's claims include: a new type of heat transfer mechanism that is a form of solid state thermal superconductivity, which results in an effective thermal conductivity of the order of tens of thousands of times that of an equivalent solid silver bar, or, tens to hundreds of times that of liquid - vapor heat pipes. The company's website also refers to tests conducted by Stanford Research Institute that substantiate these claims, but the report is apparently not publicly available. We are conducting an investigation of the Qu Tube under a NASA Grant, and in general find that these claims have merit, but our study is not yet complete. We present some of our preliminary results in part to show that it would not be imprudent to conduct such studies, especially for possible future applications requiring exceptional thermal management performance capabilities. Working with HiTek Services, we originally acquired several Qu Tubes, including 17" long, 5/16" diameter copper tubes, one that is 7 7/8" long, 3/16" diameter, and one that is 4" long, 1" diameter. We subjected the smaller tubes to various exploratory tests, including a transient test with electrical band heaters, boiling water tests, and a series of steady state tests with electrical band heaters heating one end with free convective cooling along the remainder of the length. All results indicate a very high thermal conductivity, but the length of these tubes limited our ability to obtain accurate data on temperature gradients, necessary to determine the effective thermal conductivity. We then acquired nine Qu Tubes that are 10' long, 5/16" diameter, and we have recently conducted initial tests, which further support the claims of exceptional thermal conductivity.

  15. Investigation of the Entropy and Specific Heat Capacity of GaN Using Incomplete Gamma Functions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Savas SönmezoGLU

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide validity and reliable analytical relation for the thermodynamic functions calculated in terms of the Debye temperature using incomplete gamma functions, and examines the entropy and specific heat capacity of hexagonal single crystals of GaN in the 0-1800 K temperature range. The obtained results have been compared with the corresponding experimental and theoretical

  16. Investigations of factors influencing the channel capacity of power line network for BPLC systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Justinian Anatory; Nelson Theethayi; Rajeev Thottapillil; N. H. Mvungi; M. M. Kissaka

    2007-01-01

    Power line has been proposed as a solution to deliver broadband services to end users. Various studies in the recent past have reported the decrease in channel capacity with increase in number of branches for a given channel type (indoor channel or access (low voltage) channel or medium channel). Those studies however did not provide a clear insight as to

  17. Contribution of Working Memory Capacity to Children's Reading Comprehension: A Longitudinal Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seigneuric, Alix; Ehrlich, Marie-France

    2005-01-01

    We examined the contribution of working memory capacity to the development of children's reading comprehension. We present data from three waves of a longitudinal study when the children were 7 years (Grade 1), 8 years (Grade 2) and 9 years (Grade 3). Two questions were raised: The first question concerned the developmental changes of the relative…

  18. Isotope-Dendrochronological Investigation of Tropical Trees from Brazil: A preliminary analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, W. T.; Anderson, W. T.; Evans, S. L.; da Silva, M. L.; Wagener, K.

    2001-12-01

    In order to improve our understanding of paleoclimatic change, it is important to have methods that allow for investigation in all regions, permitting better correlations of significant events among different locations. Trees having a global distribution ranging from the tropics to the subarctic are potentially an ideal medium to develop isotopic records equivalent to those from ice cores. Here we present the preliminary results of an oxygen isotopic investigation of Araucaria angustifolia trees in the State Park of Campos de Jordao, in the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil. With this work we hope to establish the first high-resolution terrestrial isotopic proxy record of climate change from the tropics of Brazil, and to pave the way for future work. The species chosen for this investigation, Auraucaria angustifolia, is one of the few trees in the tropics which has annual rings. Our approach fully exploits this fact, and isotopic analysis of the rings were conducted at a yearly resolution over the last hundred years. Recent work in Europe has demonstrated that trees in temperate settings can record the isotopic composition of precipitation in their ring cellulose, transferred from rain fall to soil water, which the plants access. Our exploratory project will employ this new approach, using trees as isotope-hydrology archives, and apply it for the first time to a tropical species. Additionally, more traditional calibration work will be conducted over the last 30 years when climate parameters (relative humidity, temperature, precipitation, etc.) are available from a weather station within the park. Monthly precipitation samples are currently being collected for isotopic analysis from within the park, for later calibration with our records. Last August we also recovered two soil profiles from the same open and closed forest site where tree rings were recovered the year before. From these samples, an isotopic soil water profile will be constructed to investigate how the isotopic composition of precipitation is transferred to the soils in our study area. In turn, the calibrated oxygen and carbon isotopic time series can be used as a proxy of important climate parameters such as temperature, humidity, and potentially atmospheric circulation.

  19. Hazards by shock waves during explosive eruptions: preliminary results of experimental investigations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scolamacchia, Teresa; Alatorre Ibarguengoïtia, Miguel; Spieler, Oliver; Dingwell, Donald B.

    2010-05-01

    A recent study (Scolamacchia and Shouwenaars, 2009) investigated the nature of microscopic craters on the steel surface of a basketball pole left standing in one of the villages destroyed by the 1982 eruption of El Chichón volcano. The craters were attributed to the impacts of ash particles (70-280 ?m) accelerated by shock waves due to an efficient momentum coupling with a gas phase, such that a sudden expansion of the gas, caused by shock wave propagation, drag the particles up to speeds of 710 to 980 m/s. Several open questions existed on this kind of phenomena. Preliminary tests were performed to investigate the correlation between particle size and the high velocities calculated, based on inner deformation of the steel and crater geometry. We used a shock tube apparatus consisting of a high-pressure (HP) steel autoclave, pressurized with Ar gas, and a low pressure (LP) tank at atmospheric conditions. We used ash and lapilli bulk samples from El Chichón trachyandesites, and lapilli with random irregular shapes obtained by crushing and abrading dacitic blocks from pyroclastic flow deposits of Unzen volcano. The samples were placed inside an autoclave at ambient T and P, located between the HP autoclave and the LP tank. Steel plates (same type of the original impacted material), were fixed to the LP tank walls, 10 cm above the autoclave that contained the samples. Shock waves were generated by the sudden decompression of the Ar gas due to the systematical failure of a diaphragm (which separate the LP from the HP section). Air expansion accelerated the particles from below toward the steel plate. The speed of the particles was measured using a system of 4 copper wires conducting an electric signal. The signals dropped when the particles reached the wires. We used low pressure ranges (3.1 to 9.8 MPa) for all experimental runs, obtaining a range of particles velocities between 40 and 257 m/s. These velocities can be attained by pyroclastic density currents. Higher velocities (205 to 257 m/s) were obtained for smaller grain-sizes, in a range of fine lapilli-medium ash (2.8 to 177 ?m). Lower velocities, 40 m/s to 85 m/s, were attained by medium (8 mm) and fine lapilli (4 mm), respectively. These values seem not directly related to the the material composition. Impacts craters on steel plates were experimentally obtained, but we did not observe a modification of the steel inner structure, as observed in the original impacted pole. These results are in agreement with impacts occurred at low particle velocities, typical for gravity driven currents, as those reached in these experiments. We observed a great reduction in grain-size of samples recovered after all experiments with respect to the original material. Such evidence coud be due not only to the disruption of grains when impacting the metal plate, but also to processes stricly related to shock wave propagation and gas expansion. These preliminary results need to be further investigated.

  20. Investigation of the Capacity of Underground Water Pumping Using Wind Energy in Dhahran

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ahmet Z. Sahin; Ahmet Bolat; Abdulrahman Al-Ahmari

    The capacity of pumping ground water with wind energy conversion systems in Dhahran, Saudi Arabia was statistically analyzed.\\u000a Experimental data of half-hourly wind energy measurements made for a period of 5 years (1995–2000) were used in the analysis.\\u000a Seven horizontal-axis wind turbines with different power ratings were considered in the study. Eight water pumps with different\\u000a power ratings to be powered

  1. Investigations of a large-capacity medium-power saline aluminium-air battery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Budevski; I. Iliev; A. Kaisheva; A. Despi?; K. Krsmanovi?

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes the development and operation of a medium-power (24 W) aluminium-air battery with saline electrolyte or sea water. The battery consisted of two packs of 10 cells, each connected in series with a projected aluminium anode capacity of 2590 Ah. The anodes were made of a Ga-Sn-Mg alloy capable of giving 89% material efficiency, with an open circuit

  2. Sorption of lead, copper, cadmium, zinc, and nickel by marine algal biomass: characterization of biosorptive capacity and investigation of mechanisms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ping Xin Sheng; Yen-Peng Ting; J. Paul Chen; Liang Hong

    2004-01-01

    The marine algae Sargassum sp., Padina sp., Ulva sp., and Gracillaria sp., harvested locally, were investigated for their biosorption performance in the removal of lead, copper, cadmium, zinc, and nickel from dilute aqueous solutions. It was found that the biosorption capacities were significantly affected by solution pH, with higher pH favoring higher metal-ion removal. Kinetic and isotherm experiments were carried

  3. Preliminary investigation on the design of biodegradable microparticles for ivermectin delivery: set up of formulation parameters.

    PubMed

    Dorati, Rosella; Genta, Ida; Colzani, Barbara; Tripodo, Giuseppe; Conti, Bice

    2015-07-01

    The aim was to design sterile biodegradable microparticulate drug delivery systems based on poly(dl-lactide) (PLA) and poly(?-caprolactone) (PCL) and containing ivermectin (IVM), an antiparasitic drug, for subcutaneous administration in dogs. The drug delivery system should: (i) ensure a full 12-month protection upon single dose administration; (ii) be safe with particular attention regarding IVM dosage and its release, in order to prevent over dosage side effects. This preliminary work involves: polymer selection, evaluation of the effects of ?-irradiation on the polymers and IVM, investigation and set up of suitable microparticle preparation process and parameters, IVM-loaded microparticles in vitro release evaluation. Results of gel permeation chromatography analysis on the irradiated polymers and IVM mixtures showed that combination of IVM with the antioxidant ?-tocopherol (TCP) reduces the damage extent induced by irradiation treatment, independently on the polymer type. Solvent evaporation process was successfully used for the preparation of PLA microparticles and appropriately modified; it was recognized as suitable for the preparation of PCL microparticles. Good process yields were achieved ranging from 76.08% to 94.72%; encapsulation efficiency was between 85.76% and 91.25%, independently from the polymer used. The type of polymer and the consequent preparation process parameters affected microparticle size that was bigger for PCL microparticles (480-800?µm) and solvent residual that was >500?ppm for PLA microparticles. In vitro release test showed significantly faster IVM release rates from PCL microparticles, with respect to PLA microparticles, suggesting that a combination of the polymers could be used to obtain the suitable drug release rate. PMID:24994001

  4. The Effect of Aspirin on Endothelial Progenitor Cell Biology: Preliminary Investigation of Novel Properties

    PubMed Central

    Lou, Junyang; Povsic, Thomas J.; Allen, Jason D; Adams, Stacie D.; Myles, Shelley; Starr, Aijing Z; Ortel, Thomas L.; Becker, Richard C.

    2013-01-01

    Atherosclerosis develops in an environment of endothelial injury and inflammation. Circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are required for vascular repair and restoration of normal endothelial function. We tested the hypothesis that the nonselective cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitor aspirin exerts an effect on circulating EPCs. Methods As part of a larger study evaluating the effect of aspirin dose in primary and secondary prevention, subjects (n=32) were assigned randomly to either 81mg or 325mg aspirin daily for two months, and circulating mononuclear cells were enumerated at the beginning of the study and after 2 months using fluorescent antibodies against CD34 and CD133 as well as based on aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity. Brachial artery endothelial function via flow-mediated dilation (BAFMD) and light transmittance platelet aggregometry in response to physiologic agonists was also determined. Results Subjects taking aspirin at the time of study entry had a lower numbers of CD133+/34+ cells compared to those not previously exposed (0.01% vs. 0.05% of MNCs, P<0.03). After 2 months, subjects randomized to 81 vs. 325 mg of ASA had no significant differences in the median numbers of EPCs, although mean numbers trended lower in the high dose group. Patients on chronic ASA therapy continued to have lower numbers of EPCs. Similar effects were observed in CD34 and CD 133 single-positive cells, as well as ALDHbr cells. BAFMD did not differ nor change significantly over time between aspirin dose groups. All patients had decreased ex vivo platelet aggregation in response to arachidonic acid and ADP stimulation. Conclusions Our preliminary studies suggest that aspirin exerts a time-dependent effect on circulating EPCs. Short-term exposure to differing doses of ASA had indeterminate effects on EPCs levels, suggesting that time of ASA exposure may play a more important role than dose. Determining the responsible mechanism(s) and the overall clinical relevance of these findings will require further investigation. PMID:20659762

  5. A Preliminary Investigation of Naltrexone Augmentation of Bupropion to Stop Smoking With Less Weight Gain

    PubMed Central

    Toll, Benjamin A.; Leary, Vanessa; Wu, Ran; Salovey, Peter; Meandzija, Boris; O’Malley, Stephanie S.

    2008-01-01

    Certain barriers prevent some cigarette smokers from attempting to quit, particularly the fear of post-cessation weight gain. This investigation was an open label study of naltrexone hydrochloride (25 mg/day) in combination with sustained-release (SR) bupropion hydrochloride (300 mg/day) for smoking cessation and minimization of post-quit weight gain in weight concerned smokers. The study sample (n = 20) was compared to matched controls (n = 20) who received an identical psychosocial intervention and bupropion SR treatment regimen. The primary outcomes analyzed were: (a) biochemically verified continuous abstinence from smoking over the 6-week treatment, (b) point prevalence abstinence in the last 7 days of treatment, and (c) weight gain from baseline. Neither adherence to the combination pharmacotherapy nor the percentage of patients reporting adverse events differed significantly between the two groups nor were there differences in either continuous or point prevalence abstinence from smoking. Although not statistically significant in this small sample, continuously abstinent participants in the naltrexone + bupropion group gained less weight (M = 1.67 pounds) than those in the bupropion only group (M = 3.17 pounds; p = .35; Cohen’s d = 0.56). The results of this preliminary study suggest that combining naltrexone and bupropion may help minimize post-cessation weight gain, but does not result in higher smoking cessation rates compared to bupropion alone. The effect size for the difference in weight gain among continuously abstinent participants was in the moderate range, suggesting that this treatment deserves further study in an appropriately powered clinical trial as an adjunct for weight concerned smokers, who may value the weight suppressant effect of naltrexone. PMID:17587504

  6. Bimanual elbow robotic orthoses: preliminary investigations on an impairment force-feedback rehabilitation method.

    PubMed

    Herrnstadt, Gil; Alavi, Nezam; Randhawa, Bubblepreet Kaur; Boyd, Lara A; Menon, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    Modern rehabilitation practices have begun integrating robots, recognizing their significant role in recovery. New and alternative stroke rehabilitation treatments are essential to enhance efficacy and mitigate associated health costs. Today's robotic interventions can play a significant role in advancing rehabilitation. In addition, robots have an inherent ability to perform tasks accurately and reliably and are typically well suited to measure and quantify performance. Most rehabilitation strategies predominantly target activation of the paretic arm. However, bimanual upper-limb rehabilitation research suggests potential in enhancing functional recovery. Moreover, studies suggest that limb coordination and synchronization can improve treatment efficacy. In this preliminary study, we aimed to investigate and validate our user-driven bimanual system in a reduced intensity rehab practice. A bimanual wearable robotic device (BWRD) with a Master-Slave configuration for the elbow joint was developed to carry out the investigation. The BWRD incorporates position and force sensors for which respective control loops are implemented, and offers varying modes of operation ranging from passive to active training. The proposed system enables the perception of the movements, as well as the forces applied by the hemiparetic arm, with the non-hemiparetic arm. Eight participants with chronic unilateral stroke were recruited to participate in a total of three 1-h sessions per participant, delivered in a week. Participants underwent pre- and post-training functional assessments along with proprioceptive measures. The post-assessment was performed at the end of the last training session. The protocol was designed to engage the user in an assortment of static and dynamic arm matching and opposing tasks. The training incorporates force-feedback movements, force-feedback positioning, and force matching tasks with same and opposite direction movements. We are able to suggest identification of impairment patterns in the position-force plot results. In addition, we performed a proprioception evaluation with the system. We set out to design innovative and user immersive training tasks that utilize the BWRD capabilities, and we demonstrate that the subjects were able to cooperate and accomplish the protocol. We found that the Fugl-Meyer and Wolf Motor Function Test (pre to post) measured improvements (15 and 19%, respectively). Recognizing the brevity of the training, we focus our report primarily on the proprioception testing (32% significant improvement, p prop?=?0.033) and protocol distinctive features and results. This paper presents the electromechanical features and performance of the BWRD, the testing protocol, and the assessments utilized. Outcome measures and results are presented and demonstrate the successful application and operation of the system. PMID:25870555

  7. Preliminary Investigation of EarthScope EARS Derived MOHO Topography and Large Scale Faye Gravity Anomaly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crain, K.; Holland, A. A.

    2013-12-01

    This is a preliminary investigation using the EarthScope EARS receiver functions in combination with the Faye gravity anomaly. This includes both qualitative and quantitative comparison of the large scale Faye anomaly with an expected 3D geology interpretation for the southern mid-continent U.S.A. The 3D geology interpretation consists of expected 3D topographies based on National Elevation Data, published formation elevations, measured and published basement topography with geology, and the expected MOHO topography calculated using the EARS estimated crustal thickness. The EARS automated receiver functions provides a large data set of automatically generated receiver functions and models of bulk crustal properties. These bulk crustal properties include crustal thickness, and Vp/Vs given an assumed Vp. The results from this automatic determination can be evaluated through the H-K stacking, and are often a good method to identify where there may be complex structure or poor quality data. Some a priori information is used to constrain the EARS crustal model. The observed Faye gravity anomaly is calculated using the observed gravity value at their observation location from the PACES gravity database and their extracted elevation from the national elevation data set. Then the expected Faye gravity is modeled using the expected 3D geology interpretation. The observed and modeled Faye gravity, along with the expected 3D geologic interpretation with its topographies and geology and their expected uncertainties are used in a simple 3D density inversion to evaluate the consistency of the estimated with the expected crust / MOHO interface. Areas with complex crustal geology and or inconsistent EARS data are identified as areas of higher uncertainty and require further study. Even areas with agreement between the expected MOHO topography and the Faye anomaly have interesting geology implications. For example: in central Oklahoma the 14 km deep Anadarko basin has a positive Faye anomaly associated with it without surface topography at the same location there is a positive qualitative correlation with the EARS derived MOHO topography. The Faye gravity and MOHO topography may imply an extension of the Mid-Continent Rift through Kansas to the Southern Oklahoma Aulacogen and possibly further south and requires further investigation.

  8. Quality assurance project plan for the preliminary site investigation for McMurdo Station, Ross Island, Antarctica

    SciTech Connect

    Prasad, S.S.

    1991-05-01

    The quality assurance project plan (QAPjP) is designed to ensure that sampling and analysis activities are scoped and performed to obtain quality data during the preliminary site investigation for McMurdo Station, Ross Island, Antarctica. The QAPjP is prepared in accordance with the guidelines set forth and adopted by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) (1980a, 1986a, 1989a), Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) (1988), and Pentecost and Doctor (1990). This document presents the final QAPjP for the preliminary site investigation. A drat version of this report was presented to the National Science Foundation (NSF) in January 1991. A description of the project and data quality objectives is provided in Section 3.1 of the work plan. Specific health and safety precautions and procedures are presented in the health and safety plan. 17 refs., 2 figs., 11 tabs.

  9. Investigating the effect of increased wind generation capacity on investment in transmission infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braswell, Michael G.

    The transmission network that connects electricity generators with consumers is a critical yet often-overlooked component of the nation's electrical power infrastructure. However, the transmission grid has suffered from chronic underinvestment in recent decades due to various economic and regulatory factors that impede timely and efficient investments in transmission. One factor that might help offset these obstacles to transmission is the growth in wind power generation. The assumption among many in the electrical power industry is that wind power investments necessarily require greater investment in transmission due to the fact that wind power is a geographically-restricted resource and cannot always be situated close to areas of high electricity demand. However, to date there have been few, if any, empirical studies to verify this connection. This paper discusses a state-by-state empirical study exploring the relationship between increased wind generation capacity and the level of investment in transmission infrastructure. This study begins with the hypothesis that increases in installed wind generation capacity, in combination with other policies that promote wind energy more generally, should result in higher levels of transmission investment. Using data from the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) and the American Wind Energy Association (AWEA), this paper develops regression models suggesting that wind investment has a small but distinct positive impact on transmission investment. This paper then explores the effects of other state renewable energy promotion policies, and discusses the policy implications of these findings.

  10. Preliminary Investigation of the 1991 Medical College Admission Test Factor Structure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Weichang; Mitchell, Karen J.

    A substantially revised Medical College Admission Test (MCAT) was introduced in spring 1991. The new examination is designed to assess critical thinking skills, basic concepts and problem solving facility in science, and writing skills. This paper reports preliminary findings on the factor structure of the revised MCAT, which consists of four…

  11. Characterising Developmental Language Impairment in Serbian-Speaking Children: A Preliminary Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vukovic, Mile; Stojanovik, Vesna

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the article is to provide preliminary data on the use of auxiliaries and clitics in Serbian-speaking children with developmental language impairment. Two groups of children (a group of 30 children with developmental language impairment and a group of 30 typically developing children) aged between 48 and 83 months and matched on IQ took…

  12. Love Deprivation and Blood Pressure Levels among a College Population: A Preliminary Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sisca, Samuel S.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Viewed within the general context of Selye's theory of environmentally induced stress, we tested the hypothesis that blood pressure levels would vary inversely with the degree of loving responses our subjects received from those with whom they interact on a frequent basis. Preliminary data support this hypothesis, especially among our older…

  13. A Preliminary Environmental Site Investigation for a Bridge over the Mississippi River at Moline, Illinois

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Trask

    A preliminary environmental site assessment along the alignment of I-74 and its bridge over the Mississippi River was completed by the Illinois State Geological Survey for the Illinois Department of Transportation in 2002. The purpose of the survey was to determine the presence of any environmental concerns, both natural and man-made, that the Illinois DOT might encounter during activities to

  14. Investigation into the erosive capacity of pyroclastic density currents at Mount Saint Helens, Washington (USA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollock, N. M.; Brand, B. D.

    2012-12-01

    Two fundamental aspects of PDC dynamics that remain poorly understood are the primary control(s) on substrate erosion and the effect of erosion on downstream flow dynamics. The gap in understanding reflects the lack of sufficient field exposures with evidence for these processes. In the 32 years since the May 18th, 1980 eruption of Mount St Helens (MSH), kilometers of new outcrops have been exposed throughout the PDC and debris avalanche hummock deposits that provide substantial evidence of substrate erosion and entrainment by the PDCs produced throughout the afternoon of the eruption. Field observations include a reappearance of large lithics (>1 m) in PDC deposits at distances of 4-5 km from the vent, suggesting that these lithics were entrained locally. For this study, detailed componentry and roundness analyses are utilized to determine the source of lithics in PDC deposits and to quantify the erosive capacity of the PDCs at MSH. Comparison of componentry data from the PDC deposits with debris avalanche deposits ~200 m upstream indicate that >50% of the lithics were locally entrained. The entrainment of these lithics appears to have significantly altered the dynamics of the current as contacts between flow units change from purely depositional upstream from the hummocks to erosive and scouring following the entrainment of dense lithics. This evidence suggests that the capacity of a PDC to behave erosively could be a self-perpetuating process; entrainment of dense lithics at the base of the current results in an increased density gradient, which in turn enhances a current's ability to continue to erode. In addition, the presence of locally entrained lithics at various heights within a single flow unit and within close proximity to the source of the lithics suggests both a progressive entrainment of the substrate as well as a progressive aggradation of the deposits, depending on localized flow conditions. While erosion may have initially occurred due to the underpressure associated with the passing of the head of the current, as has been previously speculated (Roche et al., 2010. J Geophys Res 115, B09206), field evidence suggests that erosive conditions continue to exist (at least sporadically) during the passage of the body of the current. The inclusion of erosion and entrainment into models for the dynamics of PDCs will continue to increase our knowledge of these dangerous currents and allow for refined numerical simulations of the hazards associated with PDCs.

  15. Further investigations on the resilience capacity of Taraxacum officinale Weber growing on mine soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maleci, Laura; Bini, Claudio; Spiandorello, Massimo; Wahsha, Mohammad

    2014-05-01

    Heavy metal accumulation produces significant physiological and biochemical responses in vascular plants. Plants growing on abandoned mine sites are of particular interest, since they are genetically tolerant to high metal concentrations. In this work we examined the effect of heavy metals (HM) on the morphology of T. officinale growing on mine soils, with the following objectives: - to determine the fate of HM within the soil-plant system; - to highlight possible damage at anatomical and cytological level; - to assess the resilience capacity of Taraxacum officinale after three years of pot cultivation. Wild specimens of Taraxacum officinale Web, with their soil clod, were gathered from four sites with different contamination levels by heavy metals (Cu, Fe, Pb, Zn) in the abandoned Imperina Valley mine (Northeast Italy). Plants were cultivated in pots at the botanical garden of the University of Florence (HBF), and appeared macroscopically not affected by toxic signals (e.g. reduced growth, leaf necrosis) possibly induced by soil HM concentration. Leaves and roots taken at the same growing season were observed by light microscopy (LM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Light microscopy observations show a clear difference in the cell organization of not-contaminated and contaminated samples. The unpolluted samples present a well organized palisade tissue and spongy photosynthetic parenchyma. Samples from contaminated sites, instead, present a palisade parenchyma less organized, and a reduction of leaf thickness proportional to HM concentration. The poor structural organisations, and the reduced foliar thickness of the contaminated plants, are related to soil contamination. Differences in roots micromorphology concern the cortical parenchyma. Moreover, all the samples examined present mycorrhiza. Ultrastructure observations of the parenchyma cells show mitochondrial structure alteration, with lacking or reduced cristae of the internal membrane at increasing metal content. Instead, chloroplast organization does not present significant differences, particularly in number and compartmentalization of thylakoids. Although macromorphology does not present evidence of phytotoxicity, the recorded observations of the micromorphological characteristics of leaves and roots, show a suffering state of the plants, strictly related to HM content. Leaching reduced partly the HM content of the soil, therefore decreasing their phytotoxic effect. A gradual restoration of leaf organization suggests that somewhat resilience occurred in plants. Moreover, the presence of stress-tolerant mycorrhizal fungi could contribute to reduce metal toxicity. The resilience capacity suggests that Taraxacum could be a useful species in remediation projects. Keywords: Heavy metals • Mine soils • Plant morphology • Taraxacum officinale • Ultrastructure

  16. Road-map to plan and structure the preliminary site investigation program for a geological repository in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Deguchi, Akira; Tsuchi, Hiroyuki; Kitayama, Kazumi [Nuclear Waste Management Organization of Japan (NUMO), Mita NN Bldg., 1-23, Shiba 4-Chome, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-0014 (Japan); Chapman, Neil [ITC School of Underground Waste Storage and Disposal, Postfach, 3862 Innertkirchen (Switzerland); Andersson, Johan [JA Streamflow AB, Vinodlargatan 6, 117 59 Stockholm (Sweden); Tanaka, Tatsuya [Obayashi Corporation, SHinagawa InterCity B, 2-15-2, Konan, Minatoku, Tokyo, 108-8502 (Japan)

    2007-07-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: A stepwise site selection process has been adopted for geological disposal of HLW in Japan. Literature surveys (LS), followed by preliminary investigations (PI) and, finally, detailed investigations (DI) in underground facilities will be carried out in the successive selection stages. In the PI stage, surface-based investigations such as borehole surveys and geophysical prospecting will be implemented with two main objectives. The first is to obtain information relating to legal requirements on siting, such as the occurrence of igneous or fault activity, and to confirm the extremely low likelihood of adverse impacts on the candidate site resulting from such phenomena. The second is to obtain the information required for the design and performance assessment of the engineered barrier system and the repository. In order to implement these preliminary investigations rigorously and efficiently within the constraints of a limited time period, budget and resources, PI planning before commencing investigations and on-site PI management during the investigation phase are very important issues. The planning and management of PI have to be performed by NUMO staff, but not all staff have sufficient experience in the range of disciplines involved. NUMO therefore decided to compile existing knowledge and experience in the planning and management of investigations in the form of manuals to be used to improve and maintain internal expertise. Experts with experience in overseas investigation programs were requested to prepare these manuals. This paper outlines the structure and scope of the upper level manual (road-map) and discusses NUMO's experience in applying it in 'dry-runs' to model sites. (authors)

  17. Investigation of the thermal expansion and heat capacity of the CaCu3Ti4O12 ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorev, M. V.; Flerov, I. N.; Kartashev, A. V.; Guillemet-Fritsch, S.

    2012-09-01

    The thermal expansion of the CaCu3Ti4O12 ceramics has been measured over a wide temperature range 120-1200 K. The high quality of the samples under study has been confirmed by good agreement of the results of measurements of the heat capacity in the range 2-300 K and in the vicinity of the phase transition of magnetic nature at 25 K with the data for the single crystal. No anomalies in the thermal expansion that can be associated with the phase transition at 726-732 K assumed by other investigators have been found. The influence exerted on the thermal expansion by the heat treatment of the sample in a helium atmosphere and in air has been investigated.

  18. Supporting early career health investigators in Kenya: A qualitative study of HIV/AIDS research capacity building

    PubMed Central

    Daniels, Joseph; Nduati, Ruth; Kiarie, James; Farquhar, Carey

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Strategies to transfer international health research training programs to sub-Saharan African institutions focus on developing cadres of local investigators who will lead such programs. Using a critical leadership theory framework, we conducted a qualitative study of one program to understand how collaborative training and research can support early career investigators in Kenya toward the program transfer goal. Methods We used purposive sampling methods and a semi-structured protocol to conduct in-depth interviews with US (N = 5) and Kenyan (N = 5) independent investigators. Transcripts were coded using a two-step process, and then compared with each other to identify major themes. Results A limited local research environment, funding needs and research career mentorship were identified as major influences on early career researchers. Institutional demands on Kenyan faculty to teach rather than complete research restricted investigators’ ability to develop research careers. This was coupled with lack of local funding to support research. Sustainable collaborations between Kenyan, US and other international investigators were perceived to mitigate these challenges and support early career investigators who would help build a robust local research environment for training. Conclusion Mutually beneficial collaborations between Kenyan and US investigators developed during training mitigate these challenges and build a supportive research environment for training. In these collaborations, early career investigators learn how to navigate the complex international research environment to build local HIV research capacity. Shared and mutually beneficial resources within international research collaborations are required to support early career investigators and plans to transfer health research training to African institutions.

  19. Nursing acceptance of a speech-input interface: a preliminary investigation.

    PubMed

    Dillon, T W; McDowell, D; Norcio, A F; DeHaemer, M J

    1994-01-01

    Many new technologies are being developed to improve the efficiency and productivity of nursing staffs. User acceptance is a key to the success of these technologies. In this article, the authors present a discussion of nursing acceptance of computer systems, review the basic design issues for creating a speech-input interface, and report preliminary findings of a study of nursing acceptance of a prototype speech-input interface. Results of the study showed that the 19 nursing subjects expressed acceptance of the prototype speech-input interface. PMID:7812892

  20. Drivers and Road Signs: A Preliminary Investigation of the Capacity of Car Drivers to get Information from Road Signs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    GUNNAR JOHANSSON; K?RE RUMAR

    1966-01-01

    It was found that the mean percentage of road signs recorded by five subjects over the course of a 105 miles long car journey under optimal conditions was of the order of 90 per cent of signs passed.It was found that the mean percentage of drivers recording a road sign was 47 per cent of those passed it. (This figure

  1. Process-oriented investigation of the nitrate-removal-capacity of the aquifers in the Hessian Ried

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kludt, Christoph; Weber, Frank-Andreas; Bergmann, Axel; Knipp, Elena; Preiß, Indriani; Schüth, Christoph

    2013-04-01

    The quarternary sediments of the Hessian Ried, a part of the Rhine valley, hold an important groundwater resource for the densely populated Rhine-Main region in germany. Studies related to the implementation of the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD) have shown high nitrate concentrations in the groundwater, especially in the upper parts of the aquifers. Recently, there are signs which indicate that the nitrate-removal-capacity may be exhausted and the denitrification is slowing down. In aquifers, microbial autolitho- and heterotrophic denitrification is coupled to the consumption of the reactive phases pyrite (FeS2) and organic carbon (TOC), respectively. These reducing phases occur often only in trace amounts which makes it difficult to determine their distribution, reactivity and content in the field. However, a process-based knowledge of the occurring reactions and the quantification of the nitrate-removal-capacity and -kinetic is required to predict future nitrate fate. For this aim we combined different methods on a laboratory and field scale to identify the relevant nitrate degradation processes in the Hessian Ried. For determining the reactive phases (TOC and pyrite) in sediment samples, we modified and validated a combination of methods, ranging from sequential combustion for TOC and XRF for elemental and chromium reducible sulphur (CRS) for sulphide/disulphide determination. The analyses of core samples from different field sites in the Hessian Ried (forest and agricultural area) showed that especially the sediments under agricultural areas have much lower pyrite contents. Laboratory batch experiments with these sediment samples showed a much faster denitrification for sediments having higher sulphide content. ?34S isotope analyses of solid-phase sulphide and water-phase sulphate proved to be a good tool for determining the progress of the autolithotrophic denitrification. With in-situ multi-parameter measurements (Eh, pH, nitrate, temperature and conductivity) in several monitoring wells in combination with water analyses, especially sulphur-isotopic-ratios, we were able to identify high risk areas with a low nitrate-removal-capacity which is mainly caused by the consumption of the pyrite during the denitrification process. Furthermore, we are focusing on process-based investigations of denitrification using ?15N-isotopes and N2/Ar-measurements. The identified high risk areas allow intensifying the implementation of programs planed under the WFD in agricultural areas with low nitrate removal capacity.

  2. Investigations of the oxidation capacities of polar atmospheres with multiple oxygen isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCabe, Justin R.

    This study provides new perspectives on the atmospheric chemistry in Polar Regions using multiple oxygen isotopes of nitrate and sulfate. Despite their remote locations, these unique environments play an important role in the present state of global climate and contain invaluable clues to observing past relationships between earth's atmosphere and surface temperature. With current temperatures and greenhouse gas concentrations rising rapidly as a result of human activities, continued investigation of the effects on polar environments will elucidate their relationship to the global climate system. Three studies are presented here to constrain the oxidation pathways of nitrogen and sulfur compounds in polar atmospheres. These findings provide a new means to observe current and past oxidation conditions of tropospheric and stratospheric polar atmospheres. Currently, two uncertain aspects of climate are the projected changes in tropospheric and stratospheric oxidation chemistry and the role of aerosols in cloud formation and the global radiation budget. Because the levels of oxidants in the atmosphere directly influence greenhouse gas concentrations and aerosol distribution, the following work presents results implicit to improving knowledge of the climate system. The results presented in this dissertation include measurements of oxygen isotopes (delta17O, delta18O, and Delta 17O) in nitrate and sulfate from South Pole, Antarctica and Alert, Canada, respectively. In addition, a photochemistry experiment was conducted to measure the effects of ultraviolet (UV) irradiation on oxygen isotopes of nitrate in water and ice. Chapter 2 compares oxygen isotopes in sulfate aerosol collected at Alert, Canada over the course of one year (July 1999--June 2000) to a chemical transport model describing sulfate formation. Chapter 3 presents the results from the nitrate photochemistry experiments conducted at California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, California. Chapter 4 contains results and interpretations of nitrate oxygen isotopes from South Pole, Antarctica measured in aerosol and surface snow during 2004 and a 6-meter snow pit that provides a record 1977 to 2003. The isotope measurements from South Pole are compared to instrumental measurements of October-November-December column ozone, October-November-December UV, annual surface ozone, the quasi-biennial oscillation, and solar variability. A summary of related work on the oxygen and sulfur isotopic composition of volcanic sulfate from the Masaya volcano in Nicaragua is presented in the appendix along with measurements of ion chemistry used to establish a chronology in the South Pole snow pit. The nitrogen cycle has been drastically altered by human influence; however the sources of nitrogen to the Antarctic are expected to be relatively unaffected by human activity and may provide a means of establishing natural variability of nitrogen sources. Unfortunately, two significant problems exist. One, the sources to Antarctica are quite uncertain, and two, the records are difficult to interpret as a result of post-depositional effects in the ice. Through the use of multiple oxygen isotopes, the present work provides new insights into Antarctic nitrate records. The results suggest that greater knowledge of the influence of post-depositional effects (volatilization, photochemistry and diffusion) emerges from multiple oxygen isotope measurements in aerosol, surface snow and firn nitrate. The seasonal variation in winter stratospheric and summer tropospheric values of oxygen isotopes in Antarctic nitrate aerosol is preserved in surface snow. Evidence of stratospheric nitrate in snow at the South Pole suggests the potential for a proxy of ozone hole variability and solar variability; however, the location and meteorology of the South Pole create a site best suited for understanding boundary layer oxidation conditions across the Antarctic plateau. Changes in these conditions are driven by variations in total column springtime ozone. Investigations of oxygen isotopes in nitrate at other loc

  3. Preliminary thermoluminescence and optically stimulated luminescence investigation of commercial pharmaceutical preparations towards the drug sterilization dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Kazakis, Nikolaos A; Tsirliganis, Nestor C; Kitis, George

    2014-09-01

    Drug sterilization with ionizing radiation is a well-established technology and is gaining ground the last decades due to its numerous advantages. Identification of irradiated drugs would be interesting and, in this respect, the present work aims, for the first time to the authors' best knowledge, to explore whether OSL and TL can be employed as methods for post-sterilization dosimetry on commercial drugs, i.e., as tools for the detection of irradiated drugs. Five widely used drugs, i.e., Daktarin(®), Aspirin(®), Panadol(®), Brufen(®) and Procef(®), are used for this purpose. Preliminary findings are very promising towards the post-sterilization dosimetry and the use of commercial drugs for normal and/or accidental dosimetry. PMID:24922552

  4. Cigarette advertising in magazines for Latinas, White women, and men, 1998--2002: a preliminary investigation.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Senaida; Hickman, Norval; Klonoff, Elizabeth A; Landrine, Hope; Kashima, Kennon; Parekh, Bina; Brouillard, Catherine R; Zolezzi, Michelle; Jensen, Jennifer A; Weslowski, Zorahna

    2005-04-01

    Cigarette ads in popular magazines play a role in smoking and in brand preferences among women and men, but few studies have analyzed ads directed at women vs men, and no study has examined ads directed at women of different ethnic groups. Hence, we examined cigarette ads in popular magazines for White women, Latinas, and men 1998 through 2002 for the first time. Significant differences in the number of cigarette ads by magazine audience were found, along with significant differences in the type and brands of cigarettes advertised to each group. These preliminary findings suggest that the tobacco industry may target women in a manner that differs from its targeting of men, and may target Latinas in a manner that it does not target White women. Results are discussed in terms of the need for further research on tobacco ads directed at women. PMID:15810566

  5. Preliminary investigation of thin film polymers exposed to low Earth orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strganac, Thomas; Farrow, Allan; Letton, Alan

    1991-01-01

    Preliminary results of thin film polymers exposed to low-Earth orbit aboard the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) are discussed. Dynamic testing of a 0.92/0.92 mil. polyester laminate film indicated that the modulus loss of the exposed specimens may be very small. When the storage modulus of the exposed specimen was compared to the storage modulus of a control specimen over a temperature range of minus 150 degrees to 100 degrees, there was very little change. Fourier Transform Spectroscopy performed on the same exposed material indicated crosslinking of the polyethylene, which was verified by an increase in the storage modulus above the glass transition temperature. Optical microscopy of the sample showed micrometeoroid strikes and contamination in spots by what is thought to be silicon outgassed from a nearby experiment.

  6. Embedded modulating dipole scattering for near-field microwave inspection of concrete: preliminary investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joisel, Alain; Bois, Karl J.; Benally, Aaron D.; Bolomey, Jean-Charles; Zoughi, Reza

    1999-10-01

    Nondestructive evaluation of concrete structures is an important practical issue in the construction industry. Evaluation encompasses many issues including concrete constituent property, compressive strength and chloride contamination determination to name a few. To this end, a combination of modulated scattering technique and near-field microwave nondestructive evaluation technique, is used to determine its potential for evaluating dielectric properties of a hardened mortar specimen. This technique utilizes a small resonant PIN diode-loaded dipole scatterer embedded inside the mortar while using an open-ended rectangular waveguide probe operating at 7 GHz to detect this dipole which is modulated at low frequencies. The results of this preliminary experiment, and its future ramifications for nondestructive concrete inspection structures are provided in this paper.

  7. Head-Up Auditory Displays for Traffic Collision Avoidance System Advisories: A Preliminary Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Begault, Durand R.

    1993-01-01

    The advantage of a head-up auditory display was evaluated in a preliminary experiment designed to measure and compare the acquisition time for capturing visual targets under two auditory conditions: standard one-earpiece presentation and two-earpiece three-dimensional (3D) audio presentation. Twelve commercial airline crews were tested under full mission simulation conditions at the NASA-Ames Man-Vehicle Systems Research Facility advanced concepts flight simulator. Scenario software generated visual targets corresponding to aircraft that would activate a traffic collision avoidance system (TCAS) aural advisory; the spatial auditory position was linked to the visual position with 3D audio presentation. Results showed that crew members using a 3D auditory display acquired targets approximately 2.2 s faster than did crew members who used one-earpiece head- sets, but there was no significant difference in the number of targets acquired.

  8. Investigating feedback mechanisms between stress and grain-size: preliminary findings from finite-element modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cross, A. J.; Prior, D. J.; Ellis, S. M.

    2012-12-01

    It is widely accepted that changes in stress and grain size can induce a switch between grain-size insensitive (GSI) and sensitive (GSS) creep mechanisms. Under steady-state conditions, grains evolve to an equilibrium size in the boundary region between GSS and GSI, described by the paleopiezometer for a given material. Under these conditions, significant rheological weakening is not expected, as grain size reduction processes are balanced by grain growth processes. However, it has been shown that the stress field surrounding faults varies through the seismic cycle, with both rapid loading and unloading of stress possible in the co- and post-seismic stages. We propose that these changes in stress in the region of the brittle-ductile transition zone may be sufficient to force a deviation from the GSI-GSS boundary and thereby cause a change in grain size and creep mechanism prior to system re-equilibration. Here we present preliminary findings from numerical modelling of stress and grain size changes in response to loading of mechanical inhomogeneities. Our results are attained using a grain-size evolution (GSE) subroutine incorporated into the SULEC finite-element code developed by Susan Ellis and Susanne Buiter, which utilises an iterative approach of solving for spatial and temporal changes in differential stress, grain size and active creep mechanism. Preliminary models demonstrate that stress changes in response to the opening of a fracture in a flowing medium can be significant enough to cause a switch from GSI to GSS creep. These results are significant in the context of understanding spatial variations and feedback between stress, grain size and deformation mechanisms through the seismic cycle.

  9. Preliminary Investigation on Battery Sizing Investigation for Thrust Vector Control on Ares I and Ares V Launch Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Thomas B.

    2011-01-01

    An investigation into the merits of battery powered Electro Hydrostatic Actuation (EHA) for Thrust Vector Control (TVC) of the Ares I and Ares V launch vehicles is described. A top level trade study was conducted to ascertain the technical merits of lithium-ion (Li-ion) and thermal battery performance to determine the preferred choice of an energy storage system chemistry that provides high power discharge capability for a relatively short duration.

  10. Investigating the Bowland Shale: Preliminary Insights into Understanding the Spatial and Temporal Distribution of Organic Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emmings, Joseph; Davies, Sarah; Stephenson, Michael; Vane, Chris; Leng, Melanie

    2015-04-01

    The Bowland Shale (late Mississippian, early Carboniferous) has potential for the unconventional extraction of hydrocarbons in the UK and in equivalent successions that extend across Europe to the Lublin Basin, Poland. The Bowland Shale was deposited in a marine epicontinental seaway and in a basinal setting. This study seeks to characterise the controls (sedimentological, geochemical, biological, preservation) on the spatial and temporal distribution of organic matter in the Bowland Shale within the Craven Basin (UK) and link this to resource potential. This approach can also contribute to understanding the role that these basins had as a sink for organic carbon (hence sequestered CO2) on the geological timescale. The preliminary data presented delineate variation in lithology (utilising sedimentary logging, optical and scanning electron microscopy) and organic carbon content (including TOC and stable isotope analysis) through an exposed succession of the Bowland Shale, located in the Craven Basin, Lancashire. These analyses are compared with time-equivalent borehole core sample(s) also located within the Craven Basin. The study will seek to quantify the effect of modern weathering, by comparing between outcrop and borehole samples. Where modern weathering is considered to be minimal, such analyses can be utilised as an analogue used during exploration for, and classification of, prospective hydrocarbon intervals for unconventional extraction. Future analyses will target approximately time-equivalent sections across the Craven Basin in order to delineate the variation in type, abundance and spatial distribution of organic matter in more proximal and/or distal locations.

  11. Brief Cognitive Behavior Therapy in Patients with Social Anxiety Disorder: A Preliminary Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Pinjarkar, Ravikant G; Sudhir, Paulomi M; Math, Suresh Bada

    2015-01-01

    Context: Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) is the treatment of choice in anxiety disorders. However, there is little evidence for the effectiveness brief CBT in social anxiety. Aims: We examined the effectiveness of a brief CBT of six sessions in patients with social anxiety disorder. Settings and Design: A single case design study baseline; post and 1 month follow-up was adopted. Materials and Methods: Seven patients with a DSM IV diagnosis of social anxiety underwent 6 weekly sessions of brief CBT. Their diagnosis was confirmed using structured diagnostic interviews. They were assessed at baseline, post and 1-month follow-up on CGI- Severity, Leibowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS), Social Phobia Rating Scale, Brief Fear of Negative Evaluation, and Beck's Depression Inventory. Statistical Analysis: Data were analyzed using the method of clinical significance. Results: Results indicated that brief CBT was effective in reducing social anxiety in all patients. Brief CBT was also effective in reducing social avoidance and self consciousness. However, brief CBT was not effective in reducing fear of negative evaluation in all patients, suggesting the need for longer duration for cognitive changes in some dysfunctional beliefs. Conclusions: This preliminary case series indicates that brief CBT may be a promising and a cost and time effective approach to managing for social anxiety. PMID:25722507

  12. Investigation of tunable LED lighting for general illumination employing preliminary activity recognition sensor network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Maria; Spaulding, Jeremy; Larson, Kent; Hall, Harrison

    2011-10-01

    Digitally controlled solid state lighting systems can afford a range of different qualities of light, adjustable to users' requirements. Sensor networks allow lighting changes to be actuated in response to the location, activities, and paths of the occupants. This paper reports initial results of an ongoing research to explore strategic control of a tunable LED system, in response to a preliminary activity recognition platform, as well as the associated human factors. Tunable LED panels connected to a sensor network were installed to illuminate three distinct occupied spaces: a private office, a public office space and a corridor at MIT Media Lab. Human factors experiments were conducted to assess visual acceptability under changing lighting conditions. In the first phase variations in color rendering were applied to verify perception of subtle changes in white lighting. Results from this phase indicate that it is possible to correlate activities with sensitivity to spectral change. In the second phase the question is how colored light can be used for energy savings and as a communication medium in these commercial spaces.

  13. Preliminary design and economic investigations of Diffuser-Augmented Wind Turbines (DAWT). Executive summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foreman, K. M.

    1981-12-01

    A preferred design and configuration approach for the diffuser augmented wind turbine (DAWT) innovative wind energy conversion system is suggested. A preliminary economic assessment is made for limited production rates of units between 5 and 150 kW rated outputs. Nine point designs are used to arrive at the conclusions regarding best construction material for the diffuser and busbar cost of electricity (COE). It is estimated that for farm and cooperative end users, the COE can range between 2 and 3.5 cents pr kWh for sites with annual average wind speeds of 16 and 12 mph (25.7 and 19.3 km/h) respectively, and 150 kW rated units. No tax credits are included in these COE figures. For commercial end users of these 150 kW units, the COE ranges between 4.0 and 6.5 cents per kWh for 16 and 12 mph sites. These estimates in 1971 dollars are lower than department of energy goals set in 1978 for the rating size and end applications. Recommendations are made for future activities to maintain steady, systematic progress toward mature development of the DAWT.

  14. Preliminary design and economic investigations of diffuser-augmented wind turbines (DAWT). Executive summary. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Foreman, K.M.

    1981-12-01

    A preferred design and configuration approach for the DAWT innovative wind energy conversion system is suggested. A preliminary economic assessment is made for limited production rates of units between 5 and 150 kW rated output. Nine point designs are used to arrive at the conclusions regarding best construction material for the diffuser and busbar cost of electricity (COE). It is estimated that for farm and REA cooperative end users, the COE can range between 2 and 3.5 cents/kWh for sites with annual average wind speeds of 16 and 12 mph (25.7 and 19.3 km/h) respectively, and 150 kW rated units. No tax credits are included in these COE figures. For commercial end users of these 150 kW units, the COE ranges between 4.0 and 6.5 cents/kWh for 16 and 12 mph sites. These estimates in 1971 dollars are lower than DOE goals set in 1978 for the rating size and end applications. Recommendations are made for future activities to maintain steady, systematic progress toward mature development of the DAWT.

  15. Synthesis, Characterization, and Preliminary Investigation of Cell Interaction of Magnetic Nanoparticles with Catechol-Containing Shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Kerstin; Seemann, Thomas; Wyrwa, Ralf; Clement, Joachim H.; Müller, Robert; Nietzsche, Sandor; Schnabelrauch, Matthias

    2010-12-01

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide cores were synthesized by co-precipitation of Fe(II) and Fe(III) salts and subsequently stabilized by coating with different catechols (levodopa, dopamine, hydrocaffeic acid, dopamine-containing carboxymethyl dextran) known to act as high-affinity, bidentate ligands for Fe(III). The prepared stable magnetic fluids were characterized with regard to their chemical composition (content of iron and shell material, Fe(II)/Fe(III) ratio) and their physical properties (size, surface charge, magnetic parameters). The nanoparticles showed no or only slight cytotoxic effects within 1 and 4 days of incubation with 3T3 fibroblast cells. Preliminary experiments were performed to study the interaction of the prepared nanoparticles with human MCF-7 breast cancer cells and leukocytes. An intense interaction of the MCF-7 cells with these particles was found whereas the leukocytes showed a lower tendency of interaction. Based on these finding, the novel magnetic nanoparticles possess the potential for use in depletion of tumor cells from peripheral blood.

  16. Examining emotional modulation of pain and spinal nociception in Native Americans: a preliminary investigation.

    PubMed

    Palit, Shreela; Kerr, Kara L; Kuhn, Bethany L; DelVentura, Jennifer L; Terry, Ellen L; Bartley, Emily J; Shadlow, Joanna O; Rhudy, Jamie L

    2013-11-01

    Pain problems are more prevalent in Native Americans than in any other group in the U.S., and this might result from group differences in pain modulation. This study was designed to examine emotional modulation of pain and spinal nociception in healthy, pain-free Native Americans (n = 21) relative to non-Hispanic Whites (n = 20). To assess emotional modulation of pain and the nociceptive flexion reflex (NFR, a physiological measure of spinal nociception), participants underwent a well-validated emotional picture-viewing paradigm during which suprathreshold pain stimuli were delivered to the ankle. Compared to Whites, Native Americans reported less pleasure to erotic pictures and failed to show corrugator reactivity to mutilation pictures. Unlike Whites, Native Americans only evidenced pain inhibition in response to erotica, but no pain facilitation (disinhibition) to mutilation pictures. Emotional modulation of NFR was similar in both groups. These preliminary findings suggest that Native Americans failed to disinhibit pain, perhaps due to over-activation of pain inhibitory mechanisms. Chronic over-activation of this system could ultimately exhaust it, thus putting Native Americans at future risk for chronic pain. PMID:23994207

  17. Preliminary investigation of interconnected systems interactions for the safety injection system of Indian Point-3

    SciTech Connect

    Alesso, H.P.; Lappa, D.A.; Smith, C.F.; Sacks, I.J.

    1983-03-04

    The rich diversity of ideas and techniques for analyzing interconnected systems interaction has presented the NRC with the problem of identifying methods appropriate for their own review and audit. This report presents the findings of a preliminary study using the Digraph Matrix Analysis method to evaluate interconnected systems interactions for the safety injection system of Indian Point-3. The analysis effort in this study was subjected to NRC constraints regarding the use of Boolean logic, the construction of simplified plant representations or maps, and the development of heuristic measures as specified by the NRC. The map and heuristic measures were found to be an unsuccessful approach. However, from the effort to model and analyze the Indian Point-3 safety injection system, including Boolean logic in the model, singleton and doubleton cut-sets were identified. It is recommended that efforts excluding Boolean logic and utilizing the NRC heuristic measures not be pursed further and that the Digraph Matrix approach (or other comparable risk assessment technique) with Boolean logic included to conduct the audit of the Indian Point-3 systems interaction study.

  18. Revisiting shyness and sociability: a preliminary investigation of hormone-brain-behavior relations

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Alva; Beaton, Elliott A.; Schulkin, Jay; Hall, Geoffrey B.; Schmidt, LouisA.

    2014-01-01

    Shyness and sociability are two fundamental personality dimensions that are conceptually and empirically orthogonal and are conserved across cultures, development, and phylogeny. However, we know relatively little regarding how shyness and sociability are represented and maintained in the brain. Here we examined neural responses to the processing of different types of social threat using event-related fMRI, the salivary cortisol awakening response (CAR), and sociability in young adults selected for high and low shyness. Shy adults who exhibited a relatively higher CAR displayed neural activity in putative brain regions involved in emotional conflict and awareness, and were more sociable. In contrast, shy adults who displayed a relatively lower CAR exhibited neural activity in putative brain regions linked to fear and withdrawal, and were unsociable. Results revealed no systematic brain responses to social threat processing that correlated with the CAR in non-shy adults. These preliminary results suggest that individual differences in waking morning cortisol levels may influence neural processes that facilitate either social approach or withdrawal among people who are shy. Findings are discussed in relation to their theoretical and clinical implications for moving beyond longstanding descriptive to explanatory models of shyness and sociability and for understanding individual differences in social behavior in general. PMID:25566117

  19. An Investigation on Load Bearing Capacities of Cement and Resin Grouted Rock Bolts Installed in Weak Rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalyoncu Erguler, Guzide; Abiddin Erguler, Zeynal

    2015-04-01

    Rock bolts have been considered one of indispensable support method to improve load bearing capacity of many underground engineering projects, and thus, various types of them have been developed until now for different purposes. Although mechanically anchored rock bolts can be successfully installed to prevent structurally controlled instabilities in hard rocks, in comparison with cement and resin grouted rock bolts, these types of anchors are not so effective in weak rocks characterized by relatively low mechanical properties. In order to investigate the applicability and to measure relative performance of cement and resin grouted rock bolts into weak and heavily jointed rock mass, a research program mainly consisting of pull-out tests was performed in a metal mine in Turkey. The rock materials excavated in this underground mining were described as basalt, tuff, ore dominated volcanic rocks and dacite. To achieve more representative results for rock materials found in this mining and openings excavated in varied dimensions, the pull-out tests were conducted on rock bolts used in many different locations where more convergences were measured and deformation dependent instability was expected to cause greater engineering problems. It is well known that the capacity of rock bolts depends on the length, diameter and density of the bolt pattern, and so considering the thickness of plastic zone in the studied openings, the length and diameter of rock bolts were taken as 2.4 m. and 25 mm., respectively. The spacing between rows changed between 70 and 180 cm. In this study, totally twenty five pull-out tests were performed to have a general understanding about axial load bearing capacity and support reaction curves of cement and resin grouted rock bolts. When pull load-displacement curves belongs to cement and resin grouted rock bolts were compared with each other, it was determined that cement grouted rock bolts carry more load ranging between 115.6 kN and 127.5 kN with a mean value of 119.4 kN. However, the axial pull-load obtained from resin grouted rock bolts ranged from 2.9 to 110.9 kN with a mean value of 45.7 kN. Achieving relatively lower axial pull loads for resin grouted rock bolts were attributed to the tendency of resin to flow easily throughout surfaces of discontinuities. During site investigation, it was concluded that 27 of 72 resin grouted rock bolts and 8 of 56 cement grouted rock bolts were determined to lose their support capacities. According to these observations, it was found that while support recovery of cement grouted increase to 85.7%, this ratio decreased to about 62.5% for resin grouted rock bolts. When these observations and pull-out test results are considered, it can be concluded that installing cement grouted rock bolts can be more effective than resin grouted rock bolts to support mining operated in weak and heavily jointed rock masses.

  20. Evaluation of soil corrosivity and aquifer protective capacity using geoelectrical investigation in Bwari basement complex area, Abuja

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adeniji, A. E.; Omonona, O. V.; Obiora, D. N.; Chukudebelu, J. U.

    2014-04-01

    Bwari is one of the six municipal area councils of the Federal Capital Territory (FCT), Abuja with its attendant growing population and infrastructural developments. Groundwater is the main source of water supply in the area, and urbanization and industrialization are the predominant contributors of contaminants to the hydrological systems. In order to guarantee a continuous supply of potable water, there is a need to investigate the vulnerability of the aquifers to contaminants emanating from domestic and industrial wastes. A total of 20 vertical electrical soundings using Schlumberger electrode array with a maximum half current electrodes separation of 300 m was employed. The results show that the area is characterized by 3-6 geoelectric subsurface layers. The measured overburden thickness ranges from 1.0 to 24.3 m, with a mean value of 7.4 m. The resistivity and longitudinal conductance of the overburden units range from 18 to 11,908 ?m and 0.047 to 0.875 mhos, respectively. Areas considered as high corrosivity are the central parts with ? < 180 ?m. The characteristic longitudinal unit conductance was used to classify the area into zones of good (0.7-4.49 mhos), moderate (0.2-0.69 mhos), weak (0.1-0.19 mhos), and poor (<0.1) aquifer protective capacity. Zones characterized by materials of moderate to good protective capacity serve as sealing potential for the underlying hydrogeological system in the area. This study is aimed at delineating zones that are very prone to groundwater contamination from surface contaminants and subsurface soils that are corrosive to utility pipes buried underground. Hence the findings of this work will constitute part of the tools for groundwater development and management and structural/infrastructural development planning of the area.

  1. Preliminary Investigation of Microdosimetric Track Structure Physics Models in Geant4-DNA and RITRACKS

    PubMed Central

    Bezak, Eva

    2015-01-01

    The major differences between the physics models in Geant4-DNA and RITRACKS Monte Carlo packages are investigated. Proton and electron ionisation interactions and electron excitation interactions in water are investigated in the current work. While these packages use similar semiempirical physics models for inelastic cross-sections, the implementation of these models is demonstrated to be significantly different. This is demonstrated in a simple Monte Carlo simulation designed to identify differences in interaction cross-sections. PMID:26124856

  2. Development and Validation of the Dysfunctional Attitude Scale: A Preliminary Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weissman, Arlene N.; Beck, Aaron T.

    The Dysfunctional Attitude Scale (DAS) was developed to measure pervasive negative attitudes of a depressed person towards self, outside world, and future. The DAS follows Beck's construct of cognitive dysfunction. Two studies investigated the psychometric properties of the DAS and the relationship between cognition and affect in 300 normal…

  3. Stator current harmonics and their causal vibrations: a preliminary investigation of sensorless vibration monitoring applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Caryn M. Riley; Brian K. Lin; Thomas G. Habetler; Gerald B. Kliman

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents an initial study into the relationship between vibration and current harmonics of electric motors, including the effect of externally induced vibrations. This relationship was investigated experimentally on both new motors, on a vibration stand, and a motor with bearing wear. Both theory and experimental results show that a change in the RMS value of the stator current

  4. Ethical Reasoning Used by Teachers of Children with Severe and Profound Intellectual Disabilities: A Preliminary Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bredberg, Elizabeth; Davidson, Iain F. W. K.

    1999-01-01

    A study investigated the ethical reasoning of five Canadian teachers of children with severe and profound intellectual disabilities in segregated classrooms. Findings indicated that teachers gave almost exclusive consideration to individual student interests in their discussion of four ethical dilemmas. The governing principle in their argument…

  5. Preliminary investigation of small scale superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) systems. Final report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Schwartz; E. E. Burkhardt; W. R. Taylor

    1996-01-01

    Most Army installations purchase electricity from local utilities and pay an additional charge for peak demand. If the peak demand can be reduced, installations can realize significant cost savings. This research investigated the technical and economic issues associated with constructing a small scale superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) system for reducing peak demand at Army installations. Analyses included magnetic design

  6. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy of Panic Disorder with Secondary Major Depression: A Preliminary Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laberge, Benoit; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Investigated extent to which cognitive-behavioral therapy can be used successfully in treatment of secondary depressed panic patients. Findings from eight panic patients with major depression and seven panic patients without major depression showed that cognitive-behavioral therapy was significantly superior to information-based therapy in…

  7. Preliminary Investigation of the Extent and Effects of Sediment Contamination in White Lake, MI

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1999-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has released this report (in .pdf or HTML formats) on sediment contamination in White Lake, Michigan. The investigation aimed "to define the ecological effects of the heavy metal contamination in Tannery Bay and to assess heavy metal contamination in eastern White Lake." Numerous tables and detailed figures accompany the text.

  8. A Preliminary Investigation of Business Opportunities on the Internet in Asia Pacific

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Morris Kwok Wai-pun; Ali F. Farhoomand; Virpi Kristiina Tuunainen

    Abstract As an increasing number of firms have started to use the Internet to conduct their business, we need to gain ,a better insight into the effects of computer ,mediated commerce ,on various activities of a firm’s value chain. In a multifaceted survey of 80 Asian Pacific companies,we investigated 1) the way the use of the Internet is affecting different

  9. Relationships Between Tattling, Likeability, and Social ClassificationA Preliminary Investigation of Adolescents in Residential Care

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrick C. Friman; Douglas W. Woods; Kurt A. Freeman; Rich Gilman; Mary Short; Ann M. McGrath; Michael L. Handwerk

    2004-01-01

    Little research has been published on tattling, even less on its social impact, and we found none directly investigating tattling by adolescents. This study assessed the extent to which tattling, as perceived by peers and caregivers of adolescents in a residential care program, was associated with various dimensions of social status and other behavioral correlates. Eighty-eight adolescent participants rated their

  10. Relationships between Tattling, Likeability, and Social Classification: A Preliminary Investigation of Adolescents in Residential Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friman, Patrick C.; Woods, Douglas W.; Freeman, Kurt A.; Gilman, Rich; Short, Mary; McGrath, Ann M.; Handwerk, Michael L.

    2004-01-01

    Little research has been published on tattling, even less on its social impact, and we found none directly investigating tattling by adolescents. This study assessed the extent to which tattling, as perceived by peers and caregivers of adolescents in a residential care program, was associated with various dimensions of social status and other…

  11. Attitudes to Poverty, the Protestant Ethic, and Political Affiliation: A Preliminary Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagstaff, Graham F.

    1983-01-01

    Investigated British attitudes toward the poor as measured by MacDonald's Povery Scale and the Protestant Ethic Scale. Supporters of the British Conservative Party had more negative attitudes toward the poor, and were more likely to blame the poor for their fate than supporters of the British Labour Party. (JAC)

  12. Preliminary investigation of the association of oral lichen planus and hepatitis C

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JoséV Bagán; Cecilia Ramón; Llanos González; Moisés Diago; Maria Angeles Milián; Rafael Cors; Enrique Lloria; Francisco Cardona; Yolanda Jiménez

    1998-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this investigation was to determine if an association exists between hepatitis C virus and oral lichen planus.Study Design. Three groups of subjects were selected: 505 patients with hepatitis C virus infection (group 1), 100 patients with oral lichen planus (group 2), and a randomly selected control group (age- and gender-matched) of 100 healthy subjects (group 3).

  13. A Preliminary Investigation of Phonological Encoding Skills in Children Who Stutter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sasisekaran, Jayanthi; Brady, Alison; Stein, Jillian

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The present study investigated phonological encoding skills in children who stutter (CWS) and those who do not (CNS). Participants were 9 CWS (M=11.8 years, SD=1.5) and 9 age and sex matched CNS (M=11.8 years, SD=1.5). Method: Participants monitored target phonemes located at syllable onsets and offsets of bisyllabic words. Performance in…

  14. PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION OF SUBMERGED AQUATIC VEGETATION MAPPING USING HYPERSPECTRAL REMOTE SENSING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The use of airborne hyperspectral remote sensing imagery for automated mapping of submersed aquatic vegetation in the tidal Potomac River was investigated for near to real-time resource assessment and monitoring. Airborne hyperspectral imagery, together with in-situ spectral refl...

  15. Preliminary investigation of the effects of dye concentration on the output of a multiwavelength dye laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, I. O.; Burney, L. G.

    1974-01-01

    The effects of dye concentration on the output wavelength and energy of a multiwavelength dye laser were investigated. The dyes tested were Coumarin 2 in methyl alcohol and Rhodomine 6G, Acridine Red, and 7-diethylamino-4-methyl Coumarin (7DA 4MC) in ethyl alcohol.

  16. Preliminary investigation of the pharmacology of the human internal anal sphincter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. G. Parks; D. J. Fishlock; J. D. H. Cameron; H. May

    1969-01-01

    The smooth muscle from the human internal anal sphincter has been investigated pharmacologically in vitro. The upper and lower parts of the sphincter responded to catecholamines in a similar manner. Noradrenaline caused contraction which could be antagonized by phenoxybenzamine. After phenoxybenzamine, noradrenaline caused relaxation which could be blocked by pronethalol. Isoprenaline caused relaxation which could be specifically prevented by pronethalol.

  17. Blacks' and Whites' Perceptions of Real-Life Scenarios: A Preliminary Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brinson, Jesse A.; Morris, Joseph R.

    2001-01-01

    This study investigated the perceptual differences between Black and White counselor trainees toward 12 real-life scenarios featuring Black and White individuals. The authors hypothesized that the two groups would differ in their perceptions of most of the scenarios. The results reveal significant differences in perceptions on 4 out of 12…

  18. Preliminary Investigations into Competitive Spawning in the Anabantoid Fish, Colisa fasciata Bloch and Schneider

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawes, John A.

    1975-01-01

    Describes three experiments which investigated the behavior of "Colisa fasciata" males in full breeding condition subjected to competition for nest sites and a single female. Concludes that for these fish territorial dominance is established in a relatively short time, the period varying with the intensity of competition. (MLH)

  19. Preliminary Results from Initial Investigations of Ceres' Cratering Record from Dawn Imaging Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmedemann, Nico; Michael, Gregory; Ivanov, Boris A.; Kneissl, Thomas; Neesemann, Adrian; Hiesinger, Harald; Jaumann, Ralf; Raymond, Carol A.; Russell, Christopher T.

    2015-04-01

    The highly successful Dawn mission [1] finished data collection at Vesta in 2012 and is now on its way to the dwarf planet Ceres. According to the current Ceres approach timeline of the Dawn mission, the ground resolution of the Dawn FC camera [2] will be about 10 times better than Hubble data [3] at the time of the presentation of this work. This may allow for identification of craters about 15 km in diameter. Initial mapping of sample areas may provide enough information of the cratering record in order to compare it with the theoretical Ceres crater production function we present at the 46th LPSC conference (March 16-20, 2015, The Woodlands, Texas) [4]. Our preliminary crater production function for Ceres is derived from the assumption of an icy crust just below a thin surface layer of dust [5], and a projectile population that is very similar to the one that impacted the Moon [6]. In order to scale the lunar cratering record to Ceres we use the Ivanov scaling laws [7], which allow for crater scaling based on parameters that can be derived from observations. The lunar-like approach gave reasonable good results for the crater production function on the asteroids Vesta, Ida, Lutetia and Gaspra [8]. Since the lunar surface is of basaltic composition, the correct scaling between the different materials is challenging. One crucial parameter is the transition diameter from simple to complex craters. Based on the simple to complex transition diameter on Iapetus, an icy satellite of Saturn, we expect this transition at about 12 km crater size at Ceres. This value may be slightly different due to the different temperatures at Ceres and Iapetus. If the simple to complex transition is observed at much larger diameters, the reason could be a substantial fraction of rock in the shallow subsurface of Ceres. In an ice-rich surface material high relaxation rates may also be expected that could change the shape of the crater production function. A thorough geological mapping takes much more time than is available and, thus, will not be available at the time of the presentation. First hi-res imaging data will also provide details about crater morphologies and the major geologic units that will be analyzed during later stages of the Dawn mission. Acknowledgment: This work has been supported by the German Space Agency (DLR) on behalf of the Federal Ministry of Economic Affairs and Energy, grants 50OW1101 (NS, TK, AN) and 50QM1301 (GM). BAI is supported by Program 22 RAS. References: [1] Russell C.T. et al. (2012) Science, 336, 684-686; [2] Sierks H. et al. (2011) Space Science Reviews, 163, 263-327; [3] Li J.Y. et al. (2006) Icarus, 182, 143-160; [4] Schmedemann N. et al. (2015): 46.LPSC, The Woodlands, #1418; [5] McCord T.B. et al. (2012) Ceres: Its Origin, Evolution and Structure and Dawn's Potential Contribution. In: Russell, C.T, Raymond, C.A. (eds.) The Dawn Mission to Minor Planets 4 Vesta and 1 Ceres. Springer, New York, 63-76; [6] Neukum G. and Ivanov B. A. (1994) Crater size distribu-tions and impact probabilities on Earth from Lunar, terrestrial planet, and asteroid cratering data. In: Gehrels T. (ed) Hazards due to comets and asteroids. University of Arizona Press, Tucson, 359-416. [7] Ivanov B.A. (2001) Space Science Reviews, 96, 87-104; [8] Schmedemann N. et al. (2014), 103, 104-130.

  20. Sexual Orientation and the Sleep–Wake Cycle: A Preliminary Investigation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qazi Rahman; Kevin Silber

    2000-01-01

    The sleep–wake cycle as a function of sexual orientation was investigated. Male and female, heterosexual and homosexual subjects completed a sexual-orientation questionnaire and four sets of recording sheets of activities for a 16-day period. Mean sleep duration was calculated from the record sheets using waking-up and going-to-sleep times. It was predicted that homosexual males and females would awake earlier, go

  1. Preliminary investigation of some commercial alloys for hydrogen evolution in alkaline water electrolysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Márcio Henrique dos Santos Andrade; Mariana Lima Acioli; José Ginaldo da Silva Júnior; José Carlos Pereira Silva; Eudésio Oliveira Vilar; Josealdo Tonholo

    2004-01-01

    The electrolytical behavior of 16 commercial alloys was investigated as cathodic material to hydrogen evolution. The results were compared with SAE1020 and NI200, used as standards. The electrolytic experiments were carried out in controlled current (240 and 345mAcm?2), intercalated by polarization at undercurrent condition. The analysis of the potential stability during the electrolytic process shows that the following alloys are

  2. Preliminary investigation of food source preferences of the parasitoid Trichogramma platneri Nagarkatti (Hymenoptera, Trichogrammatidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Wellinga; M. Wysoki

    1989-01-01

    The daily survival rate was investigated ofTrichogramma platneri Nag. wasps supplied with flowers (both with and without anthers) of avocado cv. Ettinger and cv. Fuerte, anthers of avocado flowers, or flowers ofOxalis cernua, Mercurialis annua andEuphorbia sp. The life span of wasps supplied with anthers or weed flowers was less than 24 hours, whereas it was longer on avocado. However,

  3. Preliminary investigation of a novel retentive system for hydrofluoric acid etch-resistant dental ceramics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. J. Wood; N. L. Bubb; B. J. Millar; S. M. Dunne

    1997-01-01

    Statement of problem. A potential limitation to clinical use of In-Ceram and In-Ceram Spinell dental ceramics has been the inability to etch fit surfaces.Purpose. This study investigated a novel retentive system for In-Ceram and In-Ceram Spinell ceramics.Material and methods. The system, Bateman etch retention system, relies on incorporation of plastic chips on the surface of a specimen. The plastic chips

  4. Preliminary investigation in optical resonators based on carbon nano-tube and coupling for optoelectronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salzenstein, Patrice; Makaryan, Taron

    2014-05-01

    We investigate the use of carbon nano-tubes performed by chemical vapor deposition for photonics applications producing samples of various geometries on the same wafer and performing experiments and numerical modeling. Publisher's Note: This paper, originally published on 5/2/14, was replaced with a corrected/revised version on 5/19/14. If you downloaded the original PDF but are unable to access the revision, please contact SPIE Digital Library Customer Service for assistance.

  5. Alkali-free bioactive glasses for bone tissue engineering: A preliminary investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Goel, Ashutosh; Kapoor, Saurabh; Rajagopal, Raghu R.; Pascual, Maria J.; Kim, Hae-Won; Ferreira, Jose M.

    2011-08-25

    An alkali-free series of bioactive glasses has been designed and developed in the glass system CaO-MgO-SiO2-P2O5-CaF2 along diopside (CaMgSi2O6) – fluorapatite [Ca5(PO4)3F] – tricalcium phosphate (3CaO•P2O5) join. The silicate network in all the investigated glasses is predominantly coordinated in Q2 (Si) units while phosphorus tends to remain in orthophosphate (Q0) environment. The in vitro bioactivity analysis of glasses has been made by immersion of glass powders in simulated body fluid (SBF) while chemical degradation has been studied in Tris-HCl in accordance with ISO-10993-14. Some of the investigated glasses exhibit hydroxyapatite (HA) formation on their surface with in 1-12 h of their immersion in SBF solution. The sintering and crystallization kinetics of glasses has been investigated by differential thermal analysis (DTA) and hot-stage microscopy (HSM), respectively while the crystalline phase evolution in resultant glass-ceramics (GCs) has been studied in the temperature range of 800-900 oC using powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The cell growth and osteogenic differentiation for glasses has been studied in vitro on sintered glass powder compacts using rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. The as designed glasses are ideal candidates for their potential applications in bone tissue engineering in the form of bioactive glasses as well as glass/GC scaffolds.

  6. A preliminary investigation into hybrid photovoltaic cells with organic phthalocyanines and amorphous silicon heterojunction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Huan; He, Zhiqun; Zhang, Xiaojin; Zhang, Zhi; Diyaf, Adel; Lind, Anna H. N.; Liang, Chunjun; Wilson, John I. B.

    2015-03-01

    Hybrid photovoltaic cells take the advantages of silicon in charge carrier separation and transport and organic dyes in strong complementary light absorption. Photovoltaic responses from a set of hybrid solar cells based on amorphous silicon and phthalocyanine dyes of double- or triple-layer heterojunction structures were investigated, which were found to have thickness dependence with the organic active layers. It was found that the photocurrent contributions from organic layers are limited, although they are strong light absorbers. The main photocurrent contributions are from the silicon counterpart.

  7. A Summary of Preliminary Investigations into the Characteristics of Combustion Screech in Ducted Burners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1958-01-01

    Increasing demands for higher afterburner performance have required operation at progressively higher fuel-air ratios, which has increased the occurrence and intensity of screeching combustion. The onset of screech may be followed by rapid destruction of the combustor shell and other combustor parts. Because of its destructive characteristics, considerable effort has been expended to understand and eliminate screech. NACA work on the screeching combustion problem prior to 1954 is summarized herein. These studies showed that resonant acoustic oscillations are a primary component of the screech mechanism in the burners thus far investigated

  8. Investigation of the influence of vanadium compounds treatment in NZO mice model--preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Kro?niak, Miros?aw; Francik, Renata; Ko?odziejczyk, Katarzyna; Wojtanowska-Kro?niak, Agnieszka; Tedeschi, Cinzia; Petrone, Veronica; Grybo?, Ryszard

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: New Zealand obese mice (NZO) are characterized by symptoms similar to human metabolic syndrome. Vanadium in different investigations showed anti-diabetic activity but until now an NZO mice model has not been tested with this element. The aim of this study was to investigate anti-diabetic activity of three vanadium compounds (VOSO4, VO(mal)2 and Na(VO(O2)2bpy) x 8H2O) in the NZO model. Metabolic syndrome was induced by special diet (1.5% of cholesterol and 15% of saturated fatty acids) during 8 weeks. In the next 5 weeks, the tested vanadium compounds were administered once daily, in a dose of 0.063 mmol/kg of body mass. At the end of the experiment, glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides and alanine transaminase were measured in the serum. The obtained results showed that the glucose level was decreased nearly to the healthy NZO mice in comparison to the NZO mice with metabolic syndrome. In all groups on the diet with cholesterol, the level of this parameter was statistically higher in comparison to the group without cholesterol addition. Vanadium treatment in a dose 0.063 mmol/kg of body mass does not influence cholesterol, triglycerides and alanine transaminase activity. PMID:25275165

  9. Changes in labeling homosexuality in health sciences literature: a preliminary investigation.

    PubMed

    Schwanberg, S L

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the image of gay men and lesbian women in health sciences literature since the demedicalization of homosexuality by American psychiatry in 1973. The process of medicalization and demedicalization of any behavior labeled as deviant in American society has received scant attention until recently. In addition, labeling theory has for the most part ignored the labelers and the process by which powerful groups, in this instance American medicine and other health professions, influence the labeling process. Since the American Psychiatric Association's decision to demedicalize homosexuality from an illness to a "suboptimal condition," over 700 articles have been published in the health care literature about various aspects of homosexuality, including a continued debate about the health or illness classification of homosexuality. Literature reviewed for this investigation was limited to letters, policy statements, and editorials or articles written between 1974 and 1983 which were germane to the classification issue. PMID:3831076

  10. A preliminary investigation on reinforced double layer Nafion membranes for high temperature PEFCs application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saccà, A.; Pedicini, R.; Carbone, A.; Gatto, I.; Fracas, P.; Passalacqua, E.

    2014-01-01

    Double layer recast Nafion® membranes reinforced using a polyethyleneterephthalate (PET) support were developed for PEFCs application at Tcell > 110 °C, low humidification and pressure. The investigation of chemical-physical properties suggested a probable interaction between PET and Nafion matrices. Electrochemical tests in a 25 cm2 H2/air PEFC between 80 and 140°C were carried using a pure Nafion as a reference. A short time test supplied an average stable current density of about 400 mA cm-2 (0.5 V) for reinforced membrane against an unstable trend of reference. High current densities of 530 mA cm-2 and 330 mA cm-2 (0.6 V) were obtained for N-PET at unusual temperatures (130-140 °C).

  11. A preliminary qualitative investigation of voice hearing and its association with dissociation in chronic PTSD.

    PubMed

    Anketell, Caroline; Dorahy, Martin J; Curran, David

    2011-01-01

    Following on from a quantitative study, this research used a qualitative methodology to investigate the lived experience of 3 men with chronic posttraumatic stress disorder associated with the conflict in Northern Ireland who reported auditory hallucinations. Data analysis used the Framework method. Results showed that beliefs about voices, dissociation of identity and body, and interpersonal impact were central superordinate themes associated with auditory hallucinations in posttraumatic stress disorder. Central subordinate themes included feeling a lack of controllability over voices, experiencing them as ego-dystonic, and feeling an increased sense of isolation and shame because of their presence. Results provide an in-depth analysis of participants' lived experiences and enhance understanding of previous quantitative findings. PMID:21240740

  12. A machine for the preliminary investigation of design features influencing the wear behaviour of knee prostheses.

    PubMed

    McGloughlin, T M; Murphy, D M; Kavanagh, A G

    2004-01-01

    Degradation of tibial inserts in vivo has been found to be multifactorial in nature, resulting in a complex interaction of many variables. A range of kinematic conditions occurs at the tibio-femoral interface, giving rise to various degrees of rolling and sliding at this interface. The movement of the tibio-femoral contact point may be an influential factor in the overall wear of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) tibial components. As part of this study a three-station wear-test machine was designed and built to investigate the influence of rolling and sliding on the wear behaviour of specific design aspects of contemporary knee prostheses. Using the machine, it is possible to monitor the effect of various slide roll ratios on the performance of contemporary bearing designs from a geometrical and materials perspective. PMID:14982346

  13. Preliminary investigation of a sealed, remotely activated silver-zinc battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheat, C. G.

    1977-01-01

    Methods necessary to provide a remotely activated, silver zinc battery capable of an extended activated stand while in a sealed condition were investigated. These requirements were to be accomplished in a battery package demonstrating an energy density of at least 35 watt hours per pound. Several methods of gas suppression were considered in view of the primary nature of this unit and utilized the electroplated dendritic zinc electrode. Amalgamation of the electrode provided the greatest suppression of gas at the zinc electrode. The approach to extending the activated stand capability of the remotely activated battery was through evaluation of three basic methods of remote, multi-cell activation; 1) the electrolyte manifold, 2) the gas manifold and 3) the individual cell. All three methods of activation can be incorporated into units which will meet the minimum energy density requirement.

  14. An Examination of the First Oxford House in the UK: A Preliminary Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Majer, John M.; Beers, Kim; Jason, Leonard A.

    2014-01-01

    An exploratory investigation was conducted to examine the implementation of the first self-run, communal-living setting based on the Oxford House model, in the United Kingdom (UK). A cross-sectional, mixed methods design was used to examine the Oxford House model’s total abstinence approach to recovery from substance use disorders among residents (n = 7) living in the first Oxford House established in the UK. Several measures commonly used in addiction research and personal narratives were used to assess residents’ response to Oxford House living. Findings suggest that the Oxford House model is a post-treatment intervention that meets the needs of individuals seeking an abstinence-based recovery from alcohol and/or drug dependence in the UK. PMID:25368450

  15. Preliminary investigation of heat transfer to water flowing in an electrically heated Inconel tube

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, Samuel J; Isely, Francis D

    1950-01-01

    A heat-transfer investigation was conducted with water flowing in an electrically heated Inconel tube with an inside diameter of 0.204 inch and a length-diameter ratio of 50 for ranges of Reynolds number up to 100,000 and of entrance pressure up to 200 inches of mercury gage. Correlation of average heat-transfer coefficients was obtained by use of the familiar Nusselt relation, wherein the physical properties of water were evaluated at an average bulk temperature. For conditions in which no boiling occurred, the data gave a good correlation. Runs made in the nucleate-boiling region, however, gave higher values of heat-transfer coefficient than would be predicted by the Nusselt relation.

  16. Preliminary investigation on hemocompatibility of poly(vinylidene fluoride) membrane grafted with acryloylmorpholine via ATRP.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xiang; Liu, Jie; Feng, Xia; Zhao, Yiping; Chen, Li

    2015-02-01

    This work provides a promising way to improve the hemocompatibility of PVDF membrane. An amphiphilic copolymer (PVDF-g-PACMO) having PVDF backbones and poly(N-acryloylmorpholine) (PACMO) side chains was synthesized via atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). It is found that the grafting degree of the PACMO increases linearly with the increase of ACMO concentration in the reaction solution. The PVDF-g-PACMO membrane was prepared via immersed phase inversion method. The structure and performances were evaluated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, water contact angle, and filtration experiment. The hemocompatibility of the membranes were preliminarily investigated by protein adsorption, platelet adhesion, anticoagulant evaluation and hemolysis test. The results indicate that the PVDF membrane functionalized by PACMO can suppress the protein adsorption and platelet adhesion, and shows an improved hemocompatibility. PMID:24789814

  17. A Preliminary Investigation into Effects of Linguistic Abstraction on the Perception of Gender in Spoken Language.

    PubMed

    Siegling, A B; Eskritt, Michelle; Delaney, Mary E

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the role that linguistic abstraction may play in people's perceptions of gender in spoken language. In the first experiment, participants told stories about their best friend and romantic partner. Variations in linguistic abstraction and gender-linked adjectives for describing their close others were examined. Participants used significantly more abstract language to describe men compared to women, possibly reflecting a gender stereotype associated with the dispositionality factor of linguistic abstraction. In a second experiment, a new group of participants judged the gender of the protagonists from the stories generated in Experiment 1, after the explicit linguistic gender cues were removed. Consistent with the dispositionality factor, linguistic abstraction moderated the effects of the gender stereotypicality of the context (masculine, feminine, or neutral) on participants' gender judgments. Discussion focuses on the implications of the results for the communication of gender stereotypes and the effects of linguistic abstraction in more naturalistic language. PMID:25400486

  18. Preliminary Investigation of Candidate Materials for Use in Accident Resistant Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Jason M. Harp; Paul A. Lessing; Blair H. Park; Jakeob Maupin

    2013-09-01

    As part of a Collaborative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) with industry, Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is investigating several options for accident resistant uranium compounds including silicides, and nitrides for use in future light water reactor (LWR) fuels. This work is part of a larger effort to create accident tolerant fuel forms where changes to the fuel pellets, cladding, and cladding treatment are considered. The goal fuel form should have a resistance to water corrosion comparable to UO2, have an equal to or larger thermal conductivity than uranium dioxide, a melting temperature that allows the material to stay solid under power reactor conditions, and a uranium loading that maintains or improves current LWR power densities. During the course of this research, fuel fabricated at INL will be characterized, irradiated at the INL Advanced Test Reactor, and examined after irradiation at INL facilities to help inform industrial partners on candidate technologies.

  19. Work plan for preliminary investigation of organic constituents in ground water at the New Rifle site, Rifle, Colorado. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    A special study screening for Appendix 9 (40 CFR Part 264) analytes identified the New Rifle site as a target for additional screening for organic constituents. Because of this recommendation and the findings in a recent independent technical review, the US Department of Energy (DOE) has requested that the Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC) perform a preliminary investigation of the potential presence of organic compounds in the ground water at the New Rifle Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site, Rifle, Colorado. From 1958 to 1972, organic chemicals were used in large quantities during ore processing at the New Rifle site, and it is possible that some fraction was released to the environment. Therefore, the primary objective of this investigation is to determine whether organic chemicals used at the milling facility are present in the ground water. The purpose of this document is to describe the work that will be performed and the procedures that will be followed during installation of ground water well points at the New Rifle site. The selection of analytes and the procedures for collecting ground water samples for analysis of organic constituents are also described.

  20. Preliminary Investigations of Joining Technologies for Attaching Refractory Metals to Ni-Based Superalloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gould, Jerry E.; Ritzert, Frank J.; Loewenthal, William S.

    2006-01-01

    In this study, a range of joining technologies has been investigated for creating attachments between refractory metal and Ni-based superalloys. Refractory materials of interest include Mo-47%Re, T-111, and Ta-10%W. The Ni-based superalloys include Hastelloy X and MarM 247. During joining with conventional processes, these materials have potential for a range of solidification and intermetallic formation-related defects. For this study, three non-conventional joining technologies were evaluated. These included inertia welding, electro-spark deposition (ESD) welding, and magnetic pulse welding (MPW). The developed inertia welding practice closely paralleled that typically used for the refractory metals alloys. Metallographic investigations showed that forging during inertia welding occurred predominantly on the refractory metal side. It was also noted that at least some degree of forging on the Ni-based superalloy side of the joint was necessary to achieve consistent bonding. Both refractory metals were readily weldable to the Hastelloy X material. When bonding to the MarM 247, results were inconsistent. This was related to the higher forging temperatures of the MarM 247, and subsequent reduced deformation on that material during welding. ESD trials using a Hastelloy X filler were successful for all material combinations. ESD places down very thin (5- to 10-?m) layers per pass, and interactions between the substrates and the fill were limited (at most) to that layer. For the refractory metals, the fill only appeared to wet the surface, with minimal dilution effects. Microstructures of the deposits showed high weld metal integrity with maximum porosity on the order of a few percent. Some limited success was also obtained with MPW. In these trials, only the T-111 tubes were used. Joints were possible for the T-111 tube to the Hastelloy X bar stock, but the stiffness of the tube (resisting collapse) necessitated the use of very high power levels. These power levels resulted in damage to the equipment (concentrator) during welding. It is of note that the joint made showed the typical wavy bond microstructure associated with magnetic pulse/explosion bond joints. Joints were not possible between the T-111 tube and the MarM 247 bar stock. In this case, the MarM 247 shattered before sufficient impact forces could be developed for bonding.

  1. A preliminary investigation of acid-catalyzed polymerization reactions of shale oil distillates

    SciTech Connect

    Netzel, D.A.

    1991-04-01

    Sinor (1989) reported that a major specialty market may exist for shale oil as an asphalt blending material. Shale oil can be converted to an asphalt blending material by acid catalyzed condensation and polymerization reactions of the many molecular species comprising the composition of shale oil. To simplify the investigation, crude shale oil was separated by distillation into three distillates of different hydrocarbon and heteroaromatic compositions. These distillates were then treated with two different types of acids to determine the effect of acid type on the end products. Three western shale oil distillates, a naphtha, a middle distillate, and an atmospheric gas oil, were reacted with anhydrous AlCl{sub 3} and 85% H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} under low-severity conditions. At relatively low temperatures, little change in the hydrocarbon composition was noted for the AlCl{sub 3} reactions. AlCl{sub 3}{center_dot} (a polymerized product and/or complex) was formed. However, it is assumed that the sludge was mainly the result of heteroaromatic-AlCl{sub 3} reactions.

  2. A preliminary investigation of acid-catalyzed polymerization reactions of shale oil distillates

    SciTech Connect

    Netzel, D.A.

    1991-04-01

    Sinor (1989) reported that a major specialty market may exist for shale oil as an asphalt blending material. Shale oil can be converted to an asphalt blending material by acid catalyzed condensation and polymerization reactions of the many molecular species comprising the composition of shale oil. To simplify the investigation, crude shale oil was separated by distillation into three distillates of different hydrocarbon and heteroaromatic compositions. These distillates were then treated with two different types of acids to determine the effect of acid type on the end products. Three western shale oil distillates, a naphtha, a middle distillate, and an atmospheric gas oil, were reacted with anhydrous AlCl{sub 3} and 85% H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} under low-severity conditions. At relatively low temperatures, little change in the hydrocarbon composition was noted for the AlCl{sub 3} reactions. AlCl{sub 3}{center dot} (a polymerized product and/or complex) was formed. However, it is assumed that the sludge was mainly the result of heteroaromatic-AlCl{sub 3} reactions.

  3. Fractionating the role of executive control in control over worry: a preliminary investigation.

    PubMed

    Hallion, Lauren S; Ruscio, Ayelet Meron; Jha, Amishi P

    2014-03-01

    Uncontrollable anxious thought characterizes a number of emotional disorders. Little is known, however, about the cognitive mechanisms that underlie the ability to control these thoughts. The present study investigated the extent to which two well-characterized executive control processes--working memory and inhibition--are engaged when an individual attempts to control worry. Participants completed a concurrent assessment of these processes while attempting to control personally-relevant worried and neutral thoughts. To examine the specificity of these effects to attempts to control worry, versus a residual "depletion" effect of having previously engaged in worry, a subset of participants completed the assessment without instructions to control their worried or neutral thoughts. Attempts to control worry engaged working memory and inhibition to a greater extent than did attempts to control neutral thought. This increased engagement was not explained solely by anxious affect, nor was it significantly associated with trait worry. Engagement did not differ by group, suggesting that executive control depletion by worry cannot be dismissed as an alternative explanation of these findings. These results highlight working memory and inhibition as potentially valuable constructs for deepening our understanding of the nature and treatment of worry and its control. PMID:24440576

  4. Preliminary Investigation of an SOI-based Arrayed Waveguide Grating Demodulation Integration Microsystem

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hongqiang; Zhou, Wenqian; Liu, Yu; Dong, Xiaye; Zhang, Cheng; Miao, Changyun; Zhang, Meiling; Li, Enbang; Tang, Chunxiao

    2014-01-01

    An arrayed waveguide grating (AWG) demodulation integration microsystem is investigated in this study. The system consists of a C-band on-chip LED, a 2 × 2 silicon nanowire-based coupler, a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) array, a 1 × 8 AWG, and a photoelectric detector array. The coupler and AWG are made from silicon-on-insulator wafers using electron beam exposure and response-coupled plasma technology. Experimental results show that the excess loss in the MMI coupler with a footprint of 6 × 100??m2 is 0.5423?dB. The 1 × 8 AWG with a footprint of 267 × 381??m2 and a waveguide width of 0.4??m exhibits a central channel loss of ?3.18?dB, insertion loss non-uniformity of ?1.34?dB, and crosstalk level of ?23.1?dB. The entire system is preliminarily tested. Wavelength measurement precision is observed to reach 0.001?nm. The wavelength sensitivity of each FBG is between 0.04 and 0.06?nm/dB. PMID:24797561

  5. Calcium antagonistic effects of Chinese crude drugs: preliminary investigation and evaluation by 45 Ca.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ning; Yang, Yuanyou; Mo, Shangwu; Liao, Jiali; Jin, Jiannan

    2005-08-01

    Coronary and other diseases in cardiac or brain blood vessels are considered to be due to the excessive influx of Ca(2+) into cytoplasm. If Ca(2+) channels in cell membrane are blocked by medicines or other substances with considerable calcium antagonistic effects, these diseases might be cured or controlled. The influence of some Chinese crude drugs, including Crocus sativus, Carthamus tinctorius, Ginkgo biloba and Bulbus allii macrostemi on Ca(2+) influx in isolated rat aortas was investigated by using (45)Ca as a radioactive tracer, and their calcium antagonistic effects were evaluated. It can be noted that Ca(2+) uptake in isolated rat aorta rings in normal physiological status was not markedly altered by these drugs, whereas the Ca(2+) influxes induced by norepinephrine of 1.2 micromol/L and KCl of 100 mmol/L were significantly inhibited by Crocus, Carthamus and Bulbus in a concentration-dependent manner, but not by Ginkgo. The results show that extracellular Ca(2+) influx through receptor-operated Ca(2+)channels and potential-dependent Ca(2+)channels can be blocked by Crocus, Carthamus and Bulbus. This implies that these Chinese crude drugs have obvious calcium antagonistic effects. PMID:15919209

  6. A Preliminary Investigation of a New Method for Testing Aerofoils in Free Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norton, F H

    1922-01-01

    This report is a description of a new method of testing aerofoils in free flight devised by the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics. The method consists in lowering below a flying airplane a large inverted aerofoil on three small steel wires in such a way that the lift on the aerofoil always keeps the wires tight. The resultant force is measured by the tension in the wires, and the direction of the resultant by the amount the wing trails backwards. A test was made on an aerofoil of the N.A.C.A. #64 section, 6 ft. in span and the results are compared with a similar section tested in the wind tunnel. This investigation indicates that by the use of suitable recording apparatus aerofoils may be accurately and conveniently tested at a Reynolds number, a velocity and a degree of turbulence, comparable with that on the full-sized airplane. Satisfactory experiments were also made in trailing a sphere and a streamlined body on single wires.

  7. Preliminary investigation of the use of air injection to mitigate cavitation erosion

    SciTech Connect

    Arndt, R.E.A.; Ellis, C.R.; Paul, S. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States). St. Anthony Falls Hydraulic Lab.

    1995-09-01

    This project was initiated as part of a new research and development focus to improve hydropower generation. One aspect of the problem is severe cavitation erosion which is experienced when hydroturbines are operated at best power or in spinning reserve. Air injection has been used successfully to minimize or eliminate cavitation erosion in other applications. Thus, an investigation was initiated to determine whether or not air injection would be an effective solution for turbine erosion problems. A specially instrumented hydrofoil of elliptic planform and a NACA 0015 cross section was tested at flow velocities up to 20 m s{sup {minus}1}, at various values of cavitation index. Although pit sizes were measured on a soft aluminum insert, pitting rate was not measured directly but was inferred from direct measurement of impulsive pressures on the surface of the hydrofoil and by monitoring accelerometers mounted at the base of the hydrofoil. Cavitation noise was also measured by a hydrophone positioned in the water tunnel test section. Air was injected through small holes in the leading edge of the foil. Air injection was found to be very effective in minimizing erosion as inferred from all three cavitation erosion detection techniques.

  8. Preliminary investigation of submerged aquatic vegetation mapping using hyperspectral remote sensing.

    PubMed

    William, David J; Rybicki, Nancy B; Lombana, Alfonso V; O'Brien, Tim M; Gomez, Richard B

    2003-01-01

    The use of airborne hyperspectral remote sensing imagery for automated mapping of submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) in the tidal Potomac River was investigated for near to real-time resource assessment and monitoring. Airborne hyperspectral imagery and field spectrometer measurements were obtained in October of 2000. A spectral library database containing selected ground-based and airborne sensor spectra was developed for use in image processing. The spectral library is used to automate the processing of hyperspectral imagery for potential real-time material identification and mapping. Field based spectra were compared to the airborne imagery using the database to identify and map two species of SAV (Myriophyllum spicatum and Vallisneria americana). Overall accuracy of the vegetation maps derived from hyperspectral imagery was determined by comparison to a product that combined aerial photography and field based sampling at the end of the SAV growing season. The algorithms and databases developed in this study will be useful with the current and forthcoming space-based hyperspectral remote sensing systems. PMID:12620030

  9. Preliminary investigation into the pollution reduction performance of swales used in a stormwater treatment train.

    PubMed

    Kachchu Mohamed, M A; Lucke, T; Boogaard, F

    2014-01-01

    Permeable pavements have been shown to be effective stormwater treatment devices that can greatly reduce surface runoff and significantly improve the quality of stormwater runoff in urban areas. However, the potential problems with sediment clogging and consequent maintenance requirements have been identified as the main barriers to more widespread adoption of permeable pavements in urban developments. This Australian study investigates the effectiveness of using grass swales as pre-treatment devices for permeable pavements in order to reduce clogging and extend the life span of these systems. The results of simulated runoff experiments demonstrated that between 50 and 75% of the total suspended sediment (TSS) was removed within the first 10 m of the swale length. This suggests swales of this length could potentially increase the effective life of permeable pavement systems by reducing clogging, and therefore maintenance. Nutrient removal was also tested in the study and the results indicated the tested swales were of limited effectiveness in the removal of these pollutants. However, in real runoff situations, reduction of TSS will have a direct influence on removing nutrients because a significant proportion of nutrients (and other pollutants) are attached to the sediments. PMID:24622550

  10. Kinetics investigation of oxygen storage capacity in La2O3-CeO2 solid solution.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lili; Wang, Xidong; Guo, Min; Zhang, Mei

    2011-03-01

    La2O3-CeO2 nanopowders with different La2O3 (0-20 mol%) were prepared by the sol-gel method. The modification of the cubic structure of ceria by substituting La3+ for Ce4+ into the lattice of CeO2 has been investigated. The crystal structure of La2O3-CeO2 nanomaterials has been examined by X-ray powder diffraction and analyzed by the Rietveld refinement method. The introduction of La3+ enlarges the octahedral void of unit cell in the cubic CeO2, which favors the oxygen migration in the crystal lattice. Raman characterization results show that the wavenumber of the La2O3-CeO2 solid solution shifted to red and the oxygen vacancy increased with lanthana content in Ce(1-x)La(x)O(2-x/2). The oxygen vacancy, generated by La3+ substituting for Ce4+, could supply more channels for oxygen migration through the lattice. The changes of lattice structure and the oxygen vacancy with La2O3 are correspondence with the results of oxygen storage capacity (OSC) measurement, which indicate that the changes of macro-performance are connected with the microstructure deformation of La2O3-CeO2. The kinetics of Ce0.9La0.2O1.9 nanomaterials with the highest OSC value was studied and the apparent activation energy (E(a)) of reduction and oxidation process was calculated to be 5.6 and 6.0 kJ/mol, respectively. The low E(a) value might be one of the reasons for Ce0.8La0.2O1.9 nanomaterials with the high OSC value. PMID:21449363

  11. Investigation of the anisotropic deuterium ordering in alpha-LuD single crystals by resistivity and heat-capacity measurements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Vajda; J. N. Daou; J. P. Burger; K. Kai; K. A. Gschneidner Jr.; B. J. Beaudry

    1986-01-01

    The electrical resistivity and the heat capacity of single crystals of LuD0.183 were measured from ~1 to 300 K. An anomaly due to ordering of deuterium pairs along the c axis is observed in both the resistivity and heat-capacity measurements. The binding energy of the ordered state is ~15% larger in the c direction than in the a direction. Rapid

  12. A preliminary investigation of EZSCAN™ screening for impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes in a patient population

    PubMed Central

    CHEN, XIAOLU; CHEN, LIZHU; DING, RONGJING; SHI, QIUTING; ZHANG, YUANYUAN; HU, DAYI

    2015-01-01

    EZSCAN™ is a non-invasive technology that evaluates sweat gland dysfunction using electrochemical skin conductance measurements, providing an opportunity to determine the risk of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and diabetes mellitus (DM). This study was conducted with the aims of detecting IGT and DM and investigating the efficacy and cut-off points of the EZSCAN test in a patient population. The traditional serum and plasma glucose tests were used as comparators. In this cross-sectional study, 270 previously undiagnosed patients (180 women and 90 men) with a high risk of glucose metabolism disorders (?45 years old) were enrolled. All patients underwent an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and EZSCAN tests. Forty (14.8%) patients had newly diagnosed DM (NDM), 79 (29.3%) had IGT and 151 (55.9%) had normal glucose tolerance. The EZSCAN values of these groups were 48±11, 47±11 and 34±13%, respectively. For all patients, the correlation coefficient of EZSCAN was 0.462 with the OGTT (P<0.001), 0.182 with the FPG test (P<0.001) and 0.379 with the HbA1c test (P<0.001). The EZSCAN cut-off point for the detection of IGT was 37% [sensitivity, 82%; specificity, 62%; area under the curve (AUC), 0.778], and the cut-off point for NDM was 50% (sensitivity, 53%; specificity, 59%; AUC, 0.528). This study demonstrated that the non-invasive EZSCAN system is an effective screening tool for the detection of glucose dysfunction in the population tested, and that its performance in detecting previously undiagnosed IGT is superior to its performance in detecting DM.

  13. Preliminary investigation into subjective well-being, mental health, resilience, and spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Migliorini, Christine; Callaway, Libby; New, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To undertake a pilot investigation into whether individuals whose subjective well-being had returned to the normal homeostatic range after a spinal cord injury (SCI) may be more resilient and therefore, at less risk of emotional distress over time. To consider the relative stability of subjective well-being in individuals with chronic SCI whose subjective well-being had previously returned to the normative homeostatic range. Study design Longitudinal study: Time 1 (T1) 2004 and Time 2 (T2) 2009. Setting Victoria, Australia. Participants Participants were adults living in the community with chronic SCI, who had no mental ill-health symptoms at T1. Outcome measures Scales include: Comprehensive Quality of Life Scale – Adult v5 (COMQoL-A5) at T1, Personal Well-being Index (PWI – the successor to the COMQol-A5) at T2, and Depression, Anxiety & Stress Scale – short form (DASS-21) at T1 and T2. Results Twenty-one adults participated at T1 and T2. Subjective well-being was stable for 57% of the cohort. However, 19% presented with symptoms of emotional distress by T2. There was no significant difference in age (P = 0.94) or time since injury (P = 0.51) between those reporting significant emotional symptoms and those without; nor was there any systematic change in health status. Conclusion This study yielded two important findings. First, individuals with chronic SCI may be vulnerable to mental health issues even after they have previously exhibited good resilience. Second, subjective well-being after SCI may not be as stable as suggested by the general quality of life literature that have examined genetic and personality connections to subjective well-being. PMID:24090180

  14. A preliminary investigation on the relationship between virtues and pathological internet use among Chinese adolescents

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Pathological Internet Use (PIU) has become a global issue associated with the increasing number of Internet users. Previous studies concerned both the interpersonal and intrapersonal vulnerable factors and the corresponding models. However, a limited amount of research has explored the relationship between positive factors and PIU. Objective The current investigation attempted to clarify the relationship between virtues and PIU among Chinese adolescents; it also sought to explore the specific contributions of the three virtues. Virtue was the core concept in positive psychology and the Values in Action Classification. A recent study demonstrated that there might be three universal virtues (relationship, vitality, and conscientiousness). Methods A cross-sectional sample of adolescents aged 12-17 years were recruited in 2013. A total of 674 adolescents (males?=?302, females?=?372; junior high school?=?296, senior high school?=?378) from eight junior and senior high schools in four provinces of Mainland China completed a package of psychological inventories, including the Chinese Virtues Questionnaire (CVQ) and the Adolescent Pathological Internet Use Scale (APIUS). The mean age of the current sample was 15.10 years (SD?=?1.81) with an average of 5.31 years’ length (SD?=?2.09) of Internet use. Results A total of 9.50% participants exhibited significant symptoms of PIU. Male students (Mmale?=?2.50) had significantly higher scores on PIU than female students (Mfemale?=?2.25). Relationship (??=?-.24) and conscientiousness (??=?-.21) negatively predicted PIU, whereas vitality (??=?.25) positively predicted PIU. Dominance analysis further revealed that relationship and conscientiousness could explain 81% variance of PIU, and vitality only accounted for another 19%. Conclusions Relationship and conscientiousness were possible protective factors of pathological Internet users, while vitality was vulnerable. The results could be helpful in screening “at-risk” Internet users (low relationship and conscientiousness as well as high vitality). Future intervention strategies could focus on how to enhance relationship and conscientiousness and on how to reduce vitality. PMID:24594317

  15. Evaluation of in vitro antioxidant properties of some traditional Sardinian medicinal plants: Investigation of the high antioxidant capacity of Rubus ulmifolius

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefano Dall’Acqua; Rinaldo Cervellati; Maria Cecilia Loi; Gabbriella Innocenti

    2008-01-01

    The antioxidant capacities of 11 botanical species used in the tradition of Sardinia as teas beverages or as decoction for medicinal purposes were evaluated using different in vitro methods (BR, TEAC, DPPH and FC). Among the various species, Rubus ulmifolius, resulted the more active with all the used methods. Phytochemical investigation on the extract yields in the isolation of several

  16. Preliminary Investigation of an Early Mental Health Intervention for Head Start Programs: Effects of Child Teacher Relationship Training on Children's Behavior Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Mary O.; Bratton, Sue C.

    2010-01-01

    Head Start teachers and their aides (n = 24) were assigned to either the experimental or active control treatment in this preliminary investigation on the effects of Child Teacher Relationship Training (CTRT) on 52 disadvantaged preschool children identified with behavioral problems. CTRT is based on the principles and procedures of Child Parent…

  17. Computer-Based Reading Programs: A Preliminary Investigation of Two Parent Implemented Programs with Students At-Risk for Reading Failure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pindiprolu, Sekhar S.; Forbush, David

    2009-01-01

    In 2000, National Reading Panelists (NRP) reported that computer delivered reading instruction has potential for promoting the reading skills of students at-risk for reading failure. However, panelists also noted a scarcity of data present in the literature on the effects of computer-based reading instruction. This preliminary investigation

  18. Preliminary Results of an Altitude-Wind-Tunnel Investigation of an Axial-Flow Gas Turbine-Propeller Engine. 1; Performance Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saari, Martin J.; Wallner, Lewis E.

    1948-01-01

    A preliminary investigation of an axial-flow gas turbine-propeller engine was conduxted. Performance data were obtained for engine speeds from 8000 to 13,000 rpm and altitudes from 5000 to 35,000 feet and compressor inlet ram pressure ratios from 1.00 to 1.17.

  19. Preliminary investigation of a novel technique for the quantification of the ex vivo biomechanical properties of the vocal folds.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Paulo G; Sobieraj, Michael; Tovar, Nick; Andrews, Kenneth; Paul, Benjamin; Govil, Nandini; Jeswani, Seema; Amin, Milan R; Janal, Malvin N; Branski, Ryan C

    2014-12-01

    The human vocal fold is a complex structure made up of distinct layers that vary in cellular and extracellular matrix composition. Elucidating the mechanical properties of vocal fold tissues is critical for the study of both acoustics and biomechanics of voice production, and essential in the context of vocal fold injury and repair. Both quasistatic and dynamic behavior in the 10-300 Hz range was explored in this preliminary investigation. The resultant properties of the lamina propria were compared to that of the nearby thyroarytenoid muscle. Er, quantified via quasistatic testing of the lamina propria, was 609±138 MPa and 758±142 MPa in the muscle (p=0.001). E' of the lamina propria as determined by dynamic testing was 790±526 MPa compared to 1061±928 MPa in the muscle. Differences in E' did not achieve statistical significance via linear mixed effect modeling between the tissue types (p=0.95). In addition, frequency dependence was not significant (p=0.18). PMID:25491836

  20. Preliminary investigation into the analytical potential of a multiwavelength fiber drop analyzer with special reference to applications in medical diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMillan, Norman D.; O'Mongain, Eon; Walsh, James E.; Breen, Liam; McMillan, Duncan G.; Power, Michael J.; O'Dea, John P.; Kinsella, Seamus M.; Kelly, Mairead P.; Hammil, Conor; Orr, Dermot

    1994-12-01

    A preliminary investigation into the use of multiwavelength fiber drop analyzer (FDA) for the measurement of viscosity, spectral absorbance and refractive index is made with a view to obtaining conservative estimates of the instrumental capability of the FDA for these measurands. Some important new insights into drop vibrations are made from studies on the fiber drop traces (FDTs) of mechanically excited damped vibrations in drops with a set volume. A brief description of the feasibility measurements on the first application of the FDA in the diagnosis of disease in synovial fluid is given. Strong experimental evidence is reported for the existence of the surface-guided wave peak of the fiber drop trace and some new insights into the nature of the FDT are suggested based on a comparative study of the FDTs from a multiple-wavelength and a single-wavelength FDA. The earlier reported drop period dependence on applied electric field is critically reexamined, a new interpretation of this effect, is suggested, and an experimental study of clarification is given. Finally, a brief review of the projected capabilities of the FDA based on the work reported here is provided.

  1. Field-Theoretical Investigations of the Influence of Mutual Coupling Effects on the Capacity of MIMO Wireless Links

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ndoumbè Mbonjo Mbonjo, H.; Wu, G.; Hansen, V.

    2005-05-01

    We present a MIMO channel model which takes into account mutual coupling effects at the receiver and transmitter array in order to assess the influence of mutual coupling effects on the capacity of MIMO channels. We evaluate the mutual impedances using a general approach based on the electric field integral equation (EFIE) and its implementation by the method of moments (MOM). We compute the capacity of a 2x2-MIMO system in a one path scenario for square half wavelength patch antenna elements and half wavelength dipole antenna elements. The capacity of the MIMO system with and without coupling increases compared to the single antenna transmission for the patch antenna elements. On the contrary for half wavelength dipole antenna elements we have found that the MIMO system degenerates to a one-transmitting, one-receiving antenna system due to mutual coupling.

  2. Preliminary geologic investigation of the Apollo 12 landing site: Part A: Geology of the Apollo 12 Landing Site

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shoemaker, E.M.; Batson, R.M.; Bean, A.L.; Conrad, C., Jr.; Dahlem, D.H.; Goddard, E.N.; Hait, M.H.; Larson, K.B.; Schaber, G.G.; Schleicher, D.L.; Sutton, R.L.; Swann, G.A.; Waters, A.C.

    1970-01-01

    This report provides a preliminary description of the geologic setting of the lunar samples returned fromt he Apollo 12 mission. A more complete interpretation of the geology of the site will be prepared after thorough analysis of the data.

  3. Preliminary on the isotope hydrology investigations at the Nevada test site: Hydrologic resources management program; FY 1992--1993

    SciTech Connect

    Davisson, M.L.; Kenneally, J.M.; Smith, D.K.; Hudson, G.B.; Nimz, G.J.; Rego, J.H.

    1994-01-01

    A comprehensive isotope data base of the NTS groundwaters collected during FY 92-93 is presented with preliminary interpretations. Multiple samples were collected from over 30 sites on pumped wells and open-holes by wireline bailing. Field water level measurements indicate essentially a bimodal distribution separated by water levels at higher elevations (e.g. Pahute Mesa) from water levels of lower elevations (e.g. Yucca and Frenchman Flats). Down hole temperature measurements have confirmed anomalous temperature gradients in the eastern Yucca Flat area and on Pahute Mesa, where horizontal temperature gradients up to 0.33{degrees}F/100ft are found. Consistent with previous reports by others, the major ion geochemistry of the NTS groundwater are dominated by Na-K-HCO{sub 3} and Ca-Mg-HCO{sub 3} water types, where the Na-rich water appears to be related to dissolution in the volcanic tuffs and the Ca-rich water to the Paleozoic carbonates. Increases in dissolved Si also seems to be indicative of groundwater that resides in the volcanic tuffs. Processes controlling the Na/Ca ratios are complex and may include ion exchange reactions with clays, evaporative concentration in the vadose zone, and lithological heterogeneities in addition to simple differential dissolution between the volcanic tuffs and the Paleozoic carbonates. Apparent {sup 14}C ages range between 4000 and 38,000 years for groundwaters at the NTS. The uncertainty is large for exact age determinations at this time. The {sup 14}C abundance decreases with increased dissolved HCO{sub 3}, and {sup 13}C suggests dissolution of the ``dead`` Paleozoic carbonates significantly influence the ages, but more work is needed to investigate the influence of vadose zone carbonate.

  4. Investigating wind power`s effective capacity: A case study in the Caribbean Island of La Martinique

    SciTech Connect

    Perez, R.; Germa, J.M.; Bailey, B. [AWS Scientific, Inc., Paris (France)

    1996-12-31

    In this paper, we report on the experimental determination of the effective capacity of wind and photovoltaic (PV) power generation with respect to the utility load requirements of the Island of La Martinique. La Martinique is a French Overseas Department in the Caribbean Sea. The case study spans two years, 1990 and 1991. We consider wind generation at three locations in different wind regimes, and PV generation for fixed and tracking flat plate systems. The results presented include: (1) An overview of typical solar and wind power output at each considered site, presented in contrast to the Island`s electric load requirements; and (2) Effective capacities quantified for each resource as a function of penetration in the utility generation mix. 7 refs., 6 figs.

  5. Some Preliminary Results of Detailed Paleomagnetic Investigations of the Siberian Permian-Triassic Traps in the Kotuy River Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latyshev, A.; Fetisova, A.; Veselovskiy, R.

    2009-04-01

    Now essential part of geological investigations is dedicated to revealing of reasons and time relation between the mass extinction on the Paleozoic-Mesozoic boundary and pulses of magmatic activity expressed in forming of the largest Permian-Triassic trap province on the Siberian platform. Thus revealing of the dynamic of the magmatic activity caused formation of the Siberian traps will allow to obtain an important information for establishing of its relation with Permian-Triassic extinction. Recent years several reliable paleomagnetic results from the Siberian traps were obtained, but there is a problem of correlation of Maimecha-Kotuy traps with other trap sequences. Especially this problem is actual in a case of traps of Norilsk and Maimecha-Kotuy regions (Gurevich et al., 2004), because an absence of clearly magnetostratigraphic scheme of the Maimecha-Kotuy region traps. This problem doesn't allow to estimate volume of traps explosion of the Northern part of the Siberian platform. In this work preliminary results of detailed paleomagnetic investigations of Maimecha-Kotuy traps are represented. The most complete and representative sequence of lava flows of Arydzhangsky suite (P2-T1) was exposed to the detailed paleomagnetic sampling. This sequence is situated on the left bank of the Kotuy river. Arydzhangsky suite overlays subhorizontally the eroded surface of the Permian sandstones (Fedorenko et al., 2000) and represents the sequence of lava flows of alkaline basaltic rocks, among which limburgites, augitites, melilite basalts, picrites and nephelinites are the most widely spread. Layers of tuffs are subordinated. Summary thickness of the Arydzhangsky suite in this outcrop is 240 m, and about 27 flows are distinguished there (section 1 in Fedorenko et al., 2000). 23 lava flows were sampled during our researches. 8-10 oriented samples were taken from each lava flow; all samples were obtained from the lower and middle parts in order to decrease the probability of remagnetization by overlayed flow. Orientation of samples was made with geological compass controlling absence of influence of the high-magnetic rocks. In the outcrop on the right bank of the Kotuy river were investigated 4 subhorizontal layers of alkaline mixed tuffs. These tuffs are underlayed by Permian sandstones and they are situated lower then lava flows in relief. Resemblance of these tuffs and alkaline-ultramafic tuffs of Khardakhsky suite (Egorov, 1995) allows to correlate them. Khardakhsky suite is correlated with the Pravoboyarsky suite (P2-T1) (Egorov, 1995). Paleomagnetic investigation revealed rather good paleomagnetic record in the studied samples. The quantity of steps of the thermal cleaning reached 20. Magnetization of tuff layers, correlated with Khardakhskaya suite, includes one or two (contemporary and characteristic) components, the second of them has only reversal polarity. Directions of distinguished characteristic components of magnetization tightly concentrated around their average meaning. Thermal demagnetization of the samples from all 23 sampled lava flows of Arydzhangsky suite showed that these rocks are magnetized in normal polarity. The quality of paleomagnetic record varies, but its interpretation is possible in almost flows: the average direction of magnetization and the corresponding paleomagnetic pole are calculated. Also measurements of the magnetic anisotropy were made. Obtained paleomagnetic pole of the Arydzhangsky suite lies in the area of other trap poles of the Siberian platform: this fact can be considered as evidence of absence of the essential tectonic movements. It indicates the perspective of this suite for detailed paleomagnetic investigations. An essential difference in paleomagnetic poles from the tuffs of the Khardakhsky suite and the lavas of Arydzhangsky suite is explained by absence of averaging of secular variations of the geomagnetic field. In the study (Gurevich et al., 2004) two variants of correlation of the Norilsk and Maimecha-Kotuy outcrops are offered. According to the first variant lower parts of

  6. Isotopic Investigation of Contemporary and Historic Changes in Penguin Trophic Niches and Carrying Capacity of the Southern Indian Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Jaeger, Audrey; Cherel, Yves

    2011-01-01

    A temperature-defined regime shift occurred in the 1970s in the southern Indian Ocean, with simultaneous severe decreases in many predator populations. We tested a possible biological link between the regime shift and predator declines by measuring historic and contemporary feather isotopic signatures of seven penguin species with contrasted foraging strategies and inhabiting a large latitudinal range. We first showed that contemporary penguin isotopic variations and chlorophyll a concentration were positively correlated, suggesting the usefulness of predator ?13C values to track temporal changes in the ecosystem carrying capacity and its associated coupling to consumers. Having controlled for the Suess effect and for increase CO2 in seawater, ?13C values of Antarctic penguins and of king penguins did not change over time, while ?13C of other subantarctic and subtropical species were lower in the 1970s. The data therefore suggest a decrease in ecosystem carrying capacity of the southern Indian Ocean during the temperature regime-shift in subtropical and subantarctic waters but not in the vicinity of the Polar Front and in southward high-Antarctic waters. The resulting lower secondary productivity could be the main driving force explaining the decline of subtropical and subantarctic (but not Antarctic) penguins that occurred in the 1970s. Feather ?15N values did not show a consistent temporal trend among species, suggesting no major change in penguins’ diet. This study highlights the usefulness of developing long-term tissue sampling and data bases on isotopic signature of key marine organisms to track potential changes in their isotopic niches and in the carrying capacity of the environment. PMID:21311756

  7. Isotopic investigation of contemporary and historic changes in penguin trophic niches and carrying capacity of the southern Indian ocean.

    PubMed

    Jaeger, Audrey; Cherel, Yves

    2011-01-01

    A temperature-defined regime shift occurred in the 1970s in the southern Indian Ocean, with simultaneous severe decreases in many predator populations. We tested a possible biological link between the regime shift and predator declines by measuring historic and contemporary feather isotopic signatures of seven penguin species with contrasted foraging strategies and inhabiting a large latitudinal range. We first showed that contemporary penguin isotopic variations and chlorophyll a concentration were positively correlated, suggesting the usefulness of predator ?¹³C values to track temporal changes in the ecosystem carrying capacity and its associated coupling to consumers. Having controlled for the Suess effect and for increase CO? in seawater, ?¹³C values of Antarctic penguins and of king penguins did not change over time, while ?¹³C of other subantarctic and subtropical species were lower in the 1970s. The data therefore suggest a decrease in ecosystem carrying capacity of the southern Indian Ocean during the temperature regime-shift in subtropical and subantarctic waters but not in the vicinity of the Polar Front and in southward high-Antarctic waters. The resulting lower secondary productivity could be the main driving force explaining the decline of subtropical and subantarctic (but not Antarctic) penguins that occurred in the 1970s. Feather ?¹?N values did not show a consistent temporal trend among species, suggesting no major change in penguins' diet. This study highlights the usefulness of developing long-term tissue sampling and data bases on isotopic signature of key marine organisms to track potential changes in their isotopic niches and in the carrying capacity of the environment. PMID:21311756

  8. Investigation of the preparation and use of low-capacity anion exchangers in single-column ion chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Barron, R.E.

    1984-01-01

    The preparation and uses of strong-base anion exchangers of low capacity are reviewed. A new adaptation of known reactions is presented for the reproducible preparation of Type I anion exchangers of low capacity and it is explored in some detail. The resins are based on the macroreticular copolymer known as XAD-1. It is shown that the same reaction scheme may be used on any porous styrene-divinylbenzene copolymer. Procedures are described for the preparation of twelve other strong-base resins with various structural differences in the quaternary ammonium functional group. These resins are then evaluated to determine the effect of chemical structure on selectivity for a number of common monovalent and divalent anions. It is shown that the structure of the quaternary ammonium ion has a definite effect on selectivity. It is also shown that surface modification can affect selectivity. The implications for single-column ion chromatography are discussed and some examples are given where a change in the chemical structure of the functional group is of practical value in the separation of anions. The factors influencing the choice of an eluent acid are outlined and it is shown that some acids are better than others on the basis on their lack of interaction with the copolymer matrix.

  9. A Preliminary Investigation of the Effects of Giving Testimony and Learning Yogic Breathing Techniques on Battered Women's Feelings of Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franzblau, Susan H.; Echevarria, Sonia; Smith, Michelle; Van Cantfort, Thomas E.

    2008-01-01

    Researchers have shown that mood and sense of control over one's life are significantly affected by testimony and other forms of disclosure and that learning to control breathing has positive effects on mood and anxiety. This preliminary experiment tests whether African American and European American abused women who give testimony about their…

  10. A Preliminary Investigation of the Components of a Curriculum for the Preparation of Master's-Level Addiction Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whittinghill, David

    2006-01-01

    This study identified the preliminary curriculum components for the preparation of graduate-level addiction counselors. A review of the related literature revealed no agreed upon standards for post baccalaureate instruction of addiction counseling. The Delphi method was used to establish curriculum items from a list of 198 previously identified…

  11. Preliminary investigations on a NTP cargo shuttle for earth to moon orbit payload transfer based on a particle bed reactor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    X. Raepsaet; E. Proust; F. Gervaise; L. Baraer; S. Naury; F. L. Linet; C. F. Bresson; C. C. de Coriolis; I. T. A. Bergeron; L. V. Bourquin; L. V. Clech; L. V. Devaux; L. V. Chevillot; E. V. Augier

    1995-01-01

    MAPS, a 3-year study program on NTP has recently been launched at CEA following the conclusions of a preliminary scoping study of an NTP system for earth to moon orbit cargo shuttle missions. This paper presents the main results of this scoping study, and gives an outline of the MAPS program.

  12. Analytic investigation of the AEM-A/HCMM attitude control system performance. [Application Explorer Missions/Heat Capacity Mapping Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lerner, G. M.; Huang, W.; Shuster, M. D.

    1977-01-01

    The Heat Capacity Mapping Mission (HCMM), scheduled for launch in 1978, will be three-axis stabilized relative to the earth in a 600-kilometer altitude, polar orbit. The autonomous attitude control system consists of three torquing coils and a momentum wheel driven in response to error signals computed from data received from an infrared horizon sensor and a magnetometer. This paper presents a simple model of the attitude dynamics and derives the equations that determine the stability of the system during both attitude acquisition (acquisition-mode) and mission operations (mission-mode). Modifications to the proposed mission-mode control laws which speed the system's response to transient attitude errors and reduce the steady-state attitude errors are suggested. Numerical simulations are performed to validate the results obtained with the simple model.

  13. Speech Perception and Phonological Short-Term Memory Capacity in Language Impairment: Preliminary Evidence from Adolescents with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) and Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loucas, Tom; Riches, Nick Greatorex; Charman, Tony; Pickles, Andrew; Simonoff, Emily; Chandler, Susie; Baird, Gillian

    2010-01-01

    Background: The cognitive bases of language impairment in specific language impairment (SLI) and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) were investigated in a novel non-word comparison task which manipulated phonological short-term memory (PSTM) and speech perception, both implicated in poor non-word repetition. Aims: This study aimed to investigate the…

  14. Preliminary experimental investigations of a biomass-fired micro-scale CHP with organic Rankine cycle-super-†

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hao Liu; Guoquan Qiu; Yingjuan Shao; Ferdinand Daminabo; Saffa B. Riffat

    2010-01-01

    The continual increases in global energy demand and greenhouse gas emissions call for more and more utilization of sustainable energy sources such as biomass. Among the existing biomass conversion technologies such as combustion, gasification and biochemical approaches, combustion is the most mature and widely used conversion technology. Several biomass-fired combined heat and power (CHP) plants with capacities in the order

  15. A Preliminary Investigation Of Ancient Pigments From The Mortuary Temple Of Seti I, El-Qurna (Luxor, Egypt)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marey Mahmoud, H. H.

    The present paper aims to apply different analytical techniques to characterize some ancient pigments from the first group of samples collected on the wall paintings of the mortuary temple of Seti I (c.1291-1278 BC), El-Qurna (Luxor, Egypt). The analytical characterization has been carried out by means of optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with anenergy dispersive X-ray detector (EDS), ?-Raman spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The results allowed the identification of different pigments used in the polychromatic decorations of the temple and to establish a preliminary analytical database of the chromatic palette used in this period of the Egyptian history.

  16. The administration of psilocybin to healthy, hallucinogen-experienced volunteers in a mock-functional magnetic resonance imaging environment: a preliminary investigation of tolerability.

    PubMed

    Carhart-Harris, Robin L; Williams, Tim M; Sessa, Ben; Tyacke, Robin J; Rich, Ann S; Feilding, Amanda; Nutt, David J

    2011-11-01

    This study sought to assess the tolerability of intravenously administered psilocybin in healthy, hallucinogen-experienced volunteers in a mock-magnetic resonance imaging environment as a preliminary stage to a controlled investigation using functional magnetic resonance imaging to explore the effects of psilocybin on cerebral blood flow and activity. The present pilot study demonstrated that up to 2 mg of psilocybin delivered as a slow intravenous injection produces short-lived but typical drug effects that are psychologically and physiologically well tolerated. With appropriate care, this study supports the viability of functional magnetic resonance imaging work with psilocybin. PMID:20395317

  17. Preliminary investigation of the altitude performance of pentaborane and a pentaborane : JP-4 blend in an experimental 9.5-inch-diameter tubular combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, Warner B; Branstetter, J Robert

    1957-01-01

    A preliminary investigation was conducted to determine the altitude performance of pentaborane and a blend fuel of 64.2 percent pentaborane in JP-4 fuel in a tubular combustor of a current production type turbojet engine. A combustor was developed that was 4 inches shorter than standard. It contained a porous wire-cloth liner barrel and dome and an air-atomizing fuel nozzle. Deposits on the liner barrel and dome were virtually nonexistent. The combustion efficiency of 90 to 94 percent for pentaborane and approximately 90 percent for the blend. Outlet temperature profiles were marginal; however, the developed combustor provided lower pressure losses than obtained in conventional combustors.

  18. An investigation of the origin of the electrochemical hydrogen storage capacities of the ball-milled Co–Si composites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yi Wang; Jong Min Lee; Xin Wang

    2010-01-01

    The Co–Si composites with a molar ratio of 2:1 are synthesized by ball-milling method and their potential as negative electrode materials of Ni–MH batteries is investigated. The microstructure, morphology and chemical state of the ball-milled Co–Si composites are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). XRD patterns show that the ball-milled samples for

  19. Cutaneous exposure scenarios for engineered nanoparticles used in semiconductor fabrication: a preliminary investigation of workplace surface contamination

    PubMed Central

    Shepard, Michele; Brenner, Sara

    2014-01-01

    Background: Numerous studies are ongoing in the fields of nanotoxicology and exposure science; however, gaps remain in identifying and evaluating potential exposures from skin contact with engineered nanoparticles in occupational settings. Objectives: The aim of this study was to identify potential cutaneous exposure scenarios at a workplace using engineered nanoparticles (alumina, ceria, amorphous silica) and evaluate the presence of these materials on workplace surfaces. Methods: Process review, workplace observations, and preliminary surface sampling were conducted using microvacuum and wipe sample collection methods and transmission electron microscopy with elemental analysis. Results: Exposure scenarios were identified with potential for incidental contact. Nanoparticles of silica or silica and/or alumina agglomerates (or aggregates) were identified in surface samples from work areas where engineered nanoparticles were used or handled. Conclusions: Additional data are needed to evaluate occupational exposures from skin contact with engineered nanoparticles; precautionary measures should be used to minimize potential cutaneous exposures in the workplace. PMID:25000112

  20. Preliminary investigations of Monte Carlo Simulations of neutron energy and LET spectra for fast neutron therapy facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Kroc, T.K.; /Fermilab

    2009-10-01

    No fast neutron therapy facility has been built with optimized beam quality based on a thorough understanding of the neutron spectrum and its resulting biological effectiveness. A study has been initiated to provide the information necessary for such an optimization. Monte Carlo studies will be used to simulate neutron energy spectra and LET spectra. These studies will be bench-marked with data taken at existing fast neutron therapy facilities. Results will also be compared with radiobiological studies to further support beam quality ptimization. These simulations, anchored by this data, will then be used to determine what parameters might be optimized to take full advantage of the unique LET properties of fast neutron beams. This paper will present preliminary work in generating energy and LET spectra for the Fermilab fast neutron therapy facility.

  1. Preliminary investigation of biogenic gas production in Indonesian low rank coals and implications for a renewable energy source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Susilawati, Rita; Papendick, Sam L.; Gilcrease, Patrick C.; Esterle, Joan S.; Golding, Suzanne D.; Mares, Tennille E.

    2013-11-01

    Indonesia has abundant coal resources at depths suitable to contain substantial volumes of naturally occurring methane, which are currently being explored. Most Indonesian coals are thermally immature, but are composed of hydrogen-rich organic components that are presumed to make them excellent substrates for biogenic methane production. Gas isotope results from pilot wells in South Sumatra, reported in this study, are interpreted to indicate biogenic origins for the methane. Corresponding formation water samples were collected and incubated, and show the presence of indigenous microbial communities capable of producing methane from Indonesian and Australian coal. Although these results are only preliminary, they are promising and support the possibility of Indonesia developing bio renewable energy from coal seams.

  2. Carrying Capacity

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-06-25

    This one-day activity challenges students to understand the ecological concept of carrying capacity through the physically-active process of role playing. Upon completion, students will be able to formulate and test hypotheses related to ecosystems and carrying capacity as well as describe the significance of carrying capacity.

  3. Carrying Capacity

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-06-25

    This lesson helps students understand the notion of carrying capacity as it relates to ecosystems by considering an image of a bucket filled with water, and then filled with an "ecosystem." Students are asked to consider the factors on which carrying capacity is determined, and that a ecosystem's carrying capacity can change when certain variables are also changed.

  4. Preliminary Investigation of Computer-aided Detection of Pulmonary Embolism in Threedimensional Computed Tomography Pulmonary Angiography Images1

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Chuan; Chan, Heang-Ping; Patel, Smita; Cascade, Philip N.; Sahiner, Berkman; Hadjiiski, Lubomir M.; Kazerooni, Ella A.

    2009-01-01

    Rationale and Objectives We sought to develop a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system for assisting radiologists in the detection of pulmonary embolism (PE) on computed tomography pulmonary angiographic (CTPA) images. Materials and Methods An adaptive three-dimensional (3D) voxel clustering method was developed based on expectation-maximization (EM) analysis to extract vessels from their surrounding tissues. Using a connected component analysis, the vessel tree was reconstructed by tracking the vessel and its branches in 3D space. The tracked vessels were prescreened for suspicious PE areas using a second EM analysis. A rule-based false-positive (FP) reduction method was designed to detect true PE based on the features of PE and vessels. In this preliminary study, 14 patients with positive CTPA for PE were studied. CT scans were performed at 1.25-mm collimation using a GE LightSpeed CT scanner; eight of these patients also had extensive lung parenchymal or pleural disease. One hundred sixty-three emboli were identified by two experienced thoracic radiologists. The emboli identified by the radiologists were used as the “gold standard.” For each embolus, the percent diameter occlusion (clot) and conspicuity of embolus (rating of 1 to 5, with 5 being the most conspicuous) were visually estimated. One hundred one emboli were identified in the six patients without lung diseases; 57 were proximal to the subsegmental and 44 were subsegmental. For the eight patients with lung diseases, 62 emboli were identified, of which 37 were proximal to the subsegmental and 25 were subsegmental. A computer-detected volume was counted as true-positive when it overlapped with an embolus volume identified by the radiologists. Results In the cases without lung diseases, if the PE had a conspicuity of >2 and only partially (20%–80%) occluded the vessel, our method detected 92.0% of proximal emboli and 77.8% of subsegmental emboli, with an average of 18.3 FPs/case. In the cases containing extensive lung disease, 66.7% and 40.0% of the PEs were detected with an average of 11.4 FPs/case under the same conditions. For the 14 PE cases, 13 of them were diagnosed as positive PE cases (case sensitivity was 92.9%). Conclusion This preliminary study indicates that our automated method is a promising approach to CAD of PE on CTPA. Further study is under way to collect a larger data set and to improve the detection accuracy for PE, especially those with <20% or >80% occlusion, and for very subtle PE. A fully developed CAD system is expected to provide a useful aid for PE detection on CTPA. PMID:15935977

  5. Evaluation of capacity release transactions in the natural gas industry

    E-print Network

    Lautzenhiser, Stephen

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to analyze capacity release transactions in the natural gas industry and to state some preliminary conclusions about how the capacity release market is functioning. Given FERC's attempt to ...

  6. A preliminary investigation of the relationship between water quality and Anopheles gambiae larval habitats in western Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Water quality and anopheline habitat have received increasing attention due to the possibility that challenges during larval life may translate into adult susceptibility to malaria parasite infection and/or insecticide resistance. Methods A preliminary study of Anopheles gambiae s.s. larval habitats in the north-west and south-west regions of Cameroon was conducted in order to detect associations between An. gambiae s.s. molecular form and 2La inversion distributions with basic water quality parameters. Water quality was measured by temperature, pH, conductivity, total dissolved solids (TDS) at seven sites in Cameroon and one site in Selinkenyi, Mali. Results Principal components and correlation analyses indicated a complex relationship between 2La polymorphism, temperature, conductivity and TDS. Cooler water sites at more inland locations yielded more S form larvae with higher 2La inversion polymorphism while warmer water sites yielded more M form larvae with rare observations of the 2La inversion. Discussion More detailed studies that take into account the population genetics but also multiple life stages, environmental data relative to these life stages and interactions with both humans and the malaria parasite may help us to understand more about how and why this successful mosquito is able to adapt and diverge, and how it can be successfully managed. PMID:23819866

  7. Asians Demonstrate Reduced Sensitivity to Unpredictable Threat: A Preliminary Startle Investigation using Genetic Ancestry in a Multi-Ethnic Sample

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Brady D.; Bishop, Jeffrey R.; Sarapas, Casey; Kittles, Rick A.; Shankman, Stewart A.

    2014-01-01

    Research has indicated that individuals of Asian descent, relative to other racial groups, demonstrate reduced emotional responding and lower prevalence rates of several anxiety disorders. It is unclear though whether these group differences extend to biomarkers of anxiety disorders and whether genetic differences play a role. The present study compared self-identified Caucasians, Latinos, and Asians (total N = 174) on startle response during a baseline period and while anticipating unpredictable threat–a putative biomarker for certain anxiety disorders–as well as predictable threat. In addition, the association between genetic ancestry and startle response was examined within each racial group to determine potential genetic influences on responding. For the baseline period, Asian participants exhibited a smaller startle response relative to Caucasian and Latino participants, who did not differ. Within each racial group, genetic ancestry was associated with baseline startle. Furthermore, genetic ancestry mediated racial group differences in baseline startle. For the threat conditions, a Race × Condition interaction indicated that Asian participants exhibited reduced startle potentiation to unpredictable, but not predicable, threat relative to Caucasian and Latino participants, who did not differ. However, genetic ancestry was not associated with threat-potentiated startle in any racial group. The present study adds to the growing literature on racial differences in emotional responding and provides preliminary evidence suggesting that genetic ancestry may play an important role. Moreover, reduced sensitivity to unpredictable threat may reflect a mechanism for why individuals of Asian descent are at less risk for particular anxiety disorders relative to other racial groups. PMID:24708496

  8. A preliminary investigation of the environmental Control and Life Support Subsystems (EC/LSS) for animal and plant experiment payloads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wells, H. B.

    1972-01-01

    A preliminary study of the environmental control and life support subsystems (EC/LSS) necessary for an earth orbital spacecraft to conduct biological experiments is presented. The primary spacecraft models available for conducting these biological experiments are the space shuttle and modular space station. The experiments would be housed in a separate module that would be contained in either the shuttle payload bay or attached to the modular space station. This module would be manned only for experiment-related tasks, and would contain a separate EC/LSS for the crew and animals. Metabolic data were tabulated on various animals that are considered useful for a typical experiment program. The minimum payload for the 30-day space shuttle module was found to require about the equivalent of a one-man EC/LSS; however, the selected two-man shuttle assemblies will give a growth and contingency factor of about 50 percent. The maximum payloads for the space station mission will require at least a seven-man EC/LSS for the laboratory colony and a nine-man EC/LSS for the centrifuge colony. There is practically no room for growth or contingencies in these areas.

  9. Preliminary investigation of the applicability of underground coal gasification technology for the production of oil from oil shale deposits and residual oil fields. [Near

    SciTech Connect

    Trudell, L.G.

    1986-07-01

    A preliminary investigation was conducted to find fossil fuel resources, other than tar sands and heavy oil deposits, that are suitably associated with coal for potential application of underground coal gasification (UCG) technology to provide heat for production of liquid hydrocarbons. Preliminary evaluations of UCG applications for in situ retorting of oil shale and for thermal enhanced oil recovery (EOR) from abandoned oil fields indicate large areas where deposits may be suitably associated. Major resources of Devonian-Mississippian black shales and Carboniferous coal occur in the same regions in the Appalachian Basin, Michigan Basin, Eastern Interior Basin (Illinois Basin), and possibly in eastern Oklahoma. Possibilities for UCG applications to Green River oil shales are limited to a few localities on the flanks of the Rock Springs uplift and Wamsutter arch in Wyoming and on the west edge of the Piceance Basin in Colorado. Because conventional primary and secondary oil recovery processes leave 30% to 60% of the oil in the ground, all oil fields that are suitable for thermal EOR processes and are close enough to coal deposits are potential candidates for use of UCG combustible gas and sensible heat. Such relationships are likely to occur in any of the major coal-bearing regions of the eastern United States and in many of the sedimentary basins of the Rocky Mountain coal province. Oil fields and lignite deposits may occur close together in the Gulf Coastal Plains and northern Great Plains. 19 refs., 2 figs.

  10. Preliminary investigation of hydrogen uptake and cracking in 22 Cr duplex stainless steel under galvanic coupling conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Griffiths, A.J.; Turnbull, A. [National Physical Lab., Teddington (United Kingdom). Center for Materials Measurement and Technology

    1996-08-01

    Tests have been conducted to evaluate the performance of 22 Cr duplex stainless steel coupled to carbon-steel in acid brine environments at 80 C with and without H{sub 2}S. Measurement of coupled potentials and currents were made in parallel with a detailed evaluation of the effects of H{sub 2}S, pH and coupling current on hydrogen uptake. Hydrogen contents generated under coupling conditions are large, of the order of 100 ppm (wt.) (total hydrogen). At low charging currents, hydrogen uptake was independent of pH and H{sub 2}S and proportional to the square root of the charging current density, i{sup 1/2}. As the charging current increased, a critical value was reached above which hydrogen uptake was independent of the charging current in H{sub 2}S-free solution. In H{sub 2}S-saturated solution, hydrogen uptake remained proportional to i{sup 1/2}. The measurements of hydrogen uptake provide a reference framework for identifying critical parameters for stress corrosion testing and for interpreting results. Preliminary stress corrosion tests have been conducted using the slow strain rate technique. The threshold total hydrogen content for environment assisted cracking was between 100 and 250 ppm (wt.) for the alloy tested. No reduction in strain-to-failure relative to oil was observed in H{sub 2}S-free environments. The results from the permeation and cracking tests suggest that in H{sub 2}S environments cracking will only occur at coupling currents greater than 100 {micro}A cm{sup {minus}2}. Nevertheless, currents of this magnitude may be realized in practice.

  11. Romero, M. and Mateas, M. 2005. A Preliminary Investigation of Alien Presence. In the Proceedings of Human-Computer Interaction International (HCII 2005), Las Vegas, NV, USA, July 2005.

    E-print Network

    Mateas, Michael

    Romero, M. and Mateas, M. 2005. A Preliminary Investigation of Alien Presence. In the Proceedings Investigation of Alien Presence Mario Romero College of Computing The Georgia Institute of Technology Atlanta authority. The alien presence provides an alternative model of ambient intelligence; an alien presence

  12. Preliminary Investigation to Resolve the Shear Velocity Structure of the Mantle Transition Zone beneath the Caroline Plate, Equatorial Western Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konishi, K.; Kawai, K.; Fuji, N.; Lee, S.; Geller, R. J.

    2013-12-01

    The Mantle Transition Zone (MTZ), which lies in the depth range from 410-660 km, is considered to be a region capable of carrying a large amount of water and other volatiles. A unique feature of the MTZ beneath the northwest Pacific rim is the stagnant slab which lies below much of the West Philippine Basin and extends laterally over a distance of thousands of kilometers beneath Korea and northeast China. In recent years, suggestions have been made that explain the seismicity and intra-plate volcanism in this region in terms of hydrous magmatic plumes rising from the MTZ. However, the exact mechanism remains under debate. An equally important, but less well-known, observation is that a stagnant slab appears to exist beneath much of the Caroline Plate in the equatorial western Pacific as well. If a stagnant slab does exist here, it is most likely a result of the long northward migration of the Australian Plate and subduction since its breakaway from the Antarctic. However, due to tectonic complexity and the lack of seismic stations, the structure and properties of the stagnant slab and the MTZ beneath the Caroline plate are not well understood. Also it is unclear if the large volcanic outflows around the Caroline Plate such as the Eurpik Rise can be explained by a hydrous magmatic plume stemming from the MTZ. To understand the shear-wave velocity structure of the MTZ beneath the Caroline Plate, we employ a body wave waveform inversion technique. Fuji et al. (PEPI, 2010) conducted body wave waveform inversion for the mantle transition zone beneath Japan. In this study we present preliminary results for an application of their methods to infer upper mantle and MTZ structure beneath the Caroline plate. We also estimate the resolving power of full-waveform inversion for a dataset obtained from the IRIS (Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology) network for shear velocity structure in the upper mantle, especially for the mantle transition zone beneath the Caroline Plate using transverse component body wave data in order to examine whether it is possible to reliably infer the existence of a high velocity anomaly because the dataset is relatively small and there are not many seismic stations to the east of this region.

  13. Controlled-source seismic investigations of the crustal structure beneath Erebus volcano and Ross Island, Antarctica: Preliminary Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maraj, S.; Kyle, P. R.; Zandomeneghi, D.; Knox, H. A.; Aster, R. C.; Snelson, C. M.; Miller, P. E.; Kaip, G. M.

    2009-12-01

    During the 2008-09 Austral summer field season we undertook a controlled-source seismic experiment (Tomo-Erebus, TE) to examine the shallow magmatic system beneath the active Erebus volcano (TE-3D) and the crustal structure beneath Ross Island. Here we report on the TE-2D component, which was designed to produce a two-dimensional P-wave velocity model along an east-west profile across Ross Island. Marine geophysical observations near Ross Island have identified the north-south trending Terror Rift within the older and broader Victoria Land Basin, which are a component of the intraplate West Antarctic Rift System. Mount Erebus and Ross Island are circumstantially associated with the Terror Rift and its thin (~20 km) crust. The nature, extent and role of the Terror Rift in controlling the evolution of Ross Island volcanism and the on-going eruptive activity of Erebus volcano are unknown. In TE-2D, we deployed 21 seismic recorders (Ref Tek 130) with three-component 4.5 Hz geophones (Sercel L-28-3D) along a 90-km east-west line between Capes Royds and Crozier. These were supplemented by 79 similar instruments deployed for the high-resolution TE-3D experiment within a 3 x 3 km grid around the summit crater of Erebus, an array of 8 permanent short period and broadband sensors used to monitor the activity of Erebus and 23 three-component sensors (Guralp CMG-40T, 30s-100 Hz) positioned around the flanks and summit of Erebus. Fifteen chemical sources were loaded in holes drilled about 15 m deep in the snow and ice. The size of these shots ranged from 75 to 600 kg of ANFO with the largest shots at the ends of the profile. An additional shot was detonated in the sea (McMurdo Sound) using 200 kg of dynamite. Due to the rugged terrain, short field seasons and large area to be covered, the seismometer spacing along the TE-2D profile is quite large (~ 5 km spacing), resulting in poor near-surface data resolution. However, the data have a high signal to noise ratio with clear first arrivals and wide-angle reflections across the array. We will present a preliminary P-wave velocity model of the TE-2D data to constrain the middle to lower crust and upper mantle beneath Ross Island.

  14. Preliminary geologic investigation of the Apollo 17 landing site. [orbital and lunar surface geological surveys during Apollo 17 flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muehlberger, W. R.; Batson, R. M.; Cernan, E. A.; Freeman, V. L.; Hait, M. H.; Holt, H. E.; Howard, K. A.; Jackson, E. D.; Larson, K. B.; Reed, V. S.

    1973-01-01

    A geological investigation of the Apollo 17 lunar landing site was conducted. The Taurus-Littrow valley is interpreted as a deep graben formed by structural adjustment of lunar crustal material to the Serenitatis impact. Materials of the valley fill were sampled at many stations. Ejecta around many craters on the valley floor consist of basalt, showing that the graben was partly filled by lava flows. The geological objectives of the Apollo 17 mission are divided into orbital and lunar surface data collection. The data obtained for both types of investigation are presented in tables, photographs, and drawings.

  15. Teachers' Awareness of the Learner-Teacher Interaction: Preliminary Communication of a Study Investigating the Teaching Brain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Vanessa; Solis, S. Lynneth

    2013-01-01

    A new phase of research on teaching is under way that seeks to understand the teaching brain. In this vein, this study investigated the cognitive processes employed by master teachers. Using an interview protocol influenced by microgenetic techniques, 23 master teachers used the Self-in-Relation-to-Teaching (SiR2T) tool to answer "What are…

  16. A Preliminary Study to Investigate the Influence of Different Teaching Styles on Pupils' Goal Orientations in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salvara, Marina I.; Jess, Mike; Abbott, Angela; Bognar, Jozsef

    2006-01-01

    Via a Greek sample of 75 sixth grade pupils, the influences of teaching styles on pupils' goal orientations were investigated. LAPOPECQ was distributed twice, before and after the application of the teaching programme consisting of four teaching style groups. Employing a paired samples t test, the results indicated significant pre-to-post changes.…

  17. Finger Forecasting: A Pointer to Athletic Prowess in Women--A Preliminary Investigation by an Undergraduate Biology Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latourelle, Sandra M.; Elwess, Nancy L.; Elwess, Jennifer M.

    2008-01-01

    With all the technology today, the authors were surprised to read a recent British study that found a connection between the length of a woman's index (2D) and ring (4D) fingers to her athletic ability. Upon further investigation they found that many studies have examined the relationship between the length of the index finger (2D) to the ring…

  18. A preliminary investigation of the application of differential scanning calorimetry to the study of collagen degradation in archaeological bone

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christina M Nielsen-Marsh; Robert E. M Hedges; Tim Mann; Matthew J Collins

    2000-01-01

    The study investigated the potential application of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) to archaeological bone collagen deterioration. The thermal transition of collagen was compared with the preservation state of the bones. Methods of sample preparation were shown to have a significant effect upon the ability to extract reproducible, reliable thermal data from the collagen. Three main protocols were examined, but the

  19. A preliminary investigation of the interaction of a quat with silicones and its conditioning benefits on hair

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SHRENIK NANAVATI; ANNETTE HAMI; Dow Corning

    Silicones, especially dimethicone and dimethiconol of higher molecular weights, have gained acceptance as conditioning agents and are used in several commercial products, frequently in conjunction with quats. In this work, the conditioning benefits of the silicones, as assessed by improvement in wet and dry combing, were investigated as a function of molecular weight as well as amount deposited on bleached

  20. 14.-THE FISHING GROUNDS OF BRISTOL BAY, ALASKA: A PRELIMINARY REPORT UPON THE INVESTIGATIONS OF THE U. S. FISH

    E-print Network

    investigations. In prosecuting the work the region was thoroughly sounded; the currents, wind, and weather Cape of Unilnak Island to the Kuskokwim River. The Island of Unimak and the .AlaskaPeninsula bound on or near the beach. THE COAST FROM UNIMAK PASS TO POET MOLLER. The Northwest Cape of Unimak is low

  1. PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATIONS OF SHARK PREDATION ON CAPE FUR SEALS ARCTOCEPHALUS PUSILLUS PUSILLUS FROM THE EASTERN CAPE COAST OF SOUTH AFRICA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. L. Stewardson

    1999-01-01

    Shark predation on Cape fur seals, Arctocephalus pusillus pusillus, from the Eastern Cape coast of South Africa was investigated. Observations were made on an opportunistic basis over a five year period from 1991 to 1996. Evidence of shark predation was obtained from: (1) incidental observations of shark attacks on live Cape fur seals, and (2) counts of shark bite wounds

  2. A Preliminary Investigation of Associations between Disorders of Behavior and Language in Children with Chronic Otitis Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Funk, Jeanne B.; Ruppert, Elizabeth S.

    1986-01-01

    The relationship between language and behavior disorders was investigated. The teacher and parents of 12 children in a special public preschool for children with documented chronic otitis media and language disorders completed the Louisville Behavior Checklist. Most deviant behavior was reported on scales measuring cognitive and social-interactive…

  3. Comparing Self-Reported Versus Objectively Measured Physical Activity Behavior: A Preliminary Investigation of Older Filipino American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atienza, Audie A.; King, Abby C.

    2005-01-01

    The importance of examining health behaviors, such as physical activity, among Filipino Americans is highlighted by their higher rates of chronic disease. As physical inactivity has been linked to chronic diseases (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 1996), this study investigated the physical activity levels of older Filipinas. This…

  4. USDA Forest Service Proceedings RMRS-P-63. 2011. 295 Abstract--This paper offers a preliminary investigation into the

    E-print Network

    investigation into the conditions under which it might be optimal to engage in proactive management of a non. Proactive management is defined as treating an uninfected area to encourage healthy ecosystem function showed that proactive strategies tended to be optimal when, all else equal, a) more resources

  5. Preliminary investigation of the nature and origin of the Sierra Mojada Non-sulfide Zn deposits, Coahuila, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, H.; Kyle, J.; Gilg, H.; Kolvoord, R.

    2009-05-01

    The Sierra Mojada district consists of multiple types of mineral concentrations ranging from polymetallic sulfide deposits, 'non-sulfide Zn' deposits (separate smithsonite and hemimorphite zones), and a Pb carbonate manto hosted by Upper Jurassic to Lower Cretaceous carbonates. The district is typically grouped with other polymetallic carbonate replacement deposits of southwestern North America, but the intrusive rocks that commonly are associated with these types of deposits are not known at Sierra Mojada. The Sierra Mojada district located near the boundary of the Coahuila Platform and the Sabinas Basin that formed during Late Jurassic and Cretaceous tectonic extension. The east-trending San Marcos fault runs through the Sierra Mojada district and is thought to have acted as the major conduit for basinal fluids, responsible for local dolomitization, sulfide mineralization, and petroleum in the region. The polymetallic sulfides are the stratigraphically and structurally highest ore zone and occur north of the San Marcos fault. Non-sulfide Zn (hemimorphite, smithsonite and sauconite) and lead (cerussite) concentrations occur south of the fault in the Aurora and La Pena Formations. The Iron Oxide Manto consists of stratabound zones of dominantly of hemimorphite pore-filling in Fe-oxide rich dolostones giving the ore a distinct red to orange color. The Smithsonite Manto has distinct karst features, including internal sediments interbanded with smithsonite in the lower part of the orebody. The non-sulfide Zn ores are being studied to document their morphologies, growth patterns, and paragenetic relationships using conventional petrography, SEM, and CL-based ESEM. In the Smithsonite Manto, banded and colloform smithsonite consists of aggregates of rhombohedral crystals that grew into open space and also occurs within internal sediment bands with hemimorphite or Zn clays and Zn oxides. Black dendrites of Mn oxides with Fe oxides are encased in banded smithsonite. Euhedral hemimorphite is present in both mantos, although it is most abundant in the Iron Oxide Manto. Hemimorphite occurs in the Smithsonite Manto as layers with smithsonite suggesting that they may have precipitated together, although locally hemimorphite cross-cuts smithsonite bands. Locally, hemimorphite and smithsonite have been altered to sauconite and hydrozincite. Associated minerals include barite and calcite that seem to have formed later than the major Zn mineral formation. Preliminary isotope studies reveal that smithsonites from Sierra Mojada have ?18OVSMOW values ranging from 19.1 to 22.1 ‰ and ?13CVPDB values of -7.0 to +1.0 ‰. While the range of carbon isotope values is typical for supergene smithsonites, the oxygen isotope values are much lower than those recorded in most supergene deposits. The unusually low oxygen isotope values in smithsonite require either highly 18O- depleted waters of less than -12 ‰ if oxidation occurred at temperatures of less than 20C° or elevated temperatures (>40C°) during oxidation if waters had isotope compositions similar to present- day ground waters in the area. Studies are in progress to further constrain the paragenesis, mineralizing fluid character, and timing of mineralization in the Sierra Mojada district.

  6. Preliminary result of deep-towed resistivity investigation in a potential gas hydrate area off southwest Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiang, C.; Hsu, S.; Goto, T.; Chen, C.; Chen, S.

    2012-12-01

    Gas hydrate (GH) is thought to be widely distributed within the active accretionary wedges passive continental margins and permafrost regions of the Earth. These deposits were formed in sub-seafloor sediments at relatively high pressure, low temperature conditions and have the potential to become a significant energy resource in the future. Bottom simulating reflectors (BSRs) from marine seismic reflection surveys are generally associated with the occurrence of gas-hydrate-bearing formations. The presence of BSRs could correspond to the base of the phase boundary between free gases and the solid hydrates. A wide-spread distribution of BSRs, high methane concentrations in the bottom water, shallow sulfate/methane interface, submarine mud volcanoes, diapirs and gas seepages significantly indicate a high potential of gas hydrates existence in the offshore area of southwest Taiwan. BSR is an indicative of a GH deposit and is often used to determine the base of gas hydrate stability zone of the solid-gas boundary where the upper bound of the GH in shallow sediments is still uncertain in the potential areas. The marine resistivity techniques are considered as one of powerful geophysical tools to image GH in upper bound of the GH in shallow portion of the seabed. In the study, we have rebuilt our new deep-towed marine resistivity system based on Goto et al. (2008) experiment. The new system is consisted of three components: 1. deep-towed frame, 2. receivers, and 3. side-scan sonar. The transmitter is mounted on the deep-towed frame and a long cable is towed behind the deep-towed frame in length of 240 m. The maximum of output electric current amplitude is up to 50 amperes. A dipole source of 15 m and two Ag-AgCl electric receivers are respectively installed in 210 m, 223 m and 226 m on the cable. Moreover, eight electric receivers (Ag-AgCl) are set from 0 m to 120 m with a dipole length of 15 m on the cable. A side-scan sonar equipment is attached below the system for the seafloor images. An important function of the side-scan sonar provides a stable towing of the whole system near the seafloor with altitude in range of 10 - 30 m. This configuration of the multidisciplinary geophysical system can roughly provide within 200 m of depth resolution beneath the seafloor according to the numerical modelling. A first multiple channels of deep-towed marine resistivity survey was carried out by R/V OR1-1001 from 21 to 23 June, 2012 to understand the detailed distribution of GH off SW Taiwan. Three survey lines were discovered in total length about 30 km. The towed speed was kept in 1.5 - 2.5 knots for both mapping of resistivity profiles and side-scan sonar images. An extremely high apparent resistivity anomaly appears in pockmark areas that corresponds to the side-scan sonar image. This high resistivity anomaly implies gas and/or gas hydrate reservoirs beneath the seafloor. The preliminary result has shown that our new resistivity system is a useful tool to explore GH deposits.

  7. A Preliminary Investigation on the Destruction of Solid-Propellant Rocket Motors by Impact from Small Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, David J., Jr.

    1960-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to determine whether solid-propellant rocket motors could be ignited and destroyed by small-particle impacts at particle velocities up to a approximately 10,940 feet per second. Spheres ranging from 1/16 to 7/32 inch in diameter were fired into simulated rocket motors containing T-22 propellant over a range of ambient pressures from sea level to 0.12 inch of mercury absolute. Simulated cases of stainless steel, aluminum alloy, and laminated Fiberglas varied in thickness from 1/50 to 1/8 inch. Within the scope of this investigation, it was found that ignition and explosive destruction of simulated steel-case rocket motors could result from impacts by steel spheres at the lowest attainable pressure.

  8. Monoclonal Antibodies and Lectins as Probes for Investigation of the Cell Biology of Human Trabecular Meshwork: A Preliminary Report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brenda J. T. Tripathi; Craig H. M. Marcus; Ramesh C. Tripathi; Charles B. Millard; Jeff Gulcher; Kari Stefansson

    1989-01-01

    Two classes of ligand-binding molecules, (1) monoclonal antibodies (MABs) and (2) lectins, were used as probes to investigate the cell biology of human trabecular cells. We raised MABs by using human trabecular meshwork as the immunogen. One MAB (KAa25D7) consistently recognized two polypeptides with molecular weights of approximately 42 and 49 kilodaltons. The former comigrated with actin and the latter

  9. The evacuation of British children during World War II: A preliminary investigation into the long-term psychological effects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Foster; S. Davies; H. Steele

    2003-01-01

    The authors used attachment theory to hypothesize about the possible long-term psychological effects of evacuation during World War II, focusing on children who were evacuated unaccompanied by their parents. The study aimed to establish whether this experience had long-term effects on psychological well-being, and to investigate mediating and moderating factors. The study utilized a retrospective non-randomized design, comparing 169 former

  10. Preliminary wind-tunnel investigation of an NACA 23012 airfoil with various arrangements of venetian-blind flaps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wenzinger, Carl J; Harris, Thomas A

    1940-01-01

    Report presents the results of an investigation made in the NACA 7 by 10-foot wind tunnel of a large-chord NACA 23012 airfoil with several arrangements of venetian-blind flaps to determine the aerodynamic section characteristics as affected by the over-all flap chord, the chords of the slats used to form the flap, the slat spacing, the number of slats and the position of the flap with respect to the wing. Complete section data are given in the form of graphs for all the combinations tested.

  11. Preliminary investigation of the hydrogeology and contamination in the area of an abandoned manufactured gas plant in Albany, Georgia

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, M.J.; Gallaher, B.M.; Early, D.A. (Geological Survey, Doraville, GA (United States))

    1991-01-01

    Prior to the introduction of natural gas pipelines in the 1950's, gas for lighting and heating in the US was produced from coal or oil at local manufacturing gas plants. By-products and wastes generated at these plants commonly were disposed of on site. The major wastes, which include tar and oil residues and sludges, spent oxides, and ash materials, can consist of a complex mixture of hundreds of aromatic organic compounds as well as cyanides and metals. An investigation was initiated in January 1989 in the vicinity of an abandoned manufactured gas plant in Albany, Georgia, to evaluate the hydrogeology and contamination of the area, and to test study techniques that may have application in similar situations. Geologic formations of interest to this investigation include, in descending order, unconsolidated sand and clay layers, The Ocala Limestone, and the Lisbon Formation. Surficial fill overlies the sand and clay layers throughout the study area. High concentrations of aromatic hydrocarbons and various metals were detected in the unconsolidated sediments in the vicinity of the abandoned gas plant. Maximum concentrations of hydrocarbons detected sediment samples included 560,000 microg/kg naphthalene, 73,000 microg/kg ethylbenzene, 28,000 microg/kg benzene, and 24,000 microg/kg toluene. These higher concentrations of hydrocarbons were present in the vicinity of the former gas holding tanks. In that area, contamination extends at least to the depth of the contact between the unconsolidated sand and clay layers and the Ocala Limestone.

  12. The helpfulness of spiritually influenced group work in developing self-awareness and self-esteem: a preliminary investigation.

    PubMed

    Coholic, Diana

    2005-09-28

    This paper discusses an exploratory study that investigated the helpfulness of spiritually influenced group work with eight adult women who shared a history of substance abuse. The overall purpose of the group was to help participants develop their self-awareness and self-esteem. The group, which was contextualized in transpersonal theory, was organized around the following themes and experiential exercises: meditation, mindfulness practice, dream work, stream of consciousness writing, the shadow self, and other arts-based processes. Grounded-theory analysis of group sessions and individual interviews with the participants found that the participants perceived the group to be helpful in developing their self-awareness and self-esteem. While the participants identified different aspects of the group as spiritual, making-meaning was one practice that was consistently described as a spiritually sensitive process. The results of this study in this emergent field are promising and suggestions are provided for future research. PMID:16200326

  13. Towards Simplified Tools for Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Structures Subjected to Impact and Impulsive Loading: A Preliminary Investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trommels, Heather

    The analysis of reinforced concrete structures under blast and impact loads is an area of research that has become increasingly relevant in recent years. Complex hydrocodes are typically used for impact analyses, although single-degree-of-freedom methods have also been developed. There are a number of disadvantages associated with both methods, and the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) is looking for a tool that can be used in conjunction with hydrocodes to analyze hard and soft missile impacts, with target damage ranging from flexural cracking to perforation. The VecTor programs, a suite of nonlinear finite element programs developed at the University of Toronto for the analysis of reinforced concrete structures, can potentially be developed into such tools. The analytical work done in this study serves to investigate the current impact and impulse loading analysis capabilities in VecTor2 and VecTor3, and to identify areas where work should be focused in the future.

  14. A preliminary study for investigating idiopatic normal pressure hydrocephalus by means of statistical parameters classification of intracranial pressure recordings.

    PubMed

    Calisto, A; Bramanti, A; Galeano, M; Angileri, F; Campobello, G; Serrano, S; Azzerboni, B

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate Id-iopatic Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus (INPH) through a multidimensional and multiparameter analysis of statistical data obtained from accurate analysis of Intracranial Pressure (ICP) recordings. Such a study could permit to detect new factors, correlated with therapeutic response, which are able to validate a predicting significance for infusion test. The algorithm developed by the authors computes 13 ICP parameter trends on each of the recording, afterward 9 statistical information from each trend is determined. All data are transferred to the datamining software WEKA. According to the exploited feature-selection techniques, the WEKA has revealed that the most significant statistical parameter is the maximum of Single-Wave-Amplitude: setting a 27 mmHg threshold leads to over 90% of correct classification. PMID:19965228

  15. A preliminary investigation of the mechanism of anti-pain and counter-injury effects of the acupuncture anaesthesia.

    PubMed

    1976-01-01

    In accordance with dialectical materialism and by dint of experimental acupuncture anaesthesia, the present investigation has: (1) Made an objective evaluation of the efficiency of acupuncture anaesthesia. (2) Brought forth some experimental evidence about the material basis of the anti-pain and counter-injury effect of acupuncture anaesthesia as well as the significance of its induction period. (3) Proposed the concept of humoral anaesthesia and its technique in order to improve the efficiency of animal laparotomies with acupuncture anaesthesia. Furthermore, it attempts to offer a theoretical explanation of the process of acupuncture anaesthesia under the combination of Chinese and Western medical theories and thereby gives some support to the "meridian-cerebral cortex-viscera inter-correlation hypothesis." PMID:62395

  16. New observations of infiltration through fractured alluvium in Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site: A preliminary field investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Kao, C.S. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering; Smith, D.K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); McKinnis, W.B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., Mercury, NV (United States)

    1994-02-01

    Regional tectonics coupled with the subsurface detonation of nuclear explosives has caused widespread fracturing of the alluvium of Yucca Flat. Fractures deeper than 30 meters have been observed in boreholes. Some of these fractures are large enough to capture significant amounts of runoff during storm events. Evidence of stream capture by fractures and observations of runoff flowing into open fractures give qualitative evidence of infiltration to depths greater than several meters and possibly to the saturated zone. Our field observations contradict the assumption that little infiltration occurs on Yucca Flat. The larger, hydrologically important fractures are associated with geologic faults or the regional stress field. Additional field studies are needed to investigate the impact of fractures on the transport of contaminants.

  17. A preliminary investigation of cognitive flexibility for emotional information in major depressive disorder and non-psychiatric controls.

    PubMed

    Deveney, Christen M; Deldin, P J

    2006-08-01

    Clinical research suggests that individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD) are cognitively inflexible, exhibiting ruminative, rigid, and automatic thoughts within a negative schema. However, existing neuropsychological research on cognitive flexibility in this population has not employed emotional stimuli. Because research suggests that the performance of individuals with MDD is modulated when emotional stimuli are used, this study investigates the impact of emotional stimuli on cognitive flexibility performance through a novel emotional modification of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test. Controls were less flexible when stimuli were positive and individuals with MDD were less flexible when stimuli were negative relative to the controls. These divergent styles of responding to emotional information may contribute to the relative risk or protection from depressed mood. PMID:16938084

  18. An EXAFS, and preliminary X-ray crystallographic, investigation of an iron-containing product from the lichen Cladonia deformis.

    PubMed

    Alagna, L; Prosperi, T; Tomlinson, A A; Kjøsen, H; Mo, F

    1990-10-12

    An iron-containing product in the acetone extract from the lichen Cladonia deformis has been investigated using chemical, spectroscopic and X-ray crystallographic methods. Visible-near UV, EPR and IR spectra indicate that the iron is present as high-spin Fe(III) and coordinates in an oxygen-containing environment arising from graciliformin (or graciliformin-like) ligands. This has been confirmed by an XAS (X-ray absorption) study using synchrotron radiation. Comparison of the EXAFS and XANES results with those obtained from a model, tris(pent-2,4-dionato)Fe(III), and detailed fitting using the single-scattering, curved-wave formalism for the EXAFS strongly supports the presence of a Fe(III) coordinated to five oxygen atoms from the graciliformin. PMID:2223828

  19. 2D modeling and preliminary in vitro investigation of a prototype high gradient magnetic separator for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Chen, Haitao; Kaminski, Michael D; Rosengart, Axel J

    2008-01-01

    High gradient magnetic separation (HGMS) of magnetic materials from fluids or waste products has many established industrial applications. However, there is currently no technology employing HGMS for ex-vivo biomedical applications, such as for the removal of magnetic drug- or toxin-loaded spheres from the human blood stream. Importantly, human HGMS applications require special design modifications as, in contrast to conventional use where magnetic elements are permanently imbedded within the separation chambers, medical separators need to avoid direct contact between the magnetic materials and blood to reduce the risk of blood clotting and to facilitate convenient and safe treatment access for many individuals. We describe and investigate the performance of a magnetic separator prototype designed for biomedical applications. First, the capture efficiency of a prototype HGMS separator unit consisting of a short tubing segment and two opposing magnetizable fine wires along the outside of the tubing was investigated using 2D mathematical modeling. Second, the first-pass effectiveness to remove commercially available, magnetic polystyrene spheres from human blood using a single separator unit was experimentally verified. The theoretical and experimental data correlated well at low flow velocities (<5.0 cm/s) and high external magnetic fields (>0.05 T). This prototype separator unit removed >90% in a single pass of the magnetic spheres from water at mean flow velocity < or =8.0 cm/s and from blood mimic fluids (ethylene glycol-water solutions) at mean flow velocity < or =2.0 cm/s. In summary, we describe and prove the feasibility of a HGMS separator for biomedical applications. PMID:17400018

  20. Investigation of Performance of Axial-Flow Compressor of XT-46 Turbine-Propeller Engine. I - Preliminary Investigation at 50-,70-, and 100-Percent Design Equivalent Speed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Creagh, John W.R.; Sandercrock, Donald M.

    1950-01-01

    An investigation is being conducted to determine the performance of the 12-stage axial-flow compressor of the XT-46 turbine-propeller engine. This compressor was designed to produce a pressure ratio of 9 at an adiabatic efficiency of 0.86. The design pressure ratios per stage were considerably greater than any employed in current aircraft gas-turbine engines using this type of compressor. The compressor performance was evaluated at two stations. The station near the entrance section of the combustors indicated a peak pressure ratio of 6.3 at an adiabatic efficiency of 0.63 for a corrected weight flow of 23.1 pounds per second. The other, located one blade-chord downstream of the last stator row, indicated a peak pressure ratio of 6.97 at an adiabatic efficiency of 0.81 for a corrected weight flow of 30.4 pounds per second. The difference in performance obtained at the two stations is attributed to shock waves in the vicinity of the last stator row. These shock waves and the accompanying flow choking, together with interstage circulatory flows, shift the compressor operating curves into the region where surge would normally occur. The inability of the compressor to meet design pressure ratio is probably due to boundary-layer buildup in the last stages, which cause axial velocities greater than design values that, in turn, adversely affect the angles of attack and turning angles in these blade rows.

  1. Alterations in autonomic tone during trauma exposure using eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR)--results of a preliminary investigation.

    PubMed

    Sack, Martin; Lempa, Wolfgang; Steinmetz, Adrian; Lamprecht, Friedhelm; Hofmann, Arne

    2008-10-01

    EMDR combines stimuli that evoke divided attention--e.g. eye movements--with exposure to traumatic memories. Our objective was to investigate psycho-physiological correlates of EMDR during treatment sessions. A total of 55 treatment sessions from 10 patients with PTSD was monitored applying impedance cardiography. Onset of every stimulation/exposure period (n=811) was marked and effects within and across stimulation sets on heart rate (HR), heart rate variability (HRV), pre-ejection period (PEP) and respiration rate were examined. At stimulation onsets a sharp increase of HRV and a significant decrease of HR was noticed indicating de-arousal. During ongoing stimulation, PEP and HRV decreased significantly while respiration rate significantly increased, indicating stress-related arousal. However, across entire sessions a significant decrease of psycho-physiological activity was noticed, evidenced by progressively decreasing HR and increasing HRV. These findings suggest that EMDR is associated with patterns of autonomic activity associated with substantial psycho-physiological de-arousal over time. PMID:18314305

  2. Polymer gel dosimeters with reduced toxicity: a preliminary investigation of the NMR and optical dose response using different monomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senden, R. J.; DeJean, P.; McAuley, K. B.; Schreiner, L. J.

    2006-07-01

    In this work, three new polymer gel dosimeter recipes were investigated that may be more suitable for widespread applications than polyacrylamide gel dosimeters, since the extremely toxic acrylamide has been replaced with the less harmful monomers N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAM), diacetone acrylamide and N-vinylformamide. The new gel dosimeters studied contained gelatin (5 wt%), monomer (3 wt%), N,N'-methylene-bis-acrylamide crosslinker (3 wt%) and tetrakis (hydroxymethyl) phosphonium chloride antioxidant (10 mM). The NMR response (R2) of the dosimeters was analysed for conditions of varying dose, dose rate, time post-irradiation, and temperature during irradiation and scanning. It was shown that the dose-response behaviour of the NIPAM/Bis gel dosimeter is comparable to that of normoxic polyacrylamide gel (PAGAT) in terms of high dose-sensitivity and low dependence on dose rate and irradiation temperature, within the ranges considered. The dose-response (R2) of NIPAM/Bis appears to be linear over a greater dose range than the PAGAT gel dosimeter. The effects of time post-irradiation (temporal instability) and temperature during NMR scanning on the R2 response were more significant for NIPAM/Bis dosimeters. Diacetone acrylamide and N-vinylformamide gel dosimeters possessed considerably lower dose-sensitivities. The optical dose-response, measured in terms of the attenuation coefficient for each polymer gel dosimeter, showed potential for the use of optical imaging techniques in future studies.

  3. Quality of life of people living with HIV, preliminary results from IANUA (Investigation on Antiretroviral Therapy) study

    PubMed Central

    Venturini, Alberto; Giannini, Barbara; Montefiori, Marcello; Di Biagio, Antonio; Mazzarello, Giovanni; Cenderello, Giovanni; Giacomini, Mauro; Merlano, Caterina; Orcamo, Patrizia; Setti, Maurizio; Viscoli, Claudio; Cassola, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The introduction of combined antiretroviral treatment (cART) has reduced HIV-associated morbidity and mortality, and changed the patients’ perspective of life. As a result, Health Related Quality of Life (HRQOL) has become a crucial clinical issue. Objective Assessment of HRQOL in a sample of Italian patients from IANUA study. Investigate correlation between CD4 cell counts, viral load and changes in HRQOL. Materials and Methods EQ-5D-3L self-reported questionnaire has been used in the evaluation of HRQOL. It assesses five dimensions: “mobility,” “self care,” “usual activities,” “pain/discomfort” and “anxiety/depression.” Each dimension has three levels: no problems, some problems and extreme problems. In addition, it includes a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) where one's own health “today” is rated from 0 “worst imaginable health” to 100 “best imaginable health.” The respondents provide information on marital status, education, employment/unemployment, other treatments used in addition to HAART (1,2,3,4,5 or more) and number of hospitalizations due to HIV/AIDS. Results 684 patients completed the questionnaire: 231 females and 453 males. The mean age of the sample was 51 years (range 21–78). The mean VAS score was 69.9. 558 patients (81.5%) reported no problems in mobility. 642 patients (93.5%) had no problems in self care. 423 patients (61.8%) had no pain/discomfort while 219 had some problems. 326 patients (46.1%) had some problems in anxiety/depression. Conclusions The analysis of self-reported questionnaires indicates that HRQOL in our sample group is not deeply affected by HIV/AIDS. The dimensions that are affected in the least are “mobility” and “self care” while the major problem is “anxiety/depression” with half of the sample reporting moderate or high level. PMID:25394088

  4. A preliminary investigation into the comparison of dissolution/digestion techniques for the chemical characterization of polyurethane foam.

    PubMed

    Parsons, N S; Lam, M H W; Hamilton, S E; Hui, F

    2010-12-01

    Due to their widespread use in domestic and commercial premises, polyurethane foams, as either fragmented or bulk foam, are types of evidence commonly found at crime scenes. The traditional approach to determining the evidential value of polyurethane foam (PF) involves comparing recovered and control fragments under low and high magnification, under various lighting conditions, as well as the comparison of their respective dye spectra. As with most forms of trace evidence, chemical comparison is also desirable. In this work, two approaches to chemically comparing foam fragments were investigated, i.e. inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) analysis of the Tin (Sn) content in different foam types; and gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID) analysis of soluble components in PFs mobilized by dichloromethane. Seven different foam types were studied and their Sn content was found to be different. They also produced characteristic GC-FID chromatographic profiles whose compounds were identified with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. This study suggests that incorporating chemical data obtained from GC-FID/GC-MS and ICP-OES into a case involving PF could be advantageous, as this will enable the forensic scientist to broaden the comparison between control and recovered fragments, and further assess the strength of the evidence. However, ICP-OES analysis is a destructive technique with a relatively short sample turnaround time, whilst GC-FID analysis is more time-consuming and non-destructive, requiring corroboration with GC-MS data. The values of these two analytical techniques in the forensic chemical characterization of PFs are discussed. PMID:21075294

  5. A preliminary investigation of the fish food web in the Gironde estuary, France, using dietary and stable isotope analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasquaud, S.; Elie, P.; Jeantet, C.; Billy, I.; Martinez, P.; Girardin, M.

    2008-06-01

    Carbon and Nitrogen stable isotopes and stomach contents analyses were used to investigate an estuarine fish food web and identify the contribution of these two methods to the knowledge and understanding of the food web's structure and its functioning. The nine most abundant fish species during the warm period in the Gironde estuary (southwest France, Europe) are examined. Observation of the stomach contents reflects a variety of feeding modes between fish species that consume a diverse assortment of prey, with limited dietary overlap. Nevertheless, when regarding the whole fish community, few prey species dominate the stomach contents. Nitrogen isotope ratios indicate a high intraspecific variability inducing an interspecific covering of the signatures. However, a tendency to ? 15N enrichment according to the trophic position of the species studied was observed. Fish assemblages show a trend towards enrichment of their carbon isotopic signatures from the upper estuary (-20.8 ± 1.8‰) towards the lower estuary (-18.3 ± 1.6‰). But whatever the capture zone considered, most of the individual ? 13C values for each fish analysed are comprised between -22 and -16‰. Only few specimens, belonging to migratory amphihaline species, have significantly lighter values. The stomach contents method of analysis has the advantage of giving an initial view of the ichthyological trophic structure of the system by describing the food relations between a fish species and its prey. From these results, hypotheses can be drawn about the network's functioning, suggesting a sharing of resources between species and a "wasp-waist" control of this estuarine food web. The stable isotope analysis method enables us to improve our structural knowledge by positioning the different species in a food web, with their position being determined by the number of energy transfers (analysis of ? 15N). Conversely, in environments as complex and changing as estuaries, it appears difficult to precisely identify and quantify the sources of the organic matter at the base of the fish estuarine food webs using analysis of ? 13C isotopic signatures. Nevertheless, the results obtained by using these two methods in parallel suggest that more detailed functional ecological studies could be carried out in future.

  6. A Preliminary Investigation of the E-Beam Induced Polymerization of Maleimide and Norbornene End-capped Polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmese, Giuseppe R.; Meador, Michael A. (Technical Monitor)

    2005-01-01

    A research area of high activity in connection with aerospace engineering has been the development of polymer thermosetting resins that can resist temperature as high as 300 C while maintaining adequate toughness, and providing ease of processing to enable low temperature and low cost composite fabrication methods. In order to meet such requirements, sequential interpenetrating polymer networks (IPNs) based on bismaleimide (BMI) and cyanate ester (CE) monomers were investigated. In these systems, a polycyanurate network is first formed in the presence of BMI and appropriate reactive diluent monomers and in a second step, a network based on the BMI is created in the presence of a fully formed polycyanurate network. The materials developed can be processed at relatively low temperature (less than 150 C) and with the aid of electron beam (EB) curing. Of major importance to the success of this work was the identification of a reactive diluent that improves ease of processing and has tailored reactivity to allow for the controlled synthesis of CE-BMI sequential IPNs. Based on solubility and reactivity of a number of reactive diluents, N-acryloylmorpholine (AMP) was selected as a comonomer for BMI copolymerization. A donor-acceptoreaction mechanism was suggested to explain the relative reactivity of a variety of reactive diluents towards maleimide functionality. The optimum processing parameters for the formation of the first network were determined through the study of metal catalyzed cure and hydrolysis of cyanate esters, whereas the reaction behavior for second network formation in terms of the influence of EB dose rate and temperature was elucidated through an in-situ kinetics study of maleimide and AMP copolymerization. Structure-property relationships were developed which allowed for the design of improved resin systems. In particular, appropriate network coupler possessing cyanate ester and maleimide functionality was synthesized to link the polycyanurate first network to the BMI/AMP second network and thus form linked sequential IPNs (LIPNs). Consequently, Tg as high as 370 C was achieved and a fracture toughness of 120 Joules per square meters was obtained for resin systems that possess adequately low viscosity for processing using liquid molding techniques at low temperature.

  7. A Fiery Investigation of the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) using Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs): Preliminary Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denis, E. H.; Wing, S. L.; Freeman, K. H.

    2012-12-01

    The Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) coincided with a global negative carbon isotope excursion, suggesting a massive perturbation to the global carbon cycle and a large release of 13C-depleted carbon to the atmosphere, oceans and biosphere. Several proposed sources of this carbon include ocean-floor methane clathrates, thermogenic methane, permafrost oxidation, and burning of peat and/or shallowly buried coal, but the exact source(s) remain unknown. The Paleocene was a time of extensive terrestrial organic carbon burial and some authors have suggested that a change in climate induced burning of the 13C-depleted carbon deposits. In this study a diverse suite of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), organic compounds produced as aerosols during combustion, were characterized and quantified in order to investigate evidence for fire during the PETM. We sampled intervals of cores from Basin Substation, Bighorn Basin, Wyoming, USA, collected as part of the Bighorn Basin Coring Project (BBCP). PAHs were evaluated using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in selective ion monitoring (SIM) mode. We found a range of two- to seven-ring PAHs from napthalene to coronene. For all samples the abundances of individual PAHs range from 0.1 - 100 ng/g dry sediment. Total PAH abundance (sum of 16 PAHs) is reduced in samples from the body of the PETM carbon isotope excursion relative to samples from the latest Paleocene (300 ng/g and 40 ng/g, respectively), although there is a spike in total PAH concentration (2300 ng/g) at or just before the onset of the PETM. The stratigraphic pattern of PAH abundance is consistent with a peak in wildfires at or just before the onset of the PETM, followed by a decrease in the body of the PETM, but also may reflect decreased preservation of organic matter during the hotter and more seasonally dry climate that this region experienced during the PETM. The latter explanation is consistent with a general decrease in organic matter preservation during the PETM interval in this core. Higher relative abundance of high molecular weight PAHs in PETM samples suggests hotter fire temperatures at that time, regardless of fire occurrence. A literal interpretation of the PAH record from the Basin Substation core would suggest more intense burns but less wildfire activity during the PETM, but the effect of changes in organic matter preservation must be eliminated before this interpretation can be accepted.

  8. Preliminary investigation of a medium power argon radiofrequency capacitively coupled plasma as atomization cell in atomic fluorescence spectrometry of cadmium.

    PubMed

    Frentiu, Tiberiu; Darvasi, Eugen; Senila, Marin; Ponta, Michaela; Cordos, Emil

    2008-09-15

    The single ring electrode radiofrequency capacitively coupled plasma torch (SRTr.f.CCP) operated at 275W, 27.12 MHz and Ar flow rate below 0.7 lmin(-1) was investigated for the first time as atomization cell in atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS) using electrodeless discharge lamps (EDL) as primary radiation source and charged coupled devices as detector. The signal to background ratio (SBR) and limit of detection for Cd determination by EDL-SRTr.f.CCP-AFS were compared to those obtained in atomic emission spectrometry using the same plasma torch. The detection limit in fluorescence was 4.3 ngml(-1) Cd compared to 65 ngml(-1) and 40 ngml(-1) reported in r.f.CCP-atomic emission (AES) equipped with single or double ring electrode. The lower detection limit in EDL-SRTr.f.CCP-AFS is due to a much better SBR in fluorescence. The limit of detection was also compared to those in atomic fluorescence with inductively coupled plasma (0.4 ngml(-1)), microwave plasma torch (0.25 ngml(-1)) and air-acetylene flame (8 ngml(-1)). The influence of light-scattering through the plasma and the secondary reflection of the primary radiation on the wall of the quartz tube on the analytical performance are discussed. The non-spectral matrix effects of Ca, Mg and easily ionized elements are much lower in EDL-SRTr.f.CCP-AFS compared to SRTr.f.CCP-AES. The new technique was applied in the determination of Cd in contaminated soils, industrial hazardous waste (0.4-370 mgkg(-1)) and water (113 microgl(-1)) with repeatability of 4-8% and reproducibility in the range of 5-12%, similar to those in ICP-AES. The results were checked by the analysis of a soil and water CRM with a recovery degree of 97+/-9% and 98+/-4%, for a confidence limit of 95%. The present EDL-SRTr.f.CCP-AFS is a promising technique for Cd determination in environmental samples. PMID:18761173

  9. Geothermal Potential of the Si?acik Gulf (Seferihisar) and Preliminary investigations with Seismic and Magnetic Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakak, Özde; Özel, Erdeniz; Ergün, Mustafa

    2015-04-01

    The Aegean region, including both W. Turkey and Central Greece, is one of the world's most rapidly-deforming regions of continental crust and has a seismic rate is exceptional on a world scale. SW Turkey is one of the most rapidly extending regions in the world where the extension appears to have commenced in middle or late Miocene time. Paleomagnetic work in W Turkey and Aegean islands has revealed the horizontal rotation of some crustal blocks. In W Turkey clockwise rotation on Karaburun peninsula west of Izmir by 44° in the last few Ma is detected, and anticlockwise rotation of 37° for the Seferihisar region. The area of W Turkey and the Aegean islands has very strong geothermal gradient in the world scale. S??ac?k Gulf is located on south of Karaburun Peninsula, and it is restricted by two important ridges as Karaburun and Seferihisar Ridges. Recent geological and geophysical studies suggested that this area is both E-W trending normal and NE-SW trending strike-slip faulting caused deformation. The Seferihisar earthquake series were occurred here during 17-20 October 2005. For investigation of geothermal potential and hot water outlets on the seafloor, shallow seismic and magnetic surveys are preferred, which were carried out onboard Dokuz Eylül-1 vessel belongs to Dokuz Eylül University, in 2011. Approximately 250km seismic reflection data was collected along 27 lines. During seismic method used Sparker system which has 1 channel and 12 hydrophone with 17 m long streamer, as a seismic source used SIG Seismic Marine ELC 80 (4 kV & 3.2 KV DC). Seismic data processing (band pass filter, bottom mute, top mute, true amplitude recovery, time migration) was made using Promax program in the Seismic Laboratory in the Institute of Marine Science and Technology. The basement topography map was prepared using Kingdom Suite program drawing seabed line on these sections. Sea floor topography changes between 30-120 m, and this increases towards Ikaria Basin. Penetration depth is maximum 90 meter from the seafloor. The seismic sections reveal both the lens structures represented as current accumulation areas, and deformation areas located in upper unit. At the same time, the marine magnetic survey was applied using SDM 4000 magnetometer of Shark Marine Technologies Company. The magnetic measurements were collected along the same seismic lines, and magnetic anomaly map shows the low magnetic anomaly value which is between -50nT and -90 nT, in east of S??ac?k Gulf. In the light of shallow seismic and magnetic surveys, it is thought that the east of gulf may have geothermal activity on seafloor.

  10. Preliminary investigations on the determination of three-dimensional dose distributions using scintillator blocks and optical tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Kroll, Florian; Karsch, Leonhard [OncoRay - National Center for Radiation Research in Oncology, Medical Faculty Carl Gustav Carus, TU Dresden, 01307 Dresden (Germany)] [OncoRay - National Center for Radiation Research in Oncology, Medical Faculty Carl Gustav Carus, TU Dresden, 01307 Dresden (Germany); Pawelke, Jörg [OncoRay - National Center for Radiation Research in Oncology, Medical Faculty Carl Gustav Carus, TU Dresden, 01307 Dresden, Germany and Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Institute of Radiation Physics, P.O. Box 510119, 01314 Dresden (Germany)] [OncoRay - National Center for Radiation Research in Oncology, Medical Faculty Carl Gustav Carus, TU Dresden, 01307 Dresden, Germany and Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Institute of Radiation Physics, P.O. Box 510119, 01314 Dresden (Germany)

    2013-08-15

    Purpose: Clinical QA in teletherapy as well as the characterization of experimental radiation sources for future medical applications requires effective methods for measuring three-dimensional (3D) dose distributions generated in a water-equivalent medium. Current dosimeters based on ionization chambers, diodes, thermoluminescence detectors, radiochromic films, or polymer gels exhibit various drawbacks: High quality 3D dose determination is either very sophisticated and expensive or requires high amounts of effort and time for the preparation or read out. New detectors based on scintillator blocks in combination with optical tomography are studied, since they have the potential to facilitate the desired cost-effective, transportable, and long-term stable dosimetry system that is able to determine 3D dose distributions with high spatial resolution in a short time.Methods: A portable detector prototype was set up based on a plastic scintillator block and four digital cameras. During irradiation the scintillator emits light, which is detected by the fixed cameras. The light distribution is then reconstructed by optical tomography, using maximum-likelihood expectation maximization. The result of the reconstruction approximates the 3D dose distribution. First performance tests of the prototype using laser light were carried out. Irradiation experiments were performed with ionizing radiation, i.e., bremsstrahlung (6 to 21 MV), electrons (6 to 21 MeV), and protons (68 MeV), provided by clinical and research accelerators.Results: Laser experiments show that the current imaging properties differ from the design specifications: The imaging scale of the optical systems is position dependent, ranging from 0.185 mm/pixel to 0.225 mm/pixel. Nevertheless, the developed dosimetry method is proven to be functional for electron and proton beams. Induced radiation doses of 50 mGy or more made 3D dose reconstructions possible. Taking the imaging properties into account, determined dose profiles are in agreement with reference measurements. An inherent drawback of the scintillator is the nonlinear light output for high stopping-power radiation due to the quenching effect. It impacts the depth dose curves measured with the dosimeter. For single Bragg peak distributions this leads to a peak to plateau ratio of 2.8 instead of 4.5 for the reference ionization chamber measurement. Furthermore, the transmission of the clinical bremsstrahlung beams through the scintillator leads to the saturation of one camera, making dose reconstructions in that case presently not feasible.Conclusions: It is shown that distributions of scintillation light generated by proton or electron beams can be reconstructed by the dosimetry system within minutes. The quenching apparent for proton irradiation, and the yet not precisely determined position dependency of the imaging scale, require further investigation and corrections. Upgrading the prototype with larger or inorganic scintillators would increase the detectable proton and electron energy range. The presented results show that the determination of 3D dose distributions using scintillator blocks and optical tomography is a promising dosimetry method.

  11. Assessing dry density and gravimetric water content of soils in geotechnics with complex conductivity measurements : preliminary investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaouane, C.; Beck, Y.; Fauchard, C.; Chouteau, M.

    2012-12-01

    Quality controls of geotechnical works need gravimetric water content (w) and dry density (?d) measurements. Afterwards, results are compared to Proctor tests and referred to soil classification. Depending on the class of soils, different objectives must be achieved. Those measurements are usually carried out with neutron and gamma probes. Combined use of theses probes directly access (w, ?d). Theses probes show great disadvantages as: nuclear hazard, heavy on-site, transporation and storage restrictions and low sampling volumes. Last decades showed a strong development of electrical and electromagnetic methods for mapping water content in soils. Still, their use in Geotechnics is limited due to interfacial effects neglected in common models but strong in compacted soils. We first showed that (w, ?d) is equivalent to (?, Sr) assuming density of particles ?s=2.7 (g.cm-3). This assumption is true for common soils used in civil engineering. That first relationship allows us to work with meaningful parameters for geophysicists. Revil&Florsh recently adapted Vinegar&Waxman model for Spectal Induced Polarization (SIP) measurements at low frequencies (<50 kHz). This model relates quantitatively the electrical double layer polarization at the surface of grains. It takes into account saturation, porosity and granulometry. Standard granulometry and mineralogy are generally available in geotechnical campaigns. In-phase conductivity would be mostly related to saturation as quadrature conductivity would be related to porosity and surface conductivity. Although this model was developed for oil-bearing sands, we investigated its potential for compacted soils. Former DC-resistivity (?) measurements were carried out on a silty fined-grained soil (A1 in GTR classification or ML-CL in USCS) in a cylindrical cell (radius ~4 cm, heigth 7 cm). Median diameter of grain was 50 ?m. For each measurement, samples were compacted at Proctor energy. We assessed (w, ?d) by weighting and drying samples. We obtained ?d = 1.6-1.9 (g.cm-3) and w=7-14% which lead to ?=0.3-0.4 and Sr=0.3-0.8. Tap water (?w= 30 ?.m) was used for the experiment. We first evaluated the saturation factor n=1.35 by fitting a power law ?/?w =a*Sr^n+b. a=0.223 agreed with ?^(-n)=F, F being the formation factor. This leads to a mean tortuosity ?=1.47. b=0.5 might be related to surface conductivity. An empirical Rhoades-Corwin model also fit great to data. Revil&Florsh model allows us to predict a phase peak in case of complex conductivity measurements. We predicted a frequency peak at 2.4 Hz. This peak is well located in the frequency range of SIP (from 1 mHz to ~10 Hz). At the frequency peak, this model allows the direct evaluation of saturation and porosity. Hence, complex conductivity measurements might be a fine alternative to nuclear probes. Still, driving in electrodes in compacted soils remains difficult. Ongoing studies are looking further to extend this model to higher frequency range (5-200 kHz) where capacitively coupled resistivity arrays might be used allowing continuous measurements.

  12. Visual-spatial memory may be enhanced with theta burst deep brain stimulation of the fornix: a preliminary investigation with four cases.

    PubMed

    Miller, Jonathan P; Sweet, Jennifer A; Bailey, Christopher M; Munyon, Charles N; Luders, Hans O; Fastenau, Philip S

    2015-07-01

    Memory loss after brain injury can be a source of considerable morbidity, but there are presently few therapeutic options for restoring memory function. We have previously demonstrated that burst stimulation of the fornix is able to significantly improve memory in a rodent model of traumatic brain injury. The present study is a preliminary investigation with a small group of cases to explore whether theta burst stimulation of the fornix might improve memory in humans. Four individuals undergoing stereo-electroencephalography evaluation for drug-resistant epilepsy were enrolled. All participants were implanted with an electrode into the proximal fornix and dorsal hippocampal commissure on the language dominant (n = 3) or language non-dominant (n = 1) side, and stimulation of this electrode reliably produced a diffuse evoked potential in the head and body of the ipsilateral hippocampus. Each participant underwent testing of verbal memory (Rey Auditory-Verbal Learning Test), visual-spatial memory (Medical College of Georgia Complex Figure Test), and visual confrontational naming (Boston Naming Test Short Form) once per day over at least two consecutive days using novel test forms each day. For 50% of the trials, the fornix electrode was continuously stimulated using a burst pattern (200 Hz in 100 ms trains, five trains per second, 100 µs, 7 mA) and was compared with sham stimulation. Participants and examiners were blinded to whether stimulation was active or not, and the order of stimulation was randomized. The small sample size precluded use of inferential statistics; therefore, data were analysed using descriptive statistics and graphic analysis. Burst stimulation of the fornix was not perceived by any of the participants but was associated with a robust reversible improvement in immediate and delayed performance on the Medical College of Georgia Complex Figure Test. There were no apparent differences on either Rey Auditory-Verbal Learning Test or Boston Naming Test. There was no apparent relationship between performance and side of stimulation (language dominant or non-dominant). There were no complications. Preliminary evidence in this small sample of patients with drug-resistant epilepsy suggests that theta burst stimulation of the fornix may be associated with improvement in visual-spatial memory. PMID:26106097

  13. A possible link between Balkan endemic nephropathy and the leaching of toxic organic compounds from Pliocene lignite by groundwater: Preliminary investigation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Orem, W.H.; Feder, G.L.; Finkelman, R.B.

    1999-01-01

    Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN) is a fatal kidney disease that is known to occur only in clusters of villages in alluvial valleys of tributaries of the Danube River in Bulgaria, Romania, Yugoslavia, Bosnia, and Croatia. The confinement of this disease to a specific geographic area has led to speculation that an environmental factor may be involved in the etiology of BEN. Numerous environmental factors have been suggested as causative agents for producing BEN, including toxic metals in drinking water, metal deficiency in soils of BEN areas, and environmental mycotoxins to name a few. These hypotheses have either been disproved or have failed to conclusively demonstrate a connection to the etiology of BEN, or the clustering of BEN villages. In previous work, we observed a distinct geographic relationship between the distribution of Pliocene lignites in the Balkans and BEN villages. We hypothesized that the long-term consumption of well water containing toxic organic compounds derived from the leaching of nearby Pliocene lignites by groundwater was a primary factor in the etiology of BEN. In our current work, chemical analysis using 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (13CNMR) spectroscopy indicated a high degree of organic functionality in Pliocene lignite from the Balkans, and suggested that groundwater can readily leach organic matter from these coal beds. Semi-quantitative gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy analysis of solvent extracts of groundwater from shallow wells in BEN villages indicated the presence of potentially toxic aromatic compounds, such as napthalene, fluorene, phenanthrene, and pyrene at concentrations in the ppb range. Laboratory leaching of Balkan Pliocene lignites with distilled water yielded soluble organic matter (> 500 MW) containing large amounts of aromatic structures similar to the simple/discrete aromatic compounds detected in well water from BEN villages. These preliminary results are permissive of our hypothesis and suggest that further work on the possible relationship between the etiology of BEN and toxic aromatic substances leached from Pliocene lignites in well water is warranted.A distinct geographic relationship between the distribution of Pliocene lignites in the Balkans and villages where Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN) occurs has been observed, indicating a possible link between BEN and the long-term consumption of well water containing toxic organic compounds derived from the leaching of nearby Pliocene lignites. Preliminary investigations by NMR spectroscopy, gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy and leaching experiments show a high degree of organic functionality in the Pliocene lignites, high-leachability by groundwater of organic matter from these beds, and the presence of toxic aromatic compounds.

  14. A preliminary investigation of the Spence Children's Anxiety Parent Scale as a screening tool for anxiety in young people with autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Zainal, Hani; Magiati, Iliana; Tan, Julianne Wen-Li; Sung, Min; Fung, Daniel S S; Howlin, Patricia

    2014-08-01

    Despite high rates of clinically elevated anxiety difficulties in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), very few studies have systematically examined the usefulness of commonly used caregiver report anxiety screening tools with this population. This study investigated the use of the Spence Children's Anxiety Scale-Parent version (SCAS-P) as a screening tool for anxiety disorders when compared to a standardized DSM-IV-TR-based clinical interview, the Kiddie-Schedule for Schizophrenia and Affective Disorders-Present and Lifetime version (K-SADS-PL). Thirty-two caregivers of youth with a clinical diagnosis of ASD (mean age 10.3 years) attending a specialist autism school participated in this study. They first completed the SCAS-P, a measure of adaptive functioning and a checklist of other emotional and behavioral difficulties. They were then interviewed with the K-SADS-PL. Internal consistency for the SCAS Total score was .88, but Cronbach's alphas were <.70 in three of the six SCAS-P subscales. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of the SCAS-P against K-SADS diagnosis were .75, .71, .27, and .95, respectively. All values were >.70, except for the PPV. Evidence of convergent validity between the SCAS-P, K-SADS-PL and DBC anxiety subscale was also found. The high false positive rates notwithstanding, the preliminary data of acceptable to excellent sensitivity, specificity and NPV values tentatively suggest that the SCAS-P may be useful for screening non-help seeking young people with ASD for elevated anxiety symptoms. Further replication in larger studies is needed and ways in which the SCAS-P could be further developed and investigated for use with youth with ASD are discussed. PMID:24573336

  15. The stethoscope: some preliminary investigations

    PubMed Central

    Welsby, P; Parry, G; Smith, D

    2003-01-01

    Textbooks, clinicians, and medical teachers differ as to whether the stethoscope bell or diaphragm should be used for auscultating respiratory sounds at the chest wall. Logic and our results suggest that stethoscope diaphragms are more appropriate. PMID:14707247

  16. Spiritual Bypass: A Preliminary Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cashwell, Craig S.; Glosoff, Harriet L.; Hammond, Cheree

    2010-01-01

    The phenomenon of spiritual bypass has received limited attention in the transpersonal psychology and counseling literature and has not been subjected to empirical inquiry. This study examines the phenomenon of spiritual bypass by considering how spirituality, mindfulness, alexithymia (emotional restrictiveness), and narcissism work together to…

  17. The scales of psychological capacities: adaptation to an adolescent population.

    PubMed

    Greenfield, Brian; Filip, Constantin; Schiffrin, Alicia; Bond, Michael; Amsel, Rhonda; Zhang, Xun

    2013-01-01

    Given the dearth of pediatric outcome measures, Wallerstein's "scales of psychological capacities" (SPC), measuring psychotherapy changes with adults and reflecting shifts in character without specific adherence to a school of personality, was adapted to adolescents (Ad-SPC) and examined psychometrically. Twelve child psychoanalysts were consulted for content validity. Two investigators determined it to have high face validity after administering it to 40 adolescents. High inter-rater reliability was achieved for individual scale items. Construct validity was determined using Pearson correlations between multiple Ad-SPC items and co-administered validated measures of psychopathology. Preliminary psychometric properties support the Ad-SPC's potential for applicability in adolescent psychotherapy. PMID:23113821

  18. Chemical State of Surface Oxygen on Carbon and Its Effects on the Capacity of the Carbon Anode in a Lithium-Ion Battery Investigated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hung, Ching-Cheh

    2001-01-01

    In a lithium-ion battery, the lithium-storage capacity of the carbon anode is greatly affected by a surface layer formed during the first half cycle of lithium insertion and release into and out of the carbon anode. The formation of this solid-electrolyte interface, in turn, is affected by the chemistry of the carbon surface. A study at the NASA Glenn Research Center examined the cause-and-effect relations. Information obtained from this research could contribute in designing a high-capacity lithium-ion battery and, therefore, small, powerful spacecraft. In one test, three types of surfaces were examined: (1) a surface with low oxygen content (1.5 at.%) and a high concentration of active sites, (2) a surface with 4.5 at.% -OH or -OC type oxygen, and (3) a surface with 6.5 at.% O=C type oxygen. The samples were made from the same precursor and had similar bulk properties. They were tested under a constant current of 10 mA/g in half cells that used lithium metal as the counter electrode and 0.5 M lithium iodide in 50/50 (vol%) ethylene carbonate and dimethyl carbonate as the electrolyte. For the first cycle of the electrochemical test, the graph describes the voltage of the carbon anode versus the lithium metal as a function of the capacity (amount of lithium insertion or release). From these data, it can be observed that the surface with low oxygen and a high concentration of active sites could result in a high irreversible capacity. Such a high irreversible capacity could be prevented if the active sites were allowed to react with oxygen in air, producing -OH or -OC type oxygen. The O=C type oxygen, on the other hand, could greatly reduce the capacity of lithium intercalation and, therefore, needs to be avoided during battery fabrication.

  19. [Assessment of legal capacity and testamentary capacity].

    PubMed

    Dreßing, H; Foerster, K; Leygraf, J; Schneider, F

    2014-11-01

    The assessment of legal capacity and testamentary capacity require thorough knowledge of the legal framework and the relevant case law. This paper explains the concept of the legal capacity to contract and the concept of testamentary capacity with respect to German civil law. The relevance of major mental disorders for the assessment of legal capacity and testamentary capacity is discussed. PMID:25256794

  20. The Tiptop coal-mine fire, Kentucky: Preliminary investigation of the measurement of mercury and other hazardous gases from coal-fire gas vents

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hower, J.C.; Henke, K.; O'Keefe, J. M. K.; Engle, M.A.; Blake, D.R.; Stracher, G.B.

    2009-01-01

    The Tiptop underground coal-mine fire in the Skyline coalbed of the Middle Pennsylvanian Breathitt Formation was investigated in rural northern Breathitt County, Kentucky, in May 2008 and January 2009, for the purpose of determining the concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), and mercury (Hg) in the vent and for measuring gas-vent temperatures. At the time of our visits, concentrations of CO2 peaked at 2.0% and > 6.0% (v/v) and CO at 600 ppm and > 700 ppm during field analysis in May 2008 and January 2009, respectively. For comparison, these concentrations exceed the U.S. Occupational Safety & Health Administration (OSHA) eight-hour safe exposure limits (0.5% CO2 and 50 ppm CO), although the site is not currently mined. Mercury, as Hg0, in excess of 500 and 2100 ??g/m3, in May and January, respectively, in the field, also exceeded the OSHA eight-hour exposure limit (50 ??g/m3). Carbonyl sulfide, dimethyl sulfide, carbon disulfide, and a suite of organic compounds were determined at two vents for the first sampling event. All gases are diluted by air as they exit and migrate away from a gas vent, but temperature inversions and other meteorological conditions could lead to unhealthy concentrations in the nearby towns. Variation in gas temperatures, nearly 300 ??C during the January visit to the fire versus < 50 ??C in May, demonstrates the large temporal variability in fire intensity at the Tiptop mine. These preliminary results suggest that emissions from coal fires may be important, but additional data are required that address the reasons for significant variations in the composition, flow, and temperature of vent gases. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V.

  1. Preliminary investigation of soil and ground-water contamination at a U.S. Army Petroleum Training Facility, Fort Lee, Virginia, September-October 1989

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wright, W.G.; Powell, J.D.

    1990-01-01

    Fuel-oil constituents in the soil and groundwater at the Fort Lee Petroleum Training Facility near Petersburg, Virginia, were studied by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Department of Defense, U.S. Army. The study included installation of 25 groundwater monitoring wells and description of groundwater flow patterns of the shallow-aquifer system underlying the facility. Soil and groundwater samples were collected to determine the concentrations of fuel-oil constituents and to determine the potential for off-site migration of the constituents. Total petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations up to 18,400 mg/km were reported in soil samples. Concentrations of benzene in water from wells at the facility were up to 130 micrograms per liter (ug/L), and concentrations of ethylbenzene and xylene were up to 54 and 120 ug/L, respectively. Potential exists for off-site migration of the contaminants and migration of contaminants downward to deeper aquifers. Further investigations of these potential contamination-migration pathways are warranted. Risk identification at the Petroleum Training Facility cannot be properly addressed because the distribution of the fuel-oil constituents has not been fully characterized. Preliminary identification of risk, however is presented by an examination of toxicity data for the chemical constituents reported in the groundwater at the facility. Concentrations of constituents were compared to the maximum contaminant levels (MCLs) for drinking water established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). Concentrations of benzene in water from wells at the facility exceed the USEPA 's 5 ug/L MCL by as much as 26 times. Sufficient data are not available to fully design the remedial-action plan for the facility; however, general responses to contamination of the type associated with the facility include no-action, monitoring, institutional controls, removal, and treatment. (USGS)

  2. Activities of 2-phthalimidethyl nitrate and 2-phthalimidethanol in the models of nociceptive response and edema induced by formaldehyde in mice and preliminary investigation of the underlying mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Godin, Adriana M; Araújo, Débora P; César, Isabela C; Menezes, Raquel R; Brito, Ana Mercy S; Melo, Ivo S F; Coura, Giovanna M E; Bastos, Leandro F S; Almeida, Mariana O; Byrro, Ricardo M D; Matsui, Tamires C; Batista, Carla R A; Pianetti, Gerson A; de Fátima, Ângelo; Machado, Renes R; Coelho, Márcio M

    2015-06-01

    The activities of 2-phthalimidethyl nitrate (PTD-NO) and 2-phthalimidethanol (PTD-OH) were recently demonstrated in models of pain and inflammation. We expanded our investigation by evaluating their activities in models of nociceptive and inflammatory pain and inflammatory edema, the preliminary pharmacokinetic parameter for PTD-NO and the role of opioid and cannabinoid pathways in the activity of analogs. Per os (p.o.) administration of PTD-NO or PTD-OH, 1h before intraplantar injection of formaldehyde, inhibited both phases of the nociceptive response (500 and 750mg/kg) and paw edema (125, 250, 500 and 750mg/kg). After p.o. administration of PTD-NO, peak plasma concentrations of PTD-NO and PTD-OH were found 0.92 and 1.13h, respectively. The plasma concentrations of PTD-NO were higher than those of PTD-OH. Intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of CB1 (AM251) or CB2 (AM630) cannabinoid receptor antagonists (4 or 8mg/kg, -30min) or opioid antagonist naltrexone (5 or 10mg/kg, -30min) did not affect the antinociceptive activities of the analogs. AM251 (8mg/kg, i.p., -30min) attenuated the antiedematogenic activity of both analogs, while naltrexone (10mg/kg, i.p., -30min) only attenuated the antiedematogenic activity of PTD-NO. The antiedematogenic activities of both analogs were not affected by the CB2 cannabinoid antagonist AM630 (4 or 8mg/kg, i.p., -30min). Concluding, we expanded the knowledge on the activities of PTD-NO and PTD-OH by showing that these phthalimide analogs also exhibit marked activity in models of nociceptive and inflammatory pain and inflammatory edema. Opioid and cannabinoid mechanisms partially mediate the anti-inflammatory, but not the antinociceptive activity. PMID:25794846

  3. CAPACITY BUILDING ACTIVITIES Public Health

    E-print Network

    Hill, Wendell T.

    CAPACITY BUILDING ACTIVITIES School of Public Health Dean Principal Investigator Community Advisory System Faculty & Students School of Public Health Faculty & Students Prince George's County Washington, D.C. Community Members Practitioners, Residents and Public Health Professionals Research Projects Forum (CAC

  4. Preliminary investigations for technology assessment of /sup 99/Mo production from LEU (low enriched uranium) targets. [For production of /sup 99m/Tc; by different methods

    SciTech Connect

    Vandegrift, G.F.; Chaiko, D.J.; Heinrich, R.R.; Kucera, E.T.; Jensen, K.J.; Poa, D.S.; Varma, R.; Vissers, D.R.

    1986-11-01

    This paper presents the results of preliminary studies on the effects of substituting low enriched uranium (LEU) for highly enriched uranium (HEU) in targets for the production of fission product /sup 99/Mo. Issues that were addressed are: (1) purity and yield of the /sup 99/Mo//sup 99m/Tc product, (2) fabrication of LEU targets and related concerns, and (3) radioactive waste. Laboratory experimentation was part of the efforts for issues (1) and (2); thus far, radioactive waste disposal has only been addressed in a paper study. Although the reported results are still preliminary, there is reason to be optimistic about the feasibility of utilizing LEU targets for /sup 99/Mo production. 37 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  5. 19 CFR 207.18 - Notice of preliminary determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...NONADJUDICATIVE INVESTIGATIONS INVESTIGATIONS OF WHETHER INJURY TO DOMESTIC INDUSTRIES RESULTS FROM IMPORTS SOLD AT LESS THAN FAIR VALUE OR FROM SUBSIDIZED EXPORTS TO THE UNITED STATES Preliminary Determinations § 207.18 Notice of preliminary...

  6. 19 CFR 207.18 - Notice of preliminary determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...NONADJUDICATIVE INVESTIGATIONS INVESTIGATIONS OF WHETHER INJURY TO DOMESTIC INDUSTRIES RESULTS FROM IMPORTS SOLD AT LESS THAN FAIR VALUE OR FROM SUBSIDIZED EXPORTS TO THE UNITED STATES Preliminary Determinations § 207.18 Notice of preliminary...

  7. Preliminary concentrations

    E-print Network

    Edinburgh, University of

    Sampling methods 210 Rain : Preliminary rain results show that the concentrations of 210 Pb and 7(roughly 5 half­lives of 210 Pb)[Nozaki et al. 1978]. On the basis of these criteria, soil samples were a 10 cm­diameter corer into the soil, five sets of samples were obtained at each sites(10 sites), from

  8. Preliminary in-situ major and trace element and isotopic investigation of carbonatites and associated alkaline silica-undersaturated rocks from the Oka complex, Québec (Canada)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonetti, A.; Chen, W.

    2010-12-01

    The Oka carbonatite complex is one of the most westerly intrusions of the Monteregian Igneous Province (MIP), which is composed of plutons and dykes of alkaline compositions emplaced within southern Québec. Oka is geologically significant because: i. it is one of the youngest carbonatites in North America (between 109 ±2 and 131 ±7 Ma), ii. contains both a variety of carbonatitic and silicate rocks (e.g. alnöite, okaite), and iii. mined in the past for Nb (pyrochlore). The exact origin of the MIP alkaline intrusions still remains unknown and has been attributed to either melting of lithospheric mantle during the opening of the North Atlantic Ocean, a mantle plume origin, or linked to magmatism associated with the Vermont White Mountains and the New England seamounts. However, there remains much debate as to the exact origin of parental melts to carbonatites; i.e. models include derivation from lithosphere, a mixture between lithosphere and asthenosphere, or an asthenospheric (plume) origin. Whole rock Nd, Sr, and Pb isotope data from previous investigations of the Oka carbonatites indicate derivation from a time-integrated depleted mantle source. However, deciphering mantle sources and melt crystallization histories based on whole rock isotopic data is rendered difficult since previous studies of carbonatite-bearing, alkaline complexes indicate isotopic disequilibrium amongst co-existing minerals and/or with their corresponding host rock. Consequently, a multi-faceted study was initiated involving in-situ chemical (major and trace element) and isotopic (C, O, Sr, Nd, Pb, U-Pb) characterization of the dominant minerals at the micron scale in the carbonatites and associated alkaline Si-undersaturated rocks from Oka. Preliminary major and trace element analyses (electron microprobe analysis and laser ablation-ICP-MS) and in-situ Sr isotope analyses (laser ablation-MC-ICP-MS) of mainly carbonates were obtained for several carbonatites and a melilite-bearing okaite. Major element analyses reveal that carbonates are calcite and apatite is REE-enriched (>4 wt% total REEs). In-situ trace element analyses of calcite within 5 distinct areas of carbonatite sample Oka2.2 indicate similar REE abundances, and corresponding in-situ 87Sr/86Sr isotope values are extremely uniform (0.70322-0.70339; given associated uncertainties). In contrast, in-situ trace element analyses of calcite from okaite (Oka2.3) show variable REE abundances that correlate positively with their 87Sr/86Sr values (0.70270 - 0.70303). Apatite blades from sample Oka2.3 have higher 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.70325 - 0.70345) that overlap those for calcite from sample Oka2.2. Thus, the chemical and Sr isotope data obtained for calcites from samples Oka2.2 and Oka2.3 cannot be explained by either simple closed system crystal fractionation, assimilation-fractional crystallization (AFC), derivation by liquid immiscibility, or partial melting from the same mantle source. These first results clearly demonstrate that a complex crystallization history must be invoked, perhaps mixing of melts derived from isotopically distinct mantle reservoirs.

  9. Effects of Domain Knowledge, Working Memory Capacity, and Age on Cognitive Performance: An Investigation of the Knowledge-Is-Power Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hambrick, David Z.; Engle, Randall W.

    2002-01-01

    Domain knowledge facilitates performance in many cognitive tasks. However, very little is known about the interplay between domain knowledge and factors that are believed to reflect general, and relatively stable, characteristics of the individual. The primary goal of this study was to investigate the interplay between domain knowledge and one…

  10. An Investigation into the Capacity of Student Motivation and Emotion Regulation Strategies to Predict Engagement and Resilience in the Middle School Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fried, Leanne; Chapman, Elaine

    2012-01-01

    Although most of the initial research on self-regulated learning focused on cognitive and meta-cognitive aspects, there has been a growing interest in the emotion and motivation domains of self-regulation. This article reports on research undertaken to investigate specific motivation and emotion regulation strategies used by middle school students…

  11. Capacity Building of MAGDAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yumoto, K.

    2011-12-01

    Under the framework of the MAGDAS Project of SERC (at Kyushu University), this report will cover the three phases of "Capacity Building": (1) Development of instrument capacity, (2) Development of data analysis capacity, and (3) Development of science capacity. Capacity Building is one of the major goals of IHY and ISWI, as specified by the organizers of IHY and ISWI.

  12. Preliminary design of four aircraft to service the California Corridor in the year 2010: The California Condor, California Sky-Hopper, high capacity short range transport tilt rotor aircraft needed to simplify intercity transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The major objective of this project was to design an aircraft for use in the California Corridor in the year 2010. The design process, completed by students in a senior design class at California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo, used a Class 1 airplane design analysis from Jan Roskam's Airplane Design. The California Condor (CC-38), a 38 passenger, 400 mph aircraft, was designed to meet the needs of tomorrow's passengers while conforming to the California Corridor's restrictions. Assumptions were made using today's technology with forecasts into 21st Century technology. Doubling today's commuter aircraft passenger capacity, travelling at Mach .57 with improved cruise efficiencies of over 10 percent, with the ability to land within field lengths of 4000 feet, are the CC-38's strongest points. The California Condor has a very promising future in helping to relieve the air traffic and airport congestion in the 21st Century.

  13. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic investigations on a ??-crystallin domain of absent in melanoma 1 (AIM1), a protein from Homo sapiens

    SciTech Connect

    Aravind, Penmatsa; Rajini, Bheemreddy; Sharma, Yogendra; Sankaranarayanan, Rajan, E-mail: sankar@ccmb.res.in [Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology, Uppal Road, Hyderabad 500 007 (India)

    2006-03-01

    The crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of AIM1g1, a ??-crystallin domain of absent in melanoma (AIM1) protein from H. sapiens, is reported. AIM1g1 is a single ??-crystallin domain from the protein absent in melanoma 1 (AIM1), which appears to play a role in the suppression of melanomas. This domain is known to bind calcium and its structure would help in identifying calcium-coordinating sites in vertebrate crystallins, which have hitherto been believed to have lost this ability during evolution. Crystallization of this domain was performed by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. Crystals diffracted to a maximum resolution of 1.86 Å and were found to belong to space group P6{sub 1} or P6{sub 5}, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 54.98, c = 59.73 Å. Solvent-content analysis indicated the presence of one monomer per asymmetric unit.

  14. 77 FR 34997 - Xanthan Gum From Austria and China; Institution of Antidumping Duty Investigations and Scheduling...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-12

    ...INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation Nos. 731-TA-1202-1203 (Preliminary...China; Institution of Antidumping Duty Investigations and Scheduling of Preliminary Phase Investigations AGENCY: United States...

  15. 76 FR 43343 - Large Power Transformers From Korea; Institution of Antidumping Duty Investigation and Scheduling...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-20

    ...INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 731-TA-1189 (Preliminary...Korea; Institution of Antidumping Duty Investigation and Scheduling of a Preliminary Phase Investigation AGENCY: United States...

  16. 77 FR 70185 - Silica Bricks and Shapes From China; Institution of an Antidumping Duty Investigation and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-23

    ...INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 731-TA-1205 (Preliminary...Institution of an Antidumping Duty Investigation and Scheduling of a Preliminary Phase Investigation AGENCY: United States...

  17. Forced Expiratory Volume in 6 s (FEV6) and FEV1/FEV6 Values as a Viable Alternative for Forced Vital Capacity (FVC) and FEV1/FVC Values During Pregnancy in South East Nigeria: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Nwagha, U; Iyare, E; Anyaehie, U; Onyedum, C; Okereke, C; Ajuzieogu, O; Amucheazi, A; Oluboboku, T; Agu, P; Igweh, J; Oguanuo, T

    2014-01-01

    Background: Forced expiratory volume in 6 s (FEV6) and FEV1/FEV6 ratio have traditionally been used as a surrogate for forced vital capacity (FVC) and FEV1/FVC in the assessment of spirometric lung function in nonpregnant subjects. However, the existence of this relationship during pregnancy is yet to be ascertained. Aim: The aim of this study was to determine if FEV6 and FEV1/FEV6 can effectively be used instead of FVC and FEV1/FVC in the interpretation of lung function test during pregnancy. Subjects and Methods: This study was a descriptive cross-sectional study carried out among 200 pregnant women who were recruited by using systematic random sampling during the period between April and October 2011. One hundred matched nonpregnant women served as control. A standard spirometer was used to determine the FVC, FEV6, FEV1/FVC, and FEV1/FEV6. Data analysis was done using SPSS version 11.0 (Chicago, IL, USA). Values were recorded as mean (standard deviation), and also median and interquartile ranges. The one-way analysis of variance, Mann–Whitey U and the Kruskal–Wallis were used to test for significance where applicable. P <0.05 were considered to be significant. Results: All the values were within normal range, but the FVC and FEV6 decreased significantly while the FEV1/FVC and FEV1/FEV6 increased as pregnancy progressed. However, for first and last trimester, FVC differed significantly from FEV6. The values of the FVC were comparable to the values of FEV6. The FEV1/FVC and FEV1/FEV6 ratio were similar and well above the 0.7 cutoff for obstructive lung diseases. Conclusion: FEV6 requires a short exhalation time and can effectively be used in place of FVC in evaluation of lung function test during pregnancy. The FEV1/FEV6 may be applied as a proxy for FEV1/FVC in pregnant and nonpregnant women. PMID:25221696

  18. Some Investigations of the General Instability of Stiffened Metal Cylinders II : Preliminary Tests of Wire-braced Specimens and Theoretical Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1943-01-01

    This is the second of a series of reports covering an investigation of the general instability problem by the California Institute of Technology. The first five reports of this series cover investigations of the general instability problem under the loading conditions of pure bending and were prepared under the sponsorship of the Civil Aeronautics Administration. The succeeding reports of this series cover the work done on other loading conditions under the sponsorship of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics.

  19. Preliminary Results of an Altitude-Wind-Tunnel Investigation of a TG-100A Gas Turbine-Propeller Engine. V; Combustion-Chamber Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gensenheyner, Robert M.; Berdysz, Joseph J.

    1947-01-01

    An investigation to determine the performance and operational characteristics of the TG-1OOA gas turbine-propeller engine was conducted in the Cleveland altitude wind tunnel. As part of this investigation, the combustion-chamber performance was determined at pressure altitudes from 5000 to 35,000 feet, compressor-inlet rm-pressure ratios of 1.00 and 1.09, and engine speeds from 8000 to 13,000 rpm. Combustion-chamber performance is presented as a function of corrected engine speed and.correcte& horsepower. For the range of corrected engine speeds investigated, over-all total-pressure-loss ratio, cycle efficiency, ana the frac%ional loss in cycle efficiency resulting from pressure losses in the combustion chambers were unaffected by a change in altitude or compressor-inlet ram-pressure ratio. The scatter of combustion- efficiency data tended to obscure any effect of altitude or ram-pressure ratio. For the range of corrected horse-powers investigated, the total-pressure-loss ratio an& the fractional loss in cycle efficiency resulting from pressure losses in the combustion chambers decreased with an increase in corrected horsepower at a constant corrected engine speed. The combustion efficiency remained constant for the range of corrected horse-powers investigated at all corrected engine speeds.

  20. Preliminary Results of an Altitude-Wind-Tunnel Investigation of an Axial-Flow Gas Turbine-Propeller Engine. 5; Combustion-Chamber Characterisitcs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geisenheyner, Robert M.; Berdysz, Joseph J.

    1948-01-01

    An investigation to determine the performance and operational characteristics of an axial-flow gas turbine-propeller engine was conducted in the Cleveland altitude wind tunnel. As part of this investigation, the combustion-chamber performance was determined at pressure altitudes from 5000 to 35,000 feet, compressor-inlet ram-pressure ratios of 1.00 and 1.09, and engine speeds from 8000 to 13,000 rpm. Combustion-chamber performance is presented as a function of corrected engine speed and corrected horsepower. For the range of corrected engine speeds investigated, overall total-pressure-loss ratio, cycle efficiency, and the fractional loss in cycle efficiency resulting from pressure losses in the combustion chambers were unaffected by a change in altitude or compressor-inlet ram-pressure ratio. For the range of corrected horsepowers investigated, the total-pressure-loss ratio and the fractional loss in cycle efficiency resulting from pressure losses in the combustion chambers decreased with an increase in corrected horsepower at a constant corrected engine speed. The combustion efficiency remained constant for the range of corrected horsepowers investigated at all corrected engine speeds.

  1. Testing the Predictions of the Central Capacity Sharing Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tombu, Michael; Jolicoeur, Pierre

    2005-01-01

    The divergent predictions of 2 models of dual-task performance are investigated. The central bottleneck and central capacity sharing models argue that a central stage of information processing is capacity limited, whereas stages before and after are capacity free. The models disagree about the nature of this central capacity limitation. The…

  2. Psychological Distress, Acculturation, and Mental Health-Seeking Attitudes among People of African Descent in the United States: A Preliminary Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obasi, Ezemenari M.; Leong, Frederick T. L.

    2009-01-01

    This article investigates the relationship between psychological distress, acculturation, and help-seeking attitudes among people of African descent (N = 130). Psychological distress was measured using the Global Severity Index from the Brief Symptom Inventory (L. R. Derogatis & N. Melisaratos, 1983), acculturation was measured using the…

  3. A Preliminary Investigation of the Spence Children's Anxiety Parent Scale as a Screening Tool for Anxiety in Young People with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zainal, Hani; Magiati, Iliana; Tan, Julianne Wen-Li; Sung, Min; Fung, Daniel S.; Howlin, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Despite high rates of clinically elevated anxiety difficulties in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), very few studies have systematically examined the usefulness of commonly used caregiver report anxiety screening tools with this population. This study investigated the use of the Spence Children's Anxiety…

  4. Preliminary Results of an Altitude-Wind-Tunnel Investigation of a TG-100A Gas Turbine-Propeller Engine II - Windmilling Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conrad, E. W.; Durham, J. D.

    1947-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to determine the operational and performance characteristics of the TG-100A gas turbine-propeller engine II. Windmilling characteristics were deterined for a range of altitudes from 5000 to 35,000 feet, true airspeeds from 100 to 273 miles per hour, and propeller blade angles from 4 degrees to 46 degrees.

  5. Preliminary Results of an Altitude-Wind-Tunnel Investigation of an Axial-Flow Gas Turbine-Propeller Engine. 2; Windmilling Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conrad, E. W.; Durham, J. D.

    1948-01-01

    Wind tunnel investigations were performed to determine the performance properties of an axial-flow gas turbine-propeller engine II. Windmilling characteristics were determined for a range of altitudes from 5000 to 35,000 feet, true airspeeds from 100 to 273 miles per hour, and propeller blade angles from 4 degrees to 46 degrees.

  6. The Importance of Integrative Anthropology: A Preliminary Investigation Employing Primatological and Cultural Anthropological Data Collection Methods in Assessing Human-Monkey Co-existence in Bali, Indonesia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James E. Loudon; Michaela E. Howells; Agustin Fuentes

    This study investigates the interplay between humans (Homo sapiens) and long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) living in sympatric associations at 11 Hindu temple sites on the island of Bali, Indonesia. Primatological methods were utilized to examine demography, habitat type, and record long-tailed macaque feeding, and ranging behavior. Additionally, interviews and questionnaires were conducted to ascertain Balinese individuals' perspectives regarding the macaques,

  7. In vitro investigations of the potential health benefits of Australian-grown faba beans (Vicia faba L.): chemopreventative capacity and inhibitory effects on the angiotensin-converting enzyme, ?-glucosidase and lipase.

    PubMed

    Siah, Siem D; Konczak, Izabela; Agboola, Samson; Wood, Jennifer A; Blanchard, Christopher L

    2012-08-01

    The functional properties, including antioxidant and chemopreventative capacities as well as the inhibitory effects on angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), ?-glucosidase and pancreatic lipase, of three Australian-grown faba bean genotypes (Nura, Rossa and TF(Ic*As)*483/13) were investigated using an array of in vitro assays. Chromatograms of on-line post column derivatisation assay coupled with HPLC revealed the existence of active phenolics (hump) in the coloured genotypes, which was lacking in the white-coloured breeding line, TF(Ic*As)*483/13. Roasting reduced the phenolic content, and diminished antioxidant activity by 10-40 % as measured by the reagent-based assays (diphenylpicrylhydrazyl, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity) in all genotypes. Cell culture-based antioxidant activity assay (cellular antioxidant activity) showed an increase of activity in the coloured genotypes after roasting. Faba bean extracts demonstrated cellular protection ability against H?O?-induced DNA damage (assessed using RAW264.7 cells), and inhibited the proliferation of all human cancer cell lines (BL13, AGS, Hep G2 and HT-29) evaluated. However, the effect of faba bean extracts on the non-transformed human cells (CCD-18Co) was negligible. Flow cytometric analyses showed that faba bean extracts successfully induced apoptosis of HL-60 (acute promyelocytic leukaemia) cells. The faba bean extracts also exhibited ACE, ?-glucosidase and pancreatic lipase inhibitory activities. Overall, extracts from Nura (buff-coloured) and Rossa (red-coloured) were comparable, while TF(Ic*As)*483/13 (white-coloured) contained the lowest phenolic content and exhibited the least antioxidant and enzyme inhibition activities. These results are important to promote the utilisation of faba beans in human diets for various health benefits. PMID:22916808

  8. The Tiptop coal-mine fire, Kentucky: Preliminary investigation of the measurement of mercury and other hazardous gases from coal-fire gas vents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James C. Hower; Kevin Henke; Jennifer M. K. O'Keefe; Mark A. Engle; Donald R. Blake; Glenn B. Stracher

    2009-01-01

    The Tiptop underground coal-mine fire in the Skyline coalbed of the Middle Pennsylvanian Breathitt Formation was investigated in rural northern Breathitt County, Kentucky, in May 2008 and January 2009, for the purpose of determining the concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), and mercury (Hg) in the vent and for measuring gas-vent temperatures. At the time of our visits,

  9. Preliminary Results of an Altitude-Wind-Tunnel Investigation of a TG-100A Gas Turbine-Propeller Engine. 3; Pressure and Temperature Distributions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geisenheyner, Robert M.; Berdysz, Joseph J.

    1947-01-01

    An altitude-wind-tunnel investigation of a TG-100A gas turbine-propeller engine was performed. Pressure and temperature data were obtained at altitudes from 5000 to 35000 feet, compressor inlet ram-pressure ratios from 1.00 to 1.17, and engine speeds from 800 to 13000 rpm. The effect of engine speed, shaft horsepower, and compressor-inlet ram-pressure ratio on pressure and temperature distribution at each measuring station are presented graphically.

  10. Individual differences in working memory capacity and workload capacity

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Ju-Chi; Chang, Ting-Yun; Yang, Cheng-Ta

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between working memory capacity (WMC) and workload capacity (WLC). Each participant performed an operation span (OSPAN) task to measure his/her WMC and three redundant-target detection tasks to measure his/her WLC. WLC was computed non-parametrically (Experiments 1 and 2) and parametrically (Experiment 2). Both levels of analyses showed that participants high in WMC had larger WLC than those low in WMC only when redundant information came from visual and auditory modalities, suggesting that high-WMC participants had superior processing capacity in dealing with redundant visual and auditory information. This difference was eliminated when multiple processes required processing for only a single working memory subsystem in a color-shape detection task and a double-dot detection task. These results highlighted the role of executive control in integrating and binding information from the two working memory subsystems for perceptual decision making. PMID:25566143

  11. Preliminary design of centrifugal compressors

    SciTech Connect

    Kocak, S. [Selcuk Univ., Konya (Turkey). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1996-11-01

    Preliminary design calculations are analyzed for a centrifugal compressor, after choosing as the type of the turbomachine from the curves given by Balje (1981). In impeller calculations, the effect of slip factor on exit conditions, the inducer geometry and the effect of choked flow on relative Mach number are investigated. In discharge calculation vaned diffusers are compared with vaneless diffusers.

  12. Improving the capacity of sodium ion battery using a virus-templated nanostructured composite cathode.

    PubMed

    Moradi, Maryam; Li, Zheng; Qi, Jifa; Xing, Wenting; Xiang, Kai; Chiang, Yet-Ming; Belcher, Angela M

    2015-05-13

    In this work we investigated an energy-efficient biotemplated route to synthesize nanostructured FePO4 for sodium-based batteries. Self-assembled M13 viruses and single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) have been used as a template to grow amorphous FePO4 nanoparticles at room temperature (the active composite is denoted as Bio-FePO4-CNT) to enhance the electronic conductivity of the active material. Preliminary tests demonstrate a discharge capacity as high as 166 mAh/g at C/10 rate, corresponding to composition Na0.9FePO4, which along with higher C-rate tests show this material to have the highest capacity and power performance reported for amorphous FePO4 electrodes to date. PMID:25811762

  13. Broadband channel capacities

    SciTech Connect

    Giovannetti, Vittorio; Maccone, Lorenzo [Research Laboratory of Electronics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology 50 Vassar Street, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Lloyd, Seth [Research Laboratory of Electronics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology 50 Vassar Street, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Shor, Peter W. [AT and T Labs-Research, 180 Park Avenue, Florham Park, New Jersey 07932 (United States)

    2003-12-01

    We study the communication capacities of bosonic broadband channels in the presence of different sources of noise. In particular we analyze lossy channels in the presence of white noise and thermal bath. In this context, we provide a solution for the entanglement-assisted capacity and upper and lower bounds for the classical and quantum capacities.

  14. Building Leadership Capacity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flanary, Dick

    2009-01-01

    The NASSP "Breaking Ranks" framework lays out multiple strategies for building capacity within a school, beginning with the leaders. To change an organization and increase its capacity to produce greater results, the people within the organization must change and increase their capacity. School change begins with changes in the principal, the…

  15. Preliminary Results of an Altitude-Wind-Tunnel Investigation of a TG-100A Gas Turbine-Propeller Engine. 4; Compressor and Turbine Performance Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallner, Lewis E.; Saari, Martin J.

    1947-01-01

    As part of an investigation of the performance and operational characteristics of the TG-100A gas turbine-propeller engine, conducted in the Cleveland altitude wind tunnel, the performance characteristics of the compressor and the turbine were obtained. The data presented were obtained at a compressor-inlet ram-pressure ratio of 1.00 for altitudes from 5000 to 35,000 feet, engine speeds from 8000 to 13,000 rpm, and turbine-inlet temperatures from 1400 to 2100R. The highest compressor pressure ratio was 6.15 at a corrected air flow of 23.7 pounds per second and a corrected turbine-inlet temperature of 2475R. Peak adiabatic compressor efficiencies of about 77 percent were obtained near the value of corrected air flow corresponding to a corrected engine speed of 13,000 rpm. This maximum efficiency may be somewhat low, however, because of dirt accumulations on the compressor blades. A maximum adiabatic turbine efficiency of 81.5 percent was obtained at rated engine speed for all altitudes and turbine-inlet temperatures investigated.

  16. Preliminary Results of an Altitude-Wind-Tunnel Investigation of an Axial-Flow Gas Turbine-Propeller Engine. 4; Compressor and Turbine Performance Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallner, Lewis E.; Saari, Martin J.

    1948-01-01

    As part of an investigation of the performance and operational characteristics of the axial-flow gas turbine-propeller engine, conducted in the Cleveland altitude wind tunnel, the performance characteristics of the compressor and the turbine were obtained. The data presented were obtained at a compressor-inlet ram-pressure ratio of 1.00 for altitudes from 5000 to 35,000 feet, engine speeds from 8000 to 13,000 rpm, and turbine-inlet temperatures from 1400 to 2100 R. The highest compressor pressure ratio obtained was 6.15 at a corrected air flow of 23.7 pounds per second and a corrected turbine-inlet temperature of 2475 R. Peak adiabatic compressor efficiencies of about 77 percent were obtained near the value of corrected air flow corresponding to a corrected engine speed of 13,000 rpm. This maximum efficiency may be somewhat low, however, because of dirt accumulations on the compressor blades. A maximum adiabatic turbine efficiency of 81.5 percent was obtained at rated engine speed for all altitudes and turbine-inlet temperatures investigated.

  17. Technetium removal: preliminary flowsheet options

    SciTech Connect

    Eager, K.M.

    1995-10-24

    This document presents the results of a preliminary investigation into options for preliminary flowsheets for 99Tc removal from Hanford Site tank waste. A model is created to show the path of 99Tc through pretreatment to disposal. The Tank Waste Remediation (TWRS) flowsheet (Orme 1995) is used as a baseline. Ranges of important inputs to the model are developed, such as 99Tc inventory in the tanks and important splits through the TWRS flowsheet. Several technetium removal options are discussed along with sensitivities of the removal schemes to important model parameters

  18. Handoff effect on CDMA forward link capacity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jayong Koo; Youngnam Han; Jongin Kim

    2006-01-01

    In this letter, an analysis on CDMA forward link capacity with hard and soft handoffs, when a handoff decision is based on filtered pilot signal strengths, is provided. For the soft handoff, capacity based on three different power allocation schemes is investigated: equal power, equal signal to interference ratio and selection diversity. Contrary to previous results that soft handoff provides

  19. Preliminary Results of Altitude-Wind-Tunnel Investigation of X24C-4B Turbojet Engine. IV - Performance of Modified Compressor. Part 4; Performance of Modified Compressor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thorman, H. Carl; Dupree, David T.

    1947-01-01

    The performance of the 11-stage axial-flow compressor, modified to improve the compressor-outlet velocity, in a revised X24C-4B turbojet engine is presented and compared with the performance of the compressor in the original engine. Performance data were obtained from an investigation of the revised engine in the MACA Cleveland altitude wind tunnel. Compressor performance data were obtained for engine operation with four exhaust nozzles of different outlet area at simulated altitudes from 15,OOO to 45,000 feet, simulated flight Mach numbers from 0.24 to 1.07, and engine speeds from 4000 to 12,500 rpm. The data cover a range of corrected engine speeds from 4100 to 13,500 rpm, which correspond to compressor Mach numbers from 0.30 to 1.00.

  20. Preliminary Results of Altitude-Wind-Tunnel Investigation of X24C-4B Turbojet Engine. II - Engine Performance. II; Engine Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, Carl L.; Bloomer, Harry E.

    1948-01-01

    An investigation was conducted in the NACA Cleveland altitude wind tunnel to evaluate the performance characteristics of the X24C-4B turbojet engine over a range of simulated altitudes from 5000 to 45,000 feet,simulated flight Mach numbers from 0 to 1.08, and engine speeds from 4000 to 12,500 rpm. Performance data are presented to show graphically the effects of altitude at a flight Mach number of 0.25 and of flight Mach number at an altitude of 25,000 feet. The performance data are generalized to show the applicability of methods used to determine performance at any altitude from data obtained at a given altitude. A complete tabulation of performance data, as well as lubrication- and fuel- system data, is presented.

  1. Preliminary Results of Altitude-Wind-Tunnel Investigation of X24C-4B Turbojet Engine. V - Performance of Modified Engine. V; Performance of Modified Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prince, William R.; Bloomer, Harry E.

    1947-01-01

    An investigation has been conducted in the NACA Cleveland altitude wind tunnel to evaluate the performance characteristics of a modified X24C-4B turbojet engine over a range of simulated altitudes from 5000 to 45,000 feet, simulated flight Mach numbers from 0.25 to 1.07, and engine speeds from 4000 to 12,500 rpm. The engine was modified by the manufacturer to improve the velocity and temperature profiles within the engine. Performance data are graphically presented to show the effect of altitude at a flight Mach number of 0.25 and the effect of flight Mach number at an altitude of 25,000 feet. Original and modified engine performances for several specific operating conditions are compared. A complete tabulation of average pressures and temperatures throughout the engine, performance data, and lubrication and fuel-system data is presented.

  2. A preliminary investigation of the pseudo-spectral method numerical solution of the Perkins instability equations in the homogeneous TEC case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Qina; Mathews, John D.; Du, Qiang; Miller, Clark A.

    2005-03-01

    A pseudo-spectral method code is developed to simulate the electrodynamic instability (spread-F) behavior of the mid-latitude ionosphere by numerically solving two of the Perkins (J. Geophys. Res. 78 (1973) 218) equations. This work follows that of Miller (On gravity waves and the electrodynamics of the mid-latitude ionosphere, Ph.D. Thesis, Cornell University, 1996) and provides extensions in both the solution method—resulting in more precise, efficient and robust solutions—and in the range of solutions investigated. In the linear instability-development stage, the simulation result is consistent with the Perkins (1973) predictions, yielding relative differences of less than 0.6%. A random initial condition case like that of Miller (1996) is carried out with the result agreeing with Miller's result obtained in a different manner. In addition, the effect of non-linearity of the equation system is observed. The range of initial conditions investigated indicates that over a large wavelength range, self-similar ionospheric instability structures (Geophys. Res. Lett. 28 (2001) 4167) can be generated in conductivity and potential (the field-line integrated electron concentration is constant). Further, by using dual-wave-mode excitation with suitable parameters, saturation of the instability process is observed. Some dual-mode excitation processes are very different from the single-mode excitation case in many respects—especially in wavelength dependence. The turbulent saturation is observed in simulation to be caused by the E×B instability that requires a sharp conductivity gradient at the backside of the drift movement. On the other hand, other dual-mode excitation processes do not display a saturation state. In this case, the process converges to and then follows the path of the corresponding single-mode excitation example.

  3. Quantum Capacities of Channels with small Environment

    E-print Network

    Michael M. Wolf; David Perez-Garcia

    2006-07-11

    We investigate the quantum capacity of noisy quantum channels which can be represented by coupling a system to an effectively small environment. A capacity formula is derived for all cases where both system and environment are two-dimensional--including all extremal qubit channels. Similarly, for channels acting on higher dimensional systems we show that the capacity can be determined if the channel arises from a sufficiently small coupling to a qubit environment. Extensions to instances of channels with larger environment are provided and it is shown that bounds on the capacity with unconstrained environment can be obtained from decompositions into channels with small environment.

  4. The capacity of digital links in tandem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Posner, E. C.; Rubin, A. L.

    1984-01-01

    The present investigation is concerned with the error control strategy used in connection with digital data networks, taking into account the capacity of the end-to-end channel. It is assumed that the only source of noise is Gaussian and that bandwidth limitation on capacity can be ignored. Attention is given to L links in tandem with binary repeaters, the asymptotic capacity with a large number of links, some alternative repeater strategies, and approaches for lowering the bit error probability. Numerical results are presented, taking into consideration capacity versus link error probability for various numbers of links.

  5. Construction and preliminary investigation of a novel dengue serotype 4 chimeric virus using Japanese encephalitis vaccine strain SA14-14-2 as the backbone.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhushi; Yang, Huiqiang; Yang, Jian; Lin, Hua; Wang, Wei; Liu, Lina; Zhao, Yu; Liu, Li; Zeng, Xianwu; Yu, Yongxin; Li, Yuhua

    2014-10-13

    For the purpose of developing a novel dengue vaccine candidate, recombinant plasmids were constructed which contained the full length cDNA clone of Japanese encephalitis (JE) vaccine strain SA14-14-2 with its premembrane (PreM) and envelope (E) genes replaced by the counterparts of dengue virus type 4 (DENV4). By transfecting the in vitro transcription products of the recombinant plasmids into BHK-21 cells, a chimeric virus JEV/DENV4 was successfully recovered. The chimeric virus was identified by complete genome sequencing, Western blot and immunofluorescent staining. Growth characteristics revealed it was well adapted to primary hamster kidney (PHK) cells. Its genetic stability was investigated and only one unintentional mutation in 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR) was found after 20 passages in PHK cells. Neurotropism, neurovirulence and immunogenicity of the chimeric virus were tested in mice. Besides, the influence of JE vaccine pre-immunization on the neutralizing antibody level induced by the chimeric virus was illuminated. To our knowledge, this is the first chimeric virus incorporating the JE vaccine stain SA14-14-2 and DENV4. It is probably a potential candidate to compose a tetravalent dengue chimeric vaccine. PMID:25091563

  6. The clinical presentation of chronic whiplash and the relationship to findings of MRI fatty infiltrates in the cervical extensor musculature: a preliminary investigation.

    PubMed

    Elliott, James; Sterling, Michele; Noteboom, Jon Timothy; Treleaven, Julia; Galloway, Graham; Jull, Gwendolen

    2009-09-01

    The objective was to determine whether any measurable changes in sensory responses, kinesthetic sense, cervical motion, and psychological features were related to established fatty infiltration values in the cervical extensor musculature in subjects with persistent whiplash. It is unknown if fatty infiltrate is related to any signs or symptoms. Data on motor function, Quantitative Sensory Testing, psychological and general well-being, and pain and disability were collected from 79 female subjects with chronic whiplash. Total fat values were created for all subjects by averaging the muscle fat indices by muscle, level, and side from our MRI dataset of all the cervical extensor muscles. Results of this study indicate the presence of altered physical, kinesthetic, sensory, and psychological features in this cohort of patients with chronic whiplash. Combined factors of sensory, physical, kinesthetic, and psychological features all contributed to a small extent in explaining the varying levels of fatty infiltrate, with cold pain thresholds having the most influence (r (2) = 0.28; P = 0.02). Identifying and relating quantifiable muscular alterations to clinical measures in the chronic state, underpin some clinical hypotheses for possible pathophysiological processes in this group with a chronic and recalcitrant whiplash disorder. Future research investigations aimed at accurate identification, sub-classification, prediction, and management of patients with acute and chronic whiplash is warranted and underway. PMID:19672633

  7. Photothermal response of CVD synthesized carbon (nano)spheres/aqueous nanofluids for potential application in direct solar absorption collectors: a preliminary investigation

    PubMed Central

    Poinern, Gérrard Eddy Jai; Brundavanam, Sridevi; Shah, Monaliben; Laava, Iafeta; Fawcett, Derek

    2012-01-01

    Direct-absorption solar collectors have the potential to offer an unlimited source of renewable energy with minimal environmental impact. Unfortunately, their performance is limited by the absorption efficiency of the working fluid. Nanoparticles of functionalized carbon nanospheres (CNS) have the potential to improve the photothermal properties of the working fluid. CNS are produced by the pyrolysis of acetylene gas in a tube-based electric furnace/chemical vapor deposition apparatus. The reaction takes place at 1000°C in the presence of nitrogen gas without the use of a catalyst. The synthesized CNS were examined and characterized using field-emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, thermal gravimetric analysis, and ultraviolet-visible analysis. The CNS powders with a mean particle size of 210 nm were then functionalized using tetraethylammonium hydroxide ([C2H5]4 N[OH]) and used to produce a series of aqueous nanofluids with varying mass content. The photothermal response of both the nanofluids and films composed of CNS were investigated under 1000 W/m2 solar irradiation. PMID:24198496

  8. Will urban expansion lead to an increase in future water pollution loads?--a preliminary investigation of the Haihe River Basin in northeastern China.

    PubMed

    Dong, Yang; Liu, Yi; Chen, Jining

    2014-01-01

    Urban expansion is a major driving force changing regional hydrology and nonpoint source pollution. The Haihe River Basin, the political, economic, and cultural center of northeastern China, has undergone rapid urbanization in recent decades. To investigate the consequences of future urban sprawl on nonpoint source water pollutant emissions in the river basin, the urban sprawl in 2030 was estimated, and the annual runoff and nonpoint source pollution in the Haihe River basin were simulated. The Integrated Model of Non-Point Sources Pollution Processes (IMPULSE) was used to simulate the effects of urban sprawl on nonpoint source pollution emissions. The outcomes indicated that the urban expansion through 2030 increased the nonpoint source total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorous (TP), and chemical oxygen demand (COD) emissions by 8.08, 0.14, and 149.57 kg/km(2), respectively. Compared to 2008, the total nonpoint emissions rose by 15.33, 0.57, and 12.39 %, respectively. Twelve percent of the 25 cities in the basin would increase by more than 50 % in nonpoint source TN and COD emissions in 2030. In particular, the nonpoint source TN emissions in Xinxiang, Jiaozuo, and Puyang would rise by 73.31, 67.25, and 58.61 %, and the nonpoint source COD emissions in these cities would rise by 74.02, 51.99, and 53.27 %, respectively. The point source pollution emissions in 2008 and 2030 were also estimated to explore the effects of urban sprawl on total water pollution loads. Urban sprawl through 2030 would bring significant structural changes of total TN, TP, and COD emissions for each city in the area. The results of this study could provide insights into the effects of urbanization in the study area and the methods could help to recognize the role that future urban sprawl plays in the total water pollution loads in the water quality management process. PMID:24532209

  9. Preliminary investigations on ethyl glucuronide and ethyl sulfate cutoffs for detecting alcohol consumption on the basis of an ingestion experiment and on data from withdrawal treatment.

    PubMed

    Albermann, Maria Elena; Musshoff, Frank; Doberentz, Elke; Heese, Peter; Banger, Markus; Madea, Burkhard

    2012-09-01

    Ethyl glucuronide (EtG) and ethyl sulfate (EtS) are commonly used alcohol markers for previous alcohol consumption. Nevertheless, the optimum EtG cutoff for urinary abstinence tests is still being discussed, and no cutoff has been recommended for EtS yet. The aim of this study was to verify cutoffs by investigating EtG and EtS concentrations (c(EtG) and c(EtS)) in the urine of healthy persons after drinking small, but realistic amounts of alcohol (one or two glasses of beer or white wine), and to look for the window of detection in strongly alcohol-intoxicated patients who were beginning withdrawal treatment. Very high EtG and EtS concentrations were measured in the first urine samples of patients under withdrawal treatment. However, 24 h later, concentrations decreased considerably, and c (EtG)?

  10. Study of intermolecular contacts in proteins and oligomer interfaces and preliminary investigations into the design and production of nanomaterials from proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iyer, Ganesh Hariharan

    The first part of this research involved a study of the nature and extent of nonbonded interactions at crystal and oligomer interfaces. A survey was compiled of several characteristics of intersubunit contacts in 58 different oligomeric proteins, and of the intermolecular contacts in 223 protein crystal structures. Routines written in "S" language were utilized for the generation of the observed and expected contacts. The information in the Protein Data Bank (PDB) was extracted using the database management system, Protein Knowledge Base (PKB). Potentials of mean force for atom-atom contacts and residue-residue contacts were derived by comparison of the number of observed interactions with the number expected by mass action. Preference association matrices and log-linear analyses were applied to determine the different factors that could contribute to the overall interactions at the interfaces of oligomers and crystals. Surface patches at oligomer and crystal interfaces were also studied to further investigate the origin of the differences in their stabilities. Total number of atoms in contact and the secondary structure elements involved are similar in the two types of interfaces. Crystal contacts result from more numerous interactions by polar residues, compared with a tendency toward nonpolar amino acid prominent in oligomer interfaces. Contact potentials indicate that hydrophobic interactions at oligomer interfaces favor aromatic amino acids and methionine over aliphatic amino acids; and that crystal contacts form in such a way as to avoid inclusion of hydrophobic interactions. The second part involved the development of a new class of biomaterials from two-dimensional arrays of ordered proteins. Point mutations were planned to introduce cysteine residues at appropriate locations to enable cross-linking at the molecular interface within given crystallographic planes. Crystallization and subsequent cross-linking of the modified protein would lead to the formation of arrays on subsequent dissociation of the crystal. Novel protein architectures can be generated from these cross-linked nanostructures. Experiments with model protein, maltose-binding protein (MBP) were performed to develop purification, cross-linking and crystallization techniques. The long-term goal of this project is to apply the experience gained with MBP to the fabrication of nanomaterials from other, application-specific proteins for ultrafiltration and microelectronic devices.

  11. Preliminaries Main Theorem

    E-print Network

    Nevins, Monica

    Preliminaries Main Theorem W-Graphs and their -Invariants Proof of the Main Theorem Type;Preliminaries Main Theorem W-Graphs and their -Invariants Proof of the Main Theorem Type An The other classical Jackson Todor MilevTau Signatures and Characters of Weyl Groups #12;Preliminaries Main Theorem W

  12. On Gaussian feedback capacity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dembo, Amir

    1989-01-01

    Pinsker and Ebert (1970) proved that in channels with additive Gaussian noise, feedback at most doubles the capacity. Cover and Pombra (1989) proved that feedback at most adds half a bit per transmission. Following their approach, the author proves that in the limit as signal power approaches either zero (very low SNR) or infinity (very high SNR), feedback does not increase the finite block-length capacity (which for nonstationary Gaussian channels replaces the standard notion of capacity that may not exist). Tighter upper bounds on the capacity are obtained in the process. Specializing these results to stationary channels, the author recovers some of the bounds recently obtained by Ozarow.

  13. Heat Capacity Analysis Report

    SciTech Connect

    A. Findikakis

    2004-11-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide heat capacity values for the host and surrounding rock layers for the waste repository at Yucca Mountain. The heat capacity representations provided by this analysis are used in unsaturated zone (UZ) flow, transport, and coupled processes numerical modeling activities, and in thermal analyses as part of the design of the repository to support the license application. Among the reports that use the heat capacity values estimated in this report are the ''Multiscale Thermohydrologic Model'' report, the ''Drift Degradation Analysis'' report, the ''Ventilation Model and Analysis Report, the Igneous Intrusion Impacts on Waste Packages and Waste Forms'' report, the ''Dike/Drift Interactions report, the Drift-Scale Coupled Processes (DST and TH Seepage) Models'' report, and the ''In-Drift Natural Convection and Condensation'' report. The specific objective of this study is to determine the rock-grain and rock-mass heat capacities for the geologic stratigraphy identified in the ''Mineralogic Model (MM3.0) Report'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170031], Table 1-1). This report provides estimates of the heat capacity for all stratigraphic layers except the Paleozoic, for which the mineralogic abundance data required to estimate the heat capacity are not available. The temperature range of interest in this analysis is 25 C to 325 C. This interval is broken into three separate temperature sub-intervals: 25 C to 95 C, 95 C to 114 C, and 114 C to 325 C, which correspond to the preboiling, trans-boiling, and postboiling regimes. Heat capacity is defined as the amount of energy required to raise the temperature of a unit mass of material by one degree (Nimick and Connolly 1991 [DIRS 100690], p. 5). The rock-grain heat capacity is defined as the heat capacity of the rock solids (minerals), and does not include the effect of water that exists in the rock pores. By comparison, the rock-mass heat capacity considers the heat capacity of both solids and pore water. For temperatures in the trans-boiling regime (95 C to 114 C), the additional energy required to vaporize the pore water is accounted for in the rock-mass heat capacity. The rock-grain heat capacities are intended to be used in models and analyses that explicitly account for the thermodynamic effects of the water within the rock porosity. The rock-mass heat capacities are intended to be used in models and analyses that do not explicitly account for these thermodynamic effects, particularly boiling. The term specific heat is often used synonymously with heat capacity; however, the latter term is used throughout this document.

  14. Preliminary investigations into UHCRE thermal control materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levadou, Francois; Froggatt, Mike; Rott, Martin; Schneider, Eberhard

    1991-01-01

    An overview is given of the initial work which has been done in the European Space Research and Technology Center (ESTEC) Materials and Processes Division to evaluate the effect of space environment on the thermal blankets of the Ultra-Heavy Cosmic Ray Nuclei Experiment (UHCRE). Also, an account is given of the simulation of the impacts of micrometeoroids and space debris in a spare flight thermal blanket by means of plasma gun and light gas gun acceleration facilities.

  15. Biofeedback Training and Underachievement: A Preliminary Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Von Bargen, Wayne J.

    College students experiencing academic difficulties are a major concern to universities. Research has indicated that many underachievers display certain identifiable electroencephalogram (EEG) characteristics. Unlike achieving students, underachievers often exhibit little EEG arousal during normally motivating tasks. These findings suggest that…

  16. Biofeedback and dance performance: a preliminary investigation.

    PubMed

    Raymond, Joshua; Sajid, Imran; Parkinson, Lesley A; Gruzelier, John H

    2005-03-01

    Alpha-theta neurofeedback has been shown to produce professionally significant performance improvements in music students. The present study aimed to extend this work to a different performing art and compare alpha-theta neurofeedback with another form of biofeedback: heart rate variability (HRV) biofeedback. Twenty-four ballroom and Latin dancers were randomly allocated to three groups, one receiving neurofeedback, one HRV biofeedback and one no intervention. Dance was assessed before and after training. Performance improvements were found in the biofeedback groups but not in the control group. Neurofeedback and HRV biofeedback benefited performance in different ways. A replication with larger sample sizes is required. PMID:15889586

  17. Viking magnetic properties investigation - Preliminary results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hargraves, R. B.; Collinson, D. W.; Spitzer, C. R.

    1976-01-01

    Three permanent-magnet arrays are aboard the Viking lander. By sol 35, one array, fixed on a photometric reference test chart on top of the lander, has clearly attracted magnetic particles from airborne dust; two other magnet arrays, one strong and one weak, incorporated in the backhoe of the surface sampler, have both extracted considerable magnetic mineral from the surface as a result of nine insertions associated with sample acquisition. The loose Martian surface material around the landing site is judged to contain 3 to 7 per cent highly magnetic mineral which, pending spectrophotometric study, is thought to be mainly magnetite.

  18. A Preliminary Investigation of Hall Thruster Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallimore, Alec D.

    1997-01-01

    A three-year, NASA/BMDO-sponsored experimental program to conduct performance and plume plasma property measurements on two Russian Stationary Plasma Thrusters (SPTs) has been completed. The program utilized experimental facilitates at the University of Michigan's Plasmadynamics and Electric Propulsion Laboratory (PEPL). The main features of the proposed effort were as follows: We Characterized Hall thruster [and arcjet] performance by measuring ion exhaust velocity with probes at various thruster conditions. Used a variety of probe diagnostics in the thruster plume to measure plasma properties and flow properties including T(sub e) and n(sub e), ion current density and ion energy distribution, and electric fields by mapping plasma potential. Used emission spectroscopy to identify species within the plume and to measure electron temperatures.

  19. A Preliminary Investigation of Hall Thruster Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallimore, Alec D.

    1997-01-01

    A three-year NASA/BMDO-sponsored experimental program to conduct performance and plume plasma property measurements on two Russian Stationary Plasma Thrusters (SPTs) has been completed. The program utilized experimental facilitates at the University of Michigan's Plasmadynamics and Electric Propulsion Laboratory (PEPL). The main features of the proposed effort were as follows: (1) Characterized Hall thruster (and arcjet) performance by measuring ion exhaust velocity with probes at various thruster conditions; (2) Used a variety of probe diagnostics in the thruster plume to measure plasma properties and flow properties including T(sub e) and n(sub e) ion current density and ion energy distribution, and electric fields by mapping plasma potential; (3) Used emission spectroscopy to identify species within the plume and to measure electron temperatures. A key and unique feature of our research was our collaboration with Russian Hall thruster researcher Dr. Sergey A Khartov, Deputy Dean of International Relations at the Moscow Aviation Institute (MAI). His activities in this program included consulting on and participation in research at PEPL through use of a MAI-built SPT and ion energy probe.

  20. Preliminary subsidence investigation of Sacramento Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lofgren, B.E.; Ireland, R.L.

    1973-01-01

    Although a number of agencies have made leveling surveys in Sacramento Valley and a valleywide network of first- and second-order control exists, few areas have sufficient control for determining whether land subsidence has occurred and if so, how much, within the time span of vertical control. Available data suggest that 0.2 to 0.9 foot (0.06 to 0.3 m) of subsidence probably has occurred from 1935-42 to 1964 in an extensive agricultural area of heavy ground-water pumping between Zamora and Davis, and that as much as 2 feet (0.6 m) of subsidence has occurred in at least two areas of pumping overdraft--east of Zamora, and west of Arbuckle. A comparison of maps showing long-term water-level decline and average annual ground-water pumpage indicates several other areas of probable subsidence. In six general areas--northwest of Sacramento; northeast of Sacramento; southeast of Yuba City; 10 miles (16 km) north of Willows; 20 miles (32 km) north of Willows; and especially in the Arbuckle area,ground-water declines have quite probably produced significant subsidence. In two areas of most intensive pumping, no long-term water-level declines have occurred, and no subsidence is indicated. If problems of land subsidence are of concern in Sacramento Valley, and if estimates of historic subsidence or subsidence potential are needed, serious consideration should be given to a field program of basic-data collection. Second-order leveling along a few carefully selected lines of existing control, and the installation and operation of two or three compaction recorders in areas of continuing water-level decline, would provide helpful data for estimating .past and future subsidence.

  1. Nanofluid heat capacities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starace, Anne K.; Gomez, Judith C.; Wang, Jun; Pradhan, Sulolit; Glatzmaier, Greg C.

    2011-12-01

    Significant increases in the heat capacity of heat transfer fluids are needed not only to reduce the costs of liquid heating and cooling processes, but also to bring clean energy producing technologies like concentrating solar power (CSP) to price parity with conventional energy generation. It has been postulated that nanofluids could have higher heat capacities than conventional fluids. In this work, nano- and micron-sized particles were added to five base fluids (poly-? olefin, mineral oil, ethylene glycol, a mixture of water and ethylene glycol, and calcium nitrate tetrahydrate), and the resulting heat capacities were measured and compared with those of the neat base fluids and the weighted average of the heat capacities of the components. The particles used were inert metals and metal oxides that did not undergo any phase transitions over the temperature range studied. In the nanofluids studied here, we found no increase in heat capacity upon the addition of the particles larger than the experimental error.

  2. Bandwidth limitations on noiseless optical channel capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butman, S. A.; Katz, J.; Lesh, J. R.

    1982-05-01

    The channel capacity of an optical communications link utilizing direct photon detection can be substantially larger than the heterodyne detection quantum limit. In the limit of a noiseless channel the capacity per received photon can even be infinite. In most communications systems the real constraint is to deliver a certain throughput capacity measured in nats/second. The current investigation has the objective to show that due to physical limitations on the minimum time resolution which can be achieved, and for any given throughput capacity in nats/second, there exists an optimum PPM word size which maximizes the 'power efficiency capacity' expressed in nats/photon. Such an optimization will allow the system-designer to minimize the amount of power needed to achieve the desired throughput without violating his bandwidth constraint.

  3. MIMO Capacity in Correlated Interference-Limited Jin Sam Kwak

    E-print Network

    Lozano, Angel

    MIMO Capacity in Correlated Interference-Limited Channels Jin Sam Kwak LG Electronics Anyang 431@alcatel-lucent.com Abstract-- This paper analyzes the capacity of MIMO channels in the presence of both antenna correlation on the capacity of MIMO channels has been investigated in [12]-[19], mostly within the context of i.i.d. Rayleig

  4. Capacity of MIMO Systems for Spatial Channel Model Scenarios

    E-print Network

    Durrani, Salman

    Capacity of MIMO Systems for Spatial Channel Model Scenarios Shuo Pan (u4108445) Supervisor: Dr University, Canberra, Australia. June 2006 #12;Capacity of MIMO Systems for Spatial Channel Model Scenarios demand for high data rate wireless systems. The aim of this thesis is to investigate MIMO system capacity

  5. An Upper Bound for Limited Rate Feedback MIMO Capacity

    E-print Network

    Yýlmaz, �zgür

    1 An Upper Bound for Limited Rate Feedback MIMO Capacity G¨okhan M. G¨uvensen, Student Member, IEEE. I. INTRODUCTION Capacity gains promised by multi-input multi-output (MIMO) systems often require]. We investigate the capacity of point-to-point MIMO chan- nels in this paper as opposed

  6. Capacity planning for toll roadways incorporating consumer wait time costs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jess S. Boronico; Philip H. Siegel

    1998-01-01

    This paper reports the findings for an investigation concerning capacity planning analysis for toll-plaza operations. The study develops a cost minimizing capacity planning model that minimizes expected costs which include both operating and user costs. A reliability constraint is appended to the formulation to account for the service provider's sensitivity to demand for quality. Optimal capacity levels are determined for

  7. Soil ammonium and phosphate sorption capacity decreases with prescribed ground fire Miranda A. Sinnott-Armstrong

    E-print Network

    Vallino, Joseph J.

    decrease in soil sorption capacity. Preliminary data on soil pH in organic and mineral soil indicate1 Soil ammonium and phosphate sorption capacity decreases with prescribed ground fire Miranda A fires decreased the depth of the organic horizon of soil in an experimentally burned forest in Truro, MA

  8. On the Capacities of a Class of Finite State Channels with Side Information

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arnab Das; Prakash Narayan

    We determine the capacities of a general class of single user and multiple access finite state channels when the transmitter and receiver are provided varying degrees of side information concerning the condition of the channel. To this end, some of our preliminary results presented below concern the capacities of single user and multiple access finite state channels where the channel

  9. Refinery Capacity Report

    EIA Publications

    2015-01-01

    Data series include fuel, electricity, and steam purchased for consumption at the refinery; refinery receipts of crude oil by method of transportation; and current and projected atmospheric crude oil distillation, downstream charge, and production capacities. Respondents are operators of all operating and idle petroleum refineries (including new refineries under construction) and refineries shut down during the previous year, located in the 50 states, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Guam, and other U.S. possessions. The Refinery Capacity Report does not contain working and shell storage capacity data. This data is now being collected twice a year as of March 31 and September 30 on the Form EIA-810, "Monthly Refinery Report", and is now released as a separate report Working and Net Available Shell Storage Capacity.

  10. Stochastic capacity modeling to support demand/capacity gap planning

    E-print Network

    Niles, Augusta (Augusta L.)

    2014-01-01

    Capacity strategy has established methods of dealing with uncertainty in future demand. This project advances the concept of capacity strategy under conditions of uncertainty in cases where capacity is the primary source ...

  11. Panama Canal capacity analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Bronzini, M.S. [Oak Ridge National Lab., Knoxville, TN (United States). Center for Transportation Analysis

    1995-04-27

    Predicting the transit capacities of the various Panama Canal alternatives required analyzing data on present Canal operations, adapting and extending an existing computer simulation model, performing simulation runs for each of the alternatives, and using the simulation model outputs to develop capacity estimates. These activities are summarized in this paper. A more complete account may be found in the project final report (TAMS 1993). Some of the material in this paper also appeared in a previously published paper (Rosselli, Bronzini, and Weekly 1994).

  12. Dielectric cure monitoring: Preliminary studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, B. E.; Semmel, M. L.

    1984-01-01

    Preliminary studies have been conducted on two types of dielectric cure monitoring systems employing both epoxy resins and phenolic composites. An Audrey System was used for 23 cure monitoring runs with very limited success. Nine complete cure monitoring runs have been investigated using a Micromet System. Two additional measurements were performed to investigate the Micromet's sensitivity to water absorption in a post-cure carbon-phenolic material. While further work is needed to determine data significance, the Micromet system appears to show promise as a feedback control device during processing.

  13. Panel on Capacity Building

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elhadani, D.

    The demonstration was made that space technologies are an important tool for developing countries. But the fundamental question is how those countries could integrate such technologies, in an effective an operational way, in the process of resources management and administration. Capacity building is a cornerstone in any strategy to set up a national programme or infrastructure for the use of space technologies. The proposed presentation attempts to bring the first elements on the actual uses of space technology in developing countries compared to their needs, the role of training activities and programs in the capacity building process as well as the role of international cooperation and what are the required conditions to ensure sustainability of the established capacities.

  14. Web Capacity Planning

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Amy Apon

    This course teaches a quantitative approach to analyzing client/server and Web-based systems. Students will learn how to develop performance predictive models for capacity planning. Instead of relying on intuition, ad hoc procedures, and rules of thumb, students will learn a uniform and formal way for dealing with performance problems. The performance models are based on the theory of queuing networks. By the end of the summer each student will complete, as part of a team, a performance capacity planning study on a real computing system.

  15. Preliminary Analysis of Photoreading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McNamara, Danielle S.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to provide a preliminary analysis of a reading strategy called PhotoReading. PhotoReading is a technique developed by Paul Scheele that claims to increase reading rate to 25,000 words per minute (Scheele, 1993). PhotoReading itself involves entering a "relaxed state" and looking at, but not reading, each page of a text for a brief moment (about I to 2 seconds). While this technique has received attention in the popular press, there had been no objective examinations of the technique's validity. To examine the effectiveness of PhotoReading, the principal investigator (i.e., trainee) participated in a PhotoReading workshop to learn the technique. Parallel versions of two standardized and three experimenter-created reading comprehension tests were administered to the trainee and an expert user of the PhotoReading technique to compare the use of normal reading strategies and the PhotoReading technique by both readers. The results for all measures yielded no benefits of using the PhotoReading technique. The extremely rapid reading rates claimed by PhotoReaders were not observed; indeed, the reading rates were generally comparable to those for normal reading. Moreover, the PhotoReading expert generally showed an increase in reading time when using the PhotoReading technique in comparison to when using normal reading strategies to process text. This increase in reading time when PhotoReading was accompanied by a decrease in text comprehension.

  16. Understanding aging mechanisms in lithium-ion battery packs: From cell capacity loss to pack capacity evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yuejiu; Ouyang, Minggao; Lu, Languang; Li, Jianqiu

    2015-03-01

    Battery cell capacity loss is extensively studied so as to extend battery life in varied applications from portable consumer electronics to energy storage devices. Battery packs are constructed especially in energy storage devices to provide sufficient voltage and capacity. However, engineering practice indicates that battery packs always fade more critically than cells. We investigate the evolution of battery pack capacity loss by analyzing cell aging mechanisms using the "Electric quantity - Capacity Scatter Diagram (ECSD)" from a system point of view. The results show that cell capacity loss is not the sole contributor to pack capacity loss. The loss of lithium inventory variation at anodes between cells plays a significant role in pack capacity evolution. Therefore, we suggest more attention could be paid to the loss of lithium inventory at anodes in order to mitigate pack capacity degradation.

  17. Development of a solar-powered residential air conditioner: System optimization preliminary specification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rousseau, J.; Hwang, K. C.

    1975-01-01

    Investigations aimed at the optimization of a baseline Rankine cycle solar powered air conditioner and the development of a preliminary system specification were conducted. Efforts encompassed the following: (1) investigations of the use of recuperators/regenerators to enhance the performance of the baseline system, (2) development of an off-design computer program for system performance prediction, (3) optimization of the turbocompressor design to cover a broad range of conditions and permit operation at low heat source water temperatures, (4) generation of parametric data describing system performance (COP and capacity), (5) development and evaluation of candidate system augmentation concepts and selection of the optimum approach, (6) generation of auxiliary power requirement data, (7) development of a complete solar collector-thermal storage-air conditioner computer program, (8) evaluation of the baseline Rankine air conditioner over a five day period simulating the NASA solar house operation, and (9) evaluation of the air conditioner as a heat pump.

  18. Quantum Zero-error Capacity

    E-print Network

    Rex A. C. Medeiros; Francisco M. De Assis

    2006-11-08

    We define here a new kind of quantum channel capacity by extending the concept of zero-error capacity for a noisy quantum channel. The necessary requirement for which a quantum channel has zero-error capacity greater than zero is given. Finally, we point out some directions on how to calculate the zero-error capacity of such channels.

  19. Carrying Capacity as \\

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert E. Manning; Steven R. Lawson

    2001-01-01

    Contemporary carrying capacity frameworks, such as Limits of Acceptable Change and Visitor Experience and Resource Protection, rely on formulation of standards of quality, which are defined as minimum acceptable resource and social conditions in parks and wilderness. Formulation of standards of quality involves elements of both science and values, and both of these elements must be integrated into \\

  20. China's national innovative capacity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mei-Chih Hu; John A. Mathews

    2008-01-01

    China is transforming itself into the workshop of the world, building an export-oriented national production system linked by global value chains to the world's leading economies. But to what extent is it laying the foundations for moving from imitation to innovation? In this first study of China's national innovative capacity, we extend earlier work conducted on the East Asian Tiger

  1. Preliminary design study for an atomospheric science facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutchison, R.

    1972-01-01

    The activities and results of the Atmospheric Science Facility preliminary design study are reported. The objectives of the study were to define the scientific goals, to determine the range of experiment types, and to develop the preliminary instrument design requirements for a reusable, general purpose, optical research facility for investigating the earth's atmosphere from a space shuttle orbital vehicle.

  2. Preliminary Drill Sites

    DOE Data Explorer

    Lane, Michael

    Preliminary locations for intermediate depth temperature gradient holes and/or resource confirmation wells based on compilation of geological, geophysical and geochemical data prior to carrying out the DOE-funded reflection seismic survey.

  3. Load Capacity of Bodies

    E-print Network

    Reuven Segev

    2006-10-14

    For the stress analysis in a plastic body $\\Omega$, we prove that there exists a maximal positive number $C$, the \\emph{load capacity ratio,} such that the body will not collapse under any external traction field $t$ bounded by $Y_{0}C$, where $Y_0$ is the elastic limit. The load capacity ratio depends only on the geometry of the body and is given by $$ \\frac{1}{C}=\\sup_{w\\in LD(\\Omega)_D} \\frac{\\int_{\\partial\\Omega}|w|dA} {\\int_{\\Omega}|\\epsilon(w)|dV}=\\left\\|\\gamma_D\\right\\|. $$ Here, $LD(\\Omega)_D$ is the space of isochoric vector fields $w$ for which the corresponding stretchings $\\epsilon(w)$ are assumed to be integrable and $\\gamma_D$ is the trace mapping assigning the boundary value $\\gamma_D(w)$ to any $w\\in LD(\\Omega)_D$.

  4. Overview of CAPACITY data.

    PubMed

    van Gennip, E M; Heiska, K; Kemerink, G J; Ratib, O; Rechid, R; van den Broeck, R; van Erning, L J; van Poppel, B M; Verra, W J; Warburton, R

    1992-05-01

    This paper presents an overview of the data from 15 cases collected with the CAPACITY software for cost analysis of PACS. The data suggest that both hospital wide and partial PACS implementations do not pay back yet. Only Nuclear Medicine PACS systems may be introduced cost-neutral in the near future. Because of the assumed price drop of hardware components of 5-25% per year, hospital wide and partial PACS may allow cost savings within the next 10-20 years. There are major differences in viewpoints concerning the required PACS configurations and their costs. The experiences with the CAPACITY software suggest the need for the establishment of key rules, for designing a PACS configuration and for estimating PACS costs. PMID:1634260

  5. Heat Capacity Mapping Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nilsson, C. S.; Andrews, J. C.; Scully-Power, P.; Ball, S.; Speechley, G.; Latham, A. R. (principal investigators)

    1980-01-01

    The Tasman Front was delineated by airborne expendable bathythermograph survey; and an Heat Capacity Mapping Mission (HCMM) IR image on the same day shows the same principal features as determined from ground-truth. It is clear that digital enhancement of HCMM images is necessary to map ocean surface temperatures and when done, the Tasman Front and other oceanographic features can be mapped by this method, even through considerable scattered cloud cover.

  6. Capacity of linear rectangular microstrip antenna arrays

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christos Kalialakis; Ana Collado; Apostolos Georgiadis

    2009-01-01

    In this work, the dependence of the capacity of 2timesM MIMO systems on the mutual coupling between the transmitting and receiving antennas is investigated taking into account the correlation coefficient given by Clarke's model. Linear arrays of microstrip rectangular antennas are considered both in the transmitting and the receiving ends. The effect of the mutual coupling between microstrip antenna elements

  7. A Computational Model of Spatial Visualization Capacity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyon, Don R.; Gunzelmann, Glenn; Gluck, Kevin A.

    2008-01-01

    Visualizing spatial material is a cornerstone of human problem solving, but human visualization capacity is sharply limited. To investigate the sources of this limit, we developed a new task to measure visualization accuracy for verbally-described spatial paths (similar to street directions), and implemented a computational process model to…

  8. CSTI high capacity power

    SciTech Connect

    Winter, J.M.

    1994-09-01

    The SP-100 program was established in 1983 by DOD, DOE, and NASA as a joint program to develop the technology necessary for space nuclear power systems for military and civil application. During FY86 and 87, the NASA SP-100 Advanced Technology Program was devised to maintain the momentum of promising technology advancement efforts started during Phase I of SP-100 and to strengthen, in key areas, the chances for successful development and growth capability of space nuclear reactor power systems for future space applications. In FY88, the Advanced Technology Program was incorporated into NASA`s new Civil Space Technology Initiative (CSTI). The CSTI Program was established to provide the foundation for technology development in automation and robotics, information, propulsion, and power. The CSTI High Capacity Power Program builds on the technology efforts of the SP-100 program, incorporates the previous NASA SP-100 Advanced Technology project, and provides a bridge to NASA Project Pathfinder. The elements of CSTI High Capacity Power development include Conversion Systems, Thermal Management, Power Management, System Diagnostics, and Environmental Interactions. Technology advancement in all areas, including materials, is required to assure the high reliability and 7 to 10 year lifetime demanded for future space nuclear power systems. The overall program will develop and demonstrate the technology base required to provide a wide range of modular power systems as well as allowing mission independence from solar and orbital attitude requirements. Several recent advancements in CSTI High Capacity power development will be discussed.

  9. CSTI High Capacity Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winter, Jerry M.

    1989-01-01

    The SP-100 program was established in 1983 by DOD, DOE, and NASA as a joint program to develop the technology necessary for space nuclear power systems for military and civil application. During FY-86 and 87, the NASA SP-100 Advanced Technology Program was devised to maintain the momentum of promising technology advancement efforts started during Phase 1 of SP-100 and to strengthen, in key areas, the chances for successful development and growth capability of space nuclear reactor power systems for future space applications. In FY-88, the Advanced Technology Program was incorporated into NASA's new Civil Space Technology Initiative (CSTI). The CSTI Program was established to provide the foundation for technology development in automation and robotics, information, propulsion, and power. The CSTI High Capacity Power Program builds on the technology efforts of the SP-100 program, incorporates the previous NASA SP-100 Advanced Technology project, and provides a bridge to NASA Project Pathfinder. The elements of CSTI High Capacity Power development include Conversion Systems, Thermal Management, Power Management, System Diagnostics, and Environmental Interactions. Technology advancement in all areas, including materials, is required to assure the high reliability and 7 to 10 year lifetime demanded for future space nuclear power systems. The overall program will develop and demonstrate the technology base required to provide a wide range of modular power systems as well as allowing mission independence from solar and orbital attitude requirements. Several recent advancements in CSTI High Capacity power development will be discussed.

  10. Data use investigations for applications Explorer Mission A (Heat Capacity Mapping Mission): HCMM's role in studies of the urban heat island, Great Lakes thermal phenomena and radiometric calibration of satellite data. [Buffalo, Syracuse, and Rochester New York and Lake Ontario

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schott, J. R. (principal investigator); Schimminger, E. W.

    1981-01-01

    The utility of data from NASA'a heat capacity mapping mission satellite for studies of the urban heat island, thermal phenomena in large lakes and radiometric calibration of satellite sensors was assessed. The data were found to be of significant value in all cases. Using HCMM data, the existence and microstructure of the heat island can be observed and associated with land cover within the urban complex. The formation and development of the thermal bar in the Great Lakes can be observed and quantitatively mapped using HCMM data. In addition, the thermal patterns observed can be associated with water quality variations observed both from other remote sensing platforms and in situ. The imaging radiometer on-board the HCMM satellite is shown to be calibratible to within about 1.1 C of actual surface temperatures. These findings, as well as the analytical procedures used in studying the HCMM data, are included.

  11. Preliminary Advice to Oral and Poster Presenters Third International Workshop on Advances in the Use of Historical Marine Climate Data

    E-print Network

    Preliminary Advice to Oral and Poster Presenters Third International Workshop oral presentation in advance e.g. by e-mail. 2. Poster: (a) Poster boards 2-sided (thus capacity for 20 posters) poster boards. Posters may

  12. 29 CFR 1981.104 - Investigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Investigation. 1981.104 Section 1981...IMPROVEMENT ACT OF 2002 Complaints, Investigations, Findings, and Preliminary Orders § 1981.104 Investigation. (a) Upon receipt...

  13. 29 CFR 1980.104 - Investigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Investigation. 1980.104 Section 1980.104...SARBANES-OXLEY ACT OF 2002 Complaints, Investigations, Findings and Preliminary Orders § 1980.104 Investigation. (a) Upon receipt...

  14. 77 FR 44174 - Procedures for Safety Investigations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-27

    ...CFR Part 1708 Procedures for Safety Investigations AGENCY: Defense Nuclear Facilities...conducting preliminary and formal safety investigations of events or practices at DOE defense...experience in conducting formal safety investigations necessitates codifying the...

  15. 29 CFR 1979.104 - Investigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Investigation. 1979.104 Section 1979.104...FOR THE 21ST CENTURY Complaints, Investigations, Findings and Preliminary Orders § 1979.104 Investigation. (a) Upon receipt...

  16. Improvement in oxygen storage capacity

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, Hirohisa; Yamamoto, Mari

    1996-09-01

    Cerium oxide (Ceria) is known to have good oxygen storage capacity (OSC) and is used widely in three-way catalysts for automobiles, but it has a problem of heat stability since it is less stable than aluminum oxide (Alumina). In the present work, cerium-zirconium-yttrium (Ce-Zr-Y) oxide systems were investigated with the aim of improving the heat stability of CeO{sub 2}-based oxide systems, which would result in great improvement in OSC. The authors found an optimum composition of Ce-Zr-Y oxide with platinum (Pt) dispersed in it at a quantity of 0.1% in weight, which showed good OSC starting from 100 C upwards even after thermal aging at 1,000 C for 2 hours under variable atmospheric conditions of rich-lean fluctuations.

  17. Variable capacity flywheel

    SciTech Connect

    Ban, M.

    1985-06-04

    A variable capacity flywheel comprises a main flywheel coupled with the rotating shaft of an engine and at least one rotatable auxiliary flywheel. Both are selectively engaged and disengaged with one another by means of an electromagnetic clutch. Both flywheels are engaged with one another by an energizing member in the low speed range of said engine. Both are disengaged from one another by means of excitation control of the electromagnetic clutch in the high speed range of the engine. A generator driven by the engine rotating shaft is connected in series with the electromagnetic clutch and a battery.

  18. Capacity Complying MIMO Channel Models

    E-print Network

    Müller, Ralf R.

    Capacity Complying MIMO Channel Models M´erouane Debbah and Ralf M¨uller Eurecom debbah, 2 ) · Validate the model with measurements. Debbah et al.: Capacity Complying MIMO Channel models c + n(t) and Y (f) = t Hr�t(f)X(f) + N(f) Debbah et al.: Capacity Complying MIMO Channel models c

  19. Superadditivity of quantum channel capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozaydin, Fatih; Ozdemir, Sahin Kaya; Koashi, Masato; Imoto, Nobuyuki

    2012-09-01

    Superadditivity of quantum capacity of communication channels is one of the most interesting findings of the field. Yard and Smith, finding a relation between the private capacity and the assisted quantum capacity, showed a striking example of superadditivity, i.e. two channels of zero quantum capacity could achieve a positive quantum capacity when used together [1]. The four dimensional channels they used are a 50% erasure channel (therefore zero quantum capacity, due to no-cloning theorem) and a Horodecki channel (again zero quantum capacity due to incapability of sharing free entanglement). In this work we present the more general cases of superadditivity. Directly calculating the lower bounds of joint quantum capacities without using the relation between private capacity and assisted quantum capacity, we examine scenarios considering erasure channels of arbitrary probabilities and different Horodecki channels, and discuss the roles of degradability and anti-degradability as well as the role of the private capacity in superadditivity. We also derive an upper bound for the joint quantum capacity for the superactivation case.

  20. SERVIR Science Applications for Capacity Building

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Limaye, Ashutosh; Searby, Nancy D.; Irwin, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    SERVIR is a regional visualization and monitoring system using Earth observations to support environmental management, climate adaptation, and disaster response in developing countries. SERVIR is jointly sponsored by NASA and the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID). SERVIR has been instrumental in development of science applications to support the decision-making and capacity building in the developing countries with the help of SERVIR Hubs. In 2011, NASA Research Opportunities in Space and Earth Sciences (ROSES) included a call for proposals to form SERVIR Applied Sciences Team (SERVIR AST) under Applied Sciences Capacity Building Program. Eleven proposals were selected, the Principal Investigators of which comprise the core of the SERVIR AST. The expertise on the Team span several societal benefit areas including agriculture, disasters, public health and air quality, water, climate and terrestrial carbon assessments. This presentation will cover the existing SERVIR science applications, capacity building components, overview of SERVIR AST projects, and anticipated impacts.

  1. MNC knowledge transfer, subsidiary absorptive capacity, and HRM

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dana Minbaeva; Torben Pedersen; Ingmar Björkman; Carl F. Fey; H J Park

    2003-01-01

    Based on a sample of 169 subsidiaries of multinational corporations (MNCs) operating in the USA, Russia, and Finland, this paper investigates the relationship between MNC subsidiary human resource management (HRM) practices, absorptive capacity, and knowledge transfer. First, we examine the relationship between the application of specific HRM practices and the level of the absorptive capacity. Second, we suggest that absorptive

  2. Geological controls on coalbed methane reservoir capacity and gas content

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. M Bustin; C. R Clarkson

    1998-01-01

    The influence of coal composition and rank on coalbed methane reservoir capacity, gas content and gas saturation have been investigated for a series of Australian, Canadian and United States coals. Globally there is no or little correlation between coal rank and methane adsorption capacity (as commonly assumed), although in particular basins there are general trends with rank and composition. Micropore1Micropores

  3. Spare Debt Capacity: Company Practices in Australia, Britain and Japan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. E. Allen

    2000-01-01

    The paper reports the residis of an investigation of the extent to which a sample of listed Australian, British and Japanese companies maintain spare borrowing capacity. Unused debt capacity is not directly observable and can be in various forms, including committed and uncommitted lines of credit or a level of borrowing that is, substantially below an upper limit. Some 60%

  4. Capacity Statistics and Scheduling Gain for MIMO Systems in Correlated Rayleigh Fading

    E-print Network

    Lee, Jae Hong

    Capacity Statistics and Scheduling Gain for MIMO Systems in Correlated Rayleigh Fading Sungwoo Park be supported in a multiple-input multi- ple-output (MIMO) channel, we must investigate its outage capacity mathematical intractability. In this paper, we investigate the statistical characterizations of MIMO capacity

  5. Predicting the carrying capacity of bivalve shellfish culture using a steady, linear food web model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Weimin Jiang; Mark T. Gibbs

    2005-01-01

    An investigation into the potential carrying capacity of suspended bivalve culture was undertaken using a linear food web model. The investigation involved configuring the model for the present state using all available information, and then perturbing the food web by introducing the bivalve culture until pre-determined carrying capacity limits were achieved. These carrying capacity trigger levels were defined by the

  6. Expand sulfur plant capacity

    SciTech Connect

    Hull, R. [BOC Gases, Murray Hill, NJ (United States); Watson, R. [BOC Gases, Guildford (United Kingdom); Chow, T.K. [Ralph M Parsons Co., Pasadena, CA (United States)] [and others

    1995-09-01

    Interest in oxygen use to expand existing Claus sulfur plants in refineries has been building ever since high oxygen concentrations were successfully used at the Conoco, Lake Charles La., refinery, and the KOA, Kawasaki refinery in Japan. This interest increased recently due to the demand created by numerous refinery hydrotreater projects, driven by more stringent fuel quality and sulfur emission standards, as well as the economic incentive to process low-cost heavy, sour crudes. Various approaches that introduce low oxygen levels have resulted in moderate capacity increases. Oxygen can be added to the air supply stream for concentrations up to 30% oxygen. Beyond the 30% oxygen level, oxygen must be introduced into the reaction furnace through a burner specifically designed to accommodate oxygen, or through a separate oxygen lance. However, higher oxygen concentrations result in higher temperatures, which rapidly approach the furnace refractory design limits. Methods must be employed to mitigate the reaction furnace temperature whenever high oxygen levels are necessary to coincide with significant capacity increases in refinery operations. Three proprietary technologies are in commercial operation that successfully address this issue.

  7. Metapopulation capacity of evolving fluvial landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertuzzo, Enrico; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio; Rinaldo, Andrea

    2015-04-01

    The form of fluvial landscapes is known to attain stationary network configurations that settle in dynamically accessible minima of total energy dissipation by landscape-forming discharges. Recent studies have highlighted the role of the dendritic structure of river networks in controlling population dynamics of the species they host and large-scale biodiversity patterns. Here, we systematically investigate the relation between energy dissipation, the physical driver for the evolution of river networks, and the ecological dynamics of their embedded biota. To that end, we use the concept of metapopulation capacity, a measure to link landscape structures with the population dynamics they host. Technically, metapopulation capacity is the leading eigenvalue ?M of an appropriate "landscape" matrix subsuming whether a given species is predicted to persist in the long run. ?M can conveniently be used to rank different landscapes in terms of their capacity to support viable metapopulations. We study how ?M changes in response to the evolving network configurations of spanning trees. Such sequence of configurations is theoretically known to relate network selection to general landscape evolution equations through imperfect searches for dynamically accessible states frustrated by the vagaries of Nature. Results show that the process shaping the metric and the topological properties of river networks, prescribed by physical constraints, leads to a progressive increase in the corresponding metapopulation capacity and therefore on the landscape capacity to support metapopulations—with implications on biodiversity in fluvial ecosystems.

  8. SURFACE SCIENCE INVESTIGATION OF CORROSION

    E-print Network

    Petta, Jason

    SURFACE SCIENCE INVESTIGATION OF CORROSION PROCESSES Danielle Haynes Professor Steve Bernasek August 3rd, 2009 #12;Outline Introduction Corrosion Processes AnalyticalTechnique (XPS) Motivation Methodology Preliminary Results Summary / FutureWork #12;Corrosion Process What is Corrosion? Degradation

  9. Continuity of quantum channel capacities

    E-print Network

    Debbie Leung; Graeme Smith

    2009-02-18

    We prove that a broad array of capacities of a quantum channel are continuous. That is, two channels that are close with respect to the diamond norm have correspondingly similar communication capabilities. We first show that the classical capacity, quantum capacity, and private classical capacity are continuous, with the variation on arguments epsilon apart bounded by a simple function of epsilon and the channel's output dimension. Our main tool is an upper bound of the variation of output entropies of many copies of two nearby channels given the same initial state; the bound is linear in the number of copies. Our second proof is concerned with the quantum capacities in the presence of free backward or two-way public classical communication. These capacities are proved continuous on the interior of the set of non-zero capacity channels by considering mutual simulation between similar channels.

  10. Descent Advisor Preliminary Field Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Steven M.; Vivona, Robert A.; Sanford, Beverly

    1995-01-01

    A field test of the Descent Advisor (DA) automation tool was conducted at the Denver Air Route Traffic Control Center in September 1994. DA is being developed to assist Center controllers in the efficient management and control of arrival traffic. DA generates advisories, based on trajectory predictions, to achieve accurate meter-fix arrival times in a fuel efficient manner while assisting the controller with the prediction and resolution of potential conflicts. The test objectives were: (1) to evaluate the accuracy of DA trajectory predictions for conventional and flight-management system equipped jet transports, (2) to identify significant sources of trajectory prediction error, and (3) to investigate procedural and training issues (both air and ground) associated with DA operations. Various commercial aircraft (97 flights total) and a Boeing 737-100 research aircraft participated in the test. Preliminary results from the primary test set of 24 commercial flights indicate a mean DA arrival time prediction error of 2.4 seconds late with a standard deviation of 13.1 seconds. This paper describes the field test and presents preliminary results for the commercial flights.

  11. 77 FR 13631 - Drawn Stainless Steel Sinks From China; Institution and Scheduling of Preliminary Phase...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-07

    ...INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation Nos. 701-TA-489 and 731-TA-1201...Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Investigations AGENCY: United States International...gives notice of the institution of investigations and commencement of preliminary...

  12. A two-part preliminary investigation of encoding-related activation changes after moderate to severe traumatic brain injury: hyperactivation, repetition suppression, and the role of the prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Gillis, M Meredith; Hampstead, Benjamin M

    2014-12-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) survivors typically exhibit significant learning and memory deficits and also frequently demonstrate hyperactivation during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) tasks involving working memory encoding and maintenance. However, it remains unclear whether the hyperactivation observed during such working memory tasks is also present during long-term memory encoding. The preliminary experiments presented here were designed to examine this question. In Experiment 1, 7 healthy controls (HC) and 7 patients with moderate to severe TBI encoded ecologically relevant object location associations (OLA) while undergoing fMRI and then completed a memory test outside of the fMRI environment. fMRI data analysis included only the correctly encoded trials and revealed hyperactivation in the TBI relative to HC group in regions critical for OLA encoding, including bilateral dorsal and ventral visual processing areas, bilateral frontoparietal working memory network regions, and the left medial temporal lobe. There was also an incidental finding that this hyperactivation persisted after multiple exposures to the same stimulus, which may indicate an attenuated repetition suppression effect that could ultimately contribute to cognitive fatigue and inefficient memory encoding after TBI. Experiment 2 directly assessed repetition suppression in some of the same HC and TBI participants. During early encoding trials, the TBI group showed large areas of hyperactivation in the right prefrontal cortex and bilateral posterior parietal cortices relative to the HC. Following additional exposure to these stimuli, the TBI group showed repetition suppression in visual and spatial processing regions, but continued to show hyperactivation in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Findings from these preliminary studies may reflect that increased reliance on cognitive control mechanisms following TBI extends to memory encoding. PMID:25481386

  13. Enhanced oxygen storage capacity of Ce{sub 0.88}Mn{sub 0.12}O{sub y} compared to CeO{sub 2}: An experimental and theoretical investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Minhua; Jiang, Dongyu [Key Laboratory for Green Chemical Technology of Ministry of Education, R and D Center for Petrochemical Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)] [Key Laboratory for Green Chemical Technology of Ministry of Education, R and D Center for Petrochemical Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Jiang, Haoxi, E-mail: hxjiang@tju.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Green Chemical Technology of Ministry of Education, R and D Center for Petrochemical Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)] [Key Laboratory for Green Chemical Technology of Ministry of Education, R and D Center for Petrochemical Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2012-12-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ? Ce{sub 0.88}Mn{sub 0.12}O{sub y} and CeO{sub 2} hollow nanospheres were successfully prepared via a supercritical antisolvent process. ? Compared with the pure CeO{sub 2}, the Ce{sub 0.88}Mn{sub 0.12}O{sub y} has nearly the same surface area but more oxygen vacancies. ? DFT calculations shows that the surface oxygen of the CeO{sub 2} gets activated after doping Mn. -- Abstract: Ce{sub 0.88}Mn{sub 0.12}O{sub y} and CeO{sub 2} nanoparticles have been successfully prepared via a supercritical antisolvent process. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy displays the hollow and spherical structures of these nanoparticles. X-ray diffraction analysis demonstrates the formation of Ce{sub 0.88}Mn{sub 0.12}O{sub y} solid solution. N{sub 2} adsorption reveals that the Ce{sub 0.88}Mn{sub 0.12}O{sub y} has nearly the same surface area with the CeO{sub 2}. It is shown that the Ce{sub 0.88}Mn{sub 0.12}O{sub y} has higher oxygen storage capacity (OSC) than the CeO{sub 2}. To understand the mechanism of the improved OSC of the Mn doped CeO{sub 2}, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectra and density functional theoretical (DFT) calculations have been performed. It is found that the Ce{sub 0.88}Mn{sub 0.12}O{sub y} presents more oxygen vacancies, indicating the easier of oxygen mobility from bulk to surface. DFT calculations reveal that structural and electronic modifications are caused by the incorporation of Mn in the CeO{sub 2}, resulting in activated oxygen species. The oxygen vacancy formation energy is lowered by the Mn doping. These changes are responsible for the enhanced OSC of the Ce{sub 0.88}Mn{sub 0.12}O{sub y}.

  14. Preliminary Panda Architecture Peter Reiher

    E-print Network

    California at Los Angeles, University of

    Preliminary Panda Architecture Peter Reiher August 12, 1998 1. Introduction The Panda system architecture they are developing sets certain limits on what is possible in Panda. This document describes a preliminary architecture for the Panda system. This preliminary architecture is meant purely to serve

  15. Healthcare Facility Location and Capacity Configuration under Stochastic Demand 

    E-print Network

    Han, Xue

    2014-12-18

    configuration under stochastic demand. The second topic investigates two problems: the stochastic, single healthcare facility location and capacity configuration problem (SSHFCP) in a competitive environment and the stochastic, multiple healthcare facility...

  16. Creative agencies : a model for building community capacity

    E-print Network

    Ramaccia, Elizabeth M. (Elizabeth Marie)

    2011-01-01

    This research investigates how existing initiatives based in artistic and non-artistic disciplines build indigenous capacity for leadership in disenfranchised communities through the application of the creative process. ...

  17. Bioethics for clinicians: 3. Capacity.

    PubMed Central

    Etchells, E; Sharpe, G; Elliott, C; Singer, P A

    1996-01-01

    In the context of patient consent, "capacity" refers to the patient's ability to understand information relevant to a treatment decision and to appreciate the reasonably foreseeable consequences of a decision or lack of decision. A person may be "capable" with respect to one decision but not with respect to another. Clinicians can usually identify patients who are clearly capable or incapable, but in some cases a clinical capacity assessment is required. Such assessment may consist of cognitive status testing, general impressions of capacity or specific capacity assessment. Specific capacity assessment, in which the clinician evaluates the patient's ability to understand pertinent information and appreciate its implications, is probably the optimal method. When conducting a specific capacity assessment, the clinician must ensure that the disclosure of information is effective and must evaluate the patient's reason for his or her decision. If the assessment suggests that the patient is incapable, further assessment is generally recommended. PMID:8823211

  18. Capacity utilisation in medical education.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Kieran

    2014-05-01

    It is uncertain as to whether medical schools are operating to their maximum capacity or whether they could further maximise their capacity. It is also uncertain what problems medical schools might run into by striving to drive maximum capacity utilisation. Certainly there is no shortage of reports on why and how medical education providers should scale up, and yet there is inadequate scholarship on how medical education might do this in practice. It makes economic sense for medical schools to operate at maximum efficient capacity and yet adverse effects might result if schools are driven too hard. The main casualty of nearing the maximum efficient capacity is likely to be staff and staff morale. Staff will start to suffer from stress as a result of continually working to their limits. It is better to get buy-in from staff before implementing major changes that might increase capacity utilisation. PMID:24848401

  19. Financing Capacity in the Bottleneck Model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard Arnott; Marvin Kraus

    1995-01-01

    It is well known that, for a congestible facility with constant long-run average cost, the revenue from the unconstrained optimal congestion charge (set so that each individual faces the marginal (social) cost of a use) exactly covers the cost of optimal capacity. In the context of Vickrey?s bottleneck model of morning rush-hour auto congestion, this paper investigates under what circumstances

  20. On Cellular MIMO Channel Capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adachi, Koichi; Adachi, Fumiyuki; Nakagawa, Masao

    To increase the transmission rate without bandwidth expansion, the multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) technique has recently been attracting much attention. The MIMO channel capacity in a cellular system is affected by the interference from neighboring co-channel cells. In this paper, we introduce the cellular channel capacity and evaluate its outage capacity, taking into account the frequency-reuse factor, path loss exponent, standard deviation of shadowing loss, and transmission power of a base station (BS). Furthermore, we compare the cellular MIMO downlink channel capacity with those of other multi-antenna transmission techniques such as single-input multiple-output (SIMO) and space-time block coded multiple-input single-output (STBC-MISO). We show that the optimum frequency-reuse factor F that maximizes 10%-outage capacity is 3 and both 50%- and 90%-outage capacities is 1 irrespective of the type of multi-antenna transmission technique, where q%-outage capacity is defined as the channel capacity that gives an outage probability of q%. We also show that the cellular MIMO channel capacity is always higher than those of SIMO and STBC-MISO.

  1. Variable-capacity turbocharger

    SciTech Connect

    Houkita, A.; Hokari, T.

    1987-09-01

    A variable-capacity turbocharger is described comprising: (a) a turbine casing having a turbine inlet portion, a turbine outlet portion and a scroll chamber; (b) a turbine impeller located in the scroll chamber and having a multiplicity of blades; (c) a partition wall extending to the vicinity of the turbine inlet portion to partition the scroll chamber into a first scroll chamber and a second scroll chamber and to define a first exhaust introducing passageway and a second exhaust introducing passageway for introducing exhaust gases separately into the first scroll chamber and second chamber respectively; (d) exhaust flow control valve means located at least in the second exhaust introducing passageway and opening in the direction of flow of the exhaust gases; and (e) valve set means formed separately from the turbine casing and located in the turbine inlet portion, the valve seat means cooperating with the exhaust flow control valve means to control the flowrate of exhaust gases flowing into the second exhaust introducing passageway.

  2. First mideast capacity planned

    SciTech Connect

    Fattah, H.

    1996-11-06

    Kuwait catalyst Co.`s (KCC) plans to build a hydrodesulfurization (HDS) catalysts plant in Kuwait will mark the startup of the first refining catalysts production in the Persian Gulf region. KCC, owned by a conglomerate of Kuwait companies and governmental agencies, has licensed catalyst manufacturing technology from Japan Energy in a deal estimated at more than 7 billion ($62 million). Plant design will be based on technology from Orient Catalyst, Japan Energy`s catalysts division. Construction is expected to begin in January 1997 for production startup by January 1998. A source close to the deal says the new plant will eventually reach a capacity of 5,000 m.t./year of HDS catalysts to supply most of Kuwait`s estimated 3,500-m.t./year demand, driven primarily by Kuwait National Petroleum refineries. KCC also expects to supply demand from other catalyst consumers in the region. Alumina supply will be acquired on the open market. KCC will take all production from the plant and will be responsible for marketing.

  3. The Capacity to Build Organizational Capacity in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, M. Bruce; Bouchard, Kate

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Reformers, policymakers, and researchers have given considerable attention to organizational capacity in schools, especially in those schools that perpetuate or exacerbate achievement gaps among diverse student groups and reproduce social inequalities. There is an emerging consensus about key dimensions of school capacity and how they can…

  4. Genesis Preliminary Examination Plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McNamara, K. M.; Stansbery, E. K.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of preliminary examination of the Genesis sample collectors is to provide information on the condition and availability of collector materials to the science community as a basis for allocation requests. Similarly, the information will be used by the Genesis Sample Allocation sub-committee of CAPTEM to determine the optimum allocation scheme, and by the Genesis Curator to determine the processing sequence for allocation production. The plan includes a decision process and detailed examination and documentation protocol for whole arrays and individual collectors (wafers, concentrator targets, bulk metallic glass, gold foil, and polished aluminum). It also includes a plan for communicating the information obtained to the scientific community. The plan does not include a detailed plan for preliminary examination of the SRC lid foil collectors, the process for removal of individual collectors from their frames, or for the subsequent subdivision of collector materials for allocation.

  5. GC/MS profiling of gamma-hydroxybutyrate and precursors in various animal tissues using automatic solid-phase extraction. Preliminary investigations of its potential interest in postmortem interval determination.

    PubMed

    Richard, Damien; Ling, Bing; Authier, Nicolas; Faict, Thierry W; Eschalier, Alain; Coudoré, François

    2005-03-01

    To quantify gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) and its physiological metabolites, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), 1,4-butanediol (1,4-BD), and gamma-butyrolactone (GBL) in various animal tissues (kidney, muscle, heart, liver, blood, brain cortex, thalamus, hypothalamus, hippocampus, or pons), an original gas chromatographic/mass spectrometric method with a automated solid-phase extraction by Oasis MCX cartridges on a Gilson Aspec Xli was developed. Using such apparatus allowed the limit of detection (LOD) of target compounds to be significantly lowered (LOD: 0.027, 0.025, and 5.7 microg/mL for GHB, 1,4-BD, and GABA, respectively, in 200 microL or microg of sample). After validation of each analytical step, the satisfactory performances of the apparatus in conjunction with the rapidity and ease of the extraction step make it suitable for simultaneous assay of GHB, 1,4-BD, GBL, and GABA. The method was used to test the correlation between GHB levels in tissues obtained at different times after death of male Sprague-Dawley rats and the postmortem interval. Preliminary results show a linear increase of GHB levels in relation to time of death in thoracic blood and central nervous system of animals kept at 15 and 20 degrees C. PMID:15732918

  6. Handwriting Capacity in Children Newly Diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brossard-Racine, Marie; Majnemer, Annette; Shevell, Michael; Snider, Laurie; Belanger, Stacey Ageranioti

    2011-01-01

    Preliminary evidence suggests that children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) may exhibit handwriting difficulties. However, the exact nature of these difficulties and the extent to which they may relate to motor or behavioural difficulties remains unclear. The aim of this study was to describe handwriting capacity in children…

  7. Development of sexual behavior over several serving capacity tests in male goats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Bradley Imwalle; Larry S. Katz

    2004-01-01

    Results from previous research suggest that male goats, cattle and swine do not require prior sexual experience as juveniles to exhibit their full potential in serving capacity tests as adults. Preliminary data in our laboratory indicate that juvenile goats exhibit profound separation stress from pen mates when acclimating to a novel space, such as during a sexual performance test. Performance

  8. Preliminary decommissioning study reports

    SciTech Connect

    Peretz, F.J.

    1984-09-01

    The Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) is one of approximately 76 facilities currently managed by the ORNL Surplus Facilities Management Program (SFMP). This program, as part of the DOE national SFMP, is responsible for the maintenance and surveillance and the final decommissioning of radioactively-contaminated surplus ORNL facilities. A long range planning effort is being conducted that will outline the scope and objectives of the ORNL program and establish decommissioning priorities based on health and safety concerns, budget constraints, and other programmatic constraints. In support of this SFMP planning activity, preliminary engineering assessments are being conducted for each of the ORNL surplus facilities currently managed under the program. These efforts, in general, are designed to: (1) provide an initial assessment of the potential decommissioning alternatives; (2) choose a preferred alternative and provide a justification for that choice, and (3) provide a preliminary description of the decommissioning plan, including cost and schedule estimates. Because of several issues which cannot be evaluated quantitatively at this time, this report on the MSRE does not select a most probable decommissioning mode'' but rather discusses the issues and representative alternatives for disposal of the MSRE fuel salts and decommissioning of the facility. A budget and schedule representative of the types of activities likely to be required is also suggested for preliminary use in the SFMP Long Range Plan.

  9. High-resolution (1)H NMR investigations of the capacity of dentifrices containing a "smart" bioactive glass to influence the metabolic profile of and deliver calcium ions to human saliva.

    PubMed

    Grootveld, Martin; Silwood, Christopher J L; Winter, Walter T

    2009-10-01

    Dentifrices containing H(2)O-reactive bioactive glasses alleviate hypersensitivity in teeth via the blockage of open dentinal tubules. Here, the ability of two such products to release Ca(2+) ions into human saliva was investigated, together with their influence on the status of this biofluid's (1)H NMR-detectable biomolecules. Human salivary supernatants were equilibrated with increasing volumes of those derived from each dentifrice (5.00 min at 37 degrees C). These biofluids were also equilibrated at 37 degrees C with a preselected quantity of the intact products (samples were collected at increasing timepoints). Salivary Ca(2+) concentrations were monitored by a (1)H NMR technique involving ethylenediamine tetra-acetate addition and/or atomic absorption spectrometry. Added Ca(2+)- and dentifrice supernatant volume (DSV)-induced modifications to the salivary (1)H NMR profile were explored by spectral titration. Data acquired demonstrated added DSV-dependent increases in salivary Ca(2+) concentrations and (Ca(2+)-independent) modifications to the intensities of selected salivary (1)H NMR signals, particularly those of the malodorous amines methyl-, dimethyl-, and trimethylamines, which were diminished by up to 80% of their prior values. Time-dependent elevations in salivary Ca(2+) level were observed on equilibration with the intact dentifrices. Added Ca(2+) ions exerted a concentration-dependent influence on a range of resonances (including those of citrate, succinate, pyruvate, and lactate). These data provide valuable information regarding the mechanisms of action of the products tested. PMID:19388087

  10. Efficient high-capacity steganography technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdulla, Alan A.; Jassim, Sabah A.; Sellahewa, Harin

    2013-05-01

    Performance indicators characterizing modern steganographic techniques include capacity (i.e. the quantity of data that can be hidden in the cover medium), stego quality (i.e. artifacts visibility), security (i.e. undetectability), and strength or robustness (intended as the resistance against active attacks aimed to destroy the secret message). Fibonacci based embedding techniques have been researched and proposed in the literature to achieve efficient steganography in terms of capacity with respect to stego quality. In this paper, we investigated an innovative idea that extends Fibonacci-like steganography by bit-plane(s) mapping instead of bit-plane(s) replacement. Our proposed algorithm increases embedding capacity using bit-plane mapping to embed two bits of the secret message in three bits of a pixel of the cover, at the expense of a marginal loss in stego quality. While existing Fibonacci embedding algorithms do not use certain intensities of the cover for embedding due to the limitation imposed by the Zeckendorf theorem, our proposal solve this problem and make all intensity values candidates for embedding. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed technique double the embedding capacity when compared to existing Fibonacci methods, and it is secure against statistical attacks such as RS, POV, and difference image histogram (DIH).

  11. Street Storm Water Conveyance Capacity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James C. Y. Guo

    2000-01-01

    The street hydraulic capacity to convey storm water is dictated by the street gutter geometry and hydraulic characteristics. With the consideration of traffic safety, the street hydraulic conveyance capacity is also subject to a reduction defined by the water velocity and flow depth in the street gutter. In this study, the street hydraulic equa- tion is re-arranged to demonstrate that

  12. Legal capacity of the elderly in Greece.

    PubMed

    Giannouli, Vaitsa; Tsolaki, Magda

    2014-01-01

    Legal capacity of the elderly people in Greece is of great legal, medical and social importance, but has received little attention till now from medical literature. This paper aims to study whether elderly people with dementia are able to participate in legal contracts like sales, purchases, loans, leases, donations and testaments. We tried to introduce a new test for the above legal-financial contracts and show some preliminary findings. The test consists of six examined relevant domains concerning basic monetary skills, cash transactions, bank statement management, financial conceptual knowledge, knowledge of potential heirs (beneficiaries) and assets/estate and finally the decision making process for different dilemmas on sales, purchases, loans, leases, donations and testaments. We studied 203 people. Eighty three people were healthy, 64 with Alzheimer's disease (AD) (10 with severe AD, 22 with moderate, and 32 with mild AD), 10 with Parkinson's disease (PD), and 46 with amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (aMCI). Individuals were included in the study only if they were aged 60 and over and only if they had a partner or a guardian who could give information on the individual's daily living. The exclusion criteria were predefined as follows: history of any other mental health disease and/or any other serious somatic health disease except for their official diagnosis of dementia. Results showed statistically significant differences with all three groups of patients characterized as incapable for legal-financial actions. Patients with severe AD (P<0.001), patients with moderate AD (P<0.001), patients with mild AD (P<0.001), patients with PD (P<0.001) and aMCI patients (P<0.001) differed significantly from healthy controls. Further research should include more extensive sampling of elderly patients with varying demographic characteristics in Greece, to confirm and expand our initial findings. In conclusion, our new test which is based on Marson's theoretical model of financial capacity seems to be highly correlated with the so far use of MMSE/HMSE scores, but it gives more specific information that is of interest in the field of civil forensics for characterizing someone as legally (in) capable for large and/or small scale financial acts. Our preliminary results show for the first time in Greece that: a) four groups of elderly people (suffering from Alzheimer's disease at different stages, Parkinson's disease and amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment and healthy elders) show a significantly different profile on all examined domains of this new test according to their diagnosis, b) people with MCI from Greece do face problems in the domains outlined above (mainly financial decision making problems), and that c) subsequent changes in the Greek law should be made. PMID:24392459

  13. Bearing capacity of spatially random soil: the undrained clay Prandtl problem revisited

    E-print Network

    Bearing capacity of spatially random soil: the undrained clay Prandtl problem revisited D. V, an investigation has been performed into the bearing capacity of undrained clays with spatially vary- ing shear- tion of the soil's undrained shear strength impact on the statistics of the bearing capacity

  14. Magnetotelluric Investigations of Convergent Margins and of Incipient Rifting: Preliminary Results from the EarthScope MT Transportable Array and MT FlexArray Deployments in Cascadia and in the North American Mid-Continent Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, A.; Bedrosian, P.; Key, K.; Livelybrooks, D.; Egbert, G. D.; Bowles-martinez, E.; Wannamaker, P. E.

    2014-12-01

    We report on preliminary analyses of data from the EarthScope MT Transportable Array, and from two high-resolution EarthScope MT studies in Cascadia. The first of these, iMUSH, is acquiring wideband MT data at 150 sites, as well as active and passive seismic data in SW Washington (including Mounts Saint Helens, Adams and Rainier). iMUSH seeks to determine details of crustal magma transport and storage, and to resolve major tectonic controls on volcanism along the arc. iMUSH may help to settle a debate over the origin of the SW Washington Crustal Conductor (SWCC), which covers ~5000 km2and that has alternately been attributed to accreted Eocene metasediments or to an extensive region of partial melt in the lower crust beneath the three volcanoes. The iMUSH array is continguous with an amphibious ~150 station MT experiment (MOCHA) onshore and offshore of the Washington and Oregon forearc. MOCHA iwill image the crust and upper mantle of the subduction system in 3D, constraining the fluid input to the system from offshore and the distribution of fluids released from the down-going slab, including along the transitional zone where Episodic Tremor and Slip occurs. Our goal is to refine our understanding of the segmentation, structure and fluid distribution along the convergent margin segments, and their relationship to the spatial pattern of ETS. In contrast to the active Cascadia margin, the Mid-Continent Rift (MCR) is the trace of a massive igneous event that nearly split North America 1.1 billion years ago. Initial results from 3D inversion of MT Transportable Array data show less fine-scale heterogeneity in the upper mantle (250 km depth) than is evident in western, tectonic North America, but a division at the base of thick lithosphere, with higher conductivities beneath and immediately south of the Great Lakes, than to the south. From the base of the lithosphere to the Moho, this high conductivity feature narrows, ultimately disappearing in the mid-crust. In the upper crust above this feature, an E-W elongated conductive feature appears that maps to surface expressions of the MCR. The significance of this deep feature, and its relationship to the failed rifting event of the mesoproterozoic era will be discussed.

  15. Ruiz Volcano: Preliminary report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz Volcano, Colombia (4.88°N, 75.32°W). All times are local (= GMT -5 hours).An explosive eruption on November 13, 1985, melted ice and snow in the summit area, generating lahars that flowed tens of kilometers down flank river valleys, killing more than 20,000 people. This is history's fourth largest single-eruption death toll, behind only Tambora in 1815 (92,000), Krakatau in 1883 (36,000), and Mount Pelée in May 1902 (28,000). The following briefly summarizes the very preliminary and inevitably conflicting information that had been received by press time.

  16. Environmental Survey preliminary report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-04-01

    This report presents the preliminary findings from the first phase of the Environmental Survey of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Sandia National Laboratories conducted August 17 through September 4, 1987. The objective of the Survey is to identify environmental problems and areas of environmental risk associated with Sandia National Laboratories-Albuquerque (SNLA). The Survey covers all environmental media and all areas of environmental regulation. It is being performed in accordance with the DOE Environmental Survey Manual. This phase of the Survey involves the review of existing site environmental data, observations of the operations carried on at SNLA, and interviews with site personnel. 85 refs., 49 figs., 48 tabs.

  17. A computational model of spatial visualization capacity.

    PubMed

    Lyon, Don R; Gunzelmann, Glenn; Gluck, Kevin A

    2008-09-01

    Visualizing spatial material is a cornerstone of human problem solving, but human visualization capacity is sharply limited. To investigate the sources of this limit, we developed a new task to measure visualization accuracy for verbally-described spatial paths (similar to street directions), and implemented a computational process model to perform it. In this model, developed within the Adaptive Control of Thought-Rational (ACT-R) architecture, visualization capacity is limited by three mechanisms. Two of these (associative interference and decay) are longstanding characteristics of ACT-R's declarative memory. A third (spatial interference) is a new mechanism motivated by spatial proximity effects in our data. We tested the model in two experiments, one with parameter-value fitting, and a replication without further fitting. Correspondence between model and data was close in both experiments, suggesting that the model may be useful for understanding why visualizing new, complex spatial material is so difficult. PMID:18314098

  18. The B.A.M. Storage Capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Englisch, H.; Mastropietro, V.; Tirozzi, B.

    1995-01-01

    The Bidirectional Associative Memory (B.A.M.) is a neural network which can store and associate pairs of data in the form of two patterns using an input network of M neurons and an output network with N neurons. Despite its interest there are no theoretical investigations about this model. We obtain the equations of state in a rigorous way using only the assumption that the Edwards-Anderson parameters associated to the two networks are self-averaging: this important property corresponds to the replica symmetry hypothesis in the replica calculations. A comparison between the methods used in the literature is made and the connection of our derivation with Peretto's method is shown. The storage capacity of the B.A.M. is computed when N=M and a bound on it is derived when Nneq M, in contrast with the strongly diluted case in which the critical capacity is unbounded for N/Mto 0 or to infty.

  19. A California generation capacity market

    SciTech Connect

    Conkling, R.L.

    1998-10-01

    California, overconfident with its new Power Exchange spot market, seems unaware that it could be afflicted by the same turmoil that bludgeoned the Midwest in June. An electricity capacity market should be put in place before crisis strikes. This article outlines a framework for adding an electricity capacity market in California. The new market would not create a new bureaucracy but would function within the state`s now operational PX and independent system operator (ISO) mechanisms. It would be an open market, in which capacity would be traded transparently, with freedom of entree for all willing sellers and all willing buyers.

  20. Global Environmental Change: Carrying Capacity

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Environmental Protection Agency

    1997-01-01

    Carrying Capacity addresses the ability of the Earth to sustain healthy populations of different species. Earth's human population, now past six billion, is expected to reach 10 billion by 2030. This growth will place an even greater strain on the planet's carrying capacity. With your school as a case study, link small-scale biology, ecology, and Earth science to the big picture. Carrying Capacity is one of four books in NSTA Press's Global Environmental Change series, a joint project of NSTA Press and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The other books in the series are Deforestation, Biodiversity, and Introduced Species.

  1. An Evaluation of the Rheumatology Coverage of Index Medicus. A Preliminary Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorpe, Peter

    1972-01-01

    A preliminary investigation which revealed the omission of four full length articles on rheumatology from Index Medicus'' is reported upon. Further investigations are in progress and will be reported at a later date. (Author/SJ)

  2. CATS '01 Preliminary Version Operational Techniques in PVS --A Preliminary

    E-print Network

    Mason, Ian

    of the Church--Rosser theorem in the literature [26,8,25,22,17,20] (see section 5 for a brief survey), allCATS '01 Preliminary Version Operational Techniques in PVS -- A Preliminary Evaluation Jonathan M. Ford 2 School of Mathematics, Statistics, & Computing Science, U.N.E Armidale, NSW 2351 Australia Ian A

  3. Polyaniline-polypyrrole composites with enhanced hydrogen storage capacities.

    PubMed

    Attia, Nour F; Geckeler, Kurt E

    2013-06-13

    A facile method for the synthesis of polyaniline-polypyrrole composite materials with network morphology is developed based on polyaniline nanofibers covered by a thin layer of polypyrrole via vapor phase polymerization. The hydrogen storage capacity of the composites is evaluated at room temperature exhibits a twofold increase in hydrogen storage capacity. The HCl-doped polyaniline nanofibers exhibit a storage capacity of 0.46 wt%, whereas the polyaniline-polypyrrole composites could store 0.91 wt% of hydrogen gas. In addition, the effect of the dopant type, counteranion size, and the doping with palladium nanoparticles on the storage properties are also investigated. PMID:23625749

  4. To build capacity, build confidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hewitson, Bruce

    2015-07-01

    The history of attempts to spread scientific know-how beyond western centres of excellence is littered with failures. Capacity building needs long-term commitment, a critical mass of trainees, and a supportive home environment.

  5. Capacity of wireless optical communications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shane M. Haas; Jeffrey H. Shapiro

    2003-01-01

    We consider the ergodic capacity and capacity-versus-outage probability of direct-detection optical communication through a turbulent atmosphere using multiple transmit and receive apertures. We assume shot-noise-limited operation in which detector outputs are doubly stochastic Poisson processes whose rates are proportional to the sum of the transmitted powers, scaled by lognormal random fades, plus a background noise. In the high and low

  6. 40 CFR 158.345 - Preliminary analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Preliminary analysis. 158.345 Section 158...CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES... § 158.345 Preliminary analysis. (a) If the product...applicant must provide a preliminary analysis of each technical...

  7. 40 CFR 158.345 - Preliminary analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Preliminary analysis. 158.345 Section 158...CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES... § 158.345 Preliminary analysis. (a) If the product...applicant must provide a preliminary analysis of each technical...

  8. 40 CFR 158.345 - Preliminary analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Preliminary analysis. 158.345 Section 158...CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES... § 158.345 Preliminary analysis. (a) If the product...applicant must provide a preliminary analysis of each technical...

  9. Investigation of the 1-methyl-3-ethylimidazolium chloride-AlCl 3 \\/LiAlCl 4 system for lithium battery application Part I: Physical properties and preliminary chronopotentiometric study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. S. Fung; S. M. Chad

    1993-01-01

    The applicability of the 1-methyl-3-ethylimidazolium chloride — AlCl3 system for lithium battery application was investigated. Lithium chloride was found to dissolve up to 1.59 mole ratio of LiAlCl4\\/MeEtImAlCl4 upon reaction between LiCl and AlCl3 in the melt. Density, conductivity and viscosity of the melt upon addition of LiAlCl4 were determined. The density was found to increase monotonically from 1280 to

  10. 25 CFR 167.6 - Carrying capacities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 2010-04-01 false Carrying capacities. 167.6 Section 167...GRAZING REGULATIONS § 167.6 Carrying capacities. (a) The Commissioner...promulgated the authorized carrying capacity for each land management...

  11. 7 CFR 1437.402 - Carrying capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carrying capacity. 1437.402 Section 1437.402...for Animal Consumption § 1437.402 Carrying capacity. (a) CCC will establish a carrying capacity for all grazed forage present in...

  12. Description and Preliminary Training Evaluation of an Arc Welding Simulator. Research Report SRR 73-23.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrams, Macy L.; And Others

    A prototype arc welding training simulator was designed to provide immediate, discriminative feedback and the capacity for concentrated practice. Two randomly selected groups of welding trainees were compared to evaluate the simulator, one group being trained using the simulator and the other using conventional practice. Preliminary data indicated…

  13. On the heat channel and its capacity

    E-print Network

    Hammerich, Edwin

    2011-01-01

    The heat channel is defined by an analog filter and a subsequent inaccurate measurement of the filter output signal. The filter is related to the solution of the heat equation and to the heat kernel of the quantum mechanical harmonic oscillator, so the name of the channel. The channel is modeled as an infinite-dimensional vector Gaussian channel and the capacity in terms of average energy of the input signal is derived. The relation to rate distortion theory is investigated by calculating the rate distortion function of a closely connected Gaussian process. An application to optical fiber communication is given. Characterizations of the capacity/rate distortion function by water-filling/reverse water-filling in the time-frequency plane are stated and proved. Finally, a second formula for the capacity of the heat channel based on average energy of the measured filter output signal is derived. The result is interpreted in context of estimation theory and a parallel to a famous formula connecting mutual informat...

  14. Molecular-dynamics simulation of the heat capacity for nickel and copper clusters: Shape and size effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gafner, S. L.; Redel, L. V.; Gafner, Yu. Ya.

    2012-03-01

    We have investigated the heat capacity of ideal Cu and Ni fcc clusters with diameters from 2 to 6 nm in the temperature range 200-800 K by the molecular-dynamics method using a modified tight-binding potential. Our analysis has shown consistency with the experimental results at temperatures of 200-300 K. The data obtained are also indicative of several regularities that are in agreement with the analytical calculations. We have concluded from the results of our computer simulations that the heat capacity in the case of isolated free clusters can exceed that of a bulk material, with this difference decreasing as the nanoparticle grows proportionally to the reduction in the fraction of surface atoms. The excess of the heat capacity for ideal copper and nickel nanoclusters with D = 6 nm at T = 200 K has been found to be 10% and 13%, respectively. Consequently, the large heat capacities of copper and nickel nanostructures observed in some real experiments cannot be related to the characteristics of free clusters. We hypothesize that these properties of a nanomaterial depend on the degree of agglomeration of its constituent particles, i.e., the surfaces and interphase boundaries of interconnected nanoclusters can have a strong effect. To test this hypothesis, we took nickel and copper clusters of various sizes (4000-7200 atoms) produced through the simulation of condensation from the gas phase. At high temperatures, we failed to adequately assess the role of the interphase boundaries in calculating the heat capacity of nanoparticles. The reason was the mass diffusion of Ni or Cu atoms to impart an energetically more favorable shape and structure to the synthesized clusters. At low temperatures, the heat capacity of such clusters exceeded that of clusters with an ideal shape and structure by a value from 3.2% to 10.6%. We have concluded that the Ni and Cu clusters produced in real experiments cannot be applied in devices using the thermal energy of such clusters without a preliminary optimization stage, because their external shape and interior structure are nonideal.

  15. Molecular-dynamics simulation of the heat capacity for nickel and copper clusters: Shape and size effects

    SciTech Connect

    Gafner, S. L.; Redel, L. V.; Gafner, Yu. Ya., E-mail: ygafner@khsu.ru [Katanov Khakassian State University (Russian Federation)

    2012-03-15

    We have investigated the heat capacity of ideal Cu and Ni fcc clusters with diameters from 2 to 6 nm in the temperature range 200-800 K by the molecular-dynamics method using a modified tight-binding potential. Our analysis has shown consistency with the experimental results at temperatures of 200-300 K. The data obtained are also indicative of several regularities that are in agreement with the analytical calculations. We have concluded from the results of our computer simulations that the heat capacity in the case of isolated free clusters can exceed that of a bulk material, with this difference decreasing as the nanoparticle grows proportionally to the reduction in the fraction of surface atoms. The excess of the heat capacity for ideal copper and nickel nanoclusters with D = 6 nm at T = 200 K has been found to be 10% and 13%, respectively. Consequently, the large heat capacities of copper and nickel nanostructures observed in some real experiments cannot be related to the characteristics of free clusters. We hypothesize that these properties of a nanomaterial depend on the degree of agglomeration of its constituent particles, i.e., the surfaces and interphase boundaries of interconnected nanoclusters can have a strong effect. To test this hypothesis, we took nickel and copper clusters of various sizes (4000-7200 atoms) produced through the simulation of condensation from the gas phase. At high temperatures, we failed to adequately assess the role of the interphase boundaries in calculating the heat capacity of nanoparticles. The reason was the mass diffusion of Ni or Cu atoms to impart an energetically more favorable shape and structure to the synthesized clusters. At low temperatures, the heat capacity of such clusters exceeded that of clusters with an ideal shape and structure by a value from 3.2% to 10.6%. We have concluded that the Ni and Cu clusters produced in real experiments cannot be applied in devices using the thermal energy of such clusters without a preliminary optimization stage, because their external shape and interior structure are nonideal.

  16. Preliminary Results on Students' Reasoning Difficulties in Cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, Colin Scott; Prather, E. E.; Duncan, D.; CATS

    2010-01-01

    Researchers at the University of Colorado, Boulder and the University of Arizona have been conducting fundamental research into the beliefs and reasoning difficulties students have with cosmology topics. The results of our preliminary investigations are being used to develop a suite of Lecture-Tutorials to help students develop more scientifically correct ideas about dark matter, cosmic evolution, the expansion of the universe, and the Big Bang. Results from our preliminary investigation will be discussed. We acknowledge the NSF for funding under Award No. 0715517, a CCLI Phase III Grant for the Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars (CATS) Program.

  17. Preliminary Iron Distribution on Vesta

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mittlefehldt, David W.; Mittlefehldt, David W.

    2013-01-01

    The distribution of iron on the surface of the asteroid Vesta was investigated using Dawn's Gamma Ray and Neutron Detector (GRaND) [1,2]. Iron varies predictably with rock type for the howardite, eucrite, and diogenite (HED) meteorites, thought to be representative of Vesta. The abundance of Fe in howardites ranges from about 12 to 15 wt.%. Basaltic eucrites have the highest abundance, whereas, lower crustal and upper mantle materials (cumulate eucrites and diogenites) have the lowest, and howardites are intermediate [3]. We have completed a mapping study of 7.6 MeV gamma rays produced by neutron capture by Fe as measured by the bismuth germanate (BGO) detector of GRaND [1]. The procedures to determine Fe counting rates are presented in detail here, along with a preliminary distribution map, constituting the necessary initial step to quantification of Fe abundances. We find that the global distribution of Fe counting rates is generally consistent with independent mineralogical and compositional inferences obtained by other instruments on Dawn such as measurements of pyroxene absorption bands by the Visual and Infrared Spectrometer (VIR) [4] and Framing Camera (FC) [5] and neutron absorption measurements by GRaND [6].

  18. Downlink Performance and Capacity of Distributed Antenna Systems

    E-print Network

    Firouzabadi, Sina

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the performance of the downlink channel in distributed antenna systems. We first establish the ergodic capacity of distributed antennas, under different channel side information (CSI) assumptions. We consider a generalized distributed antenna system with $N$ distributed ports, each of which is equipped with an array of $L$ transmit antennas and constrained by a fixed transmit power. For this system we calculate the downlink capacity to a single antenna receiver, under different assumptions about the availability of the channel states at the transmitter. Having established this information theoretic analysis of the ergodic capacity of distributed antenna systems, this paper also investigates the effect of antenna placement on the performance of such systems. In particular, we investigate the optimal placement of the transmit antennas in distributed antenna systems. We present a fairly general framework for this optimization with no constraint on the location of the antennas. Based on st...

  19. Boomerang pillows and respiratory capacity.

    PubMed

    Roberts, K L; Brittin, M; Cook, M A; deClifford, J

    1994-05-01

    An experimental study was done to determine whether subjects placed on boomerang pillows would have lower vital capacities than subjects placed on straight pillows after 30 minutes. A sample of 42 subjects took part in the study in a nursing laboratory. A crossover design was used in which subjects were measured in both conditions. The findings indicated that there was no significant difference in the vital capacities of subjects in the two conditions. An associated finding was that the vital capacities were significantly lower in a semi-Fowler's position than in a straight chair. It was concluded that boomerang pillows are safe to use for persons without respiratory problems. Further research is needed into the effect of boomerang pillows on persons with respiratory deficits. PMID:8173520

  20. Heat capacity of indium nitride

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Iwona Zi?borak-Tomaszkiewicz; R. ?wierzewski; P. Gierycz

    2008-01-01

    The heat capacity of the solid indium nitride was measured, using the Calvet TG-DSC 111 differential scanning microcalorimeter\\u000a (Setaram, France), in the temperature between (314–978 K). The temperature dependence of the heat capacity can be presented\\u000a in the following form: C\\u000a p=41.400+0.499·10?3\\u000a T?135502T\\u000a ?2?26169900 T\\u000a ?3.

  1. Nitrogen expander cycles for large capacity liquefaction of natural gas

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Ho-Myung; Park, Jae Hoon; Gwak, Kyung Hyun [Hong Ik University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Seoul, 121-791 (Korea, Republic of); Choe, Kun Hyung [Korea Gas Corporation, Incheon, 406-130 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-01-29

    Thermodynamic study is performed on nitrogen expander cycles for large capacity liquefaction of natural gas. In order to substantially increase the capacity, a Brayton refrigeration cycle with nitrogen expander was recently added to the cold end of the reputable propane pre-cooled mixed-refrigerant (C3-MR) process. Similar modifications with a nitrogen expander cycle are extensively investigated on a variety of cycle configurations. The existing and modified cycles are simulated with commercial process software (Aspen HYSYS) based on selected specifications. The results are compared in terms of thermodynamic efficiency, liquefaction capacity, and estimated size of heat exchangers. The combination of C3-MR with partial regeneration and pre-cooling of nitrogen expander cycle is recommended to have a great potential for high efficiency and large capacity.

  2. Uniform Crime Reports: 1998 Preliminary Annual Release

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1999-01-01

    On May 16, the Federal Bureau of Investigation's (FBI) Uniform Crime Reporting program (UCR) released preliminary crime data for 1998. The report shows a seven percent decrease in both violent and property crime rates, the seventh consecutive annual decrease in serious crime in the US. Compared to 1997, murders declined eight percent, robbery dropped eleven percent, and rape decreased by five percent. The report provides four comprehensive statistical tables on crime index trends compiled from data reported by over 17,000 law enforcement agencies nationwide.

  3. High intensity copper atom beam - Preliminary results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, A. J.; Santavicca, D.

    1973-01-01

    The development of a nozzle which gas-dynamically accelerates neutral copper atoms at controlled energy levels and flux rates suitable for the investigation of inelastic copper atom collision processes is reported. Preliminary test data demonstrate that vapor-deposited rhenium nozzles do not degrade in the presence of copper vapor at high temperatures. Operation with high purity helium gas at nozzle stagnation temperatures in the range 2650-2700 K and total stagnation pressures from 1/4 to 2 atm with continuous copper atom flux rates of approximately 10 to the 18th power per second has been maintained, for a total time of 8-1/2 h to date.

  4. Capacity of Nakagami multipath fading channels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohamed-slim Alouini; Andrea Goldsmith

    1997-01-01

    We study the capacity of Nakagami multipath fading (NMF) channels with an average power constraint for three power and rate adaptation policies. We obtain closed-form solutions for NMF channel capacity (with and without diversity) for each power and rate adaptation strategy, and compare them with the additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channel capacity. The capacity of a NMF channel is

  5. Heat capacity identification via Mahalanobis Taguchi System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arata Suzuki; Kenji Sugimoto

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes a heat capacity identification method for cooking household appliances. In such appliances, a cooking flow is selected according to its cooking object capacity, hence identification of the heat capacity is a very important function. However, a conventional heat capacity identification method has been based on one variable using ldquoif-then rulesrdquo, thereby giving inaccurate results. This paper proposes

  6. Heat Capacity Identification Method Using MT System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arata Suzuki; Kenji Sugimoto

    2007-01-01

    This paper proposes a heat capacity identification method for cooking household appliances. Cooking household appliances select a cooking flow according to a cooking object capacity, hence the heat capacity identification is a very important function. However, a conventional heat capacity identification method has been based on one variable using ``if-then rules'', hence it gives a low accuracy. This paper proposes

  7. Surgery-Preliminary Torrence, California

    E-print Network

    Medical Center Iowa City, Iowa University of Pittsburgh Medical Center Medical Emergency Medicine Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania University of Washington Program Internal Medicine - Preliminary Denver, Colorado of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics Program Internal Medicine Children's Hospital of Wisconsin Milwaukee

  8. BUILDING STRONGSM 2008 AFEP Preliminary

    E-print Network

    BUILDING STRONGSM 1 2008 AFEP Preliminary Research Results Northwest Power and Conservation Council Meeting March 2009 Boise, ID #12;BUILDING STRONGSM 2 Focus Today · Anadromous Fish Evaluation Program Purpose · Juvenile Fish Passage · Adult Fish · Predation ­ Avian ­ Pinniped · Lamprey #12;BUILDING

  9. Intrinsic buffering capacity of feedstuffs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sylvie Giger-Reverdin; Christine Duvaux-Ponter; Daniel Sauvant; Olivier Martin; Rudy Müller

    2002-01-01

    Since acidosis is a major pathological risk for ruminants, we have defined a new method for the measurement of the intrinsic buffering capacity (BC) of feeds, by modeling the resistance of a feedstuff to the addition of an acid or a base. We compared results obtained on 24 feedstuffs with a strong acid and a strong base to those measured

  10. Capacity of MIMO Rician channels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ming Kang; Mohamed-slim Alouini

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents exact results on the capacity of multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) Rician channels when perfect channel state information (CSI) is assumed at the receiver but the transmitter has neither instantaneous nor statistical CSI. It first derives the exact expression for the average mutual information (MI) rate of MIMO Rician fading channels when the fading coefficients are independent but not necessarily

  11. Covering Problems with Hard Capacities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julia Chuzhoy; Joseph Naor

    2002-01-01

    We consider the classical vertex cover and set cover problems with the addition of hard capacity constraints. This means that a set (vertex) can only cover a limited number of its elements (adjacent edges) and the number of available copies of each set (vertex) is bounded. This is a natural generalization of the classical problems that also captures resource limitations

  12. Total Antioxidant Capacity of Fruits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hong Wang; Guohua Cao; Ronald L. Prior

    1996-01-01

    The total antioxidant activity of 12 fruits and 5 commercial fruit juices was measured in this study using automated oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay. On the basis of the wet weight of the fruits (edible portion), strawberry had the highest ORAC activity (micromoles of Trolox equivalents per gram) followed by plum, orange, red grape, kiwi fruit, pink grapefruit, white

  13. Kampung Capacity Local Solutions for

    E-print Network

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    Kampung Capacity Local Solutions for Sustainable Rural Energy in the Baram River Basin, Sarawak Abstract Limited energy access constrains the economic and social opportunities of up to 1.5 billion people Energy Laboratory (RAEL) & Energy and Resources Group and Goldman School of Public Policy Release Date

  14. GPS-Squitter capacity analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlando, Vincent A.; Harman, William H.

    1994-05-01

    GPS-Squitter is a system concept that merges the capabilities of Automatic Dependent Surveillance (ADS) and the Mode S beacon radar. The result is an integrated concept for seamless surveillance and data link that permits equipped aircraft to participate in ADS and/or beacon ground environments. This concept offers many possibilities for transition from a beacon to an ADS-based environment. This report provides the details of the techniques used to estimate GPS-Squitter surveillance and data link capacity. Surveillance capacity of airborne aircraft is calculated for the omni and six-sector ground stations. Next, the capacity of GPS-Squitter for surface traffic is estimated. The interaction between airborne and surface operations is addressed to show the independence of these systems. Air ground data link capacity for GPS-Squitter is estimated, together with an estimate of the use of the Mode S link to support other ground surveillance and data link activities as well as TCAS operation. The analysis indicates the low transponder occupancy resulting from the total effect of these activities. Low occupancy is a key requirement in avoiding interference with the operation of the current ATCRBS and future Mode S interrogators.

  15. Rethinking Administrative Capacity Development: The Arab States

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jamil E. Jreisat

    2012-01-01

    Administrative capacity is imperative for effective performance of governance. Although results of administrative capacity\\u000a are recognizable and demonstrable, there is no consensus on what basic elements such capacity is made of; nor do we know for\\u000a sure how to develop, measure, or sustain administrative capacity. Development of administrative capacity requires unbundling\\u000a it, and assessing each of its components independently, in

  16. U-99 uninhabited tactical aircraft preliminary systems design

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Howard Smith

    2001-01-01

    The systems aspects of an uninhabited tactical aircraft (UTA) preliminary design are detailed. The study, performed at the post-graduate level at Cranfield University, looks to investigate the feasibility of unmanned combat aircraft in a number of roles to reduce the risk to pilots and reduce life cycle costs (LCC). The scope of the work includes stealth, vulnerability, mission effectiveness, avionics,

  17. Preliminary Analysis of the BASALA-H Experimental Programme

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrick Blaise; Philippe Fougeras; Herve Philibert; Valerie Laval; Gregory Perret

    2002-01-01

    This paper is focused on the preliminary analysis of results obtained on the first cores of the first phase of the BASALA (Boiling water reactor Advanced core physics Study Aimed at mox fuel Lattice) programme, aimed at studying the neutronic parameters in ABWR core in hot conditions, currently under investigation in the French EOLE critical facility, within the framework of

  18. Preliminary Design Study of a Hybrid Airship for Flight Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Browning, R. G. E.

    1981-01-01

    The feasibility of using components from four small helicopters and an airship envelope as the basis for a quad-rotor research aircraft was studied. Preliminary investigations included a review of candidate hardware and various combinations of rotor craft/airship configurations. A selected vehicle was analyzed to assess its structural and performance characteristics.

  19. Heuristic design of pressure swing adsorption: a preliminary study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Jain; A. S. Moharir; P. Lib; G. Wozny

    2003-01-01

    Due to its complicated nature and multiple decision parameters including plant dimensionality and operation condition, the design of pressure swing adsorption (PSA) processes is not a trivial task. Most previous studies on PSA design have been made through rigorous modeling and experimental investigation for specific separation tasks. General heuristics for a preliminary design of PSA processes are necessary but not

  20. A Systems Analysis of the Library and Information Science Statistical Data System: The Preliminary Study. Interim Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamburg, Morris; And Others

    The long-term goal of this investigation is to design and establish a national model for a system of library statistical data. This is a report on The Preliminary Study which was carried out over an 11-month period ending May, 1969. The objective of The Preliminary Study was to design and delimit The Research Investigation in the most efficient…

  1. Individual differences in working memory capacity and attentional control.

    PubMed

    Hiebel, Nina; Zimmer, Hubert D

    2015-03-01

    Visual working memory (WM) has a very limited online capacity making it considerably important to control the gating of encoding into WM. Recent studies have suggested that attention control is of importance in doing so, especially the time needed to disengage. However, the disengagement mechanism operates on a later stage of processing after the initial selection of information has already been initiated. We assume that individual differences in WM capacity are also driven by individual variations in the voluntary engagement of attention. In 2 experiments we investigated whether individuals with high- and low-WM capacity differ in the efficiency and speed of this attention control process. We realised different versions of the task in which different amounts of attention control were necessary, a more automatically triggered allocation of attention and a voluntary initiation of attention engagement, respectively. We further manipulated the time course to look for differences in the latency of attention control. The results revealed that participants with low-WM capacity were less effective to exhibit voluntary attention control processes and they were also slower in doing so compared with high-WM capacity individuals. However, this effect seems to be partly moderated by the ability to update the current task set. If the trial structure did not require task set updating smaller individual differences involving WM capacity could be found. PMID:25730638

  2. Individual differences in Zhong-Yong tendency and processing capacity

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Ting-Yun; Yang, Cheng-Ta

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigated how an individual's Zhong-Yong tendency is related to his/her perceptual processing capacity. In two experiments, participants completed a Zhong-Yong Thinking Style Scale and performed a redundant-target detection task. Processing capacity was assessed with a non-parametric approach (systems factorial technology, SFT) and a parametric (linear ballistic accumulator model, LBA) approach. Results converged to suggest a positive correlation between Zhong-Yong tendency and processing capacity. High middle-way thinkers had larger processing capacity in multiple-signal processing compared with low middle-way thinkers, indicating that they processed information more efficiently and in an integrated fashion. Zhong-Yong tendency positively correlates with the processing capacity. These findings suggest that the individual differences in processing capacity can account for the reasons why high middle-way thinkers tend to adopt a global and flexible processing strategy to deal with the external world. Furthermore, the influence of culturally dictated thinking style on cognition can be revealed in a perception task. PMID:25477842

  3. High capacity immobilized amine sorbents

    DOEpatents

    Gray, McMahan L. (Pittsburgh, PA); Champagne, Kenneth J. (Fredericktown, PA); Soong, Yee (Monroeville, PA); Filburn, Thomas (Granby, CT)

    2007-10-30

    A method is provided for making low-cost CO.sub.2 sorbents that can be used in large-scale gas-solid processes. The improved method entails treating an amine to increase the number of secondary amine groups and impregnating the amine in a porous solid support. The method increases the CO.sub.2 capture capacity and decreases the cost of utilizing an amine-enriched solid sorbent in CO.sub.2 capture systems.

  4. Retention capacity of correlated surfaces.

    PubMed

    Schrenk, K J; Araújo, N A M; Ziff, R M; Herrmann, H J

    2014-06-01

    We extend the water retention model [C. L. Knecht et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 045703 (2012)] to correlated random surfaces. We find that the retention capacity of discrete random landscapes is strongly affected by spatial correlations among the heights. This phenomenon is related to the emergence of power-law scaling in the lake volume distribution. We also solve the uncorrelated case exactly for a small lattice and present bounds on the retention of uncorrelated landscapes. PMID:25019758

  5. Correlated MIMO wireless channels: capacity, optimal signaling, and asymptotics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Venugopal V. Veeravalli; Yingbin Liang; Akbar M. Sayeed

    2005-01-01

    The capacity of the multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) wireless channel with uniform linear arrays (ULAs) of antennas at the transmitter and receiver is investigated. It is assumed that the receiver knows the channel perfectly but that the transmitter knows only the channel statistics. The analysis is carried out using an equivalent virtual representation of the channel that is obtained via a

  6. Newsvendor Networks: Inventory Management and Capacity Investment with Discretionary Activities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jan A. Van Mieghem; Nils Rudi

    2002-01-01

    We introduce a class of models, called newsvendor networks, that allow for multiple products and multiple processing and storage points and investigate how their single-period properties extend to dynamic settings. Such models provide a parsimonious framework to study various problems of stochastic capacity investment and inventory management, including assembly, commonality, distribution, flexibility, substitution and transshipment. Newsvendor networks are stochastic models

  7. On the capacity of channels with block memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stark, Wayne E.; McEliece, Robert J.

    1988-03-01

    The capacity of channels with block memory is investigated. It is shown that, when the problem is modeled as a game-theoretic problem, the optimum coding and noise distributions when block memory is permitted are independent from symbol to symbol within a block. Optimal jamming strategies are also independent from symbol to symbol within a block.

  8. Pharmacognostical and preliminary phytochemical studies of Passiflora foetida

    PubMed Central

    Krishnaveni, A.; Thaakur, Santh Rani

    2008-01-01

    The plant Passiflora foetida (grandilla) has been used mainly for asthma and various neurological disorders by the traditional medicinal practitioners of Chittor District. Since proper information regarding this plant is not available, our efforts were devoted to fix the pharmacognostical parameters and preliminary phytochemical studies of Passiflora foetid. An attempt was made to fix the macroscopical, microscopical parameters of the leaf, quantitative microscopy, physical constants, behaviour of the powder with chemical reagents and preliminary qualitative phytochemical studies of Passiflora foetida were investigated. The phytochemical tests revealed the presence of sterols, flavanoids and carbohydrates. PMID:22557273

  9. Health reform requires policy capacity.

    PubMed

    Forest, Pierre-Gerlier; Denis, Jean-Louis; Brown, Lawrence D; Helms, David

    2015-05-01

    Among the many reasons that may limit the adoption of promising reform ideas, policy capacity is the least recognized. The concept itself is not widely understood. Although policy capacity is concerned with the gathering of information and the formulation of options for public action in the initial phases of policy consultation and development, it also touches on all stages of the policy process, from the strategic identification of a problem to the actual development of the policy, its formal adoption, its implementation, and even further, its evaluation and continuation or modification. Expertise in the form of policy advice is already widely available in and to public administrations, to well-established professional organizations like medical societies and, of course, to large private-sector organizations with commercial or financial interests in the health sector. We need more health actors to join the fray and move from their traditional position of advocacy to a fuller commitment to the development of policy capacity, with all that it entails in terms of leadership and social responsibility. PMID:25905476

  10. Variable capacity turbocharger control device

    SciTech Connect

    Nishiguchi, F.; Noguchi, M.; Hatanaka, K.

    1987-07-14

    A device is described for controlling a turbocharger having a compressor and a turbine coupled to the compressor, the device comprising: means for determining the supercharge pressure of air from the compressor; variable capacity means for varying the flow rate of exhaust gas introduced into the turbine in a low speed state of an engine connected to the turbocharger, the variable capacity means responsive to a first control signal; exhaust gas bypass means for controlling the flow rate of the exhaust gas bypassing the variable capacity means and the turbine in a high speed state of the engine, the bypass means responsive to a second control signal; a control means, responsive to operating parameters for the engine, for generating the first and second control signals; and the control means for detecting an acceleration state of the engine and responsive to the determined supercharge procedure and generating the second control signal for controlling the operation of the exhaust gas bypass means. The exhaust gas bypass means reduces the flow rate of the exhaust gas introduced into the turbine only when the determined supercharge pressure reaches a predetermined pressure in an acceleration state of the engine.

  11. Sexually Transmitted Diseases in College Men: A Preliminary Clinical Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawyer, Robin G.; Moss, Donald J.

    1993-01-01

    This study examined sexual behavior, perceived risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and pathology of 66 males attending a college health center's sexually transmitted disease clinic. Data from patients' charts indicated a group of men who, despite high-risk behaviors, perceived their risk of contracting HIV as being extremely low. (SM)

  12. Postoperative Assessment of Splenorenal Shunts with MRI: Preliminary Investigation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jesse M. Cohen; Jeffrey C. Weinreb; Helen C. Redman

    Magneticresonanceimaging (MRI) was performed on nine patients with hepatic cirrhosis and portal hypertension after selective distal splenorenal shunt for decompres- sion of bleeding esophageal varices. MRI demonstrated the splenorenal anastomosis and patency of the shunt, splenic vein, and left renal vein in each case. Imaging in the transverse plane provided optimal visualization of the shunts. The authors conclude that MRI

  13. Mapping the Economic Crisis: Some Preliminary Investigations Pierre Bourreau

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    theories in social sciences that are facing a lack of methods and tools to automatically extract Market Plunge: What Happened and What is Next?" (referred to as SMP), and the "Financial Crisis Inquiry Re- port" (referred to as FCIC). Each of these files was accessible as a PDF, or alternatively

  14. Preliminary Investigation of Intolerance of Uncertainty Treatment for Anxiety Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewitt, Sarah N.; Egan, Sarah; Rees, Clare

    2009-01-01

    Intolerance of uncertainty (IU) is the tendency to react negatively to uncertain situations or events, and it has been found to be an important maintaining factor in a number of different anxiety disorders. It is often included as a part of cognitive behavioural interventions for anxiety disorders but its specific contribution to treatment outcome…

  15. Preliminary Investigation of Tracer Gas Reaeration Method for Shallow Bays 

    E-print Network

    Baker, Sarah H.; Holley, Edward R.

    1987-01-01

    Accurate estimates of surface exchange rates for volatile pollutants in bays are needed to allow predictions of pollutant movement and retention time. The same types of estimates can be used to calculate reaeration rates. The tracer gas technique...

  16. Adaptive Patterns of Stress Responsivity: A Preliminary Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Del Giudice, Marco; Hinnant, J. Benjamin; Ellis, Bruce J.; El-Sheikh, Mona

    2012-01-01

    The adaptive calibration model (ACM) is an evolutionary-developmental theory of individual differences in stress responsivity. In this article, we tested some key predictions of the ACM in a middle childhood sample (N = 256). Measures of autonomic nervous system activity across the sympathetic and parasympathetic branches validated the 4-pattern…

  17. Preliminary Investigation of Tracer Gas Reaeration Method for Shallow Bays

    E-print Network

    Baker, Sarah H.; Holley, Edward R.

    was used with propane for the tracer gas and Rhodamine-WT, a fluorescent dye, for the "conservative" tracer. The propane was injected through porous tile diffusers, and the dye was released simultaneously. The propane acts as a model for the surface...

  18. A preliminary investigation of the Darrieus wind turbine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. H. Strickland; S. R. Ford; C. B. Reddy

    1975-01-01

    This paper describes work which is presently in progress at Texas Tech University concerning the characteristics of the vertical axis Darrieus wind turbine. A computer model which is capable of predicting the steady-state performance of the Darrieus rotor has been developed and is presently being extended to include transient behavior as well as behavior in spatially nonuniform winds. A 14

  19. African American Acculturation and Black Racial Identity: A Preliminary Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pope-Davis, Donald B.; Liu, William M.; Ledesma-Jones, Shannon; Nevitt, Jonathan

    2000-01-01

    Examines the relationship between acculturation and racial identity among African Americans. One hundred eighty-seven African American students completed the Black Racial Identity Attitude Scale and the African American Acculturation Scale (AAAS). Acculturation was associated with three of the five AAAS subscales: Dissonance, Immersion, and…

  20. Civility norms, safety climate, and safety outcomes: a preliminary investigation.

    PubMed

    McGonagle, Alyssa K; Walsh, Benjamin M; Kath, Lisa M; Morrow, Stephanie L

    2014-10-01

    Working environments that are both civil and safe are good for business and employee well-being. Civility has been empirically linked to such important outcomes as organizational performance and individuals' positive work-related attitudes, yet research relating civility to safety is lacking. In this study, we link perceptions of civility norms to perceptions of safety climate and safety outcomes. Drawing on social exchange theory, we proposed and tested a model in 2 samples wherein civility norms indirectly relate to safety outcomes through associations with various safety climate facets. Our results supported direct relationships between civility and management safety climate and coworker safety climate. Additionally, indirect effects of civility norms on unsafe behaviors and injuries were observed. Indirect effects of civility norms on unsafe behaviors were observed through coworker safety climate and work-safety tension. Indirect effects of civility norms on injuries were observed through management safety climate and work-safety tension for full-time employees, although these effects did not hold for part-time employees. This study provides initial evidence that researchers and practitioners may want to look beyond safety climate to civility norms to more comprehensively understand the origins of unsafe behaviors and injuries and to develop appropriate preventive interventions. PMID:24933595