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Sample records for capacity preliminary investigation

  1. Effects of short-term ingestion of Russian Tarragon prior to creatine monohydrate supplementation on whole body and muscle creatine retention and anaerobic sprint capacity: a preliminary investigation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Extracts of Russian Tarragon (RT) have been reported to produce anti-hyperglycemic effects and influence plasma creatine (Cr) levels while supplementing with creatine monohydrate (CrM). The purpose of this preliminary study was to determine if short-term, low-dose aqueous RT extract ingestion prior to CrM supplementation influences whole body Cr retention, muscle Cr or measures of anaerobic sprint performance. Methods In a double-blind, randomized, and crossover manner; 10 recreationally trained males (20 ± 2 yrs; 179 ± 9 cm; 91.3 ± 34 kg) ingested 500 mg of aqueous RT extract (Finzelberg, Andernach, Germany) or 500 mg placebo 30-minutes prior to ingesting 5 g of CrM (Creapure®, AlzChem AG, Germany) twice per day for 5-days then repeated after a 6-week wash-out period. Urine was collected at baseline and during each of the 5-days of supplementation to determine urine Cr content. Whole body Cr retention was estimated from urine samples. Muscle biopsies were obtained for determination of muscle free Cr content. Participants also performed two 30-second Wingate anaerobic capacity tests prior to and following supplementation for determination of peak power (PP), mean power (MP), and total work (TW). Data were analysed by repeated measures MANOVA. Results Whole body daily Cr retention increased in both groups following supplementation (0.0 ± 0.0; 8.2 ± 1.4, 6.5 ± 2.4, 5.6 ± 3.2, 6.1 ± 2.6, 4.8 ± 3.2 g · d-1; p = 0.001) with no differences observed between groups (p = 0.59). After 3 and 5-days of supplementation, respectively, both supplementation protocols demonstrated a significant increase in muscle free Cr content from baseline (4.8 ± 16.7, 15.5 ± 23.6 mmol · kg-1 DW, p = 0.01) with no significant differences observed between groups (p = 0.34). Absolute change in MP (9 ± 57, 35 ± 57 W; p = 0.031), percent change in MP (2.5 ± 10.5, 6.7 ± 10

  2. 18 CFR 1b.6 - Preliminary investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Preliminary investigations. 1b.6 Section 1b.6 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.6 Preliminary investigations....

  3. 42 CFR 457.925 - Preliminary investigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STATE CHILDREN'S HEALTH INSURANCE PROGRAMS (SCHIPs) ALLOTMENTS AND GRANTS TO STATES Program Integrity § 457.925 Preliminary investigation. If the State agency receives a complaint of fraud or...

  4. 33 CFR 116.15 - Preliminary investigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Investigation, to the Administrator, Bridge Administration Program. (b) The Preliminary Investigation Report will include a description of the nature and extent of the obstruction, the alterations to the bridge believed necessary to meet the reasonable needs of existing and future navigation, the type and volume...

  5. Preliminary Investigation into Learning Disabilities in Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrulis, Richard S.; Alio, Jeanne P.

    In 1974-1975, a preliminary study was undertaken to investigate the presence of learning disabilities in adults. Previously completed research studies have focused entirely upon the child and adolescent, with a direct concentration on remediation of this problem. Learning disabilities, currently estimated to afflict ten million school-aged…

  6. Explosive volcanic deposits on Mars: Preliminary investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crown, D. A.; Leshin, L. A.; Greeley, Ronald

    1987-01-01

    Two investigations were undertaken to examine possible large scale explosive volcanic deposits on Mars. The first includes an analysis of Viking Infrared Thermal Mapper (IRTM) data covering the vast deposits in the Amazonis, Memnonia, and Aeolis regions. These postulated ignimbrites have been previously mapped, and at least five high resolution nighttime IRTM data tracks cross the deposits. Preliminary analysis of the data covering Amazonis Planitia show that local features have anomalous thermal inertias but the ignimbrites as a whole do not consistently have significantly different thermal inertias from their surroundings. Preliminary photogeologic and IRTM studies of the large and small highland paterae have also begun. The purpose of IRTM studies of postulated Martian explosive volcanic deposits is to determine the physical properties of the proposed ignimbrites. If volcanic deposits are exposed at the surface, high thermal inertias, as are observed for Apollinaris Patera, should be present.

  7. The Viking biological investigation - Preliminary results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, H. P.; Oyama, V. I.; Berdahl, B. J.; Horowitz, N. H.; Hobby, G. L.; Levin, G. V.; Straat, P. A.; Lederberg, J.; Rich, A.; Hubbard, J. S.

    1976-01-01

    A preliminary progress report is presented for the Viking biological investigation through its first month. The carbon assimilation, gas exchange, and labeled release experiments are described in detail, and the chronology of the experiments is outlined. For the first experiment, it is found that a small amount of gas was converted into organic material in one sample and that heat treatment of a duplicate sample prevented such conversion. In the second experiment, a substantial amount of O2 was detected along with significant increases in CO2 and small changes in N2. In the third experiment, a significant amount of radioactive gas was evolved from one sample, but not from a duplicate heat-treated sample. Possible biological and nonbiological interpretations are considered for these results. It is concluded that while the experiments provide clear evidence for the occurrence of chemical reactions and while the results do not violate any prima facie criteria for biological processes, a definitive answer cannot yet be given to the question of whether life exists on Mars.

  8. New methods in arthroscopy: preliminary investigations.

    PubMed Central

    Frizziero, L; Zizzi, F; Leghissa, R; Ferruzzi, A

    1986-01-01

    The microhysteroscope, which affords direct in vivo observation of otherwise inaccessible surfaces, can be used to great advantage in arthroscopy. Although conventional arthroscopy can distinguish between 'inflammatory' and 'reactive' (post-traumatic) synovial changes, the microendoscope offers the possibility of more precise differentiation. Synovial membranes, joint cartilage, and menisci were studied at four different magnifications, including microscopic observation of vitally stained cells. Frankly pathological synovia (e.g., rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis) were compared and distinguished from examples of less florid synovial changes. The fibrocartilaginous structure of the menisci and secondary undulations and tertiary depression of joint cartilage become visible in vivo with the microendoscope; these may well point to early damage to these structures. The authors believe that the three dimensional images at the magnifications provided by this microendoscope go some way towards bridging the gap between the conventional arthroscope, the light microscope, and the scanning electron microscope. This report presents preliminary findings with this new technique. Images PMID:3740979

  9. Preliminary Investigation of an Active PLZT Lens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lightsey, W. D.; Peters, B. R.; Reardon, P. J.; Wong, J. K.

    2001-01-01

    The design, analysis and preliminary testing of a prototype Adjustable Focus Optical Correction Lens (AFOCL) is described. The AFOCL is an active optical component composed of solid state lead lanthanum-modified zirconate titanate (PLZT) ferroelectric ceramic with patterned indium tin oxide (ITO) transparent surface electrodes that modulate the refractive index of the PLZT to function as an electro-optic lens. The AFOCL was developed to perform optical re-alignment and wavefront correction to enhance the performance of Ultra-Lightweight Structures and Space Observatories (ULSSO). The AFOCL has potential application as an active optical component within a larger optical system. As such, information from a wavefront sensor would be processed to provide input to the AFOCL to drive the sensed wavefront to the desired shape and location. While offering variable and rapid focussing capability (controlled wavefront manipulation) similar to liquid crystal based spatial light modulators (SLM), the AFOCL offers some potential advantages because it is a solid-state, stationary, low-mass, rugged, and thin optical element that can produce wavefront quality comparable to the solid refractive lens it replaces. The AFOCL acts as a positive or negative lens by producing a parabolic phase-shift in the PLZT material through the application of a controlled voltage potential across the ITO electrodes. To demonstrate the technology, a 4 mm diameter lens was fabricated to produce 5-waves of optical power operating at 2.051 micrometer wavelength. Optical metrology was performed on the device to measure focal length, optical quality, and efficiency for a variety of test configurations. The data was analyzed and compared to theoretical data available from computer-based models of the AFOCL.

  10. Adolescent Reasoning about Advertisements: Preliminary Investigations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linn, Marcia C.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Three studies investigate the role of competence factors (defined as acquisition of Piagetian formal reasoning) and performance factors (defined as influences from content and expectations) with respect to adolescents' reasoning about advertisements reporting product tests. (Author/MP)

  11. Marriage Encounter Casualties: A Preliminary Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doherty, William J.; Walker, Brian J.

    1982-01-01

    Investigated the relationship between participation in Marriage Encounter and subsequent marital or family distress. An analysis of 13 case reports suggested that Marriage Encounter weekends can cause marital or family deterioration through increased marital conflict, avoidance of constructive problem solving, or marital enmeshment at the expense…

  12. Heat Capacity Mapping Mission investigation no. 25 (Tellus project)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deparatesi, S. G. (Principal Investigator); Reiniger, P. (Editor)

    1982-01-01

    The TELLUS pilot project, utilizing 0.5 to 1.1 micron and 10.5 to 12.5 micron day and/or night imagery from the Heat Capacity Mapping Mission, is described. The application of remotely sensed data to synoptic evaluation of evapotranspiration and moisture in agricultural soils was considered. The influence of topography, soils, land use, and meteorology on surface temperature distribution was evaluated. Anthropogenic heat release was investigated. Test areas extended from semi-arid land in southern Italy to polders in the Netherlands, and from vine-growing hills in the Rhineland to grasslands in Buckinghamshire.

  13. 11 CFR 7.24 - Conduct of preliminary investigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conduct of preliminary investigation. 7.24 Section 7.24 Federal Elections FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION STANDARDS OF CONDUCT Post Employment Conflict of Interest: Procedures for Administrative Enforcement Proceedings § 7.24 Conduct of...

  14. Preliminary evaluation of Diopatra neapolitana regenerative capacity as a biomarker for paracetamol exposure.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Rosa; Coelho, Diogo; Pires, Adília; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Figueira, Etelvina; Nunes, Bruno

    2015-09-01

    An increasing number of studies established unequivocal relationships between exposure to pharmaceutical drugs and toxicity in wildlife. However, few studies investigated physiological alterations caused by such compounds in polychaetes. Thus, in this study, the effects of increasing concentrations of paracetamol were studied in the polychaete Diopatra neapolitana using tissue regenerative capacity as a biomarker. The obtained results revealed that individuals exposed to ecologically relevant concentrations (namely, 25 μg/L) of paracetamol exhibited significantly lower capacity to regenerate their body in comparison with control organisms. This study evidenced that paracetamol can induce significant physiological alterations in D. neapolitana resulting in an overall diminished regenerative capacity, which is of significance to a species with high ecological and economic relevance. Additionally, this study indicates the promise of D. neapolitana as a test organism in laboratory-based bioassays, but also as an adequate sentinel species to pharmaceutical drugs. PMID:25940485

  15. A preliminary investigation of bird classification by Doppler radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martinson, L. W.

    1973-01-01

    A preliminary study of the application of Doppler radar to the classification of birds is reported. The desirability for improvements in bird classification stems primarily from the hazards they present to jet aircraft in flight and in the vicinity of airports. A secondary need exists in the study of bird migration. The wing body and tail motion of a bird in flight reflect signals which, when analyzed properly present a signature of wing beat pattern which is unique for each bird species. Although the results of this investigation did not validate the feasibility of classifying bird species, they do indicate that a more thorough investigation is warranted. Certain gross characteristics such as wing beat rates, multiple bird patterns, and bird maneuverability, were indicated clearly in the results. Large birds with slow wing beat rates appear to be the most optimum subject for further study with the X-band Doppler radar used in this investigation.

  16. Trained Quantity Abilities in Horses (Equus caballus): A Preliminary Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Miletto Petrazzini, Maria Elena

    2014-01-01

    Once believed to be a human prerogative, the capacity to discriminate between quantities now has also been reported in several vertebrates. To date, only two studies investigated numerical abilities in horses (Equus caballus) but reported contrasting data. To assess whether horses can be trained to discriminate between quantities, I have set up a new experimental protocol using operant conditioning. One adult female was trained to discriminate between 1 and 4 (Test 1) in three different conditions: non-controlled continuous variables (numerical and continuous quantities that co-vary with number are simultaneously available), 50% controlled continuous variables (intermediate condition), and 100% controlled continuous variables (only numerical information available). The subject learned the discrimination in all conditions, showing the capacity to process numerical information. When presented with a higher numerical ratio (2 vs. 4, Test 2), the subject still discriminated between the quantities but its performance was statistically significant only in the non-controlled condition, suggesting that the subject used multiple cues in presence of a more difficult discrimination. On the whole, the results here reported encourage the use of this experimental protocol as a valid tool to investigate the capacity to process numerical and continuous quantities in horses in future research. PMID:25379278

  17. Preliminary Investigation of Economics Issues in Hospitalized Patients with Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Tolou-Ghamari, Zahra; Shaygannejad, Vahid; Khorvash, Fariborz

    2013-01-01

    Background: The study of economics is important in Iranian stroke patients, because it is one of the costly diseases that could be linked to disability, mortality, and morbidity. The aim of this preliminary study was to investigate total treatment costs of hospitalized patients with stroke. Methods: A cross-sectional study of 24 patients conducted to Isfahan Neurosciences Research Centre was carried out between April 1, 2012 and September 31, 2012. Demographic (sex, age) and economic variables (Raise tariffs, accumulated surplus, the total amount, of patients’, patients’ paid, and home insurance contribution) were extracted from the patients’ profiles. All information recorded and processed using Excel. Results: The mean age of patients was 71 years (ranged; 40-93 years old). Preliminary analysis of available costs issues could be described as: Raise tariffs (mean: 3500256 Rial, ranged: 504460-9775455 Rial), accumulated surplus (mean: 565578 Rial, ranged: 56700-2343664 Rial), the total amount (mean: 4045556 Rial, ranged: 715460-12219119 Rial), of patients’ (mean: 756037 Rial, ranged: 0-8365447 Rial), patients’ paid (mean: 1307762 Rial, ranged: 45300-9193000 Rial), and home insurance contribution (mean: 3070713 Rial, ranged 0-8887907 Rial). Conclusions: The cost disparity within this study after stroke could be mainly connected to variations in duration of hospital stay. Inspecting agenda towards this direction could reduce the economic cost of stroke significantly. Therefore, further assessment correlated to attain strategies in order to reduce costs associated to patients’ paid and home insurance contribution could be much more advantageous. PMID:23776748

  18. Preliminary investigation of the 317 Area, ANL-E

    SciTech Connect

    Wescott, J.; Moos, L.; Remeikis, A.

    1995-06-01

    The 317 Area at Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL-E) is scheduled to undergo a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigation, Act or RFI. Prior to the formal RFI, a voluntary, preliminary characterization of the 317 Area was conducted by ANL-E. The characterization results were used to formulate the RFI work plan and provided a better focus for the formal investigation. This site presents a difficult engineering challenge. The nature of the waste disposed at this site in the past includes both liquid chemicals and radioactive waste. The 317 Area is classified as a radiologically controlled area because of operations currently performed there. Present Department of Energy policy stipulates that waste material from such an area must be considered radioactive. The possible presence of hazardous constituents in the soil and groundwater would require the investigation-derived waste generated at the site be disposed as radioactive mixed waste. Besides the nature of the waste possibly contaminating this site, the geology of the site poses an equally enigmatic situation. The ANL-E site is located in a region of recessional glacial moraine deposits.

  19. A calorimetric investigation of spessartine: Vibrational and magnetic heat capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dachs, Edgar; Geiger, Charles A.; Withers, Anthony C.; Essene, Eric J.

    2009-06-01

    The heat capacity ( Cp) of two synthetic spessartine samples (Sps) was measured on 20-30 mg-size samples in the temperature range 2-864 K by relaxation calorimetry (RC) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The polycrystalline spessartine samples were synthesized in two different laboratories at high pressures and temperatures from glass and oxide-mixture starting materials and characterized by X-ray powder diffraction and electron-microprobe analysis. The low-temperature heat capacity data show a prominent lambda transition with a peak at 6.2 K, which is interpreted to be the result of a paramagnetic-antiferromagnetic phase transition. The DSC data around ambient T agree excellently with the RC data and can be represented by the Cp polynomial for T > 250 K: CpSps=610-3060·T-0.5-1.45·107·T-2+1.82·109·T-3. Integration of the low temperature Cp data yields a calorimetric standard entropy for the two different samples of So = 334.6 ± 2.7 J/mol · K and 336.0 ± 2.7 J/mol · K. The preferred standard third-law entropy for spessartine is So = 335.3 ± 3.8 J/mol · K, which is the mean value from the two separate determinations. The lattice (vibrational) heat capacity of spessartine was calculated using the single-parameter phonon dispersion model of Komada and Westrum. The lattice entropy at 298.15 K is Svib298.15=297.7J/mol·K, which represents 89% of the calorimetric entropy. The magnetic heat capacity and entropy of spessartine, Smag, at 298.15 K were also calculated. The Smag of the two samples is 38.7 and 37.4 J/mol · K, which is 87% and 83% of the maximum possible magnetic entropy given by 3Rln6 = 44.7 J/mol · K. Published model-dependent lattice-dynamic calculations of Svib298.15 are analyzed and compared to the experimental data. Using the calorimetrically determined So and the Cp polynomial for spessartine, together with high P- T experimental phase-equilibrium data on Mn 2+-Mg partitioning between garnet and olivine, allows calculation of the

  20. Emotion Understanding in Clinically Anxious Children: A Preliminary Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Bender, Patrick K.; Pons, Francisco; Harris, Paul L.; Esbjørn, Barbara H.; Reinholdt-Dunne, Marie L.

    2015-01-01

    Children’s understanding of the nature, origins and consequences of emotions has been intensively investigated over the last 30–40 years. However, few empirical studies have looked at the relation between emotion understanding and anxiety in children and their results are mixed. The aim of the present study was to perform a preliminary investigation of the relationships between emotion understanding, anxiety, emotion dysregulation, and attachment security in clinically anxious children. A sample of 16 clinically anxious children (age 8–12, eight girls/boys) was assessed for emotion understanding (Test of Emotion Comprehension), anxiety (Screening for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders-Revised and Anxiety Disorder Interview Schedule), emotion dysregulation (Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale) and attachment security (Security Scale). Children who reported more overall anxiety also reported greater difficulties in regulating their emotions, and were less securely attached to their parents. The results also showed that more specific symptoms of anxiety (i.e., OCD and PTSD) correlated not only with emotion dysregulation and attachment insecurity but also with emotion understanding. Finally, there were interrelations among emotion understanding, attachment security, and emotion dysregulation. The present results provide the first comprehensive evidence for a socio-emotional framework and its relevance to childhood anxiety. PMID:26733909

  1. Preliminary investigations of the rhizosphere nature of hydroponically grown lettuces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antunes, Inês; Paille, Christel; Lasseur, Christophe

    Due to capabilities of current launchers, future manned exploration beyond the Earth orbit will imply long journeys and extended stays on planet surfaces. For this reason, it is of a great importance to develop a Regenerative Life Support System that enables the crew to be, to a very large extent, metabolic consumables self-sufficient. In this context, the European Space Agency, associated with a scientific and engineering con-sortium, initiated in 1989 the Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative (MELiSSA) project. This concept, inspired on a terrestrial ecosystem (i.e. a lake), comprises five intercon-nected compartments inhabited by micro-organisms and higher-plants aiming to produce food, fresh water, and oxygen from organic waste, carbon dioxide, and minerals. Given the important role of the higher-plant compartment for the consumption of carbon dioxide and the production of oxygen, potable water, and food, it was decided to study the microbial communities present in the root zone of the plants (i.e. the rhizosphere), and their synergistic and antagonistic influences in the plant growth. This understanding is important for later investigations concerning the technology involved in the higher plant compartment, since the final goal is to integrate this compartment inside the MELiSSA loop and to guarantee a healthy and controlled environment for the plants to grow under reduced-gravity conditions. To perform a preliminary assessment of the microbial populations of the root zone, lettuces were grown in a hydroponic system and their growth was characterized in terms of nutrient uptake, plant diameter, and plant wet and dry weights. In parallel, the microbial population, bacteria and fungi, present in the hydroponic medium and also inside and outside the roots were analyzed in terms of quantity and nature. The goal of this presentation is to give a preliminary review in the plant root zone of the micro-organisms communities and as well their proportions

  2. Aerobic Capacity Following Long Duration International Spaces Station (ISS) Missions: Preliminary Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Alan D.; Lee, S.M.C.; Everett, M.E.; Guined, J.R.; Knudsen, P.

    2010-01-01

    Maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max) is reduced immediately following space flights lasting <15 d, but has not been measured following long-duration missions. The purpose of this study is to measure VO2max and maximum work rate (WRmax) data from astronauts following ISS flights (91 to 188 d). Methods: Five astronauts [3 M, 2 F: 47+/-6 yr, 174+/-6 cm, 71.9+/-10.9 kg (mean +/- SD)] have participated in the study. Subjects performed upright cycle exercise tests to symptom-limited maximum. An initial test was done approx.270 d before flight to establish work rates for subsequent tests. Subsequent tests, conducted approx.45 d before flight and repeated on the first or second day (R+1/2) and at approx.10 d (R+10) following landing, consisted of 3 5 min stages designed to elicit 25%, 50%, and 75% of preflight VO2max, followed by 25 W(dot)/min increases. VO2, WR, and heart rate (HR) were measured using the ISS Portable Pulmonary Function System [Damec, Odense, DK]. Descriptive statistics are reported. Results: On R+1/2 mean VO2max decreased compared to preflight (Pre: 2.98+/-0.99, R+1/2: 2.63+/-0.56 L(dot)/min); 4 of 5 subjects demonstrated a loss of > 6%. WRmax also decreased on R+1/2 compared to preflight (Pre: 245+/-69, R+1/2: 210+/-45 W). On R+10, VO2max was 2.86+/-0.62 L(dot)/min, with 2 subjects still demonstrating a loss of > 6% from preflight. WRmax on R+10 was 240+/-49 W. HRmax did not change from pre to post-flight. Conclusions: These preliminary results, from the first 5 of 12 planned subjects of an ongoing ISS study, suggest that the majority of astronauts will experience a decrease in VO2max after long-duration space-flight. Interestingly, the two astronauts with the highest preflight VO2max had the greatest loss on R+1/2, and the astronaut with the lowest preflight VO2max increased by 13%. Thus, maintenance of VO2max may be more difficult in astronauts who have a high aerobic capacity, perhaps requiring more intense in-flight exercise countermeasure prescriptions.

  3. Winning the Future: An Investigation into the Creativity Capacity across the Levels of Education in Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leahy, Keelin

    2016-01-01

    This research investigated the creativity capacity across the levels of education in Ireland, involving 702 participants. Creative capacity was investigated through a comparative analysis of creativity quotient (CQ). A divergent thinking task comprising the "how many uses" activity was assessed using the criteria for determining CQ;…

  4. Preliminary Investigation of Ice Shape Sensitivity to Parameter Variations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Dean R.; Potapczuk, Mark G.; Langhals, Tammy J.

    2005-01-01

    A parameter sensitivity study was conducted at the NASA Glenn Research Center's Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) using a 36 in. chord (0.91 m) NACA-0012 airfoil. The objective of this preliminary work was to investigate the feasibility of using ice shape feature changes to define requirements for the simulation and measurement of SLD icing conditions. It was desired to identify the minimum change (threshold) in a parameter value, which yielded an observable change in the ice shape. Liquid Water Content (LWC), drop size distribution (MVD), and tunnel static temperature were varied about a nominal value, and the effects of these parameter changes on the resulting ice shapes were documented. The resulting differences in ice shapes were compared on the basis of qualitative and quantitative criteria (e.g., mass, ice horn thickness, ice horn angle, icing limits, and iced area). This paper will provide a description of the experimental method, present selected experimental results, and conclude with an evaluation of these results, followed by a discussion of recommendations for future research.

  5. Preliminary investigation of CTH:YAG laser for cochlear implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, Udayan K.; Pawel, Bruce R.; Potsic, William P.

    2000-05-01

    Cochlear implantation is a treatment for deafness that requires the surgical placement of electrodes within the cochlea, using a high-speed drill. While the drill is effective, the tip of the drill or the drill shaft may damage critical adjacent structures, such as the facial nerve. In addition, the narrow working spaces involved in this surgery make the drill a relatively cumbersome tool for such delicate work. The use of a flexible fiber to deliver the laser energy may make the surgery easier by allowing a more maneuverable instrument to access the region, while reducing the risk of injuring adjacent structures. We report our preliminary investigation of fiber delivery of CTH:YAG energy ((lambda) equals 2091 nm) for the purpose of bony ablation. A 550 micron diameter low-OH silica fiber was used to drill through up to 2.5 mm thick human temporal bone specimens. An average of 14 pulses was required for 1 mm thick bones, and an average of 33 pulses required to ablate 2 mm of bone. The holes drilled were precise, and showed limited adjacent tissue effect by gross and histopathologic evaluation. This work demonstrates the effective fiberoptic delivery of CTH:YAG energy for bone ablation. Further work is warranted to explore the clinical possibilities offered by this technique for precise bony ablation with limited adjacent tissue effect.

  6. 49 CFR 850.10 - Preliminary investigation by the Coast Guard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Preliminary investigation by the Coast Guard. 850... TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD COAST GUARD-NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD MARINE CASUALTY INVESTIGATIONS § 850.10 Preliminary investigation by the Coast Guard. (a) The Coast Guard conducts the...

  7. 49 CFR 850.10 - Preliminary investigation by the Coast Guard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Preliminary investigation by the Coast Guard. 850... TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD COAST GUARD-NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD MARINE CASUALTY INVESTIGATIONS § 850.10 Preliminary investigation by the Coast Guard. (a) The Coast Guard conducts the...

  8. 49 CFR 850.10 - Preliminary investigation by the Coast Guard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Preliminary investigation by the Coast Guard. 850.10 Section 850.10 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD COAST GUARD-NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD MARINE CASUALTY INVESTIGATIONS § 850.10 Preliminary investigation by...

  9. 49 CFR 850.10 - Preliminary investigation by the Coast Guard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Preliminary investigation by the Coast Guard. 850... TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD COAST GUARD-NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD MARINE CASUALTY INVESTIGATIONS § 850.10 Preliminary investigation by the Coast Guard. (a) The Coast Guard conducts the...

  10. 49 CFR 850.10 - Preliminary investigation by the Coast Guard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Preliminary investigation by the Coast Guard. 850... TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD COAST GUARD-NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD MARINE CASUALTY INVESTIGATIONS § 850.10 Preliminary investigation by the Coast Guard. (a) The Coast Guard conducts the...

  11. Preliminary Aerodynamic Investigation of Fan Rotor Blade Morphing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tweedt, Daniel L.

    2012-01-01

    Various new technologies currently under development may enable controlled blade shape variability, or so-called blade morphing, to be practically employed in aircraft engine fans and compressors in the foreseeable future. The current study is a relatively brief, preliminary computational fluid dynamics investigation aimed at partially demonstrating and quantifying the aerodynamic potential of fan rotor blade morphing. The investigation is intended to provide information useful for near-term planning, as well as aerodynamic solution data sets that can be subsequently analyzed using advanced acoustic diagnostic tools, for the purpose of making fan noise comparisons. Two existing fan system models serve as baselines for the investigation: the Advanced Ducted Propulsor fan with a design tip speed of 806 ft/sec and a pressure ratio of 1.294, and the Source Diagnostic Test fan with a design tip speed of 1215 ft/sec and a pressure ratio of 1.470. Both are 22-in. sub-scale, low-noise research fan/nacelle models that have undergone extensive experimental testing in the 9- by 15-foot Low Speed Wind Tunnel at the NASA Glenn Research Center. The study, restricted to fan rotor blade morphing only, involves a fairly simple blade morphing technique. Specifically, spanwise-linear variations in rotor blade-section setting angle are applied to alter the blade shape; that is, the blade is linearly retwisted from hub to tip. Aerodynamic performance comparisons are made between morphed-blade and corresponding baseline configurations on the basis of equal fan system thrust, where rotor rotational speed for the morphed-blade fan is varied to change the thrust level for that configuration. The results of the investigation confirm that rotor blade morphing could be a useful technology, with the potential to enable significant improvements in fan aerodynamic performance. Even though the study is very limited in scope and confined to simple geometric perturbations of two existing fan

  12. Preliminary Investigation of an Underwater Ramjet Powered by Compressed Air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mottard, Elmo J.; Shoemaker, Charles J.

    1961-01-01

    Part I contains the results of a preliminary experimental investigation of a particular design of an underwater ramjet or hydroduct powered by compressed air. The hydroduct is a propulsion device in which the energy of an expanding gas imparts additional momentum to a stream of water through mixing. The hydroduct model had a fineness ratio of 5.9, a maximum diameter of 3.2 inches, and a ratio of inlet area to frontal area of 0.32. The model was towed at a depth of 1 inch at forward speeds between 20 and 60 feet per second for airflow rates from 0.1 to 0.3 pound per second. Longitudinal force and pressures at the inlet and in the mixing chamber were determined. The hydroduct produced a positive thrust-minus-drag force at every test speed. The force and pressure coefficients were functions primarily of the ratio of weight airflow to free-stream velocity. The maximum propulsive efficiency based on the net internal thrust and an isothermal expansion of the air was approximately 53 percent at a thrust coefficient of 0.10. The performance of the test model may have been influenced by choking of the exit flow. Part II is a theoretical development of an underwater ramjet using air as "fuel." The basic assumption of the theoretical analysis is that a mixture of water and air can be treated as a compressible gas. More information on the properties of air-water mixtures is required to confirm this assumption or to suggest another approach. A method is suggested from which a more complete theoretical development, with the effects of choking included, may be obtained. An exploratory computation, in which this suggested method was used, indicated that the effect of choked flow on the thrust coefficient was minor.

  13. 19 CFR 207.13 - Cooperation with administering authority; preliminary phase of investigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cooperation with administering authority; preliminary phase of investigation. 207.13 Section 207.13 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE... Determinations § 207.13 Cooperation with administering authority; preliminary phase of investigation....

  14. Students' Entrepreneurial Inclination at a Malaysian Polytechnic: A Preliminary Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yasin, Ahmad Yasruddin Md; Mahmood, Nik Abdul Aziz Nik; Jaafar, Nik Azyyati Nik

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports preliminary results of an ongoing project to examine students' inclination towards entrepreneurship at a Malaysian polytechnic. The study used a self-administered questionnaire to explore the influence of entrepreneurial intent, perceived behavioral control, self-efficacy, perceived barriers, perceived support factors and…

  15. Public Relations Ethics and Communitarianism: A Preliminary Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leeper, Kathie A.

    1996-01-01

    Presents a preliminary examination of communitarianism and its emphasis on community and responsibility as an ethical base for public relations. Suggests that the emphasis business currently places on quality, social responsibility, and stewardship may fit within a communitarian approach. Argues that a communitarian base to public relations may…

  16. Preliminary Investigation of Combustion of Diborane in a Turbojet Combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, Warner B; Gibbs, James B; Branstetter, J Robert

    1957-01-01

    Boron and its hydrides offer increased flight range relative to conventional fuels for turbojet engines. Preliminary evaluation has been made of the combustion characteristics and deposition problems resulting from burning diborone in a single, modified J33 combustor. A combustor relatively free of deposits for the limited test conditions has been developed. Three possible methods of alleviating deposits on the turbine blades are reported.

  17. Preliminary Investigation of a Video-Based Stimulus Preference Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Katie; Higbee, Thomas S.; Dayton, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Video clips may be an effective format for presenting complex stimuli in preference assessments. In this preliminary study, we evaluated the correspondence between preference hierarchies generated from preference assessments that included either toys or videos of the toys. The top-ranked item corresponded in both assessments for 5 of the 6…

  18. Examining the Reinforcing Properties of Making Sense: A Preliminary Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wray, Alisha M.; Dougher, Michael J.; Hamilton, Derek A.; Guinther, Paul M.

    2012-01-01

    Acceptance and commitment therapy asserts that in clinical problems such as rumination and depression, making sense continues despite accompanying aversive consequences, because sense-making is reinforcing, particularly when it leads to experiential avoidance. The following series of experiments aimed to provide preliminary empirical evidence for…

  19. Midlife Transition and Women's Spirituality Groups: A Preliminary Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geertsma, Elisabeth J.; Cummings, Anne L.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this preliminary study was to describe midlife transition, spirituality, and healing of relationships for members of women's spirituality groups. Ten women completed the Spiritual Well-Being Scale (R. Paloutzian & C. Ellison, 1982) and a 45-minute interview about spirituality, religion, life transitions, relationships, and…

  20. MIDDLE POTLATCH CREEK, LATAH COUNTY, IDAHO - PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION REPORT, 1993

    EPA Science Inventory

    The 1992 Idaho Water Quality Status Report listed the Middle Potlatch Creek (17060306) as an Idaho Impaired Stream Segment Requiring Further Assessment and listed the creek as a water body not fully supporting at least one beneficial use. This preliminary resource assessment foc...

  1. Preliminary Investigation of Linkages Between Arctic Pingos and Subsurface Stratigraphy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casavant, R.; Skirvin, S.; Patel, C.; Burr, D.

    2008-12-01

    This NASA-SETI supported study investigates the distribution of pingos (elliptically-shaped ice-rich topographic mounds) across 2300 square kilometers of the central coastal plain of Arctic Alaska in relation to the shallow geological framework that exists immediately beneath them. Pingos in the central North Slope of Alaska are classified as being of the closed or hydrostatic type. Their genesis is often assigned to freezing and cryogenic uplift of near-surface saturated thaw lake sediments that are exposed as lakes are drained and/or become choked with sediments. Although thaw lakes appear rather ubiquitous across the study area, pingos do not. Pingo distributions can be categorized as either clusters of elements or as relatively dispersed. Spatial statistical analysis reveals that pingo distribution is non-random and clustered. The analysis also took into account that pingo distribution is a function of preferential preservation between modern rivers channels that cross the study area. Pingo distributions and frequency were tested in relation to the location and type of stratigraphic and sedimentological features that characterized the shallow subsurface across the study area. Subsurface interpretation was derived mostly from oil well wireline logs. Gamma ray logs for more than 160 wells were used to define, correlate and assess the connectivity and conductivity of shallow and near-surface stratigraphic units between wells. Assessed also were major facies changes and the type and locations of subsurface structures such as major basement-to-surface faults and folds. The surface and near-surface truncation and subcropping of tilted, alternating units of permeable coarse-grained and confining fine- grained units were also mapped in relation to pingo locations. Preliminary and intriguing findings will be presented which contribute to the hypothesis that pingo genesis, location, and variations in morphology could be, in part, linked to a well-documented and active

  2. 19 CFR 207.12 - Notice of preliminary phase of investigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Notice of preliminary phase of investigation. 207.12 Section 207.12 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION NONADJUDICATIVE... FAIR VALUE OR FROM SUBSIDIZED EXPORTS TO THE UNITED STATES Preliminary Determinations § 207.12...

  3. A Preliminary Study Examining the Binding Capacity of Akkermansia muciniphila and Desulfovibrio spp., to Colonic Mucin in Health and Ulcerative Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Lokesh; Carrington, Stephen; Martin, Sean T.; Coffey, J. Calvin; Winter, Desmond C.; O’Connell, P. Ronan

    2015-01-01

    Background Akkermansia muciniphila and Desulfovibrio spp. are commensal microbes colonising the mucus gel layer of the colon. Both species have the capacity to utilise colonic mucin as a substrate. A. muciniphila degrades colonic mucin, while Desulfovibrio spp. metabolise the sulfate moiety of sulfated mucins. Altered abundances of these microorganisms have been reported in ulcerative colitis (UC). However their capacity to bind to human colonic mucin, and whether this binding capacity is affected by changes in mucin associated with UC, remain to be defined. Methods Mucin was isolated from resected colon from control patients undergoing resection for colonic cancer (n = 7) and patients undergoing resection for UC (n = 5). Isolated mucin was purified and printed onto mucin microarrays. Binding of reference strains and three clinical isolates of A. muciniphila and Desulfovibrio spp. to purified mucin was investigated. Results Both A. muciniphila and Desulfovibro spp. bound to mucin. The reference strain and all clinical isolates of A. muciniphila showed increased binding capacity for UC mucin (p < .005). The Desulfovibrio reference strain showed increased affinity for UC mucin. The mucin binding profiles of clinical isolates of Desulfovibrio spp. were specific to each isolate. Two isolates showed no difference in binding. One UC isolate bound with increased affinity to UC mucin (p < .005). Conclusion These preliminary data suggest that differences exist in the mucin binding capacity of isolates of A. muciniphila and Desulfovibrio spp. This study highlights the mucin microarray platform as a means of studying the ability of bacteria to interact with colonic mucin in health and disease. PMID:26491870

  4. Preliminary investigations of protein crystal growth using the Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delucas, L. J.; Suddath, F. L.; Snyder, R.; Naumann, R.; Broom, M. B.; Pusey, M.; Yost, V.; Herren, B .; Carter, D.

    1986-01-01

    Four preliminary Shuttle experiments are described which have been used to develop prototype hardware for a more advanced system that will evaluate effects of gravity on protein crystal growth. The first phase of these experiments has centered on the development of micromethods for protein crystal growth by vapor-diffusion techniques (using a space version of the hanging-drop method) and on dialysis using microdialysis cells. Results suggest that the elimination of density-driven sedimentation can effect crystal morphology. In the dialysis experiment, space-grown crystals of concanavalin B were three times longer and 1/3 the thickness of earth-grown crystals.

  5. Preliminary geothermal investigations at Manley Hot Springs, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    East, J.

    1982-04-01

    Manley Hot Springs is one of several hot springs which form a belt extending from the Seward Peninsula to east-central Alaska. All of the hot springs are low-temperature, water-dominated geothermal systems, having formed as the result of circulation of meteoric water along deepseated fractures near or within granitic intrusives. Shallow, thermally disturbed ground at Manley Hot Springs constitutes an area of 1.2 km by 0.6 km along the lower slopes of Bean Ridge on the north side of the Tanana Valley. This area includes 32 springs and seeps and one warm (29.1/sup 0/C) well. The hottest springs range in temperature from 61/sup 0/ to 47/sup 0/C and are presently utilized for space heating and irrigation. This study was designed to characterize the geothermal system present at Manley Hot Springs and delineate likely sites for geothermal drilling. Several surveys were conducted over a grid system which included shallow ground temperature, helium soil gas, mercury soil and resistivity surveys. In addition, a reconnaissance ground temperature survey and water chemistry sampling program was undertaken. The preliminary results, including some preliminary water chemistry, show that shallow hydrothermal activity can be delineated by many of the surveys. Three localities are targeted as likely geothermal well sites, and a model is proposed for the geothermal system at Manley Hot Springs.

  6. Adaptive Patterns of Stress Responsivity: A Preliminary Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Del Giudice, Marco; Hinnant, J. Benjamin; Ellis, Bruce J.; El-Sheikh, Mona

    2014-01-01

    The adaptive calibration model (ACM) is an evolutionary–developmental theory of individual differences in stress responsivity. In this article, we tested some key predictions of the ACM in a middle childhood sample (N = 256). Measures of autonomic nervous system activity across the sympathetic and parasympathetic branches validated the 4-pattern taxonomy of the ACM via finite mixture modeling. Moreover, the 4 patterns of responsivity showed the predicted associations with family stress levels but no association with measures of ecological stress. Our hypotheses concerning sex differences in responsivity were only partly confirmed. This preliminary study provides initial support for the key predictions of the ACM and highlights some of the methodological challenges that will need to be considered in future research on this topic. PMID:22148947

  7. Preliminary estimation of the reservoir capacity and the longevity of the Baca Geothermal Field, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Bodvarsson, G.S.; Vonder Haar, S.; Wilt, M.; Tsang, C.F.

    1980-07-01

    A 50 MW geothermal power plant is currently under development at the Baca site in the Valles Caldera, New Mexico, as a joint venture of the Department of Energy (DOE), Union Oil Company of California, and the Public Service Company of New Mexico (PNM). To date, over 20 wells have been drilled on the prospect, and the data from these wells indicate the presence of a high-temperature liquid dominated reservoir. Data from open literature on the field are used to estimate the amount of hot water in place (reservoir capacity) and the length of time the reservoir can supply steam for a 50 MW power plant (reservoir longevity). The reservoir capacity is estimated by volumetric calculations using existing geological, geophysical, and well data. The criteria used are described and the sensitivity of the results discussed. The longevity of the field is studied using a two-phase numerical simulator (SHAFT79). A number of cases are studied based upon different boundary conditions, and injection and production criteria. Constant or variable mass production is employed in the simulations with closed, semi-infinite or infinite reservoir boundaries. In one of the cases, a fault zone feeding the production region is modeled. The injection strategy depends on the available waste water. The results of these simulations are discussed and the sensitivity of the results, with respect to mesh size and the relative permeability curves used, are briefly studied.

  8. Neurally augmented sexual function in human females: a preliminary investigation.

    PubMed

    Meloy, T Stuart; Southern, Joan P

    2006-01-01

    Objective.  Neurally augmented sexual function (NASF) is the production of pleasurable genital stimulation and subsequent orgasm through the application of electrical energy to provide stimulation of the spinal cord or peripheral nerves. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the reproducibility of this phenomenon. Materials and Methods.  Eleven otherwise healthy women, ages 32-60 years, were selected for this study. Through standard techniques, quadripolar (octopolar in the final patient) leads were placed in the epidural space percutaneuously. The lead was maneuvered initially to an L1-L2 position and then repositioned based on feedback from the patient. The patients were allowed to utilize the device ad libitum for up to 9 days. Results.  Successful stimulation was achieved in 91% (10/11) of patients. These women described a greater frequency in sexual activity, increased lubrication, and overall satisfaction. A smaller subset had substantial improvement in sexual function as measured by orgasmic capacity. This subset consisted of women with secondary anorgasmia. A return of orgasmic capacity was found in 80% (4/5) of patients having secondary anorgasmia with an average intensity of ≥ 3/5 while using the device. Once the device was removed, the patients returned to their previous anorgasmic status. Conclusions.  Pleasurable genital stimulation of the spinal cord is a consistently reproducible phenomenon. In a subset of the population studied, improvement in orgasmic function was noted. This was noted in the group with secondary orgasmic dysfunction. PMID:22151591

  9. A Person-Centered Approach to Financial Capacity Assessment: Preliminary Development of a New Rating Scale

    PubMed Central

    Lichtenberg, Peter A.; Stoltman, Jonathan; Ficker, Lisa J.; Iris, Madelyn; Mast, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    Financial exploitation and financial capacity issues often overlap when a gerontologist assesses whether an older adult’s financial decision is an autonomous, capable choice. Our goal is to describe a new conceptual model for assessing financial decisions using principles of person-centered approaches and to introduce a new instrument, the Lichtenberg Financial Decision Rating Scale (LFDRS). We created a conceptual model, convened meetings of experts from various disciplines to critique the model and provide input on content and structure, and select final items. We then videotaped administration of the LFDRS to five older adults and had 10 experts provide independent ratings. The LFDRS demonstrated good to excellent inter-rater agreement. The LFDRS is a new tool that allows gerontologists to systematically gather information about a specific financial decision and the decisional abilities in question. PMID:25866438

  10. Preliminary investigation of adjustable balloon implant for type I thyroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Matthew R.; Witt, Rachel E.; McCulloch, Timothy M.; Jiang, Jack J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective We present the adjustable balloon implant (ABI), a novel implant to be used in type I thyroplasty for the treatment of vocal fold paralysis. The ABI offers the same medialization provided by other implants, but can easily be catered to individual patient anatomy as well as modified postoperatively without the need for a revision thyroplasty. Study design Repeated measures with each larynx serving as its own control. Methods Medialization thyroplasty (MT) with the ABI was performed on five excised canine larynges. Mucosal wave, aerodynamic, and acoustic parameters were measured for three conditions: normal; right vocal fold paralysis; and paralysis with the ABI. Results Insertion of the ABI resulted in significant decreases in both phonation threshold pressure and phonation threshold flow. Perturbation parameters of percent jitter and percent shimmer were also significantly decreased and restored to normal levels. Signal-to-noise ratio was significantly increased to the normal level as well. The mucosal wave was preserved after implant insertion. Conclusions This preliminary experiment showing significant improvements in aerodynamic and acoustic parameters demonstrates the potential of the ABI as a thyroplasty implant. Effective medialization and preservation of the mucosal wave combined with post-operative adjustability makes it a potentially valuable clinical device. Evidence based medicine level Not applicable – basic science study on excised animal tissue. PMID:21305554

  11. Preliminary investigations into UHCRE thermal control materials (A0178)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levadou, Francois; Froggatt, Mike; Rott, Martin; Schneider, Eberhard

    1992-01-01

    An overview of the initial work that was done in the ESTEC Materials and Processes Division to evaluate the effect of space environment on the thermal blankets of the Ultra-Heavy Cosmic Ray Nuclei Experiments (UHCRE) is presented. The topics covered include: (1) a preliminary survey of the perforations of the two-thirds of the thermal blanket returned to ESTEC; (2) thermo-optical properties and thickness recessions of three samples cut from each of the third center parts of the 16 thermal blankets were measured and effects of environments (sun illumination and atomic oxygen fluences); (3) contamination was analyzed on trays, external blanket and internal aluminized Kapton foil by IR technique and scanning electron microscopy SEM/EDX examination; (4) the pattern of contamination on the Al Kapton foils was observed, sketched, and related to atomic oxygen flow; and (5) the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) yaw angle misorientation was evaluated from the contaminated areas visible on some of the trays. In addition, impacts of micrometeoroids and space debris were experimentally simulated on spare flight thermal blankets. Relations between penetration/perforation hole characteristics and projectile parameters were established.

  12. Preliminary Investigations of Eddy Current Effects on a Spinning Disk

    SciTech Connect

    Piggott, W T; Walston, S; Mayhall, D

    2006-09-08

    The design of the positron source target for the International Linear Collider (ILC) envisions a Ti6Al4V wheel rotating in a large magnetic field (5-10 Tesla) being impacted by a photon beam to produce positrons. One of the many challenges for this system is determining how large a motor will be needed to spin the shaft. The wheel spinning in the magnetic field induces an eddy current in the wheel, which retards the spinning motion of the wheel. Earlier calculations by Mayhall [1] have shown that those eddy forces could be quite large, and resulted in the preliminary design being moved from a solid disk to a rim and spoke design, as shown in Figure 1. A series of experiments with a spinning metal disk were run at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) to provide experimental validation of the Maxwell 3D simulations. This report will give a brief outline of the experimental setup and results. In addition, earlier work by Smythe [2] will be used to compare with the experimental results.

  13. Preliminary Investigation of Civil Tiltrotor in NextGen Airspace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Larry A.; Salvano, Dan; Wright, Ken; Chung, William; Young, Ray; Miller, David; Paris, Alfanso; Gao, Huina; Cheng, Victor

    2010-01-01

    Presentation intro: Tiltrotor aircraft have long been envisioned as being a potentially viable means of commercial aviation transport. Preliminary results from an ongoing study into the operational and technological considerations of Civil Tiltrotor (CTR) operation in the Next Generation airspace, circa the 2025 time-frame, are presented and discussed. In particular, a fleet of CTR aircraft has been conceptually designed. The performance characteristics of this CTR fleet was subsequently translated into BADA (Base of Aircraft DAta) models that could be used as input to emulate CTR aircraft operations in the ACES and AvTerminal airspace and terminal area simulation tools. A network of nine North-Eastern corridor airports is the focus of the airspace simulation effort; the results from this airport network viII then be extrapolated to provide insights into systemic impact of CTRs on the National Airspace System (NAS). Future work will also be detailed as to attempts to model the systemic effects of noise and emissions from this fleet of new aircraft as well as assess their leveraged impact on public service missions, in time of need, such as major regional/national disaster relief efforts. The ideal outcome of this study is a set of results whereby Next Gen airspace CONOPs can be refined to reflect potential CTR capabilities and, conversely, CTR technology development efforts can be better informed as to key performance requirement thresholds needed to be met in order to successfully introduce these aircraft into civilian aviation operation.

  14. 46 CFR 4.40-10 - Preliminary investigation by the Coast Guard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Preliminary investigation by the Coast Guard. 4.40-10 Section 4.40-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC MARINE CASUALTIES AND INVESTIGATIONS Coast Guard-National Transportation Safety Board Marine Casualty Investigations § 4.40-10...

  15. 46 CFR 4.40-10 - Preliminary investigation by the Coast Guard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Preliminary investigation by the Coast Guard. 4.40-10 Section 4.40-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC MARINE CASUALTIES AND INVESTIGATIONS Coast Guard-National Transportation Safety Board Marine Casualty Investigations § 4.40-10...

  16. An investigation on the catalytic capacity of dolomite in transesterification and the calculation of kinetic parameters.

    PubMed

    Niu, Sheng-Li; Huo, Meng-Jia; Lu, Chun-Mei; Liu, Meng-Qi; Li, Hui

    2014-04-01

    The catalytic capacity of dolomite in transesterification was investigated and the kinetic parameters were calculated. The activated dolomites as transesterification catalyst were characterized by X-ray diffraction, nitrogen adsorption and desorption and Hammett indicator method, where the original dolomite was analyzed by thermogravimetric and X-ray fluorescence in advance. Its potential catalytic capacity was validated from aspects of the activated temperature and the reused property, where the reliability of the experimental system was also examined. Then, influences of the catalyst added amount, the mole ratio of methanol to oil, the transesterification temperature and the transesterification time on the catalytic capacity were investigated. Finally, kinetic parameters of the transesterification catalyzed by the activated dolomite were calculated. PMID:24583217

  17. A Preliminary Investigation of Affective Interaction in Chronic Pain Couples

    PubMed Central

    Johansen, Ayna Beate; Cano, Annmarie

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this preliminary study was to examine the extent to which affective marital interaction related to depressive symptoms in persons with chronic pain and their spouses and to pain severity in persons with pain. Couples from the community completed self-report surveys and engaged in a videotaped conversation on a topic of mutual disagreement that was coded for three affect types (i.e., anger/contempt, sadness, humor). Humor was positively related to marital satisfaction in both partners. Spouse anger/contempt and sadness were positively related to depressive symptoms in spouses. Several significant interaction effects between couple pain status (i.e., whether one or both partners reported pain) and affect also emerged. Specifically, sadness in the participant designated as the person with pain was associated with greater depressive symptoms and pain severity when only he or she reported pain whereas sadness was related to fewer depressive symptoms and less pain severity when both partners reported pain. The relationships between spouse anger and spouse depressive symptoms and between spouse humor and pain severity in the person with pain were also moderated by couple pain status. These exploratory findings can be interpreted in light of emotion regulation and pain empathy theories. For example, partners who have not experienced pain themselves may fail to empathize with persons in pain, thus preventing effective emotion regulation. When both spouses report chronic pain, expressions of negative affect may instead promote emotion regulation because the affect is experienced with a spouse who may be more empathetic. PMID:17521810

  18. A Preliminary Geomorphological Analysis of Water storage capacity: The Providence Watershed, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamorro, A.; Giardino, J. R.; Vitek, J. D.

    2011-12-01

    The Critical Zone of Earth, as defined by NSF in 2007, is series of systems that extend from the top of the canopy to the bottom of the aquifer. The soil system has been used as the primary connection between the various systems. Knowledge of water storage capacity is essential for predicting water availability in the critical zone. Soil depth is one of the most important parameters used to study water storage capacity. Unfortunately, it is challenging to obtain an accurate representation of the degree of spatial variability of soil depth in a watershed. To obtain this data requires extensive and expensive surveys, which can be compounded in forested regions. We make the assumption that soil depth is a function of surface and subsurface geomorphological processes. The Providence Watershed, which is a Critical Zone Center (CZO) is located in the Southern Sierra Nevada of California. The Providence Watershed is ~ 2.8 km2. The general trend of the watershed is northeast and ranges in elevation from 1,700 m to 2,100 m. The dominant vegetation cover is coniferous. In this area, we compiled indices from LIDAR imagery and compared these to hand-auguring profiles collected along Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) transects. Auguring profiles exist at a spacing of 123 m. The depths of these profiles varied from 0.5 to 7.0 m. We correlated the auguring data with nine indices. None of the correlations, which ranged from -0.50 to 0.21 (Pearson product-moment), were strong. The most significant finding of this study strengthens the important role that GPR can provide to capture the spatial heterogeneity present. GPR lines complimentary to geomorphological mapping can be used as an approach to obtain more accurate results in soil depth and bedrock topography mapping. The appropriate scale of work, however, depends on the understanding of the scale of processes controlling soil formation and erosion. This work is part of the collaborative effort of the Southern Sierra Critical Zone

  19. A Preliminary Investigation of Asthma Mortality in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greiling, Andrea K.; Boss, Leslie P.; Wheeler, Lani S.

    2005-01-01

    Although asthma deaths in children are rare, most asthma deaths should be preventable. No information has been identified in the professional literature addressing the occurrence of asthma deaths in schools. This investigation identified asthma deaths that occurred in US schools between 1990 and 2003 and the circumstances surrounding those deaths.…

  20. Introducing the Teaching Portfolio in the University: A Preliminary Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cosser, Michael

    1996-01-01

    Describes a survey of faculty members at the University of Witwatersrand (South Africa) which investigated the extent of support for use of teaching portfolios, in addition to student evaluations, as a method for evaluating faculty for promotion, and based on responses, development of a profile of portfolio content and procedures for its review.…

  1. Map Interpretation Instruction in Introductory Textbooks: A Preliminary Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillen, Jamie; Skryzhevska, Liza; Henry, Mary C.; Green, Jerry

    2010-01-01

    Maps are often understood as the primary tool in geography; however, recent research indicates that the number of students taking map interpretation courses has declined. As geography students are expected to master the uses of maps, this study investigates the materials available in introductory collegiate textbooks that promote the development…

  2. A Preliminary Investigation of Factors Associated with Job Loss Grief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewington, Janice O.; Nassar-McMillan, Sylvia C.; Flowers, Claudia P.; Furr, Susan R.

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated relationships among factors hypothesized as related to job loss grief. A summary grief score correlated positively with time since job loss and number of dependents, and negatively with length of notice. Perceived reemployment prospects and income loss related positively to some grief index subscales, as did the condition…

  3. Intonation Abilities of Children with Williams Syndrome: A Preliminary Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stojanovik, Vesna; Setter, Jane; van Ewijk, Lizet

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The authors investigated expressive and receptive intonation abilities in children with Williams syndrome (WS) and the relation of these abilities to other linguistic abilities. Method: Fourteen children with WS, 14 typically developing children matched to the WS group for receptive language (LA), and 15 typically developing children…

  4. Spirituality and Young Women in Transition: A Preliminary Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livingston, Kimberly A.; Cummings, Anne L.

    2009-01-01

    This study contributes to the growing body of knowledge about spirituality and life transitions. Through qualitative investigation, 9 young women in professional education programs described their definition of spirituality, their spiritual activities, and how they used their spirituality to cope with life transitions as they prepared to enter the…

  5. Reconnaissance Investigation of Caribbean Extreme Wave Deposits--Preliminary Observations, Interpretations, and Research Directions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morton, Robert A.; Richmond, Bruce M.; Jaffe, Bruce E.; Gelfenbaum, Guy

    2006-01-01

    Summary: This report presents an overview of preliminary geological investigations and recommended future research activities in the Caribbean region pertaining to coastal hazards with an emphasis on establishing tsunami risk for U.S. territories. Fieldwork was conducted in March 2006 on the islands of Bonaire, Puerto Rico, and Guadeloupe to evaluate the stratigraphic records of extreme wave deposits as possible indicators of paleotsunami recurrence. Morphological, sedimentological, and stratigraphic evidence indicate that shore-parallel coral rubble deposits composed of coarse clasts and sand that are 10s of meters wide and several meters thick are depositional complexes that have accumulated for a few centuries or millennia, and are not entirely the result of one or a few tsunamis as previously reported. The origins of boulder fields on elevated rock platforms of the Caribbean islands are more complicated than the origins of ridge complexes because boulder fields can be constructed by either storm waves or tsunamis. What is needed now for more conclusive interpretations is a systematic sedimentological approach to deposit analysis and a set of criteria for distinguishing between coarse clast storm and tsunami deposits. Assembling more field data from other Caribbean islands, analyzing stratigraphic deposits on Puerto Rico and Bonaire, and investigating boulder field deposits resulting from a historical tsunami can accomplish this. Also needed are improved sediment transport models for coarse clasts that can be used to estimate the competence and capacity of tsunamis and storms waves and to determine whether a deposit likely was created by a tsunami or extreme storm. Improved models may also be useful for reconstructing the magnitude of extreme wave events.

  6. Reconnaissance investigation of Caribbean extreme wave deposits--Preliminary observations, interpretations, and research directions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morton, Robert A.; Richmond, Bruce M.; Jaffe, Bruce E.; Gelfenbaum, Guy

    2006-01-01

     This report presents an overview of preliminary geological investigations and recommended future research activities in the Caribbean region pertaining to coastal hazards with an emphasis on establishing tsunami risk for U.S. territories. Fieldwork was conducted in March 2006 on the islands of Bonaire, Puerto Rico, and Guadeloupe to evaluate the stratigraphic records of extreme wave deposits as possible indicators of paleotsunami recurrence. Morphological, sedimentological, and stratigraphic evidence indicate that shore-parallel coral rubble deposits composed of coarse clasts and sand that are 10s of meters wide and several meters thick are depositional complexes that have accumulated for a few centuries or millennia, and are not entirely the result of one or a few tsunamis as previously reported. The origins of boulder fields on elevated rock platforms of the Caribbean islands are more complicated than the origins of ridge complexes because boulder fields can be constructed by either storm waves or tsunamis. What is needed now for more conclusive interpretations is a systematic sedimentological approach to deposit analysis and a set of criteria for distinguishing between coarse clast storm and tsunami deposits. Assembling more field data from other Caribbean islands, analyzing stratigraphic deposits on Puerto Rico and Bonaire, and investigating boulder field deposits resulting from a historical tsunami can accomplish this. Also needed are improved sediment transport models for coarse clasts that can be used to estimate the competence and capacity of tsunamis and storms waves and to determine whether a deposit likely was created by a tsunami or extreme storm. Improved models may also be useful for reconstructing the magnitude of extreme wave events.

  7. 46 CFR 4.40-10 - Preliminary investigation by the Coast Guard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Preliminary investigation by the Coast Guard. 4.40-10 Section 4.40-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC MARINE CASUALTIES AND INVESTIGATIONS Coast Guard-National Transportation Safety Board Marine...

  8. 46 CFR 4.40-10 - Preliminary investigation by the Coast Guard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Preliminary investigation by the Coast Guard. 4.40-10 Section 4.40-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC MARINE CASUALTIES AND INVESTIGATIONS Coast Guard-National Transportation Safety Board Marine...

  9. 46 CFR 4.40-10 - Preliminary investigation by the Coast Guard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Preliminary investigation by the Coast Guard. 4.40-10 Section 4.40-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC MARINE CASUALTIES AND INVESTIGATIONS Coast Guard-National Transportation Safety Board Marine...

  10. Preliminary investigation of radiatively driven convection in marine stratocumulus clouds

    SciTech Connect

    Norris, P.

    1995-09-01

    Marine stratocumulus play an important yet still poorly modeled role in the climate system. These clouds cool the planet, having a large albedo, but little infrared effect. A fundamental question is whether such clouds will exist at a given time and location. Stratocumulus is often formed at higher latitudes as stratus and advected equatorward until it breaks up. Possible mechanisms for cloud breakup include strong subsidence, cloud top entrainment instability (CTEI), drizzle, solar heating and resultant boundary layer decoupling, and surface forcing. The Atlantic Stratocumulus Transition Experiment (ASTEX) was conducted to investigate these potential cloud breakup mechanisms. 5 refs., 3 figs.

  11. A Preliminary Investigation of the Predictors of Tanning Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Heckman, Carolyn J.; Egleston, Brian L.; Wilson, Diane B.; Ingersoll, Karen S.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To investigate possible predictors of tanning dependence including demographic variables, exposure and protective behaviors, and other health-related behaviors. Methods This study consisted of an online survey of 400 students and other volunteers from a university community. Results Twenty-seven percent of the sample was classified as tanning dependent. Tanning dependence was predicted by ethnicity and skin type, indoor and outdoor tanning and burning, and lower skin protective behaviors, as well as smoking and body mass index. Conclusions Young adults are at risk for tanning dependence, which can be predicted by specific demographic and behavioral variables. PMID:18241130

  12. Preliminary Investigation of the Flying Qualities of Airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soule, H A

    1940-01-01

    The National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics is undertaking an investigation of the flying qualities of airplanes. The work consists in the determination of the significant qualities susceptible of measurement, the development of the instruments required to make the measurements, and the accumulation of data on the flying qualities of existing airplanes, which data are to serve as a basis for quantitative specifications for the flying qualities of future designs. A tentative schedule of measurable flying qualities has been prepared and the instruments needed for their measurements have been assembled. A trial of the schedule and the instruments has been made using the Stinson SR-8e airplane. The results showed that, although the original schedule and instruments are basically satisfactory some further development is required to eliminate nonessential items and to expedite flight testing. The report describes and discusses the work done with this airplane.

  13. Age Dating of Mixed SNM--Preliminary Investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan, D., Guss, P. P., Yfantis, E., Klingensmith, A., Emer, D.

    2011-12-01

    Recently we investigated the nuclear forensics problem of age determination for mixed special nuclear material (SNM). Through limited computational mixing experiments and interactive age analysis, it was observed that age dating results are generally affected by the mixing of samples with different assays or even by small radioactive material contamination. The mixing and contamination can be detected through interactive age analysis, a function provided by the Decay Interaction, Visualization and Analysis (DIVA) software developed by NSTec. It is observed that for mixed SNM with two components, the age estimators typically fall into two distinct clusters on the time axis. This suggests that averaging or other simple statistical methods may not always be suitable for age dating SNM mixtures. Instead, an interactive age analysis would be more suitable for age determination of material components of such SNM mixtures. This work was supported by the National Center for Nuclear Security (NCNS).

  14. Preliminary results of fisheries investigation associated with Skylab-3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savastano, K.; Pastula, E., Jr.; Woods, G.; Faller, K.

    1974-01-01

    The purpose of the 15-month investigation now in the analysis phase is to establish the feasibility of utilizing remotely sensed data acquired from aircraft and satellite platforms to provide information concerning the distribution and abundance of oceanic gamefish. Data from the test area, jointly acquired by private and professional fishermen and NASA and NOAA/NMFS elements, in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico has made possible the identification of significant environmental parameters for white marlin. Predictive models based on catch data and surface truth information have been developed and have demonstrated potential for reducing search significantly by identifying areas which have a high probability of being productive. Three of the parameters utilized by the model, chlorophyll-a, sea surface temperature and turbidity have been inferred from aircraft sensor data.

  15. The relationship between catatonia and dissociation: A preliminary investigation.

    PubMed

    Ross, Colin A; Browning, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Unlike the relationship between dissociation and Schneiderian first-rank symptoms, the relationship between dissociation and catatonia has not been investigated empirically. In order to gather some initial data about catatonia, dissociation, and childhood adverse experiences, we administered the Bush-Francis Catatonia Scale (BFCS), the Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES), the Adverse Childhood Experiences Questionnaire, and the Dissociative Disorders Interview Schedule to 100 inpatients in a hospital trauma program. The average DES score was 44.1 (SD = 22.4), and 86 participants were in the DES-Taxon. The average score on the BFCS was 7.7 (SD = 10.3); 81 participants scored 2 or higher, and 67 scored 5 or higher. The results showed that, in this sample, catatonic symptoms are frequent and related to adverse childhood experiences but seem to be a separate symptom category from both dissociation and psychosis. PMID:26751346

  16. Visual resolution in incoherent and coherent light: preliminary investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarnowska-Habrat, Katarzyna; Dubik, Boguslawa; Zajac, Marek

    2001-05-01

    In ophthalmology and optometry a number of measures are used for describing quality of human vision such as resolution, visual acuity, contrast sensitivity function, etc. In this paper we will concentrate on the vision quality understood as a resolution of periodic object being a set of equidistant parallel lines of given spacing and direction. The measurement procedure is based on presenting the test to the investigated person and determining the highest spatial frequency he/she can still resolve. In this paper we describe a number of experiments in which we use test tables illuminated with light both coherent and incoherent of different spectral characteristics. Our experiments suggest that while considering incoherent polychromatic illumination the resolution in blue light is substantially worse than in white light. In coherent illumination speckling effect causes worsening of resolution. While using laser light it is easy to generate a sinusoidal interference pattern which can serve as test object. In the paper we compare the results of resolution measurements with test tables and interference fringes.

  17. Preliminary investigations of active pixel sensors in Nuclear Medicine imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ott, Robert; Evans, Noel; Evans, Phil; Osmond, J.; Clark, A.; Turchetta, R.

    2009-06-01

    Three CMOS active pixel sensors have been investigated for their application to Nuclear Medicine imaging. Startracker with 525×525 25 μm square pixels has been coupled via a fibre optic stud to a 2 mm thick segmented CsI(Tl) crystal. Imaging tests were performed using 99mTc sources, which emit 140 keV gamma rays. The system was interfaced to a PC via FPGA-based DAQ and optical link enabling imaging rates of 10 f/s. System noise was measured to be >100e and it was shown that the majority of this noise was fixed pattern in nature. The intrinsic spatial resolution was measured to be ˜80 μm and the system spatial resolution measured with a slit was ˜450 μm. The second sensor, On Pixel Intelligent CMOS (OPIC), had 64×72 40 μm pixels and was used to evaluate noise characteristics and to develop a method of differentiation between fixed pattern and statistical noise. The third sensor, Vanilla, had 520×520 25 μm pixels and a measured system noise of ˜25e. This sensor was coupled directly to the segmented phosphor. Imaging results show that even at this lower level of noise the signal from 140 keV gamma rays is small as the light from the phosphor is spread over a large number of pixels. Suggestions for the 'ideal' sensor are made.

  18. A preliminary investigation of asthma mortality in schools.

    PubMed

    Greiling, Andrea K; Boss, Leslie P; Wheeler, Lani S

    2005-10-01

    Although asthma deaths in children are rare, most asthma deaths should be preventable. No information has been identified in the professional literature addressing the occurrence of asthma deaths in schools. This investigation identified asthma deaths that occurred in US schools between 1990 and 2003 and the circumstances surrounding those deaths. Data were obtained through newspaper articles in the LexisNexis database and death certificates. Between 1990 and 2003, 38 asthma school deaths were reported. Eighteen (47%) identified deaths occurred among black children and 12 (31%) among white. Twenty-seven (72%) of the deaths occurred among teens. Of the fatal asthma attacks, 16 (42%) occurred while the children were participating in a physically active event. Twelve (31%) children died while waiting for medical assistance. Due to the nature of these data, inferences may be subject to source bias. For the identified asthma deaths, key findings include the following: (1) most deaths occurred in teens and high school students; (2) frequently, the precipitating event was related in time to exercise; and (3) a delayed response or hesitancy of school staff to provide medical assistance may have contributed to some of the deaths. Although few school-related asthma deaths are reported each year, the true number is unknown. Key factors in managing the disease and preventing asthma deaths and exacerbations in schools include identification of students with diagnosed asthma, communication with parents and health care providers, removal of triggers in the immediate school environment, and maximizing access to needed medications. PMID:16179078

  19. Experimental study of the subtalar joint axis: preliminary investigation.

    PubMed

    Zographos, S; Chaminade, B; Hobatho, M C; Utheza, G

    2000-01-01

    An experimental study of the subtalar joint has been conducted with the aim of establishing its axis of movement as well as analysing the associated movement. For description of the axis, CT data for five positions of a single foot were reconstructed using a 3D programme, the 3D data was processed by Patran software. Measures of angular displacements were made from three amputated feet placed in a specially constructed foot frame. Four instantaneous axes of movement could be defined. Calculation of displacements showed an important rolling of the calcaneus (45 degrees). Tacking was evident in inversion, with an opposite displacement between the front and rear part of the calcaneus, whereas during eversion tacking affected only the rear part of the bone: these results were confirmed by 3D reconstructions. Henke's axis was described as that for the talonavicular joint, but acceptable for the subtalar joint. Several authors investigating the coordinates of this axis have reported large differences and described screw-like movements, the latter being incompatible with a fixed axis: instantaneous axes, however are compatible with a screw-like movement. The subtalar joint appears to work as a pivot joint during inversion and as a plane joint during eversion. Although Henke's axis has pedagogical value the subtalar joint has a series of instantaneous axes. PMID:11236321

  20. Preliminary investigation into sources of uncertainty in quantitative imaging features.

    PubMed

    Fave, Xenia; Cook, Molly; Frederick, Amy; Zhang, Lifei; Yang, Jinzhong; Fried, David; Stingo, Francesco; Court, Laurence

    2015-09-01

    Several recent studies have demonstrated the potential for quantitative imaging features to classify non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients as high or low risk. However applying the results from one institution to another has been difficult because of the variations in imaging techniques and feature measurement. Our study was designed to determine the effect of some of these sources of uncertainty on image features extracted from computed tomography (CT) images of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) tumors. CT images from 20 NSCLC patients were obtained for investigating the impact of four sources of uncertainty: Two region of interest (ROI) selection conditions (breathing phase and single-slice vs. whole volume) and two imaging protocol parameters (peak tube voltage and current). Texture values did not vary substantially with the choice of breathing phase; however, almost half (12 out of 28) of the measured textures did change significantly when measured from the average images compared to the end-of-exhale phase. Of the 28 features, 8 showed a significant variation when measured from the largest cross sectional slice compared to the entire tumor, but 14 were correlated to the entire tumor value. While simulating a decrease in tube voltage had a negligible impact on texture features, simulating a decrease in mA resulted in significant changes for 13 of the 23 texture values. Our results suggest that substantial variation exists when textures are measured under different conditions, and thus the development of a texture analysis standard would be beneficial for comparing features between patients and institutions. PMID:26004695

  1. Multiscale eddy simulation for moist atmospheric convection: Preliminary investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Stechmann, Samuel N.

    2014-08-15

    A multiscale computational framework is designed for simulating atmospheric convection and clouds. In this multiscale framework, large eddy simulation (LES) is used to model the coarse scales of 100 m and larger, and a stochastic, one-dimensional turbulence (ODT) model is used to represent the fine scales of 100 m and smaller. Coupled and evolving together, these two components provide a multiscale eddy simulation (MES). Through its fine-scale turbulence and moist thermodynamics, MES allows coarse grid cells to be partially cloudy and to encompass cloudy–clear air mixing on scales down to 1 m; in contrast, in typical LES such fine-scale processes are not represented or are parameterized using bulk deterministic closures. To illustrate MES and investigate its multiscale dynamics, a shallow cumulus cloud field is simulated. The fine-scale variability is seen to take a plausible form, with partially cloudy grid cells prominent near cloud edges and cloud top. From earlier theoretical work, this mixing of cloudy and clear air is believed to have an important impact on buoyancy. However, contrary to expectations based on earlier theoretical studies, the mean statistics of the bulk cloud field are essentially the same in MES and LES; possible reasons for this are discussed, including possible limitations in the present formulation of MES. One difference between LES and MES is seen in the coarse-scale turbulent kinetic energy, which appears to grow slowly in time due to incoherent stochastic fluctuations in the buoyancy. This and other considerations suggest the need for some type of spatial and/or temporal filtering to attenuate undersampling of the stochastic fine-scale processes.

  2. Maxillary expansion with the memory screw: a preliminary investigation

    PubMed Central

    Halicioğlu, Koray; Kiki, Ali

    2012-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a newly developed rapid maxillary expansion screw-the memory screw-over 6 months. Methods Five subjects, aged between 11.7 and 13.75 years, were enrolled in this study. All subjects underwent placement of a maxillary expansion appliance containing superelastic nickel-titanium open-coil springs in its screw bed. The parents of the patients and/or the patients themselves were instructed to activate the expansion screw by 2 quarter-turns 3 times a day (morning, midday, and evening; 6 quarter-turns a day). The mean expansion period was 7.52 ± 1.04 days. Dentoskeletal effects of the procedure, including dentoalveolar inclination, were evaluated. Measurements of all the parameters were repeated after 6 months of retention in order to check for relapse. Results Sella-Nasion-A point (SNA) and Sella-Nasion/Gonion-Menton angles increased, and Sella-Nasion-B point (SNB) angle decreased in all the subjects during the expansion phase. However, they approximated to the initial values at the end of 6 months. On the other hand, the increments in maxillary apical base (Mxr-Mxl) and intermolar widths was quite stable. As expected, some amount of dentoalveolar tipping was observed. Conclusions The newly developed memory expansion screw offers advantages of both rapid and slow expansion procedures. It widens the midpalatal suture and expands the maxilla with relatively lighter forces and within a short time. In addition, the resultant increments in the maxillary apical base and intermolar width remained quite stable even after 6 months of retention. PMID:23112935

  3. Effectiveness and humidification capacity investigation of liquid-to-air membrane energy exchanger under low heat capacity ratios at winter air conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kassai, Miklos

    2015-06-01

    In this research, a novel small-scale single-panel liquid-to-air membrane energy exchanger has been used to numerically investigate the effect of given number of heat transfer units (4.5), different cold inlet air temperature (1.7, 5.0, 10.0 °C) and different low heat capacity ratio (0.4, 0.5, 0.6, 0.7, 0.8, 0.9) on the steady-state performance of the energy exchanger. This small-scale energy exchanger represents the full-scale prototypes well, saving manufacturing costs and time. Lithium chloride is used as a salt solution in the system and the steady-state total effectiveness of the exchanger is evaluated for winter inlet air conditions. The results show that total effectiveness of the energy exchanger decreases with heat capacity ratio in the mentioned range. Maximum numerical total effectiveness of 97% is achieved for the energy exchanger. Increasing the heat capacity ratio values on given inlet air temperature, the humidification capacity of energy exhanger is also investigated in this paper. The humidification performance increases with heat capacity ratio. The highest humidification performance (4.53 g/kg) can be reached when inlet air temperature is 1.7 °C, and heat capacity ratio is 1.0 in winter inlet air conditions in the range of low heat capacity ratio.

  4. Investigation of Mg modified mesoporous silicas and their CO 2 adsorption capacities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Huiling; Yan, Wei; Bian, Zijun; Hu, Jun; Liu, Honglai

    2012-02-01

    CO 2 adsorption properties on Mg modified silica mesoporous materials were investigated. By using the methods of co-condensation, dispersion and ion-exchange, Mg 2+ was introduced into SBA-15 and MCM-41, and transformed into MgO in the calcination process. The basic MgO can provide active sites to enhance the acidic CO 2 adsorption capacity. To improve the amount and the dispersion state of the loading MgO, the optimized modification conditions were also investigated. The XRD and TEM characteristic results, as well as the CO 2 adsorption performance showed that the CO 2 adsorption capacity not only depended on the pore structures of MCM-41 and SBA-15, but also on the improvement of the dispersion state of MgO by modification. Among various Mg modified silica mesoporous materials, the CO 2 adsorption capacity increased from 0.42 mmol g -1 of pure silica SBA-15 to 1.35 mmol g -1 of Mg-Al-SBA-15-I1 by the ion-exchange method enhanced with Al 3+ synergism. Moreover, it also increased from 0.67 mmol g -1 of pure silica MCM-41 to 1.32 mmol g -1 of Mg-EDA-MCM-41-D10 by the dispersion method enhanced with the incorporation of ethane diamine. The stability test by 10 CO 2 adsorption/desorption cycles showed Mg-urea-MCM-41-D10 possessed quite good recyclability.

  5. A Quantitative Approach to Investigating Spanish HL Speakers' Characteristics and Motivation: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yanguas, Inigo

    2010-01-01

    The present preliminary study empirically investigated Spanish heritage language (HL) speakers in Spanish for native speakers (SNS) college courses. It focused on their attitudes and motivation to improve their HL and on their varying linguistic competences in that language. A well-established second language acquisition (SLA) motivational model…

  6. A Preliminary Investigation into Communication in the Special Needs Classroom during Key Stage 3 English Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunning, Karen; Ellis, Martina

    2010-01-01

    A preliminary study was conducted to investigate the communicative roles performed by teacher and pupil during Key Stage 3 (KS3) English lessons. Two classes of a special school were involved in the study. Data collection employed video capture of teacher-pupil communication during timetabled English lessons. The data were transcribed and analysed…

  7. 18 CFR 367.1830 - Account 183, Preliminary survey and investigation charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Account 183, Preliminary survey and investigation charges. 367.1830 Section 367.1830 Conservation of Power and Water... abandoned, the charge must be made to account 426.5, Other deductions (§ 367.4265), or to the...

  8. 18 CFR 367.1830 - Account 183, Preliminary survey and investigation charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Account 183, Preliminary survey and investigation charges. 367.1830 Section 367.1830 Conservation of Power and Water... abandoned, the charge must be made to account 426.5, Other deductions (§ 367.4265), or to the...

  9. 18 CFR 367.1830 - Account 183, Preliminary survey and investigation charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Account 183, Preliminary survey and investigation charges. 367.1830 Section 367.1830 Conservation of Power and Water... abandoned, the charge must be made to account 426.5, Other deductions (§ 367.4265), or to the...

  10. 18 CFR 367.1830 - Account 183, Preliminary survey and investigation charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Account 183, Preliminary survey and investigation charges. 367.1830 Section 367.1830 Conservation of Power and Water... abandoned, the charge must be made to account 426.5, Other deductions (§ 367.4265), or to the...

  11. 18 CFR 367.1830 - Account 183, Preliminary survey and investigation charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Account 183, Preliminary survey and investigation charges. 367.1830 Section 367.1830 Conservation of Power and Water... abandoned, the charge must be made to account 426.5, Other deductions (§ 367.4265), or to the...

  12. Efficacy of Attention Regulation in Preschool-Age Children Who Stutter: A Preliminary Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Kia N.; Conture, Edward G.; Walden, Tedra A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This preliminary investigation assessed the attentional processes of preschool-age children who do (CWS) and do not stutter (CWNS) during Traditional cueing and Affect cueing tasks. Method: Participants consisted of 12 3- to 5-year-old CWS and the same number of CWNS (all boys). Both talker groups participated in two tasks of shifting and…

  13. A preliminary investigation of microsatellite-based genotyping in Trichomonas vaginalis.

    PubMed

    Prokopi, Marianna; Chatzitheodorou, Theodoros; Ackers, John P; Clark, C Graham

    2011-08-01

    The genetic epidemiology of Trichomonas vaginalis is poorly understood at present. The recent release of the organism's genome sequence opens the way to investigation of polymorphic markers allowing strain identification. We here report a preliminary analysis of microsatellite loci in T. vaginalis and show that this approach holds promise for future studies of infection transmission and organism diversity. PMID:21700304

  14. Who Cares about Diversity? A Preliminary Investigation of Diversity Exposure in Teacher Preparation Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Elena; Butler, Bettie Ray

    2015-01-01

    The existing literature has extensively documented the urgency for educators to raise their cultural awareness and become more culturally responsive; yet the importance placed on cultural competence in teacher education programs has been surprisingly weak. The present study, therefore, provides a preliminary investigation of diversity exposure,…

  15. Radiation and temperature effects on electronic components investigated under the CSTI high capacity power project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwarze, Gene E.; Niedra, Janis M.; Frasca, Albert J.; Wieserman, William R.

    1993-01-01

    The effects of nuclear radiation and high temperature environments must be fully known and understood for the electronic components and materials used in both the Power Conditioning and Control subsystem and the reactor Instrumentation and Control subsystem of future high capacity nuclear space power systems. This knowledge is required by the designer of these subsystems in order to develop highly reliable, long-life power systems for future NASA missions. A review and summary of the experimental results obtained for the electronic components and materials investigated under the power management element of the Civilian Space Technology Initiative (CSTI) high capacity power project are presented: (1) neutron, gamma ray, and temperature effects on power semiconductor switches, (2) temperature and frequency effects on soft magnetic materials; and (3) temperature effects on rare earth permanent magnets.

  16. Radiation and temperature effects on electronic components investigated under the CSTI high capacity power project

    SciTech Connect

    Schwarze, G.E. ); Niedra, J.M. ); Frasca, A.J. ); Wieserman, W.R. )

    1993-01-15

    The effects of nuclear radiation and high temperature environments must be fully known and understood for the electronic components and materials used in both the Power Conditioning and Control subsystem and the reactor Instrumentation and Control subsystem of future high capacity nuclear space power systems. This knowledge is required by the designer of these subsystems in order to develop highly reliable, long-life power systems for future NASA missions. A review and summary of the experimental results obtained for the electronic components and materials investigated under the power management element of the CSTI high capacity power project will be presented in this paper: (1) Neutron, gamma ray, and temperature effects on power semiconductor switches, (2) Temperature and frequency effects on soft magnetic materials; and (3) Temperature effects on rare-earth permanent magnets.

  17. Radiation and temperature effects on electronic components investigated under the CSTI High Capacity Power Project

    SciTech Connect

    Shwarze, G.E.; Niedra, J.M.; Frasca, A.J.; Wieserman, W.R.

    1994-09-01

    The effects of nuclear radiation and high temperature environments must be fully known and understood for the electronic components and materials used in both the Power Conditioning and Control subsystem and the reactor Instrumentation and Control subsystem of future high capacity nuclear space power systems. This knowledge is required by the designer of these subsystems in order to develop highly reliable, long-life power systems for future NASA missions. A review and summary of the experimental results obtained for the electronic components and materials investigated under the power management element of the CSTI high capacity power project will be presented in this paper: (1) Neutron, gamma ray, and temperature effects on power semiconductor switches, (2) Temperature and frequency effects on soft magnetic materials; and (3) Temperature effects on rare earth permanent magnets.

  18. Analytical and experimental investigation of liquid double drop dynamics: Preliminary design for space shuttle experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The preliminary grant assessed the use of laboratory experiments for simulating low g liquid drop experiments in the space shuttle environment. Investigations were begun of appropriate immiscible liquid systems, design of experimental apparatus and analyses. The current grant continued these topics, completed construction and preliminary testing of the experimental apparatus, and performed experiments on single and compound liquid drops. A continuing assessment of laboratory capabilities, and the interests of project personnel and available collaborators, led to, after consultations with NASA personnel, a research emphasis specializing on compound drops consisting of hollow plastic or elastic spheroids filled with liquids.

  19. Investigation of the carbon dioxide sorption capacity and structural deformation of coal

    SciTech Connect

    Hur, Tae-Bong; Fazio, James; Romanov, Vyacheslav; Harbert, William

    2010-01-01

    Due to increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations causing the global energy and environmental crises, geological sequestration of carbon dioxide is now being actively considered as an attractive option to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. One of the important strategies is to use deep unminable coal seams, for those generally contain significant quantities of coal bed methane that can be recovered by CO2 injection through enhanced coal bed natural gas production, as a method to safely store CO2. It has been well known that the adsorbing CO2 molecules introduce structural deformation, such as distortion, shrinkage, or swelling, of the adsorbent of coal organic matrix. The accurate investigations of CO2 sorption capacity as well as of adsorption behavior need to be performed under the conditions that coals deform. The U.S. Department of Energy-National Energy Technology Laboratory and Regional University Alliance are conducting carbon dioxide sorption isotherm experiments by using manometric analysis method for estimation of CO2 sorption capacity of various coal samples and are constructing a gravimetric apparatus which has a visual window cell. The gravimetric apparatus improves the accuracy of carbon dioxide sorption capacity and provides feasibility for the observation of structural deformation of coal sample while carbon dioxide molecules interact with coal organic matrix. The CO2 sorption isotherm measurements have been conducted for moist and dried samples of the Central Appalachian Basin (Russell County, VA) coal seam, received from the SECARB partnership, at the temperature of 55 C.

  20. Science misconceptions and working memory capacity among Saudi adolescents: A neo-Piagetian investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Jubaili, Ahmad Yahya

    This study was designed to investigate the relationships between science misconceptions and working memory capacity in Saudi adolescent students. The participants in this study were from eleventh and twelfth grades; both male and female students and natural and social science Saudi comprised the sample. Also investigated in this study were the conceptions and misconceptions of gravity in a non-European culture, that is Saudi culture, and the variables that differentiated those individuals who could overcome their misconceptions from those who could not and the gender differences in science misconceptions in the context of Saudi culture. Another important focus of this study was to investigate the participants' responses and explanations on the science misconceptions tasks (WLT and EGT). As would be expected, there was a strong correlation between WLT and EGT in the responses of students and their explanations. The most successful students on the WLT and EGT were natural science students rather than social science students, and there were no gender differences between male and female participants. Also investigated were the correlations between the dependent variables (i.e., the WLT and EGT; the measures of science misconceptions) and the independent variables, which were the visual working memory capacity tasks (i.e., FIT and VPS), the field independence/dependence (FASP), students' grade point average (GPA), age, academic major, gender, and grade level. It was found that both of the dependent variables (i.e., the WLT and EGT) correlated significantly with the same independent variables, the FIT, VPS, FASP, academic major, and students' grade point average (GPA).

  1. Apollo 17 preliminary science report. [Apollo 17 investigation of Taurus-Littrow lunar region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    An analysis of the Apollo 17 flight is presented in the form of a preliminary science report. The subjects discussed are: (1) Apollo 17 site selection, (2) mission description, (3) geological investigation of landing site, (4) lunar experiments, (5) visual flight flash phenomenon, (6) volcanic studies, (7) mare ridges and related studies, (8) remote sensing and photogrammetric studies, and (9) astronomical photography. Extensive photographic data are included for all phases of the mission.

  2. Preliminary investigation of motion requirements for the simulation of helicopter hover tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrish, R. V.

    1980-01-01

    Data from a preliminary experiment are presented which attempted to define a helicopter hover task that would allow the detection of objectively-measured differences in fixed base/moving base simulator performance. The addition of heave, pitch, and roll movement of a ship at sea to the hover task, by means of an adaption of a simulator g-seat, potentially fulfills the desired definition. The feasibility of g-seat substitution for platform motion can be investigated utilizing this task.

  3. Investigation of polarized-proton target materials by differential calorimetry: preliminary results

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, D.A.; Hill, J.J.

    1980-10-15

    A simple differential calorimeter was designed and operated for an investigation of the thermodynamic properties of polarized target materials. The calibration and use of the calorimeter are discussed, after a brief exposition of our motivation for this work. The results of a preliminary study of target materials is presented with emphasis on the relevance of the glass state to dynamic polarization in chemically-doped targets.

  4. Preliminary investigation of cycle-to-cycle variations in a nonair-breathing diesel engine

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, M.; Reader, G.T.

    1995-03-01

    The effect of nonair mixtures on cycle-to-cycle variations of cylinder pressure characteristics was investigated experimentally with an indirect-injected (IDI) diesel engine. The engine intake temperature and pressure were maintained at normal air-breathing conditions when operated with nonair mixtures. Preliminary results indicate that increases in carbon dioxide concentration can cause significant cyclic variations. Moreover, the extent of such cyclic variations is notably influenced by the oxygen concentration and inert gas constitutents of the working fluids.

  5. Investigating the capacity of self and peer assessment activities to engage students and promote learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willey, Keith; Gardner, Anne

    2010-08-01

    The authors have previously reported the effectiveness of using self and peer assessment to improve learning outcomes by providing opportunities to practise, assess and provide feedback on students' attribute development. Despite this work and the research of others, a significant number of students and, indeed, many academics focus on the free-rider deterrent capability of self and peer assessment, rather than its capacity to provide opportunities for developing judgement and facilitating reflection and feedback to complete the learning cycle. The advent of web-based tools such as SPARKPLUS allows the frequent and efficient implementation of self and peer assessment activities even in large classes. This article reports the results of an investigation into whether the regular use of self and peer assessment in different contexts promoted effective peer learning, increased engagement and encouraged students to learn.

  6. Preliminary Investigation of Zircaloy-4 as a Research Reactor Cladding Material

    SciTech Connect

    Brian K Castle

    2012-05-01

    As part of a scoping study for the ATR fuel conversion project, an initial comparison of the material properties of Zircaloy-4 and Aluminum-6061 (T6 and O-temper) is performed to provide a preliminary evaluation of Zircaloy-4 for possible inclusion as a candidate cladding material for ATR fuel elements. The current fuel design for the ATR uses Aluminum 6061 (T6 and O temper) as a cladding and structural material in the fuel element and to date, no fuel failures have been reported. Based on this successful and longstanding operating history, Zircaloy-4 properties will be evaluated against the material properties for aluminum-6061. The preliminary investigation will focus on a comparison of density, oxidation rates, water chemistry requirements, mechanical properties, thermal properties, and neutronic properties.

  7. Hydrobiology of a flooding ecosystem, Lake Chenhu in Hanyang, Hubei, with preliminary estimation of its potential fishery production capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Yanling; Wang, Ji; Hu, Chuanlin

    1988-03-01

    For the purpose of fishery development, a hydrobiological investigation of Lake Chenhu was carried out in 1983 with reference to the productivity of various food organisms as well as fish. Of the entire lake, the annual net primary production was determined to be 27,818×106 kcal for phytoplankton, 2,898×106 kcal for macrophytes and 64,840×106 kcal for wet land vegetation. The annual secondary production chiefly from gastropods was 2,632×106 kcal. On the basis of 1981 1982 fishery data, the production of the main stocked fishes in the lake was also roughly computed. Analysing all obtained production data, we find the energy conversion rate of food organisms to fish in the water at the present stage is fairly low. Even in 1982, the year of better fishery management, food energy converted to plankton feeders or herbivores was only 1.6 1.8%; energy converted to fish yield was even lower, only 0.2 0.8%. To get a potential fish output of the ecosystem, a tentative estimation of fishery capacity of Lake Chenhu was made by using the index of food quotients and relevant conversion factors. The theoretical fish production in the lake is estimated to be around 6,000 t and, through the improvement of fishery management, an annual fish yield of 2,000 t can be expected.

  8. Preliminary investigation of power flow and electrode phenomena in a multi-megawatt coaxial plasma thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoenberg, Kurt F.; Gerwin, Richard A.; Henins, Ivars; Mayo, Robert; Scheuer, Jay; Wurden, Glen

    1992-01-01

    The present report on preliminary results of theoretical and experimental investigations of power flow in a large, unoptimized, multimegawatt coaxial thruster evaluates the significance of these data for the development of efficient, megawatt-class magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thrusters. The good agreement obtained between thruster operational performance and model predictions suggests that ideal MHD processes, including those of a magnetic nozzle, play an important role in coaxial plasma thruster dynamics at power levels relevant to advanced space propulsion. An optimized magnetic nozzle design would aid the development of efficient, multimegawatt MPD thrusters.

  9. Preliminary investigation of power flow and electrode phenomena in a multi-megawatt coaxial plasma thruster

    SciTech Connect

    Schoenberg, K.F.; Gerwin, R.A.; Henins, I.; Mayo, R.; Scheuer, J.; Wurden, G. North Carolina State University, Raleigh )

    1992-07-01

    The present report on preliminary results of theoretical and experimental investigations of power flow in a large, unoptimized, multimegawatt coaxial thruster evaluates the significance of these data for the development of efficient, megawatt-class magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thrusters. The good agreement obtained between thruster operational performance and model predictions suggests that ideal MHD processes, including those of a magnetic nozzle, play an important role in coaxial plasma thruster dynamics at power levels relevant to advanced space propulsion. An optimized magnetic nozzle design would aid the development of efficient, multimegawatt MPD thrusters. 10 refs.

  10. [Wording and content of national anthems -- preliminary findings from a transcultural investigation of suicide].

    PubMed

    Vörös, Viktor; Osváth, Péter; Vincze, Orsolya; Pusztay, Katalin; Fekete, Sándor; Rihmer, Zoltán

    2012-01-01

    Suicide is still a major health concern, although suicide rates widely differ among different countries and cultures. Thus, besides biological and clinical studies, there is an increasing transcultural research activity on suicidal behaviour. We are presenting here some important transcultural aspects of suicidal behaviour and report some preliminary findings of our transcultural suicide research. Based on the previous data and on our investigations it is likely that the national character and the attitudes toward self-harm are reflecting in some major cultural, historical texts of a nation. PMID:22781542

  11. Preliminary Investigation of the Thermal Behavior of High-Speed Helical Gear Trains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Handschuh, Robert F.; Kilmain, Charles J.

    2002-01-01

    A preliminary experimental investigation of the thermal behavior of high-speed helical gears will be presented. A full-scale torque regenerative test stand has been built to test a representative helical gear train as that used in tiltrotor aircraft. Power loss and temperature data from a wide range of operating conditions were measured. Loop power ranged up to 3730 kW (5000 hp). Drive system components representative of flight quality hardware were used in the test program. The results attained in this initial study indicated that windage losses due to the high rotational speeds that were tested were far more important than the losses due to the gear meshing losses.

  12. Preliminary Investigation of Cyclic Behavior at SHADOZ Sites Between the Equator and 5 deg S Latitude

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidlin, F. J.

    2009-01-01

    Investigation of cyclic behavior of temperature and ozone data from five SHADOZ sites between the Equator and 5degS Latitude (Nairobi, Ascension Island, Natal, San Crystobal, and Watukoset) reveal an amazing array of oscillations. In particular, eight years of measurements (1998-2007) reveal changes such as decreasing amounts of ozone at some pressure levels and/or sites, while other levels and/or sites experience increasing ozone. Temperature changes of 1-2 C occur that also experience irregular oscillations. This study is preliminary and only concentrates on the 250-, 200-, 100-, 70-, and 50-hPa pressure surfaces. Surfaces existing below and above the tropopause behave differently.

  13. Preliminary results of numerical investigations at SECARB Cranfield, MS field test site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, J.; Nicot, J.; Meckel, T. A.; Chang, K.; Hovorka, S. D.

    2008-12-01

    The Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration partnership sponsored by DOE has chosen the Cranfield, MS field as a test site for its Phase II experiment. It will provide information on CO2 storage in oil and gas fields, in particular on storage permanence, storage capacity, and pressure buildup as well as on sweep efficiency. The 10,300 ft-deep reservoir produced 38 MMbbl of oil and 677 MMSCF of gas from the 1940's to the 1960's and is being retrofitted by Denbury Resources for tertiary recovery. CO2 injection started in July 2008 with a scheduled ramp up during the next few months. The Cranfield modeling team selected the northern section of the field for development of a numerical model using the multiphase-flow, compositional CMG-GEM software. Model structure was determined through interpretation of logs from old and recently-drilled wells and geophysical data. PETREL was used to upscale and export permeability and porosity data to the GEM model. Preliminary sensitivity analyses determined that relative permeability parameters and oil composition had the largest impact on CO2 behavior. The first modeling step consisted in history-matching the total oil, gas, and water production out of the reservoir starting from its natural state to determine the approximate current conditions of the reservoir. The fact that pressure recovered in the 40 year interval since end of initial production helps in constraining boundary conditions. In a second step, the modeling focused on understanding pressure evolution and CO2 transport in the reservoir. The presentation will introduce preliminary results of the simulations and confirm/explain discrepancies with field measurements.

  14. An investigation of Turkish honeys: their physico-chemical properties, antioxidant capacities and phenolic profiles.

    PubMed

    Can, Zehra; Yildiz, Oktay; Sahin, Huseyin; Turumtay, Emine Akyuz; Silici, Sibel; Kolayli, Sevgi

    2015-08-01

    This study investigated some physico-chemical and biochemical characteristics of different honey types belonging to Turkish flora. Sixty-two honey samples were examined on the basis of pollen analyses, including 11 unifloral honeys (chestnut, heather, chaste tree, rhododendron, common eryngo, lavender, Jerusalem tea, astragalus, clover and acacia), two different honeydew honeys (lime and oak), and 7 different multifloral honeys. Electrical conductivity, moisture, Hunter color values, HMF, proline, diastase number, and sugar analyses of the honey samples were assessed for chemical characterization. Some phenolic components were analyzed by reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) to determine honeys' phenolic profiles. Total phenolic compounds, total flavonoids, ferric reducing antioxidant capacity (FRAP) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity were measured as antioxidant determinants. The study results confirm that physico-chemical and biological characteristics of honeys are closely related to their floral sources, and that dark-colored honeys such as oak, chestnut and heather, have a high therapeutic potential. PMID:25766810

  15. Investigation of the phosphorus removal capacities of basic oxygen furnace slag under variable conditions.

    PubMed

    Han, Chong; Wang, Zhen; Yang, Wangjin; Wu, Qianqian; Yang, He; Xue, Xiangxin

    2016-05-01

    Effects of reaction time, initial phosphorus concentration, basic oxygen furnace slag (BOF-slag) dosage and size, and temperature on the phosphorus removal capacities (PRCs) of BOF-slag have been investigated in detail through batch tests. Weakly bound phosphorus, Fe- and Al-associated phosphorus, and Ca-associated phosphorus from fresh and reacted BOF-slag were analysed using sequential chemical extraction processes. It was determined that the PRCs of BOF-slag increased with the increase of initial phosphorus concentration and temperature while it decreased with the increase of BOF-slag dosage and size. The phosphorus removed by BOF-slag was primarily assigned to weakly bound phosphorus and Ca-associated phosphorus. Weakly bound phosphorus showed a significant decrease with the increase in all experimental parameter values. However, Ca-associated phosphorus exhibited a prominent increase with increasing reaction time, initial phosphorus concentration, and temperature. These demonstrate that experimental parameters can simultaneously affect the PRCs of BOF-slag and the ways of phosphorus removal by BOF-slag. PMID:26507932

  16. [Investigation on Inhibitory Capacities of Seventeen Herbal Extracts on Oxidative Stress using Ultraviolet and Fluorescence Spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Hou, Guang-yue; Zheng, Zhong; Song, Feng-rui; Liu, Zhi-qiang; Zhao, Bing

    2015-03-01

    Diabetic patients usually suffer from complications and the long-term secondary complications are the main cause of morbidity and mortality. The hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress is one of the important pathogenesis of diabetic complications, while the oxidative stress is associated with the lipid peroxidation reaction and the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs). Our study was focus on the pathogenesis of diabetic complications and based on the oxidative stress reaction. In this research, the oxidative stress inhibiting effects of seventeen herbal extracts were studied based on spectroscopic methodology. The capacities of herbal extracts against the lipid peroxidation reaction of rat liver in vitro were investigated using spectrophotometric method. It showed that the inhibitory activity of Radix Scutellariae and Flos Sophorae Immaturus were better than other herbal extracts. Additionally, the herbal extracts rich in flavonoids, alkaloids and lignanoids showed good inhibitory activities on the lipid peroxidation reaction. On the contrary, the saponin-rich herbal extracts possessed weak inhibitory effects. We applied the BSA/glucose (fructose) system combined with fluorescent spectroscopy to determine the inhibitory activities of herbal extracts in glycation model reactions. The results showed that the AGEs formation inhibitory activity of Flos Sophorae Immaturus, Radix Scutellariae and Rhizoma Anemarrhenae were better than others in the BSA/glucose (fructose) system by fluorescene analysis. The results demonstrated that the herbal extracts rich in flavonoids were found to be more effective than that of those herbal extracts as alkaloids and terpenoids class in inhibiting oxidative stress, while the saponin-rich herbal extracts showed weak inhibitory activities against oxidative stress. The Flos Sophorae Immaturus and Radix Scutellariae extracts had better inhibitory activity to the oxidative stress, so their pharmacological activity could be

  17. R&D Requirements, RF Gun Mode Studies, FEL-2 Steady-StateStudies, Preliminary FEL-1 Time-Dependent Studies, and Preliminary LayoutOption Investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Byrd, John; Corlett, John; Doolittle, Larry; Fawley, William; Lidia, Steven; Penn, Gregory; Ratti, Alex; Staples, John; Wilcox Russell; Wurtele, Jonathan; Zholents, Alexander

    2005-10-01

    This report constitutes the third deliverable of LBNLs contracted role in the FERMI {at} Elettra Technical Optimization study. It describes proposed R&D activities for the baseline design of the Technical Optimization Study, initial studies of the RF gun mode-coupling and potential effects on beam dynamics, steady-state studies of FEL-2 performance to 10 nm, preliminary studies of time-dependent FEL-1 performance using electron bunch distribution from the start-to-end studies, and a preliminary investigation of a configuration with FEL sinclined at a small angle from the line of the linac.

  18. Preliminary Investigation of Curved Liner Sample in the NASA LaRC Curved Duct Test Rig

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerhold, Carl H.; Jones, Michael G.; Brown, Martha C.

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the preliminary investigation of the curved liner sample in the NASA LaRC Curved Duct Test Rig (CDTR). It reviews the purpose of the Curved Duct Test Rig. Its purpose is to develop capability to investigate acoustic and aerodynamic properties in ducts. It has several features to accomplish that purpose: (1) Large scale (2) Flow rate to M = 0.275 (3) Higher order mode control (4) Curved flow path (5) Adaptable test section (6) Flexible test configurations. The liner has minimal effect on turbulence or boundary layer growth in duct. The curved duct sample attenuation is affected by mode scattering. In conclusion, the CDTR is valid tool for aerodynamic and acoustic evaluation of duct treatment

  19. Preliminary investigation of cooling-air ejector performance at pressure ratios from 1 to 10

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, C W; Hollister, D P; Sargent, A F , Jr

    1951-01-01

    Preliminary investigation was made of conical cooling air ejector at primary pressure ratios from 1 to 10. The cooling-air flow was maintained at zero and the resulting pressure variation in the shroud indicated pumping ability. The cooling-air flow was maintained at zero and the resulting pressure variation in the shroud indicated pumping ability. The gross thrust of the ejector and nozzle were compared. Several ratios of the spacing between the nozzle and shroud exit to the nozzle exit diameter were investigated for several shroud to nozzle exit diameter ratios. Maximum gross thrust loss occurred under conditions of zero cooling-air flow and was as much as 35 percent below nozzle jet thrust. For minimum thrust loss, ejector should be designed with as low diameter and spacing ratio as possible.

  20. Scaling the Information Load of Occupations: Preliminary Findings of the Fit between Individual Capacities and Environmental Demands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haase, Richard F.; Ferreira, Joaquim Armando G. A.; Santos, Eduardo J. R.; Aguayo, Gina M.; Fallon, Melissa M.

    2008-01-01

    Person-Environment (P-E) fit models provide a conceptually powerful way to think about career development, vocational choice, and occupational success. The work reported here focuses on yet another pair of P-E criteria: self-reported individual capacity for information processing (the ability to tolerate information overload from a variety of…

  1. 43 CFR 3271.12 - What do I need to start preliminary site investigations that may disturb the surface?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... investigations that may disturb the surface? 3271.12 Section 3271.12 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating... start preliminary site investigations that may disturb the surface? (a) You must: (1) Fully describe... not begin the site investigation or surface disturbing activity until BLM approves your Sundry...

  2. 43 CFR 3271.12 - What do I need to start preliminary site investigations that may disturb the surface?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... investigations that may disturb the surface? 3271.12 Section 3271.12 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating... start preliminary site investigations that may disturb the surface? (a) You must: (1) Fully describe... not begin the site investigation or surface disturbing activity until BLM approves your Sundry...

  3. 43 CFR 3271.12 - What do I need to start preliminary site investigations that may disturb the surface?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... investigations that may disturb the surface? 3271.12 Section 3271.12 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating... start preliminary site investigations that may disturb the surface? (a) You must: (1) Fully describe... not begin the site investigation or surface disturbing activity until BLM approves your Sundry...

  4. 43 CFR 3271.12 - What do I need to start preliminary site investigations that may disturb the surface?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... investigations that may disturb the surface? 3271.12 Section 3271.12 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating... start preliminary site investigations that may disturb the surface? (a) You must: (1) Fully describe... not begin the site investigation or surface disturbing activity until BLM approves your Sundry...

  5. Efficacy of attention regulation in preschool-age children who stutter: A preliminary investigation

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Kia N.; Conture, Edward G.; Walden, Tedra A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose This preliminary investigation assessed the attentional processes of preschoolage children who do (CWS) and do not stutter (CWNS) during Traditional cueing and Affect cueing tasks. Method Participants consisted of 12 3- to 5-year-old CWS and the same number of CWNS (all boys). Both talker groups participated in two tasks of shifting and focusing attention: (a) Traditional cueing and (b) Affect cueing. The Affect cueing task was preceded by stress-heightening instructions intended to influence participants' emotionality. In both tasks participants provided non-speech motor responses (i.e., button pressing) to computer-presented target stimuli. Targets were preceded by a visual cue (i.e., highlighted box) occurring in the same (i.e., Valid trials) or opposite (i.e., Invalid trials) location as the target stimuli. Reaction times (RT) were measured (in ms) from the onset of the target stimuli to the onset of the non-speech motor response. Errors were tallied for both experimental conditions and were categorized by type. Results Findings of this preliminary investigation indicated that there were no significant between-group differences in RT or frequency of erroneous responses. There were differences in error type that were correlated with RT for both CWS and CWNS when stress-heightening instructions were introduced. Conclusion Preliminary findings suggest that speed of attentional disengaging, shifting and re-engaging does not differ between preschool-age CWS and CWNS during the experimental paradigm employed in this study and that introducing stress-heightening instructions does affect components of performance for both preschool-age CWS and CWNS. Caveats for the present study include a limited sample size of young preschool-aged children as well as methodological concerns. Learning outcomes Readers will be able to: (1) Define attention regulation and describe findings that investigate the role of attention regulation in developmental stuttering of preschool

  6. An investigation of capacity and safety in near-terminal airspace for guiding information technology adoption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haynie, Rudolph Clinton

    The nation's air traffic infrastructure, operating under current rules, regulations, practices, and technologies, is approaching its capacity. At some future date, it will be unable to accommodate an increase in air traffic. Travellers, airline operators, industry, and government all desire to see capacity increased in order to avoid delays, increased costs, inconveniences, and negative impacts on the economy. Various information technology (IT) based solutions have been proposed and/or fielded as a means to extend or augment human capabilities in an effort to increase capacity. Although there is promise in the ability of IT to increase capacity, there is very little scholarly literature and no verifiable proof that capacity is related to safety. My effort examined the relationship between capacity and safety and illustrates its interactive nature. Understanding this relationship is a major consideration when determining whether to adopt information-based technologies, the employment of which should be aimed at increasing safety and capacity, not as individual entities or quantitative values, but as inextricably related and vital components of the air traffic infrastructure. My thesis was that the differences between increasing or decreasing demand on available capacity influence the levels of safety. Further, information technology solutions will have a direct effect on whether increased demand can be accommodated safely while remaining within the constraints imposed by current operational practices and rules. The primary research effort involved collection and analysis of landing time intervals observed between arrival aircraft at selected locations. This effort assumes that a snapshot of current operating practices and procedures is obtainable by observing and recording how aircraft separation standards are actually employed at various airports. The primary data collection also assumed that audio and visual monitoring of aircraft and tower operations provided

  7. Preliminary investigation of zirconium boride ceramals for gas-turbine blade applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, Charles A

    1953-01-01

    Zirconium boride ZrB2 ceramals were investigated for possible gas-turbine-blade application. Included in the study were thermal shock evaluations of disks, preliminary turbine-blade operation, and observations of oxidation resistance. Thermal shock disks of the following three compositions were studied: (a) 97.5 percent ZrB2 plus 2.5 percent B by weight; (b) 92.5 percent ZrB2 plus 7.5 percent B by weight; and (c) 100 percent ZrB2. Thermal shock disks were quenched from temperatures of 1800 degrees, 2000 degrees, 2200 degrees, and 2400 degrees F. The life of turbine blades containing 93 percent ZrB2 plus 7 percent B by weight was determined in gas-turbine tests. The blades were run at approximately 1600 degrees F and 15,000 to 26,000 rpm. The thermal shock resistance of the 97.5 percent ZrB2 plus 2.5 percent boron ceramals compares favorably with that of TiC plus Co and TiC plus Ni ceramals. Oxidation of the disks during the thermal shock evaluation was slight for the comparatively short time (8.3 hr) up through 2000 degrees F. Oxidation of a specimen was severe, however, after 100 hours at 2000 degrees F. The turbine blade performance evaluation of the 93 percent ZrB2 plus 7 percent B composition was preliminary in scope ; no conclusions can be drawn.

  8. Preliminary experimental investigation of a Ku-band radial line oscillator based on transition radiation effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dang, Fangchao; Zhang, Xiaoping; Zhong, Huihuang; Li, Yangmei

    2015-09-01

    A Ku-band radial line oscillator (RLO) with low guiding magnetic field was proposed in our previous work. In order to weaken the impedance mismatch between the oscillator and an intense electron accelerator with higher impedance, a transverse electromagnetic reflector is added to improve the RLO, which is favorable to increase the Q-factor and accelerate the device saturation. A preliminary experiment is carried out to investigate the performance of the improved RLO. The radial-radiated electron beam is restrained well under the designed guiding magnetic field of 0.52 T. The preliminary experimental results indicates that high power microwaves with a power of 120 MW and a frequency of 14.12 GHz are generated when the diode voltage is 420 kV and the beam current 14.2 kA. The experimental results suggest the feasibility of the presented RLO generating high power microwaves at a high frequency band. Additionally, more work is needed regarding promotion of the electron beam quality and the impedance match between the electron beam accelerator and the oscillator.

  9. Preliminary experimental investigation of a Ku-band radial line oscillator based on transition radiation effect

    SciTech Connect

    Dang, Fangchao Zhang, Xiaoping; Zhong, Huihuang; Li, Yangmei

    2015-09-15

    A Ku-band radial line oscillator (RLO) with low guiding magnetic field was proposed in our previous work. In order to weaken the impedance mismatch between the oscillator and an intense electron accelerator with higher impedance, a transverse electromagnetic reflector is added to improve the RLO, which is favorable to increase the Q-factor and accelerate the device saturation. A preliminary experiment is carried out to investigate the performance of the improved RLO. The radial-radiated electron beam is restrained well under the designed guiding magnetic field of 0.52 T. The preliminary experimental results indicates that high power microwaves with a power of 120 MW and a frequency of 14.12 GHz are generated when the diode voltage is 420 kV and the beam current 14.2 kA. The experimental results suggest the feasibility of the presented RLO generating high power microwaves at a high frequency band. Additionally, more work is needed regarding promotion of the electron beam quality and the impedance match between the electron beam accelerator and the oscillator.

  10. Preliminary Modelling of the Effect of Impurity in CO2 Streams on the Storage Capacity and the Plume Migration in Pohang Basin, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Yongchan; Choi, Byoungyoung; Shinn, Youngjae

    2015-04-01

    Captured CO2 streams contain various levels of impurities which vary depending on the combustion technology and CO2 sources such as a power plant and iron and steel production processes. Common impurities or contaminants are non-condensable gases like nitrogen, oxygen and hydrogen, and are also air pollutants like sulphur and nitrogen oxides. Specifically for geological storage, the non-condensable gases in CO2 streams are not favourable because they can decrease density of the injected CO2 stream and can affect buoyancy of the plume. However, separation of these impurities to obtain the CO2 purity higher than 99% would greatly increase the cost of capture. In 2010, the Korean Government announced a national framework to develop CCS, with the aim of developing two large scale integrated CCS projects by 2020. In order to achieve this goal, a small scale injection project into Pohang basin near shoreline has begun which is seeking the connection with a capture project, especially at a steel company. Any onshore sites that are suitable for the geological storage are not identified by this time so we turned to the shallow offshore Pohang basin where is close to a large-scale CO2 source. Currently, detailed site surveys are being undertaken and the collected data were used to establish a geological model of the basin. In this study, we performed preliminary modelling study on the effect of impurities on the geological storage using the geological model. Using a potential compositions of impurities in CO2 streams from the steel company, we firstly calculated density and viscosity of CO2 streams as a function of various pressure and temperature conditions with CMG-WINPROP and then investigated the effect of the non-condensable gases on storage capacity, injectivity and plume migrations with CMG-GEM. Further simulations to evaluate the areal and vertical sweep efficiencies by impurities were perform in a 2D vertical cross section as well as in a 3D simulation grid. Also

  11. Investigations of temperature dependences of electrical resistivity and specific heat capacity of metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eser, Erhan; Koç, Hüseyin

    2016-07-01

    In this study, we calculated the electrical resistivity and heat capacities of some ideal metals (Cu, Pt, and Pd) using a method that it employs the statistical model and Debye functions. The method is used to provide a simple and reliable analytical procedure for wide temperature range. The results obtained for the electrical resistivity and heat capacity have been compared with the results in literature. The results obtained at low temperature are in excellent agreement with experimental and theoretical results. Finally the used approximation and analytical method are a useful approach to calculate thermophysical properties of metals.

  12. Hypnotically assisted diaphragmatic exercises in the treatment of stuttering: a preliminary investigation.

    PubMed

    Kaya, Yalcin; Alladin, Assen

    2012-01-01

    This preliminary study investigates the combined effect of intensive hypnotherapy and diaphragmatic exercises in the management of stuttering. Fifty-nine clients with stuttering were trained to practice abdominal weightlifting to strengthen their respiratory muscles and to improve their diaphragmatic movements. The weightlifting exercises involved lifting a dumbbell (2.0-4.0 kg) with the abdomen for 2 hours daily for 8 consecutive days. Hypnotherapy was utilized to alleviate anxiety, to boost self-confidence, and to increase motivation for weightlifting exercise. The pre- and postmeasures were statistically significant (p < .001). Results of the study provide support for the effectiveness of hypnotically assisted diaphragmatic training in the management of stuttering but should be further studied in controlled trials. PMID:22443525

  13. A preliminary investigation of the use of throttles for emergency flight control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burcham, F. W., Jr.; Fullerton, C. Gordon; Gilyard, Glenn B.; Wolf, Thomas D.; Stewart, James F.

    1991-01-01

    A preliminary investigation was conducted regarding the use of throttles for emergency flight control of a multiengine aircraft. Several airplanes including a light twin-engine piston-powered airplane, jet transports, and a high performance fighter were studied during flight and piloted simulations. Simulation studies used the B-720, B-727, MD-11, and F-15 aircraft. Flight studies used the Lear 24, Piper PA-30, and F-15 airplanes. Based on simulator and flight results, all the airplanes exhibited some control capability with throttles. With piloted simulators, landings using manual throttles-only control were extremely difficult. An augmented control system was developed that converts conventional pilot stick inputs into appropriate throttle commands. With the augmented system, the B-720 and F-15 simulations were evaluated and could be landed successfully. Flight and simulation data were compared for the F-15 airplane.

  14. Investigation of fracture-matrix interaction: Preliminary experiments in a simple system

    SciTech Connect

    Foltz, S.D.; Tidwell, V.C.; Glass, R.J.; Sobolik, S.R.

    1992-12-31

    Paramount to the modeling of unsaturated flow and transport through fractured porous media is a clear understanding of the processes controlling fracture-matrix interaction. As a first step toward such an understanding, two preliminary experiments have been performed to investigate the influence of matrix imbibition on water percolation through unsaturated fractures in the plane normal to the fracture. Test systems consisted of thin slabs of either tuff or an analog material cut by a single vertical fracture into which a constant fluid flux was introduced. Transient moisture content and solute concentration fields were imaged by means of x-ray absorption. Flow fields associated with the two different media were significantly different owing to differences in material properties relative to the imposed flux. Richards` equation was found to be a valid means of modeling the imbibition of water into the tuff matrix from a saturated fracture for the current experiment.

  15. Preliminary investigation on the relation between maximum wave height and wave spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Aifeng; Wen, Cheng; Wu, Yuqing; Wu, Haoran; Li, Shuo; Cao, Guangsui

    2016-04-01

    The maximum wave height is important not only for the determination of design wave parameters but also for the marine disaster defense. While it cannot be predicted straightforwardly at present, since the general numerical models for wave forecasting are all based on phase averaged spectra model. Then it becomes very useful to make clear the relationship between the maximum wave height and wave spectra parameters, such as average wave steepness, spectra width and spectra type, such as one single peak spectra or multi peaks spectra. In order to perform this research procedure, plenty of observed wave data are required. We collected ten years wave data measured from a ship in North Sea, one year wave pressure data from nine points around Korea, four years buoy data from three points along Chinese coast. The preliminary investigation results on the relations between maximum waves and spectra via the mention observed data will be present here.

  16. Preliminary results from the investigation of thermal effects in electrokinetics soil remediation

    SciTech Connect

    Krause, T.R.; Tarman, B.

    1993-10-01

    Electrokinetics is an emerging soil remediation technology. Contaminants are extracted from the soil as a result of a complex set of phenomena that occur when an electric gradient is imposed across a soil-water system. The primary phenomena include electroosmosis, electromigration, and electrophoresis. Secondary phenomena, such as changes in solubility or speciation of various chemical components, may occur as a result of electrically induced changes in the chemical environment of the system. Numerous factors, such as temperature, may affect each of these phenomena and, consequently, the overall process efficiency. We have begun an investigation of thermal effects in the extraction of potassium dichromate from kaolinite soils under conditions of constant saturation and dewatering. Preliminary results suggest that increasing the soil temperature from 21 to 55{degrees}C may decrease the processing time under saturated conditions. However, increasing the soil temperature under dewatering, conditions causes soil cracking, which reduces the overall process efficiency.

  17. Preliminary investigation of cement materials in the Taif area, Saudi Arabia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martin, Conrad

    1970-01-01

    A preliminary investigation of possible sources of cement rock in the Taft area was made during the latter part of August 1968. Adequate deposits of limestone, clay, quartz conglomerate and sandstone, and pisolitic iron ore, yet no gypsum, were located to support a Cement plant should it prove feasible to establish one in this area. These materials, made up mostly of Tertiary and later sediments, crop out in isolated, inconspicuous low hills in a north- trending belt, 10 to 15 kilometers wide, lying about 90 kilometers to-the east of At Taft. The belt extends for more than 90 kilometers from the vicinity of Jabal 'An in the south to the crushed rock pits at Radwan and beyond in the north. The area is readily accessible either from the Talf-Riyadh highway or from the Taif-Bishah road presently under construction. The limestone, which is quite pure and dense in some localities but dolomitic, argillaceous, and cherty in others, occurs in a variety of colors and would make suitable decorative building stone. The volcanic rocks of the Harrat Hadan, lying directly to the east of the limestone belt, include volcanic ash beds some of which may have been altered to bentonitlc clays. Others may have been lithified and might be suitable for light-weight aggregate. These possibilities remain to be investigated. Precambrian metamorphic rocks lying directly to the south and southeast of Taif were also investigated as possible cement rock sources, but no suitable material was found here.

  18. Evaluation of CO2 migration and formation storage capacity in the Dalders formations, Baltic Sea - Preliminary analysis by means of models of increasing complexity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niemi, Auli; Yang, Zhibing; Tian, Liang; Jung, Byeongju; Fagerlund, Fritjof; Joodaki, Saba; Pasquali, Riccardo; O'Neill, Nick; Vernon, Richard

    2014-05-01

    We present preliminary data analysis and modeling of CO2 injection into selected parts of the Dalders Monocline and Dalders Structure, formations situated under the Baltic Sea and of potential interest for CO2 geological storage. The approach taken is to use models of increasing complexity successively, thereby increasing the confidence and reliability of the predictions. The objective is to get order-of-magnitude estimates of the behavior of the formations during potential industrial scale CO2 injection and subsequent storage periods. The focus has been in regions with best cap-rock characteristics, according to the present knowledge. Data has been compiled from various sources available, such as boreholes within the region. As the first approximation we use analytical solutions, in order to get an initial estimate the CO2 injection rates that can be used without causing unacceptable pressure increases. These preliminary values are then used as basis for more detailed numerical analyses with TOUGH2/TOUGH2-MP (e.g. Zhang et al, 2008) simulator and vertical equilibrium based (e.g. Gasda et al, 2009) models. With the numerical models the variations in material properties, formation thickness etc., as well as more processes such as CO2 dissolution can also be taken into account. The presentation discusses results from these preliminary analyses in terms of estimated storage capacity, CO2 and pressure plume extent caused by various injection scenarios, as well as CO2 travel time after the end of the injection. The effect of factors such as number of injection wells and the positioning of these, the effect of formation properties and the boundary conditions are discussed as are the benefits and disadvantages of the various modeling approaches used. References: Gasda S.E. et al, 2009. Computational Geosciences 13, 469-481. Zhang et al, 2008. Report LBNL-315E, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.

  19. Investigation of Metal Oxide/Carbon Nano Material as Anode for High Capacity Lithium-ion Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, James Jianjun; Hong, Haiping

    2014-01-01

    NASA is developing high specific energy and high specific capacity lithium-ion battery (LIB) technology for future NASA missions. Current state-of-art LIBs have issues in terms of safety and thermal stability, and are reaching limits in specific energy capability based on the electrochemical materials selected. For example, the graphite anode has a limited capability to store Li since the theoretical capacity of graphite is 372 mAh/g. To achieve higher specific capacity and energy density, and to improve safety for current LIBs, alternative advanced anode, cathode, and electrolyte materials are pursued under the NASA Advanced Space Power System Project. In this study, the nanostructed metal oxide, such as Fe2O3 on carbon nanotubes (CNT) composite as an LIB anode has been investigated.

  20. Preliminary investigation of phosphorus adsorption onto two types of iron oxide-organic matter complexes.

    PubMed

    Yan, Jinlong; Jiang, Tao; Yao, Ying; Lu, Song; Wang, Qilei; Wei, Shiqiang

    2016-04-01

    Iron oxide (FeO) coated by natural organic matter (NOM) is ubiquitous. The associations of minerals with organic matter (OM) significantly changes their surface properties and reactivity, and thus affect the environmental fate of pollutants, including nutrients (e.g., phosphorus (P)). In this study, ferrihydrite/goethite-humic acid (FH/GE-HA) complexes were prepared and their adsorption characteristics on P at various pH and ionic strength were investigated. The results indicated that the FeO-OM complexes showed a decreased P adsorption capacity in comparison with bare FeO. The maximum adsorption capacity (Qmax) decreased in the order of FH (22.17mg/g)>FH-HA (5.43mg/g)>GE (4.67mg/g)>GE-HA (3.27mg/g). After coating with HA, the amorphous FH-HA complex still showed higher P adsorption than the crystalline GE-HA complex. The decreased P adsorption observed might be attributed to changes of the FeO surface charges caused by OM association. The dependence of P adsorption on the specific surface area of adsorbents suggests that the FeO component in the complexes is still the main contributor for the adsorption surfaces. The P adsorptions on FeO-HA complexes decreased with increasing initial pH or decreasing initial ionic strength. A strong dependence of P adsorption on ionic strength and pH may demonstrate that outer-sphere complexes between the OM component on the surface and P possibly coexist with inner-sphere surface complexes between the FeO component and P. Therefore, previous over-emphasis on the contributions of original minerals to P immobilization possibly over-estimates the P loading capacity of soils, especially in humic-rich areas. PMID:27090706

  1. Preliminary Results from an Investigation into Nanostructured Nuclear Radiation Detectors for Non-Proliferation Applications

    SciTech Connect

    ,

    2012-10-01

    In recent years, the concept of embedding composite scintillators consisting of nanosized inorganic crystals in an organic matrix has been actively pursued. Nanocomposite detectors have the potential to meet many of the homeland security, non-proliferation, and border and cargo-screening needs of the nation and, by virtue of their superior nuclear identification capability over plastic, at roughly the same cost as plastic, have the potential to replace all plastic detectors. Nanocomposites clearly have the potential of being a gamma ray detection material that would be sensitive yet less expensive and easier to produce on a large scale than growing large, whole crystals of similar sensitivity. These detectors would have a broad energy range and a sufficient energy resolution to perform isotopic identification. The material can also be fabricated on an industrial scale, further reducing cost. This investigation focused on designing and fabricating prototype core/shell and quantum dot (QD) detectors. Fourteen core/shell and four QD detectors, all with the basic consistency of a mixture of nanoparticles in a polymer matrix with different densities of nanoparticles, were prepared. Nanoparticles with sizes <10 nm were fabricated, embedded in a polystyrene matrix, and the resultant scintillators’ radiation detector properties were characterized. This work also attempted to extend the gamma energy response on both low- and high-energy regimes by demonstrating the ability to detect low-energy and high-energy gamma rays. Preliminary results of this investigation are consistent with a significant response of these materials to nuclear radiation.

  2. Preliminary investigation of high power microwave plasmas for electrothermal thruster use

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Power, John L.; Sullivan, Daniel J.

    1993-01-01

    Results are reported from preliminary tests to evaluate the high power microwave electrothermal thruster (MET) concept, which employs a free-floating plasma discharge maintained by applied CW microwave power to heat a propellant gas flow. Stable plasmas have been created and maintained in helium (He), nitrogen (N2), and hydrogen (H2) as propellants in both the TM(sub 011) and TM(sub 012) modes at discharge pressures from 10 Pa to 69 kPa. Reproducible starting conditions of pressure and power have been documented for all the plasmas. Vortical inflow of the propellant gas was observed to cause the formation of on-axis 'spike' plasmas. The formation and unformation conditions of these plasmas were studied. Operation in the spike plasma condition enables maximum power absorption with minimum wall heating and offers maximum efficiency in heating the propellant gas. In the spike condition, plasmas of the three propellant gases were investigated in an open channel configuration to a maximum applied power level of 11.2 kW (in N2). Microwave power coupling efficiencies of over 90 percent were routinely obtained at absorbed power levels up to 2 kW. Magnetic nozzle effects were investigated with a superconducting solenoid Al magnet applying a high magnetic field to the plasmas in and exiting from the discharge tube.

  3. Socio-hydrological modelling of floods: investigating community resilience, adaptation capacity and risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciullo, Alessio; Viglione, Alberto; Castellarin, Attilio

    2016-04-01

    Changes in flood risk occur because of changes in climate and hydrology, and in societal exposure and vulnerability. Research on change in flood risk has demonstrated that the mutual interactions and continuous feedbacks between floods and societies has to be taken into account in flood risk management. The present work builds on an existing conceptual model of an hypothetical city located in the proximity of a river, along whose floodplains the community evolves over time. The model reproduces the dynamic co-evolution of four variables: flooding, population density of the flooplain, amount of structural protection measures and memory of floods. These variables are then combined in a way to mimic the temporal change of community resilience, defined as the (inverse of the) amount of time for the community to recover from a shock, and adaptation capacity, defined as ratio between damages due to subsequent events. Also, temporal changing exposure, vulnerability and probability of flooding are also modelled, which results in a dynamically varying flood-risk. Examples are provided that show how factors such as collective memory and risk taking attitude influence the dynamics of community resilience, adaptation capacity and risk.

  4. Preliminary Geophysical Investigations of the Ship Rock Diatreme, Navajo Nation, New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruen, E. M.; McCarthy, L.; Namingha, G.; Bank, C.; Noblett, J.; Semken, S.

    2003-12-01

    Magnetic and gravity data were collected at the Ship Rock minette neck and dikes, part of the Navajo volcanic field in the central Colorado Plateau, to investigate their subsurface structure. The deep root system of Ship Rock, an exhumed Oligocene maar-diatreme complex, has not been resolved. The diatreme is largely composed of minette tuff-breccia with a large wallrock fraction, whereas the dikes are composed of hypabyssal minette. The country rock is the Upper Cretaceous Mancos Shale. Density and magnetic contrasts between the igneous rock and surrounding shale suggest that the buried structure of Ship Rock can be imaged. Preliminary geophysical investigations were carried out in order to test this hypothesis. We collected magnetic and gravitational data along four lines selected to transect the major south and northeast dikes and to partly encircle the diatreme. Modeling differently sized, oriented and shaped intrusions, we created theoretical Free Air anomaly curves to try to match the two clearest anomalies. Modeling necessitates (i) that the major north-south dike dips west and (ii) the presence of a high-density, deep body near the diatreme. The Free Air anomaly curves show that smaller dikes might not be detected from gravity data; however, they are necessary to determine the presence of large, dense bodies. Although not modeled, the magnetics curves show that smaller dikes can easily be detected. Our study results are promising, and we plan a more thorough investigation in the future which will produce a magnetic map to determine if further buried dikes exist in the vicinity, and measure gravity along additional profiles to better constrain the location of the dense body at depth.

  5. A preliminary investigation of the effects of the unified protocol on temperament.

    PubMed

    Carl, Jenna R; Gallagher, Matthew W; Sauer-Zavala, Shannon E; Bentley, Kate H; Barlow, David H

    2014-08-01

    Previous research has shown that two dimensions of temperament referred to as neuroticism/behavioral inhibition (N/BI) and extraversion/behavioral activation (E/BA) are key risk factors in the development and maintenance of anxiety and mood disorders (Brown & Barlow, 2009). Given such findings, these temperamental dimensions may represent promising treatment targets for individuals with emotional disorders; however, to date, few studies have investigated the effects of psychological treatments on temperamental constructs generally assumed to be "stable, inflexible, and pervasive" (American Psychiatric Association, 2000). The present study addresses this gap in the literature by examining the effects of the Unified Protocol for Transdiagnostic Treatment of Emotional Disorders (UP; Barlow et al., 2011), a cognitive-behavioral therapy designed to target core processes of N/BI and E/BA temperaments, in a sample of adults with principal anxiety disorders and a range of comorbid conditions. Results revealed small effects of the UP on N/BI and E/BA compared with a waitlist control group at post-treatment. Additionally, decreases in N/BI and increases in E/BA during treatment were associated with improvements in symptoms, functioning, and quality of life. Findings provide preliminary support for the notion that the UP treatment facilitates beneficial changes in dimensions of temperament. PMID:24933653

  6. Eastern Mediterranean high resolution paleoclimate investigations using south Adriatic finely laminated sediment: preliminary data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goudeau, Marie-Louise; Robert, Brice; Jilbert, Tom; Fhlaithearta, Shauna Ni; Zonneveld, K. A. F.; Versteegh, G. J. M.; Grauel, A.; Bernasconi, S.; de Lange, G. J.

    2010-05-01

    The formation of distinct organic-rich units (sapropels) in the Medditerenean is well-known, and intensively studied , however less is known of the smaller scale variability during their formation. Multicore GeoB 107-39-03 was taken in 2006, in the central part of the straits of Otranto, south Adriatic. Over the main part of the core, fine, sub-milimetric scale laminae are found. Preliminary dating indicates a Sapropel 1 age for these sediments. The fine, laminae permit high-resolution climate variability to be studied in this area during sapropel formation. Besides conventional geochemical analyses on discrete samples (XRF, ICP-OES, organic C/N, 13C) a novel technique was used to investigate the sediment chemistry at the laminae scale: the sediment has been resin-impregnated to enable laser ablation coupled to ICP-MS analyses (LA-ICP-MS). This method recently developed (Jilbert et al., 2008) permits extremely high resolution geochemical profiling of the laminated sediment, to unravel the forcing mechanisms generating the laminae. Furthermore, in order to compare the data to modern sediment geochemistry, a series of analyses were carried out on a batch of sediment surface samples in collaboration with the MOCCHA project partners (see Posters/Talks in session OS15). This work is supported by the EUROCORES/EUROMARC Program of the European Science Foundation (NWO.817.01.002 MOCCHA project).

  7. A preliminary environmental site investigation for a bridge over the Mississippi River at Moline, Illinois

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Trask, C.B.

    2006-01-01

    The Illinois State Geological Survey completed a preliminary environmental site assessment along the alignment of Interstate 74 (I-74) and its bridge over the Mississippi River for the Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT) in 2002. The objective of the study was to determine if any of the parcels proposed for acquisition or on which soil excavation was intended were sufficiently contaminated to require additional investigation by a commercial environmental consultant under contract to IDOT and to identify potential natural hazards that might have an impact on the proposed construction project. VOC were detected at 13 of 37 sites tested for VOC. These sites included an elevator manufacturer, former foundries, former and active machine shops, former and active gasoline stations, and a former automobile dealer. PAH above TACO Tier 1 residential standards were detected on an island in the Mississippi River. PCB was detected at a former foundry and a control box for a railroad. Magnetic anomalies that might indicate the presence of UST were detected in a park that formerly had been the site of a city garage, adjacent to a parking lot that formerly contained an automobile dealer, and at the sites of three former gasoline stations. These studies helped IDOT to save millions of dollars in highway construction projects. This is an abstract of a paper presented in Contaminated Soils, Sediments and Water: Success and Challenges (Massachusetts Fall 2005).

  8. Preliminary investigation of the frequency response and distortion properties of nonlinear image processing algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wells, Jered R.; Dobbins, James T.

    2013-03-01

    Assessment of the resolution properties of nonlinear imaging systems is a useful but challenging task. While the modulation transfer function (MTF) fully describes contrast resolution as a function of spatial frequency for linear systems, an equivalent metric does not exist for systems with significant nonlinearity. Therefore, this preliminary investigation attempts to classify and quantify the amount of scaling and distortion imposed on a given image signal as the result of a nonlinear process (nonlinear image processing algorithm). As a proof-of-concept, a median filter is assessed in terms of its principle frequency response (PFR) and distortion response (DR) functions. These metrics are derived in frequency space using a sinusoidal basis function, and it is shown that, for a narrow-band sinusoidal input signal, the scaling and distortion properties of the nonlinear filter are described exactly by PFR and DR, respectively. The use of matched sinusoidal basis and input functions accurately reveals the frequency response to long linear structures of different scale. However, when more complex (multi-band) input signals are considered, PFR and DR fail to adequately characterize the frequency response due to nonlinear interaction effects between different frequency components during processing. Overall, the results reveal the context-dependent nature of nonlinear image processing algorithm performance, and they emphasize the importance of the basis function choice in algorithm assessment. In the future, more complex forms of nonlinear systems analysis may be necessary to fully characterize the frequency response properties of nonlinear algorithms in a context-dependent manner.

  9. A Preliminary Investigation of Supercharging an Air-Cooled Engine in Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ware, Marsden; Schey, Oscar W

    1929-01-01

    This report presents the results of preliminary tests made on the effects of supercharging an air-cooled engine under airplane flight conditions. Service training airplanes were used in the investigation equipped with production types of Wright J engines. A N.A.C.A. Roots type supercharger was driven from the rear of the engine. In addition to measuring those quantities that would enable the determination of the climb performance, measurements were made of the cylinder-head temperatures and the carburetor pressures and temperatures. The supercharging equipment was not removed from the airplane when making flights without supercharging, but a by-pass valve, which controlled the amount of supercharging by returning to the atmosphere the surplus air delivered by the supercharger, was left full open. With the supercharger so geared that ground-level pressure could be maintained to 18,500 feet, it was found that the absolute ceiling was increased from 19,400 to 32,600 feet, that the time to climb to 16,00 feet was decreased from 32 to 16 minutes, and that this amount of supercharging apparently did not injure the engine. (author)

  10. Preliminary investigations on the rheology and boundary stresses associated with granular mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yohannes, B.; Hill, K. M.

    2010-05-01

    Recent advances in rheological models for monodisperse dense granular materials are exciting. However, they do not account for the effect of local particle size distributions on the rheology mixtures of particles. It is well-known that particulate mixtures tend to unmix, and their rheological properties are dependent on species concentration. Typically, expressions for the rheology of dense granular flows are explicitly dependent on particle size. However, there is no indication of what may be used for a representative size in a mixture of particles of different sizes. We find, in the absence of gravity, plane Couette cells present an effective geometry for investigating the rheology of binary mixtures of different sized particles. Unlike the behavior of more sparse systems, we find that the dense systems do not segregate much, indicating the usefulness of the geometry for studying the dependence of the mixture rheology on particle sized distribution systematically. In our preliminary studies we find that the pressure at the boundary has a skewed probability distribution function (pdf). We also find that the pdf of the boundary pressure for a particular mixture scales according to the inertial stress.

  11. A preliminary investigation of the potential mechanical sensitivity of vertical comb drives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallagher, E.; Moussa, W.

    2014-10-01

    This article describes a preliminary step taken in investigating the potential of vertical comb drives to be used as force-compensation mechanisms in interfacial force microscopes, by exploring the lower limit of the stiffness of the springs the comb drives can be fabricated with. The stiffness of their springs will affect the sensitivity of the microscope. Six vertical comb drives were fabricated for this study; the dimensions of their spring beams were chosen with the intention of giving them stiffnesses of three different orders of magnitude. During fabrication it was found that etching the tops of some of the teeth down to create the vertical offset between the combs can be done using only photoresist to mask the rest of the teeth. The stiffnesses of the fabricated springs were estimated by applying loads to them and measuring their resulting deflections. Weights were applied to the two comb drives with the stiffest springs. Voltages were also applied to them so as to determine the force-voltage relationship for their comb design. Since the other four comb drives had the same comb design, the stiffnesses of their springs could be estimated from the displacements of their movable combs when voltages were applied to them.

  12. A Preliminary Investigation of the Cr3Si-Mo Pseudo-Binary Phase Diagram

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickerson, R. M.; Raj, S. V.; Locci, I. E.

    1995-01-01

    An investigation was undertaken to study the phase relations in Cr3Si alloyed with Mo varying from 10 to 83.5 wt. % of the material. Specimens were prepared from arc-melted buttons that were subsequently heat treated at 1673 K for 200 h and air quenched to room temperature to structures. Alloys containing more than 20 wt. % MO were primarily two-phase materials of M3Si and M5Si3, where M is (Cr,Mo). Three alloys contained less than 5% of a third phase, which also had the M5Si3 crystal structure. Differential thermal analysis (DTA) was performed on several specimens at temperatures up to 2073 K in order to determine a solidus curve for the M3Si phase. Since only one DTA peak was observed in each alloy, the M5Si3 phase must melt above 2073 K, the maximum temperature examined. A preliminary pseudo-binary phase diagram for (Cr,Mo)3Si and a portion of the 1673 K isothermal section of the Cr-Mo-Si ternary phase diagram are presented.

  13. Erbium:YAG laser contouring of the nasal dorsum: a preliminary investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Truong, Mai T.; Majaron, Boris; Pandoh, Nidhi S.; Wong, Brian J.

    2001-05-01

    In conventional aesthetic rhinoplasty operations, manual or powered rasps are used to reduce the osseo-cartilagenous nasal dorsum. This tactile method requires palpation of the instrument and the dorsum during surgery to estimate the degree of volume reduction, and often requires forceful manipulation of the dorsum which may illicit pain during surgery and contribute to post-operative edema and echymosis. In this preliminary study, we investigated the use of the Erbium:YAG laser ((lambda) equals294 micrometers ) to reduce bone and cartilage using ex-vivo porcine nasal dorsum and human cadaveric tissues. The short pulsed length and high absorption of this laser in biologic tissues results in minimization of thermal injury which are ideal for non- contact optical contouring of osseous and cartilagenous tissues in the face. Two Erbium:YAG lasers were used to ablate fresh porcine nasal bone and compared for their use. One Erbium:YAG laser, the Fidelis Laser, Fontana Medical Lasers, Ljubljana, Slovenija with variable pulse repetition rates (2 to 50 Hz), pulse energy (80 to 1000 mJ), and pulse duration (100, 300, 750 and 1000 microsecond(s) ) was used and compared to the Ultrafine Erbium:YAG laser, Coherent Inc., Santa Clara California, with variable pulse repetition rate (2 to 10 Hz), pulse energy (2-16 J/cm2), and spot diameter (2-6 mm). Only laser parameters approximating the conditions for thermal confinement were evaluated.

  14. Preliminary investigation of an improved metal-dielectric cathode for magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Xiaoping Dang, Fangchao; Zhang, Jun; Fan, Yuwei; Li, Zhiqiang

    2015-02-15

    In order to explore the cathode with good repetition quality for the magnetically insulated transmission line oscillators, an improved metal-dielectric cathode is proposed and investigated experimentally. The cathode is designed to be step-like shape, and thin copper plated boards are periodically and compactly arrayed on the surface of the cathode base, which ensures the uniformity of the electrons emitted from the cusps of the copper plated boards. According to the numerical simulation results, the step-like shape is beneficial to convert the kinetic energy of the magnetic insulating current partially and enhance the beam-wave interaction efficiency. Finally, a preliminary experiment of an L-band magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator (MILO) with the improved metal-dielectric cathode is carried out. A high power microwave (HPM) with an average power of 1.95 GW is generated from the MILO, with an efficiency of 13.5%. Under the same experiment condition, the output power and main frequency with the presented cathode are almost the same to those with the velvet cathode. Apart from that, metal-dielectric cathode has the merits of small outgassing and long lifetime, and all of these make the improved metal-dielectric cathode significantly promising for the MILO repetition operation.

  15. A Preliminary Investigation of the Effects of the Unified Protocol on Temperament

    PubMed Central

    Carl, Jenna R.; Gallagher, Matthew W.; Sauer-Zavala, Shannon E.; Bentley, Kate H.; Barlow, David H.

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has shown that two dimensions of temperament referred to as neuroticism/behavioral inhibition (N/BI) and extraversion/behavioral activation (E/BA) are key risk factors in the development and maintenance of anxiety and mood disorders (Brown & Barlow, 2009). Given such findings, these temperamental dimensions may represent promising treatment targets for individuals with emotional disorders; however, to date, few studies have investigated the effects of psychological treatments on temperamental constructs generally assumed to be “stable, inflexible, and pervasive” (American Psychiatric Association, 2000). The present study addresses this gap in the literature by examining the effects of the Unified Protocol for Transdiagnostic Treatment of Emotional Disorders (UP; Barlow et al., 2011), a cognitive-behavioral therapy designed to target core processes of N/BI and E/BA temperaments, in a sample of adults with principal anxiety disorders and a range of comorbid conditions. Results revealed small effects of the UP on N/BI and E/BA compared with a waitlist control group at post-treatment. Additionally, decreases in N/BI and increases in E/BA during treatment were associated with improvements in symptoms, functioning, and quality of life. Findings provide preliminary support for the notion that the UP treatment facilitates beneficial changes in dimensions of temperament. PMID:24933653

  16. Preliminary investigation of the hazard faced by Western Australia from tsunami generated along the Sunda Arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burbidge, D.; Cummins, P. R.

    2005-12-01

    Since the Boxing Day tsunami various countries surrounding the Indian Ocean have been investigating the potential hazard from trans-Indian Ocean tsunami generated along the Sunda Arc, south of Indonesia. This study presents some preliminary estimates of the tsunami hazard faced by Western Australia from tsunami generated along the Arc. To estimate the hazard, a suite of tsunami spaced evenly along the subduction zone to the south of Indonesia were numerically modelled. Offshore wave heights from tsunami generated in this region are significantly higher along northwestern part of the Western Australian coast from Exmouth to the Kimberly than they are along the rest of the coast south of Exmouth. Due to the offshore bathymetry, the area around Onslow in particular may face a higher tsunami than other areas the West Australian coast. Earthquakes between Java and Timor are likely to produce the greatest hazard to northwest WA. Earthquakes off Sumatra are likely the main source of tsunami hazard to locations south of Exmouth, however the hazard here is likely to be lower than that along the north western part of the West Australian coast. Tsunami generated by other sources (eg large intra-plate events, volcanoes, landslides and asteroids) could threaten other parts of the coast.

  17. An Investigation on Industry-Sponsored Design Projects' Effectiveness at the First-Year Level: Potential Issues and Preliminary Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okudan, Gul E.; Mohammed, Susan; Ogot, Madara

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the preliminary work for developing guidelines to ensure that industry-sponsored projects in first-year courses aid, not hamper, retention of students. Specifically, the overall research plan includes the following steps: (1) investigating the appropriateness of industry projects in a required introduction to engineering design…

  18. The Adaptation of the Mathematics Anxiety Rating Scale-Elementary Form into Turkish, Language Validity, and Preliminary Psychometric Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baloglu, Mustafa; Balgalmis, Esra

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to adapt the Mathematics Anxiety Rating Scale- Elementary Form (MARS-E, Suinn, 1988) into Turkish by first doing the translation of its items and then the preliminary psychometric investigation of the Turkish form. The study included four different samples: 30 bilingual language experts, 50 Turkish language…

  19. Cognitive and Linguistic Sources of Variance in 2-Year-Olds' Speech-Sound Discrimination: A Preliminary Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lalonde, Kaylah; Holt, Rachael Frush

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This preliminary investigation explored potential cognitive and linguistic sources of variance in 2- year-olds' speech-sound discrimination by using the toddler change/no-change procedure and examined whether modifications would result in a procedure that can be used consistently with younger 2-year-olds. Method: Twenty typically…

  20. A Preliminary Investigation of Within-Year Growth Patterns in Reading and Mathematics Curriculum-Based Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graney, Suzanne B.; Missall, Kristen N.; Martinez, Rebecca S.; Bergstrom, Melissa

    2009-01-01

    This study examined patterns of growth across benchmark assessments for curriculum-based measures (CBM) over 2 academic years, with the twofold purpose of replicating earlier findings of growth patterns on R-CBM and conducting a preliminary investigation of growth patterns on M-CBM and CBM-Maze. The sample included 898 cases from 3rd through 5th…

  1. Preliminary Results of an Experimental Investigation of the Qu Superconducting Heat Pipe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blackmon, James B.; Entrekin, Sean F.

    2006-01-01

    This note on preliminary results of our evaluation of the so-called Qu Tube is prompted in part by recent concerns expressed to the authors by some researchers regarding the performance characteristics of the superconducting, solid-state heat pipe as described in the patents, or on the company's websites. Briefly, the company's claims include: a new type of heat transfer mechanism that is a form of solid state thermal superconductivity, which results in an effective thermal conductivity of the order of tens of thousands of times that of an equivalent solid silver bar, or, tens to hundreds of times that of liquid - vapor heat pipes. The company's website also refers to tests conducted by Stanford Research Institute that substantiate these claims, but the report is apparently not publicly available. We are conducting an investigation of the Qu Tube under a NASA Grant, and in general find that these claims have merit, but our study is not yet complete. We present some of our preliminary results in part to show that it would not be imprudent to conduct such studies, especially for possible future applications requiring exceptional thermal management performance capabilities. Working with HiTek Services, we originally acquired several Qu Tubes, including 17" long, 5/16" diameter copper tubes, one that is 7 7/8" long, 3/16" diameter, and one that is 4" long, 1" diameter. We subjected the smaller tubes to various exploratory tests, including a transient test with electrical band heaters, boiling water tests, and a series of steady state tests with electrical band heaters heating one end with free convective cooling along the remainder of the length. All results indicate a very high thermal conductivity, but the length of these tubes limited our ability to obtain accurate data on temperature gradients, necessary to determine the effective thermal conductivity. We then acquired nine Qu Tubes that are 10' long, 5/16" diameter, and we have recently conducted initial tests

  2. Preliminary results of investigations into the use of artificial neural networks for discriminating gas chromatograph mass spectra of remote samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geller, Harold A.; Norris, Eugene; Warnock, Archibald, III

    1991-01-01

    Neural networks trained using mass spectra data from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) are studied. The investigations also included sample data from the gas chromatograph mass spectrometer (GCMS) instrument aboard the Viking Lander, obtained from the National Space Science Data Center. The work performed to data and the preliminary results from the training and testing of neural networks are described. These preliminary results are presented for the purpose of determining the viability of applying artificial neural networks in discriminating mass spectra samples from remote instrumentation such as the Mars Rover Sample Return Mission and the Cassini Probe.

  3. LOD 1 VS. LOD 2 - Preliminary Investigations Into Differences in Mobile Rendering Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellul, C.; Altenbuchner, J.

    2013-09-01

    The increasing availability, size and detail of 3D City Model datasets has led to a challenge when rendering such data on mobile devices. Understanding the limitations to the usability of such models on these devices is particularly important given the broadening range of applications - such as pollution or noise modelling, tourism, planning, solar potential - for which these datasets and resulting visualisations can be utilized. Much 3D City Model data is created by extrusion of 2D topographic datasets, resulting in what is known as Level of Detail (LoD) 1 buildings - with flat roofs. However, in the UK the National Mapping Agency (the Ordnance Survey, OS) is now releasing test datasets to Level of Detail (LoD) 2 - i.e. including roof structures. These datasets are designed to integrate with the LoD 1 datasets provided by the OS, and provide additional detail in particular on larger buildings and in town centres. The availability of such integrated datasets at two different Levels of Detail permits investigation into the impact of the additional roof structures (and hence the display of a more realistic 3D City Model) on rendering performance on a mobile device. This paper describes preliminary work carried out to investigate this issue, for the test area of the city of Sheffield (in the UK Midlands). The data is stored in a 3D spatial database as triangles and then extracted and served as a web-based data stream which is queried by an App developed on the mobile device (using the Android environment, Java and OpenGL for graphics). Initial tests have been carried out on two dataset sizes, for the city centre and a larger area, rendering the data onto a tablet to compare results. Results of 52 seconds for rendering LoD 1 data, and 72 seconds for LoD 1 mixed with LoD 2 data, show that the impact of LoD 2 is significant.

  4. Preliminary investigation of the reststrahlen phenomenology at low-grazing angles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harr, Richard; Polcha, Michael

    2005-06-01

    Detection of buried and flush buried landmines has been dangerous and time consuming for both military and humanitarian de-mining personnel throughout the world. In an effort to make the process safer, faster, and more reliable, scientists have successfully employed Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) systems in nadir and near nadir viewing angles. Leveraging this successful technology, Forward-Looking Ground Penetrating Radar (FLGPR) technology, using low grazing angles, is being developed which promises to provide an increase in detection stand-off distance thereby increasing safety of personnel during land-based mine detection efforts. However, the application of GPR for the detection of buried plastic mines has been problematic, research has begun to exploit the comination of broadband and hyper-spectral passive electro-optical technologies with GPR technologies. One such embodiment is to use Forward Looking InfraRed (FLIR) technology with the intention to augment the capability of, and overcome limitations inherent to, current FLGPR technology. The emphasis in using FLIR is to understand and exploit specific spectral features which are complementary fo FLGPR and exhibited by buried metal and plastic mine targets. One spectral feature being investigated is the resstrahlen emission which results when soil is excavated or disturbed. This paper is a preliminary investigation of the performance of a vehicle based FLIR camera system for detecting resstrahlen emissions from disturbed soils. Specifically, this paper will examine the robustness of the resstrahlen feature in a forward-looking low grazing angle application. The data presented in this paper was collected at an eastern US Army testing site over targets deployed in soils which had been disturbed from one day before the start of the collection.

  5. Preliminary investigations on the defluoridation of water using fired clay chips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moges, G.; Zewge, F.; Socher, M.

    1996-05-01

    The adsorption of fluoride ions on ground fired clay pot has been investigated. The maximum efficiency of the adsorbent for defluoridating 1-2 litres of water was found to be 200 mg fluoride kg -1 adsorbent. The investigation showed that 5-20 mg l -1 fluoride, from 1 litre of water, could be reduced to less than 1.5 mg l -1 using 120-240 g of the adsorbing medium. The effects of the dose of the medium, the pH, the contact time and the initial fluoride content were studied in relation to defluoridation efficiency. Comparison of fluoride removal capacity of the adsorbent was also made with those of fired brick, clay soil and red ash. The latter exhibited practically no adsorption. A packed column of the same ground clay pot was saturated with 285 mg fluoride kg -1 of adsorbent when 20 litres of water containing 10 mg l -1 F was allowed to pass through it. This column defluoridated 6 litres of tap water containing 10 ppm F - to below 1.5 mg l -1.

  6. Hazards by shock waves during explosive eruptions: preliminary results of experimental investigations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scolamacchia, Teresa; Alatorre Ibarguengoïtia, Miguel; Spieler, Oliver; Dingwell, Donald B.

    2010-05-01

    A recent study (Scolamacchia and Shouwenaars, 2009) investigated the nature of microscopic craters on the steel surface of a basketball pole left standing in one of the villages destroyed by the 1982 eruption of El Chichón volcano. The craters were attributed to the impacts of ash particles (70-280 μm) accelerated by shock waves due to an efficient momentum coupling with a gas phase, such that a sudden expansion of the gas, caused by shock wave propagation, drag the particles up to speeds of 710 to 980 m/s. Several open questions existed on this kind of phenomena. Preliminary tests were performed to investigate the correlation between particle size and the high velocities calculated, based on inner deformation of the steel and crater geometry. We used a shock tube apparatus consisting of a high-pressure (HP) steel autoclave, pressurized with Ar gas, and a low pressure (LP) tank at atmospheric conditions. We used ash and lapilli bulk samples from El Chichón trachyandesites, and lapilli with random irregular shapes obtained by crushing and abrading dacitic blocks from pyroclastic flow deposits of Unzen volcano. The samples were placed inside an autoclave at ambient T and P, located between the HP autoclave and the LP tank. Steel plates (same type of the original impacted material), were fixed to the LP tank walls, 10 cm above the autoclave that contained the samples. Shock waves were generated by the sudden decompression of the Ar gas due to the systematical failure of a diaphragm (which separate the LP from the HP section). Air expansion accelerated the particles from below toward the steel plate. The speed of the particles was measured using a system of 4 copper wires conducting an electric signal. The signals dropped when the particles reached the wires. We used low pressure ranges (3.1 to 9.8 MPa) for all experimental runs, obtaining a range of particles velocities between 40 and 257 m/s. These velocities can be attained by pyroclastic density currents. Higher

  7. Further investigations on the resilience capacity of Taraxacum officinale Weber growing on mine soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maleci, Laura; Bini, Claudio; Spiandorello, Massimo; Wahsha, Mohammad

    2014-05-01

    Heavy metal accumulation produces significant physiological and biochemical responses in vascular plants. Plants growing on abandoned mine sites are of particular interest, since they are genetically tolerant to high metal concentrations. In this work we examined the effect of heavy metals (HM) on the morphology of T. officinale growing on mine soils, with the following objectives: - to determine the fate of HM within the soil-plant system; - to highlight possible damage at anatomical and cytological level; - to assess the resilience capacity of Taraxacum officinale after three years of pot cultivation. Wild specimens of Taraxacum officinale Web, with their soil clod, were gathered from four sites with different contamination levels by heavy metals (Cu, Fe, Pb, Zn) in the abandoned Imperina Valley mine (Northeast Italy). Plants were cultivated in pots at the botanical garden of the University of Florence (HBF), and appeared macroscopically not affected by toxic signals (e.g. reduced growth, leaf necrosis) possibly induced by soil HM concentration. Leaves and roots taken at the same growing season were observed by light microscopy (LM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Light microscopy observations show a clear difference in the cell organization of not-contaminated and contaminated samples. The unpolluted samples present a well organized palisade tissue and spongy photosynthetic parenchyma. Samples from contaminated sites, instead, present a palisade parenchyma less organized, and a reduction of leaf thickness proportional to HM concentration. The poor structural organisations, and the reduced foliar thickness of the contaminated plants, are related to soil contamination. Differences in roots micromorphology concern the cortical parenchyma. Moreover, all the samples examined present mycorrhiza. Ultrastructure observations of the parenchyma cells show mitochondrial structure alteration, with lacking or reduced cristae of the internal membrane at increasing

  8. Investigation of the Regenerative Capacity of an Acellular Porcine Medial Meniscus for Tissue Engineering Applications

    PubMed Central

    Ingram, Joanne; Fisher, John; Ingham, Eileen

    2011-01-01

    Previously, we have described the development of an acellular porcine meniscal scaffold. The aims of this study were to determine the immunocompatibility of the scaffold and capacity for cellular attachment and infiltration to gain insight into its potential for meniscal repair and replacement. Porcine menisci were decellularized by exposing the tissue to freeze–thaw cycles, incubation in hypotonic tris buffer, 0.1% (w/v) sodium dodecyl sulfate in hypotonic buffer plus protease inhibitors, nucleases, hypertonic buffer followed by disinfection using 0.1% (v/v) peracetic, and final washing in phosphate-buffered saline. In vivo immunocompatibility was assessed after implantation of the acellular meniscal scaffold subcutaneously into galactosyltransferase knockout mice for 3 months in comparison to fresh and acellular tissue treated with α-galactosidase (negative control). The cellular infiltrates in the explants were assessed by histology and characterized using monoclonal antibodies against: CD3, CD4, CD34, F4/80, and C3c. Static culture was used to assess the potential of acellular porcine meniscal scaffold to support the attachment and infiltration of primary human dermal fibroblasts and primary porcine meniscal cells in vitro. The explants were surrounded by capsules that were more pronounced for the fresh meniscal tissue compared to the acellular tissues. Cellular infiltrates compromised mononuclear phagocytes, CD34-positive cells, and nonlabeled fibroblastic cells. T-lymphocytes were sparse in all explanted tissue types and there was no evidence of C3c deposition. The analysis revealed an absence of a specific immune response to all of the implanted tissues. Acellular porcine meniscus was shown to be capable of supporting the attachment and infiltration of primary human fibroblasts and primary porcine meniscal cells. In conclusion, acellular porcine meniscal tissue exhibits excellent immunocompatibility and potential for cellular regeneration in the longer

  9. A novel equine-derived pericardium membrane for dural repair: A preliminary, short-term investigation

    PubMed Central

    Centonze, Roberto; Agostini, Emiliano; Massaccesi, Samantha; Toninelli, Stefano; Morabito, Letterio

    2016-01-01

    Background: A large variety of biological and artificial materials are employed in dural repair, each of them with major limitations. Autologous grafts have limited availability and require an additional incision and surgical time. Cadaveric preparations and heterologous materials entail the risk of iatrogenic transmission of prions, whereas synthetic substitutes have been reported to cause inflammatory reactions and graft rejection. An equine-derived pericardium membrane has been developed (Heart®, Bioteck, Vicenza, Italy) with mechanical and safety-related features that could make it suitable for neurosurgical application. Aims: This preliminary study aimed to evaluate the short-term safety and efficacy of the Heart® membrane in dural repair procedures following meningioma surgeries. Subjects and Methods: Medical records of patients who were surgically treated for an intracranial meningioma and underwent duraplasty with the Heart® membrane were reviewed retrospectively. The occurrence of any graft-related complications such as cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage, postoperative hematoma, wound infection, meningitis, and neurological symptoms was analyzed. Results: Eight patients were identified as meeting the inclusion criteria. A watertight closure was achieved in all of them. Postoperatively, no patients exhibited CSF leak, cerebral contusion, hemorrhage, or wound infection. The 1-month radiological follow-up revealed no evidence of pseudomeningocele, wound breakdown, or meningitis. Neurologic complications were observed in three patients but not directly imputable to the dural substitute or its application. Conclusions: In all the patients, the pericardium membrane enabled achievement of a watertight dural closure without graft-related adverse events. Further investigations should be performed to assess medium- and long-term clinical outcomes in a larger set of patients. PMID:27366245

  10. Preliminary investigation on the design of biodegradable microparticles for ivermectin delivery: set up of formulation parameters.

    PubMed

    Dorati, Rosella; Genta, Ida; Colzani, Barbara; Tripodo, Giuseppe; Conti, Bice

    2015-01-01

    The aim was to design sterile biodegradable microparticulate drug delivery systems based on poly(dl-lactide) (PLA) and poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) and containing ivermectin (IVM), an antiparasitic drug, for subcutaneous administration in dogs. The drug delivery system should: (i) ensure a full 12-month protection upon single dose administration; (ii) be safe with particular attention regarding IVM dosage and its release, in order to prevent over dosage side effects. This preliminary work involves: polymer selection, evaluation of the effects of γ-irradiation on the polymers and IVM, investigation and set up of suitable microparticle preparation process and parameters, IVM-loaded microparticles in vitro release evaluation. Results of gel permeation chromatography analysis on the irradiated polymers and IVM mixtures showed that combination of IVM with the antioxidant α-tocopherol (TCP) reduces the damage extent induced by irradiation treatment, independently on the polymer type. Solvent evaporation process was successfully used for the preparation of PLA microparticles and appropriately modified; it was recognized as suitable for the preparation of PCL microparticles. Good process yields were achieved ranging from 76.08% to 94.72%; encapsulation efficiency was between 85.76% and 91.25%, independently from the polymer used. The type of polymer and the consequent preparation process parameters affected microparticle size that was bigger for PCL microparticles (480-800 µm) and solvent residual that was >500 ppm for PLA microparticles. In vitro release test showed significantly faster IVM release rates from PCL microparticles, with respect to PLA microparticles, suggesting that a combination of the polymers could be used to obtain the suitable drug release rate. PMID:24994001

  11. Job stress and dyadic synchrony in police marriages: a preliminary investigation.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Nicole A; Leonard, Rachel C; Butler, Emily A; Levenson, Robert W; Kanter, Jonathan W

    2013-06-01

    Despite reports documenting adverse effects of stress on police marriages, few empirical studies focus on actual emotional behaviors of officers and spouses. In this preliminary investigation, 17 male police officers and their nonpolice wives completed daily stress diaries for 1 week and then participated in a laboratory-based discussion about their respective days. Conversations were video-recorded and coded for specific emotional behaviors reflecting hostility and affection, which are strong predictors of marital outcomes. We examined associations between officers' job stress (per diaries and the Police Stress Survey) and couples' emotional behavior (mean levels and behavioral synchrony) using a dyadic repeated measures design capitalizing on the large number of observations available for each couple (1020 observations). When officers reported more job stress, they showed less hostility, less synchrony with their wives' hostility, and more synchrony with their wives' affection; their wives showed greater synchrony with officers' hostility and less synchrony with officers' affection. Therefore, for officers, greater job stress was associated with less behavioral negativity, potentially less attunement to wives' negativity, but potentially greater attunement to wives' affection-perhaps a compensatory strategy or attempt to buffer their marriage from stress. These attempts may be less effective, however, if, as our synchrony findings may suggest, wives are focusing on officers' hostility rather than affection. Although it will be important to replicate these results given the small sample, our findings reveal that patterns of behavioral synchrony may be a key means to better understand how job stress exacts a toll on police marriages. PMID:23763686

  12. Preliminary experimental investigation of a complex dual-band high power microwave source

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Xiaoping Li, Yangmei; Li, Zhiqiang; Zhong, Huihuang; Qian, Baoliang

    2015-10-15

    In order to promote the power conversion efficiency of a magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator (MILO) and obtain microwaves in dual bands, an axially extracted C-band virtual cathode oscillator (VCO) with multiple resonant cavities is introduced to partially utilize the load current of an S-band MILO. The formed novel dual-band high power microwave source called MILO and VCO is investigated with simulation and experimentally. A dual-band radiation antenna is designed to effectively radiate microwaves generated by the MILO and the VCO, respectively, while avoiding them being influenced by the microwave reflection and diffraction. The preliminary experimental results measured by the dual-band diagnostic system show that both the MILO and the VCO operate normally under repeated shots. A microwave of 2.1 GHz, 1.70 GW is generated from the MILO and a 0.37 GW microwave at frequencies of 4.1 GHz and 3.8 GHz is generated from the VCO under the condition of about 440 kV and 35 kA. Compared with a single MILO (10.6%), a MILO and VCO achieves higher total power and efficiency (13.4%) in both S and C bands, indicating that the load current of the MILO partially couples into the beam-wave interaction in the VCO and then contributes to the output microwaves. However, more works are needed regarding the spectrum purification of the VCO and promotion of the output power of both the MILO and the VCO.

  13. Preliminary Investigations on the Distribution of Leptospira Serovars in Domestic Animals in North-west Morocco.

    PubMed

    Benkirane, A; Noury, S; Hartskeerl, R A; Goris, M G A; Ahmed, A; Nally, J E

    2016-04-01

    Leptospirosis is a neglected zoonosis of global importance with a complex epidemiology that affects humans, domestic and wild mammals. However, due to the diversity of clinical signs and difficulties of establishing a confirmatory laboratory diagnosis, the disease remains poorly investigated, particularly in the developing world. In Morocco, a descriptive study of the seroprevalence of Leptospira infection in animals has never been undertaken. To fill this gap, the current study was conducted on a subset of animals in north-west Morocco as a preliminary step towards understanding the epidemiological patterns of animal leptospirosis in the country. The study was conducted on 289 serum samples collected between January and April 2012 from dogs, cattle, sheep, goats and donkeys in the areas of Rabat-Temara, Sidi Kacem and Oulmes. All serum samples were tested by the MAT with 14 reference strains of the most prevalent pathogenic serovars of Leptospira and two serovars of non-pathogenic Leptospira. The overall seroprevalence of Leptospira in cattle, sheep, goats, dogs and donkeys was 15%, 18%, 20%, 21% and 20%, respectively. The most prevalent serogroups found in each species were Ballum, Sejroe, and Australis in cattle, Ballum, Australis and Sejroe in sheep, Australis and Ballum in goats, Javanica and Australis in donkey and Australis, Ballum and Canicola in dogs. Of all the serogroups tested in this study, Icterohaemorrhagiae, the only serogroup which has been previously reported in humans in Morocco, was rarely reactive. The majority of reactive sera were collected from low land areas. A large number of sera samples classified as seronegative when tested against pathogenic leptospires were positive when tested against non-pathogenic leptospires; this is suggestive of possible novel, as yet unclassified, Leptospira serovars in Morocco. Eleven of thirteen sheep urine samples were positive by real-time PCR confirming their role as Leptospira carriers in Morocco. PMID

  14. Preliminary experimental investigation of a complex dual-band high power microwave source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaoping; Li, Yangmei; Li, Zhiqiang; Zhong, Huihuang; Qian, Baoliang

    2015-10-01

    In order to promote the power conversion efficiency of a magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator (MILO) and obtain microwaves in dual bands, an axially extracted C-band virtual cathode oscillator (VCO) with multiple resonant cavities is introduced to partially utilize the load current of an S-band MILO. The formed novel dual-band high power microwave source called MILO and VCO is investigated with simulation and experimentally. A dual-band radiation antenna is designed to effectively radiate microwaves generated by the MILO and the VCO, respectively, while avoiding them being influenced by the microwave reflection and diffraction. The preliminary experimental results measured by the dual-band diagnostic system show that both the MILO and the VCO operate normally under repeated shots. A microwave of 2.1 GHz, 1.70 GW is generated from the MILO and a 0.37 GW microwave at frequencies of 4.1 GHz and 3.8 GHz is generated from the VCO under the condition of about 440 kV and 35 kA. Compared with a single MILO (10.6%), a MILO and VCO achieves higher total power and efficiency (13.4%) in both S and C bands, indicating that the load current of the MILO partially couples into the beam-wave interaction in the VCO and then contributes to the output microwaves. However, more works are needed regarding the spectrum purification of the VCO and promotion of the output power of both the MILO and the VCO.

  15. Preliminary experimental investigation of a complex dual-band high power microwave source.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoping; Li, Yangmei; Li, Zhiqiang; Zhong, Huihuang; Qian, Baoliang

    2015-10-01

    In order to promote the power conversion efficiency of a magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator (MILO) and obtain microwaves in dual bands, an axially extracted C-band virtual cathode oscillator (VCO) with multiple resonant cavities is introduced to partially utilize the load current of an S-band MILO. The formed novel dual-band high power microwave source called MILO and VCO is investigated with simulation and experimentally. A dual-band radiation antenna is designed to effectively radiate microwaves generated by the MILO and the VCO, respectively, while avoiding them being influenced by the microwave reflection and diffraction. The preliminary experimental results measured by the dual-band diagnostic system show that both the MILO and the VCO operate normally under repeated shots. A microwave of 2.1 GHz, 1.70 GW is generated from the MILO and a 0.37 GW microwave at frequencies of 4.1 GHz and 3.8 GHz is generated from the VCO under the condition of about 440 kV and 35 kA. Compared with a single MILO (10.6%), a MILO and VCO achieves higher total power and efficiency (13.4%) in both S and C bands, indicating that the load current of the MILO partially couples into the beam-wave interaction in the VCO and then contributes to the output microwaves. However, more works are needed regarding the spectrum purification of the VCO and promotion of the output power of both the MILO and the VCO. PMID:26520974

  16. Carboxymethyl guar gum nanoparticles for drug delivery applications: Preparation and preliminary in-vitro investigations.

    PubMed

    Dodi, G; Pala, A; Barbu, E; Peptanariu, D; Hritcu, D; Popa, M I; Tamba, B I

    2016-06-01

    Carboxymethyl guar gum (CMGG) synthesized from commercially available polysaccharide was formulated into nanoparticles via ionic gelation using trisodium trimetaphosphate (STMP) as cross-linking agent. Characterisation using a range of analytical techniques (FTIR, NMR, GPC, TGA and DLS) confirmed the CMGG structure and revealed the effect of the CMGG and STMP concentration on the main characteristics of the obtained nanoformulations. The average nanoparticle diameter was found to be around 208nm, as determined by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA). Experiments using simulated gastric and intestinal fluids evidenced significant pH-dependent drug release behaviour of the nanoformulations loaded with Rhodamine B (RhB) as a model drug (loading capacity in excess of 83%), as monitored by UV-Vis. While dose-dependent cytotoxicity was observed, the nanoformulations appeared completely non-toxic at concentrations below 0.3mg/mL. Results obtained so far suggest that carboxymethylated guar gum nanoparticles formulated with STMP warrant further investigations as polysaccharide based biocompatible drug nanocarriers. PMID:27040258

  17. Bimanual Elbow Robotic Orthoses: Preliminary Investigations on an Impairment Force-Feedback Rehabilitation Method

    PubMed Central

    Herrnstadt, Gil; Alavi, Nezam; Randhawa, Bubblepreet Kaur; Boyd, Lara A.; Menon, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    Modern rehabilitation practices have begun integrating robots, recognizing their significant role in recovery. New and alternative stroke rehabilitation treatments are essential to enhance efficacy and mitigate associated health costs. Today’s robotic interventions can play a significant role in advancing rehabilitation. In addition, robots have an inherent ability to perform tasks accurately and reliably and are typically well suited to measure and quantify performance. Most rehabilitation strategies predominantly target activation of the paretic arm. However, bimanual upper-limb rehabilitation research suggests potential in enhancing functional recovery. Moreover, studies suggest that limb coordination and synchronization can improve treatment efficacy. In this preliminary study, we aimed to investigate and validate our user-driven bimanual system in a reduced intensity rehab practice. A bimanual wearable robotic device (BWRD) with a Master–Slave configuration for the elbow joint was developed to carry out the investigation. The BWRD incorporates position and force sensors for which respective control loops are implemented, and offers varying modes of operation ranging from passive to active training. The proposed system enables the perception of the movements, as well as the forces applied by the hemiparetic arm, with the non-hemiparetic arm. Eight participants with chronic unilateral stroke were recruited to participate in a total of three 1-h sessions per participant, delivered in a week. Participants underwent pre- and post-training functional assessments along with proprioceptive measures. The post-assessment was performed at the end of the last training session. The protocol was designed to engage the user in an assortment of static and dynamic arm matching and opposing tasks. The training incorporates force-feedback movements, force-feedback positioning, and force matching tasks with same and opposite direction movements. We are able to suggest

  18. Preliminary Investigation of EarthScope EARS Derived MOHO Topography and Large Scale Faye Gravity Anomaly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crain, K.; Holland, A. A.

    2013-12-01

    This is a preliminary investigation using the EarthScope EARS receiver functions in combination with the Faye gravity anomaly. This includes both qualitative and quantitative comparison of the large scale Faye anomaly with an expected 3D geology interpretation for the southern mid-continent U.S.A. The 3D geology interpretation consists of expected 3D topographies based on National Elevation Data, published formation elevations, measured and published basement topography with geology, and the expected MOHO topography calculated using the EARS estimated crustal thickness. The EARS automated receiver functions provides a large data set of automatically generated receiver functions and models of bulk crustal properties. These bulk crustal properties include crustal thickness, and Vp/Vs given an assumed Vp. The results from this automatic determination can be evaluated through the H-K stacking, and are often a good method to identify where there may be complex structure or poor quality data. Some a priori information is used to constrain the EARS crustal model. The observed Faye gravity anomaly is calculated using the observed gravity value at their observation location from the PACES gravity database and their extracted elevation from the national elevation data set. Then the expected Faye gravity is modeled using the expected 3D geology interpretation. The observed and modeled Faye gravity, along with the expected 3D geologic interpretation with its topographies and geology and their expected uncertainties are used in a simple 3D density inversion to evaluate the consistency of the estimated with the expected crust / MOHO interface. Areas with complex crustal geology and or inconsistent EARS data are identified as areas of higher uncertainty and require further study. Even areas with agreement between the expected MOHO topography and the Faye anomaly have interesting geology implications. For example: in central Oklahoma the 14 km deep Anadarko basin has a positive

  19. An evaluation capacity building toolkit for principal investigators of undergraduate research experiences: A demonstration of transforming theory into practice.

    PubMed

    Rorrer, Audrey S

    2016-04-01

    This paper describes the approach and process undertaken to develop evaluation capacity among the leaders of a federally funded undergraduate research program. An evaluation toolkit was developed for Computer and Information Sciences and Engineering(1) Research Experiences for Undergraduates(2) (CISE REU) programs to address the ongoing need for evaluation capacity among principal investigators who manage program evaluation. The toolkit was the result of collaboration within the CISE REU community with the purpose being to provide targeted instructional resources and tools for quality program evaluation. Challenges were to balance the desire for standardized assessment with the responsibility to account for individual program contexts. Toolkit contents included instructional materials about evaluation practice, a standardized applicant management tool, and a modulated outcomes measure. Resulting benefits from toolkit deployment were having cost effective, sustainable evaluation tools, a community evaluation forum, and aggregate measurement of key program outcomes for the national program. Lessons learned included the imperative of understanding the evaluation context, engaging stakeholders, and building stakeholder trust. Results from project measures are presented along with a discussion of guidelines for facilitating evaluation capacity building that will serve a variety of contexts. PMID:26788814

  20. Investigating medical decision-making capacity in patients with cognitive impairment using a protocol based on linguistic features.

    PubMed

    Tallberg, Ing-Mari; Stormoen, Sara; Almkvist, Ove; Eriksdotter, Maria; Sundström, Erik

    2013-10-01

    A critical question is whether cognitively impaired patients have the competence for autonomous decisions regarding participation in clinical trials. The present study aimed to investigate medical decision-making capacity by use of a Swedish linguistic instrument for medical decision-making (LIMD) in hypothetical clinical trials in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Three comparable groups (age, education) participated in the study: AD (n = 20; MMSE: 24.1 ± 3.3) and MCI (n = 22; MMSE: 26.7 ± 2.4) patients and healthy controls (n = 37; MMSE: 29.1 ± 1.0). Medical decision-making capacity was operationalized as answers to questions regarding participation in three hypothetical clinical trials. Answers were scored regarding comprehension, evaluation and intelligibility of decisions, and a total LIMD score was used as the measure of medical decision-making ability. Groups differed significantly in LIMD with AD patients performing worst and MCI poorer than the control group. A strong association was found between all LIMD scores and diagnosis which supported the assertion that LIMD as it is designed is a one-dimensional instrument of medical decision-making capacity (MDMC). The results indicate that a fundamental communicative ability has an impact on the competence for autonomous decisions in cognitive impairment. PMID:23841467

  1. The investigation on cationic exchange capacity of zeolites: the use as selective ion trappers in the electrokinetic soil technique.

    PubMed

    Ursini, Ornella; Lilla, Edo; Montanari, Roberta

    2006-09-21

    The cation exchange capacity (CEC) of porous zeolites allows to adsorb in the framework cavities the cations as pollutant heavy metal ions. We investigate the CEC behaviour of different zeolites in different experimental conditions; in solution where the ion's mobility is spontaneous and free and in the electrokinetic system where the ion's mobility is driven by the electric field. The aim of this study is to investigate if the CEC is an useful property to create a special interface region of zeolites, that if placed in the electrokinetic cell, just before the cathode, could allow to capture and concentrate the heavy metallic ions, during their migrating process. The zeolite 13X investigated in the electrokinetic proofs, retains a good high ions adsorption, even if quite smaller than the relevant free solution condition and well acts as confined trap for the heavy metal ions. In fact no trace of metallic deposition are present on the electrode's surface. PMID:16716501

  2. Preliminary Geotechnical Investigation of Two Basaltic Landslide Sites in Mauritius, Offshore Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dabycharun, Bhoopendra; Kuwano, Takeshi; Ichikawa, Kensuke; Fukuoka, Hiroshi

    2016-04-01

    Landslide hazards in developing areas in Mauritius became a great challenge as well as a fundamental concern for the government and the citizen of the country. In recent years, landslide disasters have caused losses of both public and private properties. In 2005, a large-scale landslide at Chitrakoot affected 54 houses and infrastructures, and it was reactivated in 2006, damaging another 14 houses. Vallee Pitot landslide is frequently reactivated in these years and threatening several houses in densely-populated zone. Although the long-term annual precipitation show slightly decreasing trend, number of tropical cyclone over Mauritius is clearly increasing at least in the past 3 decades. Being of volcanic origin, Mauritius has observed dramatic and quick weathering of the soil which may partly contributes to creating landslide-prone geo-environment. This study focuses on the preliminary geotechnical investigation of the above-mentioned two basaltic landslide areas in Mauritius. Recent investigation was conducted jointly by JICA (Japan International Cooperation Agency) and Ministry of Public Infrastructure and Land Transport of Government of Mauritius on both sites from 2012 to 2015 to survey the landslide surface and to implement countermeasures works. In the field investigation, aerial photo interpretation was used to investigate the zone of cracks and scarps for both sites. The landslide areas for Chitrakoot and Vallee Pitot were estimated to 1.8 km2 and 5,000 m2 respectively. Both sites are located in the highly populated area in the capital city of Mauritius. The geological features of the sites were studied with the borehole core logging data obtained from 6 boreholes and it was found that possible sliding surface was observed in the colluvium layer consisting of gravels and stiff silty-clays, at depths from 6 to 10 m below the ground surface. The rate of landslide movement during heavy rainfall amount exceeding 100 mm/hr was elaborated with past records of

  3. Parental Choice of Infant Feeding Behaviours in South West Sydney: A Preliminary Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arora, A.; Gay, M.; Thirukumar, D.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to test a research instrument that could possibly be used for longitudinal research on infant feeding and to report on the preliminary results from the data collected. Design: Mixed methods approach--cross-sectional survey and qualitative research. Setting: Mother-infant dyads in South West Sydney,…

  4. Identifying Predictors of Emotional Exhaustion among Special Education Paraeducators: A Preliminary Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shyman, Eric

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this preliminary study was to identify predictors of emotional exhaustion among special education paraeducators. A sample of 100 paraeducators in public and specialized alternative setting schools was used to determine whether self-reported levels of emotional exhaustion and other job-related factors were reported. Using…

  5. Preliminary investigation of ethanedintrile for control of weeds and nematodes important in Florida production systems.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A preliminary in vitro experiment was conducted with seeds of several weed species of importance in vegetable and ornamental production systems in Florida, and with root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) infested soil. The prepared weed and nematode inoculum were placed in open desiccators of m...

  6. Preliminary Investigation of the 1991 Medical College Admission Test Factor Structure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Weichang; Mitchell, Karen J.

    A substantially revised Medical College Admission Test (MCAT) was introduced in spring 1991. The new examination is designed to assess critical thinking skills, basic concepts and problem solving facility in science, and writing skills. This paper reports preliminary findings on the factor structure of the revised MCAT, which consists of four…

  7. Characterising Developmental Language Impairment in Serbian-Speaking Children: A Preliminary Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vukovic, Mile; Stojanovik, Vesna

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the article is to provide preliminary data on the use of auxiliaries and clitics in Serbian-speaking children with developmental language impairment. Two groups of children (a group of 30 children with developmental language impairment and a group of 30 typically developing children) aged between 48 and 83 months and matched on IQ took…

  8. The Enhancement of Resilience via a Wilderness Therapy Program. A Preliminary Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillespie, E.; Allen-Craig, Sandy

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the findings of a recent preliminary study into the effects of a wilderness therapy program on the resilience of male youth at-risk. The study focused on participants who completed a wilderness therapy program at Typo Station. The residential program involved a five-week stay at the Typo Station property in north east Victoria,…

  9. Love Deprivation and Blood Pressure Levels among a College Population: A Preliminary Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sisca, Samuel S.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Viewed within the general context of Selye's theory of environmentally induced stress, we tested the hypothesis that blood pressure levels would vary inversely with the degree of loving responses our subjects received from those with whom they interact on a frequent basis. Preliminary data support this hypothesis, especially among our older…

  10. An ethnographic investigation of junior doctors' capacities to practice interprofessionally in three teaching hospitals.

    PubMed

    Milne, Jacqueline; Greenfield, David; Braithwaite, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Collaborative practice among early career staff is at the bedrock of interprofessional care. This study investigated factors influencing the enactment of interprofessional practice by using the day-to-day role of six junior doctors in three teaching hospitals as a gateway to understand the various professions' interactive behaviours. The contextual framework used for the study was Strauss' theory of negotiated order. Ethnographic techniques were applied to observe the actions and interactions of participants on typical working days in their hospital environments. Field notes were created and thematic analysis was applied to the data. Three themes explored were culture, communication, and collaboration. Issues identified highlight the bounded organisational and professional cultures within which junior doctors work, and systemic problems in interprofessional interaction and communication in the wards of hospitals. There are indications that early career doctors are interprofessional isolates. The constraints of short training terms and pressure from multi-faceted demands on junior doctors can interfere with the establishment of meaningful relationships with nurses and other health professionals. The realisation of sustained interprofessional practice is, therefore, practically and structurally difficult. Enabling factors supporting the sharing of expertise are outweighed by barriers associated with professional and hospital organisational cultures, poor interprofessional communication, and the pressure of competing individual task demands in the course of daily practice. PMID:25646898

  11. Investigations of the oxidation capacities of polar atmospheres with multiple oxygen isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCabe, Justin R.

    This study provides new perspectives on the atmospheric chemistry in Polar Regions using multiple oxygen isotopes of nitrate and sulfate. Despite their remote locations, these unique environments play an important role in the present state of global climate and contain invaluable clues to observing past relationships between earth's atmosphere and surface temperature. With current temperatures and greenhouse gas concentrations rising rapidly as a result of human activities, continued investigation of the effects on polar environments will elucidate their relationship to the global climate system. Three studies are presented here to constrain the oxidation pathways of nitrogen and sulfur compounds in polar atmospheres. These findings provide a new means to observe current and past oxidation conditions of tropospheric and stratospheric polar atmospheres. Currently, two uncertain aspects of climate are the projected changes in tropospheric and stratospheric oxidation chemistry and the role of aerosols in cloud formation and the global radiation budget. Because the levels of oxidants in the atmosphere directly influence greenhouse gas concentrations and aerosol distribution, the following work presents results implicit to improving knowledge of the climate system. The results presented in this dissertation include measurements of oxygen isotopes (delta17O, delta18O, and Delta 17O) in nitrate and sulfate from South Pole, Antarctica and Alert, Canada, respectively. In addition, a photochemistry experiment was conducted to measure the effects of ultraviolet (UV) irradiation on oxygen isotopes of nitrate in water and ice. Chapter 2 compares oxygen isotopes in sulfate aerosol collected at Alert, Canada over the course of one year (July 1999--June 2000) to a chemical transport model describing sulfate formation. Chapter 3 presents the results from the nitrate photochemistry experiments conducted at California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, California. Chapter 4

  12. Gravity gradient preliminary investigations, part 2: Lunar tidal gravity gradients and stresses (exhibit C)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houston, M. H.; Thompson, L. G. D.

    1971-01-01

    Preliminary analysis of the gravity gradients associated with gravity tides on the moon caused by the earth indicates that the relative changes in the gradients are very irregular, and large, and about 15 times greater than those experienced on earth. Thus gradients, in preference to gravity tides themselves, may well be an important key in correlating tide effects with lunar transient events and moonquakes, and also in determining triggering mechanisms for crustal movement and faulting. Preliminary analysis of lunar crustal stresses and strains caused by lunar gravity tides indicates that these factors may be more direct causative agents or triggering mechanisms. In particular, the cubic dilation undergoes relatively large changes and is about 11 times greater on the moon than on earth. Thus it should be correspondingly more important.

  13. Supporting early career health investigators in Kenya: A qualitative study of HIV/AIDS research capacity building

    PubMed Central

    Daniels, Joseph; Nduati, Ruth; Kiarie, James; Farquhar, Carey

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Strategies to transfer international health research training programs to sub-Saharan African institutions focus on developing cadres of local investigators who will lead such programs. Using a critical leadership theory framework, we conducted a qualitative study of one program to understand how collaborative training and research can support early career investigators in Kenya toward the program transfer goal. Methods We used purposive sampling methods and a semi-structured protocol to conduct in-depth interviews with US (N = 5) and Kenyan (N = 5) independent investigators. Transcripts were coded using a two-step process, and then compared with each other to identify major themes. Results A limited local research environment, funding needs and research career mentorship were identified as major influences on early career researchers. Institutional demands on Kenyan faculty to teach rather than complete research restricted investigators’ ability to develop research careers. This was coupled with lack of local funding to support research. Sustainable collaborations between Kenyan, US and other international investigators were perceived to mitigate these challenges and support early career investigators who would help build a robust local research environment for training. Conclusion Mutually beneficial collaborations between Kenyan and US investigators developed during training mitigate these challenges and build a supportive research environment for training. In these collaborations, early career investigators learn how to navigate the complex international research environment to build local HIV research capacity. Shared and mutually beneficial resources within international research collaborations are required to support early career investigators and plans to transfer health research training to African institutions. PMID:26113923

  14. Investigation of the spatial distribution of the maximum water retention capacity of soil in a small river basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calabrese, Angelantonio; de Girolamo, Anna Maria; Lo Porto, Antonio; Pappagallo, Giuseppe; Santese, Gerardina

    2010-05-01

    The maximum water retention capacity of soils is crucial for runoff generation, flow regime and hence also for the watershed behaviour during rainfall events. High infiltration rates of soils lead to a decreased in peak discharge reducing flood risk in river basins. In catchments where agricultural lands are prevailing, American Soil Conservation Service (SCS) - Runoff Curve Number Method is widely used for estimate surface runoff. The method requires catchment characteristics (hydrologic soil group, land use, vegetation cover, soil conservation measures, antecedent soil moisture conditions) which are the basis of catchment runoff determination. The main objective of the presented study is the determination of the spatial distribution of the retention parameter "S" of the CN method. The evaluation and comparison of the spatial distribution pattern of the S-value in the sub-basins is the basis for an examination of the suitability of the CN method to explain different hydrologic behaviour. The study area is the Celone river basin, a small catchment located in the South of Italy. Two methods were used to calculate the S-value for the Celone river basin. In the first approach, the S-value of the CN method was evaluated by means of the Soil and Water Assessment Tool, which is an integrated river basin model. In the second approach, a GIS procedure was used. This two different methods were used to achieve the best possible spatial differentiation of the water retention capacity and thus looked for a suitable method. The achieved results of the investigation of the spatial distribution of the maximum water retention capacity are presented and documented.

  15. Preliminary investigation of power flow and electrode phenomena in a multi-megawatt coaxial plasma thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoenberg, Kurt; Gerwin, Richard; Henins, Ivars; Mayo, Robert; Scheuer, Jay; Nurden, Glen

    1993-01-01

    This paper summarizes preliminary experimental and theoretical research that was directed towards the study of quasisteady-state power flow in a large, un-optimized, multi-megawatt coaxial plasma thruster. The report addresses large coaxial thruster operation and includes evaluation and interpretation of the experimental results with a view to the development of efficient, steady-state megawatt-class magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thrusters.

  16. An Investigation of the Relationship between College Chinese EFL Students' Autonomous Learning Capacity and Motivation in Using Computer-Assisted Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pu, Minran

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the relationship between college EFL students' autonomous learning capacity and motivation in using web-based Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL) in China. This study included three questionnaires: the student background questionnaire, the questionnaire on student autonomous learning capacity, and…

  17. An Investigation of the Effect of Graphite Degradation on the Irreversible Capacity in Lithium-ion Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Stevenson, Cynthia; Hardwick, Laurence J.; Marcinek, Marek; Beer, Leanne; Kerr, John B.; Kostecki, Robert

    2008-03-03

    The effect of surface structural damage on graphitic anodes, commonly observed in tested Li-ion cells, was investigated. Similar surface structural disorder was artificially induced in Mag-10 synthetic graphite anodes using argon-ion sputtering. Raman microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Brunauer Emmett Teller (BET) measurements confirmed that Ar-ion sputtered Mag-10 electrodes display similar degree of surface degradation as the anodes from tested Li-ion cells. Artificially modified Mag-10 anodes showed double the irreversible charge capacity during the first formation cycle, compared to fresh un-altered anodes. Impedance spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy on surface modified graphite anodes indicated the formation of a thicker and slightly more resistive SEI layer. Gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS) analysis of solvent extracts from the electrodes detected the presence of new compounds with M{sub w} on the order of 1600 g mol{sup -1} for the surface modified electrode with no evidence of elevated M{sub w} species for the unmodified electrode. The structural disorder induced in the graphite during long-term cycling maybe responsible for the slow and continuous SEI layer reformation, and consequently, the loss of reversible capacity due to the shift of lithium inventory in cycled Li-ion cells.

  18. Process-oriented investigation of the nitrate-removal-capacity of the aquifers in the Hessian Ried

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kludt, Christoph; Weber, Frank-Andreas; Bergmann, Axel; Knipp, Elena; Preiß, Indriani; Schüth, Christoph

    2013-04-01

    conductivity) in several monitoring wells in combination with water analyses, especially sulphur-isotopic-ratios, we were able to identify high risk areas with a low nitrate-removal-capacity which is mainly caused by the consumption of the pyrite during the denitrification process. Furthermore, we are focusing on process-based investigations of denitrification using δ15N-isotopes and N2/Ar-measurements. The identified high risk areas allow intensifying the implementation of programs planed under the WFD in agricultural areas with low nitrate removal capacity.

  19. Bullying: A Preliminary Investigation of Its Nature and the Effects of Social Cognition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slee, Phillip T.

    1993-01-01

    Reports on two studies examining the nature of peer group bullying among Australian primary school children ages five through seven years. The first study surveyed 631 children to understand the nature and effects of bullying. In the second study, 76 children were individually interviewed regarding their social problem-solving capacities. (MM)

  20. Preliminary investigation of Zagros thrust-fold-belt deformation using SAR interferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nilforoushan, Faramarz; Talbot, Christopher J.; Fielding, Eric J.

    2005-01-01

    Most of the Zagros deformation resulting from the convergence of Arabia and Eurasia takes place in the Southeast Zagros. To apply the SAR interferometry geodetic technique, a few ERS 1 & 2 satellite images were used to map this continuing deformation proven by GPS. Interferograms over 7 years show surprisingly high coherence. The unwrapped phases display a high correlation with topography reflecting atmospheric noise in addition to the desired tectonic signal. We estimate two simple linear trends and remove them from interferograms. The preliminary results show local uplift rates with a likely minimum of 1-2 mm/yr. These early crude results will be tested by more data in project No. 3174.

  1. Kinetic Roughening and Energetics of Tetragonal Lysozyme Crystal Growth: A Preliminary Atomic Force Microscopy Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorti, Sridhar; Forsythe, Elizabeth L.; Pusey, Marc L.

    2004-01-01

    We examined particulars of crystal growth from measurements obtained at both microscopic and molecular levels. The crystal growth measurements performed at the microscopic level are well characterized by a model that balances the flux of macromolecules towards the crystal surface with the flux of the crystal surface. Numerical evaluation of model with measurements of crystal growth, in time, provided accurate estimates for the average growth velocities. Growth velocities thus obtained were also interpreted using well-established phenomenological theories. Moreover, we find that microscopic measurements of growth velocity measurements obtained as a function of temperature best characterizes changes in crystal growth modes, when present. We also examined the possibility of detecting a change in crystal growth modes at the molecular level using atomic force microscopy, AFM. From preliminary AFM measurements performed at various supersaturations, we find that magnitude of surface height fluctuations, h(x), increases with supersaturation. Further examination of surface height fluctuations using methods established for fluctuation spectroscopy also enabled the discovery of the existence of a characteristic length, c, which may possibly determine the mode of crystal growth. Although the results are preliminary, we establish the non- critical divergence of 5 and the root-mean-square (rms) magnitude of height-height fluctuations as the kinetic roughening transition temperatures are approached. Moreover, we also examine approximate models for interpreting the non-critical behavior of both 6 and rms magnitude of height-height fluctuations, as the solution supersaturation is increased towards the kinetic roughening supersaturation.

  2. Preliminary investigation of power flow and performance phenomena in a multi megawatt coaxial plasma thruster

    SciTech Connect

    Schoenberg, K.F.; Gerwin, R.A.; Henins, I.; Scheuer, J.T.; Wurden, G.A.; Mayo, R.M.

    1993-12-01

    This paper summarizes preliminary experimental and theoretical research that was directed toward the study of quasi-steady-state power flow in a large, unoptimized, multi-megawatt coaxial plasma thruster. The paper addresses large coaxial thruster operation and includes evaluation and interpretation of the experimental results with a view to the development of efficient, steady-state, megawatt-class magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thrusters. Experimental studies utilized the Coaxial Thruster Experiment (CTX) facility at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Highlights of this study include the observations that the measured longitudinal flow velocity of the propellant was in essential agreement with the prediction of self-field nozzle theory, achieving Alfvenic flow velocities of {approximately}10{sup 5} m/s. Furthermore, radiative emission was a negligible power loss mechanism (< 10%) over the operational power range studied. Preliminary measurements indicate that the magnetic topology between anode and cathode can produce a substantial influence on the electrode sheath potentials, especially on the anode fall. This thereby suggests a means for influencing the power deposited on the electrodes, with concomitant benefits to thruster efficiency, without relinquishing axisymmetry.

  3. An Investigation on Load Bearing Capacities of Cement and Resin Grouted Rock Bolts Installed in Weak Rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalyoncu Erguler, Guzide; Abiddin Erguler, Zeynal

    2015-04-01

    Rock bolts have been considered one of indispensable support method to improve load bearing capacity of many underground engineering projects, and thus, various types of them have been developed until now for different purposes. Although mechanically anchored rock bolts can be successfully installed to prevent structurally controlled instabilities in hard rocks, in comparison with cement and resin grouted rock bolts, these types of anchors are not so effective in weak rocks characterized by relatively low mechanical properties. In order to investigate the applicability and to measure relative performance of cement and resin grouted rock bolts into weak and heavily jointed rock mass, a research program mainly consisting of pull-out tests was performed in a metal mine in Turkey. The rock materials excavated in this underground mining were described as basalt, tuff, ore dominated volcanic rocks and dacite. To achieve more representative results for rock materials found in this mining and openings excavated in varied dimensions, the pull-out tests were conducted on rock bolts used in many different locations where more convergences were measured and deformation dependent instability was expected to cause greater engineering problems. It is well known that the capacity of rock bolts depends on the length, diameter and density of the bolt pattern, and so considering the thickness of plastic zone in the studied openings, the length and diameter of rock bolts were taken as 2.4 m. and 25 mm., respectively. The spacing between rows changed between 70 and 180 cm. In this study, totally twenty five pull-out tests were performed to have a general understanding about axial load bearing capacity and support reaction curves of cement and resin grouted rock bolts. When pull load-displacement curves belongs to cement and resin grouted rock bolts were compared with each other, it was determined that cement grouted rock bolts carry more load ranging between 115.6 kN and 127.5 kN with

  4. A preliminary investigation of a method to calibrate strain gauge balances by means of a reference balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Buzhang; Wang, Mingying; Johnson, G. I.; Widmark, S.

    1992-06-01

    This investigation was started in order to obtain preliminary experience on the concept of a reference balance planned to be used in the T1500 calibration rig. The reference balance was simulated by using an available half model balance in the MK5 calibration rig at FFA. First the reference balance was calibrated and then the result was used for calibration of an ordinary six component sting balance attached with its model end to the half model balance. Both balances had been previously calibrated by the reposition method. Evaluation of the reference balance nonrepositioning concept was obtained by comparison of results.

  5. Evaluation of soil corrosivity and aquifer protective capacity using geoelectrical investigation in Bwari basement complex area, Abuja

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adeniji, A. E.; Omonona, O. V.; Obiora, D. N.; Chukudebelu, J. U.

    2014-04-01

    Bwari is one of the six municipal area councils of the Federal Capital Territory (FCT), Abuja with its attendant growing population and infrastructural developments. Groundwater is the main source of water supply in the area, and urbanization and industrialization are the predominant contributors of contaminants to the hydrological systems. In order to guarantee a continuous supply of potable water, there is a need to investigate the vulnerability of the aquifers to contaminants emanating from domestic and industrial wastes. A total of 20 vertical electrical soundings using Schlumberger electrode array with a maximum half current electrodes separation of 300 m was employed. The results show that the area is characterized by 3-6 geoelectric subsurface layers. The measured overburden thickness ranges from 1.0 to 24.3 m, with a mean value of 7.4 m. The resistivity and longitudinal conductance of the overburden units range from 18 to 11,908 Ωm and 0.047 to 0.875 mhos, respectively. Areas considered as high corrosivity are the central parts with ρ < 180 Ωm. The characteristic longitudinal unit conductance was used to classify the area into zones of good (0.7-4.49 mhos), moderate (0.2-0.69 mhos), weak (0.1-0.19 mhos), and poor (<0.1) aquifer protective capacity. Zones characterized by materials of moderate to good protective capacity serve as sealing potential for the underlying hydrogeological system in the area. This study is aimed at delineating zones that are very prone to groundwater contamination from surface contaminants and subsurface soils that are corrosive to utility pipes buried underground. Hence the findings of this work will constitute part of the tools for groundwater development and management and structural/infrastructural development planning of the area.

  6. Archaeological Palimpsest Dissection at Cova del Parco (Lleida, Spain) through Microstratigraphic Investigation of Combustion Structures. Preliminary Results.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Égüez, Natalia; Mallol, Carolina; Mangado, Xavier; Tejero, José Miguel; Fullola, Josep Maria

    2014-05-01

    We present preliminary data from ongoing microstratigraphic investigations of Cova del Parco (Lleida, Spain), a Magdalenian karstic cave site in North western Catalonia. Excavations of the Upper Magdalenian levels are currently underway, with radiometric dates between 15,690 and 16,390 cal BP. This period has yielded a complex anthropogenic sedimentary deposit including combustion features and local accumulations of anthropogenic debris near the cave walls. On of the working hypothesis is that the Magdalenian hunter-gatherers who occupied the site did so for short periods, possibly seasonally. Support of this hypothesis comes the presence of overlapping, very thin flat combustion structures, which appear to have been short-lived and close to each other in time. In order to investigate this issue, we carried out micromorphological analysis of some of the mentioned combustion features. Preliminary results show significant microstratification and presence of unburned spherulites mixed in with reprecipitated calcitic wood ash, both of which point towards the existence of hiatuses between combustion events. This is supported by the observation of scattered, lightly burned microscopic flint and bone fragments in the sediment between ash layers, which could represent renewed occupation floor debris. Our case study adds to the growing number of combustion feature microstratigraphic investigations contributing to a correct characterization of anthropogenic palimpsest deposits. Key words: Microstratigraphy; Micromorphology; Magdalenian; Combustion features; Wood ash; Palimpsest; Iberian Peninsula.

  7. Head-Up Auditory Displays for Traffic Collision Avoidance System Advisories: A Preliminary Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Begault, Durand R.

    1993-01-01

    The advantage of a head-up auditory display was evaluated in a preliminary experiment designed to measure and compare the acquisition time for capturing visual targets under two auditory conditions: standard one-earpiece presentation and two-earpiece three-dimensional (3D) audio presentation. Twelve commercial airline crews were tested under full mission simulation conditions at the NASA-Ames Man-Vehicle Systems Research Facility advanced concepts flight simulator. Scenario software generated visual targets corresponding to aircraft that would activate a traffic collision avoidance system (TCAS) aural advisory; the spatial auditory position was linked to the visual position with 3D audio presentation. Results showed that crew members using a 3D auditory display acquired targets approximately 2.2 s faster than did crew members who used one-earpiece head- sets, but there was no significant difference in the number of targets acquired.

  8. Preliminary investigation of thin film polymers exposed to low Earth orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strganac, Thomas; Farrow, Allan; Letton, Alan

    1991-01-01

    Preliminary results of thin film polymers exposed to low-Earth orbit aboard the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) are discussed. Dynamic testing of a 0.92/0.92 mil. polyester laminate film indicated that the modulus loss of the exposed specimens may be very small. When the storage modulus of the exposed specimen was compared to the storage modulus of a control specimen over a temperature range of minus 150 degrees to 100 degrees, there was very little change. Fourier Transform Spectroscopy performed on the same exposed material indicated crosslinking of the polyethylene, which was verified by an increase in the storage modulus above the glass transition temperature. Optical microscopy of the sample showed micrometeoroid strikes and contamination in spots by what is thought to be silicon outgassed from a nearby experiment.

  9. Preliminary investigation of changes in x-ray multilayer optics subjected to high radiation flux

    SciTech Connect

    Hockaday, M.P.; Blake, R.L.; Grosso, J.S.; Selph, M.M.; Klein, M.M.; Matuska, W. Jr.; Palmer, M.A.; Liefeld, R.J.

    1985-01-01

    A variety of metal multilayers was exposed to high x-ray flux using Sandia National Laboratories' PROTO II machine in the gas puff mode. Fluxes incident on the multilayers above 700 MW/cm/sup 2/ in total radiation, in nominal 20 ns pulses, were realized. The neon hydrogen- and helium-like resonance lines were used to probe the x-ray reflectivity properties of the multilayers as they underwent change of state during the heating pulse. A fluorescer-fiber optic-streak camera system was used to monitor the changes in x-ray reflectivity as a function of time and irradiance. Preliminary results are presented for a W/C multilayer. Work in progress to model the experiment is discussed. 13 refs., 4 figs.

  10. Preliminary investigation of some large landslides triggered by the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake, Sichuan Province, China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, F.; Cheng, Q.; Highland, L.; Miyajima, M.; Wang, Hongfang; Yan, C.

    2009-01-01

    The M s 8.0 Wenchuan earthquake or "Great Sichuan Earthquake" occurred at 14:28 p.m. local time on 12 May 2008 in Sichuan Province, China. Damage by earthquake-induced landslides was an important part of the total earthquake damage. This report presents preliminary observations on the Hongyan Resort slide located southwest of the main epicenter, shallow mountain surface failures in Xuankou village of Yingxiu Town, the Jiufengchun slide near Longmenshan Town, the Hongsong Hydro-power Station slide near Hongbai Town, the Xiaojiaqiao slide in Chaping Town, two landslides in Beichuan County-town which destroyed a large part of the town, and the Donghekou and Shibangou slides in Qingchuan County which formed the second biggest landslide lake formed in this earthquake. The influences of seismic, topographic, geologic, and hydro-geologic conditions are discussed. ?? 2009 Springer-Verlag.

  11. Preliminary results of a flight investigation of rotorcraft control and display laws for hover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eshow, Michelle M.; Aiken, Edwin W.; Hindson, William S.

    1987-01-01

    A flight experiment designed to evaluate the effects of compatible versus incompatible display and control system response characteristics, and to evaluate a candidate display law design methodology, is described. The experiment was conducted on the NASA/Army CH-47B variable-stability helicopter using its model-following control system and a color, panel-mounted display. Three control response types representative of modern highly augmented rotorcraft and three corresponding sets of display dynamics were considered for three hover and low-speed tasks performed in simulated instrument conditions. Preliminary results based on pilot handling qualities ratings and comments indicate that performance and workload can be significantly affected by certain control and display combinations and that the display design methodology shows promise for improving the handling qualities of rotorcraft operating in conditions of low visibility.

  12. Preliminary investigations into the bioconversion of gamma irradiated agricultural waste by Pleurotus spp.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gbedemah, C. M.; Obodai, M.; Sawyerr, L. C.

    1998-06-01

    The application of gamma irradiation for pretreatment of lignocellulosic materials for their hydrolysis and to increase their digestibility for rumen animal have been reported in the literature. Gamma irradiation of corn stover in combination with sodium hydroxide for bioconversion of polysaccharide into protein by Pleurotus spp has also been reported. In this study experiments were designed to find out whether gamma radiation could serve both as a decontaminating agent as well as hydrolytic agent of sawdust for the bioconversion of four varieties of Pleurotus spp. Preliminary results indicate that a dose of 20kGy of gamma irradiation increase the yield of Pleurotus eous var ET-8 whilst decreasing the yield of other varieties.

  13. Preliminary Results on the Experimental Investigation of the Structure Functions of Bound Nucleons

    SciTech Connect

    Bodek, Arie

    2015-09-01

    We present preliminary results on an experimental study of the nuclear modification of the longitudinal (σL) and transverse (σT) structure functions of nucleons bound in nuclear targets. The origin of these modifications (commonly referred as as the EMC effect) is not fully understood. Our measurements of R= σLT for nuclei (RA) and for deuterium (RD) indicate that nuclear modifications of the structure functions of bound nucleons are different for the longitudinal and transverse structure functions, and that contrary to expectation from several theoretical models, RA < RD.

  14. Preliminary investigation of greenhouse gas emissions from the environmental sector in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Fukushima, Yasuhiro; Liu, Pao-Wen Grace; Tsai, Jiun-Horng; Lee, Cheng Feng; Tseng, Ting Ke

    2008-01-01

    The United Nations Framework Conventions on Climate Change (UNFCCC) asks their Parties to submit a National Inventory Report (NIR) for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions on an annual basis. However, when many countries are quickly growing their economy, resulting in substantial GHG emissions, their inventory reporting systems either have not been established or been able to be linked to planning of mitigation measures at national administration levels. The present research was aimed to quantify the GHG emissions from an environmental sector in Taiwan and also to establish a linkage between the developed inventories and development of mitigation plans. The "environmental sector" consists of public service under jurisdiction of the Taiwan Environmental Protection Administration: landfilling, composting, waste transportation, wastewater treatment, night soil treatment, and solid waste incineration. The preliminary results were compared with that of the United States, Germany, Japan, United Kingdom, and Korea, considering the gaps in the scopes of the sectors. The GHG emissions from the Taiwanese environmental sector were mostly estimated by following the default methodology in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change guideline, except that of night soil treatment and waste transportation that were modified or newly developed. The GHG emissions from the environmental sectors in 2004 were 10,225 kilotons of CO2 equivalent (kt CO2 Eq.). Landfilling (48.86%), solid waste incineration (27%), and wastewater treatment (21.5%) were the major contributors. Methane was the most significant GHG (70.6%), followed by carbon dioxide (27.8%) and nitrous oxide (1.6%). In summary, the GHG emissions estimated for the environmental sector in Taiwan provided reasonable preliminary results that were consistent and comparable with the existing authorized data. On the basis of the inventory results and the comparisons with the other countries, recommendations of mitigation plans were made

  15. A preliminary investigation of the role of the transcription co-activators YAP/TAZ of the Hippo signalling pathway in canine and feline mammary tumours.

    PubMed

    Beffagna, G; Sacchetto, R; Cavicchioli, L; Sammarco, A; Mainenti, M; Ferro, S; Trez, D; Zulpo, M; Michieletto, S; Cecchinato, A; Goldschmidt, M; Zappulli, V

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women worldwide. Cancer metastases are responsible for the high mortality rate. A small but distinct subset of cells, cancer stem cells (CSCs), have the capacity to self-renew, initiate tumour formation, and develop metastases. The CSC content in human breast cancer correlates with the Hippo tumour suppressor signalling pathway. Specifically, the activity of YAP/TAZ, transcription co-activators of the Hippo pathway, sustains the self-renewal and tumour-initiation capacities of CSCs. Little is known about YAP/TAZ in canine and feline mammary tumours, which are very common tumours. The preliminary aim of the study was to investigate the expression of YAP/TAZ in canine and feline mammary tumours by Western blot and immunohistochemistry. Increased cytoplasmic and nuclear expression of YAP/TAZ was observed in all carcinomas compared to normal tissues, indicating neoplastic deregulation of the Hippo pathway. Nuclear expression significantly increased in grade III (high grade carcinomas) compared to grade I (low grade carcinomas) tumours, suggesting that YAP/TAZ play a role in the increased aggressiveness of these tumours. Moreover, different scoring systems for immunohistochemical analyses were compared and the H index and the Allred scores were the most significant. In conclusion, YAP/TAZ are expressed in aggressive canine and feline mammary tumours as reported in some human cancers. Further studies might better elucidate the role of the Hippo pathway in prognosis and as a target for new therapies. In addition, tumours in dogs and cats may be a useful model to study this pathway. PMID:26626094

  16. Preliminary Investigation on Battery Sizing Investigation for Thrust Vector Control on Ares I and Ares V Launch Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Thomas B.

    2011-01-01

    An investigation into the merits of battery powered Electro Hydrostatic Actuation (EHA) for Thrust Vector Control (TVC) of the Ares I and Ares V launch vehicles is described. A top level trade study was conducted to ascertain the technical merits of lithium-ion (Li-ion) and thermal battery performance to determine the preferred choice of an energy storage system chemistry that provides high power discharge capability for a relatively short duration.

  17. Preliminary design and economic investigations of Diffuser-Augmented Wind Turbines (DAWT). Executive summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foreman, K. M.

    1981-12-01

    A preferred design and configuration approach for the diffuser augmented wind turbine (DAWT) innovative wind energy conversion system is suggested. A preliminary economic assessment is made for limited production rates of units between 5 and 150 kW rated outputs. Nine point designs are used to arrive at the conclusions regarding best construction material for the diffuser and busbar cost of electricity (COE). It is estimated that for farm and cooperative end users, the COE can range between 2 and 3.5 cents pr kWh for sites with annual average wind speeds of 16 and 12 mph (25.7 and 19.3 km/h) respectively, and 150 kW rated units. No tax credits are included in these COE figures. For commercial end users of these 150 kW units, the COE ranges between 4.0 and 6.5 cents per kWh for 16 and 12 mph sites. These estimates in 1971 dollars are lower than department of energy goals set in 1978 for the rating size and end applications. Recommendations are made for future activities to maintain steady, systematic progress toward mature development of the DAWT.

  18. Revisiting shyness and sociability: a preliminary investigation of hormone-brain-behavior relations.

    PubMed

    Tang, Alva; Beaton, Elliott A; Schulkin, Jay; Hall, Geoffrey B; Schmidt, LouisA

    2014-01-01

    Shyness and sociability are two fundamental personality dimensions that are conceptually and empirically orthogonal and are conserved across cultures, development, and phylogeny. However, we know relatively little regarding how shyness and sociability are represented and maintained in the brain. Here we examined neural responses to the processing of different types of social threat using event-related fMRI, the salivary cortisol awakening response (CAR), and sociability in young adults selected for high and low shyness. Shy adults who exhibited a relatively higher CAR displayed neural activity in putative brain regions involved in emotional conflict and awareness, and were more sociable. In contrast, shy adults who displayed a relatively lower CAR exhibited neural activity in putative brain regions linked to fear and withdrawal, and were unsociable. Results revealed no systematic brain responses to social threat processing that correlated with the CAR in non-shy adults. These preliminary results suggest that individual differences in waking morning cortisol levels may influence neural processes that facilitate either social approach or withdrawal among people who are shy. Findings are discussed in relation to their theoretical and clinical implications for moving beyond longstanding descriptive to explanatory models of shyness and sociability and for understanding individual differences in social behavior in general. PMID:25566117

  19. Preliminary investigation of an ultrasound method for estimating pressure changes in deep-positioned vessels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olesen, Jacob Bjerring; Villagomez-Hoyos, Carlos Armando; Traberg, Marie Sand; Chee, Adrian J. Y.; Yiu, Billy Y. S.; Ho, Chung Kit; Yu, Alfred C. H.; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents a method for measuring pressure changes in deep-tissue vessels using vector velocity ultrasound data. The large penetration depth is ensured by acquiring data using a low frequency phased array transducer. Vascular pressure changes are then calculated from 2-D angle-independent vector velocity fields using a model based on the Navier-Stokes equations. Experimental scans are performed on a fabricated flow phantom having a constriction of 36% at a depth of 100 mm. Scans are carried out using a phased array transducer connected to the experimental scanner, SARUS. 2-D fields of angle-independent vector velocities are acquired using directional synthetic aperture vector flow imaging. The obtained results are evaluated by comparison to a 3-D numerical simulation model with equivalent geometry as the designed phantom. The study showed pressure drops across the constricted phantom varying from -40 Pa to 15 Pa with a standard deviation of 32%, and a bias of 25% found relative to the peak simulated pressure drop. This preliminary study shows that pressure can be estimated non-invasively to a depth that enables cardiac scans, and thereby, the possibility of detecting the pressure drops across the mitral valve.

  20. Purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic investigation of FrnE, a disulfide oxidoreductase from Deinococcus radiodurans.

    PubMed

    Panicker, Lata; Misra, Hari Sharan; Bihani, Subhash Chandra

    2014-11-01

    In prokaryotes, Dsb proteins catalyze the formation of native disulfide bonds through an oxidative folding pathway and are part of the cell machinery that protects proteins from oxidative stress. Deinococcus radiodurans is an extremophile which shows unparalleled resistance to ionizing radiation and oxidative stress. It has a strong mechanism to protect its proteome from oxidative damage. The genome of Deinococcus shows the presence of FrnE, a Dsb protein homologue that potentially provides the bacterium with oxidative stress tolerance. Here, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of FrnE from D. radiodurans are reported. Diffraction-quality single crystals were obtained using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method with reservoir solution consisting of 100 mM sodium acetate pH 5.0, 10% PEG 8000, 15-20% glycerol. Diffraction data were collected on an Agilent SuperNova system using a microfocus sealed-tube X-ray source. The crystal diffracted to 1.8 Å resolution at 100 K. The space group of the crystal was found to be P2₁22₁, with unit-cell parameters a=47.91, b=62.94, c=86.75 Å, α=β=γ=90°. Based on Matthews coefficient analysis, one monomer per asymmetric unit is present in the crystal, with a solvent content of approximately 45%. PMID:25372826

  1. Brief Cognitive Behavior Therapy in Patients with Social Anxiety Disorder: A Preliminary Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Pinjarkar, Ravikant G; Sudhir, Paulomi M; Math, Suresh Bada

    2015-01-01

    Context: Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) is the treatment of choice in anxiety disorders. However, there is little evidence for the effectiveness brief CBT in social anxiety. Aims: We examined the effectiveness of a brief CBT of six sessions in patients with social anxiety disorder. Settings and Design: A single case design study baseline; post and 1 month follow-up was adopted. Materials and Methods: Seven patients with a DSM IV diagnosis of social anxiety underwent 6 weekly sessions of brief CBT. Their diagnosis was confirmed using structured diagnostic interviews. They were assessed at baseline, post and 1-month follow-up on CGI- Severity, Leibowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS), Social Phobia Rating Scale, Brief Fear of Negative Evaluation, and Beck's Depression Inventory. Statistical Analysis: Data were analyzed using the method of clinical significance. Results: Results indicated that brief CBT was effective in reducing social anxiety in all patients. Brief CBT was also effective in reducing social avoidance and self consciousness. However, brief CBT was not effective in reducing fear of negative evaluation in all patients, suggesting the need for longer duration for cognitive changes in some dysfunctional beliefs. Conclusions: This preliminary case series indicates that brief CBT may be a promising and a cost and time effective approach to managing for social anxiety. PMID:25722507

  2. Preliminary design and economic investigations of diffuser-augmented wind turbines (DAWT). Executive summary. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Foreman, K.M.

    1981-12-01

    A preferred design and configuration approach for the DAWT innovative wind energy conversion system is suggested. A preliminary economic assessment is made for limited production rates of units between 5 and 150 kW rated output. Nine point designs are used to arrive at the conclusions regarding best construction material for the diffuser and busbar cost of electricity (COE). It is estimated that for farm and REA cooperative end users, the COE can range between 2 and 3.5 cents/kWh for sites with annual average wind speeds of 16 and 12 mph (25.7 and 19.3 km/h) respectively, and 150 kW rated units. No tax credits are included in these COE figures. For commercial end users of these 150 kW units, the COE ranges between 4.0 and 6.5 cents/kWh for 16 and 12 mph sites. These estimates in 1971 dollars are lower than DOE goals set in 1978 for the rating size and end applications. Recommendations are made for future activities to maintain steady, systematic progress toward mature development of the DAWT.

  3. Preliminary design and economic investigations of Diffuser-Augmented Wind Turbines (DAWT)

    SciTech Connect

    Foreman, K.M.

    1981-12-01

    A preferred design and configuration approach is suggested for the DAWT innovative wind energy conversion system. A preliminary economic asessment is made for limited production rates of units between 5 and 150 kw rated output. Nine point designs are used to arrive at the conclusions regarding best construction material for the diffuser and busbar cost of electricity (COE). It is estimated that for farm and REA cooperative end users, the COE can range between 2 and 3.5 cents/kWh for sites with annual average wind speeds of 16 and 12 mph (25.7 and 19.3 km/h) respectively, and 150 kW rated units. No tax credits are included in these COE figures. For commercial end users of these 150 kW units the COE ranges between 4.0 and 6.5 cents/kWh for 16 and 12 mph sites. These estimates in 1979 dollars are lower than DOE goals set in 1978 for the rating size and end applications. Recommendations are made for future activities to maintain steady, systematic progress toward mature development of the DAWT.

  4. Investigation of human exposure to triclocarban after showering, and preliminary evaluation of its biological effects

    PubMed Central

    Schebb, Nils Helge; Inceoglu, Bora; Ahn, Ki Chang; Morisseau, Christophe; Gee, Shirley; Hammock, Bruce D.

    2012-01-01

    The antibacterial soap additive triclocarban (TCC) is widely used in personal care products. TCC has a high environmental persistence. We developed and validated a sensitive online solid phase extraction-LC-MS/MS method to rapidly analyze TCC and its major metabolites in urine and other biological samples to assess human exposure. We measured human urine concentrations 0–72 h after showering with a commercial bar soap containing 0.6% TCC. The major route of renal elimination was excretion as N-glucuronides. The absorption was estimated at 0.6% of the 70±15 mg TCC in the soap used. The TCC N-glucuronide urine concentration varied widely among the subjects and continuous daily use of the soap led to steady state levels of excretion. In order to assess potential biological effects arising from this exposure we screened TCC for the inhibition of human enzymes in vitro. We demonstrate that TCC is a potent inhibitor of the enzyme soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH), whereas TCC′s major metabolites lack strong inhibitory activity. Topical administration of TCC at similar levels to rats in a preliminary in vivo study however failed to alter plasma biomarkers of sEH activity. Overall the analytical strategy described here revealed that use of TCC soap causes exposure levels that warrant further evaluation. PMID:21381656

  5. High blood and urine levels of cadmium in phosphate workers: A preliminary investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, R.P.

    1981-12-01

    A preliminary study is described in which blood and urine levels of cadmium are determined in phosphate fertilizer workers exposed to phosphate dust. Control samples were taken from non-smokers who did not eat oysters regularly and who had eaten none for at least four weeks prior to the study. A cross section of phosphate workers was sampled. Various blends of phosphate fertilizers were analyzed. Analysis was by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Results show that levels in fertilizers ranged from 42-147 ppm. The mean whole blood level of phosphate workers was 7.21 + or - 2.05 ng/ml and 0.92 + or - 0.18 ng/ml in controls. The mean urine level of phosphate workers was 5.24 + or - 0.53 ng/ml compared to 0.54 + or - 0.20 ng/ml for controls. No immediate symptoms of acute or subacute cadmium intoxication were observed but high levels indicate a need for studies to elucidate any long-term effects of exposure to cadmium-containing phosphate dust. 3 tables (JMT)

  6. Revisiting shyness and sociability: a preliminary investigation of hormone-brain-behavior relations

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Alva; Beaton, Elliott A.; Schulkin, Jay; Hall, Geoffrey B.; Schmidt, LouisA.

    2014-01-01

    Shyness and sociability are two fundamental personality dimensions that are conceptually and empirically orthogonal and are conserved across cultures, development, and phylogeny. However, we know relatively little regarding how shyness and sociability are represented and maintained in the brain. Here we examined neural responses to the processing of different types of social threat using event-related fMRI, the salivary cortisol awakening response (CAR), and sociability in young adults selected for high and low shyness. Shy adults who exhibited a relatively higher CAR displayed neural activity in putative brain regions involved in emotional conflict and awareness, and were more sociable. In contrast, shy adults who displayed a relatively lower CAR exhibited neural activity in putative brain regions linked to fear and withdrawal, and were unsociable. Results revealed no systematic brain responses to social threat processing that correlated with the CAR in non-shy adults. These preliminary results suggest that individual differences in waking morning cortisol levels may influence neural processes that facilitate either social approach or withdrawal among people who are shy. Findings are discussed in relation to their theoretical and clinical implications for moving beyond longstanding descriptive to explanatory models of shyness and sociability and for understanding individual differences in social behavior in general. PMID:25566117

  7. Investigation of human exposure to triclocarban after showering and preliminary evaluation of its biological effects.

    PubMed

    Schebb, Nils Helge; Inceoglu, Bora; Ahn, Ki Chang; Morisseau, Christophe; Gee, Shirley J; Hammock, Bruce D

    2011-04-01

    The antibacterial soap additive triclocarban (TCC) is widely used in personal care products. TCC has a high environmental persistence. We developed and validated a sensitive online solid-phase extraction-LC-MS/MS method to rapidly analyze TCC and its major metabolites in urine and other biological samples to assess human exposure. We measured human urine concentrations 0-72 h after showering with a commercial bar soap containing 0.6% TCC. The major route of renal elimination was excretion as N-glucuronides. The absorption was estimated at 0.6% of the 70±15 mg of TCC in the soap used. The TCC-N-glucuronide urine concentration varied widely among the subjects, and continuous daily use of the soap led to steady state levels of excretion. In order to assess potential biological effects arising from this exposure, we screened TCC for the inhibition of human enzymes in vitro. We demonstrate that TCC is a potent inhibitor of the enzyme soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH), whereas TCC's major metabolites lack strong inhibitory activity. Topical administration of TCC at similar levels to rats in a preliminary in vivo study, however, failed to alter plasma biomarkers of sEH activity. Overall the analytical strategy described here revealed that use of TCC soap causes exposure levels that warrant further evaluation. PMID:21381656

  8. Preliminary thermoluminescence investigation of commercial pharmaceutical glass containers towards the sterilization dosimetry of liquid drugs.

    PubMed

    Kazakis, Nikolaos A; Tsirliganis, Nestor C; Kitis, George

    2015-11-01

    Drug sterilization with ionizing radiation is a well-established technology, which is constantly extending to several products due to its numerous advantages, since it allows the heat-free sterilization of heat-sensitive pharmaceutical preparations. In a previous study, the possibility to identify irradiated solid-state drugs by means of OSL and TL was examined with very promising findings. In the same respect, the present work aims, for the first time to the authors' best knowledge, to explore whether TL can be employed as a method for post-sterilization dosimetry on commercial liquid-state drugs, by studying the properties of their glass containers. Two different types of glass containers (bottle and ampoule) of two widely used liquid drugs, i.e., Hexalen® and Voltaren®, are used for this purpose. Both glass containers exhibit a linear TL dose response for doses up to 6kGy with a stable behavior through time, while no significant sensitization of the main peaks is observed. Thus, preliminary findings are very promising towards the post-sterilization dosimetry of liquid drugs and the use of the containers of commercial liquid drugs for normal and/or accidental dosimetry. PMID:26296060

  9. Physiological Markers of Arousal Change with Psychological Treatment for Insomnia: A Preliminary Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Christopher B.; Kyle, Simon D.; Gordon, Christopher J.; Espie, Colin A.; Grunstein, Ronald R.; Mullins, Anna E.; Postnova, Svetlana; Bartlett, Delwyn J.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this preliminary study was to evaluate if Sleep Restriction Therapy for insomnia is associated with modifications to physiological arousal, indexed through overnight measures of plasma cortisol concentrations and core body temperature. Methods In a pre-to-post open label study design, eleven patients with chronic and severe Psychophysiological Insomnia underwent 5 weeks of Sleep Restriction Therapy. Results Eight (73%) patients out of 11 consented completed therapy and showed a decrease in insomnia severity pre-to-post treatment (mean (SD): 18.1 (2.8) versus 8.4 (4.8); p = .001). Six patients were analyzed with pre-to-post overnight measures of temperature and cortisol. Contrary to our hypothesis, significantly higher levels of plasma cortisol concentrations were found during the early morning at post-treatment compared to baseline (p < .01), while no change was observed in the pre-sleep phase or early part of the night. Core body temperature during sleep was however reduced significantly (overall mean [95% CI]: 36.54 (°C) [36.3, 36.8] versus 36.45 [36.2, 36.7]; p < .05). Conclusions Sleep Restriction Therapy therefore was associated with increased early morning cortisol concentrations and decreased core body temperature, supporting the premise of physiological changes in functioning after effective therapy. Future work should evaluate change in physiological variables associated with clinical treatment response. Trial Registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ANZCTR 12612000049875 PMID:26683607

  10. Synthesis, Characterization, and Preliminary Investigation of Cell Interaction of Magnetic Nanoparticles with Catechol-Containing Shells

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, Kerstin; Seemann, Thomas; Wyrwa, Ralf; Schnabelrauch, Matthias; Clement, Joachim H.; Mueller, Robert; Nietzsche, Sandor

    2010-12-02

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide cores were synthesized by co-precipitation of Fe(II) and Fe(III) salts and subsequently stabilized by coating with different catechols (levodopa, dopamine, hydrocaffeic acid, dopamine-containing carboxymethyl dextran) known to act as high-affinity, bidentate ligands for Fe(III). The prepared stable magnetic fluids were characterized with regard to their chemical composition (content of iron and shell material, Fe(II)/Fe(III) ratio) and their physical properties (size, surface charge, magnetic parameters). The nanoparticles showed no or only slight cytotoxic effects within 1 and 4 days of incubation with 3T3 fibroblast cells. Preliminary experiments were performed to study the interaction of the prepared nanoparticles with human MCF-7 breast cancer cells and leukocytes. An intense interaction of the MCF-7 cells with these particles was found whereas the leukocytes showed a lower tendency of interaction. Based on these finding, the novel magnetic nanoparticles possess the potential for use in depletion of tumor cells from peripheral blood.

  11. Preliminary investigation of interconnected systems interactions for the safety injection system of Indian Point-3

    SciTech Connect

    Alesso, H.P.; Lappa, D.A.; Smith, C.F.; Sacks, I.J.

    1983-03-04

    The rich diversity of ideas and techniques for analyzing interconnected systems interaction has presented the NRC with the problem of identifying methods appropriate for their own review and audit. This report presents the findings of a preliminary study using the Digraph Matrix Analysis method to evaluate interconnected systems interactions for the safety injection system of Indian Point-3. The analysis effort in this study was subjected to NRC constraints regarding the use of Boolean logic, the construction of simplified plant representations or maps, and the development of heuristic measures as specified by the NRC. The map and heuristic measures were found to be an unsuccessful approach. However, from the effort to model and analyze the Indian Point-3 safety injection system, including Boolean logic in the model, singleton and doubleton cut-sets were identified. It is recommended that efforts excluding Boolean logic and utilizing the NRC heuristic measures not be pursed further and that the Digraph Matrix approach (or other comparable risk assessment technique) with Boolean logic included to conduct the audit of the Indian Point-3 systems interaction study.

  12. Mass spectrometric investigation of the vaporization of sodium and potassium chromates: Preliminary results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stearns, C. A.; Kohl, F. J.; Miller, R. A.; Fryburg, G. C.

    1979-01-01

    Knudsen cell mass spectrometry was used to study the vaporization of sodium and potassium chromates. For both salts, the vaporization proceeds predominately by the reactions M2CrO4(c)=2M(g)+5/4O2(g)+1/2 Cr203(s) and M2CrO4(c)=M2CrO4(g) where M = Na or K. The distribution of the ions M(+), O2(+) and M2CrO4(+) in the measured mass spectrum was found to depend on the material used for the Knudsen cell, even for materials such as platinum and gold. In the case of sodium chromate, the decomposition reaction appears to be less important than the molecular vaporization reaction. A preliminary value of 72 kcal/mole at 1141 K was measured for the heat of the molecular vaporization reaction for sodium chromate. In the case of potassium chromate, it has not been possible to conclude which mode of vaporization dominates. For potassium chromate a value of 101 kcal/mole at 1173 K was obtained for the heat of the molecular vaporization reaction.

  13. Preliminary investigation of force-reduced superconducting magnet configurations for advanced technology applications

    SciTech Connect

    Bouillard, J.X.

    1992-12-01

    The feasibility of new high-field low specific weight superconducting magnet designs using force-free fields is being explored analytically and numerically. This report attempts to assess the technical viability of force-free field concepts to produce high-field, low specific weight and large bore volume magnets, which could promote the use of high temperature superconductors. Several force-free/force-reduced magnet configurations are first reviewed, then discussed and assessed. Force-free magnetic fields, fields for which the current flows parallel to the field, have well-known mathematical solutions extending upon infinite domains. These solutions, however, are no longer force-free everywhere for finite geometries. In this preliminary study, force-free solutions such as the Lundquist solutions truncated to a size where the internal field of the coil matches an externally cylindrical magnetic field (also called a Lundquist coil) are numerically modeled and explored. Significant force-reduction for such coils was calculated, which may have some importance for the design of lighter toroidal magnets used in thermonuclear fusion power generation, superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES), and mobile MHD power generation and propulsion.

  14. A preliminary investigation for an Al/AlCl3-NaCl/FeS2 secondary cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koura, N.

    1980-07-01

    The development of an Al/AlCl3-NaCl/FeS2 cell as a potential candidate for advanced secondary cells is investigated, considering that aluminum has a negative potential and a high theoretical capacity, and the system has a low melting point and is stable as molten salt not in the presence of air or moisture. Discharge curves at various temperatures showed a high plateau at about 0.9 V and a low plateau at about 0.6 V; it was also shown that the more the current density increased, the greater was the high plateau capacity. In addition, FeS was detected from the FeS2 electrode discharged up to 0.65 V, and Al2S3 was detected up to 0.20 V by X-ray analysis.

  15. Determinants of Item Difficulty: A Preliminary Investigation. CSE Report No. 114.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millman, Jason

    Test items, all referencing the same instructional objective, are not equally difficult. This investigation attempts to identify some of the determinants of item difficulty within the context of a first course in educational statistics. Computer generated variations of items were used to provide the data. The results were used to investigate the…

  16. Alu Insertions and Genetic Diversity: A Preliminary Investigation by an Undergraduate Bioinformatics Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elwess, Nancy L.; Duprey, Stephen L.; Harney, Lindesay A.; Langman, Jessie E.; Marino, Tara C.; Martinez, Carolina; McKeon, Lauren L.; Moss, Chantel I. E.; Myrie, Sasha S.; Taylor, Luke Ryan

    2008-01-01

    "Alu"-insertion polymorphisms were used by an undergraduate Bioinformatics class to study how these insertion sites could be the basis for an investigation in human population genetics. Based on the students' investigation, both allele and genotype "Alu" frequencies were determined for African-American and Japanese populations as well as a…

  17. Preliminary investigation on the deformation rates of the Nazimiye Fault (Eastern Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sançar, Taylan

    2016-04-01

    The complex tectonic setting of the eastern Mediterranean is mainly shaped by the interaction between three major plates, Eurasian, African, and Arabian plates, with additional involvement from the smaller Anatolian Scholle. The internal deformation of the Anatolian Scholle is mainly accommodated along NW-striking dextral and NE-striking sinistral faults, which are explained by the Prandtl Cell model by Şengör (1979). Although some of these strike-slip faults, such as Tuzgölü, Ecemiş and Malatya-Ovacık faults, have long been documented, the Nazimiye Fault (NF) is only presented in very recent studies (Kara et al. 2013; Emre et al. 2012). The aim of the study is to understand intra-plate deformation of the Anatolian Scholle, by studying the morphotectonic structures along the NF. The study area located close to the eastern boundary of Anatolia, roughly on the wedge that is delimited by the North and East Anatolian shear zones and the Malatya-Ovacık Fault Zone. After the preliminary remote sensing analyses and field observations, I mapped the locations of the different terrace treads along the Pülümür River, which is strongly deflected by the activity of the NF. This dextral strike-slip fault, is not only characterized with the deformation of the Pülümür River, but also it shows many beheaded streams, pressure ridges, hot springs and travertines along its course. I sampled one of the alluvial fans for cosmogenic dating at the eastern section of the NF, where about 20 m of dextral offset was measured at the margins of the incised stream. Moreover, additional sampling was performed from different terrace levels along the Pülümür River, in order not only to estimate the min. horizontal rate, but also to quantify the vertical deformation. Moreover, I applied morphometric indices to understand the tectonic control on the local morphology along the NF. Transverse Topographic Symmetry Factor was used to show the relative degree of tectonic activity along the

  18. Preliminary results of paleoseismic investigations of Quaternary faults on eastern Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Menges, C.M.; Oswald, J.A.; Coe, J.A.

    1995-12-31

    Site characterization of the potential nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, requires detailed knowledge of the displacement histories of nearby Quaternary faults. Ongoing paleoseismic studies provide data on the amount and rates of Quaternary activity on the Paintbrush Canyon, Bow Ridge, and Stagecoach Road faults along the eastern margin of the mountain over varying time spans of 0-700 ka to perhaps 0-30 ka, depending on the site. Preliminary stratigraphic interpretations of deposits and deformation at many logged trenches and natural exposures indicate that each of these faults have experienced from 3 to 8 surface-rupturing earthquakes associated with variable dip-slip displacements per event ranging from 5 to 115 cm, and commonly in the range of 20 to 85 cm. Cumulative dip-slip offsets of units with broadly assigned ages of 100-200 ka are typically less than 200 cm, although accounting for the effects of possible left normal-oblique slip could increase these displacements by factors of 1.1 to 1.7. Current age constraints indicate recurrence intervals of 10{sup 4} to 10{sup 5} years (commonly between 30 and 80 k.y.) and slip rates of 0.001 to 0.08 mm/yr (typically 0.01-0.02 mm/yr). Based on available timing data, the ages of the most recent ruptures varies among the faults; they appear younger on the Stagecoach Road Fault ({approximately}5-20 ka) relative to the southern Paintbrush Canyon and Bow Ridge faults ({approximately}30-100 ka).

  19. Paleoseismic investigations of the Paintbrush Canyon fault in southern Midway Valley, Yucca Mountain, Nevada: Preliminary results

    SciTech Connect

    Swan, F.H.; Wesling, J.R.; Thomas, A.P. )

    1993-04-01

    Trench mapping in southern Midway Valley provides evidence of multiple surface-faulting events on a western splay of the Paintbrush Canyon fault during the middle to late Pleistocene. The 6-m-wide fault zone exposed in the trench strikes N30-45E and dips steeply ([approximately]78[degree]) to the west, although some shears within the zone dip to the east. Tertiary volcanic bedrock is exposed only on the footwall block within the trench. Unconsolidated colluvial and eolian deposits are present in the hanging-wall block and above bedrock in the footwall block. These deposits tentatively are assigned, respectively, mid Pleistocene and late Pleistocene ages based on correlations with surficial map units in Midway Valley. Three to five displacement events are inferred based on faulted colluvial and eolian deposits, and scarp-derived colluvial wedges. Total cumulative dip-slip displacement of the oldest middle Pleistocene subunit is estimated to be about 170 to 270 cm. The dip-slip displacement associated with the youngest event is about 15 cm. The earlier displacements are estimated to have produced between 40 and 85 cm of dip-slip displacement per event. The most recent event occurred after deposition of late Pleistocene colluvium deposited against the fault scarp but before deposition of an overlying hillslope-derived colluvium of probable late pleistocene age. Based on the preliminary results of the authors study, the middle to late Quaternary rate of dip-slip displacement is approximately 0.01 m/kyr or less. Ongoing work, including soil-stratigraphic studies and numerical dating of deposits, should better constrain the timing and a rate of faulting along this western splay of the Paintbrush Canyon fault.

  20. Preliminary investigation of oil and source rock organic geochemistry from selected Tertiary basins of Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawwongngam, Kulwadee; Philp, R. P.

    Selected samples of crude oils and extracts from source rocks obtained from six Thailand Tertiary basins of the central plain and of the Gulf of Thailand regions were examined for geochemical properties and molecular compositions. Analyses were performed using GC, CGCMS and carbon isotope mass spectrometry. Though these results should be viewed as preliminary, the results are significant in terms of a regional understanding of the petroleum geochemistry of Thailand. Results from bulk geochemical properties and biomarker assemblages characterize derivatives of organic sources deposited in lacustrine environments. The organic matter is mainly derived from algae with varying amounts of higher plant material. However, an observed variation in the pristane/phytane ratios among the samples may imply differences in depositional oxicity. On the other hand, basinal differences in sedimentation rates, or in the oxygen concentration of the varying waters and/or sediment pore-waters resulted in spatial heterogeneities in the quantity and degree of preservation of the organic matter. In addition, a degree of physical separation between these paleo-lacustrine environments is indicated by differences in paleosalinity, e.g. the hypersaline biomarker, gammacerane, which is restricted to samples from the offshore Gulf of Thailand basins. Maturity parameters for these Tertiary oils and source rock extracts were determined using biomarker analyses of T s/T m, 22S/22S + 22R C 31 hopane, C 30 moretane/hopane, 20R/20S + 20R C 29 sterane, and aromatic compounds. Though the samples demonstrate an overall relatively low level of maturity as specified by the biomarker index, a degree of individual basinal variability is also distinguishable. The observed differences in the maturity values indicate regional heterogeneity among the basin thermal histories, suggesting differences in geothermal gradients and/or in the basin subsidence rates.

  1. Investigating the role of combined acoustic-visual feedback in one-dimensional synchronous brain computer interfaces, a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Gargiulo, Gaetano D; Mohamed, Armin; McEwan, Alistair L; Bifulco, Paolo; Cesarelli, Mario; Jin, Craig T; Ruffo, Mariano; Tapson, Jonathan; van Schaik, André

    2012-01-01

    Feedback plays an important role when learning to use a brain computer interface (BCI), particularly in the case of synchronous feedback that relies on the interaction subject. In this preliminary study, we investigate the role of combined auditory-visual feedback during synchronous μ rhythm-based BCI sessions to help the subject to remain focused on the selected imaginary task. This new combined feedback, now integrated within the general purpose BCI2000 software, has been tested on eight untrained and three trained subjects during a monodimensional left-right control task. In order to reduce the setup burden and maximize subject comfort, an electroencephalographic device suitable for dry electrodes that required no skin preparation was used. Quality and index of improvement was evaluated based on a personal self-assessment questionnaire from each subject and quantitative data based on subject performance. Results for this preliminary study show that the combined feedback was well tolerated by the subjects and improved performance in 75% of the naïve subjects compared with visual feedback alone. PMID:23152713

  2. Preliminary Investigation of Microdosimetric Track Structure Physics Models in Geant4-DNA and RITRACKS

    PubMed Central

    Bezak, Eva

    2015-01-01

    The major differences between the physics models in Geant4-DNA and RITRACKS Monte Carlo packages are investigated. Proton and electron ionisation interactions and electron excitation interactions in water are investigated in the current work. While these packages use similar semiempirical physics models for inelastic cross-sections, the implementation of these models is demonstrated to be significantly different. This is demonstrated in a simple Monte Carlo simulation designed to identify differences in interaction cross-sections. PMID:26124856

  3. Radio science investigations of the saturn system with voyager 1: preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Tyler, G L; Eshleman, V R; Anderson, J D; Levy, G S; Lindal, G F; Wood, G E; Croft, T A

    1981-04-10

    Voyager 1 radio occultation measurements of Titan's equatorial atmosphere successfully probed to the surface, which is provisionally placed at a radius of 2570 kilometers. Derived scale heights plus other experimental and theoretical results indicate that molecular nitrogen is the predominant atmospheric constituent. The surface pressure and temperature appear to be about 1.6 bars and 93 K, respectively. The main clouds are probably methane ice, although some condensation of nitrogen cannot be ruled out. Solar abundance arguments suggest and the measurements allow large quantities of surface methane near its triple-point temperature, so that the three phases of methane could play roles in the atmosphere and on the surface of Titan similar to those of water on Earth. Radio occultation measurements of Saturn's atmosphere near 75 degrees south latitude reached a maximum pressure of 1.4 bars, where the temperature is about 156 K. The minimum temperature is about 91 K near the 60-millibar pressure level. The measured part of the polar ionosphere of Saturn has a peak electron concentration of 2.3 x 10(4) per cubic centimeter at an altitude of 2500 kilometers above the 1-bar level in the atmosphere, and a plasma scale height at the top of the ionosphere of 560 kilometers. Attenuation of monochromatic radiation at a wavelength of 3.6 centimeters propagating obliquely through Saturn's rings is consistent with traditional values for the normal optical depth of the rings, but the near-forward scattering of this radiation by the rings indicates effective scattering particles with larger than expected diameters of 10, 8, and 2 meters in the A ring, the outer Cassini division, and the C ring, respectively. Preliminary analysis of the radio tracking data yields new values for the masses of Rhea and Titan of 4.4 +/- 0.3 x 10(-6) and 236.64 +/- 0.08 x 10(-6) times the mass of Saturn. Corresponding values for the mean densities of these objects are 1.33 +/- 0.10 and about 1.89 grams

  4. A Preliminary Investigation of Phonological Encoding Skills in Children Who Stutter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sasisekaran, Jayanthi; Brady, Alison; Stein, Jillian

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The present study investigated phonological encoding skills in children who stutter (CWS) and those who do not (CNS). Participants were 9 CWS (M=11.8 years, SD=1.5) and 9 age and sex matched CNS (M=11.8 years, SD=1.5). Method: Participants monitored target phonemes located at syllable onsets and offsets of bisyllabic words. Performance in…

  5. Impact of Chromosome 4p- Syndrome on Communication and Expressive Language Skills: A Preliminary Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Althea T.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this investigation was to examine the impact of Chromosome 4p- syndrome on the communication and expressive language phenotype of a large cross-cultural population of children, adolescents, and adults. Method: A large-scale survey study was conducted and a descriptive research design was used to analyze quantitative and…

  6. Preliminary investigation of the effects of dye concentration on the output of a multiwavelength dye laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, I. O.; Burney, L. G.

    1974-01-01

    The effects of dye concentration on the output wavelength and energy of a multiwavelength dye laser were investigated. The dyes tested were Coumarin 2 in methyl alcohol and Rhodomine 6G, Acridine Red, and 7-diethylamino-4-methyl Coumarin (7DA 4MC) in ethyl alcohol.

  7. Blacks' and Whites' Perceptions of Real-Life Scenarios: A Preliminary Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brinson, Jesse A.; Morris, Joseph R.

    2001-01-01

    This study investigated the perceptual differences between Black and White counselor trainees toward 12 real-life scenarios featuring Black and White individuals. The authors hypothesized that the two groups would differ in their perceptions of most of the scenarios. The results reveal significant differences in perceptions on 4 out of 12…

  8. A Preliminary Investigation of Stimulus Control Training for Worry: Effects on Anxiety and Insomnia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGowan, Sarah Kate; Behar, Evelyn

    2013-01-01

    For individuals with generalized anxiety disorder, worry becomes associated with numerous aspects of life (e.g., time of day, specific stimuli, environmental cues) and is thus under poor discriminative stimulus control (SC). In addition, excessive worry is associated with anxiety, depressed mood, and sleep difficulties. This investigation sought…

  9. Generalization of Sight Word Accuracy Using a Common Stimulus Procedure: A Preliminary Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mesmer, Eric M.; Duhon, Gary J.; Hogan, Karen; Newry, Brandi; Hommema, Savannah; Fletcher, Courtney; Boso, Maggie

    2010-01-01

    The need to investigate strategies promoting the generalization of reading skills is well documented. The current study builds upon previous literature by examining the impact of a common stimulus procedure on accuracy of reading generalization words in isolation. The common stimulus procedure used in this study intended to enhance the salience of…

  10. A preliminary investigation of socio-economic problems following the 1978 Thessaloniki (Greece) earthquake.

    PubMed

    Karakos, A; Papadimitriou, I; Pavlides, S

    1983-09-01

    The consequences of social and economic disruption in the city of Thessaloniki following the large earthquake in 1978 are investigated. Specifically, the phenomenon of organized life in camps for Thessaloniki residents over a long period of time is studied. With the use of a questionnaire, all data regarding each person in the camps were assembled and processed with the correspondence analysis method. PMID:20958544

  11. A Preliminary Investigation into Forage Quality Attributes of Several Native Eastern Savanna Species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction: Nutritive attributes of traditional forages are well documented, and benefits of forage condensed tannins (CT) for ruminants have been the subject of numerous investigations. The number of tanniferous forage species that are adapted to humid, temperate climates is limited, and the ro...

  12. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy of Panic Disorder with Secondary Major Depression: A Preliminary Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laberge, Benoit; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Investigated extent to which cognitive-behavioral therapy can be used successfully in treatment of secondary depressed panic patients. Findings from eight panic patients with major depression and seven panic patients without major depression showed that cognitive-behavioral therapy was significantly superior to information-based therapy in…

  13. Paleontologic investigations at Big Bone Lick State Park, Kentucky: A preliminary report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schultz, C.B.; Tanner, L.G.; Whitmore, F.C., Jr.; Ray, L.L.; Crawford, E.C.

    1963-01-01

    The Big Bone Lick area in Kentucky, the first widely known collecting locality for vertebrate fossils in North America, is being investigated for further faunal and geologic evidence. Mammal bones, ranging in age from Wisconsin (Tazewell?) to Recent, were recovered in 1962 from four different faunal zones in two terrace fills.

  14. Preliminary Investigations into Competitive Spawning in the Anabantoid Fish, Colisa fasciata Bloch and Schneider

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawes, John A.

    1975-01-01

    Describes three experiments which investigated the behavior of "Colisa fasciata" males in full breeding condition subjected to competition for nest sites and a single female. Concludes that for these fish territorial dominance is established in a relatively short time, the period varying with the intensity of competition. (MLH)

  15. 75 FR 38079 - Postponement of Preliminary Determination of Antidumping Duty Investigation: Polyvinyl Alcohol...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-01

    ...-Dumping Duty Investigation: Polyvinyl Alcohol From Taiwan, 69 FR 59204 (October 4, 2004). On October 22... From Taiwan; Determination, 75 FR 15726 (March 30, 2010). The ITC notified the Department of its...: Polyvinyl Alcohol From Taiwan AGENCY: Import Administration, International Trade Administration,...

  16. Students' Race and Participation in Sociology Classroom Discussion: A Preliminary Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Jay; Zoeller, Aimee; Pratt, Yale

    2006-01-01

    This study utilizes observation, survey and interview methodologies to investigate the impact of student race on participation in discussion in introductory sociology courses at a large Midwestern US university with a minority enrollment of approximately 15 percent. While results are mixed there is some evidence that white students participated at…

  17. The Role of Visual Mental Imagery in the Speed-Accuracy Tradeoff: A Preliminary Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodes, Carol L.

    This study investigates the relationship between speed of recognition and accuracy of the responses when visual mental imagery is controlled through imagery instructions. The procedure was to compare the achievement of learners where the independent variable was imagery instructions. The subjects were two 20-person groups of undergraduates from a…

  18. PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION OF SUBMERGED AQUATIC VEGETATION MAPPING USING HYPERSPECTRAL REMOTE SENSING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The use of airborne hyperspectral remote sensing imagery for automated mapping of submersed aquatic vegetation in the tidal Potomac River was investigated for near to real-time resource assessment and monitoring. Airborne hyperspectral imagery, together with in-situ spectral refl...

  19. PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION OF UNCOMBUSTED AUTO FUEL VAPOR DISPERSION WITHIN A RESIDENTIAL GARAGE MICROENVIRONMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Evaporative emissions from vehicles in an attached garage may represent a significant source of indoor pollution and human exposure. ilot field study was undertaken to investigate potential in-house dispersion of evaporative emissions of uncombusted fuels from a vehicle parked in...

  20. Preliminary Investigation of the Relationships between Involvement in Student Affairs Professional Development and Margin in Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lagana, Brandon T.

    2007-01-01

    Involvement in student affairs professional development was investigated using McClusky's (1963) Power Load Margin (PLM) theory from the adult education field. The PLM theory is a framework for identifying sources of stress (load) and power in one's life; the amount of power available to handle stress is called margin in life (MIL). This study…

  1. Preliminary Results from Initial Investigations of Ceres' Cratering Record from Dawn Imaging Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmedemann, Nico; Michael, Gregory; Ivanov, Boris A.; Kneissl, Thomas; Neesemann, Adrian; Hiesinger, Harald; Jaumann, Ralf; Raymond, Carol A.; Russell, Christopher T.

    2015-04-01

    The highly successful Dawn mission [1] finished data collection at Vesta in 2012 and is now on its way to the dwarf planet Ceres. According to the current Ceres approach timeline of the Dawn mission, the ground resolution of the Dawn FC camera [2] will be about 10 times better than Hubble data [3] at the time of the presentation of this work. This may allow for identification of craters about 15 km in diameter. Initial mapping of sample areas may provide enough information of the cratering record in order to compare it with the theoretical Ceres crater production function we present at the 46th LPSC conference (March 16-20, 2015, The Woodlands, Texas) [4]. Our preliminary crater production function for Ceres is derived from the assumption of an icy crust just below a thin surface layer of dust [5], and a projectile population that is very similar to the one that impacted the Moon [6]. In order to scale the lunar cratering record to Ceres we use the Ivanov scaling laws [7], which allow for crater scaling based on parameters that can be derived from observations. The lunar-like approach gave reasonable good results for the crater production function on the asteroids Vesta, Ida, Lutetia and Gaspra [8]. Since the lunar surface is of basaltic composition, the correct scaling between the different materials is challenging. One crucial parameter is the transition diameter from simple to complex craters. Based on the simple to complex transition diameter on Iapetus, an icy satellite of Saturn, we expect this transition at about 12 km crater size at Ceres. This value may be slightly different due to the different temperatures at Ceres and Iapetus. If the simple to complex transition is observed at much larger diameters, the reason could be a substantial fraction of rock in the shallow subsurface of Ceres. In an ice-rich surface material high relaxation rates may also be expected that could change the shape of the crater production function. A thorough geological mapping

  2. [Preliminary investigation on polymorphs of two traditional Chinese medicine reference substances].

    PubMed

    Nie, Li-xing; Zhang, Ye; Dai, Zhong; Zhang, Yi; Ma, Shuang-cheng

    2015-08-01

    Crystal structures of chemical drugs has been being investigated widely. But few attention has been paid to polymorphs-phenomena of active ingredients from Traditional Chinese Medicine(TCM). Taking anhydrous dehydroandrographolide and hydrousprim-O-glucosylcimifugin as example, differences between TCM reference substances (RSs) with different crystal structures were discussed by using microscopy, melting point determination, differential thermal analysis (DTA) and infrared (IR) methods. The results showed that different crystal structures could lead to change of melting points, thermal behaviors and IR spectrum. It's indicated that polymorphs may be considered if different physicochemical properties were obtained when applying TCM RS. Differences of chemical properties of active ingredients from TCM with different crystal structures need further investigation. PMID:26790301

  3. A preliminary investigation of the potential applicability of the IPAD system to non-aerospace industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hulbert, L. E.

    1975-01-01

    A study of the applicability of the planned Integrated Programs for Aerospace-Vehicle Design (IPAD) system to the design activities of non-aerospace industries was carried out. It was determined that IPAD could be of significant benefit to a number of industries, with the most likely users being the heavy construction and automotive industries. Two additional short studies were initiated to investigate the possible impact of IPAD on a national energy program and on urban and regional planning activities of local and state governments. These initial studies indicated the possibility of significant payoff in these areas and the need for further investigations. It was also determined that utilization of IPAD by non-aerospace industries will probably involve a long stepwise process, since these industries maintain a policy of gradual introduction of new technology.

  4. Preliminary investigation in optical resonators based on carbon nano-tube and coupling for optoelectronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salzenstein, Patrice; Makaryan, Taron

    2014-05-01

    We investigate the use of carbon nano-tubes performed by chemical vapor deposition for photonics applications producing samples of various geometries on the same wafer and performing experiments and numerical modeling. Publisher's Note: This paper, originally published on 5/2/14, was replaced with a corrected/revised version on 5/19/14. If you downloaded the original PDF but are unable to access the revision, please contact SPIE Digital Library Customer Service for assistance.

  5. Trace elements in urinary stones: a preliminary investigation in Fars province, Iran.

    PubMed

    Keshavarzi, Behnam; Yavarashayeri, Nasrin; Irani, Dariush; Moore, Farid; Zarasvandi, Alireza; Salari, Mehrdad

    2015-04-01

    In view of the high incidence rate of urinary stones in the south and southwest of Iran, this paper investigates trace elements content including heavy metals in 39 urinary stones, collected from patients in Fars province, Iran. The mineralogy of the stones is investigated using X-ray diffractometry. The samples are classified into five mineral groups (calcium oxalate, uric acid, cystine, calcium phosphate and mixed stone). Major and trace elements in each group were determined using ICP-MS method. P and Ca constitute the main elements in urinary stones with Ca being more affine to oxalates while other alkali and alkaline earths precipitate with phosphate. Significant amounts of trace elements, especially Zn and Sr, were found in urinary calculi (calcium oxalate and phosphates) relative to biominerals (uric acid and cystine). Among urinary calculi, calcium phosphate contains greater amounts of trace metal than calcium oxalate. Phosphates seem to be the most important metal-bearing phases in urinary stones. Results indicate that concentrations of elements in urinary stones depend on the type of mineral phases. Significant differences in elements content across various mineralogical groups were found by applying statistical methods. Kruskal-Wallis test reveals significant difference between Ca, P, K, Na, Mg, S, Zn, Sr, Se, Cd, and Co content in different investigated mineral groups. Moreover, Mann-Whitney test differentiates Ca, Na, Zn, Sr, Co, and Ni between minerals in oxalate and uric acid stones. This study shows that urinary stone can provide complementary information on human exposure to elements and estimate the environmental risks involved in urinary stones formation. PMID:25433503

  6. Alkali-free bioactive glasses for bone tissue engineering: A preliminary investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Goel, Ashutosh; Kapoor, Saurabh; Rajagopal, Raghu R.; Pascual, Maria J.; Kim, Hae-Won; Ferreira, Jose M.

    2011-08-25

    An alkali-free series of bioactive glasses has been designed and developed in the glass system CaO-MgO-SiO2-P2O5-CaF2 along diopside (CaMgSi2O6) – fluorapatite [Ca5(PO4)3F] – tricalcium phosphate (3CaO•P2O5) join. The silicate network in all the investigated glasses is predominantly coordinated in Q2 (Si) units while phosphorus tends to remain in orthophosphate (Q0) environment. The in vitro bioactivity analysis of glasses has been made by immersion of glass powders in simulated body fluid (SBF) while chemical degradation has been studied in Tris-HCl in accordance with ISO-10993-14. Some of the investigated glasses exhibit hydroxyapatite (HA) formation on their surface with in 1-12 h of their immersion in SBF solution. The sintering and crystallization kinetics of glasses has been investigated by differential thermal analysis (DTA) and hot-stage microscopy (HSM), respectively while the crystalline phase evolution in resultant glass-ceramics (GCs) has been studied in the temperature range of 800-900 oC using powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The cell growth and osteogenic differentiation for glasses has been studied in vitro on sintered glass powder compacts using rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. The as designed glasses are ideal candidates for their potential applications in bone tissue engineering in the form of bioactive glasses as well as glass/GC scaffolds.

  7. Alkali-free bioactive glasses for bone tissue engineering: a preliminary investigation.

    PubMed

    Goel, Ashutosh; Kapoor, Saurabh; Rajagopal, Raghu Raman; Pascual, Maria J; Kim, Hae-Won; Ferreira, José M F

    2012-01-01

    An alkali-free series of bioactive glasses has been designed and developed in the glass system CaO-MgO-SiO(2)-P(2)O(5)-CaF(2) along the diopside (CaMgSi(2)O(6))-fluorapatite (Ca(5)(PO(4))(3)F)-tricalcium phosphate (3CaO·P(2)O(5)) join. The silicate network in all the investigated glasses is predominantly coordinated in Q(2) (Si) units, while phosphorus tends to remain in an orthophosphate (Q(0)) environment. The in vitro bioactivity analysis of glasses has been made by immersion of glass powders in simulated body fluid (SBF) while chemical degradation has been studied in Tris-HCl in accordance with ISO-10993-14. Some of the investigated glasses exhibit hydroxyapatite formation on their surface within 1-12 h of their immersion in SBF solution. The sintering and crystallization kinetics of glasses has been investigated by differential thermal analysis and hot-stage microscopy, respectively while the crystalline phase evolution in resultant glass-ceramics has been studied in the temperature range of 800-900°C using powder X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The alkaline phosphatase activity and osteogenic differentiation for glasses have been studied in vitro on sintered glass powder compacts using rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. The as-designed glasses are ideal candidates for their potential applications in bone tissue engineering in the form of bioactive glasses as well as glass/glass-ceramic scaffolds. PMID:21925626

  8. Preliminary Investigation of Cyclic De-Icing of an Airfoil Using an External Electric Heater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, James P.; Bowden, Dean T.

    1952-01-01

    An investigation was conducted in the NACA Lewis icing research tunnel to determine the characteristics and requirements of cyclic deicing of a 65,2-216 airfoil by use of an external electric heater. The present investigation was limited to an airspeed of 175 miles per hour. Data are presented to show the effects of variations in heat-on and heat-off periods, ambient air temperature, liquid-water content, angle of attack, and. heating distribution on the requirements for cyclic deicing. The external heat flow at various icing and heating conditions is also presented. A continuously heated parting strip at the airfoil leading edge was found necessary for quick, complete, and consistent ice removal. The cyclic power requirements were found to be primarily a function of the datum temperature and heat-on time, with the other operating and meteorological variables having a second-order effect. Short heat-on periods and high power densities resulted in the most efficient ice removal, the minimum energy input, and the minimum runback ice formations. The optimum chordwise heating distribution pattern was found to consist of a uniform distribution of cycled power density in the impingement region. Downstream of the impingement region the power density decreased to the limits of heating which, for the conditions investigated, extended from 5.7 percent chord on the upper surface of the airfoil to 8.9 percent chord on the lower surface. Ice removal did not take place at a heater surface temperature of 32 F; surface temperatures of approximately 50 to 100 F were required to effect removal. Better de-icing performance and greater energy savings would be possible with a heater having a higher thermal efficiency.

  9. Preliminary Investigation of Surface Treatments to Enhance the Wear Resistance of 60-Nitinol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanford, Malcolm K.

    2016-01-01

    The use of protective surface treatments on 60-Nitinol (60wt%Ni-40wt%Ti) was studied. Various nitriding techniques as well as a (Ti, Al)N coating were evaluated visually, microscopically, and by hardness and scratch testing. The chemical composition of the surface treatments was investigated by x-ray techniques. The results indicate that very hard (greater than 1,000 HK) and adherent surface layers can be produced on 60-Nitinol. Further work is needed to determine the tribological properties of these surface treatments in relevant operating environments.

  10. A Preliminary Investigation of the Effect of Bumpers as a Means of Reducing Projectile Penetration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Funkhouser, John O.

    1961-01-01

    The results of an investigation to determine the effect of bumpers on projectile penetration indicate that for impact velocities up to 12,500 feet per second, the penetration of 0.062-inch-diameter copper projectiles in to aluminum targets can be definitely reduced by using a properly selected bumper spaced a short distance in front of the main target surface. Bumpers and main targets were made of 2024-T4 aluminum alloy, and spherical projectiles made of 0.062-inch-diameter copper were used in all tests.

  11. Whistle register: a preliminary investigation by HSDI visualization and acoustics on female cases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Corcia, Antonio; Fussi, Franco

    2012-02-01

    In this study we investigated laryngeal behaviors involved during vocal production of highest female vocal ranges in Flute in M3 Register, in Whistle Register and in a newly formulated by us, Hiss Register. Observations were carried with stroboscopy and High Speed Digital Imaging and with spectrographic and psycho-acoustic analysis by means of a software system having a wide spectral range (0-20.000 Hz). Results indicate that at the highest pitch vocal folds vibration is absent or significantly reduced, glottic contact is incomplete. These acoustic form of extreme pitch levels comprised intra-harmonic noise and overtones within 10 to 18 kHz range.

  12. Preliminary investigations of equilibrium reconstruction quality during ELMy and ELM-free phases on JET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelfusa, M.; Murari, A.; Peluso, E.; Gaudio, P.; Orsitto, F. P.; Gerasimov, S.; JET-EFDA Contributors

    2013-08-01

    On JET, the magnetic topology is normally derived from the code EFIT, which solves the Grad-Shafranov equation with constraints imposed by the available measurements, typically the pick-up coils. Both the code and the measurements are expected to perform worse during ELMs. To assess this hypothesis, various statistical indicators, based on the values of the residuals and their probability distribution, have been calculated. They all show that the quality of EFIT reconstructions is clearly better in absence of ELMs. How the responsibility, for the lower quality of the reconstructions, is shared between the measurements and EFIT is a subject under investigation. 2001 Elsevier Science.

  13. The poststall nonlinear dynamics and control of an F-18: A preliminary investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patten, William N.

    1988-01-01

    The successful high angle of attack (HAOA) operation of fighter aircraft will necessarily require the introduction of a new onboard control methodology that address the nonlinearity of the system when flown at the stall/poststall limits of the craft's flight envelope. As a precursor to this task, a researcher endeavored to familarize himself with the dynamics of one specific aircraft, the F-18, when it is flown at HAOA. This was accomplished by conducting a number of real time flight sorties using the NASA-Langley Research Center's F-18 simulator, which was operated with a pilot in the loop. In addition to developing a first hand familarity with the aircraft's dynamic characteristic at HAOA, work was also performed to identify the input/output operational footprint of the F-18's control surfaces. This investigator proposes to employ the nonlinear models of the plant identified this summer in a subsequent research effort that will make it possible to fly the F-18 effectively at poststall angles of attack. The controller design used there will rely on a new technique proposed by this investigator that provides for the automatic generation of online optimal control solutions for nonlinear dynamic systems.

  14. A Preliminary Investigation of Rapid Depressurization Phenomena Following a Sudden DLOFC in a VHTR

    SciTech Connect

    Richard C. Martineau; Ray A. Berry

    2010-05-01

    Air ingress has been identified as a potential threat for Very High Temperature gas-cooled Reactors (VHTR). Reactor components constructed of graphite will, at high temperatures, produce exothermic reactions in the presence of oxygen. The danger lies in the possibility of fuel element damage and core structural failure. Previous investigations of air ingress mechanisms have focused on thermal and molecular diffusion, density-driven stratified flow due to hydrodynamic instability, and natural convection. Here, we investigate the possibility of a rapid flow reversal of helium coolant due to a Taylor (rarefaction) wave expansion after a hypothetical sudden Depressurized Loss of Forced Cooling (DLOFC) scenario in a VHTR. Conceivably, flow reversal of the helium coolant could entrain significant quantities of air into the reactor vessel. Our analysis starts with a one-dimensional shock tube simulation to simply illustrate the development of a Taylor wave with resulting reentrant flow. Then, a simulation is performed of an idealized two-dimensional axisymmetric representation of the lower plenum of General Atomics GT-MHR subjected to a hypothetical catastrophic break of the hot duct. Analysis shows the potential for significant and rapid air ingress into the reactor vessel in the case of a large break in the cooling system.

  15. Preliminary investigations of rat skin after topical application of optical clearing agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jing; Zhu, Dan

    2010-10-01

    The tissue optical clearing technique based on immersion of tissues into optical clearing agents (OCAs) can enhance the penetration depth of light in tissues, thus improve the capabilities of noninvasive optical diagnosis and therapeutic treatment. However, the optical clearing efficiency of skin caused by topical application of OCAs usually suffers from the barrier of stratum corneum and epithelium. The addition of chemical penetration enhancers to OCAs could significantly improve the optical clearing of skin, but the investigations on their safety are seldom concerned. In this study, based on the direct observation and histological examinations, the short-term and long-term effects of the mixture of PEG-400 and Thiazone on morphology and microstructure of in vivo rat skin were investigated. The results demonstrated that, in the first week, the hair growth was stunted, some degree of abnormal thickens and vacuoles occurred at the epidermis layer, and the collagen arranged denser. After 2 week, the morphology and microstructure of rat skin was completely recovered. It means that there is no long-term effect on rat skin by the mixture of PEG-400 and Thiazone. In addition, this work provides a useful method for assessing the safety of OCAs to skin.

  16. Preliminary investigations of rat skin after topical application of optical clearing agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jing; Zhu, Dan

    2011-03-01

    The tissue optical clearing technique based on immersion of tissues into optical clearing agents (OCAs) can enhance the penetration depth of light in tissues, thus improve the capabilities of noninvasive optical diagnosis and therapeutic treatment. However, the optical clearing efficiency of skin caused by topical application of OCAs usually suffers from the barrier of stratum corneum and epithelium. The addition of chemical penetration enhancers to OCAs could significantly improve the optical clearing of skin, but the investigations on their safety are seldom concerned. In this study, based on the direct observation and histological examinations, the short-term and long-term effects of the mixture of PEG-400 and Thiazone on morphology and microstructure of in vivo rat skin were investigated. The results demonstrated that, in the first week, the hair growth was stunted, some degree of abnormal thickens and vacuoles occurred at the epidermis layer, and the collagen arranged denser. After 2 week, the morphology and microstructure of rat skin was completely recovered. It means that there is no long-term effect on rat skin by the mixture of PEG-400 and Thiazone. In addition, this work provides a useful method for assessing the safety of OCAs to skin.

  17. Investigation of Halogenated Components Formed from Chlorination of Natural Waters: Preliminary Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Bean, R. M.; Riley, R. G.

    1980-11-01

    Chlorination of power plant cooling water is extensively used as a means of controlling biofouling. This practice presents the potential for formation of halogenated organic compounds hazardous to man and his environment. Accordingly, the organic composition resulting from the chlorination of natural waters (northern Olympic Penn1sula sea water and the Columbia River in Washington State} has been investigated. Nonpolar lipophilic organic halogens were extracted by passing large volumes of water over columns of XAD-2 macroreticular resins. Examination of ether extracts from the resin columns using capillary gas chromatography revealed the presence of halogenated methanes, as well as other electron-capturing components~ that were not found when unchlorinated water was sampled. Examination of the chlorinated water extracts using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry revealed complex mixtures which generally were not separable into individual components~ even when high efficiency WCOT capillary columns were used. The samples were separated into fractions of increasing polarity using a water-deactivated silica gel column. Fractions were thus obtained which were more amenable to GC/MS investigation. Haloforms were identified as the major halogenated product from chlorination of the waters studied. Other halogenated products were found at much lower concentrations.

  18. Environmental pollution of polybrominated diphenyl ethers from industrial plants in China: a preliminary investigation.

    PubMed

    Deng, Chao; Chen, Yuan; Li, Jinhui; Li, Ying; Li, Huafen

    2016-04-01

    Although numerous studies have shown the presence of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in various environmental media, attention to their distribution in the environmental media surrounding industrial facilities is limited. In this study, eight PBDEs congeners (BDE-28, -47, -99, -100, -153, -154, -183, -209) were investigated in surface soils and water samples collected from commercial PBDE manufacturers, flame-retardant plastic modification plants and waste electrical and electronic equipment recycling facilities in China. Analysis of target compounds was performed using the model NCI GC-MS in SIM mode. The concentrations of ∑8PBDEs varied from 193.1 to 22,004.3 ng/L in water samples and from 1209.3 to 226,906 ng/g dry wt in surface soils, respectively. More severe PBDE contamination, when compared with previously reported data, was found in industrial areas in this study. This indicates that these industrial areas are highly polluted with PBDEs. BDE-209 was the predominant congener, accounting for more than 94% in this study, except for a 68.75% portion at one site. Our results show that PBDE manufacturing and flame-retardant plastic modification plants, easily overlooked by the public, are two primary PBDE pollution sources although they affect surrounding areas. Further research is needed, aimed at managing industrial PBDE emissions and eliminating environmental PBDE pollution, to investigate the material flows and environmental fates of PBDEs in all stages of the life cycle. PMID:26728288

  19. A Preliminary Investigation of Rapid Depressurization Phenomena Following a Sudden DLOFC in a VHTR

    SciTech Connect

    Richard C. Martineau; Ray A. Berry; Dana A. Knoll

    2009-03-01

    Air ingress has been identified as a potential threat for Very High Temperature gas-cooled Reactors (VHTR). Reactor components constructed of graphite will, at high temperatures, produce exothermic reactions in the presence of oxygen. The danger lies in the possibility of fuel element damage and core structural failure. Previous investigations of air ingress mechanisms have focused on thermal and molecular diffusion, density-driven stratified flow, and natural convection. Here, we investigate the possibility of a rapid ingress of air due to a Taylor wave expansion after a hypothetical sudden loss of coolant accident (LOCA) scenario in a VHTR. Our analysis starts with a one-dimensional shock tube simulation to simply illustrate the development of a Taylor wave with resulting reentrant flow. Then, a simulation is performed of an idealized two-dimensional axisymmetric representation of the lower plenum of General Atomics GT-MHR subjected to a hypothetical catastrophic break of the hot duct. Analysis shows the potential for significant and rapid air ingress into the reactor vessel in the case of a large break in the cooling system.

  20. The magnetic field investigation on the Ulysses mission - Instrumentation and preliminary scientific results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balogh, A.; Beek, T. J.; Forsyth, R. J.; Hedgecock, P. C.; Marquedant, R. J.; Smith, E. J.; Southwood, D. J.; Tsurutani, B. T.

    1992-01-01

    A fundamental feature of the heliosphere is the three-dimensional structure of the interplanetary magnetic field. The magnetic field investigation on Ulysses, the first space probe to explore the out-of-ecliptic and polar heliosphere, aims at determining the large-scale features and gradients of the field, as well as the heliolatitude dependence of interplanetary phenomena so far only observed near the ecliptic plane. The Ulysses magnetometer uses two sensors, one a Vector Helium Magnetometer, the other a Fluxgate Magnetometer. Onboard data processing yields measurements of the magnetic field vector with a time resolution up to 2 vectors/second and a sensitivity of about 10 pT. Since the switch-on of the instrument in flight on 25 October 1990, a steady stream of observations has been made, indicating that at this phase of the solar cycle the field is generally disturbed: several shock waves and a large number of discontinuities have been observed, as well as several periods with apparently intense wave activity. The paper gives a brief summary of the scientific objectives of the investigation, followed by a detailed description of the instrument and its characteristics. Examples of wave bursts, interplanetary shocks and crossings of the heliospheric current sheet are given to illustrate the observations made with the instrument.

  1. A Preliminary Investigation of Abnormal Personality Traits in MS Using the MCMI-III.

    PubMed

    Incerti, Chiara C; Argento, Ornella; Pisani, Valerio; Mannu, Rosalba; Magistrale, Giuseppe; Battista, Giancarlo Di; Caltagirone, Carlo; Nocentini, Ugo

    2015-01-01

    Neuropsychiatric abnormalities are frequently reported in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Previous studies have investigated the neurotic aspects of psychopathology, and the importance of the personality structure underlying neurotic symptoms has only recently been reconsidered. The aim of our study was to investigate the frequency and type of personality profiles in MS using the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III (MCMI-III). We evaluated 77 nondemented patients with MS using physical disability scales and self-report questionnaires focused on mood, fatigue, and personality. In our cohort study, we found a personality scale score greater than 85 in 62.3% of enrolled participants. In particular, high scores on the Histrionic and Narcissistic scales emerged, respectively, in 20.8% and 15.6% of the sample. The presence of moderate abnormal elevation scores in MCMI personality scales in MS does not seem to be influenced by age, the Expanded Disability Status Scale score, disease course, or disease duration. Our research study focused on the importance of identifying personality maladaptation in patients with MS. PMID:25996849

  2. A preliminary investigation into the prevalence and prediction of problematic cell phone use

    PubMed Central

    Smetaniuk, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims: Likening mobile phone use dependency to the classification of excessive behaviors may be necessarily equivalent in seriousness to previously established addictions such as problematic computing or excessive gambling. The aim of the study explores into the behavior of excessive use of mobile phones as a pathological behavior. Methods: Two studies investigated criteria for problematic mobile phone usage by examining student (Study 1, N = 301) and nonstudent (Study 2, N = 362) responses to a set of adapted mobile phone addiction inventories. Study 1 investigated cell phone addiction inventories as constructs designed to measure problematic cell phone use. Additionally, Study 2 sought to predict age, depression, extraversion, emotional stability, impulse control, and self-esteem as independent variables that augment respondents’ perceptions of problematic use. Results: The results from Study 1 and Study 2 indicate that 10 to 25% of the participants tested exhibited problematic cell phone usage. Additionally, age, depression, extraversion, and low impulse control are the most suitable predictors for problematic use. Conclusions: The results of the two studies indicate that problematic mobile phone use does occur and ought to be taken seriously by the psychological community. Presently, there is limited data providing conclusive evidence for a comprehensible categorization of cell phone addiction, as well as a unified explanatory model specific to problematic mobile phone use. Studies such as this one may contribute substantial findings, adding scientific significance, and offering a valuable submission for the ongoing progress of creating intervention frameworks relative to “virtual addictions”. PMID:25215213

  3. A preliminary investigation of cell growth after irradiation using a modulated x-ray intensity pattern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bromley, Regina; Davey, Ross; Oliver, Lyn; Harvie, Rozelle; Baldock, Clive

    2006-08-01

    In this study we have investigated a spatial distribution of cell growth after their irradiation using a modulated x-ray intensity pattern. An A549 human non-small cell lung cancer cell line was grown in a 6-well culture. Two of the wells were the unirradiated control wells, whilst another two wells were irradiated with a modulated x-ray intensity pattern and the third two wells were uniformly irradiated. A number of plates were incubated for various times after irradiation and stained with crystal violet. The spatial distribution of the stained cells within each well was determined by measurement of the crystal violet optical density at multiple positions in the plate using a microplate photospectrometer. The crystal violet optical density for a range of cell densities was measured for the unirradiated well and this correlated with cell viability as determined by the MTT cell viability assay. An exponential dose response curve was measured for A549 cells from the average crystal violet optical density in the uniformly irradiated well up to a dose of 30 Gy. By measuring the crystal violet optical density distribution within a well the spatial distribution of cell growth after irradiation with a modulated x-ray intensity pattern can be plotted. This method can be used for in vitro investigation into the changes in radiation response associated with treatment using intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT).

  4. From military to civil loadings: Preliminary numerical-based thorax injury criteria investigations.

    PubMed

    Goumtcha, Aristide Awoukeng; Bodo, Michèle; Taddei, Lorenzo; Roth, Sébastien

    2016-03-01

    Effects of the impact of a mechanical structure on the human body are of great interest in the understanding of body trauma. Experimental tests have led to first conclusions about the dangerousness of an impact observing impact forces or displacement time history with PMHS (Post Mortem human Subjects). They have allowed providing interesting data for the development and the validation of numerical biomechanical models. These models, widely used in the framework of automotive crashworthiness, have led to the development of numerical-based injury criteria and tolerance thresholds. The aim of this process is to improve the safety of mechanical structures in interaction with the body. In a military context, investigations both at experimental and numerical level are less successfully completed. For both military and civil frameworks, the literature list a number of numerical analysis trying to propose injury mechanisms, and tolerance thresholds based on biofidelic Finite Element (FE) models of different part of the human body. However the link between both frameworks is not obvious, since lots of parameters are different: great mass impacts at relatively low velocity for civil impacts (falls, automotive crashworthiness) and low mass at very high velocity for military loadings (ballistic, blast). In this study, different accident cases were investigated, and replicated with a previously developed and validated FE model of the human thorax named Hermaphrodite Universal Biomechanical YX model (HUBYX model). These previous validations included replications of standard experimental tests often used to validate models in the context of automotive industry, experimental ballistic tests in high speed dynamic impact and also numerical replication of blast loading test ensuring its biofidelity. In order to extend the use of this model in other frameworks, some real-world accidents were reconstructed, and consequences of these loadings on the FE model were explored. These various

  5. Investigating the influence of working memory capacity when driving behavior is combined with cognitive load: An LCT study of young novice drivers.

    PubMed

    Ross, Veerle; Jongen, Ellen M M; Wang, Weixin; Brijs, Tom; Brijs, Kris; Ruiter, Robert A C; Wets, Geert

    2014-01-01

    Distracted driving has received increasing attention in the literature due to potential adverse safety outcomes. An often posed solution to alleviate distraction while driving is hands-free technology. Interference by distraction can occur however at the sensory input (e.g., visual) level, but also at the cognitive level where hands-free technology induces working memory (WM) load. Active maintenance of goal-directed behavior in the presence of distraction depends on WM capacity (i.e., Lavie's Load theory) which implies that people with higher WM capacity are less susceptible to distractor interference. This study investigated the interaction between verbal WM load and WM capacity on driving performance to determine whether individuals with higher WM capacity were less affected by verbal WM load, leading to a smaller deterioration of driving performance. Driving performance of 46 young novice drivers (17-25 years-old) was measured with the lane change task (LCT). Participants drove without and with verbal WM load of increasing complexity (auditory-verbal response N-back task). Both visuospatial and verbal WM capacity were investigated. Dependent measures were mean deviation in the lane change path (MDEV), lane change initiation (LCI) and percentage of correct lane changes (PCL). Driving experience was included as a covariate. Performance on each dependent measure deteriorated with increasing verbal WM load. Meanwhile, higher WM capacity related to better LCT performance. Finally, for LCI and PCL, participants with higher verbal WM capacity were influenced less by verbal WM load. These findings entail that completely eliminating distraction is necessary to minimize crash risks among young novice drivers. PMID:23915472

  6. Preliminary investigation of heat transfer to water flowing in an electrically heated Inconel tube

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, Samuel J; Isely, Francis D

    1950-01-01

    A heat-transfer investigation was conducted with water flowing in an electrically heated Inconel tube with an inside diameter of 0.204 inch and a length-diameter ratio of 50 for ranges of Reynolds number up to 100,000 and of entrance pressure up to 200 inches of mercury gage. Correlation of average heat-transfer coefficients was obtained by use of the familiar Nusselt relation, wherein the physical properties of water were evaluated at an average bulk temperature. For conditions in which no boiling occurred, the data gave a good correlation. Runs made in the nucleate-boiling region, however, gave higher values of heat-transfer coefficient than would be predicted by the Nusselt relation.

  7. Preliminary investigations into surface molecularly imprinted nanoparticles for Helicobacter pylori eradication

    PubMed Central

    Han, Jiaying; Sun, Yinjing; Hou, Jiapeng; Wang, Yuyan; Liu, Yu; Xie, Cao; Lu, Weiyue; Pan, Jun

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports investigations into the preparation and characterization of surface molecularly imprinted nanoparticles (SMINs) designed to adhere to Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). Imprinted nanoparticles were prepared by the inverse microemulsion polymerization method. A fraction of Lpp20, an outer membrane protein of H. pylori known as NQA, was chosen as template and modified with myristic acid to facilitate its localization on the surface of the nanoparticles. The interaction between these SMINs with the template NQA were evaluated using surface plasmon resonance (SPR), change in zeta potential and fluorescence polarization (FP). The results were highly consistent in demonstrating a preferential recognition of the template NQA for SMINs compared with the control nanoparticles. In vitro experiments also indicate that such SMINs are able to adhere to H. pylori and may be useful for H. pylori eradication. PMID:26713273

  8. Early exposure to otitis media: a preliminary investigation of behavioral outcome.

    PubMed

    Black, M M; Sonnenschein, S

    1993-06-01

    Factors that contribute to developmental vulnerability were examined in a 4-year follow-up of 31 children who, as infants, had participated in an investigation of the relationship between recurrent otitis media and developmental status. The children in this inner-city sample experienced significant decline in their language and developmental status regardless of their history with otitis media. Findings support a threshold model of risk, suggesting that otitis media does not necessarily pose an additional stress to the language and cognitive development of low-income, inner-city children. In keeping with theoretical models by Vygotsky and Rutter, maternal cognitive growth fostering facilitated children's language development by serving as a compensatory factor, counteracting the potential impact of recurrent otitis media. PMID:7688005

  9. Preliminary Investigation of Candidate Materials for Use in Accident Resistant Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Jason M. Harp; Paul A. Lessing; Blair H. Park; Jakeob Maupin

    2013-09-01

    As part of a Collaborative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) with industry, Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is investigating several options for accident resistant uranium compounds including silicides, and nitrides for use in future light water reactor (LWR) fuels. This work is part of a larger effort to create accident tolerant fuel forms where changes to the fuel pellets, cladding, and cladding treatment are considered. The goal fuel form should have a resistance to water corrosion comparable to UO2, have an equal to or larger thermal conductivity than uranium dioxide, a melting temperature that allows the material to stay solid under power reactor conditions, and a uranium loading that maintains or improves current LWR power densities. During the course of this research, fuel fabricated at INL will be characterized, irradiated at the INL Advanced Test Reactor, and examined after irradiation at INL facilities to help inform industrial partners on candidate technologies.

  10. [Investigation on Mobile Phone Based Thermal Imaging System and Its Preliminary Application].

    PubMed

    Li, Fufeng; Chen, Feng; Liu, Jing

    2015-03-01

    The technical structure of a low-cost thermal imaging system (TIM) lunched on a mobile phone was investigated, which consists of a thermal infrared module and mobile phone and application software. The designing strategies and technical factors toward realizing various TIM array performances are interpreted, including sensor cost and Noise Equivalent Temperature Difference (NETD). In the software algorithm, a mechanism for scene-change detection was implemented to optimize the efficiency of non-uniformity correction (NUC). The performance experiments and analysis indicate that the NETD of the system can be smaller than 150 mK when the integration time is larger than 16 frames. Furthermore, a practical application for human temperature monitoring during physical exercise is proposed and interpreted. The measurement results support the feasibility and facility of the system in the medical application. PMID:26524779

  11. Preliminary investigation of a sealed, remotely activated silver-zinc battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheat, C. G.

    1977-01-01

    Methods necessary to provide a remotely activated, silver zinc battery capable of an extended activated stand while in a sealed condition were investigated. These requirements were to be accomplished in a battery package demonstrating an energy density of at least 35 watt hours per pound. Several methods of gas suppression were considered in view of the primary nature of this unit and utilized the electroplated dendritic zinc electrode. Amalgamation of the electrode provided the greatest suppression of gas at the zinc electrode. The approach to extending the activated stand capability of the remotely activated battery was through evaluation of three basic methods of remote, multi-cell activation; 1) the electrolyte manifold, 2) the gas manifold and 3) the individual cell. All three methods of activation can be incorporated into units which will meet the minimum energy density requirement.

  12. Responses of captive aye-ayes (Daubentonia madagascariensis) to the scent of conspecifics: a preliminary investigation.

    PubMed

    Price, E C; Feistner, A T

    1994-01-01

    The ability of 6 captive aye-ayes (Daubentonia madagascariensis) to discriminate scents from conspecifics of different age-sex classes was tested. The animals were presented with either unscented logs or logs that had been placed in: (1) their own cage, (2) the cages of adult males or (3) the cages of adult females with female offspring. Responses to the logs, measured by approaching, proximity, tapping, gnawing, sniffing, scent marking and vocalizations, were recorded for 30 min following presentation. Logs from females with offspring provoked the highest responses, and immature aye-ayes investigated logs more than adults of either sex. These results suggest that, as in many other prosimians, olfaction plays an important role in the communication systems of aye-ayes. PMID:7721204

  13. The Coffee Berry Borer (Hypothenemus hampei) Invades Hawaii: Preliminary Investigations on Trap Response and Alternate Hosts

    PubMed Central

    Messing, Russell H.

    2012-01-01

    In August 2010 the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, was first reported to have invaded the Kona coffee growing region of Hawaii, posing a severe economic challenge to the fourth largest agricultural commodity in the State. Despite its long and widespread occurrence throughout the tropics as the most serious pest of coffee, there are still discrepancies in the literature regarding several basic aspects of berry borer biology relevant to its control. In Kona coffee plantations, we investigated the beetles’ response to several trap and lure formulations, and examined the occurrence of beetles in seeds of alternate host plants occurring adjacent to coffee farms. While traps were shown to capture significant numbers of beetles per day, and the occurrence of beetles in alternate hosts was quite rare, the unique situation of coffee culture in Hawaii will make this pest extremely challenging to manage in the Islands. PMID:26466620

  14. Total Dose Effects (TDE) of heavy ionizing radiation in fungus spores and plant seeds: Preliminary investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kranz, A. R.; Zimmermann, M. W.; Stadler, R.; Gartenbach, K. E.; Pickert, M.

    1992-01-01

    The opportunity to compare cosmic radiation effects caused during long and short duration exposure flights in biological objects are limited until now, and data obtained so far are very rare and insufficient. Because of the very long exposure of the experiment during the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) mission (approximately 2000 days) structural changes of the hardware material can be expected which will influence its biocompatibility and, thus, will interact with the radiobiological effects. The aim of the experiment flown on LDEF was a detailed investigation of biological effects caused by cosmic radiation especially of particles of high atomic number Z and high energy. The flight hardware consisted of standard BIOSTACK containers; in these containers a special sandwich construction consisted of visual plastic detectors with seed rsp. spore layers interlocked.

  15. The development and initial validation of the Multicultural Environmental Inventory: a preliminary investigation.

    PubMed

    Pope-Davis, D B; Liu, W M; Nevitt, J; Toporek, R L

    2000-02-01

    This article describes the development and initial validation of the Multicultural Environmental Inventory (MEI). The MEI is an instrument designed to measure an individual's perceptions about the degree to which graduate counseling programs address multicultural issues within curriculum, supervision, climate, and research. This investigation was conducted using the data from 208 students and faculty from counseling psychology graduate programs across the United States approved by the American Psychological Association. By using techniques of exploratory factor analysis, a 4-factor solution was determined to account for the relationships among the items on the MEI. The instrument was modified from 53 to 27 items on the basis of the items' effectiveness in measuring the underlying constructs of interest, and internal consistency information is provided on the final revised instrument (MEI-R). The factors underlying the MEI-R are discussed within the context of a multicultural environment in graduate counseling programs, and directions for future research are considered. PMID:10975167

  16. The Coffee Berry Borer (Hypothenemus hampei) Invades Hawaii: Preliminary Investigations on Trap Response and Alternate Hosts.

    PubMed

    Messing, Russell H

    2012-01-01

    In August 2010 the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, was first reported to have invaded the Kona coffee growing region of Hawaii, posing a severe economic challenge to the fourth largest agricultural commodity in the State. Despite its long and widespread occurrence throughout the tropics as the most serious pest of coffee, there are still discrepancies in the literature regarding several basic aspects of berry borer biology relevant to its control. In Kona coffee plantations, we investigated the beetles' response to several trap and lure formulations, and examined the occurrence of beetles in seeds of alternate host plants occurring adjacent to coffee farms. While traps were shown to capture significant numbers of beetles per day, and the occurrence of beetles in alternate hosts was quite rare, the unique situation of coffee culture in Hawaii will make this pest extremely challenging to manage in the Islands. PMID:26466620

  17. A preliminary investigation of materialism and impulsiveness as predictors of technological addictions among young adults.

    PubMed

    Roberts, James A; Pirog, Stephen F

    2013-03-01

    Background and aims The primary objective of the present research is to investigate the drivers of technological addiction in college students - heavy users of Information and Communication Technology (ICT). The study places cell phone and instant messaging addiction in the broader context of consumption pathologies, investigating the influence of materialism and impulsiveness on these two technologies. Clearly, cell phones serve more than just a utilitarian purpose. Cell phones are used in public and play a vital role in the lives of young adults. The accessibility of new technologies, like cell phones, which have the advantages of portability and an ever increasing array of functions, makes their over-use increasingly likely. Methods College undergraduates (N = 191) from two U.S. universities completed a paper and pencil survey instrument during class. The questionnaire took approximately 15-20 minutes to complete and contained scales that measured materialism, impulsiveness, and mobile phone and instant messaging addiction. Results Factor analysis supported the discriminant validity of Ehrenberg, Juckes, White and Walsh's (2008) Mobile Phone and Instant Messaging Addictive Tendencies Scale. The path model indicates that both materialism and impulsiveness impact the two addictive tendencies, and that materialism's direct impact on these addictions has a noticeably larger effect on cell phone use than instant messaging. Conclusions The present study finds that materialism and impulsiveness drive both a dependence on cell phones and instant messaging. As Griffiths (2012) rightly warns, however, researchers must be aware that one's addiction may not simply be to the cell phone, but to a particular activity or function of the cell phone. The emergence of multi-function smart phones requires that research must dig beneath the technology being used to the activities that draw the user to the particular technology. PMID:26165772

  18. A Preliminary Mixed-Method Investigation of Trust and Hidden Signals in Medical Consultations

    PubMed Central

    Riva, Silvia; Monti, Marco; Iannello, Paola; Pravettoni, Gabriella; Schulz, Peter J.; Antonietti, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    Background Several factors influence patients' trust, and trust influences the doctor-patient relationship. Recent literature has investigated the quality of the personal relationship and its dynamics by considering the role of communication and the elements that influence trust giving in the frame of general practitioner (GP) consultations. Objective We analysed certain aspects of the interaction between patients and GPs to understand trust formation and maintenance by focusing on communication channels. The impact of socio-demographic variables in trust relationships was also evaluated. Method A cross-sectional design using concurrent mixed qualitative and quantitative research methods was employed. One hundred adults were involved in a semi-structured interview composed of both qualitative and quantitative items for descriptive and exploratory purposes. The study was conducted in six community-based departments adjacent to primary care clinics in Trento, Italy. Results The findings revealed that patients trusted their GP to a high extent by relying on simple signals that were based on the quality of the one-to-one communication and on behavioural and relational patterns. Patients inferred the ability of their GP by adopting simple heuristics based mainly on the so-called social “honest signals” rather than on content-dependent features. Furthermore, socio-demographic variables affected trust: less literate and elderly people tended to trust more. Conclusions This study is unique in attempting to explore the role of simple signals in trust relationships within medical consultation: people shape trust and give meaning to their relationships through a powerful channel of communication that orbits not around words but around social relations. The findings have implications for both clinicians and researchers. For doctors, these results suggest a way of thinking about encounters with patients. For researchers, the findings underline the importance of analysing

  19. Predicting diagnostic error in radiology via eye-tracking and image analytics: Preliminary investigation in mammography

    SciTech Connect

    Voisin, Sophie; Tourassi, Georgia D.; Pinto, Frank; Morin-Ducote, Garnetta; Hudson, Kathleen B.

    2013-10-15

    Purpose: The primary aim of the present study was to test the feasibility of predicting diagnostic errors in mammography by merging radiologists’ gaze behavior and image characteristics. A secondary aim was to investigate group-based and personalized predictive models for radiologists of variable experience levels.Methods: The study was performed for the clinical task of assessing the likelihood of malignancy of mammographic masses. Eye-tracking data and diagnostic decisions for 40 cases were acquired from four Radiology residents and two breast imaging experts as part of an IRB-approved pilot study. Gaze behavior features were extracted from the eye-tracking data. Computer-generated and BIRADS images features were extracted from the images. Finally, machine learning algorithms were used to merge gaze and image features for predicting human error. Feature selection was thoroughly explored to determine the relative contribution of the various features. Group-based and personalized user modeling was also investigated.Results: Machine learning can be used to predict diagnostic error by merging gaze behavior characteristics from the radiologist and textural characteristics from the image under review. Leveraging data collected from multiple readers produced a reasonable group model [area under the ROC curve (AUC) = 0.792 ± 0.030]. Personalized user modeling was far more accurate for the more experienced readers (AUC = 0.837 ± 0.029) than for the less experienced ones (AUC = 0.667 ± 0.099). The best performing group-based and personalized predictive models involved combinations of both gaze and image features.Conclusions: Diagnostic errors in mammography can be predicted to a good extent by leveraging the radiologists’ gaze behavior and image content.

  20. Professionalism Mini-Evaluation Exercise in Finland: A preliminary investigation introducing the Finnish version of the P-MEX instrument

    PubMed Central

    KARUKIVI, MAX; KORTEKANGAS-SAVOLAINEN, OUTI; SAXÉN, ULLA; HAAPASALO-PESU, KIRSI-MARIA

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Teaching medical professionalism is increasingly acknowledged as an important aspect of medical education. The Professionalism Mini-Evaluation Exercise (P-MEX) is an assessment tool for evaluating medical professionalism, but no studies using it as a self-assessment instrument have been reported. This paper reports on a preliminary investigation of the Finnish version of the P-MEX instrument as an assessment and self-assessment measure. Methods The sample in the present cross-sectional study comprised all 23 medical students and recent graduates (15 females and 8 males) participating in a summer school of psychiatry program in 2014. The two-month program combines clinical work with multifaceted teaching and intensive tutoring. At the end of the program, the participants’ medical professionalism was assessed by the tutors and other members of the work community as well as the students themselves using the Finnish version of the P-MEX instrument. The P-MEX scores were compared, using the Friedman test. Results The mean values and SD for the P-MEX assessments were as follows: tutor assessment 3.26±0.21, work community assessment 3.32±0.26 and self-assessment 3.01±0.07. No significant gender differences were observed. The tutor and work community assessments were significantly correlated (r=0.573, p=0.040), but the self-assessment scores did not correlate with either of the other assessments. Overall, the students evaluated their skills significantly poorer in comparison to the other assessments. Conclusion Although the small sample size limits the generalization of these preliminary results, the Finnish version of the P-MEX instrument appears to be a feasible measure of medical professionalism. The instrument can also be used as a self-assessment instrument, but subjective evaluations should be complemented with external assessments or feedback in order to take individual and cultural aspects into account. PMID:26457311

  1. Childhood Fitness and Academic Performance: An Investigation into the Effect of Aerobic Capacity on Academic Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobbs, Mark

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitate ve study was to determine whether or not students in fifth grade who meet the healthy fitness zone (HFZ) for aerobic capacity on the fall 2013 FITNESSGRAM® Test scored higher on the math portion of the 2013 fall Measures of Academic Progress (MAP) test, than students that failed to reach the HFZ for aerobic capacity…

  2. Preliminary Investigations of Joining Technologies for Attaching Refractory Metals to Ni-Based Superalloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gould, Jerry E.; Ritzert, Frank J.; Loewenthal, William S.

    2006-01-01

    In this study, a range of joining technologies has been investigated for creating attachments between refractory metal and Ni-based superalloys. Refractory materials of interest include Mo-47%Re, T-111, and Ta-10%W. The Ni-based superalloys include Hastelloy X and MarM 247. During joining with conventional processes, these materials have potential for a range of solidification and intermetallic formation-related defects. For this study, three non-conventional joining technologies were evaluated. These included inertia welding, electro-spark deposition (ESD) welding, and magnetic pulse welding (MPW). The developed inertia welding practice closely paralleled that typically used for the refractory metals alloys. Metallographic investigations showed that forging during inertia welding occurred predominantly on the nickel base alloy side. It was also noted that at least some degree of forging on the refractory metal side of the joint was necessary to achieve consistent bonding. Both refractory metals were readily weldable to the Hastelloy X material. When bonding to the MarM 247, results were inconsistent. This was related to the higher forging temperatures of the MarM 247, and subsequent reduced deformation on that material during welding. ESD trials using a Hastelloy X filler were successful for all material combinations. ESD places down very thin (5- to 10- m) layers per pass, and interactions between the substrates and the fill were limited (at most) to that layer. For the refractory metals, the fill only appeared to wet the surface, with minimal dilution effects. Microstructures of the deposits showed high weld metal integrity with maximum porosity on the order of a few percent. Some limited success was also obtained with MPW. In these trials, only the T-111 tubes were used. Joints were possible for the T-111 tube to the Hastelloy X bar stock, but the stiffness of the tube (resisting collapse) necessitated the use of very high power levels. These power levels

  3. Preliminary Investigations of Joining Technologies for Attaching Refractory Metals to Ni-Based Superalloys

    SciTech Connect

    Gould, Jerry E.; Ritzert, Frank J.; Loewenthal, William S.

    2006-01-20

    In this study, a range of joining technologies has been investigated for creating attachments between refractory metal and Ni-based superalloys. Refractory materials of interest include Mo-47%Re, T-111, and Ta-10%W. The Ni-based superalloys include Hastelloy X and MarM 247. During joining with conventional processes, these materials have potential for a range of solidification and intermetallic formation-related defects. For this study, three non-conventional joining technologies were evaluated. These included inertia welding, electro-spark deposition (ESD) welding, and magnetic pulse welding (MPW). The developed inertia welding practice closely paralleled that typically used for the refractory metals alloys. Metallographic investigations showed that forging during inertia welding occurred predominantly on the refractory metal side. It was also noted that at least some degree of forging on the Ni-based superalloy side of the joint was necessary to achieve consistent bonding. Both refractory metals were readily weldable to the Hastelloy X material. When bonding to the MarM 247, results were inconsistent. This was related to the higher forging temperatures of the MarM 247, and subsequent reduced deformation on that material during welding. ESD trials using a Hastelloy X filler were successful for all material combinations. ESD places down very thin (5- to 10-{mu}m) layers per pass, and interactions between the substrates and the fill were limited (at most) to that layer. For the refractory metals, the fill only appeared to wet the surface, with minimal dilution effects. Microstructures of the deposits showed high weld metal integrity with maximum porosity on the order of a few percent. Some limited success was also obtained with MPW. In these trials, only the T-111 tubes were used. Joints were possible for the T-111 tube to the Hastelloy X bar stock, but the stiffness of the tube (resisting collapse) necessitated the use of very high power levels. These power levels

  4. A Preliminary Investigation of a New Method for Testing Aerofoils in Free Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norton, F H

    1922-01-01

    This report is a description of a new method of testing aerofoils in free flight devised by the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics. The method consists in lowering below a flying airplane a large inverted aerofoil on three small steel wires in such a way that the lift on the aerofoil always keeps the wires tight. The resultant force is measured by the tension in the wires, and the direction of the resultant by the amount the wing trails backwards. A test was made on an aerofoil of the N.A.C.A. #64 section, 6 ft. in span and the results are compared with a similar section tested in the wind tunnel. This investigation indicates that by the use of suitable recording apparatus aerofoils may be accurately and conveniently tested at a Reynolds number, a velocity and a degree of turbulence, comparable with that on the full-sized airplane. Satisfactory experiments were also made in trailing a sphere and a streamlined body on single wires.

  5. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray investigation of a glycoprotein, human renal dipeptidase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nitanai, Yasushi; Satow, Yoshinori; Adachi, Hideki; Tsujimoto, Masafumi

    1996-10-01

    A glycoprotein of human renal dipeptidase expressed in Pichia pastoris GS115/pHIL-D2ΔDP4S has been crystallized, into the space group P2 1 with cell dimensions of a = 81.70 Å, b = 81.74 Å, c = 57.13 Å and β = 96.45°. The dipeptidase is a homodimer consisting of two 42 kDa monomers. The monomer with 4 N-linked glycosylation sites is secreted in highly glycosylated forms that exhibit a molecular mass of about 45 kDa. In order to obtain diffraction-quality crystals, oligosaccharide moieties of this metal enzyme were trimmed by the endoglycosidase Hf treatment. The dipeptidase trimmed to 42 kDa retains nearly full catalytic activity. Crystals were obtained at 10°C by use of a 15 g/100 g polyethylene glycol 8000 precipitant of pH 5.6 and were further grown with the macroseeding technique. The crystal diffracts X-rays at least to 2 Å resolution and is suitable for investigation of the three-dimensional structure.

  6. A preliminary investigation of anticholinesterase activity of some Iranian medicinal plants commonly used in traditional medicine

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to evaluate acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of some commonly used herbal medicine in Iran to introduce a new source for management of Alzheimer’s disease. A total of 18 aqueous-methanolic extract (1:1; v/v) from the following plants: Brassica alba, Brassica nigra, Camellia sinensis, Cinchona officinalis, Citrus aurantifolia, Citrus x aurantium, Ferula assafoetida, Humulus lupulus, Juglans regia, Juniperus sabina, Myristica fragrans, Pelargonium graveolens, Pistacia vera, Punica granatum, Rheum officinale, Rosa damascena, Salix alba, and Zizyphus vulgaris were prepared and screened for their acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity using in vitro Ellman spectrophotometric method. Results According to the obtained results, the order of inhibitory activity (IC50 values, μg /ml) of extracts from highest to the lowest was: C. sinensis (5.96), C. aurantifolia (19.57), Z. vulgaris (24.37), B. nigra (84.30) and R. damascena (93.1). Conclusions The results indicated and confirmed the traditional use of these herbs for management of central nervous system disorders. C. sinensis showed the highest activity in inhibition of acetylcholinesterase. However, further investigations on identification of active components in the extracts are needed. PMID:24401532

  7. Preliminary experimental investigation of a dual-band relativistic backward wave oscillator with dual beams

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Ting; Qian Baoliang; Zhang Jiande; Zhang Xiaoping; Cao Yibing; Zhang Qiang

    2011-01-15

    A dual-band relativistic backward wave oscillator with dual electron beams generating C-band and X-band microwaves is investigated experimentally. The frequencies, powers, and radiation patterns of the dual-band microwaves are measured. With the diode voltage of 657 kV and the total beam current of 14 kA guided by a magnetic field of about 1.7 T, the dual-band microwaves are generated with dominant frequencies of 4.58 and 8.30 GHz close to the results from the particle-in-cell simulation. The powers of the C-band and X-band microwaves are 520 and 113 MW, respectively. The effects of variations in the guiding magnetic field and diode voltage on the powers of the dual-band microwaves are presented and discussed. The radiation patterns of the dual-band microwaves from the radiating antenna are tested both corresponding to a TM{sub 01} mode and the independency of the operation processes of them is discussed.

  8. Preliminary investigations of toxicity in the Georges Bay catchment, Tasmania, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Bleaney, Alison; Hickey, Christopher W.; Stewart, Michael; Scammell, Marcus; Senjen, Rye

    2015-01-01

    North-eastern Tasmania, Australia has been an area of major production for Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas) for over 25 years. Since the mid-1990s, increased oyster mortality has been observed. The purpose of the present study was to identify the agent causing aquatic toxicity and to investigate whether there is a chemical and/or toxicological link between river foam and monoculture timber plantation forests of exotic eucalypts (Eucalyptus nitens) present in the catchment area. Foam samples from the George River catchment demonstrated high toxicity to a freshwater cladoceran and larvae of a marine blue mussel species. After filtration to remove most particulates, foam samples also demonstrated a marked reduction in toxicity to blue mussels, which suggested that the toxicity is particle associated. Foam and leaf extracts of E. nitens were then fractionated using HPLC and size exclusion chromatography and the resulting fractions were screened for cladoceran and blue mussel toxicity. Toxicity was detected in fractions common to both the foam and the leaf extracts. This study suggests that there may be a chemical and toxicological relationship between foam and E. nitens leaf components. PMID:25745193

  9. Changes of Substance P in the Crevicular Fluid in relation to Orthodontic Movement Preliminary Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Levrini, Luca; Sacerdote, Paola; Moretti, Sarah; Panzi, Silvia; Caprioglio, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Substance P (SP) is a tachykinin released from both the central and the peripheral endings of primary afferent neurons and functions as a neurotransmitter. As a transmitter signaling pain, substance P is involved in nociception and is an extremely potent vasodilator. We found several studies about this neuropeptide especially in relation to parodontology and a few orthodontic reviews. This is because in the past the importance of this neuropeptide in dental element undergoing periodontal inflammation was observed. The aims of the present pilot study was to investigate whether the substance P was present in gingival crevicular fluid in dental elements undergoing orthodontic treatment with Invisalign technique compared to teeth belonging to the same series but not undergoing orthodontic movement. We analysed gengival crevicular fluid (GCF) collected from four young subjects, using a paper cone for a time of 60 seconds. The results showed that SP is present in the gengival sulcus in elements undergoing orthodontic forces during treatment with Invisalign technique and not in the control teeth. During the literature analysis, we have found a lot of papers describing involvement of SP in periodontitis and inflammatory diseases, but further studies are needed in order to demonstrate the role of this neuropeptide during teeth movement. PMID:23737731

  10. VISUALIZING THE STRESS DISTRIBUTION WITHIN VASCULAR TISSUES USING INTRAVASCULAR ULTRASOUND ELASTOGRAPHY: A PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION

    PubMed Central

    Richards, Michael S.; Perucchio, Renato; Doyley, Marvin M.

    2015-01-01

    A methodology for computing the stress distribution of vascular tissue using finite element-based, intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) reconstruction elastography is described. This information could help cardiologists detect life-threatening atherosclerotic plaques and predict their propensity to rupture. The calculation of vessel stresses requires the measurement of strain from the ultrasound images, a calibrating pressure measurement and additional model assumptions. In this work, we conducted simulation studies to investigate the effect of varying the model assumptions, specifically Poisson’s ratio and the outer boundary conditions, on the resulting stress fields. In both simulation and phantom studies, we created vessel geometries with two fibrous cap thicknesses to determine if we could detect a difference in peak stress (spatially) between the two. The results revealed that (i) Poisson’s ratios had negligible impact on the accuracy of stress elastograms, (ii) the outer boundary condition assumption had the greatest effect on the resulting modulus and stress distributions and (iii) in simulation and in phantom experiments, our stress imaging technique was able to detect an increased peak stress for the vessel geometry with the smaller cap thickness. This work is a first step toward understanding and creating a robust stress measurement technique for evaluating atherosclerotic plaques using IVUS elastography. PMID:25837424

  11. Voluntary emotion regulation in anorexia nervosa: A preliminary emotion-modulated startle investigation.

    PubMed

    Racine, Sarah E; Forbush, Kelsie T; Wildes, Jennifer E; Hagan, Kelsey E; Pollack, Lauren O; May, Casey

    2016-06-01

    Emotion regulation difficulties are implicated in the development and maintenance of anorexia nervosa (AN). However, research has been limited by an almost exclusive reliance on self-report. This study is the first to use the emotion-modulated startle paradigm (EMSP) to investigate emotional reactivity and voluntary emotion regulation in individuals with AN. Twenty women with AN viewed negative, positive, neutral, and food images and were asked to enhance, suppress, or maintain their emotional responses mid-way through picture presentation. Startle eyeblink magnitudes in response to startle probes administered prior, and subsequent, to regulation instructions indexed emotional reactivity and regulation, respectively. On emotional reactivity trials, startle magnitudes were greater for negative, positive, and food images, compared to neutral images. Participants had difficulty suppressing startle responses to negative and food images, as indicated by non-significant suppress-maintain comparisons. In contrast, startle responses to enhance and suppress cues during presentation of pleasant images were comparable and significantly lower than maintain cues. Findings converge with self-report data to suggest that patients with AN have difficulties with voluntary emotion regulation. The EMSP may be a promising trans-diagnostic method for examining emotion regulation difficulties that underlie risk for eating disorders and other psychiatric conditions. PMID:26945729

  12. Preliminary investigation of submerged aquatic vegetation mapping using hyperspectral remote sensing.

    PubMed

    William, David J; Rybicki, Nancy B; Lombana, Alfonso V; O'Brien, Tim M; Gomez, Richard B

    2003-01-01

    The use of airborne hyperspectral remote sensing imagery for automated mapping of submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) in the tidal Potomac River was investigated for near to real-time resource assessment and monitoring. Airborne hyperspectral imagery and field spectrometer measurements were obtained in October of 2000. A spectral library database containing selected ground-based and airborne sensor spectra was developed for use in image processing. The spectral library is used to automate the processing of hyperspectral imagery for potential real-time material identification and mapping. Field based spectra were compared to the airborne imagery using the database to identify and map two species of SAV (Myriophyllum spicatum and Vallisneria americana). Overall accuracy of the vegetation maps derived from hyperspectral imagery was determined by comparison to a product that combined aerial photography and field based sampling at the end of the SAV growing season. The algorithms and databases developed in this study will be useful with the current and forthcoming space-based hyperspectral remote sensing systems. PMID:12620030

  13. [Preliminary investigation into the mechanism of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy induced by visfatin].

    PubMed

    Li, Junli; Liao, Yanbiao; Lu, Lihui; Lu, Lihui; Feng, Jun; Wu, Wenchao; Liu, Xiaojing

    2014-04-01

    The aim of the current study is to investigate the effect of visfatin on cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Cultured H9c2 cardiomyocytes were exposed to visfatin at different concentrations for different periods of time, and the markers of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy were detected. Moreover, pravastatin, the inhibitor of endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) or thapsigargin, an ERS agonist was used respectively to pre-treat the cells before visfatin stimulation. F-actin staining was performed to measure the cell surface change. The mRNA expressions of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) and ERS markers including glucose-regulated protein 78(GRP78), C/EPB homologous protein (CHOP) and activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6) were assessed by real time RT-PCR. The change of protein level of GRP78 and CHOP was detected by Western blot. The experimental data demonstrated that exposure to 100 or 150 ng/mL concentrations of visfatin for 24 h, or 100 ng/mL of visfatin for 24 or 48 h, significantly increased the expression of markers for cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Visfatin stimulation provoked ERS in H9c2 cells. Furthermore, pre-treatment with pravastatin partially inhibited the visfatin-induced mRNA expression of ANP and BNP in H9c2 cells, whereas thapsigargin promoted the visfatin-induced expression of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy markers. The results suggest that visfatin might induce cardiomyocyte hypertrophy via ERS -dependent pathways. PMID:25039146

  14. Friction Stir Lap Welding of Magnesium Alloy to Steel: A Preliminary Investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jana, S.; Hovanski, Y.; Grant, G. J.

    2010-12-01

    An initial study was made to evaluate the feasibility of joining magnesium alloy AZ31 sheet to galvanized steel sheet in a lap configuration using friction stir welding (FSW). Two different automotive sheet steels were used for comparative evaluation of the dissimilar joining potential: a 0.8 mm thick, electrogalvanized (EG) mild steel, and a 1.5 mm thick hot-dipped galvanized (HDG) high-strength, low-alloy (HSLA) steel. These steels were joined to 2.33 mm thick AZ31B magnesium sheet. A single FSW tool design was used for both dissimilar welds, and the process parameters were kept the same. The average peak load for the AZ31-1.5 mm steel weld joint in lap shear mode was found to be 6.3 ± 1.0 kN. For the AZ31-0.8 mm steel weld, joint strength was 5.1 ± 1.5 kN. Microstructural investigation indicates melting of the Zn coating present on the steel sheets, and subsequent alloying with the Mg sheet resulted in the formation of a solidified Zn-Mg alloy layer.

  15. Preliminary investigation of submerged aquatic vegetation mapping using hyperspectral remote sensing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, D.J.; Rybicki, N.B.; Lombana, A.V.; O'Brien, T. M.; Gomez, R.B.

    2003-01-01

    The use of airborne hyperspectral remote sensing imagery for automated mapping of submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) in the tidal Potomac River was investigated for near to realtime resource assessment and monitoring. Airborne hyperspectral imagery and field spectrometer measurements were obtained in October of 2000. A spectral library database containing selected ground-based and airborne sensor spectra was developed for use in image processing. The spectral library is used to automate the processing of hyperspectral imagery for potential real-time material identification and mapping. Field based spectra were compared to the airborne imagery using the database to identify and map two species of SAV (Myriophyllum spicatum and Vallisneria americana). Overall accuracy of the vegetation maps derived from hyperspectral imagery was determined by comparison to a product that combined aerial photography and field based sampling at the end of the SAV growing season. The algorithms and databases developed in this study will be useful with the current and forthcoming space-based hyperspectral remote sensing systems.

  16. Preliminary investigation of a highly sulfated galactofucan fraction isolated from the brown alga Sargassum polycystum.

    PubMed

    Bilan, Maria I; Grachev, Alexey A; Shashkov, Alexander S; Thuy, Thanh Thi Thu; Van, Tran Thi Thanh; Ly, Bui Minh; Nifantiev, Nikolay E; Usov, Anatolii I

    2013-08-01

    A fucoidan preparation was isolated from the brown alga Sargassum polycystum (Fucales, Sargassaceae). The preparation was fractionated by anion-exchange chromatography, and two highly sulfated fractions F3 and F4 were obtained. The fractions were quite similar in composition, but different in chemical structure. F4 was analyzed by chemical methods, including desulfation, methylation, Smith degradation, and partial acid hydrolysis with mass-spectrometric monitoring, as well as by NMR spectroscopy. Several 2D NMR procedures, including HMQC-TOCSY and HMQC-NOESY, were used to obtain reliable structural information from the complex spectra. Molecules of F4 were shown to contain a backbone built up mainly of 3-linked α-L-fucopyranose 4-sulfate residues, as in many other fucoidans, but rather short sequences of these residues are interspersed by single 2-linked α-D-galactopyranose residues also sulfated at position 4. This rather unusual structural feature should have a great influence on the conformation of the polymeric molecule and may be important for biological activity of the polysaccharide. Hence, F4 is an example of a new sulfated galactofucan isolated from the brown alga. According to the data obtained, the distribution of galactose residues along the polysaccharide backbone seems to be not strictly regular, but the definitive sequence of monomers in the polymeric molecules awaits additional investigation. PMID:23810980

  17. Preliminary investigation of the use of air injection to mitigate cavitation erosion

    SciTech Connect

    Arndt, R.E.A.; Ellis, C.R.; Paul, S.

    1995-09-01

    This project was initiated as part of a new research and development focus to improve hydropower generation. One aspect of the problem is severe cavitation erosion which is experienced when hydroturbines are operated at best power or in spinning reserve. Air injection has been used successfully to minimize or eliminate cavitation erosion in other applications. Thus, an investigation was initiated to determine whether or not air injection would be an effective solution for turbine erosion problems. A specially instrumented hydrofoil of elliptic planform and a NACA 0015 cross section was tested at flow velocities up to 20 m s{sup {minus}1}, at various values of cavitation index. Although pit sizes were measured on a soft aluminum insert, pitting rate was not measured directly but was inferred from direct measurement of impulsive pressures on the surface of the hydrofoil and by monitoring accelerometers mounted at the base of the hydrofoil. Cavitation noise was also measured by a hydrophone positioned in the water tunnel test section. Air was injected through small holes in the leading edge of the foil. Air injection was found to be very effective in minimizing erosion as inferred from all three cavitation erosion detection techniques.

  18. Investigation on the high efficiency volume Bragg gratings performances for spectrometry in space environment: preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loicq, Jérôme; Gaspar Venancio, Luis Miguel; Georges, Marc

    2012-09-01

    The special properties of Volume Bragg Gratings (VBGs) make them good candidates for spectrometry applications where high spectral resolution, low level of straylight and low polarisation sensitivity are required. Therefore it is of interest to assess the maturity and suitability of VBGs as enabling technology for future ESA missions with demanding requirements for spectrometry. The VBGs suitability for space application is being investigated in the frame of a project led by CSL and funded by the European Space Agency. The goal of this work is twofold: first the theoretical advantages and drawbacks of VBGs with respect to other technologies with identical functionalities are assessed, and second the performances of VBG samples in a representative space environment are experimentally evaluated. The performances of samples of two VBGs technologies, the Photo-Thermo-Refractive (PTR) glass and the DiChromated Gelatine (DCG), are assessed and compared in the Hα, O2-B and NIR bands. The tests are performed under vacuum condition combined with temperature cycling in the range of 200 K to 300K. A dedicated test bench experiment is designed to evaluate the impact of temperature on the spectral efficiency and to determine the optical wavefront error of the diffracted beam. Furthermore the diffraction efficiency degradation under gamma irradiation is assessed. Finally the straylight, the diffraction efficiency under conical incidence and the polarisation sensitivity is evaluated.

  19. Preliminary Investigation of an SOI-based Arrayed Waveguide Grating Demodulation Integration Microsystem

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hongqiang; Zhou, Wenqian; Liu, Yu; Dong, Xiaye; Zhang, Cheng; Miao, Changyun; Zhang, Meiling; Li, Enbang; Tang, Chunxiao

    2014-01-01

    An arrayed waveguide grating (AWG) demodulation integration microsystem is investigated in this study. The system consists of a C-band on-chip LED, a 2 × 2 silicon nanowire-based coupler, a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) array, a 1 × 8 AWG, and a photoelectric detector array. The coupler and AWG are made from silicon-on-insulator wafers using electron beam exposure and response-coupled plasma technology. Experimental results show that the excess loss in the MMI coupler with a footprint of 6 × 100 μm2 is 0.5423 dB. The 1 × 8 AWG with a footprint of 267 × 381 μm2 and a waveguide width of 0.4 μm exhibits a central channel loss of −3.18 dB, insertion loss non-uniformity of −1.34 dB, and crosstalk level of −23.1 dB. The entire system is preliminarily tested. Wavelength measurement precision is observed to reach 0.001 nm. The wavelength sensitivity of each FBG is between 0.04 and 0.06 nm/dB. PMID:24797561

  20. Laser vibrometry characterisation of a microfluidic lab-on-a-chip device: a preliminary investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fury, C.; Gélat, P. N.; Jones, P. H.; Memoli, G.

    2014-04-01

    Since their original inception as ultrasound contrast agents, potential applications of microbubbles have evolved to encompass molecular imaging and targeted drug delivery. As these areas develop, so does the need to understand the mechanisms behind the interaction of microbubbles both with biological tissue and with other microbubbles. There is therefore a metrological requirement to develop a controlled environment in which to study these processes. Presented here is the design and characterisation of such a system, which consists of a microfluidic chip, specifically developed for manipulating microbubbles using both optical and acoustic trapping. A laser vibrometer is used to observe the coupling of acoustic energy into the chip from a piezoelectric transducer bonded to the surface. Measurement of the velocity of surface waves on the chip is investigated as a potential method for inferring the nature of the acoustic fields excited within the liquid medium of the device. Comparison of measured surface wavelengths with wave types suggests the observation of anti-symmetric Lamb or Love-Kirchhoff waves. Further visual confirmation of the acoustic fields through bubble aggregation highlights differences between the model and experimental results in predicting the position of acoustic pressure nodes in relation to excitation frequency.

  1. Laser cleaning of paintings: from preliminary investigations to a laser cleaning station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apostol, I.; Damian, V.; Garoi, F.; Iordache, I.; Bojan, M.; Apostol, D.; Morais, P. J.; Postolache, D.; Darida, I.

    2010-11-01

    UV laser beam interaction with painting layers in case of aged mock-ups was investigated and ablation and cleaning thresholds were estimated as a function of each layer and sub-layer composition. Ablation depth measurements as a function of incident laser intensities and subsequent irradiation pulse number was measured with white light interferometry (WLI) and profilometric methods, demonstrating a selectivity of the removal of painting layers from submicrometric domain to micrometric domain as a function of surface cleaning needs. The laser cleaning station was designed and developed after careful evaluation of the irradiation conditions proper to the removal of painting layers. A Q-switched Nd:Yag laser radiation is delivered to the artwork through a mirror system consisting in an articulated arm and a laser head. A complete control of the incident laser parameters was envisaged with the laser remote control interface. The system also comprises diagnosis and monitoring tools for the remote control of the cleaning operation. The prototype is controlled by an integrated interface based on a user-friendly software to perform the available operations (e.g. laser cleaning, LIBS, colorimetry, live color monitoring, multispectral analysis, database management). The user interface is also used to start the treatment of a new work, to review or continue a previously started work.

  2. A preliminary investigation into the genetic variation and population structure of Taenia hydatigena from Sardinia, Italy.

    PubMed

    Boufana, Belgees; Scala, Antonio; Lahmar, Samia; Pointing, Steve; Craig, Philip S; Dessì, Giorgia; Zidda, Antonella; Pipia, Anna Paola; Varcasia, Antonio

    2015-11-30

    Cysticercosis caused by the metacestode stage of Taenia hydatigena is endemic in Sardinia. Information on the genetic variation of this parasite is important for epidemiological studies and implementation of control programs. Using two mitochondrial genes, the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) and the NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (ND1) we investigated the genetic variation and population structure of Cysticercus tenuicollis from Sardinian intermediate hosts and compared it to that from other hosts from various geographical regions. The parsimony cox1 network analysis indicated the existence of a common lineage for T. hydatigena and the overall diversity and neutrality indices indicated demographic expansion. Using the cox1 sequences, low pairwise fixation index (Fst) values were recorded for Sardinian, Iranian and Palestinian sheep C. tenuicollis which suggested the absence of genetic differentiation. Using the ND1 sequences, C. tenuicollis from Sardinian sheep appeared to be differentiated from those of goat and pig origin. In addition, goat C. tenuicollis were genetically different from adult T. hydatigena as indicated by the statistically significant Fst value. Our results are consistent with biochemical and morphological studies that suggest the existence of variants of T. hydatigena. PMID:26296591

  3. Parenting Behaviors of Anxious Mothers and Youth Internalizing Symptoms: A Preliminary Cross-Ethnic Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Araceli; Weersing, V. Robin

    2016-01-01

    This pilot study examined youth report (ages 7 to 15) of maternal parenting behaviors (Psychological Control and Acceptance) and their association with internalizing symptoms in the children of clinically anxious non-Hispanic white and Latina mothers (N = 28). Compared to non-Hispanic white mothers, Latina mothers were rated by their children as higher in Psychological Control; a significant group difference in maternal Acceptance was not detected. Across the entire sample, lower maternal Acceptance was associated with higher somatic symptoms, and unexpectedly, higher Psychological Control was associated with lower youth anxiety. Ethnic-specific associations also emerged: higher maternal Psychological Control was associated with increased somatic symptoms in Latino youths, and lower Acceptance was associated with higher anxiety and depressive symptoms in non-Hispanic white youths. Broadly, results suggest that the linkages between parenting behaviors of anxious mothers and youth emotional functioning may vary by cultural context. This exploratory study helps to generate hypotheses for larger studies; recommendations for further investigation of these phenomena are suggested. PMID:27308185

  4. Investigation of the effects of Aloe barbadensis on rat ovaries: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Kosif, Rengin; Aktas, R Gülhan

    2009-12-01

    Effects of Aloe barbadensis, a type of Aloe vera, on ovaries were investigated during pregnancy. A. vera gel, a commercial and nontherapeutic form of A. barbadensis, was used for this purpose. Three groups (one control and two test groups) of female Wistar albino rats with no prior births were studied. Group I was administered 25 mg (140 mg/kg) of A. barbadensis/day both orally and through gavage. A. barbadensis was contained in capsules with 500 mg of soybean oil; therefore Group II was administered 500 mg of soybean oil. Group III was the control group. All three groups were given normal food and water ad libitum. The substance had been administered for 20 days until birth. Ovaries were examined histologically. Vascular increase and the hyperemic form of ovary in the group administered A. barbadensis were notable. Decrease in primary follicle numbers, increase in secondary follicle numbers, and diminishment of secondary follicle diameters occurred in ovaries. The histological changes imply an angiogenesis effect of A. barbadensis and an effect like that of follicle-stimulating hormone in ovaries. PMID:20041799

  5. Suicide by oxygen deprivation with helium: a preliminary study of British Columbia coroner investigations.

    PubMed

    Ogden, Russel D; Hassan, Shereen

    2011-04-01

    This article researches a relatively new suicide method advanced by right-to-die organizations: oxygen deprivation by breathing helium inside a plastic hood. The article begins with a review of the role of the coroner and the history of oxygen deprivation with helium; it then examines 20 Judgements of Inquiry (JOI) by British Columbia coroners into this form of suicide. The JOI were obtained through the Freedom of Information and Protection of Privacy Act and cover the period of 1999 to 2007. Findings raise concerns about the coding system used by coroners as well as adherence to internal documentation guidelines. The British Columbia Coroners Service (BCCS) has a public safety mandate to investigate all unnatural deaths and to make recommendations to prevent deaths in similar circumstances. It is a concern that BCCS has no recommendations to prevent suicides by oxygen deprivation with helium. More in-depth, systematic research is recommended to determine the prevalence of suicide by oxygen deprivation and to develop strategies to benefit public health and safety. PMID:24501824

  6. Visualizing the stress distribution within vascular tissues using intravascular ultrasound elastography: a preliminary investigation.

    PubMed

    Richards, Michael S; Perucchio, Renato; Doyley, Marvin M

    2015-06-01

    A methodology for computing the stress distribution of vascular tissue using finite element-based, intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) reconstruction elastography is described. This information could help cardiologists detect life-threatening atherosclerotic plaques and predict their propensity to rupture. The calculation of vessel stresses requires the measurement of strain from the ultrasound images, a calibrating pressure measurement and additional model assumptions. In this work, we conducted simulation studies to investigate the effect of varying the model assumptions, specifically Poisson's ratio and the outer boundary conditions, on the resulting stress fields. In both simulation and phantom studies, we created vessel geometries with two fibrous cap thicknesses to determine if we could detect a difference in peak stress (spatially) between the two. The results revealed that (i) Poisson's ratios had negligible impact on the accuracy of stress elastograms, (ii) the outer boundary condition assumption had the greatest effect on the resulting modulus and stress distributions and (iii) in simulation and in phantom experiments, our stress imaging technique was able to detect an increased peak stress for the vessel geometry with the smaller cap thickness. This work is a first step toward understanding and creating a robust stress measurement technique for evaluating atherosclerotic plaques using IVUS elastography. PMID:25837424

  7. Preliminary investigation of residual-limb fluid volume changes within one day

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, Joan E.; Allyn, Katheryn J.; Harrison, Daniel S.; Myers, Timothy R.; Ciol, Marcia A.; Tsai, Elaine C.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate rates of residual limb fluid volume change within a day on people with transtibial limb loss. Rates of fluid volume change during 30-minute test sessions of sitting, standing, and walking activities were measured twice a day on twelve regular prosthesis users, once in the morning and once in the afternoon, using bioimpedance analysis. Between test sessions all subjects consumed food and drink, and subject activity ranged from low to high. The rate of fluid volume change within sessions ranged from −8.5%/h to +5.9%/h with a median of −2.3%/h. The rate of fluid volume change between sessions ranged from −2.6%/h to 1.2%/h with a median of −1.0%/h. The between-session rate of fluid volume change was highly correlated with afternoon within-session rates of change (r=0.9) but not well-correlated with morning within-session rates of change (r=0.8). Subjects with peripheral arterial complications showed greater fluid volume loss rates during test sessions than between sessions. Rate of fluid volume change may be affected by sitting, standing, and walking activities; presence of peripheral arterial complications; being a female; time since amputation; and maintaining the socket without doffing for extended periods. PMID:23516051

  8. Preliminary Investigation of an SOI-based Arrayed Waveguide Grating Demodulation Integration Microsystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hongqiang; Zhou, Wenqian; Liu, Yu; Dong, Xiaye; Zhang, Cheng; Miao, Changyun; Zhang, Meiling; Li, Enbang; Tang, Chunxiao

    2014-05-01

    An arrayed waveguide grating (AWG) demodulation integration microsystem is investigated in this study. The system consists of a C-band on-chip LED, a 2 × 2 silicon nanowire-based coupler, a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) array, a 1 × 8 AWG, and a photoelectric detector array. The coupler and AWG are made from silicon-on-insulator wafers using electron beam exposure and response-coupled plasma technology. Experimental results show that the excess loss in the MMI coupler with a footprint of 6 × 100 μm2 is 0.5423 dB. The 1 × 8 AWG with a footprint of 267 × 381 μm2 and a waveguide width of 0.4 μm exhibits a central channel loss of -3.18 dB, insertion loss non-uniformity of -1.34 dB, and crosstalk level of -23.1 dB. The entire system is preliminarily tested. Wavelength measurement precision is observed to reach 0.001 nm. The wavelength sensitivity of each FBG is between 0.04 and 0.06 nm/dB.

  9. Preliminary investigation of an SOI-based arrayed waveguide grating demodulation integration microsystem.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongqiang; Zhou, Wenqian; Liu, Yu; Dong, Xiaye; Zhang, Cheng; Miao, Changyun; Zhang, Meiling; Li, Enbang; Tang, Chunxiao

    2014-01-01

    An arrayed waveguide grating (AWG) demodulation integration microsystem is investigated in this study. The system consists of a C-band on-chip LED, a 2 × 2 silicon nanowire-based coupler, a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) array, a 1 × 8 AWG, and a photoelectric detector array. The coupler and AWG are made from silicon-on-insulator wafers using electron beam exposure and response-coupled plasma technology. Experimental results show that the excess loss in the MMI coupler with a footprint of 6 × 100 μm(2) is 0.5423 dB. The 1 × 8 AWG with a footprint of 267 × 381 μm(2) and a waveguide width of 0.4 μm exhibits a central channel loss of -3.18 dB, insertion loss non-uniformity of -1.34 dB, and crosstalk level of -23.1 dB. The entire system is preliminarily tested. Wavelength measurement precision is observed to reach 0.001 nm. The wavelength sensitivity of each FBG is between 0.04 and 0.06 nm/dB. PMID:24797561

  10. Friction Stir Lap Welding of Magnesium Alloy to Steel: A Preliminary Investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Jana, Saumyadeep; Hovanski, Yuri; Grant, Glenn J.

    2010-12-01

    An initial study was made to evaluate the feasibility of joining Magnesium alloy AZ31 sheet to galvanized steel sheet in lap configuration using friction stir welding (FSW). Two different automotive sheet steels were used for comparative evaluation of the dissimilar joining potential; a 0.8mm thick, electro galvanized (EG) mild steel, and a 1.5mm thick hot dipped galvanized (HDG) high-strength, low-alloy steel (HSLA). These steels were joined to 2.33mm thick AZ31B magnesium sheet. A single FSW tool design was used for both dissimilar welds, and process parameters were kept the same. Average peak load for the AZ31-1.5 mm steel weld joint in lap shear mode was found to be 6.3 ± 1.0 kN. For the AZ31-0.8 mm steel weld, joint strength was 5.1 ± 1.5 kN. Microstructural investigation indicates melting of the Zn coating at the interface and subsequent alloying with the Mg sheet resulting in formation of solidified Zn-Mg alloy layer at AZ31/steel interface.

  11. A preliminary investigation of acid-catalyzed polymerization reactions of shale oil distillates

    SciTech Connect

    Netzel, D.A.

    1991-04-01

    Sinor (1989) reported that a major specialty market may exist for shale oil as an asphalt blending material. Shale oil can be converted to an asphalt blending material by acid catalyzed condensation and polymerization reactions of the many molecular species comprising the composition of shale oil. To simplify the investigation, crude shale oil was separated by distillation into three distillates of different hydrocarbon and heteroaromatic compositions. These distillates were then treated with two different types of acids to determine the effect of acid type on the end products. Three western shale oil distillates, a naphtha, a middle distillate, and an atmospheric gas oil, were reacted with anhydrous AlCl{sub 3} and 85% H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} under low-severity conditions. At relatively low temperatures, little change in the hydrocarbon composition was noted for the AlCl{sub 3} reactions. AlCl{sub 3}{center dot} (a polymerized product and/or complex) was formed. However, it is assumed that the sludge was mainly the result of heteroaromatic-AlCl{sub 3} reactions.

  12. A preliminary investigation of acid-catalyzed polymerization reactions of shale oil distillates

    SciTech Connect

    Netzel, D.A.

    1991-04-01

    Sinor (1989) reported that a major specialty market may exist for shale oil as an asphalt blending material. Shale oil can be converted to an asphalt blending material by acid catalyzed condensation and polymerization reactions of the many molecular species comprising the composition of shale oil. To simplify the investigation, crude shale oil was separated by distillation into three distillates of different hydrocarbon and heteroaromatic compositions. These distillates were then treated with two different types of acids to determine the effect of acid type on the end products. Three western shale oil distillates, a naphtha, a middle distillate, and an atmospheric gas oil, were reacted with anhydrous AlCl{sub 3} and 85% H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} under low-severity conditions. At relatively low temperatures, little change in the hydrocarbon composition was noted for the AlCl{sub 3} reactions. AlCl{sub 3}{center_dot} (a polymerized product and/or complex) was formed. However, it is assumed that the sludge was mainly the result of heteroaromatic-AlCl{sub 3} reactions.

  13. A preliminary investigation into the neural basis of the production effect.

    PubMed

    Hassall, Cameron D; Quinlan, Chelsea K; Turk, David J; Taylor, Tracy L; Krigolson, Olave E

    2016-06-01

    Items that are produced (e.g., read aloud) during encoding typically are better remembered than items that are not produced (e.g., read silently). This "production effect" has been explained by distinctiveness: Produced items have more distinct features than nonproduced items, leading to enhanced retrieval. The goal of the current study was to use electroencephalography (EEG) to examine the neural basis of the production effect. During study, participants were presented with words that they were required to read silently, read aloud, or sing while EEG data were recorded. Subsequent memory performance was tested using a yes/no recognition test. Analysis focused on the event-related brain potentials (ERPs) evoked by the encoding instruction cue for each instruction condition. Our data revealed enhanced memory performance for produced items and a greater P300 ERP amplitude for instructions to sing or read aloud compared with instructions to read silently. Our results demonstrate that the amplitude of the P300 is modulated by at least 1 aspect of production, vocalization (singing/reading aloud relative to reading silently), and are consistent with the distinctiveness account of the production effect. The ERP methodology is a viable tool for investigating the production effect. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27244355

  14. Preliminary results from the investigation of the Pymatuning earthquake of September 25, 1998

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Armbruster, John; Barton, Henry; Bodin, Paul; Buckwalter, Theodore; Cox, Jon; Cranswick, Edward; Dewey, James; Fleeger, Gary; Hopper, Margaret; Horton, Stephen; Hoskins, Donald; Kilb, Deborah; Meremonte, Mark; Metzger, Ann; Risser, Dennis; Seeber, Leonardo; Shedlock, Kaye; Stanley, Katherine; Withers, Mitchell; Zirbes, Madeleine

    1998-01-01

    The Pymatuning earthquake occurred on Friday, September 25, 1998, at 19:52:52 Universal Coordinated Time (UTC), or 3:52:52 p.m. EDT, near Jamestown, Pa., at the southern end of the Pymatuning Reservoir, which straddles the Ohio-Pennsylvania border. The National Earthquake Information Center (NEIC) determined that the event had a magnitude of 5.2 mbLg (a magnitude scale used to measure the size of earthquakes that are regional distances away [100 to 1,000 km, or 60 to 600 mi]), an epicenter of 41.5°N latitude, 80.4°W longitude, and an estimated depth of 5 km (3 mi). One person was reported injured as a result of being thrown to the ground by the earthquake, and it caused minor damage to buildings and seriously disrupted many water wells in the GreenvilleJamestown, Pa., area. The earthquake was generally felt over an area of approximately 200,000 km2 (77,230 mi2) throughout northern Ohio, western Pennsylvania and New York, and much of southern Ontario, Canada (see map on back cover). It was also felt as far west as Illinois and Wisconsin, as far east as New Jersey, Connecticut, and the District of Columbia, and as far south as Kentucky and Virginia. During the aftershock field investigation that commenced within 12 hours of the main shock, a World Wide Web site, http://groundmotion.cr.usgs.gov/pym/pym.htm>, was established from the field headquarters. The web site was used not only to transmit investigation results to the world in near real time but also to receive information from the local community as new earthquake effects were reported. As of March 1999, at least 11 aftershocks have occurred, the largest being a magnitude 2.3. The largest recent previous earthquake in the region was the northeastern Ohio (Leroy) earthquake of magnitude 5.0 that occurred on January 31, 1986, about 65 km (40 mi) west-northwest of the Pymatuning shock. This event was also felt by many of those who felt the Pymatuning earthquake. Similar to most of the seismicity east of the Rocky

  15. Preliminary Investigation of Keyhole Phenomena during Single Layer Fabrication in Laser Additive Manufacturing of Stainless Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matilainen, Ville-Pekka; Piili, Heidi; Salminen, Antti; Nyrhilä, Olli

    Laser additive manufacturing (LAM) is a fabrication technology that enables production of complex parts from metallic materials with mechanical properties comparable to conventionally manufactured parts. In the LAM process, parts are manufactured by melting metallic powder layer-by-layer with a laser beam. This manufacturing technology is nowadays called powder bed fusion (PBF) according to the ASTM F2792-12a standard. This strategy involves several different independent and dependent thermal cycles, all of which have an influence on the final properties of the manufactured part. The quality of PBF parts depends strongly on the characteristics of each single laser-melted track and each single layer. This study consequently concentrates on investigating the effects of process parameters such as laser power on single track and layer formation and laser-material interaction phenomena occurring during the PBF process. Experimental tests were done with two different machines: a modified research machine based on an EOS EOSINT M-series system and an EOS EOSINT M280 system. The material used was EOS stainless steel 17-4 PH. Process monitoring was done with an active illuminated high speed camera system. After microscopy analysis, it was concluded that a keyhole can form during laser additive manufacturing of stainless steel. It was noted that heat input has an important effect on the likelihood of keyhole formation. The threshold intensity value for keyhole formation of 106 W/cm2 was exceeded in all manufactured single tracks. Laser interaction time was found to have an effect on penetration depth and keyhole formation, since the penetration depth increased with increased laser interaction time. It was also concluded that active illuminated high speed camera systems are suitable for monitoring of the manufacturing process and facilitate process control.

  16. Work plan for preliminary investigation of organic constituents in ground water at the New Rifle site, Rifle, Colorado. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-01

    A special study screening for Appendix 9 (40 CFR Part 264) analytes identified the New Rifle site as a target for additional screening for organic constituents. Because of this recommendation and the findings in a recent independent technical review, the US Department of Energy (DOE) has requested that the Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC) perform a preliminary investigation of the potential presence of organic compounds in the ground water at the New Rifle Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site, Rifle, Colorado. From 1958 to 1972, organic chemicals were used in large quantities during ore processing at the New Rifle site, and it is possible that some fraction was released to the environment. Therefore, the primary objective of this investigation is to determine whether organic chemicals used at the milling facility are present in the ground water. The purpose of this document is to describe the work that will be performed and the procedures that will be followed during installation of ground water well points at the New Rifle site. The selection of analytes and the procedures for collecting ground water samples for analysis of organic constituents are also described.

  17. A preliminary investigation on the relationship between virtues and pathological internet use among Chinese adolescents

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Pathological Internet Use (PIU) has become a global issue associated with the increasing number of Internet users. Previous studies concerned both the interpersonal and intrapersonal vulnerable factors and the corresponding models. However, a limited amount of research has explored the relationship between positive factors and PIU. Objective The current investigation attempted to clarify the relationship between virtues and PIU among Chinese adolescents; it also sought to explore the specific contributions of the three virtues. Virtue was the core concept in positive psychology and the Values in Action Classification. A recent study demonstrated that there might be three universal virtues (relationship, vitality, and conscientiousness). Methods A cross-sectional sample of adolescents aged 12-17 years were recruited in 2013. A total of 674 adolescents (males = 302, females = 372; junior high school = 296, senior high school = 378) from eight junior and senior high schools in four provinces of Mainland China completed a package of psychological inventories, including the Chinese Virtues Questionnaire (CVQ) and the Adolescent Pathological Internet Use Scale (APIUS). The mean age of the current sample was 15.10 years (SD = 1.81) with an average of 5.31 years’ length (SD = 2.09) of Internet use. Results A total of 9.50% participants exhibited significant symptoms of PIU. Male students (Mmale = 2.50) had significantly higher scores on PIU than female students (Mfemale = 2.25). Relationship (β = -.24) and conscientiousness (β = -.21) negatively predicted PIU, whereas vitality (β = .25) positively predicted PIU. Dominance analysis further revealed that relationship and conscientiousness could explain 81% variance of PIU, and vitality only accounted for another 19%. Conclusions Relationship and conscientiousness were possible protective factors of pathological Internet users, while vitality was vulnerable. The

  18. Identification of mine collapses, explosions and earthquakes using INSAR: a preliminary investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Foxall, B; Sweeney, J J; Walter, W R

    1998-07-07

    Interferograms constmcted from satellite-borne synthetic aperture radar images have the capability of mapping sub-cm ground surface deformation over areas on the order of 100 x 100 km with a spatial resolution on the order of 10 meters. We investigate the utility of synthetic aperture radar interferomehy (InSAR) used in conjunction with regional seismic methods in detecting and discriminating different types of seismic events in the context of special event analysis for the CTBT. For this initial study, we carried out elastic dislocation modeling of underground explosions, mine collapses and small (M<5.5) shallow earthquakes to produce synthetic interferograms and then analyzed satellite radar data for a large mine collapse. The synthetic modeling shows that, for a given magnitude each type of event produces a distinctive pattern of ground deformation that can be recognized in, and recovered from, the corresponding interferogram. These diagnostic characteristics include not only differences in the polarities of surface displacements but also differences in displacement amplitudes from the different sources. The technique is especially sensitive to source depth, a parameter that is crucial in discriminating earthquakes from the other event types but is often very poorly constrained by regional seismic data alone. The ERS radar data analyzed is from a ML 5.2 seismic event that occurred in southwestern Wyoming on February 3,1995. Although seismic data from the event have some characteristics of an underground explosion, based on seismological and geodetic data it has been identified as being caused by a large underground collapse in the Solvay Mine. Several pairs of before-collapse and after-collapse radar images were phase processed to obtain interferograms. The minimum time separation for a before-collapse and after-collapse pair was 548 days. Even with this long time separation, phase coherence between the image pairs was acceptable and a deformation map

  19. January 26, 2001 Gujrat, India Earthquake - A Report of Preliminary Investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saikia, C. K.; Somerville, P. G.; Ichinose, G.; Thio, H.

    2001-05-01

    on our inverted slip model, we predict a co- seismic deformation of about 2 m at the bedrock for the south dipping fault. These ground displacements are large enough to have caused the liquefaction phenomena observed by various investigating groups. During our visit to the epicentral region, we were in several location where lateral spreading in sediment was extensively observed. We are at present analyzing regional seismograms recorded from this earthquake.

  20. Preliminary investigation into the design of thermally responsive Forster resonance energy transfer colloids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bedford, Monte Scott

    While nuclear imaging techniques (Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Computed Tomography, and Positron Emission Tomography) have proven effective for diagnosis and treatment of disease in the human body, fluorescence-enhanced optical imaging offers additional benefits. Fluorescent imaging provides high resolution with real-time response, persistent lifetime (hours to days), cell targeting, and transdermal penetration with minimal physical encumbrance. Malignant cells can be targeted by absorbance of exogenous fluorescent nanoprobe contrast agents. Imaging is improved by fluorescent enhancement, especially by energy transfer between attached dyes. Also for use against cancer are heat-active treatments, such as hyperthermal, photothermal, and chemothermal therapies. Helpful to these treatments is the thermal response from nanoprobes, within human cells, which provide real-time feedback. The present study investigates the design and feasibility of a nanoprobe molecular device, absorbable into malignant human cells, which provides real-time tracking and thermal response, as indicated by enhanced fluorescence by energy transfer. A poly(propargyl acrylate) colloidal suspension was synthesized. The particles were modified with a triblock copolymer, previously shown to be thermally responsive, and an end-attached fluorescent dye. A second dye was modeled for attachment in subsequent work. When two fluorescent dyes are brought within sufficiently close proximity, and excitation light is supplied, energy can be transferred between dyes to give enhanced fluorescence with a large Stokes shift (increase in wavelength between excitation and emission). The dye pair was modeled for overlap of emission and absorbance wavelengths, and energy transfer was demonstrated with 23% efficiency and a 209 nm Stokes shift. The quantum yield of the donor dye was determined at 70%, and the distance for 50% energy transfer was calculated at 2.9 nm, consistent with reports for similar compounds. When

  1. Provesicular granisetron hydrochloride buccal formulations: in vitro evaluation and preliminary investigation of in vivo performance.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Sami; El-Setouhy, Doaa Ahmed; El-Latif Badawi, Alia Abd; El-Nabarawi, Mohamed Ahmed

    2014-08-18

    Granisetron hydrochloride (granisetron) is a potent antiemetic that has been proven to be effective in acute and delayed emesis in cancer chemotherapy. Granisetron suffers from reduced oral bioavailability (≈60%) due to hepatic metabolism. In this study the combined advantage of provesicular carriers and buccal drug delivery has been explored aiming to sustain effect and improve bioavailability of granisetron via development of granisetron provesicular buccoadhesive tablets with suitable quality characteristics (hardness, drug content, in vitro release pattern, exvivo bioadhesion and in vivo bioadhesion behavior). Composition of the reconstituted niosomes from different prepared provesicular carriers regarding type of surfactant used and cholesterol concentration significantly affected both entrapment efficiency (%EE) and vesicle size. Span 80 proniosome-derived niosomes exhibited higher encapsulation efficiency and smaller particle size than those derived from span 20. Also, the effect of %EE and bioadhesive polymer type on in vitro drug release and in vivo performance of buccoadhesive tablets was investigated. Based on achievement of required in vitro release pattern (20-30% at 2h, 40-65% at 6h and 80-95% at 12h), in vivo swelling behavior, and in vivo adhesion time (>14 h) granisetron formulation (F19, 1.4 mg) comprising HPMC:carbopol 974P (7:3) and maltodextrin coated with the vesicular precursors span 80 and cholesterol (9:1) was chosen for in vivo study. In vivo pharmacokinetic study revealed higher bioavailability of buccal formulation relative to conventional oral formulation of granisetron (AUC0-∞ is 89.97 and 38.18 ng h/ml for buccal and oral formulation, respectively). A significantly lower and delayed Cmax (12.09±4.47 ng/ml, at 8h) was observed after buccal application compared to conventional oral tablet (31.66±10.15 ng/ml, at 0.5 h). The prepared provesicular buccoadhesive tablet of granisetron (F19) might help bypass hepatic first

  2. Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 1 Expression and Functionality in MCF-7 Cells: A Preliminary Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Barbero, Raffaella; Cuniberti, Barbara; Racca, Silvia; Abbadessa, Giuliana; Piccione, Francesca; Re, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) is a nonselective cation channel belonging to the transient receptor potential family, and it is expressed in different neoplastic tissues. Its activation is associated with regulation of cancer growth and progression. The aim of this research was to study the expression and pharmacological characteristics of TRPV1 in cells derived from human breast cancer MCF-7 cells. Methods TRPV1 presence was assessed by binding studies and Western blotting. Receptor binding characteristics were evaluated through competition assays, while 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5,-dipheyltetrazolium bromide reduction assays were performed to confirm an early hypothesis regarding the modulation of cancer cell proliferation. The functionality of TRPV1 was evaluated by measuring Ca2+ uptake in the presence of increasing concentrations of TRPV1 agonists and antagonists. Results Binding studies identified a single class of TRPV1 (Bmax 1,492±192 fmol/mg protein), and Western blot showed a signal at 100 kDa corresponding to the molecular weight of human TRPV1. Among the different tested agonists and antagonists, anandamide (Ki: 2.8×10-11 M) and 5-iodoresiniferatoxin (5-I-RTX) (Ki: 5.6×10-11 M) showed the highest degrees of affinity for TRPV1, respectively. All tested TRPV1 agonists and antagonists caused a significant (p<0.05) decrease in cell growth rate in MCF-7 cells. For agonists and antagonists, the efficacy of tested compounds displayed the following rank order: resiniferatoxin>anandamide>capsaicin and 5-I-RTX=capsazepine, respectively. Conclusion These data indicate that both TRPV1 agonists and antagonists induce significant inhibition of MCF-7 cell growth. Even though the mechanisms involved in the antiproliferative effects of TRPV1 agonists and antagonists should be further investigated, it has been suggested that agonists cause desensitization of the receptor, leading to alteration in Ca2+-influx regulation. By contrast

  3. A preliminary investigation assessing the viability of classifying hand postures in seniors

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Fear of frailty is a main concern for seniors. Surface electromyography (sEMG) controlled assistive devices for the upper extremities could potentially be used to augment seniors' force while training their muscles and reduce their fear of frailty. In fact, these devices could both improve self confidence and facilitate independent leaving in domestic environments. The successful implementation of sEMG controlled devices for the elderly strongly relies on the capability of properly determining seniors' actions from their sEMG signals. In this research we investigated the viability of classifying hand postures in seniors from sEMG signals of their forearm muscles. Methods Nineteen volunteers, including seniors (70 years old in average) and young people (27 years old in average), participated in this study and sEMG signals from four of their forearm muscles (i.e. Extensor Digitorum, Palmaris Longus, Flexor Carpi Ulnaris and Extensor Carpi Radialis) were recorded. The feature vectors were built by extracting features from each channel of sEMG including autoregressive (AR) model coefficients, waveform length and root mean square (RMS). Multi-class support vector machines (SVM) was used as a classifier to distinguish between fifteen different essential hand gestures including finger pinching. Results Classification of hand gestures both in the pronation and supination positions of the arm was possible. Classified hand gestures were: rest, ulnar deviation, radial deviation, grasp and four different finger pinching configurations. The obtained average classification accuracy was 90.6% for the seniors and 97.6% for the young volunteers. Conclusions The obtained results proved that the pattern recognition of sEMG signals in seniors is feasible for both pronation and supination positions of the arm and the use of only four EMG channel is sufficient. The outcome of this study therefore validates the hypothesis that, although there are significant neurological and

  4. Palaeomagnetic, rock-magnetic and mineralogical investigations of metadolerites from Western Svalbard : A preliminary report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michalski, Krzysztof; Nejbert, Krzysztof; Domańska-Siuda, Justyna; Manby, Geoffrey

    2014-05-01

    A group of 42 independently oriented palaeomagnetic samples from 7 sites located in central part of the West Spitsbergen Thrust and Fault Belt has been investigated. The samples were collected from 5 distinct metadolerite sheets intruded into the Proterozoic - Lower Paleozoic metamorphic complex of Western Oscar II Land (Western Svalbard Caledonian Terrane - Harland, 1997 division). All analyzed metadolerite samples were metamorphosed under greenschist facies metamorphism. The metamorphic assemblage consist of hornblende, biotite, actinolite, chlorite, epidote, stilpnomelane, titanite, albite, and quartz. Calcite, associated with pyrrhotite, pyrite chalcopyrite, sphalerite, and covellite, that occurs as irregular intergrowths or thin veins, document high activity of H2O-CO2-rich fluids during metamorphism. Primary magmatic phases represented by clinopyroxene occur rarely, and only in thick metadolerite dykes. Accessory oxides change their mineralogical and chemical composition during metamorphism. In all examined samples primary Ti-magnetite and oxy-exsolved hematite break-down completely into titanite or have been dissolved. The ilmenite are also replaced by titanite, but in metadolerites at contact with host metapelites, slightly altered ilmenite grains with preserved hematite exsolution were documented. Basing on mineralogical observations it should be expected that metamorphic processes have almost completely reset the paleomagnetic data record from the time of dolerite crystallization. This stage can document only rare hematite oxy-exsolution preserved within ilmenite, and presumably small inclusion of magnetite still preserved within unaltered clinopyroxene. The paleomagnetic record of metamorphic stage is probably recorded by pyrrhotite, hematite, goethite, and late Ti-free magnetite that can grow during breakdown of pyrrhotite to pyrite (Ramdohr. 1980). The NRM (Natural Remanent Magnetisation) intensities of the palaeomagnetic samples exceed the minimum 10

  5. Preliminary Investigations of C-O-H Solubility at Reduced Condition in a Haplobasaltic Liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ardia, P.; Hirschmann, M. M.

    2009-12-01

    Dissolved C-O-H magmatic species have a key influence on the locus of melting in planetary mantles as well as on the fluxes of volatiles from planetary interiors to the exosphere. Although the solubility and speciation of oxidized C-O-H volatiles in silicate melts are comparatively well-known, much less is known at reducing conditions that are of importance to magma oceans that are in equilibrium with Fe-metal, the deeper parts of Earth’s mantle and to the mantles of other planetary bodies such as Mars. Because the solubility of carbon in magmas at reduced conditions is poorly understood, we are investigating the dissolution and speciation of reduced C-O-H fluids in a model basalt composition Di40An42Ab18. Experimental charges contain 1 wt.% C, added as Si5C12H36 + H2O to produce SiO2+ CH4 + H2. We employ a Pt double capsule with Fe+FeO+H2O in the outer capsule providing oxygen fugacities near IW. Experiments were performed at 1450-1525 °C and 1.5 and 2 GPa. The experimental glasses were analyzed by electron microprobe to verify major element compositions and by microRaman spectroscopy to qualitatively observe the volatile concentrations and speciation. Quantitative analyses of the dissolved volatile species are planned. Glasses quenched from 30 min experiments are transparent and contain equilibrium bubbles from 10 to 250 μm in diameter as well as dendritic black precipitates. Raman spectroscopy of the precipitates reveals peaks at ~1450 cm-1, ~1600 cm-1, ~2550 cm-1, and 2700 -1, consistent with C-nanotubes or fibers. A second population of bubbles, 1-2 μm in diameter are homogeneously distributed throughout the charge together with μm-sized black precipitates. These are interpreted as quench features. Glasses quenched from 2-6 hour experiments show increasing growth of equilibrium bubbles (up to 1 mm) and segregation of these bubbles to the top of the capsule, with corresponding segregation of the carbon nanofibers to the capsule bottom. The longer

  6. Investigating wind power`s effective capacity: A case study in the Caribbean Island of La Martinique

    SciTech Connect

    Perez, R.; Germa, J.M.; Bailey, B.

    1996-12-31

    In this paper, we report on the experimental determination of the effective capacity of wind and photovoltaic (PV) power generation with respect to the utility load requirements of the Island of La Martinique. La Martinique is a French Overseas Department in the Caribbean Sea. The case study spans two years, 1990 and 1991. We consider wind generation at three locations in different wind regimes, and PV generation for fixed and tracking flat plate systems. The results presented include: (1) An overview of typical solar and wind power output at each considered site, presented in contrast to the Island`s electric load requirements; and (2) Effective capacities quantified for each resource as a function of penetration in the utility generation mix. 7 refs., 6 figs.

  7. Changes in Socio-Emotional and Behavioral Functioning After Attending a Camp for Children with Tourette Syndrome: A Preliminary Investigation.

    PubMed

    Eaton, Cyd K; LaMotte, Julia; Gutierrez-Colina, Ana M; Kardon, Patricia; Blount, Ronald L

    2016-08-01

    Children and adolescents with Tourette syndrome are at risk for social, emotional, and behavioral difficulties that may negatively influence feelings of self-competence and attitudes toward having this diagnosis. Attending a camp for children with Tourette syndrome may facilitate improvements in overall socio-emotional and behavioral functioning and self-perception. The current study obtained data from 37 campers (76 % male, 24 % female) and 47 caregivers of campers to investigate changes in children's emotional and behavioral functioning, self-perception (i.e., social and general), attitudes towards having Tourette syndrome, and how different they felt from peers after attending a 1-week summer camp for youth with Tourette syndrome using a pre-post design. Results indicated that campers endorsed a significantly improved sense of social self-competence and more favorable attitudes toward having Tourette syndrome post-camp. Campers also tended to endorse feeling less different than peers at camp versus peers in general. Caregivers endorsed significantly less severe symptoms associated with Tourette syndrome for campers after attending camp. No pre-to-post-camp changes were observed for campers' levels of anxiety or obsessive-compulsive symptoms. These preliminary findings suggest that attending camp or having other opportunities to interact with similar peers may promote better perceptions of social self-competence, more favorable attitudes toward having Tourette syndrome, and a stronger sense of affiliation with peers for children with Tourette syndrome. PMID:26589437

  8. Serotonin and Dopamine Gene Variation and Theory of Mind Decoding Accuracy in Major Depression: A Preliminary Investigation.

    PubMed

    Zahavi, Arielle Y; Sabbagh, Mark A; Washburn, Dustin; Mazurka, Raegan; Bagby, R Michael; Strauss, John; Kennedy, James L; Ravindran, Arun; Harkness, Kate L

    2016-01-01

    Theory of mind-the ability to decode and reason about others' mental states-is a universal human skill and forms the basis of social cognition. Theory of mind accuracy is impaired in clinical conditions evidencing social impairment, including major depressive disorder. The current study is a preliminary investigation of the association of polymorphisms of the serotonin transporter (SLC6A4), dopamine transporter (DAT1), dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4), and catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT) genes with theory of mind decoding in a sample of adults with major depression. Ninety-six young adults (38 depressed, 58 non-depressed) completed the 'Reading the Mind in the Eyes task' and a non-mentalistic control task. Genetic associations were only found for the depressed group. Specifically, superior accuracy in decoding mental states of a positive valence was seen in those homozygous for the long allele of the serotonin transporter gene, 9-allele carriers of DAT1, and long-allele carriers of DRD4. In contrast, superior accuracy in decoding mental states of a negative valence was seen in short-allele carriers of the serotonin transporter gene and 10/10 homozygotes of DAT1. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for integrating social cognitive and neurobiological models of etiology in major depression. PMID:26974654

  9. Serotonin and Dopamine Gene Variation and Theory of Mind Decoding Accuracy in Major Depression: A Preliminary Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Zahavi, Arielle Y.; Sabbagh, Mark A.; Washburn, Dustin; Mazurka, Raegan; Bagby, R. Michael; Strauss, John; Kennedy, James L.; Ravindran, Arun; Harkness, Kate L.

    2016-01-01

    Theory of mind–the ability to decode and reason about others’ mental states–is a universal human skill and forms the basis of social cognition. Theory of mind accuracy is impaired in clinical conditions evidencing social impairment, including major depressive disorder. The current study is a preliminary investigation of the association of polymorphisms of the serotonin transporter (SLC6A4), dopamine transporter (DAT1), dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4), and catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT) genes with theory of mind decoding in a sample of adults with major depression. Ninety-six young adults (38 depressed, 58 non-depressed) completed the ‘Reading the Mind in the Eyes task’ and a non-mentalistic control task. Genetic associations were only found for the depressed group. Specifically, superior accuracy in decoding mental states of a positive valence was seen in those homozygous for the long allele of the serotonin transporter gene, 9-allele carriers of DAT1, and long-allele carriers of DRD4. In contrast, superior accuracy in decoding mental states of a negative valence was seen in short-allele carriers of the serotonin transporter gene and 10/10 homozygotes of DAT1. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for integrating social cognitive and neurobiological models of etiology in major depression. PMID:26974654

  10. Game-Based Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (GB-CBT) Group Program for Children Who Have Experienced Sexual Abuse: A Preliminary Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Misurell, Justin R.; Springer, Craig; Tryon, Warren W.

    2011-01-01

    This preliminary investigation examined the efficacy of a game-based cognitive-behavioral therapy group program for elementary school-aged children who have experienced sexual abuse. Treatment aimed to improve: (a) internalizing symptoms, (b) externalizing behaviors, (c) sexually inappropriate behaviors, (d) social skills deficits, (e) self-esteem…

  11. Preliminary Investigation of an Early Mental Health Intervention for Head Start Programs: Effects of Child Teacher Relationship Training on Children's Behavior Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Mary O.; Bratton, Sue C.

    2010-01-01

    Head Start teachers and their aides (n = 24) were assigned to either the experimental or active control treatment in this preliminary investigation on the effects of Child Teacher Relationship Training (CTRT) on 52 disadvantaged preschool children identified with behavioral problems. CTRT is based on the principles and procedures of Child Parent…

  12. Testing Positive versus Negative Claims: A Preliminary Investigation of the Role of Cover Story on the Assessment of Experimental Design Skills. CSE Technical Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmerman, Corinne; Glaser, Robert

    This paper presents results from a preliminary investigation in which researchers manipulated the cover story of an open-ended assessment that required students to design an experiment. Participants were 27 sixth graders from a culturally diverse urban school. In one version of the cover story, students were asked to design an experiment to test a…

  13. Isotopic Investigation of Contemporary and Historic Changes in Penguin Trophic Niches and Carrying Capacity of the Southern Indian Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Jaeger, Audrey; Cherel, Yves

    2011-01-01

    A temperature-defined regime shift occurred in the 1970s in the southern Indian Ocean, with simultaneous severe decreases in many predator populations. We tested a possible biological link between the regime shift and predator declines by measuring historic and contemporary feather isotopic signatures of seven penguin species with contrasted foraging strategies and inhabiting a large latitudinal range. We first showed that contemporary penguin isotopic variations and chlorophyll a concentration were positively correlated, suggesting the usefulness of predator δ13C values to track temporal changes in the ecosystem carrying capacity and its associated coupling to consumers. Having controlled for the Suess effect and for increase CO2 in seawater, δ13C values of Antarctic penguins and of king penguins did not change over time, while δ13C of other subantarctic and subtropical species were lower in the 1970s. The data therefore suggest a decrease in ecosystem carrying capacity of the southern Indian Ocean during the temperature regime-shift in subtropical and subantarctic waters but not in the vicinity of the Polar Front and in southward high-Antarctic waters. The resulting lower secondary productivity could be the main driving force explaining the decline of subtropical and subantarctic (but not Antarctic) penguins that occurred in the 1970s. Feather δ15N values did not show a consistent temporal trend among species, suggesting no major change in penguins’ diet. This study highlights the usefulness of developing long-term tissue sampling and data bases on isotopic signature of key marine organisms to track potential changes in their isotopic niches and in the carrying capacity of the environment. PMID:21311756

  14. Investigation of the preparation and use of low-capacity anion exchangers in single-column ion chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Barron, R.E.

    1984-01-01

    The preparation and uses of strong-base anion exchangers of low capacity are reviewed. A new adaptation of known reactions is presented for the reproducible preparation of Type I anion exchangers of low capacity and it is explored in some detail. The resins are based on the macroreticular copolymer known as XAD-1. It is shown that the same reaction scheme may be used on any porous styrene-divinylbenzene copolymer. Procedures are described for the preparation of twelve other strong-base resins with various structural differences in the quaternary ammonium functional group. These resins are then evaluated to determine the effect of chemical structure on selectivity for a number of common monovalent and divalent anions. It is shown that the structure of the quaternary ammonium ion has a definite effect on selectivity. It is also shown that surface modification can affect selectivity. The implications for single-column ion chromatography are discussed and some examples are given where a change in the chemical structure of the functional group is of practical value in the separation of anions. The factors influencing the choice of an eluent acid are outlined and it is shown that some acids are better than others on the basis on their lack of interaction with the copolymer matrix.

  15. Preliminary geologic investigation of the Apollo 12 landing site: Part A: Geology of the Apollo 12 Landing Site

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shoemaker, E.M.; Batson, R.M.; Bean, A.L.; Conrad, C., Jr.; Dahlem, D.H.; Goddard, E.N.; Hait, M.H.; Larson, K.B.; Schaber, G.G.; Schleicher, D.L.; Sutton, R.L.; Swann, G.A.; Waters, A.C.

    1970-01-01

    This report provides a preliminary description of the geologic setting of the lunar samples returned fromt he Apollo 12 mission. A more complete interpretation of the geology of the site will be prepared after thorough analysis of the data.

  16. Analytic investigation of the AEM-A/HCMM attitude control system performance. [Application Explorer Missions/Heat Capacity Mapping Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lerner, G. M.; Huang, W.; Shuster, M. D.

    1977-01-01

    The Heat Capacity Mapping Mission (HCMM), scheduled for launch in 1978, will be three-axis stabilized relative to the earth in a 600-kilometer altitude, polar orbit. The autonomous attitude control system consists of three torquing coils and a momentum wheel driven in response to error signals computed from data received from an infrared horizon sensor and a magnetometer. This paper presents a simple model of the attitude dynamics and derives the equations that determine the stability of the system during both attitude acquisition (acquisition-mode) and mission operations (mission-mode). Modifications to the proposed mission-mode control laws which speed the system's response to transient attitude errors and reduce the steady-state attitude errors are suggested. Numerical simulations are performed to validate the results obtained with the simple model.

  17. Preliminary Results From the CAUGHT Experiment: Investigation of the North Central Andes Subsurface Using Receiver Functions and Ambient Noise Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, J. C.; Ward, K. M.; Porter, R. C.; Beck, S. L.; Zandt, G.; Wagner, L. S.; Minaya, E.; Tavera, H.

    2011-12-01

    Jamie Ryan, Kevin M. Ward, Ryan Porter, Susan Beck, George Zandt, Lara Wagner, Estela Minaya, and Hernando Tavera The University of Arizona The University of North Carolina San Calixto Observatorio, La Paz, Bolivia IGP, Lima, Peru In order to investigate the interplay between crustal shortening, lithospheric removal, and surface uplift we have deployed 50 broadband seismometers in northwestern Bolivia and southern Peru as part of the interdisciplinary Central Andean Uplift and Geodynamics of High Topography (CAUGHT) project. The morphotectonic units of the central Andes from west to east, consist of the Western Cordillera, the active volcanic arc, the Altiplano, an internally drained basin (~4 km elevation), the Eastern Cordillera, the high peaks (~6 km elevation) of an older fold and thrust belt, the Subandean zone, the lower elevation active fold and thrust belt, and the foreland Beni basin. Between northwestern Bolivia and southern Peru, the Altiplano pinches out north of Lake Titicaca as the Andes narrow northward. The CAUGHT seismic instruments were deployed between 13° to 18° S latitudes to investigate the crust and mantle lithosphere of the central Andes in this transitional zone. In northwest Bolivia, perpendicular to the strike of the Andes, there is a total of 275 km of documented upper crustal shortening (15° to 17°S) (McQuarrie et al, 2008). Associated with the shortening is crustal thickening and possibly lithospheric removal as the thickening lithospheric root becomes unstable. An important first order study is to compare upper crustal shortening estimates with present day crustal thickness. To estimate crustal thickness, we have calculated receiver functions using an iterative deconvolution method and used common conversion point stacking along the same profile as the geologically based shortening estimates. In our preliminary results, we observed a strong P to S conversion corresponding to the Moho at approximately 60-65 km depth underneath the

  18. Preliminary investigation of the effects of sea-level rise on groundwater levels in New Haven, Connecticut

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bjerklie, David M.; Mullaney, John R.; Stone, Janet R.; Skinner, Brian J.; Ramlow, Matthew A.

    2012-01-01

    New Haven area and from new information on groundwater levels collected during October 2009-June 2010. For the scenario with a 3-ft rise in sea level and no increase in recharge, simulated groundwater levels near the coast rose 3 ft; this increased water level tapered off toward a discharge area at the only nontidal stream in the study area. Simulated stream discharge increased at the nontidal stream because of the increased gradient. Although groundwater levels rose, the simulated difference between the groundwater levels in the aquifer and the increased sea level declined, indicating that the depth to the interface between freshwater and saltwater may possibly decline. Simulated water levels were affected by rise in sea level even in areas where the water table was at 17-24 ft (5.2-7.3 m) above current (2011) sea level. For the scenario with increased recharge, simulated groundwater levels were as much as an additional foot higher at some locations in the study area. The results of this preliminary investigation indicate that groundwater levels in coastal areas can be expected to rise and may rise higher if groundwater recharge also increases. This finding has implications for the disposal of stormwater through infiltration, a low-impact development practice designed to improve water quality and reduce overland peak discharge. Other implications include increased risk of basement flooding and increased groundwater seepage into underground sewer pipes and utility corridors in some areas. These implications will present engineering challenges to New Haven and Yale University. The preliminary model developed for this study can be the starting point for further simulation of future alternative scenarios for sea-level rise and recharge. Further simulations could identify those areas of New Haven where infrastructure may be at greatest risk from rising levels of groundwater. The simulations described in this report have limitations due to the preliminary scope of the work

  19. Delayed P100-Like Latencies in Multiple Sclerosis: A Preliminary Investigation Using Visual Evoked Spread Spectrum Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kiiski, Hanni S. M.; Ní Riada, Sinéad; Lalor, Edmund C.; Gonçalves, Nuno R.; Nolan, Hugh; Whelan, Robert; Lonergan, Róisín; Kelly, Siobhán; O'Brien, Marie Claire; Kinsella, Katie; Bramham, Jessica; Burke, Teresa; Ó Donnchadha, Seán; Hutchinson, Michael; Tubridy, Niall; Reilly, Richard B.

    2016-01-01

    Conduction along the optic nerve is often slowed in multiple sclerosis (MS). This is typically assessed by measuring the latency of the P100 component of the Visual Evoked Potential (VEP) using electroencephalography. The Visual Evoked Spread Spectrum Analysis (VESPA) method, which involves modulating the contrast of a continuous visual stimulus over time, can produce a visually evoked response analogous to the P100 but with a higher signal-to-noise ratio and potentially higher sensitivity to individual differences in comparison to the VEP. The main objective of the study was to conduct a preliminary investigation into the utility of the VESPA method for probing and monitoring visual dysfunction in multiple sclerosis. The latencies and amplitudes of the P100-like VESPA component were compared between healthy controls and multiple sclerosis patients, and multiple sclerosis subgroups. The P100-like VESPA component activations were examined at baseline and over a 3-year period. The study included 43 multiple sclerosis patients (23 relapsing-remitting MS, 20 secondary-progressive MS) and 42 healthy controls who completed the VESPA at baseline. The follow-up sessions were conducted 12 months after baseline with 24 MS patients (15 relapsing-remitting MS, 9 secondary-progressive MS) and 23 controls, and again at 24 months post-baseline with 19 MS patients (13 relapsing-remitting MS, 6 secondary-progressive MS) and 14 controls. The results showed P100-like VESPA latencies to be delayed in multiple sclerosis compared to healthy controls over the 24-month period. Secondary-progressive MS patients had most pronounced delay in P100-like VESPA latency relative to relapsing-remitting MS and controls. There were no longitudinal P100-like VESPA response differences. These findings suggest that the VESPA method is a reproducible electrophysiological method that may have potential utility in the assessment of visual dysfunction in multiple sclerosis. PMID:26726800

  20. Development and Preliminary Testing of a Translational Model of Hepatocellular Carcinoma for Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Interventional Oncologic Investigations

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Scott M.; Callstrom, Matthew R.; Knudsen, Bruce; Anderson, Jill L.; Carter, Rickey E.; Grande, Joseph P.; Roberts, Lewis R.; Woodrum, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To develop a translational rat hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) disease model for magnetic resonance imaging and image-guided interventional oncologic investigations. Methods and Materials Male rats underwent sham control surgery (N=6), selective bile duct ligation (SBDL; N=4) or common bile duct ligation (CBDL; N=6) with procedure optimization in 4 rats and N1S1 cell injection into 2–3 sites in the liver of 12 rats. All rats subsequently underwent MRI to assess tumor establishment and volume. Mesenteric angiography and percutaneous MR-guided laser ablation of the liver were performed in a subgroup of animals (N=4). Animal weight and liver tests were monitored. After harvesting, the livers were subjected to gross and microscopic analysis. Tumor volume and laboratory parameters were assessed between ligation groups. Results MRI demonstrated hyperintense T2 and hypointense T1 lesions with tumor induction in 5/10 (50.0%), 7/8 (87.5%) and 12/12 (100%) sites in the control, SBDL and CBDL groups, respectively. Tumor volumes differed significantly by group (p<0.02). Mesenteric angiography demonstrated an enhancing tumor stain. Clinical and laboratory assessment revealed a significant decrease in weight (p = 0.01) and albumin (p<0.01) and increase in total bilirubin (p = 0.02) in CBDL rats but not SBDL rats (p=1.0). Histologic examination showed high-grade HCCs with local and vascular invasion within the context of early fibrosis in CBDL and SBDL rats. MR-guided laser ablation generated a 1–2 cm ablation zone with histology consistent with reversible and irreversible injury. Conclusion A biologically relevant rat hepatocellular carcinoma disease model was developed for MR imaging and preliminary interventional oncologic applications. PMID:22265247

  1. Preliminary on the isotope hydrology investigations at the Nevada test site: Hydrologic resources management program; FY 1992--1993

    SciTech Connect

    Davisson, M.L.; Kenneally, J.M.; Smith, D.K.; Hudson, G.B.; Nimz, G.J.; Rego, J.H.

    1994-01-01

    A comprehensive isotope data base of the NTS groundwaters collected during FY 92-93 is presented with preliminary interpretations. Multiple samples were collected from over 30 sites on pumped wells and open-holes by wireline bailing. Field water level measurements indicate essentially a bimodal distribution separated by water levels at higher elevations (e.g. Pahute Mesa) from water levels of lower elevations (e.g. Yucca and Frenchman Flats). Down hole temperature measurements have confirmed anomalous temperature gradients in the eastern Yucca Flat area and on Pahute Mesa, where horizontal temperature gradients up to 0.33{degrees}F/100ft are found. Consistent with previous reports by others, the major ion geochemistry of the NTS groundwater are dominated by Na-K-HCO{sub 3} and Ca-Mg-HCO{sub 3} water types, where the Na-rich water appears to be related to dissolution in the volcanic tuffs and the Ca-rich water to the Paleozoic carbonates. Increases in dissolved Si also seems to be indicative of groundwater that resides in the volcanic tuffs. Processes controlling the Na/Ca ratios are complex and may include ion exchange reactions with clays, evaporative concentration in the vadose zone, and lithological heterogeneities in addition to simple differential dissolution between the volcanic tuffs and the Paleozoic carbonates. Apparent {sup 14}C ages range between 4000 and 38,000 years for groundwaters at the NTS. The uncertainty is large for exact age determinations at this time. The {sup 14}C abundance decreases with increased dissolved HCO{sub 3}, and {sup 13}C suggests dissolution of the ``dead`` Paleozoic carbonates significantly influence the ages, but more work is needed to investigate the influence of vadose zone carbonate.

  2. Delayed P100-Like Latencies in Multiple Sclerosis: A Preliminary Investigation Using Visual Evoked Spread Spectrum Analysis.

    PubMed

    Kiiski, Hanni S M; Ní Riada, Sinéad; Lalor, Edmund C; Gonçalves, Nuno R; Nolan, Hugh; Whelan, Robert; Lonergan, Róisín; Kelly, Siobhán; O'Brien, Marie Claire; Kinsella, Katie; Bramham, Jessica; Burke, Teresa; Ó Donnchadha, Seán; Hutchinson, Michael; Tubridy, Niall; Reilly, Richard B

    2016-01-01

    Conduction along the optic nerve is often slowed in multiple sclerosis (MS). This is typically assessed by measuring the latency of the P100 component of the Visual Evoked Potential (VEP) using electroencephalography. The Visual Evoked Spread Spectrum Analysis (VESPA) method, which involves modulating the contrast of a continuous visual stimulus over time, can produce a visually evoked response analogous to the P100 but with a higher signal-to-noise ratio and potentially higher sensitivity to individual differences in comparison to the VEP. The main objective of the study was to conduct a preliminary investigation into the utility of the VESPA method for probing and monitoring visual dysfunction in multiple sclerosis. The latencies and amplitudes of the P100-like VESPA component were compared between healthy controls and multiple sclerosis patients, and multiple sclerosis subgroups. The P100-like VESPA component activations were examined at baseline and over a 3-year period. The study included 43 multiple sclerosis patients (23 relapsing-remitting MS, 20 secondary-progressive MS) and 42 healthy controls who completed the VESPA at baseline. The follow-up sessions were conducted 12 months after baseline with 24 MS patients (15 relapsing-remitting MS, 9 secondary-progressive MS) and 23 controls, and again at 24 months post-baseline with 19 MS patients (13 relapsing-remitting MS, 6 secondary-progressive MS) and 14 controls. The results showed P100-like VESPA latencies to be delayed in multiple sclerosis compared to healthy controls over the 24-month period. Secondary-progressive MS patients had most pronounced delay in P100-like VESPA latency relative to relapsing-remitting MS and controls. There were no longitudinal P100-like VESPA response differences. These findings suggest that the VESPA method is a reproducible electrophysiological method that may have potential utility in the assessment of visual dysfunction in multiple sclerosis. PMID:26726800

  3. Speech Perception and Phonological Short-Term Memory Capacity in Language Impairment: Preliminary Evidence from Adolescents with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) and Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loucas, Tom; Riches, Nick Greatorex; Charman, Tony; Pickles, Andrew; Simonoff, Emily; Chandler, Susie; Baird, Gillian

    2010-01-01

    Background: The cognitive bases of language impairment in specific language impairment (SLI) and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) were investigated in a novel non-word comparison task which manipulated phonological short-term memory (PSTM) and speech perception, both implicated in poor non-word repetition. Aims: This study aimed to investigate the…

  4. Summary report: A preliminary investigation into the use of fuzzy logic for the control of redundant manipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheatham, John B., Jr.; Magee, Kevin N.

    1991-01-01

    The Rice University Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Sciences' Robotics Group designed and built an eight degree of freedom redundant manipulator. Fuzzy logic was proposed as a control scheme for tasks not directly controlled by a human operator. In preliminary work, fuzzy logic control was implemented for a camera tracking system and a six degree of freedom manipulator. Both preliminary systems use real time vision data as input to fuzzy controllers. Related projects include integration of tactile sensing and fuzzy control of a redundant snake-like arm that is under construction.

  5. A Novel Physiological Investigation of the Functional Residual Capacity by the Bias Flow Nitrogen Washout Technique in Infants

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Mohy G.

    2011-01-01

    Summary The dynamic functional residual capacity (FRCdyn), the lung volume most routinely measured in infants, is an unreliable volume landmark. In addition to the FRCdyn, we measured the (passive) static FRC (FRCst) by inducing a brief post-hyperventilation apnea (PHA) in 33 healthy infants aged 7.4–127.2 weeks. A commercial system for nitrogen (N2) washout to measure FRC, and a custom made system to monitor and record flow and airwayopening pressure signals in real-time were used in unison. Infants were manually hyperventilated to induce a PHA. After the last passive expiration, FRCst was estimated by measuring the volume of N2 expired after end-passive expiratory switching of the inspired gas from room air to 100% oxygen during the post-expiratory apneic pause. Repeatable intrasubject FRCst and FRCdyn measurements overlapped in most infants including the younger ones (P = 0.2839). Mean (95% confidence interval [CI]) FRCst was 21.1 (20.0–22.3), and error-corrected FRCdyn was 21.4 (20.4–22.4) ml/kg. Mean (washout time [t]) tFRCst was longer than tFRCdyn 60 sec (95% CI 55–65) versus 47 sec (95% CI 43–51) (P<0.0001). The FRC and washout time were dependent on body length, weight and age. We conclude that the FRCst is not different from the FRCdyn in infants. The FRCst is a reliable volume landmark because the PHA stabilizes the end-expiratory level by potentially abolishing the sedated infant’s breathing strategies. The FRCst lacks potential sources of errors and disadvantages associated with measuring the FRCdyn. The findings cast significant doubt on the traditional physiology of air trapping in healthy infants’ lungs. PMID:19499588

  6. A Preliminary Investigation of the Components of a Curriculum for the Preparation of Master's-Level Addiction Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whittinghill, David

    2006-01-01

    This study identified the preliminary curriculum components for the preparation of graduate-level addiction counselors. A review of the related literature revealed no agreed upon standards for post baccalaureate instruction of addiction counseling. The Delphi method was used to establish curriculum items from a list of 198 previously identified…

  7. A Preliminary Investigation of the Effects of Giving Testimony and Learning Yogic Breathing Techniques on Battered Women's Feelings of Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franzblau, Susan H.; Echevarria, Sonia; Smith, Michelle; Van Cantfort, Thomas E.

    2008-01-01

    Researchers have shown that mood and sense of control over one's life are significantly affected by testimony and other forms of disclosure and that learning to control breathing has positive effects on mood and anxiety. This preliminary experiment tests whether African American and European American abused women who give testimony about their…

  8. Multichannel Seismic Investigations of Sediment Drifts off West Antarctica and the Antarctic Peninsula: Preliminary Results from Research Cruise JR298

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larter, R. D.; Graham, A. G. C.; Hernandez-Molina, J.; Channell, J. E. T.; Hillenbrand, C. D.; Hogan, K. A.; Uenzelmann-Neben, G.; Gohl, K.; Rebesco, M.; Hodell, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    The West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) and Antarctic Peninsula Ice Sheet (APIS) have exhibited significant changes over recent decades but there is still great uncertainty about how rapidly and how far they will retreat in a warmer climate. For example, it remains unclear whether or not the marine-based WAIS "collapsed" during the last interglacial period, resulting in a global sea-level rise contribution of more than 3 m. Previous studies, including Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Leg 178, have shown that sediment drifts on the continental rise west of the Antarctic Peninsula contain a rich high-resolution archive of Antarctic margin paleoceanography and APIS history that extends back to at least the Late Miocene. The potential of existing ODP cores from the drifts is, however, compromised by the fact that composite sections are incomplete and lack of precise chronological control. A new drilling proposal (732-Full2) has been scientifically approved and is with the JOIDES Resolution Facilities Board of the International Ocean Discovery Program for scheduling. The main aims of the proposal are to obtain continuous, high-resolution records from sites on sediment drifts off both the Antarctic Peninsula and West Antarctica (southern Bellingshausen Sea) and to achieve good chronological control on them using a range of techniques. We present preliminary results from a recent site survey investigation cruise on RRS James Clark Ross (JR298) that obtained high-resolution multichannel seismic reflection data over the proposed sites and adjacent working areas. The new data provide a basis for interpretation of (i) sedimentary processes that operated during the development of the drifts, and (ii) links between depositional systems on the continental rise, paleo-ice-sheet dynamics and paleoceanographic processes. Through further analyses of seismic and other geophysical data, in combination with marine sediment cores retrieved from the proposed sites, we aim to provide insight into

  9. Experimental Investigations of the Energy and Environmental Indices of Operation of a Low-Capacity Combined Gas Producer and Hot-Water Boiler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodnar, L. A.; Stepanov, D. V.; Dovgal‧, A. N.

    2015-07-01

    It has been shown that the introduction of combined gas producers and boilers on renewable energy sources is a pressing issue. A structural diagram of a low-capacity combined gas producer and boiler on renewable energy sources has been given; a bench and procedures for investigation and processing of results have been developed. Experimental investigations of the energy and environmental indices of a 40-kW combined gas producer and hotwater boiler burning wood have been carried out. Results of the experimental investigations have been analyzed. Distinctive features have been established and a procedure of thermal calculation of the double furnace of a lowcapacity combined gas producer and boiler burning solid fuel has been proposed. The calculated coefficients of heat transfer from the gases in the convection bank have been compared with the obtained experimental results. A calculation dependence for the heat transfer from the gases in convection banks of low-capacity hot-water boilers has been proposed. The quantities of harmful emissions from the combined gas producer and boiler on renewable energy sources have been compared with the existing Ukrainian and foreign standards. It has been established that the environmental efficiency of the boiler under study complies with most of the standard requirements of European countries.

  10. An Investigation of the Growth Inhibitory Capacity of Several Medicinal Plants From Iran on Tumor Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Esmaeilbeig, Maryam; Kouhpayeh, Seyed Amin; Amirghofran, Zahra

    2015-01-01

    Background: Traditional herbal medicine is a valuable resource that provides new drugs for cancer treatment. Objectives: In this study we aim to screen and investigate the in vitro anti-tumor activities of ten species of plants commonly grown in Southern Iran. Materials and Methods: We used the MTT colorimetric assay to evaluate the cytotoxic activities of the methanol extracts of these plants on various tumor cell lines. The IC50 was calculated as a scale for this evaluation. Results: Satureja bachtiarica, Satureja hortensis, Thymus vulgaris, Thymus daenensis and Mentha lonigfolia showed the inhibitoriest effects on Jurkat cells with > 80% inhibition at 200 µg/mL. Satureja hortensis (IC50: 66.7 µg/mL) was the most effective. These plants also strongly inhibited K562 cell growth; Satureja bachtiarica (IC50: 28.3 µg/mL), Satureja hortensis (IC50: 52 µg/mL) and Thymus vulgaris (IC50: 87 µg/mL) were the most effective extracts. Cichorium intybus, Rheum ribes, Alhagi pseudalhagi and Glycyrrihza glabra also showed notable effects on the leukemia cell lines. The Raji cell line was mostly inhibited by Satureja bachtiarica and Thymus vulgaris with approximately 40% inhibition at 200µg/ml. The influence of these extracts on solid tumor cell lines was not strong. Fen cells were mostly affected by Glycyrrihza glabra (IC50: 182 µg/mL) and HeLa cells by Satureja hortensis (31.6% growth inhibitory effect at 200 µg/mL). Conclusions: Leukemic cell lines were more sensitive to the extracts than the solid tumor cell lines; Satureja hortensis, Satureja bachtiarica, Thymus vulgaris, Thymus daenensis and Mentha lonigfolia showed remarkable inhibitory potential. PMID:26634114

  11. Investigation of the climatic extremes influence on the humane adaptive capacity by mass spectrometric analysis of exhaled breath condensate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryabokon, Anna; Larina, Irina; Kononikhin, Alexey; Starodubtceva, Nataliia; Popov, Igor; Nikolaev, Eugene; Varfolomeev, Sergey

    Global climate change, which causes abnormal fluctuations in temperature and rainfall, has adverse effects on human health. Particularly people suffer with cardiovascular and respiratory system disease. Our research was concentrated on the changes in the regulation and adaptation systems of human organism related to hyperthermia and polluted air influence. Healthy individuals with the age from 22 to 45 years were isolated during 30 days in the ground based experimental facility located at Institute of medico-biological problems RAS (Moscow, Russia). In the ground based facility artificially climatic conditions of August, 2010 in Moscow were created. Exhaled breath condensate was collected before and after isolation by R-Tube collector, freeze dried, treated by trypsin and analyzed by nanoflow LC-MS/MS with a 7-Tesla LTQ-FT Ultra mass spectrometer (Thermo Electron, Bremen, Germany). Database search was performed using Mascot Server 2.2 software (Matrix Science, London, UK). Investigation of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) collected from participants of the 30 days isolation with hyper thermic and polluted air climate conditions was performed. After isolation reduction of the protein number was observed. Loss endothelial C receptor precursor - the main physiological anticoagulant - correlate with the clinical data of physicians to increase the propensity to thrombosis. Also COP9 signalosome protein, positive regulator of ubiquitin was identified in all EBC samples before isolation and was not detected for more than a half of donors after isolation. This phenomena may be due to violation of ubiquitin protection system of the cells from harmful proteins. During isolation the air was cleared from microdisperse particles.

  12. A Gauge-Radar-Satellite Merged Analysis of High-Resolution Regional Precipitation over Eastern China: Preliminary Investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Y.; Zhao, F.; Shan, Q.; Yang, Z.; Xie, P.

    2011-12-01

    A new technique is being developed at the Zhejiang Meteorological Agency of China Meteorological Administration (CMA) to construct an hourly precipitation analysis over Zhejiang Province of China through merging information from multiple sources. The target precipitation analyses cover the eastern China province of ~100K km2 and its adjacent East China Sea at a very high resolution of 1km by 1km. The precipitation observations used as inputs to the merging system include gauge reports of hourly precipitation at over 1500 automatic stations, radar observations of precipitation, and CMORPH satellite-based estimates. First a gauge-based hourly precipitation analysis is produced on a 1kmx1km grid by interpolating station measurements with consideration of orographic effects. To this end, analyzed fields of hourly precipitation climatology is defined by interpolating gauge observations over a 30 years period from 1981 to 2010 and the adjusted to the PRISM monthly precipitation climatology to reflect the orographic effects. Gridded fields of the ratio between the total hourly precipitation and hourly climatology are then constructed by interpolating corresponding point values at nearby stations using the optimal interpolation (OI) technique. The hourly precipitation analysis is finally defined as the product of the interpolated ratio and the hourly climatology at the grid point. In this preliminary investigation, the high-resolution precipitation analysis is constructed for a 3-year period from 2009 to 2011 and used to examine the error structures of the hourly precipitation fields derived from radar observations and satellite estimates. While the radar and satellite-based precipitation estimates are capable of capturing overall time and space variations associated with major synoptic and meso-scale weather systems, both of them present bias and random error of substantial magnitude. The bias in the radar and satellite precipitation exhibits regional patterns as well as

  13. Preliminary simulations of planned experiments to study the impact of trace gases on the capacity of the Weyburn-Midale field to store carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, S; Hao, Y

    2009-11-13

    Guen et al (2007) used x-ray micro-tomography and geochemistry to show that porosity significantly increases when reacted with pure CO{sub 2}. While both of these studies nicely illustrate the relationship between reaction kinetics, thermodynamics, and porosity changes using x-ray micro-tomography, actual changes in a reservoir may be significantly lower because the input brines used in these studies were significantly dilute and below mineral carbonate saturation. The objective of the simulations reported was to explore viable experimental parameters for CO{sub 2} core flood experiments designed to investigate the impact of CO{sub 2} on porosity and permeability in the Weyburn-Midale storage reservoir. We describe the simulation results for core flood experiments in which formation waters that are equilibrated with supercritical CO{sub 2} at 60 C and 14.7 M Pascals react with three different flow units within the Midale formation.

  14. An Investigation on Forage Yield Capacity of Kermes Oak (Quercus coccifera L.) and Grazing Planning of Mediterranean Maquis Scrublands for Traditional Goat Farming

    PubMed Central

    Tolunay, Ahmet; Adıyaman, Elif; İnce, Duygu; Ayhan, Veysel

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated grazing capacities of maquis scrubland and preparation principles of grazing management in forest resources. Kermes oak (Quercus coccifera L.), which is widespread as a main shrub species in maquis vegetation in Turkey, and pure hair goats (Capra hircus L.) feeding on shoots and leaves of this shrub were selected for study. The study was conducted in two stages. Green leaf and shoot samples were taken from kermes oaks in the first stage and the amount of green herbage yield (g∗m−1) and dry matter yield (kg∗ha−1) that may be obtained per unit area from these samples was identified. The considered amount of dry matter consumed by pure hair goats daily and the number of goats being fed within 1 year on land of 1 ha according to different land coverage rates of kermes oaks (goat head∗ha∗yr) were calculated. In the second stage, grazing capacities of sample areas where kermes oak spread were identified and compared with the grazing plan prepared by the forestry administration for this area. Forage yield variance according to land coverage rates of maquis scrublands should be considered when determining optimum animal numbers for grazing per area for sustainable goat farming. PMID:25379526

  15. Cutaneous exposure scenarios for engineered nanoparticles used in semiconductor fabrication: a preliminary investigation of workplace surface contamination

    PubMed Central

    Shepard, Michele; Brenner, Sara

    2014-01-01

    Background: Numerous studies are ongoing in the fields of nanotoxicology and exposure science; however, gaps remain in identifying and evaluating potential exposures from skin contact with engineered nanoparticles in occupational settings. Objectives: The aim of this study was to identify potential cutaneous exposure scenarios at a workplace using engineered nanoparticles (alumina, ceria, amorphous silica) and evaluate the presence of these materials on workplace surfaces. Methods: Process review, workplace observations, and preliminary surface sampling were conducted using microvacuum and wipe sample collection methods and transmission electron microscopy with elemental analysis. Results: Exposure scenarios were identified with potential for incidental contact. Nanoparticles of silica or silica and/or alumina agglomerates (or aggregates) were identified in surface samples from work areas where engineered nanoparticles were used or handled. Conclusions: Additional data are needed to evaluate occupational exposures from skin contact with engineered nanoparticles; precautionary measures should be used to minimize potential cutaneous exposures in the workplace. PMID:25000112

  16. Preliminary investigation of biogenic gas production in Indonesian low rank coals and implications for a renewable energy source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Susilawati, Rita; Papendick, Sam L.; Gilcrease, Patrick C.; Esterle, Joan S.; Golding, Suzanne D.; Mares, Tennille E.

    2013-11-01

    Indonesia has abundant coal resources at depths suitable to contain substantial volumes of naturally occurring methane, which are currently being explored. Most Indonesian coals are thermally immature, but are composed of hydrogen-rich organic components that are presumed to make them excellent substrates for biogenic methane production. Gas isotope results from pilot wells in South Sumatra, reported in this study, are interpreted to indicate biogenic origins for the methane. Corresponding formation water samples were collected and incubated, and show the presence of indigenous microbial communities capable of producing methane from Indonesian and Australian coal. Although these results are only preliminary, they are promising and support the possibility of Indonesia developing bio renewable energy from coal seams.

  17. A preliminary investigation of the components of a curriculum for the preparation of master's-level addiction counselors.

    PubMed

    Whittinghill, David

    2006-01-01

    This study identified the preliminary curriculum components for the preparation of graduate-level addiction counselors. A review of the related literature revealed no agreed upon standards for post baccalaureate instruction of addiction counseling. The Delphi method was used to establish curriculum items from a list of 198 previously identified work behaviors associated with graduate-level addiction counseling. A panel of 28 addiction counseling experts responded to three administrations of an evolving questionnaire and reached consensus on a final list of 89 curriculum items. Consensus of expert judgments was corroborated by a post hoc multivariate of analysis of variance (MANOVA) that revealed no significant differences in ratings of importance among panelist subgroups. PMID:17533806

  18. A preliminary investigation of the effects of giving testimony and learning yogic breathing techniques on battered women's feelings of depression.

    PubMed

    Franzblau, Susan H; Echevarria, Sonia; Smith, Michelle; Van Cantfort, Thomas E

    2008-12-01

    Researchers have shown that mood and sense of control over one's life are significantly affected by testimony and other forms of disclosure and that learning to control breathing has positive effects on mood and anxiety. This preliminary experiment tests whether African American and European American abused women who give testimony about their experiences of intimate partner violence and learn how to use yogic breathing techniques have reduced feelings of depression. Results indicate that learning yogic breathing techniques alone and combined with giving testimony significantly reduces feelings of depression. Recasting women as authorities on domestic violence and teaching them how to calm their minds by focusing on yogic breathing may be simple and effective ways to help women take control over their bodies and lives. PMID:18319369

  19. A preliminary investigation of pollution in the River Yamuna, Delhi, India: Metal concentrations in river bank soils and plants.

    PubMed

    Farago, M E; Mehra, A; Banerjee, D K

    1989-12-01

    A preliminary study of inorganic elements in the river bank soil and plants from the River Yamuna in Delhi has been carried out. Soil at Okhla, near the Water Works plant has a high zinc content (1,215 μg g(-1) and this is reflected in the high concentration of zinc (2,029 μg g(-1)) in Eichhornia plants growing in the river at this point. Although in general the aluminium content of the soils is low in comparison with the world mean, soil near the effluent from the ash settling basins of the Indraprathsa Power Station contains elevated aluminium.Eichhornia plants growing near this effluent are stunted and unhealthy, and is suggested that, taking into account the high pH, possible causes are toxicity from aluminium or boron. PMID:24202425

  20. Preliminary investigations of Monte Carlo Simulations of neutron energy and LET spectra for fast neutron therapy facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Kroc, T.K.; /Fermilab

    2009-10-01

    No fast neutron therapy facility has been built with optimized beam quality based on a thorough understanding of the neutron spectrum and its resulting biological effectiveness. A study has been initiated to provide the information necessary for such an optimization. Monte Carlo studies will be used to simulate neutron energy spectra and LET spectra. These studies will be bench-marked with data taken at existing fast neutron therapy facilities. Results will also be compared with radiobiological studies to further support beam quality ptimization. These simulations, anchored by this data, will then be used to determine what parameters might be optimized to take full advantage of the unique LET properties of fast neutron beams. This paper will present preliminary work in generating energy and LET spectra for the Fermilab fast neutron therapy facility.

  1. A Preliminary Investigation of the Long-Term Outcome of the Unified Protocol for Transdiagnostic Treatment of Emotional Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Bullis, Jacqueline R.; Fortune, Meghan R.; Farchione, Todd J.; Barlow, David H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To conduct a preliminary examination of long-term outcomes on a broad range of affective disorder symptoms treated with a newly developed intervention: The Unified Protocol for Transdiagnostic Treatment of Emotional Disorders (UP). Method Maintenance of treatment gains at long-term follow-up (LTFU) were explored in patients (n = 15, mean age = 32.27; 60% female) who completed a clinical trial of the UP. Results Treatment gains observed at 6-month follow-up (6MFU) on measures of clinical severity, general symptoms of depression and anxiety, and a measure of symptom interference in daily functioning were largely maintained 12 months later (at an average of 18 months posttreatment), and any significant changes from 6MFU to LTFU reflected small increases in symptoms that remained, on average, in the subclinical range. Conclusions These findings provide the first initial support for the durability of broad treatment gains following transdiagnostic treatment. PMID:25113056

  2. Reduced Cardiovascular Capacity and Resting Metabolic Rate in Men with Prostate Cancer Undergoing Androgen Deprivation: A Comprehensive Cross-Sectional Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Wall, Bradley A.; Galvão, Daniel A.; Fatehee, Naeem; Taaffe, Dennis R.; Spry, Nigel; Joseph, David; Newton, Robert U.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. To investigate if androgen deprivation therapy exposure is associated with additional risk factors for cardiovascular disease and metabolic treatment-related toxicities. Methods. One hundred and seven men (42–89 years) with prostate cancer undergoing androgen deprivation therapy completed a maximal graded objective exercise test to determine maximal oxygen uptake, assessments for resting metabolic rate, body composition, blood pressure and arterial stiffness, and blood biomarker analysis. A cross-sectional analysis was undertaken to investigate the potential impact of therapy exposure with participants stratified into two groups according to duration of androgen deprivation therapy (<3 months and ≥3 months). Results. Maximal oxygen uptake (26.1 ± 6.0 mL/kg/min versus 23.2 ± 5.8 mL/kg/min, p = 0.020) and resting metabolic rate (1795 ± 256 kcal/d versus 1647 ± 236 kcal/d, p = 0.005) were significantly higher in those with shorter exposure to androgen deprivation. There were no differences between groups for peripheral and central blood pressure, arterial stiffness, or metabolic profile. Conclusion. Three months or longer exposure to androgen deprivation therapy was associated with reduced cardiorespiratory capacity and resting metabolic rate, but not in a range of blood biomarkers. These findings suggest that prolonged exposure to androgen deprivation therapy is associated with negative alterations in cardiovascular outcomes. Trial registry is: ACTRN12609000200280. PMID:26587019

  3. Preliminary analyses of the excavation investigation experiments proposed for the exploratory shaft at Yucca Mountain, Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Costin, L.S.; Bauer, S.J.

    1988-12-01

    The Yucca Mountain Project (YMP), is examining the feasibility of siting a repository for high-level nuclear waste at Yucca Mountain on and adjacent to the Nevada Test Site. Three excavation experiments, Shaft Convergence, Demonstration Breakout Rooms, and Sequential Drift Mining, will provide some of the data required to (1) assess the mechanical behavior of repository-size openings and (2) validate numerical models that may be used in the repository design process. In this report, the results of preliminary analyses of the three excavation experiments are presented. The major objective of these analyses was to provide some guidance to the experiment planners regarding the expected displacements and stresses near the experimental drifts so that selection and placement of instrumentation could be optimized. Further, successful completion of these analyses demonstrates the ability to model the experiments, given the simplifying assumptions presented. Limitations of the analyses performed and the experiments as currently designed are also discussed. Finally, the results of these analyses provided some indication of how the variation of some key geometric and material parameters would affect the predicted results. Once the experiment design is finalized and site-specific material data are collected, pretest predictive analyses will be conducted using the mechanical and material models that require validation. 15 refs., 123 figs., 13 tabs.

  4. Self-regulation abilities in children with severe traumatic brain injury: a preliminary investigation of naturalistic action.

    PubMed

    Cook, Lori G; Chapman, Sandra B; Levin, Harvey S

    2008-01-01

    Research suggests that the occurrence of a traumatic brain injury (TBI) in childhood may disrupt self-regulation abilities, putting children at risk for difficulty on everyday tasks requiring self-regulation throughout their development. In the current exploratory study, a novel age-appropriate task assessed the ability to perform three familiar tasks using real objects while adhering to specific rules. Performance of children (ages 8-16) with severe TBI (n = 11) on the naturalistic task was compared to that of typically developing children (n = 21), including measures of the amount/types of errors and number of broken rules. The children with TBI exhibited significantly increased use of distractor objects in place of target objects as compared to the non-injured children. Additionally, children with TBI demonstrated trends of increased breaking of rules during the task and failure to include necessary steps. The preliminary results support the theory that children with severe TBI possess inefficient supervisory processes of self-regulation, corresponding to a decreased ability to carry out goal-based top-down processing. They may instead exhibit a bias towards a bottom-up approach, depending primarily on environmental cues such as the objects present to guide their actions, thus impeding self-regulation abilities. PMID:19127000

  5. A new biomarker of hedonic eating? A preliminary investigation of cortisol and nausea responses to acute opioid blockade.

    PubMed

    Daubenmier, Jennifer; Lustig, Robert H; Hecht, Frederick M; Kristeller, Jean; Woolley, Josh; Adam, Tanja; Dallman, Mary; Epel, Elissa

    2014-03-01

    Overweight and obese individuals differ in their degree of hedonic eating. This may reflect adaptations in reward-related neural circuits, regulated in part by opioidergic activity. We examined an indirect, functional measure of central opioidergic activity by assessing cortisol and nausea responses to acute opioid blockade using the opioid antagonist naltrexone in overweight/obese women (mean BMI=31.1±4.8) prior to the start of a mindfulness-based intervention to reduce stress eating. In addition, we assessed indices of hedonic-related eating, including eating behaviors (binge eating, emotional eating, external eating, restraint) and intake of sweets/desserts and carbohydrates (Block Food Frequency); interoceptive awareness (which is associated with dysregulated eating behavior); and level of adiposity at baseline. Naltrexone-induced increases in cortisol were associated with greater emotional and restrained eating and lower interoceptive awareness. Naltrexone-induced nausea was associated with binge eating and higher adiposity. Furthermore, in a small exploratory analysis, naltrexone-induced nausea predicted treatment response to the mindfulness intervention, as participants with more severe nausea at baseline maintained weight whereas those with little or no nausea responses tended to gain weight. These preliminary data suggest that naltrexone-induced cortisol release and nausea may help identify individuals who have greater underlying food reward dependence, which leads to an excessive drive to eat. Future research is needed to confirm this finding and to test if these markers of opioidergic tone might help predict success in certain types of weight management programs. PMID:24291355

  6. Examining emotional modulation of pain and spinal nociception in Native Americans: a preliminary investigation.

    PubMed

    Palit, Shreela; Kerr, Kara L; Kuhn, Bethany L; DelVentura, Jennifer L; Terry, Ellen L; Bartley, Emily J; Shadlow, Joanna O; Rhudy, Jamie L

    2013-11-01

    Pain problems are more prevalent in Native Americans than in any other group in the U.S., and this might result from group differences in pain modulation. This study was designed to examine emotional modulation of pain and spinal nociception in healthy, pain-free Native Americans (n = 21) relative to non-Hispanic Whites (n = 20). To assess emotional modulation of pain and the nociceptive flexion reflex (NFR, a physiological measure of spinal nociception), participants underwent a well-validated emotional picture-viewing paradigm during which suprathreshold pain stimuli were delivered to the ankle. Compared to Whites, Native Americans reported less pleasure to erotic pictures and failed to show corrugator reactivity to mutilation pictures. Unlike Whites, Native Americans only evidenced pain inhibition in response to erotica, but no pain facilitation (disinhibition) to mutilation pictures. Emotional modulation of NFR was similar in both groups. These preliminary findings suggest that Native Americans failed to disinhibit pain, perhaps due to over-activation of pain inhibitory mechanisms. Chronic over-activation of this system could ultimately exhaust it, thus putting Native Americans at future risk for chronic pain. PMID:23994207

  7. A Preliminary Investigation on the Antimicrobial Activity of Listerine®, Its Components, and of Mixtures Thereof.

    PubMed

    Vlachojannis, C; Chrubasik-Hausmann, S; Hellwig, E; Al-Ahmad, A

    2015-10-01

    Listerine® is one of the most popular mouthwashes worldwide and claims to combat harmful bacteria. In the past century, its recipe was changed from an essential oil mouthwash to a five-component mixture (thymol, menthol, eucalyptol, and methyl salicylate dissolved in 27% ethanol). The aim of this study was to get preliminary information about the antimicrobial activities of individual Listerine® components and their mixtures. We tested the bacterial strains Streptococcus mutans, Enterococcus faecalis, and Eikenella corrodens and the yeast Candida albicans. The established minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assay and the minimum bactericidal/fungicidal concentration (MBC/MFC) assay were applied. None of the combinations of two phenols at the concentrations contained within Listerine® were associated with either an additive or synergistic effect. Thymol had lower MIC and MBC/MFC values than the other Listerine® components and Listerine® against E. corrodens and C. albicans. The mixtures consisting of eucalyptol, methyl salicylate, and thymol were the most effective against S. mutans and E. faecalis and more effective than Listerine®. Our results demonstrate that the phenols and their concentrations as contained within Listerine® could be further optimized in terms of selecting those which increase their general effectiveness, at concentrations that do not induce harm. PMID:26104602

  8. A preliminary investigation of the environmental Control and Life Support Subsystems (EC/LSS) for animal and plant experiment payloads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wells, H. B.

    1972-01-01

    A preliminary study of the environmental control and life support subsystems (EC/LSS) necessary for an earth orbital spacecraft to conduct biological experiments is presented. The primary spacecraft models available for conducting these biological experiments are the space shuttle and modular space station. The experiments would be housed in a separate module that would be contained in either the shuttle payload bay or attached to the modular space station. This module would be manned only for experiment-related tasks, and would contain a separate EC/LSS for the crew and animals. Metabolic data were tabulated on various animals that are considered useful for a typical experiment program. The minimum payload for the 30-day space shuttle module was found to require about the equivalent of a one-man EC/LSS; however, the selected two-man shuttle assemblies will give a growth and contingency factor of about 50 percent. The maximum payloads for the space station mission will require at least a seven-man EC/LSS for the laboratory colony and a nine-man EC/LSS for the centrifuge colony. There is practically no room for growth or contingencies in these areas.

  9. Environmental pollen trapped by tobacco leaf as indicators of the provenance of counterfeit cigarette products: a preliminary investigation and test of concept.

    PubMed

    Donaldson, Margaret P; Stephens, William E

    2010-05-01

    The global trade in counterfeit tobacco products is increasingly taking market share from legal brands in many parts of the developed world, with attendant adverse economic, health, criminal, and other societal impacts. Knowing the geographical source is central to developing new strategies for curbing this illicit trade, and here, the potential of environmental pollen extracted from manufactured cigarettes is examined. Two samples representing U.S. and Chinese brands were investigated for their pollen content. Results indicate that tobacco leaf very efficiently captures environmental pollen (about 1800 and 12,600 grains per cigarette, respectively) with no detectable self-contamination by the tobacco plant. In both cases, the flora is typical of open space environments, but pollen type counts indicate very different distributions of species. This preliminary investigation indicates that palynology has the potential to constrain geographical source(s) of tobacco, particularly if regionally localized species can be recognized among the pollen. PMID:20202071

  10. Preliminary results of ERTS-investigations by W-German investigations. [multidisciplinary geoscientific experiments in central Germany and hydrogeology of Argentina Pampas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muehlfeld, R.

    1974-01-01

    Results are presented of West German investigations into multidisciplinary geoscientific experiments in central Germany and the Alps, and hydrogeological investigations in the Pampa of Argentina based on ERTS-1 data. The main goals of the investigation were achieved. The studies have given a good idea of the possibilities and limitations of ERTS imagery depending on the objectives in question and on the geographical conditions of the areas under investigation. Even in the well known region of central Europe, ERTS has proven its ability of improving present knowledge. In fields such as pollution monitoring and regional planning the satellite techniques should have distinct practical value. For any regional study of less known areas, the value of ERTS imagery can hardly be overestimated.

  11. High capacity multicomponent hydrogen storage materials: Investigation of the effect of stoichiometry and decomposition conditions on the cycling behaviour of LiBH 4-MgH 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Gavin S.; Grant, David M.; Price, Tobias C.; Yu, Xuebin; Legrand, Vincent

    LiBH 4-MgH 2 is an attractive reversible hydrogen storage system, it combines two high capacity hydrides (18.3 and 7.6 wt.%, respectively) and the concerted dehydrogenation reaction has a smaller enthalpy change than either species on its own. The latter effect leads to a destabilisation of the hydrided products and results in a lowering of the dehydrogenation temperature. In situ neutron diffraction experiments have been undertaken to characterise the mechanism of decomposition of the LiBD 4-MgD 2 system, with an emphasis on investigating the synergistic effects of the components during cycling under various conditions. This study compares the effect of stoichiometry of the multicomponent system on the cycling mechanism. Results show that LiBD 4-MgD 2 in a 2:1 molar ratio can be reversibly dehydrogenated under low pressures of hydrogen or under vacuum, contrary to earlier reports in the literature, although the reaction was only partially reversed for the 2:1 mixture decomposed under vacuum. This work shows that the reaction pathway was affected by dehydrogenation conditions, but the stoichiometry of the multicomponent system played a minor role.

  12. Controlled-source seismic investigations of the crustal structure beneath Erebus volcano and Ross Island, Antarctica: Preliminary Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maraj, S.; Kyle, P. R.; Zandomeneghi, D.; Knox, H. A.; Aster, R. C.; Snelson, C. M.; Miller, P. E.; Kaip, G. M.

    2009-12-01

    first arrivals and wide-angle reflections across the array. We will present a preliminary P-wave velocity model of the TE-2D data to constrain the middle to lower crust and upper mantle beneath Ross Island.

  13. Preliminary Investigation to Resolve the Shear Velocity Structure of the Mantle Transition Zone beneath the Caroline Plate, Equatorial Western Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konishi, K.; Kawai, K.; Fuji, N.; Lee, S.; Geller, R. J.

    2013-12-01

    The Mantle Transition Zone (MTZ), which lies in the depth range from 410-660 km, is considered to be a region capable of carrying a large amount of water and other volatiles. A unique feature of the MTZ beneath the northwest Pacific rim is the stagnant slab which lies below much of the West Philippine Basin and extends laterally over a distance of thousands of kilometers beneath Korea and northeast China. In recent years, suggestions have been made that explain the seismicity and intra-plate volcanism in this region in terms of hydrous magmatic plumes rising from the MTZ. However, the exact mechanism remains under debate. An equally important, but less well-known, observation is that a stagnant slab appears to exist beneath much of the Caroline Plate in the equatorial western Pacific as well. If a stagnant slab does exist here, it is most likely a result of the long northward migration of the Australian Plate and subduction since its breakaway from the Antarctic. However, due to tectonic complexity and the lack of seismic stations, the structure and properties of the stagnant slab and the MTZ beneath the Caroline plate are not well understood. Also it is unclear if the large volcanic outflows around the Caroline Plate such as the Eurpik Rise can be explained by a hydrous magmatic plume stemming from the MTZ. To understand the shear-wave velocity structure of the MTZ beneath the Caroline Plate, we employ a body wave waveform inversion technique. Fuji et al. (PEPI, 2010) conducted body wave waveform inversion for the mantle transition zone beneath Japan. In this study we present preliminary results for an application of their methods to infer upper mantle and MTZ structure beneath the Caroline plate. We also estimate the resolving power of full-waveform inversion for a dataset obtained from the IRIS (Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology) network for shear velocity structure in the upper mantle, especially for the mantle transition zone beneath the

  14. Preliminary Free-flight Investigation of the Zero-lift Drag Penalties of Several Missile Nose Shapes for Infrared Seeking Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piland, Robert O

    1952-01-01

    The results of a preliminary investigation to develop a nose shape suitable for housing an infrared seeker are presented. The zero-lift drag characteristics of a missile-like body with various unconventional nose shapes were obtained through a range of Mach numbers from 0.8 to 1.8 and Reynolds numbers, based on body length, from 20 x10 to the 6th power to 70 x 10 to the 6th power, respectively, by using rocket-propelled free-flight models. Results of the test indicate that at supersonic speeds about 70 percent of the drag penalty incurred by using spherical-tip nose shapes may be eliminated by using nose shapes which will still allow the seeker to function.

  15. Comparing Self-Reported Versus Objectively Measured Physical Activity Behavior: A Preliminary Investigation of Older Filipino American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atienza, Audie A.; King, Abby C.

    2005-01-01

    The importance of examining health behaviors, such as physical activity, among Filipino Americans is highlighted by their higher rates of chronic disease. As physical inactivity has been linked to chronic diseases (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 1996), this study investigated the physical activity levels of older Filipinas. This…

  16. A Preliminary Study to Investigate the Influence of Different Teaching Styles on Pupils' Goal Orientations in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salvara, Marina I.; Jess, Mike; Abbott, Angela; Bognar, Jozsef

    2006-01-01

    Via a Greek sample of 75 sixth grade pupils, the influences of teaching styles on pupils' goal orientations were investigated. LAPOPECQ was distributed twice, before and after the application of the teaching programme consisting of four teaching style groups. Employing a paired samples t test, the results indicated significant pre-to-post changes.…

  17. Teachers' Awareness of the Learner-Teacher Interaction: Preliminary Communication of a Study Investigating the Teaching Brain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Vanessa; Solis, S. Lynneth

    2013-01-01

    A new phase of research on teaching is under way that seeks to understand the teaching brain. In this vein, this study investigated the cognitive processes employed by master teachers. Using an interview protocol influenced by microgenetic techniques, 23 master teachers used the Self-in-Relation-to-Teaching (SiR2T) tool to answer "What are…

  18. Finger Forecasting: A Pointer to Athletic Prowess in Women--A Preliminary Investigation by an Undergraduate Biology Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latourelle, Sandra M.; Elwess, Nancy L.; Elwess, Jennifer M.

    2008-01-01

    With all the technology today, the authors were surprised to read a recent British study that found a connection between the length of a woman's index (2D) and ring (4D) fingers to her athletic ability. Upon further investigation they found that many studies have examined the relationship between the length of the index finger (2D) to the ring…

  19. Nanophytoplankton Diversity Across the Oligohaline Lake Pontchartrain Basin Estuary: A Preliminary Investigation Utlizing psbA Sequences

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Lake Pontchartrain basin estuary is shallow, wind-driven and comprised of two large embayments (1645 km2). Salinities range from freshwater in the west to 8 ppt in the east near the Gulf of Mexico. Phytoplankton investigations spanning this salinity gradient or examining small photoautotrophs ar...

  20. When It Comes to Explaining: A Preliminary Investigation of the Expository Language Skills of African American School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koonce, Nicole M.

    2015-01-01

    This research investigated the expository language of school-age speakers of African American English. Specifically, the study describes the language productivity, syntax, and pragmatic features present in expository language samples produced by African American children and compares their performance with White children in the extant literature.…

  1. Optimizing Speech Production in the Ventilator-Assisted Individual Following Cervical Spinal Cord Injury: A Preliminary Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacBean, Naomi; Ward, Elizabeth; Murdoch, Bruce; Cahill, Louise; Solley, Maura; Geraghty, Timothy; Hukins, Craig

    2009-01-01

    Background: Mechanical ventilation is commonly used during the acute management of cervical spinal cord injury, and is required on an ongoing basis in the majority of patients with injuries at or above C3. However, to date there have been limited systematic investigations of the options available to improve speech while ventilator-assisted…

  2. Preliminary result of deep-towed resistivity investigation in a potential gas hydrate area off southwest Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiang, C.; Hsu, S.; Goto, T.; Chen, C.; Chen, S.

    2012-12-01

    seafloor images. An important function of the side-scan sonar provides a stable towing of the whole system near the seafloor with altitude in range of 10 - 30 m. This configuration of the multidisciplinary geophysical system can roughly provide within 200 m of depth resolution beneath the seafloor according to the numerical modelling. A first multiple channels of deep-towed marine resistivity survey was carried out by R/V OR1-1001 from 21 to 23 June, 2012 to understand the detailed distribution of GH off SW Taiwan. Three survey lines were discovered in total length about 30 km. The towed speed was kept in 1.5 - 2.5 knots for both mapping of resistivity profiles and side-scan sonar images. An extremely high apparent resistivity anomaly appears in pockmark areas that corresponds to the side-scan sonar image. This high resistivity anomaly implies gas and/or gas hydrate reservoirs beneath the seafloor. The preliminary result has shown that our new resistivity system is a useful tool to explore GH deposits.

  3. Preliminary Results of Simulations and Field Investigations of the Performance of the WISDOM GPR of the ExoMars Rover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciarletti, V.; Corbel, C.; Cais, P.; Pltettemeier, D.; Hamran, S. E.; Oyan, M.; Clifford, S.; Reineix, A.

    2009-04-01

    WISDOM (Water Ice and Subsurface Deposit Observations on Mars) is a ground penetrat-ing radar (GPR) that was selected as one of three survey instruments on the ExoMars Rover Pasteur Payload. Its purpose is to characterize the nature of the shallow subsurface (including geological structure, electromagnetic properties, and potential hydrological state) and identify the most promising locations for investigation and sampling by the Rover's onboard drill - providing information down to a depth of 2 or 3 meters with a vertical resolution of a few centimeters (performance characteristics that will vary, depending on the local permittivity and conductivity of the subsurface). WISDOM is a polarimetric, step-frequency GPR operating over the frequency range of 0.5 - 3 GHz. The polarimetric capability of WISDOM is particularly useful for identifying and characterizing oriented structures like faults, fractures and stratigraphic interface roughness. To achieve this objective, special care has been dedicated to the design of the antenna system, which consists of a pair of Vivaldi antenna to conduct both co- and cross-polar measurements. WISDOM will perform its scientific investigations at each of the sites visited by the Rover and during the intervening traverses. During a traverse between two successive experiment cycles of the mission (drilling and sample analysis), WISDOM soundings will be performed to provide a coarse survey of the structure and nature of the underground and its large-scale variations. This information is required to understand the overall geological context and the properties of the subsurface. When a particular location has been selected for potential investigation by the drill, WISDOM will obtain subsurface profiles on a 2D grid, in order to synthesize a 3D map of subsurface soil characteristics and spatial variabil-ity. Full polarimetric soundings will be performed at 10 cm intervals along each parallel grid line, which will have a line-to-line spacing

  4. A preliminary investigation of large-scale organized motions in a supersonic turbulent boundary layer on a curved surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donovan, J. F.; Smits, A. J.

    1987-01-01

    An experimental investigation concentrating on the change in the large-scale organized motions of a supersonic turbulent boundary layer subjected to a short region of concave surface curvature is presented. Two flows were studied, a relatively weak and a relatively strong perturbation. In both flows the freestream Mach number was 2.89 and the Reynolds number based on momentum thickness was 81,900. Hot-wire anemometry and schlieren photography provided the principle tools for this investigation. Hot-wire data were analyzed using spectral and correlation methods and conditional sampling techniques. Changes in structure angle and results of conditionally sampled velocity signals are discussed. The strong perturbation is found to increase the structure angle, and in both flows the length scales of the organized motions are altered.

  5. A Preliminary Investigation on the Destruction of Solid-Propellant Rocket Motors by Impact from Small Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, David J., Jr.

    1960-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to determine whether solid-propellant rocket motors could be ignited and destroyed by small-particle impacts at particle velocities up to a approximately 10,940 feet per second. Spheres ranging from 1/16 to 7/32 inch in diameter were fired into simulated rocket motors containing T-22 propellant over a range of ambient pressures from sea level to 0.12 inch of mercury absolute. Simulated cases of stainless steel, aluminum alloy, and laminated Fiberglas varied in thickness from 1/50 to 1/8 inch. Within the scope of this investigation, it was found that ignition and explosive destruction of simulated steel-case rocket motors could result from impacts by steel spheres at the lowest attainable pressure.

  6. Preliminary investigation of the control of a gas-turbine engine for a helicopter / Richard P. Krebs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krebs, Richard P

    1951-01-01

    An analog investigation of the power plant for a gas-turbine powered helicopter indicates that currently proposed turbine-propeller engine controls are satisfactory for helicopter application. Power increases from one-half to full rated at altitudes from sea level to 15,000 feet could be made in less than 4 seconds with either the rotor or propellers absorbing the engine power.

  7. Preliminary data report of investigations conducted at the Salmon Site, Lamar County, Mississippi. Nevada Environmental Restoration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) conducted ecological studies at the Salmon Site (SS), Lamar County, Mississippi, from the middle of June 1992 to the end of April 1993. The studies are part of the Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study (RI/FS) being conducted by the DOE. The RI/FS is the methodology under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980, as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (CERCLA/SARA) for evaluating hazardous waste sites on the National Priorities List (NPL). The Salmon Site is not listed on the NPL but DOE has voluntarily elected to conduct the evaluation of the SS in accordance with CERCLA/SARA. As part of the remedial investigation, baseline human health and ecological risk assessments will be conducted. These baseline risk assessments will evaluate the potential impact on human health and the environment if remedial actions are not conducted, identify locations where additional information needs to be collected, help determine whether remedial actions are necessary, and provide justification for performing remedial actions. This report describes the sampling activities conducted between February and April 1993 to aid in evaluating the possible environmental impacts at the SS tailored to the specific circumstances and conditions found there. The initial investigations included identification of the flora and fauna in and around the SS, with particular emphasis on identifying sensitive environments, endangered species and their habitats, and those species consumed by humans or found in human food chains.

  8. A preliminary investigation into the physical and chemical properties of biomass ashes used as aggregate fillers for bituminous mixtures.

    PubMed

    Melotti, Roberto; Santagata, Ezio; Bassani, Marco; Salvo, Milena; Rizzo, Stefano

    2013-09-01

    Fly and bottom ashes are the main by-products arising from the combustion of solid biomass. Since the production of energy from this source is increasing, the processing and disposal of the resulting ashes has become an environmental and economic issue. Such ashes are of interest as a construction material because they are composed of very fine particles similar to fillers normally employed in bituminous and cementitious mixtures. This research investigates the potential use of ash from biomass as filler in bituminous mixtures. The morphological, physical and chemical characteristics of 21 different ashes and two traditional fillers (calcium carbonate and "recovered" plant filler) were evaluated and discussed. Leaching tests, performed in order to quantify the release of pollutants, revealed that five ashes do not comply with the Italian environmental re-use limits. Experimental results show a wide range of values for almost all the investigated properties and a low correlation with biomass type in terms of origin and chemical composition. Furthermore, sieving and milling processes were found to improve the properties of the raw material in terms of grading and sample porosity. The effectiveness of these treatments and the low content of organic matter and harmful fines suggest that most of the biomass ashes investigated may be regarded as potential replacements for natural filler in bituminous mixtures. PMID:23790672

  9. A preliminary investigation of the growth of an aneurysm with a multiscale monolithic Fluid-Structure interaction solver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerroni, D.; Manservisi, S.; Pozzetti, G.

    2015-11-01

    In this work we investigate the potentialities of multi-scale engineering techniques to approach complex problems related to biomedical and biological fields. In particular we study the interaction between blood and blood vessel focusing on the presence of an aneurysm. The study of each component of the cardiovascular system is very difficult due to the fact that the movement of the fluid and solid is determined by the rest of system through dynamical boundary conditions. The use of multi-scale techniques allows us to investigate the effect of the whole loop on the aneurysm dynamic. A three-dimensional fluid-structure interaction model for the aneurysm is developed and coupled to a mono-dimensional one for the remaining part of the cardiovascular system, where a point zero-dimensional model for the heart is provided. In this manner it is possible to achieve rigorous and quantitative investigations of the cardiovascular disease without loosing the system dynamic. In order to study this biomedical problem we use a monolithic fluid-structure interaction (FSI) model where the fluid and solid equations are solved together. The use of a monolithic solver allows us to handle the convergence issues caused by large deformations. By using this monolithic approach different solid and fluid regions are treated as a single continuum and the interface conditions are automatically taken into account. In this way the iterative process characteristic of the commonly used segregated approach, it is not needed any more.

  10. Preliminary investigation on the requirements of the first wall and limiter of HL-2M prior to its detailed design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Laizhong; Li, Jiaxian; the HL-2M Team

    2015-02-01

    Some plasma facing components (PFCs) have to face extreme environments with high heat load as well as high particle flux during tokamak operations. Specifying the conditions of the PFCs of a tokamak during discharges is a critical issue prior to detailed design of a new device. Heat loads on different regions of PFCs are the most important parameters for PFCs and have to be provided as input into the engineering design. Particularly for the limiter, more investigations of heat loads are required since a number of accidents, including the one involving the JET limiter, have occurred due to underestimation of heat loads. In this paper, the factors affecting the heat loads of the first wall and the limiter of HL-2M are discussed. Several typical operation scenarios, including the first plasma, the start-up phase and flat-top phase of normal operations, and the key transient conditions, specifically disruptions and vertical displacement events, are analyzed for HL-2M, and the heat load specifications of different regions of PFCs are presented. Then the temperature rise and material erosion of PFCs are also evaluated. The results show that under the typical operation scenarios discussed in this paper, heat loads on the PFCs except the limiter are tolerable and temperature rise and material erosion are acceptable too. As for the limiter, the results reveal that the plasma current has to be lower than 0.5 MA if the plasma is operated in a limiter configuration. The investigation also implies that it is feasible to implement the first plasma without the first wall of graphite for the first plasma discussed in this analysis. However, the values obtained in this paper are based on a few simplifications, and further simulations are required involving ripple loss, start-up evolution, and the influence of ELMs on PFCs during further investigations.

  11. Preliminary wind-tunnel investigation of an NACA 23012 airfoil with various arrangements of venetian-blind flaps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wenzinger, Carl J; Harris, Thomas A

    1940-01-01

    Report presents the results of an investigation made in the NACA 7 by 10-foot wind tunnel of a large-chord NACA 23012 airfoil with several arrangements of venetian-blind flaps to determine the aerodynamic section characteristics as affected by the over-all flap chord, the chords of the slats used to form the flap, the slat spacing, the number of slats and the position of the flap with respect to the wing. Complete section data are given in the form of graphs for all the combinations tested.

  12. The direct connections of the C2 dorsal ganglion in the brain stem of the squirrel monkey: a preliminary investigation *

    PubMed Central

    Fitz-Ritson, Don E.

    1979-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to observe the possible anatomical connections of C2 dorsal root with brain stem nuclei. Labelled amino acids (leucine, glycine, proline), were injected into the dorsal root of C2 of a squirrel monkey. The animal was allowed to survive for 20 hrs. and after, sections of the spinal cord and brain stem were subjected to autoradiographic methods. Direct connections were observed in Lamina II, VII, VIII of the spinal cord; the hypoglossal nucleus, medial vestibular nucleus, lateral cuneatus nucleus and lateral parvocellular reticular formation. Possible anatomical and physiological correlates are explored in relation to the importance of the upper cervical area and its control mechanisms.

  13. Effect of personal music system use on sacculocollic reflex assessed by cervical vestibular-evoked myogenic potential: A preliminary investigation.

    PubMed

    Singh, Niraj Kumar; Sasidharan, Chithra Sobha

    2016-01-01

    Listening to music through a portable personal music system (PMS) is a growing trend, especially among the youth. The preferred listening level in such kinds of PMS has been reported to cross the safe levels and its impact on the auditory system was demonstrated in several previous investigations. Owing to the commonality in several aspects between the auditory and the vestibular systems, it appears likely that the deleterious effects of PMS use could also be impinging on the vestibular system, which has never been investigated. The present study therefore, aimed at evaluating the effects of PMS use on the sacculocollic reflex assessed by the cervical vestibular-evoked myogenic potential (cVEMP) technique. Thirty-two regular PMS users and 32 nonregular PMS users underwent cVEMP testing using alternating polarity 500 Hz tone bursts. The results revealed no significant group difference in latencies and interaural asymmetry ratio. However, the cVEMP was significantly reduced in the group of individuals in whom the diffused field equivalent sound pressure levels (SPLs) were above the damage risk criteria (DRC) compared to those with diffused field equivalent SPLs below it (P< 0.01). Therefore, the use of PMS at high levels of volume controls could be deleterious to the vestibular well-being of an individual. PMID:26960788

  14. Preliminary investigation on the use of a light-trap for sampling malaria vectors in the Gambia

    PubMed Central

    Odetoyinbo, J. A.

    1969-01-01

    Light-traps have been used successfully as mechanical sampling tools for insects of agricultural importance but medical entomologists have had only limited success because of the assumption that light-traps would attract vectors, even when sited in open fields well away from hosts. The investigations reported in this paper suggest that vectors are attracted primarily by their hosts and that only when light-traps are placed in the immediate vicinity of hosts, or in the narrow flight paths followed by host-seeking females, are appreciable numbers caught. When the CDC miniature light-trap was placed at various distances from hosts, the number of anopheline and culicine species captured decreased as the distance from the host increased. There were statistically significant differences between the means of catches in light-traps suspended on or in human dwellings, placed inside village compounds, and placed near the breeding site about 1.6 km from the nearest house. The maximum catch of Anopheles gambiae s.l. and culicines exceeded 3000 and 7000 per trap per night, respectively, and the average was in excess of 1200 A. gambiae s.l. The investigations showed that 6 anopheline species could be caught in appreciable numbers in human dwellings and thus demonstrated that light-traps could be used for sampling both endophilic and exophilic anophelines. It also appears that the effective range of the CDC miniature light-trap is about 5 m. PMID:5306720

  15. Effect of personal music system use on sacculocollic reflex assessed by cervical vestibular-evoked myogenic potential: A preliminary investigation

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Niraj Kumar; Sasidharan, Chithra Sobha

    2016-01-01

    Listening to music through a portable personal music system (PMS) is a growing trend, especially among the youth. The preferred listening level in such kinds of PMS has been reported to cross the safe levels and its impact on the auditory system was demonstrated in several previous investigations. Owing to the commonality in several aspects between the auditory and the vestibular systems, it appears likely that the deleterious effects of PMS use could also be impinging on the vestibular system, which has never been investigated. The present study therefore, aimed at evaluating the effects of PMS use on the sacculocollic reflex assessed by the cervical vestibular-evoked myogenic potential (cVEMP) technique. Thirty-two regular PMS users and 32 nonregular PMS users underwent cVEMP testing using alternating polarity 500 Hz tone bursts. The results revealed no significant group difference in latencies and interaural asymmetry ratio. However, the cVEMP was significantly reduced in the group of individuals in whom the diffused field equivalent sound pressure levels (SPLs) were above the damage risk criteria (DRC) compared to those with diffused field equivalent SPLs below it (P < 0.01). Therefore, the use of PMS at high levels of volume controls could be deleterious to the vestibular well-being of an individual. PMID:26960788

  16. A preliminary study for investigating idiopatic normal pressure hydrocephalus by means of statistical parameters classification of intracranial pressure recordings.

    PubMed

    Calisto, A; Bramanti, A; Galeano, M; Angileri, F; Campobello, G; Serrano, S; Azzerboni, B

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate Id-iopatic Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus (INPH) through a multidimensional and multiparameter analysis of statistical data obtained from accurate analysis of Intracranial Pressure (ICP) recordings. Such a study could permit to detect new factors, correlated with therapeutic response, which are able to validate a predicting significance for infusion test. The algorithm developed by the authors computes 13 ICP parameter trends on each of the recording, afterward 9 statistical information from each trend is determined. All data are transferred to the datamining software WEKA. According to the exploited feature-selection techniques, the WEKA has revealed that the most significant statistical parameter is the maximum of Single-Wave-Amplitude: setting a 27 mmHg threshold leads to over 90% of correct classification. PMID:19965228

  17. New observations of infiltration through fractured alluvium in Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site: A preliminary field investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Kao, C.S.; Smith, D.K.; McKinnis, W.B.

    1994-02-01

    Regional tectonics coupled with the subsurface detonation of nuclear explosives has caused widespread fracturing of the alluvium of Yucca Flat. Fractures deeper than 30 meters have been observed in boreholes. Some of these fractures are large enough to capture significant amounts of runoff during storm events. Evidence of stream capture by fractures and observations of runoff flowing into open fractures give qualitative evidence of infiltration to depths greater than several meters and possibly to the saturated zone. Our field observations contradict the assumption that little infiltration occurs on Yucca Flat. The larger, hydrologically important fractures are associated with geologic faults or the regional stress field. Additional field studies are needed to investigate the impact of fractures on the transport of contaminants.

  18. The helpfulness of spiritually influenced group work in developing self-awareness and self-esteem: a preliminary investigation.

    PubMed

    Coholic, Diana

    2005-09-28

    This paper discusses an exploratory study that investigated the helpfulness of spiritually influenced group work with eight adult women who shared a history of substance abuse. The overall purpose of the group was to help participants develop their self-awareness and self-esteem. The group, which was contextualized in transpersonal theory, was organized around the following themes and experiential exercises: meditation, mindfulness practice, dream work, stream of consciousness writing, the shadow self, and other arts-based processes. Grounded-theory analysis of group sessions and individual interviews with the participants found that the participants perceived the group to be helpful in developing their self-awareness and self-esteem. While the participants identified different aspects of the group as spiritual, making-meaning was one practice that was consistently described as a spiritually sensitive process. The results of this study in this emergent field are promising and suggestions are provided for future research. PMID:16200326

  19. Investigation of Immune Biomarkers Using Subcutaneous Model of M. tuberculosis Infection in BALB/c Mice: A Preliminary Report

    PubMed Central

    Husain, Aliabbas A.; Daginawala, Hatim F.; Warke, Shubangi R; Kalorey, Devanand R; Kurkure, Nitin V.; Purohit, Hemant J; Taori, Girdhar M

    2015-01-01

    Evaluation and screening of vaccines against tuberculosis depends on development of proper cost effective disease models along with identification of different immune markers that can be used as surrogate endpoints of protection in preclinical and clinical studies. The objective of the present study was therefore evaluation of subcutaneous model of M.tuberculosis infection along with investigation of different immune biomarkers of tuberculosis infection in BALB/c mice. Groups of mice were infected subcutaneously with two different doses : high (2×106 CFU) and low doses (2×102 CFU) of M.tuberculosis and immune markers including humoral and cellular markers were evaluated 30 days post M.tuberculosis infections. Based on results, we found that high dose of subcutaneous infection produced chronic disease with significant (p<0.001) production of immune markers of infection like IFNγ, heat shock antigens (65, 71) and antibody titres against panel of M.tuberculosis antigens (ESAT-6, CFP-10, Ag85B, 45kDa, GroES, Hsp-16) all of which correlated with high bacterial burden in lungs and spleen. To conclude high dose of subcutaneous infection produces chronic TB infection in mice and can be used as convenient alternative to aerosol models in resource limited settings. Moreover assessment of immune markers namely mycobacterial antigens and antibodies can provide us valuable insights on modulation of immune response post infection. However further investigations along with optimization of study protocols are needed to justify the outcome of present study and establish such markers as surrogate endpoints of vaccine protection in preclinical and clinical studies in future. PMID:25922597

  20. Investigation of Performance of Axial-Flow Compressor of XT-46 Turbine-Propeller Engine. I - Preliminary Investigation at 50-,70-, and 100-Percent Design Equivalent Speed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Creagh, John W.R.; Sandercrock, Donald M.

    1950-01-01

    An investigation is being conducted to determine the performance of the 12-stage axial-flow compressor of the XT-46 turbine-propeller engine. This compressor was designed to produce a pressure ratio of 9 at an adiabatic efficiency of 0.86. The design pressure ratios per stage were considerably greater than any employed in current aircraft gas-turbine engines using this type of compressor. The compressor performance was evaluated at two stations. The station near the entrance section of the combustors indicated a peak pressure ratio of 6.3 at an adiabatic efficiency of 0.63 for a corrected weight flow of 23.1 pounds per second. The other, located one blade-chord downstream of the last stator row, indicated a peak pressure ratio of 6.97 at an adiabatic efficiency of 0.81 for a corrected weight flow of 30.4 pounds per second. The difference in performance obtained at the two stations is attributed to shock waves in the vicinity of the last stator row. These shock waves and the accompanying flow choking, together with interstage circulatory flows, shift the compressor operating curves into the region where surge would normally occur. The inability of the compressor to meet design pressure ratio is probably due to boundary-layer buildup in the last stages, which cause axial velocities greater than design values that, in turn, adversely affect the angles of attack and turning angles in these blade rows.

  1. Probing in the Dark: Preliminary Results from the Dark Energy Biosphere Investigative Tool (DEBI-T), IODP 336

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salas, E. C.; Bhartia, R.; Reid, R.; Hug, W.; Nguyen, Q.; Oswal, P.; Sullivan, K.; Edwards, K. J.

    2011-12-01

    The subseafloor is host to a significant fraction of the Earth's microbiota, yet there is still uncertainty concerning the distribution of microbes in the deep subsurface. Researchers have relied on molecular techniques to characterize subseafloor microbial communities, but this typically involves the physical removal of cells from the rock matrix in order to process them further. This is inefficient and can lead both to cell loss and the loss of information about the mineralogical context that may influence the microbial ecology. More traditional fluorescence techniques that rely on dyes to produce fluorescence signals have been employed in attempts to elucidate the spatial distribution and abundance of sediment microbiota. However, these methods have proven challenging because of issues such as non-specific binding, which can lead to overestimation of cell abundance, and mineral fluorescence, which can make microbes difficult to differentiate. To address this shortcoming, we have developed the Dark Energy Biosphere Investigative Tool (DEBI-T). This instrument utilizes deep ultraviolet (<250nm) excitation to induce fluorescence (280-430nm) that can distinguish microbes from other organics and the underlying rock matrix. DEBI-T enables the detection of microbes in their native state on natural materials, avoiding background autofluorescence and without the need for fluorescent dyes or tags. We will discuss the results of DEBI-T's first deployment on IODP 336, the Mid-Atlantic Microbiology Expedition.

  2. Synthesis, characterisation and preliminary investigation of the haemocompatibility of polyethyleneimine-grafted carboxymethyl chitosan for gene delivery.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xuan; Mo, Yunfei; Liu, Xiaoyu; Guo, Rui; Zhang, Yi; Xue, Wei; Zhang, Yuanming; Wang, Changyong; Ramakrishna, Seeram

    2016-05-01

    The development of safe and efficient gene carriers is the key to the clinical success of gene therapy. In the present study, carboxymethyl chitosan (CMCS) was prepared by chitosan (CS) alkalisation and carboxymethylation reactions. Then polyethyleneimine (PEI) was grafted to the backbone of CMCS by an amidation reaction. The CMCS-PEI copolymer showed strong complexation capability with DNA to form nanoparticles, and achieved lower cytotoxicity and higher transfection efficiency compared with PEI (25 kDa) towards 293T and 3T3 cells. Moreover, the haemocompatibility of the CMCS-PEI copolymer was investigated through the aggregation, morphology and lysis of human red blood cells (RBCs), along with the impact on the clotting function with activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), prothrombin time (PT) and thromboelastographic (TEG) assays. The results demonstrated that the CMCS-PEI copolymer with a concentration lower than 0.05 mg/mL had little impact on the aggregation, morphology or lysis of RBCs, or on blood coagulation. Therefore, the copolymer may be a strong alternative candidate as an effective and safe non-viral vector. PMID:26952412

  3. Investigating the heliospheric ion suprathermal tail with Voyager LECP/LEMPA/alpha data: Instrument modeling and preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randol, Brent; Christian, Eric R.

    2015-04-01

    Using publicly available data from the Voyager Low Energy Charged Particle (LECP) instruments, we investigate the form of the solar wind ion suprathermal tail in the outer heliosphere inside the termination shock. This tail has a commonly observed form in the inner heliosphere, that is, a power law with a particular spectral index. The Voyager spacecraft have taken data beyond 100 AU, farther than any other spacecraft. However, during extended periods of time, the data appears to be mostly background. We have developed a technique to self-consistently estimate the background seen by LECP due to cosmic rays using data from the Voyager cosmic ray instruments and a simple, semi-analytical model of the LECP instruments. In this presentation, we present initial results of applying the simple model to solar wind, heliosheath, and interstellar medium data. The results are the following: 1) the basic shape and overall magnitude of the model spectra is consistent with the data, implying that the source of the omnipresent background is indeed cosmic rays; however, the exact shape is not quite matched, 2) the data taken in the heliosheath, when the signal-to-background ratio is significantly higher, is not inconsistent with the “common” spectrum of Fisk and Gloeckler (j~E^-1.5 with an exponential roll-over), a result which is not obvious from the uncorrected data. An estimate of future improvements to the model will also be discussed.

  4. Preliminary investigation of the supply of chemical species to an aqueous solution using a hydrogen-oxygen flame.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Miho; Sogabe, Takahiro; Ikoma, Tadaaki; Okuwakit, Akitsugu

    2005-08-01

    A new method of supplying radical species to aqueous solutions using a hydrogen-oxygen flame is investigated. When a hydrogen-oxygen flame is directed on the surface of an aqueous solution, hydroxyl radicals (*OH) produced in the flame are extracted into the aqueous phase. The presence of *OH in the aqueous solution was confirmed by electron paramagnetic resonance with spin trapping using 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide. The extraction of *OH into the aqueous solution was monitored using a quantitative analysis of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The effects of the hydrogen and oxygen gas flow rates, hydrogen/oxygen ratio, and atmosphere on H2O2 formation were studied. When the hydrogen-oxygen flame blew on a phosphate buffer solution (pH 6.7) under an Ar atmosphere, the concentration of H2O2 increased with the blowing time of the flame and the flow rate of hydrogen gas. Under air, nitrate and nitrite ions were formed in the aqueous phase in addition to H2O2, and the H2O2 concentration was lower than that under argon. The application of this new method to an aqueous solution of Cu(II)-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) caused a remarkable decrease in the concentration of Cu(II)-EDTA and total organic carbon. PMID:16124325

  5. In vivo preliminary investigations of the effects of the benzimidazole anthelmintic drug flubendazole on rat embryos and fetuses.

    PubMed

    Longo, Monica; Zanoncelli, Sara; Messina, Monica; Scandale, Ivan; Mackenzie, Charles; Geary, Timothy; Marsh, Kennan; Lindley, David; Mazué, Guy

    2014-11-01

    Flubendazole, in a new formulation with high systemic bioavailability, has been proposed as a macrofilaricide against filarial diseases. To investigate embryotoxic activity, the new flubendazole formulation was administered orally to Sprague Dawley rats at 2, 3.46, 6.32mg/kg/day on gestation day (GD) 9.5 and 10.5. Embryos/fetuses were evaluated on GD 11.5, 12.5 or 20. At 6.32mg/kg/day (Cmax=0.801μg/mL after single administration), flubendazole initially induced an arrest of embryonic development followed by a generalized cell death that led to 100% embryolethality by GD 12.5. At 3.46mg/kg/day (Cmax=0.539μg/mL after single administration), flubendazole markedly reduced embryonic development by GD 12.5 without causing cell death. On GD 20, 80% of fetuses showed malformations. At 2mg/kg/day (Cmax=0.389μg/mL after single administration), it did not interfere with rat embryofetal development. PMID:24994687

  6. Preliminary technique assessment for nondestructive evaluation certification of the NNWSI [Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations] disposal container closure

    SciTech Connect

    Day, R.A.

    1988-12-31

    Under the direction of the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) program, the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) project is evaluating a candidate repository site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for permanent disposal of high-level nuclear waste. The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), a participant in the NNWSI project, is developing waste package designs to meet the NRC requirements. One aspect of this waste package is the nondestructive testing of the final closure of the waste container. The container closure weld can best be nondestructively examined (NDE) by a combination of ultrasonics and liquid penetrants. This combination can be applied remotely and can meet stringent quality control requirements common to nuclear applications. Further development in remote systems and inspection will be required to meet anticipated requirements for flaw detection reliability and sensitivity. New research is not required but might reduce cost or inspection time. Ultrasonic and liquid penetrant methods can examine all closure methods currently being considered, which include fusion welding and inertial welding, among others. These NDE methods also have a history of application in high radiation environments and a well developed technology base for remote operation that can be used to reduce development and design costs. 43 refs., 23 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Preliminary results of fisheries investigation associated with Skylab-3. [remotely sensed distribution and abundance of gamefish in Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savastano, K. J. (Principal Investigator); Pastula, E. J., Jr.; Woods, G.; Faller, K.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. This investigation is to establish the feasibility of utilizing remotely sensed data acquired from aircraft and satellite platforms to provide information concerning the distribution and abundance of oceanic gamefish. Data from the test area in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico has made possible the identification of fisheries significant environmental parameters for white marlin. Predictive models based on catch data and surface truth information have been developed and have demonstrated potential for reducing search significantly by identifying areas which have a high probability of being productive. Three of the parameters utilized by the model, chlorophyll-a, sea surface temperature, and turbidity have been inferred from aircraft sensor data. Cloud cover and delayed receipt have inhibited the use of Skylab data. The first step toward establishing the feasibility of utilizing remotely sensed data to assess amd monitor the distribution of ocean gamefish has been taken with the successful identification of fisheries significant oceanographic parameters and the demonstration of the capability of measuring most of these parameters remotely.

  8. Technical Note: Preliminary investigations into the use of a functionalised polymer to reduce diffusion in Fricke gel dosimeters

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, S. T. Masters, K.-S.; Hosokawa, K.; Blinco, J. P.; Trapp, J. V.; Crowe, S. B.; Kairn, T.

    2015-12-15

    Purpose: A modification of the existing PVA-FX hydrogel has been made to investigate the use of a functionalised polymer in a Fricke gel dosimetry system to decrease Fe{sup 3+} diffusion. Methods: The chelating agent, xylenol orange, was chemically bonded to the gelling agent, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) to create xylenol orange functionalised PVA (XO-PVA). A gel was created from the XO-PVA (20% w/v) with ferrous sulfate (0.4 mM) and sulfuric acid (50 mM). Results: This resulted in an optical density dose sensitivity of 0.014 Gy{sup −1}, an auto-oxidation rate of 0.0005 h{sup −1}, and a diffusion rate of 0.129 mm{sup 2} h{sup −1}; an 8% reduction compared to the original PVA-FX gel, which in practical terms adds approximately 1 h to the time span between irradiation and accurate read-out. Conclusions: Because this initial method of chemically bonding xylenol orange to polyvinyl alcohol has inherently low conversion, the improvement on existing gel systems is minimal when compared to the drawbacks. More efficient methods of functionalising polyvinyl alcohol with xylenol orange must be developed for this system to gain clinical relevance.

  9. A preliminary investigation into the impact of a pesticide combination on human neuronal and glial cell lines in vitro.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Michael D; O'Neil, John D; Woehrling, Elizabeth K; Ndunge, Oscar Bate Akide; Hill, Eric J; Menache, Andre; Reiss, Claude J

    2012-01-01

    Many pesticides are used increasingly in combinations during crop protection and their stability ensures the presence of such combinations in foodstuffs. The effects of three fungicides, pyrimethanil, cyprodinil and fludioxonil, were investigated together and separately on U251 and SH-SY5Y cells, which can be representative of human CNS glial and neuronal cells respectively. Over 48h, all three agents showed significant reductions in cellular ATP, at concentrations that were more than tenfold lower than those which significantly impaired cellular viability. The effects on energy metabolism were reflected in their marked toxic effects on mitochondrial membrane potential. In addition, evidence of oxidative stress was seen in terms of a fall in cellular thiols coupled with increases in the expression of enzymes associated with reactive species formation, such as GSH peroxidase and superoxide dismutase. The glial cell line showed significant responsiveness to the toxin challenge in terms of changes in antioxidant gene expression, although the neuronal SH-SY5Y line exhibited greater vulnerability to toxicity, which was reflected in significant increases in caspase-3 expression, which is indicative of the initiation of apoptosis. Cyprodinil was the most toxic agent individually, although oxidative stress-related enzyme gene expression increases appeared to demonstrate some degree of synergy in the presence of the combination of agents. This report suggests that the impact of some pesticides, both individually and in combinations, merits further study in terms of their impact on human cellular health. PMID:22880100

  10. Results of a preliminary investigation of inlet unstart on a high-speed civil transport airplane concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Domack, Christopher S.

    1992-01-01

    The aircraft design engineer of today is tasked with satisfying an increasing number of conflicting requirements. The fact that conflict in these requirements may be technically, economically, or politically motivated usually compounds the difficulty of determining the best solution to a design issue. In this regard, propulsion/airframe integration for supersonic airplanes must rank as one of the most challenging aspects of airplane design. For the cruise Mach numbers currently being considered for High-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) airplanes, the inlet requirements of low drag, low bleed flow, and high pressure recovery appear to be best met with a mixed-compression design. Unfortunately, these desirable attributes come with a highly undesirable companion: the inlet unstart phenomenon. Concern over the effects of a mixed-compression inlet unstart on the vehicle dynamics of large, high-speed aircraft is not new; a comprehensive wind-tunnel study addressing the problem was published in 1962. Additional investigations of the problem were made throughout the United States SST program and the follow-on NASA program into the late 1970's. The current study sought to examine the magnitude of the problem in order to determine if an inlet unstart posed a potential hazard severe enough to preclude the use of mixed-compression inlets on proposed HSCT concepts.

  11. Multiple Stakeholder Perspectives on Teletherapy Delivery of Speech Pathology Services in Rural Schools: A Preliminary, Qualitative Investigation

    PubMed Central

    LINCOLN, MICHELLE; HINES, MONIQUE; FAIRWEATHER, CRAIG; RAMSDEN, ROBYN; MARTINOVICH, JULIA

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate stakeholders’ views on the feasibility and acceptability of a pilot speech pathology teletherapy program for children attending schools in rural New South Wales, Australia. Nine children received speech pathology sessions delivered via Adobe Connect® web-conferencing software. During semi-structured interviews, school principals (n = 3), therapy facilitators (n = 7), and parents (n = 6) described factors that promoted or threatened the program’s feasibility and acceptability. Themes were categorized according to whether they related to (a) the use of technology; (b) the school-based nature of the program; or (c) the combination of using technology with a school-based program. Despite frequent reports of difficulties with technology, teletherapy delivery of speech pathology services in schools was highly acceptable to stakeholders. However, the use of technology within a school environment increased the complexities of service delivery. Service providers should pay careful attention to planning processes and lines of communication in order to promote efficiency and acceptability of teletherapy programs. PMID:25945230

  12. A Preliminary Investigation into the Impact of a Pesticide Combination on Human Neuronal and Glial Cell Lines In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Coleman, Michael D.; O'Neil, John D.; Woehrling, Elizabeth K.; Ndunge, Oscar Bate Akide; Hill, Eric J.; Menache, Andre; Reiss, Claude J.

    2012-01-01

    Many pesticides are used increasingly in combinations during crop protection and their stability ensures the presence of such combinations in foodstuffs. The effects of three fungicides, pyrimethanil, cyprodinil and fludioxonil, were investigated together and separately on U251 and SH-SY5Y cells, which can be representative of human CNS glial and neuronal cells respectively. Over 48h, all three agents showed significant reductions in cellular ATP, at concentrations that were more than tenfold lower than those which significantly impaired cellular viability. The effects on energy metabolism were reflected in their marked toxic effects on mitochondrial membrane potential. In addition, evidence of oxidative stress was seen in terms of a fall in cellular thiols coupled with increases in the expression of enzymes associated with reactive species formation, such as GSH peroxidase and superoxide dismutase. The glial cell line showed significant responsiveness to the toxin challenge in terms of changes in antioxidant gene expression, although the neuronal SH-SY5Y line exhibited greater vulnerability to toxicity, which was reflected in significant increases in caspase-3 expression, which is indicative of the initiation of apoptosis. Cyprodinil was the most toxic agent individually, although oxidative stress-related enzyme gene expression increases appeared to demonstrate some degree of synergy in the presence of the combination of agents. This report suggests that the impact of some pesticides, both individually and in combinations, merits further study in terms of their impact on human cellular health. PMID:22880100

  13. Preliminary investigation of the potential for transient vapor release events during in situ vitrification based on thermal- hydraulic modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, J.S.; Woosley, S.L.; Lessor, D.L.; Strachan, C.

    1992-07-01

    This study investigates a possible cause of molten glass displacements that occurred during two recent in situ vitrification (ISV) tests. The study was conducted for the US Department of Energy by Pacific Northwest Laboratory. It is hypothesized that these glass displacements are caused by large gas bubbles rising up through the ISV melt and bursting at its surface. These bubbles cause the molten surface to upwell and possibly overflow. When the bubbles burst, molten glass is thrown from the melt surface and the volume of gas contained in the bubble is released into the hood. Both of these phenomena are undesirable because the molten soil ejected from the melt is dangerous to operating personnel and can damage equipment. The sudden gas release can cause a temporary pressurization of the hood, allowing potentially contaminated gas to escape to the atmosphere. This study attempts to explain the conditions necessary for formation of large gas bubbles in the melt so that future glass displacements can be avoided.

  14. A preliminary investigation into the relationship between functional movement screen scores and athletic physical performance in female team sport athletes.

    PubMed

    Lockie, Rg; Schultz, Ab; Callaghan, Sj; Jordan, Ca; Luczo, Tm; Jeffriess, Md

    2015-03-01

    There is little research investigating relationships between the Functional Movement Screen (FMS) and athletic performance in female athletes. This study analyzed the relationships between FMS (deep squat; hurdle step [HS]; in-line lunge [ILL]; shoulder mobility; active straight-leg raise [ASLR]; trunk stability push-up; rotary stability) scores, and performance tests (bilateral and unilateral sit-and-reach [flexibility]; 20-m sprint [linear speed]; 505 with turns from each leg; modified T-test with movement to left and right [change-of-direction speed]; bilateral and unilateral vertical and standing broad jumps; lateral jumps [leg power]). Nine healthy female recreational team sport athletes (age = 22.67 ± 5.12 years; height = 1.66 ± 0.05 m; body mass = 64.22 ± 4.44 kilograms) were screened in the FMS and completed the afore-mentioned tests. Percentage between-leg differences in unilateral sit-and-reach, 505 turns and the jumps, and difference between the T-test conditions, were also calculated. Spearman's correlations (p ≤ 0.05) examined relationships between the FMS and performance tests. Stepwise multiple regressions (p ≤ 0.05) were conducted for the performance tests to determine FMS predictors. Unilateral sit-and-reach positive correlated with the left-leg ASLR (r = 0.704-0.725). However, higher-scoring HS, ILL, and ASLR related to poorer 505 and T-test performance (r = 0.722-0.829). A higher-scored left-leg ASLR related to a poorer unilateral vertical and standing broad jump, which were the only significant relationships for jump performance. Predictive data tended to confirm the correlations. The results suggest limitations in using the FMS to identify movement deficiencies that could negatively impact athletic performance in female team sport athletes. PMID:25729149

  15. Precise ablation of dental hard tissues with ultra-short pulsed lasers. Preliminary exploratory investigation on adequate laser parameters.

    PubMed

    Bello-Silva, Marina Stella; Wehner, Martin; Eduardo, Carlos de Paula; Lampert, Friedrich; Poprawe, Reinhart; Hermans, Martin; Esteves-Oliveira, Marcella

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the possibility of introducing ultra-short pulsed lasers (USPL) in restorative dentistry by maintaining the well-known benefits of lasers for caries removal, but also overcoming disadvantages, such as thermal damage of irradiated substrate. USPL ablation of dental hard tissues was investigated in two phases. Phase 1--different wavelengths (355, 532, 1,045, and 1,064 nm), pulse durations (picoseconds and femtoseconds) and irradiation parameters (scanning speed, output power, and pulse repetition rate) were assessed for enamel and dentin. Ablation rate was determined, and the temperature increase measured in real time. Phase 2--the most favorable laser parameters were evaluated to correlate temperature increase to ablation rate and ablation efficiency. The influence of cooling methods (air, air-water spray) on ablation process was further analyzed. All parameters tested provided precise and selective tissue ablation. For all lasers, faster scanning speeds resulted in better interaction and reduced temperature increase. The most adequate results were observed for the 1064-nm ps-laser and the 1045-nm fs-laser. Forced cooling caused moderate changes in temperature increase, but reduced ablation, being considered unnecessary during irradiation with USPL. For dentin, the correlation between temperature increase and ablation efficiency was satisfactory for both pulse durations, while for enamel, the best correlation was observed for fs-laser, independently of the power used. USPL may be suitable for cavity preparation in dentin and enamel, since effective ablation and low temperature increase were observed. If adequate laser parameters are selected, this technique seems to be promising for promoting the laser-assisted, minimally invasive approach. PMID:22565342

  16. Preliminary investigation fo the non-linear response of image intensifiers used for gamma-ray imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fastje, David; Barber, H. Bradford; Bora, Vaibhav; Lemieux, Daniel; Miller, Brian; Grim, Gary P.

    2013-09-01

    Image intensifiers combined with columnar scintillators have found application in x-ray and gamma-ray, biomedical imaging and other fields. In scintillator imaging, hundreds or thousands of optical photons can illuminate the faceplate of the image intensifier in a small area, essentially simultaneously. This is a situation not found in the typical design application for an image intensifier, night vision or low-light-level imaging. Microchannel plates (MCPs) are known to exhibit gain saturation that could result in non-linear signal response in scintillator imaging, limiting quantitative measurement capabilities. A calibrated LED photon source was developed that can provide a known average number of photons per unit area in a small spot size, similar to that seen due to a gamma-ray interaction in a BazookaSPECT imager. A BazookaSPECT imager is composed of a columnar scintillator and an image intensifier, with output light optically imaged onto a CCD camera. The calibrated source was used to investigate gain-saturation effects for two Proxivision, GmbH image intensifiers, a single-stage BV 2583 EZ and a two stage BV 2583 QZ-V 100N in a BazookaSPECT imaging configuration. No gain saturation was found for the single-stage image intensifier up to more than 100 optical photons per microchannel, but significant gain-saturation non-linearities were measured in the two-stage image intensifier at high gains for >12 optical photons per microchannel. Implications for scintillator imaging using such systems are discussed.

  17. Preliminary results of lab-scale investigations of products of incomplete combustion during incineration of primary and mixed digested sludge.

    PubMed

    Braguglia, C M; Bagnuolo, G; Gianico, A; Mininni, G; Pastore, C; Mascolo, G

    2016-03-01

    Separation between primary and secondary sludge treatment could be a valuable solution for sludge management. According to this approach, secondary sludge can be conveniently used in agriculture while primary sludge could be easily dried and incinerated. It follows that some concern may arise from incinerating primary sludge with respect to the current practice to incinerate mixed digested sludge. Incineration of primary and mixed digested municipal sludge was investigated with a lab-scale equipment in terms of emissions of products of incomplete combustion (PICs) during incineration failure modes. PICs can be grouped in three sub-categories, namely aliphatic hydrocarbons (alkanes and alkenes), compounds with a single aromatic ring, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). After-burning temperature was the most important parameter to be controlled in order to minimize emissions of alkanes and alkenes. As for mono-aromatic compounds, benzene and toluene are the most thermally resistant compounds, and in some cases, an after-burning temperature of 1100 °C was not enough to get the complete destruction of benzene leading to a residual emission of 18 mg/kgsludge. PAHs showed an opposite trend with respect to aliphatic and mono-aromatic hydrocarbons being the thermal failure mode the main responsible of PIC emissions. A proper oxygen concentration is more important than elevated temperature thus reflecting the high thermal stability of PAHs. Overall, obtained results, even though obtained under flameless conditions that are different from those of the industrial plants, demonstrated that separation of primary and secondary sludge does not pose any drawbacks or concern regarding primary sludge being disposed of by incineration even though it is more contaminated than mixed digested sludge in terms of organic pollutants. PMID:26520096

  18. Preliminary investigation of the influence of CREB1 gene polymorphisms on cognitive dysfunction in Chinese patients with major depression.

    PubMed

    Guo, Junhui; Liu, Zhongchun; Dai, Hong; Zhu, Zhixian; Wang, Huiling; Yang, Can; Xiao, Ling; Huang, Yonglan; Wang, Gaohua

    2014-01-01

    Research has increasingly focused on the role of the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) response element binding (CREB) protein in learning and memory, particularly its role in cognitive disorders and neurodegeneration, such as Huntington's disease, Alzheimer's disease, Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome, and Coffin-Lowry syndrome. The cognitive dysfunction of patients with major depressive disorder (MDD), which is widely recognized, is not completely in accordance with depressive severity, and the dysfunction persists upon clinical remission in some patients. However, few studies have focused on the role of CREB on cognitive function in patients with MDD. This study aimed to investigate the influence of CREB1 polymorphism on cognitive function in patients with MDD. The current study comprised 113 patients with MDD. The severity of depression was measured using the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, and cognitive function was assessed using the Stroop Neuropsychological Screening Test, verbal fluency test, and tests of immediate logical memory and visual reproduction. All subjects were genotyped with regard to CREB1 polymorphisms (rs10932201, rs2551645, rs2254137, rs6740584, and rs2551640). For the verbal fluency test, the results showed significant differences for all single-nucleotide polymorphism genotypic groups. For the Stroop color-word task, a significant difference was found only for rs6740584. No significant differences were found for the Stroop color task, the immediate logical memory test or the visual reproduction test. In conclusion, there was an effect of CREB1 polymorphism on selective attention and retrieval of long-term memory, but not on immediate memory. PMID:23844928

  19. Chemical State of Surface Oxygen on Carbon and Its Effects on the Capacity of the Carbon Anode in a Lithium-Ion Battery Investigated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hung, Ching-Cheh

    2001-01-01

    In a lithium-ion battery, the lithium-storage capacity of the carbon anode is greatly affected by a surface layer formed during the first half cycle of lithium insertion and release into and out of the carbon anode. The formation of this solid-electrolyte interface, in turn, is affected by the chemistry of the carbon surface. A study at the NASA Glenn Research Center examined the cause-and-effect relations. Information obtained from this research could contribute in designing a high-capacity lithium-ion battery and, therefore, small, powerful spacecraft. In one test, three types of surfaces were examined: (1) a surface with low oxygen content (1.5 at.%) and a high concentration of active sites, (2) a surface with 4.5 at.% -OH or -OC type oxygen, and (3) a surface with 6.5 at.% O=C type oxygen. The samples were made from the same precursor and had similar bulk properties. They were tested under a constant current of 10 mA/g in half cells that used lithium metal as the counter electrode and 0.5 M lithium iodide in 50/50 (vol%) ethylene carbonate and dimethyl carbonate as the electrolyte. For the first cycle of the electrochemical test, the graph describes the voltage of the carbon anode versus the lithium metal as a function of the capacity (amount of lithium insertion or release). From these data, it can be observed that the surface with low oxygen and a high concentration of active sites could result in a high irreversible capacity. Such a high irreversible capacity could be prevented if the active sites were allowed to react with oxygen in air, producing -OH or -OC type oxygen. The O=C type oxygen, on the other hand, could greatly reduce the capacity of lithium intercalation and, therefore, needs to be avoided during battery fabrication.

  20. Preliminary Investigations on the Effect of Humidity on the Reception of Visible Solar Radiation and the Effect of Humidity and Wind Speed on PV Module Output

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zainuddin, Hedzlin; Shaari, Sulaiman; Omar, Ahmad Maliki; Zain, Zainazlan Md.; Soumin, Jonson; Surat, Zainizam

    2010-07-01

    In order to improve the accuracy of methods currently used for characterizing the performance of photovoltaic (PV) arrays in their actual use environment, it is of importance to investigate the effect of ambient variables on the PV module output. Malaysia is a hot and humid country with relative humidity (RH) of 100% during rainfall and wind speed of greater than 4.0 ms-1 occurred about 8.4% in five years time. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to do a preliminary investigation on the effects of RH on the reception of solar radiation and the effect of humidity and wind speed on the PV module output. Outdoor field testing was conducted at Photovoltaic Monitoring Centre (PVMC), Universiti Teknologi MARA, of a BPSX-30U polycrystalline under variation of RH and wind speed separately. From the field testing, it was found that humidity reduced the amount of visible solar radiation reception, while humidity and wind speed both acts as cooling agents that increase the output of a PV module by reducing the module temperature.

  1. Portable XRF as a valuable device for preliminary in situ pigment investigation of wooden inventory in the Trski Vrh Church in Croatia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desnica, V.; Škarić, K.; Jembrih-Simbuerger, D.; Fazinić, S.; Jakšić, M.; Mudronja, D.; Pavličić, M.; Peranić, I.; Schreiner, M.

    2008-07-01

    The aim of this work was the investigation of pigments from the painted wooden inventory of the pilgrimage church of Saint Mary of Jerusalem in Trski Vrh one of the most beautiful late-baroque sacral ensembles in Croatia. Being an object of high relevance for the national cultural heritage, an extensive research on the wooden polychromy was undertaken in order to work out a proposal for a conservation treatment. It consists mainly of two painted and gilded layers (the original one from the 18th century and a later one from 1903), partly overpainted during periodic conservation treatments in the past. The approach was to carry out extensive preliminary in situ pigment investigations using a portable XRF (X-ray fluorescence) device, and only the problems not resolved by this method on site were further analyzed using sophisticated laboratory equipment. Therefore, the XRF results acted as a valuable guideline for subsequent targeted sampling actions, thus minimizing the sampling damage. Important questions not answered by XRF (identification of organic pigments, ultramarine, etc.) were subsequently resolved using additional ex situ laboratory methods, primarily μ-PIXE (particle-induced X-ray emission) at the nuclear microprobe of the Rudjer Boskovic accelerator facility as well as μ-Raman spectroscopy at the Institute of the Academy of Fine Arts in Vienna. It is shown that by the combination of these often complementary methods a thorough characterization of each pigment can be obtained, allowing for a proper strategy of the conservation treatment.

  2. Preliminary investigation of the combustion of a 50 percent pentaborane - 50 percent JP-4 fuel blend in a turbojet combustor at simulated altitude conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Branstetter, J Robert; Kaufman, Warner B; Gibbs, James B

    1957-01-01

    A preliminary investigation was conducted to determine the combustion characteristics of a fuel composed of 50 percent pentaborane and 50 percent JP-4 (MIL-F-5624A) by weight in a turbojet combustor. A combustor designed to fit the housing of a J33-A-23 turbojet engine was selected for convenience. The fuel was evaluated at two engine conditions simulating altitudes of 40,000 and 57,000 feet, an engine speed of 85 percent of rated rpm, and a flight Mach number of 0.6. The pentaborane blend was initially evaluated in combustors developed for pure pentaborane and diborane reported in NACA RM E53B18 and RM E52L15. The performance of the blend was unsatisfactory in these combustors. A new combustor was then developed which provided combustor efficiencies measured from 91 to 101 percent as compared with efficiencies of 92 to 94 percent previously obtained for pentaborane at comparable conditions. Additional refinements of design details are needed to obtain lower oxide deposits and a more uniform outlet temperature profile; however, the combustor is believed to incorporate some of the design principles required to obtain satisfactory over-all performance with the fuel blend investigated.

  3. Self-modulation of a long externally injected relativistic charged-particle beam in a laser wake field acceleration scheme. A preliminary quantum-like investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedele, Renato; Jovanović, Dusan; Tanjia, Fatema; De Nicola, Sergio

    2014-03-01

    Recent investigations indicate that sufficiently long beams of charged particles, travelling in a plasma, experience the phenomenon of self-modulation. The self-modulation is driven by the plasma wake field excitation due to the beam itself, and it may become unstable under certain conditions. A preliminary theoretical investigation of the self-modulation of a relativistic charged-particle beam in overdense plasma in the presence of a preformed plasma wave is carried out, within the quantum-like description of charged particle beams provided by the Thermal Wave Model. A simple physical model for the self-modulation is put forward, described by a nonlinear Schrödinger equation coupled with the Poisson-like equation for the plasma wake potential (so-called Fedele-Shukla equations). The physical mechanism is based on the interplay of three concomitant effects, the radial thermal dispersion (associated with the emittance ε), the radial ponderomotive effects of a preexisting plasma wave (which provides the guidance for the beam), and the self-interaction of the plasma wake field generated by the beam itself.

  4. Preliminary geochemical, microbiological, and epidemiological investigations into possible linkages between lignite aquifers, pathogenic microbes, and kidney disease in northwestern Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bunnell, Joseph E.; Bushon, Rebecca N.; Stoeckel, Donald M.; Gifford, Amie M.; Beck, Marisa; Lerch, Harry E.; Shi, Runhua; McGee, Benton; Hanson, Bradford C.; Kolak, Jonathan; Warwick, Peter D.

    2003-01-01

    detected in 4/8 (50 percent) of the surface water sites sampled. These initial results suggest that additional investigation into these relationships is warranted.

  5. Preliminary results of a high-resolution seismic imaging investigation on St. Paul Island, Pribilof Islands, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Detweiler, S.; Catchings, R. D.; Goldman, M. R.; Gandhok, G.; Kiger, L.; Nelson, G. L.; Moran, E.

    2001-12-01

    St. Paul Island, one of the Alaskan Pribilof Islands, is located in the Bering Sea about 1100 km WSW of Anchorage, Alaska. Geologically, St. Paul's nearsurface lithology consists of basaltic lava flows and sills, with minor amounts of glacial sediments. To better understand the subsurface structure of St. Paul island, the U.S. Geological Survey acquired a series of high-resolution seismic imaging profiles across the island in June, 2000. The longest seismic profile is approximately 1.8-km-long and trends ENE. Shot and geophone spacing was 5 m, recorded with 162 channels. Seismic sources were generated using a Betsy Seisgun in { ~}0.3 m-deep holes. Approximately 2 s of data were recorded at a 0.5-ms sampling rate. Our study was designed to investigate the relationship between ground-water flow, basement rocks, and faults on St. Paul Island in an attempt to mitigate the effects of subsurface chemical contaminants. Seismic velocities range from about 500 m/s in the near surface to about 5000 m/s at varying depths, some of the high velocity layers appear as shallow as 40 m below the surface. The reflection data show a thin vaneer of sediments overlying layered basalts. Layered basalts vary in thickness from about 5 to 40 m near the surface, and these layers are faulted in places. The groundwater supply for St. Paul is derived from a shallow-depth water table that is, in places, a mixture of seawater and freshwater (Anderson, 1976). Vertical and lateral flow of ground-water is affected by the depth to basement rocks, which are believed to be largely impermeable and thus restrict the flow of ground-water. In addition, a series of observed faults that have vertically displaced basement rocks may act as barriers or as conduits to the flow of ground-water. In unconsolidated sediments, the ground-water table typically has velocities of { ~}1500 m/s. Using this velocity criteria, our data suggest that the ground-water table varies between 0 and 25 m depth along the profile

  6. A Preliminary Investigation of the E-Beam Induced Polymerization of Maleimide and Norbornene End-capped Polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmese, Giuseppe R.; Meador, Michael A. (Technical Monitor)

    2005-01-01

    A research area of high activity in connection with aerospace engineering has been the development of polymer thermosetting resins that can resist temperature as high as 300 C while maintaining adequate toughness, and providing ease of processing to enable low temperature and low cost composite fabrication methods. In order to meet such requirements, sequential interpenetrating polymer networks (IPNs) based on bismaleimide (BMI) and cyanate ester (CE) monomers were investigated. In these systems, a polycyanurate network is first formed in the presence of BMI and appropriate reactive diluent monomers and in a second step, a network based on the BMI is created in the presence of a fully formed polycyanurate network. The materials developed can be processed at relatively low temperature (less than 150 C) and with the aid of electron beam (EB) curing. Of major importance to the success of this work was the identification of a reactive diluent that improves ease of processing and has tailored reactivity to allow for the controlled synthesis of CE-BMI sequential IPNs. Based on solubility and reactivity of a number of reactive diluents, N-acryloylmorpholine (AMP) was selected as a comonomer for BMI copolymerization. A donor-acceptoreaction mechanism was suggested to explain the relative reactivity of a variety of reactive diluents towards maleimide functionality. The optimum processing parameters for the formation of the first network were determined through the study of metal catalyzed cure and hydrolysis of cyanate esters, whereas the reaction behavior for second network formation in terms of the influence of EB dose rate and temperature was elucidated through an in-situ kinetics study of maleimide and AMP copolymerization. Structure-property relationships were developed which allowed for the design of improved resin systems. In particular, appropriate network coupler possessing cyanate ester and maleimide functionality was synthesized to link the polycyanurate first

  7. Quality of life of people living with HIV, preliminary results from IANUA (Investigation on Antiretroviral Therapy) study

    PubMed Central

    Venturini, Alberto; Giannini, Barbara; Montefiori, Marcello; Di Biagio, Antonio; Mazzarello, Giovanni; Cenderello, Giovanni; Giacomini, Mauro; Merlano, Caterina; Orcamo, Patrizia; Setti, Maurizio; Viscoli, Claudio; Cassola, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The introduction of combined antiretroviral treatment (cART) has reduced HIV-associated morbidity and mortality, and changed the patients’ perspective of life. As a result, Health Related Quality of Life (HRQOL) has become a crucial clinical issue. Objective Assessment of HRQOL in a sample of Italian patients from IANUA study. Investigate correlation between CD4 cell counts, viral load and changes in HRQOL. Materials and Methods EQ-5D-3L self-reported questionnaire has been used in the evaluation of HRQOL. It assesses five dimensions: “mobility,” “self care,” “usual activities,” “pain/discomfort” and “anxiety/depression.” Each dimension has three levels: no problems, some problems and extreme problems. In addition, it includes a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) where one's own health “today” is rated from 0 “worst imaginable health” to 100 “best imaginable health.” The respondents provide information on marital status, education, employment/unemployment, other treatments used in addition to HAART (1,2,3,4,5 or more) and number of hospitalizations due to HIV/AIDS. Results 684 patients completed the questionnaire: 231 females and 453 males. The mean age of the sample was 51 years (range 21–78). The mean VAS score was 69.9. 558 patients (81.5%) reported no problems in mobility. 642 patients (93.5%) had no problems in self care. 423 patients (61.8%) had no pain/discomfort while 219 had some problems. 326 patients (46.1%) had some problems in anxiety/depression. Conclusions The analysis of self-reported questionnaires indicates that HRQOL in our sample group is not deeply affected by HIV/AIDS. The dimensions that are affected in the least are “mobility” and “self care” while the major problem is “anxiety/depression” with half of the sample reporting moderate or high level. PMID:25394088

  8. Preliminary investigations on the determination of three-dimensional dose distributions using scintillator blocks and optical tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Kroll, Florian; Karsch, Leonhard; Pawelke, Jörg

    2013-08-15

    dose profiles are in agreement with reference measurements. An inherent drawback of the scintillator is the nonlinear light output for high stopping-power radiation due to the quenching effect. It impacts the depth dose curves measured with the dosimeter. For single Bragg peak distributions this leads to a peak to plateau ratio of 2.8 instead of 4.5 for the reference ionization chamber measurement. Furthermore, the transmission of the clinical bremsstrahlung beams through the scintillator leads to the saturation of one camera, making dose reconstructions in that case presently not feasible.Conclusions: It is shown that distributions of scintillation light generated by proton or electron beams can be reconstructed by the dosimetry system within minutes. The quenching apparent for proton irradiation, and the yet not precisely determined position dependency of the imaging scale, require further investigation and corrections. Upgrading the prototype with larger or inorganic scintillators would increase the detectable proton and electron energy range. The presented results show that the determination of 3D dose distributions using scintillator blocks and optical tomography is a promising dosimetry method.

  9. Assessing dry density and gravimetric water content of soils in geotechnics with complex conductivity measurements : preliminary investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaouane, C.; Beck, Y.; Fauchard, C.; Chouteau, M.

    2012-12-01

    Quality controls of geotechnical works need gravimetric water content (w) and dry density (γd) measurements. Afterwards, results are compared to Proctor tests and referred to soil classification. Depending on the class of soils, different objectives must be achieved. Those measurements are usually carried out with neutron and gamma probes. Combined use of theses probes directly access (w, γd). Theses probes show great disadvantages as: nuclear hazard, heavy on-site, transporation and storage restrictions and low sampling volumes. Last decades showed a strong development of electrical and electromagnetic methods for mapping water content in soils. Still, their use in Geotechnics is limited due to interfacial effects neglected in common models but strong in compacted soils. We first showed that (w, γd) is equivalent to (φ, Sr) assuming density of particles γs=2.7 (g.cm-3). This assumption is true for common soils used in civil engineering. That first relationship allows us to work with meaningful parameters for geophysicists. Revil&Florsh recently adapted Vinegar&Waxman model for Spectal Induced Polarization (SIP) measurements at low frequencies (<50 kHz). This model relates quantitatively the electrical double layer polarization at the surface of grains. It takes into account saturation, porosity and granulometry. Standard granulometry and mineralogy are generally available in geotechnical campaigns. In-phase conductivity would be mostly related to saturation as quadrature conductivity would be related to porosity and surface conductivity. Although this model was developed for oil-bearing sands, we investigated its potential for compacted soils. Former DC-resistivity (ρ) measurements were carried out on a silty fined-grained soil (A1 in GTR classification or ML-CL in USCS) in a cylindrical cell (radius ~4 cm, heigth 7 cm). Median diameter of grain was 50 μm. For each measurement, samples were compacted at Proctor energy. We assessed (w, γd) by weighting and

  10. Geothermal Potential of the Siǧacik Gulf (Seferihisar) and Preliminary investigations with Seismic and Magnetic Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakak, Özde; Özel, Erdeniz; Ergün, Mustafa

    2015-04-01

    The Aegean region, including both W. Turkey and Central Greece, is one of the world's most rapidly-deforming regions of continental crust and has a seismic rate is exceptional on a world scale. SW Turkey is one of the most rapidly extending regions in the world where the extension appears to have commenced in middle or late Miocene time. Paleomagnetic work in W Turkey and Aegean islands has revealed the horizontal rotation of some crustal blocks. In W Turkey clockwise rotation on Karaburun peninsula west of Izmir by 44° in the last few Ma is detected, and anticlockwise rotation of 37° for the Seferihisar region. The area of W Turkey and the Aegean islands has very strong geothermal gradient in the world scale. Sığacık Gulf is located on south of Karaburun Peninsula, and it is restricted by two important ridges as Karaburun and Seferihisar Ridges. Recent geological and geophysical studies suggested that this area is both E-W trending normal and NE-SW trending strike-slip faulting caused deformation. The Seferihisar earthquake series were occurred here during 17-20 October 2005. For investigation of geothermal potential and hot water outlets on the seafloor, shallow seismic and magnetic surveys are preferred, which were carried out onboard Dokuz Eylül-1 vessel belongs to Dokuz Eylül University, in 2011. Approximately 250km seismic reflection data was collected along 27 lines. During seismic method used Sparker system which has 1 channel and 12 hydrophone with 17 m long streamer, as a seismic source used SIG Seismic Marine ELC 80 (4 kV & 3.2 KV DC). Seismic data processing (band pass filter, bottom mute, top mute, true amplitude recovery, time migration) was made using Promax program in the Seismic Laboratory in the Institute of Marine Science and Technology. The basement topography map was prepared using Kingdom Suite program drawing seabed line on these sections. Sea floor topography changes between 30-120 m, and this increases towards Ikaria Basin

  11. An investigation using atomic force microscopy nanoindentation of dental enamel demineralization as a function of undissociated acid concentration and differential buffer capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbour, Michele E.; Shellis, R. Peter

    2007-02-01

    Acidic drinks and foodstuffs can demineralize dental hard tissues, leading to a pathological condition known as dental erosion, which is of increasing clinical concern. The first step in enamel dissolution is a demineralization of the outer few micrometres of tissue, which results in a softening of the structure. The primary determinant of dissolution rate is pH, but the concentration of undissociated acid, which is related to buffer capacity, also appears to be important. In this study, atomic force microscopy nanoindentation was used to measure the first initial demineralization (softening) induced within 1 min by exposure to solutions with a range of undissociated acid concentration and natural pH of 3.3 or with an undissociated acid concentration of 10 mmol l-1 and pH adjusted to 3.3. The results indicate that differential buffering capacity is a better determinant of softening than undissociated acid concentration. Under the conditions of these experiments, a buffer capacity of >3 mmol l-1 pH-1 does not have any further effect on dissolution rate. These results imply that differential buffering capacity should be used for preference over undissociated acid concentration or titratable acidity, which are more commonly employed in the literature.

  12. Spiritual Bypass: A Preliminary Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cashwell, Craig S.; Glosoff, Harriet L.; Hammond, Cheree

    2010-01-01

    The phenomenon of spiritual bypass has received limited attention in the transpersonal psychology and counseling literature and has not been subjected to empirical inquiry. This study examines the phenomenon of spiritual bypass by considering how spirituality, mindfulness, alexithymia (emotional restrictiveness), and narcissism work together to…

  13. Dance for PD: a preliminary investigation of effects on motor function and quality of life among persons with Parkinson's disease (PD).

    PubMed

    Westheimer, Olie; McRae, Cynthia; Henchcliffe, Claire; Fesharaki, Arman; Glazman, Sofya; Ene, Heather; Bodis-Wollner, Ivan

    2015-09-01

    In 2001, Dance for Parkinson's disease (DfPD(®)) classes for persons with Parkinson's disease and care partners were developed by Brooklyn Parkinson Group and Mark Morris Dance Group. A previous assessment suggested that individuals experience positive benefits from DfPD(®). The current preliminary uncontrolled study investigated the effects of a dance intervention on several motor and quality of life aspects of PD following 16 sessions (8 weeks; 20 h) taught by professional dancers/teachers. A mixed methods design was used to determine the effects of the class. Assessment instruments administered at baseline and post-intervention included the Hoehn and Yahr, UPDRS (part III), Berg Balance Scale, Beck Depression Inventory, and PDQ-39 and individual interviews after the last class. Hoehn and Yahr scores ranged from 1 to 4. UPDRS III total scores and sub scores of gait and tremor improved following the intervention (P < 0.05). During interviews participants reported physical, emotional, and social benefits. Despite the diversity of baseline measures post-class interview results were consistently positive across the sample. Twelve of 14 subjects (mean age 66.2) with idiopathic PD completed the sessions. After 4 years, four participants regularly attended DfPD(®) classes. The low attrition rate and continued attendance suggest notable adherence to the DfPD(®) class. The importance of the results is both clinical and conceptual, highlighting the value of using both quantitative and qualitative data to evaluate the benefits of dance with PD. PMID:25836752

  14. Investigating Compositional Variation of Ceramic Materials during the Late Neolithic on the Great Hungarian Plain - Preliminary LA-ICP-MS Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riebe, Danielle J.; Niziolek, Lisa C.

    2015-10-01

    Investigations have been undertaken to assess the extent to which compositional analysis can be used to determine trade and interaction on the Great Hungarian Plain during the Late Neolithic. Ceramic and clay samples in the Körös and Berettyó River Basins were analyzed at the Elemental Analysis Facilities (EAF) at The Field Museum of Natural History in Chicago, IL, USA. With the use of laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), the aim of the project was to ascertain if micro-regional or site-specific compositional signatures could be determined in a region that is typically characterized as highly geologically homogenous. Identifying site-specific signatures enables archaeologists to model prehistoric interactions and, in turn, determine the relationship between interaction and various socio-cultural changes. This paper focuses on the preliminary compositional results of materials analyzed from three different sites across the Plain and the methodological implications for future anthropological research in the region.

  15. A preliminary investigation into the use of Red Pine (Pinus Resinosa) tree cores as historic passive samplers of POPs in outdoor air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rauert, Cassandra; Harner, Tom

    2016-09-01

    The suitability of Red Pine trees (Pinus Resinosa) to act as passive samplers for persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in outdoor air and to provide historic information on air concentration trends was demonstrated in this preliminary investigation. Red Pine tree cores from Toronto, Canada, were tested for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs), alkylated-PAHs, nitro and oxy-PAHs, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and novel brominated flame retardants (novel BFRs). The PBDEs and novel BFRs demonstrated a similar relative contribution in cores representing 30 years of tree growth, to that reported in contemporary air samples. Analysis of tree ring segments of 5-15 years resulted in detectable concentrations of some PAHs and alk-PAHs and demonstrated a transition from petrogenic sources to pyrogenic sources over the period 1960-2015. A simple uptake model was developed that treats the tree rings as linear-phase passive air samplers. The bark infiltration factor, IFBARK, is a key parameter of the model that reflects the permeability of the bark to allow chemicals to be transferred from ambient air to the outer tree layer (cambium). An IFBARK of about 2% was derived for the Red Pine trees based on tree core and air monitoring data.

  16. Preliminary results: Root cause investigation of orbital anomalies and failures in NASA standard 50 ampere-hour nickel-cadmium batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toft, Mark R.

    1993-01-01

    Two lots of NASA standard 50 A.H. Ni-Cd battery cells, manufactured by Gates Aerospace Batteries and built into batteries by McDonnell Douglas, have experienced significant performance problems. The two lots were used on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory and the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite. Both of these satellites are Low Earth Orbital (LEO) satellites containing batteries on a parallel bus charged to NASA standard V/T curves using a NASA standard power regulator. The following preliminary conclusions were reached: (1) several plate and cell parameters have migrated within their spec limits over the years (in some cases, from one extreme to the other); (2) several parametric relationships, not generally monitored and therefore not under specification control, have also migrated over the years; (3) many of these changes appear to have taken place as a natural consequence of changes in GE/GAB materials and processes; (4) several of these factors may be 'conspiring' to aggravate known cell failure mechanisms (factors such as heavier plate, less teflon and/or less-uniform teflon, and less electrolyte) but all are still in spec (where specs exist); (5) the weight of the evidence collected to characterize the anomalies and to characterize the negative electrode itself, strongly suggests that alterations to the structure, composition, uniformity, and efficiency of the negative electrode are at the heart of the battery performance problems currently being experienced; and (6) further investigation at all levels (plate, cell, battery, and system) continues to be warranted.

  17. A preliminary investigation comparing one and eight channels at fast and slow rates on music appraisal in adults with cochlear implants.

    PubMed

    Tyler, R S; Gfeller, K; Mehr, M A

    2000-09-01

    Music perception is important to cochlear implant patients, but little effort has been devoted to improving signal processing for music. In this preliminary investigation, we probed the importance of number of channels and stimulus rate. We asked eight users of the Clarion cochlear implant to rate music quality on a scale from 0 to 100 on three different types of music (country and western, pop and classical). Patients rated eight- and one-channel processors running at a fast and slow rate. The stimulus rate was 200 pps for the slow rate. For the eight-channel condition, the fast rate varied from 394 to 765 pps. For the one-channel condition, the fast rate varied from 2601 to 4335 pps. Results indicated that the eight-channel condition was uniformly rated higher than the one-channel condition. However, the results for stimulus rate were less clear. No patients assigned higher ratings with the slow rate, but only three subjects assigned higher ratings with the fast rate. We conclude that music perception can be influenced and probably improved by signal processing. The number of channels, or perhaps spectral representation, is critical for music appreciation by cochlear implant recipients. PMID:18791996

  18. The MTOR LM-MHD Flow Facility, and Preliminary Experimental Investigation of Thin Layer, Liquid Metal Flow in a 1/R Toroidal Magnetic Field

    SciTech Connect

    Morley, Neil B.; Burris, Jonathan

    2003-07-15

    Fairly recently, a new experimental free surface liquid metal MHD facility, the so-called MTOR facility, has come on-line, and new data has been taken concerning flows of gallium alloy across a moderately strong toroidal field with characteristic 1/R field gradient. The purpose of these experiments has been two-fold: to gather data for benchmarking currently existing one and two dimensional free surface computational flow models (as well as 3D models currently under development), and to investigate phenomena not predicted by models, especially effects of nozzles, drains, waves and turbulence. Data is presented concerning MHD effects on the mean flow height and wave structure, both with and without the so-called Zakharov magnetic propulsion current added to help control and stabilize the flow. The test section is wide enough so that the characteristic factor (Hartmann Number * Aspect Ratio) is less than unity. In this case the Hartmann layer drag effects are small, allowing comparison of experimental data to two-dimensional axisymmetric models. Preliminary conclusions suggest that the field gradient in these experiments does not adversely affect the stability of the surface, and that magnetic propulsion current is effective in flattening and accelerating the liquid metal flow.

  19. A possible link between Balkan endemic nephropathy and the leaching of toxic organic compounds from Pliocene lignite by groundwater: Preliminary investigation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Orem, W.H.; Feder, G.L.; Finkelman, R.B.

    1999-01-01

    work on the possible relationship between the etiology of BEN and toxic aromatic substances leached from Pliocene lignites in well water is warranted.A distinct geographic relationship between the distribution of Pliocene lignites in the Balkans and villages where Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN) occurs has been observed, indicating a possible link between BEN and the long-term consumption of well water containing toxic organic compounds derived from the leaching of nearby Pliocene lignites. Preliminary investigations by NMR spectroscopy, gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy and leaching experiments show a high degree of organic functionality in the Pliocene lignites, high-leachability by groundwater of organic matter from these beds, and the presence of toxic aromatic compounds.

  20. Visual-spatial memory may be enhanced with theta burst deep brain stimulation of the fornix: a preliminary investigation with four cases.

    PubMed

    Miller, Jonathan P; Sweet, Jennifer A; Bailey, Christopher M; Munyon, Charles N; Luders, Hans O; Fastenau, Philip S

    2015-07-01

    Memory loss after brain injury can be a source of considerable morbidity, but there are presently few therapeutic options for restoring memory function. We have previously demonstrated that burst stimulation of the fornix is able to significantly improve memory in a rodent model of traumatic brain injury. The present study is a preliminary investigation with a small group of cases to explore whether theta burst stimulation of the fornix might improve memory in humans. Four individuals undergoing stereo-electroencephalography evaluation for drug-resistant epilepsy were enrolled. All participants were implanted with an electrode into the proximal fornix and dorsal hippocampal commissure on the language dominant (n = 3) or language non-dominant (n = 1) side, and stimulation of this electrode reliably produced a diffuse evoked potential in the head and body of the ipsilateral hippocampus. Each participant underwent testing of verbal memory (Rey Auditory-Verbal Learning Test), visual-spatial memory (Medical College of Georgia Complex Figure Test), and visual confrontational naming (Boston Naming Test Short Form) once per day over at least two consecutive days using novel test forms each day. For 50% of the trials, the fornix electrode was continuously stimulated using a burst pattern (200 Hz in 100 ms trains, five trains per second, 100 µs, 7 mA) and was compared with sham stimulation. Participants and examiners were blinded to whether stimulation was active or not, and the order of stimulation was randomized. The small sample size precluded use of inferential statistics; therefore, data were analysed using descriptive statistics and graphic analysis. Burst stimulation of the fornix was not perceived by any of the participants but was associated with a robust reversible improvement in immediate and delayed performance on the Medical College of Georgia Complex Figure Test. There were no apparent differences on either Rey Auditory-Verbal Learning Test or Boston Naming

  1. Has industry funding biased studies of the protective effects of alcohol on cardiovascular disease? A preliminary investigation of prospective cohort studies

    PubMed Central

    McCambridge, Jim; Hartwell, Greg

    2015-01-01

    Introduction And Aims There have been no previous quantitative analyses of the possible effects of industry funding on alcohol and health research. This study examines whether findings of alcohol's protective effects on cardiovascular disease may be biased by industry funding. Design and Methods Findings from a recent systematic review of prospective cohort studies were combined with public domain data on alcohol industry funding. The six outcomes evaluated were alcohol's effects on cardiovascular disease mortality, incident coronary heart disease, coronary heart disease mortality, incident stroke, stroke mortality and mortality from all causes. Results We find no evidence of possible funding effects for outcomes other than stroke. Whether studies find alcohol to be a risk factor or protective against incident stroke depends on whether or not there is possible industry funding [risk ratio (RR) 1.07 (0.97–1.17) for those without concern about industry funding compared with RR 0.88 (0.81–0.94)]. For stroke mortality, a similar difference is not statistically significant, most likely because there are too few studies. Discussion and Conclusions Dedicated high-quality studies of possible alcohol industry funding effects should be undertaken, and these should be broad in scope. They also need to investigate specific areas of concern, such as stroke, in greater depth. [McCambridge J, Hartwell G. Has industry funding biased studies of the protective effects of alcohol on cardiovascular disease? A preliminary investigation of prospective cohort studies. Drug Alcohol Rev 2015;34:58–66] PMID:24602075

  2. Preliminary investigation of the effects of coal-water slurry fuels on the combustion in GE coal fueled diesel engine (Task 1. 1. 2. 2. 1, Fuels)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-06-01

    In prior work with the coal fired diesel research engine, a necessity to determine the sensitivity of the engine to a wider range of fuels was resolved and included in the R and D Test Plan submitted on 2/9/89. In general, the economic viability and universal acceptance of the commercial engine will be a factor of its ability to tolerate the widest range of source fuels with minimal fuel beneficiation. As detailed in the R and D Test Plan, a preliminary investigation on the effects of coal-water slurry (CWS) fuels on the combustion in a GE single cylinder test engine was conducted. The following conclusions are obtained from this investigation. All the test CWS fuels were successfully burned in the GE engine combustion system. They include: 3 to 15 microns mean particle size; 0.7 to 2.8% ash level; KY Blue Gem and PA Mariana bituminous coal, WY Kemmer and Spring Creek Sub-Bituminous coal; coal beneficiated with physical and chemical processes; two kinds of additives for OTISCA CWS; and burnout is not effected by ash or particle size within the test range. For each kind of CWS fuel, the detail design parameters of the fuel injection system has to be compatible. With sufficiently high fuel injection pressure, the 3 micron mean particle size OTISCA fuel burns faster than the 5 micron ones. For OTISCA fuel, the burn rate using Ammonium Lignosulfonate as additive is faster than using Ammonium Condensed Naphthalene Sulfonate. Appendices contain data on heat release, fuel characterization reports from two laboratories, general engine test data, and particulate size distribution. 3 refs.

  3. Beyond Capacity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boerner, Heather

    2012-01-01

    Over the past few years, 300,000 students have been turned away from California community colleges. Those that remain jockey for classes with ever-narrower registration deadlines. City College of San Francisco may be forced to close its doors to its 90,000 students after a state investigation found that the administration hadn't managed budget…

  4. [Preliminary Investigation of the Amount, the Molecular Weight and the Activity of Polysaccharides from Chaenomeles Speciosa Fruits in Ethanol Fractional Precipitation].

    PubMed

    Tian, Bing-mei; Xie, Xiao-mei; Shen, Pan-pan; Yang, Mo; Zhang, Sheng-long; Tang, Qing-jiu

    2015-05-01

    Chaenomeles speciosa fruits were extracted using water. The extracts were precipitated with 20%~95% (φ) ethanol, respectively. The amount of total polysaccharide was measured with phenol-sulfuric acid method. A method using high-performance size-exclusion chromatography (HPSEC) equipped with multiangle laser-light-scattering photometry (MALLS) and differential refractometry (RI) was presented for determining the molecular weight and molecular weigh distribution. RAW264.7 macrophage were cultured and stimulated with the polysaccharides in vitro and the production of nitric oxide in the cells was determined by the Griess assay. The aim of the study is to determine the amount and the molecular weight of the polysaccharides from Chaenomeles speciosa fruits, and preliminary investigate the immunomodulatory activity, The study provided the basis datas for the further research of Chaenomeles speciosa fruits. , and provided a simple and system method for the research of natural polysaccharide. The ethanol fractional precipitation showed that the order of total polysaccharide content was 95%>80%>40% ≥60%>20%. The results indicated that most polysaccharide from Chaenomeles speciosa fruits might be precipitated when ethanol concentration was up to 95% (T) and the crude polysaccharide purity had risen from 35. 1% to 45. 0% when the concentration of ethanol increased from 20% to 95%. HPSEC-MALLS-RI system showed that all the polysaccharide samples had the similar compositions. They appeared three chromatographic peaks and the retention time were not apparently different. The Mw were 6. 570 X 10(4) g . mol-1 and 1. 393 X 10(4) g . mol-1 respectively, and one less than 10 000 which was failure to obtain accurate values. The molecular weight of the first two polysaccharide distribution index(Mw/Mn)were 1. 336 and 1. 639 respectively. The polysaccharide samples had not exhibited immunomodulatory activity assessed on the basis of nitric oxide production by RAW264. 7 macrophage

  5. Preliminary investigation of soil and ground-water contamination at a U.S. Army Petroleum Training Facility, Fort Lee, Virginia, September-October 1989

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wright, W.G.; Powell, J.D.

    1990-01-01

    Fuel-oil constituents in the soil and groundwater at the Fort Lee Petroleum Training Facility near Petersburg, Virginia, were studied by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Department of Defense, U.S. Army. The study included installation of 25 groundwater monitoring wells and description of groundwater flow patterns of the shallow-aquifer system underlying the facility. Soil and groundwater samples were collected to determine the concentrations of fuel-oil constituents and to determine the potential for off-site migration of the constituents. Total petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations up to 18,400 mg/km were reported in soil samples. Concentrations of benzene in water from wells at the facility were up to 130 micrograms per liter (ug/L), and concentrations of ethylbenzene and xylene were up to 54 and 120 ug/L, respectively. Potential exists for off-site migration of the contaminants and migration of contaminants downward to deeper aquifers. Further investigations of these potential contamination-migration pathways are warranted. Risk identification at the Petroleum Training Facility cannot be properly addressed because the distribution of the fuel-oil constituents has not been fully characterized. Preliminary identification of risk, however is presented by an examination of toxicity data for the chemical constituents reported in the groundwater at the facility. Concentrations of constituents were compared to the maximum contaminant levels (MCLs) for drinking water established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). Concentrations of benzene in water from wells at the facility exceed the USEPA 's 5 ug/L MCL by as much as 26 times. Sufficient data are not available to fully design the remedial-action plan for the facility; however, general responses to contamination of the type associated with the facility include no-action, monitoring, institutional controls, removal, and treatment. (USGS)

  6. Changes in dam and pup behavior following repeated postnatal exposure to a predator odor (TMT): A preliminary investigation in Long-Evans rats.

    PubMed

    Ayers, Luke W; Asok, Arun; Blaze, Jennifer; Roth, Tania L; Rosen, Jeffrey B

    2016-03-01

    The present study investigated whether repeated early postnatal exposure to the predator odor 2,5-dihydro-2,4,5-trimethylthiazoline (TMT) alters behavioral responses to the stimulus later in life, at postnatal day (PN30). Long-Evans rat pups with their mothers were exposed for 20 min daily to TMT, water, or a noxious odor, butyric acid (BTA), during the first three weeks of life. Mothers exposed to TMT displayed more crouching and nursing behavior than those exposed to BTA, and TMT exposed pups emitted more ultrasonic vocalizations than BTA exposed pups. At PN30, rats were tested for freezing to TMT, water, or BTA. Rats exposed to TMT during the postnatal period displayed less freezing to TMT than rats exposed postnatally to water or BTA. Our data indicate that early-life experience with a predator cue has a significant impact on later fear responses to that same cue, highlighting the programming capacity of the postnatal environment on the development of behavior. PMID:26394891

  7. ESI-MS investigation of solvent effects on the chiral recognition capacity of tartar emetic towards neutral side-chain amino acids.

    PubMed

    Wijeratne, Aruna B; Yang, Samuel H; Gracia, Jose; Armstrong, Daniel W; Schug, Kevin A

    2011-01-01

    The effect of solvent systems on previously-reported ESI-MS based proton-assisted enantioselective molecular recognition phenomena of tartar emetic, L-antimony(III)-tartrate, was evaluated. This was achieved by carrying out a series of competitive binding experiments using chiral selectors, bis(sodium) D- and -L-antimony(III)-tartrates with chiral selectands, neutral side-chain amino acid enantiomeric isotopomers of alanine (Ala), valine (Val), leucine (Leu) and phenylalanine (Phe), in three different solvent systems, ACN/H(2)O (75/25 v/v), H(2)O (100%) and H(2)O/MeOH (25/75 v/v). Observations from these experiments suggest that the effect of solvent systems on previously reported proton-assisted chiral recognition capacity of D,L-antimony(III)-tartrates is small, but not negligible. It was observed that an ACN/H(2)O (75/25 v/v) solvent system facilitates and enhances the chiral discrimination capacity of protonated {[D,L-Sb(2)-tar(2)][H]}(-) ionic species. Further, amino acid enantiomers showed a general trend of increasing selectivity order, Val ≤ Ala < Leu ≈ Phe towards the protonated {[D,L-Sb(2)-tar(2)][H]}(-) ionic species which was independent of the solvent system employed. The lack of enantioselective binding for {[D,L-Sb(2)-tar(2)]}(2-) ionic species was consistently recorded in respective mass spectra from all performed experiments, which suggests that ESI-friendly solvent systems have no effect and do not influence this phenomenon. PMID:21125685

  8. Investigation of de novo cholesterol synthetic capacity in the gonads of goldfish (Carassius auratus) exposed to the phytosterol beta-sitosterol

    PubMed Central

    Sharpe, Rainie L; Drolet, Melissa; MacLatchy, Deborah L

    2006-01-01

    Total and intra-mitochondrial gonadal cholesterol concentrations are decreased in fish exposed to the phytoestrogen beta-sitosterol (beta-sit). The present study examined the potential for beta-sit to disrupt de novo cholesterol synthesis in the gonads of goldfish exposed to 200 microgram/g beta-sit and 10 microgram/g 17beta-estradiol (E2; estrogenic control) by intra-peritoneal Silastic® implants for 21 days. The de novo cholesterol synthetic capacity was estimated by incubating gonadal tissue with 14C-acetate for a period of 18 hours, followed by chloroform/methanol lipid extraction and thin layer chromatography (TLC) lipid separation. Lipid classes were confirmed using infrared spectroscopy. Plasma testosterone (T) and total cholesterol concentration were measured and gonadosomatic index (GSI) was calculated. Plasma T was significantly reduced in male beta-sit-treated fish compared to control and E2-treated fish (p < 0.001). 14C-Acetate incorporation into cholesterol and cholesterol esters was not significantly different among treatment groups for male and female fish, however, 14C-enrichment was higher than expected in both triglycerides (TG) and free fatty acids (FFA). FFA incorporation was significantly higher in male control fish than either beta-sit or E2 treatments (p = 0.005). Plasma cholesterol concentration was significantly increased in the male beta-sit treatment group compared to controls (p = 0.027). These results indicate gonadal de novo cholesterol biosynthetic capacity is not disrupted by beta-sit or E2 treatment in early recrudescing male or female goldfish, while plasma cholesterol and steroid concentrations are sensitive to beta-sit exposure. PMID:17118198

  9. Investigation of the capacity retention mechanisms in novel composite sulfur copolymer-base cathodes for high-energy density Li-S batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oleshko, Vladimir; Kim, Jenny; Masser, Kevin; Hudson, Steven; Soles, Christopher; Griebel, Jared; Chung, Woo Jin; Simmonds, Adam; Pyun, Jeffrey

    2013-03-01

    Utilization of the active cathode material in high-energy density Li-S batteries limited by the insulating nature of sulfur and losses in the form of insoluble polysulfides was improved by the use of 1,3-diisopropenylbenzene (DIB) copolymerized with molten sulfur. This approach termed, inverse vulcanization, transforms elemental sulfur into chemically stable processable copolymer forms with tunable thermomechanical properties. According to dielectric spectroscopy and dc conductivity measurements, composite sulfur-DIB copolymer cathodes exhibit a glassy-state beta relaxation related to short sulfur segments or to the DIB cross-linker. High-resolution AEM and FESEM studies down to the atomic scale reveal multiscale 3D-architectures created within the pristine and cycled composite cathodes with various contents of the electroactive copolymers. The morphology, structures, bonding and local compositional distributions of the constituents (sulfur, copolymers, aggregated conductive carbon nanoparticles) as well as extended pore structures and their transformations under cycling have been examined to provide insights into mechanisms of the enhanced capacity retention in the modified Li-S cells. NIST support under grant MML12-1053-N00

  10. Heat capacity of molten halides.

    PubMed

    Redkin, Alexander A; Zaikov, Yurii P; Korzun, Iraida V; Reznitskikh, Olga G; Yaroslavtseva, Tatiana V; Kumkov, Sergey I

    2015-01-15

    The heat capacities of molten salts are very important for their practical use. Experimental investigation of this property is challenging because of the high temperatures involved and the corrosive nature of these materials. It is preferable to combine experimental investigations with empirical relationships, which allows for the evaluation of the heat capacity of molten salt mixtures. The isobaric molar heat capacities of all molten alkali and alkaline-earth halides were found to be constant for each group of salts. The value depends on the number of atoms in the salt, and the molar heat capacity per atom is constant for all molten halide salts with the exception of the lithium halides. The molar heat capacities of molten halides do not change when the anions are changed. PMID:25530462

  11. Computer-Based Reading Programs: A Preliminary Investigation of Two Parent Implemented Programs with Students At-Risk for Reading Failure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pindiprolu, Sekhar S.; Forbush, David

    2009-01-01

    In 2000, National Reading Panelists (NRP) reported that computer delivered reading instruction has potential for promoting the reading skills of students at-risk for reading failure. However, panelists also noted a scarcity of data present in the literature on the effects of computer-based reading instruction. This preliminary investigation…

  12. River flood events as natural tracers for investigating the hydrological dynamics of a coupled river-aquifer system: preliminary results from 3D crosshole electrical resistivity monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coscia, I.; Greenhalgh, S. A.; Linde, N.; Doetsch, J.; Vogt, T.; Green, A. G.

    2009-12-01

    This research, on geoelectric monitoring of changing aquifer conditions associated with flood events of the River Thur in Switzerland, forms part of the much wider RECORD (REstored CORridor Dynamics) project. Major precipitation and snow-melt events cause rapid undamped fluctuations of discharge along the entire length of the river. River water that infiltrates the neighbouring aquifer normally has higher electrical resistivity than that of the groundwater during the early stages of flood events. This enables us to use infiltration during such events as a natural tracer in 3D time-lapse electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) experiments. Over a 10 x 15 m areal array, we have installed eighteen 12-m-deep monitoring boreholes spaced 3.5 m apart that completely penetrate the underlying 7-m-thick aquifer. Each borehole has been instrumented with ten 0.7-m-spaced electrodes that span the thickness of the aquifer. A multichannel resistivity meter, programmed to cycle through various 4-point electrode configurations of the 180 electrodes in a rolling sub-sequence, allows the collection of a 15,000-measurement data set every ~7 hours. Fourteen of these boreholes are also equipped with STS sensors that provide time-series of water-table depth and water temperature and electrical conductivity. Three-dimensional static ERT inversion at stable hydrological conditions was performed to investigate the resolving capability of our measuring sequence and to define the main lithological structures within the aquifer. Preliminary analyses of the ERT time series collected during a major flooding event this past summer suggest that the data are sensitive to three factors: water-level fluctuations in the aquifer, water-temperature variations, and electrical conductivity changes associated with changing salinity of the groundwater. The total changes in apparent resistivity are of the order of 20%. Since our primary interest is in the salinity effect that might be used to delineate

  13. Effects of Domain Knowledge, Working Memory Capacity, and Age on Cognitive Performance: An Investigation of the Knowledge-Is-Power Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hambrick, David Z.; Engle, Randall W.

    2002-01-01

    Domain knowledge facilitates performance in many cognitive tasks. However, very little is known about the interplay between domain knowledge and factors that are believed to reflect general, and relatively stable, characteristics of the individual. The primary goal of this study was to investigate the interplay between domain knowledge and one…

  14. An Investigation into the Capacity of Student Motivation and Emotion Regulation Strategies to Predict Engagement and Resilience in the Middle School Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fried, Leanne; Chapman, Elaine

    2012-01-01

    Although most of the initial research on self-regulated learning focused on cognitive and meta-cognitive aspects, there has been a growing interest in the emotion and motivation domains of self-regulation. This article reports on research undertaken to investigate specific motivation and emotion regulation strategies used by middle school students…

  15. Preliminary investigations for technology assessment of /sup 99/Mo production from LEU (low enriched uranium) targets. [For production of /sup 99m/Tc; by different methods

    SciTech Connect

    Vandegrift, G.F.; Chaiko, D.J.; Heinrich, R.R.; Kucera, E.T.; Jensen, K.J.; Poa, D.S.; Varma, R.; Vissers, D.R.

    1986-11-01

    This paper presents the results of preliminary studies on the effects of substituting low enriched uranium (LEU) for highly enriched uranium (HEU) in targets for the production of fission product /sup 99/Mo. Issues that were addressed are: (1) purity and yield of the /sup 99/Mo//sup 99m/Tc product, (2) fabrication of LEU targets and related concerns, and (3) radioactive waste. Laboratory experimentation was part of the efforts for issues (1) and (2); thus far, radioactive waste disposal has only been addressed in a paper study. Although the reported results are still preliminary, there is reason to be optimistic about the feasibility of utilizing LEU targets for /sup 99/Mo production. 37 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  16. A preliminary investigation of the Environmental Control and Life Support Subsystem (EC/LSS) for the space construction base manufacturing modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wells, H. B.

    1977-01-01

    The preliminary data of the environmental control and life support subsystem for a space construction base manufacturing module was reported. A space processing module, which is capable of performing production biological experiments, was chosen as a baseline configuration. The primary assemblies and components considered for use were humidity and temperature control, ventilation fan, cabin fan, water separator, condensate storage, overboard dumping, distribution system, contaminant monitoring, cabin sensors, and fire and smoke detection.

  17. Capacity Building of MAGDAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yumoto, K.

    2011-12-01

    Under the framework of the MAGDAS Project of SERC (at Kyushu University), this report will cover the three phases of "Capacity Building": (1) Development of instrument capacity, (2) Development of data analysis capacity, and (3) Development of science capacity. Capacity Building is one of the major goals of IHY and ISWI, as specified by the organizers of IHY and ISWI.

  18. Investigation of the characteristics of the nickle oxide electrode under the conditions of operation of high-capacity storage batteries of the TNZhK type

    SciTech Connect

    Leshcheva, E.N.; Glazatova, T.N.; Aguf, I.A.

    1982-07-01

    There have been virtually no investigations of the behavior of laminated NOE at elevated temperatures. It was therefore desirable to study the joint influence of electrolyte temperature and addition of cobalt on the behavior of NOE at high discharge rates and in the course of charging; this was the purpose of the present work. Laminated NOE 36 x 14 x 3.5 mm in size were taken for the investigation. The content of active material in each electrode was 3 g. Cobalt was introduced into the prepared material in the form of sulfate solution in the ratio of 3% Co/Ni. The tests were conducted in a gastight cell made of transparent plastic and connected to a buret for collecting the gas. The electrolyte consisted of NaOH solution (d = 1.20 g/cm/sup 3/) + 5 g/liter LiOH. The auxiliary electrodes were made of Ni foil. The anode and cathode currents were chosen in accordance with the conditions of operation of TNZhK batteries. The potentials were measured against a mercury oxide reference electrode in the same solution. Two series of experiments were carried out. In the first series the electrodes were charged in the temperature range 25 to 70/sup 0/, with simultaneous collection of gas. The discharge temperature was 25/sup 0/. In the second series the electrodes were charged at 25/sup 0/ and discharged at temperatures in the range 25 to 70/sup 0/.

  19. Heat capacity, configurational heat capacity and fragility of hydrous magmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Genova, D.; Romano, C.; Giordano, D.; Alletti, M.

    2014-10-01

    The glassy and liquid heat capacities of four series of dry and hydrous natural glasses and magma as a function of temperature and water content (up to 19.9 mol%) were investigated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The analyzed compositions are basalt, latite, trachyte and pantellerite. The results of this study indicate that the measured heat capacity of glasses (Cpg) is a linear function of composition and is well reproduced by the empirical model of Richet (1987). For the investigated glasses, the partial molar heat capacity of water can be considered as independent of composition, in agreement with Bouhifd et al. (2006). For hydrous liquids, the heat capacity (Cpliq) decreases nonlinearly with increasing water content. Previously published models, combined with the partial molar heat capacity of water from the literature, are not able to reproduce our experimental data in a satisfactory way. We estimated the partial molar heat capacity of water (CpH2O) in hydrous magma over a broad compositional range. The proposed value is 41 ± 3 J mol-1 K-1. Water strongly affects the configurational heat capacity at the glass transition temperature [Cpconf (Tg)]. An increases of Cpconf (Tg) with water content was measured for the polymerized liquids (trachyte and pantellerite), while the opposite behavior was observed for the most depolymerized liquids (basalt and latite). Structural and rheological implications of this behavior are discussed in light of the presented results.

  20. Preliminary design of four aircraft to service the California Corridor in the year 2010: The California Condor, California Sky-Hopper, high capacity short range transport tilt rotor aircraft needed to simplify intercity transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The major objective of this project was to design an aircraft for use in the California Corridor in the year 2010. The design process, completed by students in a senior design class at California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo, used a Class 1 airplane design analysis from Jan Roskam's Airplane Design. The California Condor (CC-38), a 38 passenger, 400 mph aircraft, was designed to meet the needs of tomorrow's passengers while conforming to the California Corridor's restrictions. Assumptions were made using today's technology with forecasts into 21st Century technology. Doubling today's commuter aircraft passenger capacity, travelling at Mach .57 with improved cruise efficiencies of over 10 percent, with the ability to land within field lengths of 4000 feet, are the CC-38's strongest points. The California Condor has a very promising future in helping to relieve the air traffic and airport congestion in the 21st Century.

  1. Photovoltaics effective capacity: Interim final report 2

    SciTech Connect

    Perez, R.; Seals, R.

    1997-11-01

    The authors provide solid evidence, based on more than 8 million data points, that regional photovoltaic (PV) effective capacity is largely unrelated to the region`s solar resource. They confirm, however, that effective capacity is strongly related to load-shape characteristics. The load-shape effective-capacity relationship appears to be valid for end-use loads as small as 100 kW, except possibly in the case of electrically heated buildings. This relationship was used as a tool to produce a US map of PV`s effective capacity. The regions of highest effective capacities include (1) the central US from the northern Great Plains to the metropolitan areas of Chicago and Detroit, down to the lower Mississippi Valley, (2) California and western Arizona, and (3) the northeast metropolitan corridor. The features of this map are considerably different from the traditional solar resource maps. They tend to reflect the socio-economic and climatic factors that indirectly drive PV`s effective capacity: e.g., commercial air-conditioning, little use of electric heat, and strong summer heat waves. The map provides a new and significant insight to a comprehensive valuation of the PV resource. The authors assembled preliminary evidence showing that end-use load type may be related to PV`s effective capacity. Highest effective capacities were found for (nonelectrically heated) office buildings, followed by hospitals. Lowest capacities were found for airports and residences. Many more data points are needed, however, to ascertain and characterize these preliminary findings.

  2. Preliminary investigations of the colonisation of upper respiratory tract tissues of infants using a paediatric formulation of the oral probiotic Streptococcus salivarius K12.

    PubMed

    Power, D A; Burton, J P; Chilcott, C N; Dawes, P J; Tagg, J R

    2008-12-01

    A powder preparation of the oral probiotic Streptococcus salivarius K12 has been given to 19 young otitis media-prone children following a 3-day course of amoxicillin administered as a preliminary to ventilation tube placement. In two subjects, the use of strain K12 appeared to effect the expansion of an indigenous population of inhibitory S. salivarius. In other children, strain K12 colonisation extended beyond the oral cavity to also include the nasopharynx or adenoid tissue. The relatively low proportion (33%) of subjects that colonised was attributed to failure of the amoxicillin pre-treatment to sufficiently reduce the indigenous S. salivarius populations prior to dosing with strain K12 powder. PMID:18560907

  3. Preliminary Investigation of the Static Longitudinal and Lateral Stability Characteristics of a 0.05-Scale Model of the Convair F2Y-1 Airplane at High Subsonic Speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spreemann, Kenneth P.; Few, Albert G., Jr.

    1954-01-01

    At the request of the Bureau of Aeronautics, Department of the Navy, National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics has conducted a preliminary investigation at high subsonic speeds of the static longitudinal and lateral stability characteristics of a 0.05-scale model of the Convair F2Y-1 water-based fighter airplane. The tests covered a Mach number range from 0.5 to 0.94 and corresponding Reynolds numbers, based on the wing mean aerodynamic chord, from 3.3 x 10(exp 6) to 4.3 x 10(exp 6). The maximum angle-of-attack range (obtained at the lower Mach numbers) was from -2 degrees to 25 degrees. Sideslip angles from -4 degrees to 12 degrees also were investigated. The investigation included effects of various arrangements of wing fences and of rocket packages.

  4. A preliminary investigation of Large Eddy Simulation (LES) of the flow around a cylinder at ReD = 3900 using a commercial CFD code

    SciTech Connect

    Paschkewitz, J S

    2006-02-14

    Engineering fluid mechanics simulations at high Reynolds numbers have traditionally been performed using the Reynolds-Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) equations and a turbulence model. The RANS methodology has well-documented shortcomings in the modeling of separated or bluff body wake flows that are characterized by unsteady vortex shedding. The resulting turbulence statistics are strongly influenced by the detailed structure and dynamics of the large eddies, which are poorly captured using RANS models (Rodi 1997; Krishnan et al. 2004). The Large Eddy Simulation (LES) methodology offers the potential to more accurately simulate these flows as it resolves the large-scale unsteady motions and entails modeling of only the smallest-scale turbulence structures. Commercial computational fluid dynamics products are beginning to offer LES capability, allowing practicing engineers an opportunity to apply this turbulence modeling technique to much wider array of problems than in dedicated research codes. Here, we present a preliminary evaluation of the LES capability in the commercial CFD solver StarCD by simulating the flow around a cylinder at a Reynolds number based on the cylinder diameter, D, of 3900 using the constant coefficient Smagorinsky LES model. The results are compared to both the experimental and computational results provided in Kravchenko & Moin (2000). We find that StarCD provides predictions of lift and drag coefficients that are within 15% of the experimental values. Reasonable agreement is obtained between the time-averaged velocity statistics and the published data. The differences in these metrics may be due to the use of a truncated domain in the spanwise direction and the short time-averaging period used for the statistics presented here. The instantaneous flow field visualizations show a coarser, larger-scale structure than the study of Kravchenko & Moin (2000), which may be a product of the LES implementation or of the domain and resolution used

  5. Phytoremediative capacity of plants enriched with melatonin.

    PubMed

    Tan, Dun-Xian; Manchester, Lucien C; Helton, Pat; Reiter, Russel J

    2007-11-01

    Melatonin is an environmentally friendly-molecule with broad spectrum antioxidant capacity. Melatonin is widely present in the plant kingdom. High levels of melatonin exist in an aquatic plant, the water hyacinth, which is highly tolerant of environmental pollutants. Elevated levels of melatonin probably help plants to protect against environmental stress caused by water and soil pollutants. To investigate the potential relationships between melatonin supplementation and environmental tolerance in plants, pea plants were treated with high levels of copper in the soil. The results show that copper contamination kills pea plants; however, melatonin added to the soil significantly enhanced their tolerance to the copper contamination and, therefore, increased their survival. Based on the theory and these preliminary data, we speculate that melatonin could be used to improve the phytoremediative efficiency of plants against different pollutants. Since melatonin is safe to animals and humans as well as being inexpensive, it may be a feasible and cost-effective approach to clean environmental contaminations. PMID:19704544

  6. A preliminary investigation into the effectiveness of a group-delivered sleep management intervention for parents of children with intellectual disabilities.

    PubMed

    Stuttard, Lucy; Beresford, Bryony; Clarke, Sue; Beecham, Jeni; Curtis, Julie

    2015-12-01

    Sleep problems are more prevalent and severe among children with intellectual disabilities and autism compared to typically developing children. Training parents in behavioural approaches to manage sleep problems is advocated. However, delivering such interventions via groups is novel. This article reports the findings from a preliminary evaluation of a group-delivered intervention routinely delivered by a Child and Adolescent Mental Health Service Learning Disability team in England. For this purpose, parents (n = 23) of children with intellectual disabilities were recruited. The Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire, Parents' Sense of Competence Scale and parent-set goals captured outcomes at pre-intervention, post-intervention and 3- and 6-month follow-up. Intervention delivery costs were collected. Take-up was high (86%), and no parent dropped out. Statistically significant improvements in night wakings, parent-set goals and parents' sense of efficacy were observed. The estimated mean cost of delivering each intervention was British (GBP) £1570. Findings suggest the intervention is a low-cost, acceptable service warranting further evaluation. PMID:25792540

  7. Preliminary X-ray investigations of several crystal forms of the ferripyoverdine FpvA outer membrane receptor from Pseudomonas aeruginosa bound to ferripyoverdine

    SciTech Connect

    Wirth, Christophe; Hoegy, Françoise; Pattus, Franc; Cobessi, David

    2006-05-01

    The crystallization and X-ray data analysis of three crystal forms of the outer membrane pyoverdine transducer FpvA from P. aeruginosa bound to ferripyoverdine are described. The resolution of the crystals ranges from 3.15 to 2.7 Å depending on the crystal form; all were obtained in the presence of C{sub 8}E{sub 4} detergent. Ferripyoverdine transport across the outer membrane of Pseudomonas aeruginosa by the pyoverdine receptor FpvA and the transcriptional regulation of FpvA involve interactions of the FpvA N-terminal TonB box and signalling domain with proteins from the inner membrane. Several crystallization conditions of FpvA–Pvd-Fe solubilized in C{sub 8}E{sub 4} detergent were obtained and X-ray data were collected from three crystal forms. The resolution limits range from 3.15 to 2.7 Å depending on the crystal form. From preliminary analysis of the electron-density maps, the first full-length structure of an outer membrane receptor including a signalling domain should be determined.

  8. Technical Decision-Making with Higher Order Structure Data: Detecting Reversible Concentration-Dependent Self-Association in a Monoclonal Antibody and a Preliminary Investigation to Eliminate It.

    PubMed

    Wei, Julie Y; Bou-Assaf, George M; Houde, Damian; Weiskopf, Andrew

    2015-11-01

    Protein self-association or aggregation is a property of significant concern for biopharmaceutical products due to the potential ability of aggregates to cause adverse toxicological and immunological effects. Thus, during the development of a protein biopharmaceutical, it is important to detect and quantify the level and nature of aggregate species as early as possible in order to make well-informed decisions and to mitigate and control potential risks. Although a deeper understanding of the mechanism of aggregation (i.e., protein-protein interactions) is desirable, such detailed assessment is not always necessary from a biopharmaceutical process development point of view. In fact, the scope of characterization efforts is often focused on achieving a well-controlled process, which generates a product that reliably meets established acceptance criteria for safety and efficacy. In this brief note, we evaluated the utility of size-exclusion chromatography, dynamic light scattering, and analytical ultracentrifugation in their simplest forms, to effectively reveal and confirm the presence of concentration-dependent reversible self-association (RSA) in a monoclonal antibody in the early stages of formulation development. Using these techniques, we also initiated preliminary work aimed at reducing the occurrence of this RSA behavior by varying the pH of the formulation buffer. PMID:26308556

  9. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic investigations on a βγ-crystallin domain of absent in melanoma 1 (AIM1), a protein from Homo sapiens

    SciTech Connect

    Aravind, Penmatsa; Rajini, Bheemreddy; Sharma, Yogendra; Sankaranarayanan, Rajan

    2006-03-01

    The crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of AIM1g1, a βγ-crystallin domain of absent in melanoma (AIM1) protein from H. sapiens, is reported. AIM1g1 is a single βγ-crystallin domain from the protein absent in melanoma 1 (AIM1), which appears to play a role in the suppression of melanomas. This domain is known to bind calcium and its structure would help in identifying calcium-coordinating sites in vertebrate crystallins, which have hitherto been believed to have lost this ability during evolution. Crystallization of this domain was performed by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. Crystals diffracted to a maximum resolution of 1.86 Å and were found to belong to space group P6{sub 1} or P6{sub 5}, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 54.98, c = 59.73 Å. Solvent-content analysis indicated the presence of one monomer per asymmetric unit.

  10. Building Leadership Capacity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flanary, Dick

    2009-01-01

    The NASSP "Breaking Ranks" framework lays out multiple strategies for building capacity within a school, beginning with the leaders. To change an organization and increase its capacity to produce greater results, the people within the organization must change and increase their capacity. School change begins with changes in the principal, the…

  11. 19 CFR 202.3 - Preliminary inquiry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Preliminary inquiry. 202.3 Section 202.3 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION NONADJUDICATIVE INVESTIGATIONS INVESTIGATIONS OF COSTS OF PRODUCTION § 202.3 Preliminary inquiry. Upon the receipt of an application properly filed,...

  12. 19 CFR 202.3 - Preliminary inquiry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Preliminary inquiry. 202.3 Section 202.3 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION NONADJUDICATIVE INVESTIGATIONS INVESTIGATIONS OF COSTS OF PRODUCTION § 202.3 Preliminary inquiry. Upon the receipt of an application properly filed,...

  13. In vitro investigations of the potential health benefits of Australian-grown faba beans (Vicia faba L.): chemopreventative capacity and inhibitory effects on the angiotensin-converting enzyme, α-glucosidase and lipase.

    PubMed

    Siah, Siem D; Konczak, Izabela; Agboola, Samson; Wood, Jennifer A; Blanchard, Christopher L

    2012-08-01

    The functional properties, including antioxidant and chemopreventative capacities as well as the inhibitory effects on angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), α-glucosidase and pancreatic lipase, of three Australian-grown faba bean genotypes (Nura, Rossa and TF(Ic*As)*483/13) were investigated using an array of in vitro assays. Chromatograms of on-line post column derivatisation assay coupled with HPLC revealed the existence of active phenolics (hump) in the coloured genotypes, which was lacking in the white-coloured breeding line, TF(Ic*As)*483/13. Roasting reduced the phenolic content, and diminished antioxidant activity by 10-40 % as measured by the reagent-based assays (diphenylpicrylhydrazyl, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity) in all genotypes. Cell culture-based antioxidant activity assay (cellular antioxidant activity) showed an increase of activity in the coloured genotypes after roasting. Faba bean extracts demonstrated cellular protection ability against H₂O₂-induced DNA damage (assessed using RAW264.7 cells), and inhibited the proliferation of all human cancer cell lines (BL13, AGS, Hep G2 and HT-29) evaluated. However, the effect of faba bean extracts on the non-transformed human cells (CCD-18Co) was negligible. Flow cytometric analyses showed that faba bean extracts successfully induced apoptosis of HL-60 (acute promyelocytic leukaemia) cells. The faba bean extracts also exhibited ACE, α-glucosidase and pancreatic lipase inhibitory activities. Overall, extracts from Nura (buff-coloured) and Rossa (red-coloured) were comparable, while TF(Ic*As)*483/13 (white-coloured) contained the lowest phenolic content and exhibited the least antioxidant and enzyme inhibition activities. These results are important to promote the utilisation of faba beans in human diets for various health benefits. PMID:22916808

  14. A Preliminary Investigation into the Mitigation of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Tailpipe Emissions Through Supervisory Control Methods Part 2: Experimental Evaluation of Emissions Reduction Methodologies

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, David E; Lohse-Busch, Henning; Irick, David Kim

    2010-04-01

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) technologies have the potential for considerable petroleum consumption reductions, possibly at the expense of increased tailpipe emissions due to multiple 'cold' start events and improper use of the engine for PHEV specific operation. PHEVs operate predominantly as electric vehicles (EVs) with intermittent assist from the engine during high power demands. As a consequence, the engine can be subjected to multiple cold start events. These cold start events may have a significant impact on the tailpipe emissions due to degraded catalyst performance and starting the engine under less than ideal conditions. On current hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), the first cold start of the engine dictates whether or not the vehicle will pass federal emissions tests. PHEV operation compounds this problem due to infrequent, multiple engine cold starts. A continuation of previous analytical work, this research, experimentally verifies a vehicle supervisory control system for a pre-transmission parallel PHEV powertrain architecture. Energy management strategies are evaluated and implemented in a virtual environment for preliminary assessment of petroleum displacement benefits and rudimentary drivability issues. This baseline vehicle supervisory control strategy, developed as a result of this assessment, is implemented and tested on actual hardware in a controlled laboratory environment over a baseline test cycle. Engine cold start events are aggressively addressed in the development of this control system, which leads to enhanced pre-warming and energy-based engine warming algorithms that provide substantial reductions in tailpipe emissions over the baseline supervisory control strategy. The flexibility of the PHEV powertrain allows for decreased emissions during any engine starting event through powertrain 'torque shaping' algorithms. The results of the research show that PHEVs do have the potential for substantial reductions in fuel consumption

  15. Some Investigations of the General Instability of Stiffened Metal Cylinders II : Preliminary Tests of Wire-braced Specimens and Theoretical Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1943-01-01

    This is the second of a series of reports covering an investigation of the general instability problem by the California Institute of Technology. The first five reports of this series cover investigations of the general instability problem under the loading conditions of pure bending and were prepared under the sponsorship of the Civil Aeronautics Administration. The succeeding reports of this series cover the work done on other loading conditions under the sponsorship of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics.

  16. Individual differences in working memory capacity and workload capacity

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Ju-Chi; Chang, Ting-Yun; Yang, Cheng-Ta

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between working memory capacity (WMC) and workload capacity (WLC). Each participant performed an operation span (OSPAN) task to measure his/her WMC and three redundant-target detection tasks to measure his/her WLC. WLC was computed non-parametrically (Experiments 1 and 2) and parametrically (Experiment 2). Both levels of analyses showed that participants high in WMC had larger WLC than those low in WMC only when redundant information came from visual and auditory modalities, suggesting that high-WMC participants had superior processing capacity in dealing with redundant visual and auditory information. This difference was eliminated when multiple processes required processing for only a single working memory subsystem in a color-shape detection task and a double-dot detection task. These results highlighted the role of executive control in integrating and binding information from the two working memory subsystems for perceptual decision making. PMID:25566143

  17. Preliminary Use of the Seismo-Lineament Analysis Method (SLAM) to Investigate Seismogenic Faulting in the Grand Canyon Area, Northern Arizona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cronin, V. S.; Cleveland, D. M.; Prochnow, S. J.

    2007-12-01

    . Fieldwork to test our hypotheses is planned for the spring of 2008. Based on a preliminary analysis, the northwest-trending Muav, Tipoff, Cremation and Phantom Faults are all located within northwest-trending seismo-lineaments associated with recorded earthquakes that are characterized by normal (slightly oblique) focal mechanism solutions. This is consistent with Brumbaugh's suggestion that present-day seismicity in the eastern Grand Canyon is concentrated on faults with a northwest trend.

  18. Preliminary Results of an Altitude-Wind-Tunnel Investigation of an Axial-Flow Gas Turbine-Propeller Engine. 5; Combustion-Chamber Characterisitcs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geisenheyner, Robert M.; Berdysz, Joseph J.

    1948-01-01

    An investigation to determine the performance and operational characteristics of an axial-flow gas turbine-propeller engine was conducted in the Cleveland altitude wind tunnel. As part of this investigation, the combustion-chamber performance was determined at pressure altitudes from 5000 to 35,000 feet, compressor-inlet ram-pressure ratios of 1.00 and 1.09, and engine speeds from 8000 to 13,000 rpm. Combustion-chamber performance is presented as a function of corrected engine speed and corrected horsepower. For the range of corrected engine speeds investigated, overall total-pressure-loss ratio, cycle efficiency, and the fractional loss in cycle efficiency resulting from pressure losses in the combustion chambers were unaffected by a change in altitude or compressor-inlet ram-pressure ratio. For the range of corrected horsepowers investigated, the total-pressure-loss ratio and the fractional loss in cycle efficiency resulting from pressure losses in the combustion chambers decreased with an increase in corrected horsepower at a constant corrected engine speed. The combustion efficiency remained constant for the range of corrected horsepowers investigated at all corrected engine speeds.

  19. Preliminary Results of an Altitude-Wind-Tunnel Investigation of a TG-100A Gas Turbine-Propeller Engine. V; Combustion-Chamber Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gensenheyner, Robert M.; Berdysz, Joseph J.

    1947-01-01

    An investigation to determine the performance and operational characteristics of the TG-1OOA gas turbine-propeller engine was conducted in the Cleveland altitude wind tunnel. As part of this investigation, the combustion-chamber performance was determined at pressure altitudes from 5000 to 35,000 feet, compressor-inlet rm-pressure ratios of 1.00 and 1.09, and engine speeds from 8000 to 13,000 rpm. Combustion-chamber performance is presented as a function of corrected engine speed and.correcte& horsepower. For the range of corrected engine speeds investigated, over-all total-pressure-loss ratio, cycle efficiency, ana the frac%ional loss in cycle efficiency resulting from pressure losses in the combustion chambers were unaffected by a change in altitude or compressor-inlet ram-pressure ratio. The scatter of combustion- efficiency data tended to obscure any effect of altitude or ram-pressure ratio. For the range of corrected horse-powers investigated, the total-pressure-loss ratio an& the fractional loss in cycle efficiency resulting from pressure losses in the combustion chambers decreased with an increase in corrected horsepower at a constant corrected engine speed. The combustion efficiency remained constant for the range of corrected horse-powers investigated at all corrected engine speeds.

  20. Psychological Distress, Acculturation, and Mental Health-Seeking Attitudes among People of African Descent in the United States: A Preliminary Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obasi, Ezemenari M.; Leong, Frederick T. L.

    2009-01-01

    This article investigates the relationship between psychological distress, acculturation, and help-seeking attitudes among people of African descent (N = 130). Psychological distress was measured using the Global Severity Index from the Brief Symptom Inventory (L. R. Derogatis & N. Melisaratos, 1983), acculturation was measured using the…