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1

Effects of short-term ingestion of Russian Tarragon prior to creatine monohydrate supplementation on whole body and muscle creatine retention and anaerobic sprint capacity: a preliminary investigation  

PubMed Central

Background Extracts of Russian Tarragon (RT) have been reported to produce anti-hyperglycemic effects and influence plasma creatine (Cr) levels while supplementing with creatine monohydrate (CrM). The purpose of this preliminary study was to determine if short-term, low-dose aqueous RT extract ingestion prior to CrM supplementation influences whole body Cr retention, muscle Cr or measures of anaerobic sprint performance. Methods In a double-blind, randomized, and crossover manner; 10 recreationally trained males (20?±?2 yrs; 179?±?9 cm; 91.3?±?34 kg) ingested 500 mg of aqueous RT extract (Finzelberg, Andernach, Germany) or 500 mg placebo 30-minutes prior to ingesting 5 g of CrM (Creapure®, AlzChem AG, Germany) twice per day for 5-days then repeated after a 6-week wash-out period. Urine was collected at baseline and during each of the 5-days of supplementation to determine urine Cr content. Whole body Cr retention was estimated from urine samples. Muscle biopsies were obtained for determination of muscle free Cr content. Participants also performed two 30-second Wingate anaerobic capacity tests prior to and following supplementation for determination of peak power (PP), mean power (MP), and total work (TW). Data were analysed by repeated measures MANOVA. Results Whole body daily Cr retention increased in both groups following supplementation (0.0?±?0.0; 8.2?±?1.4, 6.5?±?2.4, 5.6?±?3.2, 6.1?±?2.6, 4.8?±?3.2 g?·?d-1; p?=?0.001) with no differences observed between groups (p?=?0.59). After 3 and 5-days of supplementation, respectively, both supplementation protocols demonstrated a significant increase in muscle free Cr content from baseline (4.8?±?16.7, 15.5?±?23.6 mmol?·?kg-1 DW, p?=?0.01) with no significant differences observed between groups (p?=?0.34). Absolute change in MP (9?±?57, 35?±?57 W; p?=?0.031), percent change in MP (2.5?±?10.5, 6.7?±?10.4%; p?=?0.026), absolute change in TW (275?±?1,700, 1,031?±?1,721 J; p?=?0.032), and percent change in TW (2.5?±?10.5, 6.6?±?10.4%; p?=?0.027) increased over time in both groups with no differences observed between groups. Conclusions Short-term CrM supplementation (10 g?·?d-1 for 5-days) significantly increased whole body Cr retention and muscle free Cr content. However, ingesting 500 mg of RT 30-min prior to CrM supplementation did not affect whole body Cr retention, muscle free Cr content, or anaerobic sprint capacity in comparison to ingesting CrM with a placebo. PMID:24568653

2014-01-01

2

33 CFR 116.15 - Preliminary investigation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Preliminary investigation. 116.15 Section 116.15 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... ALTERATION OF UNREASONABLY OBSTRUCTIVE BRIDGES § 116.15 Preliminary investigation. (a)...

2010-07-01

3

The first polish tektites: preliminary sem investigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Lower Silesia, the first Polish moldavites were discovered. To recognize the primary chemical composition and check the morphology of investigated material SE and BSE images were used. The samples show presence of vesicles, which are one of the most typical features of tektite glass. Referring to the preliminary EDS results and comparing them with literature data, it can be assumed that in all cases the base material for all known moldavites was the same.

Brachaniec, Tomasz; Szopa, Krzysztof; Karwowski, ?ukasz

2013-09-01

4

Explosive volcanic deposits on Mars: Preliminary investigations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two investigations were undertaken to examine possible large scale explosive volcanic deposits on Mars. The first includes an analysis of Viking Infrared Thermal Mapper (IRTM) data covering the vast deposits in the Amazonis, Memnonia, and Aeolis regions. These postulated ignimbrites have been previously mapped, and at least five high resolution nighttime IRTM data tracks cross the deposits. Preliminary analysis of the data covering Amazonis Planitia show that local features have anomalous thermal inertias but the ignimbrites as a whole do not consistently have significantly different thermal inertias from their surroundings. Preliminary photogeologic and IRTM studies of the large and small highland paterae have also begun. The purpose of IRTM studies of postulated Martian explosive volcanic deposits is to determine the physical properties of the proposed ignimbrites. If volcanic deposits are exposed at the surface, high thermal inertias, as are observed for Apollinaris Patera, should be present.

Crown, D. A.; Leshin, L. A.; Greeley, Ronald

1987-01-01

5

An investigation of antioxidant capacity of fruits in Singapore markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antioxidant capacity of a group of fruits obtained in the Singapore markets was investigated. A total of 27 fruit pulps were tested for their general antioxidant capacity based on their ability to scavenge 2,2?-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) free radical. The contribution of l-ascorbic acid (AA) to the total antioxidant activity of fruits was investigated by using RP-HPLC. The antioxidant capacity

L. P Leong; G Shui

2002-01-01

6

Preliminary investigations into statistically valid exploratory rule discovery  

E-print Network

Preliminary investigations into statistically valid exploratory rule discovery Geoffrey I. Webb rule discovery, as exemplified by association rule discovery, is has proven very popular. In this paper I investigate issues surrounding the statistical validity of rules found using this approach

Webb, Geoff

7

A Preliminary Genetic Investigation of VOLVOX CARTERI  

PubMed Central

A preliminary genetic analysis of a number of genetic variants of Volvox carteri f. nagariensis is presented. Techniques are outlined for mutagenesis of Volvox, isolation of mutants and routine genetic analysis. All of the mutants show simple Mendelian segregation patterns and have been tentatively placed in 14 linkage groups. PMID:17248883

Huskey, Robert J.; Griffin, Barbara E.; Cecil, Patricia O.; Callahan, Ann M.

1979-01-01

8

49 CFR 850.10 - Preliminary investigation by the Coast Guard.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Preliminary investigation by the Coast Guard. 850.10 Section 850.10 Transportation...INVESTIGATIONS § 850.10 Preliminary investigation by the Coast Guard. (a) The Coast Guard conducts the preliminary investigation of...

2011-10-01

9

49 CFR 850.10 - Preliminary investigation by the Coast Guard.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Preliminary investigation by the Coast Guard. 850.10 Section 850.10 Transportation...INVESTIGATIONS § 850.10 Preliminary investigation by the Coast Guard. (a) The Coast Guard conducts the preliminary investigation of...

2010-10-01

10

49 CFR 850.10 - Preliminary investigation by the Coast Guard.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Preliminary investigation by the Coast Guard. 850.10 Section 850.10 Transportation...INVESTIGATIONS § 850.10 Preliminary investigation by the Coast Guard. (a) The Coast Guard conducts the preliminary investigation of...

2013-10-01

11

49 CFR 850.10 - Preliminary investigation by the Coast Guard.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Preliminary investigation by the Coast Guard. 850.10 Section 850.10 Transportation...INVESTIGATIONS § 850.10 Preliminary investigation by the Coast Guard. (a) The Coast Guard conducts the preliminary investigation of...

2012-10-01

12

46 CFR 4.40-10 - Preliminary investigation by the Coast Guard.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Preliminary investigation by the Coast Guard. 4.40-10 Section 4.40-10 Shipping... § 4.40-10 Preliminary investigation by the Coast Guard. (a) The Coast Guard conducts the preliminary investigation of...

2010-10-01

13

46 CFR 4.40-10 - Preliminary investigation by the Coast Guard.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 false Preliminary investigation by the Coast Guard. 4.40-10 Section 4.40-10 Shipping... § 4.40-10 Preliminary investigation by the Coast Guard. (a) The Coast Guard conducts the preliminary investigation of...

2014-10-01

14

46 CFR 4.40-10 - Preliminary investigation by the Coast Guard.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Preliminary investigation by the Coast Guard. 4.40-10 Section 4.40-10 Shipping... § 4.40-10 Preliminary investigation by the Coast Guard. (a) The Coast Guard conducts the preliminary investigation of...

2011-10-01

15

46 CFR 4.40-10 - Preliminary investigation by the Coast Guard.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Preliminary investigation by the Coast Guard. 4.40-10 Section 4.40-10 Shipping... § 4.40-10 Preliminary investigation by the Coast Guard. (a) The Coast Guard conducts the preliminary investigation of...

2013-10-01

16

46 CFR 4.40-10 - Preliminary investigation by the Coast Guard.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Preliminary investigation by the Coast Guard. 4.40-10 Section 4.40-10 Shipping... § 4.40-10 Preliminary investigation by the Coast Guard. (a) The Coast Guard conducts the preliminary investigation of...

2012-10-01

17

Collateral Information for Equating in Small Samples: A Preliminary Investigation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes a preliminary investigation of an empirical Bayes (EB) procedure for using collateral information to improve equating of scores on test forms taken by small numbers of examinees. Resampling studies were done on two different forms of the same test. In each study, EB and non-EB versions of two equating methods--chained linear…

Kim, Sooyeon; Livingston, Samuel A.; Lewis, Charles

2011-01-01

18

Assessing the impact of ISO 15489 – a preliminary investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article shares the results of a preliminary investigation into the impact of ISO 15489, the international records management standard, conducted between January 2002 and March 2003. Attendees at a series of records management and information management events were asked about their awareness of, initial reactions to and plans for using the standard. The results show a relatively high level

Julie McLeod

2003-01-01

19

Trained Quantity Abilities in Horses (Equus caballus): A Preliminary Investigation  

PubMed Central

Once believed to be a human prerogative, the capacity to discriminate between quantities now has also been reported in several vertebrates. To date, only two studies investigated numerical abilities in horses (Equus caballus) but reported contrasting data. To assess whether horses can be trained to discriminate between quantities, I have set up a new experimental protocol using operant conditioning. One adult female was trained to discriminate between 1 and 4 (Test 1) in three different conditions: non-controlled continuous variables (numerical and continuous quantities that co-vary with number are simultaneously available), 50% controlled continuous variables (intermediate condition), and 100% controlled continuous variables (only numerical information available). The subject learned the discrimination in all conditions, showing the capacity to process numerical information. When presented with a higher numerical ratio (2 vs. 4, Test 2), the subject still discriminated between the quantities but its performance was statistically significant only in the non-controlled condition, suggesting that the subject used multiple cues in presence of a more difficult discrimination. On the whole, the results here reported encourage the use of this experimental protocol as a valid tool to investigate the capacity to process numerical and continuous quantities in horses in future research. PMID:25379278

Miletto Petrazzini, Maria Elena

2014-01-01

20

Trained Quantity Abilities in Horses (Equus caballus): A Preliminary Investigation.  

PubMed

Once believed to be a human prerogative, the capacity to discriminate between quantities now has also been reported in several vertebrates. To date, only two studies investigated numerical abilities in horses (Equus caballus) but reported contrasting data. To assess whether horses can be trained to discriminate between quantities, I have set up a new experimental protocol using operant conditioning. One adult female was trained to discriminate between 1 and 4 (Test 1) in three different conditions: non-controlled continuous variables (numerical and continuous quantities that co-vary with number are simultaneously available), 50% controlled continuous variables (intermediate condition), and 100% controlled continuous variables (only numerical information available). The subject learned the discrimination in all conditions, showing the capacity to process numerical information. When presented with a higher numerical ratio (2 vs. 4, Test 2), the subject still discriminated between the quantities but its performance was statistically significant only in the non-controlled condition, suggesting that the subject used multiple cues in presence of a more difficult discrimination. On the whole, the results here reported encourage the use of this experimental protocol as a valid tool to investigate the capacity to process numerical and continuous quantities in horses in future research. PMID:25379278

Miletto Petrazzini, Maria Elena

2014-09-01

21

Preliminary investigations of HE performance characterization using SWIFT  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Preliminary experiments are performed to assess the utility of using the shock wave image framing technique (SWIFT) to characterize high explosive (HE) performance on detonator length and time scales. Columns of XTX 8004, an extrudable RDX-based high explosive, are cured directly within polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) dynamic witness plates, and SWIFT is employed to directly visualize shock waves driven into PMMA through detonation interaction. Current experiments investigate two-dimensional, axisymmetric test geometries that resemble historic aquarium tests, but on millimeter length scales, and the SWIFT system records 16-frame, time-resolved image sequences at 190 ns inter-framing. Detonation wave velocities are accurately calculated from the time-resolved images, and standard aquarium-test analysis is evaluated to investigate calculated shock pressures at the HE/PMMA interface. Experimental SWIFT results are discussed where the charge diameter of XTX 8004 is varied from 2.0 mm to 6.5 mm.

Murphy, M. J.; Johnson, C. E.

2014-05-01

22

Preliminary Investigation of Economics Issues in Hospitalized Patients with Stroke  

PubMed Central

Background: The study of economics is important in Iranian stroke patients, because it is one of the costly diseases that could be linked to disability, mortality, and morbidity. The aim of this preliminary study was to investigate total treatment costs of hospitalized patients with stroke. Methods: A cross-sectional study of 24 patients conducted to Isfahan Neurosciences Research Centre was carried out between April 1, 2012 and September 31, 2012. Demographic (sex, age) and economic variables (Raise tariffs, accumulated surplus, the total amount, of patients’, patients’ paid, and home insurance contribution) were extracted from the patients’ profiles. All information recorded and processed using Excel. Results: The mean age of patients was 71 years (ranged; 40-93 years old). Preliminary analysis of available costs issues could be described as: Raise tariffs (mean: 3500256 Rial, ranged: 504460-9775455 Rial), accumulated surplus (mean: 565578 Rial, ranged: 56700-2343664 Rial), the total amount (mean: 4045556 Rial, ranged: 715460-12219119 Rial), of patients’ (mean: 756037 Rial, ranged: 0-8365447 Rial), patients’ paid (mean: 1307762 Rial, ranged: 45300-9193000 Rial), and home insurance contribution (mean: 3070713 Rial, ranged 0-8887907 Rial). Conclusions: The cost disparity within this study after stroke could be mainly connected to variations in duration of hospital stay. Inspecting agenda towards this direction could reduce the economic cost of stroke significantly. Therefore, further assessment correlated to attain strategies in order to reduce costs associated to patients’ paid and home insurance contribution could be much more advantageous. PMID:23776748

Tolou-Ghamari, Zahra; Shaygannejad, Vahid; Khorvash, Fariborz

2013-01-01

23

A preliminary investigation of worry content in sexual minorities.  

PubMed

This preliminary study examined the nature of worry content of lesbians, gay men, and bisexual individuals and the relationship between worry related to sexual orientation and mental health. A community sample of 54 individuals identifying as sexual minorities was recruited from two cities in the Great Plains to complete a packet of questionnaires, including a modified Worry Domains Questionnaire (WDQ; Tallis, Eysenck, & Mathews, 1992) with additional items constructed to assess worry over discrimination related to sexual orientation, and participate in a worry induction and verbalization task. The content of self-reported worries was consistent with those reported in prior investigations of worry content, and worry related to sexual orientation was not found to be elevated compared to other topics. However, degree of worry related to sexual orientation was significantly associated with increased negative affect, depressive symptoms, and internalized homophobia and decreased quality of life and positive affect. Implications of these findings, limitations, and future research issues are discussed. PMID:21041061

Weiss, Brandon J; Hope, Debra A

2011-03-01

24

Preliminary investigation of the 317 Area, ANL-E  

SciTech Connect

The 317 Area at Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL-E) is scheduled to undergo a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigation, Act or RFI. Prior to the formal RFI, a voluntary, preliminary characterization of the 317 Area was conducted by ANL-E. The characterization results were used to formulate the RFI work plan and provided a better focus for the formal investigation. This site presents a difficult engineering challenge. The nature of the waste disposed at this site in the past includes both liquid chemicals and radioactive waste. The 317 Area is classified as a radiologically controlled area because of operations currently performed there. Present Department of Energy policy stipulates that waste material from such an area must be considered radioactive. The possible presence of hazardous constituents in the soil and groundwater would require the investigation-derived waste generated at the site be disposed as radioactive mixed waste. Besides the nature of the waste possibly contaminating this site, the geology of the site poses an equally enigmatic situation. The ANL-E site is located in a region of recessional glacial moraine deposits.

Wescott, J.; Moos, L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Remeikis, A. [ATR Environmental Services Ltd., Lemont, IL (United States)

1995-06-01

25

Preliminary investigations of the rhizosphere nature of hydroponically grown lettuces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to capabilities of current launchers, future manned exploration beyond the Earth orbit will imply long journeys and extended stays on planet surfaces. For this reason, it is of a great importance to develop a Regenerative Life Support System that enables the crew to be, to a very large extent, metabolic consumables self-sufficient. In this context, the European Space Agency, associated with a scientific and engineering con-sortium, initiated in 1989 the Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative (MELiSSA) project. This concept, inspired on a terrestrial ecosystem (i.e. a lake), comprises five intercon-nected compartments inhabited by micro-organisms and higher-plants aiming to produce food, fresh water, and oxygen from organic waste, carbon dioxide, and minerals. Given the important role of the higher-plant compartment for the consumption of carbon dioxide and the production of oxygen, potable water, and food, it was decided to study the microbial communities present in the root zone of the plants (i.e. the rhizosphere), and their synergistic and antagonistic influences in the plant growth. This understanding is important for later investigations concerning the technology involved in the higher plant compartment, since the final goal is to integrate this compartment inside the MELiSSA loop and to guarantee a healthy and controlled environment for the plants to grow under reduced-gravity conditions. To perform a preliminary assessment of the microbial populations of the root zone, lettuces were grown in a hydroponic system and their growth was characterized in terms of nutrient uptake, plant diameter, and plant wet and dry weights. In parallel, the microbial population, bacteria and fungi, present in the hydroponic medium and also inside and outside the roots were analyzed in terms of quantity and nature. The goal of this presentation is to give a preliminary review in the plant root zone of the micro-organisms communities and as well their proportions. The collected information will then be correlated to each phase of the growth of the lettuces and to the results for the corresponding growth parameters. This will enable characterization of the microbial communities in the rhizosphere and the understanding of how these populations influence each phase of the plant growth. Conclusions are proposed for further investigations.

Antunes, Inês; Paille, Christel; Lasseur, Christophe

26

Preliminary Investigation of Ice Shape Sensitivity to Parameter Variations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A parameter sensitivity study was conducted at the NASA Glenn Research Center's Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) using a 36 in. chord (0.91 m) NACA-0012 airfoil. The objective of this preliminary work was to investigate the feasibility of using ice shape feature changes to define requirements for the simulation and measurement of SLD icing conditions. It was desired to identify the minimum change (threshold) in a parameter value, which yielded an observable change in the ice shape. Liquid Water Content (LWC), drop size distribution (MVD), and tunnel static temperature were varied about a nominal value, and the effects of these parameter changes on the resulting ice shapes were documented. The resulting differences in ice shapes were compared on the basis of qualitative and quantitative criteria (e.g., mass, ice horn thickness, ice horn angle, icing limits, and iced area). This paper will provide a description of the experimental method, present selected experimental results, and conclude with an evaluation of these results, followed by a discussion of recommendations for future research.

Miller, Dean R.; Potapczuk, Mark G.; Langhals, Tammy J.

2005-01-01

27

Preliminary clinical investigations of a new noninvasive venous pulse oximeter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For decades, the monitoring of mixed venous oxygen saturation, SvO2 has been performed invasively using fibre-optic catheters. This procedure is not without risk as complications may arise from catheterisation. The group has devised a new non-invasive venous oximetry method which involves inducing regular modulations of the venous blood volume and associated measurement of those modulations using optical means. A clinical investigation was conducted in Glenfield Hospital, UK to evaluate the sensitivity of the new technique to haemodynamic changes such as Cardiac Output (CO) in intraoperative and postoperative cardiac patients. Preliminary trials on patients recovering from cardiac surgery yielded an average correlation of r = 0.72 between CO at different Intra Aortic Balloon Pump (IABP) augmentation levels and SvO2 measured by the new venous oximeter. In intraoperative patients undergoing off-pump cardiac surgery, SvO2 recorded by the new technique responded to unplanned events such as a cardiac arrest. CONCLUSION: The new venous oximetry technique is a promising technique which responds to haemodynamic changes such as CO and with further development might offer an alternative means of monitoring SvO2 non-invasively.

Chan, Daniel; Smith, Peter R.; Caine, Michael P.; Spyt, Tomasz; Boehm, Maria; Machin, David

2003-10-01

28

Preliminary investigations into solutal flow about growing tetragonal lysozyme crystals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A series of preliminary experiments were done to investigate solutal flow about growing lysozyme crystals and its effects. Density-gradient-driven flow was observed using a schlieren optical system. Crystals used ranged from 0.3 to 1.72 mm across the (110) face, and protein concentrations were from 3.7 to 23.7 mg/ml. The convective plume velocities were found to be from 10 to 50 microns/s, which correlated with those predicted to occur based upon a diffusive-convective model. When microcrystals of lysozyme, less than 20 microns across the (110) face were subjected to directed solution flows, the growth rate was found to rapidly decrease over the 8-20 h course of the experiment. Solution flow rates used ranged from 18 to 40 microns/s, and protein concentrations were from 7.3 to 11.7 mg/ml, conditions typical of larger (greater than 0.5 mm) crystals in the terminal phases of a typical crystal growth procedure.

Pusey, Marc; Witherow, William; Naumann, Robert

1988-01-01

29

75 FR 13761 - Fact Finding Investigation No. 26; Vessel Capacity and Equipment Availability in the United...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION Fact Finding Investigation No. 26; Vessel...investigation and recommendations of the Fact-Finding Officer (FFO) to determine...capacity-related issues. Specifically, the Fact-Finding Officer (FFO) named...

2010-03-23

30

Asynchronous Nano-electronics: Preliminary Investigation Alain J. Martin & Piyush Prakash  

E-print Network

Asynchronous Nano-electronics: Preliminary Investigation Alain J. Martin & Piyush Prakash is a preliminary investigation in implement- ing asynchronous QDI logic in molecular nano-electronics, taking apply to nano-CMOS as well. 1. Introduction Currently, molecular nano-electronics is considered

Martin, Alain

31

Preliminary Investigation of an Underwater Ramjet Powered by Compressed Air  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Part I contains the results of a preliminary experimental investigation of a particular design of an underwater ramjet or hydroduct powered by compressed air. The hydroduct is a propulsion device in which the energy of an expanding gas imparts additional momentum to a stream of water through mixing. The hydroduct model had a fineness ratio of 5.9, a maximum diameter of 3.2 inches, and a ratio of inlet area to frontal area of 0.32. The model was towed at a depth of 1 inch at forward speeds between 20 and 60 feet per second for airflow rates from 0.1 to 0.3 pound per second. Longitudinal force and pressures at the inlet and in the mixing chamber were determined. The hydroduct produced a positive thrust-minus-drag force at every test speed. The force and pressure coefficients were functions primarily of the ratio of weight airflow to free-stream velocity. The maximum propulsive efficiency based on the net internal thrust and an isothermal expansion of the air was approximately 53 percent at a thrust coefficient of 0.10. The performance of the test model may have been influenced by choking of the exit flow. Part II is a theoretical development of an underwater ramjet using air as "fuel." The basic assumption of the theoretical analysis is that a mixture of water and air can be treated as a compressible gas. More information on the properties of air-water mixtures is required to confirm this assumption or to suggest another approach. A method is suggested from which a more complete theoretical development, with the effects of choking included, may be obtained. An exploratory computation, in which this suggested method was used, indicated that the effect of choked flow on the thrust coefficient was minor.

Mottard, Elmo J.; Shoemaker, Charles J.

1961-01-01

32

Investigation of Heat capacity and Specific Heat: Using Different Temperatures of Water and Solids  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is a chemistry lab-based investigation where students apply observational skills and critical thinking skills to finding specific heat and heat capacity using different temperatures of water and solids. A final activity will assess students understanding of specific heat and heat capacity and promote data analysis skills, using real-life situations.

33

Preliminary Investigation of Linkages Between Arctic Pingos and Subsurface Stratigraphy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This NASA-SETI supported study investigates the distribution of pingos (elliptically-shaped ice-rich topographic mounds) across 2300 square kilometers of the central coastal plain of Arctic Alaska in relation to the shallow geological framework that exists immediately beneath them. Pingos in the central North Slope of Alaska are classified as being of the closed or hydrostatic type. Their genesis is often assigned to freezing and cryogenic uplift of near-surface saturated thaw lake sediments that are exposed as lakes are drained and/or become choked with sediments. Although thaw lakes appear rather ubiquitous across the study area, pingos do not. Pingo distributions can be categorized as either clusters of elements or as relatively dispersed. Spatial statistical analysis reveals that pingo distribution is non-random and clustered. The analysis also took into account that pingo distribution is a function of preferential preservation between modern rivers channels that cross the study area. Pingo distributions and frequency were tested in relation to the location and type of stratigraphic and sedimentological features that characterized the shallow subsurface across the study area. Subsurface interpretation was derived mostly from oil well wireline logs. Gamma ray logs for more than 160 wells were used to define, correlate and assess the connectivity and conductivity of shallow and near-surface stratigraphic units between wells. Assessed also were major facies changes and the type and locations of subsurface structures such as major basement-to-surface faults and folds. The surface and near-surface truncation and subcropping of tilted, alternating units of permeable coarse-grained and confining fine- grained units were also mapped in relation to pingo locations. Preliminary and intriguing findings will be presented which contribute to the hypothesis that pingo genesis, location, and variations in morphology could be, in part, linked to a well-documented and active subsurface geohydrologic system. This system is characterized by multiple stacked hydrocarbon-, saline- and freshwater-rich reservoirs. Processes include fault reactivation and basin subsidence that drive episodic basin expulsion, and upward migration and mixing of deep basin and phreatic fluids along basin margins. Endpoints of the system include demonstrable gas hydrates deposits that occur below and within the permafrost, and documented seepage of hydrocarbons and groundwater at the surface. Our hypothesis entertains the idea that closed pingos might also be endpoints of the petroluem system as basin and phreatic fluids migrate vertically within a thick and leaky permafrost interval along faults and tilted reservoir sand-rich units, which intersect and differentially charge frozen near-surface sedimentary units. Future field-based sampling and geophysical studies may shed additional light on this model's application for pingo genesis and resource exploration on Mars.

Casavant, R.; Skirvin, S.; Patel, C.; Burr, D.

2008-12-01

34

Examining the Reinforcing Properties of Making Sense: A Preliminary Investigation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Acceptance and commitment therapy asserts that in clinical problems such as rumination and depression, making sense continues despite accompanying aversive consequences, because sense-making is reinforcing, particularly when it leads to experiential avoidance. The following series of experiments aimed to provide preliminary empirical evidence for…

Wray, Alisha M.; Dougher, Michael J.; Hamilton, Derek A.; Guinther, Paul M.

2012-01-01

35

Alkali Activated Geopolymeric Binder Using Tungsten Mine Waste: Preliminary Investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports preliminary results of a PhD research project related to the development of an alkali- activated geopolymeric binder using mineral waste mud from the Portuguese tungsten mine Panasqueira which is still operating. Mineralogical analysis indicates that the waste mud is compose mainly of muscovite and quartz with a high content of iron and alkali metals. Results of the

F. Pacheco-Torgal; J. P. Castro-Gomes; S. Jalali

36

MIDDLE POTLATCH CREEK, LATAH COUNTY, IDAHO - PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION REPORT, 1993  

EPA Science Inventory

The 1992 Idaho Water Quality Status Report listed the Middle Potlatch Creek (17060306) as an Idaho Impaired Stream Segment Requiring Further Assessment and listed the creek as a water body not fully supporting at least one beneficial use. This preliminary resource assessment foc...

37

A Preliminary Investigation of Future Climate Scenarios for Ireland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ongoing improvements in computing and in climate modelling now permit much more detailed climatic scenarios to be produced as an aid to potential impact assessment. We have employed a downscaling approach, using the UKCIP (UK Climate Impacts Programme) gridded climatology for Ireland at a 10km resolution to produce preliminary scenarios for temperature and precipitation for the year 2050. Warming of

John Sweeney; Rowan Fealy

2002-01-01

38

Preliminary Investigation of Combustion of Diborane in a Turbojet Combustor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Boron and its hydrides offer increased flight range relative to conventional fuels for turbojet engines. Preliminary evaluation has been made of the combustion characteristics and deposition problems resulting from burning diborone in a single, modified J33 combustor. A combustor relatively free of deposits for the limited test conditions has been developed. Three possible methods of alleviating deposits on the turbine blades are reported.

Kaufman, Warner B; Gibbs, James B; Branstetter, J Robert

1957-01-01

39

Preliminary Investigation of a Video-Based Stimulus Preference Assessment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Video clips may be an effective format for presenting complex stimuli in preference assessments. In this preliminary study, we evaluated the correspondence between preference hierarchies generated from preference assessments that included either toys or videos of the toys. The top-ranked item corresponded in both assessments for 5 of the 6…

Snyder, Katie; Higbee, Thomas S.; Dayton, Elizabeth

2012-01-01

40

Improving CAD performance in pulmonary embolism detection: preliminary investigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this preliminary study, a new computer-aided detection (CAD) scheme for pulmonary embolism (PE) detection was developed and tested. The scheme applies multiple steps including lung segmentation, candidate extraction using intensity mask and tobogganing method, feature extraction, false positive reduction using a multifeature based artificial neural network (ANN) and a k-nearest neighbor (KNN) classifier to detect and classify suspicious PE lesions. In particular, a new method to define the surrounding background regions of interest (ROI) depicting PE candidates was proposed and tested in an attempt to reduce the detection of false positive regions. In this study, the authors also investigated following methods to improve CAD performance, which include a grouping and scoring method, feature selection using genetic algorithm, and limitation on allowed suspicious lesions to be cued in one examination. To test the scheme performance, a set of 20 chest CT examinations were selected. Among them, 18 are positive cases depicted 44 verified PE lesions and the remaining 2 were negative cases. The dataset was also divided into a training subset (9 examinations) and a testing subset (11 examinations), respectively. The experimental results showed when applying to the testing dataset CAD scheme using tobogganing method alone achieved 2D region-based sensitivity of 72.1% (220/305) and 3D lesion-based sensitivity of 83.3% (20/24) with total 19,653 2D false-positive (FP) PE regions (1,786.6 per case or approximately 6.3 per CT slice). Applying the proposed new method to improve lung region segmentation and better define the surrounding background ROI, the scheme reduced the region-based sensitivity by 6.5% to 65.6% or lesion-based sensitivity by 4.1% to 79.2% while reducing the FP rate by 65.6% to 6,752 regions (or 613.8 per case). After applying the methods of grouping, the maximum scoring, a genetic algorithm (GA) to delete "redundant" features, and limiting the maximum number of cued-lesions in one examination, CAD scheme further reduced FP rate to 50 per case. Based on the FROC curve, an operating threshold was set up in which the CAD scheme could ultimately achieve 63.2% detection sensitivity with 18.4 FP regions per case when applying to the testing dataset. This study investigated the feasibility of several methods applying to the CAD scheme in detecting PE lesions and demonstrated that CAD performance could depend on many factors including better defining candidate ROI and its background, optimizing the 2D region grouping and scoring methods, selecting the optimal feature set, and limiting the number of allowed cueing lesions per examination.

Park, Sang Cheol; Chapman, Brian; Deible, Christopher; Lee, Sean; Zheng, Bin

2010-03-01

41

PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION ON THE DISTRIBUTION OF AFRICANIZED HONEY BEES IN ARGENTINA  

E-print Network

PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION ON THE DISTRIBUTION OF AFRICANIZED HONEY BEES IN ARGENTINA A. DIETZ, R The preliminary results of a survey for Africanized honey bees conducted in 17 provinces of Argentina from January with the defensive behavior test. Roadside samples and bees from feral colonies were collected at 392 sites

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

42

Preliminary investigations of protein crystal growth using the Space Shuttle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Four preliminary Shuttle experiments are described which have been used to develop prototype hardware for a more advanced system that will evaluate effects of gravity on protein crystal growth. The first phase of these experiments has centered on the development of micromethods for protein crystal growth by vapor-diffusion techniques (using a space version of the hanging-drop method) and on dialysis using microdialysis cells. Results suggest that the elimination of density-driven sedimentation can effect crystal morphology. In the dialysis experiment, space-grown crystals of concanavalin B were three times longer and 1/3 the thickness of earth-grown crystals.

Delucas, L. J.; Suddath, F. L.; Snyder, R.; Naumann, R.; Broom, M. B.; Pusey, M.; Yost, V.; Herren, B .; Carter, D.

1986-01-01

43

Detection of 99Tc by accelerator mass spectrometry: preliminary investigations  

SciTech Connect

Accelerator mass spectrometry is an established technique for the detection of long-lived radionuclides at environmental levels. At LLNL, planned facility upgrades and advances in detection techniques are allowing us to explore the applicability of AMS to isotopes not previously pursued. One such isotope is technetium-99. We have performed a number of preliminary tests to examine the technical feasibility of AMS for the detection of {sup 99}Tc. The questions addressed were negative ion production in the cesium sputter source, transport efficiency for the ions through the spectrometer, and detection efficiency for {sup 99}Tc ions after the spectrometer. Based on the positive results of these tests, we have begun to develop a measurement protocol. Technetium is co-precipitated with rhodium, added as a carrier, which provides a sample form appropriate for sputtering and an isotope for AMS normalization. The {sup 99}Tc is determined from the measured {sup 99}Tc/{sup 103}Rh ratio. To reduce interference from the isobar {sup 99}Ru, an oxidation/distillation method was employed to lower ruthenium in the rhodium stock solution. Characteristic projectile L x-rays are used for ion detection to allow further subtraction of {sup 99}Ru. Results for a series of standards demonstrated linearity and reproducibility. A sensitivity of {approx}500 fg {sup 99}Tc was obtained in this preliminary work, and indications are that a sensitivity in the low femtogram range should be achievable.

McAninch, J. E., LLNL

1997-04-01

44

Preliminary investigation of elongational flow of dilute polymer solutions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A tubeless siphon apparatus has been set up to measure extensional flow. In this apparatus, the liquid is continuously drawn into a capillary and, after steady flow has been established, the tube is raised above the liquid surface. With viscoelastic liquids, the flow continues and a column can be lifted from the reservoir. At the capillary entrance, an oscillating bead of excess liquid collects which interferes with both the flow and the measurements. This can be minimized by careful control of the liquid-column height. For homogeneous solutions, the column is symmetrical and tapers steadily from the liquid surface to the capillary entrance, with no bulging. Preliminary results show tensile viscosities 1000 times that of the Trouton coefficient and having a very strong dependence on deformation rate. A concentration-stretch rate-reduced variable scheme is proposed.

Peng, S. T. J.; Landel, R. F.

1976-01-01

45

Preliminary Investigation of Sulfur Loading in Hanford LAW Glass  

SciTech Connect

A preliminary estimate was developed for loading limits for high-sulfur low-activity waste (LAW) feeds that will be vitrified into borosilicate glass at the Hanford Site in the waste-cleanup effort. Previous studies reported in the literature were consulted to provide a basis for the estimate. The examination of previous studies led to questions about sulfur loading in Hanford LAW glass, and scoping tests were performed to help answer these questions. These results of these tests indicated that a formulation approach developed by Vienna and colleagues shows promise for maximizing LAW loading in glass. However, there is a clear need for follow-on work. The potential for significantly lowering the amount of LAW glass produced at Hanford (after the initial phase of processing) because of higher sulfur tolerances may outweigh the cost and effort required to perform the necessary testing.

Vienna, John D.; Hrma, Pavel R.; Buchmiller, William C.; Ricklefs, Joel S.

2004-04-01

46

Adaptive Patterns of Stress Responsivity: A Preliminary Investigation  

PubMed Central

The adaptive calibration model (ACM) is an evolutionary–developmental theory of individual differences in stress responsivity. In this article, we tested some key predictions of the ACM in a middle childhood sample (N = 256). Measures of autonomic nervous system activity across the sympathetic and parasympathetic branches validated the 4-pattern taxonomy of the ACM via finite mixture modeling. Moreover, the 4 patterns of responsivity showed the predicted associations with family stress levels but no association with measures of ecological stress. Our hypotheses concerning sex differences in responsivity were only partly confirmed. This preliminary study provides initial support for the key predictions of the ACM and highlights some of the methodological challenges that will need to be considered in future research on this topic. PMID:22148947

Del Giudice, Marco; Hinnant, J. Benjamin; Ellis, Bruce J.; El-Sheikh, Mona

2014-01-01

47

Assessment of physical functioning in recurrent glioma: preliminary comparison of performance status to functional capacity testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background Performance status (PS) scoring systems are tools of immense clinical importance in the management of patients with malignant\\u000a disease but these tools are subjective and do not provide an objective evaluation of physical functioning. We conducted a\\u000a pilot study to explore the feasibility and clinical utility of functional capacity testing to assess physical functioning\\u000a in recurrent primary malignant glioma

Lee W. Jones; Rachel-Rose Cohen; Stephanie K. Mabe; Miranda J. West; Annick Desjardins; James J. Vredenburgh; Allan H. Friedman; David A. Reardon; Emily Waner; Henry S. Friedman

2009-01-01

48

Preliminary investigation of adjustable balloon implant for type I thyroplasty  

PubMed Central

Objective We present the adjustable balloon implant (ABI), a novel implant to be used in type I thyroplasty for the treatment of vocal fold paralysis. The ABI offers the same medialization provided by other implants, but can easily be catered to individual patient anatomy as well as modified postoperatively without the need for a revision thyroplasty. Study design Repeated measures with each larynx serving as its own control. Methods Medialization thyroplasty (MT) with the ABI was performed on five excised canine larynges. Mucosal wave, aerodynamic, and acoustic parameters were measured for three conditions: normal; right vocal fold paralysis; and paralysis with the ABI. Results Insertion of the ABI resulted in significant decreases in both phonation threshold pressure and phonation threshold flow. Perturbation parameters of percent jitter and percent shimmer were also significantly decreased and restored to normal levels. Signal-to-noise ratio was significantly increased to the normal level as well. The mucosal wave was preserved after implant insertion. Conclusions This preliminary experiment showing significant improvements in aerodynamic and acoustic parameters demonstrates the potential of the ABI as a thyroplasty implant. Effective medialization and preservation of the mucosal wave combined with post-operative adjustability makes it a potentially valuable clinical device. Evidence based medicine level Not applicable – basic science study on excised animal tissue. PMID:21305554

Hoffman, Matthew R.; Witt, Rachel E.; McCulloch, Timothy M.; Jiang, Jack J.

2011-01-01

49

Preliminary Investigations of Eddy Current Effects on a Spinning Disk  

SciTech Connect

The design of the positron source target for the International Linear Collider (ILC) envisions a Ti6Al4V wheel rotating in a large magnetic field (5-10 Tesla) being impacted by a photon beam to produce positrons. One of the many challenges for this system is determining how large a motor will be needed to spin the shaft. The wheel spinning in the magnetic field induces an eddy current in the wheel, which retards the spinning motion of the wheel. Earlier calculations by Mayhall [1] have shown that those eddy forces could be quite large, and resulted in the preliminary design being moved from a solid disk to a rim and spoke design, as shown in Figure 1. A series of experiments with a spinning metal disk were run at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) to provide experimental validation of the Maxwell 3D simulations. This report will give a brief outline of the experimental setup and results. In addition, earlier work by Smythe [2] will be used to compare with the experimental results.

Piggott, W T; Walston, S; Mayhall, D

2006-09-08

50

Reconnaissance Investigation of Caribbean Extreme Wave Deposits--Preliminary Observations, Interpretations, and Research Directions  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Summary: This report presents an overview of preliminary geological investigations and recommended future research activities in the Caribbean region pertaining to coastal hazards with an emphasis on establishing tsunami risk for U.S. territories. Fieldwork was conducted in March 2006 on the islands of Bonaire, Puerto Rico, and Guadeloupe to evaluate the stratigraphic records of extreme wave deposits as possible indicators of paleotsunami recurrence. Morphological, sedimentological, and stratigraphic evidence indicate that shore-parallel coral rubble deposits composed of coarse clasts and sand that are 10s of meters wide and several meters thick are depositional complexes that have accumulated for a few centuries or millennia, and are not entirely the result of one or a few tsunamis as previously reported. The origins of boulder fields on elevated rock platforms of the Caribbean islands are more complicated than the origins of ridge complexes because boulder fields can be constructed by either storm waves or tsunamis. What is needed now for more conclusive interpretations is a systematic sedimentological approach to deposit analysis and a set of criteria for distinguishing between coarse clast storm and tsunami deposits. Assembling more field data from other Caribbean islands, analyzing stratigraphic deposits on Puerto Rico and Bonaire, and investigating boulder field deposits resulting from a historical tsunami can accomplish this. Also needed are improved sediment transport models for coarse clasts that can be used to estimate the competence and capacity of tsunamis and storms waves and to determine whether a deposit likely was created by a tsunami or extreme storm. Improved models may also be useful for reconstructing the magnitude of extreme wave events.

Morton, Robert A.; Richmond, Bruce M.; Jaffe, Bruce E.; Gelfenbaum, Guy

2006-01-01

51

Cognitive characteristics of seasonal affective disorder: A preliminary investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Light therapy, the current treatment for Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD), does not help everyone suffering from SAD. This paper examines whether patients with SAD potentially might benefit from cognitive behaviour therapy by investigating whether they show a similar cognitive profile to those with non-seasonal depression for whom cognitive therapy has been shown to be effective. Ten subjects with SAD were

Sally Hodges; Melanie Marks

1998-01-01

52

Spirituality and Young Women in Transition: A Preliminary Investigation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study contributes to the growing body of knowledge about spirituality and life transitions. Through qualitative investigation, 9 young women in professional education programs described their definition of spirituality, their spiritual activities, and how they used their spirituality to cope with life transitions as they prepared to enter the…

Livingston, Kimberly A.; Cummings, Anne L.

2009-01-01

53

A Preliminary Investigation of Asthma Mortality in Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although asthma deaths in children are rare, most asthma deaths should be preventable. No information has been identified in the professional literature addressing the occurrence of asthma deaths in schools. This investigation identified asthma deaths that occurred in US schools between 1990 and 2003 and the circumstances surrounding those deaths.…

Greiling, Andrea K.; Boss, Leslie P.; Wheeler, Lani S.

2005-01-01

54

A preliminary investigation into the acquisition of fingerprints on food.  

PubMed

The potential for enhancement and recovery of latent fingerprints on a variety of foodstuffs has been investigated. In general, black magnetic powder and black powder suspensions appear to be the most successful enhancement techniques with a high number of ridge detail-developed prints over a selected time scale. Banana, apple and tomato surfaces showed enhancement of latent prints but potato and egg surfaces proved to be less successful. PMID:23380065

Ferguson, Sarah; Nicholson, Lynsey; Farrugia, Kevin; Bremner, David; Gentles, Dennis

2013-03-01

55

Preliminary results investigating mix in colliding-shock experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experiments have been performed at the Omega laser facility to investigate turbulence-driven mix from two colliding shocks, such as expected in ICF ignition capsules. Two shocks were generated at either end of a cylindrical, CH foam. The evolution of an Al tracer layer at one end of the foam was measured using point-projection radiography. Comparison of this data with simulations from the code, RAGE has been done to improve its predictive capability for ICF experiments. RAGE implements the Besnard-Harlow-Rauenzahn (BHR) model, which is intended for turbulent transport in fluids with large density variations.

Offermann, Dustin; Keiter, Paul; Loomis, Eric; Welser-Sherrill, Leslie; Fincke, Jim; Lanier, Nick

2011-11-01

56

Preliminary investigation of radiatively driven convection in marine stratocumulus clouds  

SciTech Connect

Marine stratocumulus play an important yet still poorly modeled role in the climate system. These clouds cool the planet, having a large albedo, but little infrared effect. A fundamental question is whether such clouds will exist at a given time and location. Stratocumulus is often formed at higher latitudes as stratus and advected equatorward until it breaks up. Possible mechanisms for cloud breakup include strong subsidence, cloud top entrainment instability (CTEI), drizzle, solar heating and resultant boundary layer decoupling, and surface forcing. The Atlantic Stratocumulus Transition Experiment (ASTEX) was conducted to investigate these potential cloud breakup mechanisms. 5 refs., 3 figs.

Norris, P. [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States)

1995-09-01

57

Preliminary Investigation of the Flying Qualities of Airplanes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics is undertaking an investigation of the flying qualities of airplanes. The work consists in the determination of the significant qualities susceptible of measurement, the development of the instruments required to make the measurements, and the accumulation of data on the flying qualities of existing airplanes, which data are to serve as a basis for quantitative specifications for the flying qualities of future designs. A tentative schedule of measurable flying qualities has been prepared and the instruments needed for their measurements have been assembled. A trial of the schedule and the instruments has been made using the Stinson SR-8e airplane. The results showed that, although the original schedule and instruments are basically satisfactory some further development is required to eliminate nonessential items and to expedite flight testing. The report describes and discusses the work done with this airplane.

Soule, H A

1940-01-01

58

Experimental study of the subtalar joint axis: preliminary investigation.  

PubMed

An experimental study of the subtalar joint has been conducted with the aim of establishing its axis of movement as well as analysing the associated movement. For description of the axis, CT data for five positions of a single foot were reconstructed using a 3D programme, the 3D data was processed by Patran software. Measures of angular displacements were made from three amputated feet placed in a specially constructed foot frame. Four instantaneous axes of movement could be defined. Calculation of displacements showed an important rolling of the calcaneus (45 degrees). Tacking was evident in inversion, with an opposite displacement between the front and rear part of the calcaneus, whereas during eversion tacking affected only the rear part of the bone: these results were confirmed by 3D reconstructions. Henke's axis was described as that for the talonavicular joint, but acceptable for the subtalar joint. Several authors investigating the coordinates of this axis have reported large differences and described screw-like movements, the latter being incompatible with a fixed axis: instantaneous axes, however are compatible with a screw-like movement. The subtalar joint appears to work as a pivot joint during inversion and as a plane joint during eversion. Although Henke's axis has pedagogical value the subtalar joint has a series of instantaneous axes. PMID:11236321

Zographos, S; Chaminade, B; Hobatho, M C; Utheza, G

2000-01-01

59

Maxillary expansion with the memory screw: a preliminary investigation  

PubMed Central

Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a newly developed rapid maxillary expansion screw-the memory screw-over 6 months. Methods Five subjects, aged between 11.7 and 13.75 years, were enrolled in this study. All subjects underwent placement of a maxillary expansion appliance containing superelastic nickel-titanium open-coil springs in its screw bed. The parents of the patients and/or the patients themselves were instructed to activate the expansion screw by 2 quarter-turns 3 times a day (morning, midday, and evening; 6 quarter-turns a day). The mean expansion period was 7.52 ± 1.04 days. Dentoskeletal effects of the procedure, including dentoalveolar inclination, were evaluated. Measurements of all the parameters were repeated after 6 months of retention in order to check for relapse. Results Sella-Nasion-A point (SNA) and Sella-Nasion/Gonion-Menton angles increased, and Sella-Nasion-B point (SNB) angle decreased in all the subjects during the expansion phase. However, they approximated to the initial values at the end of 6 months. On the other hand, the increments in maxillary apical base (Mxr-Mxl) and intermolar widths was quite stable. As expected, some amount of dentoalveolar tipping was observed. Conclusions The newly developed memory expansion screw offers advantages of both rapid and slow expansion procedures. It widens the midpalatal suture and expands the maxilla with relatively lighter forces and within a short time. In addition, the resultant increments in the maxillary apical base and intermolar width remained quite stable even after 6 months of retention. PMID:23112935

Halicio?lu, Koray; Kiki, Ali

2012-01-01

60

Preliminary Investigation Into the Effects of Cross-Flow on Low Reynolds Number Transition  

E-print Network

Preliminary Investigation Into the Effects of Cross-Flow on Low Reynolds Number Transition into the effects of cross-flow on transition at low Reynolds numbers, an area which has essentially remained of unsteady flows encountered in MAVs and animal locomotion. I. Introduction The low Reynolds number regime

Peraire, Jaime

61

A Preliminary Investigation of Factors Affecting Employment Motivation in People with Intellectual Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Relatively small numbers of people with intellectual disabilities (ID) are engaging in paid employment and those who are tend to be working only part-time. This preliminary study addressed the question of what factors motivate people with ID to work. The issue was investigated in a sample of 10 young work-age adults attending supported learning…

Andrews, Abbye; Rose, John L.

2010-01-01

62

Preliminary Investigations for Causes of the Disappearance of Diporeia spp. from Lake Ontario  

E-print Network

203 Preliminary Investigations for Causes of the Disappearance of Diporeia spp. from Lake Ontario for Fisheries and Aquatic Science Fisheries and Oceans Canada Burlington, Ontario, Canada L7R 4A6 Thomas F-80% of the benthos in offshore Lake Ontario and was an important food for fish. In eastern Lake Ontario, Diporeia spp

63

A Quantitative Approach to Investigating Spanish HL Speakers' Characteristics and Motivation: A Preliminary Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present preliminary study empirically investigated Spanish heritage language (HL) speakers in Spanish for native speakers (SNS) college courses. It focused on their attitudes and motivation to improve their HL and on their varying linguistic competences in that language. A well-established second language acquisition (SLA) motivational model…

Yanguas, Inigo

2010-01-01

64

2.-A PRELIMINARY REPORT UPON SALMON INVESTIGATIONS IN IDAHO By BARTON W. EVERMANN, PH. D.,  

E-print Network

2.-A PRELIMINARY REPORT UPON SALMON INVESTIGATIONS IN IDAHO IN 1894. By BARTON W. EVERMANN, PH. D, distribution, and spawning habits of the species of salmon which have spawning- grounds in the waters of the State of Idaho. . , The alarming'decrease in the salmon catch of the Columbia River within recent years

65

Exploring More Than 24 Hours a Day: A Preliminary Investigation of Polychronic Time Use  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present exploratory study investigates the concept of polychronic time use through the development and preliminary testing of a proposed scale, the Polychronic Attitude Index (PAI). Polychronic time use is defined and reviewed in relation to role overload and household demographic characteristics. When a sample of consumers in New Jersey was surveyed, both the PAI and role overload were found

Carol Felker Kaufman; Jay D. Lindquist

1991-01-01

66

Understanding comorbidity between ptsd and substance use disorders: Two preliminary investigations  

Microsoft Academic Search

While there is high level of comorbidity of PTSD and substance use disorders (SUDs), little research has focused on the overlapping symptom constellation characteristic of both PTSD and substance use\\/withdrawal. This report describes two preliminary investigations that address this area. In the first study, the pattern of PTSD symptoms in a sample of women (n = 28) seeking treatment for

Michael E. Saladin; Kathleen T. Brady; Bonnie S. Dansky; Dean G. Kilpatrick

1995-01-01

67

A Preliminary Investigation into Communication in the Special Needs Classroom during Key Stage 3 English Lessons  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A preliminary study was conducted to investigate the communicative roles performed by teacher and pupil during Key Stage 3 (KS3) English lessons. Two classes of a special school were involved in the study. Data collection employed video capture of teacher-pupil communication during timetabled English lessons. The data were transcribed and analysed…

Bunning, Karen; Ellis, Martina

2010-01-01

68

Experimental Investigation of Shear Capacity of Precast Reinforced Concrete Box Culverts  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study presents an experimental program to investigate the shear capacity of precast reinforced concrete box culverts. Each culvert was subjected to monotonically increasing load through a 254 mm508 mm 10 in.20 in. load plate in order to simulate the HS20 truckload per AASHTO 2005. Instrumentation included strain gauges, high-resolution laser deflection sensor, and automated data acquisition. Four tests were

Anil K. Garg; Ali Abolmaali; Raul Fernandez

2007-01-01

69

Does oxidative capacity affect energy cost? An in vivo MR investigation of skeletal muscle energetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigations of training effects on exercise energy cost have yielded conflicting results. The purpose of the present study\\u000a was to compare quadriceps energy cost and oxidative capacity between endurance-trained and sedentary subjects during a heavy\\u000a dynamic knee extension exercise. We quantified the rates of ATP turnover from oxidative and anaerobic pathways with 31P-MRS, and we measured simultaneously pulmonary oxygen uptake

Gwenael Layec; Aurélien Bringard; Christophe Vilmen; Jean-Paul Micallef; Yann Le Fur; Stéphane Perrey; Patrick J. Cozzone; David Bendahan

2009-01-01

70

Analytical and experimental investigation of liquid double drop dynamics: Preliminary design for space shuttle experiments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The preliminary grant assessed the use of laboratory experiments for simulating low g liquid drop experiments in the space shuttle environment. Investigations were begun of appropriate immiscible liquid systems, design of experimental apparatus and analyses. The current grant continued these topics, completed construction and preliminary testing of the experimental apparatus, and performed experiments on single and compound liquid drops. A continuing assessment of laboratory capabilities, and the interests of project personnel and available collaborators, led to, after consultations with NASA personnel, a research emphasis specializing on compound drops consisting of hollow plastic or elastic spheroids filled with liquids.

1981-01-01

71

Radiation and temperature effects on electronic components investigated under the CSTI High Capacity Power Project  

SciTech Connect

The effects of nuclear radiation and high temperature environments must be fully known and understood for the electronic components and materials used in both the Power Conditioning and Control subsystem and the reactor Instrumentation and Control subsystem of future high capacity nuclear space power systems. This knowledge is required by the designer of these subsystems in order to develop highly reliable, long-life power systems for future NASA missions. A review and summary of the experimental results obtained for the electronic components and materials investigated under the power management element of the CSTI high capacity power project will be presented in this paper: (1) Neutron, gamma ray, and temperature effects on power semiconductor switches, (2) Temperature and frequency effects on soft magnetic materials; and (3) Temperature effects on rare earth permanent magnets.

Shwarze, G.E. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Cleveland, OH (United States). Lewis Research Center; Niedra, J.M. [Sverdrup Technology, Inc., Brook Park, OH (United States) Lewis Research Center Group; Frasca, A.J. [Wittenberg Univ., Springfield, OH (United States); Wieserman, W.R. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, Johnstown, PA (United States)

1994-09-01

72

Investigation of the bond and tensile capacity of synthetic lightweight aggregates embedded in a cement matrix  

E-print Network

OF THE BOND AND TENSILE Ch&ACITY OF SYNTHE1'IC LIG11THEIGHT AGGREGATES E'G1EDDED IN A CEMENT MATRIX A Thesis by OISELA WAGNER NICHOLS Approved as to style and oontent byi Chairm'sn of Committee Head of D psrtment Msy 1969 ABSTRACT INlfESTZQATION OP...' eynthetio lightweight aggregates in current building construction, the aggregate-cement bond and the aggregate tensile capacity in lightweight aggregate concrete was investigated. The purposes of this study were& 1. to develop one experimental method...

Nichols, Gisela Wagner

2012-06-07

73

A Preliminary Investigation of the Effectiveness of Attachment Therapy for Adopted Children with Reactive Attachment Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this preliminary investigation was to examine the effectiveness of attachment therapy for adopted children\\u000a diagnosed with Reactive Attachment Disorder (RAD). Although attachment therapy is widely utilized in the practice community,\\u000a outcomes of such therapy have not been well documented. In this study a pretest–posttest one-group design was used with a\\u000a sample of 24 adopted children who received

Jane S. Wimmer; M. Elizabeth Vonk; Patrick Bordnick

2009-01-01

74

Preliminary Investigation of the Ecological Role of Microzooplankton in the Kariega Estuary, South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

A preliminary investigation of the ecological role of microzooplankton (20–200?m) was conducted in the Kariega Estuary along the south coast of South Africa during summer (November) 1994. Microzooplankton grazing impact on phytoplankton was estimated at 15 and 20°C in the laboratory using the dilution technique. Size-fractionated chlorophyll studies showed that the nano- and picophytoplankton dominated phytoplankton standing stock, comprising between

P. W. Froneman; C. D. McQuaid

1997-01-01

75

A preliminary investigation of diagnosticity effects on responses to the Job Descriptive Index  

E-print Network

inputs; and 3) the diagnosticity of previous judgments for subsequent ones. The accessibility of information in memory is affected by five factors. First, the amount of time since the cognition was last activated is inversely related to the ability...A PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION OF DIAGNOSTICITY EFFECTS ON RESPONSES TO THE JOB DESCRIPTIVE INDEX A Thesis by KERMIT ERIK OLSON Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements...

Olson, Kermit Erik

2012-06-07

76

Investigation of polarized-proton target materials by differential calorimetry: preliminary results  

SciTech Connect

A simple differential calorimeter was designed and operated for an investigation of the thermodynamic properties of polarized target materials. The calibration and use of the calorimeter are discussed, after a brief exposition of our motivation for this work. The results of a preliminary study of target materials is presented with emphasis on the relevance of the glass state to dynamic polarization in chemically-doped targets.

Hill, D.A.; Hill, J.J.

1980-10-15

77

Efficacy of an ultrasonic device as a deterrent to dingoes ( Canis lupus dingo ): a preliminary investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In April 2001, a 9-year-old child was attacked and killed by dingoes on Fraser Island, Australia. The Dingo Management Strategy\\u000a formulated in response to this incident proposed ultrasonic deterrents as one of a number of non-lethal management techniques\\u000a requiring further investigation. In this paper, we describe a preliminary examination of an ultrasonic deterrent to dingoes\\u000a using four captive animals as

Jason P. Edgar; Rob G. Appleby; Darryl N. Jones

2007-01-01

78

Effects of Methylphenidate on Working Memory in Traumatic Brain Injury: A Preliminary fMRI Investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of a preliminary investigation on the effects of methylphenidate on brain activation during a working memory (WM)\\u000a task in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI), patients with TBI received 15 mg of methylphenidate (N?=?4) or placebo (N?=?5) twice a day for one month in a double-blind, placebo-controlled design. Brain activation was assessed at pre-treatment\\u000a and on the final treatment

Mary R. Newsome; Randall S. Scheibel; Paul J. Seignourel; Joel L. Steinberg; Maya Troyanskaya; Xiaoqi Li; Harvey S. Levin

2009-01-01

79

Apollo 17 preliminary science report. [Apollo 17 investigation of Taurus-Littrow lunar region  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analysis of the Apollo 17 flight is presented in the form of a preliminary science report. The subjects discussed are: (1) Apollo 17 site selection, (2) mission description, (3) geological investigation of landing site, (4) lunar experiments, (5) visual flight flash phenomenon, (6) volcanic studies, (7) mare ridges and related studies, (8) remote sensing and photogrammetric studies, and (9) astronomical photography. Extensive photographic data are included for all phases of the mission.

1973-01-01

80

Preliminary Investigation of Zircaloy-4 as a Research Reactor Cladding Material  

SciTech Connect

As part of a scoping study for the ATR fuel conversion project, an initial comparison of the material properties of Zircaloy-4 and Aluminum-6061 (T6 and O-temper) is performed to provide a preliminary evaluation of Zircaloy-4 for possible inclusion as a candidate cladding material for ATR fuel elements. The current fuel design for the ATR uses Aluminum 6061 (T6 and O temper) as a cladding and structural material in the fuel element and to date, no fuel failures have been reported. Based on this successful and longstanding operating history, Zircaloy-4 properties will be evaluated against the material properties for aluminum-6061. The preliminary investigation will focus on a comparison of density, oxidation rates, water chemistry requirements, mechanical properties, thermal properties, and neutronic properties.

Brian K Castle

2012-05-01

81

Preliminary investigation of KTN as a surface acoustic wave infrared\\/thermal detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the results of preliminary investigations of thin films of KTN (KTa1?xNbxO3) surface acoustic wave (SAW) structures for their suitability as thermal detectors. The goal is to use the technique for infrared (IR) detection and imaging.The thin films (0.6?m) of K(Ta1?xNbx)O3 [x=0.5] epitaxial films were grown and polished on KTaO3 (001) substrates approximately 1mm thick. SAW resonators with

Kofi Korsah; Roger Kisner; Lynn A Boatner; Hans M Christen; Deidre E Paris

2005-01-01

82

Preliminary Investigation of the Thermal Behavior of High-Speed Helical Gear Trains  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A preliminary experimental investigation of the thermal behavior of high-speed helical gears will be presented. A full-scale torque regenerative test stand has been built to test a representative helical gear train as that used in tiltrotor aircraft. Power loss and temperature data from a wide range of operating conditions were measured. Loop power ranged up to 3730 kW (5000 hp). Drive system components representative of flight quality hardware were used in the test program. The results attained in this initial study indicated that windage losses due to the high rotational speeds that were tested were far more important than the losses due to the gear meshing losses.

Handschuh, Robert F.; Kilmain, Charles J.

2002-01-01

83

Preliminary investigation of power flow and electrode phenomena in a multi-megawatt coaxial plasma thruster  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present report on preliminary results of theoretical and experimental investigations of power flow in a large, unoptimized, multimegawatt coaxial thruster evaluates the significance of these data for the development of efficient, megawatt-class magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thrusters. The good agreement obtained between thruster operational performance and model predictions suggests that ideal MHD processes, including those of a magnetic nozzle, play an important role in coaxial plasma thruster dynamics at power levels relevant to advanced space propulsion. An optimized magnetic nozzle design would aid the development of efficient, multimegawatt MPD thrusters.

Schoenberg, Kurt F.; Gerwin, Richard A.; Henins, Ivars; Mayo, Robert; Scheuer, Jay; Wurden, Glen

1992-01-01

84

The role of capacity assessments in elder abuse investigations and guardianships.  

PubMed

Capacity evaluations of older adults assist in determining whether a situation should be considered elder/dependent adult abuse and which type of intervention is warranted. Capacity evaluations must integrate multiple sources of data and focus on functional abilities. Understanding the legal standard underlying the capacity needed for a specific decision is key in making a clinical opinion relevant in legal settings. Capacity evaluations for guardianships help to identify preserved abilities and make recommendations to enhance decisional and functional capacities that promote the dignity and independence of older adults. PMID:25439646

Falk, Erika; Hoffman, Nancy

2014-11-01

85

Preliminary results of numerical investigations at SECARB Cranfield, MS field test site  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration partnership sponsored by DOE has chosen the Cranfield, MS field as a test site for its Phase II experiment. It will provide information on CO2 storage in oil and gas fields, in particular on storage permanence, storage capacity, and pressure buildup as well as on sweep efficiency. The 10,300 ft-deep reservoir produced 38 MMbbl of oil and 677 MMSCF of gas from the 1940's to the 1960's and is being retrofitted by Denbury Resources for tertiary recovery. CO2 injection started in July 2008 with a scheduled ramp up during the next few months. The Cranfield modeling team selected the northern section of the field for development of a numerical model using the multiphase-flow, compositional CMG-GEM software. Model structure was determined through interpretation of logs from old and recently-drilled wells and geophysical data. PETREL was used to upscale and export permeability and porosity data to the GEM model. Preliminary sensitivity analyses determined that relative permeability parameters and oil composition had the largest impact on CO2 behavior. The first modeling step consisted in history-matching the total oil, gas, and water production out of the reservoir starting from its natural state to determine the approximate current conditions of the reservoir. The fact that pressure recovered in the 40 year interval since end of initial production helps in constraining boundary conditions. In a second step, the modeling focused on understanding pressure evolution and CO2 transport in the reservoir. The presentation will introduce preliminary results of the simulations and confirm/explain discrepancies with field measurements.

Choi, J.; Nicot, J.; Meckel, T. A.; Chang, K.; Hovorka, S. D.

2008-12-01

86

R&D Requirements, RF Gun Mode Studies, FEL-2 Steady-StateStudies, Preliminary FEL-1 Time-Dependent Studies, and Preliminary LayoutOption Investigation  

SciTech Connect

This report constitutes the third deliverable of LBNLs contracted role in the FERMI {at} Elettra Technical Optimization study. It describes proposed R&D activities for the baseline design of the Technical Optimization Study, initial studies of the RF gun mode-coupling and potential effects on beam dynamics, steady-state studies of FEL-2 performance to 10 nm, preliminary studies of time-dependent FEL-1 performance using electron bunch distribution from the start-to-end studies, and a preliminary investigation of a configuration with FEL sinclined at a small angle from the line of the linac.

Byrd, John; Corlett, John; Doolittle, Larry; Fawley, William; Lidia, Steven; Penn, Gregory; Ratti, Alex; Staples, John; Wilcox Russell; Wurtele, Jonathan; Zholents, Alexander

2005-10-01

87

In-depth investigation of escalator riding accidents in heavy capacity MRT stations.  

PubMed

In 2000, the accident rate for escalator riding was about 0.815 accidents per million passenger trips through Taipei Metro Rapid Transit (MRT) heavy capacity stations. In order to reduce the probability and severity of escalator riding accidents and enhance the safety of passengers, the Drury and Brill model [Drury, C.G., Brill, M., 1983. Human factors in consumer product accident investigation. Hum. Factors 25 (3), 329-342] for in-depth investigation was adopted to analyze the 194 escalator riding accidents in terms of victim, task, product and environment. Prevention measures have been developed based on the major causes of accidents and other related contributing factors. The results from the analysis indicated that the majority of the escalator riding accidents was caused by passengers' carrying out other tasks (38 cases, including carrying luggage 24 cases, looking after accompany persons 9 cases, and 5 others), loss of balance (26 cases, 13.4%), not holding the handrail (20 cases, 10.3%), unhealthy passengers (18 cases, 9.3%), followed by people struck by other passenger (16 cases, 8.2%). For female passengers aged 15-64 years, their rushing for trains accidents could have been prevented by wearing safer footwear or by appropriate signing being provided indicating the location and traveling direction of escalators. Female passengers aged 65 years and above whose accidents were caused by loss of balance, should be encouraged to take the elevator instead. To prevent entrapment injuries, following a stricter design code can be most effective. Further in-depth accident investigation is suggested to cover the activity of the victim prior to the accident, any involved product, the location of the accident on the escalator, any medical treatment, what went wrong, opinion of the respondent on the causes of the accident, and personal characteristics of the passengers. Also, management must trade off productivity and safety appropriately to prevent "Organizational Accidents". PMID:16434013

Chi, Chia-Fen; Chang, Tin-Chang; Tsou, Chi-Lin

2006-07-01

88

Preliminary investigation of zirconium boride ceramals for gas-turbine blade applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Zirconium boride ZrB2 ceramals were investigated for possible gas-turbine-blade application. Included in the study were thermal shock evaluations of disks, preliminary turbine-blade operation, and observations of oxidation resistance. Thermal shock disks of the following three compositions were studied: (a) 97.5 percent ZrB2 plus 2.5 percent B by weight; (b) 92.5 percent ZrB2 plus 7.5 percent B by weight; and (c) 100 percent ZrB2. Thermal shock disks were quenched from temperatures of 1800 degrees, 2000 degrees, 2200 degrees, and 2400 degrees F. The life of turbine blades containing 93 percent ZrB2 plus 7 percent B by weight was determined in gas-turbine tests. The blades were run at approximately 1600 degrees F and 15,000 to 26,000 rpm. The thermal shock resistance of the 97.5 percent ZrB2 plus 2.5 percent boron ceramals compares favorably with that of TiC plus Co and TiC plus Ni ceramals. Oxidation of the disks during the thermal shock evaluation was slight for the comparatively short time (8.3 hr) up through 2000 degrees F. Oxidation of a specimen was severe, however, after 100 hours at 2000 degrees F. The turbine blade performance evaluation of the 93 percent ZrB2 plus 7 percent B composition was preliminary in scope ; no conclusions can be drawn.

Hoffman, Charles A

1953-01-01

89

Investigation of fracture-matrix interaction: Preliminary experiments in a simple system  

SciTech Connect

Paramount to the modeling of unsaturated flow and transport through fractured porous media is a clear understanding of the processes controlling fracture-matrix interaction. As a first step toward such an understanding, two preliminary experiments have been performed to investigate the influence of matrix imbibition on water percolation through unsaturated fractures in the plane normal to the fracture. Test systems consisted of thin slabs of either tuff or an analog material cut by a single vertical fracture into which a constant fluid flux was introduced. Transient moisture content and solute concentration fields were imaged by means of x-ray absorption. Flow fields associated with the two different media were significantly different owing to differences in material properties relative to the imposed flux. Richards` equation was found to be a valid means of modeling the imbibition of water into the tuff matrix from a saturated fracture for the current experiment.

Foltz, S.D. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Tidwell, V.C.; Glass, R.J.; Sobolik, S.R. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1992-12-31

90

A preliminary investigation of powered prostheses for improved walking biomechanics in bilateral transfemoral amputees.  

PubMed

The authors conducted a preliminary investigation of the extent to which a pair of powered prostheses can provide improved gait biomechanics in bilateral transfemoral amputee walking. Specifically, a finite state-based impedance controller for level ground walking was implemented in a pair of powered knee and ankle prostheses. The efficacy of the powered prostheses and impedance-based controllers was tested on a healthy subject using able-body adapters. Motion capture data was collected while the subject performed treadmill walking with the powered prostheses. This kinematic data is compared to that of healthy subjects, and also to previously published data for bilateral transfemoral amputee gait with passive prostheses. The comparison indicates that the powered prostheses are able to provide a walking gait that is considerably more representative of healthy biomechanical gait relative to passive prostheses. PMID:23366845

Lawson, Brian E; Huff, Amanda; Goldfarb, Michael

2012-01-01

91

Preliminary results from the investigation of thermal effects in electrokinetics soil remediation  

SciTech Connect

Electrokinetics is an emerging soil remediation technology. Contaminants are extracted from the soil as a result of a complex set of phenomena that occur when an electric gradient is imposed across a soil-water system. The primary phenomena include electroosmosis, electromigration, and electrophoresis. Secondary phenomena, such as changes in solubility or speciation of various chemical components, may occur as a result of electrically induced changes in the chemical environment of the system. Numerous factors, such as temperature, may affect each of these phenomena and, consequently, the overall process efficiency. We have begun an investigation of thermal effects in the extraction of potassium dichromate from kaolinite soils under conditions of constant saturation and dewatering. Preliminary results suggest that increasing the soil temperature from 21 to 55{degrees}C may decrease the processing time under saturated conditions. However, increasing the soil temperature under dewatering, conditions causes soil cracking, which reduces the overall process efficiency.

Krause, T.R.; Tarman, B.

1993-10-01

92

Preliminary investigation of cement materials in the Taif area, Saudi Arabia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A preliminary investigation of possible sources of cement rock in the Taft area was made during the latter part of August 1968. Adequate deposits of limestone, clay, quartz conglomerate and sandstone, and pisolitic iron ore, yet no gypsum, were located to support a Cement plant should it prove feasible to establish one in this area. These materials, made up mostly of Tertiary and later sediments, crop out in isolated, inconspicuous low hills in a north- trending belt, 10 to 15 kilometers wide, lying about 90 kilometers to-the east of At Taft. The belt extends for more than 90 kilometers from the vicinity of Jabal 'An in the south to the crushed rock pits at Radwan and beyond in the north. The area is readily accessible either from the Talf-Riyadh highway or from the Taif-Bishah road presently under construction. The limestone, which is quite pure and dense in some localities but dolomitic, argillaceous, and cherty in others, occurs in a variety of colors and would make suitable decorative building stone. The volcanic rocks of the Harrat Hadan, lying directly to the east of the limestone belt, include volcanic ash beds some of which may have been altered to bentonitlc clays. Others may have been lithified and might be suitable for light-weight aggregate. These possibilities remain to be investigated. Precambrian metamorphic rocks lying directly to the south and southeast of Taif were also investigated as possible cement rock sources, but no suitable material was found here.

Martin, Conrad

1970-01-01

93

Investigating the growth of the Texas cattle feeding industry and the possible need for additional slaughter capacity  

E-print Network

Losses suffered by Texas feedlots in the fourth quarter of 2001 and the first half of 2002 warranted an investigation into the trends in the Texas cattle industry and the causes behind them. It is hypothesized that tight packer capacity has led...

Menzies, Max Duery

2004-01-01

94

Preliminary Results from an Investigation into Nanostructured Nuclear Radiation Detectors for Non-Proliferation Applications  

SciTech Connect

In recent years, the concept of embedding composite scintillators consisting of nanosized inorganic crystals in an organic matrix has been actively pursued. Nanocomposite detectors have the potential to meet many of the homeland security, non-proliferation, and border and cargo-screening needs of the nation and, by virtue of their superior nuclear identification capability over plastic, at roughly the same cost as plastic, have the potential to replace all plastic detectors. Nanocomposites clearly have the potential of being a gamma ray detection material that would be sensitive yet less expensive and easier to produce on a large scale than growing large, whole crystals of similar sensitivity. These detectors would have a broad energy range and a sufficient energy resolution to perform isotopic identification. The material can also be fabricated on an industrial scale, further reducing cost. This investigation focused on designing and fabricating prototype core/shell and quantum dot (QD) detectors. Fourteen core/shell and four QD detectors, all with the basic consistency of a mixture of nanoparticles in a polymer matrix with different densities of nanoparticles, were prepared. Nanoparticles with sizes <10 nm were fabricated, embedded in a polystyrene matrix, and the resultant scintillators’ radiation detector properties were characterized. This work also attempted to extend the gamma energy response on both low- and high-energy regimes by demonstrating the ability to detect low-energy and high-energy gamma rays. Preliminary results of this investigation are consistent with a significant response of these materials to nuclear radiation.

,

2012-10-01

95

Preliminary investigation of high power microwave plasmas for electrothermal thruster use  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results are reported from preliminary tests to evaluate the high power microwave electrothermal thruster (MET) concept, which employs a free-floating plasma discharge maintained by applied CW microwave power to heat a propellant gas flow. Stable plasmas have been created and maintained in helium (He), nitrogen (N2), and hydrogen (H2) as propellants in both the TM(sub 011) and TM(sub 012) modes at discharge pressures from 10 Pa to 69 kPa. Reproducible starting conditions of pressure and power have been documented for all the plasmas. Vortical inflow of the propellant gas was observed to cause the formation of on-axis 'spike' plasmas. The formation and unformation conditions of these plasmas were studied. Operation in the spike plasma condition enables maximum power absorption with minimum wall heating and offers maximum efficiency in heating the propellant gas. In the spike condition, plasmas of the three propellant gases were investigated in an open channel configuration to a maximum applied power level of 11.2 kW (in N2). Microwave power coupling efficiencies of over 90 percent were routinely obtained at absorbed power levels up to 2 kW. Magnetic nozzle effects were investigated with a superconducting solenoid Al magnet applying a high magnetic field to the plasmas in and exiting from the discharge tube.

Power, John L.; Sullivan, Daniel J.

1993-01-01

96

Investigation of Metal Oxide/Carbon Nano Material as Anode for High Capacity Lithium-ion Cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA is developing high specific energy and high specific capacity lithium-ion battery (LIB) technology for future NASA missions. Current state-of-art LIBs have issues in terms of safety and thermal stability, and are reaching limits in specific energy capability based on the electrochemical materials selected. For example, the graphite anode has a limited capability to store Li since the theoretical capacity of graphite is 372 mAh/g. To achieve higher specific capacity and energy density, and to improve safety for current LIBs, alternative advanced anode, cathode, and electrolyte materials are pursued under the NASA Advanced Space Power System Project. In this study, the nanostructed metal oxide, such as Fe2O3 on carbon nanotubes (CNT) composite as an LIB anode has been investigated.

Wu, James Jianjun; Hong, Haiping

2014-01-01

97

P 4.72 A PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION OF DERECHO-PRODUCING MCSs IN ENVIRONMENTS OF VERY LOW DEWPOINTS  

E-print Network

P 4.72 A PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION OF DERECHO-PRODUCING MCSs IN ENVIRONMENTS OF VERY LOW DEWPOINTS winds and other severe weather threats with which they are associated, derecho-producing mesoscale and summer, derecho MCSs typically occur in environments of substantial convective instability, with very

98

Cognitive and Linguistic Sources of Variance in 2-Year-Olds' Speech-Sound Discrimination: A Preliminary Investigation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This preliminary investigation explored potential cognitive and linguistic sources of variance in 2- year-olds' speech-sound discrimination by using the toddler change/no-change procedure and examined whether modifications would result in a procedure that can be used consistently with younger 2-year-olds. Method: Twenty typically…

Lalonde, Kaylah; Holt, Rachael Frush

2014-01-01

99

A preliminary investigation of the potential mechanical sensitivity of vertical comb drives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article describes a preliminary step taken in investigating the potential of vertical comb drives to be used as force-compensation mechanisms in interfacial force microscopes, by exploring the lower limit of the stiffness of the springs the comb drives can be fabricated with. The stiffness of their springs will affect the sensitivity of the microscope. Six vertical comb drives were fabricated for this study; the dimensions of their spring beams were chosen with the intention of giving them stiffnesses of three different orders of magnitude. During fabrication it was found that etching the tops of some of the teeth down to create the vertical offset between the combs can be done using only photoresist to mask the rest of the teeth. The stiffnesses of the fabricated springs were estimated by applying loads to them and measuring their resulting deflections. Weights were applied to the two comb drives with the stiffest springs. Voltages were also applied to them so as to determine the force-voltage relationship for their comb design. Since the other four comb drives had the same comb design, the stiffnesses of their springs could be estimated from the displacements of their movable combs when voltages were applied to them.

Gallagher, E.; Moussa, W.

2014-10-01

100

Feasibility of screening young children in day care centers--a preliminary investigation.  

PubMed

A preliminary investigation of a method of providing health screening in day care centers was conducted. Ninety-four children, birth to 6 years, attending two day care centers were screened for health and developmental problems. A nurse trained day care staff to conduct the screenings, supervised their activities, rescreened children with questionable results, and conducted an interrater reliability study as well as referral and followup activities. The nurse also did assessments of environmental characteristics of the programs, their policies, procedures, and activities and assessed staff and parent information needs concerning child development, health practices, and health needs of children. Thirty-nine problems were identified in 33 children. Followups of 29 problems were completed, and 16 of these were verified. The 29 problems resulted in a total of 35 visits to primary health care providers. Among parents of children with verified problems, only three had been aware of the problem. The overreferral rate was 47 percent. Interrater percentages of agreement on most screenings were more than 80 percent. The findings suggested that the screenings were feasible with specific modifications. The screening activities were acceptable to parents, their physicians, and center staff. Centers were responsive to staff and parent needs identified in the screening process but not to recommendations for change within the environment and in operating procedures, partly because of fiscal implications. Screenings were adequate to identify a number of health problems prevalent in children under 6, and interrater reliabilities were acceptable. PMID:3083475

Rustia, J; Barr, L

1986-01-01

101

Preliminary Tests in the NACA Tank to Investigate the Fundamental Characteristics of Hydrofoils  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This preliminary investigation was made to study the hydrodynamic properties and general behavior of simple hydrofoils. Six 5- by 30-inch plain, rectangular hydrofoils were tested in the NACA tank at various speeds, angles of attack and depths below the water surface. Two of the hydrofoils had sections representing the sections of commonly used airfoils, one had a section similar to one developed Guidoni for use with hydrofoil-equipped seaplane floats, and three had sections designed to have constant chordwise pressure distributions at given values of the lift coefficient for the purpose of delaying the speed at which cavitation begins. The experimental results are presented as curves of the lift and drag coefficients plotted against speed for the various angles of attack and depths for which the hydrofoils were tested. A number of derived curves are included for the purpose of better comparing the characteristics of the hydrofoils and to show the effects of depth. Several representative photographs show the development of cavitation on the the upper surface of the hydrofoils. The results indicate that properly designed hydrofoil sections will have excellent characteristics and that the speed at which cavitation occurs may be delayed to an appreciable extent by the use of suitable sections.

Ward, Kenneth E.; Land, Norman S.

1940-01-01

102

Preliminary investigation of the influence of dopamine regulating genes on social working memory  

PubMed Central

Working memory (WM) refers to mental processes that enable temporary retention and manipulation of information, including information about other people (“social working memory”). Previous studies have demonstrated that nonsocial WM is supported by dopamine neurotransmission. Here, we investigated in 131 healthy adults whether dopamine is similarly involved in social WM by testing whether social and nonsocial WM are influenced by genetic variants in three genes coding for molecules regulating the availability of dopamine in the brain: catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), dopamine active transporter (DAT), and monoamine-oxidase A (MAOA). An advantage for the Met allele of COMT was observed in the two standard WM tasks and in the social WM task. However, the influence of COMT on social WM performance was not accounted for by its influence on either standard WM paradigms. There was no main effect of DAT1 or MAOA, but a significant COMT × DAT1 interaction on social WM performance. This study provides novel preliminary evidence of effects of genetic variants of the dopamine neurotransmitter system on social cognition. The results further suggest that the effects observed on standard WM do not explain the genetic effects on effortful social cognition. PMID:24889756

Jensen, Sarah K. G.; Wood, Nicholas W.; Meyer, Meghan L.; Lieberman, Matthew D.; Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne

2014-01-01

103

A preliminary environmental site investigation for a bridge over the Mississippi River at Moline, Illinois  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Illinois State Geological Survey completed a preliminary environmental site assessment along the alignment of Interstate 74 (I-74) and its bridge over the Mississippi River for the Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT) in 2002. The objective of the study was to determine if any of the parcels proposed for acquisition or on which soil excavation was intended were sufficiently contaminated to require additional investigation by a commercial environmental consultant under contract to IDOT and to identify potential natural hazards that might have an impact on the proposed construction project. VOC were detected at 13 of 37 sites tested for VOC. These sites included an elevator manufacturer, former foundries, former and active machine shops, former and active gasoline stations, and a former automobile dealer. PAH above TACO Tier 1 residential standards were detected on an island in the Mississippi River. PCB was detected at a former foundry and a control box for a railroad. Magnetic anomalies that might indicate the presence of UST were detected in a park that formerly had been the site of a city garage, adjacent to a parking lot that formerly contained an automobile dealer, and at the sites of three former gasoline stations. These studies helped IDOT to save millions of dollars in highway construction projects. This is an abstract of a paper presented in Contaminated Soils, Sediments and Water: Success and Challenges (Massachusetts Fall 2005).

Trask, C.B.

2006-01-01

104

Erbium:YAG laser contouring of the nasal dorsum: a preliminary investigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In conventional aesthetic rhinoplasty operations, manual or powered rasps are used to reduce the osseo-cartilagenous nasal dorsum. This tactile method requires palpation of the instrument and the dorsum during surgery to estimate the degree of volume reduction, and often requires forceful manipulation of the dorsum which may illicit pain during surgery and contribute to post-operative edema and echymosis. In this preliminary study, we investigated the use of the Erbium:YAG laser ((lambda) equals294 micrometers ) to reduce bone and cartilage using ex-vivo porcine nasal dorsum and human cadaveric tissues. The short pulsed length and high absorption of this laser in biologic tissues results in minimization of thermal injury which are ideal for non- contact optical contouring of osseous and cartilagenous tissues in the face. Two Erbium:YAG lasers were used to ablate fresh porcine nasal bone and compared for their use. One Erbium:YAG laser, the Fidelis Laser, Fontana Medical Lasers, Ljubljana, Slovenija with variable pulse repetition rates (2 to 50 Hz), pulse energy (80 to 1000 mJ), and pulse duration (100, 300, 750 and 1000 microsecond(s) ) was used and compared to the Ultrafine Erbium:YAG laser, Coherent Inc., Santa Clara California, with variable pulse repetition rate (2 to 10 Hz), pulse energy (2-16 J/cm2), and spot diameter (2-6 mm). Only laser parameters approximating the conditions for thermal confinement were evaluated.

Truong, Mai T.; Majaron, Boris; Pandoh, Nidhi S.; Wong, Brian J.

2001-05-01

105

A Preliminary Investigation of the Cr3Si-Mo Pseudo-Binary Phase Diagram  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An investigation was undertaken to study the phase relations in Cr3Si alloyed with Mo varying from 10 to 83.5 wt. % of the material. Specimens were prepared from arc-melted buttons that were subsequently heat treated at 1673 K for 200 h and air quenched to room temperature to structures. Alloys containing more than 20 wt. % MO were primarily two-phase materials of M3Si and M5Si3, where M is (Cr,Mo). Three alloys contained less than 5% of a third phase, which also had the M5Si3 crystal structure. Differential thermal analysis (DTA) was performed on several specimens at temperatures up to 2073 K in order to determine a solidus curve for the M3Si phase. Since only one DTA peak was observed in each alloy, the M5Si3 phase must melt above 2073 K, the maximum temperature examined. A preliminary pseudo-binary phase diagram for (Cr,Mo)3Si and a portion of the 1673 K isothermal section of the Cr-Mo-Si ternary phase diagram are presented.

Dickerson, R. M.; Raj, S. V.; Locci, I. E.

1995-01-01

106

Preliminary results of investigations into the use of artificial neural networks for discriminating gas chromatograph mass spectra of remote samples  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Neural networks trained using mass spectra data from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) are studied. The investigations also included sample data from the gas chromatograph mass spectrometer (GCMS) instrument aboard the Viking Lander, obtained from the National Space Science Data Center. The work performed to data and the preliminary results from the training and testing of neural networks are described. These preliminary results are presented for the purpose of determining the viability of applying artificial neural networks in discriminating mass spectra samples from remote instrumentation such as the Mars Rover Sample Return Mission and the Cassini Probe.

Geller, Harold A.; Norris, Eugene; Warnock, Archibald, III

1991-01-01

107

Estimate CO 2 storage capacity of the Johansen formation: numerical investigations beyond the benchmarking exercise  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, Shell’s in-house reservoir simulator MoReS is applied to a recently introduced CO2 sequestration benchmark problem entitled “Estimation of the CO2 Storage Capacity of a Geological Formation” (Class et al. 2008). The principal objective of this benchmark is the simulation of CO2 distribution within a modeling region, and leakage of CO2 outside of it, for a period of

Lingli Wei; Fredrik Saaf

2009-01-01

108

Contribution of Working Memory Capacity to Children’s Reading Comprehension: A Longitudinal Investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the contribution of working memory capacity to the development of children’s reading comprehension. We present\\u000a data from three waves of a longitudinal study when the children were 7 years (Grade 1), 8 years (Grade 2) and 9 years (Grade\\u000a 3). Two questions were raised: The first question concerned the developmental changes of the relative contribution of working\\u000a memory in predicting reading

Alix Seigneuric; Marie-France Ehrlich

2005-01-01

109

Preliminary investigation of the reststrahlen phenomenology at low-grazing angles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Detection of buried and flush buried landmines has been dangerous and time consuming for both military and humanitarian de-mining personnel throughout the world. In an effort to make the process safer, faster, and more reliable, scientists have successfully employed Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) systems in nadir and near nadir viewing angles. Leveraging this successful technology, Forward-Looking Ground Penetrating Radar (FLGPR) technology, using low grazing angles, is being developed which promises to provide an increase in detection stand-off distance thereby increasing safety of personnel during land-based mine detection efforts. However, the application of GPR for the detection of buried plastic mines has been problematic, research has begun to exploit the comination of broadband and hyper-spectral passive electro-optical technologies with GPR technologies. One such embodiment is to use Forward Looking InfraRed (FLIR) technology with the intention to augment the capability of, and overcome limitations inherent to, current FLGPR technology. The emphasis in using FLIR is to understand and exploit specific spectral features which are complementary fo FLGPR and exhibited by buried metal and plastic mine targets. One spectral feature being investigated is the resstrahlen emission which results when soil is excavated or disturbed. This paper is a preliminary investigation of the performance of a vehicle based FLIR camera system for detecting resstrahlen emissions from disturbed soils. Specifically, this paper will examine the robustness of the resstrahlen feature in a forward-looking low grazing angle application. The data presented in this paper was collected at an eastern US Army testing site over targets deployed in soils which had been disturbed from one day before the start of the collection.

Harr, Richard; Polcha, Michael

2005-06-01

110

A preliminary investigation of drag reduction and mechanism for a blunt body of revolution with slanted base  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is a preliminary study of the drag reduction effect and its mechanism of a blunt body of revolution with a 21-deg slant angle by using a series of base plates. Drag coefficients were measured to investigate the effect of base installation position and plate height. An effective drag reduction device was found. Through the measurement of base pressure and total pressure distribution and flow pattern display, flow characteristics and drag reduction mechanism in the vortex near the wake were investigated.

Xia, Xuejian; Yu, Xiaoshen

1988-01-01

111

Large-scale experimental investigation of the effect of biaxial loading on the deformation capacity of pipes with defects  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents results from large-scale four-point bending tests of 12? X65 seamless pipes with circumferential defects subjected to different levels of internal pressure. The aim of the tests has been to investigate the effect of biaxial loading on the strain capacity of the pipes. The results from the tests show a significant effect of the biaxial loading. For cases

Erling Østby; Asle O. Hellesvik

2008-01-01

112

Hazards by shock waves during explosive eruptions: preliminary results of experimental investigations.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A recent study (Scolamacchia and Shouwenaars, 2009) investigated the nature of microscopic craters on the steel surface of a basketball pole left standing in one of the villages destroyed by the 1982 eruption of El Chichón volcano. The craters were attributed to the impacts of ash particles (70-280 ?m) accelerated by shock waves due to an efficient momentum coupling with a gas phase, such that a sudden expansion of the gas, caused by shock wave propagation, drag the particles up to speeds of 710 to 980 m/s. Several open questions existed on this kind of phenomena. Preliminary tests were performed to investigate the correlation between particle size and the high velocities calculated, based on inner deformation of the steel and crater geometry. We used a shock tube apparatus consisting of a high-pressure (HP) steel autoclave, pressurized with Ar gas, and a low pressure (LP) tank at atmospheric conditions. We used ash and lapilli bulk samples from El Chichón trachyandesites, and lapilli with random irregular shapes obtained by crushing and abrading dacitic blocks from pyroclastic flow deposits of Unzen volcano. The samples were placed inside an autoclave at ambient T and P, located between the HP autoclave and the LP tank. Steel plates (same type of the original impacted material), were fixed to the LP tank walls, 10 cm above the autoclave that contained the samples. Shock waves were generated by the sudden decompression of the Ar gas due to the systematical failure of a diaphragm (which separate the LP from the HP section). Air expansion accelerated the particles from below toward the steel plate. The speed of the particles was measured using a system of 4 copper wires conducting an electric signal. The signals dropped when the particles reached the wires. We used low pressure ranges (3.1 to 9.8 MPa) for all experimental runs, obtaining a range of particles velocities between 40 and 257 m/s. These velocities can be attained by pyroclastic density currents. Higher velocities (205 to 257 m/s) were obtained for smaller grain-sizes, in a range of fine lapilli-medium ash (2.8 to 177 ?m). Lower velocities, 40 m/s to 85 m/s, were attained by medium (8 mm) and fine lapilli (4 mm), respectively. These values seem not directly related to the the material composition. Impacts craters on steel plates were experimentally obtained, but we did not observe a modification of the steel inner structure, as observed in the original impacted pole. These results are in agreement with impacts occurred at low particle velocities, typical for gravity driven currents, as those reached in these experiments. We observed a great reduction in grain-size of samples recovered after all experiments with respect to the original material. Such evidence coud be due not only to the disruption of grains when impacting the metal plate, but also to processes stricly related to shock wave propagation and gas expansion. These preliminary results need to be further investigated.

Scolamacchia, Teresa; Alatorre Ibarguengoïtia, Miguel; Spieler, Oliver; Dingwell, Donald B.

2010-05-01

113

Investigating the effect of increased wind generation capacity on investment in transmission infrastructure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The transmission network that connects electricity generators with consumers is a critical yet often-overlooked component of the nation's electrical power infrastructure. However, the transmission grid has suffered from chronic underinvestment in recent decades due to various economic and regulatory factors that impede timely and efficient investments in transmission. One factor that might help offset these obstacles to transmission is the growth in wind power generation. The assumption among many in the electrical power industry is that wind power investments necessarily require greater investment in transmission due to the fact that wind power is a geographically-restricted resource and cannot always be situated close to areas of high electricity demand. However, to date there have been few, if any, empirical studies to verify this connection. This paper discusses a state-by-state empirical study exploring the relationship between increased wind generation capacity and the level of investment in transmission infrastructure. This study begins with the hypothesis that increases in installed wind generation capacity, in combination with other policies that promote wind energy more generally, should result in higher levels of transmission investment. Using data from the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) and the American Wind Energy Association (AWEA), this paper develops regression models suggesting that wind investment has a small but distinct positive impact on transmission investment. This paper then explores the effects of other state renewable energy promotion policies, and discusses the policy implications of these findings.

Braswell, Michael G.

114

Preliminary Investigations on the Distribution of Leptospira Serovars in Domestic Animals in North-west Morocco.  

PubMed

Leptospirosis is a neglected zoonosis of global importance with a complex epidemiology that affects humans, domestic and wild mammals. However, due to the diversity of clinical signs and difficulties of establishing a confirmatory laboratory diagnosis, the disease remains poorly investigated, particularly in the developing world. In Morocco, a descriptive study of the seroprevalence of Leptospira infection in animals has never been undertaken. To fill this gap, the current study was conducted on a subset of animals in north-west Morocco as a preliminary step towards understanding the epidemiological patterns of animal leptospirosis in the country. The study was conducted on 289 serum samples collected between January and April 2012 from dogs, cattle, sheep, goats and donkeys in the areas of Rabat-Temara, Sidi Kacem and Oulmes. All serum samples were tested by the MAT with 14 reference strains of the most prevalent pathogenic serovars of Leptospira and two serovars of non-pathogenic Leptospira. The overall seroprevalence of Leptospira in cattle, sheep, goats, dogs and donkeys was 15%, 18%, 20%, 21% and 20%, respectively. The most prevalent serogroups found in each species were Ballum, Sejroe, and Australis in cattle, Ballum, Australis and Sejroe in sheep, Australis and Ballum in goats, Javanica and Australis in donkey and Australis, Ballum and Canicola in dogs. Of all the serogroups tested in this study, Icterohaemorrhagiae, the only serogroup which has been previously reported in humans in Morocco, was rarely reactive. The majority of reactive sera were collected from low land areas. A large number of sera samples classified as seronegative when tested against pathogenic leptospires were positive when tested against non-pathogenic leptospires; this is suggestive of possible novel, as yet unclassified, Leptospira serovars in Morocco. Eleven of thirteen sheep urine samples were positive by real-time PCR confirming their role as Leptospira carriers in Morocco. PMID:25065690

Benkirane, A; Noury, S; Hartskeerl, R A; Goris, M G A; Ahmed, A; Nally, J E

2014-07-26

115

Preliminary investigation of KTN as a surface acoustic wave infrared/thermal detector  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the results of preliminary investigations of thin films of KTN (KTa1 xNbxO3) surface acoustic wave (SAW) structures for their suitability as thermal detectors. The goal is to use the technique for infrared (IR) detection and imaging. The thin films (0.6 m) of K(Ta1 xNbx)O3 [x = 0.5] epitaxial films were grown and polished on KTaO3 (0 0 1) substrates approximately 1mm thick. SAW resonators with a center frequency of approximately 480MHz were fabricated using these substrates. To form the basis of comparison to commonly used, thermally sensitive SAW substrates, SAW devices using lithium niobate (LiNbO3) as the substrate material were also fabricated. The phase response as a function of temperature for the KTN as well as the LiNbO3 SAW devices was measured with a network analyzer. The largest phase change exhibited by the LiNbO3 was about 4.7 / C, whereas the largest phase change exhibited by the KTN was about twice as much (11 / C). Assuming a worst case network analyzer phase resolution of 0.5 , this corresponds to a temperature resolution of 0.1 C for the LiNbO3 and 0.05 C for the KTN. By comparison, typical sensitivity of (uncooled) microbolometers is of the order of 50 mK. We believe that with improved fabrication and signal processing, the KTN/SAW-based detection approach can achieve a temperature resolution of better than 50 mK.

Korsah, Kofi [ORNL; Kisner, Roger [ORNL; Boatner, Lynn A [ORNL; Christen, Hans M [ORNL; Paris, Deidre E [ORNL

2005-01-01

116

Preliminary investigation of KTN as a surface acoustic wave infrared/thermal detector  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the results of preliminary investigations of thin films of KTN (KTa1?xNbxO3) surface acoustic wave (SAW) structures for their suitability as thermal detectors. The goal is to use the technique for infrared (IR) detection and imaging. The thin films (0.6 m) of K(Ta1?xNbx)O3 [x = 0.5] epitaxial films were grown and polished on KTaO3 (0 0 1) substrates approximately 1 mm thick. SAW resonators with a center frequency of approximately 480 MHz were fabricated using these substrates. To form the basis of comparison to commonly used, thermally sensitive SAW substrates, SAW devices using lithium niobate (LiNbO3) as the substrate material were also fabricated. The phase response as a function of temperature for the KTN as well as the LiNbO3 SAW devices was measured with a network analyzer. The largest phase change exhibited by the LiNbO3 was about ?4.7 / C, whereas the largest phase change exhibited by the KTN was about twice as much (11 / C). Assuming a worst case network analyzer phase resolution of 0.5 , this corresponds to a temperature resolution of 0.1 C for the LiNbO3 and 0.05 C for the KTN. By comparison, typical sensitivity of (uncooled) microbolometers is of the order of 50 mK. We believe that with improved fabrication and signal processing, the KTN/SAW-based detection approach can achieve a temperature resolution of better than 50 mK.

Korsah, Kofi [ORNL

2005-01-01

117

Investigation of Human Impacts on Surficial Geomorphology in Mountain Parks Using MASTER Data: Preliminary Results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The role of humans as active agents of geomorphic change is obvious at large scales (i.e. urbanization), but is also important at smaller temporal and spatial scales due to activities such as hiking and mountain biking. The effect of these activities on soil disturbance, sediment transport, surface hydrology, and vegetation growth are not well understood in arid regions where the majority of projected population growth is expected to occur. The Phoenix, AZ metropolitan area includes several public mountain parks comprising a wide range of bedrock, structure, soils, and geomorphology. The region includes ideal sites for study as there are parks completely surrounded by urbanization (with a high degree of constant use) as well as parks more removed from the metropolitan core that experience less overall human presence. A primarily field-based approach to this study is impractical due to the large total area of investigation (approximately 1000 square kilometers). Use of high spatial and spectral resolution remotely sensed data represents a useful alternative (or complementary) approach. Airborne MODIS/ASTER Simulator (MASTER) data were obtained at a ground resolution of 5 meters/pixel over Phoenix urban and peri-urban mountain parks during April 2003. This sensor acquires data in 50 bands in the visible through mid-infrared wavelengths and captures primary rock-forming mineral (quartz, feldspar, pyroxene, amphibole, etc.); weathering and pedogenetic mineral (clays, oxides, carbonates); and vegetation spectral features useful for compositional analysis. Preliminary results presented here use MASTER spectral data and band ratios to assess the degree of disturbance of surficial soils (as defined by presence of clay minerals and lack of surface crusts/pavements) associated with high- and low-use areas of mountain parks. These initial results are being used to assess the degree to which lithology, structure, vegetation, soil type, and landscape position modulate the effects of human disturbance of surficial materials.

Stefanov, W. L.

2003-12-01

118

Reconnaissance investigation of the rough diamond resource potential and production capacity of Côte d’Ivoire  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Ethnic and political conflict developed into open civil war in Côte d’Ivoire in 2002, leading to a de facto partitioning of the country into the government-controlled south and the rebel-controlled north. Côte d’Ivoire’s two main diamond mining areas, Séguéla and Tortiya, are located in the north, under what was, until recently, rebel-controlled territory. In an effort to prevent proceeds from diamond mining from funding the conflict, the United Nations (UN) placed an embargo on the export of rough diamonds from Côte d’Ivoire in 2005. That same year, the Kimberley Process (KP), the international initiative charged with stemming the flow of conflict diamonds, acted to enforce this ban by adopting the Moscow Resolution on Côte d’Ivoire, which contained measures to prevent the infiltration of Ivorian diamonds into the legitimate global rough diamond trade. Though under scrutiny by the international community, diamond mining activities continued in Côte d’Ivoire, with artisanal miners exploiting both alluvial deposits in fluvial systems and primary kimberlitic dike deposits. However, because of the embargo, there has been no official record of diamond production since the conflict began in 2002. This lack of production statistics represents a significant data gap and hinders efforts by the KP to understand how illicitly produced diamonds may be entering the legitimate trade. This study presents the results of a multiyear effort to monitor the diamond mining activities of Côte d’Ivoire’s two main diamond mining areas, Séguéla and Tortiya. An innovative approach was developed that integrates data acquired from archival reports and maps, high-resolution satellite imagery, and digital terrain modeling to assess the total diamond endowment of the Séguéla and Tortiya deposits and to calculate annual diamond production from 2006 to 2013. On the basis of currently available data, this study estimates that a total of 10,100,000 carats remain in Séguéla and a total of 1,100,000 carats remain in Tortiya. Production capacity was calculated for the two study areas for the years 2006–2010 and 2012–2013. Production capacity was found to range from between 38,000 carats and 375,000 carats in Séguéla and from 13,000 carats and 20,000 carats in Tortiya. Further, this study demonstrates that artisanal mining activities can be successfully monitored by using remote sensing and geologic modeling techniques. The production capacity estimates presented here fill a significant data gap and provide policy makers, the UN, and the KP with important information not otherwise available.

Chirico, Peter G.; Malpeli, Katherine C.

2013-01-01

119

Preliminary Investigation of EarthScope EARS Derived MOHO Topography and Large Scale Faye Gravity Anomaly  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This is a preliminary investigation using the EarthScope EARS receiver functions in combination with the Faye gravity anomaly. This includes both qualitative and quantitative comparison of the large scale Faye anomaly with an expected 3D geology interpretation for the southern mid-continent U.S.A. The 3D geology interpretation consists of expected 3D topographies based on National Elevation Data, published formation elevations, measured and published basement topography with geology, and the expected MOHO topography calculated using the EARS estimated crustal thickness. The EARS automated receiver functions provides a large data set of automatically generated receiver functions and models of bulk crustal properties. These bulk crustal properties include crustal thickness, and Vp/Vs given an assumed Vp. The results from this automatic determination can be evaluated through the H-K stacking, and are often a good method to identify where there may be complex structure or poor quality data. Some a priori information is used to constrain the EARS crustal model. The observed Faye gravity anomaly is calculated using the observed gravity value at their observation location from the PACES gravity database and their extracted elevation from the national elevation data set. Then the expected Faye gravity is modeled using the expected 3D geology interpretation. The observed and modeled Faye gravity, along with the expected 3D geologic interpretation with its topographies and geology and their expected uncertainties are used in a simple 3D density inversion to evaluate the consistency of the estimated with the expected crust / MOHO interface. Areas with complex crustal geology and or inconsistent EARS data are identified as areas of higher uncertainty and require further study. Even areas with agreement between the expected MOHO topography and the Faye anomaly have interesting geology implications. For example: in central Oklahoma the 14 km deep Anadarko basin has a positive Faye anomaly associated with it without surface topography at the same location there is a positive qualitative correlation with the EARS derived MOHO topography. The Faye gravity and MOHO topography may imply an extension of the Mid-Continent Rift through Kansas to the Southern Oklahoma Aulacogen and possibly further south and requires further investigation.

Crain, K.; Holland, A. A.

2013-12-01

120

Further investigations on the resilience capacity of Taraxacum officinale Weber growing on mine soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Heavy metal accumulation produces significant physiological and biochemical responses in vascular plants. Plants growing on abandoned mine sites are of particular interest, since they are genetically tolerant to high metal concentrations. In this work we examined the effect of heavy metals (HM) on the morphology of T. officinale growing on mine soils, with the following objectives: - to determine the fate of HM within the soil-plant system; - to highlight possible damage at anatomical and cytological level; - to assess the resilience capacity of Taraxacum officinale after three years of pot cultivation. Wild specimens of Taraxacum officinale Web, with their soil clod, were gathered from four sites with different contamination levels by heavy metals (Cu, Fe, Pb, Zn) in the abandoned Imperina Valley mine (Northeast Italy). Plants were cultivated in pots at the botanical garden of the University of Florence (HBF), and appeared macroscopically not affected by toxic signals (e.g. reduced growth, leaf necrosis) possibly induced by soil HM concentration. Leaves and roots taken at the same growing season were observed by light microscopy (LM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Light microscopy observations show a clear difference in the cell organization of not-contaminated and contaminated samples. The unpolluted samples present a well organized palisade tissue and spongy photosynthetic parenchyma. Samples from contaminated sites, instead, present a palisade parenchyma less organized, and a reduction of leaf thickness proportional to HM concentration. The poor structural organisations, and the reduced foliar thickness of the contaminated plants, are related to soil contamination. Differences in roots micromorphology concern the cortical parenchyma. Moreover, all the samples examined present mycorrhiza. Ultrastructure observations of the parenchyma cells show mitochondrial structure alteration, with lacking or reduced cristae of the internal membrane at increasing metal content. Instead, chloroplast organization does not present significant differences, particularly in number and compartmentalization of thylakoids. Although macromorphology does not present evidence of phytotoxicity, the recorded observations of the micromorphological characteristics of leaves and roots, show a suffering state of the plants, strictly related to HM content. Leaching reduced partly the HM content of the soil, therefore decreasing their phytotoxic effect. A gradual restoration of leaf organization suggests that somewhat resilience occurred in plants. Moreover, the presence of stress-tolerant mycorrhizal fungi could contribute to reduce metal toxicity. The resilience capacity suggests that Taraxacum could be a useful species in remediation projects. Keywords: Heavy metals • Mine soils • Plant morphology • Taraxacum officinale • Ultrastructure

Maleci, Laura; Bini, Claudio; Spiandorello, Massimo; Wahsha, Mohammad

2014-05-01

121

Gender Differences in Spatial Awareness in Immersive Virtual Environments: A Preliminary Investigation  

E-print Network

Gender Differences in Spatial Awareness in Immersive Virtual Environments: A Preliminary.mania@ced.tuc.gr Abstract This paper presents an experiment exploring gender differences in spatial navigation, memory compared to consistent objects. Furthermore, a clear gender difference was found with female participants

Mania, Katerina

122

Identifying Predictors of Emotional Exhaustion among Special Education Paraeducators: A Preliminary Investigation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this preliminary study was to identify predictors of emotional exhaustion among special education paraeducators. A sample of 100 paraeducators in public and specialized alternative setting schools was used to determine whether self-reported levels of emotional exhaustion and other job-related factors were reported. Using…

Shyman, Eric

2010-01-01

123

A preliminary investigation of insect colonisation and succession on remains in New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

A preliminary, systematic field study on the process of decomposition and associated insects was conducted, for the first time, in New Zealand. Using pig carcasses as an animal model for human decomposition, insect colonisation and succession was monitored in three different habitats in the Auckland region where remains are likely to be found. A significant difference in the rates of

Terry L. Eberhardt; Douglas A. Elliot

2008-01-01

124

The Lived Experience of College Student Lesbians’ Encounters with Health Care ProvidersA Preliminary Investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this preliminary study was to explore the lived experience of four self-identified college student lesbians coming out and their encounters with health care providers. This study used a qualitative method of phenomenology for data collection and analysis. Results of the study revealed a phenomenological model that embodied the core theme of navigating self-disclosure. Two major themes stemming

Carol L. Williams-Barnard; Deanna C. Mendoza; Raelene V. Shippee-Rice

2001-01-01

125

Preliminary Investigation of Manganese-Catalyzed Ozonation for the Destruction of Atrazine  

Microsoft Academic Search

A preliminary experimental study conducted with a conventional bubble ozonation contactor column has shown that small amounts of Mn(II) greatly enhanced the destruction of atrazine by ozone. There is an inversely linear relationship between the dosed Mn(II) concentration and the residual ozone concentration at a specific reaction time. The ozone transfer efficiency into water is greater with the increase of

Jun Ma; Nigel J. D. Graham

1997-01-01

126

Investigation of the regenerative capacity of an acellular porcine medial meniscus for tissue engineering applications.  

PubMed

Previously, we have described the development of an acellular porcine meniscal scaffold. The aims of this study were to determine the immunocompatibility of the scaffold and capacity for cellular attachment and infiltration to gain insight into its potential for meniscal repair and replacement. Porcine menisci were decellularized by exposing the tissue to freeze-thaw cycles, incubation in hypotonic tris buffer, 0.1% (w/v) sodium dodecyl sulfate in hypotonic buffer plus protease inhibitors, nucleases, hypertonic buffer followed by disinfection using 0.1% (v/v) peracetic, and final washing in phosphate-buffered saline. In vivo immunocompatibility was assessed after implantation of the acellular meniscal scaffold subcutaneously into galactosyltransferase knockout mice for 3 months in comparison to fresh and acellular tissue treated with ?-galactosidase (negative control). The cellular infiltrates in the explants were assessed by histology and characterized using monoclonal antibodies against: CD3, CD4, CD34, F4/80, and C3c. Static culture was used to assess the potential of acellular porcine meniscal scaffold to support the attachment and infiltration of primary human dermal fibroblasts and primary porcine meniscal cells in vitro. The explants were surrounded by capsules that were more pronounced for the fresh meniscal tissue compared to the acellular tissues. Cellular infiltrates compromised mononuclear phagocytes, CD34-positive cells, and nonlabeled fibroblastic cells. T-lymphocytes were sparse in all explanted tissue types and there was no evidence of C3c deposition. The analysis revealed an absence of a specific immune response to all of the implanted tissues. Acellular porcine meniscus was shown to be capable of supporting the attachment and infiltration of primary human fibroblasts and primary porcine meniscal cells. In conclusion, acellular porcine meniscal tissue exhibits excellent immunocompatibility and potential for cellular regeneration in the longer term. PMID:20695759

Stapleton, Thomas W; Ingram, Joanne; Fisher, John; Ingham, Eileen

2011-01-01

127

Preliminary investigation of power flow and electrode phenomena in a multi-megawatt coaxial plasma thruster  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper summarizes preliminary experimental and theoretical research that was directed towards the study of quasisteady-state power flow in a large, un-optimized, multi-megawatt coaxial plasma thruster. The report addresses large coaxial thruster operation and includes evaluation and interpretation of the experimental results with a view to the development of efficient, steady-state megawatt-class magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thrusters.

Schoenberg, Kurt; Gerwin, Richard; Henins, Ivars; Mayo, Robert; Scheuer, Jay; Nurden, Glen

1993-01-01

128

Eastern Mediterranean high resolution paleoclimate investigations using south Adriatic finely laminated sediment: preliminary data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The formation of distinct organic-rich units (sapropels) in the Medditerenean is well-known, and intensively studied , however less is known of the smaller scale variability during their formation. Multicore GeoB 107-39-03 was taken in 2006, in the central part of the straits of Otranto, south Adriatic. Over the main part of the core, fine, sub-milimetric scale laminae are found. Preliminary

Marie-Louise Goudeau; Brice Robert; Tom Jilbert; Shauna Ni Fhlaithearta; K. A. F. Zonneveld; G. J. M. Versteegh; A. Grauel; S. Bernasconi; G. J. de Lange

2010-01-01

129

An Investigation of the Relationship between College Chinese EFL Students' Autonomous Learning Capacity and Motivation in Using Computer-Assisted Language Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the study was to investigate the relationship between college EFL students' autonomous learning capacity and motivation in using web-based Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL) in China. This study included three questionnaires: the student background questionnaire, the questionnaire on student autonomous learning capacity, and…

Pu, Minran

2009-01-01

130

Investigations of AB 5-type hydrogen storage materials with enhanced hydrogen storage capacity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study deals with investigations on synthesis, characterization and hydrogenation behavior of the MmNi5-type hydrogen storage alloys Mm0.9Ca0.1Ni4.9?xFexAl0.1 (x = 0, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3). All the alloys are synthesized by radio frequency induction melting following the composite pellet route. The X-ray diffraction pattern of dehydrogenated alloy without iron, detects peaks corresponding to calcium hydride, which are absent in the XRD

Sumita Srivastava; R. K. Upadhyaya

2011-01-01

131

Preliminary investigation of Zagros thrust-fold-belt deformation using SAR interferometry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Most of the Zagros deformation resulting from the convergence of Arabia and Eurasia takes place in the Southeast Zagros. To apply the SAR interferometry geodetic technique, a few ERS 1 & 2 satellite images were used to map this continuing deformation proven by GPS. Interferograms over 7 years show surprisingly high coherence. The unwrapped phases display a high correlation with topography reflecting atmospheric noise in addition to the desired tectonic signal. We estimate two simple linear trends and remove them from interferograms. The preliminary results show local uplift rates with a likely minimum of 1-2 mm/yr. These early crude results will be tested by more data in project No. 3174.

Nilforoushan, Faramarz; Talbot, Christopher J.; Fielding, Eric J.

2005-01-01

132

75 FR 38079 - Postponement of Preliminary Determination of Antidumping Duty Investigation: Polyvinyl Alcohol...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Antidumping Duty Investigation: Polyvinyl Alcohol From Taiwan AGENCY: Import...antidumping duty investigation on polyvinyl alcohol from Taiwan. See Initiation...Anti-Dumping Duty Investigation: Polyvinyl Alcohol From Taiwan, 69 FR...

2010-07-01

133

An Investigation of the Effect of Graphite Degradation on the Irreversible Capacity in Lithium-ion Cells  

SciTech Connect

The effect of surface structural damage on graphitic anodes, commonly observed in tested Li-ion cells, was investigated. Similar surface structural disorder was artificially induced in Mag-10 synthetic graphite anodes using argon-ion sputtering. Raman microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Brunauer Emmett Teller (BET) measurements confirmed that Ar-ion sputtered Mag-10 electrodes display similar degree of surface degradation as the anodes from tested Li-ion cells. Artificially modified Mag-10 anodes showed double the irreversible charge capacity during the first formation cycle, compared to fresh un-altered anodes. Impedance spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy on surface modified graphite anodes indicated the formation of a thicker and slightly more resistive SEI layer. Gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS) analysis of solvent extracts from the electrodes detected the presence of new compounds with M{sub w} on the order of 1600 g mol{sup -1} for the surface modified electrode with no evidence of elevated M{sub w} species for the unmodified electrode. The structural disorder induced in the graphite during long-term cycling maybe responsible for the slow and continuous SEI layer reformation, and consequently, the loss of reversible capacity due to the shift of lithium inventory in cycled Li-ion cells.

Stevenson, Cynthia; Hardwick, Laurence J.; Marcinek, Marek; Beer, Leanne; Kerr, John B.; Kostecki, Robert

2008-03-03

134

Process-oriented investigation of the nitrate-removal-capacity of the aquifers in the Hessian Ried  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The quarternary sediments of the Hessian Ried, a part of the Rhine valley, hold an important groundwater resource for the densely populated Rhine-Main region in germany. Studies related to the implementation of the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD) have shown high nitrate concentrations in the groundwater, especially in the upper parts of the aquifers. Recently, there are signs which indicate that the nitrate-removal-capacity may be exhausted and the denitrification is slowing down. In aquifers, microbial autolitho- and heterotrophic denitrification is coupled to the consumption of the reactive phases pyrite (FeS2) and organic carbon (TOC), respectively. These reducing phases occur often only in trace amounts which makes it difficult to determine their distribution, reactivity and content in the field. However, a process-based knowledge of the occurring reactions and the quantification of the nitrate-removal-capacity and -kinetic is required to predict future nitrate fate. For this aim we combined different methods on a laboratory and field scale to identify the relevant nitrate degradation processes in the Hessian Ried. For determining the reactive phases (TOC and pyrite) in sediment samples, we modified and validated a combination of methods, ranging from sequential combustion for TOC and XRF for elemental and chromium reducible sulphur (CRS) for sulphide/disulphide determination. The analyses of core samples from different field sites in the Hessian Ried (forest and agricultural area) showed that especially the sediments under agricultural areas have much lower pyrite contents. Laboratory batch experiments with these sediment samples showed a much faster denitrification for sediments having higher sulphide content. ?34S isotope analyses of solid-phase sulphide and water-phase sulphate proved to be a good tool for determining the progress of the autolithotrophic denitrification. With in-situ multi-parameter measurements (Eh, pH, nitrate, temperature and conductivity) in several monitoring wells in combination with water analyses, especially sulphur-isotopic-ratios, we were able to identify high risk areas with a low nitrate-removal-capacity which is mainly caused by the consumption of the pyrite during the denitrification process. Furthermore, we are focusing on process-based investigations of denitrification using ?15N-isotopes and N2/Ar-measurements. The identified high risk areas allow intensifying the implementation of programs planed under the WFD in agricultural areas with low nitrate removal capacity.

Kludt, Christoph; Weber, Frank-Andreas; Bergmann, Axel; Knipp, Elena; Preiß, Indriani; Schüth, Christoph

2013-04-01

135

A preliminary investigation into theory of mind and attributional style in adults with grandiose delusions.  

PubMed

Introduction. A preliminary cognitive model of grandiose delusions has been put forward suggesting that persecutory and grandiose delusions shared distinct, yet overlapping psychological processes. This study aims to test this model and hypothesises that participants experiencing grandiose delusions may demonstrate a theory of mind (ToM) impairment and differences in attributional style compared to a control group. Methods. A cross-sectional design compared the performance of 18 individuals with grandiose delusions to a control group of 14 participants with depression. ToM was measured using a non-verbal joke appreciation task and a verbal stories task. Attributional style was measured using the internal, personal and situational attributions questionnaire. Results. Participants experiencing grandiose delusions performed significantly worse on both ToM tasks compared to controls. Furthermore, these participants provided significantly more atypical answers when explaining the joke behind the ToM cartoons. No differences for subjective funniness ratings or attributional style were found. Conclusions. This preliminary study indicated participants experiencing grandiose delusions have ToM impairments which may contribute to the maintenance of this symptom. PMID:25384453

Boyden, Paul; Knowles, Rebecca; Corcoran, Rhiannon; Hamilton, Simon; Rowse, Georgina

2015-03-01

136

Archaeological Palimpsest Dissection at Cova del Parco (Lleida, Spain) through Microstratigraphic Investigation of Combustion Structures. Preliminary Results.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present preliminary data from ongoing microstratigraphic investigations of Cova del Parco (Lleida, Spain), a Magdalenian karstic cave site in North western Catalonia. Excavations of the Upper Magdalenian levels are currently underway, with radiometric dates between 15,690 and 16,390 cal BP. This period has yielded a complex anthropogenic sedimentary deposit including combustion features and local accumulations of anthropogenic debris near the cave walls. On of the working hypothesis is that the Magdalenian hunter-gatherers who occupied the site did so for short periods, possibly seasonally. Support of this hypothesis comes the presence of overlapping, very thin flat combustion structures, which appear to have been short-lived and close to each other in time. In order to investigate this issue, we carried out micromorphological analysis of some of the mentioned combustion features. Preliminary results show significant microstratification and presence of unburned spherulites mixed in with reprecipitated calcitic wood ash, both of which point towards the existence of hiatuses between combustion events. This is supported by the observation of scattered, lightly burned microscopic flint and bone fragments in the sediment between ash layers, which could represent renewed occupation floor debris. Our case study adds to the growing number of combustion feature microstratigraphic investigations contributing to a correct characterization of anthropogenic palimpsest deposits. Key words: Microstratigraphy; Micromorphology; Magdalenian; Combustion features; Wood ash; Palimpsest; Iberian Peninsula.

Égüez, Natalia; Mallol, Carolina; Mangado, Xavier; Tejero, José Miguel; Fullola, Josep Maria

2014-05-01

137

Preliminary investigations into the bioconversion of gamma irradiated agricultural waste by Pleurotus spp.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The application of gamma irradiation for pretreatment of lignocellulosic materials for their hydrolysis and to increase their digestibility for rumen animal have been reported in the literature. Gamma irradiation of corn stover in combination with sodium hydroxide for bioconversion of polysaccharide into protein by Pleurotus spp has also been reported. In this study experiments were designed to find out whether gamma radiation could serve both as a decontaminating agent as well as hydrolytic agent of sawdust for the bioconversion of four varieties of Pleurotus spp. Preliminary results indicate that a dose of 20kGy of gamma irradiation increase the yield of Pleurotus eous var ET-8 whilst decreasing the yield of other varieties.

Gbedemah, C. M.; Obodai, M.; Sawyerr, L. C.

1998-06-01

138

Preliminary investigation of some large landslides triggered by the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake, Sichuan Province, China  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The M s 8.0 Wenchuan earthquake or "Great Sichuan Earthquake" occurred at 14:28 p.m. local time on 12 May 2008 in Sichuan Province, China. Damage by earthquake-induced landslides was an important part of the total earthquake damage. This report presents preliminary observations on the Hongyan Resort slide located southwest of the main epicenter, shallow mountain surface failures in Xuankou village of Yingxiu Town, the Jiufengchun slide near Longmenshan Town, the Hongsong Hydro-power Station slide near Hongbai Town, the Xiaojiaqiao slide in Chaping Town, two landslides in Beichuan County-town which destroyed a large part of the town, and the Donghekou and Shibangou slides in Qingchuan County which formed the second biggest landslide lake formed in this earthquake. The influences of seismic, topographic, geologic, and hydro-geologic conditions are discussed. ?? 2009 Springer-Verlag.

Wang, F.; Cheng, Q.; Highland, L.; Miyajima, M.; Wang, H.; Yan, C.

2009-01-01

139

The lived experience of college student lesbians' encounters with health care providers. A preliminary investigation.  

PubMed

The purpose of this preliminary study was to explore the lived experience of four self-identified college student lesbians coming out and their encounters with health care providers. This study used a qualitative method of phenomenology for data collection and analysis. Results of the study revealed a phenomenological model that embodied the core theme of navigating self-disclosure. Two major themes stemming from the core theme were also uncovered. Navigating self-disclosure in homophobic waters and navigating self-disclosure encounters with health care providers unveiled a continuum of self-disclosure to nondisclosure experiences encountered by lesbians. Strategies are offered to enhance interactions between lesbians and health care providers in primary and acute care settings. PMID:11847835

Williams-Barnard, C L; Mendoza, D C; Shippee-Rice, R V

2001-06-01

140

Preliminary thermoluminescence and optically stimulated luminescence investigation of commercial pharmaceutical preparations towards the drug sterilization dosimetry.  

PubMed

Drug sterilization with ionizing radiation is a well-established technology and is gaining ground the last decades due to its numerous advantages. Identification of irradiated drugs would be interesting and, in this respect, the present work aims, for the first time to the authors' best knowledge, to explore whether OSL and TL can be employed as methods for post-sterilization dosimetry on commercial drugs, i.e., as tools for the detection of irradiated drugs. Five widely used drugs, i.e., Daktarin(®), Aspirin(®), Panadol(®), Brufen(®) and Procef(®), are used for this purpose. Preliminary findings are very promising towards the post-sterilization dosimetry and the use of commercial drugs for normal and/or accidental dosimetry. PMID:24922552

Kazakis, Nikolaos A; Tsirliganis, Nestor C; Kitis, George

2014-09-01

141

Investigating feedback mechanisms between stress and grain-size: preliminary findings from finite-element modelling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is widely accepted that changes in stress and grain size can induce a switch between grain-size insensitive (GSI) and sensitive (GSS) creep mechanisms. Under steady-state conditions, grains evolve to an equilibrium size in the boundary region between GSS and GSI, described by the paleopiezometer for a given material. Under these conditions, significant rheological weakening is not expected, as grain size reduction processes are balanced by grain growth processes. However, it has been shown that the stress field surrounding faults varies through the seismic cycle, with both rapid loading and unloading of stress possible in the co- and post-seismic stages. We propose that these changes in stress in the region of the brittle-ductile transition zone may be sufficient to force a deviation from the GSI-GSS boundary and thereby cause a change in grain size and creep mechanism prior to system re-equilibration. Here we present preliminary findings from numerical modelling of stress and grain size changes in response to loading of mechanical inhomogeneities. Our results are attained using a grain-size evolution (GSE) subroutine incorporated into the SULEC finite-element code developed by Susan Ellis and Susanne Buiter, which utilises an iterative approach of solving for spatial and temporal changes in differential stress, grain size and active creep mechanism. Preliminary models demonstrate that stress changes in response to the opening of a fracture in a flowing medium can be significant enough to cause a switch from GSI to GSS creep. These results are significant in the context of understanding spatial variations and feedback between stress, grain size and deformation mechanisms through the seismic cycle.

Cross, A. J.; Prior, D. J.; Ellis, S. M.

2012-12-01

142

Preliminary Investigation of Flow Fluctuations During Surge and Blade Row Stall in Axial-flow Compressors / c Merle C. Huppert  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A preliminary investigation of the flow fluctuations of surge and blade row stall was conducted with three single-stage axial-flow compressors with hub-tip ratios of 0.9,0.8, and 0.5 and with a multistage axial-flow compressor. Flow fluctuations of large amplitude associated with stall were detected in all compressors investigated. The fluctuations were caused by low flow regions affecting 25 to 40 percent of the annulus area and propagating in the direction of compressor rotation, but at a lower speed. Mild audible surge was obtained with the single-stage compressors with hub-tip ratios of 0.9 and 0.8. No audible surge was detected with the 0.5 hub-tip ratio stage. A severe audible surge was obtained with the multistage axial-flow compressor. The surge point was coincident with the sharp drop in pressure ratio due to stall.

Huppert, Merle C

1952-01-01

143

Preliminary Investigation on Battery Sizing Investigation for Thrust Vector Control on Ares I and Ares V Launch Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An investigation into the merits of battery powered Electro Hydrostatic Actuation (EHA) for Thrust Vector Control (TVC) of the Ares I and Ares V launch vehicles is described. A top level trade study was conducted to ascertain the technical merits of lithium-ion (Li-ion) and thermal battery performance to determine the preferred choice of an energy storage system chemistry that provides high power discharge capability for a relatively short duration.

Miller, Thomas B.

2011-01-01

144

Seismic Investigations of the Murci Geothermal Field (Southern Tuscany, Italy): Preliminary Results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Monte Amiata region in the Southern Tuscany, Central Italy, describes a volcanic complex with great significance in terms of the regional fresh water supply, mining and geothermal power generation. Mainly for the latter purpose, the volcanic area of Mt Amiata has been the subject of extensive geological and geophysical research (e.g. Dini et al., 2010 and references therein). The insights from these studies have led to successful geothermal production in the Mt Amiata region since the early 1960s (e.g. Batini et al., 2003). Today's most important reservoirs in this area are the Bagnore and the Piancastagnaio fields which are both operated by the company Enel Green Power. The work presented here deals with the Murci area, another potential reservoir located about 10 km southwest of the Mt Amiata volcanic complex. Therefore, in order to get a more detailed understanding of this area, five reflection seismic profiles were carried out. We have performed on three of them a preliminary depth-migrated images, through Kirchhoff prestack depth migration (KPSDM). The vital point of depth migration algorithms is the accuracy of the velocity model that is used for the backpropagation of the seismic data. Therefore, we derived a suitable 1D starting model from nearby well logs and VSP measurements. In order to remove the large topography effects along the profiles, we then utilized first-arrival tomography for each seismic line. For the following processing we incorporated these 2D tomographic results into our starting model which compensates for static effects and improves the resolution in the near-surface area. The velocity models were then used in the application of KPSDM to the seismic data for each profile, respectively. The resulting preliminary images show a zone of high seismic reflectivity, known as the 'K-horizon' (e.g. Brogi, 2008), and could improve its geological interpretation. These promising results encourage us to proceed with deeper migration velocity analysis which will reveal more details about the structures of the Murci area. Batini, F. et al., 2003: Geological features of Larderello-Travale and Mt. Amiata geothermal areas (southern Tuscany, Italy), Episodes, 26, 239-244. Brogi, A., 2008. The structure of the Monte Amiata volcano-geothermal area (Northern Apennines, Italy): Neogene-Quaternary compression versus extension, Int J Earth Sci (Geol Rundsch) (2008) 97:677-703 Dini, I. et al., 2010. Geological Evaluation of the Base of the Mt. Amiata Volcanic Complex (Tuscany, Italy), Procedings World Geothermal Congress 2010, Bali, Indonesia, April 2010.

Riedel, M.; Alexandrakis, C.; Buske, S.

2013-12-01

145

Revisiting shyness and sociability: a preliminary investigation of hormone-brain-behavior relations  

PubMed Central

Shyness and sociability are two fundamental personality dimensions that are conceptually and empirically orthogonal and are conserved across cultures, development, and phylogeny. However, we know relatively little regarding how shyness and sociability are represented and maintained in the brain. Here we examined neural responses to the processing of different types of social threat using event-related fMRI, the salivary cortisol awakening response (CAR), and sociability in young adults selected for high and low shyness. Shy adults who exhibited a relatively higher CAR displayed neural activity in putative brain regions involved in emotional conflict and awareness, and were more sociable. In contrast, shy adults who displayed a relatively lower CAR exhibited neural activity in putative brain regions linked to fear and withdrawal, and were unsociable. Results revealed no systematic brain responses to social threat processing that correlated with the CAR in non-shy adults. These preliminary results suggest that individual differences in waking morning cortisol levels may influence neural processes that facilitate either social approach or withdrawal among people who are shy. Findings are discussed in relation to their theoretical and clinical implications for moving beyond longstanding descriptive to explanatory models of shyness and sociability and for understanding individual differences in social behavior in general. PMID:25566117

Tang, Alva; Beaton, Elliott A.; Schulkin, Jay; Hall, Geoffrey B.; Schmidt, LouisA.

2014-01-01

146

Preliminary investigation of the effect of pulse rate on judgments of swallowing impairment and treatment recommendations.  

PubMed

Reducing fluoroscopic pulse rate, a method used to reduce radiation exposure from modified barium swallow studies (MBSSs), decreases the number of images available from which to judge swallowing impairment. It is necessary to understand the impact of pulse rate reduction on judgments of swallowing impairment and, consequentially, treatment recommendations. This preliminary study explored differences in standardized MBSS measurements [Modified Barium Swallow Impairment Profile (MBSImP™©) and Penetration Aspiration Scale (PAS) Scores] between two pulse rates: 30 and simulated 15 pulses per second (pps). Two reliable speech-language pathologists (SLPs) scored all five MBSSs. Five SLPs reported treatment recommendations based on those scores. Differences in judgments of swallowing impairment were found between 30 and simulated 15 pps in all five MBSSs. These differences were in six physiological swallowing components: initiation of pharyngeal swallow, anterior hyoid excursion, epiglottic movement, pharyngeal contraction, pharyngeal-esophageal segment opening, and tongue base retraction. Differences in treatment recommendations were found between 30 and simulated 15 pps in all five MBSSs. These findings suggest that there are differences in both judgment of swallowing impairment and treatment recommendations when pulse rates are reduced from 30 to 15 pps to minimize radiation exposure. PMID:23559454

Bonilha, Heather Shaw; Blair, Julie; Carnes, Brittni; Huda, Walter; Humphries, Kate; McGrattan, Katlyn; Michel, Yvonne; Martin-Harris, Bonnie

2013-12-01

147

Synthesis, Characterization, and Preliminary Investigation of Cell Interaction of Magnetic Nanoparticles with Catechol-Containing Shells  

SciTech Connect

Superparamagnetic iron oxide cores were synthesized by co-precipitation of Fe(II) and Fe(III) salts and subsequently stabilized by coating with different catechols (levodopa, dopamine, hydrocaffeic acid, dopamine-containing carboxymethyl dextran) known to act as high-affinity, bidentate ligands for Fe(III). The prepared stable magnetic fluids were characterized with regard to their chemical composition (content of iron and shell material, Fe(II)/Fe(III) ratio) and their physical properties (size, surface charge, magnetic parameters). The nanoparticles showed no or only slight cytotoxic effects within 1 and 4 days of incubation with 3T3 fibroblast cells. Preliminary experiments were performed to study the interaction of the prepared nanoparticles with human MCF-7 breast cancer cells and leukocytes. An intense interaction of the MCF-7 cells with these particles was found whereas the leukocytes showed a lower tendency of interaction. Based on these finding, the novel magnetic nanoparticles possess the potential for use in depletion of tumor cells from peripheral blood.

Wagner, Kerstin; Seemann, Thomas; Wyrwa, Ralf; Schnabelrauch, Matthias [Biomaterials Department, INNOVENT e. V., Pruessingstrasse 27 B, D-07745 Jena (Germany); Clement, Joachim H. [Department of Internal Medicine II, University Hospital Jena, Erlanger Allee 101, D-07740 Jena (Germany); Mueller, Robert [Institute of Photonic Technology, Albert-Einstein-Strasse 9, D-07745 Jena (Germany); Nietzsche, Sandor [Center for Electron Microscopy, University Hospital Jena, Ziegelmuehlenweg 1, D-07743 Jena (Germany)

2010-12-02

148

Synthesis, Characterization, and Preliminary Investigation of Cell Interaction of Magnetic Nanoparticles with Catechol-Containing Shells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Superparamagnetic iron oxide cores were synthesized by co-precipitation of Fe(II) and Fe(III) salts and subsequently stabilized by coating with different catechols (levodopa, dopamine, hydrocaffeic acid, dopamine-containing carboxymethyl dextran) known to act as high-affinity, bidentate ligands for Fe(III). The prepared stable magnetic fluids were characterized with regard to their chemical composition (content of iron and shell material, Fe(II)/Fe(III) ratio) and their physical properties (size, surface charge, magnetic parameters). The nanoparticles showed no or only slight cytotoxic effects within 1 and 4 days of incubation with 3T3 fibroblast cells. Preliminary experiments were performed to study the interaction of the prepared nanoparticles with human MCF-7 breast cancer cells and leukocytes. An intense interaction of the MCF-7 cells with these particles was found whereas the leukocytes showed a lower tendency of interaction. Based on these finding, the novel magnetic nanoparticles possess the potential for use in depletion of tumor cells from peripheral blood.

Wagner, Kerstin; Seemann, Thomas; Wyrwa, Ralf; Clement, Joachim H.; Müller, Robert; Nietzsche, Sandor; Schnabelrauch, Matthias

2010-12-01

149

Preliminary geological investigation of AIS data at Mary Kathleen, Queensland, Australia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Airborne Imaging Spectrometer (AIS) was flown over granitic, volcanic, and calc-silicate terrain around the Mary Kathleen Uranium Mine in Queensland, in a test of its mineralocial mapping capabilities. An analysis strategy and restoration and enhancement techniques were developed to process the 128 band AIS data. A preliminary analysis of one of three AIS flight lines shows that the data contains considerable spectral variation but that it is also contaminated by second-order leakage of radiation from the near-infrared region. This makes the recognition of expected spectral absorption shapes very difficult. The effect appears worst in terrains containing considerable vegetation. Techniques that try to predict this supplementary radiation coupled with the log residual analytical technique show that expected mineral absorption spectra can be derived. The techniques suggest that with additional refinement correction procedures, the Australian AIS data may be revised. Application of the log residual analysis method has proved very successful on the cuprite, Nevada data set, and for highlighting the alunite, linite, and SiOH mineralogy.

Huntington, J. F.; Green, A. A.; Craig, M. D.; Cocks, T. D.

1986-01-01

150

Purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic investigation of FrnE, a disulfide oxidoreductase from Deinococcus radiodurans.  

PubMed

In prokaryotes, Dsb proteins catalyze the formation of native disulfide bonds through an oxidative folding pathway and are part of the cell machinery that protects proteins from oxidative stress. Deinococcus radiodurans is an extremophile which shows unparalleled resistance to ionizing radiation and oxidative stress. It has a strong mechanism to protect its proteome from oxidative damage. The genome of Deinococcus shows the presence of FrnE, a Dsb protein homologue that potentially provides the bacterium with oxidative stress tolerance. Here, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of FrnE from D. radiodurans are reported. Diffraction-quality single crystals were obtained using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method with reservoir solution consisting of 100?mM sodium acetate pH 5.0, 10% PEG 8000, 15-20% glycerol. Diffraction data were collected on an Agilent SuperNova system using a microfocus sealed-tube X-ray source. The crystal diffracted to 1.8?Å resolution at 100?K. The space group of the crystal was found to be P2?22?, with unit-cell parameters a=47.91, b=62.94, c=86.75?Å, ?=?=?=90°. Based on Matthews coefficient analysis, one monomer per asymmetric unit is present in the crystal, with a solvent content of approximately 45%. PMID:25372826

Panicker, Lata; Misra, Hari Sharan; Bihani, Subhash Chandra

2014-11-01

151

Preliminary design and economic investigations of Diffuser-Augmented Wind Turbines (DAWT)  

SciTech Connect

A preferred design and configuration approach is suggested for the DAWT innovative wind energy conversion system. A preliminary economic asessment is made for limited production rates of units between 5 and 150 kw rated output. Nine point designs are used to arrive at the conclusions regarding best construction material for the diffuser and busbar cost of electricity (COE). It is estimated that for farm and REA cooperative end users, the COE can range between 2 and 3.5 cents/kWh for sites with annual average wind speeds of 16 and 12 mph (25.7 and 19.3 km/h) respectively, and 150 kW rated units. No tax credits are included in these COE figures. For commercial end users of these 150 kW units the COE ranges between 4.0 and 6.5 cents/kWh for 16 and 12 mph sites. These estimates in 1979 dollars are lower than DOE goals set in 1978 for the rating size and end applications. Recommendations are made for future activities to maintain steady, systematic progress toward mature development of the DAWT.

Foreman, K.M.

1981-12-01

152

Preliminary results of paleoseismic investigations of Quaternary faults on eastern Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

Site characterization of the potential nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, requires detailed knowledge of the displacement histories of nearby Quaternary faults. Ongoing paleoseismic studies provide data on the amount and rates of Quaternary activity on the Paintbrush Canyon, Bow Ridge, and Stagecoach Road faults along the eastern margin of the mountain over varying time spans of 0-700 ka to perhaps 0-30 ka, depending on the site. Preliminary stratigraphic interpretations of deposits and deformation at many logged trenches and natural exposures indicate that each of these faults have experienced from 3 to 8 surface-rupturing earthquakes associated with variable dip-slip displacements per event ranging from 5 to 115 cm, and commonly in the range of 20 to 85 cm. Cumulative dip-slip offsets of units with broadly assigned ages of 100-200 ka are typically less than 200 cm, although accounting for the effects of possible left normal-oblique slip could increase these displacements by factors of 1.1 to 1.7. Current age constraints indicate recurrence intervals of 10{sup 4} to 10{sup 5} years (commonly between 30 and 80 k.y.) and slip rates of 0.001 to 0.08 mm/yr (typically 0.01-0.02 mm/yr). Based on available timing data, the ages of the most recent ruptures varies among the faults; they appear younger on the Stagecoach Road Fault ({approximately}5-20 ka) relative to the southern Paintbrush Canyon and Bow Ridge faults ({approximately}30-100 ka).

Menges, C.M.; Oswald, J.A.; Coe, J.A. [and others

1995-12-31

153

19 CFR 207.12 - Notice of preliminary phase of investigation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Section 207.12 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION NONADJUDICATIVE INVESTIGATIONS ...a) of the Act and shall publish a notice to that effect in the Federal Register. [61 FR 37832,...

2010-04-01

154

Preliminary investigations of the winter ecology of Long-billed Curlews in coastal Texas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Results from this 1-year pilot study yielded an intriguing combination of findings that warrant further investigation. Observations include reduced numbers of roosting birds along the Texas coast during dry conditions, highly dynamic use of nocturnal roost sites, use of widely divergent habitat types for foraging, low body mass of most captured birds, and apparent fidelity to general feeding areas. Future investigations of this eastern winter population of curlews would benefit from larger sample sizes and monitoring of individual birds.

Woodin, Marc C.; Skoruppa, Mary Kay; Edwardson, Jeremy W.; Austin, Jane E.

2012-01-01

155

An initial investigation into the anti-inflammatory activity and antioxidant capacity of alpha-cyclodextrin-complexed Manuka honey.  

PubMed

The bioactive properties of Manuka honey are now well recognised, but the nature of honey (a sticky, viscous fluid) can make it hard to use as a health remedy. A new technology using encapsulation of Manuka honey with alpha-cyclodextrin molecules has been developed, creating a free-flowing powder that can easily be added to foods and beverages, or tableted / made into capsules for use in health. In this study, we investigated for antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity. Antioxidant capacity of raw Manuka honeys and matched complexes was measured using the CUPRAC method. Results showed that the antioxidant activity of honey decreased when complexed, this being directly related to dilution of the final product with alpha-cyclodextrin. Anti-inflammatory activity was assessed by measuring inhibition of neutrophil TNF-alpha secretion. Contradictory results were produced, with both stimulation and inhibition of TNF-alpha being observed. Data from this study indicate that the formation of cyclodextrin-based complexes of Manuka honey may potentiate the anti-inflammatory activity of honey, but this may differ depending on methylglyoxal content and the presence of other factors. PMID:23023642

Chepulis, Lynne M; Francis, Evelyn

2012-01-01

156

Preliminary investigation on monitoring transportation effects by full field methods: a digital holographic speckle pattern interferometry study on canvas paintings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A preliminary investigation has taken place employing Digital Holographic Speckle Pattern Interferometry (DHSPI) in order to assess the effect of handling and transportation on canvas paintings. Canvas dummies were used on a series of measurements on a transport simulator which allows reproducible simulation of any transport logs in the laboratory. A number of cycles of controlled vibrations were applied on the samples and after each cycle a measurement with DHSPI was taken to monitor the behavior of the samples while increasing the vibration loading and also to record the conditions under which the first crack appears. The transport simulations in combination with DHSPI monitoring revealed the amplitude of oscillation where the first cracks appear on new canvas paintings and also the way these cracks grow. During the tests it was also feasible to locate areas at risk of future deterioration.

Tsiranidou, Elsa; Bernikola, Eirini; Tornari, Vivi; Fankhauser, Thomas; Läuchli, Matthias; Palmbach, Cornelius; Bäschlin, Nathalie

2011-06-01

157

Preliminary investigations of the distribution of Escherichia coli O149 in sows, piglets, and their environment.  

PubMed

Little is known about the sources and kinetics of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli colonization in pigs during the pre-and post-weaning period. In this study, farrowing pens, sows, and piglets were tested for the presence of E. coli O149 by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) after bacterial culture pre-enrichment on 2 farms, one with a history of post-weaning diarrhea (problem farm - PF) and the other without such a history (non-problem farm - NPF). Unlike those on the PF, the sows from the NPF did not carry E. coli O149 before parturition, although they were colonized to frequencies similar to animals on the PF soon afterwards. Most piglets from the NPF were colonized within a week after birth, whereas only a small proportion of those on the PF were colonized during that period. No difference was observed in the frequency of piglet colonization at the 2 farms either at weaning or during the following week. Post-weaning diarrhea (PWD), which is caused by enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC), is a multifactorial disease. The presence of ETEC alone is not always sufficient for the disease to develop. Many other factors are considered to be associated with the occurrence of PWD, including feed type (1,2), feeding regimen (1,3,4), the presence of other infectious agents (3,5), weaning age, and weight (6). Weaning, which is considered to be a major physiological and psychological stress factor, is critical for the disease to occur (7). Although piglets are already colonized with ETEC before weaning (4,8), on many farms, clinical disease occurs only after weaning (1). Both sows (9,10) and the environment (6) could be possible sources of infection for piglets, but results from previous studies have not resolved this issue because of the low sensitivity of ETEC detection methods. This study provides preliminary data based on a sensitive detection method for E. coli O149 in pigs and their environment. The results demonstrate the potential of real-time PCR for future studies on this topic. PMID:21461196

Goswami, Priti S; Friendship, Robert M; Gyles, Carlton L; Poppe, Cornelis; Boerlin, Patrick

2011-01-01

158

The relationship between language and reading. Preliminary results from a longitudinal investigation.  

PubMed

This longitudinal study investigated the relationship between language and reading from three perspectives. First, we examined the reading and writing outcomes of children identified with spoken language impairments (LIs). Second, the early language abilities of children identified as poor readers were investigated. Finally, reading and language abilities were treated as continuous variables and the developmental relationship between them was studied. In general, the results indicated that language abilities (both phonological processing and oral language) significantly contributed to achievement in the early stages of reading (2nd grade) and had an even stronger effect as children acquired greater reading proficiency (4th grade). PMID:10937291

Catts, H W; Fey, M E; Proctor-Williams, K

2000-01-01

159

Preliminary investigation into the use of acromial motion for the control of a prosthetic arm  

E-print Network

will be defined, and correlations between the ranges of acromial and pros- thetic arm motion will be examined. Phase I, as reported in this thesis, is described more fully at the end of this chapter. Phase II ? Investigation of Continuous-Use Acromial... and Nonitor/Control Interfacing Phase III will entail investigation of the systems which will be responsible for physical control of the arti icial arm. A scheme must be devised for con- verting the signals produced by the acromial monitoring system...

Kusnetz, Robert Alan

2012-06-07

160

Trace evidence characteristics of DNA: A preliminary investigation of the persistence of DNA at crime scenes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The successful recovery of trace or contact DNA is highly variable. It is seemingly dependent on a wide range of factors, from the characteristics of the donor, substrate and environment, to the delay between contact and recovery. There is limited research on the extent of the effect these factors have on trace DNA analysis. This study investigated the persistence of

Jennifer J. Raymond; Roland A. H. van Oorschot; Peter R. Gunn; Simon J. Walsh; Claude Roux

2009-01-01

161

PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION OF UNCOMBUSTED AUTO FUEL VAPOR DISPERSION WITHIN A RESIDENTIAL GARAGE MICROENVIRONMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Evaporative emissions from vehicles in an attached garage may represent a significant source of indoor pollution and human exposure. ilot field study was undertaken to investigate potential in-house dispersion of evaporative emissions of uncombusted fuels from a vehicle parked in...

162

Institutional Architectures and Behavioural Ecologies in the Dynamics of Financial Markets: a Preliminary Investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper compares the properties of market dynamics, under different trading protocols. At an empirical level, we present some evidence stemming from the comparison between different intra-daily trade regimes within the world largest Stock Exchanges. Such evidence also motivates the investigation of the properties of an agent-based model under three alternatives market mechanisms, namely a Walrasian auction, a batch auction

Giulio Bottazzi; Giovanni Dosi; Igor Rebesco

2002-01-01

163

Impact of Chromosome 4p- Syndrome on Communication and Expressive Language Skills: A Preliminary Investigation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this investigation was to examine the impact of Chromosome 4p- syndrome on the communication and expressive language phenotype of a large cross-cultural population of children, adolescents, and adults. Method: A large-scale survey study was conducted and a descriptive research design was used to analyze quantitative and…

Marshall, Althea T.

2010-01-01

164

PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION OF SUBMERGED AQUATIC VEGETATION MAPPING USING HYPERSPECTRAL REMOTE SENSING  

EPA Science Inventory

The use of airborne hyperspectral remote sensing imagery for automated mapping of submersed aquatic vegetation in the tidal Potomac River was investigated for near to real-time resource assessment and monitoring. Airborne hyperspectral imagery, together with in-situ spectral refl...

165

A Preliminary Investigation of Stimulus Control Training for Worry: Effects on Anxiety and Insomnia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For individuals with generalized anxiety disorder, worry becomes associated with numerous aspects of life (e.g., time of day, specific stimuli, environmental cues) and is thus under poor discriminative stimulus control (SC). In addition, excessive worry is associated with anxiety, depressed mood, and sleep difficulties. This investigation sought…

McGowan, Sarah Kate; Behar, Evelyn

2013-01-01

166

The Role of Visual Mental Imagery in the Speed-Accuracy Tradeoff: A Preliminary Investigation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates the relationship between speed of recognition and accuracy of the responses when visual mental imagery is controlled through imagery instructions. The procedure was to compare the achievement of learners where the independent variable was imagery instructions. The subjects were two 20-person groups of undergraduates from a…

Hodes, Carol L.

167

A Preliminary Investigation of Phonological Encoding Skills in Children Who Stutter  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The present study investigated phonological encoding skills in children who stutter (CWS) and those who do not (CNS). Participants were 9 CWS (M=11.8 years, SD=1.5) and 9 age and sex matched CNS (M=11.8 years, SD=1.5). Method: Participants monitored target phonemes located at syllable onsets and offsets of bisyllabic words. Performance in…

Sasisekaran, Jayanthi; Brady, Alison; Stein, Jillian

2013-01-01

168

Integrating Children with Special Needs: Singapore Preschool Teachers Share Their Feelings--A Preliminary Investigation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There has been a marked change in the Singapore Educational System where general and special education schools will receive extra funding for special needs children. While this financial support is encouraging, it is uncertain if preschool teachers and their respective kindergartens are ready for integration. This study investigated how teachers…

Nonis, Karen P.

2006-01-01

169

Ethanol steam reforming in a molten carbonate fuel cell. A preliminary kinetic investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The decomposition of ethanol to COx and H2 was investigated under a wide range of operating conditions. High pressure reduces H2, CO and CO2 production, while high temperature produces the opposite effect. At T < 600 K the reaction also produces oxygenated compounds (acetaldehyde, ethyl acetate, acetic acid etc.) and H2 yield is reduced. To extrapolate the kinetic findings obtained

S. Cavallaro; S. Freni

1996-01-01

170

Preliminary investigation of test-retest reliability of a robotic assessment for Parkinson's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several systems have been proposed to objectively quantify the motor signs of Parkinson's disease. While validity has been investigated for a subset of these systems, test-retest reliability of automated assessments has been more neglected. We have created a protocol that uses a robotic system to measure force and position as the user performs tracking tasks with and without a simultaneous

B. R. Brewer; S. Pradhan

2010-01-01

171

Failure of Prospective Memory after Acquired Brain Damage: Preliminary Investigation and Suggestions for Future Directions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the premise that the greater frequency of errors after acquired brain damage will facilitate identification of essential components of successful prospective memory. It examines performance by patients with recent acquired non-progressive brain damage and age-matched control subjects on two experimental measures of prospective memory. A significant difference between patients and control subjects arises mainly from performance on

Janet Cockburn

1996-01-01

172

A Preliminary Investigation into Forage Quality Attributes of Several Native Eastern Savanna Species  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Introduction: Nutritive attributes of traditional forages are well documented, and benefits of forage condensed tannins (CT) for ruminants have been the subject of numerous investigations. The number of tanniferous forage species that are adapted to humid, temperate climates is limited, and the ro...

173

Neem extract as an inhibitor for biocorrosion influenced by sulfate reducing bacteria: A preliminary investigation  

E-print Network

extract Biocorrosion SRB Linepipe steel a b s t r a c t This work investigates the inhibition effect linepipe steel by a sulfate- reducing bacterial (SRB) consortium. The SRB consortium used in this study included three phylotypes; Desulfovibrio africanus, Desulfovibrio alaskensis and Desulfomicrobium sp. Steel

174

Preliminary Investigation of the Extent and Effects of Sediment Contamination in White Lake, MI  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has released this report (in .pdf or HTML formats) on sediment contamination in White Lake, Michigan. The investigation aimed "to define the ecological effects of the heavy metal contamination in Tannery Bay and to assess heavy metal contamination in eastern White Lake." Numerous tables and detailed figures accompany the text.

1999-01-01

175

A preliminary investigation of rogue waves off the Jiangsu coast, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to the potential disasters induced by rogue waves, research in this field has increased rapidly in the last 2 decades. However, there are still a lot of open questions left, including some classic ones, such as whether the rogues waves are just rare events or not. One of the key reasons is that not enough of the observed rogue waves have been investigated. China has a wide sea area, but none of the research has addressed the observed rogue waves. In the present study, 1 year of observed wave data from Jiangsu coastal area, China, are analyzed. It is found that rogue waves are present, although the wave heights are not very large; furthermore, the probability of their occurrence is similar to the Rayleigh distribution prediction, due to the local silty coastal topography. The characteristics of rouge waves are investigated and the results indicate that a new type of rogue wave may exist.

Wang, Y.; Tao, A.-F.; Zheng, J.-H.; Doong, D.-J.; Fan, J.; Peng, J.

2014-09-01

176

A preliminary investigation of the potential applicability of the IPAD system to non-aerospace industry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A study of the applicability of the planned Integrated Programs for Aerospace-Vehicle Design (IPAD) system to the design activities of non-aerospace industries was carried out. It was determined that IPAD could be of significant benefit to a number of industries, with the most likely users being the heavy construction and automotive industries. Two additional short studies were initiated to investigate the possible impact of IPAD on a national energy program and on urban and regional planning activities of local and state governments. These initial studies indicated the possibility of significant payoff in these areas and the need for further investigations. It was also determined that utilization of IPAD by non-aerospace industries will probably involve a long stepwise process, since these industries maintain a policy of gradual introduction of new technology.

Hulbert, L. E.

1975-01-01

177

Preliminary investigation of breast tumor detection using cross-vivaldi antenna.  

PubMed

The contrast in dielectric properties between normal breast tissues and malignant tumors is significant. Based on this fact, detection of breast cancer with microwaves has been proposed. Here, a cross-Vivaldi antenna capable of measuring cross-polarization is investigated for tumor detection. Observation of cross-polarized reflections reduces reflections from surfaces such as skin, permitting more reliable detection of small tumors. Simulation results indicate that the antenna has the potential to detect breast tumors using this approach. PMID:17281807

Zhang, Jingjing; Fear, Elise; Johnston, Ronald

2005-01-01

178

Preliminary Investigations of Joining Technologies for Attaching Refractory Metals to Ni-Based Superalloys  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, a range of joining technologies has been investigated for creating attachments between refractory metal and Ni-based superalloys. Refractory materials of interest include Mo-47%Re, T-111, and Ta-10%W. The Ni-based superalloys include Hastelloy X and MarM 247. During joining with conventional processes, these materials have potential for a range of solidification and intermetallic formation-related defects. For this study, three

Jerry E. Gould; Frank J. Ritzert; William S. Loewenthal

2006-01-01

179

Preliminary Investigation of the Heat Shock Resistant Properties of Molybdenum Disilicide Blades Under Centrifugal Load  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An investigation to determine the heat-shock resistant properties of two molybdenum disilicide turbine blades under centrifugal loads imposed by turbine rotation is presented. Molybdenum disilicide turbine blades fabricated by hot-pressing techniques withstood heat-shock conditions under blade centrifugal stresses up to 5350 pounds per square inch. Additional development is required before the heat-shock resistant properties of molybdenum disilicide are satisfactory for turbine-blade application.

Long, Roger A; Frenche, John C

1952-01-01

180

Preliminary optical coherence tomography investigation of the temporo-mandibular joint disc  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aim and objectives. The morphology and position of the temporo-mandibular disc are key issues in the diagnosis and treatment of arthrogenous temporo-mandibular disorders. Magnetic resonance imaging and arthroscopy are used today to identify: flattening of the pars posterior of the disc, perforation and/or adhesions in the pars intermedia of the disc and disc displacements. The present study proposes the investigation of the temporo-mandibular joint disc by optical coherence tomography (OCT). Material and methods. 8 human temporo-mandibular joint discs were harvested from dead subjects, under 40 year of age, and conserved in formalin. They had a normal morphology, with a thicker pars posterior (2,6 mm on the average) and a thinner pars intermedia (1mm on the average). We investigated the disc samples using two different OCT systems: an en-face OCT (time domain (TD)-OCT) system, working at 1300 nm (C-scan and B-scan mode) and a spectral OCT system (a Fourier domain (FD)-OCT) system , working at 840 nm (B-scan mode). Results. The OCT investigation of the temporo-mandibular joint discs revealed a homogeneous microstructure. The longer wavelength of the TD-OCT offers a higher penetration depth (2,5 mm in air), which is important for the analysis of the pars posterior, while the FD-OCT is much faster. Conclusions: OCT is a promising imaging method for the microstructural characterization of the temporo-mandibular disc.

M?rc?uteanu, Corina; Demjan, Enikö; Sinescu, Cosmin; Negrutiu, Meda; Motoc, Adrian; Lighezan, Rodica; Vasile, Liliana; Hughes, Mike; Bradu, Adrian; Dobre, George; Podoleanu, Adrian G.

2010-02-01

181

Trace elements in urinary stones: a preliminary investigation in Fars province, Iran.  

PubMed

In view of the high incidence rate of urinary stones in the south and southwest of Iran, this paper investigates trace elements content including heavy metals in 39 urinary stones, collected from patients in Fars province, Iran. The mineralogy of the stones is investigated using X-ray diffractometry. The samples are classified into five mineral groups (calcium oxalate, uric acid, cystine, calcium phosphate and mixed stone). Major and trace elements in each group were determined using ICP-MS method. P and Ca constitute the main elements in urinary stones with Ca being more affine to oxalates while other alkali and alkaline earths precipitate with phosphate. Significant amounts of trace elements, especially Zn and Sr, were found in urinary calculi (calcium oxalate and phosphates) relative to biominerals (uric acid and cystine). Among urinary calculi, calcium phosphate contains greater amounts of trace metal than calcium oxalate. Phosphates seem to be the most important metal-bearing phases in urinary stones. Results indicate that concentrations of elements in urinary stones depend on the type of mineral phases. Significant differences in elements content across various mineralogical groups were found by applying statistical methods. Kruskal-Wallis test reveals significant difference between Ca, P, K, Na, Mg, S, Zn, Sr, Se, Cd, and Co content in different investigated mineral groups. Moreover, Mann-Whitney test differentiates Ca, Na, Zn, Sr, Co, and Ni between minerals in oxalate and uric acid stones. This study shows that urinary stone can provide complementary information on human exposure to elements and estimate the environmental risks involved in urinary stones formation. PMID:25433503

Keshavarzi, Behnam; Yavarashayeri, Nasrin; Irani, Dariush; Moore, Farid; Zarasvandi, Alireza; Salari, Mehrdad

2014-11-30

182

Alkali-free bioactive glasses for bone tissue engineering: A preliminary investigation  

SciTech Connect

An alkali-free series of bioactive glasses has been designed and developed in the glass system CaO-MgO-SiO2-P2O5-CaF2 along diopside (CaMgSi2O6) – fluorapatite [Ca5(PO4)3F] – tricalcium phosphate (3CaO•P2O5) join. The silicate network in all the investigated glasses is predominantly coordinated in Q2 (Si) units while phosphorus tends to remain in orthophosphate (Q0) environment. The in vitro bioactivity analysis of glasses has been made by immersion of glass powders in simulated body fluid (SBF) while chemical degradation has been studied in Tris-HCl in accordance with ISO-10993-14. Some of the investigated glasses exhibit hydroxyapatite (HA) formation on their surface with in 1-12 h of their immersion in SBF solution. The sintering and crystallization kinetics of glasses has been investigated by differential thermal analysis (DTA) and hot-stage microscopy (HSM), respectively while the crystalline phase evolution in resultant glass-ceramics (GCs) has been studied in the temperature range of 800-900 oC using powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The cell growth and osteogenic differentiation for glasses has been studied in vitro on sintered glass powder compacts using rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. The as designed glasses are ideal candidates for their potential applications in bone tissue engineering in the form of bioactive glasses as well as glass/GC scaffolds.

Goel, Ashutosh; Kapoor, Saurabh; Rajagopal, Raghu R.; Pascual, Maria J.; Kim, Hae-Won; Ferreira, Jose M.

2011-08-25

183

Alkali-free bioactive glasses for bone tissue engineering: a preliminary investigation.  

PubMed

An alkali-free series of bioactive glasses has been designed and developed in the glass system CaO-MgO-SiO(2)-P(2)O(5)-CaF(2) along the diopside (CaMgSi(2)O(6))-fluorapatite (Ca(5)(PO(4))(3)F)-tricalcium phosphate (3CaO·P(2)O(5)) join. The silicate network in all the investigated glasses is predominantly coordinated in Q(2) (Si) units, while phosphorus tends to remain in an orthophosphate (Q(0)) environment. The in vitro bioactivity analysis of glasses has been made by immersion of glass powders in simulated body fluid (SBF) while chemical degradation has been studied in Tris-HCl in accordance with ISO-10993-14. Some of the investigated glasses exhibit hydroxyapatite formation on their surface within 1-12 h of their immersion in SBF solution. The sintering and crystallization kinetics of glasses has been investigated by differential thermal analysis and hot-stage microscopy, respectively while the crystalline phase evolution in resultant glass-ceramics has been studied in the temperature range of 800-900°C using powder X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The alkaline phosphatase activity and osteogenic differentiation for glasses have been studied in vitro on sintered glass powder compacts using rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. The as-designed glasses are ideal candidates for their potential applications in bone tissue engineering in the form of bioactive glasses as well as glass/glass-ceramic scaffolds. PMID:21925626

Goel, Ashutosh; Kapoor, Saurabh; Rajagopal, Raghu Raman; Pascual, Maria J; Kim, Hae-Won; Ferreira, José M F

2012-01-01

184

Preliminary Investigation of Use of Conical Flow Separation for Efficient Supersonic Diffusion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Use of flow separation on a rod projecting upstream of a blunt body to decelerate the supersonic stream ahead of an annular nose inlet was investigated at Mach numbers of 1.76, 1.93, and 2.10. Maximum pressure recoveries were obtained with rod tip projections about 1.5 times the radius of the spherical nose and were higher than those obtained with single-shock solid cones. Subcritical operation was similar to that observed with solid-cone inlets, but the effect of angle of attack on maximum pressure recovery was more severe.

Moeckel, W E; Evans, P J , Jr

1951-01-01

185

Kinetics investigation of oxygen storage capacity in La2O3-CeO2 solid solution.  

PubMed

La2O3-CeO2 nanopowders with different La2O3 (0-20 mol%) were prepared by the sol-gel method. The modification of the cubic structure of ceria by substituting La3+ for Ce4+ into the lattice of CeO2 has been investigated. The crystal structure of La2O3-CeO2 nanomaterials has been examined by X-ray powder diffraction and analyzed by the Rietveld refinement method. The introduction of La3+ enlarges the octahedral void of unit cell in the cubic CeO2, which favors the oxygen migration in the crystal lattice. Raman characterization results show that the wavenumber of the La2O3-CeO2 solid solution shifted to red and the oxygen vacancy increased with lanthana content in Ce(1-x)La(x)O(2-x/2). The oxygen vacancy, generated by La3+ substituting for Ce4+, could supply more channels for oxygen migration through the lattice. The changes of lattice structure and the oxygen vacancy with La2O3 are correspondence with the results of oxygen storage capacity (OSC) measurement, which indicate that the changes of macro-performance are connected with the microstructure deformation of La2O3-CeO2. The kinetics of Ce0.9La0.2O1.9 nanomaterials with the highest OSC value was studied and the apparent activation energy (E(a)) of reduction and oxidation process was calculated to be 5.6 and 6.0 kJ/mol, respectively. The low E(a) value might be one of the reasons for Ce0.8La0.2O1.9 nanomaterials with the high OSC value. PMID:21449363

Liu, Lili; Wang, Xidong; Guo, Min; Zhang, Mei

2011-03-01

186

A preliminary investigation into the prevalence and prediction of problematic cell phone use  

PubMed Central

Background and aims: Likening mobile phone use dependency to the classification of excessive behaviors may be necessarily equivalent in seriousness to previously established addictions such as problematic computing or excessive gambling. The aim of the study explores into the behavior of excessive use of mobile phones as a pathological behavior. Methods: Two studies investigated criteria for problematic mobile phone usage by examining student (Study 1, N = 301) and nonstudent (Study 2, N = 362) responses to a set of adapted mobile phone addiction inventories. Study 1 investigated cell phone addiction inventories as constructs designed to measure problematic cell phone use. Additionally, Study 2 sought to predict age, depression, extraversion, emotional stability, impulse control, and self-esteem as independent variables that augment respondents’ perceptions of problematic use. Results: The results from Study 1 and Study 2 indicate that 10 to 25% of the participants tested exhibited problematic cell phone usage. Additionally, age, depression, extraversion, and low impulse control are the most suitable predictors for problematic use. Conclusions: The results of the two studies indicate that problematic mobile phone use does occur and ought to be taken seriously by the psychological community. Presently, there is limited data providing conclusive evidence for a comprehensible categorization of cell phone addiction, as well as a unified explanatory model specific to problematic mobile phone use. Studies such as this one may contribute substantial findings, adding scientific significance, and offering a valuable submission for the ongoing progress of creating intervention frameworks relative to “virtual addictions”. PMID:25215213

Smetaniuk, Peter

2014-01-01

187

Investigation Of High Intensity Focused Ultrasound Ablation In Isolated Kidneys By MRI — Preliminary Results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) under magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) guidance is an attractive instrument to ablate tissue non-invasively. The aim of this work was to investigate the coagulation volume and the perfusion changes after HIFU-ablation in an isolated kidney model using MRI. Ablation was performed at least at two regions of the renal cortex. Morphological T1-/T2-weighted, temperature sensitive images and contrast-enhanced perfusion measurements were performed. The detection of single HIFU induced coagulation necroses and HIFU induced tissue cavities was feasible. Perfusion changes could only be detected in few experiments because of relatively inhomogeneous kidney perfusion patterns. MR-imaging is a sensitive method to detect and to quantify the HIFU-focus. Moreover, MRI is a valuable approach for the detection of HIFU induced coagulation necroses. The investigation of perfusion changes, particularly important in tumor treatment, was sometimes hampered due to limitations in the used organ model. However, in patients MR perfusion imaging as well as volumetric and morphological imaging can be used to control the outcome of HIFU-therapy.

Jenne, J. W.; Risse, F.; Häcker, A.; Peters, K.; Divkovic, G. Wilzbach; Siegler, P.; Fink, C.; Michel, M. S.; Huber, P. E.

2006-05-01

188

Preliminary investigations of rat skin after topical application of optical clearing agent  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The tissue optical clearing technique based on immersion of tissues into optical clearing agents (OCAs) can enhance the penetration depth of light in tissues, thus improve the capabilities of noninvasive optical diagnosis and therapeutic treatment. However, the optical clearing efficiency of skin caused by topical application of OCAs usually suffers from the barrier of stratum corneum and epithelium. The addition of chemical penetration enhancers to OCAs could significantly improve the optical clearing of skin, but the investigations on their safety are seldom concerned. In this study, based on the direct observation and histological examinations, the short-term and long-term effects of the mixture of PEG-400 and Thiazone on morphology and microstructure of in vivo rat skin were investigated. The results demonstrated that, in the first week, the hair growth was stunted, some degree of abnormal thickens and vacuoles occurred at the epidermis layer, and the collagen arranged denser. After 2 week, the morphology and microstructure of rat skin was completely recovered. It means that there is no long-term effect on rat skin by the mixture of PEG-400 and Thiazone. In addition, this work provides a useful method for assessing the safety of OCAs to skin.

Wang, Jing; Zhu, Dan

2011-03-01

189

Preliminary investigations of rat skin after topical application of optical clearing agent  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The tissue optical clearing technique based on immersion of tissues into optical clearing agents (OCAs) can enhance the penetration depth of light in tissues, thus improve the capabilities of noninvasive optical diagnosis and therapeutic treatment. However, the optical clearing efficiency of skin caused by topical application of OCAs usually suffers from the barrier of stratum corneum and epithelium. The addition of chemical penetration enhancers to OCAs could significantly improve the optical clearing of skin, but the investigations on their safety are seldom concerned. In this study, based on the direct observation and histological examinations, the short-term and long-term effects of the mixture of PEG-400 and Thiazone on morphology and microstructure of in vivo rat skin were investigated. The results demonstrated that, in the first week, the hair growth was stunted, some degree of abnormal thickens and vacuoles occurred at the epidermis layer, and the collagen arranged denser. After 2 week, the morphology and microstructure of rat skin was completely recovered. It means that there is no long-term effect on rat skin by the mixture of PEG-400 and Thiazone. In addition, this work provides a useful method for assessing the safety of OCAs to skin.

Wang, Jing; Zhu, Dan

2010-10-01

190

Investigation of Halogenated Components Formed from Chlorination of Natural Waters: Preliminary Studies  

SciTech Connect

Chlorination of power plant cooling water is extensively used as a means of controlling biofouling. This practice presents the potential for formation of halogenated organic compounds hazardous to man and his environment. Accordingly, the organic composition resulting from the chlorination of natural waters (northern Olympic Penn1sula sea water and the Columbia River in Washington State} has been investigated. Nonpolar lipophilic organic halogens were extracted by passing large volumes of water over columns of XAD-2 macroreticular resins. Examination of ether extracts from the resin columns using capillary gas chromatography revealed the presence of halogenated methanes, as well as other electron-capturing components~ that were not found when unchlorinated water was sampled. Examination of the chlorinated water extracts using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry revealed complex mixtures which generally were not separable into individual components~ even when high efficiency WCOT capillary columns were used. The samples were separated into fractions of increasing polarity using a water-deactivated silica gel column. Fractions were thus obtained which were more amenable to GC/MS investigation. Haloforms were identified as the major halogenated product from chlorination of the waters studied. Other halogenated products were found at much lower concentrations.

Bean, R. M.; Riley, R. G.

1980-11-01

191

A preliminary qualitative investigation of voice hearing and its association with dissociation in chronic PTSD.  

PubMed

Following on from a quantitative study, this research used a qualitative methodology to investigate the lived experience of 3 men with chronic posttraumatic stress disorder associated with the conflict in Northern Ireland who reported auditory hallucinations. Data analysis used the Framework method. Results showed that beliefs about voices, dissociation of identity and body, and interpersonal impact were central superordinate themes associated with auditory hallucinations in posttraumatic stress disorder. Central subordinate themes included feeling a lack of controllability over voices, experiencing them as ego-dystonic, and feeling an increased sense of isolation and shame because of their presence. Results provide an in-depth analysis of participants' lived experiences and enhance understanding of previous quantitative findings. PMID:21240740

Anketell, Caroline; Dorahy, Martin J; Curran, David

2011-01-01

192

Preliminary investigation of heat transfer to water flowing in an electrically heated Inconel tube  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A heat-transfer investigation was conducted with water flowing in an electrically heated Inconel tube with an inside diameter of 0.204 inch and a length-diameter ratio of 50 for ranges of Reynolds number up to 100,000 and of entrance pressure up to 200 inches of mercury gage. Correlation of average heat-transfer coefficients was obtained by use of the familiar Nusselt relation, wherein the physical properties of water were evaluated at an average bulk temperature. For conditions in which no boiling occurred, the data gave a good correlation. Runs made in the nucleate-boiling region, however, gave higher values of heat-transfer coefficient than would be predicted by the Nusselt relation.

Kaufman, Samuel J; Isely, Francis D

1950-01-01

193

An Examination of the First Oxford House in the UK: A Preliminary Investigation  

PubMed Central

An exploratory investigation was conducted to examine the implementation of the first self-run, communal-living setting based on the Oxford House model, in the United Kingdom (UK). A cross-sectional, mixed methods design was used to examine the Oxford House model’s total abstinence approach to recovery from substance use disorders among residents (n = 7) living in the first Oxford House established in the UK. Several measures commonly used in addiction research and personal narratives were used to assess residents’ response to Oxford House living. Findings suggest that the Oxford House model is a post-treatment intervention that meets the needs of individuals seeking an abstinence-based recovery from alcohol and/or drug dependence in the UK. PMID:25368450

Majer, John M.; Beers, Kim; Jason, Leonard A.

2014-01-01

194

Total Dose Effects (TDE) of heavy ionizing radiation in fungus spores and plant seeds: Preliminary investigations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The opportunity to compare cosmic radiation effects caused during long and short duration exposure flights in biological objects are limited until now, and data obtained so far are very rare and insufficient. Because of the very long exposure of the experiment during the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) mission (approximately 2000 days) structural changes of the hardware material can be expected which will influence its biocompatibility and, thus, will interact with the radiobiological effects. The aim of the experiment flown on LDEF was a detailed investigation of biological effects caused by cosmic radiation especially of particles of high atomic number Z and high energy. The flight hardware consisted of standard BIOSTACK containers; in these containers a special sandwich construction consisted of visual plastic detectors with seed rsp. spore layers interlocked.

Kranz, A. R.; Zimmermann, M. W.; Stadler, R.; Gartenbach, K. E.; Pickert, M.

1992-01-01

195

Preliminary Investigation of the Active Flow Control Benefits on Wind Turbine Blades  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigates the benefit of flow control over a 2D airfoil specially designed for wind turbine applications. The experiments were carried out in Syracuse University's Anechoic Wind Tunnel, both with and without large scale unsteadiness in the freestream. When there is no large scale unsteadiness introduced in the flow, under open loop flow control conditions with unsteady blowing, the leading edge separation was delayed and maximum lift coefficient was increased. For the cases where large scale unsteadiness was introduced into the flow, the experiments showed that both open loop and closed loop control cases were able to reduce lift fluctuations by a measurable amount. However, only the closed loop control case which utilized surface pressure information from the airfoil near the leading edge was capable of consistently mitigating the fluctuating load.

Wang, Guannan; Walczak, Jakub; Glauser, Mark; Elhadidi, Basman

2011-11-01

196

Preliminary Investigation of Candidate Materials for Use in Accident Resistant Fuel  

SciTech Connect

As part of a Collaborative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) with industry, Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is investigating several options for accident resistant uranium compounds including silicides, and nitrides for use in future light water reactor (LWR) fuels. This work is part of a larger effort to create accident tolerant fuel forms where changes to the fuel pellets, cladding, and cladding treatment are considered. The goal fuel form should have a resistance to water corrosion comparable to UO2, have an equal to or larger thermal conductivity than uranium dioxide, a melting temperature that allows the material to stay solid under power reactor conditions, and a uranium loading that maintains or improves current LWR power densities. During the course of this research, fuel fabricated at INL will be characterized, irradiated at the INL Advanced Test Reactor, and examined after irradiation at INL facilities to help inform industrial partners on candidate technologies.

Jason M. Harp; Paul A. Lessing; Blair H. Park; Jakeob Maupin

2013-09-01

197

The preliminary results on the investigation of historic stained glass panels from Grodziec collection, Poland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Grodziec collection of stained glass panels consists of fourteen objects depicting figures of saints. Probably they belong to one, uniform set from the one of Lower Silesia churches. Recently eight of them, already after conservatory treatment, are exhibited in Jagiellonian University Museum of Collegium Maius in Krakow, while remaining six, which will be restored in nearest future, are stored in the National Museum in Wroclaw. This paper presents the results of the investigation of composition and corrosion products of glass from three panels of Wroclaw group. Since comparative analysis of historic glass composition is vital for its dating, to obtain the possibly full set of composition data with particular stress on light elements identification, the multi technique approach was necessary. The physicochemical analysis was carried out by X-ray fluorescence (XRF), micro-Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (SEM/EDX). The study revealed that some of stained glasses have composition characteristic of northern medieval glass (potash-lime-silicate) while other pieces could be dated on 16th or 19th century. This confirms the suggestion from the former historic and scientific investigation of Krakow's set that the Wroclaw panels may be of the same medieval origin as the Krakow's ones and that they were already restored, at least in 19th c. The possibility of working on the whole set of panels from the Grodziec collection opens up the opportunity for conducting exceptional scientific study which will lead to the definitive designation of the provenance of this important collection, its history and age.

Walczak, M.; Kaminska, M.; Karaszkiewicz, P.; Szczerbinski, J.; Szymonski, M.

2013-05-01

198

A Preliminary Mixed-Method Investigation of Trust and Hidden Signals in Medical Consultations  

PubMed Central

Background Several factors influence patients' trust, and trust influences the doctor-patient relationship. Recent literature has investigated the quality of the personal relationship and its dynamics by considering the role of communication and the elements that influence trust giving in the frame of general practitioner (GP) consultations. Objective We analysed certain aspects of the interaction between patients and GPs to understand trust formation and maintenance by focusing on communication channels. The impact of socio-demographic variables in trust relationships was also evaluated. Method A cross-sectional design using concurrent mixed qualitative and quantitative research methods was employed. One hundred adults were involved in a semi-structured interview composed of both qualitative and quantitative items for descriptive and exploratory purposes. The study was conducted in six community-based departments adjacent to primary care clinics in Trento, Italy. Results The findings revealed that patients trusted their GP to a high extent by relying on simple signals that were based on the quality of the one-to-one communication and on behavioural and relational patterns. Patients inferred the ability of their GP by adopting simple heuristics based mainly on the so-called social “honest signals” rather than on content-dependent features. Furthermore, socio-demographic variables affected trust: less literate and elderly people tended to trust more. Conclusions This study is unique in attempting to explore the role of simple signals in trust relationships within medical consultation: people shape trust and give meaning to their relationships through a powerful channel of communication that orbits not around words but around social relations. The findings have implications for both clinicians and researchers. For doctors, these results suggest a way of thinking about encounters with patients. For researchers, the findings underline the importance of analysing some new key factors around trust for future investigations in medical practice and education. PMID:24618683

Riva, Silvia; Monti, Marco; Iannello, Paola; Pravettoni, Gabriella; Schulz, Peter J.; Antonietti, Alessandro

2014-01-01

199

Predicting diagnostic error in radiology via eye-tracking and image analytics: Preliminary investigation in mammography  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The primary aim of the present study was to test the feasibility of predicting diagnostic errors in mammography by merging radiologists’ gaze behavior and image characteristics. A secondary aim was to investigate group-based and personalized predictive models for radiologists of variable experience levels.Methods: The study was performed for the clinical task of assessing the likelihood of malignancy of mammographic masses. Eye-tracking data and diagnostic decisions for 40 cases were acquired from four Radiology residents and two breast imaging experts as part of an IRB-approved pilot study. Gaze behavior features were extracted from the eye-tracking data. Computer-generated and BIRADS images features were extracted from the images. Finally, machine learning algorithms were used to merge gaze and image features for predicting human error. Feature selection was thoroughly explored to determine the relative contribution of the various features. Group-based and personalized user modeling was also investigated.Results: Machine learning can be used to predict diagnostic error by merging gaze behavior characteristics from the radiologist and textural characteristics from the image under review. Leveraging data collected from multiple readers produced a reasonable group model [area under the ROC curve (AUC) = 0.792 ± 0.030]. Personalized user modeling was far more accurate for the more experienced readers (AUC = 0.837 ± 0.029) than for the less experienced ones (AUC = 0.667 ± 0.099). The best performing group-based and personalized predictive models involved combinations of both gaze and image features.Conclusions: Diagnostic errors in mammography can be predicted to a good extent by leveraging the radiologists’ gaze behavior and image content.

Voisin, Sophie; Tourassi, Georgia D. [Biomedical Science and Engineering Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States)] [Biomedical Science and Engineering Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Pinto, Frank [School of Engineering, Science, and Technology, Virginia State University, Petersburg, Virginia 23806 (United States)] [School of Engineering, Science, and Technology, Virginia State University, Petersburg, Virginia 23806 (United States); Morin-Ducote, Garnetta; Hudson, Kathleen B. [Department of Radiology, University of Tennessee Medical Center at Knoxville, Knoxville, Tennessee 37920 (United States)] [Department of Radiology, University of Tennessee Medical Center at Knoxville, Knoxville, Tennessee 37920 (United States)

2013-10-15

200

Origin of elevated water levels encountered in Pahute Mesa emplacement boreholes: Preliminary investigations  

SciTech Connect

The presence of standing water well above the predicted water table in emplacement boreholes on Pahute Mesa has been a recurring phenomenon at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). If these levels represent naturally perched aquifers, they may indicate a radionuclide migration hazard. In any case, they can pose engineering problems in the performance of underground nuclear tests. The origin of these elevated waters is uncertain. Large volumes of water are introduced during emplacement drilling, providing ample source for artificially perched water, yet elevated water levels can remain constant for years, suggesting a natural origin instead. In an effort to address the issue of unexpected standing water in emplacement boreholes, three different sites were investigated in Area 19 on Pahute Mesa by Desert Research Institute (DRI) staff from 1990-93. These sites were U-19az, U-19ba, and U-19bh. As of this writing, U-19bh remains available for access; however, nuclear tests were conducted at the former two locations subsequent to this investigations. The experiments are discussed in chronological order. Taken together, the experiments indicate that standing water in Pahute Mesa emplacement holes originates from the drainage of small-volume naturally perched zones. In the final study, the fluids used during drilling of the bottom 100 m of emplacement borehole U-19bh were labeled with a chemical tracer. After hole completion, water level rose in the borehole, while tracer concentration decreased. In fact, total mass of tracer in the borehole remained constant, while water levels rose. After water levels stabilized in this hole, no change in tracer mass was observed over two years, indicating that no movement of water out of the borehole is taking place (as at U- 19ba). Continued labeling tests of standing water are recommended to confirm the conclusions made here, and to establish their validity throughout Pahute Mesa.

Brikowski, T.; Chapman, J.; Lyles, B.; Hokett, S.

1993-11-01

201

Work plan for preliminary investigation of organic constituents in ground water at the New Rifle site, Rifle, Colorado. Revision 2  

SciTech Connect

A special study screening for Appendix 9 (40 CFR Part 264) analytes identified the New Rifle site as a target for additional screening for organic constituents. Because of this recommendation and the findings in a recent independent technical review, the US Department of Energy (DOE) has requested that the Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC) perform a preliminary investigation of the potential presence of organic compounds in the ground water at the New Rifle Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site, Rifle, Colorado. From 1958 to 1972, organic chemicals were used in large quantities during ore processing at the New Rifle site, and it is possible that some fraction was released to the environment. Therefore, the primary objective of this investigation is to determine whether organic chemicals used at the milling facility are present in the ground water. The purpose of this document is to describe the work that will be performed and the procedures that will be followed during installation of ground water well points at the New Rifle site. The selection of analytes and the procedures for collecting ground water samples for analysis of organic constituents are also described.

NONE

1996-01-01

202

Preliminary Investigation of Performance of Variable-throat Extended-plug-type Nozzles over Wide Range of Nozzle Pressure Ratios  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As part of an overall program for the experimental investigation of large-scale jet nozzles, a preliminary evaluation of the internal performance characteristics of several variable-throat extended-plug-type nozzles was obtained over a range of nozzle pressure rations from 2 to 15 with nozzle throat variations as great as 2:1. The extended-plug nozzle attained peak thrust coefficients as high as those which have been attained with fixed-geometry convergent-divergent nozzles. The thrust coefficients of the extended-plug nozzles were relatively insensitive to both nozzle pressure ratio and throat area over the range investigated. The lack of sensitivity of thrust coefficient to nozzle pressure ratio and throat area was due primarily to the absence of severe decreases in thrust coefficient, which are normally observed at low nozzle pressure ratios for convergent-divergent nozzles because of overexpansion. For choked flow, the flow coefficients of the extended-plug nozzles varied from 0.95 to 0.997. A ratio of the outer-shell exit area to nozzle throat area was found to be an important variable affecting nozzle performance. Most of the configurations reported herein showed a small decrease in thrust coefficient at low nozzle pressure ratios; however, it is believed that this characteristic can nearly be eliminated by proper nozzle design.

Ciepluch, Carl C; Krull, H George; Steffen, Fred W

1954-01-01

203

Preliminary Investigations of Joining Technologies for Attaching Refractory Metals to Ni-Based Superalloys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, a range of joining technologies has been investigated for creating attachments between refractory metal and Ni-based superalloys. Refractory materials of interest include Mo-47%Re, T-111, and Ta-10%W. The Ni-based superalloys include Hastelloy X and MarM 247. During joining with conventional processes, these materials have potential for a range of solidification and intermetallic formation-related defects. For this study, three non-conventional joining technologies were evaluated. These included inertia welding, electro-spark deposition (ESD) welding, and magnetic pulse welding (MPW). The developed inertia welding practice closely paralleled that typically used for the refractory metals alloys. Metallographic investigations showed that forging during inertia welding occurred predominantly on the refractory metal side. It was also noted that at least some degree of forging on the Ni-based superalloy side of the joint was necessary to achieve consistent bonding. Both refractory metals were readily weldable to the Hastelloy X material. When bonding to the MarM 247, results were inconsistent. This was related to the higher forging temperatures of the MarM 247, and subsequent reduced deformation on that material during welding. ESD trials using a Hastelloy X filler were successful for all material combinations. ESD places down very thin (5- to 10-?m) layers per pass, and interactions between the substrates and the fill were limited (at most) to that layer. For the refractory metals, the fill only appeared to wet the surface, with minimal dilution effects. Microstructures of the deposits showed high weld metal integrity with maximum porosity on the order of a few percent. Some limited success was also obtained with MPW. In these trials, only the T-111 tubes were used. Joints were possible for the T-111 tube to the Hastelloy X bar stock, but the stiffness of the tube (resisting collapse) necessitated the use of very high power levels. These power levels resulted in damage to the equipment (concentrator) during welding. It is of note that the joint made showed the typical wavy bond microstructure associated with magnetic pulse/explosion bond joints. Joints were not possible between the T-111 tube and the MarM 247 bar stock. In this case, the MarM 247 shattered before sufficient impact forces could be developed for bonding.

Gould, Jerry E.; Ritzert, Frank J.; Loewenthal, William S.

2006-01-01

204

Preliminary Investigations of Joining Technologies for Attaching Refractory Metals to Ni-Based Superalloys  

SciTech Connect

In this study, a range of joining technologies has been investigated for creating attachments between refractory metal and Ni-based superalloys. Refractory materials of interest include Mo-47%Re, T-111, and Ta-10%W. The Ni-based superalloys include Hastelloy X and MarM 247. During joining with conventional processes, these materials have potential for a range of solidification and intermetallic formation-related defects. For this study, three non-conventional joining technologies were evaluated. These included inertia welding, electro-spark deposition (ESD) welding, and magnetic pulse welding (MPW). The developed inertia welding practice closely paralleled that typically used for the refractory metals alloys. Metallographic investigations showed that forging during inertia welding occurred predominantly on the refractory metal side. It was also noted that at least some degree of forging on the Ni-based superalloy side of the joint was necessary to achieve consistent bonding. Both refractory metals were readily weldable to the Hastelloy X material. When bonding to the MarM 247, results were inconsistent. This was related to the higher forging temperatures of the MarM 247, and subsequent reduced deformation on that material during welding. ESD trials using a Hastelloy X filler were successful for all material combinations. ESD places down very thin (5- to 10-{mu}m) layers per pass, and interactions between the substrates and the fill were limited (at most) to that layer. For the refractory metals, the fill only appeared to wet the surface, with minimal dilution effects. Microstructures of the deposits showed high weld metal integrity with maximum porosity on the order of a few percent. Some limited success was also obtained with MPW. In these trials, only the T-111 tubes were used. Joints were possible for the T-111 tube to the Hastelloy X bar stock, but the stiffness of the tube (resisting collapse) necessitated the use of very high power levels. These power levels resulted in damage to the equipment (concentrator) during welding. It is of note that the joint made showed the typical wavy bond microstructure associated with magnetic pulse/explosion bond joints. Joints were not possible between the T-111 tube and the MarM 247 bar stock. In this case, the MarM 247 shattered before sufficient impact forces could be developed for bonding.

Gould, Jerry E. [Edison Welding Institute, 1250 Arthur E. Adams Drive, Columbus, OH 43221 (United States); Ritzert, Frank J. [NASA Glenn Research Center, 21000 Brookpark Road, Mail Stop 49-1, Cleveland, OH 44135 (United States); Loewenthal, William S. [Ohio Aerospace Institute, 21000 Brookpark Road, Mail Stop 49-1, Cleveland, OH 44135 (United States)

2006-01-20

205

Preliminary Investigations of Joining Technologies for Attaching Refractory Metals to Ni-Based Superalloys  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this study, a range of joining technologies has been investigated for creating attachments between refractory metal and Ni-based superalloys. Refractory materials of interest include Mo-47%Re, T-111, and Ta-10%W. The Ni-based superalloys include Hastelloy X and MarM 247. During joining with conventional processes, these materials have potential for a range of solidification and intermetallic formation-related defects. For this study, three non-conventional joining technologies were evaluated. These included inertia welding, electro-spark deposition (ESD) welding, and magnetic pulse welding (MPW). The developed inertia welding practice closely paralleled that typically used for the refractory metals alloys. Metallographic investigations showed that forging during inertia welding occurred predominantly on the nickel base alloy side. It was also noted that at least some degree of forging on the refractory metal side of the joint was necessary to achieve consistent bonding. Both refractory metals were readily weldable to the Hastelloy X material. When bonding to the MarM 247, results were inconsistent. This was related to the higher forging temperatures of the MarM 247, and subsequent reduced deformation on that material during welding. ESD trials using a Hastelloy X filler were successful for all material combinations. ESD places down very thin (5- to 10- m) layers per pass, and interactions between the substrates and the fill were limited (at most) to that layer. For the refractory metals, the fill only appeared to wet the surface, with minimal dilution effects. Microstructures of the deposits showed high weld metal integrity with maximum porosity on the order of a few percent. Some limited success was also obtained with MPW. In these trials, only the T-111 tubes were used. Joints were possible for the T-111 tube to the Hastelloy X bar stock, but the stiffness of the tube (resisting collapse) necessitated the use of very high power levels. These power levels resulted in damage to the equipment (concentrator) during welding. It is of note that the joint made showed the typical wavy bond microstructure associated with magnetic pulse/explosion bond joints. Joints were not possible between the T-111 tube and the MarM 247 bar stock. In this case, the MarM 247 shattered before sufficient impact forces could be developed for bonding.

Gould, Jerry E.; Ritzert, Frank J.; Loewenthal, William S.

2006-01-01

206

A preliminary investigation of anticholinesterase activity of some Iranian medicinal plants commonly used in traditional medicine  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of this study was to evaluate acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of some commonly used herbal medicine in Iran to introduce a new source for management of Alzheimer’s disease. A total of 18 aqueous-methanolic extract (1:1; v/v) from the following plants: Brassica alba, Brassica nigra, Camellia sinensis, Cinchona officinalis, Citrus aurantifolia, Citrus x aurantium, Ferula assafoetida, Humulus lupulus, Juglans regia, Juniperus sabina, Myristica fragrans, Pelargonium graveolens, Pistacia vera, Punica granatum, Rheum officinale, Rosa damascena, Salix alba, and Zizyphus vulgaris were prepared and screened for their acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity using in vitro Ellman spectrophotometric method. Results According to the obtained results, the order of inhibitory activity (IC50 values, ?g /ml) of extracts from highest to the lowest was: C. sinensis (5.96), C. aurantifolia (19.57), Z. vulgaris (24.37), B. nigra (84.30) and R. damascena (93.1). Conclusions The results indicated and confirmed the traditional use of these herbs for management of central nervous system disorders. C. sinensis showed the highest activity in inhibition of acetylcholinesterase. However, further investigations on identification of active components in the extracts are needed. PMID:24401532

2014-01-01

207

Laser vibrometry characterisation of a microfluidic lab-on-a-chip device: a preliminary investigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since their original inception as ultrasound contrast agents, potential applications of microbubbles have evolved to encompass molecular imaging and targeted drug delivery. As these areas develop, so does the need to understand the mechanisms behind the interaction of microbubbles both with biological tissue and with other microbubbles. There is therefore a metrological requirement to develop a controlled environment in which to study these processes. Presented here is the design and characterisation of such a system, which consists of a microfluidic chip, specifically developed for manipulating microbubbles using both optical and acoustic trapping. A laser vibrometer is used to observe the coupling of acoustic energy into the chip from a piezoelectric transducer bonded to the surface. Measurement of the velocity of surface waves on the chip is investigated as a potential method for inferring the nature of the acoustic fields excited within the liquid medium of the device. Comparison of measured surface wavelengths with wave types suggests the observation of anti-symmetric Lamb or Love-Kirchhoff waves. Further visual confirmation of the acoustic fields through bubble aggregation highlights differences between the model and experimental results in predicting the position of acoustic pressure nodes in relation to excitation frequency.

Fury, C.; Gélat, P. N.; Jones, P. H.; Memoli, G.

2014-04-01

208

[Preliminary investigation on phylogenetic relationship among three common species of house dust mites].  

PubMed

Dermatophagoides farinae, D. pteronyssinus and Euroglyphus maynei were used for the investigation. The cDNA fragment coding for Der f1 and Der f2 were amplified by PCR, cloned and sequenced. By bioinformatics softwares, the amino acid sequences for Der f1 and Der f2 were deduced and compared with those for the groups 1 and 2 allergens of D. pteronyssinus and E. maynei available in GenBank. Amino acid sequence similarity analysis showed that Der p1 shared 84% identical residues with Eur m1 and 83% with Der f1. Similarly, Der p2 shared 87% identical residues with Eur m2 and 68% with Der f2. In the two phylogenetic trees constructed with group 1 and 2 allergens, D. pteronyssinus was clustered with E. maynei but not with D. farinae, although D. pteronyssinus and D. farinae belong to the same genus. D. pteronyssinus should be more similar to E. maynei than to D. farinae at evolutional level, which was not consistent with the conventional taxonomical relationship based on their morphological characteristics. PMID:19157310

Cui, Yu-Bao; Gao, Cui-Xiang; Zhou, Ying; Peng, Jiang-Long; Liu, Liang

2008-10-30

209

Preliminary investigation on CAD system update: effect of selection of new cases on classifier performance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system is used in clinical practice, it is desirable that the system is constantly and automatically updated with new cases obtained for performance improvement. In this study, the effect of different case selection methods for the system updates was investigated. For the simulation, the data for classification of benign and malignant masses on mammograms were used. Six image features were used for training three classifiers: linear discriminant analysis (LDA), support vector machine (SVM), and k-nearest neighbors (kNN). Three datasets, including dataset I for initial training of the classifiers, dataset T for intermediate testing and retraining, and dataset E for evaluating the classifiers, were randomly sampled from the database. As a result of intermediate testing, some cases from dataset T were selected to be added to the previous training set in the classifier updates. In each update, cases were selected using 4 methods: selection of (a) correctly classified samples, (b) incorrectly classified samples, (c) marginally classified samples, and (d) random samples. For comparison, system updates using all samples in dataset T were also evaluated. In general, the average areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUCs) were almost unchanged with method (a), whereas AUCs generally degraded with method (b). The AUCs were improved with method (c) and (d), although use of all available cases generally provided the best or nearly best AUCs. In conclusion, CAD systems may be improved by retraining with new cases accumulated during practice.

Muramatsu, Chisako; Nishimura, Kohei; Hara, Takeshi; Fujita, Hiroshi

2013-02-01

210

Preliminary Investigation for Engine Performance by Using Tire-Derived Pyrolysis Oil-Diesel Blended Fuels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the first phase of the present study, the pyrolysis oil derived from light automotive tire waste has been characterized including fuel properties, elemental analyses, FT-IR, 1H-NMR, GC-MS and distillation. The studies on the oil show that it can be used as liquid fuel with a gross calorific value (GCV) of 42.00 MJ/kg and empirical formula of CH1.27O0.025N0.006. In the second phase of the investigation, the performance of a diesel engine was studied blending the pyrolysis oil with diesel fuel in different ratios. The experimental results show that the bsfc of pyrolysis oil-diesel blended fuels slightly increases and hence the brake thermal efficiency decreases compared to those of neat diesel. The pyrolysis oil-diesel blends show lower carbon monoxide (CO) emission but higher oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions than those of neat diesel. However, NOx emissions with pyrolysis oil-diesel blended fuels reduced when EGR was applied.

Rofiqul, Islam M.; Haniu, Hiroyuki; Alam, Beg R.; Takai, Kazunori

211

Preliminary investigation into the pollution reduction performance of swales used in a stormwater treatment train.  

PubMed

Permeable pavements have been shown to be effective stormwater treatment devices that can greatly reduce surface runoff and significantly improve the quality of stormwater runoff in urban areas. However, the potential problems with sediment clogging and consequent maintenance requirements have been identified as the main barriers to more widespread adoption of permeable pavements in urban developments. This Australian study investigates the effectiveness of using grass swales as pre-treatment devices for permeable pavements in order to reduce clogging and extend the life span of these systems. The results of simulated runoff experiments demonstrated that between 50 and 75% of the total suspended sediment (TSS) was removed within the first 10 m of the swale length. This suggests swales of this length could potentially increase the effective life of permeable pavement systems by reducing clogging, and therefore maintenance. Nutrient removal was also tested in the study and the results indicated the tested swales were of limited effectiveness in the removal of these pollutants. However, in real runoff situations, reduction of TSS will have a direct influence on removing nutrients because a significant proportion of nutrients (and other pollutants) are attached to the sediments. PMID:24622550

Kachchu Mohamed, M A; Lucke, T; Boogaard, F

2014-01-01

212

Preliminary investigation of the use of air injection to mitigate cavitation erosion  

SciTech Connect

This project was initiated as part of a new research and development focus to improve hydropower generation. One aspect of the problem is severe cavitation erosion which is experienced when hydroturbines are operated at best power or in spinning reserve. Air injection has been used successfully to minimize or eliminate cavitation erosion in other applications. Thus, an investigation was initiated to determine whether or not air injection would be an effective solution for turbine erosion problems. A specially instrumented hydrofoil of elliptic planform and a NACA 0015 cross section was tested at flow velocities up to 20 m s{sup {minus}1}, at various values of cavitation index. Although pit sizes were measured on a soft aluminum insert, pitting rate was not measured directly but was inferred from direct measurement of impulsive pressures on the surface of the hydrofoil and by monitoring accelerometers mounted at the base of the hydrofoil. Cavitation noise was also measured by a hydrophone positioned in the water tunnel test section. Air was injected through small holes in the leading edge of the foil. Air injection was found to be very effective in minimizing erosion as inferred from all three cavitation erosion detection techniques.

Arndt, R.E.A.; Ellis, C.R.; Paul, S. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States). St. Anthony Falls Hydraulic Lab.

1995-09-01

213

A preliminary investigation of reduced-view image reconstruction from low dose breast CT data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Analytic-based algorithms such as the FDK algorithm is used currently for image reconstruction from data acquired with prototypes of dedicated breast CT scanners. In general, analytic-based algorithms require data collected at a large number (~500) of views. In current breast-CT scans, imaging dose delivered to the patient is about the same as that used in a typical two-view mammography exam. This highly limited total imaging dose, when distributed over a large number of views in breast CT, can result in low-SNR data. There exists a renewed interest in developing optimization-based (i.e., iterative) algorithms for image reconstruction from low-SNR data and/or from sparse-view data collected at a reduced number of views. Results of recent studies on optimization-based algorithms from CT data suggest that the algorithms may reconstruct images of quality higher than than analytic-based algorithms from low-SNR data and/or from sparse-view data. In this work, we investigated image reconstruction from low-SNR patient-breast-CT data collected at a large number (~500), as well as at reduced numbers, of views. The result of the study appears to indicate that optimization-based reconstructions can yield breast-CT images from low-SNR data comparable to, or better than, the corresponding FDK reconstructions.

Bian, Junguo; Han, Xiao; Yang, Kai; Sidky, Emil Y.; Boone, John M.; Pan, Xiaochuan

2012-03-01

214

A preliminary investigation of acid-catalyzed polymerization reactions of shale oil distillates  

SciTech Connect

Sinor (1989) reported that a major specialty market may exist for shale oil as an asphalt blending material. Shale oil can be converted to an asphalt blending material by acid catalyzed condensation and polymerization reactions of the many molecular species comprising the composition of shale oil. To simplify the investigation, crude shale oil was separated by distillation into three distillates of different hydrocarbon and heteroaromatic compositions. These distillates were then treated with two different types of acids to determine the effect of acid type on the end products. Three western shale oil distillates, a naphtha, a middle distillate, and an atmospheric gas oil, were reacted with anhydrous AlCl{sub 3} and 85% H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} under low-severity conditions. At relatively low temperatures, little change in the hydrocarbon composition was noted for the AlCl{sub 3} reactions. AlCl{sub 3}{center dot} (a polymerized product and/or complex) was formed. However, it is assumed that the sludge was mainly the result of heteroaromatic-AlCl{sub 3} reactions.

Netzel, D.A.

1991-04-01

215

A preliminary investigation of acid-catalyzed polymerization reactions of shale oil distillates  

SciTech Connect

Sinor (1989) reported that a major specialty market may exist for shale oil as an asphalt blending material. Shale oil can be converted to an asphalt blending material by acid catalyzed condensation and polymerization reactions of the many molecular species comprising the composition of shale oil. To simplify the investigation, crude shale oil was separated by distillation into three distillates of different hydrocarbon and heteroaromatic compositions. These distillates were then treated with two different types of acids to determine the effect of acid type on the end products. Three western shale oil distillates, a naphtha, a middle distillate, and an atmospheric gas oil, were reacted with anhydrous AlCl{sub 3} and 85% H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} under low-severity conditions. At relatively low temperatures, little change in the hydrocarbon composition was noted for the AlCl{sub 3} reactions. AlCl{sub 3}{center_dot} (a polymerized product and/or complex) was formed. However, it is assumed that the sludge was mainly the result of heteroaromatic-AlCl{sub 3} reactions.

Netzel, D.A.

1991-04-01

216

Preliminary investigation of uncombusted auto fuel vapor dispersion within a residential garage microenvironment  

SciTech Connect

Evaporative emissions from vehicles in an attached garage may represent a significant source of indoor pollution and human exposure. A pilot field study was undertaken to investigate potential in-house dispersion of evaporative emissions of uncombusted fuels from a vehicle parked inside an attached garage. In a set of experiments using sulfur hexafluoride tracer gas, the multizonal mass balance model, CONTAM88, was used to predict interzonal air flow rates and SF6 concentration distributions within the garage and house. Several experiments were included to evaluate the effect of meteorology and mechanical mixing mechanisms on the dispersion of automobile fuel vapor. Measurements indicated that approximately three percent of the garage maximum concentration was measured in a room adjacent to the garage. The model successfully predicted garage concentrations under well mixed conditions, but underpredicted the measured concentrations within various rooms of the house, in which mixing was incomplete. Multizonal mass balance models such as CONTAM88 may be useful in approximating contaminant concentrations at various locations within the house.

Lansari, A.; Streicher, J.J.; Huber, A.H.; Crescenti, G.H.; Zweidinger, R.B.

1993-01-01

217

Does athletic training in volleyball modulate the components of visual evoked potentials? A preliminary investigation.  

PubMed

This longitudinal study investigated visual evoked potentials (VEPs) in 11 young female volleyball players who participated in extensive training for 2 years. The control group consisted of 7 age-matched female students who were not involved in any regular sports activity. Recordings of VEPs were performed twice: baseline recording (i.e., before training began) and after 2 years of systematic, volleyball-specific athletic training. The effect of athletic training on visual signal conductivity was assessed by recording the latency of N75, P100 and N135 components of the VEPs waveform. Extensive experience with volleyball training reduced signal conductivity time through visual pathway. Specifically, the latency of P100 was reduced on average by 2.2 ms during binocular viewing. Moreover, athletes had reduced N75 latency (difference of 3.3 ms) for visual stimuli that generated greater response from peripheral retina. These results indicate that sport training can affect very early sensory processing in athletes. PMID:24716616

Zwierko, Teresa; Lubi?ski, Wojciech; Lesiakowski, Piotr; Steciuk, Hanna; Piasecki, Leszek; Krzepota, Justyna

2014-01-01

218

Preliminary Investigation of an SOI-based Arrayed Waveguide Grating Demodulation Integration Microsystem  

PubMed Central

An arrayed waveguide grating (AWG) demodulation integration microsystem is investigated in this study. The system consists of a C-band on-chip LED, a 2 × 2 silicon nanowire-based coupler, a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) array, a 1 × 8 AWG, and a photoelectric detector array. The coupler and AWG are made from silicon-on-insulator wafers using electron beam exposure and response-coupled plasma technology. Experimental results show that the excess loss in the MMI coupler with a footprint of 6 × 100??m2 is 0.5423?dB. The 1 × 8 AWG with a footprint of 267 × 381??m2 and a waveguide width of 0.4??m exhibits a central channel loss of ?3.18?dB, insertion loss non-uniformity of ?1.34?dB, and crosstalk level of ?23.1?dB. The entire system is preliminarily tested. Wavelength measurement precision is observed to reach 0.001?nm. The wavelength sensitivity of each FBG is between 0.04 and 0.06?nm/dB. PMID:24797561

Li, Hongqiang; Zhou, Wenqian; Liu, Yu; Dong, Xiaye; Zhang, Cheng; Miao, Changyun; Zhang, Meiling; Li, Enbang; Tang, Chunxiao

2014-01-01

219

Print versus electronic journals: a preliminary investigation into the effect of journal format on research processes*  

PubMed Central

Purpose: To begin investigating the impact of electronic journals on research processes such as information seeking, the authors conducted a pilot journal-use study to test the hypothesis that patrons use print and electronic journals differently. Methodology: We placed fifteen high-use print titles also available in electronic format behind the circulation desk; patrons were asked to complete a survey upon requesting a journal. We also conducted a parallel survey of patrons using library computers. Both surveys asked patrons to identify themselves by user category and queried them about their journal use. Results: During the month-long study, patrons completed sixty-nine surveys of electronic and ninety surveys of print journal use. Results analysis indicated that fellows, students, and residents preferred electronic journals, and faculty preferred print journals. Patrons used print journals for reading articles and scanning contents; they employed electronic journals for printing articles and checking references. Users considered electronic journals easier to access and search than print journals; however, they reported that print journals had higher quality text and figures. Discussion/Conclusion: This study is an introductory step in examining how electronic journals affect research processes. Our data revealed that there were distinct preferences in format among categories. In addition to collection management implications for libraries, these data also have implications for publishers and educators; current electronic formats do not facilitate all types of uses and thus may be changing learning patterns as well. PMID:11999183

Sathe, Nila A.; Grady, Jenifer L.; Giuse, Nunzia B.

2002-01-01

220

Preliminary Investigation of an SOI-based Arrayed Waveguide Grating Demodulation Integration Microsystem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An arrayed waveguide grating (AWG) demodulation integration microsystem is investigated in this study. The system consists of a C-band on-chip LED, a 2 × 2 silicon nanowire-based coupler, a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) array, a 1 × 8 AWG, and a photoelectric detector array. The coupler and AWG are made from silicon-on-insulator wafers using electron beam exposure and response-coupled plasma technology. Experimental results show that the excess loss in the MMI coupler with a footprint of 6 × 100 ?m2 is 0.5423 dB. The 1 × 8 AWG with a footprint of 267 × 381 ?m2 and a waveguide width of 0.4 ?m exhibits a central channel loss of -3.18 dB, insertion loss non-uniformity of -1.34 dB, and crosstalk level of -23.1 dB. The entire system is preliminarily tested. Wavelength measurement precision is observed to reach 0.001 nm. The wavelength sensitivity of each FBG is between 0.04 and 0.06 nm/dB.

Li, Hongqiang; Zhou, Wenqian; Liu, Yu; Dong, Xiaye; Zhang, Cheng; Miao, Changyun; Zhang, Meiling; Li, Enbang; Tang, Chunxiao

2014-05-01

221

Preliminary results from the investigation of the Pymatuning earthquake of September 25, 1998  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Pymatuning earthquake occurred on Friday, September 25, 1998, at 19:52:52 Universal Coordinated Time (UTC), or 3:52:52 p.m. EDT, near Jamestown, Pa., at the southern end of the Pymatuning Reservoir, which straddles the Ohio-Pennsylvania border. The National Earthquake Information Center (NEIC) determined that the event had a magnitude of 5.2 mbLg (a magnitude scale used to measure the size of earthquakes that are regional distances away [100 to 1,000 km, or 60 to 600 mi]), an epicenter of 41.5°N latitude, 80.4°W longitude, and an estimated depth of 5 km (3 mi). One person was reported injured as a result of being thrown to the ground by the earthquake, and it caused minor damage to buildings and seriously disrupted many water wells in the GreenvilleJamestown, Pa., area. The earthquake was generally felt over an area of approximately 200,000 km2 (77,230 mi2) throughout northern Ohio, western Pennsylvania and New York, and much of southern Ontario, Canada (see map on back cover). It was also felt as far west as Illinois and Wisconsin, as far east as New Jersey, Connecticut, and the District of Columbia, and as far south as Kentucky and Virginia. During the aftershock field investigation that commenced within 12 hours of the main shock, a World Wide Web site, http://groundmotion.cr.usgs.gov/pym/pym.htm>, was established from the field headquarters. The web site was used not only to transmit investigation results to the world in near real time but also to receive information from the local community as new earthquake effects were reported. As of March 1999, at least 11 aftershocks have occurred, the largest being a magnitude 2.3. The largest recent previous earthquake in the region was the northeastern Ohio (Leroy) earthquake of magnitude 5.0 that occurred on January 31, 1986, about 65 km (40 mi) west-northwest of the Pymatuning shock. This event was also felt by many of those who felt the Pymatuning earthquake. Similar to most of the seismicity east of the Rocky Mountains, earthquakes in the region are probably shallow (5 to 10 km, or 3 to 6 mi), and Seeber and Armbruster (1993) hypothesized that the earthquakes occurred along preexisting zones of weakness in Precambrian rocks. Wegweiser and others (1998) suggested that seismicity in northwestern Pennsylvania may be associated with the northwest-trending “cross-strike discontinuities” that are recognized in Paleozoic rocks and may represent reactivation of faults in the Precambrian basement. Using structure-contour maps constructed on the tops of lower Paleozoic strata, Alexandrowicz and Cole (1999) found evidence of preexisting northwest-striking faults in the epicentral region of the Pymatuning shock. The Harvard focal mechanism for the Pymatuning earthquake (a method used to infer the slip and orientation of the fault that generated an earthquake) indicates thrust faulting on a northwest striking plane, which is consistent with the regional northeast-southwest compressive stress regime observed in the area. Seeber and Armbruster (1993) plotted three prior earthquakes in the epicentral area having magnitudes greater than 3; two were instrumentally located near the Pymatuning earthquake, and the third event occurred 20 to 30 km (12 to 19 mi) to the northeast in 1852 (Figure 1).

Armbruster, John; Barton, Henry; Bodin, Paul; Buckwalter, Theodore; Cox, Jon; Cranswick, Edward; Dewey, James; Fleeger, Gary; Hopper, Margaret; Horton, Stephen; Hoskins, Donald; Kilb, Deborah; Meremonte, Mark; Metzger, Ann; Risser, Dennis; Seeber, Leonardo; Shedlock, Kaye; Stanley, Katherine; Withers, Mitchell; Zirbes, Madeleine

1998-01-01

222

Preliminary investigation into subjective well-being, mental health, resilience, and spinal cord injury  

PubMed Central

Objectives To undertake a pilot investigation into whether individuals whose subjective well-being had returned to the normal homeostatic range after a spinal cord injury (SCI) may be more resilient and therefore, at less risk of emotional distress over time. To consider the relative stability of subjective well-being in individuals with chronic SCI whose subjective well-being had previously returned to the normative homeostatic range. Study design Longitudinal study: Time 1 (T1) 2004 and Time 2 (T2) 2009. Setting Victoria, Australia. Participants Participants were adults living in the community with chronic SCI, who had no mental ill-health symptoms at T1. Outcome measures Scales include: Comprehensive Quality of Life Scale – Adult v5 (COMQoL-A5) at T1, Personal Well-being Index (PWI – the successor to the COMQol-A5) at T2, and Depression, Anxiety & Stress Scale – short form (DASS-21) at T1 and T2. Results Twenty-one adults participated at T1 and T2. Subjective well-being was stable for 57% of the cohort. However, 19% presented with symptoms of emotional distress by T2. There was no significant difference in age (P = 0.94) or time since injury (P = 0.51) between those reporting significant emotional symptoms and those without; nor was there any systematic change in health status. Conclusion This study yielded two important findings. First, individuals with chronic SCI may be vulnerable to mental health issues even after they have previously exhibited good resilience. Second, subjective well-being after SCI may not be as stable as suggested by the general quality of life literature that have examined genetic and personality connections to subjective well-being. PMID:24090180

Migliorini, Christine; Callaway, Libby; New, Peter

2013-01-01

223

A preliminary investigation on the relationship between virtues and pathological internet use among Chinese adolescents  

PubMed Central

Background Pathological Internet Use (PIU) has become a global issue associated with the increasing number of Internet users. Previous studies concerned both the interpersonal and intrapersonal vulnerable factors and the corresponding models. However, a limited amount of research has explored the relationship between positive factors and PIU. Objective The current investigation attempted to clarify the relationship between virtues and PIU among Chinese adolescents; it also sought to explore the specific contributions of the three virtues. Virtue was the core concept in positive psychology and the Values in Action Classification. A recent study demonstrated that there might be three universal virtues (relationship, vitality, and conscientiousness). Methods A cross-sectional sample of adolescents aged 12-17 years were recruited in 2013. A total of 674 adolescents (males?=?302, females?=?372; junior high school?=?296, senior high school?=?378) from eight junior and senior high schools in four provinces of Mainland China completed a package of psychological inventories, including the Chinese Virtues Questionnaire (CVQ) and the Adolescent Pathological Internet Use Scale (APIUS). The mean age of the current sample was 15.10 years (SD?=?1.81) with an average of 5.31 years’ length (SD?=?2.09) of Internet use. Results A total of 9.50% participants exhibited significant symptoms of PIU. Male students (Mmale?=?2.50) had significantly higher scores on PIU than female students (Mfemale?=?2.25). Relationship (??=?-.24) and conscientiousness (??=?-.21) negatively predicted PIU, whereas vitality (??=?.25) positively predicted PIU. Dominance analysis further revealed that relationship and conscientiousness could explain 81% variance of PIU, and vitality only accounted for another 19%. Conclusions Relationship and conscientiousness were possible protective factors of pathological Internet users, while vitality was vulnerable. The results could be helpful in screening “at-risk” Internet users (low relationship and conscientiousness as well as high vitality). Future intervention strategies could focus on how to enhance relationship and conscientiousness and on how to reduce vitality. PMID:24594317

2014-01-01

224

Preliminary investigation of the radiosensitizing activity of guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia) in tumor-bearing mice.  

PubMed

The radiosensitizing activity of dichloromethane extract of guduchi [Tinospora cordifolia (WILLD.) MIERS ex HOOK. F. & THOMS. Family: Menispermaceae (TCE)] in the mice transplanted with Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) was investigated. The EAC mice received 0, 25, 30, 40, 50 or 100 mg/kg b.wt. TCE 1 h before exposure to 6 Gy hemi-body gamma-radiation and then once daily for another eight consecutive days after irradiation. The EAC mice receiving TCE for the above regimen showed a dose-dependent elevation in tumor-free survival; the highest radiosensitizing activity was observed at 30 mg/kg b. wt. TCE. Treatment of animals with 30 mg/kg b. wt. TCE, 1 h before exposure to 6 Gy of hemi-body gamma irradiation and subsequently once daily for another six consecutive days post-irradiation increased the life span of EAC mice. This is evident by more number of long-term survivors (LTS) as well as survivors beyond 120 days when compared to the group of animals that received TCE after irradiation for six consecutive days. Treatment modality was also altered to assess the radiosensitizing effect of TCE before and after irradiation. Evaluation of glutathione (GSH), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and lipid peroxidation (LPx) in mice treated with TCE 1 h before irradiation and subsequently once daily for another six days showed a significant decline in GSH up to 14 h and GST up to 24 h accompanied by a significant elevation in LPx at 12 h post-irradiation. The radiosensitization of TCE may be due to depletion of glutathione and glutathione-S-transferase, accompanied by elevated levels of lipid peroxidation and DNA damage of tumor cells. Since Tinospora cordifolia is being used in India for treatment of various ailments, it may offer an alternative treatment strategy for cancer in combination with gamma radiation. PMID:18803246

Rao, Shaival Kamalaksha; Rao, Priya Shaival; Rao, B Nageshwara

2008-11-01

225

Preliminary investigation into the design of thermally responsive Forster resonance energy transfer colloids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While nuclear imaging techniques (Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Computed Tomography, and Positron Emission Tomography) have proven effective for diagnosis and treatment of disease in the human body, fluorescence-enhanced optical imaging offers additional benefits. Fluorescent imaging provides high resolution with real-time response, persistent lifetime (hours to days), cell targeting, and transdermal penetration with minimal physical encumbrance. Malignant cells can be targeted by absorbance of exogenous fluorescent nanoprobe contrast agents. Imaging is improved by fluorescent enhancement, especially by energy transfer between attached dyes. Also for use against cancer are heat-active treatments, such as hyperthermal, photothermal, and chemothermal therapies. Helpful to these treatments is the thermal response from nanoprobes, within human cells, which provide real-time feedback. The present study investigates the design and feasibility of a nanoprobe molecular device, absorbable into malignant human cells, which provides real-time tracking and thermal response, as indicated by enhanced fluorescence by energy transfer. A poly(propargyl acrylate) colloidal suspension was synthesized. The particles were modified with a triblock copolymer, previously shown to be thermally responsive, and an end-attached fluorescent dye. A second dye was modeled for attachment in subsequent work. When two fluorescent dyes are brought within sufficiently close proximity, and excitation light is supplied, energy can be transferred between dyes to give enhanced fluorescence with a large Stokes shift (increase in wavelength between excitation and emission). The dye pair was modeled for overlap of emission and absorbance wavelengths, and energy transfer was demonstrated with 23% efficiency and a 209 nm Stokes shift. The quantum yield of the donor dye was determined at 70%, and the distance for 50% energy transfer was calculated at 2.9 nm, consistent with reports for similar compounds. When the donor/acceptor dye pair is brought within close proximity (Förster Resonance Energy Transfer or FRET distance), energy transfer is enabled. The current design is that thermal response of an attached copolymer/dye ligand would cause closer packing of the colloidal particle, resulting in FRET distance for the attached dye pair. The first test of the hypothesis was to track the change in diameter under temperature change. Using Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS), it was shown that the particle diameter decreased from 100 to 82 nm (32 to 44 oC) and then to 60 nm (60 °C). The observed changes correspond with literature and support the hypothesis, that the thermal response and close proximity would enable energy transfer, resulting in the enhanced fluorescence needed as a contrast nanoprobe for hyperthermia treatments.

Bedford, Monte Scott

226

Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 1 Expression and Functionality in MCF-7 Cells: A Preliminary Investigation  

PubMed Central

Purpose Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) is a nonselective cation channel belonging to the transient receptor potential family, and it is expressed in different neoplastic tissues. Its activation is associated with regulation of cancer growth and progression. The aim of this research was to study the expression and pharmacological characteristics of TRPV1 in cells derived from human breast cancer MCF-7 cells. Methods TRPV1 presence was assessed by binding studies and Western blotting. Receptor binding characteristics were evaluated through competition assays, while 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5,-dipheyltetrazolium bromide reduction assays were performed to confirm an early hypothesis regarding the modulation of cancer cell proliferation. The functionality of TRPV1 was evaluated by measuring Ca2+ uptake in the presence of increasing concentrations of TRPV1 agonists and antagonists. Results Binding studies identified a single class of TRPV1 (Bmax 1,492±192 fmol/mg protein), and Western blot showed a signal at 100 kDa corresponding to the molecular weight of human TRPV1. Among the different tested agonists and antagonists, anandamide (Ki: 2.8×10-11 M) and 5-iodoresiniferatoxin (5-I-RTX) (Ki: 5.6×10-11 M) showed the highest degrees of affinity for TRPV1, respectively. All tested TRPV1 agonists and antagonists caused a significant (p<0.05) decrease in cell growth rate in MCF-7 cells. For agonists and antagonists, the efficacy of tested compounds displayed the following rank order: resiniferatoxin>anandamide>capsaicin and 5-I-RTX=capsazepine, respectively. Conclusion These data indicate that both TRPV1 agonists and antagonists induce significant inhibition of MCF-7 cell growth. Even though the mechanisms involved in the antiproliferative effects of TRPV1 agonists and antagonists should be further investigated, it has been suggested that agonists cause desensitization of the receptor, leading to alteration in Ca2+-influx regulation. By contrast, antagonists cause a functional block of the receptor with consequent fatal dysregulation of cell homeostasis. PMID:25548580

Barbero, Raffaella; Cuniberti, Barbara; Racca, Silvia; Abbadessa, Giuliana; Piccione, Francesca; Re, Giovanni

2014-01-01

227

Palaeomagnetic, rock-magnetic and mineralogical investigations of metadolerites from Western Svalbard : A preliminary report  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A group of 42 independently oriented palaeomagnetic samples from 7 sites located in central part of the West Spitsbergen Thrust and Fault Belt has been investigated. The samples were collected from 5 distinct metadolerite sheets intruded into the Proterozoic - Lower Paleozoic metamorphic complex of Western Oscar II Land (Western Svalbard Caledonian Terrane - Harland, 1997 division). All analyzed metadolerite samples were metamorphosed under greenschist facies metamorphism. The metamorphic assemblage consist of hornblende, biotite, actinolite, chlorite, epidote, stilpnomelane, titanite, albite, and quartz. Calcite, associated with pyrrhotite, pyrite chalcopyrite, sphalerite, and covellite, that occurs as irregular intergrowths or thin veins, document high activity of H2O-CO2-rich fluids during metamorphism. Primary magmatic phases represented by clinopyroxene occur rarely, and only in thick metadolerite dykes. Accessory oxides change their mineralogical and chemical composition during metamorphism. In all examined samples primary Ti-magnetite and oxy-exsolved hematite break-down completely into titanite or have been dissolved. The ilmenite are also replaced by titanite, but in metadolerites at contact with host metapelites, slightly altered ilmenite grains with preserved hematite exsolution were documented. Basing on mineralogical observations it should be expected that metamorphic processes have almost completely reset the paleomagnetic data record from the time of dolerite crystallization. This stage can document only rare hematite oxy-exsolution preserved within ilmenite, and presumably small inclusion of magnetite still preserved within unaltered clinopyroxene. The paleomagnetic record of metamorphic stage is probably recorded by pyrrhotite, hematite, goethite, and late Ti-free magnetite that can grow during breakdown of pyrrhotite to pyrite (Ramdohr. 1980). The NRM (Natural Remanent Magnetisation) intensities of the palaeomagnetic samples exceed the minimum 10 mA/m. The first AF/thermal demagnetizations have revealed a stable NRM structure. ChRM (Characteristic Remanent Magnetisation) components can be extracted precisely from Zijderveld diagrams (precision parameter - ASD max. 10º). The following magnetic procedures have been applied to identify the ferromagnetic carriers of the samples: SIRM (saturation isothermal remanent magnetization) decay curves (procedure after Kadzia?ko-Hofmokl & Kruczyk, 1976) and the three-component IRM (isothermal remanent magnetization) procedure described by Lowrie (1990). Experimental work has revealed the dominance of pyrrhotite and magnetite phases as carriers with soft-medium coercivity (samples are saturated in 0.2-0.4 T) and distinct unblocking temperatures around 320-350 ºC and 575-600 ºC respectively. Presented study is the part of PALMAG project 2012-2015: "Integration of palaeomagnetic, isotopic and structural data to understand Svalbard Caledonian Terranes assemblage" (see also Michalski et al. 2012), funded by Polish National Science Centre. References: HARLAND,W.B. 1997. The Geology of Svalbard. Geological Society of London, Memoir 17, 521 pp. K?DZIO?KO-HOFMOKL,M. & KRUCZYK,J. 1976. Complete and partial self-reversal of natural remanent magnetization of basaltic rocks from Lower Silesia, Poland. Pure and Applied Geophysics 110, 2031-40. LOWRIE,W. 1990. Identification of ferromagnetic minerals in a rock by coercivity and unblocking temperature properties. Geophysical Research Letters 17, 159-62. MICHALSKI,K., LEWANDOWSKI,M., MANBY,G.M. 2012. New palaeomagnetic, petrographic and 40Ar/39Ar data to test palaeogeographic reconstructions of Caledonide Svalbard. Cambridge University Press. Geological Magazine 149 (4), 696-721. RAMDOHR,P. 1980. The ore minerals and their intergrowths. Pergamon Press, Oxford.

Michalski, Krzysztof; Nejbert, Krzysztof; Doma?ska-Siuda, Justyna; Manby, Geoffrey

2014-05-01

228

Game-Based Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (GB-CBT) Group Program for Children Who Have Experienced Sexual Abuse: A Preliminary Investigation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This preliminary investigation examined the efficacy of a game-based cognitive-behavioral therapy group program for elementary school-aged children who have experienced sexual abuse. Treatment aimed to improve: (a) internalizing symptoms, (b) externalizing behaviors, (c) sexually inappropriate behaviors, (d) social skills deficits, (e) self-esteem…

Misurell, Justin R.; Springer, Craig; Tryon, Warren W.

2011-01-01

229

Health and safety plan for the preliminary site investigation for McMurdo Station, Ross Island, Antarctica  

SciTech Connect

The primary purpose of this health and safety plan is to provide the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) field team with important procedures, regulations, and requirements necessary for performing work at McMurdo Station, Antarctica, with a minimum hazard to its health and safety. Field workers will be required to conduct their operations in a safe environment through specific safety and occupational health procedures. The plan assigns responsibilities and provides for contingencies that may arise at the site. The health and safety plan will also demonstrate to the National Science Foundation (NSF), the US Department of Energy (DOE), the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the US Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), environmental interest groups, and other countries represented in Antarctica that the health and safety of ANL personnel have been given the utmost consideration in planning the work operations, applicable rules and regulations of the area have been met, and the health and safety of the public and the environment have been given significant consideration during field sampling activities. This document represents the final health and safety plan for the preliminary site investigation. A draft version of this report was presented to NSF in January 1991. 16 refs., 3 figs., 8 tabs.

Wozny, M.C.

1991-05-01

230

Preliminary Results From the CAUGHT Experiment: Investigation of the North Central Andes Subsurface Using Receiver Functions and Ambient Noise Tomography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Jamie Ryan, Kevin M. Ward, Ryan Porter, Susan Beck, George Zandt, Lara Wagner, Estela Minaya, and Hernando Tavera The University of Arizona The University of North Carolina San Calixto Observatorio, La Paz, Bolivia IGP, Lima, Peru In order to investigate the interplay between crustal shortening, lithospheric removal, and surface uplift we have deployed 50 broadband seismometers in northwestern Bolivia and southern Peru as part of the interdisciplinary Central Andean Uplift and Geodynamics of High Topography (CAUGHT) project. The morphotectonic units of the central Andes from west to east, consist of the Western Cordillera, the active volcanic arc, the Altiplano, an internally drained basin (~4 km elevation), the Eastern Cordillera, the high peaks (~6 km elevation) of an older fold and thrust belt, the Subandean zone, the lower elevation active fold and thrust belt, and the foreland Beni basin. Between northwestern Bolivia and southern Peru, the Altiplano pinches out north of Lake Titicaca as the Andes narrow northward. The CAUGHT seismic instruments were deployed between 13° to 18° S latitudes to investigate the crust and mantle lithosphere of the central Andes in this transitional zone. In northwest Bolivia, perpendicular to the strike of the Andes, there is a total of 275 km of documented upper crustal shortening (15° to 17°S) (McQuarrie et al, 2008). Associated with the shortening is crustal thickening and possibly lithospheric removal as the thickening lithospheric root becomes unstable. An important first order study is to compare upper crustal shortening estimates with present day crustal thickness. To estimate crustal thickness, we have calculated receiver functions using an iterative deconvolution method and used common conversion point stacking along the same profile as the geologically based shortening estimates. In our preliminary results, we observed a strong P to S conversion corresponding to the Moho at approximately 60-65 km depth underneath the Altiplano and portions of the Eastern Cordillera, and at approximately 40 under the sub-Andes and westernmost edge of the Beni basin. Unlike previous studies farther south, we do not see an increased crustal thickness beneath the Eastern Cordillera. The CAUGHT station coverage is also ideal for Ambient Noise Tomography (ANT) to investigate the seismic shear wave velocities in the upper crust (<30 km depth). ANT will be used to estimate the depth of basins in the northern Altiplano, and aid in constraining the upper crustal shear wave velocities for improved migration of receiver functions to depth. McQuarrie, N., Barnes, J., and Ehlers, T.A., 2008, Geometric, kinematic and erosional history of the central Andean Plateau (15-17°S), northern Bolivia: Tectonics, v. 27, TC3007, doi:10.1029/2006TC002054.

Ryan, J. C.; Ward, K. M.; Porter, R. C.; Beck, S. L.; Zandt, G.; Wagner, L. S.; Minaya, E.; Tavera, H.

2011-12-01

231

Preliminary investigation of the effects of sea-level rise on groundwater levels in New Haven, Connecticut  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Global sea level rose about 0.56 feet (ft) (170 millimeters (mm)) during the 20th century. Since the 1960s, sea level has risen at Bridgeport, Connecticut, about 0.38 ft (115 mm), at a rate of 0.008 ft (2.56 mm + or - 0.58 mm) per year. With regional subsidence, and with predicted global climate change, sea level is expected to continue to rise along the northeast coast of the United States through the 21st century. Increasing sea levels will cause groundwater levels in coastal areas to rise in order to adjust to the new conditions. Some regional climate models predict wetter climate in the northeastern United States under some scenarios. Scenarios for the resulting higher groundwater levels have the potential to inundate underground infrastructure in lowlying coastal cities. New Haven is a coastal city in Connecticut surrounded and bisected by tidally affected waters. Monitoring of water levels in wells in New Haven from August 2009 to July 2010 indicates the complex effects of urban influence on groundwater levels. The response of groundwater levels to recharge and season varied considerably from well to well. Groundwater temperatures varied seasonally, but were warmer than what was typical for Connecticut, and they seem to reflect the influence of the urban setting, including the effects of conduits for underground utilities. Specific conductance was elevated in many of the wells, indicating the influence of urban activities or seawater in Long Island Sound. A preliminary steady-state model of groundwater flow for part of New Haven was constructed using MODFLOW to simulate current groundwater levels (2009-2010) and future groundwater levels based on scenarios with a rise of 3 ft (0.91 meters (m)) in sea level, which is predicted for the end of the 21st century. An additional simulation was run assuming a 3-ft rise in sea level combined with a 12-percent increase in groundwater recharge. The model was constructed from existing hydrogeologic information for the New Haven area and from new information on groundwater levels collected during October 2009-June 2010. For the scenario with a 3-ft rise in sea level and no increase in recharge, simulated groundwater levels near the coast rose 3 ft; this increased water level tapered off toward a discharge area at the only nontidal stream in the study area. Simulated stream discharge increased at the nontidal stream because of the increased gradient. Although groundwater levels rose, the simulated difference between the groundwater levels in the aquifer and the increased sea level declined, indicating that the depth to the interface between freshwater and saltwater may possibly decline. Simulated water levels were affected by rise in sea level even in areas where the water table was at 17-24 ft (5.2-7.3 m) above current (2011) sea level. For the scenario with increased recharge, simulated groundwater levels were as much as an additional foot higher at some locations in the study area. The results of this preliminary investigation indicate that groundwater levels in coastal areas can be expected to rise and may rise higher if groundwater recharge also increases. This finding has implications for the disposal of stormwater through infiltration, a low-impact development practice designed to improve water quality and reduce overland peak discharge. Other implications include increased risk of basement flooding and increased groundwater seepage into underground sewer pipes and utility corridors in some areas. These implications will present engineering challenges to New Haven and Yale University. The preliminary model developed for this study can be the starting point for further simulation of future alternative scenarios for sea-level rise and recharge. Further simulations could identify those areas of New Haven where infrastructure may be at greatest risk from rising levels of groundwater. The simulations described in this report have limitations due to the preliminary scope of the work. Approaches to improve simulations include but are not limited to incorporating: * The variable

Bjerklie, David M.; Mullaney, John R.; Stone, Janet R.; Skinner, Brian J.; Ramlow, Matthew A.

2012-01-01

232

Isotopic investigation of contemporary and historic changes in penguin trophic niches and carrying capacity of the southern Indian ocean.  

PubMed

A temperature-defined regime shift occurred in the 1970s in the southern Indian Ocean, with simultaneous severe decreases in many predator populations. We tested a possible biological link between the regime shift and predator declines by measuring historic and contemporary feather isotopic signatures of seven penguin species with contrasted foraging strategies and inhabiting a large latitudinal range. We first showed that contemporary penguin isotopic variations and chlorophyll a concentration were positively correlated, suggesting the usefulness of predator ?¹³C values to track temporal changes in the ecosystem carrying capacity and its associated coupling to consumers. Having controlled for the Suess effect and for increase CO? in seawater, ?¹³C values of Antarctic penguins and of king penguins did not change over time, while ?¹³C of other subantarctic and subtropical species were lower in the 1970s. The data therefore suggest a decrease in ecosystem carrying capacity of the southern Indian Ocean during the temperature regime-shift in subtropical and subantarctic waters but not in the vicinity of the Polar Front and in southward high-Antarctic waters. The resulting lower secondary productivity could be the main driving force explaining the decline of subtropical and subantarctic (but not Antarctic) penguins that occurred in the 1970s. Feather ?¹?N values did not show a consistent temporal trend among species, suggesting no major change in penguins' diet. This study highlights the usefulness of developing long-term tissue sampling and data bases on isotopic signature of key marine organisms to track potential changes in their isotopic niches and in the carrying capacity of the environment. PMID:21311756

Jaeger, Audrey; Cherel, Yves

2011-01-01

233

RP-HPLC analysis of the phenolic compounds of plant extracts. investigation of their antioxidant capacity and antimicrobial activity.  

PubMed

Extracts of aromatic plants of Greek origin were examined as potential sources of phenolic compounds. RP-HPLC with UV detection was employed for the identification and quantification of the phenolic antioxidants, present in methanolic extracts. The most abundant phenolic acids were ferulic acid (1.1-280 mg/100 g of dry sample) and caffeic acid (1.2-60 mg/100 g of dry sample). (+)-Catechin and quercetin were the most abundant flavonoids. Apigenin and luteolin were detected in high amounts in Menta pulegium and Thymus vulgaris, respectively. The antioxidant capacity was determined, in dried ground plants and in their methanol extracts, with the Rancimat test using sunflower oil as substrate. Both pulverized plants and extracts showed antioxidant capacity. Total phenolic content in the extracts was determined spectrometrically according to the Folin-Ciocalteu assay and ranged from 1 to 21 mg of gallic acid/100 g of dry sample. Antimicrobial activity of the extracts against selected microbes was also conducted in this study. PMID:15713039

Proestos, C; Chorianopoulos, N; Nychas, G-J E; Komaitis, M

2005-02-23

234

Summary report: A preliminary investigation into the use of fuzzy logic for the control of redundant manipulators  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Rice University Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Sciences' Robotics Group designed and built an eight degree of freedom redundant manipulator. Fuzzy logic was proposed as a control scheme for tasks not directly controlled by a human operator. In preliminary work, fuzzy logic control was implemented for a camera tracking system and a six degree of freedom manipulator. Both preliminary systems use real time vision data as input to fuzzy controllers. Related projects include integration of tactile sensing and fuzzy control of a redundant snake-like arm that is under construction.

Cheatham, John B., Jr.; Magee, Kevin N.

1991-01-01

235

Speech Perception and Phonological Short-Term Memory Capacity in Language Impairment: Preliminary Evidence from Adolescents with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) and Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The cognitive bases of language impairment in specific language impairment (SLI) and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) were investigated in a novel non-word comparison task which manipulated phonological short-term memory (PSTM) and speech perception, both implicated in poor non-word repetition. Aims: This study aimed to investigate the…

Loucas, Tom; Riches, Nick Greatorex; Charman, Tony; Pickles, Andrew; Simonoff, Emily; Chandler, Susie; Baird, Gillian

2010-01-01

236

Role of Auditory Attention in the Real-Time Processing of Simple Grammar by Children with Specific Language Impairment: A Preliminary Investigation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: This study investigates the effects of two dimensions of attentional functioning, sustained focus of attention and resource capacity/allocation, on the real-time processing of simple sentences by children with specific language impairment (SLI) and typically developing (TD) children matched for age. Methods & Procedures: Thirty-six…

Montgomery, James W.

2008-01-01

237

On the accuracy of conservation managers' beliefs and if they learn from evidence-based knowledge: a preliminary investigation.  

PubMed

Despite the significant impetus placed on the need for conservation managers to base their decisions on evidence-based findings, few studies have compared the accuracy of "evidence" versus experience-based knowledge. Furthermore we are not aware of any study that has tested the willingness of managers to change their beliefs after being exposed to evidence-based findings. Here, we tested nine managers' beliefs before-and-after being shown findings from an evidence-based study. The questions centered on the effectiveness of 'Working for Water' (WfW) in reducing invasive alien plant cover in two large catchment projects over a seven year period, as well as the managers' forecasts of WfW's effectiveness of reducing invasive alien plant cover, and the factors that underpin its effectiveness. We also assessed the financial cost of implementing the evidence-based assessment. We found that in comparison to the evidence-based findings, the managers underestimated the ineffectiveness of operations in reducing invasive alien plant cover in the one catchment and overestimated the ineffectiveness of the other catchment. All the managers whose estimates differed from the evidence-based findings were willing to change their beliefs. Surprisingly, however, when it came to forecasting WfW's effectiveness in the catchments, all the managers, with the exception of one project manager, were unwilling to reduce their optimistic estimates of the time required to control invasive alien plants from the two catchments. With regard to the drivers of effectiveness, the managers ranked their performance as the most important criterion whereas the data model emphasized variables related to site suitability for alien plant growth. Finally, we showed that it would only cost between 0.33% and 1.67% of the two projects' annual budgets to assess all sites, depending on the frequency of the monitoring. This preliminary investigation highlights how evidence-based findings alone, even if presented and explained to managers, might not result in managers learning and updating their beliefs. PMID:23722171

McConnachie, Matthew M; Cowling, Richard M

2013-10-15

238

A Preliminary Investigation of the Components of a Curriculum for the Preparation of Master's-Level Addiction Counselors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study identified the preliminary curriculum components for the preparation of graduate-level addiction counselors. A review of the related literature revealed no agreed upon standards for post baccalaureate instruction of addiction counseling. The Delphi method was used to establish curriculum items from a list of 198 previously identified…

Whittinghill, David

2006-01-01

239

Heat Capacity of Atomically Layered 3 He – 4 He Mixture Films  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report preliminary results of the first heat capacity measurements on atomically layered3He –4He mixture films adsorbed on the surface of graphite. The4He film consists of two solid and two superfluid atomic layers. The heat capacity has been investigated over the range 1 – 70mK as a function of the surface density of3He atoms added to the film. At coveragesn3?2,

M. Dann; J. Nyéki; B. Cowan; J. Saunders

1998-01-01

240

Preliminary experimental investigations of a biomass-fired micro-scale CHP with organic Rankine cycle-super-†  

Microsoft Academic Search

The continual increases in global energy demand and greenhouse gas emissions call for more and more utilization of sustainable energy sources such as biomass. Among the existing biomass conversion technologies such as combustion, gasification and biochemical approaches, combustion is the most mature and widely used conversion technology. Several biomass-fired combined heat and power (CHP) plants with capacities in the order

Hao Liu; Guoquan Qiu; Yingjuan Shao; Ferdinand Daminabo; Saffa B. Riffat

2010-01-01

241

Carrying Capacity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This one-day activity challenges students to understand the ecological concept of carrying capacity through the physically-active process of role playing. Upon completion, students will be able to formulate and test hypotheses related to ecosystems and carrying capacity as well as describe the significance of carrying capacity.

2012-06-25

242

Carrying Capacity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson helps students understand the notion of carrying capacity as it relates to ecosystems by considering an image of a bucket filled with water, and then filled with an "ecosystem." Students are asked to consider the factors on which carrying capacity is determined, and that a ecosystem's carrying capacity can change when certain variables are also changed.

243

Investigation of the Aerodynamic Characteristics of Two Preliminary Designs of Scout Research Vehicle at Mach Numbers from 1.77 to 4.65  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A wind-tunnel investigation has been conducted to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of two preliminary designs of the Scout research vehicle. The first model was tested at Mach numbers from 1.77 to 2.87 at Reynolds numbers of 3.7 x 10(exp 6) to 4.0 x 10(exp 6) per foot. A variable angle-of-attack range of -2 degrees to 14 degrees was used in determining the effect of nose shape, size of interstage flare base diameter, size of trapezoidal first-stage fins, and fin tip-control deflection on the aerodynamic characteristics of the model.

Keynton, Robert J.; Fichter, Ann B.

1961-01-01

244

Investigation of the climatic extremes influence on the humane adaptive capacity by mass spectrometric analysis of exhaled breath condensate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global climate change, which causes abnormal fluctuations in temperature and rainfall, has adverse effects on human health. Particularly people suffer with cardiovascular and respiratory system disease. Our research was concentrated on the changes in the regulation and adaptation systems of human organism related to hyperthermia and polluted air influence. Healthy individuals with the age from 22 to 45 years were isolated during 30 days in the ground based experimental facility located at Institute of medico-biological problems RAS (Moscow, Russia). In the ground based facility artificially climatic conditions of August, 2010 in Moscow were created. Exhaled breath condensate was collected before and after isolation by R-Tube collector, freeze dried, treated by trypsin and analyzed by nanoflow LC-MS/MS with a 7-Tesla LTQ-FT Ultra mass spectrometer (Thermo Electron, Bremen, Germany). Database search was performed using Mascot Server 2.2 software (Matrix Science, London, UK). Investigation of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) collected from participants of the 30 days isolation with hyper thermic and polluted air climate conditions was performed. After isolation reduction of the protein number was observed. Loss endothelial C receptor precursor - the main physiological anticoagulant - correlate with the clinical data of physicians to increase the propensity to thrombosis. Also COP9 signalosome protein, positive regulator of ubiquitin was identified in all EBC samples before isolation and was not detected for more than a half of donors after isolation. This phenomena may be due to violation of ubiquitin protection system of the cells from harmful proteins. During isolation the air was cleared from microdisperse particles.

Ryabokon, Anna; Larina, Irina; Kononikhin, Alexey; Starodubtceva, Nataliia; Popov, Igor; Nikolaev, Eugene; Varfolomeev, Sergey

245

An investigation on forage yield capacity of kermes oak (Quercus coccifera L.) and grazing planning of Mediterranean maquis scrublands for traditional goat farming.  

PubMed

This study investigated grazing capacities of maquis scrubland and preparation principles of grazing management in forest resources. Kermes oak (Quercus coccifera L.), which is widespread as a main shrub species in maquis vegetation in Turkey, and pure hair goats (Capra hircus L.) feeding on shoots and leaves of this shrub were selected for study. The study was conducted in two stages. Green leaf and shoot samples were taken from kermes oaks in the first stage and the amount of green herbage yield (g ? m(-1)) and dry matter yield (kg ? ha(-1)) that may be obtained per unit area from these samples was identified. The considered amount of dry matter consumed by pure hair goats daily and the number of goats being fed within 1 year on land of 1 ha according to different land coverage rates of kermes oaks (goat head ? ha ? yr) were calculated. In the second stage, grazing capacities of sample areas where kermes oak spread were identified and compared with the grazing plan prepared by the forestry administration for this area. Forage yield variance according to land coverage rates of maquis scrublands should be considered when determining optimum animal numbers for grazing per area for sustainable goat farming. PMID:25379526

Tolunay, Ahmet; Ad?yaman, Elif; Akyol, Ayhan; ?nce, Duygu; Türko?lu, Türkay; Ayhan, Veysel

2014-01-01

246

Investigation of the capacity of low glass transition temperature excipients to minimize amorphization of sulfadimidine on comilling.  

PubMed

The coprocessing of active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) with an excipient which has a high glass transition temperature (T(g)) is a recognized strategy to stabilize the amorphous form of a drug. This work investigates whether coprocessing a model API, sulfadimidine (SDM) with a series of low T(g) excipients, prevents or reduces amorphization of the crystalline drug. It was hypothesized that these excipients could exert a T(g) lowering effect, resulting in composite T(g) values lower than that of the API alone and promote crystallization of the drug. Milled SDM and comilled SDM with glutaric acid (GA), adipic acid (AA), succinic acid (SA), and malic acid (MA) were characterized with respect to their thermal, X-ray diffraction, spectroscopic, and vapor sorption properties. SDM was predominantly amorphous when milled alone, with an amorphous content of 82%. No amorphous content was detected by dynamic vapor sorption (DVS) on comilling SDM with 50% w/w GA, and amorphous content of the API was reduced by almost 30%, relative to the API milled alone, on comilling with 50% w/w AA. In contrast, amorphization of SDM was promoted on comilling with 50% w/w SA and MA, as indicated by near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy. Results indicated that the API was completely amorphized in the SDM:MA comilled composite. The saturated solubility of GA and AA in the amorphous API was estimated by thermal methods. It was observed that the T(g) of the comelt quenched composites reached a minimum and leveled out at this solubility concentration. Maximum crystallinity of API on comilling was reached at excipient concentrations comparable to the saturated concentration solubility of excipient in the API. Moreover, the closer the Hildebrand solubility parameter of the excipient to the API, the greater the inhibition of API amorphization on comilling. The results reported here indicate that an excipient with a low T(g) coupled with high solubility in the API can prevent or reduce the generation of an amorphous phase on comilling. PMID:23186332

Curtin, Vincent; Amharar, Youness; Hu, Yun; Erxleben, Andrea; McArdle, Patrick; Caron, Vincent; Tajber, Lidia; Corrigan, Owen I; Healy, Anne Marie

2013-01-01

247

Preliminary investigations of Monte Carlo Simulations of neutron energy and LET spectra for fast neutron therapy facilities  

SciTech Connect

No fast neutron therapy facility has been built with optimized beam quality based on a thorough understanding of the neutron spectrum and its resulting biological effectiveness. A study has been initiated to provide the information necessary for such an optimization. Monte Carlo studies will be used to simulate neutron energy spectra and LET spectra. These studies will be bench-marked with data taken at existing fast neutron therapy facilities. Results will also be compared with radiobiological studies to further support beam quality ptimization. These simulations, anchored by this data, will then be used to determine what parameters might be optimized to take full advantage of the unique LET properties of fast neutron beams. This paper will present preliminary work in generating energy and LET spectra for the Fermilab fast neutron therapy facility.

Kroc, T.K.; /Fermilab

2009-10-01

248

Environmental pollen trapped by tobacco leaf as indicators of the provenance of counterfeit cigarette products: a preliminary investigation and test of concept.  

PubMed

The global trade in counterfeit tobacco products is increasingly taking market share from legal brands in many parts of the developed world, with attendant adverse economic, health, criminal, and other societal impacts. Knowing the geographical source is central to developing new strategies for curbing this illicit trade, and here, the potential of environmental pollen extracted from manufactured cigarettes is examined. Two samples representing U.S. and Chinese brands were investigated for their pollen content. Results indicate that tobacco leaf very efficiently captures environmental pollen (about 1800 and 12,600 grains per cigarette, respectively) with no detectable self-contamination by the tobacco plant. In both cases, the flora is typical of open space environments, but pollen type counts indicate very different distributions of species. This preliminary investigation indicates that palynology has the potential to constrain geographical source(s) of tobacco, particularly if regionally localized species can be recognized among the pollen. PMID:20202071

Donaldson, Margaret P; Stephens, William E

2010-05-01

249

Evaluation of capacity release transactions in the natural gas industry  

E-print Network

The purpose of this thesis is to analyze capacity release transactions in the natural gas industry and to state some preliminary conclusions about how the capacity release market is functioning. Given FERC's attempt to ...

Lautzenhiser, Stephen

1994-01-01

250

A preliminary investigation of the environmental Control and Life Support Subsystems (EC/LSS) for animal and plant experiment payloads  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A preliminary study of the environmental control and life support subsystems (EC/LSS) necessary for an earth orbital spacecraft to conduct biological experiments is presented. The primary spacecraft models available for conducting these biological experiments are the space shuttle and modular space station. The experiments would be housed in a separate module that would be contained in either the shuttle payload bay or attached to the modular space station. This module would be manned only for experiment-related tasks, and would contain a separate EC/LSS for the crew and animals. Metabolic data were tabulated on various animals that are considered useful for a typical experiment program. The minimum payload for the 30-day space shuttle module was found to require about the equivalent of a one-man EC/LSS; however, the selected two-man shuttle assemblies will give a growth and contingency factor of about 50 percent. The maximum payloads for the space station mission will require at least a seven-man EC/LSS for the laboratory colony and a nine-man EC/LSS for the centrifuge colony. There is practically no room for growth or contingencies in these areas.

Wells, H. B.

1972-01-01

251

A preliminary investigation of the relationship between water quality and Anopheles gambiae larval habitats in western Cameroon  

PubMed Central

Background Water quality and anopheline habitat have received increasing attention due to the possibility that challenges during larval life may translate into adult susceptibility to malaria parasite infection and/or insecticide resistance. Methods A preliminary study of Anopheles gambiae s.s. larval habitats in the north-west and south-west regions of Cameroon was conducted in order to detect associations between An. gambiae s.s. molecular form and 2La inversion distributions with basic water quality parameters. Water quality was measured by temperature, pH, conductivity, total dissolved solids (TDS) at seven sites in Cameroon and one site in Selinkenyi, Mali. Results Principal components and correlation analyses indicated a complex relationship between 2La polymorphism, temperature, conductivity and TDS. Cooler water sites at more inland locations yielded more S form larvae with higher 2La inversion polymorphism while warmer water sites yielded more M form larvae with rare observations of the 2La inversion. Discussion More detailed studies that take into account the population genetics but also multiple life stages, environmental data relative to these life stages and interactions with both humans and the malaria parasite may help us to understand more about how and why this successful mosquito is able to adapt and diverge, and how it can be successfully managed. PMID:23819866

2013-01-01

252

A new biomarker of hedonic eating? A preliminary investigation of cortisol and nausea responses to acute opioid blockade.  

PubMed

Overweight and obese individuals differ in their degree of hedonic eating. This may reflect adaptations in reward-related neural circuits, regulated in part by opioidergic activity. We examined an indirect, functional measure of central opioidergic activity by assessing cortisol and nausea responses to acute opioid blockade using the opioid antagonist naltrexone in overweight/obese women (mean BMI=31.1±4.8) prior to the start of a mindfulness-based intervention to reduce stress eating. In addition, we assessed indices of hedonic-related eating, including eating behaviors (binge eating, emotional eating, external eating, restraint) and intake of sweets/desserts and carbohydrates (Block Food Frequency); interoceptive awareness (which is associated with dysregulated eating behavior); and level of adiposity at baseline. Naltrexone-induced increases in cortisol were associated with greater emotional and restrained eating and lower interoceptive awareness. Naltrexone-induced nausea was associated with binge eating and higher adiposity. Furthermore, in a small exploratory analysis, naltrexone-induced nausea predicted treatment response to the mindfulness intervention, as participants with more severe nausea at baseline maintained weight whereas those with little or no nausea responses tended to gain weight. These preliminary data suggest that naltrexone-induced cortisol release and nausea may help identify individuals who have greater underlying food reward dependence, which leads to an excessive drive to eat. Future research is needed to confirm this finding and to test if these markers of opioidergic tone might help predict success in certain types of weight management programs. PMID:24291355

Daubenmier, Jennifer; Lustig, Robert H; Hecht, Frederick M; Kristeller, Jean; Woolley, Josh; Adam, Tanja; Dallman, Mary; Epel, Elissa

2014-03-01

253

Motion Freeze for Respiration Motion Correction in PET/CT: A Preliminary Investigation with Lung Cancer Patient Data  

PubMed Central

Purpose. Respiratory motion presents significant challenges for accurate PET/CT. It often introduces apparent increase of lesion size, reduction of measured standardized uptake value (SUV), and the mismatch in PET/CT fusion images. In this study, we developed the motion freeze method to use 100% of the counts collected by recombining the counts acquired from all phases of gated PET data into a single 3D PET data, with correction of respiration by deformable image registration. Methods. Six patients with diagnosis of lung cancer confirmed by oncologists were recruited. PET/CT scans were performed with Discovery STE system. The 4D PET/CT with the Varian real-time position management for respiratory motion tracking was followed by a clinical 3D PET/CT scan procedure in the static mode. Motion freeze applies the deformation matrices calculated by optical flow method to generate a single 3D effective PET image using the data from all the 4D PET phases. Results. The increase in SUV and decrease in tumor size with motion freeze for all lesions compared to the results from 3D and 4D was observed in the preliminary data of lung cancer patients. In addition, motion freeze substantially reduced tumor mismatch between the CT image and the corresponding PET images. Conclusion. Motion freeze integrating 100% of the PET counts has the potential to eliminate the influences induced by respiratory motion in PET data. PMID:25250313

Huang, Tzung-Chi; Chou, Kuei-Ting; Wang, Yao-Ching

2014-01-01

254

Accumulation and Effects of Sulfadimethoxine in Salix Fragilis L. Plants: A Preliminary Study to Phytoremediation Purposes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of manure to fertilize arable lands is one of the major means through which veterinary sulfonamides (SAs) enter the environment. Little is known about the capacity of woody plants to phytoremediate this class of antibiotics. To this purpose we performed preliminary studies to evaluate Salix fragilis L. response to sulfadimethoxine (SDM) by investigating both its ability to absorb

Lucia Michelini; Franco Meggio; Nicoletta La Rocca; Stefania Ferro; Rossella Ghisi

2012-01-01

255

Controlled-source seismic investigations of the crustal structure beneath Erebus volcano and Ross Island, Antarctica: Preliminary Results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the 2008-09 Austral summer field season we undertook a controlled-source seismic experiment (Tomo-Erebus, TE) to examine the shallow magmatic system beneath the active Erebus volcano (TE-3D) and the crustal structure beneath Ross Island. Here we report on the TE-2D component, which was designed to produce a two-dimensional P-wave velocity model along an east-west profile across Ross Island. Marine geophysical observations near Ross Island have identified the north-south trending Terror Rift within the older and broader Victoria Land Basin, which are a component of the intraplate West Antarctic Rift System. Mount Erebus and Ross Island are circumstantially associated with the Terror Rift and its thin (~20 km) crust. The nature, extent and role of the Terror Rift in controlling the evolution of Ross Island volcanism and the on-going eruptive activity of Erebus volcano are unknown. In TE-2D, we deployed 21 seismic recorders (Ref Tek 130) with three-component 4.5 Hz geophones (Sercel L-28-3D) along a 90-km east-west line between Capes Royds and Crozier. These were supplemented by 79 similar instruments deployed for the high-resolution TE-3D experiment within a 3 x 3 km grid around the summit crater of Erebus, an array of 8 permanent short period and broadband sensors used to monitor the activity of Erebus and 23 three-component sensors (Guralp CMG-40T, 30s-100 Hz) positioned around the flanks and summit of Erebus. Fifteen chemical sources were loaded in holes drilled about 15 m deep in the snow and ice. The size of these shots ranged from 75 to 600 kg of ANFO with the largest shots at the ends of the profile. An additional shot was detonated in the sea (McMurdo Sound) using 200 kg of dynamite. Due to the rugged terrain, short field seasons and large area to be covered, the seismometer spacing along the TE-2D profile is quite large (~ 5 km spacing), resulting in poor near-surface data resolution. However, the data have a high signal to noise ratio with clear first arrivals and wide-angle reflections across the array. We will present a preliminary P-wave velocity model of the TE-2D data to constrain the middle to lower crust and upper mantle beneath Ross Island.

Maraj, S.; Kyle, P. R.; Zandomeneghi, D.; Knox, H. A.; Aster, R. C.; Snelson, C. M.; Miller, P. E.; Kaip, G. M.

2009-12-01

256

Nanophytoplankton Diversity Across the Oligohaline Lake Pontchartrain Basin Estuary: A Preliminary Investigation Utlizing psbA Sequences  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Lake Pontchartrain basin estuary is shallow, wind-driven and comprised of two large embayments (1645 km2). Salinities range from freshwater in the west to 8 ppt in the east near the Gulf of Mexico. Phytoplankton investigations spanning this salinity gradient or examining small photoautotrophs ar...

257

Optimizing Speech Production in the Ventilator-Assisted Individual Following Cervical Spinal Cord Injury: A Preliminary Investigation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Mechanical ventilation is commonly used during the acute management of cervical spinal cord injury, and is required on an ongoing basis in the majority of patients with injuries at or above C3. However, to date there have been limited systematic investigations of the options available to improve speech while ventilator-assisted…

MacBean, Naomi; Ward, Elizabeth; Murdoch, Bruce; Cahill, Louise; Solley, Maura; Geraghty, Timothy; Hukins, Craig

2009-01-01

258

Investigation of foreign objects in soft-tissue using a PE-CMOS ultrasound system: a preliminary comparative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we have tested the ability of four imaging modalities to investigate foreign objects in soft tissue. We inserted wood, plastic, glass, and aluminum objects into a pork sample to simulate traumatized soft tissue. Each object was inserted into the skin, then passed through the fat tissue layer and penetrated into the muscle layer. We then took images

Chu-Chuan Liu; Shih-Chung Ben Lo; Matthew T. Freedman; Marvin E. Lasser; Bob Lasser; John Kula; Yue Joseph Wang; Tsung-I. Hsieh; Anita Sarcone

2006-01-01

259

A preliminary investigation of the interaction of a quat with silicones and its conditioning benefits on hair  

Microsoft Academic Search

Silicones, especially dimethicone and dimethiconol of higher molecular weights, have gained acceptance as conditioning agents and are used in several commercial products, frequently in conjunction with quats. In this work, the conditioning benefits of the silicones, as assessed by improvement in wet and dry combing, were investigated as a function of molecular weight as well as amount deposited on bleached

SHRENIK NANAVATI; ANNETTE HAMI; Dow Corning

260

Finger Forecasting: A Pointer to Athletic Prowess in Women--A Preliminary Investigation by an Undergraduate Biology Class  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With all the technology today, the authors were surprised to read a recent British study that found a connection between the length of a woman's index (2D) and ring (4D) fingers to her athletic ability. Upon further investigation they found that many studies have examined the relationship between the length of the index finger (2D) to the ring…

Latourelle, Sandra M.; Elwess, Nancy L.; Elwess, Jennifer M.

2008-01-01

261

Preliminary result of deep-towed resistivity investigation in a potential gas hydrate area off southwest Taiwan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gas hydrate (GH) is thought to be widely distributed within the active accretionary wedges passive continental margins and permafrost regions of the Earth. These deposits were formed in sub-seafloor sediments at relatively high pressure, low temperature conditions and have the potential to become a significant energy resource in the future. Bottom simulating reflectors (BSRs) from marine seismic reflection surveys are generally associated with the occurrence of gas-hydrate-bearing formations. The presence of BSRs could correspond to the base of the phase boundary between free gases and the solid hydrates. A wide-spread distribution of BSRs, high methane concentrations in the bottom water, shallow sulfate/methane interface, submarine mud volcanoes, diapirs and gas seepages significantly indicate a high potential of gas hydrates existence in the offshore area of southwest Taiwan. BSR is an indicative of a GH deposit and is often used to determine the base of gas hydrate stability zone of the solid-gas boundary where the upper bound of the GH in shallow sediments is still uncertain in the potential areas. The marine resistivity techniques are considered as one of powerful geophysical tools to image GH in upper bound of the GH in shallow portion of the seabed. In the study, we have rebuilt our new deep-towed marine resistivity system based on Goto et al. (2008) experiment. The new system is consisted of three components: 1. deep-towed frame, 2. receivers, and 3. side-scan sonar. The transmitter is mounted on the deep-towed frame and a long cable is towed behind the deep-towed frame in length of 240 m. The maximum of output electric current amplitude is up to 50 amperes. A dipole source of 15 m and two Ag-AgCl electric receivers are respectively installed in 210 m, 223 m and 226 m on the cable. Moreover, eight electric receivers (Ag-AgCl) are set from 0 m to 120 m with a dipole length of 15 m on the cable. A side-scan sonar equipment is attached below the system for the seafloor images. An important function of the side-scan sonar provides a stable towing of the whole system near the seafloor with altitude in range of 10 - 30 m. This configuration of the multidisciplinary geophysical system can roughly provide within 200 m of depth resolution beneath the seafloor according to the numerical modelling. A first multiple channels of deep-towed marine resistivity survey was carried out by R/V OR1-1001 from 21 to 23 June, 2012 to understand the detailed distribution of GH off SW Taiwan. Three survey lines were discovered in total length about 30 km. The towed speed was kept in 1.5 - 2.5 knots for both mapping of resistivity profiles and side-scan sonar images. An extremely high apparent resistivity anomaly appears in pockmark areas that corresponds to the side-scan sonar image. This high resistivity anomaly implies gas and/or gas hydrate reservoirs beneath the seafloor. The preliminary result has shown that our new resistivity system is a useful tool to explore GH deposits.

Chiang, C.; Hsu, S.; Goto, T.; Chen, C.; Chen, S.

2012-12-01

262

A Preliminary Investigation into the Impact of a Pesticide Combination on Human Neuronal and Glial Cell Lines In Vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many pesticides are used increasingly in combinations during crop protection and their stability ensures the presence of such combinations in foodstuffs. The effects of three fungicides, pyrimethanil, cyprodinil and fludioxonil, were investigated together and separately on U251 and SH-SY5Y cells, which can be representative of human CNS glial and neuronal cells respectively. Over 48h, all three agents showed significant reductions

Michael D. Coleman; John D. ONeil; Elizabeth K. Woehrling; Oscar Bate Akide Ndunge; Eric J. Hill; Andre Menache; Claude J. Reiss

2012-01-01

263

Preliminary investigation of the control of a gas-turbine engine for a helicopter / Richard P. Krebs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analog investigation of the power plant for a gas-turbine powered helicopter indicates that currently proposed turbine-propeller engine controls are satisfactory for helicopter application. Power increases from one-half to full rated at altitudes from sea level to 15,000 feet could be made in less than 4 seconds with either the rotor or propellers absorbing the engine power.

Krebs, Richard P

1951-01-01

264

A preliminary investigation into the physical and chemical properties of biomass ashes used as aggregate fillers for bituminous mixtures.  

PubMed

Fly and bottom ashes are the main by-products arising from the combustion of solid biomass. Since the production of energy from this source is increasing, the processing and disposal of the resulting ashes has become an environmental and economic issue. Such ashes are of interest as a construction material because they are composed of very fine particles similar to fillers normally employed in bituminous and cementitious mixtures. This research investigates the potential use of ash from biomass as filler in bituminous mixtures. The morphological, physical and chemical characteristics of 21 different ashes and two traditional fillers (calcium carbonate and "recovered" plant filler) were evaluated and discussed. Leaching tests, performed in order to quantify the release of pollutants, revealed that five ashes do not comply with the Italian environmental re-use limits. Experimental results show a wide range of values for almost all the investigated properties and a low correlation with biomass type in terms of origin and chemical composition. Furthermore, sieving and milling processes were found to improve the properties of the raw material in terms of grading and sample porosity. The effectiveness of these treatments and the low content of organic matter and harmful fines suggest that most of the biomass ashes investigated may be regarded as potential replacements for natural filler in bituminous mixtures. PMID:23790672

Melotti, Roberto; Santagata, Ezio; Bassani, Marco; Salvo, Milena; Rizzo, Stefano

2013-09-01

265

Preliminary data report of investigations conducted at the Salmon Site, Lamar County, Mississippi. Nevada Environmental Restoration Project  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy (DOE) conducted ecological studies at the Salmon Site (SS), Lamar County, Mississippi, from the middle of June 1992 to the end of April 1993. The studies are part of the Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study (RI/FS) being conducted by the DOE. The RI/FS is the methodology under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980, as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (CERCLA/SARA) for evaluating hazardous waste sites on the National Priorities List (NPL). The Salmon Site is not listed on the NPL but DOE has voluntarily elected to conduct the evaluation of the SS in accordance with CERCLA/SARA. As part of the remedial investigation, baseline human health and ecological risk assessments will be conducted. These baseline risk assessments will evaluate the potential impact on human health and the environment if remedial actions are not conducted, identify locations where additional information needs to be collected, help determine whether remedial actions are necessary, and provide justification for performing remedial actions. This report describes the sampling activities conducted between February and April 1993 to aid in evaluating the possible environmental impacts at the SS tailored to the specific circumstances and conditions found there. The initial investigations included identification of the flora and fauna in and around the SS, with particular emphasis on identifying sensitive environments, endangered species and their habitats, and those species consumed by humans or found in human food chains.

Not Available

1994-04-01

266

Preliminary investigation on the requirements of the first wall and limiter of HL-2M prior to its detailed design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some plasma facing components (PFCs) have to face extreme environments with high heat load as well as high particle flux during tokamak operations. Specifying the conditions of the PFCs of a tokamak during discharges is a critical issue prior to detailed design of a new device. Heat loads on different regions of PFCs are the most important parameters for PFCs and have to be provided as input into the engineering design. Particularly for the limiter, more investigations of heat loads are required since a number of accidents, including the one involving the JET limiter, have occurred due to underestimation of heat loads. In this paper, the factors affecting the heat loads of the first wall and the limiter of HL-2M are discussed. Several typical operation scenarios, including the first plasma, the start-up phase and flat-top phase of normal operations, and the key transient conditions, specifically disruptions and vertical displacement events, are analyzed for HL-2M, and the heat load specifications of different regions of PFCs are presented. Then the temperature rise and material erosion of PFCs are also evaluated. The results show that under the typical operation scenarios discussed in this paper, heat loads on the PFCs except the limiter are tolerable and temperature rise and material erosion are acceptable too. As for the limiter, the results reveal that the plasma current has to be lower than 0.5 MA if the plasma is operated in a limiter configuration. The investigation also implies that it is feasible to implement the first plasma without the first wall of graphite for the first plasma discussed in this analysis. However, the values obtained in this paper are based on a few simplifications, and further simulations are required involving ripple loss, start-up evolution, and the influence of ELMs on PFCs during further investigations.

Cai, Laizhong; Li, Jiaxian; the HL-2M team

2015-02-01

267

The direct connections of the C2 dorsal ganglion in the brain stem of the squirrel monkey: a preliminary investigation *  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this investigation was to observe the possible anatomical connections of C2 dorsal root with brain stem nuclei. Labelled amino acids (leucine, glycine, proline), were injected into the dorsal root of C2 of a squirrel monkey. The animal was allowed to survive for 20 hrs. and after, sections of the spinal cord and brain stem were subjected to autoradiographic methods. Direct connections were observed in Lamina II, VII, VIII of the spinal cord; the hypoglossal nucleus, medial vestibular nucleus, lateral cuneatus nucleus and lateral parvocellular reticular formation. Possible anatomical and physiological correlates are explored in relation to the importance of the upper cervical area and its control mechanisms.

Fitz-Ritson, Don E.

1979-01-01

268

Preliminary wind-tunnel investigation of an NACA 23012 airfoil with various arrangements of venetian-blind flaps  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Report presents the results of an investigation made in the NACA 7 by 10-foot wind tunnel of a large-chord NACA 23012 airfoil with several arrangements of venetian-blind flaps to determine the aerodynamic section characteristics as affected by the over-all flap chord, the chords of the slats used to form the flap, the slat spacing, the number of slats and the position of the flap with respect to the wing. Complete section data are given in the form of graphs for all the combinations tested.

Wenzinger, Carl J; Harris, Thomas A

1940-01-01

269

A preliminary study for investigating idiopatic normal pressure hydrocephalus by means of statistical parameters classification of intracranial pressure recordings.  

PubMed

The objective of this study is to investigate Id-iopatic Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus (INPH) through a multidimensional and multiparameter analysis of statistical data obtained from accurate analysis of Intracranial Pressure (ICP) recordings. Such a study could permit to detect new factors, correlated with therapeutic response, which are able to validate a predicting significance for infusion test. The algorithm developed by the authors computes 13 ICP parameter trends on each of the recording, afterward 9 statistical information from each trend is determined. All data are transferred to the datamining software WEKA. According to the exploited feature-selection techniques, the WEKA has revealed that the most significant statistical parameter is the maximum of Single-Wave-Amplitude: setting a 27 mmHg threshold leads to over 90% of correct classification. PMID:19965228

Calisto, A; Bramanti, A; Galeano, M; Angileri, F; Campobello, G; Serrano, S; Azzerboni, B

2009-01-01

270

A preliminary investigation of the mechanism of anti-pain and counter-injury effects of the acupuncture anaesthesia.  

PubMed

In accordance with dialectical materialism and by dint of experimental acupuncture anaesthesia, the present investigation has: (1) Made an objective evaluation of the efficiency of acupuncture anaesthesia. (2) Brought forth some experimental evidence about the material basis of the anti-pain and counter-injury effect of acupuncture anaesthesia as well as the significance of its induction period. (3) Proposed the concept of humoral anaesthesia and its technique in order to improve the efficiency of animal laparotomies with acupuncture anaesthesia. Furthermore, it attempts to offer a theoretical explanation of the process of acupuncture anaesthesia under the combination of Chinese and Western medical theories and thereby gives some support to the "meridian-cerebral cortex-viscera inter-correlation hypothesis." PMID:62395

1976-01-01

271

2D modeling and preliminary in vitro investigation of a prototype high gradient magnetic separator for biomedical applications.  

PubMed

High gradient magnetic separation (HGMS) of magnetic materials from fluids or waste products has many established industrial applications. However, there is currently no technology employing HGMS for ex-vivo biomedical applications, such as for the removal of magnetic drug- or toxin-loaded spheres from the human blood stream. Importantly, human HGMS applications require special design modifications as, in contrast to conventional use where magnetic elements are permanently imbedded within the separation chambers, medical separators need to avoid direct contact between the magnetic materials and blood to reduce the risk of blood clotting and to facilitate convenient and safe treatment access for many individuals. We describe and investigate the performance of a magnetic separator prototype designed for biomedical applications. First, the capture efficiency of a prototype HGMS separator unit consisting of a short tubing segment and two opposing magnetizable fine wires along the outside of the tubing was investigated using 2D mathematical modeling. Second, the first-pass effectiveness to remove commercially available, magnetic polystyrene spheres from human blood using a single separator unit was experimentally verified. The theoretical and experimental data correlated well at low flow velocities (<5.0 cm/s) and high external magnetic fields (>0.05 T). This prototype separator unit removed >90% in a single pass of the magnetic spheres from water at mean flow velocity < or =8.0 cm/s and from blood mimic fluids (ethylene glycol-water solutions) at mean flow velocity < or =2.0 cm/s. In summary, we describe and prove the feasibility of a HGMS separator for biomedical applications. PMID:17400018

Chen, Haitao; Kaminski, Michael D; Rosengart, Axel J

2008-01-01

272

Preliminary Investigations on the Effect of Humidity on the Reception of Visible Solar Radiation and the Effect of Humidity and Wind Speed on PV Module Output  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to improve the accuracy of methods currently used for characterizing the performance of photovoltaic (PV) arrays in their actual use environment, it is of importance to investigate the effect of ambient variables on the PV module output. Malaysia is a hot and humid country with relative humidity (RH) of 100% during rainfall and wind speed of greater than 4.0 ms-1 occurred about 8.4% in five years time. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to do a preliminary investigation on the effects of RH on the reception of solar radiation and the effect of humidity and wind speed on the PV module output. Outdoor field testing was conducted at Photovoltaic Monitoring Centre (PVMC), Universiti Teknologi MARA, of a BPSX-30U polycrystalline under variation of RH and wind speed separately. From the field testing, it was found that humidity reduced the amount of visible solar radiation reception, while humidity and wind speed both acts as cooling agents that increase the output of a PV module by reducing the module temperature.

Zainuddin, Hedzlin; Shaari, Sulaiman; Omar, Ahmad Maliki; Zain, Zainazlan Md.; Soumin, Jonson; Surat, Zainizam

2010-07-01

273

Preliminary investigation of the combustion of a 50 percent pentaborane - 50 percent JP-4 fuel blend in a turbojet combustor at simulated altitude conditions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A preliminary investigation was conducted to determine the combustion characteristics of a fuel composed of 50 percent pentaborane and 50 percent JP-4 (MIL-F-5624A) by weight in a turbojet combustor. A combustor designed to fit the housing of a J33-A-23 turbojet engine was selected for convenience. The fuel was evaluated at two engine conditions simulating altitudes of 40,000 and 57,000 feet, an engine speed of 85 percent of rated rpm, and a flight Mach number of 0.6. The pentaborane blend was initially evaluated in combustors developed for pure pentaborane and diborane reported in NACA RM E53B18 and RM E52L15. The performance of the blend was unsatisfactory in these combustors. A new combustor was then developed which provided combustor efficiencies measured from 91 to 101 percent as compared with efficiencies of 92 to 94 percent previously obtained for pentaborane at comparable conditions. Additional refinements of design details are needed to obtain lower oxide deposits and a more uniform outlet temperature profile; however, the combustor is believed to incorporate some of the design principles required to obtain satisfactory over-all performance with the fuel blend investigated.

Branstetter, J Robert; Kaufman, Warner B; Gibbs, James B

1957-01-01

274

A preliminary investigation into diet adequacy in senior residents of Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background Adequate dietary intake is essential to maintain good health. This is particularly true for the elderly. This study investigated the dietary intakes of seniors residing in Newfoundland and Labrador (NL) and assessed the adequacy of nutrients which they consumed as food. Methods Between November 2012 and January 2013, we recruited senior residents in NL, aged 65 years or older Participants were required to complete two questionnaires, one food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and one general health questionnaire (GHQ). Macro- and micro- nutrients in foods consumed were estimated using the Elizabeth Stewart Hands and Associations (ESHA) nutrient analysis software. The nutrient intakes were compared with appropriate components of the dietary reference intakes (DRIs) adopted by Health Canada to determine adequacy. Various descriptive statistical analyses were performed using SPSS. Results One hundred-and-eleven participants (69 females and 42 males) completed the surveys and were included in the analysis. A considerable portion of subjects were overweight (41.7%) or obese (25%), and had at least one chronic illness (86.5%). Many seniors studied did not meet the daily recommendations for dietary intakes of nutrients supported by Health Canada, notably vitamin E (84.7%) and vitamin D (68.5%). Our study also suggests that about 40% of participants consumed more dietary energy as fat than is recommended. Conclusion The present study revealed an inadequate consumption of essential nutrients from foods in a noninstitutionalized senior population of NL. PMID:24690512

2014-01-01

275

Preliminary technique assessment for nondestructive evaluation certification of the NNWSI [Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations] disposal container closure  

SciTech Connect

Under the direction of the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) program, the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) project is evaluating a candidate repository site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for permanent disposal of high-level nuclear waste. The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), a participant in the NNWSI project, is developing waste package designs to meet the NRC requirements. One aspect of this waste package is the nondestructive testing of the final closure of the waste container. The container closure weld can best be nondestructively examined (NDE) by a combination of ultrasonics and liquid penetrants. This combination can be applied remotely and can meet stringent quality control requirements common to nuclear applications. Further development in remote systems and inspection will be required to meet anticipated requirements for flaw detection reliability and sensitivity. New research is not required but might reduce cost or inspection time. Ultrasonic and liquid penetrant methods can examine all closure methods currently being considered, which include fusion welding and inertial welding, among others. These NDE methods also have a history of application in high radiation environments and a well developed technology base for remote operation that can be used to reduce development and design costs. 43 refs., 23 figs., 3 tabs.

Day, R.A.

1988-12-31

276

Probing in the Dark: Preliminary Results from the Dark Energy Biosphere Investigative Tool (DEBI-T), IODP 336  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The subseafloor is host to a significant fraction of the Earth's microbiota, yet there is still uncertainty concerning the distribution of microbes in the deep subsurface. Researchers have relied on molecular techniques to characterize subseafloor microbial communities, but this typically involves the physical removal of cells from the rock matrix in order to process them further. This is inefficient and can lead both to cell loss and the loss of information about the mineralogical context that may influence the microbial ecology. More traditional fluorescence techniques that rely on dyes to produce fluorescence signals have been employed in attempts to elucidate the spatial distribution and abundance of sediment microbiota. However, these methods have proven challenging because of issues such as non-specific binding, which can lead to overestimation of cell abundance, and mineral fluorescence, which can make microbes difficult to differentiate. To address this shortcoming, we have developed the Dark Energy Biosphere Investigative Tool (DEBI-T). This instrument utilizes deep ultraviolet (<250nm) excitation to induce fluorescence (280-430nm) that can distinguish microbes from other organics and the underlying rock matrix. DEBI-T enables the detection of microbes in their native state on natural materials, avoiding background autofluorescence and without the need for fluorescent dyes or tags. We will discuss the results of DEBI-T's first deployment on IODP 336, the Mid-Atlantic Microbiology Expedition.

Salas, E. C.; Bhartia, R.; Reid, R.; Hug, W.; Nguyen, Q.; Oswal, P.; Sullivan, K.; Edwards, K. J.

2011-12-01

277

Preliminary investigation of the potential for transient vapor release events during in situ vitrification based on thermal- hydraulic modeling  

SciTech Connect

This study investigates a possible cause of molten glass displacements that occurred during two recent in situ vitrification (ISV) tests. The study was conducted for the US Department of Energy by Pacific Northwest Laboratory. It is hypothesized that these glass displacements are caused by large gas bubbles rising up through the ISV melt and bursting at its surface. These bubbles cause the molten surface to upwell and possibly overflow. When the bubbles burst, molten glass is thrown from the melt surface and the volume of gas contained in the bubble is released into the hood. Both of these phenomena are undesirable because the molten soil ejected from the melt is dangerous to operating personnel and can damage equipment. The sudden gas release can cause a temporary pressurization of the hood, allowing potentially contaminated gas to escape to the atmosphere. This study attempts to explain the conditions necessary for formation of large gas bubbles in the melt so that future glass displacements can be avoided.

Roberts, J.S.; Woosley, S.L.; Lessor, D.L.; Strachan, C.

1992-07-01

278

Preliminary results of fisheries investigation associated with Skylab-3. [remotely sensed distribution and abundance of gamefish in Gulf of Mexico  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. This investigation is to establish the feasibility of utilizing remotely sensed data acquired from aircraft and satellite platforms to provide information concerning the distribution and abundance of oceanic gamefish. Data from the test area in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico has made possible the identification of fisheries significant environmental parameters for white marlin. Predictive models based on catch data and surface truth information have been developed and have demonstrated potential for reducing search significantly by identifying areas which have a high probability of being productive. Three of the parameters utilized by the model, chlorophyll-a, sea surface temperature, and turbidity have been inferred from aircraft sensor data. Cloud cover and delayed receipt have inhibited the use of Skylab data. The first step toward establishing the feasibility of utilizing remotely sensed data to assess amd monitor the distribution of ocean gamefish has been taken with the successful identification of fisheries significant oceanographic parameters and the demonstration of the capability of measuring most of these parameters remotely.

Savastano, K. J. (principal investigator); Pastula, E. J., Jr.; Woods, G.; Faller, K.

1974-01-01

279

Quality of life of people living with HIV, preliminary results from IANUA (Investigation on Antiretroviral Therapy) study  

PubMed Central

Introduction The introduction of combined antiretroviral treatment (cART) has reduced HIV-associated morbidity and mortality, and changed the patients’ perspective of life. As a result, Health Related Quality of Life (HRQOL) has become a crucial clinical issue. Objective Assessment of HRQOL in a sample of Italian patients from IANUA study. Investigate correlation between CD4 cell counts, viral load and changes in HRQOL. Materials and Methods EQ-5D-3L self-reported questionnaire has been used in the evaluation of HRQOL. It assesses five dimensions: “mobility,” “self care,” “usual activities,” “pain/discomfort” and “anxiety/depression.” Each dimension has three levels: no problems, some problems and extreme problems. In addition, it includes a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) where one's own health “today” is rated from 0 “worst imaginable health” to 100 “best imaginable health.” The respondents provide information on marital status, education, employment/unemployment, other treatments used in addition to HAART (1,2,3,4,5 or more) and number of hospitalizations due to HIV/AIDS. Results 684 patients completed the questionnaire: 231 females and 453 males. The mean age of the sample was 51 years (range 21–78). The mean VAS score was 69.9. 558 patients (81.5%) reported no problems in mobility. 642 patients (93.5%) had no problems in self care. 423 patients (61.8%) had no pain/discomfort while 219 had some problems. 326 patients (46.1%) had some problems in anxiety/depression. Conclusions The analysis of self-reported questionnaires indicates that HRQOL in our sample group is not deeply affected by HIV/AIDS. The dimensions that are affected in the least are “mobility” and “self care” while the major problem is “anxiety/depression” with half of the sample reporting moderate or high level. PMID:25394088

Venturini, Alberto; Giannini, Barbara; Montefiori, Marcello; Di Biagio, Antonio; Mazzarello, Giovanni; Cenderello, Giovanni; Giacomini, Mauro; Merlano, Caterina; Orcamo, Patrizia; Setti, Maurizio; Viscoli, Claudio; Cassola, Giovanni

2014-01-01

280

Investigation of foreign objects in soft-tissue using a PE-CMOS ultrasound system: a preliminary comparative study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we have tested the ability of four imaging modalities to investigate foreign objects in soft tissue. We inserted wood, plastic, glass, and aluminum objects into a pork sample to simulate traumatized soft tissue. Each object was inserted into the skin, then passed through the fat tissue layer and penetrated into the muscle layer. We then took images of the pork sample using four different modalities: (1) a C-Scan imaging prototype which consists of an unfocused transducer, a compound acoustic lens, and a 2D ultrasound sensor array based on the piezoelectric sensing complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (PE-CMOS) technology; (2) a portable B-Scan ultrasound system; (3) a conventional X-ray system; (4) and a computed radiography (CR) X-ray system. We found that the aluminum and glass objects were clearly visible in both conventional X-ray and CR X-ray images with good contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR); however, the wood and plastic objects could not be clearly seen using these modalities. However, we found that the wood, plastic, and glass objects, as well as the thicker aluminum object, were clearly visible in the C-Scan ultrasound images. Furthermore, the fold fibro structures of the fat and muscle tissues in the pork were observable using this modality. The C-Scan prototype images produce neither speckle nor geometry distortion. Both of these issues are commonly seen in B-Scan ultrasound. The results of this study also indicate that the C-Scan images have better CNRs for most foreign objects when compared to other imaging modalities.

Liu, Chu-Chuan; Lo, Shih-Chung Ben; Freedman, Matthew T.; Lasser, Marvin E.; Lasser, Bob; Kula, John; Wang, Yue Joseph; Hsieh, Tsung-I.; Sarcone, Anita

2006-03-01

281

A preliminary investigation of the fish food web in the Gironde estuary, France, using dietary and stable isotope analyses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon and Nitrogen stable isotopes and stomach contents analyses were used to investigate an estuarine fish food web and identify the contribution of these two methods to the knowledge and understanding of the food web's structure and its functioning. The nine most abundant fish species during the warm period in the Gironde estuary (southwest France, Europe) are examined. Observation of the stomach contents reflects a variety of feeding modes between fish species that consume a diverse assortment of prey, with limited dietary overlap. Nevertheless, when regarding the whole fish community, few prey species dominate the stomach contents. Nitrogen isotope ratios indicate a high intraspecific variability inducing an interspecific covering of the signatures. However, a tendency to ? 15N enrichment according to the trophic position of the species studied was observed. Fish assemblages show a trend towards enrichment of their carbon isotopic signatures from the upper estuary (-20.8 ± 1.8‰) towards the lower estuary (-18.3 ± 1.6‰). But whatever the capture zone considered, most of the individual ? 13C values for each fish analysed are comprised between -22 and -16‰. Only few specimens, belonging to migratory amphihaline species, have significantly lighter values. The stomach contents method of analysis has the advantage of giving an initial view of the ichthyological trophic structure of the system by describing the food relations between a fish species and its prey. From these results, hypotheses can be drawn about the network's functioning, suggesting a sharing of resources between species and a "wasp-waist" control of this estuarine food web. The stable isotope analysis method enables us to improve our structural knowledge by positioning the different species in a food web, with their position being determined by the number of energy transfers (analysis of ? 15N). Conversely, in environments as complex and changing as estuaries, it appears difficult to precisely identify and quantify the sources of the organic matter at the base of the fish estuarine food webs using analysis of ? 13C isotopic signatures. Nevertheless, the results obtained by using these two methods in parallel suggest that more detailed functional ecological studies could be carried out in future.

Pasquaud, S.; Elie, P.; Jeantet, C.; Billy, I.; Martinez, P.; Girardin, M.

2008-06-01

282

Preliminary geochemical, microbiological, and epidemiological investigations into possible linkages between lignite aquifers, pathogenic microbes, and kidney disease in northwestern Louisiana  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In May 2002, 15 wells and four surface water sites were sampled, and in September 2002, those same wells and sites plus four additional surface sites were sampled in five parishes of northwestern Louisiana. A geographic information system (GIS) was used to select residential water wells for sampling. Well water samples were analyzed for pH, conductivity, organic compounds, and nutrient and anion concentrations. All samples were further tested for presence of fungi (maintained for up to 28 days and colonies counted and identified microscopically), and metal and trace element concentration by inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry and atomic emission spectrometry. Surface water samples were tested for dissolved oxygen and evidence of leptospiral bacterial presence. A polymerase chain reaction protocol was optimized for detection of pathogenic leptospires, and the sensitivity of the assay was determined. The Spearman correlation method was used to assess the association between the endpoints for these field/laboratory analyses and the incidence of cancer of the renal pelvis obtained from the Louisiana Tumor Registry. Significant associations were revealed between the cancer rate and the overall number of organic compounds, the fungi Zygomycetes, the nutrients PO4 and NH3, and thirteen chemical elements (As, B, Br, Cl, Cr, F, Li, Na, P, Rb, Se, Sr, W) from the well water as compared to the controls. Among the species of fungi from the total of 136 isolates were 12 Penicillium spp., at least two Aspergillus spp., a number of other genera (Alternaria sp., Eupenicillium lapidosum, Cladosporium sp., Epicoccum sp., Trichoderma sp., Paecilomyces sp., Chrysosporium sp., Chloridium sp.), and Zygomycetes, and Coelmycetes -- some of which are known mycotoxin producers. The two control wells yielded a mean of 6.5 (SD = 3.5355) individual isolates, while the mean number of isolates from all other sites was 7.6 (SD = 4.4866). Presence of human pathogenic leptospires was detected in 4/8 (50 percent) of the surface water sites sampled. These initial results suggest that additional investigation into these relationships is warranted.

Bunnell, Joseph E.; Bushon, Rebecca N.; Stoeckel, Donald M.; Gifford, Amie M.; Beck, Marisa; Lerch, Harry E.; Shi, Runhua; McGee, Benton; Hanson, Bradford C.; Kolak, Jonathan; Warwick, Peter D.

2003-01-01

283

Preliminary investigation of a medium power argon radiofrequency capacitively coupled plasma as atomization cell in atomic fluorescence spectrometry of cadmium.  

PubMed

The single ring electrode radiofrequency capacitively coupled plasma torch (SRTr.f.CCP) operated at 275W, 27.12 MHz and Ar flow rate below 0.7 lmin(-1) was investigated for the first time as atomization cell in atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS) using electrodeless discharge lamps (EDL) as primary radiation source and charged coupled devices as detector. The signal to background ratio (SBR) and limit of detection for Cd determination by EDL-SRTr.f.CCP-AFS were compared to those obtained in atomic emission spectrometry using the same plasma torch. The detection limit in fluorescence was 4.3 ngml(-1) Cd compared to 65 ngml(-1) and 40 ngml(-1) reported in r.f.CCP-atomic emission (AES) equipped with single or double ring electrode. The lower detection limit in EDL-SRTr.f.CCP-AFS is due to a much better SBR in fluorescence. The limit of detection was also compared to those in atomic fluorescence with inductively coupled plasma (0.4 ngml(-1)), microwave plasma torch (0.25 ngml(-1)) and air-acetylene flame (8 ngml(-1)). The influence of light-scattering through the plasma and the secondary reflection of the primary radiation on the wall of the quartz tube on the analytical performance are discussed. The non-spectral matrix effects of Ca, Mg and easily ionized elements are much lower in EDL-SRTr.f.CCP-AFS compared to SRTr.f.CCP-AES. The new technique was applied in the determination of Cd in contaminated soils, industrial hazardous waste (0.4-370 mgkg(-1)) and water (113 microgl(-1)) with repeatability of 4-8% and reproducibility in the range of 5-12%, similar to those in ICP-AES. The results were checked by the analysis of a soil and water CRM with a recovery degree of 97+/-9% and 98+/-4%, for a confidence limit of 95%. The present EDL-SRTr.f.CCP-AFS is a promising technique for Cd determination in environmental samples. PMID:18761173

Frentiu, Tiberiu; Darvasi, Eugen; Senila, Marin; Ponta, Michaela; Cordos, Emil

2008-09-15

284

Preliminary investigations on the determination of three-dimensional dose distributions using scintillator blocks and optical tomography  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Clinical QA in teletherapy as well as the characterization of experimental radiation sources for future medical applications requires effective methods for measuring three-dimensional (3D) dose distributions generated in a water-equivalent medium. Current dosimeters based on ionization chambers, diodes, thermoluminescence detectors, radiochromic films, or polymer gels exhibit various drawbacks: High quality 3D dose determination is either very sophisticated and expensive or requires high amounts of effort and time for the preparation or read out. New detectors based on scintillator blocks in combination with optical tomography are studied, since they have the potential to facilitate the desired cost-effective, transportable, and long-term stable dosimetry system that is able to determine 3D dose distributions with high spatial resolution in a short time.Methods: A portable detector prototype was set up based on a plastic scintillator block and four digital cameras. During irradiation the scintillator emits light, which is detected by the fixed cameras. The light distribution is then reconstructed by optical tomography, using maximum-likelihood expectation maximization. The result of the reconstruction approximates the 3D dose distribution. First performance tests of the prototype using laser light were carried out. Irradiation experiments were performed with ionizing radiation, i.e., bremsstrahlung (6 to 21 MV), electrons (6 to 21 MeV), and protons (68 MeV), provided by clinical and research accelerators.Results: Laser experiments show that the current imaging properties differ from the design specifications: The imaging scale of the optical systems is position dependent, ranging from 0.185 mm/pixel to 0.225 mm/pixel. Nevertheless, the developed dosimetry method is proven to be functional for electron and proton beams. Induced radiation doses of 50 mGy or more made 3D dose reconstructions possible. Taking the imaging properties into account, determined dose profiles are in agreement with reference measurements. An inherent drawback of the scintillator is the nonlinear light output for high stopping-power radiation due to the quenching effect. It impacts the depth dose curves measured with the dosimeter. For single Bragg peak distributions this leads to a peak to plateau ratio of 2.8 instead of 4.5 for the reference ionization chamber measurement. Furthermore, the transmission of the clinical bremsstrahlung beams through the scintillator leads to the saturation of one camera, making dose reconstructions in that case presently not feasible.Conclusions: It is shown that distributions of scintillation light generated by proton or electron beams can be reconstructed by the dosimetry system within minutes. The quenching apparent for proton irradiation, and the yet not precisely determined position dependency of the imaging scale, require further investigation and corrections. Upgrading the prototype with larger or inorganic scintillators would increase the detectable proton and electron energy range. The presented results show that the determination of 3D dose distributions using scintillator blocks and optical tomography is a promising dosimetry method.

Kroll, Florian; Karsch, Leonhard [OncoRay - National Center for Radiation Research in Oncology, Medical Faculty Carl Gustav Carus, TU Dresden, 01307 Dresden (Germany)] [OncoRay - National Center for Radiation Research in Oncology, Medical Faculty Carl Gustav Carus, TU Dresden, 01307 Dresden (Germany); Pawelke, Jörg [OncoRay - National Center for Radiation Research in Oncology, Medical Faculty Carl Gustav Carus, TU Dresden, 01307 Dresden, Germany and Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Institute of Radiation Physics, P.O. Box 510119, 01314 Dresden (Germany)] [OncoRay - National Center for Radiation Research in Oncology, Medical Faculty Carl Gustav Carus, TU Dresden, 01307 Dresden, Germany and Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Institute of Radiation Physics, P.O. Box 510119, 01314 Dresden (Germany)

2013-08-15

285

Assessing capacity.  

PubMed

Health care professionals often encounter patients who refuse a recommended treatment plan. Overriding a patient's right to autonomy has ethical, legal, and moral consequences. Incapacity is the determination by a physician that a patient lacks the ability to make informed decisions about his or her health care. The fundamentals needed for evaluating and documenting patients' capacity to make decisions regarding their personal medical care are provided. PMID:10767880

Miller, S S; Marin, D B

2000-05-01

286

Preliminary investigation of soil and ground-water contamination at the U. S. Army Petroleum Training Facility, Fort Lee, Virginia, September-October 1989  

SciTech Connect

Fuel-oil constituents in the soil and groundwater at the Fort Lee Petroleum Training Facility near Petersburg, Virginia, were studied by the US Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Department of Defense, US Army. The study included installation of 25 groundwater monitoring wells and description of groundwater flow patterns of the shallow-aquifer system underlying the facility. Soil and groundwater samples were collected to determine the concentrations of fuel-oil constituents and to determine the potential for off-site migration of the constituents. Total petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations up to 18,400 mg/km were reported in soil samples. Concentrations of benzene in water from wells at the facility were up to 130 micrograms per liter (ug/L), and concentrations of ethylbenzene and xylene were up to 54 and 120 ug/L, respectively. Potential exists for off-site migration of the contaminants and migration of contaminants downward to deeper aquifers. Further investigations of these potential contamination-migration pathways are warranted. Preliminary identification of risk, however is presented by an examination of toxicity data for the chemical constituents were compared to the maximum contaminant levels (MCLs) for drinking water established by the US Environmental Protection Agency. 12 refs., 9 figs., 9 tabs.

Wright, W.G.; Powell, J.D.

1990-01-01

287

Preliminary assessment of the geothermal potential of Rosario de la Frontera area (Salta, NW Argentina): Insight from hydro-geological, hydro-geochemical and structural investigations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work is part of a project aimed to the development and application of hydrogeological, hydrogeochemical and geological methodologies for the study of the geothermal system of Rosario de La Frontera (NW Argentina). The surface thermal manifestations of this area, whose temperatures range from 22.6 to 92.6 °C, are mainly located in the northern sector of Sierra de la Candelaria anticline. This regional structure crops out between the provinces of Salta and Tucuman (NW Argentina), at the foothills of the central Andean retro-wedge. The present investigation focuses on hydrogeological and structural data, and isotopic compositions (18O, D and 3H) of thermal springs. Preliminary results allowed to define: i) the meteoric origin of spring water and their long (more than 50 years) residence time at depth, ii) a positive water balance, ranging between 2 and 4 millions of m3/yr, and iii) a conservative geothermal reservoir volume of about 39 km3, iv) a geothermal potential with Er = 5.6*1018 J and Ef = 0.8*1018 J.

Invernizzi, C.; Pierantoni, P. P.; Chiodi, A.; Maffucci, R.; Corrado, S.; Baez, W.; Tassi, F.; Giordano, G.; Viramonte, J.

2014-10-01

288

Reconstructing the fungal tree of life using phylogenomics and a preliminary investigation of the distribution of yeast prion-like proteins in the fungal kingdom.  

PubMed

We have used three independent phylogenomic approaches (concatenated alignments, single-, and multi-gene supertrees) to reconstruct the fungal tree of life (FTOL) using publicly available fungal genomes. This is the first time multi-gene families have been used in fungal supertree reconstruction and permits us to use up to 66% of the 1,001,217 genes in our fungal database. Our analyses show that different phylogenomic datasets derived from varying clustering criteria and alignment orientation do not have a major effect on phylogenomic supertree reconstruction. Overall the resultant phylogenomic trees are relatively congruent with one another and successfully recover the major fungal phyla, subphyla and classes. We find that where incongruences do occur, the inferences are usually poorly supported. Within the Ascomycota phylum, our phylogenies reconstruct monophyletic Saccharomycotina and Pezizomycotina subphyla clades and infer a sister group relationship between these to the exclusion of the Taphrinomycotina. Within the Pezizomycotina subphylum, all three phylogenies infer a sister group relationship between the Leotiomycetes and Sordariomycetes classes. However, there is conflict regarding the relationships with the Dothideomycetes and Eurotiomycetes classes. Within the Basidiomycota phylum, supertrees derived from single- and multi-gene families infer a sister group relationship between the Pucciniomycotina and Agaricomycotina subphyla while the concatenated phylogeny infers a poorly supported relationship between the Agaricomycotina and Ustilagomycotina. The reconstruction of a robust FTOL is important for future fungal comparative analyses. We illustrate this point by performing a preliminary investigation into the phyletic distribution of yeast prion-like proteins in the fungal kingdom. PMID:21938499

Medina, Edgar M; Jones, Gary W; Fitzpatrick, David A

2011-10-01

289

Preliminary Investigation in the NACA Low-Turbulence Tunnel of Low-drag Airfoil Sections Suitable for Admitting Air at the Leading Edge  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An investigation was carried out in the NACA low-turbulence tunnel to develop low-drag airfoil sections suitable for admitting air at the leading edge. A thickness distribution having the desired type of pressure distribution was found from tests of a flexible model. Other airfoil shapes were derived from this original shape by varying the thickness, the camper, the leading-edge radius, and the size of the leading-edge opening. Data are presented giving the characteristics of the airfoil shapes in the range of lift coefficients for high-speed and cruising flight. Shapes have been developed which show no substantial increases in drag over that of the same position along the chord. Many of these shapes appear to have higher critical compressibility speeds than plain airfoils of the same thickness. Low-drag airfoil sections have been developed with openings in the leading edge as large as 41.5 percent of the maximum thickness. The range of lift coefficients for low drag in several cases is nearly as large as that of the corresponding plain airfoil sections. Preliminary measurements of maximum lift characteristics indicate that nose-opening sections of the type herein considered may not produce any marked effects on the maximum lift coefficient.

von Doenhoff, Albert E.; Horton, Elmer A.

1942-01-01

290

Preliminary results: Root cause investigation of orbital anomalies and failures in NASA standard 50 ampere-hour nickel-cadmium batteries  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two lots of NASA standard 50 A.H. Ni-Cd battery cells, manufactured by Gates Aerospace Batteries and built into batteries by McDonnell Douglas, have experienced significant performance problems. The two lots were used on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory and the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite. Both of these satellites are Low Earth Orbital (LEO) satellites containing batteries on a parallel bus charged to NASA standard V/T curves using a NASA standard power regulator. The following preliminary conclusions were reached: (1) several plate and cell parameters have migrated within their spec limits over the years (in some cases, from one extreme to the other); (2) several parametric relationships, not generally monitored and therefore not under specification control, have also migrated over the years; (3) many of these changes appear to have taken place as a natural consequence of changes in GE/GAB materials and processes; (4) several of these factors may be 'conspiring' to aggravate known cell failure mechanisms (factors such as heavier plate, less teflon and/or less-uniform teflon, and less electrolyte) but all are still in spec (where specs exist); (5) the weight of the evidence collected to characterize the anomalies and to characterize the negative electrode itself, strongly suggests that alterations to the structure, composition, uniformity, and efficiency of the negative electrode are at the heart of the battery performance problems currently being experienced; and (6) further investigation at all levels (plate, cell, battery, and system) continues to be warranted.

Toft, Mark R.

1993-01-01

291

A possible link between Balkan endemic nephropathy and the leaching of toxic organic compounds from Pliocene lignite by groundwater: Preliminary investigation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN) is a fatal kidney disease that is known to occur only in clusters of villages in alluvial valleys of tributaries of the Danube River in Bulgaria, Romania, Yugoslavia, Bosnia, and Croatia. The confinement of this disease to a specific geographic area has led to speculation that an environmental factor may be involved in the etiology of BEN. Numerous environmental factors have been suggested as causative agents for producing BEN, including toxic metals in drinking water, metal deficiency in soils of BEN areas, and environmental mycotoxins to name a few. These hypotheses have either been disproved or have failed to conclusively demonstrate a connection to the etiology of BEN, or the clustering of BEN villages. In previous work, we observed a distinct geographic relationship between the distribution of Pliocene lignites in the Balkans and BEN villages. We hypothesized that the long-term consumption of well water containing toxic organic compounds derived from the leaching of nearby Pliocene lignites by groundwater was a primary factor in the etiology of BEN. In our current work, chemical analysis using 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (13CNMR) spectroscopy indicated a high degree of organic functionality in Pliocene lignite from the Balkans, and suggested that groundwater can readily leach organic matter from these coal beds. Semi-quantitative gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy analysis of solvent extracts of groundwater from shallow wells in BEN villages indicated the presence of potentially toxic aromatic compounds, such as napthalene, fluorene, phenanthrene, and pyrene at concentrations in the ppb range. Laboratory leaching of Balkan Pliocene lignites with distilled water yielded soluble organic matter (> 500 MW) containing large amounts of aromatic structures similar to the simple/discrete aromatic compounds detected in well water from BEN villages. These preliminary results are permissive of our hypothesis and suggest that further work on the possible relationship between the etiology of BEN and toxic aromatic substances leached from Pliocene lignites in well water is warranted.A distinct geographic relationship between the distribution of Pliocene lignites in the Balkans and villages where Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN) occurs has been observed, indicating a possible link between BEN and the long-term consumption of well water containing toxic organic compounds derived from the leaching of nearby Pliocene lignites. Preliminary investigations by NMR spectroscopy, gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy and leaching experiments show a high degree of organic functionality in the Pliocene lignites, high-leachability by groundwater of organic matter from these beds, and the presence of toxic aromatic compounds.

Orem, W.H.; Feder, G.L.; Finkelman, R.B.

1999-01-01

292

Spiritual Bypass: A Preliminary Investigation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The phenomenon of spiritual bypass has received limited attention in the transpersonal psychology and counseling literature and has not been subjected to empirical inquiry. This study examines the phenomenon of spiritual bypass by considering how spirituality, mindfulness, alexithymia (emotional restrictiveness), and narcissism work together to…

Cashwell, Craig S.; Glosoff, Harriet L.; Hammond, Cheree

2010-01-01

293

Pesticide/herbicide pollutants in the Kafue River and a preliminary investigation into their biological effect through catalase levels in fish.  

PubMed

The study determined the types of pesticide/herbicide pollutants in water, sediment and fish from the Kafue River. A preliminary investigation of the oxidative stress from these pesticides/herbicides was also assessed by measurement of catalase activity. Water, sediment and fish samples were collected upstream, midstream and downstream the Kafue river in Chingola, Kitwe, Kafue National Park and Kafue Town. Water, sediment and fish muscle were sampled and analysed for pesticides using Gas chromatography. For catalase activity fish liver samples only were examined. The pesticides/herbicides detected in all samples collectively included: Heptachlor, pp'-DDE, Cypermethrin, Chlordane, Toxaphene, Terbufos, Kelthane, Endosulfan, Dieldrin, pp'-DDD, pp'-DDT, Atrazine, Disulfoton, d-trans-Allethrin and Endrin. On the other hand, catalase activity was detected in all fish liver samples from all sites. Its levels increased significantly from Chingola upstream to sites downstream with highest being in Kafue town. This study therefore, demonstrates that there is widespread contamination of the Kafue River with pesticides/ herbicides. It also demonstrates that organochlorides are found throughout the river especially in fish samples. The spectrum of pesticides/herbicides was much wider in fish probably due to bioaccumulation. It was also observed that fish are subjected to oxidative stress as determined by catalase levels. The stress is more pronounced downstream where the catalase levels were significantly higher than Chingola. The observation that more pesticide varieties are also found downstream may suggest a likely causative effect of the pesticides on oxidative stress although this needs further investigation. This study further tentatively highlights the potential dangers of these agro-related substances to dependants of the Kafue River water body and the need to carry out risk assessments and thereafter institute corrective measures to help reduce contamination and adverse effects. PMID:17201197

Syakalima, Michelo; Choongo, Kennedy; Mwenechanya, Roy; Wepener, Victor; Yamasaki, Masahiro; Maede, Yoshimitsu

2006-11-01

294

A preliminary investigation of the Spence Children's Anxiety Parent Scale as a screening tool for anxiety in young people with autism spectrum disorders.  

PubMed

Despite high rates of clinically elevated anxiety difficulties in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), very few studies have systematically examined the usefulness of commonly used caregiver report anxiety screening tools with this population. This study investigated the use of the Spence Children's Anxiety Scale-Parent version (SCAS-P) as a screening tool for anxiety disorders when compared to a standardized DSM-IV-TR-based clinical interview, the Kiddie-Schedule for Schizophrenia and Affective Disorders-Present and Lifetime version (K-SADS-PL). Thirty-two caregivers of youth with a clinical diagnosis of ASD (mean age 10.3 years) attending a specialist autism school participated in this study. They first completed the SCAS-P, a measure of adaptive functioning and a checklist of other emotional and behavioral difficulties. They were then interviewed with the K-SADS-PL. Internal consistency for the SCAS Total score was .88, but Cronbach's alphas were <.70 in three of the six SCAS-P subscales. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of the SCAS-P against K-SADS diagnosis were .75, .71, .27, and .95, respectively. All values were >.70, except for the PPV. Evidence of convergent validity between the SCAS-P, K-SADS-PL and DBC anxiety subscale was also found. The high false positive rates notwithstanding, the preliminary data of acceptable to excellent sensitivity, specificity and NPV values tentatively suggest that the SCAS-P may be useful for screening non-help seeking young people with ASD for elevated anxiety symptoms. Further replication in larger studies is needed and ways in which the SCAS-P could be further developed and investigated for use with youth with ASD are discussed. PMID:24573336

Zainal, Hani; Magiati, Iliana; Tan, Julianne Wen-Li; Sung, Min; Fung, Daniel S S; Howlin, Patricia

2014-08-01

295

An investigation using atomic force microscopy nanoindentation of dental enamel demineralization as a function of undissociated acid concentration and differential buffer capacity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Acidic drinks and foodstuffs can demineralize dental hard tissues, leading to a pathological condition known as dental erosion, which is of increasing clinical concern. The first step in enamel dissolution is a demineralization of the outer few micrometres of tissue, which results in a softening of the structure. The primary determinant of dissolution rate is pH, but the concentration of undissociated acid, which is related to buffer capacity, also appears to be important. In this study, atomic force microscopy nanoindentation was used to measure the first initial demineralization (softening) induced within 1 min by exposure to solutions with a range of undissociated acid concentration and natural pH of 3.3 or with an undissociated acid concentration of 10 mmol l-1 and pH adjusted to 3.3. The results indicate that differential buffering capacity is a better determinant of softening than undissociated acid concentration. Under the conditions of these experiments, a buffer capacity of >3 mmol l-1 pH-1 does not have any further effect on dissolution rate. These results imply that differential buffering capacity should be used for preference over undissociated acid concentration or titratable acidity, which are more commonly employed in the literature.

Barbour, Michele E.; Shellis, R. Peter

2007-02-01

296

Investigation of oil adsorption capacity of granular organoclay media and the kinetics of oil removal from oil-in-water emulsions  

E-print Network

to desalination. Organoclay also pre-polishes the waste water before further treatment. This research studies the efficacy of using organoclay to remove oil by measuring its adsorption capacity to remove the oil from a SAE 30 (Golden West Superior) motor oil...

Islam, Sonia

2007-04-25

297

Experimental Investigation of the Properties of Lime-Based Plaster-Containing PCM for Enhancing the Heat-Storage Capacity of Building Envelopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experimental analysis of a wide range of properties of a lightweight plaster which should enhance the heat-storage capacity of building envelopes is presented. The basic physical characteristics, namely, the bulk density, matrix density, total open porosity, and pore-size distribution are measured at first. Then, the compressive strength is determined for an assessment of mechanical performance of the plaster. The thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity are studied using an impulse technique. Differential scanning calorimetry measurements are performed as well, in order to identify the temperature range and latent heat of the phase change and to determine the specific heat capacity as a function of temperature. Durability properties are assessed using the measurement of the water absorption coefficient and sorption and desorption isotherms. The experimental results indicate a good capability of the designed plaster to moderate effectively the interior climate of buildings.

Pavlík, Zbyšek; Trník, Anton; Keppert, Martin; Pavlíková, Milena; Žumár, Jaromír; ?erný, Robert

2014-04-01

298

Preliminary investigation of soil and ground-water contamination at a U.S. Army Petroleum Training Facility, Fort Lee, Virginia, September-October 1989  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Fuel-oil constituents in the soil and groundwater at the Fort Lee Petroleum Training Facility near Petersburg, Virginia, were studied by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Department of Defense, U.S. Army. The study included installation of 25 groundwater monitoring wells and description of groundwater flow patterns of the shallow-aquifer system underlying the facility. Soil and groundwater samples were collected to determine the concentrations of fuel-oil constituents and to determine the potential for off-site migration of the constituents. Total petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations up to 18,400 mg/km were reported in soil samples. Concentrations of benzene in water from wells at the facility were up to 130 micrograms per liter (ug/L), and concentrations of ethylbenzene and xylene were up to 54 and 120 ug/L, respectively. Potential exists for off-site migration of the contaminants and migration of contaminants downward to deeper aquifers. Further investigations of these potential contamination-migration pathways are warranted. Risk identification at the Petroleum Training Facility cannot be properly addressed because the distribution of the fuel-oil constituents has not been fully characterized. Preliminary identification of risk, however is presented by an examination of toxicity data for the chemical constituents reported in the groundwater at the facility. Concentrations of constituents were compared to the maximum contaminant levels (MCLs) for drinking water established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). Concentrations of benzene in water from wells at the facility exceed the USEPA 's 5 ug/L MCL by as much as 26 times. Sufficient data are not available to fully design the remedial-action plan for the facility; however, general responses to contamination of the type associated with the facility include no-action, monitoring, institutional controls, removal, and treatment. (USGS)

Wright, W.G.; Powell, J.D.

1990-01-01

299

Investigation of the H reflexes, F waves and sympathetic skin response with electromyography (EMG) in patients with stroke and the determination of the relationship with functional capacity.  

PubMed

The purpose of the study was to evaluate the relationship between sympathetic skin responses (SSR), electrodiagnostic reflex activities (F wave, H reflex), and functional capacity in post-stroke patients. The study comprised 40 hemiplegia patients (mean age 57.8 ± 10.9 years) and 40 healthy volunteers (mean age 557 ± 85 years). In electrophysiological studies, SSR, F wave and H reflex were evaluated and for the functional capacities of patients, FIM scores and Brunnstrom stages were calculated. There was no statistical significant difference between SSR latency and amplitude in the hemiplegic and non-hemiplegic extremities of patients (p > 0.05). SSR latency values of patients were higher than those of controls (p < 0.05). Amplitude values of paretic arms were significantly lower than the control group extremities (p < 0.05). There was a significant correlation between SSR amplitude values and FIM scores. A significant increase in H max/M max amplitude rate was detected in the affected side (p < 0.05) and F-wave mean latency values of the affected side were found to be significantly lower in the control group (p < 0.05). PMID:25481720

Cak?r, Tuncay; Evcik, Fatma Deniz; Suba??, Volkan; Demirdal, Umit Seçil; Kavuncu, Vural

2014-12-01

300

CAPACITY BUILDING ACTIVITIES Public Health  

E-print Network

CAPACITY BUILDING ACTIVITIES School of Public Health Dean Principal Investigator Community Advisory System Faculty & Students School of Public Health Faculty & Students Prince George's County Washington, D.C. Community Members Practitioners, Residents and Public Health Professionals Research Projects Forum (CAC

Hill, Wendell T.

301

Heat capacity of molten halides.  

PubMed

The heat capacities of molten salts are very important for their practical use. Experimental investigation of this property is challenging because of the high temperatures involved and the corrosive nature of these materials. It is preferable to combine experimental investigations with empirical relationships, which allows for the evaluation of the heat capacity of molten salt mixtures. The isobaric molar heat capacities of all molten alkali and alkaline-earth halides were found to be constant for each group of salts. The value depends on the number of atoms in the salt, and the molar heat capacity per atom is constant for all molten halide salts with the exception of the lithium halides. The molar heat capacities of molten halides do not change when the anions are changed. PMID:25530462

Redkin, Alexander A; Zaikov, Yurii P; Korzun, Iraida V; Reznitskikh, Olga G; Yaroslavtseva, Tatiana V; Kumkov, Sergey I

2015-01-15

302

Investigators  

Microsoft Academic Search

We organised a two-day workshop to promote our multi-expertise collaborative project on Chiral Symmetry Breaking in the strong interactions. Including the six investigators in our group, there were twenty-eight participants. Twelve talks were presented, reporting on novel insights and methods: AdS\\/CFT duality of large-Nc QCD to a gravity on AdS5, lattice-QCD and Dyson-Schwinger approaches. The possibility of a separation between

Craig Roberts; Donald Sinclair; Jeff Harvey; David Kutasov; Sophia Domokos; Carlos Wagner

2007-01-01

303

The Adaptive Classical Capacity of a Quantum Channel, Information Capacities of Three Symmetric Pure States  

E-print Network

We investigate the capacity of three symmetric quantum states in three real di- mensions to carry channels, Shannon's theorem [16] gives the information-carrying capacity of a channel. When one tries to several different capacities. In this paper, we consider the capacity of quantum channels to carry

Shor, Peter W.

304

Preliminary Mathematics  

E-print Network

QPL 2005 Preliminary Version Dagger compact closed categories and completely positive maps, Nova Scotia, Canada Abstract Dagger compact closed categories were recently introduced by Abramsky and Co­ ecke, under the name ``strongly compact closed categories'', as an axiomatic frame­ work

Selinger, Peter

305

A preliminary investigation of the Environmental Control and Life Support Subsystem (EC/LSS) for the space construction base manufacturing modules  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The preliminary data of the environmental control and life support subsystem for a space construction base manufacturing module was reported. A space processing module, which is capable of performing production biological experiments, was chosen as a baseline configuration. The primary assemblies and components considered for use were humidity and temperature control, ventilation fan, cabin fan, water separator, condensate storage, overboard dumping, distribution system, contaminant monitoring, cabin sensors, and fire and smoke detection.

Wells, H. B.

1977-01-01

306

Investigation of the capacity retention mechanisms in novel composite sulfur copolymer-base cathodes for high-energy density Li-S batteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Utilization of the active cathode material in high-energy density Li-S batteries limited by the insulating nature of sulfur and losses in the form of insoluble polysulfides was improved by the use of 1,3-diisopropenylbenzene (DIB) copolymerized with molten sulfur. This approach termed, inverse vulcanization, transforms elemental sulfur into chemically stable processable copolymer forms with tunable thermomechanical properties. According to dielectric spectroscopy and dc conductivity measurements, composite sulfur-DIB copolymer cathodes exhibit a glassy-state beta relaxation related to short sulfur segments or to the DIB cross-linker. High-resolution AEM and FESEM studies down to the atomic scale reveal multiscale 3D-architectures created within the pristine and cycled composite cathodes with various contents of the electroactive copolymers. The morphology, structures, bonding and local compositional distributions of the constituents (sulfur, copolymers, aggregated conductive carbon nanoparticles) as well as extended pore structures and their transformations under cycling have been examined to provide insights into mechanisms of the enhanced capacity retention in the modified Li-S cells.

Oleshko, Vladimir; Kim, Jenny; Masser, Kevin; Hudson, Steven; Soles, Christopher; Griebel, Jared; Chung, Woo Jin; Simmonds, Adam; Pyun, Jeffrey

2013-03-01

307

Preliminary in-situ major and trace element and isotopic investigation of carbonatites and associated alkaline silica-undersaturated rocks from the Oka complex, Québec (Canada)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Oka carbonatite complex is one of the most westerly intrusions of the Monteregian Igneous Province (MIP), which is composed of plutons and dykes of alkaline compositions emplaced within southern Québec. Oka is geologically significant because: i. it is one of the youngest carbonatites in North America (between 109 ±2 and 131 ±7 Ma), ii. contains both a variety of carbonatitic and silicate rocks (e.g. alnöite, okaite), and iii. mined in the past for Nb (pyrochlore). The exact origin of the MIP alkaline intrusions still remains unknown and has been attributed to either melting of lithospheric mantle during the opening of the North Atlantic Ocean, a mantle plume origin, or linked to magmatism associated with the Vermont White Mountains and the New England seamounts. However, there remains much debate as to the exact origin of parental melts to carbonatites; i.e. models include derivation from lithosphere, a mixture between lithosphere and asthenosphere, or an asthenospheric (plume) origin. Whole rock Nd, Sr, and Pb isotope data from previous investigations of the Oka carbonatites indicate derivation from a time-integrated depleted mantle source. However, deciphering mantle sources and melt crystallization histories based on whole rock isotopic data is rendered difficult since previous studies of carbonatite-bearing, alkaline complexes indicate isotopic disequilibrium amongst co-existing minerals and/or with their corresponding host rock. Consequently, a multi-faceted study was initiated involving in-situ chemical (major and trace element) and isotopic (C, O, Sr, Nd, Pb, U-Pb) characterization of the dominant minerals at the micron scale in the carbonatites and associated alkaline Si-undersaturated rocks from Oka. Preliminary major and trace element analyses (electron microprobe analysis and laser ablation-ICP-MS) and in-situ Sr isotope analyses (laser ablation-MC-ICP-MS) of mainly carbonates were obtained for several carbonatites and a melilite-bearing okaite. Major element analyses reveal that carbonates are calcite and apatite is REE-enriched (>4 wt% total REEs). In-situ trace element analyses of calcite within 5 distinct areas of carbonatite sample Oka2.2 indicate similar REE abundances, and corresponding in-situ 87Sr/86Sr isotope values are extremely uniform (0.70322-0.70339; given associated uncertainties). In contrast, in-situ trace element analyses of calcite from okaite (Oka2.3) show variable REE abundances that correlate positively with their 87Sr/86Sr values (0.70270 - 0.70303). Apatite blades from sample Oka2.3 have higher 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.70325 - 0.70345) that overlap those for calcite from sample Oka2.2. Thus, the chemical and Sr isotope data obtained for calcites from samples Oka2.2 and Oka2.3 cannot be explained by either simple closed system crystal fractionation, assimilation-fractional crystallization (AFC), derivation by liquid immiscibility, or partial melting from the same mantle source. These first results clearly demonstrate that a complex crystallization history must be invoked, perhaps mixing of melts derived from isotopically distinct mantle reservoirs.

Simonetti, A.; Chen, W.

2010-12-01

308

Heat capacity, configurational heat capacity and fragility of hydrous magmas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The glassy and liquid heat capacities of four series of dry and hydrous natural glasses and magma as a function of temperature and water content (up to 19.9 mol%) were investigated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The analyzed compositions are basalt, latite, trachyte and pantellerite. The results of this study indicate that the measured heat capacity of glasses (Cpg) is a linear function of composition and is well reproduced by the empirical model of Richet (1987). For the investigated glasses, the partial molar heat capacity of water can be considered as independent of composition, in agreement with Bouhifd et al. (2006). For hydrous liquids, the heat capacity (Cpliq) decreases nonlinearly with increasing water content. Previously published models, combined with the partial molar heat capacity of water from the literature, are not able to reproduce our experimental data in a satisfactory way. We estimated the partial molar heat capacity of water (CpH2O) in hydrous magma over a broad compositional range. The proposed value is 41 ± 3 J mol-1 K-1. Water strongly affects the configurational heat capacity at the glass transition temperature [Cpconf (Tg)]. An increases of Cpconf (Tg) with water content was measured for the polymerized liquids (trachyte and pantellerite), while the opposite behavior was observed for the most depolymerized liquids (basalt and latite). Structural and rheological implications of this behavior are discussed in light of the presented results.

Di Genova, D.; Romano, C.; Giordano, D.; Alletti, M.

2014-10-01

309

Preliminary design of four aircraft to service the California Corridor in the year 2010: The California Condor, California Sky-Hopper, high capacity short range transport tilt rotor aircraft needed to simplify intercity transportation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The major objective of this project was to design an aircraft for use in the California Corridor in the year 2010. The design process, completed by students in a senior design class at California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo, used a Class 1 airplane design analysis from Jan Roskam's Airplane Design. The California Condor (CC-38), a 38 passenger, 400 mph aircraft, was designed to meet the needs of tomorrow's passengers while conforming to the California Corridor's restrictions. Assumptions were made using today's technology with forecasts into 21st Century technology. Doubling today's commuter aircraft passenger capacity, travelling at Mach .57 with improved cruise efficiencies of over 10 percent, with the ability to land within field lengths of 4000 feet, are the CC-38's strongest points. The California Condor has a very promising future in helping to relieve the air traffic and airport congestion in the 21st Century.

1989-01-01

310

Fuel efficient train operations: A preliminary investigation with the locomotive data acquisition package on the Union Pacific Railroad. Interim report Jun-Nov 80  

SciTech Connect

The Locomotive Data Acquisition Package (LDAP) is a research data acquisition system designed for use on board diesel locomotives. Between June 1980 and November 1980, a fuel efficient train operations experiment was conducted in cooperation with the Union Pacific Railroad using the LDAP. The experiment served both as a checkout of the LDAP unit, and as a preliminary study of the relationship between train handling and fuel consumption. The LDAP unit was operated on a Union Pacific Locomotive for 127 days during which data were collected for 53,936 miles of locomotive operation.

Larsen, K.W.

1981-12-01

311

Investigations into capacity fading as a result of a Jahn–Teller distortion in 4 V LiMn 2O 4 thin film electrodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study reports the onset of the Jahn–Teller distortion in 4V LiMn2O4 thin film electrodes that was investigated using an in situ bending beam method (BBM). The phase transformation during lithium insertion\\/extraction could be detected using the BBM technique. The phase transformation between the cubic and tetragonal phases was depicted by the larger value of the compressive or tensile differential

Kyung Yoon Chung; Kwang-Bum Kim

2004-01-01

312

Anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) increases frontal-midline theta activity in the human EEG: A preliminary investigation of non-invasive stimulation.  

PubMed

Rhythmical brain activity in the range between four and eight Hz acquired over frontal-midline EEG recording sites - so called frontal-midline theta activity - is regarded as one of the most prominent neural signatures of sustained attention. It is reported to parametrically increase with cognitive load and is thought to be generated in medial prefrontal cortex. Here we explored the possibility of using anodal transcranial direct current stimulation over frontal sites to enhance frontal-midline theta activity and to increase sustained attention performance. We used a small preliminary sample to test a novel direct current stimulation electrode configuration by which we were able to significantly increase frontal-midline theta amplitude in a resting condition after the end of the stimulation period. Using standardised low resolution electromagnetic tomography analysis the effect in the surface EEG was localised to right prefrontal and left medial prefrontal brain areas. Transcranial direct current stimulation did, however, not have any impact on behavioural performance during a sustained attention task. This most likely was due to a very fast washout of the stimulation's after effect on theta activity. Although these are only preliminary results from a rather small sample, this study demonstrates that transcranial direct current stimulation can be used to rather selectively enhance frontal-midline theta amplitude. PMID:25576699

Miller, Joe; Berger, Barbara; Sauseng, Paul

2015-02-19

313

Computational Investigation of Heat and Mass Transfer Processes in a Gel-Like Fuel Ignited by a Limited-Capacity Source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have carried out a computational investigation of the interrelated processes of heat and mass transfer, exothermal (crystallization) and endothermal (melting and evaporation) phase transitions, and chemical reactions resulting from ignition of a gel-like condensed substance. The dependence of the main integral characteristic of the process — the ignition delay time — on the temperature of the local heating source has been established. Limiting ignition conditions have been revealed. The position of the zone of the leading oxidation reaction relative to the interface between the heated particle and the fuel has been determined. A comparison has been made between the ignition conditions of condensed substances in different aggregate states under local heating.

Kuznetsov, G. V.; Strizhak, P. A.

2013-05-01

314

Preliminary Hard X-ray Micro-spectroscopic Investigations on Thin-Film Ta-and-W Based Diffusion Barriers for Copper Interconnect Technology  

SciTech Connect

Within the microelectronics industry, the requirement for reducing device dimensions for increased circuit performance and lower manufacturing costs has led to many avenues of research in advanced materials and fabrication processes. One of the most important challenges in ultra-large scale integrated technology is the fabrication of thin-film diffusion barriers that prevent copper interconnect lines diffusing through the barrier material and into the neighboring silicon layers. In this paper, we present preliminary synchrotron x-ray spectroscopy measurements as a tool for studying the properties of these buried barrier layers and consider the opportunity of applying the spatial resolution of an x-ray microbeam in probing different regions of the barrier material.

Ablett, James M. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, National Synchrotron Light Source, Upton, New York, 11973 (United States); Woicik, Joseph C. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland (United States); Tokei, Zsolt [IMEC, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium)

2007-01-19

315

Forced Expiratory Volume in 6 s (FEV6) and FEV1/FEV6 Values as a Viable Alternative for Forced Vital Capacity (FVC) and FEV1/FVC Values During Pregnancy in South East Nigeria: A Preliminary Study  

PubMed Central

Background: Forced expiratory volume in 6 s (FEV6) and FEV1/FEV6 ratio have traditionally been used as a surrogate for forced vital capacity (FVC) and FEV1/FVC in the assessment of spirometric lung function in nonpregnant subjects. However, the existence of this relationship during pregnancy is yet to be ascertained. Aim: The aim of this study was to determine if FEV6 and FEV1/FEV6 can effectively be used instead of FVC and FEV1/FVC in the interpretation of lung function test during pregnancy. Subjects and Methods: This study was a descriptive cross-sectional study carried out among 200 pregnant women who were recruited by using systematic random sampling during the period between April and October 2011. One hundred matched nonpregnant women served as control. A standard spirometer was used to determine the FVC, FEV6, FEV1/FVC, and FEV1/FEV6. Data analysis was done using SPSS version 11.0 (Chicago, IL, USA). Values were recorded as mean (standard deviation), and also median and interquartile ranges. The one-way analysis of variance, Mann–Whitey U and the Kruskal–Wallis were used to test for significance where applicable. P <0.05 were considered to be significant. Results: All the values were within normal range, but the FVC and FEV6 decreased significantly while the FEV1/FVC and FEV1/FEV6 increased as pregnancy progressed. However, for first and last trimester, FVC differed significantly from FEV6. The values of the FVC were comparable to the values of FEV6. The FEV1/FVC and FEV1/FEV6 ratio were similar and well above the 0.7 cutoff for obstructive lung diseases. Conclusion: FEV6 requires a short exhalation time and can effectively be used in place of FVC in evaluation of lung function test during pregnancy. The FEV1/FEV6 may be applied as a proxy for FEV1/FVC in pregnant and nonpregnant women. PMID:25221696

Nwagha, U; Iyare, E; Anyaehie, U; Onyedum, C; Okereke, C; Ajuzieogu, O; Amucheazi, A; Oluboboku, T; Agu, P; Igweh, J; Oguanuo, T

2014-01-01

316

A preliminary investigation of Large Eddy Simulation (LES) of the flow around a cylinder at ReD = 3900 using a commercial CFD code  

SciTech Connect

Engineering fluid mechanics simulations at high Reynolds numbers have traditionally been performed using the Reynolds-Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) equations and a turbulence model. The RANS methodology has well-documented shortcomings in the modeling of separated or bluff body wake flows that are characterized by unsteady vortex shedding. The resulting turbulence statistics are strongly influenced by the detailed structure and dynamics of the large eddies, which are poorly captured using RANS models (Rodi 1997; Krishnan et al. 2004). The Large Eddy Simulation (LES) methodology offers the potential to more accurately simulate these flows as it resolves the large-scale unsteady motions and entails modeling of only the smallest-scale turbulence structures. Commercial computational fluid dynamics products are beginning to offer LES capability, allowing practicing engineers an opportunity to apply this turbulence modeling technique to much wider array of problems than in dedicated research codes. Here, we present a preliminary evaluation of the LES capability in the commercial CFD solver StarCD by simulating the flow around a cylinder at a Reynolds number based on the cylinder diameter, D, of 3900 using the constant coefficient Smagorinsky LES model. The results are compared to both the experimental and computational results provided in Kravchenko & Moin (2000). We find that StarCD provides predictions of lift and drag coefficients that are within 15% of the experimental values. Reasonable agreement is obtained between the time-averaged velocity statistics and the published data. The differences in these metrics may be due to the use of a truncated domain in the spanwise direction and the short time-averaging period used for the statistics presented here. The instantaneous flow field visualizations show a coarser, larger-scale structure than the study of Kravchenko & Moin (2000), which may be a product of the LES implementation or of the domain and resolution used. Based on this preliminary study, we conclude that StarCD's LES implementation may useful for low Reynolds number LES computations if proper care is used in the problem and mesh definition.

Paschkewitz, J S

2006-02-14

317

A preliminary investigation into a simple method for the determination of the mean ionisation energy of gas mixtures used in the NPL primary gas counting system.  

PubMed

The activity concentration of gaseous beta-emitting radionuclides such as (3)H, (85)Kr and, more recently, (11)C, is measured at NPL using a set of length-compensated proportional counters. The active gas is mixed with argon-methane (P-10) and passed to the counters. Adding gases to P-10 changes the mean ionisation energy, W, of the gas mixture. Estimation of the counting losses using the Monte Carlo model requires a knowledge of W. Unfortunately, only a limited amount of published data is available. This paper describes the initial experimental studies performed to enable the extension of the MC model based loss correction method to gases other than carbon dioxide in P-10. Preliminary measurements have been made to determine the W value for a gas mixture containing (85)Kr in nitrogen and P-10. The DC current through the counters is measured; the counters are also operated in the normal way with pulse amplifiers, discriminators and scalers. The value of W is derived from a knowledge of activity, counter current and mean beta energy. PMID:22609128

Phillips, H C; Sephton, J P; Johansson, L C; Dean, J C J

2012-09-01

318

Investigating the antioxidant capacity of coffee!  

PubMed

In the 1990s we began to understand that free radical damage is involved in artery-clogging atherosclerosis and health problems like vision loss, cancer or chronic diseases. Studies have shown that the damage especially affects people with a low consumption of antioxidant-rich fruits, vegetables...and coffee. Is this just a fairy tale promoted by the coffee industry? Scientists at the Zurich University of Applied Sciences (ZHAW) in Wädenswil wanted to get to the bottom of the question. PMID:24801702

2014-01-01

319

A Preliminary Investigation into the Mitigation of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Tailpipe Emissions Through Supervisory Control Methods Part 1: Analytical Development of Energy Management Strategies  

SciTech Connect

Plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) technologies have the potential for considerable petroleum consumption reductions, possibly at the expense of increased tailpipe emissions due to multiple 'cold' start events and improper use of the engine for PHEV specific operation. PHEVs operate predominantly as electric vehicles (EVs) with intermittent assist from the engine during high power demands. As a consequence, the engine can be subjected to multiple cold start events. These cold start events may have a significant impact on the tailpipe emissions due to degraded catalyst performance and starting the engine under less than ideal conditions. On current hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), the first cold start of the engine dictates whether or not the vehicle will pass federal emissions tests. PHEV operation compounds this problem due to infrequent, multiple engine cold starts. The research is broken down into two (2) distinct phases, involving both analytical and experimental areas. Phase I of the research, addressed in this document, focuses on the design of a vehicle supervisory control system for a pre-transmission parallel PHEV powertrain architecture. A suitable control system architecture is created and implemented into a standard vehicle modeling tool (in this case, the Powertrain Systems Analysis Toolkit). Energy management strategies are evaluated and implemented in a virtual environment for preliminary assessment of petroleum displacement benefits and rudimentary drivability issues. Engine cold start events are aggressively addressed in the development of this control system, which leads to enhanced pre-warming and energy-based engine warming algorithms that provide substantial reductions in tailpipe emissions over the baseline supervisory control strategy. The flexibility of the PHEV powertrain offers the potential for decreased emissions during any engine starting event through powertrain 'torque shaping' algorithms. The analytical work presented here is experimentally validated during Phase 2, the subject of a follow on paper.

Smith, David E [ORNL] [ORNL; Lohse-Busch, Henning [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL)] [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Irick, David Kim [ORNL] [ORNL

2010-01-01

320

Capacity and Currere  

Microsoft Academic Search

My first epigraph above speaks of an arena little talked about these days of terrorism, acrimony, and road rage. It speaks\\u000a of interiority, that which is within all things and so has “capacity.” The word “capacity” interests me. Capacity suggests\\u000a wideness, not narrowness; openness; space for possibilities not yet even imagined, or if imagined done so with a tremble.\\u000a Capacity

Mary Doll

321

Accumulation and effects of sulfadimethoxine in Salix fragilis L. plants: a preliminary study to phytoremediation purposes.  

PubMed

The application of manure to fertilize arable lands is one of the major means through which veterinary sulfonamides (SAs) enter the environment. Little is known about the capacity of woody plants to phytoremediate this class of antibiotics. To this purpose we performed preliminary studies to evaluate Salix fragilis L. response to sulfadimethoxine (SDM) by investigating both its ability to absorb and tolerate doses of SDM found in fresh faeces of treated calves. Forty cuttings were exposed to either 0, 0.5, 1, or 2 mM of SDM for one month. Decreases in photosynthetic electron transport rate and net CO2 assimilation after 25 days for the higher SDM concentrations were noticed. Moreover, alterations in root morphology of treated plants were observed and further investigated through electron microscopy. However, collected data revealed high root accumulation potential. These preliminary results are promising as they demonstrate that Salix fragilis L. can both absorb and tolerate high concentrations of SAs. PMID:22567719

Michelini, Lucia; Meggio, Franco; La Rocca, Nicoletta; Ferro, Stefania; Ghisi, Rossella

2012-04-01

322

Individual differences in working memory capacity and workload capacity  

PubMed Central

We investigated the relationship between working memory capacity (WMC) and workload capacity (WLC). Each participant performed an operation span (OSPAN) task to measure his/her WMC and three redundant-target detection tasks to measure his/her WLC. WLC was computed non-parametrically (Experiments 1 and 2) and parametrically (Experiment 2). Both levels of analyses showed that participants high in WMC had larger WLC than those low in WMC only when redundant information came from visual and auditory modalities, suggesting that high-WMC participants had superior processing capacity in dealing with redundant visual and auditory information. This difference was eliminated when multiple processes required processing for only a single working memory subsystem in a color-shape detection task and a double-dot detection task. These results highlighted the role of executive control in integrating and binding information from the two working memory subsystems for perceptual decision making. PMID:25566143

Yu, Ju-Chi; Chang, Ting-Yun; Yang, Cheng-Ta

2014-01-01

323

The worker role interview--preliminary data on the predictive validity of return to work of clients after an insurance medicine investigation.  

PubMed

The aim was to investigate the predictive validity of the Worker Role Interview (WRI) for return to work at a 2-year follow-up of clients who attended an insurance medicine investigation center. The WRI identifies psychosocial and environmental factors that influence a person's abilities to return to work. Forty-eight of 202 consecutively selected clients constituted the study group. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to test the statistically significant differences in WRI ratings between those who were working (n = 6) and those who were not (n = 42) 2 years after their investigations. Five of the 17 items in WRI had a tentative predictive validity of return to work. The content area "personal causation" in WRI, had the best predictive validity. The results emphasize the importance of considering the unique individual's beliefs and expectations of his/her effectiveness at work when assessing clients' work ability and planning for further rehabilitation. PMID:15074365

Ekbladh, Elin; Haglund, Lena; Thorell, Lars-Håkan

2004-06-01

324

Quantum capacities of bosonic channels.  

PubMed

We investigate the capacity of bosonic quantum channels for the transmission of quantum information. We calculate the quantum capacity for a class of Gaussian channels, including channels describing optical fibers with photon losses, by proving that Gaussian encodings are optimal. For arbitrary channels we show that achievable rates can be determined from few measurable parameters by proving that every channel can asymptotically simulate a Gaussian channel which is characterized by second moments of the initial channel. Along the way we provide a complete characterization of degradable Gaussian channels and those arising from teleportation protocols. PMID:17501173

Wolf, Michael M; Pérez-García, David; Giedke, Geza

2007-03-30

325

A Preliminary Investigation into Critical Thinking of In-Service and Pre-Service Middle School Chemistry Teachers in Shaanxi Province of China  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research investigated the development of critical thinking of middle school chemistry teachers in Shaanxi province of China. In-service and pre-service teachers' critical thinking are examined in order to provide evidence for establishing teachers' standard. The sample in this study consisted of 69 in-service and 61 pre-service chemistry…

Zhou, Qing; Yan, Chungeng; Zhao, Shuyu; Liu, Liya; Xing, Lijuan

2012-01-01

326

A Preliminary Investigation of the Spence Children's Anxiety Parent Scale as a Screening Tool for Anxiety in Young People with Autism Spectrum Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite high rates of clinically elevated anxiety difficulties in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), very few studies have systematically examined the usefulness of commonly used caregiver report anxiety screening tools with this population. This study investigated the use of the Spence Children's Anxiety…

Zainal, Hani; Magiati, Iliana; Tan, Julianne Wen-Li; Sung, Min; Fung, Daniel S.; Howlin, Patricia

2014-01-01

327

Jarbidge Cooperative Elk Herd Carrying Capacity Study Nevada Division of Wildlife, Hunt Unit 072, Elko County, Nevada  

E-print Network

Jarbidge Cooperative Elk Herd Carrying Capacity Study Nevada Division of Wildlife, Hunt Unit 072 and calculations relative to preliminary estimates of carrying capacity for elk (Cervus elaphus) on 1999 summer, Elko County, Nevada 1999 ANNUAL REPORT: Preliminary Estimates of 1999 Elk Summer Range Carrying

Beck, Jeffrey L.

328

The Effects of Winter Exposure to Acid Soil Conditions on the Subsequent Survival and Growth of Herbaceous, Forest Perennials: a Preliminary Investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

For many plant species, growth is limited in acid soils, which are characterized by high levels of potentially-toxic elements and low nutrient availability. Although plant-soil interactions are traditionally studied during the growing season, the highest concentrations of toxic elements in the soil may occur during the winter months. The present study investigated the effects of a 3-month exposure to either

URSULA FALKENGREN-GRERUP

1998-01-01

329

The capacity of digital links in tandem  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present investigation is concerned with the error control strategy used in connection with digital data networks, taking into account the capacity of the end-to-end channel. It is assumed that the only source of noise is Gaussian and that bandwidth limitation on capacity can be ignored. Attention is given to L links in tandem with binary repeaters, the asymptotic capacity with a large number of links, some alternative repeater strategies, and approaches for lowering the bit error probability. Numerical results are presented, taking into consideration capacity versus link error probability for various numbers of links.

Posner, E. C.; Rubin, A. L.

1984-01-01

330

Preliminary Results of an Altitude-Wind-Tunnel Investigation of an Axial-Flow Gas Turbine-Propeller Engine. 4; Compressor and Turbine Performance Characteristics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As part of an investigation of the performance and operational characteristics of the axial-flow gas turbine-propeller engine, conducted in the Cleveland altitude wind tunnel, the performance characteristics of the compressor and the turbine were obtained. The data presented were obtained at a compressor-inlet ram-pressure ratio of 1.00 for altitudes from 5000 to 35,000 feet, engine speeds from 8000 to 13,000 rpm, and turbine-inlet temperatures from 1400 to 2100 R. The highest compressor pressure ratio obtained was 6.15 at a corrected air flow of 23.7 pounds per second and a corrected turbine-inlet temperature of 2475 R. Peak adiabatic compressor efficiencies of about 77 percent were obtained near the value of corrected air flow corresponding to a corrected engine speed of 13,000 rpm. This maximum efficiency may be somewhat low, however, because of dirt accumulations on the compressor blades. A maximum adiabatic turbine efficiency of 81.5 percent was obtained at rated engine speed for all altitudes and turbine-inlet temperatures investigated.

Wallner, Lewis E.; Saari, Martin J.

1948-01-01

331

Preliminary Results of Altitude-Wind-Tunnel Investigation of X24C-4B Turbojet Engine. IV - Performance of Modified Compressor. Part 4; Performance of Modified Compressor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The performance of the 11-stage axial-flow compressor, modified to improve the compressor-outlet velocity, in a revised X24C-4B turbojet engine is presented and compared with the performance of the compressor in the original engine. Performance data were obtained from an investigation of the revised engine in the MACA Cleveland altitude wind tunnel. Compressor performance data were obtained for engine operation with four exhaust nozzles of different outlet area at simulated altitudes from 15,OOO to 45,000 feet, simulated flight Mach numbers from 0.24 to 1.07, and engine speeds from 4000 to 12,500 rpm. The data cover a range of corrected engine speeds from 4100 to 13,500 rpm, which correspond to compressor Mach numbers from 0.30 to 1.00.

Thorman, H. Carl; Dupree, David T.

1947-01-01

332

Measurement of the visual attention patterns of people with aphasia: a preliminary investigation of two types of human engagement in photographic images.  

PubMed

The focus of this investigation was to examine the visual attention patterns of adults with aphasia on task-engaged contextualized images in which a human figure was engaged with the context of the image and camera-engaged contextualized images in which a human figure was looking forward toward the camera. Analysis revealed that adults with aphasia tend to fixate rapidly and frequently on human figures in contextualized images regardless of the type of engagement in the image. In addition, they responded to engagement cues when viewing task-engaged contextualized images by fixating more frequently and more rapidly on the object area of interest for these images than for camera-engaged contextualized images. PMID:24785409

Thiessen, Amber; Beukelman, David; Ullman, Cara; Longenecker, Maria

2014-06-01

333

USING ISOTHERMS TO PREDICT GAC'S CAPACITY FOR SYNTHETIC ORGANICS  

EPA Science Inventory

This investigation involved operating a pilot granular activated carbon (GAC) plant to obtain capacity data under typical field conditions, determining isotherms for selected synthetic organic chemicals, and comparing the capacity predicted by the isotherm data with the pilot-pla...

334

On Gaussian feedback capacity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Pinsker and Ebert (1970) proved that in channels with additive Gaussian noise, feedback at most doubles the capacity. Cover and Pombra (1989) proved that feedback at most adds half a bit per transmission. Following their approach, the author proves that in the limit as signal power approaches either zero (very low SNR) or infinity (very high SNR), feedback does not increase the finite block-length capacity (which for nonstationary Gaussian channels replaces the standard notion of capacity that may not exist). Tighter upper bounds on the capacity are obtained in the process. Specializing these results to stationary channels, the author recovers some of the bounds recently obtained by Ozarow.

Dembo, Amir

1989-01-01

335

MR guided thermal therapy of pancreatic tumors with endoluminal, intraluminal and interstitial catheter-based ultrasound devices: preliminary theoretical and experimental investigations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Image-guided thermal interventions have been proposed for potential palliative and curative treatments of pancreatic tumors. Catheter-based ultrasound devices offer the potential for temporal and 3D spatial control of the energy deposition profile. The objective of this study was to apply theoretical and experimental techniques to investigate the feasibility of endogastric, intraluminal and transgastric catheter-based ultrasound for MR guided thermal therapy of pancreatic tumors. The transgastric approach involves insertion of a catheter-based ultrasound applicator (array of 1.5 mm OD x 10 mm transducers, 360° or sectored 180°, ~7 MHz frequency, 13-14G cooling catheter) directly into the pancreas, either endoscopically or via image-guided percutaneous placement. An intraluminal applicator, of a more flexible but similar construct, was considered for endoscopic insertion directly into the pancreatic or biliary duct. An endoluminal approach was devised based on an ultrasound transducer assembly (tubular, planar, curvilinear) enclosed in a cooling balloon which is endoscopically positioned within the stomach or duodenum, adjacent to pancreatic targets from within the GI tract. A 3D acoustic bio-thermal model was implemented to calculate acoustic energy distributions and used a FEM solver to determine the transient temperature and thermal dose profiles in tissue during heating. These models were used to determine transducer parameters and delivery strategies and to study the feasibility of ablating 1-3 cm diameter tumors located 2-10 mm deep in the pancreas, while thermally sparing the stomach wall. Heterogeneous acoustic and thermal properties were incorporated, including approximations for tumor desmoplasia and dynamic changes during heating. A series of anatomic models based on imaging scans of representative patients were used to investigate the three approaches. Proof of concept (POC) endogastric and transgastric applicators were fabricated and experimentally evaluated in tissue mimicking phantoms, ex vivo tissue and in vivo canine model under multi-slice MR thermometry. RF micro-coils were evaluated to enable active catheter-tracking and prescription of thermometry slice positions. Interstitial and intraluminal ultrasound applicators could be used to ablate (t43>240min) tumors measuring 2.3-3.4 cm in diameter when powered with 20-30 W/cm2 at 7 MHz for 5-10 min. Endoluminal applicators with planar and curvilinear transducers operating at 3-4 MHz could be used to treat tumors up to 20-25 mm deep from the stomach wall within 5 min. POC devices were fabricated and successfully integrated into the MRI environment with catheter tracking, real-time thermometry and closed-loop feedback control.

Prakash, Punit; Salgaonkar, Vasant A.; Scott, Serena J.; Jones, Peter; Hensley, Daniel; Holbrook, Andrew; Plata, Juan; Sommer, Graham; Diederich, Chris J.

2013-02-01

336

Construction and preliminary investigation of a novel dengue serotype 4 chimeric virus using Japanese encephalitis vaccine strain SA14-14-2 as the backbone.  

PubMed

For the purpose of developing a novel dengue vaccine candidate, recombinant plasmids were constructed which contained the full length cDNA clone of Japanese encephalitis (JE) vaccine strain SA14-14-2 with its premembrane (PreM) and envelope (E) genes replaced by the counterparts of dengue virus type 4 (DENV4). By transfecting the in vitro transcription products of the recombinant plasmids into BHK-21 cells, a chimeric virus JEV/DENV4 was successfully recovered. The chimeric virus was identified by complete genome sequencing, Western blot and immunofluorescent staining. Growth characteristics revealed it was well adapted to primary hamster kidney (PHK) cells. Its genetic stability was investigated and only one unintentional mutation in 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR) was found after 20 passages in PHK cells. Neurotropism, neurovirulence and immunogenicity of the chimeric virus were tested in mice. Besides, the influence of JE vaccine pre-immunization on the neutralizing antibody level induced by the chimeric virus was illuminated. To our knowledge, this is the first chimeric virus incorporating the JE vaccine stain SA14-14-2 and DENV4. It is probably a potential candidate to compose a tetravalent dengue chimeric vaccine. PMID:25091563

Li, Zhushi; Yang, Huiqiang; Yang, Jian; Lin, Hua; Wang, Wei; Liu, Lina; Zhao, Yu; Liu, Li; Zeng, Xianwu; Yu, Yongxin; Li, Yuhua

2014-10-13

337

Photothermal response of CVD synthesized carbon (nano)spheres/aqueous nanofluids for potential application in direct solar absorption collectors: a preliminary investigation  

PubMed Central

Direct-absorption solar collectors have the potential to offer an unlimited source of renewable energy with minimal environmental impact. Unfortunately, their performance is limited by the absorption efficiency of the working fluid. Nanoparticles of functionalized carbon nanospheres (CNS) have the potential to improve the photothermal properties of the working fluid. CNS are produced by the pyrolysis of acetylene gas in a tube-based electric furnace/chemical vapor deposition apparatus. The reaction takes place at 1000°C in the presence of nitrogen gas without the use of a catalyst. The synthesized CNS were examined and characterized using field-emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, thermal gravimetric analysis, and ultraviolet-visible analysis. The CNS powders with a mean particle size of 210 nm were then functionalized using tetraethylammonium hydroxide ([C2H5]4 N[OH]) and used to produce a series of aqueous nanofluids with varying mass content. The photothermal response of both the nanofluids and films composed of CNS were investigated under 1000 W/m2 solar irradiation. PMID:24198496

Poinern, Gérrard Eddy Jai; Brundavanam, Sridevi; Shah, Monaliben; Laava, Iafeta; Fawcett, Derek

2012-01-01

338

Preliminary Investigation of the Psychometric Properties of the Korean Version of the Brief Cognitive Assessment Tool-Short Form for Korean American Nursing Home Residents.  

PubMed

The authors of the current article developed and investigated the psychometric properties of a Korean version of the Brief Cognitive Assessment Tool-Short Form (BCAT-SF-K) to better understand cognitive functioning of Korean American nursing home residents. In Step I, normative values were established for the BCAT-SF-K based on a sample of Korean American community-dwelling older adults (n = 34). In Step II, the authors confirmed construct validity for the BCAT-SF-K in a sample of Korean American nursing home residents (n = 26), described cognitive levels, and reported key demographics. In the nursing home sample, 84.6% of individuals had severe cognitive impairment, 7.7% had mild impairment, and 7.7% had normal cognition. The BCAT-SF-K appears to be a reliable cognitive screening measure for Korean American nursing home residents. Based on the current study's findings, Korean American nursing home residents are both older and more cognitively impaired than their American-born nursing home counterparts. Study findings are discussed in relation to improving care for these vulnerable nursing home residents. [Res Gerontol Nurs. 20xx; x(x):xxx-xxx.]. PMID:25420181

Mansbach, William E; Mace, Ryan A; Clark, Kristen M

2014-12-01

339

Preliminary investigation of the potential of four tropical emergent macrophytes for treatment of pre-treated pulp and papermill wastewater in Kenya.  

PubMed

The potential of four aquatic macrophytes for treatment of wastewater in constructed wetlands was investigated in bucket mesocosms at Pan African Paper Mills (E.A) Limited. The buckets were operated as semi-continuous batch reactors with reversed vertical flow for a period of 3 months. Four treatments were applied involving two hydraulic retention times (HRT) and two wastewater concentrations. Plants appear healthier and greener in treatments at HRT5 than at HRT10. Cyperus immensus and Typha domingensis had higher biomass gain compared to the other two species. Plant nitrogen and phosphorus content, based on dry weight, was lower at the end of the experiment than at the beginning in all treatments for all species The removal efficiency achieved for COD ranged from 10 to 55% for planted buckets at HRT5 and 15 to 65% at HRT10 for similar buckets. The mean percentage COD removal in unplanted buckets was significantly lower than in planted ones. TSS removal efficiency ranged from 44-86%. Buckets planted with Typha exhibited the highest removal efficiency in all treatments. Those at HRT5 showed significantly higher removal efficiencies than those at HRT10 for all species. The results indicate that the plants are suitable for use in constructed wetlands for treatment of the wastewater provided the appropriate treatment is applied. PMID:14621168

Abira, M A; Ngirigacha, H W; van Bruggen, J J A

2003-01-01

340

Will urban expansion lead to an increase in future water pollution loads?--a preliminary investigation of the Haihe River Basin in northeastern China.  

PubMed

Urban expansion is a major driving force changing regional hydrology and nonpoint source pollution. The Haihe River Basin, the political, economic, and cultural center of northeastern China, has undergone rapid urbanization in recent decades. To investigate the consequences of future urban sprawl on nonpoint source water pollutant emissions in the river basin, the urban sprawl in 2030 was estimated, and the annual runoff and nonpoint source pollution in the Haihe River basin were simulated. The Integrated Model of Non-Point Sources Pollution Processes (IMPULSE) was used to simulate the effects of urban sprawl on nonpoint source pollution emissions. The outcomes indicated that the urban expansion through 2030 increased the nonpoint source total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorous (TP), and chemical oxygen demand (COD) emissions by 8.08, 0.14, and 149.57 kg/km(2), respectively. Compared to 2008, the total nonpoint emissions rose by 15.33, 0.57, and 12.39 %, respectively. Twelve percent of the 25 cities in the basin would increase by more than 50 % in nonpoint source TN and COD emissions in 2030. In particular, the nonpoint source TN emissions in Xinxiang, Jiaozuo, and Puyang would rise by 73.31, 67.25, and 58.61 %, and the nonpoint source COD emissions in these cities would rise by 74.02, 51.99, and 53.27 %, respectively. The point source pollution emissions in 2008 and 2030 were also estimated to explore the effects of urban sprawl on total water pollution loads. Urban sprawl through 2030 would bring significant structural changes of total TN, TP, and COD emissions for each city in the area. The results of this study could provide insights into the effects of urbanization in the study area and the methods could help to recognize the role that future urban sprawl plays in the total water pollution loads in the water quality management process. PMID:24532209

Dong, Yang; Liu, Yi; Chen, Jining

2014-06-01

341

Incidence of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder after a Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: Preliminary Investigation Using the Brief Neuropsychological Screening Test  

PubMed Central

Objective Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a group of diseases that are observed in patients who had experienced a serious trauma or accident. However, some experienced it even after only a mild traumatic brain injury (TBI), and they are easily ignored due to the relatively favorable course of mild TBI. Herein, the authors investigated the incidence of PTSD in mild TBI using brief neuropsychological screening test (PTSD checklist, PCL). Methods This study was conducted on patients with mild TBI (Glasgow coma scale ?13) who were admitted from January 2012 to December 2012. As for PCL, it was done on patients who showed no difficulties in communication upon admission and agreed to participate in this study. By using sum of PCL, the patients were divided into high-risk group and low-risk group. PTSD was diagnosed as the three major symptoms of PTSD according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth-edifion. Results A total of 314 TBI patients were admitted and 71 of them met the criteria and were included in this study. The mean age was 52.9 years-old (range: 15-94). The mean PCL score was 28.8 (range: 17-68), and 10 patients were classified as high-risk group. During follow-up, 2 patients (2.7%) of high risk group, were confirmed as PTSD and there was no patient who was suspected of PTSD in the low-risk group (p=0.017). Conclusion PTSD is observed 2.8% in mild TBI. Although PTSD after mild TBI is rare, PCL could be considered as a useful tool for screening of PTSD after mild TBI. PMID:25024821

Choi, Mi Sun; Seo, Sook Jin; Oh, Chang Hyun; Kim, Se-Hyuk

2014-01-01

342

Heat Capacity Analysis Report  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to provide heat capacity values for the host and surrounding rock layers for the waste repository at Yucca Mountain. The heat capacity representations provided by this analysis are used in unsaturated zone (UZ) flow, transport, and coupled processes numerical modeling activities, and in thermal analyses as part of the design of the repository to support the license application. Among the reports that use the heat capacity values estimated in this report are the ''Multiscale Thermohydrologic Model'' report, the ''Drift Degradation Analysis'' report, the ''Ventilation Model and Analysis Report, the Igneous Intrusion Impacts on Waste Packages and Waste Forms'' report, the ''Dike/Drift Interactions report, the Drift-Scale Coupled Processes (DST and TH Seepage) Models'' report, and the ''In-Drift Natural Convection and Condensation'' report. The specific objective of this study is to determine the rock-grain and rock-mass heat capacities for the geologic stratigraphy identified in the ''Mineralogic Model (MM3.0) Report'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170031], Table 1-1). This report provides estimates of the heat capacity for all stratigraphic layers except the Paleozoic, for which the mineralogic abundance data required to estimate the heat capacity are not available. The temperature range of interest in this analysis is 25 C to 325 C. This interval is broken into three separate temperature sub-intervals: 25 C to 95 C, 95 C to 114 C, and 114 C to 325 C, which correspond to the preboiling, trans-boiling, and postboiling regimes. Heat capacity is defined as the amount of energy required to raise the temperature of a unit mass of material by one degree (Nimick and Connolly 1991 [DIRS 100690], p. 5). The rock-grain heat capacity is defined as the heat capacity of the rock solids (minerals), and does not include the effect of water that exists in the rock pores. By comparison, the rock-mass heat capacity considers the heat capacity of both solids and pore water. For temperatures in the trans-boiling regime (95 C to 114 C), the additional energy required to vaporize the pore water is accounted for in the rock-mass heat capacity. The rock-grain heat capacities are intended to be used in models and analyses that explicitly account for the thermodynamic effects of the water within the rock porosity. The rock-mass heat capacities are intended to be used in models and analyses that do not explicitly account for these thermodynamic effects, particularly boiling. The term specific heat is often used synonymously with heat capacity; however, the latter term is used throughout this document.

A. Findikakis

2004-11-01

343

Study of intermolecular contacts in proteins and oligomer interfaces and preliminary investigations into the design and production of nanomaterials from proteins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The first part of this research involved a study of the nature and extent of nonbonded interactions at crystal and oligomer interfaces. A survey was compiled of several characteristics of intersubunit contacts in 58 different oligomeric proteins, and of the intermolecular contacts in 223 protein crystal structures. Routines written in "S" language were utilized for the generation of the observed and expected contacts. The information in the Protein Data Bank (PDB) was extracted using the database management system, Protein Knowledge Base (PKB). Potentials of mean force for atom-atom contacts and residue-residue contacts were derived by comparison of the number of observed interactions with the number expected by mass action. Preference association matrices and log-linear analyses were applied to determine the different factors that could contribute to the overall interactions at the interfaces of oligomers and crystals. Surface patches at oligomer and crystal interfaces were also studied to further investigate the origin of the differences in their stabilities. Total number of atoms in contact and the secondary structure elements involved are similar in the two types of interfaces. Crystal contacts result from more numerous interactions by polar residues, compared with a tendency toward nonpolar amino acid prominent in oligomer interfaces. Contact potentials indicate that hydrophobic interactions at oligomer interfaces favor aromatic amino acids and methionine over aliphatic amino acids; and that crystal contacts form in such a way as to avoid inclusion of hydrophobic interactions. The second part involved the development of a new class of biomaterials from two-dimensional arrays of ordered proteins. Point mutations were planned to introduce cysteine residues at appropriate locations to enable cross-linking at the molecular interface within given crystallographic planes. Crystallization and subsequent cross-linking of the modified protein would lead to the formation of arrays on subsequent dissociation of the crystal. Novel protein architectures can be generated from these cross-linked nanostructures. Experiments with model protein, maltose-binding protein (MBP) were performed to develop purification, cross-linking and crystallization techniques. The long-term goal of this project is to apply the experience gained with MBP to the fabrication of nanomaterials from other, application-specific proteins for ultrafiltration and microelectronic devices.

Iyer, Ganesh Hariharan

344

Effects of low and high dose intraarticular tiludronate on synovial fluid and clinical variables in healthy horses—a preliminary investigation  

PubMed Central

To determine effects of intraarticularly administered tiludronate on articular cartilage in vivo, eight healthy horses were injected once with tiludronate (low dose tiludronate [LDT] 0.017 mg, n = 4; high dose tiludronate [HDT] 50 mg, n = 4) into one middle carpal joint and with saline into the contralateral joint. Arthrocentesis of both middle carpal joints was performed pre-treatment, and 10 min, 24 h, 48 h, 7 and 14 days after treatment. Synovial nucleated cell counts and total solids, tiludronate, sulfated glycosaminoglycan (sGAG), chondroitin sulfate 846 epitope (CS-846, a measure of aggrecan synthesis), and collagen type II cleavage neoepitope (C2C) concentrations were determined. Histologic analysis of joint tissues and sGAG quantitation in cartilage was performed at 14 days in HDT horses. Data were analyzed by repeated measures non-parametric ANOVA and Wilcoxon signed-rank test. High dose tiludronate administration produced synovial fluid tiludronate concentrations of 2,677,500 ng/mL, exceeding concentrations that were safe for cartilage in vitro, and LDT administration produced synovial fluid concentrations of 1,353 ng/mL, remaining below concentrations considered potentially detrimental to cartilage. With HDT, synovial fluid total solids concentration was higher at 24 h and 7 days and sGAG concentration was higher at 48 h, compared to control joints. Synovial fluid CS-846 concentration was increased over pre-treatment values in HDT control but not in HDT treated joints at 24 and 48 h. All joints (HDT and LDT control and treated) showed a temporary decrease in synovial fluid C2C concentration, compared to pre-treatment values. Histologic features of articular cartilage and synovial membrane did not differ between HDT treated and control joints. High dose tiludronate treatment caused a transient increase in synovial total solids and temporarily increased proteoglycan degradation in cartilage. Although clinical significance of these changes are questionable, as they did not result in articular cartilage damage, further investigation of the safety of intraarticular HDT in a larger number of horses is warranted. PMID:25237596

Moneta, Lindsey; Ott, Jesse F.; Larson, Maureen K.; Gorman, Elena M.; Hunter, Barbara; Löhr, Christiane V.; Payton, Mark E.; Morré, Jeffrey T.; Maier, Claudia S.

2014-01-01

345

Shaped Offset QPSK Capacity  

E-print Network

In this work we compute the capacities and the pragmatic capacities of military-standard shaped-offset quadrature phase-shift keying (SOQPSK-MIL) and aeronautical telemetry SOQPSK (SOQPSK-TG). In the pragmatic approach, SOQPSK is treated as a...

Sahin, Cenk

2012-08-31

346

Liquid heat capacity lasers  

DOEpatents

The heat capacity laser concept is extended to systems in which the heat capacity lasing media is a liquid. The laser active liquid is circulated from a reservoir (where the bulk of the media and hence waste heat resides) through a channel so configured for both optical pumping of the media for gain and for light amplification from the resulting gain.

Comaskey, Brian J. (Walnut Creek, CA); Scheibner, Karl F. (Tracy, CA); Ault, Earl R. (Livermore, CA)

2007-05-01

347

Knudsen heat capacity  

SciTech Connect

We present a “Knudsen heat capacity” as a more appropriate and useful fluid property in micro/nanoscale gas systems than the constant pressure heat capacity. At these scales, different fluid processes come to the fore that are not normally observed at the macroscale. For thermodynamic analyses that include these Knudsen processes, using the Knudsen heat capacity can be more effective and physical. We calculate this heat capacity theoretically for non-ideal monatomic and diatomic gases, in particular, helium, nitrogen, and hydrogen. The quantum modification for para and ortho hydrogen is also considered. We numerically model the Knudsen heat capacity using molecular dynamics simulations for the considered gases, and compare these results with the theoretical ones.

Babac, Gulru, E-mail: babac@itu.edu.tr [Institute of Energy, Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul 34469 (Turkey)] [Institute of Energy, Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul 34469 (Turkey); Reese, Jason M. [School of Engineering, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JL (United Kingdom)] [School of Engineering, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JL (United Kingdom)

2014-05-15

348

Preliminary Results from the Confined Helium Experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We describe the preliminary results from an experiment to measure the heat capacity of helium confined within a stack of evenly spaced silicon plates at temperatures very close to the superfluid transition. The resolution of the heat capacity measurements was generally about 5x10 (exp -9)K, allowing the finite size peak to be mapped in detail. In addition, wide range data containing information on the behavior of the surface specific heat was collected. The preliminary analysis shows fair agreement with theory, but some discrepancies. The results can also be combined with related ground measurements on smaller length scales to perform additional tests of scaling predictions for cross-over to lower dimensional behavior. Some results in this area are also presented.

Lipa, J. A.; Swanson, D. R.; Nissen, J. A.; Williamson, P. R.; Geng, K.; Stricker, D. A.; Chui, T. C. P.; Israelson, U. E.; Larson, M.

1999-01-01

349

A Preliminary Investigation into Dynamic Distributed Workflow  

E-print Network

by the Hoefler Type Foundry, the sans serif font is Computer Modern Sans by Donald Knuth, and the typewriter font is Computer Modern Typewriter, also by Donald Knuth. #12; iv #12; v Abstract In this thesis, we describe

350

Psychache and Suicide: A Preliminary Investigation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Shneidman's Psychological Pain Assessment Scale (PPAS; 1999) was administered to 88 psychiatric patients. Both current and worst-ever psychache were significantly higher in those patients judged by a psychiatrist, on the basis of a structured clinical interview, to be at risk of suicide. However, current and worst-ever psychache were not…

Pompili, Maurizio; Lester, David; Leenaars, Antoon A.; Tatarelli, Roberto; Girardi, Paolo

2008-01-01

351

A Preliminary Investigation of Hall Thruster Technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A three-year, NASA/BMDO-sponsored experimental program to conduct performance and plume plasma property measurements on two Russian Stationary Plasma Thrusters (SPTs) has been completed. The program utilized experimental facilitates at the University of Michigan's Plasmadynamics and Electric Propulsion Laboratory (PEPL). The main features of the proposed effort were as follows: We Characterized Hall thruster [and arcjet] performance by measuring ion exhaust velocity with probes at various thruster conditions. Used a variety of probe diagnostics in the thruster plume to measure plasma properties and flow properties including T(sub e) and n(sub e), ion current density and ion energy distribution, and electric fields by mapping plasma potential. Used emission spectroscopy to identify species within the plume and to measure electron temperatures.

Gallimore, Alec D.

1997-01-01

352

A Preliminary Investigation of Hall Thruster Technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A three-year NASA/BMDO-sponsored experimental program to conduct performance and plume plasma property measurements on two Russian Stationary Plasma Thrusters (SPTs) has been completed. The program utilized experimental facilitates at the University of Michigan's Plasmadynamics and Electric Propulsion Laboratory (PEPL). The main features of the proposed effort were as follows: (1) Characterized Hall thruster (and arcjet) performance by measuring ion exhaust velocity with probes at various thruster conditions; (2) Used a variety of probe diagnostics in the thruster plume to measure plasma properties and flow properties including T(sub e) and n(sub e) ion current density and ion energy distribution, and electric fields by mapping plasma potential; (3) Used emission spectroscopy to identify species within the plume and to measure electron temperatures. A key and unique feature of our research was our collaboration with Russian Hall thruster researcher Dr. Sergey A Khartov, Deputy Dean of International Relations at the Moscow Aviation Institute (MAI). His activities in this program included consulting on and participation in research at PEPL through use of a MAI-built SPT and ion energy probe.

Gallimore, Alec D.

1997-01-01

353

A Preliminary Asteroseismic Investigation of 4 CVn  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By means of the structure and evolution code provided by Luo Guo-Quan (1991, 1997) as well as the pulsation computation program offered by Li Yan (1990, 1994), a test of the asteroseismology of the Delta Sct star 4 CVn is presented here. The observed parameters are adopted from Zhou Ai-Ying et al. (1997), Breger (1990a) and Breger et al. (1990a). Three steps are involved in the calculations. The zero age main sequence model was first established, then the evolution track was built. Last, by choosing a close phase from the comparison between the observed luminosity and effective temperature and that of the calculated track with a certain mass, one lets the star pulsate starting from that point.

Zhou, A.

1998-07-01

354

Odor of the muskox : A preliminary investigation.  

PubMed

The behavior of captive male muskoxen was observed closely during their characteristic superiority display, the anatomy of the preputial region was studied in two adults and three calves, and preputial washings and preorbital gland secretion were subjected to gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy. During the superiority display, the prepuce was everted to form a pendulous tube tipped with a fringe of matted hair. Owing to the movement of the animal, the urine that dribbled from the preputial opening was liberally applied to the long guard hairs of the belly. The superiority display was almost exclusively confined to dominant males and apparently accounted for their odor. In the quiescent state, the hair seen around the preputial opening was drawn inside and formed an 8 cm-wide band on the lining of the prepuce. The preputial washings contained large amounts of benzoic acid andp-cresol. The infraorbital gland secretion contained cholesterol, benzaldehyde, and a homologous series of saturated ?-lactones ranging from 8 to 12 carbons. The latter compounds and the natural secretion smell similar to the human nose. PMID:24272381

Flood, P F; Abrams, S R; Muir, G D; Rowell, J E

1989-08-01

355

Refinery Capacity Report  

EIA Publications

Data series include fuel, electricity, and steam purchased for consumption at the refinery; refinery receipts of crude oil by method of transportation; and current and projected atmospheric crude oil distillation, downstream charge, and production capacities. Respondents are operators of all operating and idle petroleum refineries (including new refineries under construction) and refineries shut down during the previous year, located in the 50 states, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Guam, and other U.S. possessions. The Refinery Capacity Report does not contain working and shell storage capacity data. This data is now being collected twice a year as of March 31 and September 30 on the Form EIA-810, "Monthly Refinery Report", and is now released as a separate report Working and Net Available Shell Storage Capacity.

2014-01-01

356

Panama Canal capacity analysis  

SciTech Connect

Predicting the transit capacities of the various Panama Canal alternatives required analyzing data on present Canal operations, adapting and extending an existing computer simulation model, performing simulation runs for each of the alternatives, and using the simulation model outputs to develop capacity estimates. These activities are summarized in this paper. A more complete account may be found in the project final report (TAMS 1993). Some of the material in this paper also appeared in a previously published paper (Rosselli, Bronzini, and Weekly 1994).

Bronzini, M.S. [Oak Ridge National Lab., Knoxville, TN (United States). Center for Transportation Analysis

1995-04-27

357

Sum capacity and TSC bounds in collaborative multibase wireless systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider a wireless system with base stations which collaborate, and derive bounds on sum capacity and total squared correlation for uniform channels between users and bases. The correspondence also investigates structural properties which must be satisfied by user transmit covariance matrices at the optimal sum capacity\\/total squared correlation (TSC) point, and shows that for multibase systems, maximizing sum capacity

Otilia Popescu; Christopher Rose

2004-01-01

358

Stochastic capacity modeling to support demand/capacity gap planning  

E-print Network

Capacity strategy has established methods of dealing with uncertainty in future demand. This project advances the concept of capacity strategy under conditions of uncertainty in cases where capacity is the primary source ...

Niles, Augusta (Augusta L.)

2014-01-01

359

Soil ammonium and phosphate sorption capacity decreases with prescribed ground fire Miranda A. Sinnott-Armstrong  

E-print Network

decrease in soil sorption capacity. Preliminary data on soil pH in organic and mineral soil indicate1 Soil ammonium and phosphate sorption capacity decreases with prescribed ground fire Miranda A fires decreased the depth of the organic horizon of soil in an experimentally burned forest in Truro, MA

Vallino, Joseph J.

360

Solubilisation capacity of Brij surfactants.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of selected Brij non-ionic surfactants for enhancing the solubility of poorly water-soluble drugs. Griseofulvin was selected as a model drug candidate enabling comparisons to be made with the solubilisation capacities of other poly(ethylene oxide)-based copolymers. UV/Vis and (1)H NMR spectroscopies were used to quantify the enhancement of solubility of griseofulvin in 1 wt% aqueous micellar solutions of Brij 78 (C(18)H(37)E(20)), Brij 98 (C(18)H(35)E(20)) and Brij 700 (C(18)H(37)E(100)) (where E represents the OCH(2)CH(2) unit of the poly(ethylene oxide) chain) at 25, 37 and 40 °C. Solubilisation capacities (S(cp) expressed as mg griseofulvin per g Brij) were similar for Brij 78 and 98 (range 6-11 mg g(-1)) but lower for Brij 700 (3-4 mg g(-1)) as would be expected for the surfactant with the higher ethylene oxide content. The drug loading capacity of micelles of Brij 78 was higher than many di- and triblock copolymers with hydrophilic E-blocks specifically designed for enhancement of drug solubility. PMID:22842626

Ribeiro, Maria E N P; de Moura, Carolina L; Vieira, Mariano G S; Gramosa, Nilce V; Chaibundit, Chiraphon; de Mattos, Marcos C; Attwood, David; Yeates, Stephen G; Nixon, S Keith; Ricardo, Nágila M P S

2012-10-15

361

Leg 192 Preliminary Report72 Leg 192 Preliminary Report  

E-print Network

Leg 192 Preliminary Report72 Figure 21 cm 70 75 80 65 60 #12;Leg 192 Preliminary Report Figure 22 73 Basalt C D E F A B #12;Leg 192 Preliminary Report74 Figure 23 #12;Leg192PreliminaryReport Figure207002120021300 21100 21000 20900 20800 Shotpoints #12;Leg192PreliminaryReport76 Figure 25 Nannofossils

362

Estimating test range capacity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main focus of this thesis effort was to develop a means to estimate the capacity of the test range complex at Eglin AFB, Florida. For the purposes of this study, test range capacity was defined as the maximum number of missions, of a given set, that could possibly be supported by range resources on any given day. In trying to determine this number, the complexities of the overall multi-resource constrained scheduling problem dictated a more practical approach be taken in modeling the allocation process of range resources to test missions. Therefore, a series of three single-resource, 0-1 integer programming models depicting the allocation of Test Wing aircraft, radars, and range area resources were developed to produce an upper bound estimate of the range capacity for a given set of missions. In actual testing, the Range Area Allocation Model produced some poor results and therefore, cannot be used in its present form. However, both the Aircraft and Radar Models appear to produce legitimate upper bounds on range capacity in all cases. Nevertheless, to insure the goodness of these two models, further testing is recommended. In addition, a single model depicting the allocation of these two resources and possibly several other, should be developed in order to better estimate range capacity.

McDaniel, Paul A.

1993-03-01

363

Capacity Maximizing Constellations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Some non-traditional signal constellations have been proposed for transmission of data over the Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN) channel using such channel-capacity-approaching codes as low-density parity-check (LDPC) or turbo codes. Computational simulations have shown performance gains of more than 1 dB over traditional constellations. These gains could be translated to bandwidth- efficient communications, variously, over longer distances, using less power, or using smaller antennas. The proposed constellations have been used in a bit-interleaved coded modulation system employing state-ofthe-art LDPC codes. In computational simulations, these constellations were shown to afford performance gains over traditional constellations as predicted by the gap between the parallel decoding capacity of the constellations and the Gaussian capacity

Barsoum, Maged; Jones, Christopher

2010-01-01

364

Dual capacity reciprocating compressor  

DOEpatents

A multi-cylinder compressor 10 particularly useful in connection with northern climate heat pumps and in which different capacities are available in accordance with reversing motor 16 rotation is provided with an eccentric cam 38 on a crank pin 34 under a fraction of the connecting rods, and arranged for rotation upon the crank pin between opposite positions 180.degree. apart so that with cam rotation on the crank pin such that the crank throw is at its normal maximum value all pistons pump at full capacity, and with rotation of the crank shaft in the opposite direction the cam moves to a circumferential position on the crank pin such that the overall crank throw is zero. Pistons 24 whose connecting rods 30 ride on a crank pin 36 without a cam pump their normal rate with either crank rotational direction. Thus a small clearance volume is provided for any piston that moves when in either capacity mode of operation.

Wolfe, Robert W. (Wilkinsburg, PA)

1984-01-01

365

Dual capacity reciprocating compressor  

DOEpatents

A multi-cylinder compressor particularly useful in connection with northern climate heat pumps and in which different capacities are available in accordance with reversing motor rotation is provided with an eccentric cam on a crank pin under a fraction of the connecting rods, and arranged for rotation upon the crank pin between opposite positions 180[degree] apart so that with cam rotation on the crank pin such that the crank throw is at its normal maximum value all pistons pump at full capacity, and with rotation of the crank shaft in the opposite direction the cam moves to a circumferential position on the crank pin such that the overall crank throw is zero. Pistons whose connecting rods ride on a crank pin without a cam pump their normal rate with either crank rotational direction. Thus a small clearance volume is provided for any piston that moves when in either capacity mode of operation. 6 figs.

Wolfe, R.W.

1984-10-30

366

Web Capacity Planning  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This course teaches a quantitative approach to analyzing client/server and Web-based systems. Students will learn how to develop performance predictive models for capacity planning. Instead of relying on intuition, ad hoc procedures, and rules of thumb, students will learn a uniform and formal way for dealing with performance problems. The performance models are based on the theory of queuing networks. By the end of the summer each student will complete, as part of a team, a performance capacity planning study on a real computing system.

Amy Apon

367

Monitoring Infrastructure Capacity Presented at  

E-print Network

Carrying Capacity Theory Externality Theory Measures of Effectiveness #12;The Complexity of the Problem;Infrastructure and Development Over Time under Carrying Capacity Theory Growth Time Public Facility CapacityMonitoring Infrastructure Capacity Presented at Conference on Land Supply and Infrastructure

Levinson, David M.

368

Reservoir storage capacity with gamma inflows  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reservoir storage capacity determined by the double-cycling sequent peak algorithm has been investigated in previous studies for normal and log-normal inflows. Since annual streamflows have also been found to follow the gamma distribution, it is necessary to consider this situation and to cater for other possible situations. This paper considers the distribution of the storage capacity of reservoirs with gamma inflows that are either independent or first-order autoregressive. Empirical formulae for the mean and standard deviation of the non-dimensional capacity are obtained from Monte Carlo experiments for both full and partial regulation and for the entire realistic range of the lag-one autocorrelation coefficient. It is also confirmed that the standardized capacity may be represented by a three-parameter log-normal distribution.

Phien, Huynh Ngoc

1993-06-01

369

Mathematical Preliminaries Medium Access Protocols  

E-print Network

Mathematical Preliminaries Medium Access Protocols Ethernet Collision-Free Protocols Wireless University, MS February 26, 2013 Ramkumar MAC #12;Mathematical Preliminaries Medium Access Protocols Ethernet Collision-Free Protocols Wireless Ethernet (WLAN) Local Area Network Outline 1 Mathematical Preliminaries

Ramkumar, Mahalingam

370

Survey of antioxidant capacity and phenolic composition of blueberry, blackberry, and strawberry in Nanjing*  

PubMed Central

Berries are a good source of natural antioxidants. In the present study, the total antioxidant capacity and phenolic composition of three berry fruits (blueberry, blackberry, and strawberry) cultivated in Nanjing were investigated. Blueberry, with a Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) value of 14.98 mmol Trolox/100 g dry weight (DW), exhibited the strongest total antioxidant capacity using both the 2,2-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) and the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) methods. Blueberry also had the highest total phenolic content (TPC, 9.44 mg gallic acid/g DW), total flavonoid content (TFC, 36.08 mg rutin/g DW), and total anthocyanidin content (TAC, 24.38 mg catechin/g DW). A preliminary analysis using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) showed that the blueberry, blackberry, and strawberry samples tested contained a range of phenolic acids (including gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, ellagic acid, and cinnamic acid) and various types of flavonoids (flavone: luteolin; flavonols: rutin, myricetin, quercetrin, and quercetin; flavanols: gallocatechin, epigallocatechin, catechin, and catechin gallate; anthocyanidins: malvidin-3-galactoside, malvidin-3-glucoside, and cyanidin). In particular, the blueberries had high levels of proanthocyanidins and anthocyanidins, which might be responsible for their strong antioxidant activities. These results indicate a potential market role for berries (especially blueberries) as a functional food ingredient or nutraceutical. PMID:22302422

Huang, Wu-yang; Zhang, Hong-cheng; Liu, Wen-xu; Li, Chun-yang

2012-01-01

371

Preliminary separation of metals and nonmetals from urban refuse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Horizontal and vertical air classification systems were tested individually and in simulated tandem use for the recovery of ferrous and nonferrous metals and of other noncombustible and combustible products from shredded urban refuse. The horizontal air system with a larger tonnage throughput was used to obtain preliminary separations, and a smaller capacity vertical system was used as a cleaning device.

K. C. Dean; C. J. Chindgren; L. Peterson

1971-01-01

372

China ups ethylene capacity  

SciTech Connect

China is continuing with plans to build up its petrochemical sector. Following government approval the Dongying petrochemical complex in Shandong province is expected to get under way early next year. It will be based on a 140,000-m.t./year ethylene plant and will be the second-largest petrochemical complex in the province, after Qilu, about 50 km away. In addition, there are plans to expand capacities of existing ethylene plants. The Dongying complex will be owned by Shengli Oil Field (50%). Shandong province (35%), and the Dongying municipality (15%). Downstream capacities will comprise 80,000 m.t./year of linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE) and 20,000 m.t./year of high-density PE. Butene-1 to be used as comonomer for LLDPE will be shipped from Qilu.

Alperowicz, N.; Wood, A.

1992-12-23

373

CSTI High Capacity Power  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The SP-100 program was established in 1983 by DOD, DOE, and NASA as a joint program to develop the technology necessary for space nuclear power systems for military and civil application. During FY-86 and 87, the NASA SP-100 Advanced Technology Program was devised to maintain the momentum of promising technology advancement efforts started during Phase 1 of SP-100 and to strengthen, in key areas, the chances for successful development and growth capability of space nuclear reactor power systems for future space applications. In FY-88, the Advanced Technology Program was incorporated into NASA's new Civil Space Technology Initiative (CSTI). The CSTI Program was established to provide the foundation for technology development in automation and robotics, information, propulsion, and power. The CSTI High Capacity Power Program builds on the technology efforts of the SP-100 program, incorporates the previous NASA SP-100 Advanced Technology project, and provides a bridge to NASA Project Pathfinder. The elements of CSTI High Capacity Power development include Conversion Systems, Thermal Management, Power Management, System Diagnostics, and Environmental Interactions. Technology advancement in all areas, including materials, is required to assure the high reliability and 7 to 10 year lifetime demanded for future space nuclear power systems. The overall program will develop and demonstrate the technology base required to provide a wide range of modular power systems as well as allowing mission independence from solar and orbital attitude requirements. Several recent advancements in CSTI High Capacity power development will be discussed.

Winter, Jerry M.

1989-01-01

374

CSTI high capacity power  

SciTech Connect

The SP-100 program was established in 1983 by DOD, DOE, and NASA as a joint program to develop the technology necessary for space nuclear power systems for military and civil application. During FY86 and 87, the NASA SP-100 Advanced Technology Program was devised to maintain the momentum of promising technology advancement efforts started during Phase I of SP-100 and to strengthen, in key areas, the chances for successful development and growth capability of space nuclear reactor power systems for future space applications. In FY88, the Advanced Technology Program was incorporated into NASA`s new Civil Space Technology Initiative (CSTI). The CSTI Program was established to provide the foundation for technology development in automation and robotics, information, propulsion, and power. The CSTI High Capacity Power Program builds on the technology efforts of the SP-100 program, incorporates the previous NASA SP-100 Advanced Technology project, and provides a bridge to NASA Project Pathfinder. The elements of CSTI High Capacity Power development include Conversion Systems, Thermal Management, Power Management, System Diagnostics, and Environmental Interactions. Technology advancement in all areas, including materials, is required to assure the high reliability and 7 to 10 year lifetime demanded for future space nuclear power systems. The overall program will develop and demonstrate the technology base required to provide a wide range of modular power systems as well as allowing mission independence from solar and orbital attitude requirements. Several recent advancements in CSTI High Capacity power development will be discussed.

Winter, J.M.

1994-09-01

375

Development of a solar-powered residential air conditioner: System optimization preliminary specification  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Investigations aimed at the optimization of a baseline Rankine cycle solar powered air conditioner and the development of a preliminary system specification were conducted. Efforts encompassed the following: (1) investigations of the use of recuperators/regenerators to enhance the performance of the baseline system, (2) development of an off-design computer program for system performance prediction, (3) optimization of the turbocompressor design to cover a broad range of conditions and permit operation at low heat source water temperatures, (4) generation of parametric data describing system performance (COP and capacity), (5) development and evaluation of candidate system augmentation concepts and selection of the optimum approach, (6) generation of auxiliary power requirement data, (7) development of a complete solar collector-thermal storage-air conditioner computer program, (8) evaluation of the baseline Rankine air conditioner over a five day period simulating the NASA solar house operation, and (9) evaluation of the air conditioner as a heat pump.

Rousseau, J.; Hwang, K. C.

1975-01-01

376

2012 CBECS Preliminary Results  

EIA Publications

The preliminary results from the Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) show that there were 5.6 million commercial buildings in the United States in 2012, comprising 87.4 billion square feet of floorspace.

2014-01-01

377

Preliminary Drill Sites  

DOE Data Explorer

Preliminary locations for intermediate depth temperature gradient holes and/or resource confirmation wells based on compilation of geological, geophysical and geochemical data prior to carrying out the DOE-funded reflection seismic survey.

Lane, Michael

378

Preliminary Drill Sites  

SciTech Connect

Preliminary locations for intermediate depth temperature gradient holes and/or resource confirmation wells based on compilation of geological, geophysical and geochemical data prior to carrying out the DOE-funded reflection seismic survey.

Lane, Michael

2013-06-28

379

A Computational Model of Spatial Visualization Capacity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Visualizing spatial material is a cornerstone of human problem solving, but human visualization capacity is sharply limited. To investigate the sources of this limit, we developed a new task to measure visualization accuracy for verbally-described spatial paths (similar to street directions), and implemented a computational process model to…

Lyon, Don R.; Gunzelmann, Glenn; Gluck, Kevin A.

2008-01-01

380

Data use investigations for applications Explorer Mission A (Heat Capacity Mapping Mission): HCMM's role in studies of the urban heat island, Great Lakes thermal phenomena and radiometric calibration of satellite data. [Buffalo, Syracuse, and Rochester New York and Lake Ontario  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The utility of data from NASA'a heat capacity mapping mission satellite for studies of the urban heat island, thermal phenomena in large lakes and radiometric calibration of satellite sensors was assessed. The data were found to be of significant value in all cases. Using HCMM data, the existence and microstructure of the heat island can be observed and associated with land cover within the urban complex. The formation and development of the thermal bar in the Great Lakes can be observed and quantitatively mapped using HCMM data. In addition, the thermal patterns observed can be associated with water quality variations observed both from other remote sensing platforms and in situ. The imaging radiometer on-board the HCMM satellite is shown to be calibratible to within about 1.1 C of actual surface temperatures. These findings, as well as the analytical procedures used in studying the HCMM data, are included.

Schott, J. R. (principal investigator); Schimminger, E. W.

1981-01-01

381

Empirical Relation between StochasticEmpirical Relation between Stochastic Capacities and Capacities ObtainedCapacities and Capacities Obtained  

E-print Network

(veh/h) 2 lanes, no speed limit 3 lanes, no speed limit 2 lanes, const. speed limit 2 lanes, variable speed limit 3 lanes, variable speed limit 2 lanes, uphill section 3 lanes, uphill section #12;10 0 20 40 60 80 and Capacities ObtainedCapacities and Capacities Obtained from the Speedfrom the Speed--Flow DiagramFlow Diagram

Bertini, Robert L.

382

Superadditivity of quantum channel capacity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Superadditivity of quantum capacity of communication channels is one of the most interesting findings of the field. Yard and Smith, finding a relation between the private capacity and the assisted quantum capacity, showed a striking example of superadditivity, i.e. two channels of zero quantum capacity could achieve a positive quantum capacity when used together [1]. The four dimensional channels they used are a 50% erasure channel (therefore zero quantum capacity, due to no-cloning theorem) and a Horodecki channel (again zero quantum capacity due to incapability of sharing free entanglement). In this work we present the more general cases of superadditivity. Directly calculating the lower bounds of joint quantum capacities without using the relation between private capacity and assisted quantum capacity, we examine scenarios considering erasure channels of arbitrary probabilities and different Horodecki channels, and discuss the roles of degradability and anti-degradability as well as the role of the private capacity in superadditivity. We also derive an upper bound for the joint quantum capacity for the superactivation case.

Ozaydin, Fatih; Ozdemir, Sahin Kaya; Koashi, Masato; Imoto, Nobuyuki

2012-09-01

383

North American fertilizer capacity data  

SciTech Connect

This listing of producers and their fertilizer production capacities was compiled in January 1991 with the cooperation of the US and Canadian fertilizer industry. Capacity is only an indicator of supply. Nameplate capacity differs from planned production levels or actual production because plants often operate above or below design capacity. Unless reported otherwise, plant capacities are based on 340 days per year of operation. No adjustment is made for partial year operation. Numerical data for the production of ammonia, ammonium nitrate, nitrogen solutions, urea, phosphate rock, phosphoric acid and ammonium phosphates is included.

Not Available

1991-01-01

384

SERVIR Science Applications for Capacity Building  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

SERVIR is a regional visualization and monitoring system using Earth observations to support environmental management, climate adaptation, and disaster response in developing countries. SERVIR is jointly sponsored by NASA and the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID). SERVIR has been instrumental in development of science applications to support the decision-making and capacity building in the developing countries with the help of SERVIR Hubs. In 2011, NASA Research Opportunities in Space and Earth Sciences (ROSES) included a call for proposals to form SERVIR Applied Sciences Team (SERVIR AST) under Applied Sciences Capacity Building Program. Eleven proposals were selected, the Principal Investigators of which comprise the core of the SERVIR AST. The expertise on the Team span several societal benefit areas including agriculture, disasters, public health and air quality, water, climate and terrestrial carbon assessments. This presentation will cover the existing SERVIR science applications, capacity building components, overview of SERVIR AST projects, and anticipated impacts.

Limaye, Ashutosh; Searby, Nancy D.; Irwin, Daniel

2012-01-01

385

Continuity of quantum channel capacities  

E-print Network

We prove that a broad array of capacities of a quantum channel are continuous. That is, two channels that are close with respect to the diamond norm have correspondingly similar communication capabilities. We first show that the classical capacity, quantum capacity, and private classical capacity are continuous, with the variation on arguments epsilon apart bounded by a simple function of epsilon and the channel's output dimension. Our main tool is an upper bound of the variation of output entropies of many copies of two nearby channels given the same initial state; the bound is linear in the number of copies. Our second proof is concerned with the quantum capacities in the presence of free backward or two-way public classical communication. These capacities are proved continuous on the interior of the set of non-zero capacity channels by considering mutual simulation between similar channels.

Debbie Leung; Graeme Smith

2008-10-27

386

Immunomodulating capacity of kefir.  

PubMed

Kefir is a fermented milk produced by the action of lactic acid bacteria, yeasts and acetic acid bacteria, trapped in a complex matrix of polysaccharides and proteins. Beyond its inherent high nutritional value as a source of proteins and calcium, kefir has a long tradition of being regarded as good for health in countries where it is a staple in the diet. However, published human or animal feeding trials to substantiate this view are not numerous. The aim of this work was to determine the immunomodulating capacity of kefir on the intestinal mucosal immune response in mice and to demonstrate the importance of dose and cell viability on this response. BALB/c mice were fed with commercial kefir ad libitum (diluted 1/10, 1/50, 1/100 or 1/200) or pasteurized kefir (diluted 1/6, 1/10, 1/50, 1/100) for 2, 5 or 7 consecutive days. At the end of each feeding period, the bacterial translocation assay was performed in the liver. Small intestine structure was studied by haematoxilin-eosin staining and light microscopy. The number of IgA+ and IgG+ cells was also determined. For the functional doses chosen, cytokines (IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma) were determined. Kefir and pasteurized kefir were able to modulate the mucosal immune system in a dose-dependent manner. Kefir was administred 10-times more diluted than pasteurized kefir, but it induced an immunomodulation of similar magnitude, indicating the importance of cell viabilty. The results suggest that a Th1 response was controlled by Th2 cytokines induced by kefir feeding. Pasteurized kefir would induce both Th2 and Th1 responses. This is the first study in vivo regarding the mechanisms involved in the immunomodulating capacity of the oral administration of kefir containing viable or heat-inactivated bacteria at different doses. PMID:15909685

Vinderola, Celso G; Duarte, Jairo; Thangavel, Deepa; Perdigón, Gabriela; Farnworth, Edward; Matar, Chantal

2005-05-01

387

Organizational culture, organizational climate, and collaborative capacity for planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship of organizational culture and organizational climate on participant perceptions of collaborative capacity for planning, within the context of the Florida School Readiness Coalitions (FSRCs). Three hypotheses were proposed for study: First, that organizational culture would be correlated to organizational climate; second, that organizational culture would be correlated to collaborative capacity

Lillian Rindom Wichinsky

2008-01-01

388

Transmission capacity scaling of SDMA in wireless ad hoc networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider an uncoordinated ad hoc network in which each multi-antenna transmitter sends multiple independent streams to different receivers in a Poisson field of interferers. We provide exact and approximate outage probability expressions and transmission capacity scaling laws, aiming at investigating the fundamental limits of space division multiple access (SDMA). We first show that superlinear capacity scaling with the number

Marios Kountouris; Jeffrey G. Andrews

2009-01-01

389

Dating human cultural capacity using phylogenetic principles  

E-print Network

principles to date this capacity, integrating evidence from archaeology, genetics, paleoanthropology, paleoanthropology, archaeology, and linguistics to date this capacity. Cultural capacity is customarily dated

Lindenfors, Patrik

390

Investigations on the possible involvement of the dopaminergic system in the modulation of the growth and steroidogenic capacity of the rat adrenal zona glomerulosa: A coupled morphometric and biochemical study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The effects of metoclopramide (MTC) and bromocriptine (BRC) (two drugs which act as antagonist and agonist of DOPA-receptors, respectively) on the zona glomerulosa of dexamethasone\\/ACTH-treated rats were investigated by coupled biochemical and morphometric techniques. Shortterm (1-h) MTC administration significantly increased the plasma concentration of aldosterone, while long-term (7-day) MTC administration, as well as short- and long-term treatment with BRC

G. Mazzocchi; P. Rebuffat; C. Robba; A. S. Belloni; A. Stachowiak; G. Gottardo; V. Meneghelli; G. G. Nussdorfer

1987-01-01

391

Wireless Connectivity and Capacity  

E-print Network

Given $n$ wireless transceivers located in a plane, a fundamental problem in wireless communications is to construct a strongly connected digraph on them such that the constituent links can be scheduled in fewest possible time slots, assuming the SINR model of interference. In this paper, we provide an algorithm that connects an arbitrary point set in $O(\\log n)$ slots, improving on the previous best bound of $O(\\log^2 n)$ due to Moscibroda. This is complemented with a super-constant lower bound on our approach to connectivity. An important feature is that the algorithms allow for bi-directional (half-duplex) communication. One implication of this result is an improved bound of $\\Omega(1/\\log n)$ on the worst-case capacity of wireless networks, matching the best bound known for the extensively studied average-case. We explore the utility of oblivious power assignments, and show that essentially all such assignments result in a worst case bound of $\\Omega(n)$ slots for connectivity. This rules out a recent cla...

Halldorsson, Magnus M

2011-01-01

392

First mideast capacity planned  

SciTech Connect

Kuwait catalyst Co.`s (KCC) plans to build a hydrodesulfurization (HDS) catalysts plant in Kuwait will mark the startup of the first refining catalysts production in the Persian Gulf region. KCC, owned by a conglomerate of Kuwait companies and governmental agencies, has licensed catalyst manufacturing technology from Japan Energy in a deal estimated at more than 7 billion ($62 million). Plant design will be based on technology from Orient Catalyst, Japan Energy`s catalysts division. Construction is expected to begin in January 1997 for production startup by January 1998. A source close to the deal says the new plant will eventually reach a capacity of 5,000 m.t./year of HDS catalysts to supply most of Kuwait`s estimated 3,500-m.t./year demand, driven primarily by Kuwait National Petroleum refineries. KCC also expects to supply demand from other catalyst consumers in the region. Alumina supply will be acquired on the open market. KCC will take all production from the plant and will be responsible for marketing.

Fattah, H.

1996-11-06

393

The additive properties of Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC) assay: the case of essential oils.  

PubMed

The ORAC assay is applied to measure the antioxidant capacity of foods or dietary supplements. Sometimes, the manufacturers claim antioxidant capacities that may not correspond to the constituents of the product. These statements are sheltered by the general understanding that antioxidants might exhibit synergistic properties, but this is not necessarily true when dealing with ORAC assay values. This contribution applies the ORAC assay to measure the antioxidant capacity of ten essential oils typically added to foodstuffs: citronella, dill, basil, red thyme, thyme, rosemary, oregano, clove and cinnamon. The major components of these essential oils were twenty-one chemicals in total. After a preliminary discrimination, the antioxidant capacity of eugenol, carvacrol, thymol, ?-pinene, limonene and linalool was determined. The results showed that 72-115% of the antioxidant capacity of the essential oils corresponded to the addition of the antioxidant capacity of their constituents. Thus, the ORAC assay showed additive properties. PMID:24262547

Bentayeb, Karim; Vera, Paula; Rubio, Carlos; Nerín, Cristina

2014-04-01

394

Preliminary Granger Causality [4  

E-print Network

Preliminary §Granger Causality [4] + We try to predict time series Y, we have two approaches: If prediction accuracy of (2) is significantly better than (1), we determine that time series X Granger causes-Sensitive Causality Detection for Predicting Impact of Traffic Incidents Motivation §Importance of Impact Prediction

Shahabi, Cyrus

395

Channel Allocation Problem Mathematical Preliminaries  

E-print Network

Channel Allocation Problem Mathematical Preliminaries Multiple Access Protocols Ethernet Medium #12;Channel Allocation Problem Mathematical Preliminaries Multiple Access Protocols Ethernet Outline 1 Multiple Access Protocols ALOHA Slotted ALOHA CSMA 4 Ethernet CSMA-CD in Ethernet Binary Exponential

Ramkumar, Mahalingam

396

Channel Allocation Problem Mathematical Preliminaries  

E-print Network

Channel Allocation Problem Mathematical Preliminaries Multiple Access Protocols Ethernet Medium Channel Allocation Problem Mathematical Preliminaries Multiple Access Protocols Ethernet Outline 1 Channel Access Protocols ALOHA Slotted ALOHA CSMA 4 Ethernet CSMA-CD in Ethernet Binary Exponential Backoff

Ramkumar, Mahalingam

397

Managing Service Capacity Under Uncertainty.  

E-print Network

??This dissertation addresses the issue of capacity management in a professional services context; specifically a call center based support operation with contractually committed Service Level… (more)

Robbins, Thomas

2007-01-01

398

Adaptive capacity and its assessment  

SciTech Connect

This paper reviews the concept of adaptive capacity and various approaches to assessing it, particularly with respect to climate variability and change. I find that adaptive capacity is a relatively under-researched topic within the sustainability science and global change communities, particularly since it is uniquely positioned to improve linkages between vulnerability and resilience research. I identify opportunities for advancing the measurement and characterization of adaptive capacity by combining insights from both vulnerability and resilience frameworks, and I suggest several assessment approaches for possible future development that draw from both frameworks and focus on analyzing the governance, institutions, and management that have helped foster adaptive capacity in light of recent climatic events.

Engle, Nathan L.

2011-04-20

399

Topaz II preliminary safety assessment  

SciTech Connect

The Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (SDIO) decided to investigate the possibility of launching a Russian Topaz 11 space nuclear power system. A preliminary safety assessment was conducted to determine whether or not a space mission could be conducted safely and within budget constraints. As part of this assessment, a safety policy and safety functional requirements were developed to guide both the safely assessment and future Topaz II activities. A review of the Russian flight safety program was conducted and documented. Our preliminary safety assessment included a top level event tree, neutronic analysis of normal and accident configurations, an evaluation of temperature coefficients of reactivity, a reentry and disposal analysis, and analysis of postulated launch abort impact accidents, and an analysis of postulated propellant fire and explosion accidents. Based on the assessment, it appears that it will be possible to safely launch the Topaz II system in the US with some possible system modifications. The principal system modifications will probably include design changes to preclude water flooded criticality and to assure intact reentry.

Marshall, A.C. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Standley, V. (Air Force Phillips Laboratory, Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Voss, S.S. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Haskin, E. (New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering)

1992-01-01

400

Topaz II preliminary safety assessment  

SciTech Connect

The Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (SDIO) decided to investigate the possibility of launching a Russian Topaz II space nuclear power system. A preliminary safety assessment was conducted to determine whether or not a space mission could be conducted safely and within budget constraints. As part of this assessment, a safety policy and safety functional requirements were developed to guide both the safety assessment and future Topaz II activities. A review of the Russian flight safety program was conducted and documented. Our preliminary safety assessment included a top level event tree, neutronic analysis of normal and accident configurations, an evaluation of temperature coefficients of reactivity, a reentry and disposal analysis, and analysis of postulated launch abort impact accidents, and an analysis of postulated propellant fire and explosion accidents. Based on the assessment, it appears that it will be possible to safely launch the Topaz II system in the U.S. with some possible system modifications. The principal system modifications will probably include design changes to preclude water flooded criticality and to assure intact reentry.

Marshall, A.C. (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States)); Standley, V. (Air Force Phillips Laboratory, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87110 (United States)); Voss, S.S. (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)); Haskin, E. (Department of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering Department, Institute for Nuclear Power Studies, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87110 (United States))

1993-01-10

401

Creative agencies : a model for building community capacity  

E-print Network

This research investigates how existing initiatives based in artistic and non-artistic disciplines build indigenous capacity for leadership in disenfranchised communities through the application of the creative process. ...

Ramaccia, Elizabeth M. (Elizabeth Marie)

2011-01-01

402

A two-part preliminary investigation of encoding-related activation changes after moderate to severe traumatic brain injury: hyperactivation, repetition suppression, and the role of the prefrontal cortex.  

PubMed

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) survivors typically exhibit significant learning and memory deficits and also frequently demonstrate hyperactivation during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) tasks involving working memory encoding and maintenance. However, it remains unclear whether the hyperactivation observed during such working memory tasks is also present during long-term memory encoding. The preliminary experiments presented here were designed to examine this question. In Experiment 1, 7 healthy controls (HC) and 7 patients with moderate to severe TBI encoded ecologically relevant object location associations (OLA) while undergoing fMRI and then completed a memory test outside of the fMRI environment. fMRI data analysis included only the correctly encoded trials and revealed hyperactivation in the TBI relative to HC group in regions critical for OLA encoding, including bilateral dorsal and ventral visual processing areas, bilateral frontoparietal working memory network regions, and the left medial temporal lobe. There was also an incidental finding that this hyperactivation persisted after multiple exposures to the same stimulus, which may indicate an attenuated repetition suppression effect that could ultimately contribute to cognitive fatigue and inefficient memory encoding after TBI. Experiment 2 directly assessed repetition suppression in some of the same HC and TBI participants. During early encoding trials, the TBI group showed large areas of hyperactivation in the right prefrontal cortex and bilateral posterior parietal cortices relative to the HC. Following additional exposure to these stimuli, the TBI group showed repetition suppression in visual and spatial processing regions, but continued to show hyperactivation in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Findings from these preliminary studies may reflect that increased reliance on cognitive control mechanisms following TBI extends to memory encoding. PMID:25481386

Gillis, M Meredith; Hampstead, Benjamin M

2014-12-01

403

Capacity of Multi-antenna Gaussian Channels  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate the use of multiple transmitting and\\/or receiving antennasfor single user communications over the additive Gaussian channel with andwithout fading. We derive formulas for the capacities and error exponents ofsuch channels, and describe computational procedures to evaluate such formulas.We show that the potential gains of such multi-antenna systems oversingle-antenna systems is rather large under independence assumptions for thefades and

Emre Telatar

1999-01-01

404

Building research capacity: the role of partnerships.  

PubMed

What "connections"--a broader term than "partnerships"--need to be made to build research capacity? Connections build capacity to the degree that they augment the skills, knowledge and resources of the focal investigator or investigating entity. We suggest that the goal of capacity building through partnerships/connections is to maximize research utility, i.e., its potential to effect desired changes in targeted systems. Specifically, an investigator or research organization must create connections that will enable: the selection and framing of research questions to address matters of importance to relevant stakeholders, especially and necessarily responding to the needs of people with disabilities; the development of a research design adhering to the highest standards of science; and the translation of new knowledge into messages about the results useful to those who are potential beneficiaries, tailoring the message so that it will be clearly "heard" by each respective target audience (including clinicians, other researchers, administrators and/or people with disabilities and their family members). Utility of research traditionally has not comprised the standard for judging research. However, the current focus in Federal funding appears to be shifting, with a demand to assess outcomes (i.e., utility) of research, thus, bolstering the argument to strengthen research utility through creating appropriate partnerships. PMID:16327418

Gordon, Wayne A; Brown, Margaret

2005-12-01

405

SURFACE SCIENCE INVESTIGATION OF CORROSION  

E-print Network

SURFACE SCIENCE INVESTIGATION OF CORROSION PROCESSES Danielle Haynes Professor Steve Bernasek August 3rd, 2009 #12;Outline Introduction Corrosion Processes AnalyticalTechnique (XPS) Motivation Methodology Preliminary Results Summary / FutureWork #12;Corrosion Process What is Corrosion? Degradation

Petta, Jason

406

Capacity Allocation Under Noncooperative Routing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The capacity allocation problem in a network that is to be shared by noncooperative users is considered. Each user decides independently upon its routing strategy so as to optimize its individual performance objective. The operating points of the network are the Nash equilibria of the underlying routing game. The network designer aims to allocate link capacities, so that the resulting

Yannis A. Korilis; Aurel A. Lazar; Ariel Orda

1995-01-01

407

Measuring Capacities for Community Resilience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to measure the sets of adaptive capacities for Economic Development and Social Capital in the Norris et al. (2008) community resilience model with publicly accessible population indicators. Our approach involved five steps. First, we conducted a literature review on measurements of the capacities. Second, we created…

Sherrieb, Kathleen; Norris, Fran H.; Galea, Sandro

2010-01-01

408

Efficient high-capacity steganography technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Performance indicators characterizing modern steganographic techniques include capacity (i.e. the quantity of data that can be hidden in the cover medium), stego quality (i.e. artifacts visibility), security (i.e. undetectability), and strength or robustness (intended as the resistance against active attacks aimed to destroy the secret message). Fibonacci based embedding techniques have been researched and proposed in the literature to achieve efficient steganography in terms of capacity with respect to stego quality. In this paper, we investigated an innovative idea that extends Fibonacci-like steganography by bit-plane(s) mapping instead of bit-plane(s) replacement. Our proposed algorithm increases embedding capacity using bit-plane mapping to embed two bits of the secret message in three bits of a pixel of the cover, at the expense of a marginal loss in stego quality. While existing Fibonacci embedding algorithms do not use certain intensities of the cover for embedding due to the limitation imposed by the Zeckendorf theorem, our proposal solve this problem and make all intensity values candidates for embedding. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed technique double the embedding capacity when compared to existing Fibonacci methods, and it is secure against statistical attacks such as RS, POV, and difference image histogram (DIH).

Abdulla, Alan A.; Jassim, Sabah A.; Sellahewa, Harin

2013-05-01

409

Genesis Preliminary Examination Plans  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of preliminary examination of the Genesis sample collectors is to provide information on the condition and availability of collector materials to the science community as a basis for allocation requests. Similarly, the information will be used by the Genesis Sample Allocation sub-committee of CAPTEM to determine the optimum allocation scheme, and by the Genesis Curator to determine the processing sequence for allocation production. The plan includes a decision process and detailed examination and documentation protocol for whole arrays and individual collectors (wafers, concentrator targets, bulk metallic glass, gold foil, and polished aluminum). It also includes a plan for communicating the information obtained to the scientific community. The plan does not include a detailed plan for preliminary examination of the SRC lid foil collectors, the process for removal of individual collectors from their frames, or for the subsequent subdivision of collector materials for allocation.

McNamara, K. M.; Stansbery, E. K.

2004-01-01

410

Handwriting Capacity in Children Newly Diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Preliminary evidence suggests that children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) may exhibit handwriting difficulties. However, the exact nature of these difficulties and the extent to which they may relate to motor or behavioural difficulties remains unclear. The aim of this study was to describe handwriting capacity in children…

Brossard-Racine, Marie; Majnemer, Annette; Shevell, Michael; Snider, Laurie; Belanger, Stacey Ageranioti

2011-01-01

411

Handwriting capacity in children newly diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preliminary evidence suggests that children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) may exhibit handwriting difficulties. However, the exact nature of these difficulties and the extent to which they may relate to motor or behavioural difficulties remains unclear. The aim of this study was to describe handwriting capacity in children newly diagnosed with ADHD and identify predictors of performance. Forty medication-naïve

Marie Brossard-Racine; Annette Majnemer; Michael Shevell; Laurie Snider; Stacey Ageranioti Bélanger

2011-01-01

412

On Preliminary Breakdown  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The preliminary breakdown phase of a negative cloud-to-ground lightning flash was observed in detail. Observations were made with a Photron SA1.1 high-speed video camera operating at 9,000 frames per second, fast optical sensors, a flat-plate electric field antenna covering the SLF to MF band, and VHF and UHF radio receivers with bandwidths of 20 MHz. Bright stepwise extensions of a negative leader were observed at an altitude of 8 km during the first few milliseconds of the flash, and were coincident with bipolar electric field pulses called 'characteristic pulses'. The 2-D step lengths of the preliminary processes were in excess of 100 meters, with some 2-D step lengths in excess of 200 meters. Smaller and shorter unipolar electric field pulses were superposed onto the bipolar electric field pulses, and were coincident with VHF and UHF radio pulses. After a few milliseconds, the emerging negative stepped leader system showed a marked decrease in luminosity, step length, and propagation velocity. Details of these events will be discussed, including the possibility that the preliminary breakdown phase consists not of a single developing lightning leader system, but of multiple smaller lightning leader systems that eventually join together into a single system.

Beasley, W. H.; Petersen, D.

2013-12-01

413

Legal capacity of the elderly in Greece.  

PubMed

Legal capacity of the elderly people in Greece is of great legal, medical and social importance, but has received little attention till now from medical literature. This paper aims to study whether elderly people with dementia are able to participate in legal contracts like sales, purchases, loans, leases, donations and testaments. We tried to introduce a new test for the above legal-financial contracts and show some preliminary findings. The test consists of six examined relevant domains concerning basic monetary skills, cash transactions, bank statement management, financial conceptual knowledge, knowledge of potential heirs (beneficiaries) and assets/estate and finally the decision making process for different dilemmas on sales, purchases, loans, leases, donations and testaments. We studied 203 people. Eighty three people were healthy, 64 with Alzheimer's disease (AD) (10 with severe AD, 22 with moderate, and 32 with mild AD), 10 with Parkinson's disease (PD), and 46 with amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (aMCI). Individuals were included in the study only if they were aged 60 and over and only if they had a partner or a guardian who could give information on the individual's daily living. The exclusion criteria were predefined as follows: history of any other mental health disease and/or any other serious somatic health disease except for their official diagnosis of dementia. Results showed statistically significant differences with all three groups of patients characterized as incapable for legal-financial actions. Patients with severe AD (P<0.001), patients with moderate AD (P<0.001), patients with mild AD (P<0.001), patients with PD (P<0.001) and aMCI patients (P<0.001) differed significantly from healthy controls. Further research should include more extensive sampling of elderly patients with varying demographic characteristics in Greece, to confirm and expand our initial findings. In conclusion, our new test which is based on Marson's theoretical model of financial capacity seems to be highly correlated with the so far use of MMSE/HMSE scores, but it gives more specific information that is of interest in the field of civil forensics for characterizing someone as legally (in) capable for large and/or small scale financial acts. Our preliminary results show for the first time in Greece that: a) four groups of elderly people (suffering from Alzheimer's disease at different stages, Parkinson's disease and amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment and healthy elders) show a significantly different profile on all examined domains of this new test according to their diagnosis, b) people with MCI from Greece do face problems in the domains outlined above (mainly financial decision making problems), and that c) subsequent changes in the Greek law should be made. PMID:24392459

Giannouli, Vaitsa; Tsolaki, Magda

2014-01-01

414

Large capacity temporary visual memory.  

PubMed

Visual working memory (WM) capacity is thought to be limited to 3 or 4 items. However, many cognitive activities seem to require larger temporary memory stores. Here, we provide evidence for a temporary memory store with much larger capacity than past WM capacity estimates. Further, based on previous WM research, we show that a single factor--proactive interference--is sufficient to bring capacity estimates down to the range of previous WM capacity estimates. Participants saw a rapid serial visual presentation of 5-21 pictures of familiar objects or words presented at rates of 4/s or 8/s, respectively, and thus too fast for strategies such as rehearsal. Recognition memory was tested with a single probe item. When new items were used on all trials, no fixed memory capacities were observed, with estimates of up to 9.1 retained pictures for 21-item lists, and up to 30.0 retained pictures for 100-item lists, and no clear upper bound to how many items could be retained. Further, memory items were not stored in a temporally stable form of memory but decayed almost completely after a few minutes. In contrast, when, as in most WM experiments, a small set of items was reused across all trials, thus creating proactive interference among items, capacity remained in the range reported in previous WM experiments. These results show that humans have a large-capacity temporary memory store in the absence of proactive interference, and raise the question of whether temporary memory in everyday cognitive processing is severely limited, as in WM experiments, or has the much larger capacity found in the present experiments. PMID:23937181

Endress, Ansgar D; Potter, Mary C

2014-04-01

415

Stardust Interstellar Preliminary Examination  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A. J. Westphal, C. Allen, A. Ansari, S. Bajt, R. S. Bastien, H. A. Bechtel, J. Borg, F. E. Brenker, J. Bridges, D. E. Brownlee, M. Burchell, M. Burghammer, A. L. Butterworth, A. M. Davis, P. Cloetens, C. Floss, G. Flynn, D. Frank, Z. Gainsforth, E. Grün, P. R. Heck, J. K. Hillier, P. Hoppe, G. Huss, J. Huth, B. Hvide, A. Kearsley, A. J. King, B. Lai, J. Leitner, L. Lemelle, H. Leroux, R. Lettieri, W. Marchant, L. R. Nittler, R. Ogliore, F. Postberg, M. C. Price, S. A. Sandford, J.-A. Sans Tresseras, T. Schoonjans, S. Schmitz, G. Silversmit, A. Simionovici, V. A. Solé, R. Srama, T. Stephan, V. Sterken, J. Stodolna, R. M. Stroud, S. Sutton, M. Trieloff, P. Tsou, A. Tsuchiyama, T. Tyliszczak, B. Vekemans, L. Vincze, D. Zevin, M. E. Zolensky, >29,000 Stardust@home dusters ISPE author affiliations are at http://www.ssl.berkeley.edu/~westphal/ISPE/. In 2000 and 2002, a ~0.1m2 array of aerogel tiles and alumi-num foils onboard the Stardust spacecraft was exposed to the interstellar dust (ISD) stream for an integrated time of 200 days. The exposure took place in interplanetary space, beyond the orbit of Mars, and thus was free of the ubiquitous orbital debris in low-earth orbit that precludes effective searches for interstellar dust there. Despite the long exposure of the Stardust collector, <<100 ISD particles are expected to have been captured. The particles are thought to be ~1?m or less in size, and the total ISD collection is probably <10-6 by mass of the collection of cometary dust parti-cles captured in the Stardust cometary dust collector from the coma of the Jupiter-family comet Wild 2. Thus, although the first solid sample from the local interstellar medium is clearly of high interest, the diminutive size of the particles and the low numbers of particles present daunting challenges. Nevertheless, six recent developments have made a Preliminary Examination (PE) of this sample practical: (1) rapid automated digital optical scanning microscopy for three-dimensional imaging of the aerogel collector; (2) rapid automated digital scanning electron microscopy for imaging of the aluminum foils; (3) an effective, massively-distributed search by citizen scientists through the Internet; (4) extraction and sample preparation tech-niques for ?m-sized particles in aerogel; (5) advances in capabili-ties of synchrotron infrared and X-ray microprobes that enable non-destructive analyses of sub-?m particles in situ in aerogel; and (6) the development of focused-ion beam (FIB) milling tech-niques for sample preparation. The Stardust Interstellar PE consists of six related projects: the identification of tracks through automated scanning microscopy and distributed searching by volunteers (Stardust@home); the extraction of tracks from aerogel in "picokeystones"; the analysis of tracks using synchrotron microprobes; the identifica-tion and analysis of impacts in aluminum foils; laboratory investigations of ISD analogs using an electrostatic dust accelerator; and modeling of ISD propagation in the heliosphere. To date we have identified four impacts in the aerogel collector and one on the foils of probable interstellar origin. We will report on our analyses and implications for the solid component of the local interstellar medium.

Westphal, A.; Stardust Interstellar Preliminary Examation Team: http://www. ssl. berkeley. edu/~westphal/ISPE/

2011-12-01

416

Global Environmental Change: Carrying Capacity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Carrying Capacity addresses the ability of the Earth to sustain healthy populations of different species. Earth's human population, now past six billion, is expected to reach 10 billion by 2030. This growth will place an even greater strain on the planet's carrying capacity. With your school as a case study, link small-scale biology, ecology, and Earth science to the big picture. Carrying Capacity is one of four books in NSTA Press's Global Environmental Change series, a joint project of NSTA Press and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The other books in the series are Deforestation, Biodiversity, and Introduced Species.

Environmental Protection Agency

1997-01-01

417

Preliminary Safety Analysis for the IRIS Reactor  

SciTech Connect

A deterministic analysis of the IRIS safety features has been carried out by means of the best-estimate code RELAP (ver. RELAP5 mod3.2). First, the main system components were modeled and tested separately, namely: the Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV), the modular helical-coil Steam Generators (SG) and the Passive (natural circulation) Emergency Heat Removal System (PEHRS). Then, a preliminary set of accident transients for the whole primary and safety systems was investigated. Since the project was in a conceptual phase, the reported analyses must be considered preliminary. In fact, neither the reactor components, nor the safety systems and the reactor signal logics were completely defined at that time. Three 'conventional' design basis accidents have been preliminary evaluated: a Loss Of primary Flow Accident, a Loss Of Coolant Accident and a Loss Of Feed Water accident. The results show the effectiveness of the safety systems also in LOCA conditions; the core remains covered for the required grace period. This provides the basis to move forward to the preliminary design. (authors)

Ricotti, M.E.; Cammi, A.; Cioncolini, A.; Lombardi, C. [Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci, 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Cipollaro, A.; Orioto, F. [Universita di Pisa, Via Diotisalvi 2, 56126 Pisa (Italy); Conway, L.E. [Westinghouse Electric Company (United States); Barroso, A.C. [CNEN, Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear, Rua General Severiano 90, Rio de Janeiro, RJ-22-294-900 (Brazil)

2002-07-01

418

Anisotropic Sobolev Capacity with Fractional Order  

E-print Network

In this paper, we introduce the anisotropic Sobolev capacity with fractional order and develop some basic properties for this new object. Applications to the theory of anisotropic fractional Sobolev spaces are provided. In particular, we give geometric characterizations for a nonnegative Radon measure $\\mu$ that naturally induces an embedding of the anisotropic fractional Sobolev class $\\dot{\\Lambda}_{\\alpha,K}^{1,1}$ into the $\\mu$-based-Lebesgue-space $L^{n/\\beta}_\\mu$ with $0<\\beta\\le n$. Also, we investigate the anisotropic fractional $\\alpha$-perimeter. Such a geometric quantity can be used to approximate the anisotropic Sobolev capacity with fractional order. Estimation on the constant in the related Minkowski inequality, which is asymptotically optimal as $\\alpha\\rightarrow 0^+$, will be provided.

Jie Xiao; Deping Ye

2014-10-02

419

Measuring the Heat Capacity of Greenhouse Gases  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This quantitative experiment involves lab teams in comparing a sample of room air with one of the greenhouse gases - carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, or methane - and measuring their heat capacity. The activity requires an infrared heat source, such as a heat lamp, two 2L beverage bottles, #4 one hole rubber stoppers, and a thermometer or temperature probe, volumetric flasks, a graduated cylinder, and tubing. Nitrous oxide can be obtained from a dentist, methane from gas jets in a chemistry lab, and becomes CO² can be generated using vinegar and baking soda. A worksheet guides student calculations of heat capacity of the different samples. The investigation s is supported by the textbook, Climate Change, part of the Global System Science, an interdisciplinary course for high school students that emphasizes how scientists from a wide variety of fields work together to understand significant problems of global impact.

420

Noisy Constrained Capacity Philippe Jacquet  

E-print Network

Noisy Constrained Capacity Philippe Jacquet INRIA Rocquencourt 78153 Le Chesnay Cedex France Email: philippe.jacquet@inria.fr Gadiel Seroussi Hewlett-Packard Laboratories Palo Alto, CA 94304 U.S.A. Email

Szpankowski, Wojciech

421

Assessment of Sexual Consent Capacity  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses assessment of sexual consent capacity, its ethical and legal mandates, and a rationale for the assessment\\u000a of capacity to have a sexual relationship. It reports current assessment practices used by the authors as well as a summary\\u000a of relevant literature. There is a review and discussion of New York laws, National and State court cases, and policies

Martin Lyden

2007-01-01

422

Capacity limits of MIMO channels  

Microsoft Academic Search

We provide an overview of the extensive results on the Shannon capacity of single-user and multiuser multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) channels. Although enormous capacity gains have been predicted for such channels, these predictions are based on somewhat unrealistic assumptions about the underlying time-varying channel model and how well it can be tracked at the receiver, as well as at the transmitter.

Andrea Goldsmith; Syed Ali Jafar; Nihar Jindal; Sriram Vishwanath

2003-01-01

423

Capacity Value of Wind Power  

SciTech Connect

Power systems are planned such that they have adequate generation capacity to meet the load, according to a defined reliability target. The increase in the penetration of wind generation in recent years has led to a number of challenges for the planning and operation of power systems. A key metric for system adequacy is the capacity value of generation. The capacity value of a generator is the contribution that a given generator makes to overall system adequacy. The variable and stochastic nature of wind sets it apart from conventional energy sources. As a result, the modeling of wind generation in the same manner as conventional generation for capacity value calculations is inappropriate. In this paper a preferred method for calculation of the capacity value of wind is described and a discussion of the pertinent issues surrounding it is given. Approximate methods for the calculation are also described with their limitations highlighted. The outcome of recent wind capacity value analyses in Europe and North America are highlighted with a description of open research questions also given.

Keane, Andrew; Milligan, Michael; Dent, Chris; Hasche, Bernhard; DAnnunzio, Claudine; Dragoon, Ken; Holttinen, Hannele; Samaan, Nader A.; Soder, Lennart; O'Malley, Mark J.

2011-05-04

424

Sum Capacity and TSC Bounds in Collaborative Multi-Base Wireless Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider a wireless system with base stations which collaborate and derive bounds on sum capacity and total squared correlation for uniform channels between users and bases. The paper also investigates structural properties which must be satisfied by user transmit covariance matrices at the optimal sum capacity\\/TSC point, and shows that for multi-base systems, maximizing sum capacity and minimizing TSC

Otilia Popescu; Christopher Rose

425

Bearing capacity of spatially random soil: the undrained clay Prandtl problem revisited  

E-print Network

Bearing capacity of spatially random soil: the undrained clay Prandtl problem revisited D. V, an investigation has been performed into the bearing capacity of undrained clays with spatially vary- ing shear- tion of the soil's undrained shear strength impact on the statistics of the bearing capacity

426

Sexual Dimorphism in Primate Aerobic Capacity: A Phylogenetic Test  

PubMed Central

Male intrasexual competition should favour increased male physical prowess. This should in turn result in greater aerobic capacity in males than in females (i.e., sexual dimorphism), and a correlation between sexual dimorphism in aerobic capacity and the strength of sexual selection among species. However, physiological scaling laws predict that aerobic capacity should be lower per unit body mass in larger than in smaller animals, potentially reducing or reversing the sex difference and its association with measures of sexual selection. We used measures of hematocrit and red blood cell (RBC) counts from 45 species of primates to test four predictions related to sexual selection and body mass: (i) on average, males should have higher aerobic capacity than females, (ii) aerobic capacity should be higher in adult than juvenile males, (iii) aerobic capacity should increase with increasing sexual selection, but also that (iv) measures of aerobic capacity should covary negatively with body mass. For the first two predictions we used a phylogenetic paired t-test developed for this study. We found support for predictions (i) and (ii). For prediction (iii), however, we found a negative correlation between the degree of sexual selection and aerobic capacity, which was opposite to our prediction. Prediction (iv) was generally supported. We also investigated whether substrate use, basal metabolic rate, and agility influenced physiological measures of oxygen transport, but we found only weak evidence for a correlation between RBC count and agility. PMID:20406346

Lindenfors, Patrik; Revell, Liam J.; Nunn, Charles L.

2010-01-01

427

Optimal Capacity Adjustments for Supply Chain Control  

E-print Network

Decisions on capacity are often treated separately from those of production and inventory. In most situations, capacity issues are longer-term, so capacity-related decisions are considered strategic and thus not part of ...

Budiman, Benny

428

25 CFR 167.6 - Carrying capacities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Carrying capacities. 167.6 Section 167...GRAZING REGULATIONS § 167.6 Carrying capacities. (a) The Commissioner...promulgated the authorized carrying capacity for each land management...

2012-04-01

429

25 CFR 167.6 - Carrying capacities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-04-01 false Carrying capacities. 167.6 Section 167...GRAZING REGULATIONS § 167.6 Carrying capacities. (a) The Commissioner...promulgated the authorized carrying capacity for each land management...

2010-04-01

430

25 CFR 167.6 - Carrying capacities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 false Carrying capacities. 167.6 Section 167...GRAZING REGULATIONS § 167.6 Carrying capacities. (a) The Commissioner...promulgated the authorized carrying capacity for each land management...

2013-04-01

431

25 CFR 167.6 - Carrying capacities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-04-01 false Carrying capacities. 167.6 Section 167...GRAZING REGULATIONS § 167.6 Carrying capacities. (a) The Commissioner...promulgated the authorized carrying capacity for each land management...

2014-04-01

432

25 CFR 167.6 - Carrying capacities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-04-01 false Carrying capacities. 167.6 Section 167...GRAZING REGULATIONS § 167.6 Carrying capacities. (a) The Commissioner...promulgated the authorized carrying capacity for each land management...

2011-04-01

433

National hydroelectric power resources study. Preliminary inventory of hydropower resources. Volume 1. Pacific Northwest region  

SciTech Connect

The preliminary inventory and analysis procedures provide a comprehensive assessment of the undeveloped hydroelectric power potential in the US and determines which sites merit more thorough investigation. Over 5400 existing structures have been identified as having the physical potential to add hydropower plants or increase hydropower output thereby increasing our present hydropower capacity from a total of 64,000 MW to 158,000 MW and our energy from 280,000 GWH to 503,000 GWH. While the physical potential for this increase is clearly available, some of these projects will undoubtedly not satisfy more-detailed economic analysis as well as the institutional and environmental criteria which will be imposed upon them. Summary tables include estimates of the potential capacity and energy at each site in the inventory. In some cases, individual projects may be site alternatives to others in the same general location, when only one can be considered for hydropower development. The number of sites per state is identified, but specific information is included for only the sites in Alaska, Idaho, Oregon, and Washington in this first volume.

None

1979-07-01

434

Capacity sharing of water reservoirs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The concept of a water use property right is developed which does not apply to water volumes as such but to a share of the capacity (not contents) of river storage reservoirs and their inflows. The shareholders can withdraw water from their share over time in accordance with their preferences for stability of water deliveries. The reservoir authority does not manage reservoir releases but keeps record of individual shareholder's withdrawals and net inflows to monitor the quantity of water in each shareholder's capacity share. A surplus of total reservoir contents over the sum of the contents of the individual shareholder's capacity shares will accrue over time. Two different criteria for its periodic distribution among shareholders are compared. A previous paper Dudley (this issue(b)) noted a loss of short-run economic efficiency as reservoir and farm management decision making become separated. This is largely overcome by capacity sharing which allows each user to integrate the management of their portion of the reservoir and their farming operations. The nonattenuated nature of the capacity sharing water rights also promotes long-run economic efficiency.

Dudley, Norman J.; Musgrave, Warren F.

1988-05-01

435

PRELIMINARY REPORT 79 PRELIMINARYREPORT80  

E-print Network

Igneous complex Igneous complex Igneous complex Figure F21 #12;LEG 205 PRELIMINARY REPORT 81 Figure F22 n p a c k e r Figure F22 #12;LEG 205 PRELIMINARY REPORT 82 Figure F23 -4185 -4185 -4180 86°10'48"W

436

61 FR 45402 - Certain Refrigeration Compressors From the Republic of Singapore; Preliminary Results of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...C-559-001] Certain Refrigeration Compressors From the Republic of Singapore; Preliminary...investigation on certain refrigeration compressors from the Republic of Singapore. This...investigation on certain refrigeration compressor from [[Page 45403

1996-08-29

437

61 FR 29348 - Certain Refrigeration Compressors from the Republic of Singapore; Preliminary Results of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...C-559-001] Certain Refrigeration Compressors from the Republic of Singapore; Preliminary...investigation on certain refrigeration compressors from the Republic of Singapore. We...investigation on certain refrigeration compressors from the Republic of Singapore...

1996-06-10

438

59 FR- Certain Refrigeration Compressors From the Republic of Singapore Preliminary Results of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...C-559-001] Certain Refrigeration Compressors From the Republic of Singapore Preliminary...investigation on certain refrigeration compressors from the Republic of Singapore. We...investigation on certain refrigeration compressors from the Republic of Singapore...

1994-11-18

439

An Evaluation of the Rheumatology Coverage of Index Medicus. A Preliminary Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A preliminary investigation which revealed the omission of four full length articles on rheumatology from Index Medicus'' is reported upon. Further investigations are in progress and will be reported at a later date. (Author/SJ)

Thorpe, Peter

1972-01-01

440

Possible mechanisms of increase in heat capacity of nanostructured metals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The problem of anomalously high experimental values of the heat capacity of metallic nanoclusters has been analyzed in terms of the thermodynamics of the surfaces, as well as based on the data of computer experiment. The heat capacity of ideal face-centered cubic (fcc) palladium clusters with a diameter of 6 nm in the temperature range of 150-300 K has been investigated using the molecular dynamics method with several tight-binding potentials. It has been found that, at a temperature T = 150 K, the heat capacity of a Pd nanoparticle exceeds the heat capacity of the bulk material by 12-16%. Based on the results of the theoretical treatment, computer simulation, and analysis of experimental data, it has been concluded that an increase in the heat capacity of the compacted nanomaterial is not determined by the high heat capacity of individual clusters. Apparently, the significant increase in the heat capacity of compact nanomaterials can be explained either by their disordered state or by the high content of different types of impurities, mainly hydrogen.

Gafner, Yu. Ya.; Gafner, S. L.; Zamulin, I. S.; Redel, L. V.; Samsonov, V. M.