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Sample records for capillary electrophoresis method

  1. Capillary electrophoresis

    SciTech Connect

    Warner, M.

    1988-10-15

    Rapid instrumental methods for performing electrophoretic separations in capillary tubes have recently been developed, making capillary electrophoresis one of the most exciting new techniques available to analytical chemists. This article discusses detection methods, applications, and the future of capillary electrophoresis.

  2. Capillary electrophoresis systems and methods

    DOEpatents

    Dorairaj, Rathissh; Keynton, Robert S.; Roussel, Thomas J.; Crain, Mark M.; Jackson, Douglas J.; Walsh, Kevin M.; Naber, John F.; Baldwin, Richard P.; Franco, Danielle B.

    2011-08-02

    An embodiment of the invention is directed to a capillary electrophoresis apparatus comprising a plurality of separation micro-channels. A sample loading channel communicates with each of the plurality of separation channels. A driver circuit comprising a plurality of electrodes is configured to induce an electric field across each of the plurality of separation channels sufficient to cause analytes in the samples to migrate along each of the channels. The system further comprises a plurality of detectors configured to detect the analytes.

  3. Microfabricated capillary array electrophoresis device and method

    DOEpatents

    Simpson, Peter C.; Mathies, Richard A.; Woolley, Adam T.

    2004-06-15

    A capillary array electrophoresis (CAE) micro-plate with an array of separation channels connected to an array of sample reservoirs on the plate. The sample reservoirs are organized into one or more sample injectors. One or more waste reservoirs are provided to collect wastes from reservoirs in each of the sample injectors. Additionally, a cathode reservoir is also multiplexed with one or more separation channels. To complete the electrical path, an anode reservoir which is common to some or all separation channels is also provided on the micro-plate. Moreover, the channel layout keeps the distance from the anode to each of the cathodes approximately constant.

  4. Microfabricated capillary array electrophoresis device and method

    DOEpatents

    Simpson, Peter C.; Mathies, Richard A.; Woolley, Adam T.

    2000-01-01

    A capillary array electrophoresis (CAE) micro-plate with an array of separation channels connected to an array of sample reservoirs on the plate. The sample reservoirs are organized into one or more sample injectors. One or more waste reservoirs are provided to collect wastes from reservoirs in each of the sample injectors. Additionally, a cathode reservoir is also multiplexed with one or more separation channels. To complete the electrical path, an anode reservoir which is common to some or all separation channels is also provided on the micro-plate. Moreover, the channel layout keeps the distance from the anode to each of the cathodes approximately constant.

  5. Detection of Hb Constant Spring by a capillary electrophoresis method.

    PubMed

    Liao, Can; Zhou, Jian-Ying; Xie, Xing-Mei; Li, Jian; Li, Ru; Li, Dong-Zhi

    2010-01-01

    Hb Constant Spring [Hb CS; alpha142, Term-->Gln (TAA>CAA in alpha2)] is the most prevalent nondeletional alpha-thalassemia (alpha-thal) anomaly in southern China. In conjunction with alpha(0)-thal, it can cause severe Hb H (beta(4)) disease. The present study was done to evaluate the efficiency of two diagnostic methods in detecting Hb CS. Automated high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and Sebia Capillarys 2, a capillary electrophoresis method, were applied to blood samples from 21 individuals with Hb CS trait. Of the 21 cases, all (100%) were detected by capillary electrophoresis, whereas only 16 (76.2%) were detected by HPLC. We concluded that the Sebia Capillarys 2 is the preferred method for Hb CS screening. PMID:20353355

  6. An enhanced capillary electrophoresis method for characterizing natural organic matter.

    PubMed

    Cottrell, Barbara A; Cheng, Wei Ran; Lam, Buuan; Cooper, William J; Simpson, Andre J

    2013-02-21

    Natural organic matter (NOM) is ubiquitous and is one of the most complex naturally occurring mixtures. NOM plays an essential role in the global carbon cycle; atmospheric and natural water photochemistry; and the long-range transport of trace compounds and contaminants. There is a dearth of separation techniques capable of resolving this highly complex mixture. To our knowledge, this is the first reported use of ultrahigh resolution counterbalance capillary electrophoresis to resolve natural organic matter. The new separation strategy uses a low pH, high concentration phosphate buffer to reduce the capillary electroosmotic flow (EOF). Changing the polarity of the electrodes reverses the EOF to counterbalance the electrophoretic mobility. Sample stacking further improves the counterbalance separation. The combination of these conditions results in an electropherogram comprised up to three hundred peaks superimposed on the characteristic "humic hump" of NOM. Fraction collection, followed by three-dimensional emission excitation spectroscopy (EEMs) and UV spectroscopy generated a distinct profile of fluorescent and UV absorbing components. This enhanced counterbalance capillary electrophoresis method is a potentially powerful technique for the characterization and separation of NOM and complex environmental mixtures in general. PMID:23289095

  7. Means and method for capillary zone electrophoresis with laser-induced indirect fluorescence detection

    DOEpatents

    Yeung, Edwards; Kuhr, Werner G.

    1991-04-09

    A means and method for capillary zone electrphoresis with laser-induced indirect fluorescence detection. A detector is positioned on the capillary tube of a capillary zone electrophoresis system. The detector includes a laser which generates a laser beam which is imposed upon a small portion of the capillary tube. Fluorescence of the elutant electromigrating through the capillary tube is indirectly detected and recorded.

  8. Means and method for capillary zone electrophoresis with laser-induced indirect fluorescence detection

    DOEpatents

    Yeung, Edward S.; Kuhr, Werner G.

    1996-02-20

    A means and method for capillary zone electrphoresis with laser-induced indirect fluorescence detection. A detector is positioned on the capillary tube of a capillary zone electrophoresis system. The detector includes a laser which generates a laser beam which is imposed upon a small portion of the capillary tube. Fluorescence of the elutant electromigrating through the capillary tube is indirectly detected and recorded.

  9. A stability indicating capillary electrophoresis method for analysis of buserelin.

    PubMed

    Tamizi, Elnaz; Kenndler, Ernst; Jouyban, Abolghasem

    2014-01-01

    A simple and rapid stability indicating method based on capillary zone electrophoresis has been developed and validated for the analysis of buserelin (BUS). The best separations were achieved by using a bare fused silica capillary (75 μm i.d.; 65.5 cm total, 57.0 cm effective length), phosphate buffer (pH = 3.00; 26.4 mM), at 35 °C. The sample was hydrodynamically injected at 50 mbar for 5 seconds; the applied voltage was 30 kV and detection was carried out by UV-absorbance at 200 nm. Method validation resulted in the following figures of merit : the method was linear in the concentration range between 0.781 and 500 μg/mL (linear regression coefficient 0.9996), accuracy was between 99.3% and 100.9%, intra assay precision was between 0.3% and 1.0% and intermediate precision was between 1.0% and 2.1%. Evaluation of the specificity of the method showed no interference between excipients or products of force degradation and BUS. Under the selected conditions, separation of BUS and its degradation products was completed in less than 10 min, and BUS could be quantified after different stress conditions without any interference. The results enabled the conclusion that under thermal stress upon exposure to 90 °C BUS is degraded by first order kinetics. It was demonstrated that the method can be applied as a rapid and easy to use method for quantification and stability testing of BUS in biopharmaceutical formulations in quality control laboratories. PMID:25276180

  10. Multiplexed capillary electrophoresis system

    DOEpatents

    Yeung, Edward S.; Li, Qingbo; Lu, Xiandan

    1998-04-21

    The invention provides a side-entry optical excitation geometry for use in a multiplexed capillary electrophoresis system. A charge-injection device is optically coupled to capillaries in the array such that the interior of a capillary is imaged onto only one pixel. In Sanger-type 4-label DNA sequencing reactions, nucleotide identification ("base calling") is improved by using two long-pass filters to split fluorescence emission into two emission channels. A binary poly(ethyleneoxide) matrix is used in the electrophoretic separations.

  11. Multiplexed capillary electrophoresis system

    DOEpatents

    Yeung, Edward S.; Chang, Huan-Tsang; Fung, Eliza N.; Li, Qingbo; Lu, Xiandan

    1996-12-10

    The invention provides a side-entry optical excitation geometry for use in a multiplexed capillary electrophoresis system. A charge-injection device is optically coupled to capillaries in the array such that the interior of a capillary is imaged onto only one pixel. In Sanger-type 4-label DNA sequencing reactions, nucleotide identification ("base calling") is improved by using two long-pass filters to split fluorescence emission into two emission channels. A binary poly(ethyleneoxide) matrix is used in the electrophoretic separations.

  12. Multiplexed capillary electrophoresis system

    DOEpatents

    Yeung, E.S.; Li, Q.; Lu, X.

    1998-04-21

    The invention provides a side-entry optical excitation geometry for use in a multiplexed capillary electrophoresis system. A charge-injection device is optically coupled to capillaries in the array such that the interior of a capillary is imaged onto only one pixel. In Sanger-type 4-label DNA sequencing reactions, nucleotide identification (``base calling``) is improved by using two long-pass filters to split fluorescence emission into two emission channels. A binary poly(ethyleneoxide) matrix is used in the electrophoretic separations. 19 figs.

  13. Multiplexed capillary electrophoresis system

    DOEpatents

    Yeung, E.S.; Chang, H.T.; Fung, E.N.; Li, Q.; Lu, X.

    1996-12-10

    The invention provides a side-entry optical excitation geometry for use in a multiplexed capillary electrophoresis system. A charge-injection device is optically coupled to capillaries in the array such that the interior of a capillary is imaged onto only one pixel. In Sanger-type 4-label DNA sequencing reactions, nucleotide identification (``base calling``) is improved by using two long-pass filters to split fluorescence emission into two emission channels. A binary poly(ethyleneoxide) matrix is used in the electrophoretic separations. 19 figs.

  14. Microfabricated capillary electrophoresis chip and method for simultaneously detecting multiple redox labels

    DOEpatents

    Mathies, Richard A.; Singhal, Pankaj; Xie, Jin; Glazer, Alexander N.

    2002-01-01

    This invention relates to a microfabricated capillary electrophoresis chip for detecting multiple redox-active labels simultaneously using a matrix coding scheme and to a method of selectively labeling analytes for simultaneous electrochemical detection of multiple label-analyte conjugates after electrophoretic or chromatographic separation.

  15. Integrated multiplexed capillary electrophoresis system

    SciTech Connect

    Yeung, Edward S.; Tan, Hongdong

    2002-05-14

    The present invention provides an integrated multiplexed capillary electrophoresis system for the analysis of sample analytes. The system integrates and automates multiple components, such as chromatographic columns and separation capillaries, and further provides a detector for the detection of analytes eluting from the separation capillaries. The system employs multiplexed freeze/thaw valves to manage fluid flow and sample movement. The system is computer controlled and is capable of processing samples through reaction, purification, denaturation, pre-concentration, injection, separation and detection in parallel fashion. Methods employing the system of the invention are also provided.

  16. Copolymers For Capillary Gel Electrophoresis

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Changsheng; Li, Qingbo

    2005-08-09

    This invention relates to an electrophoresis separation medium having a gel matrix of at least one random, linear copolymer comprising a primary comonomer and at least one secondary comonomer, wherein the comonomers are randomly distributed along the copolymer chain. The primary comonomer is an acrylamide or an acrylamide derivative that provides the primary physical, chemical, and sieving properties of the gel matrix. The at least one secondary comonomer imparts an inherent physical, chemical, or sieving property to the copolymer chain. The primary and secondary comonomers are present in a ratio sufficient to induce desired properties that optimize electrophoresis performance. The invention also relates to a method of separating a mixture of biological molecules using this gel matrix, a method of preparing the novel electrophoresis separation medium, and a capillary tube filled with the electrophoresis separation medium.

  17. Instrumental development of novel detection and separation methods for capillary electrophoresis

    SciTech Connect

    Garner, T.

    1993-07-01

    After a general introduction, this thesis is divided into 3 parts: indirect fluorescence detection of sugars separated by capillary zone electrophoresis with visible laser excitation, absorption detection in capillary electrophoresis by fluorescence energy transfer, and increased selectivity for electrochromatography by dynamic ion exchange.

  18. Capillary Electrophoresis - Optical Detection Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sepaniak, M. J.

    2001-08-06

    Molecular recognition systems are developed via molecular modeling and synthesis to enhance separation performance in capillary electrophoresis and optical detection methods for capillary electrophoresis. The underpinning theme of our work is the rational design and development of molecular recognition systems in chemical separations and analysis. There have been, however, some subtle and exciting shifts in our research paradigm during this period. Specifically, we have moved from mostly separations research to a good balance between separations and spectroscopic detection for separations. This shift is based on our perception that the pressing research challenges and needs in capillary electrophoresis and electrokinetic chromatography relate to the persistent detection and flow rate reproducibility limitations of these techniques (see page 1 of the accompanying Renewal Application for further discussion). In most of our work molecular recognition reagents are employed to provide selectivity and enhance performance. Also, an emerging trend is the use of these reagents with specially-prepared nano-scale materials. Although not part of our DOE BES-supported work, the modeling and synthesis of new receptors has indirectly supported the development of novel microcantilevers-based MEMS for the sensing of vapor and liquid phase analytes. This fortuitous overlap is briefly covered in this report. Several of the more significant publications that have resulted from our work are appended. To facilitate brevity we refer to these publications liberally in this progress report. Reference is also made to very recent work in the Background and Preliminary Studies Section of the Renewal Application.

  19. Uniform Laser Excitation And Detection In Capillary Array Electrophoresis System And Method.

    DOEpatents

    Li, Qingbo; Zhou, Songsan; Liu, Changsheng

    2003-10-07

    A capillary electrophoresis system comprises capillaries positioned in parallel to each other forming a plane. The capillaries are configured to allow samples to migrate. A light source is configured to illuminate the capillaries and the samples therein. This causes the samples to emit light. A lens is configured to receive the light emitted by the samples and positioned directly over a first group of the capillaries and obliquely over a second group of the capillaries. The light source is further configured to illuminate the second group of capillaries more than the first group of the capillaries such that amount of light received by the lens from the first group of capillaries is substantially identical to amount of light received from the second group of capillaries when an identical amount of the samples is migrating through the first and second group capillaries.

  20. Biomedical applications of capillary electrophoresis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kartsova, L. A.; Bessonova, E. A.

    2015-08-01

    The review deals with modern analytical approaches used in capillary electrophoresis for solving medical and biological problems: search for biomarkers of various diseases and rapid diagnosis based on characteristic profiles of biologically active compounds by capillary electrophoresis with mass spectrometric detection; monitoring of the residual drugs in biological fluids for evaluating the efficiency of drug therapy; testing of the enantiomeric purity of pharmaceutical products; the use of novel materials as components of stationary and pseudo-stationary phases in capillary electrophoresis and capillary electrochromatography to increase the selectivity of separation of components of complex matrices; and identification of various on-line preconcentration techniques to reduce the detection limits of biologically active analytes. A topical trend in capillary electrophoresis required in clinical practice, viz., the design of microfluidic systems, is discussed. The bibliography includes 173 references.

  1. Capillary electrophoresis in metallodrug development.

    PubMed

    Holtkamp, Hannah; Hartinger, Christian G

    2015-09-01

    Capillary electrophoresis (CE) is a separation method based on differential migration of analytes in electric fields. The compatibility with purely aqueous separation media makes it a versatile tool in metallodrug research. Many metallodrugs undergo ligand exchange reactions that can easily be followed with this method and the information gained can even be improved by coupling the CE to advanced detectors, such as mass spectrometers. This gives the method high potential to facilitate the development of metallodrugs, especially when combined with innovative method development and experimental design. PMID:26547417

  2. DNA typing by capillary electrophoresis

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, N.

    1997-10-08

    Capillary electrophoresis is becoming more and more important in nucleic acid analysis including DNA sequencing, typing and disease gene measurements. This work summarized the background of DNA typing. The recent development of capillary electrophoresis was also discussed. The second part of the thesis showed the principle of DNA typing based on using the allelic ladder as the absolute standard ladder in capillary electrophoresis system. Future work will be focused on demonstrating DNA typing on multiplex loci and examples of disease diagnosis in the on-line format of PCR-CE. Also capillary array electrophoresis system should allow high throughput, fast speed DNA typing. Only the introduction and conclusions for this report are available here. A reprint was removed for separate processing.

  3. A new injection method for soil nutrient analysis in capillary electrophoresis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smolka, M.; Puchberger-Enengl, D.; Bipoun, M.; Fercher, G.; Klasa, A.; Krutzler, C.; Keplinger, F.; Vellekoop, M. J.

    2013-05-01

    We present a new method for the direct injection of liquid sample into a capillary electrophoresis (CE) device. Instead of a double-T injection mechanism, a single inlet provided with a membrane filter is used. From a reservoir on top of this inlet, the liquid directly enters the separation channel through the membrane. The driving force is a short electrical pulse. This avoids an additional sample channel, so that the chip needs only three microfluidic connects and no mechanical sample pumping is demanded. The high injection reproducibility and the comparatively simple setup open up the way for mobile application of soil analysis.

  4. Potentials and Method Improvements of Capillary Zone Electrophoresis for Use in Spelt Breeding Programs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) in acidic buffer systems is capable of separating cereal storage proteins based on similar separation principles as classical acidic polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. However, it is faster, its resolution is distinctly higher and data evaluation is much simpler...

  5. Microbeam-coupled capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Garty, G; Ehsan, M U; Buonanno, M; Yang, Z; Sweedler, J V; Brenner, D J

    2015-09-01

    Within the first few microseconds following a charged particle traversal of a cell, numerous oxygen and nitrogen radicals are formed along the track. Presented here is a method, using capillary electrophoresis, for simultaneous measurement, within an individual cell, of specific reactive oxygen species, such as the superoxide radical ([Formula: see text]) as well as the native and oxidised forms of glutathione, an ubiquitous anti-oxidant that assists the cell in coping with these species. Preliminary data are presented as well as plans for integrating this system into the charged particle microbeam at Columbia University. PMID:25870435

  6. Simple in-house flow-injection capillary electrophoresis with capacitively coupled contactless conductivity method for the determination of colistin.

    PubMed

    Chaisuwan, Patcharin; Moonta, Thararat; Sangcakul, Areeporn; Nacapricha, Duangjai; Wilairat, Prapin; Uraisin, Kanchana

    2015-03-01

    An in-house flow-injection capillary electrophoresis with capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection method was developed for the direct measurement of colistin in pharmaceutical samples. The flow injection and capillary electrophoresis systems are connected by an acrylic interface. Capillary electrophoresis separation is achieved within 2 min using a background electrolyte solution of 5 mM 2-morpholinoethanesulfonic acid and 5 mM histidine (pH 6). The flow-injection section allows for convenient filling of the capillary and sample introduction without the use of a pressure/vacuum manifold. Capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection is employed since colistin has no chromophore but is cationic at pH 6. Calibration curve is linear from 20 to 150 mg/L, with a correlation coefficient (r(2) ) of 0.997. The limit of quantitation is 20 mg/L. The developed method provides precision, simplicity, and short analysis time. PMID:25641810

  7. DNA Sequencing by Capillary Electrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Karger, Barry L.; Guttman, Andras

    2009-01-01

    Sequencing of human and other genomes has been at the center of interest in the biomedical field over the past several decades and is now leading toward an era of personalized medicine. During this time, DNA sequencing methods have evolved from the labor intensive slab gel electrophoresis, through automated multicapillary electrophoresis systems using fluorophore labeling with multispectral imaging, to the “next generation” technologies of cyclic array, hybridization based, nanopore and single molecule sequencing. Deciphering the genetic blueprint and follow-up confirmatory sequencing of Homo sapiens and other genomes was only possible by the advent of modern sequencing technologies that was a result of step by step advances with a contribution of academics, medical personnel and instrument companies. While next generation sequencing is moving ahead at break-neck speed, the multicapillary electrophoretic systems played an essential role in the sequencing of the Human Genome, the foundation of the field of genomics. In this prospective, we wish to overview the role of capillary electrophoresis in DNA sequencing based in part of several of our articles in this journal. PMID:19517496

  8. Capillary electrophoresis methods for the analysis of antimalarials. Part I. Chiral separation methods.

    PubMed

    Amin, N'cho Christophe; Blanchin, Marie-Dominique; Aké, Michèle; Fabre, Huguette

    2012-11-16

    This paper presents an overview on the current status of enantiomeric and diastereomeric separations of chiral antimalarials and derivatives by capillary electrophoresis (CE). The wide variety of chiral selectors which have been employed to resolve successfully antimalarial enantiomers: oligosaccharides (cyclodextrins, oligomaltodextrins), neutral (amylose, dextrin and dextran) and charged (chondroitin sulfate, heparin, dextran sulfate) polysaccharides and proteins are reviewed. Cyclodextrins were the most employed. Chiral additives added to the background electrolyte often facilitated separations of quinine/quinidine and cinchonine/cinchonidine diastereomers. However, in a few cases, using micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography or non aqueous CE, resolution of diastereomers could be achieved without additives. Quantitative applications of CE to the quality control of antimalarial drugs and their analysis in biological and food matrices are presented. PMID:23063793

  9. DNA Sequencing Using capillary Electrophoresis

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Barry Karger

    2011-05-09

    The overall goal of this program was to develop capillary electrophoresis as the tool to be used to sequence for the first time the Human Genome. Our program was part of the Human Genome Project. In this work, we were highly successful and the replaceable polymer we developed, linear polyacrylamide, was used by the DOE sequencing lab in California to sequence a significant portion of the human genome using the MegaBase multiple capillary array electrophoresis instrument. In this final report, we summarize our efforts and success. We began our work by separating by capillary electrophoresis double strand oligonucleotides using cross-linked polyacrylamide gels in fused silica capillaries. This work showed the potential of the methodology. However, preparation of such cross-linked gel capillaries was difficult with poor reproducibility, and even more important, the columns were not very stable. We improved stability by using non-cross linked linear polyacrylamide. Here, the entangled linear chains could move when osmotic pressure (e.g. sample injection) was imposed on the polymer matrix. This relaxation of the polymer dissipated the stress in the column. Our next advance was to use significantly lower concentrations of the linear polyacrylamide that the polymer could be automatically blown out after each run and replaced with fresh linear polymer solution. In this way, a new column was available for each analytical run. Finally, while testing many linear polymers, we selected linear polyacrylamide as the best matrix as it was the most hydrophilic polymer available. Under our DOE program, we demonstrated initially the success of the linear polyacrylamide to separate double strand DNA. We note that the method is used even today to assay purity of double stranded DNA fragments. Our focus, of course, was on the separation of single stranded DNA for sequencing purposes. In one paper, we demonstrated the success of our approach in sequencing up to 500 bases. Other

  10. Capillary Electrophoresis Single-Strand Conformational Polymorphisms as a Method to Differentiate Algal Species.

    PubMed

    Jernigan, Alice; Hestekin, Christa

    2015-01-01

    Capillary electrophoresis single-strand conformational polymorphism (CE-SSCP) was explored as a fast and inexpensive method to differentiate both prokaryotic (blue-green) and eukaryotic (green and brown) algae. A selection of two blue-green algae (Nostoc muscorum and Anabaena inaequalis), five green algae (Chlorella vulgaris, Oedogonium foveolatum, Mougeotia sp., Scenedesmus quadricauda, and Ulothrix fimbriata), and one brown algae (Ectocarpus sp.) were examined and CE-SSCP electropherogram "fingerprints" were compared to each other for two variable regions of either the 16S or 18S rDNA gene. The electropherogram patterns were remarkably stable and consistent for each particular species. The patterns were unique to each species, although some common features were observed between the different types of algae. CE-SSCP could be a useful method for monitoring changes in an algae species over time as potential shifts in species occurred. PMID:26101693

  11. Capillary Electrophoresis Single-Strand Conformational Polymorphisms as a Method to Differentiate Algal Species

    PubMed Central

    Jernigan, Alice; Hestekin, Christa

    2015-01-01

    Capillary electrophoresis single-strand conformational polymorphism (CE-SSCP) was explored as a fast and inexpensive method to differentiate both prokaryotic (blue-green) and eukaryotic (green and brown) algae. A selection of two blue-green algae (Nostoc muscorum and Anabaena inaequalis), five green algae (Chlorella vulgaris, Oedogonium foveolatum, Mougeotia sp., Scenedesmus quadricauda, and Ulothrix fimbriata), and one brown algae (Ectocarpus sp.) were examined and CE-SSCP electropherogram “fingerprints” were compared to each other for two variable regions of either the 16S or 18S rDNA gene. The electropherogram patterns were remarkably stable and consistent for each particular species. The patterns were unique to each species, although some common features were observed between the different types of algae. CE-SSCP could be a useful method for monitoring changes in an algae species over time as potential shifts in species occurred. PMID:26101693

  12. Capillary electrophoresis methods for the determination of covalent polyphenol-protein complexes.

    PubMed

    Trombley, John D; Loegel, Thomas N; Danielson, Neil D; Hagerman, Ann E

    2011-09-01

    The bioactivities and bioavailability of plant polyphenols including proanthocyanidins and other catechin derivatives may be affected by covalent reaction between polyphenol and proteins. Both processing conditions and gastrointestinal conditions may promote formation of covalent complexes for polyphenol-rich foods and beverages such as wine. Little is known about covalent reactions between proteins and tannin, because suitable methods for quantitating covalent complexes have not been developed. We established capillary electrophoresis methods that can be used to distinguish free protein from covalently bound protein-polyphenol complexes and to monitor polyphenol oxidation products. The methods are developed using the model protein bovine serum albumin and the representative polyphenol (-)epigallocatechin gallate. By pairing capillaries with different diameters with appropriate alkaline borate buffers, we are able to optimize resolution of either the protein-polyphenol complexes or the polyphenol oxidation products. This analytical method, coupled with purification of the covalent complexes by diethylaminoethyl cellulose chromatography, should facilitate characterization of covalent complexes in polyphenol-rich foods and beverages such as wine. PMID:21400190

  13. A capillary electrophoresis method for evaluation of Aβ proteolysis in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Alper, Benjamin J.; Schmidt, Walter K.

    2010-01-01

    According to the amyloid hypothesis, Aβ peptides are neurotoxic and underlie development and progression of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Multiple Aβ clearance mechanisms, including destruction of the peptides by proteolytic enzymes, are hypothesized to regulate physiological Aβ peptide levels. The insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE) is considered one of the predominant enzymes having Aβ degrading activity. Despite its putative role in protecting against AD, relatively few methods exist for studying IDE activity in vitro. We report the application of capillary electrophoresis (CE) as a novel method for evaluating IDE-mediated Aβ 1–40 proteolysis. This method employs chemically unmodified substrates that are readily obtained from commercial sources. It involves minimal sample preparation, and requires no specialized equipment beyond a CE instrument equipped with a standard fused silica capillary. In the present analysis, we demonstrate that this CE-based method is amenable to kinetic analysis, and show that IDE-mediated Aβ proteolysis is significantly and disproportionately inhibited in the presence of insulin, an alternative IDE substrate. PMID:19071160

  14. Development of a fast capillary electrophoresis method to determine inorganic cations in biodiesel samples.

    PubMed

    Piovezan, Marcel; Costa, Ana Carolina O; Jager, Alessandra Vincenzi; de Oliveira, Marcone Augusto Leal; Micke, Gustavo Amadeu

    2010-07-19

    The aim of this study was to develop a fast capillary electrophoresis method for the determination of inorganic cations (Na(+), K(+), Ca(2+), Mg(2+)) in biodiesel samples, using barium (Ba(2+)) as the internal standard. The running electrolyte was optimized through effective mobility curves in order to select the co-ion and Peakmaster software was used to determine electromigration dispersion and buffer capacity. The optimum background electrolyte was composed of 10 mmol L(-1) imidazole and 40 mmol L(-1) of acetic acid. Separation was conducted in a fused-silica capillary (32 cm total length and 23.5 cm effective length, 50 microm I.D.), with indirect UV detection at 214 nm. The migration time was only 36 s. In order to obtain the optimized conditions for extraction, a fractional factorial experimental design was used. The variables investigated were biodiesel mass, pH, extractant volume, agitation and sonication time. The optimum conditions were: biodiesel mass of 200 mg, extractant volume of 200 microL and agitation of 20 min. The method is characterized by good linearity in the concentration range of 0.5-20 mg kg(-1) (r>0.999), limit of detection was equal to 0.3 mg kg(-1), inter-day precision was equal to 1.88% and recovery in the range of 88.0-120%. The developed method was successfully applied to the determination of cations in biodiesel samples. PMID:20599036

  15. A capillary zone electrophoresis method to detect conformers and dimers of antithrombin in therapeutic preparations.

    PubMed

    Marie, Anne-Lise; Tran, Nguyet Thuy; Saller, François; Abdou, Youmna Mohamed; Zeau, Pascal; Plantier, Jean-Luc; Urbain, Rémi; Borgel, Delphine; Taverna, Myriam

    2016-07-01

    Antithrombin (AT) is a human plasma glycoprotein that possesses anticoagulant and anti-inflammatory properties. However, the native (active) form of AT is unstable and undergoes conformational changes, leading to latent, cleaved, and heterodimeric forms. The presence of these alternative forms mostly inactive can highly impact the quality and therapeutic activity of pharmaceutical AT preparations. We developed a capillary zone electrophoresis method, based on a neutral polyethylene oxide-coated capillary and a buffer close to physiological conditions, enabling the separation of more than eight forms of AT. Several peaks were identified as native, latent, and heterodimeric forms. The CZE method was reproducible with intraday relative standard deviations less than 0.5 and 2% for migration times and peak areas, respectively. The method was applied to the comparison of AT preparations produced by five competitive pharmaceutical companies, and statistical tests were performed. Important differences in the proportion of each form were highlighted. In particular, one AT preparation was shown to contain a high quantity of heterodimer, and two preparations contained high quantities of latent form. In addition, one AT preparation exhibited additional forms, not yet identified. PMID:26989842

  16. Chiral recognition of dapoxetine enantiomers with methylated-gamma-cyclodextrin: a validated capillary electrophoresis method.

    PubMed

    Neumajer, Gábor; Sohajda, Tamás; Darcsi, András; Tóth, Gergő; Szente, Lajos; Noszál, Béla; Béni, Szabolcs

    2012-03-25

    The enantiomers of dapoxetine, a serotonin transporter inhibitor for the treatment of premature ejaculation have been separated by cyclodextrin modified capillary zone electrophoresis using uncoated fused-silica capillary. Over 20 cyclodextrins were screened as chiral selectors, investigating the stability of the inclusion complexes and enantioseparating properties. According to the preliminary experiments as chiral selector randomly methylated-γ-cyclodextrin was chosen. The basic chemical and instrumental parameters of enantioseparation as concentration of buffer, chiral selector and organic additive, pH, temperature and applied voltage were optimized afterwards using an orthogonal experimental design. Using this methodology not only the optimal parameter values for chiral separation (15 °C, +15 kV, 70 mM acetate, 20 v/v% MeOH, pH*=4.5, 3 mM methylated-γ-CyD) but also the significance order of factors on resolution was determined. Applying these parameters an optimal resolution of 7.01 was achieved. The optimized method was then validated according to the ICH guideline Q2 (R1) with regard to repeatability, linearity range, LOD, LOQ, accuracy and robustness. PMID:22280959

  17. Capillary electrophoresis method with UV-detection for analysis of free amino acids concentrations in food.

    PubMed

    Omar, Mei Musa Ali; Elbashir, Abdalla Ahmed; Schmitz, Oliver J

    2017-01-01

    Simple and inexpensive capillary electrophoresis with UV-detection method (CE-UV) was optimized and validated for determination of six amino acids namely (alanine, asparagine, glutamine, proline, serine and valine) for Sudanese food. Amino acids in the samples were derivatized with 4-chloro-7-nitro-2,1,3-benzoxadiazole (NBD-Cl) prior to CE-UV analysis. Labeling reaction conditions (100mM borate buffer at pH 8.5, labeling reaction time 60min, temperature 70°C and NBD-Cl concentration 40mM) were systematically investigated. The optimal conditions for the separation were 100mM borate buffer at pH 9.7 and detected at 475nm. The method was validated in terms of linearity, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ), precision (repeatability) (RSD%) and accuracy (recovery). Good linearity was achieved for all amino acids (r(2)>0.9981) in the concentration range of 2.5-40mg/L. The LODs in the range of 0.32-0.56mg/L were obtained. Recoveries of amino acids ranging from 85% to 108%, (n=3) were obtained. The validated method was successfully applied for the determination of amino acids for Sudanese food samples. PMID:27507479

  18. Capillary electrophoresis for drug analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lurie, Ira S.

    1999-02-01

    Capillary electrophoresis (CE) is a high resolution separation technique which is amenable to a wide variety of solutes, including compounds which are thermally degradable, non-volatile and highly polar, and is therefore well suited for drug analysis. Techniques which have been used in our laboratory include electrokinetic chromatography (ECC), free zone electrophoresis (CZE) and capillary electrochromatography (CEC). ECC, which uses a charged run buffer additive which migrates counter to osmotic flow, is excellent for many applications, including, drug screening and analyses of heroin, cocaine and methamphetamine samples. ECC approaches include the use of micelles and charged cyclodextrins, which allow for the separation of complex mixtures. Simultaneous separation of acidic, neutral and basic solutes and the resolution of optical isomers and positional isomers are possible. CZE has been used for the analysis of small ions (cations and anions) in heroin exhibits. For the ECC and CZE experiments performed in our laboratory, uncoated capillaries were used. In contrast, CEC uses capillaries packed with high performance liquid chromatography stationary phases, and offers both high peak capacities and unique selectivities. Applications include the analysis of cannabinoids and drug screening. Although CE suffers from limited concentration sensitivity, it is still applicable to trace analysis of drug samples, especially when using injection techniques such as stacking, or detection schemes such as laser induced fluorescence and extended pathlength UV.

  19. Non-Aqueous Capillary Electrophoresis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szumski, Michał; Buszewski, Bogusław

    Non-aqueous capillary electrophoresis and capillary electrochromatography are special variants of these techniques. Here, organic solvents or their mixtures with or without dissolved electrolytes are used as separation buffer or mobile phase, respectively. The most important features of non-aqueous systems are: better solubility of more hydrophobic ionic substances (many natural products) than in water, much less current and Joule heating allows for using highly concentrated buffers and/or larger capillary internal diameters, polar interactions are enhanced in organic solvents which is often highly advantageous in chiral separation systems. This chapter presents most frequently used solvents, their properties, as well as shows pH* scale which is often used in non-aqueous systems.

  20. A rapid sample screening method for authenticity control of whiskey using capillary electrophoresis with online preconcentration.

    PubMed

    Heller, Melina; Vitali, Luciano; Oliveira, Marcone Augusto Leal; Costa, Ana Carolina O; Micke, Gustavo Amadeu

    2011-07-13

    The present study aimed to develop a methodology using capillary electrophoresis for the determination of sinapaldehyde, syringaldehyde, coniferaldehyde, and vanillin in whiskey samples. The main objective was to obtain a screening method to differentiate authentic samples from seized samples suspected of being false using the phenolic aldehydes as chemical markers. The optimized background electrolyte was composed of 20 mmol L(-1) sodium tetraborate with 10% MeOH at pH 9.3. The study examined two kinds of sample stacking, using a long-end injection mode: normal sample stacking (NSM) and sample stacking with matrix removal (SWMR). In SWMR, the optimized injection time of the samples was 42 s (SWMR42); at this time, no matrix effects were observed. Values of r were >0.99 for the both methods. The LOD and LOQ were better than 100 and 330 mg mL(-1) for NSM and better than 22 and 73 mg L(-1) for SWMR. The CE-UV reliability in the aldehyde analysis in the real sample was compared statistically with LC-MS/MS methodology, and no significant differences were found, with a 95% confidence interval between the methodologies. PMID:21662238

  1. Capillary electrophoresis electrospray ionization mass spectrometry interface

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R.D.; Severs, J.C.

    1999-11-30

    The present invention is an interface between a capillary electrophoresis separation capillary end and an electrospray ionization mass spectrometry emitter capillary end, for transporting an analyte sample from a capillary electrophoresis separation capillary to a electrospray ionization mass spectrometry emitter capillary. The interface of the present invention has: (a) a charge transfer fitting enclosing both of the capillary electrophoresis capillary end and the electrospray ionization mass spectrometry emitter capillary end; (b) a reservoir containing an electrolyte surrounding the charge transfer fitting; and (c) an electrode immersed into the electrolyte, the electrode closing a capillary electrophoresis circuit and providing charge transfer across the charge transfer fitting while avoiding substantial bulk fluid transfer across the charge transfer fitting. Advantages of the present invention have been demonstrated as effective in providing high sensitivity and efficient analyses.

  2. Capillary electrophoresis electrospray ionization mass spectrometry interface

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Richard D.; Severs, Joanne C.

    1999-01-01

    The present invention is an interface between a capillary electrophoresis separation capillary end and an electrospray ionization mass spectrometry emitter capillary end, for transporting an anolyte sample from a capillary electrophoresis separation capillary to a electrospray ionization mass spectrometry emitter capillary. The interface of the present invention has: (a) a charge transfer fitting enclosing both of the capillary electrophoresis capillary end and the electrospray ionization mass spectrometry emitter capillary end; (b) a reservoir containing an electrolyte surrounding the charge transfer fitting; and (c) an electrode immersed into the electrolyte, the electrode closing a capillary electrophoresis circuit and providing charge transfer across the charge transfer fitting while avoiding substantial bulk fluid transfer across the charge transfer fitting. Advantages of the present invention have been demonstrated as effective in providing high sensitivity and efficient analyses.

  3. Simplified universal method for determining electrolyte temperatures in a capillary electrophoresis instrument with forced-air cooling.

    PubMed

    Patel, Kevin H; Evenhuis, Christopher J; Cherney, Leonid T; Krylov, Sergey N

    2012-03-01

    Temperature increase due to resistive electrical heating is an inherent limitation of capillary electrophoresis (CE). Active cooling systems are used to decrease the temperature of the capillary, but their capacity is limited; and in addition, they leave "hot spots" at the detection interface and at the capillary ends. Until recently, the matter was complicated by the lack of a fast and generic method for temperature determination in efficiently and inefficiently cooled regions of the capillary. Our group recently introduced such a method, termed "Universal Method for determining Electrolyte Temperatures" (UMET). UMET is a probe-less approach that requires only measuring current versus voltage for different voltages and processing the data using an iterative algorithm. Here, we apply UMET to develop a Simplified Universal Method of Temperature Determination (SUMET) for a CE instrument with a forced-air cooling system using an Agilent 7100 CE instrument (Agilent Technologies, Saint Laurent, Quebec, Canada) as an example. We collected a wide set of empirical voltage-current data for a variety of buffers and capillary diameters. We further constructed empirical equations for temperature calculation in efficiently and inefficiently cooled parts of the capillary that require only the data from a single 1-min voltage-current measurement. The equations are specific for the Agilent 7100 CE instrument (Agilent Technologies) but can be applied to all kinds of capillaries and buffers. Similar SUMET approaches can be developed for other CE instruments with forced-air cooling using our approach. PMID:22528428

  4. Fast determination of cations in honey by capillary electrophoresis: a possible method for geographic origin discrimination.

    PubMed

    Maria Rizelio, Viviane; Gonzaga, Luciano Valdemiro; Borges, Graciele da Silva Campelo; Maltez, Heloisa França; Costa, Ana Carolina Oliveira; Fett, Roseane

    2012-09-15

    This study reports the development and validation of a fast capillary electrophoresis method for cation determination in honey samples and the classification of honey by geographical origin using Principal Components Analysis (PCA). The background electrolyte (BGE) was optimized using the Peakmaster(®) software, which evaluates the tendency of the analytes to undergo electromigration dispersion and the BGE buffer capacity and conductivity. The final BGE composition was defined as 30 mmol L(-1) imidazole, 300 mmol L(-1) acetic acid and 140 mmol L(-1) Lactic acid, at pH 3,0, and the separation of K(+), Na(+), Ca(2+), Mg(2+) and Mn(2+) using Ba(2+) as the internal standard was achieved in less than 2 min. The method showed satisfactory results in terms of linearity (R(2)>0.999), the detection limits ranged from 0.27-3.17 mg L(-1) and the quantification limits ranged from 0.91-10.55 mg L(-1). Precision measurements within 0.55 and 4.64%RSD were achieved and recovery values for the analytes in the honey samples ranged from 93.6%-108.6%. Forty honey samples were analyzed to test the proposed method. These samples were dissolved in deionized water and filtered before injection. The CE-UV reliability in the cation analysis in the real sample was compared statistically with ICP-MS methodology. No significant differences were found, with a 95% confidence interval between the methodologies. The PCA showed that the cumulative variance for the first two principal components explain more than 85% of the variability of the data. The analytical data suggest a significant influence of the geographical origin on the mineral composition. PMID:22967578

  5. Determination of binding constants by affinity capillary electrophoresis, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and phase-distribution methods

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhi; Weber, Stephen G.

    2008-01-01

    Many methods for determining intermolecular interactions have been described in the literature in the past several decades. Chief among them are methods based on spectroscopic changes, particularly those based on absorption or nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) [especially proton NMR (1H NMR)]. Recently, there have been put forward several new methods that are particularly adaptable, use very small quantities of material, and do not place severe requirements on the spectroscopic properties of the binding partners. This review covers new developments in affinity capillary electrophoresis, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and phasetransfer methods. PMID:19802330

  6. Use of experimental design and effective mobility calculations to develop a method for the determination of antimicrobials by capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Mamani, Mónica Cecília Vargas; Amaya-Farfan, Jaime; Reyes, Felix Guillermo Reyes; Silva, José Alberto Fracassi da; Rath, Susanne

    2008-09-15

    A capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) method for the determination of chloramphenicol (CLP), danofloxacin (DANO), ciprofloxacin (CIPRO), enrofloxacin (ENRO), sulfamethazine (SMZ), sulfaquinoxaline (SQX) and sulfamethoxazole (SMX) is described. For the development, the effective mobilities were estimated and a central composite design was performed. The method was in-house validated for CLP, CIPRO, ENRO and SMX determination in pharmaceuticals. In comparison with the HPLC method recommended by the United States Pharmacopoeia, this CZE method exhibited the same performance, with the advantage that seven different antimicrobials in pharmaceutical formulations could be simultaneously determined. PMID:18761147

  7. Novel absorption detection techniques for capillary electrophoresis

    SciTech Connect

    Xue, Y.

    1994-07-27

    Capillary electrophoresis (CE) has emerged as one of the most versatile separation methods. However, efficient separation is not sufficient unless coupled to adequate detection. The narrow inner diameter (I.D.) of the capillary column raises a big challenge to detection methods. For UV-vis absorption detection, the concentration sensitivity is only at the {mu}M level. Most commercial CE instruments are equipped with incoherent UV-vis lamps. Low-brightness, instability and inefficient coupling of the light source with the capillary limit the further improvement of UV-vis absorption detection in CE. The goals of this research have been to show the utility of laser-based absorption detection. The approaches involve: on-column double-beam laser absorption detection and its application to the detection of small ions and proteins, and absorption detection with the bubble-shaped flow cell.

  8. Validated Method for the Determination of Piroxicam by Capillary Zone Electrophoresis and Its Application to Tablets

    PubMed Central

    Dal, Arın Gül; Oktayer, Zeynep; Doğrukol-Ak, Dilek

    2014-01-01

    Simple and rapid capillary zone electrophoretic method was developed and validated in this study for the determination of piroxicam in tablets. The separation of piroxicam was conducted in a fused-silica capillary by using 10 mM borate buffer (pH 9.0) containing 10% (v/v) methanol as background electrolyte. The optimum conditions determined were 25 kV for separation voltage and 1 s for injection time. Analysis was carried out with UV detection at 204 nm. Naproxen sodium was used as an internal standard. The method was linear over the range of 0.23–28.79 µg/mL. The accuracy and precision were found to be satisfied within the acceptable limits (<2%). The LOD and LOQ were found to be 0.07 and 0.19 µg/mL, respectively. The method described here was applied to tablet dosage forms and the content of a tablet was found in the limits of USP-24 suggestions. To compare the results of capillary electrophoretic method, UV spectrophotometric method was developed and the difference between two methods was found to be insignificant. The capillary zone electrophoretic method developed in this study is rapid, simple, and suitable for routine analysis of piroxicam in pharmaceutical tablets. PMID:25295220

  9. Unexpected surface chemistry in capillaries for electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Kaupp, S; Bubert, H; Baur, L; Nelson, G; Wätzig, H

    2000-10-13

    Good and reproducible capillary quality is needed to develop robust methods and to facilitate method transfer in CE. Physical surface defects no longer play a major role in variability of fused-silica capillaries. Nevertheless, problems are frequently being reported when buffers in the pH range between 4 and 7 are used. Thus the surface chemistry has been studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Silicon-carbon bindings have been found on inner capillary surfaces for electrophoresis. This binding type is not completely removed by pre-conditioning with 1 M NaOH for 30 min. This corresponds to the result, that capillaries provide more stable migration times, especially in the pH range 4-7, when they are pre-conditioned for longer than 1 h. The origin of this Si-C bond is still not quite clear. They could be caused by graphite which is used during the fabrication of the raw cylinders prior to capillary drawing. Further investigations are intended in order to understand if there are any differences in surface carbon content from batch to batch and if this can influence experimental results in CE. A better understanding of the surface chemistry should not only improve robustness in CE, but also help to facilitate and accelerate capillary pre-conditioning and rinsing procedures to remove strongly adsorbed analytes or matrices. PMID:11100849

  10. Atomic Force Controlled Capillary Electrophoresis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Aaron; Yeshua, Talia; Palchan, Mila; Lovsky, Yulia; Taha, Hesham

    2010-03-01

    Lithography based on scanning probe microscopic techniques has considerable potential for accurate & localized deposition of material on the nanometer scale. Controlled deposition of metallic features with high purity and spatial accuracy is of great interest for circuit edit applications in the semiconductor industry, for plasmonics & nanophotonics and for basic research in surface enhanced Raman scattering & nanobiophysics. Within the context of metal deposition we will review the development of fountain pen nanochemistry and its most recent emulation Atomic Force Controlled Capillary Electrophoresis (ACCE). Using this latter development we will demonstrate achievement of unprecedented control of nanoparticle deposition using a three-electrode geometry. Three electrodes are attached: one on the outside of a metal coated glass probe, one on the inside of a hollow probe in a solution containing Au nanoparticles in the capillary, and a third on the surface where the writing takes place. The three electrodes provide electrical pulses for accurate control of deposition and retraction of the liquid from the surface overcoming the lack of control seen in both dip pen lithography & fountain pen nanochemistry when the tip contacts the surface. With this development, we demonstrate depositing a single 1.3 nm Au nanoparticle onto surfaces such as semiconductors.

  11. Adapting capillary gel electrophoresis as a sensitive, high-throughput method to accelerate characterization of nucleic acid metabolic enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Greenough, Lucia; Schermerhorn, Kelly M.; Mazzola, Laurie; Bybee, Joanna; Rivizzigno, Danielle; Cantin, Elizabeth; Slatko, Barton E.; Gardner, Andrew F.

    2016-01-01

    Detailed biochemical characterization of nucleic acid enzymes is fundamental to understanding nucleic acid metabolism, genome replication and repair. We report the development of a rapid, high-throughput fluorescence capillary gel electrophoresis method as an alternative to traditional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis to characterize nucleic acid metabolic enzymes. The principles of assay design described here can be applied to nearly any enzyme system that acts on a fluorescently labeled oligonucleotide substrate. Herein, we describe several assays using this core capillary gel electrophoresis methodology to accelerate study of nucleic acid enzymes. First, assays were designed to examine DNA polymerase activities including nucleotide incorporation kinetics, strand displacement synthesis and 3′-5′ exonuclease activity. Next, DNA repair activities of DNA ligase, flap endonuclease and RNase H2 were monitored. In addition, a multicolor assay that uses four different fluorescently labeled substrates in a single reaction was implemented to characterize GAN nuclease specificity. Finally, a dual-color fluorescence assay to monitor coupled enzyme reactions during Okazaki fragment maturation is described. These assays serve as a template to guide further technical development for enzyme characterization or nucleoside and non-nucleoside inhibitor screening in a high-throughput manner. PMID:26365239

  12. Multiplexed fluorescence detector system for capillary electrophoresis

    DOEpatents

    Yeung, Edward S.; Taylor, John A.

    1994-06-28

    A fluorescence detection system for capillary electrophoresis is provided wherein the detection system can simultaneously excite fluorescence and substantially simultaneously monitor separations in multiple capillaries. This multiplexing approach involves laser irradiation of a sample in a plurality of capillaries through optical fibers that are coupled individually with the capillaries. The array is imaged orthogonally through a microscope onto a charge-coupled device camera for signal analysis.

  13. Multiplexed fluorescence detector system for capillary electrophoresis

    DOEpatents

    Yeung, Edward S.; Taylor, John A.

    1996-03-12

    A fluorescence detection system for capillary electrophoresis is provided wherein the detection system can simultaneously excite fluorescence and substantially simultaneously monitor separations in multiple capillaries. This multiplexing approach involves laser irradiation of a sample in a plurality of capillaries through optical fibers that are coupled individually with the capillaries. The array is imaged orthogonally through a microscope onto a charge-coupled device camera for signal analysis.

  14. Multiplexed fluorescence detector system for capillary electrophoresis

    DOEpatents

    Yeung, E.S.; Taylor, J.A.

    1994-06-28

    A fluorescence detection system for capillary electrophoresis is provided wherein the detection system can simultaneously excite fluorescence and substantially simultaneously monitor separations in multiple capillaries. This multiplexing approach involves laser irradiation of a sample in a plurality of capillaries through optical fibers that are coupled individually with the capillaries. The array is imaged orthogonally through a microscope onto a charge-coupled device camera for signal analysis. 14 figures.

  15. Multiplexed fluorescence detector system for capillary electrophoresis

    DOEpatents

    Yeung, E.S.; Taylor, J.A.

    1996-03-12

    A fluorescence detection system for capillary electrophoresis is provided wherein the detection system can simultaneously excite fluorescence and substantially simultaneously monitor separations in multiple capillaries. This multiplexing approach involves laser irradiation of a sample in a plurality of capillaries through optical fibers that are coupled individually with the capillaries. The array is imaged orthogonally through a microscope onto a charge-coupled device camera for signal analysis. 14 figs.

  16. Determination of nitrate and nitrite in Hanford defense waste(HDW) by reverse polarity capillary zone electrophoresis (RPCE)method

    SciTech Connect

    Metcalf, S.G.

    1998-06-10

    This paper describes the first application of reverse polarity capillary zone electrophoresis (RPCE) for rapid and accurate determination of nitrate and nitrite in Hanford Defense Waste (HDW). The method development was carried out by using Synthetic Hanford Waste (SHW), followed by the analysis of 4 real HDW samples. Hexamethonium bromide (HMB) was used as electroosmotic flow modifier in borate buffer at pH 9.2 to decrease the electroosmotic flow (EOF) in order to enhance the speed of analysis and the resolution of nitrate and nitrite in high ionic strength HDW samples. The application of this capillary zone electrophoresis method, when compared with ion chromatography for two major components of HDW, nitrate and nitrite slightly reduced analysis time, eliminated most pre-analysis handling of the highly radioactive sample, and cut analysis wastes by more than 2 orders of magnitude. The analysis of real HDW samples that were validated by using sample spikes showed a concentration range of 1.03 to 1.42 M for both nitrate. The migration times of the real HDW and the spiked HDW samples were within a precision of less than 3% relative standard deviation. The selectivity ratio test used for peak confirmation of the spiked samples was within 96% of the real sample. Method reliability was tested by spiking the matrix with 72.4 mM nitrate and nitrite. Recoveries for these spiked samples were 93-103%.

  17. Development of a fast and selective separation method to determine histamine in tuna fish samples using capillary zone electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Vitali, Luciano; Valese, Andressa Camargo; Azevedo, Mônia Stremel; Gonzaga, Luciano Valdemiro; Costa, Ana Carolina Oliveira; Piovezan, Marcel; Vistuba, Jacqueline Pereira; Micke, Gustavo A

    2013-03-15

    This paper reports on the development of a fast and selective separation method by capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) for the determination of histamine in tuna fish samples. The background electrolyte was composed of 60 mmol L(-1) hydroxyisobutyric acid and 10 mmol L(-1) sodium hydroxide at pH 3.3. The internal standard used was imidazole. Separations were performed in a fused uncoated silica capillary (32 cm total length, 8.5 cm effective length and 50 μm internal diameter) with direct UV detection at 210 nm. The samples and standards were injected hydrodynamically (50 mbar, 3s) from the outlet capillary end (nearest to the detector) and the electrophoretic system was operated under normal polarity and constant voltage conditions of 30 kV (positive polarity on the injection side). The migration time of histamine in the proposed method was only 0.34 min. The method was then validated and different tuna fish samples were analyzed. Good linearity (R(2)>0.999), a limit of detection 0.14 mg L(-1), intra-day precision better than 3.5% (peak area of sample), and recovery in the range of 94-108% were obtained. The results of the histamine concentration determined in the samples by the CZE method were compared with the LC-MS/MS method. PMID:23598114

  18. Determination of surfactants by capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Heinig, K; Vogt, C

    1999-10-01

    Capillary electrophoresis has been increasingly used during the past few years for the separation and determination of surfactants. These substances are applied in many household and industrial products such as laundry detergents, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals, often as homologous and isomeric mixtures. Product development and control as well as toxicological and environmental analyses require selective and sensitive analytical methods. This review presents capillary electrophoretic techniques to determine important representatives of cationic, anionic, and neutral surfactants. The application of different buffer additives such as organic solvents, cyclodextrins or micelles to enhance the resolution of complex mixtures is discussed. Besides direct and indirect UV and fluorescence detection, examples for conductivity and mass spectrometric detection are also given. Derivatization procedures to improve the detectability and implement charge in neutral analytes are described. The successful use of capillary electrophoresis for surfactant determinations has proven that it can serve as a routine technique in many real-world applications. Robust, validated methods for the quantitation of single compounds, such as alkylbenzene sulfonates, sodium dodecyl sulfate and benzalkonium salts, are now available. Characteristic peak patterns (fingerprint analysis) can be used for the identification of surfactants in multicomponent formulations (e.g. ethoxylates and phosphonates). PMID:10596832

  19. Nonlinear waves in capillary electrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Ghosal, Sandip; Chen, Zhen

    2011-01-01

    Electrophoretic separation of a mixture of chemical species is a fundamental technique of great usefulness in biology, health care and forensics. In capillary electrophoresis the sample migrates in a microcapillary in the presence of a background electrolyte. When the ionic concentration of the sample is sufficiently high, the signal is known to exhibit features reminiscent of nonlinear waves including sharp concentration ‘shocks’. In this paper we consider a simplified model consisting of a single sample ion and a background electrolyte consisting of a single co-ion and a counterion in the absence of any processes that might change the ionization states of the constituents. If the ionic diffusivities are assumed to be the same for all constituents the concentration of sample ion is shown to obey a one dimensional advection diffusion equation with a concentration dependent advection velocity. If the analyte concentration is sufficiently low in a suitable non-dimensional sense, Burgers’ equation is recovered, and thus, the time dependent problem is exactly solvable with arbitrary initial conditions. In the case of small diffusivity either a leading edge or trailing edge shock is formed depending on the electrophoretic mobility of the sample ion relative to the background ions. Analytical formulas are presented for the shape, width and migration velocity of the sample peak and it is shown that axial dispersion at long times may be characterized by an effective diffusivity that is exactly calculated. These results are consistent with known observations from physical and numerical simulation experiments. PMID:20238181

  20. A microdestructive capillary electrophoresis method for the analysis of blue-pen-ink strokes on office paper.

    PubMed

    Calcerrada, Matías; González-Herráez, Miguel; Garcia-Ruiz, Carmen

    2015-06-26

    This manuscript describes the development of a capillary electrophoresis (CE) method for the detection of acid and basic dyes and its application to real samples, blue-pen-ink strokes on office paper. First, a capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) method was developed for the separation of basic and acid dyes, by studying the separation medium (buffer nature, pH and relative amount of additive) and instrumental parameters (temperature, voltage and capillary dimensions). The method performance was evaluated in terms of selectivity, resolution (above 5 and 2 for acid dyes and basic dyes, respectively, except for two basic dye standards), LOD (lower than 0.4 mg/L) and precision as intraday and interday RSD values of peak migration times (lower than 0.6%). The developed method was then applied to 34 blue pens from different technologies (rollerball, ballpoint, markers) and with different ink composition (gel, water-based, oil-based). A microdestructive sample treatment using a scalpel to scratch 0.3mg of ink stroke was performed. The entire electropherogram profile allowed the visual discrimination between different types of ink and brands, being not necessary a statistical treatment. A 100% of discrimination was achieved between pen technologies, brands, and models, although non-reproducible zones in the electropherograms were found for blue gel pen samples. The two different batches of blue oil-based pens were also differentiated. Thus, this method provides a simple, microdestructive, and rapid analysis of different blue pen technologies which may complement the current analysis of questioned documents performed by forensic laboratories. PMID:26003620

  1. Optimization of capillary electrophoresis method with contactless conductivity detection for the analysis of tobramycin and its related substances.

    PubMed

    El-Attug, Mohamed Nouri; Hoogmartens, Jos; Adams, Erwin; Van Schepdael, Ann

    2012-01-25

    A method was validated and optimized to determine tobramycin (TOB) and its related substances. TOB is an aminoglycoside antibiotic which lacks a strong UV absorbing chromophore or fluorophore. Due to the physicochemical properties of TOB, capillary electrophoresis (CE) in combination with Capacitively Coupled Contactless Conductivity Detection (C(4)D) was chosen. The optimized separation method uses a background electrolyte (BGE) composed of 25 mM morpholinoethane-sulphonic acid (MES) adjusted to pH 6.4 by L-histidine (l-His). 0.3 mM cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) was added as electroosmotic flow modifier in a concentration below the critical micellar concentration (CMC). Ammonium acetate 50 mg L(-1) was used as internal standard (IS). 30 kV was applied in reverse polarity (cathode at the injection capillary end) on a fused silica capillary (65/43 cm; 75 μm id). The optimized separation was obtained in less than 7 min with good linearity (R(2)=0.9995) for tobramycin. It shows a good precision expressed as RSD on relative peak areas equal to 0.2% and 0.7% for intraday and interday respectively. The LOD and LOQ are 0.4 and 1.3 mg L(-1) corresponding to 9 pg and 31 pg respectively. PMID:22015240

  2. Analytical biotechnology: Capillary electrophoresis and chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Horvath, C.; Nikelly, J.G.

    1990-01-01

    The papers describe the separation, characterization, and equipment required for the electrophoresis or chromatography of cyclic nucleotides, pharmaceuticals, therapeutic proteins, recombinant DNA products, pheromones, peptides, and other biological materials. One paper, On-column radioisotope detection for capillary electrophoresis, has been indexed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  3. An on-line stacking capillary electrophoresis method for the analysis of Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol and its metabolites.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Hui-Ling; Tsai, Yi-Hsuan; Hsu, Wan-Ling; Lin, Yi-Hui

    2015-12-24

    The objective of this study was to establish a practical and reliable analytical method for monitoring trace amounts of Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and its metabolites in biological samples. A novel on-line preconcentration capillary electrophoresis method combining large volume sample injection, anion selective exhaustive injection and sweeping was developed to enhance analytical sensitivity. A background buffer composed with 30mM phosphate buffer (pH 2.5) containing 40% methanol and 100mM SDS was used to suppress the electroosmotic flow of the uncoated fused silica capillary (40cm×50μm i.d.). High conductivity buffer (200mM phosphate, pH 2.5) was injected for analyte accumulation. The samples, prepared in phosphate buffer or Tris buffer, were introduced by hydrodynamic injection and electrokinetic injection. After sweeping, the separation was performed in micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) mode at -15kV. During the method validation, the coefficient of determination of the regression curve was measured at greater than 0.993, and the relative standard deviation and relative error were lower than 11.06% and 9.24%, respectively. Under optimized conditions, an improvement of up to 2000-fold higher sensitivity was achieved. This method was applied to the analysis of urine samples, indicating that it could be satisfactorily utilized in the toxicological and clinical monitoring of cannabis. PMID:26643722

  4. Using capillary electrophoresis to characterize polymeric particles.

    PubMed

    Riley, Kathryn R; Liu, Sophia; Yu, Guo; Libby, Kara; Cubicciotti, Roger; Colyer, Christa L

    2016-09-01

    Capillary electrophoresis (CE) was used for the characterization of a variety of polymeric micron and sub-micron particles based on size, surface functionality, and binding properties. First, a robust capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) method was developed for the baseline separation and quantitation of commercially available polystyrene particles with various surface modifications (including amino, carboxylate, and sulfate functional groups) and various sizes (0.2, 0.5, 1.0, and 3.0μm). The separation of DNA-templated polyacrylamide particles from untemplated particles (as used for the Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine) was demonstrated. Finally, using the 29-base thrombin aptamer and thrombin protein as a model system, a study was undertaken to determine dissociation constants for the aptamer and protein in free solution and when the aptamer was conjugated to a particle, with the goal of better understanding how the use of solid substrates, like particles, affects selection and binding processes. Dissociation constants were determined and were found to be approximately 5-fold higher for the aptamer conjugated to a particle relative to that in free solution. PMID:27543386

  5. Development of a capillary electrophoresis method for analyzing adenosine deaminase and purine nucleoside phosphorylase and its application in inhibitor screening.

    PubMed

    Qi, Yanfei; Li, Youxin; Bao, James J

    2016-08-01

    A novel capillary electrophoresis (CE) method was developed for simultaneous analysis of adenosine deaminase (ADA) and purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) in red blood cells (RBCs). The developed method considered and took advantage of the natural conversion from the ADA product, inosine to hypoxanthine. The transformation ratio was introduced for ADA and PNP analysis to obtain more reliable results. After optimizing the enzymatic incubation and electrophoresis separation conditions, the determined activities of ADA and PNP in 12 human RBCs were 0.237-0.833 U/ml and 9.013-10.453 U/ml packed cells, respectively. The analysis of ADA in mice RBCs indicated that there was an apparent activity difference between healthy and hepatoma mice. In addition, the proposed method was also successfully applied in the inhibitor screening from nine traditional Chinese medicines, and data showed that ADA activities were strongly inhibited by Rhizoma Chuanxiong and Angelica sinensis. The inhibition effect of Angelica sinensis on ADA is first reported here and could also inhibit PNP activity. PMID:27173606

  6. Microfluidic Breadboard Approach to Capillary Electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Koenka, Israel Joel; Sáiz, Jorge; Rempel, Paul; Hauser, Peter C

    2016-04-01

    A breadboard approach for electrophoretic separations with contactless conductivity detection is presented. This is based on miniature off-the-shelf components such as syringe pumps, valves, and pressure controllers which could be set up in a very compact overall arrangement. It has a high flexibility for different tasks at hand, and the common operations of hydrodynamic injection and capillary flushing are automated. For demonstration of the versatility of the proposition, several very diverse configurations and modes of electrophoresis were successfully implemented, namely, standard capillary zone electrophoresis, pressure assisted zone electrophoresis, the simultaneous separation of cations and anions by dual-capillary zone electrophoresis, the separation of cationic amino acids by isotachophoresis, as well as the separation of small carboxylic acids by gradient elution moving boundary electrophoresis. The system also allows fast separations, as demonstrated by the analysis of six inorganic cations within 35 s. The approach addresses respective limitations of either conventional capillary electrophoresis instruments as well as electrophoretic lab-on-chip devices, while maintaining a performance in terms of detection limits and reproducibility comparable to standard instrumentation. PMID:26926522

  7. A capillary electrophoresis method for the determination of selected biogenic amines and amino acids in mammalian decomposition fluid.

    PubMed

    Swann, L M; Forbes, S L; Lewis, S W

    2010-06-15

    A simple capillary zone electrophoresis method for the determination of selected biogenic amines (tyramine and tryptamine) and amino acids (tryptophan, phenylalanine and tyrosine) in mammalian decomposition fluids is presented. Separations were carried out in a fused silica capillary (75microm i.d., total length 65cm, effective length 56cm) with detection by ultraviolet absorbance spectrophotometry at 200nm. In order to improve resolution and total analysis time, the method was subjected to optimisation utilising a chemometric approach. A screening design was carried out followed by a central composite design (CCD), using peak resolution and total analysis time as response factors. The influences of four experimental variables (pH, background electrolyte concentration, percentage of organic modifier (methanol) and applied voltage) were investigated. Optimum separation conditions were determined to be; a background electrolyte of boric acid (70mM) adjusted to pH 9.5 with 0.1M sodium hydroxide with 32% methanol (v/v). Applied voltage was 30kV, with the resulting current being less than 26microA. Under these conditions the analytes were separated within 12min. Tryptamine, tyramine, tryptophan, tyrosine and phenylalanine were identified by migration time and spiking in porcine decomposition fluids. PMID:20441960

  8. High-performance capillary electrophoresis of histones

    SciTech Connect

    Gurley, L.R.; London, J.E.; Valdez, J.G.

    1991-01-01

    A high performance capillary electrophoresis (HPCE) system has been developed for the fractionation of histones. This system involves electroinjection of the sample and electrophoresis in a 0.1M phosphate buffer at pH 2.5 in a 50 {mu}m {times} 35 cm coated capillary. Electrophoresis was accomplished in 9 minutes separating a whole histone preparation into its components in the following order of decreasing mobility; (MHP) H3, H1 (major variant), H1 (minor variant), (LHP) H3, (MHP) H2A (major variant), (LHP) H2A, H4, H2B, (MHP) H2A (minor variant) where MHP is the more hydrophobic component and LHP is the less hydrophobic component. This order of separation is very different from that found in acid-urea polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and in reversed-phase HPLC and, thus, brings the histone biochemist a new dimension for the qualitative analysis of histone samples. 27 refs., 8 figs.

  9. New capillary gel electrophoresis method for fast and accurate identification and quantification of multiple viral proteins in influenza vaccines.

    PubMed

    van Tricht, Ewoud; Geurink, Lars; Pajic, Bojana; Nijenhuis, Johan; Backus, Harold; Germano, Marta; Somsen, Govert W; Sänger-van de Griend, Cari E

    2015-11-01

    Current methods for the identification and/or quantification of viral proteins in influenza virus and virosome samples suffer from long analysis times, limited protein coverage and/or low accuracy and precision. We studied and optimized capillary gel electrophoresis (CGE) in order to achieve faster and enhanced characterization and quantification of viral proteins. Sample preparation as well the composition of the gel buffer was investigated in order to achieve adequate protein separation in relatively short times. The total sample preparation (reduction and deglycosylation) could be carried out efficiently within two hours. Hydrodynamic injection, separation voltage, and capillary temperature were optimized in full factorial design. The final method was validated and showed good performance for hemagglutinin fragment 1 (HA1), hemagglutinin fragment 2 (HA2), matrix protein (M) and nucleoprotein (NP). The CGE method allowed identification of different virus strains based on their specific protein profile. B/Brisbane inactivated virus and virosome samples could be analyzed within one day. The CGE results (titers) were comparable to single radial immune-diffusion (SRID), but the method has the advantage of a much faster time to results. CGE analysis of A/Christchurch from upstream process demonstrated the applicability of the method to samples of high complexity. The CGE method could be used in the same analyte concentration range as the RP-HPLC method, but showed better precision and accuracy. Overall, the total analysis time for the CGE method was much shorter, allowing analysis of 100 samples in 4 days instead of 10 days for SRID. PMID:26452923

  10. Cytokine Analysis by Immunoaffinity Capillary Electrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Mendonca, Mark; Kalish, Heather

    2014-01-01

    Immunoaffinity capillary electrophoresis (ICE) is a powerful tool used to detect and quantify target proteins of interest in complex biological fluids. The target analyte is captured and bound to antibodies immobilized onto the wall of a capillary, labeled in situ with a fluorescent dye, eluted and detected online using laser-induced fluorescence following electrophoretic separation. Here, we illustrate how to construct an immunoaffinity capillary and utilize it to run ICE in order to capture and quantify target cytokines and chemokines from a clinical sample. PMID:22976107

  11. Analysis of spiramycin by capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    González-Hernández, R; Li, Y M; Van Schepdael, A; Roets, E; Hoogmartens, J

    1999-09-01

    The development and validation of an analytical method for the determination of spiramycin I in the presence of its related substances by capillary electrophoresis is shown. The separation, performed in a phosphate buffer (80 mM, pH 7.5) containing 12 mM cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and 20 mM sodium cholate, with a 50 microm ID and 44 cm long fused-silica capillary (36 cm effective length), applying a voltage of 12 kV (l approximately 80 microA), at 25 degrees C, is achieved in 15 min. Good selectivity among spiramycin I and its related substances was obtained. The influence of the buffer pH, and of the CTAB and sodium cholate concentrations was investigated. The method robustness, examined by means of a full-fraction factorial design, shows that it can be used within the limits set for the three parameters that were investigated. The method is linear (r = 0.9992) and precise (day-to-day corrected peak area repeatability, n = 18, relative standard deviation = 1.3%). The limits of detection and quantitation are 7 pg (0.025%) and 22 pg (0.08%), respectively, relative to a 2 mg/mL solution. PMID:10499332

  12. Capillaries for use in a multiplexed capillary electrophoresis system

    DOEpatents

    Yeung, E.S.; Chang, H.T.; Fung, E.N.

    1997-12-09

    The invention provides a side-entry optical excitation geometry for use in a multiplexed capillary electrophoresis system. A charge-injection device is optically coupled to capillaries in the array such that the interior of a capillary is imaged onto only one pixel. In Sanger-type 4-label DNA sequencing reactions, nucleotide identification (``base calling``) is improved by using two long-pass filters to split fluorescence emission into two emission channels. A binary poly(ethyleneoxide) matrix is used in the electrophoretic separations. 19 figs.

  13. Capillaries for use in a multiplexed capillary electrophoresis system

    SciTech Connect

    Yeung, Edward S.; Chang, Huan-Tsang; Fung, Eliza N.

    1997-12-09

    The invention provides a side-entry optical excitation geometry for use in a multiplexed capillary electrophoresis system. A charge-injection device is optically coupled to capillaries in the array such that the interior of a capillary is imaged onto only one pixel. In Sanger-type 4-label DNA sequencing reactions, nucleotide identification ("base calling") is improved by using two long-pass filters to split fluorescence emission into two emission channels. A binary poly(ethyleneoxide) matrix is used in the electrophoretic separations.

  14. In-vial liquid-liquid microextraction-capillary electrophoresis method for the determination of phenolic acids in vegetable oils.

    PubMed

    Abu Bakar, Nur Bahiyah; Makahleh, Ahmad; Saad, Bahruddin

    2012-09-12

    An in-vial liquid-liquid microextraction method was developed for the selective extraction of the phenolic acids (caffeic, gallic, cinnamic, ferulic, chlorogenic, syringic, vanillic, benzoic, p-hydroxybenzoic, 2,4-dihydroxybenzoic, o-coumaric, m-coumaric and p-coumaric) in vegetable oil samples. The optimised extraction conditions for 20 g sample were: volume of diluent (n-hexane), 2 mL; extractant, methanol: 5 mM sodium hydroxide (60:40; v/v); volume of extractant, 300 μL (twice); vortex, 1 min; centrifugation, 5 min. Recoveries for the studied phenolic acids were 80.1-119.5%. The simultaneous determination of the phenolic acid extracts was investigated by capillary electrophoresis (CE). Separations were carried out on a bare fused-silica capillary (50 μm i.d.× 40 cm length) involving 25 mM sodium tetraborate (pH 9.15) and 5% methanol as CE background electrolyte in the normal polarity mode, voltage of 30 kV, temperature of 25°C, injection time of 4s (50 mbar) and electropherograms were recorded at 200 nm. The phenolic acids were successfully separated in less than 10 min. The validated in-vial LLME-CE method was applied to the determination of phenolic acids in vegetable oil samples (extra virgin olive oil, virgin olive oil, pure olive oil, walnut oil and grapeseed oil). The developed method shows significant advantages over the current methods as lengthy evaporation step is not required. PMID:22884208

  15. DNA ADDUCT RESEARCH WITH CAPILLARY ELECTROPHORESIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    DNA's central importance in all biological systems dictates a wide variety of DNA-related research. or much of this research, the utilization of capillary electrophoresis (CE) can be of significant advantage. pen-tube CE yields excellent separations of DNA components, which can b...

  16. Planetary In Situ Capillary Electrophoresis System (PISCES)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willis, P. A.; Stockton, A. M.; Mora, M. F.; Cable, M. L.; Bramall, N. E.; Jensen, E. C.; Jiao, H.; Lynch, E.; Mathies, R. A.

    2012-10-01

    We propose to develop PISCES, a 3-kg, 2W, flight-capable microfluidic lab-on-a-chip capillary electrophoresis analyzer capable of ingesting solid, liquid, or gas samples and performing a suite of chemical analyses with parts per trillion sensitivity.

  17. Capillary electrophoresis with UV detection and mass spectrometry in method development for profiling metabolites of steroid hormone metabolism.

    PubMed

    Sirén, Heli; Seppänen-Laakso, Tuulikki; Oresic, Matej

    2008-08-15

    The aim of this study was to develop a method for comprehensive profiling of metabolites involved in mammalian steroid metabolism. The study was performed using the partial filling micellar electrokinetic chromatography (PF-MEKC) technique for determination of endogenous low-hydrophilic steroids. The detection techniques in capillary electrophoresis were UV absorption and electrospray mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). Thirteen steroids were included in the method development, and the selected were metabolites involved in major pathways of steroid biosynthesis. Although only eight of them could be separated and detected with UV, they could be identified by ESI-MS using selected ion monitoring (SIM) technique. Tandem MS spectra were also collected. UV detection was more sensitive than MS due to better separation of compounds and the selective signal sensitivity. The lowest limits of detection were 10-100 ng/mL for cortisone, corticosterone, hydrocortisone and testosterone. The other steroids could be detected at 500-1000 ng/mL. The identification of cortisone, corticosterone, hydrocortisone, estrogen and testosterone were made in patient urine samples and their concentrations were 1-40 microg/L. PMID:18585986

  18. Development and validation of a capillary electrophoresis method for the determination of codeine, diphenhydramine, ephedrine and noscapine in pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Gomez, María R; Sombra, Lorena; Olsina, Roberto A; Martínez, Luis D; Silva, María F

    2005-01-01

    The present work describes a simple, accurate and rapid method for the separation and simultaneous determination of codeine, diphenhydramine, ephedrine and noscapine present in cough-cold syrup formulations by capillary zone electrophoresis. Factors affecting the separation were the buffer pH and concentration, applied voltage, and presence of additives. Separations were carried out in less than 10 min with a 20 mM sodium tetraborate buffer, pH 8.50. The carrier electrolyte gave baseline separation with good resolution, great reproducibility and accuracy. Calibration plots were linear over at least three orders of magnitude of analyte concentrations, the lower limits of detection being within the range 0.42-1.33 microg ml(-1). Detection was performed by UV absorbance at wavelengths of 205 and 250 nm. Quantification of the components in actual syrup formulations was calculated against the responses of freshly prepared external standard solutions. The method was validated and met all analysis requirements of quality assurance and quality control. The procedure was fast and reliable and commercial pharmaceuticals could be analyzed without prior sample clean-up procedure. PMID:15652374

  19. An optimized capillary electrophoresis method for the simultaneous analysis of biomass degradation products in ionic liquid containing samples.

    PubMed

    Aid, Tiina; Paist, Loore; Lopp, Margus; Kaljurand, Mihkel; Vaher, Merike

    2016-05-20

    An indirect capillary electrophoresis method for a quantitative determination of mono-, di- and oligosaccharides was developed to investigate biomass degradation, the isomerization of glucose into fructose and conversion of fructose to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) in ionic liquids (ILs). Three chromophores, namely 2,6-pyridinedicarboxylic acid (PDC), maleic acid and phthalic acid, were used to perform indirect detection. The electroosmotic flow (EOF) was reversed to reduce analysis time, using 1-tetradecyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (C14MImCl). The simultaneous separation of the underivatized mono-, di- and oligosaccharides was performed using four cellodextrin oligomers (cellotriose, cellotetraose, cellopentaose, cellohexaose), eight carbohydrates (xylose, fructose, glucose, galactose, lactose, cellobiose, raffinose, sucrose), two organic acids (acetic acid, levulinic acid) and 5-HMF. The best performance was obtained using background electrolyte (BGE) composed of 138.2mM NaOH, 40mM maleic acid and 5mMC14MImCl, the applied voltage was -21.7kV. The linear ranges for analyzed compounds were following: organic acids, raffinose and sucrose from 0.20 to 7mM, cellodextrin oligomers from 0.25 to 5mM, other analyzed carbohydrates from 0.25 to 7mM and 5-HMF from 0.05 to 7mM. The relative standard deviations (RSD) of peak areas varied from 3.47 to 9.62% during a 5-day analysis period and 0.58-5.29% during one day. PMID:27095128

  20. Analysis of Stevia glycosides by capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Mauri, P; Catalano, G; Gardana, C; Pietta, P

    1996-02-01

    The determination of diterpene glycosides from Stevia rebaudiana leaves using capillary electrophoresis is described. Analyses were performed on fused silica capillaries with 20 mM sodium tetraborate buffer, pH 8.3, and 30 mM sodium dodecyl sulfate. The effect of the organic solvent injected with the sample solution on the electrophoretic solution has been confirmed, and an absolute amount of 1.6 nL per injected sample was optimal. Rebaudioside A and steviolbioside were isolated by semipreparative high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and their structure was assessed by mass spectrometry. PMID:8900944

  1. Capillary electrophoresis for regulatory analysis: is it ready? Problems encountered during an interlaboratory study utilizing capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Mopper, B; Sciacchitano, C J

    1997-01-01

    Recently, the Northeast Regional Laboratory of the Food and Drug Administration conducted a collaborative study on the method to determine histamine in tuna by capillary electrophoresis. This study, under the guidance of the AOAC International, was the first of its kind involving the use of CE and was undertaken to establish official monograph status. The results of the collaborative study, however, were highly variable. Percent recovery data obtained by 11 collaborators ranged from 54 to 281%, with an average of 111%. In this paper, problems with reproducibility, and factors such as low sensitivity, noisy baselines, and variable migration times encountered by collaborators using various commercial capillary electrophoresis units are discussed. PMID:9624572

  2. Capillary zone electrophoresis-mass spectrometer interface

    DOEpatents

    D'Silva, Arthur

    1996-08-06

    A device for providing equal electrical potential between two loci unconnected by solid or liquid electrical conducts is provided. The device comprises a first electrical conducting terminal, a second electrical conducting terminal connected to the first terminal by a rigid dielectric structure, and an electrically conducting gas contacting the first and second terminals. This device is particularly suitable for application in the electrospray ionization interface between a capillary zone electrophoresis apparatus and a mass spectrometer.

  3. Capillary zone electrophoresis-mass spectrometer interface

    DOEpatents

    D`Silva, A.

    1996-08-06

    A device for providing equal electrical potential between two loci unconnected by solid or liquid electrical conductors is provided. The device comprises a first electrical conducting terminal, a second electrical conducting terminal connected to the first terminal by a rigid dielectric structure, and an electrically conducting gas contacting the first and second terminals. This device is particularly suitable for application in the electrospray ionization interface between a capillary zone electrophoresis apparatus and a mass spectrometer. 1 fig.

  4. Capillary electrophoresis for total glycosaminoglycan analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ucakturk, Ebru; Cai, Chao; Li, Lingyun; Li, Guoyun; Zhang, Fuming; Linhardt, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    A capillary zone electrophoresis-laser induced fluorescence detection (CZE-LIF) method was developed for the simultaneous analysis of disaccharides derived from heparan sulfate, chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate, hyaluronan and keratan sulfate. Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) were first depolymerized with the mixture of GAG lyases (heparinase I, II, III and chondroitinase ABC and chondroitinase AC II) and GAG endohydrolase (keratinase II) and the resulting disaccharides were derivatized by reductive amination with 2-aminoacridone. Nineteen fluorescently labeled disaccharides were separated using 50 mM phosphate buffer (pH 3.3) under reversed polarity at 25 kV. Using these conditions, all the disaccharides examined were baseline-separated in less then 25 min. This CZE-LIF method gave good reproducibility both migration time (≤ 1.03% for intra-day and ≤ 4.4% for inter-day) and the peak area values (≤ 5.6% for intra- and ≤ 8.69% for inter-day). This CZE-LIF method was used for profiling and quantification of GAG derivative disaccharides in bovine cornea. The results shows that the current CZE-LIF method offers fast, simple, sensitive, reproducible determination of disaccharides derived from total GAGs in a single run. PMID:24817364

  5. A Rapid and Cost-Effective Method for Genotyping Genome-Edited Animals: A Heteroduplex Mobility Assay Using Microfluidic Capillary Electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Chenouard, Vanessa; Brusselle, Lucas; Heslan, Jean-Marie; Remy, Séverine; Ménoret, Séverine; Usal, Claire; Ouisse, Laure-Hélène; NGuyen, Tuan Huy; Anegon, Ignacio; Tesson, Laurent

    2016-05-20

    The recent emergence and application of engineered endonucleases have led to the development of genome editing tools capable of rapidly implementing various targeted genome editions in a wide range of species. Moreover, these novel tools have become easier to use and have resulted in a great increase of applications. Whilst gene knockout (KO) or knockin (KI) animal models are relatively easy to achieve, there is a bottleneck in the detection and analysis of these mutations. Although several methods exist to detect these targeted mutations, we developed a heteroduplex mobility assay on an automated microfluidic capillary electrophoresis system named HMA-CE in order to accelerate the genotyping process. The HMA-CE method uses a simple PCR amplification of genomic DNA (gDNA) followed by an automated capillary electrophoresis step which reveals a heteroduplexes (HD) signature for each mutation. This allows efficient discrimination of wild-type and genome-edited animals down to the single base pair level. PMID:27209567

  6. Highly multiplexed DNA sequencing by capillary electrophoresis

    SciTech Connect

    Yeung, E.S.; Ueno, K.; Chang, H.T.

    1994-12-31

    It is obvious that irrespective of whichever basic technology is eventually selected to sequence the entire human genome there are substantial gains to be made if a high degree of multiplexing of parallel runs can be implemented. Such multiplexing should not involve expensive instrumentation and should not require additional personnel, or else the main objective of cost reduction will not be satisfied even though the total time for sequencing is reduced. In the last two years, several research groups have shown that capillary electrophoresis (CE) is an attractive alternative for DNA sequencing. Part of the improvement in sequencing speed in CE is counteracted by the inherent ability of slab gels for accommodating multiple lanes in a single run. Recently, the authors have developed several excitation schemes for highly multiplexed capillary electrophoresis. Detection at the pM level was demonstrated. The authors report here the use of a novel excitation geometry to simultaneously monitor 100 capillary tubes during electrophoresis. This represents a truly parallel multiplexing scheme for high-speed DNA sequencing.

  7. Application of capillary electrophoresis in agricultural and soil chemistry research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As a modern analytical technique, capillary electrophoresis (CE) has become an attractive method for characterizing molecules wit high structural complexity and a wide range of molecular weights. CE can be used to analyze many natural chemical components such as acids, biogenic amines, peptides, pro...

  8. A quick method for determination of psychoactive agents in serum and hair by using capillary electrophoresis and mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Woźniakiewicz, Aneta; Wietecha-Posłuszny, Renata; Woźniakiewicz, Michał; Bryczek, Ewelina; Kościelniak, Paweł

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the research was to develop a new sensitive method for simultaneously the determination of psychoactive drugs: 1-benzylpiperazine, 7-aminoclonazepam, alprazolam, clonazepam, diazepam, estazolam, lorazepam and tetrazepam in human serum and hair samples. In the preparation step, microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) was used. Extracts were analyzed by means of capillary electrophoresis with mass spectrometry time-of-flight detection (CE-TOF-MS). In the validation study of the MAE/CE-TOF-MS analytical method, three concentration levels of analytes (10, 100 and 250 ng/mL for serum and 0.2, 2.2 and 5.6 ng/mL for hair) were taken into account. Such parameters as limit of detection (0.4-1.2 ng/mL for serum, 6.0-23.0 pg/mg for hair), limit of quantification (1.3-4.1 ng/mL for serum, 20.0-77.0 pg/mg for hair), precision (3.0-11.3% for serum, 2.4-14.2% for hair), accuracy of the assay (RE) (-8.0 to 12.0% for serum, -8.0 to 11.0% for hair), recovery (88.6-113.4% for serum, 86.1-107.4% for hair) and matrix effects (87.9-110.7% for serum, 85.1-108.4% for hair) were calculated for the studied compounds. Then, the MAE/CE-TOF-MS method was successfully applied to the analysis of hair samples taken from patients treated with benzodiazepines. PMID:25890213

  9. [A systematic screening and identification method for 29 central nervous system drugs in body fluid by high performance capillary electrophoresis].

    PubMed

    Wu, H F; Guan, F Y; Luo, Y

    1997-05-01

    A systematic screening method has been developed for the detection of 29 central nervous system (CNS) drugs in human plasma, urine and gastric juice by high performance capillary electrophoresis (HPCE). The first step is sample preparation. The patient's or normal human plasma (0.5 ml) spiked with CNS drugs was extracted with 2 x 4 ml dichloromethane, while 2 ml of patient's or spiked urine was extracted with 2 x 6 ml chloroform. The combined extract from plasma or urine was evaporated to dryness in a rotation evaporator at 35 degrees C. The residue was dissolved in 100 microliters methanol and subsequently 400 microliters of redistilled water was added. The patient gastric juice (3 ml) was centrifuged at 2,000 r.min-1 for 5 min. The supernatant was filtered through 0.45 micron microporous membrane for injection onto capillary columns. The second step was to perform CZE separation in acidic buffer composed of 30 mmol.L-1(NH4)3PO4(pH 2.50) and 10% acetonitrile (condition A). Most of the benzodiazepines (diazepam, nitrazepam, chlordiazepoxide, flurazepam, extazolam, alprazolam) and methaqualone were baseline separated and detected at 5-13 min, while thiodiphenylamines showed group peaks at 3-5 min and barbiturates migrate with electroosmotic fluid (EOF) together. The third step is to separate the drugs in basic buffer constituted of 70 mmol.L-1 Na2HPO4(pH 8.60) and 30% acetonitrile (condition B). The thiodiphenylamines and some other basic drugs could be well separated, which include thihexyphenidyl, imipramine, amitriptyline, diphenhydramine, chlorpromazine, doxepin, chlorprothixene, promethazine and flurazepam, while the rest of the CNS drugs did not interfere with the separation. The last step was to separate the drugs by micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) in such a buffer as 70 mmol.L-1 SDS plus 15 mmol.L-1 Na2HPO4 (pH 7.55) and 5% methanol (condition C). Barbiturates (barbital, phenobarbital, methylphenobarbital, amobarbital, thiopental, pentobarbital

  10. Development of a capillary electrophoresis method for the characterization of "palo azul" (Eysenhardtia polystachya).

    PubMed

    Salinas-Hernández, Pastora; López-Bermúdez, Francisco J; Rodríguez-Barrientos, Damaris; Ramírez-Silva, María Teresa; Romero-Romo, Mario A; Morales-Anzures, Fernando; Rojas-Hernández, Alberto

    2008-03-01

    The tree Eysenhardtia polystachya (Ortega) Sarg. has quite a wide popular use within the traditional Mexican medicine as herbal remedy. Popular practices constitute a relevant enough basis to design optimum analytical methods in order to determine basic principles of diverse medicinal plants. This has become one of the essentials needed to characterize such products, for which it is fundamentally important to develop an efficient and reliable separation method. This work presents the results concerning the development and optimization of a novel CE method for the separation of components from water/etanol (1:1) extracts of E. polystachya, using the following conditions, considered the best obtained: phosphate buffer 10 mM, 20 kV voltage, and pH 8.1 at 214 nm and 50 mM, 12.5 kV voltage with pH 8.1 at 426 nm. The optimization takes into account the parameters associated in the resulting electropherograms, such as number of peaks, migration times, and the Deltat(m) of the neighboring peaks. Under optimal conditions the separation intended was attained within 15 and 20 min for 214 and 426 nm, respectively. The characterization method developed was applied to the analysis of diverse extracts of E. polystachya. PMID:18266292

  11. Strongly nonlinear waves in capillary electrophoresis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhen; Ghosal, Sandip

    2012-05-01

    In capillary electrophoresis, sample ions migrate along a microcapillary filled with a background electrolyte under the influence of an applied electric field. If the sample concentration is sufficiently high, the electrical conductivity in the sample zone could differ significantly from the background. Under such conditions, the local migration velocity of sample ions becomes concentration-dependent, resulting in a nonlinear wave that exhibits shocklike features. If the nonlinearity is weak, the sample concentration profile, under certain simplifying assumptions, can be shown to obey Burgers’ equation [Ghosal and Chen, Bull. Math. Biol.BMTBAP0092-824010.1007/s11538-010-9527-2 72, 2047 (2010)], which has an exact analytical solution for arbitrary initial condition. In this paper, we use a numerical method to study the problem in the more general case where the sample concentration is not small in comparison to the concentration of background ions. In the case of low concentrations, the numerical results agree with the weakly nonlinear theory presented earlier, but at high concentrations, the wave evolves in a way that is qualitatively different.

  12. A capillary electrophoresis method to explore the self-assembly of a novel polypeptide ligand with quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianhao; Zhang, Chencheng; Liu, Li; Kalesh, Karunakaran A; Qiu, Lin; Ding, Shumin; Fu, Minli; Gao, Li-Qian; Jiang, Pengju

    2016-08-01

    Polyhistidine peptides are effective ligands to coat quantum dots (QDs). It is known that both the number of histidine (His) residues repeats and their structural arrangements in a peptide ligand play important roles in the assembly of the peptide onto CdSe/ZnS QDs. However, due to steric hindrance, a peptide sequence with more than six His residue tandem repeats would hardly coordinate well with Zn(2+) in the QD shell to further enhance the binding affinity. To solve this problem, a His-containing peptide ligand, ATTO 590-E2 G (NH)6 (ATTO-NH), was specifically designed and synthesized for assembly with QDs. With sequential injection of QDs and ATTO-NH into the capillary electrophoresis with fluorescence detection, strong Förster resonance energy transfer phenomenon between the QDs and the ATTO 590 dye was observed, indicating efficient self-assembly of the novel peptide onto the QDs to form ATTO-NH capped QDs inside the capillary. The binding stability of the ligand onto the QD was then systematically investigated by titrating with imidazole, His, and a his-tag containing competitive peptide. It is believed that this new in-capillary assay significantly reduced the sample consumption and the analysis time. By functionalizing QDs with certain metal cation-specific group fused peptide ligand, the QD-based probes could be even extended to the online detection of metal cations for monitoring environment in the future. PMID:27334251

  13. On-line preconcentration of sodium dodecyl sulfate-protein complexes using electrokinetic supercharging method with a prefilled water plug in capillary sieving electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing; Kang, Mingchao; Liu, Zhen

    2011-09-01

    An electrokinetic supercharging (EKS) method with a prefilled water plug at the head column of capillary was developed for on-line preconcentration of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-protein complexes in capillary sieving electrophoresis (CSE). Conventional EKS is a combination of electrokinetic injection with transient isotachophoresis (tr-ITP). The capillary is first filled with background electrolyte, then an appropriate amount of a leading electrolyte is filled and electro-injection is carried out for certain duration. After that, terminating electrolyte is filled, and tr-ITP is subsequently initiated, followed by capillary electrophoresis (CE) separation. In this work, the performance of EKS was evaluated by integrating multiple sub-methods step by step, and a water plug containing polymer was introduced before electrokinetic injection in order to further improve the concentration effect. The positive effects of the sub-methods were verified, including molecular sieving effect of polymer, field enhanced sample injection (FESI) with and without a water plug, and transient isotachophoretic electrophoresis-based FESI. It was observed that analyte discrimination usually encountered in conventional electrokinetic injection was eliminated due to the similar charge to mass ratios of SDS-protein complexes. Based on these results, a hybrid on-line preconcentration method, EKS with injecting a water plug containing polymer before sample electrokinetic injection, was proposed and used to indiscriminately preconcentrate SDS-protein complexes, which provided a sensitivity enhancement factor of more than 1000. It was very suitable for the analysis of low-abundance proteins, providing the information of their molecular mass. PMID:22233073

  14. Sheathless interface for coupling capillary electrophoresis with mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Chenchen; Tang, Keqi; Smith, Richard D.

    2014-06-17

    A sheathless interface for coupling capillary electrophoresis (CE) with mass spectrometry is disclosed. The sheathless interface includes a separation capillary for performing CE separation and an emitter capillary for electrospray ionization. A portion of the emitter capillary is porous or, alternatively, is coated to form an electrically conductive surface. A section of the emitter capillary is disposed within the separation capillary, forming a joint. A metal tube, containing a conductive liquid, encloses the joint.

  15. Quantitative determination of the β-methyl carbapenem doripenem in powder for injection by a stability-indicating capillary zone electrophoresis method.

    PubMed

    Paliosa, P K; Garcia, C V; Schapoval, E E S; Mendez, A S L; Steppe, M

    2015-09-01

    A capillary zone electrophoresis method for quantitative determination of doripenem in synthetic matrix was developed. The stability-indicating capability was performed applying stress testing protocols. The selected analytical conditions include 100 mM sodium borate buffer (pH 8.0) as run electrolyte, voltage of +15 kV, hydrodynamic injection of 5s (50 mBar), detection at 298 nm and temperature of analysis of 25 degrees C. The electrophoretic separation was carried out in a fused silica capillary (effective length 40 cm, 50 μm i.d.), using procainamide hydrochloride as internal standard. The proposed method showed quickness and reproducibility, with an analytical run in a total time of 5 min. The percentage of drug amount estimated was 101.33% (RSD = 0.80), with satisfactory intra-day and inter-day precision. In the recovery test, the method was found to be reliable and accurate in the drug quantitation (mean recovery = 101.86%). The robustness was performed applying the Plackett-Burman experimental design which confirmed the assay reliability. Based on results from forced degradation study, the stability-indicating capability was established, being observed a major degradation in alkaline, photolytic and thermal conditions. In comparison to HPLC method previously developed, the proposed capillary electrophoresis assay is statistically equivalent. PMID:26492640

  16. Coaxial capillary and conductive capillary interfaces for collection of fractions isolated by capillary electrophoresis

    SciTech Connect

    Chiu, R.W.; Walker, K.L.; Hagen, J.J.; Monning, C.A.; Wilkins, C.L.

    1995-11-15

    An instrument is described that allows the automated collection of fractions isolated by capillary electrophoresis. This instrument allows the electrical connection to be established with the separation capillary by using a coaxial capillary flow cell or by treating the outer surface of the capillary with a gold-filled epoxy to allow electrophoresis. The coaxial interface is most useful when the electroosmotic flow in the capillary is small, and the conductive capillary interface is favored when dilution and contamination of the sample must be minimized. Both geometries permit closely spaced fractions to be acquired with minimal cross-contamination and dilution. Sample recoveries were better than 80% and virtually independent of the chemical characteristics of the sample. Fractions isolated with this instrument were successfully analyzed by high-pressure liquid chromatography and electrospray mass spectrometry. 25 refs., 4 figs.

  17. Gene analysis of multiple oral bacteria by the polymerase chain reaction coupled with capillary polymer electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chenchen; Yamaguchi, Yoshinori; Sekine, Shinichi; Ni, Yi; Li, Zhenqing; Zhu, Xifang; Dou, Xiaoming

    2016-03-01

    Capillary polymer electrophoresis is identified as a promising technology for the analysis of DNA from bacteria, virus and cell samples. In this paper, we propose an innovative capillary polymer electrophoresis protocol for the quantification of polymerase chain reaction products. The internal standard method was modified and applied to capillary polymer electrophoresis. The precision of our modified internal standard protocol was evaluated by measuring the relative standard deviation of intermediate capillary polymer electrophoresis experiments. Results showed that the relative standard deviation was reduced from 12.4-15.1 to 0.6-2.3%. Linear regression tests were also implemented to validate our protocol. The modified internal standard method showed good linearity and robust properties. Finally, the ease of our method was illustrated by analyzing a real clinical oral sample using a one-run capillary polymer electrophoresis experiment. PMID:26648455

  18. Capillary electrophoresis of DNA for molecular diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Righetti, P G; Gelfi, C

    1997-09-01

    A number of applications of capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) in sieving liquid polymers (notably linear polyacrylamides and cellulose) for the analysis of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products of clinically relevant, diagnostic DNA, are reviewed. The fields covered are: human genetics, quantitative gene dosage, microbiology and virology, forensic medicine and therapeutic DNA (notably, antisense nucleotides). Some unique, novel developments are highlighted, such as: (i) nonisocratic CZE, i.e., temperature-programmed CZE for detection of DNA point mutations; (ii) the synthesis of novel N-substituted acrylamides, offering extreme resistance to alkaline hydrolysis coupled to high hydrophilicity. In the field of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), as routinely performed in gel slabs, a novel methodology is described in CZE: double-gradient DGGE. In this technique, two gradients are simultaneously applied along the migration direction: a chemical (or thermal) denaturing gradient, for partially unwinding homo- and hetero-duplexes of DNA, and a porosity gradient, for recompacting diffuse bands melting over a broader range of denaturing conditions. It is thus demonstrated that chemical gradients, in addition to temperature gradients, can be easily implemented even in a capillary format. PMID:9372261

  19. Capillary electrophoresis coupled with automated fraction collection.

    PubMed

    Huge, Bonnie Jaskowski; Flaherty, Ryan J; Dada, Oluwatosin O; Dovichi, Norman J

    2014-12-01

    A fraction collector based on a drop-on-demand ink-jet printer was developed to interface capillary zone electrophoresis with a 96 well microtiter plate. We first evaluated the performance of the collector by using capillary zone electrophoresis to analyze a 1mM solution of tetramethylrhodamine; a fluorescent microtiter plate reader was then used to detect the analyte and characterize fraction carryover between wells. Relative standard deviation in peak height was 20% and the relative standard deviation in migration time was 1%. The mean and standard deviation of the tetramethylrhodamine peak width was 5 ± 1 s and likely limited by the 4-s period between droplet deposition. We next injected a complex mixture of DNA fragments and used real-time PCR to quantify the product in a CE-SELEX experiment. The reconstructed electrophoretic peak was 27 s in duration. Finally, we repeated the experiment in the presence of a 30-µM thrombin solution under CE-SELEX conditions; fractions were collected and next-generation sequencing was used to characterize the DNA binders. Over 25,000 sequences were identified with close matches to known thrombin binding aptamers. PMID:25159411

  20. Capillary Electrophoresis coupled with Automated Fraction Collection

    PubMed Central

    Huge, Bonnie Jaskowski; Flaherty, Ryan; Dada, Oluwatosin O.; Dovichi, Norman J.

    2014-01-01

    A fraction collector based on a drop-on-demand ink-jet printer was developed to interface capillary zone electrophoresis with a 96 well microtiter plate. We first evaluated the performance of the collector by using capillary zone electrophoresis to analyze a 1 mM solution of tetramethylrhodamine; a fluorescent microtiter plate reader was then used to detect the analyte and characterize fraction carryover between wells. Relative standard deviation in peak height was 20% and the relative standard deviation in migration time was 1%. The mean and standard deviation of the tetramethylrhodamine peak width was 5 ± 1 s and likely limited by the 4-s period between droplet deposition. We next injected a complex mixture of DNA fragments and used real-time PCR to quantify the product in a CE-SELEX experiment. The reconstructed electrophoretic peak was 27 s in duration. Finally, we repeated the experiment in the presence of a 30-μM thrombin solution under CE-SELEX conditions; fractions were collected and next-generation sequencing was used to characterize the DNA binders. Over 25,000 sequences were identified with close matches to known thrombin binding aptamers. PMID:25159411

  1. Microfab-less Microfluidic Capillary Electrophoresis Devices

    PubMed Central

    Segato, Thiago P.; Bhakta, Samir A.; Gordon, Matthew; Carrilho, Emanuel; Willis, Peter A.; Jiao, Hong; Garcia, Carlos D.

    2013-01-01

    Compared to conventional bench-top instruments, microfluidic devices possess advantageous characteristics including great portability potential, reduced analysis time (minutes), and relatively inexpensive production, putting them on the forefront of modern analytical chemistry. Fabrication of these devices, however, often involves polymeric materials with less-than-ideal surface properties, specific instrumentation, and cumbersome fabrication procedures. In order to overcome such drawbacks, a new hybrid platform is proposed. The platform is centered on the use of 5 interconnecting microfluidic components that serve as the injector or reservoirs. These plastic units are interconnected using standard capillary tubing, enabling in-channel detection by a wide variety of standard techniques, including capacitively-coupled contactless conductivity detection (C4D). Due to the minimum impact on the separation efficiency, the plastic microfluidic components used for the experiments discussed herein were fabricated using an inexpensive engraving tool and standard Plexiglas. The presented approach (named 52-platform) offers a previously unseen versatility: enabling the assembly of the platform within minutes using capillary tubing that differs in length, diameter, or material. The advantages of the proposed design are demonstrated by performing the analysis of inorganic cations by capillary electrophoresis on soil samples from the Atacama Desert. PMID:23585815

  2. Identification of fentanyl derivatives at trace levels with nonaqueous capillary electrophoresis-electrospray-tandem mass spectrometry (MS(n), n = 2, 3): analytical method and forensic applications.

    PubMed

    Rittgen, Jan; Pütz, Michael; Zimmermann, Ralf

    2012-06-01

    The identification of fentanyl derivatives at trace levels employing capillary electrophoresis coupled to electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (CE-ESI-MS(n) , n = 2, 3) is presented. The studied synthetic opioid fentanyl and its derivatives have an exceeding analgesic potency which can be up to 8000 times higher that of morphine. Apart from their therapeutical applications, there is an abuse of them in the drug scene as a heroin substitute. The identification of these opioids at trace levels is of further significant forensic interest with respect to recent seizures of clandestine fentanyl laboratories in Germany. In this work, a nonaqueous capillary electrophoresis (NACE)-ESI-MS(n) procedure was developed for the separation and identification of six fentanyl derivatives including fentanyl, cis- and trans-methylfentanyl, sufentanil, alfentanil, and carfentanil. Their fragmentation pattern in MS(n) experiments were investigated as well as the influence of the sheath-liquid mixture and the influence of the inside diameter of the fused silica capillary on the peak shape and the signal to noise ratio. Method validation included determination of the detection limits (about 1-2 nmol/L) and the repeatability of migration time (at most 0.07% relative standard deviation). The NACE-MS procedure was successfully applied for the analysis of real samples from seizures in illegal fentanyl laboratories. PMID:22736362

  3. Fast methods for analysis of neurotransmitters from single cell and monitoring their releases in central nervous system by capillary electrophoresis, fluorescence microscopy and luminescence imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Ziqiang

    1999-12-10

    Fast methods for separation and detection of important neurotransmitters and the releases in central nervous system (CNS) were developed. Enzyme based immunoassay combined with capillary electrophoresis was used to analyze the contents of amino acid neurotransmitters from single neuron cells. The release of amino acid neurotransmitters from neuron cultures was monitored by laser induced fluorescence imaging method. The release and signal transduction of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in CNS was studied with sensitive luminescence imaging method. A new dual-enzyme on-column reaction method combined with capillary electrophoresis has been developed for determining the glutamate content in single cells. Detection was based on monitoring the laser-induced fluorescence of the reaction product NADH, and the measured fluorescence intensity was related to the concentration of glutamate in each cell. The detection limit of glutamate is down to 10{sup {minus}8} M level, which is 1 order of magnitude lower than the previously reported detection limit based on similar detection methods. The mass detection limit of a few attomoles is far superior to that of any other reports. Selectivity for glutamate is excellent over most of amino acids. The glutamate content in single human erythrocyte and baby rat brain neurons were determined with this method and results agreed well with literature values.

  4. Applications of capillary electrophoresis in biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Lagu, A L

    1999-10-01

    Capillary electrophoresis (CE)-related techniques are increasingly being used as a matter of routine practice in the biotechnology discipline. Since recombinant DNA-derived proteins and the antisense oligonucleotides constitute a large portion of the applications of these techniques, they have been emphasized in this review. Analyses by CE of Escherichia coli-derived proteins and glycosylated proteins derived from mammalian cell cultures are summarized, as well as those of the carbohydrate chains that have been enzymatically removed from the protein. Applications of CE in the analysis of the antisense oligonucleotides for the determination of purity and the analytical studies on the metabolism of these modified oligonucleotides, by CE are reviewed. The literature mainly covers the period from 1996. PMID:10596822

  5. Capillary zone electrophoresis of large DNA.

    PubMed

    Guszczynski, T; Pulyaeva, H; Tietz, D; Garner, M M; Chrambach, A

    1993-01-01

    Capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) of DNA 23.1 to 48.5 kb in length in polyacrylamide solutions of several concentrations provides evidence for polymer concentration and DNA length-dependent stretching and orientation of these species and suggests an effective separation at a polymer concentration of about 0.6%. Applying a 0.1% polyacrylamide concentration to the lambda-phage DNA ladder, at least 5 components are separated; separation improves with lowering of the field strength to 2 V/cm and, correspondingly, extended duration of CZE. Saccharomyces pombe chromosomal DNA separates into 3 major components on CZE at high field strength (270 V/cm) in 0.9% polyacrylamide solution, confirming a previous finding made on electrophoresis in a 1.1 mm ID tube at low field strength. However, the finding is limited to one source of the DNA plug, and the chromosomal identity of the components remains unknown. Methodological problems in the CZE of large DNA relate to the need for extended duration of pressure injection if absorbance detection is applied, the need to define the starting zone after extended pressure injection, the need to melt and digest agarose plugs prior to loading, and related needs for thermostating of the sample chamber and for software compatible with low voltage operation. PMID:8354238

  6. Capillary and microchip electrophoresis: challenging the common conceptions.

    PubMed

    Breadmore, Michael C

    2012-01-20

    Capillary electrophoresis (CE) has long been regarded as a powerful analytical separation technique that is an alternative to more traditional methods such as gel electrophoresis (GE) and liquid chromatography (LC). It is often touted as having a number of advantages over both of these, such as speed, flexibility, portability, sample and reagent requirements and cost, but also a number of disadvantages such as reproducibility and sensitivity. Microchip electrophoresis (ME), the next evolutionary step, miniaturised CE further providing improvements in speed and sample requirements as well as the possibility to perform more complex and highly integrated analyses. CE and ME are seen as a viable alternative to GE, but are often considered to be inferior to LC. This review will consider the strengths and weaknesses of both CE and ME and will challenge the common conceptions held about these. PMID:22000781

  7. Validation of STR typing by capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Moretti, T R; Baumstark, A L; Defenbaugh, D A; Keys, K M; Brown, A L; Budowle, B

    2001-05-01

    With the use of capillary electrophoresis (CE), high-resolution electrophoretic separation of short tandem repeat (STR) loci can be achieved in a semiautomated fashion. Laser-induced detection of fluorescently labeled PCR products and multicolor analysis enable the rapid generation of multilocus DNA profiles. In this study, conditions for typing PCR-amplified STR loci by capillary electrophoresis were investigated using the ABI Prism 310 Genetic Analyzer (Applied Biosystems). An internal size standard was used with each run to effectively normalize mobility differences among injections. Alleles were designated by comparison to allelic ladders that were run with each sample set. Multiple runs of allelic ladders and of amplified samples demonstrate that allele sizes were reproducible, with standard deviations typically less than 0.12 bases for fragments up to 317 bases in length (largest allele analyzed) separated in a 47 cm capillary. Therefore, 99.7% of all alleles that are the same length should fall within the measurement error window of +/- 0.36 bases. Microvariants of the tetranucleotide repeats were also accurately typed by the analytical software. Alleles differing in size by one base could be resolved in two-donor DNA mixtures in which the minor component comprised > or = 5% of the total DNA. Furthermore, the quantitative data format (i.e., peak amplitude) can in some instances assist in determining individual STR profiles in mixed samples. DNA samples from previously typed cases (typed for RFLP, AmpliType PM+DQA1, and/or D1S80) were amplified using AmpFlSTR Profiler Plus and COfiler and were evaluated using the ABI Prism 310. Most samples yielded typable results. Compared with previously determined results for other loci, there were no discrepancies as to the inclusion or exclusion of suspects or victims. CE thus provides efficient separation, resolution, sensitivity and precision, and the analytical software provides reliable genotyping of STR loci. The

  8. Determination of benzylpenicillin in pharmaceuticals by capillary zone electrophoresis

    SciTech Connect

    Hoyt, A.M. Jr. ); Sepaniak, M.J. )

    1989-04-01

    A rapid and direct method is described for the determination of benzylpenicillin (penicillin G) in pharmaceutical preparations. The method involves very little sample preparation and total analysis time for duplicate results is less 30 minutes per sample. The method takes advantage of the speed and separating power of capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE). Detection of penicillin is by absorption at 228 nm. An internal standard is employed to reduce sample injection error. The method was applied successfully to both tablets and injectable preparations. 14 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Capillary Electrophoresis Profiles and Fluorophore Components of Humic Acids in Nebraska Corn and Philippine Rice Soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As humic substances represent relatively high molecular mass polyelectrolytes containing aromatic, aliphatic and heterocyclic subunits, capillary electrophoresis (CE) has become an attractive method for “finger-print” characterization of humic acids. In addition, fluorescence excitation-emission ma...

  10. ANALYSIS OF THE ENANTIOMERS OF CHIRAL PESTICIDES AND OTHER POLLUTANTS IN ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLES BY CAPILLARY ELECTROPHORESIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The generic method described here involves typical capillary electrophoresis (CE) techniques, with the addition of cyclodextrin chiral selectors to the electrolyte for enantiomer separation and also, in the case of neutral analytes, the further addition of a micelle forming comp...

  11. Development of a rapid method for simultaneous separation of hyaluronic acid, chondroitin sulfate, dermatan sulfate and heparin by capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ting; Song, Xinlei; Tan, Xiaoqing; Xu, Linghua; Yu, Mingxiu; Wang, Siyi; Liu, Xiumei; Wang, Fengshan

    2016-05-01

    This study reports the use of diethylenetriamine as background electrolyte for the simultaneous separation of hyaluronan acid, chondroitin sulfate, dermatan sulfate and heparin. The analytes were baseline separated by using an uncoated fused silica capillary at 37°C with a run time of 23min. The migration order, with hyaluronan acid at first and heparin at last, was related to the sulfation degree. The effect of salt concentration on resolution and migration order was also investigated. The developed method was applied to the simultaneous determination of hyaluronan acid and chondroitin sulfate in mouse plasma. Interferences in plasma were removed by protein precipitation and glycosaminoglycans were further purified by ethanol precipitation. The method was validated over the concentration range from 50 to 600μg/mL for hyaluronan acid and 500 to 6000μg/mL for chondroitin sulfate in mouse plasma. Results from assay validations showed that the method was selective and robust. PMID:26877013

  12. Fabricating PFPE Membranes for Capillary Electrophoresis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Michael C.; Willis, Peter A.; Greer, Frank; Rolland, Jason

    2009-01-01

    A process has been developed for fabricating perfluoropolyether (PFPE) membranes that contain microscopic holes of precise sizes at precise locations. The membranes are to be incorporated into laboratory-on-a-chip microfluidic devices to be used in performing capillary electrophoresis. The present process is a modified version of part of the process, described in the immediately preceding article, that includes a step in which a liquid PFPE layer is cured into solid (membrane) form by use of ultraviolet light. In the present process, one exploits the fact that by masking some locations to prevent exposure to ultraviolet light, one can prevent curing of the PFPE in those locations. The uncured PFPE can be washed away from those locations in the subsequent release and cleaning steps. Thus, holes are formed in the membrane in those locations. The most straightforward way to implement the modification is to use, during the ultraviolet-curing step, an ultraviolet photomask similar to the photomasks used in fabricating microelectronic devices. In lieu of such a photomask, one could use a mask made of any patternable ultraviolet-absorbing material (for example, an ink or a photoresist).

  13. Developing a fluorescence-coupled capillary electrophoresis based method to probe interactions between QDs and colorectal cancer targeting peptides.

    PubMed

    Liu, Feifei; Wang, Jianhao; Yang, Li; Liu, Li; Ding, Shumin; Fu, Minli; Deng, Linhong; Gao, Li-Qian

    2016-08-01

    As is well known, quantum dots (QDs) have become valuable probes for cancer imaging. In particular, QD-labeled targeting peptides are capable of identifying cancer or tumors cells. A new colorectal cancer targeting peptide, cyclo(1, 9)-CTPSPFSHC, has strong targeting ability and also shows great potential in the identification and treatment of colon cancer. Herein, we synthesized a dual functional polypeptide, cyclo(1, 9)-CTPSPFSHCD2 G2 DP9 G3 H6 (H6 -TCP), to investigate its interaction with QDs inside the capillary. Fluorescence-coupled CE was adopted and applied to characterize the self-assembly of H6 -TCP onto QDs. It was indicated that the formation of the assembly was affected by H6 -TCP/QD molar ratio and sampling time. This novel in-capillary assay greatly reduced the sample consumption and the detection time, which was beneficial for the environment. It is expected that this kind of detection method could find more applications to provide more useful information for cancer diagnosis and detection of harm and hazardous substances/organisms in the environment in the future. PMID:27159348

  14. A green capillary zone electrophoresis method for the simultaneous determination of piperacillin, tazobactam and cefepime in pharmaceutical formulations and human plasma.

    PubMed

    Al-Attas, Amirah; Nasr, Jenny Jeehan; El-Enany, Nahed; Belal, Fathalla

    2015-12-01

    A green, novel, rapid, accurate and reliable capillary zone electrophoresis method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of piperacillin, tazobactam and cefepime in pharmaceutical preparations. Separation was carried out using fused silica capillary (50 µm i.d. × 48.6 cm and 40.2 cm detection length) and applied potential of 20 kV (positive polarity) and a running buffer containing 15 m m sodium borate buffer adjusted to pH 9.3 with UV detection at 215 nm. Amoxicillin was used as an internal standard. The method was suitably validated according to International Conference on Harmonization guidelines. The method showed good linearity in the ranges of 10-100, 20-400 and 10-400 µg/mL with limits of quantitation of 1.87, 3.17 and 6.97 µg/mL and limits of detection of 0.56, 0.95 and 2.09 µg/mL for tazobactam, piperacillin and cefepime, respectively. The proposed method was successfully applied for the analysis of these drugs in their synthetic mixtures and co-formulated injection vials. The method was extended to the in vitro determination of the two drugs in spiked human plasma. It is considered a 'green' method as it consumes no organic solvents. PMID:26058453

  15. CAPILLARY ELECTROPHORESIS FOR THE CHARACTERIZATION OF HUMIC SUBSTANCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The potential of high performance capillary electrophoresis (HPCE), especially in the free solution mode (FSCE), is demonstrated for the analysis/characterization of environmental humic substances (HUS). he very high efficiency of HPCE separations allows the production of electro...

  16. Capillary zone electrophoresis and capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry for analyzing qualitative and quantitative variations in therapeutic albumin.

    PubMed

    Marie, Anne-Lise; Przybylski, Cédric; Gonnet, Florence; Daniel, Régis; Urbain, Rémi; Chevreux, Guillaume; Jorieux, Sylvie; Taverna, Myriam

    2013-10-24

    The present study describes a reproducible and quantitative capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) method, which leads to the separation of nine forms (native, oxidized and glycated) of human serum albumin (HSA). In an attempt to identify the different species separated by this CZE method, the capillary electrophoresis was coupled to mass spectrometry using a sheath liquid interface, an optimized capillary coating and a suitable CE running buffer. CE-MS analyses confirmed the heterogeneity of albumin preparation and revealed new truncated and modified forms such as Advanced Glycation End products (AGEs). Assignment of the CZE peaks was carried out using specific antibodies, carboxypeptidase A or sample reduction before or during the CE separation. Thus, five HSA forms were unambiguously identified. Using this CZE method several albumin batches produced by slightly different fractionation ways could be discriminated. Furthermore, analyses of HSA preparations marketed by five pharmaceutical industries revealed that two therapeutic albumins, including that marketed by LFB, contained the highest proportion of native form and lower levels of oxidized forms. PMID:24120174

  17. Development and validation of a cyclodextrin-modified capillary electrophoresis method for the enantiomeric separation of vildagliptin enantiomers.

    PubMed

    Kazsoki, Adrienn; Fejős, Ida; Sohajda, Tamás; Zhou, Wei; Hu, Wenhui; Szente, Lajos; Béni, Szabolcs

    2016-05-01

    The enantiomers of vildagliptin, an orally available and selective dipeptidyl-peptidase-4 inhibitor used for the treatment of type II diabetes, have been separated by CD-modified CZE, using uncoated fused-silica capillary. After screening 13 negatively charged CD derivatives as potential chiral selectors, sulfobutyl-ether-α-CD (SBE-α-CD) was selected for the enantioseparation. For the optimization, a factorial analysis study was performed by orthogonal experimental design. Six experimental factors were chosen as variable parameters: temperature, applied voltage, chiral selector and BGE concentrations, pH, and the parameters of the hydrodynamic injection. The optimized system still was not considered final as the second peak (S-enantiomer) migrated too close to the EOF, resulting in a potential inaccuracy during the determination of the chiral impurity. To fine-tune the method "one factor at a time" variation approach was applied. The final method (applying 15°C capillary temperature, 40 mbar × 4 s hydrodynamic injection, 25 kV voltage in 75 mM acetate-Tris buffer [pH 4.75] containing 20 mM SBE-α-CD as chiral selector) was validated according to the ICH guideline. RSD percentage of the resolution value, migration times, and corrected peak areas were below 5% during testing repeatability and intermediate precision. LOD and LOQ values were found to be 2.5 and 7.5 μg/mL, respectively. The method is considered linear in the 7.5-180 μg/mL range for the R-enantiomer. The robustness of the method was justified using Plackett-Burmann statistical experimental design. PMID:26871938

  18. [Does bilirubin interfere with capillary electrophoresis of serum proteins?].

    PubMed

    Hellara, Ilhem; Fekih, Ons; Triki, Sonia; Elmay, Ahlem; Neffati, Fadoua; Najjar, Mohamed Fadhel

    2014-01-01

    Capillary electrophoresis of serum proteins is a fast, reliable and simple technique, but many interference exist. The objective of our work is to study the interference of bilirubin on this technique; 70 icteric sera were analysed on Capillarys ™ (Sebia). A second electrophoresis was performed on 40 samples after bilirubin photodegradation. The bilirubin and serum proteins were determinated respectively by Jendrassik and Grof and biuret methods on Konélab 20i ™ (Thermo Electron Corporation). We found abnormal spreading of the albumin fraction of the anode side wich constitute sometimes an isolated fraction in the traditional area of pre-albumin migration. This fraction varies from 2.0 ± 2.0% (0.0 to 7.3%) or 0.98 ± 1.53 g/L (0 to 5.3 g/L) and it seems to be related to the direct bilirubin since, following overloading sera with a solution of bilirubin, no further fraction was recovered. An average decrease of bilirubin after photodegradation of 58 ± 17% (26-89%) is followed by a decrease in the same order 64 ± 38% (10-100%) of the additional fraction. Acetate cellulose electrophoresis of the same samples showed no variation. The high bilirubin levels seem modify slightly the electrophoretic profile. However the impact of the interference on the interpretation of electrophoretic trace is negligible. PMID:24492101

  19. Capillary zone electrophoresis-mass spectrometry of peptides and proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Loo, J.A.; Udseth, H.R.; Smith, R.D.

    1989-05-01

    Capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) is attracting extensive attention as a fast, high resolution analytical and micro-preparative separations technique for systems of biological interest. In zone electrophoresis, a column is filled with a single electrolyte having a specific conductivity. The mixture of substances to be separated is applied as a narrow band to the head of a buffer filled column in a band whose width is much less than the length of the column and at a concentration too low to affect the buffer conductivity. An electric field is then applied across the length of the column and the individual substances migrate and separate according to their net electrophoretic velocities. Zone electrophoresis carried out in small diameter (<100 ..mu..m) fused silica capillaries is a relatively new approach to the high resolution separation of aqueous samples. Very small volume samples (picoliter range) with separation efficiencies on the order of 10/sup 6/ theoretical plates for amino acids have been achieved. The method can be further enhanced by the dynamic combination of detection sensitivity and selectivity offered by mass spectrometry (MS). The on-line marriage of mass spectrometry to CZE is accomplished by an atmospheric pressure electrospray ionization source interface. Our research efforts have demonstrated that proteins with MW's greater than 100 kDa can be analyzed using a conventional quadrupole mass spectrometer with an upper m/z limit of only 1700. 6 refs.

  20. Determination of glycyrrhizin in liqueurs by on-line coupled capillary isotachophoresis with capillary zone electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Kvasnicka, Frantisek; Voldrich, Michal; Vyhnálek, Josef

    2007-10-26

    An on-line coupled capillary isotachophoresis-capillary zone electrophoresis method for the determination of glycyrrhizin in liqueurs is described. The optimised electrolyte system was 5 mM HCl+11 mM epsilon-aminocaproic acid+0.05% hydroxyethylcellulose+30% methanol (leading electrolyte), 5 mM caproic acid+30% methanol (terminating electrolyte) and 20 mM caproic acid+10 mM histidine+0.1% hydroxyethylcellulose+30% methanol (background electrolyte). Method characteristics, i.e., linearity (20-500 ng/ml), accuracy (recovery 99+/-4%), intra-assay repeatability (2%), intermediate repeatability (3.8%) and detection limit (8 ng/ml) were determined. Speed of analysis, low laboriousness, high sensitivity and low-running cost are the typical attributes of the capillary isotachophoresis-capillary zone electrophoresis method. Developed method was successfully applied to analysis of liqueurs with liquorice extract and some foods (sweets and food supplements) containing liquorice. Found levels of glycyrrhizin in liqueurs, sweets and food supplements varied between 1-16 mg/l, 850-1050 mg/kg and 1.6-1.8 g/kg, respectively. PMID:17875310

  1. Determination of antazoline and tetrahydrozoline in ophthalmic solutions by capillary electrophoresis and stability-indicating HPLC methods.

    PubMed

    Gumustas, Mehmet; Alshana, Usama; Ertas, Nusret; Goger, Nilgun Gunden; Ozkan, Sibel A; Uslu, Bengi

    2016-05-30

    Capillary electrophoretic (CE) and high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) methods were developed and optimized for the determination of antazoline (ANT) and tetrahydrozoline (TET) in ophthalmic formulations. Optimum electrophoretic conditions were achieved using a background electrolyte of 20mM phosphate buffer at pH 7.0, a capillary temperature of 25°C, a separation voltage of 22kV and a pressure injection of the sample at 50mbar for 17s. HPLC analysis was performed with Kinetex (150×4.6mm ID×5μm) (Phenomenex, USA) analytical column with 1mLmin(-1) flow rate of mobile phase which consisted of 0.05% TFA in bidistilled water (pH adjusted to 3.0 with 5M NaOH) and acetonitrile/buffer in the ratio of 63:37 (v/v) at room temperature. Injection volume of the samples was 10μL and the wavelength of the detector was set at 215nm for monitoring both analytes. Calibration graphs showed a good linearity with a coefficient of determination (R(2)) of at least 0.998 for both methods. Intraday and interday precision (expressed as RSD%) were lower than 2.8% for CE and 0.92% for HPLC. The developed methods were demonstrated to be simple and rapid for the determination of ANT and TET in ophthalmic solutions providing recoveries in the range between 97.9 and 102.70% for CE and HPLC. PMID:26952922

  2. PNEUMATIC MICROVALVE FOR ELECTROKINETIC SAMPLE PRECONCENTRATION AND CAPILLARY ELECTROPHORESIS INJECTION

    SciTech Connect

    Cong, Yongzheng; Rausch, Sarah J.; Geng, Tao; Jambovane, Sachin R.; Kelly, Ryan T.

    2014-10-27

    Here we show that a closed pneumatic microvalve on a PDMS chip can serve as a semipermeable membrane under an applied potential, enabling current to pass through while blocking the passage of charged analytes. Enrichment of both anionic and cationic species has been demonstrated, and concentration factors of ~70 have been achieved in just 8 s. Once analytes are concentrated, the valve is briefly opened and the sample is hydrodynamically injected onto an integrated microchip or capillary electrophoresis (CE) column. In contrast to existing preconcentration approaches, the membrane-based method described here enables both rapid analyte concentration as well as high resolution separations.

  3. Direct methods for dynamic monitoring of secretions from single cells by capillary electrophoresis and microscopy with laser-induced native fluorescence detection

    SciTech Connect

    Tong, W.

    1997-10-08

    Microscale separation and detection methods for real-time monitoring of dynamic cellular processes (e.g., secretion) by capillary electrophoresis (CE) and microscopic imaging were developed. Ultraviolet laser-induced native fluorescence (LINF) provides simple, sensitive and direct detection of neurotransmitters and proteins without any derivatization. An on-column CE-LINF protocol for quantification of the release from single cell was demonstrated. Quantitative measurements of both the amount of insulin released from and the amount remaining in the cell ({beta}TC3) were achieved simultaneously. Secretion of catecholamines (norepinephrine (NE) and epinephrine (E)) from individual bovine adrenal chromaffin cells was determined using the on-column CE-LINF. Direct visualization of the secretion process of individual bovine adrenal chromaffin cells was achieved by LINF imaging microscopy with high temporal and spatial resolution. The secretion of serotonin from individual leech Retzius neurons was directly characterized by LINF microscopy with high spatial resolution.

  4. Separation of DNA restriction fragments using capillary electrophoresis

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, K.C.; Whang, Chenwen; Yeung, E.S. )

    1993-01-01

    Gel-filled and non-gel' capillary electrophoresis (CE) have been applied to the separation of various DNA restriction fragments. 30% HydroLink gel, polymerized inside a 75[mu]m i.d. fused-silica capillary, was used in the gel-filled CE. Primary results show that the HL capillary gel was simple to cast, and its stability was reasonably good under the running conditions. In the non-gel CE experiment, a buffer containing the sieving additive hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose was used to affect the size-dependent separation. The use of GC capillaries eliminates the inconvenience of separately coating the capillary walls for efficient non-gel separation. Finally, the authors demonstrate that it is feasible to detect native DNA fragments using indirect fluorometry in non-gel capillary electrophoresis.

  5. Sub-minute method for simultaneous determination of aspartame, cyclamate, acesulfame-K and saccharin in food and pharmaceutical samples by capillary zone electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Vistuba, Jacqueline Pereira; Dolzan, Maressa Danielli; Vitali, Luciano; de Oliveira, Marcone Augusto Leal; Micke, Gustavo Amadeu

    2015-05-29

    This paper reports the development of a sub-minute separation method by capillary zone electrophoresis for the determination of aspartame, cyclamate, acesulfame-K and saccharin in food products and pharmaceutical samples. Separations were performed in a fused uncoated silica capillary with UV detection at 220nm. Samples and standards were injected hydrodynamically using the short-end injection procedure. The electrophoretic system was operated under constant voltage of -30kV. The background electrolyte was composed of 45mmolL(-1) 2-amino-2-(hydroxymethyl)-1,3-propanediol and 15mmolL(-1) benzoic acid at pH 8.4. The separation time for all analytes was less than 1min. Evaluation of analytical parameters of the method showed good linearity (r(2)>0.9972), limit of detection of 3.3-6.4mgL(-1), intermediate precision better than 9.75% (peak area of sample) and recovery in the range of 91-117%. PMID:25895731

  6. A fast and sensitive method for the determination of nitrite in human plasma by capillary electrophoresis with fluorescence detection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xu; Adams, Erwin; Van Schepdael, Ann

    2012-08-15

    Analysis of nitrite, the indicator of nitric oxide (NO) generation in vivo, provides a useful tool to study NO synthesis in vivo. A fast and sensitive fluorometric CE method was developed for determination of nitrite in human plasma through its derivatization with 2,3-diaminonaphthalene (DAN). Nitrite in human plasma was easily reacted with DAN under acid conditions to yield the highly fluorescent 2,3-naphthotriazole (NAT). Fluorescence detection was optimized to achieve subnanomolar detection which allows a direct analysis of plasma samples unlike most CE-UV methods using sample stacking. Acetonitrile was used to remove the protein. Short-end injection and a high voltage (-30 kV) were used to shorten the analysis time. The good separation was achieved with 20 mM borate buffer at pH 9.23. The separation of NAT was obtained within 1.4 min. The deproteinized plasma sample was injected hydrodynamically for 5s at -50 mbar into a 60 cm × 75 μm internal diameter uncoated fused-silica capillary. Excitation wavelength was selected with a broad-band filter (240-400 nm), and the emitted light was measured at 418 nm by the use of a cutoff filter. A good linearity (R(2)=0.9975) was obtained in the range from 2 to 500 nM. The detection limit of nitrite was 0.6 nM in original plasma samples, which is 750 times lower than our previous CE-UV method. The developed fluorometric CE method offers the advantages of more simple system and lower cost compared with the current fluorometric HPLC methods without losing sensitivity. The detected mean nitrite concentration in human plasma by this method was consistent with the most frequently reported values. PMID:22841058

  7. Integration of amperometric sensors for microchip capillary electrophoresis application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dicorato, F.; Moore, E.; Glennon, J.

    2011-08-01

    Capillary electrophoresis is a technique for the separation and analysis of chemical compounds. Techniques adopted from the microchip technology knowledge have led to recent developments of electrophoresis system with integration on microchip. Microchip Capillary Electrophoresis (μCE) systems offer a series of advantages as easy integration for Lab-on-a-chip applications, high performance, portability, speed, minimal solvent and sample requirements. A new technological challenge aims at the development of an economic modular microchip capillary electrophoresis systems using separable and independent units concerning the sensor. In this project we worked on the development of an interchangeable amperometric sensor in order to provide a solution to such electrode passivation and facilitating the use of tailored sensors for specific analyte detection besides. Fluidic chips have been machined from cyclic olefin polymer pallets (Zeonor®) using a micro-injection molding machine.

  8. Characterization of copolymer latexes by capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Anik, Nadia; Airiau, Marc; Labeau, Marie-Pierre; Bzducha, Wojciech; Cottet, Hervé

    2010-02-01

    Latexes are widely used for industrial applications, including decorative paints, binders for the papermaking industry, and drilling fluids for oil-field applications. In this work, the interest of capillary zone electrophoresis (CE) for the characterization of hydrophobic block copolymer latexes obtained by the conventional emulsion polymerization technique consisting of a core of polystyrene (PS) surrounded by a layer of poly(ethyl acrylate) (PEA) has been investigated. The PEA part of the copolymer can be partially hydrolyzed in poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) leading to PS-PEA-AA water-soluble amphiphilic copolymer having high viscosifying properties. The main purpose of this work was to evaluate the potential of CE for the characterization of the latexes at the different stages of the synthesis (PS core, PS-PEA diblock latex, and hydrolyzed PS-PEA-AA gel). The main analytical issues were to state (i) if there was free PS or PEA homopolymer latexes in the PS-PEA latex sample and (ii) if there was free PS, PEA, PS-PEA latexes, or free PAA chains in the PS-PEA-AA gel. Within this scope, this work describes the optimization of the selectivity of the separation between the different species (PS, PEA particles in the not hydrolyzed diblock latex and PS, PEA, PS-PEA particles as well as the polymer PAA chains in the PS-PEA-AA diblock gel sample obtained by latter latex hydrolysis). For that purpose, several experimental parameters were investigated such as pH and ionic strength of the background electrolyte (BGE) or the concentration of neutral surfactant added in the BGE. A challenging issue was to overcome the high viscosity of the PS-PEA-AA gel. This was resolved by the addition of 10 mM neutral surfactant in the gel sample and in the BGE. Finally, it is demonstrated that, within the detection limits, CE is a suitable analytical tool for controlling and monitoring the syntheses of these latexes and for intrinsically characterizing the distribution in charge density of

  9. Recent Developments in Instrumentation for Capillary Electrophoresis and Microchip-Capillary Electrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Felhofer, Jessica L.; Blanes, Lucas; Garcia, Carlos D.

    2010-01-01

    Over the last years there has been an explosion in the number of developments and applications of capillary electrophoresis (CE) and microchip-CE. In part, this growth has been the direct consequence of recent developments in instrumentation associated with CE. This review, which is focused on contributions published in the last five years, is intended to complement the papers presented in this special issue dedicated to Instrumentation and to provide an overview on the general trend and some of the most remarkable developments published in the areas of high voltage power supplies, detectors, auxiliary components, and compact systems. It also includes few examples of alternative uses of and modifications to traditional CE instruments. PMID:20665910

  10. Stability-indicating capillary zone electrophoresis method for the assessment of recombinant human interleukin-11 and its correlation with reversed-phase liquid chromatography and biossay.

    PubMed

    Souto, Ricardo Bizogne; Stamm, Fernanda Pavani; Schumacher, Jéssica Barbieri; Cardoso, Clovis Dervil Appratto; de Freitas, Guilherme Weber; Perobelli, Rafaela Ferreira; Dalmora, Sérgio Luiz

    2014-06-01

    A stability-indicating capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) method was validated for the analysis of recombinant human interleukin-11(rhIL-11) using rupatadine fumarate, as internal standard (IS). A fused-silica capillary, (50 µm i.d.; effective length, 40 cm) was used at 25°C; the applied voltage was 20 kV. The background electrolyte solution consisted of 50 mmol L(-1) sodium dihydrogen phosphate solution at pH 3.0. Injections were performed using a pressure mode at 50 mbar for 45 s, with detection by photodiode array detector set at 196 nm. Specificity and stability-indicating capability were established in degradation studies, which also showed that there was no interference of the excipients. The method was linear over the concentration range of 1.0-300 µg mL(-1) (r(2)=0.9992) and the limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantitation (LOQ) were 0.2 µg mL(-1) and 1.0 µg mL(-1), respectively. The accuracy was 100.4% with bias lower than 1.1%. Moreover, the in vitro cytotoxicity test of the degraded products showed significant differences (p<0.05). The method was applied for the content/potency assessment of rhIL-11 in biopharmaceutical formulations, and the results were correlated to those of a validated reversed-phase LC method (RP-LC) and an TF-1 cell culture assay, showing non-significant differences (p>0.05). In addition the CZE and RP-LC methods were applied for the analysis of rhIL-11 in human plasma. Therefore, the proposed alternative method can be applied to monitor stability, to assure the batch-to-batch consistency and quality of the bulk and finished biotechnology-derived medicine. PMID:24725881

  11. Simple and robust monitoring of ethanol fermentations by capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Oliver, James D; Sutton, Adam T; Karu, Naama; Phillips, Michael; Markham, Julie; Peiris, Paul; Hilder, Emily F; Castignolles, Patrice

    2015-01-01

    Free-solution capillary electrophoresis (CE), or capillary zone electrophoresis, with direct UV detection was used for the first time for the determination of mono- and disaccharides, sugar alcohols, and ethanol in fermentation broths. Sample preparation proved to be minimal: no derivatization or specific sample purification was needed. The CE conditions can be adapted to the type of fermentation by simply altering the background electrolyte (BGE). KOH (130 mM) or NaOH (130 mM) as the BGE led to the fastest analysis time when monitoring simple fermentations. A mixture of 65 mM NaOH and 65 mM LiOH led to a 19% improvement in resolution for a complex mixture of carbohydrates. Quantification of a simple carbohydrate fermentation by CE showed values in close agreement with that of high-performance anion exchange chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) on a cation exchange resin. For complex fermentations, quantification of carbohydrates by HPLC and CE led to similar results, whereas CE requires an injection volume of only 10-20 nL. Analysis of an ethanol fermentation of hydrolyzed plant fiber demonstrated the robustness of the separation and detection of carbohydrates, as well as ethanol. Ethanol determination is achieved by coupling the CE method to pressure mobilization, using the same instrument and the same sample. PMID:25040822

  12. Fluorescence detection for gel and capillary electrophoresis

    SciTech Connect

    Hogan, B.

    1992-07-21

    First, an indirect fluorescence detection system for the separation of proteins via gel electrophoresis. Quantities as low as 50 nanograms of bovine serum albumin and soybean trypsin inhibitor are separated and detected visually without the need for staining of the analytes. This is very similar to levels of protein commonly separated with gel electrophoresis.

  13. Fast and sensitive method to determine parabens by capillary electrophoresis using automatic reverse electrode polarity stacking mode: application to hair samples.

    PubMed

    Sako, Alysson V F; Dolzan, Maressa D; Micke, Gustavo Amadeu

    2015-09-01

    This paper describes a fast and sensitive method for the determination of methyl, ethyl, propyl, and butylparaben in hair samples by capillary electrophoresis using automatic reverse electrode polarity stacking mode. In the proposed method, solutions are injected using the flush command of the analysis software (940 mbar) and the polarity switching is carried out automatically immediately after the sample injection. The advantages compared with conventional stacking methods are the increased analytical frequency, repeatability, and inter-day precision. All analyses were performed in a fused silica capillary (50 cm, 41.5 cm in effective length, 50 μm i.d.), and the background electrolyte was composed of 20 mmol L(-1) sodium tetraborate in 10 % of methanol, pH 9.3. For the reverse polarity, -25 kV/35 s was applied followed by application of +30 kV for the electrophoretic run. Temperature was set at 20 °C, and all analytes were monitored at 297 nm. The method showed acceptable linearity (r (2) > 0.997) in the studied range of 0.1-5.0 mg L(-1), limits of detection below 0.017 mg L(-1), and inter-day, intra-day, and instrumental precision better than 6.2, 3.6, and 4.6 %, respectively. Considering parabens is widely used as a preservative in many products and the reported possibility of damage to the hair and also to human health caused by these compounds, the proposed method was applied to evaluate the adsorption of parabens in hair samples. The results indicate that there is a greater adsorption of methylparaben compared to the other parabens tested and also dyed hairs had a greater adsorption capacity for parabens than natural hairs. PMID:26168974

  14. Enantiomeric resolution of multiple chiral centres racemates by capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Ali, Imran; Suhail, Mohd; Al-Othman, Zeid A; Alwarthan, Abdulrahman; Aboul-Enein, Hassan Y

    2016-05-01

    Enantiomeric resolution of multichiral centre racemates is an important area as some multichiral centre racemates are of great medicinal importance. However, enantioseparation of such types of racemates is a challenging task. Amongst many analytical techniques, capillary electrophoresis is a powerful technique and may be used to resolve such racemates. Only few papers are available describing enantiomeric resolution of such racemates. Therefore, efforts have been made to describe the enantiomeric resolution of multichiral centre racemates by capillary electrophoresis. This article discusses the importance of multichiral racemates, the need for capillary electrophoresis in enantiomeric resolution and chiral resolution of multichiral centre racemates using various chiral selectors. Further, attempts have been made to discuss the future challenges and prospects of enantiomeric resolution of multichiral racemates. The various chiral selectors used for the purpose are chiral crown ether, cyclodextrins, polysaccharides, macrocyclic glycopeptide antibiotics and ligand exchange. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26840015

  15. Use of capillary electrophoresis and indirect detection to quantitate in-capillary enzyme-catalyzed microreactions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y; el-Maghrabi, M R; Gomez, F A

    2000-04-01

    The use of capillary electrophoresis and indirect detection to quantify reaction products of in-capillary enzyme-catalyzed microreactions is described. Migrating in a capillary under conditions of electrophoresis, plugs of enzyme and substrate are injected and allowed to react. Capillary electrophoresis is subsequently used to measure the extent of reaction. This technique is demonstrated using two model systems: the conversion of fructose-1,6-bisphosphate to dihydroxyacetone phosphate and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate by fructose-biphosphate aldolase (ALD, EC 4.1.2.13), and the conversion of fructose-1,6-bisphosphate to fructose-6-phosphate by fructose-1,6-bisphospatase (FBPase, EC 3.1.3.11). These procedures expand the use of the capillary as a microreactor and offer a new approach to analyzing enzyme-mediated reactions. PMID:10892022

  16. Development of a method for the analysis of drugs of abuse in vitreous humor by capillary electrophoresis with diode array detection (CE-DAD).

    PubMed

    Costa, Jose Luiz; Morrone, Andre Ribeiro; Resende, Rodrigo Ribeiro; Chasin, Alice Aparecida da Matta; Tavares, Marina Franco Maggi

    2014-01-15

    This work presents the development of an analytical method based on capillary electrophoresis with diode array detection for the analysis of drugs of abuse and biotransformation products in vitreous humor. Composition of the background electrolyte, implementation of an online pre-concentration strategy and sample preparation procedures were objects of study. The complete electrophoretic separation of 12 analytes (amphetamine, methamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), 3,4-methylenedioxyethylamphetamine (MDEA), ketamine, cocaine, cocaethylene, lidocaine, morphine, 6-monoacetylmorphine and heroin) and the internal standard N-methyl-1-(3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl)-2-butamine (MBDB) was obtained within 13min of run. The method was validated presenting good linearity (r(2)>0.99), recovery ≥90%, precision better than 12% RSD and acceptable accuracy in the range of 86-118% at three concentration levels (50, 100 and 500ng/mL). LODs and LOQs in the order of 1-5ng/mL and 5-10ng/mL, respectively, were obtained. After validation, the method was applied to eighty-seven vitreous humor samples and the results were compared to those obtained by a liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) screening method, routinely used by the forensic toxicology laboratory of the Sao Paulo State Police, Brazil. Cocaine was detected in 7.1%, cocaethylene in 3.6%, lidocaine in 2.4% and ketamine in 1.2% of the total number of analyzed samples. PMID:24325829

  17. A rapid and simple capillary electrophoresis method for indirect determination of the biocide 2,2-dibromo-3-nitrilo-propionamide (DBNPA) in cooling waters.

    PubMed

    Shiroma, Letícia S; Marques, Thaís T; Jesus, Dosil P

    2015-01-01

    A capillary zone electrophoresis (CE) method was developed for the determination of the biocide 2,2-dibromo-3-nitrilo-propionamide (DBNPA) in water used in cooling systems. The biocide is indirectly determined by CE measurement of the concentration of bromide ions produced by the reaction between the DBNPA and bisulfite. The relationship between the bromide peak areas and the DBNPA concentrations showed a good linearity and a coefficient of determination (R²) of 0.9997 in the evaluated concentration range of 0-75 μmol L⁻¹. The detection and quantification limits for DBNPA were 0.23 and 0.75 μmol L⁻¹, respectively. The proposed CE method was successfully applied for the analysis of samples of tap water and cooling water spiked with DBNPA. The intra-day and inter-day (intermediary) precisions were lower than 2.8 and 6.2%, respectively. The DBNPA concentrations measured by the CE method were compared to the values obtained by a spectrophotometric method and were found to agree well. PMID:25714644

  18. Capillary zone electrophoresis method for the separation of glucosidase inhibitors in extracts of Salacia reticulata, a plant used in ayurvedic treatments of type-2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Zandberg, Wesley F; Mohan, Sankar; Kumarasamy, Jayakanthan; Pinto, B Mario

    2010-06-15

    A simple and reproducible capillary-zone electrophoresis (CZE) method was developed for the separation and quantitation of sulfonium-ion-containing compounds isolated from plants of the Salacia genus which are traditionally used in Ayurvedic medicine for the treatment of type-2 diabetes. The method sufficiently resolved four different compounds with confirmed glucosidase inhibitory activity, namely, salacinol, ponkoranol, kotalanol and de-O-sulfonated kotalanol. Separation could be achieved in less than 9 min, and calibration curves showed good linearity. Detection limits were determined to be in the low mug/mL range. This method was used to demonstrate that de-O-sulfonated kotalanol isolated from natural sources has identical ionic mobility to a synthetic standard. Furthermore, new extraction conditions were developed by which the zwitterionic compounds (salacinol, ponkoranol, and kotalanol) could be separated from de-O-sulfonated kotalanol in a single solid-phase extraction (SPE) procedure. The extraction gave reproducibly high recoveries and was used to process four commercial Salacia extracts for CZE analysis to reduce the complexity of resulting electropherograms and to facilitate the detection of the four inhibitors in question. De-O-sulfonated kotalanol was detected in two of four Salacia samples while ponkoranol was present in all four. A comparison of all samples tested demonstrated that they had remarkably similar patterns of peaks, suggesting that this CZE method may be useful in the chemical fingerprinting of Salacia-containing products. PMID:20491445

  19. Suppressed conductometric capillary electrophoresis separation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Dasgupta, P.K.; Bao, L. )

    1993-04-15

    A tubular cation-exchange membrane is installed at the end of a 60-cm-long 75-[mu]m-bore fused-silica capillary. A static dilute acid regenerant solution surrounds the membranes that functions as a suppressor. With positive high voltage applied to the capillary inlet and the regenerant solution grounded, effective suppression of electrolytes such as solutions of alkalic metal borate, glycinate, or cyanide is observed. Electroosmotic flow carries the capillary effluent past the suppressor into a conductivity detection cell constituted by two platinum wires inserted through the wall of a poly(vinyl chloride) capillary. The system provides detection limits in the 10--20 [mu]g/L range for a variety of anions; a typical separation requires 15 min. Applicability to a variety of real samples is demonstrated. 26 refs., 10 figs.

  20. Construction and evaluation of a capillary electrophoresis DNA sequencer

    SciTech Connect

    Drossman, H.

    1992-01-01

    This dissertation describes the construction and evaluation of an automated DNA sequencer using capillary gel electrophoresis (CGE) for separating single-strand DNA fragments and a fluorescence detector for analyzing labeled fragments. Theories governing the electrophoretic separation of DNA, dispersion processes in CGE and high sensitivity fluorescence detection are reviewed. The CGE DNA sequencer is compared with current DNA sequencing instruments and with projections of future DNA sequencing instruments. Parameters affecting the limits of detection, DNA sample loading, sample mobility and resolution are evaluated. Predictions for the future of capillary electrophoresis for large-scale sequencing projects are presented.

  1. Capillary electrophoresis coupled with inductively coupled mass spectrometry as an alternative to cloud point extraction based methods for rapid quantification of silver ions and surface coated silver nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Haiou; Mudalige, Thilak K.; Linder, Sean W.

    2016-01-01

    Speciation and accurate quantification of ionic silver and metallic silver nanoparticles are critical to investigate silver toxicity and to determine the shelf-life of products that contain nano silver under various storage conditions. We developed a rapid method for quantification of silver ions and silver nanoparticles using capillary electrophoresis (CE) interfaced with inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS). The addition of 2-mercaptopropionylglycine (tiopronin) to the background electrolyte was used to facilitate the chromatographic separation of ionic silver and maintain the oxidation state of silver. The obtained limits of detection were 0.05 μg kg−1 of silver nanoparticles and 0.03 μg kg−1 of ionic silver. Nanoparticles of varied sizes (10–110 nm) with different surface coating, including citrate acid, lipoic acid, polyvinylpyrrolidone and bovine serum albumin (BSA) were successfully analyzed. Particularly good recoveries (>93%) were obtained for both ionic silver and silver nanoparticle in the presence of excess amount of BSA. The method was further tested with six commercially available dietary supplements which varied in concentration and matrix components. The summed values of silver ions and silver nanoparticles correlated well with the total silver concentration determined by ICPMS after acid digestion. This method can serve as an alternative to cloud point extraction technique when the extraction efficiency for protein coated nanoparticles is low. PMID:26724893

  2. Newborn screening of inborn errors of metabolism by capillary electrophoresis-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry: a second-tier method with improved specificity and sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Chalcraft, Kenneth R; Britz-McKibbin, Philip

    2009-01-01

    The advent of electrospray-ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) has given rise to expanded newborn screening programs for the early detection of inborn errors of metabolism (IEM). Despite the benefit of high-throughput screening for disease prognosis, conventional ESI-MS methods are limited by inadequate specificity, complicated sample handling, and low positive predictive outcome that can contribute to a high rate of false-positives. Herein, we report a robust strategy for neonatal screening based on capillary electrophoresis-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (CE-ESI-MS) that offers a convenient platform for the direct analysis of amino acids, acylcarnitines, and their stereoisomers from dried blood spot (DBS) extracts without chemical derivatization. On-line sample preconcentration with desalting by CE-ESI-MS allowed for improved concentration sensitivity when detecting poorly responsive metabolites in complex biological samples without ionization suppression or isomeric/isobaric interferences. Method validation demonstrated that accurate yet precise quantification can be achieved for 20 different amino acid and acylcarnitine biomarkers associated with IEMs when using a single non-deuterated internal standard. CE-ESI-MS represents a promising second-tier method in newborn screening programs that is compatible with ESI-MS/MS technology in cases when improved specificity and sensitivity is warranted for diagnosis confirmation and subsequent monitoring. PMID:19117458

  3. Experimental design-based development and single laboratory validation of a capillary zone electrophoresis method for the determination of the artificial sweetener sucralose in food matrices.

    PubMed

    McCourt, Josephine; Stroka, Joerg; Anklam, Elke

    2005-07-01

    A capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) method, optimised chemometrically, underwent a complete in-house validation protocol for the qualification and quantification of sucralose in various foodstuffs. Separation from matrix components was obtained in a dinitrobenzoic acid (3 mM)/sodium hydroxide (20 mM) background electrolyte with a pH of 12.1, a potential of 0.11 kV cm(-1) and a temperature of 22 degrees C. Detection was achieved at 238 nm by indirect UV. Screening, optimisation and robustness testing were all carried out with the aid of experimental design. Using standard addition calibration, the CZE method has been applied to still, carbonated and alcoholic beverages, yoghurts and hard-boiled candy. The method allows the detection of sucralose at >30 mg kg(-1), with a linearity range of 50-500 mg kg(-1), making it suitable for implementation of the recently amended "Sweeteners for use in foodstuffs" Directive (European Parliament and Council (2003) Off J L237:3-12), which set maximum usable doses of sucralose for many foodstuffs, most ranging from 200 mg kg(-1) to 450 mg kg(-1). PMID:15906005

  4. Development and Validation of a Micellar Capillary Electrophoresis Method for Determination of IFNβ-1b in Lyophilized Formulation of a Biosimilar Product.

    PubMed

    Dadgarnejad, Manuchehr; Rastegar, Hosein; Ilka, Hooshmand; Shekarchi, Maryam; Adib, Nooshin; Alebouyeh, Mahmood; Keypour, Nadia; Shoeibi, Shahram; Kobarfard, Farzad; Fazeli, Mohammad Reza

    2015-01-01

    Human interferons (IFNs) are key cytokines secreted by immune system. They have several effects such as antiviral and anti tumors activity, activating immune cells and healing of multiple sclerosis. The type IFNs present in humans are α ,β and Υ. IFN β is a polypeptide, normally produced by fibroblasts and seems to be more species-specific than IFN. Structural properties of IFNs are important for their biologic effects. There are a few analytical techniques for separation, identification and determination of IFNs in its formulations such as mass spectroscopy, RP-HPLC and capillary electrophoresis (CE). In this study we used Micellar Electrokinetic Chromatography (MEKC) as a unique mode of CE because of its capability to separate neutral as well as charged solutes. We used sodium tetraborate (Borax) as buffer without any modifier and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as surfactant. The optimum MECK running buffer consisted of Borate 50 Mm; SDS 20 mM pH =9.6. The validated method was used for determination of the IFN β-1b formulation which is manufactured in Iran. From 9 collected different batches, all of them had acceptable potency as claimed on their label with average 102.25 ±10.030 %. This is the first time that a MEKC method is introduced for quantification of IFN β-1b in its pharmaceutical dosage forms. The method is reliable safe, rapid and accurate. PMID:26330863

  5. Capillary electrophoresis coupled with inductively coupled mass spectrometry as an alternative to cloud point extraction based methods for rapid quantification of silver ions and surface coated silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Qu, Haiou; Mudalige, Thilak K; Linder, Sean W

    2016-01-15

    Speciation and accurate quantification of ionic silver and metallic silver nanoparticles are critical to investigate silver toxicity and to determine the shelf-life of products that contain nano silver under various storage conditions. We developed a rapid method for quantification of silver ions and silver nanoparticles using capillary electrophoresis (CE) interfaced with inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS). The addition of 2-mercaptopropionylglycine (tiopronin) to the background electrolyte was used to facilitate the chromatographic separation of ionic silver and maintain the oxidation state of silver. The obtained limits of detection were 0.05 μg kg(-1) of silver nanoparticles and 0.03 μg kg(-1) of ionic silver. Nanoparticles of varied sizes (10-110 nm) with different surface coating, including citrate acid, lipoic acid, polyvinylpyrrolidone and bovine serum albumin (BSA) were successfully analyzed. Particularly good recoveries (>93%) were obtained for both ionic silver and silver nanoparticle in the presence of excess amount of BSA. The method was further tested with six commercially available dietary supplements which varied in concentration and matrix components. The summed values of silver ions and silver nanoparticles correlated well with the total silver concentration determined by ICPMS after acid digestion. This method can serve as an alternative to cloud point extraction technique when the extraction efficiency for protein coated nanoparticles is low. PMID:26724893

  6. Development and Validation of a Micellar Capillary Electrophoresis Method for Determination of IFNβ-1b in Lyophilized Formulation of a Biosimilar Product

    PubMed Central

    Dadgarnejad, Manuchehr; Rastegar, Hosein; Ilka, Hooshmand; Shekarchi, Maryam; Adib, Nooshin; Alebouyeh, Mahmood; Keypour, Nadia; Shoeibi, Shahram; Kobarfard, Farzad; Fazeli, Mohammad Reza

    2015-01-01

    Human interferons (IFNs) are key cytokines secreted by immune system. They have several effects such as antiviral and anti tumors activity, activating immune cells and healing of multiple sclerosis. The type IFNs present in humans are α ,β and Υ. IFN β is a polypeptide, normally produced by fibroblasts and seems to be more species-specific than IFN. Structural properties of IFNs are important for their biologic effects. There are a few analytical techniques for separation, identification and determination of IFNs in its formulations such as mass spectroscopy, RP-HPLC and capillary electrophoresis (CE). In this study we used Micellar Electrokinetic Chromatography (MEKC) as a unique mode of CE because of its capability to separate neutral as well as charged solutes. We used sodium tetraborate (Borax) as buffer without any modifier and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as surfactant. The optimum MECK running buffer consisted of Borate 50 Mm; SDS 20 mM pH =9.6. The validated method was used for determination of the IFN β-1b formulation which is manufactured in Iran. From 9 collected different batches, all of them had acceptable potency as claimed on their label with average 102.25 ±10.030 %. This is the first time that a MEKC method is introduced for quantification of IFN β-1b in its pharmaceutical dosage forms. The method is reliable safe, rapid and accurate. PMID:26330863

  7. Optimized photonic crystal fibers supporting efficient capillary electrophoresis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calcerrada, M.; García-Ruiz, C.; Roy, P.; Gonzalez-Herraez, M.

    2013-05-01

    In this paper we present preliminary results on the use of Photonic Crystal Fibers (PCFs) in a conventional capillary electrophoresis system to separate and detect fluorescent species. PCFs show interesting advantages over conventional capillaries for this application, including larger surface-to-volume ratio and potential for higher resolution with comparable sensitivity. Our results illustrate some of these advantages, and we point out the need for stringent tolerances in the fabrication of specific PCFs for this application.

  8. Protein Separation by Capillary Gel Electrophoresis: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Zaifang; Lu, Joann J.; Liu, Shaorong

    2011-01-01

    Capillary gel electrophoresis (CGE) has been used for protein separation for more than two decades. Due to the technology advancement, current CGE methods are becoming more and more robust and reliable for protein analysis, and some of the methods have been routinely used for the analysis of protein-based pharmaceuticals and quality controls. In light of this progress, we survey 147 papers related to CGE separations of proteins and present an overview of this technology. We first introduce briefly the early development of CGE. We then review the methodology, in which we specifically describe the matrices, coatings, and detection strategies used in CGE. CGE using microfabricated channels and incorporation of CGE with two-dimensional protein separations are also discussed in this section. We finally present a few representative applications of CGE for separating proteins in real-world samples. PMID:22122927

  9. Nanomaterial surface chemistry design for advancements in capillary electrophoresis modes.

    PubMed

    Ivanov, Michael R; Haes, Amanda J

    2011-01-01

    Tailored surface chemistry impacts nanomaterial function and stability in applications including in various capillary electrophoresis (CE) modes. Although colloidal nanoparticles were first integrated as colouring agents in artwork and pottery over 2000 years ago, recent developments in nanoparticle synthesis and surface modification increased their usefulness and incorporation in separation science. For instance, precise control of surface chemistry is critically important in modulating nanoparticle functionality and stability in dynamic environments. Herein, recent developments in nanomaterial pseudostationary and stationary phases will be summarized. First, nanomaterial core and surface chemistry compositions will be classified. Next, characterization methods will be described and related to nanomaterial function in various CE modes. Third, methods and implications of nanomaterial incorporation into CE will be discussed. Finally, nanoparticle-specific mechanisms likely involved in CE will be related to nanomaterial surface chemistry. Better understanding of surface chemistry will improve nanoparticle design for the integration into separation techniques. PMID:20967383

  10. Capillary zone electrophoresis and packed capillary column liquid chromatographic analysis of recombinant human interleukin-4.

    PubMed

    Bullock, J

    1993-02-24

    Capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) and packed capillary column liquid chromatography (micro-LC) have been applied to the analysis of the recombinant human protein interleukin-4 (rhIL-4). Separations for both the parent protein and its enzymatic digest were developed for the purpose of characterizing protein purity and identity. CZE separations of the intact protein were investigated over the pH range of 4.5 to 8.0 using uncoated fused silica capillaries. Gradient reversed-phase micro-LC was performed using 0.32 mm packed capillary columns at flow-rates of 5-6 microliters/min. Emphasis was placed on the ability of these methods to separate close structural variants and degradation products of the protein. Peptide mapping of the tryptic digest of rhIL-4 using a combination of CZE and micro-LC provided complimentary high resolution methods for establishing protein identity. Reproducible separations were achieved using sub-picomol amounts of sample. The advantages and problems encountered with these two techniques for characterizing rhIL-4 were assessed. PMID:8450025

  11. Analysis of Anions in Ambient Aerosols by Microchip Capillary Electrophoresis

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yan; MacDonald, David A.; Yu, Xiao-Ying; Hering, Susanne V.; Collett, Jeffrey L.; Henry, Charles S.

    2006-10-01

    We describe a microchip capillary electrophoresis method for the analysis of nitrate and sulfate in ambient aerosols. Investigating the chemical composition of ambient aerosol particles is essential for understanding their sources and effects. Significant progress has been made towards developing mass spectrometry-based instrumentation for rapid qualitative analysis of aerosols. Alternative methods for rapid quantification of selected high abundance compounds are needed to augment the capacity for widespread routine analysis. Such methods could provide much higher temporal and spatial resolution than can be achieved currently. Inorganic anions comprise a large percentage of particulate mass with nitrate and sulfate among the most abundant species. While ion chromatography has proven very useful for analyzing extracts of time-integrated ambient aerosol samples collected on filters and for semi-continuous, on-line particle composition measurements, there is a growing need for development of new compact, inexpensive approaches to routine on-line aerosol ion analysis for deployment in spatially dense, atmospheric measurement networks. Microchip capillary electrophoresis provides the necessary speed and portability to address this need. In this report, on-column contact conductivity detection is used with hydrodynamic injection to create a simple microchip instrument for analysis of nitrate and sulfate. On-column contact conductivity detection was achieved using a Pd decoupler placed upstream from the working electrodes. Microchips containing two Au or Pd working electrodes showed a good linear range (5-500 µM) and low limits-of-detection for sulfate and nitrate with Au providing the lowest detection limits (1 µM) for both ions. The completed microchip system was used to analyze ambient aerosol filter samples. Nitrate and sulfate concentrations measured by the microchip matched the concentrations measured by ion chromatography.

  12. Separation of ions in acidic solution by capillary electrophoresis

    SciTech Connect

    Thornton, M.

    1997-10-08

    Capillary electrophoresis (CE) is an effective method for separating ionic species according to differences in their electrophoretic mobilities. CE separations of amino acids by direct detection are difficult due to their similar electrophoretic mobilities and low absorbances. However, native amino acids can be separated by CE as cations at a low pH by adding an alkanesulfonic acid to the electrolyte carrier which imparts selectivity to the system. Derivatization is unnecessary when direct UV detection is used at 185 nm. Simultaneous speciation of metal cations such as vanadium (IV) and vanadium (V) can easily be performed without complexation prior to analysis. An indirect UV detection scheme for acidic conditions was also developed using guanidine as the background carrier electrolyte (BCE) for the indirect detection of metal cations. Three chapters have been removed for separate processing. This report contains introductory material, references, and general conclusions. 80 refs.

  13. Comparative Study of Three Methods for Affinity Measurements: Capillary Electrophoresis Coupled with UV Detection and Mass Spectrometry, and Direct Infusion Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mironov, Gleb G.; Logie, Jennifer; Okhonin, Victor; Renaud, Justin B.; Mayer, Paul M.; Berezovski, Maxim V.

    2012-07-01

    We present affinity capillary electrophoresis and mass spectrometry (ACE-MS) as a comprehensive separation technique for label-free solution-based affinity analysis. The application of ACE-MS for measuring affinity constants between eight small molecule drugs [ibuprofen, s-flurbiprofen, diclofenac, phenylbutazone, naproxen, folic acid, resveratrol, and 4,4'-(propane-1,3-diyl) dibenzoic acid] and β-cyclodextrin is described. We couple on-line ACE with MS to combine the separation and kinetic capability of ACE together with the molecular weight and structural elucidation of MS in one system. To understand the full potential of ACE-MS, we compare it with two other methods: Direct infusion mass spectrometry (DIMS) and ACE with UV detection (ACE-UV). After the evaluation, DIMS provides less reliable equilibrium dissociation constants than separation-based ACE-UV and ACE-MS, and cannot be used solely for the study of noncovalent interactions. ACE-MS determines apparent dissociation constants for all reacting small molecules in a mixture, even in cases when drugs overlap with each other during separation. The ability of ACE-MS to interact, separate, and rapidly scan through m/z can facilitate the simultaneous affinity analysis of multiple interacting pairs, potentially leading to the high-throughput screening of drug candidates.

  14. Xanthine derivatives quantification in serum by capillary zone electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Peris-Vicente, Juan; Rambla-Alegre, Maria; Durgavanshi, Abhilasha; Bose, Devasish; Esteve-Romero, Josep; Marco-Peiró, Sergio

    2014-10-01

    A capillary electrophoresis method was developed to quantify caffeine and theophylline, xanthine derivatives with bronchodilator activity. Buffer concentration, pH and applied voltage were optimized using a central composite design-face centred. Separation conditions were: silica capillary tube, 75 μm (i.d.) and 61 cm (total length); absorbance detection, 280 nm; borate buffer, 20 mM, pH 9.0; applied voltage, 25 kV and 1 psi injection/8 s. Validation was performed in blank serum following the International Conference Harmonization guidelines: resolution (peaks without overlapping), linear range (0.125-50 µg/mL; r(2) > 0.9999), limits of detection and quantification (10; 20 and 33; 66 ppb for caffeine and theophylline, respectively), intra- and inter-day precision (Relative standard deviation lower than 1.9%) and accuracy (98-101%). Migration times were <8 min. This method is simple, specific and suitable and reaches high label claims (98.7-100.4%) in pharmaceutical formulations analysis. Moreover, the method was applied to the monitoring of the analytes in serum of patients. PMID:24220991

  15. Capillary electrophoresis of conidia from cultivated microscopic filamentous fungi.

    PubMed

    Horká, Marie; Růzicka, Filip; Kubesová, Anna; Holá, Veronika; Slais, Karel

    2009-05-15

    In immunocompromised people fungal agents are able to cause serious infections with high mortality rate. An early diagnosis can increase the chances of survival of the affected patients. Simultaneously, the fungi produce toxins and they are frequent cause of allergy. Currently, various methods are used for detection and identification of these pathogens. They use microscopic examination and growth characteristic of the fungi. New methods are based on the analysis of structural elements of the target microorganisms such as proteins, polysaccharides, glycoproteins, nucleic acids, etc. for the construction of antibodies, probes, and primers for detection. The above-mentioned methods are time-consuming and elaborate. Here hydrophobic conidia from the cultures of different strains of the filamentous fungi were focused and separated by capillary zone electrophoresis and capillary isoelectric focusing. The detection was optimized by dynamic modifying of conidia by the nonionogenic tenside on the basis of pyrenebutanoate. Down to 10 labeled conidia of the fungal strains were fluorometrically detected, and isoelectric points of conidia were determined. The observed isoelectric points were compared with those obtained from the separation of the cultured clinical samples, and they were found to be not host-specific. PMID:19385663

  16. An Inexpensive Device for Capillary Electrophoresis with Fluorescence Detection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Greg; Thompson, Jonathan E.; Shurrush, Khriesto

    2006-01-01

    We describe an inexpensive device for performing capillary electrophoresis (CE) separations with fluorescence detection. As a demonstration of the device's utility we have determined the mass of riboflavin in a commercially available dietary supplement. The device allows for separation of riboflavin in [asymptotically equivalent to] 100 s with a…

  17. Capillary electrophoresis application in metal speciation and complexation characterization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Capillary electrophoresis is amenable to the separation of metal ionic species and the characterization of metal-ligand interactions. This book chapter reviews and discusses three representative case studies in applications of CE technology in speciation and reactions of metal with organic molecules...

  18. Determination of preservatives in soft drinks by capillary electrophoresis with ionic liquids as the electrolyte additives.

    PubMed

    Sun, Bingbing; Qi, Li; Wang, Minglin

    2014-08-01

    A capillary electrophoresis method for separating preservatives with various ionic liquids as the electrolyte additives has been developed. The performances for separation of the preservatives using five ionic liquids with different anions and different substituted group numbers on imidazole ring were studied. After investigating the influence of the key parameters on the separation (the concentration of ionic liquids, pH, and the concentration of borax), it has been found that the separation efficiency could be improved obviously using the ionic liquids as the electrolyte additives and tested preservatives were baseline separated. The proposed capillary electrophoresis method exhibited favorable quantitative analysis property of the preservatives with good linearity (r(2) = 0.998), repeatability (relative standard deviations ≤ 3.3%) and high recovery (79.4-117.5%). Furthermore, this feasible and efficient capillary electrophoresis method was applied in detecting the preservatives in soft drinks, introducing a new way for assaying the preservatives in food products. PMID:24910409

  19. Improved single-strand DNA sizing accuracy in capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed Central

    Rosenblum, B B; Oaks, F; Menchen, S; Johnson, B

    1997-01-01

    Interpolation algorithms can be developed to size unknown single-stranded (ss) DNA fragments based on their electrophoretic mobilities, when they are compared with the mobilities of standard fragments of known sizes; however, sequence-specific anomalous electrophoretic migration can affect the accuracy and precision of the called sizes of the fragments. We used the anomalous migration of ssDNA fragments to optimize denaturation conditions for capillary electrophoresis. The capillary electrophoretic system uses a refillable polymer that both coats the capillary wall to suppress electro-osmotic flow and acts as the sieving matrix. The addition of 8 M urea to the polymer solution, as in slab gel electrophoresis, is insufficient to fully denature some anomalously migrating ssDNA fragments in this capillary electrophoresis system. The sizing accuracy of these fragments is significantly improved by the addition of 2-pyrrolidinone, or increased capillary temperature (60 degrees C). the effect of these two denaturing strategies is additive, and the best accuracy and precision in sizing results are obtained with a combination of chemical and thermal denaturation. PMID:9380518

  20. Imaging Catalytic Surfaces by Multiplexed Capillary Electrophoresis With Absorption Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Christodoulou

    2002-08-27

    A new technique for in situ imaging and screening heterogeneous catalysts by using multiplexed capillary electrophoresis with absorption detection was developed. By bundling the inlets of a large number of capillaries, an imaging probe can be created that can be used to sample products formed directly from a catalytic surface with high spatial resolution. In this work, they used surfaces made of platinum, iron or gold wires as model catalytic surfaces for imaging. Various shapes were recorded including squares and triangles. Model catalytic surfaces consisting of both iron and platinum wires in the shape of a cross were also imaged successfully. Each of the two wires produced a different electrochemical product that was separated by capillary electrophoresis. Based on the collected data they were able to distinguish the products from each wire in the reconstructed image.

  1. Acupuncture Sample Injection for Microchip Capillary Electrophoresis and Electrokinetic Chromatography.

    PubMed

    Ha, Ji Won; Hahn, Jong Hoon

    2016-05-01

    A simple nanoliter-scale injection technique was developed for polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic devices to form the well-defined sample plugs in microfluidic channels. Sample injection was achieved by performing acupuncture on a channel with a needle and applying external pressure to a syringe. This technique allowed us to achieve reproducible injection of a 3-nL segment into a microchannel for PDMS microchip-based capillary electrophoresis (CE). Capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) and capillary electrochromatography (CEC) with bead packing were successfully performed by applying a single potential in the most simplified straight channel. The advantages of this acupuncture injection over the electrokinetic injection in microchip CE include capability of minimizing sample loss and voltage control hardware, capability of serial injections of different sample solutions into a same microchannel, capability of injecting sample plugs into any position of a microchannel, independence on sample solutions during the loading step, and ease in making microchips due to the straight channel, etc. PMID:27056036

  2. Novel cationic polyelectrolyte coatings for capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Duša, Filip; Witos, Joanna; Karjalainen, Erno; Viitala, Tapani; Tenhu, Heikki; Wiedmer, Susanne K

    2016-01-01

    The use of bare fused silica capillary in CE can sometimes be inconvenient due to undesirable effects including adsorption of sample or instability of the EOF. This can often be avoided by coating the inner surface of the capillary. In this work, we present and characterize two novel polyelectrolyte coatings (PECs) poly(2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl trimethylammonium iodide) (PMOTAI) and poly(3-methyl-1-(4-vinylbenzyl)-imidazolium chloride) (PIL-1) for CE. The coated capillaries were studied using a series of aqueous buffers of varying pH, ionic strength, and composition. Our results show that the investigated polyelectrolytes are usable as semi-permanent (physically adsorbed) coatings with at least five runs stability before a short coating regeneration is necessary. Both PECs showed a considerably decreased stability at pH 11.0. The EOF was higher using Good's buffers than with sodium phosphate buffer at the same pH and ionic strength. The thickness of the PEC layers studied by quartz crystal microbalance was 0.83 and 0.52 nm for PMOTAI and PIL-1, respectively. The hydrophobicity of the PEC layers was determined by analysis of a homologous series of alkyl benzoates and expressed as the distribution constants. Our result demonstrates that both PECs had comparable hydrophobicity, which enabled separation of compounds with log Po/w > 2. The ability to separate cationic drugs was shown with β-blockers, compounds often misused in doping. Both coatings were also able to separate hydrolysis products of the ionic liquid 1,5-diazabicyclo[4.3.0]non-5-ene acetate at highly acidic conditions, where bare fused silica capillaries failed to accomplish the separation. PMID:26464098

  3. Application of capillary electrophoresis-electrospray ionization mass spectometry in the determination of molecular diversity.

    PubMed Central

    Dunayevskiy, Y M; Vouros, P; Wintner, E A; Shipps, G W; Carell, T; Rebek, J

    1996-01-01

    By means of capillary electrophoresis coupled online to electrospray ionization MS, a library of theoretically 171 disubstituted xanthene derivatives was analyzed. The method allowed the purity and makeup of the library to be determined: 160 of the expected compounds were found to be present, and 12 side-products were also detected in the mixture. Due to the ability of capillary electrophoresis to separate analytes on the basis of charge, most of the xanthene derivatives could be resolved by simple capillary electrophoresis-MS procedures even though 124 of the 171 theoretical compounds were isobaric with at least one other molecule in the mixture. Any remaining unresolved peaks were resolved by MS/MS experiments. The method shows promise for the analysis of small combinatorial libraries with fewer than 1000 components. PMID:8650235

  4. Determination of dissociation constants of cytokinins by capillary zone electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Barták, P; Bednár, P; Stránský, Z; Bocek, P; Vespalec, R

    2000-05-12

    A method for the pKa determination, based on mobility data measured by capillary zone electrophoresis, was applied to cytokinins and their analogs. The combination of charged mobility standards with an uncharged electroosmosis marker, injected in the uncoated capillary simultaneously with the measured substances, allows one to minimize the number of runs, reduce their duration and, in addition, to inform on the run-to-run stability of electroosmosis and on contingent side-effects. pKa values of investigated cytokinins and their analogs ranged from 2.8 to 4.0 at 25 degrees C in the phosphate and acetate buffers of ionic strength 0.015 M. Standard deviations of the constants, obtained by the non-linear fitting of equations for the pKa calculation, were 3-5-times lower than standard deviations from the linear fitting or from the point-to-point calculation utilizing the Hendersson-Haselbalch equation. The equation of Boltzman sigmoid offers two checks on reliability of effective mobilities that serve as the raw data in the pKa calculation. PMID:10866070

  5. Theoretical model of electroosmotic flow for capillary zone electrophoresis

    SciTech Connect

    Tavares, M.F.M.; McGuffin, V.L.

    1995-10-15

    A mathematical model of electroosmotic flow in capillary zone electrophoresis has been developed by taking into consideration of the ion-selective properties of silica surfaces. The electroosmotic velocity was experimentally determined, underboth constant voltage and constant current conditions, by using the resistance-monitoring method. A detailed study of electroosmotic flow characteristics in solutions of singly charged, strong electrolytes (NaCl, LiCl, KCl, NaBr, NaI, NaNO{sub 3}, and NaClO{sub 4}), as well as the phosphate buffer system, revealed a linear correlation between the {Zeta} potential and the logarithm of the cation activity. These results suggest that the capillary surface behaves as an ion-selective electrode. Consequently, the {Zeta} potential can be calculated as a function of the composition and pH of the solution with the corresponding modified Nernst equation for ion-selective electrodes. If the viscosity and dielectric constant of the solution are known, the electroosmotic velocity can then be accurately predicted by means of the Helmholtz-Smoluchowski equation. The proposed model has been successfully applied to phosphate buffer solutions in the range of pH from 4 to 10, containing sodium chloride from 5 to 15 mM, resulting in nearly 3% error in the estimation of the electroosmotic velocity. 53 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. An integrated quality by design and mixture-process variable approach in the development of a capillary electrophoresis method for the analysis of almotriptan and its impurities.

    PubMed

    Orlandini, S; Pasquini, B; Stocchero, M; Pinzauti, S; Furlanetto, S

    2014-04-25

    The development of a capillary electrophoresis (CE) method for the assay of almotriptan (ALM) and its main impurities using an integrated Quality by Design and mixture-process variable (MPV) approach is described. A scouting phase was initially carried out by evaluating different CE operative modes, including the addition of pseudostationary phases and additives to the background electrolyte, in order to approach the analytical target profile. This step made it possible to select normal polarity microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography (MEEKC) as operative mode, which allowed a good selectivity to be achieved in a low analysis time. On the basis of a general Ishikawa diagram for MEEKC methods, a screening asymmetric matrix was applied in order to screen the effects of the process variables (PVs) voltage, temperature, buffer concentration and buffer pH, on critical quality attributes (CQAs), represented by critical separation values and analysis time. A response surface study was then carried out considering all the critical process parameters, including both the PVs and the mixture components (MCs) of the microemulsion (borate buffer, n-heptane as oil, sodium dodecyl sulphate/n-butanol as surfactant/cosurfactant). The values of PVs and MCs were simultaneously changed in a MPV study, making it possible to find significant interaction effects. The design space (DS) was defined as the multidimensional combination of PVs and MCs where the probability for the different considered CQAs to be acceptable was higher than a quality level π=90%. DS was identified by risk of failure maps, which were drawn on the basis of Monte-Carlo simulations, and verification points spanning the design space were tested. Robustness testing of the method, performed by a D-optimal design, and system suitability criteria allowed a control strategy to be designed. The optimized method was validated following ICH Guideline Q2(R1) and was applied to a real sample of ALM coated tablets. PMID

  7. A single-label fluorescent derivatization method for quantitative determination of neurotoxin in vivo by capillary electrophoresis coupled with laser-induced fluorescence detection.

    PubMed

    Chen, Cuiwei; Hu, Yiqin; Shi, Xiaowei; Tao, Chenghao; Zheng, Hongyue; Fei, Weidong; Han, Shunping; Zhu, Jiazhen; Wei, Yinghui; Li, Fanzhu

    2016-07-21

    Neurotoxin (NT), a short-chain α-neurotoxin, is the main neurotoxic protein identified from the venom of Naja naja atra. As an effective drug for the analgesis of advanced cancer patients, NT lasts longer than morphine and does not cause addiction. However, achieving a sensitive and high-resolution measurement of NT is difficult because of the extra-low content of NT in vivo. Therefore, developing a novel method to quantify NT is essential to study its pharmacokinetics in vivo. Although NT contains four primary amine groups that could react with the thiourea in fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC), we developed a simple and reproducible single-label fluorescent derivatization method for NT which is related to the reaction of N-terminal α-amino of NT alone under optimized derivatization conditions. Furthermore, neurotoxin labelled with fluorescein isothiocyanate (NT-FITC) was prepared by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with a purity value higher than 99.29% and identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS. Finally, NT-FITC could be detected at 0.8 nmol L(-1) in rat plasma using capillary electrophoresis coupled with laser induced fluorescence detection (CE-LIF). In this paper, the established method robustly and reliably quantified NT labelled with FITC via intravenous and intramuscular administrations in vivo. In addition, this work fully demonstrated the pharmacokinetic characteristics of NT in vivo, which could reduce the risk of drug accumulation, optimize therapies, and provide sufficient evidence for the rational use of NT in clinical and research laboratories. PMID:27175860

  8. Development and validation of a capillary electrophoresis method for determination of enantiomeric purity and related substances of esomeprazole in raw material and pellets.

    PubMed

    Estevez, Pablo; Flor, Sabrina; Boscolo, Oriana; Tripodi, Valeria; Lucangioli, Silvia

    2014-03-01

    A capillary electrophoresis method using CDs for quality control of esomeprazole (ESO) in terms of enantiomeric purity and related substances in raw material and pellets was developed. ESO is the S-enantiomer of omeprazole (OMZ). Several parameters were evaluated, including type and concentration of buffer and CD, concentration of additives and electrolyte pH. Resolution between the enantiomers of OMZ obtained for each parameter tested was calculated and the presence of the main related substance such as OMZ sulfone was carefully monitored. The optimized system consisted of 100 mM Tris-phosphate buffer pH 2.5 with 20 mM 2-hydroxypropyl-β-CD, 1 mM sodium dithionite, temperature at 15°C, voltage at 28 kV, and UV detection at 301 nm. Once optimized, the electrophoretic system was validated according to ICH guidelines. The limits of detection and quantification for R-OMZ were 0.6 μg/mL (0.06% w/w of ESO) and 2.0 μg/mL (0.2% w/w of ESO), respectively. A mean concentration of R-OMZ <0.2% limit established by the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) was found in the raw material and six-pellet samples of ESO. No other impurities were found in the samples under these conditions. Therefore, the developed method was found to be appropriate not only for enantiomeric quality control of ESO but also for the analysis of ESO and the main related substance in raw material and pharmaceutical formulations as well as for stability indicating studies. PMID:24258683

  9. Modified capillary electrophoresis system for peptide, protein and double-stranded DNA analysis.

    PubMed

    Belenkii, B G; Kassalainen, G E; Nasledov, D G

    2000-05-26

    The results of high-performance capillary electrophoresis (HPCE) studies of peptide, protein and double-stranded DNA separations on a laboratory-made HPCE system are presented. Parameters of the HPCE system are given. The new method of capillary surface modification by grafting poly(glycidyl methacrylate) is described. The problems of HPCE biopolymer analysis connected with the sample-wall interactions are discussed. PMID:10893035

  10. Implementation of USP antibody standard for system suitability in capillary electrophoresis sodium dodecyl sulfate (CE-SDS) for release and stability methods.

    PubMed

    Esterman, Abbie L; Katiyar, Amit; Krishnamurthy, Girija

    2016-09-01

    Capillary electrophoresis sodium dodecyl sulfate (CE-SDS) is widely used for purity analysis of monoclonal antibody therapeutics for release and stability to demonstrate product consistency and shelf life during the manufacturing and life cycle of the product. CE-SDS method development is focused on exploring the method capability to provide the information about the product purity and product related degradants (fragmentation, aggregation etc.). In order to establish the functionality of the instrumentation, software, and sample preparation; system suitability criteria need to be defined for analytical methods using a well characterized reference standard run under the same protocol and analysis as the test articles. Typically the reference standard is produced using a manufacturing process representative of the clinical material. The qualification, control, and maintenance of in-house reference standards are established through rigorous quality and regulatory guidelines. The U.S. Pharmacopeia (USP) has developed a monoclonal IgG System Suitability Reference Standard to be utilized for assessment of system suitability in CE-SDS methods. In this communication, we evaluate the system suitability acceptance criteria performance of the USP IgG standard using two methods, the recommended USP protocol provided in monograph <129> and a molecule specific Bristol-Myers Squibb (BMS) CE-SDS method. The results from USP IgG standard were compared with two in-house monoclonal antibody reference standards. The data suggest that the USP CE-SDS method may not be suitable for CE-SDS analysis for release and stability of monoclonal antibody therapeutics due to the high level of method induced partial reduction observed for all molecules tested. This high level of fragmentation observed utilizing the USP method will result in reporting lower purity levels, which will impact the overall quality assessment of the molecule. The system suitability criteria recommended by the USP method

  11. Differentiation of opium and poppy straw using capillary electrophoresis and pattern recognition techniques.

    PubMed

    Reid, Raymond G; Durham, David G; Boyle, Susanne P; Low, Ann S; Wangboonskul, Jinda

    2007-12-12

    Opium samples from four different locations and poppy straw from different plant varieties have been assayed using micellar capillary electrophoresis incorporating a sweeping technique. Individual alkaloids (morphine, codeine, papaverine, noscapine, thebaine, oripavine, reticuline and narceine) were quantitatively determined in the different samples by a validated capillary electrophoresis method. Unsupervised pattern recognition of the opium samples and the poppy straw samples using hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA), showed distinct clusters. Supervised pattern recognition using soft independent modelling of class analogy (SIMCA) was performed to show individual groupings and allow unknown samples to be classified according to the models built using the CZE assay results. PMID:18022406

  12. Determination of the specific activities of methionine sulfoxide reductase A and B by capillary electrophoresis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A capillary electrophoresis (CE) method for the determination of methionine sulfoxide reductase A and methionine sulfoxide reductase B activities in mouse liver is described. The method is based on detection of the 4-(dimethylamino)azobenzene-4’-sulfonyl derivative of L-methionine (dabsyl Met), the ...

  13. A fluorescent derivatization method of proteins for the detection of low-level impurities by microchip capillary gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Wenz, Christian; Marchetti-Deschmann, Martina; Herwig, Ela; Schröttner, Evita; Allmaier, Günter; Trojer, Lukas; Vollmer, Martin; Rüfer, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    A novel pre-chip fluorescent derivatization method is presented for protein sizing and quantification by microchip CGE. The derivatization reaction employed a water-soluble and stable fluorescent dye and was performed under conditions that favored the formation of homogeneous reaction products. The method delivered in terms of protein sizing similar results as microchip CGE with on-chip staining but showed an extended linear dynamic range for protein quantification encompassing four orders of magnitude. The sensitivity of the method was similar to standard silver-stained planar gels. The characterization of derivatization reaction products by MS and preparative isoelectric focusing indicated that a constant degree of dye molecule tagging was obtained over a broad range of protein/dye ratios. The method allowed detecting and quantifying an impurity spiked into an antibody preparation down to a level of 0.05%. Advantages of this method compared with CGE approaches with pre-column derivatization include a shorter analysis time and an increased robustness and ease of use. PMID:20162586

  14. "Getting the best sensitivity from on-capillary fluorescence detection in capillary electrophoresis" - A tutorial.

    PubMed

    Galievsky, Victor A; Stasheuski, Alexander S; Krylov, Sergey N

    2016-09-01

    Capillary electrophoresis with Laser-Induced Fluorescence (CE-LIF) detection is being applied to new analytical problems which challenge both the power of CE separation and the sensitivity of LIF detection. On-capillary LIF detection is much more practical than post-capillary detection in a sheath-flow cell. Therefore, commercial CE instruments utilize solely on-capillary CE-LIF detection with a Limit of Detection (LOD) in the nM range, while there are multiple applications of CE-LIF that require pM or lower LODs. This tutorial analyzes all aspects of on-capillary LIF detection in CE in an attempt to identify means for improving LOD of CE-LIF with on-capillary detection. We consider principles of signal enhancement and noise reduction, as well as relevant areas of fluorophore photochemistry and fluorescent microscopy. PMID:27543015

  15. Liquid chromatographic method for determination of water in soils and the optimization of anion separations by capillary zone electrophoresis

    SciTech Connect

    Benz, N.

    1994-10-01

    A liquid chromatographic method for the determination of water in soil or clay samples is presented. In a separate study, the optimization of electrophoretic separation of alkylated phenolate ions was optimized by varying the pH and acetonitrile concentration of the buffer solutions.

  16. Quantification of sugars in breakfast cereals using capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Toutounji, Michelle R; Van Leeuwen, Matthew P; Oliver, James D; Shrestha, Ashok K; Castignolles, Patrice; Gaborieau, Marianne

    2015-05-18

    About 80% of the Australian population consumes breakfast cereal (BC) at least five days a week. With high prevalence rates of obesity and other diet-related diseases, improved methods for monitoring sugar levels in breakfast cereals would be useful in nutrition research. The heterogeneity of the complex matrix of BCs can make carbohydrate analysis challenging or necessitate tedious sample preparation leading to potential sugar loss or starch degradation into sugars. A recently established, simple and robust free solution capillary electrophoresis (CE) method was used in a new application to 13 BCs (in Australia) and compared with several established methods for quantification of carbohydrates. Carbohydrates identified in BCs by CE included sucrose, maltose, glucose and fructose. The CE method is simple requiring no sample preparation or derivatization and carbohydrates are detected by direct UV detection. CE was shown to be a more robust and accurate method for measuring carbohydrates than Fehling method, DNS (3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid) assay and HPLC (high performance liquid chromatography). PMID:25841355

  17. Novel solid phase extraction method for the analysis of 5-nitroimidazoles and metabolites in milk samples by capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Mesa, Maykel; García-Campaña, Ana M; Cruces-Blanco, Carmen

    2014-02-15

    A new sample treatment has been developed for the extraction of 5-nitroimidazole (5-NDZ) drugs in milk samples previous to their determination by micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC). Fat removing and protein precipitation were simultaneously carried out by the addition of trichloroacetic acid (TCA) and subsequent centrifugation. Clean-up and off-line concentration were achieved by a novel solid-phase extraction (SPE) method employing mixed cation exchange (MCX) cartridges, obtaining an off-line concentration factor of 18. Analyses were performed in less than 18 min employing 20mM phosphate buffer (pH 6.5) and 150 mM SDS as background electrolyte (BGE). During the separation procedure a temperature of 20 °C and a voltage of 25 kV (normal mode) were applied. Due to sweeping effects, an on-line concentration was achieved for all the studied compounds and detection limits lower than 1.8 μg L(-1) were obtained. This method has been successfully applied to milk samples of different origins, including raw ewe milk. PMID:24128462

  18. Contactless conductivity detector for microchip capillary electrophoresis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pumera, Martin; Wang, Joseph; Opekar, Frantisek; Jelinek, Ivan; Feldman, Jason; Lowe, Holger; Hardt, Steffen; Svehla, D. (Principal Investigator)

    2002-01-01

    A microfabricated electrophoresis chip with an integrated contactless conductivity detection system is described. The new contactless conductivity microchip detector is based on placing two planar sensing aluminum film electrodes on the outer side of a poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) microchip (without contacting the solution) and measuring the impedance of the solution in the separation channel. The contactless route obviates problems (e.g., fouling, unwanted reactions) associated with the electrode-solution contact, offers isolation of the detection system from high separation fields, does not compromise the separation efficiency, and greatly simplifies the detector fabrication. Relevant experimental variables, such as the frequency and amplitude of the applied ac voltage or the separation voltage, were examined and optimized. The detector performance was illustrated by the separation of potassium, sodium, barium, and lithium cations and the chloride, sulfate, fluoride, acetate, and phosphate anions. The response was linear (over the 20 microM-7 mM range) and reproducible (RSD = 3.4-4.9%; n = 10), with detection limits of 2.8 and 6.4 microM (for potassium and chloride, respectively). The advantages associated with the contactless conductivity detection, along with the low cost of the integrated PMMA chip/detection system, should enhance the power and scope of microfluidic analytical devices.

  19. Microchip Non-Aqueous Capillary Electrophoresis (MicronNACE) Method to Analyze Long-Chain Primary Amines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willis, Peter A.; Mora, Maria; Cable, Morgan L.; Stockton, Amanda M.

    2012-01-01

    A protocol was developed as a first step in analyzing the complex organic aerosols present on Saturn's moon Titan, as well as the analogues of these aerosols (tholins) made on Earth. Labeling of primary amines using Pacific Blue succinimidyl ester is effected in ethanol with 25 mM triethylamine to maintain basic conditions. This reaction is allowed to equilibrate for at least one hour. Separation of the labeled primary amines is performed in ethanol with 1.05 M acetic acid, and 50 mM ammonium acetate in a commercial two-layer glass device with a standard crossmicrochannel measuring 50 microns wide by 20 microns deep. Injection potentials are optimized at 2 kV from the sample (negative) to the waste well (positive), with slight bias applied to the other two wells ( 0.4 and 0.8 V) to pinch the injection plug for the 30-s injection. Separation is performed at a potential of 5 kV along the channel, which has an effective separation distance of 7 cm. The use of ethanol in this method means that long-chain primary amines can be dissolved. Due to the low pH of the separation buffer, electro-osmotic flow (EOF) is minimized to allow for separation of both short-chain and longchain amines. As the freezing point of ethanol is much lower than water, this protocol can perform separations at temperatures lower than 0 C, which would not be possible in aqueous phase. This is of particular importance when considering in situ sampling of Titan aerosols, where unnecessary heating of the sample (even to room temperature) would lead to decomposition or unpredictable side reactions, which would make it difficult to characterize the sample appropriately.

  20. Comparison of the separation of nine tryptamine standards based on gas chromatography, high performance liquid chromatography and capillary electrophoresis methods.

    PubMed

    Wang, Man-Juing; Liu, Ju-Tsung; Chen, Hung-Ming; Lin, Jian-Jhih; Lin, Cheng-Huang

    2008-02-15

    Nine tryptamines, including alpha-methyltryptamine (AMT), N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT), 5-methoxy-alpha-methyltryptamine (5-MeO-AMT), N,N-diethyltryptamine (DET), N,N-dipropyltryptamine (DPT), N,N-dibutyltryptamine (DBT), N,N-diisopropyltryptamine (DIPT), 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine (5-MeO-DMT), and 5-methoxy-N,N-diisopropyltryptamine (5-MeO-DIPT) were selected as model compounds. Comparisons of their sensitivity, selectivity, time, cost and the order of migration are described based on different separation techniques (GC, HPLC and CE, respectively). As a result, the limit of detection (S/N=3) obtained by GC/MS and LC/UV-absorption ranged from 0.5 to 15 microg/mL and 0.3 to 1.0 microg/mL, respectively. In contrast to this, based on the CZE/UV-absorption method, the limit of detection (S/N=3) was determined to 0.5-1 microg/mL. However, when the sweeping-MEKC mode was applied, it dramatically improved to 2-10 ng/mL. In the case of GC, HPLC and CE, migration times of the nine standards ranged from 11 to 15 min and 8 to 23 min by GC and HPLC, respectively; ranged from 20 to 26 min by sweeping-MEKC. The order of migration of DMT, DET, DPT and DBT follows the molecular weight, whereas the order of migration of AMT and 5-MeO-AMT (primary amines), DIPT (an isomer of DPT) and 5-methoxy-tryptamines (5-MeO-AMT, 5-MeO-DMT and 5-MeO-DIPT) can be altered by changing the separation conditions. PMID:18177659

  1. Development of a capillary electrophoresis method for the analysis in alkaline media as polyoxoanions of two strategic metals: Niobium and tantalum.

    PubMed

    Deblonde, Gauthier J-P; Chagnes, Alexandre; Cote, Gérard; Vial, Jérôme; Rivals, Isabelle; Delaunay, Nathalie

    2016-03-11

    Tantalum (Ta) and niobium (Nb) are two strategic metals essential to several key sectors, like the aerospace, gas and oil, nuclear and electronic industries, but their separation is really difficult due to their almost identical chemical properties. Whereas they are currently produced by hydrometallurgical processes using fluoride-based solutions, efforts are being made to develop cleaner processes by replacing the fluoride media by alkaline ones. However, methods to analyze Nb and Ta simultaneously in alkaline samples are lacking. In this work, we developed a capillary zone electrophoresis (CE) method able to separate and quantify Nb and Ta directly in alkaline media. This method takes advantage of the hexaniobate and hexatantalate ions which are naturally formed at pH>9 and absorb in the UV domain. First, the detection conditions, the background electrolyte (BGE) pH, the nature of the BGE co-ion and the internal standard (IS) were optimized by a systematic approach. As the BGE counter-ion nature modified the speciation of both ions, sodium- and lithium-based BGE were tested. For each alkaline cation, the BGE ionic strength and separation temperature were optimized using experimental designs. Since changes in the migration order of IS, Nb and Ta were observed within the experimental domain, the resolution was not a monotonic function of ionic strength and separation temperature. This forced us to develop an original data treatment for the prediction of the optimum separation conditions. Depending on the consideration of either peak widths or peak symmetries, with or without additional robustness constraints, four optima were predicted for each tested alkaline cation. The eight predicted optima were tested experimentally and the best experimental optimum was selected considering analysis time, resolution and robustness. The best separation was obtained at 31.0°C and in a BGE containing 10mM LiOH and 35mM LiCH3COO.The separation voltage was finally optimized

  2. Microchip Capillary Electrophoresis with Electrochemical Detection for Monitoring Environmental Pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Gang; Lin, Yuehe; Wang, Joseph

    2006-01-15

    This invited paper reviews recent advances and the key strategies in microchip capillary electrophoresis (CE) with electrochemical detection (ECD) for separating and detecting a variety of environmental pollutants. The subjects covered include the fabrication of microfluidic chips, sample pretreatments, ECD, typical applications of microchip CE with ECD in environmental analysis, and future prospects. It is expected that microchip CE-ECD will become a powerful tool in the environmental field and will lead to the creation of truly portable devices.

  3. Hybridization thermodynamics of DNA oligonucleotides during microchip capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Wynne, Thomas M; McCallum, Christopher; Del Bonis-O'Donnell, Jackson Travis; Crisalli, Pete; Pennathur, Sumita

    2015-03-01

    Capillary electrophoresis (CE) is a powerful analytical tool for performing separations and characterizing properties of charged species. For reacting species during a CE separation, local concentrations change leading to nonequilibrium conditions. Interpreting experimental data with such nonequilibrium reactive species is nontrivial due to the large number of variables involved in the system. In this work we develop a COMSOL multiphysics-based numerical model to simulate the electrokinetic mass transport of short interacting ssDNAs in microchip capillary electrophoresis. We probe the importance of the dissociation constant, K(D), and the concentration of DNA on the resulting observed mobility of the dsDNA peak, μ(w), by using a full sweep of parametric simulations. We find that the observed mobility is strongly dependent on the DNA concentration and K(D), as well as ssDNA concentration, and develop a relation with which to understand this dependence. Furthermore, we present experimental microchip capillary electrophoresis measurements of interacting 10 base ssDNA and its complement with changes in buffer ionic strength, DNA concentration, and DNA sequence to vary the system equilibria. We then compare our results to thermodynamically calculated K(D) values. PMID:25634338

  4. SIMULTANEOUS DTERMINATION OF CHROMATE AND AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS IN ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLES BY CAPILLARY ELECTROPHORESIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    An analytical method was developed to determine simultaneously, the inorganic anion CrO2-4, and organic aromatic compounds including benzoate, 2-Cl-benzoate, phenol, m-cresol and o-/p-cresol by capillary electrophoresis (CE). Chromate and the aromatics were separated in a relativ...

  5. Capillary Electrophoresis and Fluorescence Excitation-Emission Matrix Characterization of Soil Mobile and Calcium Humates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Capillary electrophoresis (CE) and Excitation-emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence spectroscopy have been used in natural organic matter (NOM) studies. The mutual relevance of data collected from each of the two methods provides novel insight into the correlation of complex NOM fluorescence spectra to...

  6. Development of a hollow fibre liquid-phase micro extraction method coupled with capillary electrophoresis/mass spectrometry for determining nitrophenolic compounds from atmospheric particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teich, Monique; van Pinxteren, Dominik; Herrmann, Hartmut

    2014-05-01

    Nitrophenolic compounds present in the atmosphere gained a lot of attention as they are known for their negative effect on human health as well as for their phytotoxity being a cause for forest decline. Moreover, nitrophenols have the ability to absorb light in the range of near ultra violet to visible light, thus they are also contributing to the so-called brown carbon. Most of the available methods for determining nitrophenols in particulate matter are using organic solvents for extraction. Those methods are not applicable if one wants to focus only on the water-soluble fraction. Therefore, a method using a three-phase hollow fibre liquid-phase micro extraction (HF-LPME) was developed to enrich nine nitrophenolic compounds (2-Nitrophenol, 3-Nitrophenol, 4-Nitrophenol, 2-Methyl-4-nitrophenol, 3-Methyl-4-nitrophenol, 4-Nitrocatechol, 2,6-Dimethyl-4-nitrophenol, 2,4-Dinitrophenol, 3,4-Dinitrophenol) from aqueous extracts of atmospheric particles. Analysis was performed by capillary electrophoresis coupled with electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (CE-ESI-MS). The background electrolyte composition was optimised to a 20 mM ammonium acetate buffer at pH 9.7 containing 15% methanol (v/v). Persistent peak tailing during electrophoretic separation was observed for 4-Nitrocatechol. Flushing the capillary with Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) prior sample injection strongly improved the peak shape. Four extraction parameters (composition of organic liquid membrane, pH of acceptor phase, salting out effect, extraction time) and their effect on the analyte recoveries were examined. The HF-LPME consisted of 1.8 mL sample solution kept at pH 2 as donor phase and 15 µl 100 mM aqueous ammonia solution as acceptor phase inserted into a hollow fibre. Dihexyl ether was used to form a supported liquid membrane inside the pores of the hollow fibre. As a result low detection limits in the range of nmol L-1 were achieved and the developed method was found to be competitive

  7. [Determination of glyoxalate and oxalate by capillary zone electrophoresis].

    PubMed

    Guan, Jin; Wang, Huize; Ren, Liyan; Niu, Qiuling

    2012-01-01

    A method for the simultaneous determination of glyoxalate and oxalate by capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) was developed. The influences of type, concentration and pH of the running buffer, and the applied voltage on separation were investigated. Glyoxalate and oxalate were separated within 11 min under the conditions of 20 mmol/L borax-5.5 mmol/L potassium hydrogen phthalate (pH 9.0), applied voltage of 20 kV, and detected wavelength of 212 nm. The calibration curves of glyoxalate and oxalate showed good linearity in the ranges of 0.8 -20 g/L and 1.2-20 g/L, respectively. The correlation coefficients were 0.999 3 and 0.997 5, respectively. The limits of detection for glyoxalate and oxalate were 0.2 and 0.4 g/L (S/N = 3), respectively. The average recoveries at three spiked levels were 98.3%-102.5% with acceptable relative standard deviations of 0.35%-0.61%. This method is simple, low cost and high performance. The method was successfully used for the determination of glyoxalate and oxalate in real samples, and the assay results were satisfactory. PMID:22667103

  8. Combined electrophoresis-electrospray interface and method

    DOEpatents

    Smith, R.D.; Udseth, H.R.; Olivares, J.A.

    1994-10-18

    A system and method for analyzing molecular constituents of a composition sample include: forming a solution of the sample, separating the solution by capillary electrophoresis into an eluent of constituents longitudinally separated according to their relative electrophoretic mobilities, electrospraying the eluent to form a charged spray in which the molecular constituents have a temporal distribution; and detecting or collecting the separated constituents in accordance with the temporal distribution in the spray. A first high-voltage (e.g., 5--100 kVDC) is applied to the solution. The spray is charged by applying a second high voltage (e.g.,{+-}2--8 kVDC) between the eluent at the capillary exit and a cathode spaced in front of the exit. A complete electrical circuit is formed by a conductor which directly contacts the eluent at the capillary exit, or by conduction through a sheath electrode discharged in an annular sheath flow about the capillary exit. 21 figs.

  9. Combined electrophoresis-electrospray interface and method

    DOEpatents

    Smith, R.P.; Udseth, H.R.; Olivares, J.A.

    1989-12-05

    A system and method for analyzing molecular constituents of a composition sample includes: forming a solution of the sample, separating the solution by capillary electrophoresis into an eluent of constituents longitudinally separated according to their relative electrophoretic mobilities, electrospraying the eluent to form a charged spray in which the molecular constituents have a temporal distribution; and detecting or collecting the separated constituents in accordance with the temporal distribution in the spray. A first high-voltage (e.g., 5--100 kVDC) is applied to the solution. The spray is charged by applying a second high voltage (e.g., [+-]2--8 kVDC) between the eluent at the capillary exit and a cathode spaced in front of the exit. A complete electrical circuit is formed by a conductor which directly contacts the eluent at the capillary exit, or by conduction through a sheath electrode discharged in an annular sheath flow about the capillary exit. 21 figs.

  10. Combined electrophoresis-electrospray interface and method

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Richard P.; Udseth, Harold R.; Olivares, Jose A.

    1989-01-01

    A system and method for analyzing molecular constituents of a composition sample includes: forming a solution of the sample, separating the solution by capillary electrophoresis into an eluent of constituents longitudinally separated according to their relative electrophoretic mobilities, electrospraying the eluent to form a charged spray in which the molecular constituents have a temporal distribution; and detecting or collecting the separated constituents in accordance with the temporal distribution in the spray. A first high-voltage (e.g., 5-100 KVDC) is applied to the solution. The spray is charged by applying a second high voltage (e.g., .+-.2-8 KVDC) between the eluent at the capillary exit and a cathode spaced in front of the exit. A complete electrical circuit is formed by a conductor which directly contacts the eluent at the capillary exit, or by conduction through a sheath electrode discharged in an annular sheath flow about the capillary exit.

  11. Combined electrophoresis-electrospray interface and method

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Richard D.; Udseth, Harold R.; Olivares, Jose A.

    1994-10-18

    A system and method for analyzing molecular constituents of a composition sample includes: forming a solution of the sample, separating the solution by capillary electrophoresis into an eluent of constituents longitudinally separated according to their relative electrophoretic mobilities, electrospraying the eluent to form a charged spray in which the molecular constituents have a temporal distribution; and detecting or collecting the separated constituents in accordance with the temporal distribution in the spray. A first high-voltage (e.g., 5-100 KVDC) is applied to the solution. The spray is charged by applying a second high voltage (e.g., .+-.2-8 KVDC) between the eluent at the capillary exit and a cathode spaced in front of the exit. A complete electrical circuit is formed by a conductor which directly contacts the eluent at the capillary exit, or by conduction through a sheath electrode discharged in an annular sheath flow about the capillary exit.

  12. Detection of Salmonellae in Chicken Feces by a Combination of Tetrathionate Broth Enrichment, Capillary PCR, and Capillary Gel Electrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Carli, K. Tayfun; Unal, Can Bora; Caner, Vildan; Eyigor, Aysegul

    2001-01-01

    This report describes a rapid detection procedure for salmonellae from chicken feces by the combination of tetrathionate primary enrichment (preenrichment [PE])-bacterial lysis-capillary PCR and capillary gel electrophoresis. Pure Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis 64K was reisolated and detected by capillary PCR after buffered peptone water and nutrient broth, tetrathionate broth base Hajna (TTBH), and tetrathionate broth (TTB) preenrichments. When the same culture was mixed with intestinal homogenate, bacteriological reisolation and capillary PCR detection was achieved only by TTBH and TTB preenrichments. Capillary gel electrophoresis revealed that a Salmonella genus-specific 281-bp PCR product was detected when Salmonella strains but not non-Salmonella strains were tested. The detection limit of capillary PCR with whole-cell DNA extracted from pure Salmonella enterica serovars Enteritidis 64K, Typhimurium LT2-CIP60-62, and Gallinarum 64K was 3, 3, and 9 CFU ml−1, respectively. The detection limit of capillary PCR from whole-cell DNA extracted from intestinal homogenate artificially contaminated with the same three strains was 3, 3, and 7 CFU ml−1, respectively. We compared the results of the capillary PCR and bacteriological examination from the natural samples. Thirty-five of 53 naturally contaminated samples produced a specific PCR product. In 9 of the 35 PCR-positive samples, Salmonella could not be detected bacteriologically either by PE or a primary and delayed secondary enrichment (DSE) combination. In the 18 PCR-negative samples, 4 samples were found to harbor Salmonella by both PE and DSE and 14 samples were positive after DSE. Fifty-three additional intestinal homogenate samples, which were negative by their PE and DSE in bacteriological examination, were found to be also negative by their PCRs. The total time required to detect Salmonella with the capillary PCR method we used was approximately 20 h. If samples are from clinically diseased

  13. Capillary electrophoresis separation of the desamino degradation products of oxytocin

    PubMed Central

    Creamer, Jessica S.; Krauss, Shannon T.; Lunte, Susan M.

    2014-01-01

    Oxytocin is an endogenous and therapeutic hormone necessary for maternal health. It is also the subject of fast growing research in the field of behavioral science. This article describes a rapid capillary electrophoresis method using UV detection at 214 nm for the determination of the deamidation products of oxytocin. Deamidation is the most common degradation pathway of peptides and proteins and can lead to reduced therapeutic efficiency of biopharmaceuticals. To achieve a separation of the seven structurally similar desamino peptides from oxytocin, 11 mM sulfobutyl ether β-cyclodextrin and 10% v/v MeOH were added to a background electrolyte of 50 mM phosphate buffer at pH 6.0. The assay is linear within ≤5-100 μM for all species with a total analysis time of 12 min. The method was then applied to monitor the heat-stress degradation of oxytocin at 70°C, where all seven desamino species were observed over a 96 h period. PMID:24166826

  14. Stability measurements of antisense oligonucleotides by capillary gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Bruin, G J; Börnsen, K O; Hüsken, D; Gassmann, E; Widmer, H M; Paulus, A

    1995-08-11

    The approach of using antisense oligonucleotides as potential drugs is based on hybridization of a short chemically-modified oligonucleotide with complementary cellular DNA or RNA sequences. A critical question is the stability of chemically modified antisense oligonucleotides in cellular environments. In a model system, resistance against various nucleases was evaluated by capillary gel electrophoresis (CGE). For some of the samples, matrix assisted laser desorption and ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) was used as an additional analytical tool to perform stability measurements. Using CGE, the enzymatic degradation of single nucleotides from the oligomer can be followed after different incubation times. 10% T polyacrylamide gels give baseline resolution for oligonucleotides ranging between 5 and 30 bases in length. The kinetic influence of a specific nuclease concentration and the antisense oligonucleotide structure on the cleavage reaction are discussed. Also, a simple desalting method to improve the injection efficiency and sensitivity of the method are described. Examples of measurements of chemically modified antisense 19-mers are presented. PMID:7581844

  15. Study on Dicarboxylic Acids in Aerosol Samples with Capillary Electrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Adler, Heidi; Sirén, Heli

    2014-01-01

    The research was performed to study the simultaneous detection of a homologous series of α, ω-dicarboxylic acids (C2–C10), oxalic, malonic, succinic, glutaric, adipic, pimelic, suberic, azelaic, and sebacic acids, with capillary electrophoresis using indirect UV detection. Good separation efficiency in 2,6-pyridinedicarboxylic acid as background electrolyte modified with myristyl trimethyl ammonium bromide was obtained. The dicarboxylic acids were ionised and separated within five minutes. For the study, authentic samples were collected onto dry cellulose membrane filters of a cascade impactor (12 stages) from outdoor spring aerosols in an urban area. Hot water and ultrasonication extraction methods were used to isolate the acids from membrane filters. Due to the low concentrations of acids in the aerosols, the extracts were concentrated with solid-phase extraction (SPE) before determination. The enrichment of the carboxylic acids was between 86 and 134% with sample pretreatment followed by 100-time increase by preparation of the sample to 50 μL. Inaccuracy was optimised for all the sample processing steps. The aerosols contained dicarboxylic acids C2–C10. Then, mostly they contained C2, C5, and C10. Only one sample contained succinic acid. In the study, the concentrations of the acids in aerosols were lower than 10 ng/m3. PMID:24729915

  16. Stacking in a continuous sample flow interface in capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Gstoettenmayr, Daniel; Quirino, Joselito; Ivory, Cornelius F; Breadmore, Michael

    2015-08-21

    Using a tee connector in a commercial capillary electrophoresis instrument, the effect of field amplified sample injection from both flowing and static sample volumes was investigated. It is shown that under identical conditions (40min electrokinetic injection at 5kV from a sample volume of 295μL) the limit of detection using the continuous sample flow interface is 4 times lower than from a static vial. The relationship between different flow rates and injection voltages on the injected sample amount was also investigated using a 2D axisymmetric simulation (COMSOL 4.3b) and verified experimentally, confirming conditions under which there is near-quantitative injection of the sample target ions. Using electrokinetic injection at 30kV and a flow rate of 558nL/s the same enhancement from an even smaller volume of 184μL could be achieved in 5.5min than could be achieved from 295μL and a 40min injection. This sensitivity enhancement factor corresponded to four orders of magnitude improvement compared to a hydrodynamic injection. This is the first report showing that a continuous sample flow interface combined with stacking methods under conditions approaching quantitative injection from the entire sample volume has the potential to be more sensitive than a static system. PMID:26189205

  17. A Contactless Capacitance Detection System for Microchip Capillary Electrophoresis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Peter

    2008-05-01

    The design, construction and operation of a simple, inexpensive and compact high voltage power supply for use in conjunction with a simple cross, capillary electrophoresis microchip is presented. The detection system utilizes a single high voltage power supply (15 kV), a voltage divider network for obtaining the required voltages for enabling a gated injection valve, and two high voltage relays for switching between the open and closed gate sequences of the injection. The system is used to determine sodium monofluoroacetate (MFA) concentration in diluted fruit juices and tap water. A separation buffer consisting of 20 mM citric acid and histidine at pH 3.5 enabled the detection of the anion in diluted apple juice, cranberry juice, and orange juice without lengthy sample pretreatments. Limit of detection in diluted juices and tap water were determined to be 125, 167, 138, and 173 mg/L for tap water, apple juice, cranberry juice, and orange juice, respectively, based upon an S/N of 3:1. The total analysis time for detecting the MFA anion in fruit juices was less than 5 min, which represents a considerable reduction in analysis time compared to other analytical methods currently used in food analysis.

  18. Quantification of Carbohydrates in Grape Tissues Using Capillary Zone Electrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Lu; Chanon, Ann M.; Chattopadhyay, Nabanita; Dami, Imed E.; Blakeslee, Joshua J.

    2016-01-01

    Soluble sugars play an important role in freezing tolerance in both herbaceous and woody plants, functioning in both the reduction of freezing-induced dehydration and the cryoprotection of cellular constituents. The quantification of soluble sugars in plant tissues is, therefore, essential in understanding freezing tolerance. While a number of analytical techniques and methods have been used to quantify sugars, most of these are expensive and time-consuming due to complex sample preparation procedures which require the derivatization of the carbohydrates being analyzed. Analysis of soluble sugars using capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) under alkaline conditions with direct UV detection has previously been used to quantify simple sugars in fruit juices. However, it was unclear whether CZE-based methods could be successfully used to quantify the broader range of sugars present in complex plant extracts. Here, we present the development of an optimized CZE method capable of separating and quantifying mono-, di-, and tri-saccharides isolated from plant tissues. This optimized CZE method employs a column electrolyte buffer containing 130 mM NaOH, pH 13.0, creating a current of 185 μA when a separation voltage of 10 kV is employed. The optimized CZE method provides limits-of-detection (an average of 1.5 ng/μL) for individual carbohydrates comparable or superior to those obtained using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry, and allows resolution of non-structural sugars and cell wall components (structural sugars). The optimized CZE method was successfully used to quantify sugars from grape leaves and buds, and is a robust tool for the quantification of plant sugars found in vegetative and woody tissues. The increased analytical efficiency of this CZE method makes it ideal for use in high-throughput metabolomics studies designed to quantify plant sugars. PMID:27379118

  19. [In situ photopolymerization of polyacrylamide-based preconcentrator on a microfluidic chip for capillary electrophoresis].

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Sachio

    2012-01-01

    Microchip electrophoresis is widely used for microfluidics and has been studied extensively over the past decade. Translation of capillary electrophoresis methods from traditional capillary systems to a microchip platform provides rapid separation and easy quantitation of sample components. However, most microfluidic systems suffer from critical scaling problems. One promising solution to this problem is online sample preconcentration of all analytes in a sample reservoir before the separation channel. Herein, the following three techniques for online preconcentration during microchip electrophoresis are proposed: (1) in situ fabrication of an ionic polyacrylamide-based preconcentrator on a simple poly(methyl methacrylate) microfluidic chip for perm-selective preconcentration and capillary electrophoretic separation of anionic compounds, (2) simultaneous concentration enrichment and electrophoretic separation of weak acids on a microchip using an in situ photopolymerized carboxylate-type polyacrylamide gels as the perm-selective preconcentrator, and (3) microchip electrophoresis of oligosaccharides using lectin-immobilized preconcentrator gels fabricated by in situ photopolymerization. These techniques are expected to be powerful tools for clinical and pharmaceutical studies with on-line preconcentration during microchip electrophoresis. PMID:23023420

  20. Chip-based capillary electrophoresis with an electrodeless nanospray interface.

    PubMed

    Vrouwe, E X; Gysler, J; Tjaden, U R; van der Greef, J

    2000-01-01

    A sheathless and electrodeless nanospray interface has been used to interface a polycarbonate capillary electrophoresis (CE) chip to a mass spectrometer (MS). The chip was made of two flat polycarbonate plates which were bolted together. Channels were imprinted in one of the plates with metal wires, using a hydraulic press. A short tapered capillary connected to the chip was used as the nanospray emitter. The advantage of this electrodeless interface is that it was not necessary to apply a electrospray voltage to the chip or the nanospray emitter. Instead, the CE voltage already applied to the buffer compartment on the chip, to drive the electrophoresis, was used to generate the spray also. A low conductivity buffer of 1.25 mmol/L ammonium acetate in 80% methanol was used to obtain a large electric field across the buffer channel. The performance of the device was evaluated by analyzing a mixture of three beta-agonists Relative standard deviation (RSD) values obtained were between 4.8 and 5.0%. A sample concentration of 40 nmol/L resulted in a signal-to-noise ratio of 2 to 5 for the different components. Compared to a conventional CE analysis in a fused silica capillary with UV detection, only a minor loss of resolution was observed, which can be attributed to the design of the chip. PMID:10962491

  1. Potential of polyE-323 coated capillaries for capillary electrophoresis of lipids.

    PubMed

    Martma, Kert; Lindenburg, Petrus W; Habicht, Kaia-Liisa; Vulla, Kaspar; Resik, Kristiin; Kuut, Gunnar; Shimmo, Ruth

    2013-11-22

    In this note the feasibility of a polyamine-based capillary coating, polyE-323, for capillary electrophoresis (CE) of lipids is explored. PolyE-323 has previously been demonstrated to be suitable to suppress analyte-wall interaction of proteins in CE. However, the full applicability range of polyE-323 has not been exploited yet and it might be useful in the analysis of hydrophobic analytes, such as lipids. In this study, the stability of polyE-323 when using highly organic background electrolytes (BGEs), which are needed to solubilize the lipid analytes, was studied. For this, we used three different lipid samples: sphingomyelin, cardiolipin and a lipid extract from a cell culture. The highly organic BGEs that were used in this study consisted of 94.5% of organic solvents and 5.5% of an aqueous buffer. First, the influence of pure acetonitrile, methanol, propylene carbonate, isopropanol and chloroform on the polyE-323 coating was investigated. Then BGEs were developed and tested, using sphingomyelin and cardiolipin as test analytes in CE-UV experiments. After establishing the best BGEs (in terms of analysis time and repeatability) by CE-UV, sphingomyelin was used as a test analyte to demonstrate that method was also suitable for CE with mass-spectrometry detection (CE-MS). The LOD of sphingomyelin was estimated to be 100 nM and its migration time repeatability was 1.3%. The CE-MS analysis was further applied on a lipid extract obtained from human glioblastoma cells, which resulted in the separation and detection of a multitude of putative lipids. The results of our feasibility study indicate that CE systems based on polyE-323 coated capillaries and highly organic BGEs are promising for fast electromigration-based analysis of lipids. PMID:24011728

  2. Simultaneous determination of inorganic and organic gunshot residues by capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Morales, Ernesto Bernal; Vázquez, Alma L Revilla

    2004-12-24

    A capillary electrophoresis method was developed to analyze simultaneously 11 organic and 10 inorganic components of gunshot residues as a cheaper and possibly more specific method comparing to traditional techniques. Pre-capillary complexation and simultaneously a micellar phase were combined to determine not only the metal but also the organic residues from a firearm. In order to test the possibility to apply the developed method to real cases, residues from shot samples from different firearms were analyzed and their results were compared with those obtained with electrothermal atomic absorption spectroscopy, an established technique for gunshot residue analysis. Good agreement between both techniques for lead was found. PMID:15641366

  3. Separation and detection of DNA by capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Kasper, T J; Melera, M; Gozel, P; Brownlee, R G

    1988-12-23

    The use of capillary electrophoresis for the separation and detection of nucleic acids has been investigated. Lab-model instruments have been built, using commercially available UV absorbance and fluorescence detectors which were modified for use with 50-100 microns I.D. fused-silica capillary tubing. The sensitivity of these instruments (signal-to-noise ratio = 3) was measured as 15 micrograms/ml for fluorescence detection of ethidium bromide-stained herring-sperm DNA and 3 micrograms/ml for UV absorbance detection. With the former instruments a variety of strategies has been used to attain rapid separations of bases, oligonucleotides, restriction fragments and whole phage, viral and plasmid DNAs. PMID:3266219

  4. Theoretical and experimental separation dynamics in capillary zone electrophoresis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thormann, Wolfgang; Michaud, Jon-Pierre; Mosher, Richard A.

    1986-01-01

    The mathematical model of Bier et al. (1983) is used in a computer aided analysis of the conditions in capillary zone electrophoresis (ZE) under which sample zones migrate noninteractively with the carrier electrolyte. The monitoring of sample zones with a capillary analyzer that features both on-line conductivity and UV detection at the end of the separation trough is discussed. Data from a ZE analysis of a 5-component mixture are presented, and it is noted that all five components can be monitored via their conductivity change if enough sample is present. It is suggested from the results that the concentration ratio of background buffer to sample should be a minimum of 100:1 to effectively apply the plate concept to ZE.

  5. Capillary electrophoresis-electrochemical detection microchip device and supporting circuits

    DOEpatents

    Jackson, Douglas J.; Roussel, Jr., Thomas J.; Crain, Mark M.; Baldwin, Richard P.; Keynton, Robert S.; Naber, John F.; Walsh, Kevin M.; Edelen, John. G.

    2008-03-18

    The present invention is a capillary electrophoresis device, comprising a substrate; a first channel in the substrate, and having a buffer arm and a detection arm; a second channel in the substrate intersecting the first channel, and having a sample arm and a waste arm; a buffer reservoir in fluid communication with the buffer arm; a waste reservoir in fluid communication with the waste arm; a sample reservoir in fluid communication with the sample arm; and a detection reservoir in fluid communication with the detection arm. The detection arm and the buffer arm are of substantially equal length.

  6. High-sensitivity capillary and microchip electrophoresis using electrokinetic supercharging.

    PubMed

    Dawod, Mohamed; Chung, Doo Soo

    2011-10-01

    Electrokinetic supercharging (EKS) is considered as one of the most powerful online preconcentration techniques in electrophoresis. It combines the efficient preconcentration power of field-amplified sample injection and the exceptional selective nature of transient isotachophoresis. It has a wide range of applications to different types of analytes ranging from small ions to large proteins and DNA fragments. This comprehensive review--up to date--provides listing for all the works, developments, and advances in EKS. The review will pay particular attention to innovations, new methodologies for manipulation, challenges for improving the detection sensitivity, and various applications of EKS in capillaries and microchips. PMID:21793208

  7. Monitoring environmental pollutants by microchip capillary electrophoresis with electrochemical detection

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Gang; Lin, Yuehe; Wang, Joseph

    2006-01-15

    This is a review article. During the past decade, significant progress in the development of miniaturized microfluidic systems has Occurred due to the numerous advantages of microchip analysis. This review focuses on recent advances and the key strategies in microchip capillary electrophoresis (CE) with electrochemical detection (ECD) for separating and detecting a variety of environmental pollutants. The subjects covered include the fabrication of microfluidic chips, ECD, typical applications of microchip CE with ECD in environmental analysis, and future prospects. It is expected that microchip CE-ECD will become a powerful tool in the environmental field and will lead to the creation of truly portable devices.

  8. Miniaturized movable contactless conductivity detection cell for capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Macka, Miroslav; Hutchinson, Joseph; Zemann, Andreas; Shusheng, Zhang; Haddad, Paul R

    2003-06-01

    A miniaturized capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detector (mini-C(4)D) cell has been designed which is small enough to allow it to slide along the effective capillary length inside the capillary cassette of an Agilent capiillary electrophoresis system (CE) (or other CE brand of similar construction), including the possibility of positioning it close to the point of optical detection (4 cm), or even putting two such detector cells in one cassette. The cell was tested and the performance characteristics (noise, sensitivity, and peak width) were compared with those obtained with the previously used large C(4)D cell. No significant differences were observed. The mini-C(4)D was used in simultaneous separations of common cations and anions where its advantage over a larger C(4)D cell is the ability to vary the point of detection with the mini-C(4)D cell continuously at any point along the capillary length, so that the optimum apparent selectivity can be chosen. Other applications include providing a convenient second point of detection in addition to photometric detection, such as to measure accurately the linear velocity of a zone, or to allow placement of two mini-C(4)D cells in one capillary cassette simultaneously. PMID:12858387

  9. Application of capillary electrophoresis to the development and evaluation of aptamer affinity probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sooter, Letha J.; McMasters, Sun; Stratis-Cullum, Dimitra N.

    2007-09-01

    Nucleic acid aptamers can exhibit high binding affinities for a wide variety of targets and have received much attention as molecular recognition elements for enhanced biosensor performance. These aptamers recognize target molecules through a combination of conformational dependent non-covalent interactions in aqueous media which can be investigated using capillary electrophoresis-based methods. In this paper we report on the results of our studies of the relative binding affinity of Campylobacter jejuni aptamers using a capillary electrophoretic immunoassay. Our results show preferential binding to C. jejuni over other common food pathogen bacteria. Capillary electrophoresis can also be used to develop new aptamer recognition elements using an in vitro selection process known as systematic evolution of ligand by exponential enrichment (SELEX). Recently, this process has been adapted to use capillary electrophoresis in an attempt to shorten the overall selection process. This smart selection of nucleic acid aptamers from a large diversity of a combinatorial DNA library is under optimization for the development of aptamers which bind to Army-relevant targets. This paper will include a discussion of the establishment of CE-SELEX methods for the future development of smart aptamer probes.

  10. Rapid inorganic ion analysis using quantitative microchip capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Vrouwe, Elwin X; Luttge, Regina; Olthuis, Wouter; van den Berg, Albert

    2006-01-13

    Rapid quantitative microchip capillary electrophoresis (CE) for online monitoring of drinking water enabling inorganic ion separation in less than 15 s is presented. Comparing cationic and anionic standards at different concentrations the analysis of cationic species resulted in non-linear calibration curves. We interpret this effect as a variation in the volume of the injected sample plug caused by changes of the electroosmotic flow (EOF) due to the strong interaction of bivalent cations with the glass surface. This explanation is supported by the observation of severe peak tailing. Conducting microchip CE analysis in a glass microchannel, optimized conditions are received for the cationic species K+, Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+ using a background electrolyte consisting of 30 mmol/L histidine and 2-(N-morpholino)ethanesulfonic acid, containing 0.5 mmol/L potassium chloride to reduce surface interaction and 4 mmol/L tartaric acid as a complexing agent resulting in a pH-value of 5.8. Applying reversed EOF co-migration for the anionic species Cl-, SO42- and HCO3- optimized separation occurs in a background electrolyte consisting of 10 mmol/L 4-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1-piperazineethanesulfonic acid (HEPES) and 10 mmol/L HEPES sodium salt, containing 0.05 mmol/L CTAB (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide) resulting in a pH-value of 7.5. The detection limits are 20 micromol/L for the monovalent cationic and anionic species and 10 micromol/L for the divalent species. These values make the method very suitable for many applications including the analysis of abundant ions in tap water as demonstrated in this paper. PMID:16310794

  11. Separation of Trivalent Actinides from Lanthanides Using a Capillary Electrophoresis

    SciTech Connect

    Mori, Tomotaka; Ishii, Yasuo; Hayashi, Kazunori; Suganuma, Hideo; Satoh, Isamu

    2007-07-01

    A separation of {sup 241}Am(III) from {sup 152,154}Eu(III) was carried out using a capillary electrophoresis technique in a mixed solvent (CH{sub 3}OH/H{sub 2}O) system containing thiocyanate ion. First, the formation constants ({beta}{sub n}) between thiocyanate ion and Eu(III) or Am(III) were investigated in the mixed solvent solutions by a back-extraction technique using bis (2-ethylhexyl) hydrogen phosphate-toluene. The mean charges calculated on the basis of the data of {beta}{sub n} for Eu(III) were comparatively higher than those for Am(III). Based on the differences between the mean charges of Eu(III) and Am(III), separations for Am(III)/Eu(III) by means of capillary electrophoresis technique were tried in the (H{sup +}, Na{sup +})(SCN{sup -}, ClO{sub 4}{sup -}) mixed solvent solutions. It was proved that Am(III) was completely separated from Eu(III). (authors)

  12. Comparison of three modifications of fused-silica capillaries and untreated capillaries for protein profiling of maize extracts by capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Pobozy, Ewa; Sentkowska, Aleksandra; Piskor, Anna

    2014-09-01

    In this work, capillary electrophoresis was applied to protein profiling of fractionated extracts of maize. A comparative study on the application of uncoated fused-silica capillaries and capillaries modified with hydroxypropylmethylcellulose, ω-iodoalkylammonium salt and a commercially available neutral capillary covalently coated with polyacrylamide is presented. The coating stability, background electrolyte composition, and separation efficiency were investigated. It was found that for zeins separation, the most stable and efficient was the capillary coated with polyacrylamide. Finally, the usefulness of these methods was studied for the differentiation of zein fraction in transgenic and nontransgenic maize. Zeins extracted from maize standards containing 0 and 5% m/m genetic modification were successfully separated, but slight differences were observed in terms of the zein content. Albumin and globulin fractions were analyzed with the use of unmodified fused-silica capillary with borate buffer pH 9 and the capillary coated with polyacrylamide with phosphate buffer pH 3. In the albumin fraction, additional peaks were found in genetically modified samples. PMID:24931305

  13. Analysis of monoclonal antibody heterogeneity by post-capillary affinity detection for capillary electrophoresis

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, J.A.; Lee, Cheng S.

    1997-12-31

    Production of monoclonal antibodies seldom results in a single uniform product. Although the use of hybridomas yields antibodies with a homogeneous amino acid sequence, differences exist in degree of glycosylation. Oligosaccharide variation is known to vary with culture conditions as well as proliferation state. Glycosylation is significant biologically, particularly agalactosyl glycoforms of IgG which can be pathogenic. This suggests a need for rapid analysis of antibody heterogeneity, including glycosylation, during production to optimize quality and yield. Post-capillary affinity detection for capillary electrophoresis is a novel bioanalytical tool which analyzes protein microheterogeneity without interference from complex sample matrices. Mouse monoclonal antibody samples from cell culture media are selectively analyzed by post-capillary affinity detection. Separation of IgG variants is accomplished by capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) prior to on-line affinity detection with fragment B of Protein A lagged with fluorescein (BF). IgG isoforms are observed while serum proteins and cell culture media are discriminated against.

  14. Electrophoretically mediated microanalysis for in-capillary electrical cell lysis and fast enzyme quantification by capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Nehmé, Hala; Nehmé, Reine; Lafite, Pierre; Duverger, Eric; Routier, Sylvain; Morin, Philippe

    2013-11-01

    In this study, a novel capillary electrophoresis (CE)-based enzymatic assay was developed to evaluate enzymatic activity in whole cells. β-Galactosidase expression was used as an example, as it is a biomarker for assessing replicative senescence in mammalian cells. It catalyzes the hydrolysis of para-nitrophenyl-β-D-galactopyranoside (PNPG) into para-nitrophenol (PNP). The CE-based assay consisted of four main steps: (1) hydrodynamic injection of whole intact cells into the capillary, (2) in-capillary lysis of these cells by using pulses of electric field (electroporation), (3) in-capillary hydrolysis of PNPG by the β-galactosidase--released from the lysed cells--by the electrophoretically mediated microanalysis (EMMA) approach, and (4) on-line detection and quantification of the PNP formed. The developed method was applied to Escherichia coli as well as to human keratinocyte cells at different replicative stages. Results obtained by CE were in excellent agreement with those obtained from off-line cell lysates which proves the efficiency of the in-capillary approach developed. This work shows for the first time that cell membranes can be disrupted in-capillary by electroporation and that the released enzyme can be subsequently quantified in the same capillary. Enzyme quantification in cells after their in-capillary lysis has never been conducted by CE. The developed CE approach is automated, economic, eco-friendly, and simple to conduct. It has attractive applications in bacteria or human cells for early disease diagnostics or insights for development in biology. PMID:24057022

  15. Ultrasensitive plasmid mapping by high performance capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Maschke, H E; Frenz, J; Belenkii, A; Karger, B L; Hancock, W S

    1993-01-01

    This paper compares high performance capillary electrophoresis (HPCE) and conventional slab electrophoresis in mapping of four closely related plasmids with three different restriction enzymes. The plasmids express full length and truncated forms of a growth factor receptor oncogene product and were digested with HpaII, HaeIII and RsaI. The resulting oligonucleotide fragments were under 2000 base pairs in length, a size well suited to separation by HPCE with linear polyacrylamide as a sieving matrix. Plasmid mapping is an essential tool in biotechnology both for the design of an expression system and for monitoring the stability of the expression system during fermentation. HPCE can yield much higher resolution of oligonucleotides than attainable in conventional agarose gel electrophoretic procedures for plasmid mapping. In the examples described here, the HpaII digests provided the surest identification of individual plasmids in the HPCE analysis and could discriminate among all four plasmids. In conventional slab electrophoresis, however, the RsaI digests provided the best discrimination, although two of the plasmids in this system yielded essentially identical electrophoretic patterns. Hence the optimal restriction enzyme for plasmid mapping applications with HPCE may differ from that selected on the basis of conventional slab gel analysis, and the former technique can provide higher discrimination among related plasmids. The advantages of the HPCE format with respect to speed, low sample consumption and resolution are described. PMID:8354236

  16. Microfabricated capillary electrophoresis amino acid chirality analyzer for extraterrestrial exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutt, L. D.; Glavin, D. P.; Bada, J. L.; Mathies, R. A.

    1999-01-01

    Chiral separations of fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled amino acids have been performed on a microfabricated capillary electrophoresis chip to explore the feasibility of using such devices to analyze for extinct or extant life signs in extraterrestrial environments. The test system consists of a folded electrophoresis channel (19.0 cm long x 150 microns wide x 20 microns deep) that was photolithographically fabricated in a 10-cm-diameter glass wafer sandwich, coupled to a laser-excited confocal fluorescence detection apparatus providing subattomole sensitivity. Using a sodium dodecyl sulfate/gamma-cyclodextrin pH 10.0 carbonate electrophoresis buffer and a separation voltage of 550 V/cm at 10 degrees C, baseline resolution was observed for Val, Ala, Glu, and Asp enantiomers and Gly in only 4 min. Enantiomeric ratios were determined for amino acids extracted from the Murchison meteorite, and these values closely matched values determined by HPLC. These results demonstrate the feasibility of using microfabricated lab-on-a-chip systems to analyze extraterrestrial samples for amino acids.

  17. Simultaneous determination of five flavonoids during the growth of Fructus Sophorae by capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Li, Yu-Mei

    2013-11-01

    A method of simultaneous determination of five flavonoids during the growth of Fructus Sophorae by β-cyclodextrin (β-CD-) modified capillary zone electrophoresis was developed. The effects of various parameters such as buffer concentration, pH, applied voltage, and β-CD concentrations were investigated. After a series of optimization processes, the determination of five flavonoids in Fructus Sophorae was successfully achieved in 20 mmol/L borax buffer (pH 9.5), 25 kV applied voltage, and 8 mmol/L β-CD. The linearity, detection limits, repeatability, and recovery were satisfactory. Thus, the proposed β-CD-modified capillary zone electrophoresis method was satisfactorily used to analyze Fructus Sophorae samples. The results can be useful for the quality control and medicinal resource development of Fructus Sophorae. PMID:23604719

  18. Sterility Testing by Capillary Electrophoresis: A Comparison of On-line Preconcentration Approaches in Capillaries with Greater Internal Diameters

    PubMed Central

    Petr, Jan; Jiang, Chunxia; Sevcik, Juraj; Tesarova, Eva; Armstrong, Daniel W.

    2015-01-01

    Detection of microbial contamination is of critical importance in the medical and the food industry. Rapid tests for the absence or presence of viable microorganisms are in urgent demand. Capillary electrophoresis is a modern analytical technique that can be adapted for rapid screening of microbial contamination. However, the small dimensions of capillaries allow introduction of only a small fraction of the sample, which can be problematic when examining large samples. In this article, we examine the possibilities of introducing larger sample volumes using capillaries with greater internal diameters (i.d.) together with different stacking techniques. The use of 0.32 mm i.d. capillary and the injection of 60 % of the capillary volume led to approximately 120-fold improvement of the injected sample volume over the classical injection 5% of a 0.10 mm i.d. capillary. The setup we described opens new possibilities in sterility testing using capillary electrophoresis. PMID:19847804

  19. Sensitive detection of malachite green and crystal violet by nonlinear laser wave mixing and capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Maxwell, Eric J; Tong, William G

    2016-05-01

    An ultrasensitive label-free antibody-free detection method for malachite green and crystal violet is presented using nonlinear laser wave-mixing spectroscopy and capillary zone electrophoresis. Wave-mixing spectroscopy provides a sensitive absorption-based detection method for trace analytes. This is accomplished by forming dynamic gratings within a sample cell, which diffracts light to create a coherent laser-like signal beam with high optical efficiency and high signal-to-noise ratio. A cubic dependence on laser power and square dependence on analyte concentration make wave mixing sensitive enough to detect molecules in their native form without the use of fluorescent labels for signal enhancement. A 532 nm laser and a 635 nm laser were used for malachite green and crystal violet sample excitation. The use of two lasers of different wavelengths allows the method to simultaneously detect both analytes. Selectivity is obtained through the capillary zone electrophoresis separation, which results in characteristic migration times. Measurement in capillary zone electrophoresis resulted in a limit of detection of 6.9 × 10(-10)M (2.5 × 10(-19) mol) for crystal violet and 8.3 × 10(-11)M (3.0 × 10(-20) mol) for malachite green at S/N of 2. PMID:26998858

  20. Separation of fluorescently labeled phosphoinositides and sphingolipids by capillary electrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Kelong; Jiang, Dechen; Sims, Christopher E.; Allbritton, Nancy L.

    2012-01-01

    Phosphoinositides (PIs) and sphingolipids regulate many aspects of cell behavior and are often involved in disease processes such as oncogenesis. Capillary electrophoresis with laser induced fluorescence detection (CE-LIF) is emerging as an important tool for enzymatic assays of the metabolism of these lipids, particularly in cell-based formats. Previous separations of phosphoinositide lipids by CE required a complex buffer with polymer additives which had the disadvantages of high cost and/or short shelf life. Further a simultaneous separation of these classes of lipids has not been demonstrated in a robust buffer system. In the current work, a simple separation buffer based on NaH2PO4 and 1-propanol was optimized to separate two sphingolipids and multiple phosphoinositides by CE. The NaH2PO4 concentration, pH, 1-propanol fraction, and a surfactant additive to the buffer were individually optimized to achieve simultaneous separation of the sphingolipids and phosphoinositides. Fluorescein-labeled sphingosine (SFL) and sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1PFL), fluorescein-labeled phosphatidyl-inositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) and phosphatidyl-inositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate (PIP3), and bodipy-fluorescein (BFL)-labeled PIP2 and PIP3 were separated pairwise and in combination to demonstrate the generalizability of the method. Theoretical plate numbers achieved were as high as 2×105 in separating fluorophore-labeled PIP2 and PIP3. Detection limits for the 6 analytes were in the range of 10−18 to 10−20 mol. The method also showed high reproducibility, as the relative standard deviation of the normalized migration time for each analyte in the simultaneous separation of all 6 compounds was less than 1%. The separation of a mixture composed of diacylglycerol (DAG) and multiple phosphoinositides was also demonstrated. As a final test, fluorescent lipid metabolites formed within cells loaded with BFLPIP2 were separated from a cell lysate as well as a single cell. This simple and

  1. The characterization of snake venoms using capillary electrophoresis in conjunction with electrospray mass spectrometry: Black Mambas.

    PubMed

    Perkins, J R; Parker, C E; Tomer, K B

    1993-01-01

    Capillary electrophoresis has been used in conjunction with electrospray mass spectrometry using both full-scan and selected ion monitoring modes to supply as much information as possible about the venom of Dendroaspis polylepis polylepis (Black Mamba). As an example of the application of capillary electrophoresis/electrospray mass spectrometry (CE/ESI/MS) to the analysis of a complex mixture of small proteins, we have analyzed the venom of Dendroaspis polylepis polylepis using the combined techniques. Both full-scan and selected ion monitoring modes were employed. CE/ESI/MS provides a rapid and extremely sensitive method for molecular weight determination, particularly when selected ion monitoring is employed. It has been utilized to provide sequence confirmation for those toxins which have already been described in the literature. Our methodology indicates the presence of at least 70 peptides in the molecular weight range 6000-9000. PMID:8354229

  2. Ultrafast Capillary Electrophoresis Isolation of DNA Aptamer for the PCR Amplification-Based Small Analyte Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiore, Emmanuelle; Dausse, Eric; Dubouchaud, Hervé; Peyrin, Eric; Ravelet, Corinne

    2015-08-01

    Here, we report a new homogeneous DNA amplification-based aptamer assay for small analyte sensing. The aptamer of adenosine chosen as the model analyte was split into two fragments able to assemble in the presence of target. Primers were introduced at extremities of one fragment in order to generate the amplifiable DNA component. The amount of amplifiable fragment was quantifiable by Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) amplification and directly reliable on adenosine concentration. This approach combines the very high separation efficiency and the homogeneous format (without immobilization) of capillary electrophoresis and the sensitivity of real time PCR amplification. An ultrafast isolation of target-bound split aptamer (60 s) was developed by designing a capillary electrophoresis input/ouput scheme. Such method was successfully applied to the determination of adenosine with a LOD of 1 µM.

  3. Capillary liquid chromatography using laser-based and mass spectrometric detection. [Capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE); micellar electrokinetic capillary kchromatography (MECC)

    SciTech Connect

    Sepaniak, M.J.; Cook, K.D.

    1992-01-01

    In the years following the 1986 seminal paper (J. Chromatogr. Sci., 24, 347-352) describing modern capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE), the prominence of capillary electrokinetic separation techniques has grown. A related electrochromatographic technique is micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography (MECC). This report presents a brief synopsis of research efforts during the current 3-year period. In addition to a description of analytical separations-based research, results of efforts to develop and expand spectrometric detection for the techniques is reviewed. Laser fluorometric detection schemes have been successfully advanced. Mass spectrometric research was less fruitful, largely owing to personnel limitations. A regenerable fiber optic sensor was developed that can be used to remotely monitor chemical carcinogens, etc. (DLC)

  4. Analysis of protamine peptides in insulin pharmaceutical formulations by capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Lamalle, Caroline; Servais, Anne-Catherine; Demelenne, Alice; Crommen, Jacques; Fillet, Marianne

    2016-03-01

    Protamines are a group of highly basic peptides that are sometimes added to insulin formulations to prolong the pharmacological action. In this study, different methods were investigated to identify protamine in insulin formulations. Capillary electrophoresis in aqueous and non-aqueous media was tested to separate these peptides with very close amino acid sequences. Different buffers (phosphate or formate, both acidified) and various additives (principally negatively charged and neutral surfactants) were investigated to optimize peptide separation. Finally, a micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography method using a capillary of 120 cm effective length and an aqueous background electrolyte made up of 100 mM phosphate buffer (pH 2) and 50 mM Thesit® gave the best results, providing the separation of the four major protamine peptides within 25 min. PMID:26829340

  5. Isolating aptamers using capillary electrophoresis-SELEX (CE-SELEX).

    PubMed

    Mosing, Renee K; Bowser, Michael T

    2009-01-01

    SELEX (systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment) is a process for isolating DNA or RNA sequences with high affinity and selectivity for molecular targets from random sequence libraries. These sequences are commonly referred to as aptamers. The process typically requires 10-15 cycles of enrichment, PCR amplification and nucleic acid purification to obtain high-affinity aptamers. We have demonstrated that using capillary electrophoresis (CE) as an enrichment step greatly improves the efficiency of the process. CE-SELEX is capable of isolating high-affinity aptamers in as little as 2-4 rounds of selection, shortening the process time from several weeks to as little as a few days. PMID:19377982

  6. Cyclodextrins in capillary electrophoresis: recent developments and new trends.

    PubMed

    Escuder-Gilabert, L; Martín-Biosca, Y; Medina-Hernández, M J; Sagrado, S

    2014-08-29

    Despite the fact that extensive research in the field of separations by capillary electrophoresis (CE) has been carried out and many reviews have been published in the last years, a specific review on the use and future potential of cyclodextrins (CDs) in CE is not available. This review focuses the attention in the CD-CE topic over the January 2013-February 2014 period (not covered by previous more general CE-reviews). Recent contributions (reviews and research articles) including practical uses (e.g. solute-CD binding constant estimation and further potentials; 19% of publications), developments and applications (mainly chiral and achiral analysis; 38 and 24% of publications, respectively) are summarized in nine comprehensive tables and are commented. Statistics and predictions related to the CD-CE publications are highlighted in order to infer the current and expected research interests. Finally, trends and initiatives on CD-CE attending to real needs or practical criteria are outlined. PMID:24947884

  7. Accessing Protein Methyltransferase and Demethylase Enzymology Using Microfluidic Capillary Electrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Wigle, Tim J.; Provencher, Laurel M.; Norris, Jacqueline L.; Jin, Jian; Brown, Peter J.; Frye, Stephen V.; Janzen, William P.

    2010-01-01

    Summary The discovery of small molecules targeting the > 80 enzymes that add (methyltransferases) or remove (demethylases) methyl marks from lysine and arginine residues, most notably present in histone tails, may yield unprecedented chemotherapeutic agents and facilitate regenerative medicine. To better enable chemical exploration of these proteins, we have developed a novel and highly quantitative microfluidic capillary electrophoresis assay to enable full mechanistic studies of these enzymes and the kinetics of their inhibition. This technology separates small biomolecules, i.e., peptides, based on their charge-to-mass ratio. Methylation, however, does not alter the charge of peptide substrates. To overcome this limitation, we have employed a methylation-sensitive endoproteinase strategy to separate methylated from unmethylated peptides. The assay was validated on a lysine methyltransferase (G9a) and a lysine demethylase (LSD1) and was employed to investigate the inhibition of G9a by small molecules. PMID:20659682

  8. Recent advances in affinity capillary electrophoresis for binding studies.

    PubMed

    Albishri, Hassan M; El Deeb, Sami; AlGarabli, Noura; AlAstal, Raghda; Alhazmi, Hassan A; Nachbar, Markus; El-Hady, Deia Abd; Wätzig, Hermann

    2014-01-01

    The present review covers recent advances and important applications of affinity capillary electrophoresis (ACE). It provides an overview about various ACE types, including ACE-MS, the multiple injection mode, the use of microchips and field-amplified sample injection-ACE. The most common scenarios of the studied affinity interactions are protein-drug, protein-metal ion, protein-protein, protein-DNA, protein-carbohydrate, carbohydrate-drug, peptide-peptide, DNA-drug and antigen-antibody. Approaches for the improvements of ACE in term of precision, rinsing protocols and sensitivity are discussed. The combined use of computer simulation programs to support data evaluation is presented. In conclusion, the performance of ACE is compared with other techniques such as equilibrium dialysis, parallel artificial membrane permeability assay, high-performance affinity chromatography as well as surface plasmon resonance, ultraviolet, circular dichroism, nuclear magnetic resonance, Fourier transform infrared, fluorescence, MS and isothermal titration calorimetry. PMID:25534793

  9. Microchip capillary electrophoresis based electroanalysis of triazine herbicides.

    PubMed

    Islam, Kamrul; Chand, Rohit; Han, Dawoon; Kim, Yong-Sang

    2015-01-01

    The number of pesticides used in agriculture is increasing steadily, leading to contamination of soil and drinking water. Herein, we present a microfluidic platform to detect the extent of contamination in soil samples. A microchip capillary electrophoresis system with in-channel electrodes was fabricated for label-free electroanalytical detection of triazine herbicides. The sample mixture contained three representative triazines: simazine, atrazine and ametryn. The electropherogram for each individual injection of simazine, atrazine and ametryn showed peaks at 58, 66 and 72 s whereas a mixture of them showed distinct peaks at 59, 67 and 71 s respectively. The technique as such may prove to be a useful qualitative and quantitative tool for the similar environmental pollutants. PMID:25231112

  10. Study of capillary electrophoresis chip with conductivity detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Wang; Li, Tian; Liu, Xiao-wei; Lei, Xuan

    2006-04-01

    Microchip electrophoresis technique have been developed fully these years, especially the detection methods have been the research focuses. With the help of MEMS technique, the system integrating function are more and more. This paper presented a novel design and fabrication method about this electrophoresis chip with the detection electrodes. The two-layer structure, one is PDMS substrate to fabricate the electrophoresis microchannel, the other is the glass substrate with the Pt electrodes, are bonded together. The soft lithography with the two molds is developed to accommodate the PDMS curing and peeling off. Then the inorganic cation Cu 2+ is introduced and tested the project feasibility. All these works are laid a stable foundation for the chip appliance.

  11. Determination of acid dissociation constant of 20 coumarin derivatives by capillary electrophoresis using the amine capillary and two different methodologies.

    PubMed

    Nowak, Paweł Mateusz; Woźniakiewicz, Michał; Piwowarska, Monika; Kościelniak, Paweł

    2016-05-13

    In this work capillary electrophoresis has been used to determine acid dissociation constant of 20 structurally diverse coumarin derivatives. For a majority of compounds pKa value has been determined for the first time. The obtained values vary between 4.16-9.10pH unit, pointing to the interesting structure-acidity relationships. The amine permanently coated capillary has been applied for that purpose, because it has turned out to be more effective in pKa determination than the bare silica and other coated capillaries, ensuring good precision and shorter migration times. A traditional methodology relying on measurements in a broad pH range and fitting of a sigmoidal function has been compared to an alternative simplified approach, reported for the first time, where only two electrophoretic mobility values suffice for pKa estimation. The first value corresponds to the partially ionized form and it is measured experimentally, while the second one to the totally ionized form - it is measured experimentally (two-values method) or estimated directly from molecular mass (one-value method). We show that despite a limited measurements number, the alternative approach may be consistent with the traditional methodology, yielding the relatively low pKa deviation. Its reliability has also been confirmed by the analytical predictions, comprising resolution, migration order, migration times and peaks overlapping. Therefore, combination of the amine capillary with the simplified calculation method is an attractive tool for fast and reliable pKa estimation. PMID:27083264

  12. Capillary electrophoresis of small ssDNA molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopecka, Katerina; Slater, Gary W.; Drouin, Guy

    2004-03-01

    Recently, the electrophoretic separation of small ssDNA fragments (bellow 250 bases) has attracted a lot of attention because of applications related to Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms. In order to optimize these systems, we require a better understanding of DNA migration behavior in this size range. While the reptation model provides an excellent understanding of the dynamics of long DNA fragments in gel electrophoresis, the properties of small DNA fragments has not been studied extensively yet. At least three theoretical formulas have been proposed to explain the mobility of short ssDNA molecules in this regime. Specifically, the Ogston regime was introduced for small molecules having radii-of-gyration comparable to or smaller than the pore size of the sieving matrix. We introduce these three different formulas and discuss how their free parameters are related to actual physical parameters. We then test these formulas with new data obtained by capillary electrophoresis in our laboratory using poly(dimethylacrylamide) sieving matrices. Our results show that all three formulas provide decent fits, and that their fitting parameters are consistent with one another. This is the first step towards the development of a systematic approach to optimizing sequencing systems for this size range.

  13. Capillary zone electrophoresis for analysis of complex proteomes using an electrokinetically pumped sheath flow nanospray interface

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Liangliang; Zhu, Guijie; Yan, Xiaojing; Champion, Mathew M.

    2014-01-01

    The vast majority of proteomic studies employ reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry for analysis of the tryptic digest of a cellular lysate. This technology is quite mature, and typically provides identification of hundreds to thousands of peptides, which is used to infer the identity of hundreds to thousands of proteins. These approaches usually require milligrams to micrograms of starting material. Capillary zone electrophoresis provides an interesting alternative separation method based on a different separation mechanism than HPLC. Capillary electrophoresis received some attention for protein analysis beginning 25 years ago. Those efforts stalled because of the limited performance of the electrospray interfaces and the limited speed and sensitivity of mass spectrometers of that era. This review considers a new electrospray interface design coupled with Orbitrap Velos and linear Q-trap mass spectrometers. Capillary zone electrophoresis coupled with this interface and these detectors provides single shot detection of >1,250 peptides from an E. coli digest in less than one hour, identification of nearly 5,000 peptides from analysis of seven fractions produced by solid-phase extraction of the E. coli digest in a six hour total analysis time, low attomole detection limits for peptides generated from standard proteins, and high zeptomole detection limits for selected ion monitoring of peptides. Incorporation of an integrated on-line immobilized trypsin microreactor allows digestion and analysis of picogram amounts of a complex eukaryotic proteome. PMID:24277677

  14. Novel separation and detection methods of DNA fragments in electrophoresis

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, King Cheung

    1993-01-27

    A charge-coupled device (CCD) based electrophoresis system was developed. The system allowed non-destructive, sensitive, and on-line detection of native DNA in slab-gel electrophoresis via ultraviolet absorption measurement. The detection limit of double-stranded DNA fragment was 5 ng per band. Since the amount of DNA used in this experiment was typical, the CCD-based system could be readily implemented in molecular biology. Gel-filled and non-gel sieving capillary electrophoresis was developed for rapid and efficient separation of double-stranded DNA fragments. For the gel-filled CE separation a new gel matrix, the HydroLink gel (HL), was used. The HL capillary gel was easier to cast than the polyacrylamide capillary gel. For the non-gel separation, a GC capillary was used as the separation chamber, and cellulose additive was included in the electrophoresis as the sieving medium. Indirect fluorometry was applied in non-gel and gel electrophoresis for the detection of DNA fragments. This method allowed non-destructive and on-line detection of DNA during electrophoresis. The amount of DNA used with this method was comparable to those obtained with absorption measurement.

  15. Novel separation and detection methods of DNA fragments in electrophoresis

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, K.C.

    1992-01-01

    A charge-coupled device (CCD) based electrophoresis system was developed. The system allowed non-destructive, sensitive, and on-line detection of native DNA in slab-gel electrophoresis via ultraviolet absorption measurement. The detection limit of double-stranded DNA fragment was 5 ng per band. Since the amount of DNA used in this experiment was typical, the CCD-based system could be readily implemented in molecular biology. Gel-filled and non-gel sieving capillary electrophoresis (CE) was developed for rapid and efficient separation of double-stranded DNA fragments. For the gel-filled CE separation a new gel matrix, the HydroLink gel (HL), was used. The HL capillary gel was easier to cast than the polyacrylamide capillary gel. For the non-gel separation, a GC capillary was used as the separation chamber, and cellulose additive was included in the electrophoresis as the sieving medium. Indirect fluorometry was applied in non-gel and gel electrophoresis for the detection of DNA fragments. This method allowed nondestructive and on-line detection of DNA during electrophoresis. The amount of DNA used with this method was comparable to those obtained with absorption measurement.

  16. Protein Cross-Linking Capillary Electrophoresis for Protein-Protein Interaction Analysis.

    PubMed

    Ouimet, Claire M; Shao, Hao; Rauch, Jennifer N; Dawod, Mohamed; Nordhues, Bryce; Dickey, Chad A; Gestwicki, Jason E; Kennedy, Robert T

    2016-08-16

    Capillary electrophoresis (CE) has been identified as a useful platform for detecting, quantifying, and screening for modulators of protein-protein interactions (PPIs). In this method, one protein binding partner is labeled with a fluorophore, the protein binding partners are mixed, and then, the complex is separated from free protein to allow direct determination of bound to free ratios. Although it possesses many advantages for PPI studies, the method is limited by the need to have separation conditions that both prevent protein adsorption to capillary and maintain protein interactions during the separation. In this work, we use protein cross-linking capillary electrophoresis (PXCE) to overcome this limitation. In PXCE, the proteins are cross-linked under binding conditions and then separated. This approach eliminates the need to maintain noncovalent interactions during electrophoresis and facilitates method development. We report PXCE methods for an antibody-antigen interaction and heterodimer and homodimer heat shock protein complexes. Complexes are cross-linked by short treatments with formaldehyde after reaching binding equilibrium. Cross-linked complexes are separated by electrophoretic mobility using free solution CE or by size using sieving electrophoresis of SDS complexes. The method gives good quantitative results; e.g., a lysozyme-antibody interaction was found to have Kd = 24 ± 3 nM by PXCE and Kd = 17 ± 2 nM using isothermal calorimetry (ITC). Heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) in complex with bcl2 associated athanogene 3 (Bag3) was found to have Kd = 25 ± 5 nM by PXCE which agrees with Kd values reported without cross-linking. Hsp70-Bag3 binding site mutants and small molecule inhibitors of Hsp70-Bag3 were characterized by PXCE with good agreement to inhibitory constants and IC50 values obtained by a bead-based flow cytometry protein interaction assay (FCPIA). PXCE allows rapid method development for quantitative analysis of PPIs. PMID:27434096

  17. Single-drop microextraction as a powerful pretreatment tool for capillary electrophoresis: A review.

    PubMed

    AlOthman, Zeid A; Dawod, Mohamed; Kim, Jihye; Chung, Doo Soo

    2012-08-20

    Single drop microextraction (SDME) is a convenient and powerful preconcentration and sample cleanup method for capillary electrophoresis (CE). In SDME, analytes are typically extracted from a sample donor solution into an acceptor drop hanging at the inlet tip of a capillary. The enriched drop is then introduced to the capillary for CE analysis. Since the volume of the acceptor drop can be as small as a few nanoliters, the consumption of solvents can be minimized and the preconcentration effect is enhanced. In addition, by covering the acceptor phase with an organic layer or by using an organic acceptor phase, inorganic ions such as salts in the sample solution can be blocked from entering the acceptor phase, providing desalting effects. Here, we describe the basic principles and instrumentation for SDME and its coupling with CE. We also review recent developments and applications of SDME-CE. PMID:22819045

  18. Reverse injection capillary electrophoresis UV detection for serotonin quantification in human whole blood.

    PubMed

    Zinellu, Angelo; Sotgia, Salvatore; Deiana, Luca; Carru, Ciriaco

    2012-05-01

    We describe the first capillary electrophoresis UV detection method to measure serotonin in human whole blood (WB). Procedural parameters such as concentration and pH of run buffer and injection mode were investigated. The reverse injection allows to decrease the analysis time by injecting samples at the outlet end of the silica capillary close to the detection window, so reducing the migration distance. Thus, when a capillary with an effective length of 10 cm and a 400 mmol/L Tris phosphate as background electrolyte at pH 3.25 was used, the migration time of the serotonin peak was 2.6 min. These conditions gave a good reproducibility of migration times (CV, 0.77%) and peak areas (CV, 2.44%). Intra- and inter-assay CV were 3.85% and 7.32%, respectively, and the analytical recovery was between 96.8% and 99.4%. PMID:22497835

  19. [Development of analytical technologies for human genomic DNA using capillary electrophoresis and their applications].

    PubMed

    Baba, Y

    1997-05-01

    Capillary electrophoretic systems equipped with a multi-color detectable laser-induced fluorescent DNA detector (CE-LIF) were developed. We examined the efficiency and the performance of the CE-LIF systems for the high-speed DNA sequencing and DNA diagnosis for human diseases. The effect of the gel composition, electric field strength, and capillary length on the separation of DNA sequencing reaction product was investigated in order to achieve high-speed DNA sequencing for large-scale sequencing in the Human Genome Project. The CE-LIF system is successfully applied to ultrafast cDNA sequencing for human and yeast genomes. Under optimum separation conditions, only 10 min is required to sequence 300 base DNA. A polymer solution of cellulose derivative was utilized as a sieving medium for the CE-LIF system and gave excellent resolution of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplified polymorphic loci on the human genome. The CE-LIF system is successfully applied to the DNA diagnosis for cancers through CA repeat analysis of human D8S 1218 locus, heart diseases through VNTR (variable number of tandem repeat) analysis of human apolipoprotein B gene and Alzheimer's disease through RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism) analysis of human apolipoprotein E gene with high-speed and high resolution. Capillary affinity gel electrophoresis was developed as a new technique for the recognition of the specific DNA base and/or sequence. This technology is also applicable to the characterization of binding properties of DNA based drugs. The principle, the theory, and the methods of capillary affinity gel electrophoresis are presented. This technique is applied to the determination of association constants between an affinity ligand and oligonucleotides. The great potential of capillary affinity gel electrophoresis for the detection of the mutation on DNA is illustrated. PMID:9194395

  20. Capillary electrophoresis as a screening tool for alpha amylase inhibitors in plant extracts

    PubMed Central

    Hamdan, Imad I.; Afifi, Fatima U.

    2010-01-01

    Capillary electrophoresis (CE) method was developed for screening plant extract for potential alpha amylase (AA) inhibitory activity. The method was validated against a well established UV method. Overall, the proposed method was shown able to detect plants with significant alpha amylase inhibitory activity but not those with rather clinically insignificant activities. Fifty plant species were screened using both the proposed CE method and the UV method and seven plant species were found to possess significant AA inhibitory activities. Two plant species were proved to have alpha amylase inhibitory activity for the first time. PMID:24115900

  1. SIMULTANEOUS DETECTION OF S-ADENOSYLMETHIONINE AND S-ADENOSYLHOMOCYSTEINE IN MOUSE AND RAT TISSUES BY CAPILLARY ELECTROPHORESIS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A capillary electrophoresis method for the determination of S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) and S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH) in rat liver and kidney and mouse liver is described. The method can also be used to determine SAM in whole blood. The method provides rapid (approximately 16 min sample to sample)...

  2. On-line wall-free cell for laser-induced fluorescence detection in capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chang-Zhu; He, You-Zhao; Xie, Hai-Yang; Gao, Yong; Gan, Wu-Er; Li, Jun

    2009-05-15

    A wall-free detection method based on liquid junction in a capillary gap was proposed for laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) of capillary electrophoresis (CE). The capillary gap of the wall-free cell was fabricated by etching a 10-mm x 50-microm I.D. fused-silica capillary to obtain a polyimide coating sleeve, decoating about 6mm at one end of both 50 microm I.D. separation and liquid junction capillary, inserting the treated capillary ends into the coating sleeve oppositely, fixing the capillaries with a gap distance of 140 microm by epoxy glue and removing the coating sleeve by burning. The theoretical model, experimental results and wall-free cell images indicated that the gap distance and applied voltage were main influence factors on the wall-free detection. Since the wall-free cell increased the absorption light path and avoided the stray light from the capillary wall, it improved the ratio of signal to noise and limit of detection (LOD) of CE-LIF. Three flavin compounds of riboflavin (RF), flavin mononucleotide sodium (FMN) and flavin adenine dinucleotide disodium (FAD) were used to evaluate the wall-free detection method. Compared with on-column cell, the LODs of the wall-free cell were improved 15-, 6- and 9-fold for RF, FMN and FAD, respectively. The linear calibration concentrations of the flavins ranged from 0.005 to 5.0 micromol/L. The column efficiency was in the range from 1.0 x 10(5) to 2.5 x 10(5) plates. The wall-free detection of CE-LIF was applied to the analysis of the flavins in spinach and lettuce leaves. PMID:19329123

  3. Determination of purity degree and counter-ion content in lecirelin by capillary zone electrophoresis and capillary isotachophoresis.

    PubMed

    Sázelová, Petra; Kasicka, Václav; Solínová, Veronika; Koval, Dusan

    2006-09-01

    Capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) and capillary isotachophoresis (CITP) were applied for the determination of peptide purity degree and counter-ion content in lecirelin, the synthetic analogue of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH). CZE analyses were carried out in acidic background electrolyte (100 mM H3PO4, 50 mM Tris, pH 2.25) in bare fused silica capillary using UV-absorption detection at 206 nm. CITP analyses were performed in the electrophoretic analyzer with column coupling, equipped with contactless conductivity detectors both in preseparation capillary and in analytical capillary, and with UV-absorption detector (220 and 254 nm) in analytical capillary. Determinations of peptide purity were carried out in cationic mode with leading electrolyte (LE), 10 mM KOH/AcOH, pH 4.5, and terminating electrolyte (TE), 10 mM beta-alanine (BALA)/AcOH, pH 4.4. Degree of peptide purity determined by both CZE and CITP was in the range 60.1-80.9% for crude preparations of lecirelin and in the range 96.4-99.9% for HPLC purified batches. Concentrations of contaminating counter-ions, the anions of trifluoromethanesulfonic acid (TFMSA), trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) and acetic acid (AcOH), were determined by CITP analyses in anionic mode with LE 10 mM HCl/His, pH 6.0, and TE 10 mM 2-(N-morpholino)-ethanesulfonic acid (MES), pH 4.0, by the calibration curve method. Mass percentages of the counterion contents in the analyzed lecirelin batches varied from zero to ca. 9% (TFMSA), 3% (TFA) and 11% (AcOH), respectively. PMID:16687256

  4. Recent advances in enhancing the sensitivity of electrophoresis and electrochromatography in capillaries and microchips (2012-2014).

    PubMed

    Breadmore, Michael C; Tubaon, Ria Marni; Shallan, Aliaa I; Phung, Sui Ching; Abdul Keyon, Aemi S; Gstoettenmayr, Daniel; Prapatpong, Pornpan; Alhusban, Ala A; Ranjbar, Leila; See, Hong Heng; Dawod, Mohamed; Quirino, Joselito P

    2015-01-01

    One of the most cited limitations of capillary (and microchip) electrophoresis is the poor sensitivity. This review continues to update this series of biannual reviews, first published in Electrophoresis in 2007, on developments in the field of on-line/in-line concentration methods, covering the period July 2012-July 2014. It includes developments in the field of stacking, covering all methods from field-amplified sample stacking and large-volume sample stacking, through to ITP, dynamic pH junction, and sweeping. Attention is also given to on-line or in-line extraction methods that have been used for electrophoresis. PMID:25330057

  5. Monitoring refolding of tailspike endorhamnosidase using capillary electrophoresis-laser induced tryptophan fluorescence

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, P.K.; Lee, Cheng S.; King, J.A.

    1997-12-31

    The use of capillary electrophoresis equipped with laser-induced tryptophan fluorescence detection is presented for monitoring the refolding pathway of phage P22 tailspike endorhamnosidase. Upon initiation of refolding, tailspike polypeptides rapidly fold into structured monomeric intermediates with a high content of secondary structure. These monomeric species associate to form the triple-chain defined folding intermediates, the protrimers. Conversion of the protrimer into the native, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) resistant tailspike protein is the rate-limiting step in the refolding pathway. Refolding kinetics and yield measured by capillary electrophoresis are in good agreement with those obtained via native gel electrophoresis, SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and fluorescence spectrophotometry. To enhance separation resolution between protrimer and native protein in capillary electrophoresis, the use of poly(ethylene oxide) is investigated for the introduction of a sieving separation mechanism. The increased viscosity of the electrophoresis buffer may also play a role in resolution enhancement.

  6. Capillary electrophoresis: Imaging of electroosmotic and pressure driven flow profiles in fused silica capillaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, George O., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    This study is a continuation of the summer of 1994 NASA/ASEE Summer Faculty Fellowship Program. This effort is a portion of the ongoing work by the Biophysics Branch of the Marshall Space Flight Center. The work has focused recently on the separation of macromolecules using capillary electrophoresis (CE). Two primary goals were established for the effort this summer. First, we wanted to use capillary electrophoresis to study the electrohydrodynamics of a sample stream. Secondly, there was a need to develop a methodology for using CE for separation of DNA molecules of various sizes. In order to achieve these goals we needed to establish a procedure for detection of a sample plug under the influence of an electric field Detection of the sample with the microscope and image analysis system would be helpful in studying the electrohydrodynamics of this stream under load. Videotaping this process under the influence of an electric field in real time would also be useful. Imaging and photography of the sample/background electrolyte interface would be vital to this study. Finally, detection and imaging of electroosmotic flow and pressure driven flow must be accomplished.

  7. Application of capillary electrophoresis to anion speciation in soil water extracts: 2. Arsenic

    SciTech Connect

    Naidu, R.; Smith, J.; McLaren, R.G.; Stevens, D.P.; Sumner, M.E.; Jackson, P.E.

    2000-02-01

    A method has been developed for the speciation of arsenic (AsO{sub 2}{sup {minus}}, AsO{sub 4}{sup 3{minus}}, and dimethylarsinic [DMA]) in natural soil solutions from contaminated sites in Australia. The separation of these anions was achieved by capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) using a fused silica capillary with a basic chromate buffer and on-column indirect UV detection at 254 nm. Method parameters, such as electrolyte pH, run voltage, and capillary temperature were studied in order to establish suitable analytical conditions. The ideal separation for As(III) and DMA was achieved with a buffer pH of 8.0, a run voltage of 25 kV, and a capillary temperature of 30 C. Under these conditions, As(V) and orthophosphate ions comigrated. However, the use of a chromate buffer at pH 10, a run voltage of 20 kV, and capillary temperature of 20 C led to complete separation of As(V) and phosphate peaks. Results of these investigations together with recovery test data suggest that separation of the As species from soil solutions can be achieved in less than 5 min with detection limits of 0.50, 0.10, and 0.10 mg L{sup {minus}1} for As(III), As(V), and DMA, respectively.

  8. Screening and identification of familial defective apolipoprotein B-100 in clinical samples by capillary gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, R; Koch, M; Pfohl, M; Voelter, W; Häring, H U; Liebich, H M

    1996-09-13

    Familial defective apolipoprotein B-100 (FDB) is a dominantly inherited disorder. It is characterized by a decreased affinity of low density lipoprotein (LDL) for the LDL receptor, as a consequence of a substitution of adenine by guanine in exon 26 of the apolipoprotein B-100 gene, coding for the putative LDL receptor-binding domain of the mature protein. This disorder is associated with a strikingly high incidence of arteriosclerosis and tends to cause disease and premature death. In this communication we describe a rapid capillary gel electrophoretic method in combination with molecular biology techniques to facilitate the diagnosis of FDB. Mutation screening for FDB is performed by an allele-specific amplification followed by capillary gel electrophoresis (CGE). For the combined polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-CGE method, a total analysis time of only 3 h is needed, a period that is normally necessary for the run and for staining of the gel only, not including the time for PCR, gel casting, etc. In our pilot study 4 of 43 hypercholesterolemic patients were found to have the predominant apoB 3500 codon mutation. The verification is demonstrated by DNA-sequencing. This pilot study will be followed by a large cohort analysis of the south-west German population to determine the frequency of FDB in this area. The PCR-CGE method on the Dionex capillary electrophoresis system (CES I) allows rapid, fully automated detection of the mutation resulting in the unequivocal diagnosis of FDB. PMID:8843667

  9. A simple and fast method for chlorsulfuron and metsulfuron methyl determination in water samples using multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Springer, Valeria H; Lista, Adriana G

    2010-11-15

    A new method to determine metsulfuron methyl (MSM) and chlorsulfuron (CS) in different water samples was developed. It consists in a solid phase extraction (SPE) procedure using multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) as sorbent material in combination with capillary zone electrophoretic determination. To carry out the pre-concentration step, a simple flow injection system was developed and optimized. Thus, 250 μL of aqueous solution containing methanol 50% (v/v) and acetonitrile 2% (v/v) as eluent, 10 mL of sample and a flow rate of 1.15 mL min(-1) were selected. The CE variables also were optimized. A rapid determination and good resolution of two herbicides were obtained within 9 min using a simple electrophoretic buffer (50 mmol L(-1) sodium tetraborate with 3% of methanol, pH=9.0). Under the optimum conditions, the calibration curves were linear between 0.5 and 6 μg L(-1) for MSM and CS with R(2)=0.995 and 0.997, respectively. The repeatability of the proposed method, expressed as relative standard deviation (RSD), varied between 4.1% and 5.4% (n=10) and the detection limits for MSM and CS were 0.40 and 0.36 μg L(-1), respectively. Good results were achieved when the proposed method was applied to spiked real water samples. The recoveries percentages of the two analytes were over the range 86-108%. PMID:21035652

  10. Band broadening of DNA fragments isolated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Kaneta, Takashi; Ogura, Takehito; Yamato, Shuhei; Imasaka, Totaro

    2012-02-01

    Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) is used frequently for isolation and purification of DNA fragments. In the present study, DNA fragments extracted from polyacrylamide gels showed significant band broadening in capillary electrophoresis (CE). A pHY300PLK (a shuttle vector functioning in Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis) marker, which contained nine fragments ranging from 80 to 4870 bp, was separated by PAGE, and each fragment was isolated by phenol/chloroform extraction and ethanol precipitation. After extraction from the polyacrylamide gel, the peaks of the isolated DNA fragments exhibited band broadening in CE, where a linear poly(ethylene oxide) was used as a sieving matrix. The theoretical plate numbers of the DNA fragments contained in the pHY300PLK marker were >10(6) for all the fragments before extraction. However, the DNA fragments extracted from the polyacrylamide gel showed decreased theoretical plate numbers (5-20 times smaller). The degradation of the theoretical plate number was significant for middle sizes of the DNA fragments ranging from 489 to 1360 bp, whereas the largest and smallest fragments (80 and 4870 bp) had no obvious influence. The band broadening was attributed to contamination of the DNA fragments by polyacrylamide fibers during the separation and extraction process. PMID:22258810

  11. Raman spectroscopy and capillary electrophoresis applied to forensic colour inkjet printer inks analysis.

    PubMed

    Król, Małgorzata; Karoly, Agnes; Kościelniak, Paweł

    2014-09-01

    Forensic laboratories are increasingly engaged in the examination of fraudulent documents, and what is important, in many cases these are inkjet-printed documents. That is why systematic approaches to inkjet printer inks comparison and identification have been carried out by both non-destructive and destructive methods. In this study, micro-Raman spectroscopy and capillary electrophoresis (CE) were applied to the analysis of colour inkjet printer inks. Micro-Raman spectroscopy was used to study the chemical composition of colour inks in situ on a paper surface. It helps to characterize and differentiate inkjet inks, and can be used to create a spectra database of inks taken from different cartridge brands and cartridge numbers. Capillary electrophoresis in micellar electrophoretic capillary chromatography mode was applied to separate colour and colourless components of inks, enabling group identification of those components which occur in a sufficient concentration (giving intensive peaks). Finally, on the basis of the obtained results, differentiation of the analysed inks was performed. Twenty-three samples of inkjet printer inks were examined and the discriminating power (DP) values for both presented methods were established in the routine work of experts during the result interpretation step. DP was found to be 94.0% (Raman) and 95.6% (CE) when all the analysed ink samples were taken into account, and it was 96.7% (Raman) and 98.4% (CE), when only cartridges with different index numbers were considered. PMID:25062531

  12. Chiral separation of benzoporphyrin derivative mono- and diacids by laser induced fluorescence-capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Peng, Xuejun; Sternberg, Ethan; Dolphin, David

    2002-01-01

    A method for the separation of benzoporphyrin derivative mono- and diacid (BPDMA, BPDDA) enantiomers by laser induced fluorescence-capillary electrophoresis (LIF-CE) has been developed. By using 300 mM borate buffer, pH 9.2, 25 mM sodium cholate and 10% acetronitrile as electrolyte, +10 kV electrokinetic sampling injection of 2 s and an applied +20 kV voltage across the ends of a 37 cm capillary (30 cm to the detector, 50 microm ID), all six BPD stereoisomers were baseline-separated within 20 min. Formation constants, free electrophoretic and complexation mobilities with borate and cholate were determined based on dynamic complexation capillary electrophoresis theory. The BPD enantiomers can be quantitatively determined in the range of 10(-2)-10(-5) mg mL(-1). The correlation coefficients (r2) of the least-squares linear regression analysis of the BPD enantiomers are in the range of 0.9914-0.9997. Their limits of detection are 2.18-3.5 x 10(-3) mg mL(-1). The relative standard deviations for the separation were 2.90-4.64% (n = 10). In comparison with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), CE has better resolution and efficiency. This separation method was successfully applied to the BPD enantiomers obtained from a matrix of bovine serum and from liposomally formulated material as well as from studies with rat, dog and human microsomes. PMID:11824627

  13. Study of the Electrophoretic Behavior of Cephalosporins by Capillary Zone Electrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Hancu, Gabriel; Sasebeşi, Adina; Rusu, Aura; Kelemen, Hajnal; Ciurba, Adriana

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the study was the characterization of the electrophoretic behavior of cephalosporins from different generation having different structural characteristics in order to develop a rapid, simple and efficient capillary electrophoretic method for their identification and simultaneous separation from complex mixtures. Methods: Ten cephalosporin derivatives (cefaclor, cefadroxil, cefalexin, cefazolin, cefoxitin, cefuroxime, cefoperazone, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone) were analyzed by capillary zone electrophoresis using different background electrolyte solutions at different pH values. Electrophoretic mobilities of the analytes were calculated, the influence of the electrophoretic parameteres on the separation was established and the analytical conditions were optimized. Results: Taking into consideration their structural and chemical properties cephalosporins can be detected over a pH range between 6 and 10. The best results were obtained using a buffer solution containing 25 mM disodium hydrogenophosphate - 25 mM sodium dihydrogenophosphate, at a pH – 7.00, + 25 kV voltage at a temperature of 25 °C, UV detection at 210 nm. Using the optimized analytical conditions we achieved the simultaneous baseline separation for seven cephalosporins in less then 10 minutes. Conclusion: Using the described optimized electrophoretic procedures, capillary electrophoresis can be used for the identification and determination of cephalosporins in formulated pharmaceutical products and for their separation from complex mixtures. PMID:26236661

  14. Capillary electrophoresis to quantitate gossypol enantiomers in cotton flower petals and seed.

    PubMed

    Vshivkov, Sergey; Pshenichnov, Egor; Golubenko, Zamira; Akhunov, Alik; Namazov, Shadman; Stipanovic, Robert D

    2012-11-01

    Gossypol is a toxic compound that occurs as a mixture of enantiomers in cotton plant tissues including seed and flower petals. The (-)-enantiomer is more toxic to non-ruminant animals. Efforts to breed cottonseed with a low percentage of (-)-gossypol requires determination of the (+)- to (-)-gossypol ratio in seed and flower petals. We report a method to quantitatively determine the total gossypol and percent of its enantiomers in cotton tissues using high performance capillary electrophoresis (HPCE). The method utilizes a borate buffer at pH 9.3 using a capillary with internal diameter of 50μm, effective length of 24.5cm, 15kV and cassette temperature of 15°C. This method provides high accuracy and reproducible results with a limit of detection of the individual enantiomers of less than 36ng/mL providing base line separation in less than 6min. PMID:23122406

  15. Combining Capillary Electrophoresis with Mass Spectrometry for Applications in Proteomics

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, David C.; Smith, Richard D.

    2005-04-01

    Throughout the field of global proteomics, ranging from simple organism studies to human medical applications, the high sample complexity creates demands for improved separations and analysis techniques. Furthermore, with increased organism complexity, the correlation between proteome and genome becomes less certain due to extensive mRNA processing prior to translation. In this way, the same DNA sequence can potentially code for regions in a number of distinct proteins; quantitative differences in expression (or abundance) between these often-related species are of significant interest. Well-established proteomics techniques, which use genomic information to identify peptides that originate from protease digestion, often cannot easily distinguish between such gene products; intact protein-level analyses are required to complete the picture, particularly for identifying post-translational modifications. While chromatographic techniques are currently better suited to peptide analysis, capillary electrophoresis (CE) in combination with mass spectrometry (MS) may become important for intact protein analysis. This review focuses on CE/MS instrumentation and techniques showing promise for such applications, highlighting those with greatest potential. Reference will also be made to developments relevant to peptide-level analyses for use in time- or sample-limited situations.

  16. Capillary electrophoresis of sialylated oligosaccharides in milk from different species.

    PubMed

    Monti, Lucia; Cattaneo, Tiziana Maria Piera; Orlandi, Mario; Curadi, Maria Claudia

    2015-08-28

    Oligosaccharides are relevant components of human milk, which have been quite well studied for their pre-biotic effect and their capacity in stimulating the immune system. Since oligosaccharides from milk of non-human mammals received so far less attention, the aim of this work was the application of capillary electrophoresis (CE) for the analysis of sialylated oligosaccharides in cow, goat and equine (mare and donkey) milk to possibly identify potential sources of oligosaccharides to use as health promoting ingredients in functional foods. Human milk was used as reference milk. A recent CE technique was applied to resolve and quantify 3-sialyllactose (3-SL), 6-sialyllactose (6-SL) and disialyl-lacto-N-tetraose (DSLNT). Analysis of non-human milk samples confirmed differences among species and individuals: DSLNT, which was the most abundant compound in human milk (455-805μg/mL) was missing in most of the samples. In most cases, 3-SL showed to be the most concentrated of the quantified analytes, with values ranging from 12 to 77μg/mL. PMID:26228851

  17. Capillary electrophoresis microchip detecting system based on embedded optical fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Weiping; Li, Yuanyuan; Ma, Lingzhi

    2007-12-01

    Microchip capillary electrophoresis(CE) has been recognized as a powerful tool for biochemical analyses due to its smaller size, faster separation and lower sample requirement. According to the principle of laser-induced fluorescence, the detecting system of CE microchip embedded optical fiber is discussed in this paper as well as its small volume and simple detection optical circuit. The system was composed with semiconductor laser (532nm), high voltage control system, photon counter, PC and CE chip embedded optical fibers. With the constructed detection system, different samples and different concentrations were detected, including Rhodamine B, Rhodamine 6G, and mingling solution of Rhodamine B and Rhodamine 6G. The lowest detected concentration is 1×10 -6mol/L for Rhodamine B, and 1×10 -5mol/L for Rhodamine 6G, respectively. The separation of the mingling solution of Rhodamine B and Rhodamine 6G was completed, whose concentration were both about 1×10 -4mol/L. The results show that the constructed detection system possesses some advantages, such as compact structure, higher sensitivity and repetition, which are beneficial to the development of microminiaturization and integration of micro CE chip.

  18. Capillary Electrophoresis-Based Assay of Phosphofructokinase-1

    PubMed Central

    Malina, Andrew; Bryant, Sherrisse K.; Chang, Simon H.; Waldrop, Grover L.; Gilman, S. Douglass

    2013-01-01

    An assay was developed for phosphofructokinase-1 (PFK-1) using capillary electrophoresis (CE). In the glycolytic pathway, this enzyme catalyzes the rate-limiting step from fructose-6-phosphate and magnesium-bound adenosine triphosphate (Mg-ATP) to fructose-1,6-bisphosphate and magnesium-bound adenosine diphosphate (Mg-ADP). This enzyme has recently become a research target because of the importance of glycolysis in cancer and obesity. The CE assay for PFK-1 is based on the separation and detection by UV absorbance at 260 nm of Mg-ATP and Mg-ADP. The separation was enhanced by addition of Mg2+ to the separation buffer. Inhibition studies of PFK-1 by aurintricarboxylic acid and palmitoyl coenzyme A were also performed. An IC50 value was determined for aurintricarboxylic acid, and this value matched values in the literature obtained using coupled spectrophotometric assays. This assay for PFK-1 directly monitors the enzyme-catalyzed reaction, and the CE separation reduces the potential of spectral interference by inhibitors. PMID:24444856

  19. APPLICATIONS OF CAPILLARY ELECTROPHORESIS/LASER-INDUCED FLUORESCENCE DETECTION TO GROUND WATER MIGRATION STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Capillary electrophoresis (CE) has been applied to the determination of groundwater migration based on laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) detection and traditional spectrofluorimetry. The detection limits of injected dye-fluorescent whitening agent (tinopal) in the low parts per tr...

  20. IDENTIFICATION OF REACTIVE DYES IN SPENT DYEBATHS AND WASTEWATER BY CAPILLARY ELECTROPHORESIS/MASS SPECTROMETRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Capillary electrophoresis with diode array detection and mass spectrometry combined with solid-phase extraction were employed for the identification of reactive vinylsulfone and chlorotriazine dyes and their hydrolysis products in spent dyebaths and raw and treated wastewater. Re...

  1. INFLUENCE OF BORATE BUFFERS ON THE ELECTROPHORETIC BEHAVIOR OF HUMIC SUBSTANCES IN CAPILLARY ZONE ELECTROPHORESIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The influence of tetrahydroxyborate ions on the electrophoretic mobility of humic acids was evaluated by capillary electrophoresis (CE). Depending on the molarity of borate ions in the separation buffer, the humic acids exhibit electropherograms with sharp peaks consistently exte...

  2. Development and validation of a capillary electrophoresis method with capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection (CE-C(4) D) for the analysis of amikacin and its related substances.

    PubMed

    El-Attug, Mohamed Nouri; Adams, Erwin; Van Schepdael, Ann

    2012-09-01

    Amikacin is a semisynthetic aminoglycoside antibiotic derived from kanamycin A that lacks a strong UV absorbing chromophore or fluorophore. Due to the physicochemical properties of amikacin and its related substances, CE in combination with capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection (CE-C(4) D) was chosen. The optimized separation method uses a BGE composed of 20 mM MES adjusted to pH 6.6 by l-histidine and 0.3 mM CTAB that was added as flow modifier in a concentration below the CMC. Ammonium acetate 20 mg.L(-1) was used as internal standard. 30 kV was applied in reverse polarity on a fused silica capillary (73/48 cm; 75 μm id). The optimized separation was obtained in less than 6 min with good linearity (R(2) = 0.9996) for amikacin base. It shows a good precision expressed as RSD on relative peak areas equal to 0.1 and 0.7% for intraday and interday, respectively. The LOD and LOQ are 0.5 mg.L(-1) and 1.7 mg.L(-1) , respectively. PMID:22965725

  3. Merging a sensitive capillary electrophoresis-ultraviolet detection method with chemometric exploratory data analysis for the determination of phenolic acids and subsequent characterization of avocado fruit.

    PubMed

    Hurtado-Fernández, Elena; Contreras-Gutiérrez, Paulina K; Cuadros-Rodríguez, Luis; Carrasco-Pancorbo, Alegría; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto

    2013-12-15

    Herein we present the development of a powerful CE-UV method able to detect and quantify an important number of phenolic acids in 13 varieties of avocado fruits at 2 ripening stages. All the variables involved in CE separation were exhaustively optimized and the best results were obtained with a capillary of 50 μm i.d. × 50 cm effective length, sodium tetraborate 40 mM at a pH of 9.4, 30 kV, 25 °C, 10s of hydrodynamic injection (0.5 psi) and UV detection at 254 nm. This optimal methodology was fully validated and then applied to different avocado samples. The number of phenolic acids determined varied from 8 to 14 compounds; in general, they were in concentrations ranging from 0.13 ppm to 3.82 ppm, except p-coumaric, benzoic and protocatechuic acids, which were found at higher concentrations. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to highlight the differences between varieties and ripening degrees, looking for the most influential analytes. PMID:23993512

  4. Capillary electrophoresis of proteins in buffers containing high concentrations of zwitterionic salts.

    PubMed

    Bushey, M M; Jorgenson, J W

    1989-10-20

    A method for improving protein separations in capillary zone electrophoresis utilizing high concentrations of zwitterionic buffer additives was examined. Lysozyme and alpha-chymotrypsinogen A were used as test proteins in untreated fused-silica capillaries in buffers of pH ca. 7.0 and 9.0 The zwitterion-containing buffers were compared with buffers containing high ionic salt concentrations and a buffer containing a combination of high ionic salt and high zwitterion concentrations. Over 100,000 theoretical plates were obtained in less than 30 min. for both test proteins in a pH 7 buffer containing both trimethylglycine and potassium sulfate. The advantages and disadvantages of this technique compared with those of other methods used to prevent protein adsorption are discussed. PMID:2592485

  5. Separation of organic cations using novel background electrolytes by capillary electrophoresis

    SciTech Connect

    Steiner, S.; Fritz, J.

    2008-02-12

    A background electrolyte for capillary electrophoresis containing tris(-hydroxymethyl) aminomethane (THAM) and ethanesulfonic acid (ESA) gives excellent efficiency for separation of drug cations with actual theoretical plate numbers as high as 300,000. However, the analyte cations often elute too quickly and consequently offer only a narrow window for separation. The best way to correct this is to induce a reverse electroosmotic flow (EOF) that will spread out the peaks by slowing their migration rates, but this has always been difficult to accomplish in a controlled manner. A new method for producing a variable EOF is described in which a low variable concentration of tributylammonium- or triethylammonium ESA is added to the BGE. The additive equilibrates with the capillary wall to give it a positive charge and thereby produce a controlled opposing EOF. Excellent separations of complex drug mixtures were obtained by this method.

  6. DNA sequencing with capillary electrophoresis and single cell analysis with mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Fung, N.

    1998-03-27

    Since the first demonstration of the laser in the 1960`s, lasers have found numerous applications in analytical chemistry. In this work, two different applications are described, namely, DNA sequencing with capillary gel electrophoresis and single cell analysis with mass spectrometry. Two projects are described in which high-speed DNA separations with capillary gel electrophoresis were demonstrated. In the third project, flow cytometry and mass spectrometry were coupled via a laser vaporization/ionization interface and individual mammalian cells were analyzed. First, DNA Sanger fragments were separated by capillary gel electrophoresis. A separation speed of 20 basepairs per minute was demonstrated with a mixed poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) sieving solution. In addition, a new capillary wall treatment protocol was developed in which bare (or uncoated) capillaries can be used in DNA sequencing. Second, a temperature programming scheme was used to separate DNA Sanger fragments. Third, flow cytometry and mass spectrometry were coupled with a laser vaporization/ionization interface.

  7. The role of organic solvents in the separation of nonionic compounds by capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Fritz, James S

    2003-05-01

    Although nonionic compounds can be separated by micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC), application of this technique is restricted by a somewhat limited elution range. Incorporation of organic solvents in the background electrolyte (BGE) greatly extends the scope of MEKC and provides a major variable in optimizing the separation of neutral analytes. This paper provides a systematic review of the principles and scope of the separation of neutral analytes by capillary electrophoresis (CE) in organic-aqueous solution. The methods surveyed include those that use tetraalkylammonium salts, dioctyl sulfosuccinate, lauryl poly(oxyethylene) sulfate. Polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds can be separated using sodium hexadecyl sulfate in 70% methanol (30% aqueous) to 100% methanol. PMID:12761782

  8. Analysis of biological samples by capillary electrophoresis with laser induced fluorescence detection.

    PubMed

    Szöko, Eva; Tábi, Tamás

    2010-12-15

    In this paper an overview is provided on practical difficulties as well as applications of capillary electrophoresis coupled to laser induced fluorescence detection methods in the field of analysis of biological samples. Various methodological approaches elaborated for determination of small molecules, peptides and proteins are outlined. Besides giving an overview on detection based on native fluorescence, immune and enzyme assays, the main focus is the problematics of sample derivatization and achievable detection sensitivities in the analysis of real biological samples. The characteristics and applicability of the most commonly used labeling reagents are discussed in details. PMID:20719451

  9. Development and validation of an analytical method for the separation and determination of major bioactive curcuminoids in Curcuma longa rhizomes and herbal products using non-aqueous capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Anubala, S; Sekar, R; Nagaiah, K

    2014-06-01

    A simple, fast and efficient non-aqueous capillary electrophoresis method (NACE) was developed for the simultaneous determination of three major bioactive curcuminoids (CMNs) in Curcuma longa rhizomes and its herbal products. Good separation, resolution and reproducibility were achieved with the background electrolyte (BGE) consisting a mixture of 15.0 mM sodium tetraborate and 7.4 mM sodium hydroxide (NaOH) in 2:10:15 (v/v/v) of water, 1-propanol, and methanol. The influences of background electrolyte, sodium hydroxide, water, sodium dodecyl sulfate and hydroxylpropyl-β-cyclodextrin on separations were investigated. The separation was carried out in a fused-silica capillary tube with reverse polarity. Hydrodynamic injection of 25mbar for 12s was used for injecting samples and a voltage of 28 kV was applied for separation. The ultrasonication method was used for the extraction of CMNs from the turmeric herbal products and the extract was filtered and directly injected without any further treatments. The limits of detection and quantification were less than 5.0 and 14.6 µg/ml respectively for all CMNs. The percentage recoveries for CMNs were >97.2% (%RSD, <2.62). The results obtained by the method were compared with existing spectrophotometric and HPLC methods. The related compounds in the extract did not interfere in the determination of CMNs. The proposed NACE method is better than existing chromatographic and electrophoretic methods in terms of simple electrophoretic medium, fast analysis and good resolution. PMID:24725858

  10. A new post-column reactor-laser induced fluorescence detector for capillary electrophoresis

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Liling

    1996-01-02

    Capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE), a powerful separation method based on the differential migration of charged species under the influence of an electric field, has been widely used for separations covering from small ions to big biomolecules. Chapter 1 describes the method, then discusses detection of the separated analytes by laser induced fluorescence and by chemical derivatization, and the use of O-phthaldialdehyde (OPA) as a post-column reagent. Chapter 2 describes a post-column reactor which uses two narrow bore capillaries connected coaxially. This reactor differs from other coaxial reactors in terms of capillary dimensions, reagent flow control, ease of construction and most importantly, better limits of detection. The derivatization reagent is electroosmotically driven into the reaction capillary and the reagent flow rate is independently controlled by a high voltage power supply. Amino acids, amines and proteins, derivatized by OPA/2-mercaptoethanol using this post-column reactor coupled with LIF detection, show low attomole mass limits of detection, and for the first time, the authors demonstrate single cell capability with a post-column derivatization scheme. The single cell capability shows that this reactor could find applications in assaying non-fluorescent or electrochemically inactive components in individual biological cells in the future.

  11. Determination of amino acids in fodders and raw materials using capillary zone electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Komarova, N V; Kamentsev, J S; Solomonova, A P; Anufrieva, R M

    2004-02-01

    Two schemes were offered for analysis of amino acid contents in fodders and raw materials for mixed fodders by capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE). The first variant provides express analysis of four technologically important amino acids (lysine, methionine, threonine, cystine) in borate buffer on characteristic absorption of aminogroup (190 nm), with limits of quantitation being on average 0.2%. The second scheme includes pre-capillary derivatization of amino acids using phenylisothiocyanate (PITC) and separation of phenylthiocarbamyl (PTC)-derivatives obtained by CZE with a detection on 254 nm, which allows to widen a list of detectable components up to 19 (without tryptophan) and significantly improve detection limits down to 0.01%. Acid hydrolysis was used for a sample preparation. The results of analysis of fodders were compared using such methods, as CZE, ion exchange chromatography (amino acid analyzer) and reversed-phase (RP)-HPLC (with gradient technique of elution). PMID:14698247

  12. Recent advances in enhancing the sensitivity and resolution of capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhaoxiang; Zhang, Fei; Liu, Ying

    2013-08-01

    An extensive search of published research and review articles indicates that enhancing the sensitivity and resolution of capillary electrophoresis (CE) is a very active area of interest. This review focuses on developments and applications in this field over several years, especially from 2009-present. It first reviews developments in the fields of online sample preconcentration and highly sensitive detection for sensitivity enhancement. The online sample preconcentration techniques cover all methods, from electrophoretic preconcentration, extraction-based preconcentration, micelle-based preconcentration and hybrid preconcentration to nanoparticle-based preconcentration. Attention is also given to multiple dimension separations, additives in buffer solution and capillary inner surface modifications that have been used to enhance the resolution and separation efficiency of complex samples in CE. The additives include nanoparticles, chiral selectors and other buffer additives that have been added to the buffer solution. PMID:23515192

  13. Capillary electrophoresis for the assay of fixed-dose combination tablets of artesunate and amodiaquine

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Quality control of drugs in formulations is still a major challenge in developing countries. For the quality control of artesunate and amodiaquine tablets in fixed-dose combination, only liquid chromatographic methods have been proposed in the literature. There are no capillary electrophoretic methods reported for the determination of these active substances, although this technique presents several advantages over liquid chromatography (long lifetime, low price of the capillary, low volumes of electrolyte consumption) in addition to simplicity. In this paper, a reliable capillary electrophoresis method has been developed and validated for the quality control of these drugs in commercial fixed-dose combination tablets. Methods Artesunate and amodiaquine hydrochloride in bilayer tablets were determined by micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography (MEKC). Analytes were extracted from tablets by sonication with a solvent mixture phosphate buffer pH 7.0-acetonitrile containing benzoic acid as internal standard. Separation was carried out on Beckman capillary electrophoresis system equipped with fused silica capillary, 30 cm long (20 cm to detector) × 50 μm internal diameter, using a 25 mM borate buffer pH 9.2 containing 30 mM sodium dodecyl sulfate as background electrolyte, a 500 V cm−1 electric field and a detection wavelength of 214 nm. Results Artesunate, amodiaquine and benzoic acid were separated in 6 min. The method was found to be reliable with respect to specificity,linearity of the calibration line (r2 > 0.995), recovery from synthetic tablets (in the range 98–102%), repeatability (RSD 2–3%, n = 7 analytical procedures). Application to four batches of commercial formulations with different dosages gave content in good agreement with the declared content. Conclusion The MEKC method proposed is reliable for the determination of artesunate and amodiaquine hydrochloride in fixed-dose combination tablets. The

  14. ANALYSIS OF ANIONIC METALLIZED AZO AND FORMAZAN DYES BY CAPILLARY ELECTROPHORESIS/MASS SPECTROMETRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry was applied to the separation of several anionic dyes containing copper(II), chromium(III), or cobalt(III) as part of the dye molecule. The dyes were separated using a 110 cmX50 mu m uncoated fused-silica capillary and a 5 mM ammonium a...

  15. Capillary Electrophoresis Analysis of Cations in Water Samples: An Experiment for the Introductory Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pursell, Christopher J.; Chandler, Bert; Bushey, Michelle M.

    2004-01-01

    Capillary electrophoresis is gradually working its way into the undergraduate laboratory curriculum. Typically, experiments utilizing this newer technology have been introduced into analytical or instrumental courses. The authors of this article have introduced an experiment into the introductory laboratory that utilizes capillary electrophoresis…

  16. CAPILLARY ELECTROPHORESIS COUPLED ON-LINE WITH INDUCTIVELY COUPLED PLASMA MASS SPECTROMETRY FOR ELEMENTAL SPECIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A novel interface to connect a capillary electrophoresis (CE) system with an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometric (ICPMS) detector is reported here. The interface was built using a direct injection nebulizer (DIN) system. In this interface, the CE capillary was placed co...

  17. Capillary electrophoresis: Biotechnology for separation of DNA and chromosomes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, George O., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Electrophoresis has been used for the separation of particles, ions, and molecules for a number of years. The technology for separation and detection of the results has many applications in the life sciences. One of the major goals of the scientific community is to separate DNA molecules and intact chromosomes based upon their different lengths or number of base pairs. This may be achieved by using some of the commercially available and widely used methods, but these processes require a considerable amount of time. The challenge is to achieve separation of intact chromosomes in a short time, preferably in a matter of minutes.

  18. Genomic DNA detection using cycling probe technology and capillary gel electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Dickinson Laing, Terrina; Mah, David C W; Poirier, Robert T; Bekkaoui, Faouzi; Lee, William E; Bader, Douglas E

    2004-10-01

    Cycling probe technology (CPT) is an isothermal DNA analysis method that has been shown to be useful for identifying genetic markers of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in clinical settings. CPT assays have previously employed several assay methods that include polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and magnetic beads for separations and radioisotopic and colorimetric detection for detection. Capillary gel electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence (CGE-LIF) is an alternative separation and detection method that offers attributes such as low sample consumption, short analysis times, no radiation hazards and potential for high throughput. We report on the development of a CGE-LIF CPT assay for genomic DNA from Erwinia herbicola and the comparison of this assay with a conventional 32p radioisotopic PAGE CPT assay. Separation and detection of intact and cleaved fluorescein-labeled CPT probe molecules by CGE-LIF was achieved in under 4 min through a gel-filled capillary (7 cm separation length to detector). Total time, from setup to detection, was about 1 h for the complete assay versus several hours (3-12 h) for the radioisotopic PAGE CPT assay. Similar detection limits of 10(5)-10(6) copies of genomic target DNA were observed with each assay method. This study demonstrated that CGE-LIF CPT is a suitable analysis method for the detection of genomic DNA sequences. PMID:15356906

  19. Capillary electrophoresis based on nucleic acid detection for diagnosing human infectious disease.

    PubMed

    Lian, Dong-Sheng; Zhao, Shu-Jin

    2016-05-01

    Rapid transmission, high morbidity, and mortality are the features of human infectious diseases caused by microorganisms, such as bacteria, fungi, and viruses. These diseases may lead within a short period of time to great personal and property losses, especially in regions where sanitation is poor. Thus, rapid diagnoses are vital for the prevention and therapeutic intervention of human infectious diseases. Several conventional methods are often used to diagnose infectious diseases, e.g. methods based on cultures or morphology, or biochemical tests based on metabonomics. Although traditional methods are considered gold standards and are used most frequently, they are laborious, time consuming, and tedious and cannot meet the demand for rapid diagnoses. Disease diagnosis using capillary electrophoresis methods has the advantages of high efficiency, high throughput, and high speed, and coupled with the different nucleic acid detection strategies overcomes the drawbacks of traditional identification methods, precluding many types of false positive and negative results. Therefore, this review focuses on the application of capillary electrophoresis based on nucleic detection to the diagnosis of human infectious diseases, and offers an introduction to the limitations, advantages, and future developments of this approach. PMID:26352354

  20. Theoretical and experimental studies on sequential two-diffusional sample injection for capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lina; Tian, Miaomiao; Liu, Xiaoxia; Guo, Liping; Yang, Li

    2015-02-13

    We report here theoretical and experimental studies on the sequential diffusion injection (SDI) for CE analysis. Based on the Fick's second law, a theoretical model for two-dimensional (2-D) diffusion has been developed for our SDI system. The 2-D diffusion model has been demonstrated via systematic experimental studies using standard nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) as the model analyte. The results show that the dependence of the NADH peak area (corresponding to the injection amount) on the initial sample concentration, the injection time or the capillary-gap distance is consistent with the deduction of the 2-D diffusion model. It is indicated that the 2-D diffusion, both in longitudinal and transverse directions of the capillary, enhances the injection efficiency in comparison to classical concentration diffusion on the plane interface, and improves the accuracy of the sequential injection without any physical disturbance of the capillary inlet. With the insight understanding of the injection mechanism, we have successfully applied the SDI method for sequential CE analysis of amino acids mixture and online assay of the glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase-catalyzed reaction. The present study showed that the SDI is a versatile tool for efficient and accurate sequential CE analysis, not only for online monitoring various bioprocesses but also for continuous analyzing complex samples based on capillary electrophoresis. PMID:25596761

  1. Laser ablation construction of on-column reagent addition devices for capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Rezenom, Yohannes H; Lancaster, Joseph M; Pittman, Jason L; Gilman, S Douglass

    2002-04-01

    A simple and reproducible technique for constructing perfectly aligned gaps in fused-silica capillaries has been developed for postcolumn reagent addition with capillary electrophoresis. This technique uses laser ablation with the second harmonic of a Nd:YAG laser (532 nm) at 13.5 mJ/pulse and a repetition rate of 15 Hz to create these gaps. A capillary is glued to a microscope slide and positioned at the focal point of a cylindrical lens using the focused beam from a laser pointer as a reference. Gaps of 14.0 +/- 2.2 microm (n = 33) at the bore of the capillary are produced with a success rate of 94% by ablation with 400 pulses. This simple method of gap construction requires no micromanipulation under a microscope, hydrofluoric acid etching, or use of column fittings. These structures have been used for reagent addition for postcolumn derivatization with laser-induced fluorescence detection and have been tested for the separation of proteins and amino acids. Detection limits of 6 x 10(-7) and 1 x 10(-8) M have been obtained for glycine and tranferrin, respectively. Separation efficiencies obtained using these gap reactors range from 38,000 to 213,000 theoretical plates. PMID:12043598

  2. Analysis of glyphosate and glufosinate by capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry utilising a sheathless microelectrospray interface.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, Lee; Startin, James R; Keely, Brendan J; Goodall, David M

    2003-07-01

    The potential of capillary electrophoresis combined with mass spectrometry for the simultaneous determination of two herbicides (glyphosate and glufosinate) and their metabolites (aminomethylphosphonic acid and methylphosphinicopropionic acid) as the native species is demonstrated utilising a simple microelectrospray interface. The interface uses the voltage applied to the CE capillary to drive separation and generate the electrospray, avoiding sample dilution associated with the use of a sheath liquid interface. The chemistry of the internal walls of the capillary has a marked influence on peak shape, and appropriate choice is essential to successful operation of the interface. A linear polyacrylamide coated capillary, which has no electroosmotic flow, gave best reproducibility, with precision of migration time and peak area in the range 1-2 and 7-12% RSD, respectively, for the four analytes. Limits of detection, low-pg on-column, are substantially better than for previous methods and calibration curves over the range 1-100 microM have R2 values greater than 0.97. The observed concentration limit of detection for glyphosate in water is 1 microM and for a water-acetone extract of wheat is 2.5 microM, allowing the underivatised herbicide to be detected at 10% of the maximum residue limit in wheat. PMID:12929967

  3. Impact of capillary conditioning and background electrolyte composition on capillary electrophoresis analysis of prostate specific antigen isoforms.

    PubMed

    Farina-Gomez, Noemi; Puerta, Angel; Gonzalez, Monica; Diez-Masa, Jose Carlos; de Frutos, Mercedes

    2016-04-22

    Glycoproteins expressed in the human body can experience modifications as result of pathological situations. Detection of those changes can be useful as disease biomarkers. As a result of these modifications, size and/or electrical charge of the glycoprotein can be altered. Migration in capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) is governed by the size to charge ratio of the analyte and therefore this separation technique can be used to monitor those modifications. At its turn, the alteration of the electrophoretical pattern of a given glycoprotein could be used as disease biomarker. To this aim, high repeatability for separation of a large number of peaks for a given glycoprotein is desirable. For prostate cancer, new markers are needed to decrease the high number of false positive results provided by the biomarkers currently used in clinics. In this sense, CZE methods for analysis of the several prostate specific antigen (PSA) peaks which this glycoprotein exhibit, called isoforms and containing one or more glycoforms, could be useful to study the PSA pattern as prostate cancer marker. In this study two complementary strategies to achieve both lot-to-lot capillary repeatability and high resolution of a large number of PSA isoforms are developed. Better performance and precision have been obtained for capillaries conditioned with HCl than for those conditioned with NaOH. Optimization of the background electrolyte (BGE) pH value to 8.0 and inclusion of 3M urea on its composition were the two factors of highest impact for enhancing resolution of the highest number of PSA peaks. Under the optimized conditions for capillary conditioning and BGE pH and composition, long-term resolution of 10 isoforms of PSA was achieved. Inter-day (n=3) %RSD was 0.55 for the ratio tm/tEOF, 1.15 for μeff, and 5.02 for % Acorr of the PSA peaks. PMID:27018191

  4. Thermally-initiated free radical polymerization for reproducible production of stable linear polyacrylamide coated capillaries, and their application to proteomic analysis using capillary zone electrophoresis-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Guijie; Sun, Liangliang; Dovichi, Norman J

    2016-01-01

    Proteomic analysis using capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) typically is performed with linear polyacrylamide (LPA) coated capillaries. These capillaries both minimize the adsorption of peptides and proteins to the inner wall of the capillary and decrease electroosmosis, which increases the separation capacity. LPA coating protocols were first reported by Hjerten in 1985. Conventional LPA production is based on the use of tetramethylethylenediamine (TEMED) to catalyze the free-radical polymerization that couples acrylamide to a capillary wall that has been pretreated with γ-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane. The treated capillary is filled with a mixture of monomer, TEMED, and ammonium persulfate; free radical polymerization forms the LPA coating. Over many years, we have observed significant variation in the electroosmotic properties of commercial LPA coated capillaries both along the capillary length and between lots. We believe this variation is due to differences in the time between initiation of the reaction and the filling of the capillary. Here, we report a simple method for the generation of very stable and reproducible coatings. In this protocol, the monomer mixture and an ammonium persulfate initiator are introduced into the capillary without TEMED initiator. The mixture is stable and does not begin polymerization at room temperature. The filled capillary is then heated in a water bath to initiate polymerization in a well-controlled manner. A mixture of four standard proteins was used to evaluate the coating performance. Compared with commercialized LPA capillaries, our LPA capillaries generate much better separation performance and superior protein peak shape in CZE analysis. We also analyzed an intact antibody (MW 150K) by CZE-MS with the new LPA capillary in triplicate runs. The intact antibody generated a Gaussian-shaped electrophoresis peak with 1.2% relative standard deviation in migration time and 8.5% in base peak intensity. An automated CZE

  5. Simultaneous determination of valsartan, amlodipine besylate and hydrochlorothiazide using capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE).

    PubMed

    Ebeid, W; Salim, M; Elkady, E; Elzahr, A; El-Bagary, R; Patonay, G

    2015-06-01

    A capillary zone electrophoresis method was developed for the simultaneous determination of valsartan (VAL), amlodipine besylate (AML) and hydrochlorothiazide (HCZ) in their combined tablets. Separation was achieved on a fused silica capillary by applying a potential of 15 kV (positive polarity) and a running background electrolyte containing 40 mM phosphate buffer at pH 7.5 with UV detection at 230 nm. The samples were injected hydrodynamically for 3s at 0.5 psi and the temperature of the capillary cartridge was kept at 25 degrees C. Pyrazinoic acid was used as an internal standard. The method was validated according to ICH guidelines regarding specificity, linearity, limits of detection and quantitation, accuracy and precision, (Supplementary materials, Table S2). The method showed satisfactory linearity in the ranges of 10-200, 2-20 and 2-20 μg mL(-1) with LODs of 1.82, 0.39, 0.65 μg mL(-1) and LOQs of 5.51, 1.17, 1.96 μg mL(-1) for VAL, AML and HCZ, respectively. The proposed method was successfully applied for the analysis of the studied drugs in their laboratory prepared mixtures and co-formulated tablets. The results were compared with reported methods and no significant differences were found. The proposed method can be used for quality control of the cited drugs in ordinary laboratories. PMID:26189296

  6. Rapid identification and quantitation for oral bacteria based on short-end capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jin; Ni, Yi; Liu, Chenchen; Yamaguchi, Yoshinori; Chen, Qinmiao; Sekine, Shinichi; Zhu, Xifang; Dou, Xiaoming

    2016-11-01

    High-speed capillary electrophoresis (HSCE) is a promising technology applied in ultra-rapid and high-performance analysis of biomolecules (such as nucleic acids, protein). In present study, the short-end capillary electrophoresis coupled with one novel space domain internal standard method (SDIS) was employed for the rapid and simultaneous analysis of specific genes from three oral bacteria (Porphyromonas gingivalis (P.g), Treponema denticola (T.d) and Tannerela forsythia (T.f)). The reliability, reproducibility and accuracy properties of above mentioned SDIS method were investigated in detail. The results showed the target gene fragments of P.g, T.d and T.f could be precisely, fast identified and quantitated within 95s via present short-end CE system. The analyte concentration and the ratio of space domain signals (between target sample and internal standard sample) featured a well linear relationship calculated via SDIS method. And the correlation coefficients R(2) and detection limits for P.g, T.d, T.f genes were 0.9855, 0.9896, 0.9969 and 0.077, 0.114 and 0.098ng/μl, respectively. PMID:27591633

  7. Determination of ephedrine and pseudoephedrine by field-amplified sample injection capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Deng, Dongli; Deng, Hao; Zhang, Lichun; Su, Yingying

    2014-04-01

    A simple and rapid capillary electrophoresis method was developed for the separation and determination of ephedrine (E) and pseudoephedrine (PE) in a buffer solution containing 80 mM of NaH2PO4 (pH 3.0), 15 mM of β-cyclodextrin and 0.3% of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose. The field-amplified sample injection (FASI) technique was applied to the online concentration of the alkaloids. With FASI in the presence of a low conductivity solvent plug (water), an approximately 1,000-fold improvement in sensitivity was achieved without any loss of separation efficiency when compared to conventional sample injection. Under these optimized conditions, a baseline separation of the two analytes was achieved within 16 min and the detection limits for E and PE were 0.7 and 0.6 µg/L, respectively. Without expensive instruments or labeling of the compounds, the limits of detection for E and PE obtained by the proposed method are comparable with (or even lower than) those obtained by capillary electrophoresis laser-induced fluorescence, liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The method was validated in terms of precision, linearity and accuracy, and successfully applied for the determination of the two alkaloids in Ephedra herbs. PMID:23619557

  8. Determination of the specific activities of methionine sulfoxide reductase A and B by capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Uthus, Eric O

    2010-06-01

    A capillary electrophoresis (CE) method for the determination of methionine sulfoxide reductase A and methionine sulfoxide reductase B activities in mouse liver is described. The method is based on detection of the 4-(dimethylamino)azobenzene-4'-sulfonyl derivative of l-methionine (dabsyl Met), the product of the enzymatic reactions when either dabsyl l-methionine S-sulfoxide or dabsyl l-methionine R-sulfoxide is used as a substrate. The method provides baseline resolution of the substrates and, therefore, can be used to easily determine the purity of the substrates. The method is rapid ( approximately 20min sample to sample), requires no column regeneration, and uses very small amounts of buffers. Separation was performed by using a 75-mum internal diameter polyimide-coated fused silica capillary (no inside coating) with 60cm total length (50cm to the detector window). Samples were separated at 22.5kV, and the separation buffer was 25mM KH(2)PO(4) (pH 8.0) containing 0.9ml of N-lauroylsarcosine (sodium salt, 30% [w/v] solution) per 100ml of buffer. Prior to use, the capillary was conditioned with the same buffer that also contained 25mM sodium dodecyl sulfate. The CE method is compared with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) as determined by comparing results from measurements of hepatic enzyme activities in mice fed either deficient or adequate selenium. PMID:20167203

  9. Separation and determination of flavonoids in three traditional chinese medicines by capillary electrophoresis with amperometric detection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Lin, Ping; Ma, Lihong; Xu, Kaixuan; Lin, Xiuli

    2016-04-01

    Flavonoids are important active ingredients in many traditional Chinese medicines. In this paper, capillary electrophoresis with amperometric detection was employed to separate and detect eight flavonoids, rutin, quercetrin, quercetin, kaempferol, kaempferide, catechin, apigenin, and luteolin, in a home-made capillary electrophoresis device. Under the separation voltage of 2000 V, the eight flavonoids could be completely separated within 33 min in 18 mM borax running buffer at pH 10.2. Good linear relationships were obtained for all analytes and the detection limits for flavonoids ranged from 0.46 to 0.85 μM. Then, the method was applied to separate and determine the flavonoids in three traditional Chinese medicines, hippophae rhamnoides, hypericum perforatum, and cacumen platycladi. Finally, rutin, kaempferol, quercetin, and quercetrin were discovered in these medicines and the concentrations ranged from 0.28 to 9.94 mg/g. The recoveries of flavonoids ranged from 84.7 to 113%, which showed the high reliability of this method. PMID:26829244

  10. Capillary electrophoresis combining three-step multiplex polymerase chain reactions for diagnosing α-thalassemia.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yen-Ling

    2011-02-01

    Capillary electrophoresis (CE) is the most useful tool for DNA separation because of its high resolution. In this study, different kinds of polymers were used to evaluate the separation efficiency by analyzing a 200-bp DNA ladder. Under optimized CE conditions, the CE separation was performed by DB-17 capillary. The running buffer was a 1× TBE buffer containing 0.6% w/v poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) (Mw: 8,000,000) and 1 μM YO-PRO-1; applied voltage was -10 kV (detector at anode side) and the separation temperature was 25°C. Under these optimal conditions, 15 DNA fragments with sizes ranging from 0.2 to 3.0 kb were resolved within 11.5 min and the RSD of migration time were less than 0.55% (n=3). This method, combined with three-step multiplex PCR, was applied to detect five α-thalassemia deletions, including -α(3.7) , -α(4.2) , - -(SEA) , - -(FIL) and - -(THAI) . A total of 21 patients diagnosed with α-thalassemia were analyzed using this developed method and all results agreed with those already obtained by gel electrophoresis. PMID:21298664

  11. Determination of trimebutine maleate in rat plasma and tissues by using capillary zone electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Li, F; Yu, L

    2001-06-01

    A simple and rapid capillary zone electrophoresis method was developed for the determination of trimebutine maleate in rat plasma and tissues. Rat plasma and tissue homogenates were mixed with acetonitrile containing internal standard, ephedrine hydrochloride, and then centrifuged. The supernatant was dried under a stream of nitrogen, and the residue was reconstituted in methanol-water (1:1). The electrophoresis was performed in uncoated capillary with 30 mmol/L phosphate buffer of pH 6.0 as the separation electrolyte. The applied voltage was 10 kV and the UV detection was set at 214 nm. The peak height ratio vs concentration in plasma or homogenates was linear over the range of 5-500 ng/mL and the limit of quantitation was 5 ng/mL. The intra- and inter-day precision was RSD < 14% and <15%. The accuracy was relative error (RE) within +/- 14%. This method was applied to studying the pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution after a single dose of trimebutine maleate was administrated to the rats. The T(max), AUC, C(max) and t(1/2) were 30 min, 7.8 x 10(2) (ng/mL) min, 39 ng/mL and 1.7 x 10(2) min. The drug distribution was found in a decreasing order of liver, kidney, spleen, lung and heart. PMID:11438965

  12. Separation of Folinic Acid Diastereomers in Capillary Electrophoresis Using a New Cationic β-Cyclodextrin Derivative

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Jia; Liang, Xinlei; Wang, Zhaokun; Guo, Xin; Sun, Tiemin; Guo, Xingjie

    2015-01-01

    A method for the separation of folinic acid diastereomers by capillary electrophoresis in chiral separation media was developed. Aiming to achieve a good separation of the anionic analytes, a newly synthesized cationic β-cyclodextrin derivative, mono-6-deoxy-6-piperdine-β-cyclodextrin, was applied as the chiral selector. The effect of background electrolyte pH, the concentration of the cyclodextrin additive, and organic modifier on the separation was investigated. A good separation of folinic acid diastereomers was obtained with 30 mmol/L phosphate buffer at pH 6.50 containing 6.0 mmol/L of mono-6-deoxy-6-piperdine-β-cyclodextrin in 10% acetonitrile. Based on the capillary electrophoresis data, the binding constants of each diastereomer with mono-6-deoxy-6-piperdine-β-cyclodextrin were determined. Moreover, a computational modeling study, using the semi-empirical PM3 method, was used to discuss the possible mechanism of separation of folinic acid with mono-6-deoxy-6-piperdine-β-cyclodextrin. PMID:25781478

  13. Determination of herbicides paraquat, glyphosate, and aminomethylphosphonic acid in marijuana samples by capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Lanaro, Rafael; Costa, José L; Cazenave, Silvia O S; Zanolli-Filho, Luiz A; Tavares, Marina F M; Chasin, Alice A M

    2015-01-01

    In this work, two methods were developed to determine herbicides paraquat, glyphosate, and aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) in marijuana samples by capillary electrophoresis. For paraquat analysis, sample was extracted with aqueous acetic acid solution and analyzed by capillary zone electrophoresis with direct UV detection. The running electrolyte was 50 mmol/L phosphate buffer (pH 2.50). For glyphosate and AMPA, indirect UV/VIS detection was used, as these substances do not present chromophoric groups. Samples were extracted with 5 mmol/L hydrochloric acid. The running electrolyte was 10 mmol/L gallic acid, 6 mmol/L TRIS, and 0.1 mmol/L CTAB (pH = 4.7). The methods presented good linearity, precision, accuracy, and recovery. Paraquat was detected in 12 samples (n = 130), ranging from 0.01 to 25.1 mg/g. Three samples were positive for glyphosate (0.15-0.75 mg/g), and one sample presented AMPA as well. Experimental studies are suggested to evaluate the risks of these concentrations to marijuana user. PMID:25413634

  14. An axial approach to detection in capillary electrophoresis

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, J.A.

    1993-05-01

    Our approach involves on-axis illumination of the compounds inside the capillary detection region and is applied to absorbance and fluorescence detection. Absorbance measurements were made by focussing an incident laser beam into one capillary end; by using signals collected over the entire length of analyte band, this enhances the analytical path length of conventional absorbance detection 60x. This instrument offers a 15x improvement in detection limits. Three fluorescence detection experiments are discussed, all of which involve insertion of an optical fiber into capillary. The first uses a high refractive index liquid phase to obtain total internal reflectance along capillary axis, this reducing light scatter. The second uses a charge-coupled device camera for simultaneous imaging of a capillary array (this may be useful in genome sequencing, etc.). The third is a study of fluid motion inside the capillary under pressure-driven and electroosmotic flow. The thesis is divided into four parts. Figs, tabs.

  15. Separation of plant hormones from biofertilizer by capillary electrophoresis using a capillary coated dynamically with polycationic polymers.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ting-Fu; Lv, Zhi-Hua; Wang, Yuan-Hong; Yue, Mei-E

    2006-06-01

    A new, simple and rapid capillary electrophoresis (CE) method, using hexadimethrine bromide (HDB) as electroosmotic flow (EOF) modifier, was developed for the identification and quantitative determination of four plant hormones, including gibberellin A3 (GA3), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), alpha-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and 4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid (4-CA). The optimum separation was achieved with 20 mM borate buffer at pH 10.00 containing 0.005% (w/v) of HDB. The applied voltage was -25 kV and the capillary temperature was kept constant at 25 degrees C. Salicylic acid was used as internal standard for quantification. The calibration dependencies exhibited good linearity within the ratios of the concentrations of standard samples and internal standard and the ratios of the peak areas of samples and internal standard. The correlation coefficients were from 0.9952 to 0.9997. The relative standard deviations of migration times and peak areas were < 1.93 and 6.84%, respectively. The effects of buffer pH, the concentration of HDB and the voltage on the resolution were studied systematically. By this method, the contents of plant hormone in biofertilizer were successfully determined within 7 min, with satisfactory repeatability and recovery. PMID:16772676

  16. Quantitative Determination of Lercanidipine Enantiomers in Commercial Formulations by Capillary Electrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Lourenço, Luciana Pereira; Aguiar, Fernando Armani; de Oliveira, Anderson Rodrigo Moraes; de Gaitani, Cristiane Masetto

    2015-01-01

    An enantioselective method based on capillary electrophoresis (CE) using cyclodextrin (CD) as chiral selector was developed and validated for determination of lercanidipine (LER) enantiomers, a drug calcium channel blocker which exerts antihypertensive effects of long duration, in a pharmaceutical formulation. Optimum separation of LER enantiomers was obtained on a 50 cm × 50 μm id capillary using a sodium acetate buffer solution 200 mmol/L pH 4.0 containing 10 mmol/L of 2,3,6-o-methyl-β-cyclodextrin (TM-β-CD) as background electrolyte. The capillary temperature and voltage were 15°C and 25 kV, respectively, hydrodynamic injection and detection at 237 nm. Linearity was obtained in the range 12.5–100 μg/mL for both enantiomers (r ≥ 0.995). The RSD (%) and relative errors (E, %) obtained in precision and accuracy studies (intraday and interday) were lower than 5%. After validation, the method was applied to quantify the enantiomers of LER in commercial tablets and the results were satisfactory in terms of accuracy and precision, both less than 5%. Therefore, this method was found to be appropriate for enantioselective quality control of LER enantiomers in pharmaceutical formulations. PMID:25821632

  17. Analysis of compositional monosaccharides in fungus polysaccharides by capillary zone electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yuanyuan; Wang, Tong; Yang, Xingbin; Zhao, Yan

    2014-02-15

    A rapid analytical method of capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) was established for the simultaneous separation and determination of 10 monosaccharides (aldoses and uronic acids). The monosaccharides were labeled with 1-phenyl-3-methyl-5-pyrazolone (PMP), and subsequently separated using an uncoated capillary (50 μm i.d. × 58.5 cm) and detected by UV at 245 nm with pH 11.0, 175 mM borate buffer at voltage 20 kV and capillary temperature 25 °C by CZE. The 10 PMP-labeled monosaccharides were rapidly baseline separated within 20 min. The optimized CZE method was successfully applied to the simultaneous separation and identification of the monosaccharide composition in Termitomyces albuminosus polysaccharides (TAPs) and Panus giganteus polysaccharides (PGPs). The quantitative recovery of the component monosaccharides in the fungus polysaccharides was in the range of 92.0-101.0% and the CV value was lower than 3.5%. The results demonstrate that the proposed CZE method is precise and practical for the monosaccharide analysis of fungus polysaccharides. PMID:24507309

  18. Protonated diamines as anion-binding agents and their utility in capillary electrophoresis separations.

    PubMed

    Noblitt, Scott D; Speights, Rachel M; Henry, Charles S

    2011-11-01

    Capillary zone electrophoresis is a proven method for separating small ions because of the inherent charge and differences in mobility of these analytes. Despite its resolving power, CZE can be insufficient for separating ions with similar mobilities. One remedy is to modify mobilities via the addition of background electrolyte complexation agents. However, this approach is not straightforward for inorganic anions, which lack complexation options. To address this shortfall, the diprotonated diamine moiety was investigated for complexation of dianions. Dicationic diamines significantly complexed dianions, and this interaction was not purely electrostatic in nature because affinities varied with dianion identity. Aqueous association constants were measured with affinity capillary electrophoresis (ACE) and found to be similar in magnitude but different in selectivity to those of dianions with magnesium ion. Binding was also investigated for zwitterionic buffers containing the protonated diamine moiety. Zwitterions exhibited binding constants as high as 18 M(-1) (30-mM ionic strength). This work discusses the observed binding constants and their potential usefulness in CZE separations of inorganic anions. Also covered are improvements to ACE methodology and an evaluation of some of the assumptions employed. PMID:22002837

  19. Constant denaturant capillary electrophoresis (CDCE): a high resolution approach to mutational analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Khrapko, K; Hanekamp, J S; Thilly, W G; Belenkii, A; Foret, F; Karger, B L

    1994-01-01

    Using a zone of constant temperature and denaturant concentration in capillary electrophoresis, we have devised a simple, rapid, and reproducible system for separating mutant from wild type DNA sequences with high resolution. Important to the success of this method, which we call Constant Denaturant Capillary Electrophoresis (CDCE), has been the use of linear polyacrylamide at viscosity levels that permit facile replacement of the matrix after each run. For a typical 100 bp fragment, point mutation-containing heteroduplexes are separated from wild type homoduplexes in less than 30 minutes. Using laser-induced fluorescence to detect fluorescent-tagged DNA, the system has an absolute limit of detection of 3 x 10(4) molecules with a linear dynamic range of six orders of magnitude. The relative limit of detection at present is 3 x 10(-4), i.e. 10(5) mutant sequences are recognized among 3 x 10(8) wild type sequences. The new approach should be applicable to the identification of low frequency mutations, to mutational spectrometry and to genetic screening of pooled samples for detection of rare variants. PMID:8127674

  20. Constant denaturant capillary electrophoresis (CDCE): a high resolution approach to mutational analysis.

    PubMed

    Khrapko, K; Hanekamp, J S; Thilly, W G; Belenkii, A; Foret, F; Karger, B L

    1994-02-11

    Using a zone of constant temperature and denaturant concentration in capillary electrophoresis, we have devised a simple, rapid, and reproducible system for separating mutant from wild type DNA sequences with high resolution. Important to the success of this method, which we call Constant Denaturant Capillary Electrophoresis (CDCE), has been the use of linear polyacrylamide at viscosity levels that permit facile replacement of the matrix after each run. For a typical 100 bp fragment, point mutation-containing heteroduplexes are separated from wild type homoduplexes in less than 30 minutes. Using laser-induced fluorescence to detect fluorescent-tagged DNA, the system has an absolute limit of detection of 3 x 10(4) molecules with a linear dynamic range of six orders of magnitude. The relative limit of detection at present is 3 x 10(-4), i.e. 10(5) mutant sequences are recognized among 3 x 10(8) wild type sequences. The new approach should be applicable to the identification of low frequency mutations, to mutational spectrometry and to genetic screening of pooled samples for detection of rare variants. PMID:8127674

  1. Determination of cobalamins using capillary electrophoresis inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, S. A.; Miller-Ihli, N. J.

    2000-12-01

    The determination of cobalamins using capillary electrophoresis inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (CE-ICP-MS) was investigated. Both capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) and micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) modes of operation were studied. The optimal separation of four cobalamin species (cyanocobalamin, hydroxocobalamin, methylcobalamin, and 5'-deoxyadenosylcobalamin) and a potentially harmful corrinoid analogue (cobinamide dicyanide) was obtained using CZE at a pH of 2.5. Both 20 mM phosphate and 20 mM formate buffers were used with success, although the formate buffer provided improved resolution. The CZE-ICP-MS method was used to quantify cyanocobalamin in a vitamin supplement and the analytical results were in good agreement (±5%) with values obtained by ICP-MS for total Co levels. The solution detection limits for cobalamins using CZE-ICP-MS were approximately 50 ng/ml. MEKC was found to be useful for the screening of vitamin preparations because it provided a rapid means of distinguishing cyanocobalamin (the form most commonly used in vitamin preparations) from free cobalt. The separation of free cobalt and cyanocobalamin using MEKC was achieved in less than 10 min.

  2. Application of capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) to the determination of pathogenic bacteria for medical diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Jackowski, Marek; Szeliga, Jacek; Kłodzińska, Ewa; Buszewski, Bogusław

    2008-07-01

    Microorganisms like bacteria, viruses, fungi, etc. have a major impact on human, animal, and plant life. Several decades ago it was observed that intact cells suspended in an isotonic salt solution moved toward the anode and the mobility was proportional to the density of the charge located on the cell surfaces. Since then, efforts have been made to make electrophoresis a useful tool in cell studies. Microorganisms are no exception. In the present work we applied the capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) with dynamical modification of the capillary surface for separation of E. coli and P. vulgaris. The same method was used for identification of E. coli in infected urine (direct injection--UTIs) and also for identification of Helicobacter pylori which is a gram-negative bacillus responsible for one of the most common infections found in humans worldwide. Using spectrophotometric measurements at lambda = 214 nm we proved that it is possible to measure the concentration of bacterial cells up to 5 x 10(8) cells/mL. Recent studies have demonstrated very practical uses for electrophoretic techniques, especially in the field of medical diagnosis. PMID:18373084

  3. Quantitation of Leishmania lipophosphoglycan repeat units by capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Barron, Tamara L; Turco, Salvatore J

    2006-04-01

    The glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored lipophosphoglycan (LPG) of Leishmania is the dominant cell surface glycoconjugate of these pathogenic parasites. LPG is structurally characterized by a series of phosphoglycan repeat units. Determining the number of repeat units per LPG molecule has proven difficult using current technologies, such as mass spectrometry. As an alternative method to quantitate the number of repeat units in LPG, a procedure based on capillary electrophoretic analysis of the proportion of mannose to 2,5-anhydromannose (derived from the nonacetylated glucosamine of the GPI anchor of LPG) was developed. The CE-based technique is sensitive and relatively rapid compared to GC-MS-based protocols. Its application was demonstrated in quantitating the number of LPG repeat units from several species of Leishmania as well as from two life-cycle stages of these organisms. PMID:16310310

  4. [A Detection of Allelic Variants at Microsatellite Markers by Using Capillary and Traditional Electrophoresis].

    PubMed

    Rubtsova, G A; Ponomareva, E V; Afanasiev, K I; Shaikhaev, E G; Kholodova, M V; Pavlov, S D; Zhivotovsky, L A

    2016-04-01

    Microsatellite alleles are detected by PCR (polymerase chain reaction) that provides a manifold increase in the number of copies (amplification) of a given DNA fragment. The fragment visualization can be reached by two different methods. These are fragment analysis by capillary electrophoresis in denaturing gel and frag- ment separation in non-denaturing gel with subsequent gel staining. The first method is more accurate and automated, but expensive. The second method is much cheaper but less convenient. It requires manual pro- cessing and is presumably less accurate. In this study, we present the results of comparison of the allele typing at nine microsatellite loci using these two methods for one of the species of Pacific salmon, sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka Walbaum. In most cases, both methods give identical fragment sizes or a constant differ- ence if the alleles are relatively small (not larger than 200-220 bp). PMID:27529983

  5. Self-assembled and covalently linked capillary coating of diazoresin and cyclodextrin-derived dendrimer for analysis of proteins by capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Yu, Bing; Chi, Ming; Han, Yuxing; Cong, Hailin; Tang, Jianbin; Peng, Qiaohong

    2016-05-15

    Self-assembled and covalently linked capillary coatings of cyclodextrin-derived (CD) dendrimer were prepared using photosensitive diazoresin (DR) as a coupling agent. Layer by layer (LBL) self-assembled DR/CD-dendrimer coatings based on ionic bonding was fabricated first on the inner surface of capillary, and subsequently converted into covalent bonding after treatment with UV light through a unique photochemistry reaction of DR. Protein adsorption on the inner surface of capillary was suppressed by the DR/CD-dendrimer coating, and thus a baseline separation of lysozyme (Lys), myoglobin (Mb), bovine serum albumin (BSA) and ribonuclease A (RNase A) was achieved using capillary electrophoresis (CE). Compared with the bare capillary, the DR/CD-dendrimer covalently linked capillary coatings showed excellent protein separation performance with good stability and repeatability. Because of the replacement of highly toxic and moisture sensitive silane coupling agent by DR in the covalent coating preparation, this method may provide an environmentally friendly and simple way to prepare the covalently coated capillaries for CE. PMID:26992496

  6. Analysis of recombinant monoclonal antibodies by capillary zone electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Espinosa-de la Garza, Carlos E; Perdomo-Abúndez, Francisco C; Padilla-Calderón, Jesús; Uribe-Wiechers, Jaime M; Pérez, Néstor O; Flores-Ortiz, Luis F; Medina-Rivero, Emilio

    2013-04-01

    Analytical platforms that characterize charge heterogeneity in therapeutic proteins, such as mAbs, are important tools that can be used to define quality attributes. CZE separates protein moieties close to their native state and is a valuable physicochemical analytical method that can be used in parallel with other orthogonal methods for characterization and comparability. In this study, custom conditions for the analysis of charge heterogeneity of two mAbs were developed with regard to critical parameters in the BGE, running conditions, and sample treatment. The method application was tested for up to four mAbs and one mAb fragment. The electropherograms showed specific profiles and contrasting levels of basic and acidic isoforms with respect to the main isoform. Issues that surround this method, such as peak tailing and capillary lifetime, are summarized. Using this method, the identities of rituximab and trastuzumab were confirmed, based on the correspondence between the biosimilars and reference products, noninterference of the sample matrix, and the ability to separate spiked samples of related mAbs. The RSD of the isoform content and migration time for the method repeatability were less than 2 and 1%, respectively. PMID:23417502

  7. Quality criterion to optimize separations in capillary electrophoresis: Application to the analysis of harmala alkaloids.

    PubMed

    Tascon, Marcos; Benavente, Fernando; Castells, Cecilia B; Gagliardi, Leonardo G

    2016-08-19

    In capillary electrophoresis (CE), resolution (Rs) and selectivity (α) are criteria often used in practice to optimize separations. Nevertheless, when these and other proposed parameters are considered as an elementary criterion for optimization by mathematical maximization, certain issues and inconsistencies appear. In the present work we analyzed the pros and cons of using these parameters as elementary criteria for mathematical optimization of capillary electrophoretic separations. We characterized the requirements of an ideal criterion to qualify separations within the framework of mathematical optimizations and, accordingly, propose: -1- a new elementary criterion (t') and -2- a method to extend this elementary criterion to compose a global function that simultaneously qualifies many different aspects, also called multicriteria optimization function (MCOF). In order to demonstrate this new concept, we employed a group of six alkaloids with closely related structures (harmine, harmaline, harmol, harmalol, harmane and norharmane). On the basis of this system, we present a critical comparison between the new optimization criterion t' and the former elementary criteria. Finally, aimed at validating the proposed methods, we composed an MCOF in which the capillary-electrophoretic separation of the six model compounds is mathematically optimized as a function of pH as the unique variable. Experimental results subsequently confirmed the accuracy of the model. PMID:27443250

  8. Single molecule fluorescence burst detection of DNA separated by capillary electrophoresis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haab, Brian B.; Mathies, Richard A.

    1996-03-01

    A method has been developed for detecting DNA separated by capillary gel electrophoresis using single molecule photon burst counting. A confocal fluorescence microscope was used to observe the fluorescence bursts from single molecules of DNA multiply labeled with a thiazole orange derivative as they passed through the approximately 2 micrometer diameter focused laser beam. Amplified photoelectron pulses from the photomultiplier are grouped into bins of from 360 - 450 microseconds in duration, and the resulting histogram stored in a computer for analysis. Solutions of M13 DNA were first flowed through the capillary at various concentrations, and the resulting data were used to optimize the parameters for digital filtering using a low-pass Fourier filter, selecting a discriminator level for peak detection, and applying a peak-calling algorithm. The optimized single molecule counting method was then used to detect a separation of pBR 322 DNA from pRL 277 DNA. Clusters of discrete fluorescence bursts were observed at the expected appearance time of each DNA band. These separations were easily detected when only 50 to 100 molecules of DNA per band traveled through the detection region. This new detection technology should lead to the routine analysis of DNA in capillary columns with an on-column sensitivity of approximately 100 DNA molecules per band or better.

  9. Determination of biogenic amines in beer and wine by capillary electrophoresis-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Daniel, Daniela; Dos Santos, Vagner Bezerra; Vidal, Denis Tadeu Rajh; do Lago, Claudimir Lucio

    2015-10-16

    A capillary electrophoresis-tandem mass spectrometry (CE-MS/MS) method for the simultaneous assessment of nine biogenic amines (spermine, spermidine, putrescine, cadaverine, histamine, phenylethylamine, tryptamine, tyramine, and urocanic acid) in commercial samples of beer and wine is introduced. The samples were submitted to a simple clean-up step with poly(vinylpolypyrrolidone) followed by filtration. Electrophoretic separation in a polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)-coated capillary using 0.5 mol L(-1) acetic acid (pH 2.5) as background electrolyte and detection by electrospray-tandem mass spectrometry was employed. The range of the correlation coefficients of the calibration curves of the analyzed compounds was 0.996-0.999, and the limits of detection and limits of quantification were in the range of 1-2 μg L(-1) and 3-8 μg L(-1), respectively. The recovery values for samples spiked at three concentration levels (0.2, 0.5, and 1.0 mg L(-1)) ranged from 87 to 113% with standard deviation not greater than 5.8%. The use of a PVA-coated silica capillary allows suppressing the electroosmotic flow and, consequently, increasing of the separation efficiency. The method was successfully used to determine biogenic amines in commercial samples of beer and wine. PMID:26362807

  10. Dermal nitrate: an old marker of firearm discharge revisited with capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Tagliaro, Franco; Bortolotti, Federica; Manetto, Giulia; Pascali, Vincenzo L; Marigo, Mario

    2002-01-01

    The present work describes a capillary electrophoretic method for nitrite and nitrate determination to be used as a screening tool for investigating the residues of firearm discharge. The use of capillary electrophoresis allowed the rapid determination of nitrite and nitrate, which are major inorganic components of gunshot residues, offering a quantitative and selective alternative to the traditional paraffin test (dermal nitrate test). The method is simpler, cheaper, and faster than the modern approaches to gunshot residue analysis based on the determination of barium, lead and antimony by using flameless absorption spectrometry, inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), or scanning electron microscopy. The analysis was carried out in a bare fused-silica capillary (75 microm inner diameter) with a 100 mM borate buffer (pH 9.24). The detection was by UV absorption at 214 nm. Separation took place under reversed voltage of 15 kV. Bromide was used as the internal standard. Sensitivity was about 1 mM for both nitrite and nitrate. Reproducibility (intraday and day-to-day) was also good with relative standard deviations (RSDs) < 1.0% for relative migration times and < 4.5% for peak areas in both standard solutions and real matrix. Hair and skin samples from a victim shot in the head were successfully analyzed for the presence of nitrite and nitrate. PMID:11840536

  11. Determination of pKa values of 2-amino-2-oxazolines by capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Matoga, M; Laborde-Kummer, E; Langlois, M H; Dallet, P; Bosc, J J; Jarry, C; Dubost, J P

    2003-01-17

    The dissociation constants of new 2-amino-2-oxazolines were determined by capillary electrophoresis (CE) as a new technique. A method based on a linear model has been used in the CE determination. A series of eight 2-amino-2-oxazolines are investigated to determine their ionization constant. Among them, three new oxazolines synthesized are presented. The Ka values were obtained from the plots of reciprocal effective mobility against inverse concentrations of protons. The potentiometric method (PM) was performed as a comparative method. No significant differences were observed between the determined dissociation constants using both methods. Thus, the pKa values have been found to vary between 8.55 and 8.68. PMID:12564697

  12. Size separation of proteins by capillary zone electrophoresis with cationic hitchhiking (CZECH)

    PubMed Central

    Dolnik, Vladislav; Gurske, William A.

    2012-01-01

    The paper describes a method of size separation of proteins by capillary sieving electrophoresis with cationic surfactant. Proteins are separated within 12 minutes with repeatability of migration times better than 0.2%. Some proteins achieve the separation efficiency of 200,000 theoretical plates. The method can be used for determination of protein relative molecular masses. The accuracy of the determined relative molecular masses and the limitation of the method were investigated by the analysis of more than 60 proteins. The method also allows separation of protein oligomers. Proteins can be quantitated after the electrokinetic injection in the concentration range 0.07–0.43 g/L. The average detection limit is about 2 mg/L. PMID:21948216

  13. Determination of phenolic acids in olive oil by capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Buiarelli, Francesca; Di Berardino, Sonia; Coccioli, Franco; Jasionowska, Renata; Russo, Mario Vincenzo

    2004-01-01

    A CZE method for the separation and quantitation of phenolic acids (cinnamic, syringic, p-coumaric, vanillic, caffeic, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic, protocatechuic), extracted from extra virgin olive oil, was developed. The sample preparation involved the LLE and SPE extraction methods. CE separation was performed in a fused silica capillary of I.D.= 50microm using as a BGE 40 mM borate buffer at pH=9.2. The separation voltage was 18kV with corresponding current of 27-28 microA. Detection was accomplished with UV-detector at lambda=200nm. The proposed method was fully validated. A good repeatability of migration time (RSD% ranged from 0.81 to 1.63) and of corrected peak area (RSD% from 2.89 to 5.77) was obtained. The linearity of detector response in the range from 5 to 50 ppm was checked, obtaining the correlation coefficient R2 values in the range: 0.9919-0.9997. Some phenolic acids in real oil samples were detected and quantified with the proposed method. PMID:15506620

  14. Monitoring antigenic protein integrity during glycoconjugate vaccine synthesis using capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Tengattini, Sara; Domínguez-Vega, Elena; Temporini, Caterina; Terreni, Marco; Somsen, Govert W

    2016-09-01

    A capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry (CE-MS) method was developed for the characterization and integrity assessment of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) antigens TB10.4 and Ag85B and their chemically produced glycoconjugates, which are glycovaccine candidates against tuberculosis (TB). In order to prevent protein adsorption to the inner capillary wall and to achieve efficient separation of the antigen proteoforms, a polyionic multilayer coating of polybrene-dextran sulfate-polybrene (PB-DS-PB) was used in combination with 1.5 M acetic acid as background electrolyte (BGE). Coupling of CE to high-resolution time-of-flight MS was achieved by a coaxial interface employing a sheath liquid of isopropanol-water (50:50, v/v) containing 0.1 % formic acid. The MTB antigens were exposed to experimental conditions used for chemical glycosylation (but no activated saccharide was added) in order to investigate their stability during glycovaccine production. CE-MS analysis revealed the presence of several closely related degradation products, including truncated, oxidized and conformational variants, which were assigned by accurate mass. Analysis of synthesized mannose conjugates of TB10.4 and Ag85B allowed the determination of the glycoform composition of the neo-glycoproteins next to the characterization of degradation products which were shown to be partly glycoconjugated. Moreover, the selectivity of CE-MS allowed specific detection of deamidated species (protein mass change of 1.0 Da only), indicating that chemical glycosylation increased susceptibility to deamidation. Overall, the results show that CE-MS represents a useful analytical tool for the detailed characterization and optimization of neo-glycoconjugate products. Graphical Abstract Flowchart illustrating Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) antigen glycosylation, glycoconjugate variant and degradation product separation by capillary electrophoresis (CE) and their characterization by intact mass

  15. Determination of iothalamate in rat urine, plasma, and tubular fluid by capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Davydova, N N; Gotti, R; Welch, W J; Wainer, I W

    1999-05-14

    A method for the quantitative determination of iothalamate (IOT) in rat urine, plasma and tubular fluid by capillary zone electrophoresis (CE) has been developed and validated. Samples of urine and tubular fluids were diluted with water and samples of plasma were deproteinized with two volumes of acetonitrile containing the internal standard, p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA). A BioFocus 2000 system (Bio-Rad, Hercules, CA, USA) was used. The UV detector was set at 254 nm. The samples were loaded into uncoated fused-silica capillary (40 cmx50 microm) by pressure injection. A borate buffer [20 mM, pH 12 (pH adjusted with 1.0 M NaOH)] was used as the electrophoretic buffer. The typical analytical conditions were: voltage, 22 kV; injection, 9 psixs; capillary and carousel temperatures were 20 degrees C and 18 degrees C respectively. The linear relationship was observed between time-corrected peak area of IOT in water and urine or the corrected peak area ratio of IOT to PABA in plasma and the nominal concentration of IOT with correlation coefficient greater than 0.999. The intra- and inter-day coefficients of variation (CV) were less than 8%. The concentration of IOT in plasma, urine and tubular fluid determined by CE can be used for estimation of whole kidney and single nephron clearances. PMID:10379666

  16. Capillary electrophoresis--a new tool for ionic analysis of exhaled breath condensate.

    PubMed

    Kubáň, Petr; Kobrin, Eeva-Gerda; Kaljurand, Mihkel

    2012-12-01

    Exhaled breath condensate has been analyzed for its ionic content by capillary electrophoresis with capacitively coupled contactless conductometric detection. A simple device for collection of small volumes (100-200 μL) of exhaled breath condensate in less than 2 min was developed. A method for simultaneous determination of inorganic cations, inorganic anions and organic anions from the samples using dual-opposite end injection principle with a short fused silica capillary (35 cm, 50 μm I.D.) was developed. A background electrolyte composed of 20mM 2-(N-morpholino)ethanesulfonic acid, 20 mM l-histidine, 30 μM cetyltrimethylammonium bromide and 2mM 18-crown-6 was used. The analysis time was less than 3 min with limits of detection reaching low μM levels for most of the anions and cations. It has been shown that changes of nitrite could be observed in acute inflammation of upper airways and in a person with diagnosed mild chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, while changes of other ions could also be observed. Lactate concentrations could also be monitored and about 4-fold increase of lactate concentration in exhaled breath condensate was determined following an exhaustive cycling exercise. The developed non-invasive sampling of exhaled breath condensate, followed by rapid capillary electrophoretic analysis, could be very useful in lung inflammatory disease screening as well as in monitoring fast metabolic processes such as lactate build-up and removal. PMID:22796027

  17. An integrated multiple capillary array electrophoresis system for high-throughput DNA sequencing

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, X.

    1998-03-27

    A capillary array electrophoresis system was chosen to perform DNA sequencing because of several advantages such as rapid heat dissipation, multiplexing capabilities, gel matrix filling simplicity, and the mature nature of the associated manufacturing technologies. There are two major concerns for the multiple capillary systems. One concern is inter-capillary cross-talk, and the other concern is excitation and detection efficiency. Cross-talk is eliminated through proper optical coupling, good focusing and immersing capillary array into index matching fluid. A side-entry excitation scheme with orthogonal detection was established for large capillary array. Two 100 capillary array formats were used for DNA sequencing. One format is cylindrical capillary with 150 {micro}m o.d., 75 {micro}m i.d and the other format is square capillary with 300 {micro}m out edge and 75 {micro}m inner edge. This project is focused on the development of excitation and detection of DNA as well as performing DNA sequencing. The DNA injection schemes are discussed for the cases of single and bundled capillaries. An individual sampling device was designed. The base-calling was performed for a capillary from the capillary array with the accuracy of 98%.

  18. Evaluation of capillary electrophoresis for in-flight ionic contaminant monitoring of SSF potable water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mudgett, Paul D.; Schultz, John R.; Sauer, Richard L.

    1992-01-01

    Until 1989, ion chromatography (IC) was the baseline technology selected for the Specific Ion Analyzer, an in-flight inorganic water quality monitor being designed for Space Station Freedom. Recent developments in capillary electrophoresis (CE) may offer significant savings of consumables, power consumption, and weight/volume allocation, relative to IC technology. A thorough evaluation of CE's analytical capability, however, is necessary before one of the two techniques is chosen. Unfortunately, analytical methods currently available for inorganic CE are unproven for NASA's target list of anions and cations. Thus, CE electrolyte chemistry and methods to measure the target contaminants must be first identified and optimized. This paper reports the status of a study to evaluate CE's capability with regard to inorganic and carboxylate anions, alkali and alkaline earth cations, and transition metal cations. Preliminary results indicate that CE has an impressive selectivity and trace sensitivity, although considerable methods development remains to be performed.

  19. Capillary electrophoresis of DNA from Cannabis sativa for correlation of samples to geographic origin.

    PubMed

    Coyle, Heather Miller

    2012-01-01

    For routine genetic analysis of Cannabis sativa, two methods are currently in use, (a) AFLP; amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis and (b) STR; short tandem repeat analysis. The AFLP method used on capillary electrophoresis instrumentation is fully described in this chapter. AFLP analysis generates numerous nonspecific marker fragments for a complex DNA pattern and is available in kit format for quality assurance of reagents. This method is particularly useful when discerning the genetics of highly inbred plant species that may share much of the same DNA with only slight differences due to their common genetic background. AFLP analysis, however, is most effective on fresh or well-preserved plant specimens where the integrity of the DNA is high and the sample is a single source specimen (i.e., not a mixture of plants or different species). PMID:22139665

  20. Determination of dissociation constants of pharmacologically active xanthones by capillary zone electrophoresis with diode array detection.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaomu; Gong, Suxuan; Bo, Tao; Liao, Yiping; Liu, Huwei

    2004-12-24

    In this article, the dissociation constants (pKa) of 10 pharmacologically active xanthones isolated from herbal medicine Securidaca inappendiculata were determined by capillary zone electrophoresis with diode array detection. The pKa values determined by the method based on the electrophoretic mobilities (calculated from migration times) have been proved by the method based on UV absorbance calculated from the online spectra corresponding peaks. No conspicuous difference was observed between the two methods with acceptable reproducibility. Two pKa values (pKa1 and pKa2) were found for four xanthones while generally the 10 compounds possess the pKa values ranging from 6.4 to 9.2. PMID:15641365

  1. Self-assembled covalent capillary coating of diazoresin/carboxyl fullerene for analysis of proteins by capillary electrophoresis and a comparison with diazoresin/graphene oxide coating.

    PubMed

    Yu, Bing; Shu, Xi; Cong, Hailin; Chen, Xin; Liu, Huwei; Yuan, Hua; Chi, Ming

    2016-03-11

    Self-assembled and covalently linked capillary coatings of carboxyl fullerenes (C60-COOH) were prepared using photosensitive diazoresin (DR) as a coupling agent. Layer by layer (LBL) self-assembled DR/C60-COOH coatings based on ionic bonding was fabricated first on the inner surface of silica capillary, and subsequently converted into covalent bonding after treatment with UV light through a unique photochemistry reaction of DR. The covalently bonded coatings had the ability of suppressing protein adsorption on the inner surface of silica capillary, and thus the baseline separation of lysozyme (Lys), cytochrome c (Cyt-c), bovine serum albumin (BSA) and myoglobin (Mb) was achieved within 13min by using capillary electrophoresis (CE). The covalently linked DR/C60-COOH capillary coatings presented good chemical stability and repeatability. The reproducibility of the separation of proteins was less than 1%, 2.5%, and 3.5%, respectively, for run-to-run, day-to-day, capillary-to-capillary, respectively; and the RSD of migration time for the proteins are all less than 2.5% after a continuous 100 times running in a coating column. Compared with DR/graphene oxide (GO) coatings prepared by the same method, the DR/C60-COOH capillary coatings showed excellent protein separation performance due to a self-lubrication based anti-fouling mechanism. Because of the replacement of highly toxic and moisture sensitive silane coupling agent by DR in the covalent coating preparation, this method may provide an environmentally friendly and simple way to prepare the covalently coated capillaries for CE. PMID:26875118

  2. Micellar electrokinetic capillary electrophoresis for rapid analysis of patulin in apple cider.

    PubMed

    Tsao, R; Zhou, T

    2000-11-01

    A micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography (MECC) mode was applied to a capillary electrophoresis (CE) method, which was developed for detection and quantitation of patulin in apple ciders. This method used a small sample amount (2 mL) and consumed minimal organic solvent compared to the most commonly used HPLC methods. The sample preparation procedure of the CE method was also simpler than other chromatographic techniques developed for patulin analysis. Patulin was detected with a photodiode array detector at 273 nm. The standard curve was linear (r(2) = 0.9984) from 75 microgram/L to 121 microgram/mL with patulin working solutions corresponding to 3.8 microgram/L to 6.1 microgram/mL patulin in the sample. The linearity was better in a narrower range of concentrations (r(2) = 0.9999) from 75 microgram/L to 24.1 microgram/mL. The limit of detection of the method was 3.8 microgram/L. Patulin recoveries at 4 levels in spiked samples (10-121 microgram/L) ranged from 95.2 to 105.4%. The recoveries were 96. 9% and 99.2% for 2 levels (22.3 and 223 microgram/L, respectively) of patulin in infected apple samples. This method represents a unique alternative method for rapid and sensitive analysis of patulin in apple ciders. PMID:11087465

  3. Analysis of flavonoids by capillary zone electrophoresis with electrokinetic supercharging.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Hao; Yao, Qingqiang; Breadmore, Michael C; Li, Yumei; Lu, Yuanqi

    2011-11-01

    On-line concentration via Electrokinetic Supercharging (EKS) was used to enhance the sensitivity of the capillary electrophoretic separation of the four flavonoids naringenin, hesperetin, naringin and hesperidin. Separation conditions, including the background electrolyte pH and concentration, the length and choice of terminator and the electrokinetic injection time were optimized. The optimum conditions were: a background electrolyte of 30 mM sodium tetraborate (pH 9.5) containing 5% (v/v) of methanol, electrokinetic injection of the sample (130 s, -10 kV) followed by hydrodynamic injecting of 100 mM 2-(cyclohexylamino)ethanesulfonic acid (CHES) (17 s, 0.5 psi) as terminator, and separation with -20 kV. Under these conditions the four flavonoids could be separated with a sample-to-sample time of 15 min and detection limits from 2.0 to 6.8 ng mL(-1). When compared to a conventional hydrodynamic injection the sensitivity was enhanced between 824 and 1515 times which is 7.6-16 times higher than other CE methods for the on-line concentration of flavonoids. The applicability of the developed method was demonstrated by the detection of the four flavonoids in an aqueous extract of Clematis hexapetala pall. PMID:21949941

  4. Design and operation of a portable scanner for high performance microchip capillary array electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Scherer, James R; Liu, Peng; Mathies, Richard A

    2010-11-01

    We have developed a compact, laser-induced fluorescence detection scanner, the multichannel capillary array electrophoresis portable scanner (McCAEPs) as a platform for electrophoretic detection and control of high-throughput, integrated microfluidic devices for genetic and other analyses. The instrument contains a confocal optical system with a rotary objective for detecting four different fluorescence signals, a pneumatic system consisting of two pressure/vacuum pumps and 28 individual addressable solenoid valves for control of on-chip microvalves and micropumps, four Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) temperature control systems, and four high voltage power supplies for electrophoresis. The detection limit of the instrument is ~20 pM for on-chip capillary electrophoresis of fluorescein dyes. To demonstrate the system performance for forensic short tandem repeat (STR) analysis, two experiments were conducted: (i) electrophoretic separation and detection of STR samples on a 96-lane microfabricated capillary array electrophoresis microchip. Fully resolved PowerPlex(®) 16 STR profiles amplified from 1 ng of 9947A female standard DNA were successfully obtained; (ii) nine-plex STR amplification, sample injection, separation, and fluorescence detection of 100-copy 9948 male standard DNA in a single integrated PCR- capillary electrophoresis microchip. These results demonstrate that the McCAEPs can be used as a versatile control and detection instrument that operates integrated microfluidic devices for high-performance forensic human identification. PMID:21133459

  5. Design and operation of a portable scanner for high performance microchip capillary array electrophoresis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scherer, James R.; Liu, Peng; Mathies, Richard A.

    2010-11-01

    We have developed a compact, laser-induced fluorescence detection scanner, the multichannel capillary array electrophoresis portable scanner (McCAEPs) as a platform for electrophoretic detection and control of high-throughput, integrated microfluidic devices for genetic and other analyses. The instrument contains a confocal optical system with a rotary objective for detecting four different fluorescence signals, a pneumatic system consisting of two pressure/vacuum pumps and 28 individual addressable solenoid valves for control of on-chip microvalves and micropumps, four Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) temperature control systems, and four high voltage power supplies for electrophoresis. The detection limit of the instrument is ˜20 pM for on-chip capillary electrophoresis of fluorescein dyes. To demonstrate the system performance for forensic short tandem repeat (STR) analysis, two experiments were conducted: (i) electrophoretic separation and detection of STR samples on a 96-lane microfabricated capillary array electrophoresis microchip. Fully resolved PowerPlex® 16 STR profiles amplified from 1 ng of 9947A female standard DNA were successfully obtained; (ii) nine-plex STR amplification, sample injection, separation, and fluorescence detection of 100-copy 9948 male standard DNA in a single integrated PCR- capillary electrophoresis microchip. These results demonstrate that the McCAEPs can be used as a versatile control and detection instrument that operates integrated microfluidic devices for high-performance forensic human identification.

  6. High-Throughput Genetic Analysis and Combinatorial Chiral Separations Based on Capillary Electrophoresis

    SciTech Connect

    Wenwan Zhong

    2003-08-05

    Capillary electrophoresis (CE) offers many advantages over conventional analytical methods, such as speed, simplicity, high resolution, low cost, and small sample consumption, especially for the separation of enantiomers. However, chiral method developments still can be time consuming and tedious. They designed a comprehensive enantioseparation protocol employing neutral and sulfated cyclodextrins as chiral selectors for common basic, neutral, and acidic compounds with a 96-capillary array system. By using only four judiciously chosen separation buffers, successful enantioseparations were achieved for 49 out of 54 test compounds spanning a large variety of pKs and structures. Therefore, unknown compounds can be screened in this manner to identify optimal enantioselective conditions in just one rn. In addition to superior separation efficiency for small molecules, CE is also the most powerful technique for DNA separations. Using the same multiplexed capillary system with UV absorption detection, the sequence of a short DNA template can be acquired without any dye-labels. Two internal standards were utilized to adjust the migration time variations among capillaries, so that the four electropherograms for the A, T, C, G Sanger reactions can be aligned and base calling can be completed with a high level of confidence. the CE separation of DNA can be applied to study differential gene expression as well. Combined with pattern recognition techniques, small variations among electropherograms obtained by the separation of cDNA fragments produced from the total RNA samples of different human tissues can be revealed. These variations reflect the differences in total RNA expression among tissues. Thus, this Ce-based approach can serve as an alternative to the DNA array techniques in gene expression analysis.

  7. [Determination of osteopontin at trace levels by non-gel sieving capillary electrophoresis].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jingshan; Wen, Jinkun; Han, Mei

    2005-09-01

    A method of non-gel sieving capillary electrophoresis (NGSCE) was established to determine osteopontin at trace levels. The capillary used was uncoated fused silica with a size of 57 cm x 75 microm i. d. and an effective length of 50 cm. The electrode buffer was a 150 mmol/L boric acid-borate buffer containing 30 g/L polyethylene glycol 20000 (pH 10.0). Other conditions were as follows: separation voltage 23 kV; detection wavelength 214 nm; pressure of injecting sample 3.4 kPa (0.5 psi) x 5 s; and column temperature 25 degrees C. The NGSCE method had excellent linearity with correlation coefficient of 0. 996, and reproducibility with the relative standard deviation of migration time of osteopontin less than 5% . The recovery was 95% and better, the sensitivity was 0. 079 g/L. Osteopontin secreted by vascular smooth muscle cells was determined by the NGSCE method at different times after serum withdrawal, and the results were in agreement with those of Western blot method. The results indicate that NGSCE is a simple and rapid method of determining osteopontin at trace levels. This method only needs a micro-amount of sample and is easily automated. PMID:16350797

  8. Application of high performance capillary electrophoresis on toxic alkaloids analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; Wang, Rong; Zhang, Yurong; Yu, Yunqiu

    2007-06-01

    We employed CE to identify mixtures of the toxic alkaloids lappaconitine, bullatine A, atropine sulfate, atropine methobromide, scopolamine hydrobromide, anisodamine hydrobromide, brucine, strychnine, quinine sulfate, and chloroquine in human blood and urine, using procaine hydrochloride as an internal standard. The separation employed a fused-silica capillary of 75 microm id x 60 cm length (effective length: 50.2 cm) and a buffer containing 100 mM phosphate and 5% ACN (pH 4.0). The sample was injected in a pressure mode and the separation was performed at a voltage of 16 kV and a temperature of 25 degrees C. The compounds were detected by UV absorbance at wavelengths of 195 and 235 nm. All the ten alkaloids were separated within 16 min. The method was validated with regard to precision (RSD), accuracy, sensitivity, linear range, LOD, and LOQ. In blood and urine samples, the detection limits were 5-40 ng/mL and linear calibration curves were obtained over the range of 0.02-10 microg/mL. The precision of intra- and interday measurements was less than 15%. Electrophoretic peaks could be identified either by the relative migration time or by their UV spectrum. PMID:17623479

  9. [Determination of three adrenergic drugs using capillary electrophoresis with amperometric detection].

    PubMed

    Huang, Ying; Zhang, Xiaoli; Zhan, Chunrong; Chen, Guonan

    2010-11-01

    A method for the determination of three adrenergic drugs, including phenylephrine hydrochloride (PHE), metaraminol bitartrate (MR) and isoprenaline hydrochloride (IP), was developed using capillary electrophoresis with amperometric detection. The detection potential of working electrode was 0.950 V versus the reference electrode of Ag/AgCl. At the applied voltage of 18 kV, the three analytes were completely separated within 18 min in 50 mmol/L borate buffer (pH 10.00) with the injection time of 10 s. Good linear relationships were obtained for all the three analytes in the range of 2-100 micromol/L. The detection limits for PHE, MR and IP were 0.8, 0.8 and 1.0 micromol/L, respectively. The proposed method was applied to the analysis of some injection drugs, and the results were satisfactory. PMID:21381427

  10. Detection of biogenic amines in C57BL/6 mice brain by capillary electrophoresis electrokinetic supercharging.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei-feng; Ju, Fu-rong; Ran, Yan-li; Zhang, Hui-ge; Chen, Xing-guo

    2016-02-01

    Ischemic stroke is caused when blood flow to the brain is stopped and is a major cause of death and long term disability across the globe. Excessive release of neurotransmitters is triggered in the brain by ischemia that mediates neuronal damage and causes ischemic injury. In this study, a simple, sensitive, and on-line preconcentration capillary electrophoresis method based on electrokinetic supercharging (EKS) was developed for the determination of the biogenic amines including dopamine (DA), epinephrine (E), and norepinephrine (NE) in C57BL/6 mice brain. Under the optimized conditions, the analytes were concentrated and detected within 10 min. The detection limits for the analytes ranged from 0.42 to 0.57 ng mL(-1) for a mice brain matrix. With the proposed method, the analyses of three neurochemical amines in C57BL/6 mice brain tissue during cerebral ischemic/reperfusion had been performed successfully. PMID:26658278

  11. Field enhancement sample stacking for analysis of organic acids in traditional Chinese medicine by capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Qianqian; Xu, Xueqin; Huang, Yuanyuan; Xu, Liangjun; Chen, Guonan

    2012-07-13

    A technique known as field enhancement sample stacking (FESS) and capillary electrophoresis (CE) separation has been developed to analyze and detect organic acids in the three traditional Chinese medicines (such as Portulaca oleracea L., Crataegus pinnatifida and Aloe vera L.). In FESS, a reverse electrode polarity-stacking mode (REPSM) was applied as on-line preconcentration strategy. Under the optimized condition, the baseline separation of eight organic acids (linolenic acid, lauric acid, p-coumaric acid, ascorbic acid, benzoic acid, caffeic acid, succinic acid and fumaric acid) could be achieved within 20 min. Validation parameters of this method (such as detection limits, linearity and precision) were also evaluated. The detection limits ranged from 0.4 to 60 ng/mL. The results indicated that the proposed method was effective for the separation of mixtures of organic acids. Satisfactory recoveries were also obtained in the analysis of these organic acids in the above traditional Chinese medicine samples. PMID:22381886

  12. Quantitative enantiomeric analysis of chlorcyclizine, hydroxyzine, and meclizine by capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Ho, Yu- Hsiang; Wu, Hsin- Lung; Wu, Shou- Mei; Chen, Su- Hwei; Kou, Hwang- Shang

    2003-07-01

    A simple capillary zone electrophoresis method was developed for the quantitative enantiomeric analysis of piperazine antihistamines with teratogenic suspicion in animals. Enantioseparation of chlorcyclizine, hydroxyzine, and meclizine was performed in glycine buffer (0.6 mol L(-1); pH 3.00) with sulfated beta-cyclodextrin (5 mg mL(-1)) as a chiral selector; and the separated drugs were monitored by ultra-violet detector. The lower quantitation of the individual enantiomer is attainable at 10 micro mol L(-1), using an achiral piperazine drug (cyclizine) as internal standard. The method is simple and rapid with a short run time (<5 min) for the analysis of chlorcyclizine, hydroxyzine or meclizine enantiomers. PMID:12830360

  13. Steroid determination in fish plasma using capillary electrophoresis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bykova, L.; Archer-Hartmann, S. A.; Holland, L.A.; Iwanowicz, L.R.; Blazer, V.S.

    2010-01-01

    A capillary separation method that incorporates pH-mediated stacking is employed for the simultaneous determination of circulating steroid hormones in plasma from Perca flavescens (yellow perch) collected from natural aquatic environments. The method can be applied to separate eight steroid standards: progesterone, 17α,20β-dihydroxypregn-4-en-3-one, 17α-hydroxyprogesterone, testosterone, estrone, 11-ketotestosterone, ethynyl estradiol, and 17β-estradiol. Based on screening of plasma, the performance of the analytical method was determined for 17α,20β-dihydroxypregn-4-en-3-one, testosterone, 11-ketotestosterone, and 17β-estradiol. The within-day reproducibility in migration time for these four steroids in aqueous samples was ≤2%. Steroid quantification was accomplished using a calibration curve obtained with external standards. Plasma samples from fish collected from the Choptank and Severn Rivers, Maryland, USA, stored for up to one year were extracted with ethyl acetate and then further processed with anion exchange and hydrophobic solid phase extraction cartridges. The recovery of testosterone and 17β-estradiol from yellow perch plasma was 84 and 85%, respectively. Endogenous levels of testosterone ranged from 0.9 to 44 ng/ml, and when detected 17α,20β-dihydroxypregn-4-en-3-one ranged from 5 to 34 ng/ml. The reported values for testosterone correlated well with the immunoassay technique. Endogenous concentrations of 17β-estradiol were ≤1.7 ng/ml. 11-Ketotestosterone was not quantified because of a suspected interferant. Higher levels of 17α,20β-dihydroxypregn-4-en-3-one were found in male and female fish in which 17β-estradiol was not detected. Monitoring multiple steroids can provide insight into hormonal fluctuations in fish.

  14. Recent advances in enhancing the sensitivity of electrophoresis and electrochromatography in capillaries and microchips (2008-2010).

    PubMed

    Breadmore, Michael C; Dawod, Mohamed; Quirino, Joselito P

    2011-01-01

    Capillary electrophoresis has been alive for over two decades now; yet, its sensitivity is still regarded as being inferior to that of more traditional methods of separation such as HPLC. As such, it is unsurprising that overcoming this issue still generates much scientific interest. This review continues to update this series of reviews, first published in Electrophoresis in 2007, with an update published in 2009 and covers material published through to June 2010. It includes developments in the fields of stacking, covering all methods from field-amplified sample stacking and large volume sample stacking, through to ITP, dynamic pH junction and sweeping. Attention is also given to on-line or in-line extraction methods that have been used for electrophoresis. PMID:21171119

  15. Evaluation of capillary zone electrophoresis for the determination of protein composition in therapeutic immunoglobulins and human albumins.

    PubMed

    Christians, Stefan; van Treel, Nadine Denise; Bieniara, Gabriele; Eulig-Wien, Annika; Hanschmann, Kay-Martin; Giess, Siegfried

    2016-07-01

    Capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) provides an alternative means of separating native proteins on the basis of their inherent electrophoretic mobilities. The major advantage of CZE is the quantification by UV detection, circumventing the drawbacks of staining and densitometry in the case of gel electrophoresis methods. The data of this validation study showed that CZE is a reliable assay for the determination of protein composition in therapeutic preparations of human albumin and human polyclonal immunoglobulins. Data obtained by CZE are in line with "historical" data obtained by the compendial method, provided that peak integration is performed without time correction. The focus here was to establish a rapid and reliable test to substitute the current gel based zone electrophoresis techniques for the control of protein composition of human immunoglobulins or albumins in the European Pharmacopoeia. We believe that the more advanced and modern CZE method described here is a very good alternative to the procedures currently described in the relevant monographs. PMID:27156142

  16. Monitoring the electroosmotic flow in capillary electrophoresis using contactless conductivity detection and thermal marks.

    PubMed

    Saito, Renata Mayumi; Neves, Carlos Antonio; Lopes, Fernando Silva; Blanes, Lucas; Brito-Neto, José Geraldo Alves; do Lago, Claudimir Lucio

    2007-01-01

    The fundamental aspects and the capillary electrophoresis usage of thermal marks are presented. The so-called thermal mark is a perturbation of the electrolyte concentration generated by a punctual heating of the capillary while the separation electric field is maintained. The heating pulse is obtained by powering tungsten filaments or surface mount device resistors with 5 V during a few tens to hundreds of milliseconds. In the proposed model, the variation of the transport numbers with the rising temperature leads to the formation of low- and high-concentration regions during the heating. After cooling down, the initial mobilities of the species are restored and these regions (the thermal mark) migrate chiefly due to the electroosmotic flow (EOF). The mark may be recorded with a conductivity detector as part of a usual electropherogram and be used to index the analyte peaks and thus compensate for variations of the EOF. In a favorable case, 10 mmol/L KCl solution, the theory suggests that the error in the measurement of EOF mobility by this mean is only -6.5 x 10(-7) cm2 V-1 s-1. The method was applied to the analysis of alkaline ions in egg white, and the relative standard deviations of the corrected mobilities of these ions were smaller than 1%. This is a challenging matrix, because albumin reduces the EOF to 20% of its initial value after 11 runs. The combination of thermal mark, electrolysis separated, and contactless conductivity detection allowed the measurement of the EOF of a silica capillary with unbuffered KCl solution with constant ionic strength. The overall approach is advantageous, because one can easily control the chemical composition of the solution in contact with the inner surface of the capillary. PMID:17194142

  17. Investigation of capillary free-flow electrophoresis for separation of Co, Cr, and As species in aqueous solution

    SciTech Connect

    Ketterer, M.E.; Kozerski, G.E.; Ritacco, R.; Painuly, P.

    1997-01-01

    Application of a prototype capillary free-flow electrophoresis (CFFE) device for separation of different solution species of Co, Cr, and As is explored. A unique free-flow electrophoresis (FFE) design is employed, which makes use of internal capillary cooling tubes to minimize thermal convection due to Joule heating.

  18. Fast analysis of amino acids in wine by capillary electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence detection.

    PubMed

    Mandrioli, Roberto; Morganti, Emanuele; Mercolini, Laura; Kenndler, Ernst; Raggi, Maria A

    2011-10-01

    A fast analytical method has been developed for the determination of nine amino acids, together with serotonin, in wine samples of different origin and vintage. The method is based on capillary electrophoresis coupled to laser-induced fluorescence detection. Separation was obtained by using a fused-silica capillary (75 μm id, 74.0 cm total length, 60.0 cm length to detector) and a background electrolyte composed of carbonate buffer (20 mM, pH 9.2), applying a 20 kV voltage. Direct hydrodynamic injection of wine samples was made after an original microwave-assisted derivatisation step with 5-(4,6-dichlorotriazinyl)aminofluorescein. Fluorescence was induced by an Ar-Ion laser, exciting at 488 nm. Good linearity (r(2) >0.9990) was obtained for all considered analytes and sensitivity was also good, with limits of detection in the 7-50 ng/mL range. The method was successfully applied for the analysis of commercial Italian wines and thus seems to be suitable for the determination of the relevant amino acids and serotonin, providing good results in terms of accuracy and precision, together with the advantage of a very fast, microwave-assisted derivatisation procedure. Future applications of the method are planned to check for wine adulterations and commercial frauds. PMID:21922500

  19. Application of capillary electrophoresis with electrokinetic supercharging and sweeping for the on-line preconcentration of phenolic acids.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yi-Hui; Huang, Hsin-Chieh; Hsu, Wan-Ling

    2015-09-01

    Phenolic acids are natural antioxidants. Many studies have confirmed that these compounds can reduce the risk of developing chronic diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and certain cancers. In this work, we developed a rapid and efficient capillary electrophoresis method with an on-line preconcentration technique that could be used to simultaneously analyze 10 commonly found phenolic acids in plants. Briefly, phosphate buffer solution (pH 2) was filled into an uncoated fused silica capillary as the leading electrolyte, and then samples which were prepared in borate buffer (as the terminating ion) were loaded by electrokinetic injection (-10 kV, 900 s). After sample injection, both ends of the capillary were switched to the vial containing phosphate buffer with sodium dodecyl sulfate. The separation was then performed in micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) mode at -20 kV. During the method validation, the correlation coefficient of the regression curve was measured as greater than 0.997 and the relative standard deviation and relative error were lower than 9.63 % and 4.7 %, respectively. The limits of detection (LODs, S/N = 3) of these 10 analytes ranged from 0.01 to 2.5 ng/mL. Compared with the conventional capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) method, the sensitivity for the analytes could be increased up to 25,000-fold. The method that we developed here was applied successfully to the detection of phenolic acids in fruit juices. PMID:26159571

  20. Research on flavonoids contents in Fructus sophorae with capillary zone electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Shi, Qiang; Sui, Lu-zhi; Lu, Yuan-qi

    2013-11-01

    Genistin, genistein, kaempferol, quercetin and rutin, five kinds of flavonoids in Fructus sophorae, have been analyzed by capillary zone electrophoresis with internal standard calibration. Buffer pH and concentration, applied voltage, β-cyclodextrin and ethanol concentration were optimized and the optimum conditions are: 20 mmol/L borax (pH 9.5) with 8 mmol/L β-cyclodextrin and 5% (v/v) ethanol and at a voltage of 25 kV. The contents of five flavonoids in Fructus Sophorae grown in different area of Dezhou, Shandong Province of China were determined by the developed method and with satisfactory results. The distributions of the studied flavonoids were also investigated. PMID:24191317

  1. Ultrafast capillary electrophoresis isolation of DNA aptamer for the PCR amplification-based small analyte sensing

    PubMed Central

    Fiore, Emmanuelle; Dausse, Eric; Dubouchaud, Hervé; Peyrin, Eric; Ravelet, Corinne

    2015-01-01

    Here, we report a new homogeneous DNA amplification-based aptamer assay for small analyte sensing. The aptamer of adenosine chosen as the model analyte was split into two fragments able to assemble in the presence of target. Primers were introduced at extremities of one fragment in order to generate the amplifiable DNA component. The amount of amplifiable fragment was quantifiable by Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) amplification and directly reliable on adenosine concentration. This approach combines the very high separation efficiency and the homogeneous format (without immobilization) of capillary electrophoresis (CE) and the sensitivity of real time PCR amplification. An ultrafast isolation of target-bound split aptamer (60 s) was developed by designing a CE input/ouput scheme. Such method was successfully applied to the determination of adenosine with a LOD of 1 μM. PMID:26322305

  2. Recent Advances in the Determination of Pesticides in Environmental Samples by Capillary Electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Chang, Po-Ling; Hsieh, Ming-Mu; Chiu, Tai-Chia

    2016-04-01

    Nowadays, owing to the increasing population and the attempts to satisfy its needs, pesticides are widely applied to control the quantity and quality of agricultural products. However, the presence of pesticide residues and their metabolites in environmental samples is hazardous to the health of humans and all other living organisms. Thus, monitoring these compounds is extremely important to ensure that only permitted levels of pesticide are consumed. To this end, fast, reliable, and environmentally friendly methods that can accurately analyze dilute, complex samples containing both parent substances and their metabolites are required. Focusing primarily on research published since 2010, this review summarizes the use of various sample pretreatment techniques to extract pesticides from various matrices, combined with on-line preconcentration strategies for sensitivity improvement, and subsequent capillary electrophoresis analysis. PMID:27070634

  3. Rapid and multi-level characterization of trastuzumab using sheathless capillary electrophoresis-tandem mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Gahoual, Rabah; Burr, Alicia; Busnel, Jean-Marc; Kuhn, Lauriane; Hammann, Phillipe; Beck, Alain; François, Yannis-Nicolas; Leize-Wagner, Emmanuelle

    2013-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are highly complex proteins that display a wide range of microheterogeneity that requires multiple analytical methods for full structure assessment and quality control. As a consequence, the characterization of mAbs on different levels is particularly product - and time - consuming. This work presents the characterization of trastuzumab sequence using sheathless capillary electrophoresis (referred as CESI) – tandem mass spectrometry (CESI-MS/MS). Using this bottom-up proteomic-like approach, CESI-MS/MS provided 100% sequence coverage for both heavy and light chain via peptide fragment fingerprinting (PFF) identification. The result was accomplished in a single shot, corresponding to the analysis of 100 fmoles of digest. The same analysis also enabled precise characterization of the post-translational hot spots of trastuzumab, used as a representative widely marketed therapeutic mAb, including the structural confirmation of the five major N-glycoforms. PMID:23563524

  4. Detection of Amadori compounds by capillary electrophoresis coupled to tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Hau, Jörg; Devaud, Stéphanie; Blank, Imre

    2004-07-01

    Capillary electrophoresis coupled to mass spectrometry (CE-MS) is reported for the first time as an alternative and powerful analytical method for the characterization and monitoring of N-substituted 1-amino-1-deoxyketoses (Amadori compounds). It allows rapid separation and identification of Amadori compounds, while benefiting from the well-known advantages of MS, such as specificity and sensitivity. Amadori compounds of several amino acids, such as glycine, valine, isoleucine, methionine, proline, and phenylalanine, as well as a cysteine-derived compound, were separated and/or discriminated using CE-MS/MS under standard conditions. The technique may also be useful to study the stability and degradation kinetics of other labile charged Maillard intermediates that play an important role in food and medical science. PMID:15237408

  5. Analysis of Soft Drinks: UV Spectrophotometry, Liquid Chromatography, and Capillary Electrophoresis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDevitt, Valerie L.; Rodriguez, Alejandra; Williams, Kathryn R.

    1998-05-01

    Instrumental analysis students analyze commercial soft drinks in three successive laboratory experiments. First, UV multicomponent analysis is used to determine caffeine and benzoic acid in Mello YelloTM using the spectrophotometer's software and manually by the simultaneous equations method. The following week, caffeine, benzoic acid and aspartame are determined in a variety of soft drinks by reversed-phase liquid chromatography using 45% methanol/55% aqueous phosphate, pH 3.0, as the mobile phase. In the third experiment, the same samples are analyzed by capillary electrophoresis using a pH 9.4 borate buffer. Students also determine the minimum detection limits for all three compounds by both LC and CE. The experiments demonstrate the analytical use and limitations of the three instruments. The reports and prelab quizzes also stress the importance of the chemistry of the three compounds, especially the relationships of acid/base behavior and polarity to the LC and CE separations.

  6. A multiscale products technique for denoising of DNA capillary electrophoresis signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Qingwei; Lu, Yixiang; Sun, Dong; Zhang, Dexiang

    2013-06-01

    Since noise degrades the accuracy and precision of DNA capillary electrophoresis (CE) analysis, signal denoising is thus important to facilitate the postprocessing of CE data. In this paper, a new denoising algorithm based on dyadic wavelet transform using multiscale products is applied for the removal of the noise in the DNA CE signal. The adjacent scale wavelet coefficients are first multiplied to amplify the significant features of the CE signal while diluting noise. Then, noise is suppressed by applying a multiscale threshold to the multiscale products instead of directly to the wavelet coefficients. Finally, the noise-free CE signal is recovered from the thresholded coefficients by using inverse dyadic wavelet transform. We compare the performance of the proposed algorithm with other denoising methods applied to the synthetic CE and real CE signals. Experimental results show that the new scheme achieves better removal of noise while preserving the shape of peaks corresponding to the analytes in the sample.

  7. Sampling protocols for the detection of smokeless powder residues using capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    MacCrehan, W A; Smith, K D; Rowe, W F

    1998-01-01

    Present techniques for the detection of gunshot residue rely primarily metallic primer components such as lead, barium and antimony. With the advent of reformulated primers that reduce or eliminate these elements, new methods for the detection of organic residue compounds will be needed. Micellar electrokinetic capillary electrophoresis (MECE) is one technique that has been successfully applied to the analysis of these smokeless powder residue compounds. Protocols for the recovery of the organic residue components under a variety of sampling conditions were evaluated and improved for MECE analysis. The collection of residue samples where external contaminants such as grease or blood were present on the residue substrate were investigated using both tape lifts and solvent swab protocols. In addition, residue component recovery using supercritical fluid extraction techniques was preliminarily evaluated for samples contaminated with blood. PMID:9456532

  8. Recent Advances in the Determination of Pesticides in Environmental Samples by Capillary Electrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Po-Ling; Hsieh, Ming-Mu; Chiu, Tai-Chia

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, owing to the increasing population and the attempts to satisfy its needs, pesticides are widely applied to control the quantity and quality of agricultural products. However, the presence of pesticide residues and their metabolites in environmental samples is hazardous to the health of humans and all other living organisms. Thus, monitoring these compounds is extremely important to ensure that only permitted levels of pesticide are consumed. To this end, fast, reliable, and environmentally friendly methods that can accurately analyze dilute, complex samples containing both parent substances and their metabolites are required. Focusing primarily on research published since 2010, this review summarizes the use of various sample pretreatment techniques to extract pesticides from various matrices, combined with on-line preconcentration strategies for sensitivity improvement, and subsequent capillary electrophoresis analysis. PMID:27070634

  9. Evaluation of a novel hydrophilic derivatized capillary for protein analysis by capillary electrophoresis-electrospray mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Cole, R B; Varghese, J; McCormick, R M; Kadlecek, D

    1994-10-01

    A new type of hydrophilic derivatized capillary has been used to enable the on-line capillary electrophoresis separation and electrospray mass spectrometric detection of a mixture of proteins containing bovine cytochrome c, tuna cytochrome c and horse heart myoglobin. Less than 40 fmol of each compound were loaded into the capillary. Baseline resolution of components was achieved, as were accurate assignments of molecular masses. The hydrophilic derivatized capillaries were taken through extensive testing procedures to characterize their performance and capabilities for protein analysis. A mixture of six proteins (cytochrome c, ribonuclease A, alpha-chymotrypsinogen, myoglobin, carbonic anhydrase II and alpha-lactalbumin) in acetic acid-sodium acetate buffer was used to delineate the relationships between migration time and pH, along with migration time and buffer concentration for each protein. The variations in capillary efficiency as a function of pH and as a function of buffer concentration were also characterized for the same six proteins in the acetic acid-sodium acetate system. A pH of 4.8 was found to offer an excellent compromise between separation efficiency (up to 500,000 theoretical plates) and analysis time. Capillary efficiencies were also found to be very good when employing a Tris.HCl electrolyte adjusted to pH 4.8. Lastly, electropherogram reproducibility and capillary durability were examined with the finding that little deterioration of the capillary occurred over the course of 400 injections (200 h run time). This represents a notable improvement over previously documented derivatization procedures designed to reduce protein adsorption to fused-silica capillary walls. PMID:7981821

  10. Large-volume sample stacking for analysis of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid by capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhiwei; Zhang, Lifeng; Marimuthu, Arun; Yang, Zhaoguang

    2002-09-01

    A simple, quick, and sensitive capillary electrophoretic technique-large volume stacking using the electroosmotic flow (EOF) pump (LVSEP) - has been developed for determining ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) in drinking water for the first time. It is based on a precapillary complexation of EDTA with Fe(III) ions, followed by large-volume sample stacking and direct UV detection at 258 nm. The curve of peak response versus concentration was linear from 5.0 to 600.0 microg/L, and 0.7 to 30.0 mg/L. The regression coefficients were 0.9988 and 0.9990, respectively. The detection limit of the current technique for EDTA analysis was 0.2 microg/L with an additional 10-fold preconcentration procedure, based on the signal-to-noise ratio of 3. As opposed to the classical capillary zone electrophoresis (CE) method, the detection limit was improved about 1000-fold by using this LVSEP method. To the best of our knowledge, it represents the highest sensitivity for EDTA analysis via CE. Several drinking water samples were tested by this novel method with satisfactory results. PMID:12207295

  11. Determination of spore concentration in Bacillus thuringiensis through the analysis of dipicolinate by capillary zone electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    He, Jin; Luo, Xiaofeng; Chen, Shouwen; Cao, Lili; Sun, Ming; Yu, Ziniu

    2003-04-25

    A new capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) method for the analysis of dipicolinic acid, a specific component found in spores but not in vegetative cells, was used to determine spore concentration in Bacillus thuringiensis according to the relationship between the spore concentration and the content of dipicolinate. The quantitative relationship was established by using purified spores. Electrolyte conditions that affected the separation efficiency of dipicolinate and the reproducibility were investigated. With 10 mM phosphate, 10 mM ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and 0.25 mM tetradecyltrimethylammonium bromide at pH 6.2 as the carrier electrolyte, dipicolinate can be determined within 8 min at an applied voltage of -25 kV (anode at detector) and a capillary temperature of 25 degrees C. The method has a high separation efficiency with which the number of theoretical plates is above 300,000 plates m(-1). The relative standard deviations for migration time and peak area are less than 0.5% and 2.0%, respectively. The detection limit for dipicolinate was 10 ng ml(-1), which corresponds to 7.2 x 10(5) spores ml(-1). The method was used to determine spores in fermentation broths, and the results obtained agreed well with the values obtained by plate counting. PMID:12779231

  12. Separation of thiol and cyanide hydrolysis products of chemical warfare agents by capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Copper, Christine L; Collins, Greg E

    2004-03-01

    The fluorescence derivatizing agent, o-phthalaldehyde (OPA), has been applied to the separation and detection of cyanide and several structurally similar thiols by capillary electrophoresis (CE)-laser induced fluorescence (LIF). Of particular interest to this investigation was the separation of 2-dimethylaminoethanethiol, 2-diethylaminoethanethiol, and cyanide, each of which are hydrolysis products or hydrolysis product simulants of the chemical warfare (CW) agents O-ethyl S-2-diisopropylaminoethyl methylphosphonothiolate (VX), O-isobutyl S-2-diethylaminoethyl methylphosphonothiolate (R-VX), and tabun (GA). Other structurally similar thiols simultaneously resolved by this method include 1-pentanethiol and 2-mercaptoethanol. Instrumental parameters were probed and optimum values for capillary length (50 cm) and inner diameter (75 microm), injection time (30 s) and field strength (15 kV) were determined. Sample stacking methods enabled detection limits of 9.3 microg/L for cyanide, 1.8 microg/L for 2-diethylaminoethanethiol, 35 microg/L for 2-dimethylaminoethanethiol, 15 microg/L for 2-mercaptoethanol, and 89 microg/L for 1-pentanethiol. The linearity of the method was verified over an order of magnitude and the reproducibility was found to be 3.0%. PMID:15004852

  13. Discriminative detection of low-abundance point mutations using a PCR/ligase detection reaction/capillary gel electrophoresis method and fluorescence dual-channel monitoring.

    PubMed

    Hamada, Mariko; Shimase, Koji; Tsukagoshi, Kazuhiko; Hashimoto, Masahiko

    2014-04-01

    We applied a facile LIF dual-channel monitoring system recently developed and reported by our group to the polymerase chain reaction/ligase detection reaction/CGE method for detecting low-abundance point mutations present in a wild-type sequence-dominated population. Mutation discrimination limits and signaling fidelity of the analytical system were evaluated using three mutant variations in codon 12 of the K-ras oncogene that have high diagnostic value for colorectal cancer. We demonstrated the high sensitivity of the present method by detecting rare mutations present among an excess of wild-type alleles (one mutation among ~100 normal sequences). This method also simultaneously interrogated the allelic compositions of the test samples with high specificity through spectral discrimination of the dye-tagged ligase detection reaction products using the dual-channel monitoring system. PMID:24510795

  14. Capillary electrophoresis of the mycotoxin zearalenone using cyclodextrin-enhanced fluorescence

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Certain of the cyclodextrins are capable of significantly enhancing the native fluorescence of the estrogenic mycotoxin zearalenone (ZEN). Twenty-two cyclodextrins (CDs) were screened for their ability to enhance the fluorescence of ZEN in a capillary electrophoresis-laser induced fluorescence (CE-...

  15. PRECONCENTRATION OF ALIPHATIC AMINES FROM WATER DETERMINED BY CAPILLARY ELECTROPHORESIS WITH INDIRECT UV DETECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Preconcentration methodology based on adsorption chromatographies for enriching aliphatic amines (c1 to C4 substituted primary, secondary, and tertiary) and alkanolamines in water was studied by free zone capillary electrophoresis (CZE)with indirect UV detection. The solid-phase ...

  16. Capillary electrophoresis of alkali and alkaline-earth cations with imidazole or benzylamine buffers

    SciTech Connect

    Morin, P.; Francois, C.; Dreux, M. . Lab. de Chimie Bioorganique et Analytique)

    1994-01-01

    The separation of alkali, alkaline earth, and ammonium cations in several samples of water was achieved by capillary electrophoresis with indirect UV detection. A solution of imidazole (10[sup [minus]2] M, pH 4.5) was used as a buffer to resolve a mixture of six cations (K[sup +], Na[sup +], Ca[sup 2+], Ba[sup 2+], Li[sup +] and Mg[sup 2+]) by capillary electrophoresis at 214 nm in less than 10 min. The addition of potassium cation to the running buffer has an influence on the resolution of Ca[sup 2+]/Na[sup +] and Na[sup +]/Mg[sup 2+] peaks. A linear relationship between the corrected peak area and concentration was obtained in the 1--10 ppm range for these cations using a hydrodynamic injector. This electrophoretic system permitted the separation of these inorganic cations at a 50 ppb-level concentration with a hydrodynamic injection, thus making it possible to quantitatively determine their presence in mineral waters by capillary electrophoresis. At pH 4.5, potassium and ammonium unfortunately have identical ionic mobilities causing them to comigrate in an imidazole buffer. Using an alkaline solution of benzylamine as carrier electrolyte, their separation can be successfully achieved with excellent resolution at 204 nm. The analyses of tap water and several mineral waters have been achieved by capillary electrophoresis.

  17. ESTIMATION OF HRW WHEAT HEAT DAMAGE BY DSC, CAPILLARY ZONE ELECTROPHORESIS, PHOTOACOUSTIC SPECTROSCOPY AND RHEOMETRY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of heat damage was estimated using Hard Red Winter (HRW) wheat varieties grown in Oklahoma. The testing was done on wheat kernels, flour, and isolated starch. Whole-wheat kernels were analyzed by Photoacoustic Spectroscopy (PAS). Flour was analyzed by DSC, Capillary Electrophoresis (CE...

  18. Disposable pen-shaped capillary gel electrophoresis cartridge for fluorescence detection of bio-molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amirkhanian, Varoujan; Tsai, Shou-Kuan

    2014-03-01

    We introduce a novel and cost-effective capillary gel electrophoresis (CGE) system utilizing disposable pen-shaped gelcartridges for highly efficient, high speed, high throughput fluorescence detection of bio-molecules. The CGE system has been integrated with dual excitation and emission optical-fibers with micro-ball end design for fluorescence detection of bio-molecules separated and detected in a disposable pen-shaped capillary gel electrophoresis cartridge. The high-performance capillary gel electrophoresis (CGE) analyzer has been optimized for glycoprotein analysis type applications. Using commercially available labeling agent such as ANTS (8-aminonapthalene-1,3,6- trisulfonate) as an indicator, the capillary gel electrophoresis-based glycan analyzer provides high detection sensitivity and high resolving power in 2-5 minutes of separations. The system can hold total of 96 samples, which can be automatically analyzed within 4-5 hours. This affordable fiber optic based fluorescence detection system provides fast run times (4 minutes vs. 20 minutes with other CE systems), provides improved peak resolution, good linear dynamic range and reproducible migration times, that can be used in laboratories for high speed glycan (N-glycan) profiling applications. The CGE-based glycan analyzer will significantly increase the pace at which glycoprotein research is performed in the labs, saving hours of preparation time and assuring accurate, consistent and economical results.

  19. Nanometal-Oxide Sunscreen Agents by Capillary Electrophoresis-Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry

    EPA Science Inventory

    Capillary electrophoresis with detection by ICPMS is being explored to characterize nanomaterials in waste water treatment plant effluents. TiO2 and ZnO, being widely used as UV filters in personal care products, plastics, and paints, are of concern as they enter the environment...

  20. Characterization of IHSS Natural Organic Matter by Capillary Electrophoresis and Flourescence Spectroscopy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Capillary electrophoresis (CE) and fluorescence spectroscopy have recently been used in natural organic matter (NOM) studies. In this study, we characterized fulvic acids (5), humic acids (6) and unprocessed NOM (2) samples obtained from the International Humic Substances Society (IHSS) using these ...

  1. Capillary Electrophoresis and Fluorescence Excitation-Emission Matrix Spectroscopy for Characterization of Humic Substances

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Capillary electrophoresis (CE) and fluorescence spectroscopy have been used in natural organic matter (NOM) studies. In this study, we characterized five fulvic acids, six humic acids and two unprocessed NOM samples obtained from the International Humic Substances Society (IHSS) using these two ana...

  2. CAPILLARY ELECTROPHORESIS-ELECTROSPRAY MASS SPECTRA OF THE HERBICIDES PARAQUAT AND DIQUAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The positive ion electrospray mass spectra of the quaternary ammonium salt herbicides paraquat and diquat are examined by on-line separation with capillary electrophoresis (CE) and by direct infusion of the analytes. The analytes are separated by CE in 7-10 min at pH 3.9 in 50% m...

  3. Assessment of genetic diversity in Saccharum using SSR markers and capillary electrophoresis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was conducted to assess the genetic diversity amongst 12 Saccharum clones from 3 species using SSR markers and CE (capillary electrophoresis). Genomic DNA of 12 sugarcane cultivars was amplified with 19 SSR primer pairs. A total of 229 bands generated with a size range between 100 and 26...

  4. Modeling of the impact of ionic strength on the electroosmotic flow in capillary electrophoresis with uniform and discontinuous buffer systems.

    PubMed

    Thormann, W; Zhang, C X; Caslavska, J; Gebauer, P; Mosher, R A

    1998-02-01

    A new dynamic computer model permitting the combined simulation of the temporal behavior of electroosmosis and electrophoresis under constant voltage or current conditions and in a capillary which exhibits a pH-dependent surface charge has been constructed and applied to the description of capillary zone electrophoresis, isotachophoresis, and isoelectric focusing with electroosmotic zone displacement. Electroosmosis is calculated via use of a normalized wall titration curve (mobility vs pH). Two approaches employed for normalization of the experimentally determined wall titration data are discussed, one that considers the electroosmotic mobility to be inversely proportional to the square root of the ionic strength (method based on the Gouy-Chapman theory with the counterion layer thickness being equal to the Debye-Hückel length) and one that assumes the double-layer thickness to be the sum of a compact layer of fixed charges and the Debye-Hückel thickness and the existence of a wall adsorption equilibrium of the buffer cation other than the proton (method described by Salomon, K.; et al. J. Chromatogr. 1991, 559, 69). The first approach is shown to overestimate the magnitude of electroosmosis, whereas, with the more complex dependence between the electroosmotic mobility and ionic strength, qualitative agreement between experimental and simulation data is obtained. Using one set of electroosmosis input data, the new model is shown to provide detailed insight into the dynamics of electroosmosis in typical discontinuous buffer systems employed in capillary zone electrophoresis (in which the sample matrix provides the discontinuity), in capillary isotachophoresis, and in capillary isoelectric focusing. PMID:21644753

  5. Optimization of the separation of NDA-derivatized methylarginines by capillary and microchip electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Linz, Thomas H; Snyder, Christa M; Lunte, Susan M

    2012-02-01

    The methylated arginines (MAs) monomethylarginine (MMA), asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), and symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) have been shown to be independent predictors of cardiovascular disease. This article describes progress regarding the development of an analytical method capable of rapidly analyzing MAs using capillary electrophoresis (CE) and microchip electrophoresis (MCE) with laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) detection. Several parameters including buffer composition and separation voltage were optimized to achieve an ideal separation. The analytes of interest were derivatized with naphthalene-2,3-dicarboxaldehyde (NDA) to produce fluorescent 1-cyanobenz[f]isoindole (CBI) derivatives and then subjected to CE analysis. Baseline resolution of SDMA, ADMA, MMA, and arginine was achieved in less than 8 min. The limits of detection for SDMA, ADMA, MMA, and arginine were determined to be 15, 20, 25, and 5 nM, respectively, which are well below the expected plasma concentrations. The CE separation method was then transferred to a glass MCE device with LIF detection. MAs were baseline resolved in 3 min on-chip using a 14 cm separation channel with detection limits of approximately 10 nM for each species. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of the separation of MAs by MCE. PMID:22357605

  6. [Determination of target compounds in cefoperazone sodium and tazobactam sodium for injection by capillary electrophoresis].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ruiyuan; Sun, Guoxiang

    2012-01-01

    A capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) method was developed for the simultaneous determination of cefoperazone sodium and tazobactam sodium in the injectable powder of cefoperazone sodium and tazobactam sodium with hydrochlorothiazide as the internal standard. The operation was carried out on a quartz capillary (75 cm x 75 microm i. d. , 63 cm effective length). The electrophoretic conditions were as follows: 40 mmol/L borax solution as the back ground electrolyte (BGE), 12. 0 kV applied voltage, 220 nm as the detection wavelength; the sample solution was injected by hydraulic pressure for 10 s at the height of 10 cm. The cefoperazone and tazobactam showed good linear relationship in the ranges of 0.25-3.96 g/L and 0.062-0.99 g/L with the correlation coefficients of 0.999 5 and 0.999 6, respectively. The relative standard deviations of relative peak areas were less than 3%. The preparation was stable in 208 min. The recovery results met the methodology requirements. The method is simple, rapid, reproducible, and suitable to control the quality of cefoperazone sodium and tazobactam sodium injectable powder. PMID:22667102

  7. Fingerprint analysis and synthetic adulterant search in Hedera helix formulations by capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Cianchino, V; Ortega, C; Acosta, G; Martínez, L D; Gomez, M R

    2007-04-01

    A high-performance capillary electrophoretic (CE) method has been developed for obtaining electropherograms of various extracts and the commercial formulation (fingerprints) of Hedera helix L used in Argentina as a cough's treatment. Also, a capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) method was developed for the search, identification and determination of some possible adulterants. These likely adulterants are common synthetic drugs used in respiratory diseases (antitussive, decongestant and bronchodilator agents). Under optimum conditions, the analytes (ephedrine, codeine, diphenhydramine and constituents of H. helix formulations) were separated within less than 10 min in 20 mM sodium tetraborate buffer (pH 9.0). The present procedure was validated with respect to selectivity, linearity range, limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ), precision (repeatability and intermediate precision), solution stability and accuracy; the results obtained were satisfactory. Good linearity was obtained over two orders of magnitude and detection limits (S/N = 3) were better than 1.2 microg ml(-1) for all analytes. The CE methodology was successfully applied to the search and subsequent determination of ephedrine, codeine and diphenhydramine in H. helix extracts and its phytopharmaceutical products. PMID:17484280

  8. Capillary electrophoresis for the analysis of short-chain organic acids in coffee.

    PubMed

    Galli, Verónica; Barbas, Coral

    2004-04-01

    A simple and rapid capillary electrophoresis method for low-molecular mass carboxylic acids measurement in coffee has been optimised and validated. Regarding separation conditions, phosphate concentration in the background electrolyte, surfactant type [cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), tetradecyltri methylammonium bromide (TTAB) and hexadimethrine bromide (HDB)], percentages of organic modifier and pH were assayed. The best conditions were: 500 mM phosphate buffer at pH 6.25 with CTAB 0.5 mM. The separation was carried out with an uncoated fused-silica capillary (57 cm x 50 microm i.d.) which was operated at -10 kV potential. Detection was performed at 200 nm. In such conditions 17 short-chain organic acids: oxalic, formic, fumaric, mesaconic, succinic, maleic, malic, isocitric, citric, acetic, citraconic, glycolic, propionic, lactic, furanoic, pyroglutamic, quinic acids plus nitrate were separated, identified and measured. Validation parameters of the method allow us to consider it lineal, accurate and precise and, therefore, reliable for its employment in food composition studies or for quality control. Results in coffees with different industrial treatment allow the detection of important differences in the organic acid profile. PMID:15065808

  9. Simultaneous determination of melamine and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural in milk by capillary electrophoresis with diode array detection.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhijun; Yan, Xiaomei

    2009-10-14

    This article describes the development of a simple analytical approach for the simultaneous determination of melamine and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) in milk samples using capillary electrophoresis (CE) with diode array detection (DAD) for the first time. Ultraviolet absorption at wavelengths of 214 and 280 nm was applied for the detection of melamine and HMF, respectively. Milk samples were extracted with 1% trichloroacetic acid using a high-speed blender and ultrasonication. After centrifugation and filtration, the extract was analyzed by CE-DAD directly. Micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography was employed as the separation mode by adding sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) to the electrolyte. Under optimal separation conditions, melamine, HMF, and interferents were well resolved. The linear dynamic ranges were 0.05-100 microg/mL for melamine (R(2) = 0.9996) and 0.1-100 microg/mL for HMF (R(2) = 0.9997). The assay detection limits were 0.047 microg/mL and 0.067 microg/mL for melamine and HMF, respectively. Satisfactory results were obtained for the assay recovery rate and repeatability. The proposed method was successfully applied for the analysis of melamine and HMF in real milk samples, and the results of melamine were comparable to those obtained using HPLC-UV reference method. PMID:19761188

  10. Analysis of endogenous nucleotides by single cell capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jing-Xin; Aerts, Jordan T.; Rubakhin, Stanislav S.; Zhang, Xin-Xiang; Sweedler, Jonathan V.

    2015-01-01

    Analytical technologies that enable investigations at the single cell level facilitate a range of studies; here a lab-fabricated capillary electrophoresis-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (CE-ESI-MS) platform was used to analyze anionic metabolites from individual Aplysia californica neurons. The system employs a customized coaxial sheath-flow nanospray interface connected to a separation capillary, with the sheath liquid and separation buffer optimized to ensure a stable spray. The method provided good repeatability of separation and reliable detection sensitivity for 16 mono-, di- and triphosphate nucleosides. For a range of anionic analytes, including cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the detection limits were in the low nanomolar range (<22 nM). A large Aplysia R2 neuron was used to demonstrate the ability of CE-ESI-MS to quantitatively characterize anionic metabolites within individual cells, with 15 nucleotides and derivatives detected. Following the method validation process, we probed smaller, 60-μm diameter Aplysia sensory neurons where sample stacking was used as a simple on-line analyte preconcentration approach. The calculated energy balance ([ATP] + 0.5 × [ADP])/([AMP] + [ADP] + [ATP]) of these cells was comparable with the value obtained from bulk samples. PMID:25212237

  11. Direct electrokinetic injection of inorganic cations from whole fruits and vegetables for capillary electrophoresis analysis.

    PubMed

    Kalsoom, Umme; Guijt, Rosanne M; Boyce, Mary C; Townsend, Ashley T; Haselberg, Rob; Breadmore, Michael C

    2016-01-01

    A novel approach for the direct injection from plant tissues without any sample pre-treatment has been developed by simply placing a small piece of the tissue into a capillary electrophoresis vial followed by application of a voltage for electrokinetic injection. Separations of sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium were achieved using a BGE comprising 10mM imidazole and 2.5mM 18-crown-6-ether at pH 4.5. The addition of 2% (m/v) hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose to the separation buffer allowed for precise and accurate electrokinetic injection of ions from the plant material by halting the movement of tissue fluid into the capillary. This method provides both qualitative and quantitative data of inorganic cations, with quantitation in zucchini, mushroom and apple samples in agreement with Sector Field Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometric analysis (r(2)=0.98, n=9). This method provides a new way for rapid, quantitative analysis by eliminating sample preparation procedures, and has great potential for a range of applications in plant science and food chemistry. PMID:26422302

  12. Laser induced fluorescence and Raman spectroscopy in capillary electrophoresis as an possible instrument for extraterrestrial life signs detection.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikhail, Gorlenko; Cheptcov, Vladimir; Anton, Maydykovskiy; Eugeniy, Vasilev

    The one of a significant aims in extraterrestrial exploration is a seeking for a life traces in a open space and planetary objects. Complex composition and unknown origin of suspected signs of life required у new analytical approaches and technical solutions. The promising assai here can be Laser induced fluorescence and Raman spectroscopy methods. The combined instrument developed by our team reveal the advantage of capillary electrophoresis assays in a junction with laser induced fluorescence detection technology. We optimized excitation configuration of fluorescence in capillary electrophoresis to reduce pumping laser power up to 1 mW and decrease background scattering. The improvement of the device sensitivity at poor sample concentration we achieved by incorporating fluorescence flow-through cuvette into spectrometer. That allows to simplify setup, to minimize weight and increase reproducibility of measurements. The device has been tasted in complex organic chemical mixes and microbial strains differentiation tasks. 3d multinational spectra allow us to increase the spectra information loads in comparison with ordinary capillary electrophoresis approaches. Possible updating the device with Raman approach can even furthermore multiple the differentiation power of the instrument. The analytical module developed using this approach can be potentially effectively used in extraterrestrial researches as a payload of the future spacecraft.

  13. Streamlined sign-out of capillary protein electrophoresis using middleware and an open-source macro application

    PubMed Central

    Mathur, Gagan; Haugen, Thomas H.; Davis, Scott L.; Krasowski, Matthew D.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Interfacing of clinical laboratory instruments with the laboratory information system (LIS) via “middleware” software is increasingly common. Our clinical laboratory implemented capillary electrophoresis using a Sebia® Capillarys-2™ (Norcross, GA, USA) instrument for serum and urine protein electrophoresis. Using Data Innovations Instrument Manager, an interface was established with the LIS (Cerner) that allowed for bi-directional transmission of numeric data. However, the text of the interpretive pathology report was not properly transferred. To reduce manual effort and possibility for error in text data transfer, we developed scripts in AutoHotkey, a free, open-source macro-creation and automation software utility. Materials and Methods: Scripts were written to create macros that automated mouse and key strokes. The scripts retrieve the specimen accession number, capture user input text, and insert the text interpretation in the correct patient record in the desired format. Results: The scripts accurately and precisely transfer narrative interpretation into the LIS. Combined with bar-code reading by the electrophoresis instrument, the scripts transfer data efficiently to the correct patient record. In addition, the AutoHotKey script automated repetitive key strokes required for manual entry into the LIS, making protein electrophoresis sign-out easier to learn and faster to use by the pathology residents. Scripts allow for either preliminary verification by residents or final sign-out by the attending pathologist. Conclusions: Using the open-source AutoHotKey software, we successfully improved the transfer of text data between capillary electrophoresis software and the LIS. The use of open-source software tools should not be overlooked as tools to improve interfacing of laboratory instruments. PMID:25337433

  14. A 265-base DNA sequencing read by capillary electrophoresis with no separation matrix.

    PubMed

    Albrecht, Jennifer Coyne; Lin, Jennifer S; Barron, Annelise E

    2011-01-15

    Electrophoretic DNA sequencing without a polymer matrix is currently possible only with the use of some kind of "drag-tag" as a mobility modifier. In free-solution conjugate electrophoresis (FSCE), a drag-tag attached to each DNA fragment breaks linear charge-to-friction scaling, enabling size-based separation in aqueous buffer alone. Here we report a 265-base read for free-solution DNA sequencing by capillary electrophoresis using a random-coil protein drag-tag of unprecedented length and purity. We identified certain methods of protein expression and purification that allow the production of highly monodisperse drag-tags as long as 516 amino acids, which are almost charge neutral (+1 to +6) and yet highly water-soluble. Using a four-color LIF detector, 265 bases could be read in 30 min with a 267-amino acid drag-tag, on par with the average read of current next-gen sequencing systems. New types of multichannel systems that allow much higher throughput electrophoretic sequencing should be much more accessible in the absence of a requirement for viscous separation matrix. PMID:21182303

  15. Pharmacokinetic study of trimebutine maleate in rabbit blood using in vivo microdialysis coupled to capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Zhang, Zhujun; Yang, Weiping

    2005-09-15

    In vivo microdialysis was used together with capillary electrophoresis (CE) to monitor the concentration of trimebutine maleate (TM) in rabbit blood. Dialysis probe was perfused at 3 microl/min resulting in relative recovery of 26.6+/-3.1% (n=3). After a one step sample preparation the samples were injected directly into the capillary. TM was detected on-column using UV detector at 214 nm. Separation of TM from other components in the dialysate was achieved within 15 min. Evaluation was based on the relative collected peak height (TM/IS). The response for TM in the blood dialysate was linear over the range of 0.5-100 microg/ml. The detection limit of TM in the blood dialysate was 0.1 microg/ml (S/N=3). This method has been successfully applied to the pharmacokinetic study of trimebutine maleate in rabbit blood following oral administration of 200 mg/kg. It provides a fast and simple technique for the pharmacokinetic study of TM in vivo. PMID:15939564

  16. Study of deoxyribonucleic acid-ligand interactions by partial filling affinity capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Růžička, Martin; Čížková, Martina; Jirásek, Michael; Teplý, Filip; Koval, Dušan; Kašička, Václav

    2014-07-01

    In this work, a new partial filling affinity capillary electrophoresis (PF-ACE) method has been developed and applied to investigation of non-covalent molecular interactions between double stranded DNA oligonucleotide (Dickerson dodecamer) and classical DNA intercalator ligand-ethidiumbromide (EtBr) or oligophenylene derivatives-based potential new type of DNA ligands. Binding constants of DNA-ligand complexes were determined from the dependence of migration time changes of DNA oligomer (applied as analyte) on the length of ligand zones introduced beforehand as plugs of various lengths (0-75mm with 12.5mm step) in hydroxypropylcellulose coated fused silica capillary of 50/375μm I.D./O.D. and 400/300mm total/effective length. PF-ACE experiments were performed in two background electrolytes, Tris-borate, pH 8.0, ionic strength 14.3mM (BGE1), and sodium phosphate, pH 7.5, ionic strength 133mM (BGE2). Binding constants of DNA-EtBr complex (ca 15300L/mol in the BGE1 and 4200L/mol in the BGE2) were found to be significantly higher than those of DNA complexes with oligophenylene derivatives (ca 2200-3600L/mol in the BGE1 and 1600-2300L/mol in the BGE2). PMID:24861783

  17. Determination of free L- and D-alanine in hydrolysed protein fertilisers by capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Cavani, Luciano; Ciavatta, Claudio; Gessa, Carlo

    2003-01-24

    of racemisation of hydrolysed protein fertilisers (HPFs) using an The objective of this study was to determine the degree inexpensive and easy to handle analytical method for qualitative control of the products. Using a polyacrylamide coated capillary and a run buffer containing 0.1 M Tris-borate+2.5 mM EDTA-Na2+0.1% sodium dodecylsulfate+10 mM beta-cyclodextrin a quantitative separation of D- and L-alanine (Ala) was made from an not treated HPF sample derivatised with dansyl chlorine by capillary electrophoresis. The D-Ala:[D-Ala+L-Ala] ratio, called degree of racemisation (RD), was calculated. The analysis of ten commercial HPFs has shown that more than 60% of HPFs have an RD > or = 40%. while only one product has shown an RD <5%. These results showed that most of the HPFs on the market are obtained with strong hydrolytic processes and high contents of D-amino acids are probably less effective as plant nutrients or even potentially dangerous to plants. PMID:12580515

  18. Analysis of isoquinoline alkaloids in medicinal plants by capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Sturm, S; Stuppner, H

    1998-11-01

    The technique of capillary electrophoresis - mass spectrometry (CE-MS) was applied for determination of isoquinoline alkaloids in crude methanolic extracts of medicinal plants. For the CE separations ammonium formate buffer solutions (70 or 100 mM, pH 3.0 or 4.0) containing 10% methanol or 20-60% acetonitrile as additives were used. The applied voltage was 25 kV, the thermostating temperature was kept constant at 25 degrees C. Coupling with the mass spectrometer was performed via an atmospherical pressure ionization (API) interface and the electrospray ionization technique (ESI). As sheath liquid 5 mM formic acid in acetonitrile at a flow rate of 3 microL/min was used. The spray voltage was 4.5 kV and the temperature of the heated capillary was chosen to be 200 degrees C. Detection in the positive ionization mode resulted in mass spectra showing either the molecular ions [M]+ or the protonated molecular ions [M+H]+. The presented method allows detection and identification of isoquinoline alkaloids in crude methanolic extracts of medicinal plants as Eschscholzia californica CHAM. (Papaveraceae), Hydrastis canadensis L. (Ranunculaceae), Berberis vulgaris L. (Berberidaceae), Jateorhiza palmata (LAM.) MIERS (Menispermaceae) and Chelidonium majus L. (Papaveraceae). PMID:9870408

  19. Automation and integration of multiplexed on-line sample preparation with capillary electrophoresis for DNA sequencing

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, H.

    1999-03-31

    The purpose of this research is to develop a multiplexed sample processing system in conjunction with multiplexed capillary electrophoresis for high-throughput DNA sequencing. The concept from DNA template to called bases was first demonstrated with a manually operated single capillary system. Later, an automated microfluidic system with 8 channels based on the same principle was successfully constructed. The instrument automatically processes 8 templates through reaction, purification, denaturation, pre-concentration, injection, separation and detection in a parallel fashion. A multiplexed freeze/thaw switching principle and a distribution network were implemented to manage flow direction and sample transportation. Dye-labeled terminator cycle-sequencing reactions are performed in an 8-capillary array in a hot air thermal cycler. Subsequently, the sequencing ladders are directly loaded into a corresponding size-exclusion chromatographic column operated at {approximately} 60 C for purification. On-line denaturation and stacking injection for capillary electrophoresis is simultaneously accomplished at a cross assembly set at {approximately} 70 C. Not only the separation capillary array but also the reaction capillary array and purification columns can be regenerated after every run. DNA sequencing data from this system allow base calling up to 460 bases with accuracy of 98%.

  20. On the use of capillary electrophoresis for the determination of inorganic anions and cations, and carbohydrates in residues collected after a simulated suicide bombing attack.

    PubMed

    Sarazin, Cédric; Delaunay, Nathalie; Costanza, Christine; Eudes, Véronique; Gareil, Pierre

    2013-01-15

    In order to train scientist field investigators after terrorist attacks, the laboratory of the Prefecture de Police of Paris simulated a suicide bombing attack in a bus. After collection of the residues, analyses were carried out to determine the composition of the original explosive charge. This article focuses on the combined use, for the first time, of three new capillary electrophoresis methods for the determination of inorganic anions and cations, and carbohydrates in two representative extracts. Capillary electrophoresis appears as an effective tool to identify and quantify the compounds in real extracts and is fully complementary to chromatographic methods. PMID:23200391

  1. Evaluation of capillary zone electrophoresis for charge heterogeneity testing of monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Moritz, Bernd; Schnaible, Volker; Kiessig, Steffen; Heyne, Andrea; Wild, Markus; Finkler, Christof; Christians, Stefan; Mueller, Kerstin; Zhang, Li; Furuya, Kenji; Hassel, Marc; Hamm, Melissa; Rustandi, Richard; He, Yan; Solano, Oscar Salas; Whitmore, Colin; Park, Sung Ae; Hansen, Dietmar; Santos, Marcia; Lies, Mark

    2015-03-01

    Within pharmaceutical industry charge heterogeneity testing of biopharmaceuticals has to be reproducible and fast. It should pass method validation according to ICH Q2. Classical approaches for the analysis of the charge heterogeneity of biopharmaceuticals are ion exchange chromatography (IEC) and isoelectric focusing (IEF). As an alternative approach, also capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) was expected to allow reliable charge heterogeneity profiling by separation according to the analyte's net charge and hydrodynamic radius. Aim of this study was to assess if CZE possesses all of the required features. Therefore, beside lab internal validation of this method also an international cross company study was organized. It was shown that CZE is applicable across a broad pI range between 7.4 and 9.5. The coefficient of correlation was above 0.99 which demonstrated linearity. Precision by repeatability was around 1% (maximum relative standard deviation per level) and accuracy by recovery was around 100% (mean recovery per level). Accuracy was further verified by direct comparison of IEC, IEF and CZE, which in this case showed comparable %CPA results for all three methods. However, best resolution for the investigated MAb was obtained with CZE. In dependence on sample concentration the detection limit was between 1 and 3%. Within the intercompany study for CZE the same stressed and non-stressed samples were analyzed in each of the 11 participating labs. The finally obtained dataset contained more than 1000 separations which provided an extended dataset for further statistical evaluation. Among the different labs no significant differences between the peak profiles were observed. Mean driver for dropouts in quantitative evaluation was linked to the performance of some participating labs while the impact of the method performance was negligible. In comparison to a 50cm capillary there was a slightly better separation of impurities and drug substance related compounds

  2. Elimination of the artefact peaks in capillary electrophoresis determination of glutamate by using organic solvents in sample preparation.

    PubMed

    Campos, Camila Dalben Madeira; de Campos Braga, Patricia Aparecida; Reyes, Felix Guillermo Reyes; da Silva, José Alberto Fracassi

    2015-11-01

    Focusing on the demand from the food industry for fast and reliable alternative methods to control the quality of food products, we present in this paper a method for amino acid separation and glutamic acid quantification in complex matrices employing capillary electrophoresis with capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection. We demonstrate by simulation and experimentally the use of organic solvents in sample preparation to prevent peak splitting and increase stacking in capillary electrophoretic separations of amino acids. Additionally, we obtained results for glutamic acid quantification comparable to those obtained via traditional methods used at industrial sites. We tested premium and low-cost samples with large variations in their glutamic acid content, which demonstrated the wide range of applicability of the method presented herein. The results of the proposed capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection based capillary electrophoresis method agreed with those obtained by an enzymatic detector and ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry, considering a confidence level of 95%. PMID:26332708

  3. Simultaneous determination of caffeine, paracetamol, and ibuprofen in pharmaceutical formulations by high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection and by capillary electrophoresis with conductivity detection.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Rafael R; Chaves, Sandro C; Ribeiro, Michelle M A C; Torres, Lívia M F C; Muñoz, Rodrigo A A; Dos Santos, Wallans T P; Richter, Eduardo M

    2015-05-01

    Paracetamol, caffeine and ibuprofen are found in over-the-counter pharmaceutical formulations. In this work, we propose two new methods for simultaneous determination of paracetamol, caffeine and ibuprofen in pharmaceutical formulations. One method is based on high-performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detection and the other on capillary electrophoresis with capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection. The separation by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detection was achieved on a C18 column (250×4.6 mm(2), 5 μm) with a gradient mobile phase comprising 20-100% acetonitrile in 40 mmol L(-1) phosphate buffer pH 7.0. The separation by capillary electrophoresis with capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection was achieved on a fused-silica capillary (40 cm length, 50 μm i.d.) using 10 mmol L(-1) 3,4-dimethoxycinnamate and 10 mmol L(-1) β-alanine with pH adjustment to 10.4 with lithium hydroxide as background electrolyte. The determination of all three pharmaceuticals was carried out in 9.6 min by liquid chromatography and in 2.2 min by capillary electrophoresis. Detection limits for caffeine, paracetamol and ibuprofen were 4.4, 0.7, and 3.4 μmol L(-1) by liquid chromatography and 39, 32, and 49 μmol L(-1) by capillary electrophoresis, respectively. Recovery values for spiked samples were between 92-107% for both proposed methods. PMID:25773878

  4. New peak broadening parameter for the characterization of separation capability in capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Sursyakova, Viktoria V; Rubaylo, Anatoly I

    2015-02-01

    The influence of separation conditions on peak broadening is usually estimated by the number of theoretical plates. Using the data available in literature and experimental data, it is shown that in pressure-assisted capillary electrophoresis the plate number is not directly related to the separation capability of conditions used. The experiments at different electrolyte flow velocities demonstrate that a higher plate number (the best separation efficiency) can be obtained with a lower peak resolution. Since ions are separated by electrophoresis due to the difference in electrophoretic mobilities, the peak width in terms of electrophoretic mobility is suggested as a new peak broadening parameter describing the separation capability of the conditions used. The parameter can be calculated using the tailing factor and the temporal peak width at 5% of the peak height. A simple equation for the resolution calculation is derived using the parameter. The advantage of the peak width in terms of mobility over other parameters is shown. The new parameter is recommended to be used not only in pressure-assisted capillary electrophoresis but also in general capillary electrophoresis when in a number of runs the virtual separative migration distance and separation capability of the conditions used change widely. PMID:25491508

  5. One step physically adsorbed coating of silica capillary with excellent stability for the separation of basic proteins by capillary zone electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiao-Feng; Guo, Xiao-Mei; Wang, Hong; Zhang, Hua-Shan

    2015-11-01

    The coating of capillary inner surface is considered to be an effective approach to suppress the adsorption of proteins on capillary inner surface in CE. However, most of coating materials reported are water-soluble, which may dissolve in BGE during the procedure of electrophoresis. In this study, a novel strategy for selection of physically coating materials has been illustrated to get coating layer with excellent stability using materials having poor solubility in commonly used solvents. Taking natural chitin as example (not hydrolyzed water soluble chitosan), a simple one step coating method using chitin solution in hexafluoroisopropanol was adopted within only 21 min with good coating reproducibility (RSDs of EOF for within-batch coated capillaries of 1.55% and between-batch coated capillaries of 2.31%), and a separation of four basic proteins on a chitin coated capillary was performed to evaluate the coating efficacy. Using chitin coating, the adsorption of proteins on capillary inner surface was successfully suppressed with reversed and stable EOF, and four basic proteins including lysozyme, cytochrome c, ribonuclease A and α-chymotrypsinogen A were baseline separated within 16 min with satisfied separation efficiency using 20 mM pH 2.0 H3PO4-Na2HPO4 as back ground electrolyte and 20 kV as separation voltage. What is more important, the chitin coating layer could be stable for more than two months during this study, which demonstrates that chitin is an ideal material for preparing semi-permanent coating on bare fused silica capillary inner wall and has hopeful potential in routine separation of proteins with CE. PMID:26452799

  6. Recent advances in the analysis of therapeutic proteins by capillary and microchip electrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Creamer, Jessica S.; Oborny, Nathan J.; Lunte, Susan M.

    2014-01-01

    The development of therapeutic proteins and peptides is an expensive and time-intensive process. Biologics, which have become a multi-billion dollar industry, are chemically complex products that require constant observation during each stage of development and production. Post-translational modifications along with chemical and physical degradation from oxidation, deamidation, and aggregation, lead to high levels of heterogeneity that affect drug quality and efficacy. The various separation modes of capillary electrophoresis (CE) are commonly utilized to perform quality control and assess protein heterogeneity. This review attempts to highlight the most recent developments and applications of CE separation techniques for the characterization of protein and peptide therapeutics by focusing on papers accepted for publication in the in the two-year period between January 2012 and December 2013. The separation principles and technological advances of CE, capillary gel electrophoresis, capillary isoelectric focusing, capillary electrochromatography and CE-mass spectrometry are discussed, along with exciting new applications of these techniques to relevant pharmaceutical issues. Also included is a small selection of papers on microchip electrophoresis to show the direction this field is moving with regards to the development of inexpensive and portable analysis systems for on-site, high-throughput analysis. PMID:25126117

  7. Optimization of electric field strength for DNA sequencing in capillary gel electrophoresis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luckey, John A.; Smith, Lloyd M.

    1993-06-01

    Since its development, capillary gel electrophoresis has demonstrated the ability to separate DNA sequencing reactions at speeds roughly 25 times as great as conventional slab gel electrophoresis. These increased speeds are the result of using the more efficient dissipation of Joule heating by capillaries. However, to date there have been no studies which quantitate the advantages of disadvantages in operating these gels at high electric field strength. This work addresses this question by investigating the band-broadening of DNA sequencing reactions as they are separated through a fixed distance of gel at field strengths ranging from 50 V/cm to 400 V/cm. It is found that the bandwidths of DNA fragments do decrease with the higher field strengths due to a reduction in diffusional broadening. However, at sufficiently high electric field strengths, the bands begin to broaden again under the influence of an increasing thermal gradient across the diameter of the capillary. The result is an optimum electric field strength in the intermediate range of 100 - 250 V/cm depending on the length of fragments being separated. The relative importance of diffusion and thermal gradients are discussed and used to generate an equation that models the observed band broadening of DNA in capillary gel electrophoresis (CGE).

  8. Use of capillary electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence detection to screen and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to confirm sulfonamide residues: validation according to European Union 2002/657/EC.

    PubMed

    Hoff, Rodrigo Barcellos; Barreto, Fabiano; Kist, Tarso B Ledur

    2009-11-13

    A multiresidue method is described for determining six sulfonamides (SAs) (sulfadiazine, sulfathiazole, sulfamethazine, sulfamethoxazole, sulfaquinoxaline and sulfadimethoxine) in liver by a capillary electrophoresis screening method and a liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry confirmatory assay. Samples were prepared by homogenizing the tissue, with sodium hydroxide and acetonitrile. After evaporation, extracts were injected in the capillary electrophoresis system or mass spectrometry system for confirmatory analysis. The detection of analytes was achieved by laser-induced fluorescence in capillary electrophoresis. Procedures were validated according to the European Union regulation 2002/657/EC determining specificity, selectivity and detection capability for screening method and decision limit, detection capability, specificity, selectivity, trueness and precision for confirmation method. The results of validation process demonstrate that the method is suitable for application in Brazilian statutory veterinary drug residue surveillance programs. Capillary electrophoresis was proved to be a fast, robust method with low time and reagents consumption. PMID:19765714

  9. Combined electrophoresis-electrospray interface and method

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Richard D.; Udseth, Harold R.; Barinaga, Charles J.

    1995-01-01

    An improvement to the system and method for analyzing molecular constituents of a composition sample that comprises improvements to an electrospray ionization source for interfacing to mass spectrometers and other detection devices. The improvement consists of establishing a unique electrical circuit pattern and nozzle configuration, a metallic coated and conical shaped capillary outlet, coupled with sizing of the capillary to obtain maximum sensitivity.

  10. Simultaneous Detection of Genetically Modified Organisms in a Mixture by Multiplex PCR-Chip Capillary Electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Patwardhan, Supriya; Dasari, Srikanth; Bhagavatula, Krishna; Mueller, Steffen; Deepak, Saligrama Adavigowda; Ghosh, Sudip; Basak, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    An efficient PCR-based method to trace genetically modified food and feed products is in demand due to regulatory requirements and contaminant issues in India. However, post-PCR detection with conventional methods has limited sensitivity in amplicon separation that is crucial in multiplexing. The study aimed to develop a sensitive post-PCR detection method by using PCR-chip capillary electrophoresis (PCR-CCE) to detect and identify specific genetically modified organisms in their genomic DNA mixture by targeting event-specific nucleotide sequences. Using the PCR-CCE approach, novel multiplex methods were developed to detect MON531 cotton, EH 92-527-1 potato, Bt176 maize, GT73 canola, or GA21 maize simultaneously when their genomic DNAs in mixtures were amplified using their primer mixture. The repeatability RSD (RSDr) of the peak migration time was 0.06 and 3.88% for the MON531 and Bt176, respectively. The RSD (RSDR) of the Cry1Ac peak ranged from 0.12 to 0.40% in multiplex methods. The method was sensitive in resolving amplicon of size difference up to 4 bp. The PCR-CCE method is suitable to detect multiple genetically modified events in a composite DNA sample by tagging their event specific sequences. PMID:26525256

  11. Determination of 2-methylimidazole and 4-methylimidazole in caramel colors by capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Petruci, João Flávio da Silveira; Pereira, Elisabete Alves; Cardoso, Arnaldo Alves

    2013-03-01

    The use of chemical preservative compounds is common in the food products industry. Caramel color is the most usual additive used in beverages, desserts, and breads worldwide. During its fabrication process, 2- and 4-methylimidazole (MeI), highly carcinogenic compounds, are generated. In these cases, the development of reliable analytical methods for the monitoring of undesirable compounds is necessary. The primary procedure for the analysis of 2- and 4-MeI is using LC- or GC-MS techniques. These procedures are time-consuming and require large amounts of organic solvents and several pretreatment steps. This prevents the routine use of this procedure. This paper describes a rapid, efficient, and simple method using capillary electrophoresis (CE) for the separation and determination of 2- and 4-MeI in caramel colors. The analyses were performed using a 75 μm i.d. uncoated fused-silica capillary with an effective length of 40 cm and a running electrolyte consisting of 160 mmol L(-1) phosphate plus 30% acetonitrile. The pH was adjusted to 2.5 with triethylamine. The analytes were separated within 6 min at a voltage of 20 kV. Method validation revealed good repeatability of both migration time (<0.8% RSD) and peak area (<2% RSD). Analytical curves for 2- and 4-MeI were linear in the 0.4-40 mg L(-1) concentration interval. Detection limits were 0.16 mg L(-1) for 4-MeI and 0.22 mg L(-1) for 2-MeI. The extraction recoveries were satisfactory. The developed method showed many advantages when compared to the previously used method. PMID:23379790

  12. Integrated on-line system for DNA sequencing by capillary electrophoresis: From template to called bases

    SciTech Connect

    Ton, H.; Yeung, E.S.

    1997-02-15

    An integrated on-line prototype for coupling a microreactor to capillary electrophoresis for DNA sequencing has been demonstrated. A dye-labeled terminator cycle-sequencing reaction is performed in a fused-silica capillary. Subsequently, the sequencing ladder is directly injected into a size-exclusion chromatographic column operated at nearly 95{degree}C for purification. On-line injection to a capillary for electrophoresis is accomplished at a junction set at nearly 70{degree}C. High temperature at the purification column and injection junction prevents the renaturation of DNA fragments during on-line transfer without affecting the separation. The high solubility of DNA in and the relatively low ionic strength of 1 x TE buffer permit both effective purification and electrokinetic injection of the DNA sample. The system is compatible with highly efficient separations by a replaceable poly(ethylene oxide) polymer solution in uncoated capillary tubes. Future automation and adaptation to a multiple-capillary array system should allow high-speed, high-throughput DNA sequencing from templates to called bases in one step. 32 refs., 5 figs.

  13. Methods of Analyte Concentration in a Capillary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubalczyk, Paweł; Bald, Edward

    Online sample concentration techniques in capillary electrophoresis separations have rapidly grown in popularity over the past few years. During the concentration process, diluted analytes in long injected sample are concentrated into a short zone, then the analytes are separated and detected. A large number of contributions have been published on this subject proposing many names for procedures utilizing the same concentration principles. This chapter brings a unified view on concentration, describes the basic principles utilized, and shows a list of recognized current operational procedures. Several online concentration methods based on velocity gradient techniques are described, in which the electrophoretic velocities of the analyte molecules are manipulated by field amplification, sweeping and isotachophoretic migration, resulting in the online concentration of the analyte.

  14. Pulsed field capillary electrophoresis of multikilobase length nucleic acids in dilute methyl cellulose solutions.

    PubMed

    Kim, Y; Morris, M D

    1994-10-01

    Pulsed field capillary gel electrophoresis in dilute methyl cellulose solutions is used to separate nucleic acid fragments in the size range 75-23,000 base pairs. Field inversion is shown to increase resolution for fragments longer than about 500 base pairs. Methyl cellulose solutions as dilute as 0.01% can be used. Intermolecular hydrogen bonding is suggested as the cause of apparent cellulose fiber entanglement at concentrations below the calculated entanglement limit. The 1-kb DNA ladder and the lambda DNA/HindIII restriction fragment mixtures are each baseline resolved in a 28-cm capillary in less than 9 min at 180 V/cm (dc component). PMID:7978303

  15. Constant pressure-assisted head-column field-amplified sample injection in combination with in-capillary derivatization for enhancing the sensitivity of capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Yan, Na; Zhou, Lei; Zhu, Zaifang; Zhang, Huige; Zhou, Ximin; Chen, Xingguo

    2009-05-15

    In this work, a novel method combining constant pressure-assisted head-column field-amplified sample injection (PA-HC-FASI) with in-capillary derivatization was developed for enhancing the sensitivity of capillary electrophoresis. PA-HC-FASI uses an appropriate positive pressure to counterbalance the electroosmotic flow in the capillary column during electrokinetic injection, while taking advantage of the field amplification in the sample matrix and the water of the "head column". Accordingly, the analytes were stacked at the stationary boundary between water and background electrolyte. After 600s PA-HC-FASI, 4-fluoro-7-nitro-2,1,3-benzoxadiazole as derivatization reagent was injected, followed by an electrokinetic step (5kV, 45s) to enhance the mixing efficiency of analytes and reagent plugs. Standing a specified time of 10min for derivatization reaction under 35 degrees C, then the capillary temperature was cooled to 25 degrees C and the derivatives were immediately separated and determined under 25 degrees C. By investigating the variables of the presented approach in detail, on-line preconcentration, derivatization and separation could be automatically operated in one run and required no modification of current CE commercial instrument. Moreover, the sensitivity enhancement factor of 520 and 800 together with the detection limits of 16.32 and 6.34pg/mL was achieved for model compounds: glufosinate and aminomethylphosphonic acid, demonstrating the high detection sensitivity of the presented method. PMID:19342058

  16. Analysis of aromatic sulfonates in water by solid-phase extraction and capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Loos, R; Niessner, R

    1998-10-01

    The separation of 14 different aromatic sulfonates of environmental concern by capillary (zone) electrophoresis (CZE) is presented. A new off-line solid-phase extraction (SPE) enrichment procedure, that is compatible with CE analysis, was developed, using the styrene-divinylbenzene adsorbent LiChrolut EN. The combined method of SPE and CE allows the determination of aromatic sulfonates in water samples in the low microgram/l range. Separations are performed with a simple sodium borate buffer at pH 9.3. Analytes are detected by UV absorbance and fluorescence emission with a Xe-lamp excitation source, and both principles are compared. The recoveries for most of the sulfonates are > 70% for the extraction from spiked tap and river water. The average method precision is < 20% for replicate analyses. Very hydrophilic sulfonates cannot be extracted by this method. The detection limit of the combined method of SPE enrichment and CE analysis is approximately 0.1 microgram/l for 200-ml water samples. The performance of the method was checked with the analysis of river and contaminated seepage water. PMID:9809447

  17. Computer-assisted optimization of separations in capillary zone electrophoresis

    SciTech Connect

    McGuffin, V.L.; Tavares, M.F.M.

    1997-01-15

    A computer optimization routine has been developed which is capable of evaluating the quality of electrophoretic separations under a variety of operational conditions. The program includes theoretical models for electrophoretic and electroosmotic migration processes as well as a simple rationale of zone dispersion. The electrophoretic migration subroutine is based on classical equilibrium calculations and requires knowledge of the solute dissociation constant(s) and electrophoretic mobility(s). In the electrophoretic migration subroutine, the response of the fused-silica capillary surface to changes in buffer composition is modeled in analogy to an ion selective electrode. A mathematical function that relates the zeta potential to the pH and sodium concentration of the buffer solution is required. The migration time of each solute is then calculated from the sum of its effective electrophoretic mobility and the electroosmotic mobility. The removal width of each solute zone is derived from contributions to variance resulting from longitudinal diffusion and a finite injection and detection volume. The resolution between adjacent zones is estimated, and the overall quality of the separation is assessed by means of an appropriate response function. The computer optimization routine was experimentally validated with a mixture of nucleotide mono- and diphosphates in phosphate buffer solutions, with average errors in the effective electrophoretic mobility, electroosmotic mobility, and zone variance of 2.9, 2.3, and 9.4%, respectively. 56 refs., 9 figs., 8 tabs.

  18. A parallel dual-electrode detector for capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Dorris, Megan K; Crick, Eric W; Lunte, Craig E

    2012-09-01

    An approach to on-capillary dual-electrode detection for CE using a parallel electrode configuration has been developed. The parallel configuration provides two operating modes. In the first mode, one working electrode is held at an oxidizing potential and the second working electrode is held at a reducing potential. This results in redox cycling of analytes between the oxidized and reduced forms, enhancing sensitivity compared to single-electrode detection. In the second mode, both working electrodes are held at different oxidizing potentials. This mode provides electrochemical characterization of electrophoretic peaks. In the redox cyclying mode, signal enhancement of up to twofold was observed for the dual-electrode detection of phenolic acid standards compared to single-electrode detection. Variation in response of less than 10% from electrode to electrode was determined (at a concentration of 60 nM) indicating reproducible fabrication. LODs were determined to be as low as 5.0 nM for dual-electrode configuration. Using the dual-potential mode peak identification of targeted phenolic acids in whiskey samples were confirmed based on both migration time and current ratios. PMID:22965718

  19. Demonstrating Chemical and Analytical Concepts in the Undergraduate Laboratory Using Capillary Electrophoresis and Micellar Electrokinetic Chromatography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmer, Christopher P.

    1999-11-01

    This paper describes instrumental analysis laboratory exercises that utilize capillary electrophoresis and micellar electrokinetic chromatography to demonstrate several analytical and chemical principles. Alkyl parabens (4-hydroxy alkyl benzoates), which are common ingredients in cosmetic formulations, are separated by capillary electrophoresis. The electrophoretic mobilities of the parabens can be explained on the basis of their relative size. 3-Hydroxy ethylbenzoate is also separated to demonstrate the effect of substituent position on the acid dissociation constant and the effect this has on electrophoretic mobility. Homologous series of alkyl benzoates and alkyl phthalates (common plasticizers) are separated by micellar electrokinetic chromatography at four surfactant concentrations. This exercise demonstrates the separation mechanism of micellar electrokinetic chromatography, the concept of chromatographic phase ratio, and the concepts of micelle formation. A photodiode array detector is used in both exercises to demonstrate the advantages and limitations of the detector and to demonstrate the effect of pH and substituent position on the spectra of the analytes.

  20. Electrospray ionization phenomena and the interface of capillary electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. [Quaternary phosphonium salts

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R.D.; Barinaga, C.J.; Udseth, H.R.

    1988-06-01

    Recently a new electrospray ionization interface for capillary electrophoresis-mass spectroscopy (CE-MS) has been developed. The interface uses a sheath flow of liquid to make electrical contact at the CZE terminus, thus defining both the CZE and electrospray field gradients. Ions created by the ESI process are sampled through a 1 mm nozzle into a region mechanically pumped at 50 L/s using a single-stage roots blower. The ions entering this region are sampled through a 2 mm dia skimmer orifice located 0.5 cm behind the nozzle orifice. Ions passing through the skimmer enter a radio frequency focusing quadrupole. This region is pumped by a cryopump. A mixture of four quaternary phosphonium salts is used to illustrate capillary electrophoresis separations with mass spectroscopy and their uses. 2 figs.

  1. Development of fully automated quantitative capillary electrophoresis with high accuracy and repeatability.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yuan; Ling, Bang-Zan; Zhu, Wen-Jun; Yao, Dong; Zhang, Lin; Wang, Yan; Yan, Chao

    2016-03-01

    A quantitative capillary electrophoresis (qCE) was developed by utilizing a rotary type of nano-volume injector, an autosampler, and a thermostat with cooling capacity. The accuracy and precision were greatly improved compared with conventional capillary electrophoresis. The 10 nL volume accuracy was guaranteed by the carefully designed nano-injector with an accurate internal loop. The system repeatability (precision) in terms of RSD <0.5% for migration time and 1% for peak area were achieved by using DMSO as a test sample. We believe that this fully automated qCE system has the potential to be employed broadly in quality control and quality assurance in the pharmaceutical industry. PMID:26174138

  2. Effect of Separation Temperature on Structure Specific Glycan Migration in Capillary Electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Guttman, Andras; Kerekgyarto, Marta; Jarvas, Gabor

    2015-12-01

    Temperature dependent differential migration shifts were studied in capillary electrophoresis between linear (maltooligosaccharides) and branched (sialylated, neutral and core fucosylated biantennary IgG glycans) carbohydrates. Background electrolytes without as well as with low and high molecular weight additives (ethylene glycol, linear polyacrylamide and poly(ethylene oxide)) were investigated for this phenomena in the temperature range of 20-50 °C. Glucose unit (GU) value shifts were observed with increasing temperature for the all IgG glycans both in additive-free and additive-containing background electrolytes, emphasizing the importance of tight temperature control during glycosylation analysis by capillary electrophoresis. The activation energy concept was applied to understand the structure specific electrophoretic migration of the different sugar molecules. Activation energy values were derived from the slopes of the Arrhenius plots of logarithmic mobility vs reciprocal absolute temperature and compared for the linear and branched sugars as well as for the various background electrolyte additives. PMID:26544759

  3. Determination of Caffeine in Beverages by Capillary Zone Electrophoresis: An Experiment for the Undergraduate Analytical Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conte, Eric D.; Barry, Eugene F.; Rubinstein, Harry

    1996-12-01

    Certain individuals may be sensitive to specific compounds in comsumer products. It is important to quantify these analytes in food products in order to monitor their intake. Caffeine is one such compound. Determination of caffeine in beverages by spectrophotometric procedures requires an extraction procedure, which can prove time-consuming. Although the corresponding determination by HPLC allows for a direct injection, capillary zone electrophoresis provides several advantages such as extremely low solvent consumption, smaller sample volume requirements, and improved sensitivity.

  4. Multi-target PCR analysis by capillary electrophoresis and laser-induced fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Wei; Han, Dai-Shu; Yuan, Ju; Andrieu, Jean-Marie

    1994-03-01

    Quantitative analysis of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplified HIV-1 DNA or cDNA fragments is attained using an automated system that combines capillary-gel electrophoresis (CGE) for high-efficiency separation and laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) for high-sensitivity detection. This system enables the detection of PCR-amplified multiple target DNA or cDNA in the same tube by a single injection with high precision.

  5. An air-pressure-free elastomeric valve for integrated nucleic acid analysis by capillary electrophoresis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Wooseok; Barrett, Matthew; Brooks, Carla; Rivera, Andrew; Birdsell, Dawn N.; Wagner, David M.; Zenhausern, Frederic

    2015-12-01

    We present a new elastomeric valve for integrated nucleic acid analysis by capillary electrophoresis. The valve functions include metering to capture a designated volume of biological sample into a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) chamber, sealing to preserve the sample during PCR cycling, and transfer of the PCR-products and on-chip formamide post-processing for the analysis of DNA fragments by capillary gel electrophoresis. This new valve differs from prior art polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) valves in that the valve is not actuated externally by air-pressure or vacuum so that it simplifies a DNA analysis system by eliminating the need for an air-pressure or vacuum source, and off-cartridge solenoid valves, control circuit boards and software. Instead, the new valve is actuated by a thermal cycling peltier assembly integrated within the hardware instrument that tightly comes in contact with a microfluidic cartridge for thermal activation during PCR, so that it spontaneously closes the valve without an additional actuator system. The valve has bumps in the designated locations so that it has a self-alignment that does not require precise alignment of a valve actuator. Moreover, the thickness of the new valve is around 600 μm with an additional bump height of 400 μm so that it is easy to handle and very feasible to fabricate by injection molding compared to other PDMS valves whose thicknesses are around 30-100 μm. The new valve provided over 95% of metering performance in filling the fixed volume of the PCR chamber, preserved over 97% of the sample volume during PCR, and showed very comparable capillary electrophoresis peak heights to the benchtop assay tube controls with very consistent transfer volume of the PCR-product and on-chip formamide. The new valve can perform a core function for integrated nucleic acid analysis by capillary electrophoresis.

  6. Reverse polarity capillary zone electrophoresis analysis of nitrate and nitrite in natural water samples

    SciTech Connect

    Metcalf, S.G.

    1998-06-11

    This paper describes the application of reverse polarity capillary zone electrophoresis (RPCE) for rapid and accurate determination of nitrate and nitrite in natural water samples. Using hexamethonium bromide (HMB) as an electroosmotic flow modifier in a borate buffer at pH 9.2, the resolution of nitrate and nitrite was accomplished in less than 3 minutes. RPCE was compared with ion chromatographic (IC) and cadmium reduction flow injection analysis (Cd-FIA) methods which are the two most commonly used standard methods for the analysis of natural water samples for nitrate and nitrite. When compared with the ion chromatographic method for the determination of nitrate and nitrite, RPCE reduced analysis time, decreased detection limits by a factor of 10, cut laboratory wastes by more than two orders of magnitude, and eliminated interferences commonly associated with IC. When compared with the cadmium reduction method, RPCE had the advantage of simultaneous determination of nitrate and nitrite, could be used in the presence of various metallic ions that normally interfere in cadmium reduction, and decreased detection limits by a factor of 10.

  7. Hybrid Phospholipid Bilayer Coatings for Separations of Cationic Proteins in Capillary Zone Electrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Gallagher, Elyssia S.; Adem, Seid M.; Bright, Leonard K.; Calderon, Isen A. C.; Mansfield, Elisabeth; Aspinwall, Craig A.

    2014-01-01

    Protein separations in capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) suffer from non-specific adsorption of analytes to the capillary surface. Semi-permanent phospholipid bilayers (PLBs) have been used to minimize adsorption, but must be regenerated regularly to ensure reproducibility. We investigated the formation, characterization, and use of hybrid phospholipid bilayers (HPBs) as more stable biosurfactant capillary coatings for CZE protein separations. HPBs are formed by covalently modifying a support with a hydrophobic monolayer onto which a self-assembled lipid monolayer is deposited. Monolayers prepared in capillaries using 3-cyanopropyldimethylchlorosilane (CPDCS) or n-octyldimethylchlorosilane (ODCS) yielded hydrophobic surfaces with lowered surface free energies of 6.0 ± 0.3 or 0.2 ± 0.1 mJ m−2, respectively, compared to 17 ± 1 mJ m−2 for bare silica capillaries. HPBs were formed by subsequently fusing vesicles comprised of 1,2-dilauroyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine or 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine to CPDCS- or ODCS-modified capillaries. The resultant HPB coatings shielded the capillary surface and yielded reduced electroosmotic mobility (1.3 – 1.9 × 10−4 cm2 V−1s−1) compared to CPDCS- and ODCS-modified or bare capillaries (3.6 ± 0.2 × 10−4 cm2 V−1s−1, 4.8 ± 0.4 × 10−4 cm2 V−1s−1, and 6.0 ± 0.2 × 10−4 cm2 V−1s−1, respectively), with increased stability compared to PLB coatings. HPB-coated capillaries yielded reproducible protein migration times (RSD ≤ 3.6 %, n ≥ 6) with separation efficiencies as high as 200,000 plates m−1. PMID:24459085

  8. A Novel Protocol to Analyze Short- and Long-Chain Fatty Acids Using Nonaqueous Microchip Capillary Electrophoresis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cable, M. L.; Stockton, A. M.; Mora, Maria F; Willis, P. A.

    2013-01-01

    We propose a new protocol to identify and quantify both short- and long-chain saturated fatty acids in samples of astrobiological interest using non-aqueous microchip capillary electrophoresis (micronNACE) with laser induced fluorescence (LIF).

  9. A KINETIC STUDY OF THE METHANOLYSIS OF THE SULFONYLUREAS BENSULFURON METHYL AND SULFOMETURON METHYL USING CAPILLARY ELECTROPHORESIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The instability of sulfonylureas in solution in methanol has led us to a kinetic study of methanolysis of two sulfonylureas using capillary electrophoresis. In a preliminary experiment solutions of the seven compounds, bensulfuron methyl, sulfometuron methyl, nicosulfuron, chlori...

  10. DETERMINATION OF ALIPHATIC AMINES IN WATER USING DERIVATIZATION WITH FLUORESCEIN ISOTHIOCYANATE AND CAPILLARY ELECTROPHORESIS/LASER-INDUCED FLUORESCENCE DETECTION.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Detection-oriented derivatization of aliphatic amines and amine functional groups in coumpounds of environmental interest was studied using fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) with separation/determination by capillary electrophoresis/laser-induced fluorescence. Determinative level...

  11. Fast determination of harmala alkaloids in edible algae by capillary electrophoresis mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Tascon, Marcos; Benavente, Fernando; Sanz-Nebot, Victoria M; Gagliardi, Leonardo G

    2015-05-01

    The use of algae as a foodstuff is rapidly expanding worldwide from the East Asian countries, where they are also used for medical care. Harmala alkaloids (HAlk) are a family of bioactive compounds found in the extracts of some plants, including wakame (Undaria pinnatifida), an edible marine invasive algae. HAlks are based on a characteristic β-carboline structure with at least one amino ionizable group. In this work, we report the successful separation of a mixture of six HAlks (harmine, harmaline, harmol, harmalol, harmane, and norharmane) by capillary electrophoresis ion-trap mass spectrometry (CE-IT-MS) in less than 8 min. Optimum separation in fused-silica capillaries and detection sensitivity in positive-ion mode were achieved using a background electrolyte (BGE) with 25 mmol L(-1) ammonium acetate (pH 7.8) and 10% (v/v) methanol, and a sheath liquid with 60:40 (v/v) isopropanol-water and 0.05% (v/v) formic acid. The separation method was validated in terms of linearity, limits of detection and quantification, repeatability, and reproducibility. Later, a sample pretreatment was carefully optimized to determine HAlks in commercial wakame samples with excellent recovery and repeatability. For the complex wakame extracts, the MS-MS fragmentation patterns of the different HAlks were useful to ensure a reliable identification. The complete procedure was validated using the standard-addition calibration method, determining matrix effects on the studied compounds. Harmalol, harmine, and harmaline were naturally present in the samples and were quantified at very low concentrations, ranging from 7 to 24 μg kg(-1) dry algae. PMID:25749794

  12. A comprehensive platform to investigate protein-metal ion interactions by affinity capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Alhazmi, Hassan A; Nachbar, Markus; Albishri, Hassan M; Abd El-Hady, Deia; Redweik, Sabine; El Deeb, Sami; Wätzig, Hermann

    2015-03-25

    In this work, the behavior of several metal ions with different globular proteins was investigated by affinity capillary electrophoresis. Screening was conducted by applying a proper rinsing protocol developed by our group. The use of 0.1M EDTA in the rinsing solution successfully desorbs metal ions from the capillary wall. The mobility ratio was used to evaluate the precision of the method. Excellent precision for repeated runs was achieved for different protein metal ion interactions (RSD% of 0.05-1.0%). Run times were less than 6 min for all of the investigated interactions. The method has been successfully applied for the interaction study of Li(+), Na(+), Mg(2+), Ca(2+), Ba(2+), Al(3+), Ga(3+), La(3+), Pd(2+), Ir(3+), Ru(3+), Rh(3+), Pt(2+), Pt(4+), Os(3+), Au(3+), Au(+), Ag(+), Cu(1+), Cu(2+), Fe(2+), Fe(3+), Co(2+), Ni(2+), Cr(3+), V(3+), MoO4(2-) and SeO3(2-) with bovine serum albumin, ovalbumin, β-lactoglobulin and myoglobin. Different interaction values were obtained for most of the tested metal ions even for that in the same metal group. Results were discussed and compared in view of metal and semimetal group's interaction behavior with the tested proteins. The calculated normalized difference of mobility ratios for each protein-metal ion interaction and its sign (positive and negative) has been successfully used to detect the interaction and estimate further coordination of the bound metal ion, respectively. The comprehensive platform summarizes all the obtained interaction results, and is valuable for any future protein-metal ion investigation. PMID:25638307

  13. Analysis of Trinitrophenylated Adenosine and Inosine by Capillary Electrophoresis and γ-Cyclodextrin-Enhanced Fluorescence Detection.

    PubMed

    Stephen, Terilyn K L; Guillemette, Katherine L; Green, Thomas K

    2016-08-01

    Monitoring molecules such as adenosine (Ado) and inosine (Ino) in the central nervous system has enabled the field of neuroscience to correlate molecular concentrations dynamics to neurological function, behavior, and disease. In vivo sampling techniques are commonly used to monitor these dynamics; however, many techniques are limited by the sensitivity and sample volume requirements of currently available detection methods. Here, we present a novel capillary electrophoresis-laser-induced fluorescence detection (CE-LIF) method that analyzes Ado and Ino by derivatization with 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid to form fluorescent trinitrophenylated complexes of Ado (TNP-Ado) and Ino (TNP-Ino). These complexes exhibit ∼25-fold fluorescence enhancement upon the formation of inclusion complexes with γ-cyclodextrin (γ-CD). Association constants were determined as 4600 M(-1) for Ado and 1000 M(-1) for Ino by CE-LIF. The structure of the TNP-Ado:γ-CD complex was determined by 2D nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Optimal trinitrophenylation reaction conditions and CE-LIF parameters were determined and resulted in the limit of detection of 1.6 μM for Ado and 4 μM for Ino. Ado and Ino were simultaneously quantified in homogenized rat forebrain samples to illustrate application of the technique. Simulated biological samples, desalted by ultrafiltration in the presence γ-CD, were concentrated on-capillary by large-volume sample stacking (LVSS) to achieve detection limits of 32 and 38 nM for TNP-Ado and TNP-Ino, respectively. PMID:27314490

  14. Characterization and Study of Transgenic Cultivars by Capillary and Microchip Electrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Domínguez Vega, Elena; Marina, Maria Luisa

    2014-01-01

    Advances in biotechnology have increased the demand for suitable analytical techniques for the analysis of genetically modified organisms. Study of the substantial equivalence, discrimination between transgenic and non-transgenic cultivars, study of the unintended effects caused by a genetic modification or their response to diverse situations or stress conditions (e.g., environmental, climatic, infections) are some of the concerns that need to be addressed. Capillary electrophoresis (CE) is emerging as an alternative to conventional techniques for the study and characterization of genetically modified organisms. This article reviews the most recent applications of CE for the analysis and characterization of transgenic cultivars in the last five years. Different strategies have been described depending on the level analyzed (DNA, proteins or metabolites). Capillary gel electrophoresis (CGE) has shown to be particularly useful for the analysis of DNA fragments amplified by PCR. Metabolites and proteins have been mainly separated using capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) using UV and MS detection. Electrophoretic chips have also proven their ability in the analysis of transgenic cultivars and a section describing the new applications is also included. PMID:25535077

  15. Is capillary electrophoresis on microchip devices able to genotype uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase 1A1 TATA-box polymorphisms?

    PubMed

    Minucci, Angelo; Canu, Giulia; De Bonis, Maria; Delibato, Elisabetta; Capoluongo, Ettore

    2014-06-01

    In this commentary, we focused our attention on capillary electrophoresis. It achieves the efficient separation of molecular species by the application of high voltages to samples in solution. Actually, capillary electrophoresis can be performed on microchip devices, based on an automated and miniaturized electrophoresis system, based on lab-on-a-chip technology. By this technology it is possible to separate nucleic acid fragments (DNA or RNA) with respect to sizing accuracy and sizing resolution. Currently, two automated capillary electrophoresis on microchips devices are available: the Agilent 2100 Bioanalyzer and the Experion™ Automated Electrophoresis System. In this study, we evaluated if the CE is able to distinguish the three uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase 1A1 TATA-box genotypes. PMID:24687976

  16. Concurrent determination of anions and cations in consumer fireworks with a portable dual-capillary electrophoresis system.

    PubMed

    Sáiz, Jorge; Duc, Mai Thanh; Koenka, Israel Joel; Martín-Alberca, Carlos; Hauser, Peter C; García-Ruiz, Carmen

    2014-11-01

    A new automated portable dual-channel capillary electrophoresis instrument was built and applied to the concurrent determination of cations and anions. The system uses a single buffer and hydrodynamic injection of the sample is performed autonomously. A novel engraved flow-cell interface is used at the injection ends of the capillaries allowing the autonomous operation of the system. The engraved flow-cell replaces traditionally used split injectors in purpose made capillary electrophoresis systems and makes the system design easier. A new software package with graphical user interface was employed to control the system, making its operation simple and increasing its versatility. The electrophoretic method was optimized to allow the baseline separation of 12 cations and anions commonly found in fireworks. The system was proven to be useful for the analysis of consumer fireworks, saving time and expenses compared to separate analyses for anions and cations. This is the first time that cationic and anionic compositions of fireworks are investigated together. The analysis of samples revealed several inaccuracies between the declared compositions for the fireworks and the obtained results, which could be attributed to cross-contamination during their manufacture or to a transfer between other components of the pyrotechnic item. The presence of certain unexpected peaks, however, had no apparent reason and might represent an irregularity in the manufacture of some devices. PMID:25465022

  17. Separation and determination of degradation products of acid orange 7 by capillary electrophoresis/capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detector.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin; Xiong, Ya; Xie, Tianyao; Sharma, Virender K; Tu, Yuting; Yang, Jiannan; Tian, Shuanghong; He, Chun

    2013-07-15

    Capillary electrophoresis (CE) with capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detector (C(4)D) was developed to separate azo-dyestuff acid orange 7 (AO7) and its six degradation products. The analyzed products were sulfamic acid, oxalic acid, benzenesulfonic acid, 4-hydroxybenzene sulfonic acid, phthalic acid, and 4-aminobenzene sulfonic acid. In developing the method, types and concentrations of running buffers, injecting voltage and time, and applied voltage were tested to obtain optimum conditions to analyze target compounds. The separation was successfully achieved within 10 min using a fused-silica capillary under the following conditions: 20 mmol L(-1) acetate acid buffer, electrokinetic injection of -12 kV × 10 s, and applied voltage of -13 kV. The developed method was applied to analyze degradation products in situ during the reaction of AO7 with Fenton reagent (Fe(II)+H2O2 at pH 4.0). PMID:23622525

  18. Evaluation of a sheathless capillary electrophoresis/electrospray ionization interface on an ion trap mass spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Kriger, M.S.; Cook, K.D.; Ramsey, R.S.

    1994-12-31

    The use of small diameter fused silica capillaries has proven advantageous in several electrospray (ES) mass spectrometric (MS) applications. Enhanced sensitivity and reduced background provide very low limits of detection. Prompted by these findings, the authors have developed an improved capillary electrophoresis (CE)/ES interface and evaluated its performance on a quadrupole ion trap MS using specially prepared fused silica capillary columns. The capillary tip is tapered, then gold-coated using a proprietary process that provides physical and chemical stability. (This process will be described in a subsequent publication, following determination of its patent status by the University of Tennessee Research Corporation). Tapering focuses the electric field, enabling electrospray of highly conductive aqueous solutions prior to the onset of a corona discharge. These capillaries have been used for CE/ES without a sheath solvent, thus avoiding dilution and increased background. The gold coating is not removed from the capillary by application and removal of cellophane adhesive tape, demonstrating excellent physical adhesion. Microscopic inspection has revealed that the coating remains uncompromised when sonicated in water, methanol, ethanol, propanol, acetic acid buffer (10 mM; pH 3.5), concentrated HCl (12.1 M), or potassium hydroxide (1 M). The coating did not survive sonication in aqua regia or piranha solution (30% H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} 1:4).

  19. Forensic analysis of mesembrine alkaloids in Sceletium tortuosum by nonaqueous capillary electrophoresis mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Roscher, Jörg; Posch, Tjorben Nils; Pütz, Michael; Huhn, Carolin

    2012-06-01

    The consumption of legal and illegal drugs follows an organic trend comparable to the current trend in food consumption. The investigation of such drugs is therefore of interest to characterize the active ingredients of plants and drug preparations. A new method of nonaqueous capillary electrophoresis coupled to mass spectrometry (NACE-MS) as a powerful tool for the separation of complex alkaloid mixtures in difficult matrices is presented in this study for the analysis of samples of Sceletium tortuosum and drug products called Kanna made thereof. The method was found to be suitable for the investigation of the alkaloid composition and relative quantification of the ingredients. It proved of value to separate a large number of isobaric compounds, most probably including diastereomers, double-bond isomers, and further structurally closely related compounds. A comparison of plant samples from different vendors, self-fermented samples, and products ready for consumption was made. The high separation power obtained allowed a better description of the chemotypic differences of plant samples as well as Kanna preparations compared to other methods presented in the literature so far. Thus, the use of the NACE-MS enables a new perspective on the alkaloid profile of Sceletium species. PMID:22736358

  20. Simultaneous determination of phenylurea herbicides in yam by capillary electrophoresis with electrochemiluminescence detection.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yuefang

    2015-04-01

    A method of capillary electrophoresis (CE) coupled with electrochemiluminescence (ECL) detection has been applied to detect three major phenylurea herbicides (monuron, monolinuron and diuron) simultaneously. The effects of yam sample preparation, injection voltage and time, detection potential, detection buffer concentration and pH, Ru(bpy)₃(2+) concentration, separation buffer type, separation buffer pH and concentration, separation voltage were investigated in detail. Under optimum conditions, a good baseline separation and highly sensitive detection for monuron, monolinuron and diuron were achieved. The ECL intensity (I) was in proportion to three analytes concentration (ρ) in the range of 0.1-10,000 μg/L for monuron (r≥0.9993), 0.1-18,000 μg/L for monolinuron (r≥0.9995) and 0.1-20,000 μg/L for diuron (r≥0.9997). The detection limits for monuron, monolinuron and diuron were 0.05, 0.04 and 0.01 μg/L (S/N=3), respectively. The developed method was successfully applied for the analysis of monuron, monolinuron and diuron residues in yam simultaneously. The average recoveries are in the ranges of 90.0-99.2% with relative standard deviations less than 3.2%. The limits of detection of the proposed method were 0.010 μg/kg for monuron, 0.008 μg/kg for monolinuron and diuron in yam. PMID:25732033

  1. Postcolumn derivatization of proteins in capillary sieving electrophoresis/laser-induced fluorescence detection.

    PubMed

    Kaneta, Takashi; Yamamoto, Daisuke; Imasaka, Totaro

    2009-11-01

    The separation methods for proteins with high resolution and sensitivity are absolutely important in the field of biological sciences. Capillary sieving electrophoresis (CSE) is an excellent separation technique for DNA and proteins with high resolution, while LIF permits the most sensitive detection in CSE. Therefore, proteins have to be labeled with fluorescent or fluorogenic reagent to produce fluorescent derivatives. Both precolumn and oncolumn derivatization have been employed for the labeling of proteins in CSE. However, there is no report on the postcolumn derivatization due to the limitation in the use of a standard migration buffer, despite it being a promising method for sensitive detection of proteins. Here, we show a novel postcolumn derivatization method for protein separation by CSE, using a tertiary amine as a buffer component in the running buffer. Tris, which is commonly used as a base in CSE separation buffers, was substituted by tertiary amines, 2-(diethylamino)ethanol and triethanolamine. A buffer solution containing 2-(diethylamino)ethanol or triethanolamine can be used for the CSE separation followed by the postcolumn derivatization of proteins, since both reagents are unreactive toward a fluorogenic labeling reagent, naphthalene-2,3-dicarbaldehyde. Thus, LIF detection using the postcolumn derivatization permits significant reduction in the LOD (by a factor of 2.4-28) of proteins, compared with conventional absorbance detection. PMID:19862753

  2. Identification and differentiation of Cryptosporidium species by capillary electrophoresis single-strand conformation polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Power, Michelle L; Holley, Marita; Ryan, Una M; Worden, Paul; Gillings, Michael R

    2011-01-01

    Cryptosporidium species generally lack distinguishing morphological traits, and consequently, molecular methods are commonly used for parasite identification. Various methods for Cryptosporidium identification have been proposed, each with their advantages and disadvantages. In this study, we show that capillary electrophoresis coupled with single-strand conformation polymorphism (CE-SSCP) is a rapid, simple and cost-effective method for the identification of Cryptosporidium species and genotypes. Species could be readily differentiated based on the SSCP mobility of amplified 18S rRNA gene molecules. Clones that differed by single-nucleotide polymorphisms could be distinguished on CE-SSCP mobility. Profiles of species known to have heterogenic copies of 18S rRNA gene contained multiple peaks. Cloning and sequencing of Cryptosporidium parvum, Cryptosporidium hominis, Cryptosporidium fayeri and Cryptosporidium possum genotype 18S rRNA gene amplicons confirmed that these multiple peaks represented type A and type B 18S rRNA gene copies. CE-SSCP provides a reliable and sensitive analysis for epidemiological studies, environmental detection and diversity screening. PMID:21087296

  3. Analysis of ecstasy tablets using capillary electrophoresis with capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection.

    PubMed

    Porto, Suely K S S; Nogueira, Thiago; Blanes, Lucas; Doble, Philip; Sabino, Bruno D; do Lago, Claudimir L; Angnes, Lúcio

    2014-11-01

    A method for the identification of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and meta-chlorophenylpiperazine (mCPP) was developed employing capillary electrophoresis (CE) with capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection (C(4) D). Sample extraction, separation, and detection of "Ecstasy" tablets were performed in <10 min without sample derivatization. The separation electrolyte was 20 mm TAPS/Lithium, pH 8.7. Average minimal detectable amounts for MDMA and mCPP were 0.04 mg/tablet, several orders of magnitude lower than the minimum amount encountered in a tablet. Seven different Ecstasy tablets seized in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, were analyzed by CE-C(4) D and compared against routine gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The CE method demonstrated sufficient selectivity to discriminate the two target drugs, MDMA and mCPP, from the other drugs present in seizures, namely amphepramone, fenproporex, caffeine, lidocaine, and cocaine. Separation was performed in <90 sec. The advantages of using C(4) D instead of traditional CE-UV methods for in-field analysis are also discussed. PMID:25039689

  4. Analysis of degradation products of chemical warfare agents using capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Aleksenko, Svetlana S; Gareil, Pierre; Timerbaev, Andrei R

    2011-10-21

    Analysis of chemical warfare agents (CWAs), their precursors and degradation products (DPs) is an important verification component in support of the Chemical Weapons Convention and urgently demanding rapid and reliable analytical methods. Considering a growing number of papers presented in the last years in the field of capillary electrophoresis (CE) of DPs, this review article gives an overview on CE techniques which are feasible for the determination of DPs with the advantages of using relatively simple and inexpensive research instrumentation, reduced consumption of potentially toxic samples, shorter sample preparation times, etc. A brief introduction is provided into the chemical background of CWAs followed by a documented appraisal that the CE method is well suited to deal with polar, acidic DPs mostly occurring in aqueous samples or extracts. Applications of CE to the separation of DPs are described, complemented by a critical discussion of the detection techniques, including mostly conductivity, laser-induced fluorescence, UV absorption and mass spectrometry. This review also includes actual development regarding the challenges of CE in analyses of different DPs from real samples, often avoided by in- and off-line pre-concentration techniques or the coupling of CE to selective detection methods. Special emphasis is placed on the miniaturised CE systems that have the potential of being before long developed into a field deployable and potentially disposable platform for routine DP monitoring in environmental samples. PMID:21858300

  5. Sensitive detection of C-reactive protein in serum by immunoprecipitation-microchip capillary gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Herwig, Ela; Marchetti-Deschmann, Martina; Wenz, Christian; Rüfer, Andreas; Redl, Heinz; Bahrami, Soheyl; Allmaier, Günter

    2015-06-01

    Sepsis represents a significant cause of mortality in intensive care units. Early diagnosis of sepsis is essential to increase the survival rate of patients. Among others, C-reactive protein (CRP) is commonly used as a sepsis marker. In this work we introduce immune precipitation combined with microchip capillary gel electrophoresis (IP-MCGE) for the detection and quantification of CRP in serum samples. First high-abundance proteins (HSA, IgG) are removed from serum samples using affinity spin cartridges, and then the remaining proteins are labeled with a fluorescence dye and incubated with an anti-CRP antibody, and the antigen/antibody complex is precipitated with protein G-coated magnetic beads. After precipitation the complex is eluted from the beads and loaded onto the MCGE system. CRP could be reliably detected and quantified, with a detection limit of 25 ng/μl in serum samples and 126 pg/μl in matrix-free samples. The overall sensitivity (LOQ = 75 ng/μl, R(2) = 0.9668) of the method is lower than that of some specially developed methods (e.g., immune radiometric assay) but is comparable to those of clinically accepted ELISA methods. The straightforward sample preparation (not prone to mistakes), reduced sample and reagent volumes (including the antibodies), and high throughput (10 samples/3 h) are advantages and therefore IP-MCGE bears potential for point-of-care diagnosis. PMID:25778394

  6. Capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry as a new approach to analyze neonicotinoid insecticides.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Hernández, Laura; Hernández-Domínguez, Deamelys; Bernal, José; Neusüß, Christian; Martín, María T; Bernal, José L

    2014-09-12

    This paper represents the first report of a capillary electrophoresis (CE) method compatible with mass spectrometry (MS) detection for simultaneously analyzing seven neonicotinoid insecticides (acetamiprid, clothianidin, dinotefuran, imidacloprid, nitenpyram, thiacloprid and thiamethoxam). Different variables affecting CE separation (buffer concentration, pH, applied voltage and injection time) and MS detection (electrospray parameters) were studied. Low limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) were achieved for all analytes, ranging from 1.0 to 2.3μg/L, and from 3.5 to 7.2μg/L, respectively. In addition, the proposed method showed itself to be linear in the range from LOQ to 1000μg/L and to be precise, as the relative standard deviations of the migration times were lower than 4% in all cases. Finally, the proposed CE-MS method was applied to assess the efficacy of a beeswax cleaning treatment with oxalic acid to remove residues of three of the most commonly used neonicotinoids (clothianidin, imidacloprid and thiamethoxam), use of which has recently been restricted by the European Union. PMID:25085817

  7. Evaluation of Fluorescent Capillary Electrophoresis for Rapid Identification of Candida Fungal Infections.

    PubMed

    Obručová, Hana; Tihelková, Radka; Kotásková, Iva; Růžička, Filip; Holá, Veronika; Němcová, Eva; Freiberger, Tomáš

    2016-05-01

    Early diagnosis of fungal infection is critical for initiating antifungal therapy and reducing the high mortality rate in immunocompromised patients. In this study, we focused on rapid and sensitive identification of clinically important Candida species, utilizing the variability in the length of the ITS2 rRNA gene and fluorescent capillary electrophoresis (f-ITS2-PCR-CE). The method was developed and optimized on 29 various Candida reference strains from which 26 Candida species were clearly identified, while Candida guilliermondii, C. fermentati, and C. carpophila, which are closely related, could not be distinguished. The method was subsequently validated on 143 blinded monofungal clinical isolates (comprising 26 species) and was able to identify 88% of species unambiguously. This indicated a higher resolution power than the classical phenotypic approach which correctly identified 73%. Finally, the culture-independent potential of this technique was addressed by the analysis of 55 retrospective DNA samples extracted directly from clinical material. The method showed 100% sensitivity and specificity compared to those of the combined results of cultivation and panfungal PCR followed by sequencing used as a gold standard. In conclusion, this newly developed f-ITS2-PCR-CE analytical approach was shown to be a fast, sensitive, and highly reproducible tool for both culture-dependent and culture-independent identification of clinically important Candida strains, including species of the "psilosis" complex. PMID:26935732

  8. Capillary zone electrophoresis as a tool for the quality control of goldenseal extracts.

    PubMed

    Unger, Matthias; Laug, Stefanie; Holzgrabe, Ulrike

    2005-06-01

    The root extracts of goldenseal (Hydrastis canadensis L.) are popular phytomedicines for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders and upper respiratory tract infections. Here we describe a simple and fast capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) method with ultraviolet detection at 225 nm for the quantification of the major goldenseal constituents, berberine and hydrastine, in herbal remedies containing goldenseal root extracts. Tritoqualine, an antihistaminic drug with a hydrastine-like phthalidisoquinoline structure, was applied as an internal standard. The running buffer was a 1:5 mixture of 500 mM ammonium acetate (adjusted to pH 3.4 with acetic acid) and methanol. Our newly developed CZE method was validated regarding limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification, linearity, accuracy and precision. For both berberine and hydrastine, the LOD was 1.0 microg/mL and the linearity was obtained between 2.5 and 500 microg/mL. Using our newly developed method, both the alkaloids could be analysed in herbal remedies containing goldenseal root extracts within 8 min. PMID:15912542

  9. [Capillary electrophoresis analysis for glyphosate, glufosinate and aminomethylphosphonic acid with laser-induced fluorescence detection].

    PubMed

    Cao, Liwei; Liang, Siliu; Tan, Xiaofang; Meng, Jianxin

    2012-12-01

    A sensitive analytical method was developed for the simultaneous determination of glyphosate, glufosinate and aminomethylphosphonic acid by capillary electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence detection (CE-LIF). 5-(4,6-Dichlorotriazinyl) amino fluorescein (DTAF) was successfully applied to label the herbicides. The optimal derivatization reaction was carried out in boric acid buffer of pH 9.5 at 30 degrees C for 40 min. The baseline separation of the three derivatives could be accomplished using 30 mmol/L boric acid, 15 mmol/L Brij-35 (pH 9.5) as the running buffer. The detection limits (S/N = 3) for the glyphosate, glufosinate and aminomethylphosphonic acid were 3.21, 6.14, 1.99 ng/kg, respectively. Finally, the method was successfully applied to the analysis of environmental samples, and the three compounds were measured without any interference from real samples. The recoveries of the compounds in these samples were 91.3% - 106.0%. The method has the advantages of easiness and sensitivity, and can meet the requirement of the determination of the herbicide and metabolite residues in the environmental samples. PMID:23593890

  10. Development of novel separation techniques for biological samples in capillary electrophoresis

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, H.T.

    1994-07-27

    This dissertation includes three different topics: general introduction of capillary electrophoresis (CE); gradient in CE and CE in biological separations; and capillary gel electrophoresis (CGE) for DNA separation. Factors such as temperature, viscosity, pH, and the surface of capillary walls affecting the separation performance are demonstrated. A pH gradient between 3.0 and 5.2 is useful to improve the resolution among eight different organic acids. A flow gradient due to the change in the concentration of surfactant, which is able to coat to the capillary wall to change the flow rate and its direction, is also shown as a good way to improve the resolution for organic compounds. A temperature gradient caused by joule heat is shown by voltage programming to enhance the resolution and shorten the separation time for several phenolic compounds. The author also shows that self-regulating dynamic control of electroosmotic flow in CE by simply running separation in different concentrations of surfactant has less matrix effect on the separation performance. One of the most important demonstrations in this dissertation is that the author proposes on-column reaction which gives several advantages including the use of a small amount of sample, low risk of contamination, and time saving and kinetic features. The author uses this idea with laser induced fluorescence (LIF) as a detection mode to detect an on-column digestion of sub-ng of protein. This technique also is applied to single cell analysis in the group.

  11. Characterization of the microdialysis junction interface for capillary electrophoresis/microelectrospray ionization mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Severs, J.C.; Smith, R.D.

    1997-06-01

    A capillary electrophoresis/electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (CE/ESI-MS) interface, based on an electric circuit across a microdialysis membrane surrounding a short capillary segment closely connected to the separation capillary terminus, is demonstrated to be sensitive, efficient, and rugged. A microspray type ionization emitter produces a stable electrospray at the low flow rates provided by CE and thus avoids both the need for a makeup liquid flow provided by liquid junction or sheath flow interfaces and the subsequent dilution and reduction in sensitivity. Reproducibility studies and comparisons with CE/UV and the CE/sheath flow interface with ESI-MS are presented. Additionally, postrun acidification via the microdialysis junction interface is demonstrated and shown to be capable of denaturing the holomyoglobin protein noncovalent complex while maintaining separation efficiency. 21 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Micromachining a Miniaturized Capillary Electrophoresis-Based Chemical Analysis System on a Chip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jed Harrison, D.; Fluri, Karl; Seiler, Kurt; Fan, Zhonghui; Effenhauser, Carlo S.; Manz, Andreas

    1993-08-01

    Micromachining technology was used to prepare chemical analysis systems on glass chips (1 centimeter by 2 centimeters or larger) that utilize electroosmotic pumping to drive fluid flow and electrophoretic separation to distinguish sample components. Capillaries 1 to 10 centimeters long etched in the glass (cross section, 10 micrometers by 30 micrometers) allow for capillary electrophoresis-based separations of amino acids with up to 75,000 theoretical plates in about 15 seconds, and separations of about 600 plates can be effected within 4 seconds. Sample treatment steps within a manifold of intersecting capillaries were demonstrated for a simple sample dilution process. Manipulation of the applied voltages controlled the directions of fluid flow within the manifold. The principles demonstrated in this study can be used to develop a miniaturized system for sample handling and separation with no moving parts.

  13. Analysis of explosives via microchip electrophoresis and conventional capillary electrophoresis: a review.

    PubMed

    Pumera, Martin

    2006-01-01

    The upsurge in terrorist activity has generated tremendous demand for innovative tools capable of detecting major industrial, military, and home-made (improvised) explosives. Fast, sensitive, and reliable detection of explosives in the field is a very important issue in nowadays. CE, especially in its miniaturized format (lab-on-a-chip), offers great possibilities to create portable, field deployable, rapidly responding, and potentially disposable devices, allowing security forces to make the important decisions regarding the safety of civilians. This article overviews the microchip and conventional capillary electrophoretic techniques for analysis of a wide variety of explosive compounds and mixtures. PMID:16307431

  14. Functionalization and characterization of persistent luminescence nanoparticles by dynamic light scattering, laser Doppler and capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-García, Gonzalo; d'Orlyé, Fanny; Gutiérrez-Granados, Silvia; Martínez-Alfaro, Minerva; Mignet, Nathalie; Richard, Cyrille; Varenne, Anne

    2015-12-01

    Zinc gallate nanoparticles doped with chromium (III) (ZnGa1.995O4:Cr0.005) are innovative persistent luminescence materials with particular optical properties allowing their use for in vivo imaging. They can be excited in the tissue transparency window by visible photons and emit light for hours after the end of the excitation. This allows to observe the probe without any time constraints and without autofluorescence signals produced by biological tissues. Modification of the surface of these nanoparticles is essential to be colloidally stable not only for cell targeting applications but also for proper distribution in living organisms. The use of different methods for controlling and characterizing the functionalization process is imperative to better understand the subsequent interactions with biological elements. This work explores for the first time the characterization and optimization of a classic functionalization sequence, starting with hydroxyl groups (ZGO-OH) at the nanoparticle surface, followed by an aminosilane-functionalization intermediate stage (ZGO-NH2) before PEGylation (ZGO-PEG). Dynamic light scattering and laser doppler electrophoresis were used in combination with capillary electrophoresis to characterize the nanoparticle functionalization processes and control their colloidal and chemical stability. The hydrodynamic diameter, zeta potential, electrophoretic mobility, stability over time and aggregation state of persistent luminescence nanoparticles under physiological-based solution conditions have been studied for each functional state. Additionally, a new protocol to improve ZGO-NH2 stability based on a thermal treatment to complete covalent binding of (3-aminopropyl) triethoxysilane onto the particle surface has been optimized. This thorough control increases our knowledge on these nanoparticles for subsequent toxicological studies and ultimately medical application. PMID:26409685

  15. [Analysis of tartrazine aluminum lake and sunset yellow aluminum lake in foods by capillary zone electrophoresis].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yiding; Chang, Cuilan; Guo, Qilei; Cao, Hong; Bai, Yu; Liu, Huwei

    2014-04-01

    A novel analytical method for tartrazine aluminum lake and sunset yellow aluminum lake using capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) was studied. The pigments contained in the color lakes were successfully separated from the aluminum matrix in the pre-treatment process, which included the following steps: dissolve the color lakes in 0.1 mol/L H2SO4, adjust the pH of the solution to 5.0, then mix it with the solution of EDTA x 2Na and heat it in a water bath, then use polyamide powder as the stationary phase of solid phase extraction to separate the pigments from the solution, and finally elute the pigments with 0.1 mol/L NaOH. The CZE conditions systematically optimized for tartrazine aluminum lake were: 48.50 cm of a fused silica capillary with 40.00 cm effective length and 50 microm i. d., the temperature controlled at 20.0 degrees C, 29.0 kV applied, HPO4(2-)-PO4(3-) (0.015 mol/L, pH 11.45) solution as running buffer, detection at 263 nm. The conditions for sunset yellow aluminum lake were: the same capillary and temperature, 25.0 kV applied, HPO4(2-)-PO4(3-) (0.025 mol/L, pH 11.45) solution as running buffer, detection at 240 nm. The limits of detection were 0.26 mg/L and 0.27 mg/L, and the linear ranges were 0.53-1.3 x 10(2) mg/L and 0.54-1.4 x 10(2) mg/L for tartrazine aluminum lake and sunset yellow aluminum lake, respectively. The RSDs were 4.3% and 5.7% (run to run, n = 6), 5.6% and 6.0% (day to day, n = 6) for tartrazine aluminum lake and sunset yellow aluminum lake, respectively. Further developments for this method could make it a routinely used method analyzing color lakes in foods. PMID:25069336

  16. Rapid separation and quantification of major caseins and whey proteins of bovine milk by capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Vallejo-Cordoba, B

    1997-01-01

    A rapid capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) method was established for separating and quantifying major casein and whey proteins in milk. Optimum sample preparation and electrophoretic conditions in a coated capillary maintained at 40 degrees C allowed accurate and reproducible quantification of milk proteins in a single analysis. Sample and run buffer allowed caseins to be maintained in solution by using a combination of urea and a nonionic detergent in phosphate buffer at pH 2.5. Quantitative CZE protein data were derived by calculating percentages and concentrations (mg/mL) of alpha-casein, beta-casein, alpha-lactalbumin, and beta-lactoglobulin. Calibration curves followed linear relationships with highly significant (p < 0.1) correlation coefficients. Relative standard deviations of less than 0.82 (%) for migration times and 2.18 (%) for percent protein indicated that the technique was reproducible. Electrophoretic protein profiles of fresh bovine milk and rehydrated dry milk showed marked quantitative differences in whey protein concentrations. Whey protein represented 12.37 +/- 0.07% beta-lactoglobulin and 3.05 +/- 0.08% alpha-lactalbumin of total protein in typical fresh milk, while only 1.90 +/- 0.16% beta-lactoglobulin and 0.86 +/- 0.04% alpha-lactalbumin of total protein were detected in a commercial rehydrated milk powder. By quantifying these differences, the established technique may allow the detection of substitution of fresh milk with rehydrated milk powder. The accuracy and reproducibility of the technique permitted the quantitation of individual protein concentrations in milk samples, which agreed with ranges reported in the literature. CZE may be well suited for routine use by dairies and regulatory agencies, since it allows the determination of milk proteins in less than 60 min. PMID:9725120

  17. Determination of carbethopendecinium bromide in eye drops by capillary electrophoresis with capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection.

    PubMed

    Petrů, Klára; Jáč, Pavel; Šindelková, Martina; Polášek, Miroslav

    2011-05-01

    Antiseptic agent carbethopendecinium bromide (septonex) was determined by capillary electrophoresis with capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection. Optimal separation of this quaternary ammonium ion was achieved in BGE of pH 7.0 containing 30 mM 2-(N-morpholino)ethanesulfonic acid, 12.5 mg/mL of 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin and 20% v/v of acetonitrile. The separation was performed at 25°C in an uncoated fused silica capillary (50 μm id; total length, 60.5 cm; effective length, 50 cm) at 30 kV. Samples were injected hydrodynamically at 50 mbar for 6 s. For quantitative analysis, L-arginine (500 μg/mL) was used as internal standard. The calibration curve was rectilinear for 25-400 μg/mL of septonex (y=0.0113x-0.0063; r(2)=0.9992). The LOD was 7 μg/mL of septonex (at S/N=3). The run-to-run repeatability (n=6) was characterized by the RSDs of 0.18% for the migration time and 1.96% for the analyte/internal standard peak area ratio. Accuracy tested by recovery experiments at three concentration levels gave recoveries of 100.27-104.22% with RSD ≤2.19%. The method was successfully applied to the assay of carbethopendecinium bromide in eye drops. Quaternary ammonium ions having structure and size close to that of carbethopendecinium may not be resolved from the analyte. PMID:21416604

  18. Highly sensitive wavelength-dependent nonaqueous capillary electrophoresis for simultaneous screening of various synthetic organic dyes.

    PubMed

    Park, Moonhee; Bahng, Seung-Hoon; Woo, Nain; Kang, Seong Ho

    2016-05-15

    A novel multi-wavelength nonaqueous capillary electrophoresis (MW-NACE) technique based on wavelength-dependent laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) detection was investigated for the simultaneous screening of various synthetic organic dyes. Multi-wavelength excitation light sources were utilized to excite different organic dyes [e.g., 543 nm for crystal violet (CV), methyl violet B (MVB), methyl violet B base (MBB), rhodamine 6G (R6G), and rhodamine B base (RBB); 635 nm for nile blue A (NBA) and methylene blue (MB)] simultaneously. Using a nonaqueous buffer system composed of 15 mM sodium borate and 835 mM acetic acid in 100% ethanol (pH=5.4), all dyes were analyzed within 15 min with excellent resolution (R≥4.0) under an electric field of 500 V/cm. Calibration curves showed excellent linearity with square of correlation coefficients (r(2)) greater than 0.9908 over wide dynamic ranges of 0.4-50 μM for CV, 0.8-50 μM for MVB, 1.5-50 μM for MBB, 0.08-5 nM for R6G, 0.06-10 μM for MB, 0.02-10 μM for NBA, and 0.13-10 pM for RBB. The detection limits (S/N=3) of 40 fM to 0.5 μM were 10-200,000 times lower than those of previous detection methods. While adjacent peaks were not well distinguished with baseline separation in a single capillary, the devised technique was faster and more sensitive than conventional aqueous and nonaqueous CE approaches, thereby enabling the quantitative analysis of various dyes based on wavelength-dependent fluorescence detection with different excitation wavelengths. PMID:26992516

  19. [Determination of penicillin intermediate and three penicillins in milk by high performance capillary electrophoresis].

    PubMed

    Tian, Chunqiu; Tan, Huarong; Gao, Liping; Shen, Huqin; Qi, Kezong

    2011-11-01

    A high performance capillary electrophoresis (HPCE) method was developed for the simultaneous determination of penicillin intermediate and penicillins in milk, including 6-amino-penicillanic acid (6-APA), penicillin G (PEN), ampicillin (AMP) and amoxicillin (AMO). The main parameters including the ion concentration and pH value of running buffer, separation voltage and column temperature were optimized systematically by orthogonal test. The four penicillins (PENs) were baseline separated within 4.5 min with the running buffer of 40 mmol/L potassium dihydrogen phosphate-20 mmol/L borax solution (pH 7.8), separation voltage of 28 kV and column temperature of 30 degrees C. The calibration curves showed good linearity in the range of 1.56 - 100 mg/L, and the correlation coefficients (r2) were between 0.9979 and 0.9998. The average recoveries at three spiked levels were in the range of 84.91% - 96.72% with acceptable relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 1.11% - 9.11%. The method is simple, fast, accurate and suitable for the determination of penicillins in real samples. PMID:22393704

  20. Utilizing Microchip Capillary Electrophoresis Electrospray Ionization for Hydrogen Exchange Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Black, William A.; Stocks, Bradley B.; Mellors, J. Scott; Engen, John R.; Ramsey, J. Michael

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen exchange (HX) mass spectrometry (MS) of complex mixtures requires a fast, reproducible, and high peak capacity separation prior to MS detection. The current paradigm relies on liquid chromatography (LC) with fast gradients performed at low temperatures to minimize back exchange. Unfortunately, under these conditions, the efficiency of LC is limited due to resistance to mass transfer, reducing the capability to analyze complex samples. Capillary electrophoresis (CE), on the other hand, is not limited by resistance to mass transfer, enabling very rapid separations that are not adversely affected by low temperature. Previously, we have demonstrated an integrated microfluidic device coupling CE with electrospray ionization (ESI) capable of very rapid and high efficiency separations. In this work, we demonstrate the utility of this microchip CE-ESI device for HX MS. High speed CE-ESI of a bovine hemoglobin pepsin digestion was performed in 1 minute with a peak capacity of 62 versus a similar LC separation performed in 7 minutes with peak capacity of 31. A room temperature CE method performed in 1.25 minutes provided similar deuterium retention as an 8.5 minute LC method conducted at 0 °C. Separation of a complex mixture with CE was done with considerably better speed and nearly triple the peak capacity than the equivalent separation by LC. Overall the results indicate the potential utility of microchip CE-ESI for HX MS. PMID:25992468

  1. Determination of five nitroimidazole residues in artificial porcine muscle tissue samples by capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yingyun; Su, Yan; Liao, Xiulin; Yang, Na; Yang, Xiupei; Choi, Martin M F

    2012-01-15

    A capillary electrophoresis (CE) method with ultraviolet detection has been developed for simultaneous detection and quantification of five nitroimidazoles including benzoylmetronidazole, dimetridazole, metronidazole, ronidazole, and secnidazole in porcine muscles. Nitroimidazoles in samples were extracted by ethyl acetate with subsequent clean-up by a strong cation exchange solid phase extraction column. The clean extracts were subjected to CE separation with optimal experimental conditions: pH 3.0 running buffer containing 25mM sodium phosphate and 0.10mM tetrabutylammonium bromide, 5s hydrodynamic injection at 0.5psi and 28kV separation voltage. The nitroimidazoles could be monitored and detected at 320nm within 18min. The limits of detection were below 1.0μg/kg and limits of quantification were lower than 3.2μg/kg for all nitroimidazoles in the muscle samples. The recoveries and relative standard deviations were 85.4-96.0, 83.5-92.5, 1.3-3.9, and 1.1-4.2%, respectively for the intra-day and inter-day analyses. The proposed CE method has been successfully applied to determine nitroimidazoles in artificial porcine muscle samples with good accuracy and recovery, demonstrating that it has potential for detection and quantification of multi-nitroimidazole residue in real muscle samples. PMID:22265553

  2. Determination of low molecular weight organic acids in soil, plants, and water by capillary zone electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Li, Ying-Hui; Huang, Bi-Xia; Shan, Xiao-Quan

    2003-03-01

    Determination of low molecular weight organic acids in soils and plants by capillary zone electrophoresis was accomplished using a phthalate buffer and indirect UV detection mode. The influence of some crucial parameters, such as pH, buffer concentration and surfactant were investigated. A good separation of seven organic acids was achieved within 5 min using an electrolyte containing 15 mmol L(-1) potassium hydrogen phthalate, 0.5 mmol L(-1) myristyltrimethylammonium bromide (MTAB), and 5% methanol (MeOH) (v/v) at pH 5.60, separation voltage -20 kV, and temperature 25 degrees C. The relative standard deviation (n=5) of the method was found to be in range 0.18-0.56% for migration time and 3.2-4.8% for peak area. The limit of detection ranged between 0.5 micro mol L(-1) to 6 micro mol L(-1) at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3. The recovery of standard organic acids added to real samples ranged from 87 to 119%. This method was simple, rapid and reproducible, and could be applied to the simultaneous determination of organic acids in environmental samples. PMID:12664177

  3. Screening of the binding properties of molecularly imprinted nanoparticles via capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Musile, Giacomo; Cenci, Lucia; Andreetto, Erika; Ambrosi, Emmanuele; Tagliaro, Franco; Bossi, Alessandra Maria

    2016-05-01

    In response to the need for straightforward analytical methods to assess the affinity of molecularly imprinted nanoparticles (MIP NPs) for ligands, capillary electrophoresis (CE) was exploited using MIP NPs targeting the iron-regulating hormone hepcidin. In this work, MIP NPs were challenged with their template peptide, i.e., the N-terminal 5-mer of hepcidin, in comparison to unrelated ligand peptides. A CE separation method was developed ex novo achieving, after optimization of the background electrolyte (150 mM sodium phosphate pH 7.4) and of the running temperature (35 °C), the full separation of the free ligand from the complexed MIP NPs. The CE binding isotherm allowed the estimation of a micromolar dissociation constant for the 5-mer template-MIP NPs complex, in agreement with independent measurements. The CE offered the advantages of a direct injection of the MIP NPs/ligand incubation mix, without preliminary fractionation steps, requiring only minimal sample volumes and short analysis times. In conclusion CE proved to be a valid technique for characterizing the interactions of MIP NP libraries for selected target compounds. Graphical Abstract Five different nanodiamond samples were exhaustively characterized using a suite of analytical techniques. PMID:26960903

  4. Rapid determination of salbutamol in pharmaceutical preparations by chiral capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Ekiert, Ela; García-Ruiz, Carmen; García, Maria A; Marina, Maria L

    2003-08-01

    A fast and simple method of chiral capillary electrophoresis (CE) has been applied to the analysis of salbutamol in different pharmaceutical preparations. Using of a 25 mM acetate buffer (pH 5.0), containing 13.1 mg/mL carboxymethyl-beta-cyclodextrin (CM-beta-CD), an applied voltage of 20 kV and a temperature of 25 degrees C, the enantiomers of salbutamol could be separated in about 2 min. Three different pharmaceutical preparations (two syrups, one oral solution, and two kind of tablets) containing a racemate of salbutamol were injected directly in the CE system, following dilution in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). Appreciable differences in the retention times were observed for salbutamol enantiomers in the different formulations studied, which were attributed to the effect of the matrix components on the electrophoretic mobility. The standard addition method was used for the calibration due to the existence of matrix interferences. Finally, the stability of the enantiomers of salbutamol in the oral solution was studied calculating the enantiomeric ratio values when the solution was injected immediately after being opened in the first case and after being opened and stored in the fridge for two months in the second case. PMID:12900882

  5. Development of a simplified microfluidic injector for analysis of droplet content via capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    DeLaMarre, Michael F; Shippy, Scott A

    2014-10-21

    Droplet-based microfluidic platforms sequester nanoliter to picoliter samples in an immiscible carrier phase and have gained notoriety for their ability to be used in laboratory procedures on a miniaturized scale. Recently, droplet microfluidics has been used to prevent zone diffusion in time-resolved sample collection methods and in separation techniques. The assay of droplets remains challenging, however, because the carrier phase is often incompatible with separation techniques. In this work, we report the development of a droplet injector for capillary electrophoresis (CE) which delivers 750 pL droplets to a channel for separation while excluding the fluorous carrier phase. This design is simple compared to previous reports, consisting of only two straight channels and no additional working parts such as membranes or valves. To demonstrate a proof-of-concept and characterize performance, riboflavin was used as a biologically relevant model molecule. Droplets containing a step change in riboflavin concentration were injected and mobilized by CE. The current method is capable of riboflavin peak % relative standard deviations (RSDs) down to 4.4% and temporal resolutions down to 15 s. Human urine samples containing riboflavin and its photolysis products were successfully separated and found to be chemically compatible with the injector. Our simplified design could improve robustness and ruggedness and may allow device construction via nontraditional fabrication techniques. PMID:25226066

  6. Determination of NTBC in serum samples from patients with hereditary tyrosinemia type I by capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Cansever, M Serif; Aktuğlu-Zeybek, A Ciğdem; Erim, F Bedia

    2010-03-15

    Hereditary tyrosinemia type I is a serious metabolic disorder leading to liver failure. 2-(2-Nitro-4-trifluoromethylbenzoyl)-1,3-cyclohexanedione (NTBC) is a relatively new drug which is used to prevent the accumulation of toxic metabolites in patients with hereditary tyrosinemia type I. In the present study, we have developed a new, simple, fast, and cost-effective capillary electrophoresis method for the quantitative monitoring of this drug in serum samples. Micellar electrochromatographic separation of NTBC was performed using 20 mmol/L phosphate and 40 mmol/L sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) at pH 12 as running electrolyte. Separation of NTBC was achieved in around 4 min. Reproducibilities of migration times and corrected peak areas of NTBC (as R.S.D.%) were found as 0.73 and 1.99, respectively. The detection limit was 3.17 and the quantification limit was 10.6 micromol/L for NTBC using UV detection at 278 nm. The utility of the method was demonstrated by the detection of NTBC in serum samples from patients with hereditary tyrosinemia type I using this drug. PMID:20152421

  7. An approach to the determination of the enantiomeric excess at the extreme case by capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Hongting; Fu, Xia; Liang, Shuang; Li, Youxin; Bao, James J; Zhang, Yong

    2015-08-21

    Capillary electrophoresis (CE) has been applied to determine the percentage of enantiomeric excess (ee%) of chiral compounds. In such assays, the quality of chiral selectors (CSs) plays vital roles in resolving the enantiomers for accurate determination of the ee%. Selecting an efficient CS is usually by trial and error, and is, if ever possible, time-consuming and costly. Here we propose a new approach by using the velocity gap mode of CE (VGCE) method, to simplify the method development process for ee% determination. With VGCE, it is still possible to measure ee% even when the CS has a weak resolving power. This is especially important at the extreme cases where one of the enantiomers is significantly higher than the other one. The key point of VGCE in this case is to fractionate the small part of the mixture containing both enantiomers from the major component of the enantiomer, which is already enantiopure. Baseline separations can be achieved between the two enantiomers for the small mixture due to less longitudinal dispersion, making it possible to determine the ee%. The feasibility of this VGCE approach was confirmed by the ee% measurements of amlodipine and ofloxacin, respectively. And the practical application of VGCE was tested by analyzing levamlodipine besylate tablet. PMID:26166294

  8. Capillary electrophoresis with electrospray ionisation-mass spectrometry for the characterisation of degradation products in aged papers.

    PubMed

    Dupont, Anne-Laurence; Seemann, Agathe; Lavédrine, Bertrand

    2012-01-30

    A methodology for capillary electrophoresis/electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (CE/ESI-MS) was developed for the simultaneous analysis of degradation products from paper among two families of compounds: low molar mass aliphatic organic acids, and aromatic (phenolic and furanic) compounds. The work comprises the optimisation of the CE separation and the ESI-MS parameters for improved sensitivity with model compounds using two successive designs of experiments. The method was applied to the analysis of lignocellulosic paper at different stages of accelerated hygrothermal ageing. The compounds of interest were identified. Most of them could be quantified and several additional analytes were separated. PMID:22284496

  9. Immobilizing CC chemokine receptor 4's N-terminal extracellular tail on a capillary to study its potential ligands by capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wenjing; Li, Meina; Yakufu, Pazilaiti; Ling, Xiaomei; Qi, Hui; Xiao, Junhai; Wang, Ying

    2012-04-01

    ML40 is the equivalent peptide derived from the N terminal of CCC4 (CC chemokine receptor 4), which plays a pivotal role in allergic inflammation. A new capillary electrophoresis method was developed to study the interactions between ML40 and its potential ligands in which ML40 was immobilized on the inner wall of capillary as the stationary phase based on the covalent linking technique. The interaction between S009, a known CCR4 antagonist, and the immobilized ML40 was studied to validate the bioactivity of ML40. The electropherogram of S009 showed that the peak height was reduced and the peak width was broadened in the ML40 immobilized capillary. Otherwise, 25 computer-aided design and drafting compounds were screened out using this method. Four compounds' peak widths were broadened and their peak heights were reduced, as with S009. Meanwhile, nonlinear chromatography was used to calculate the constants for the ligand-receptor complex formation. Furthermore, the tertiary amine compounds belonging to the chiral tertiary amines of the type NRR'R″, which are optically inactive resulting from rapid pyramide inversion, were chiral separated by our protein immobilization method for the first time. In general, the methodology presented would be applicable to study compound-ML40 interactions as a reliable and robust screening method for CCR4 antagonist discovery. PMID:22245764

  10. Characterization and stability of gold nanoparticles depending on their surface chemistry: Contribution of capillary zone electrophoresis to a quality control.

    PubMed

    Pallotta, Arnaud; Boudier, Ariane; Leroy, Pierre; Clarot, Igor

    2016-08-26

    Four kinds of gold nanoparticles (AuNP) quite similar in terms of gold core size (ca. 5nm) and shape (spherical) but differing by their surface chemistry (either negatively, or positively charged, or neutral) were synthesized. They were analyzed using both the classical physicochemical approach (spectrophotometry, dynamic light scattering coupled or not to electrophoresis and transmission electron microscopy) and capillary zone electrophoresis equipped with photodiode array detection. The results obtained by both methodologies (related to Surface Plasmon Band-maximal absorbance wavelength-, and zeta potential and electrophoretic mobilities) were well correlated. Moreover, taking advantage of the separation method, the sample heterogeneity was evaluated and an impurity profile was extracted. This allowed setting some specifications which were then applied on the one hand to a batch-to-batch survey to declare NP as conform or not after production and on the other hand to a stability study. PMID:27435685

  11. Conductimetric and potentiometric detection in conventional and microchip capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Tanyanyiwa, Jatisai; Leuthardt, Sandro; Hauser, Peter C

    2002-11-01

    Potentiometric detection is rarely used in separation methods but is promising for certain classes of analytes which can only with difficulty be quantified by more standard methods. Conductimetric detection of ions is very versatile and has recently received renewed interest spurned by the introduction of the capacitively coupled contactless configuration. Both are useful and complementary alternatives to the established optical detection methods, and to the more widely known electrochemical method of amperometry. The simplicity of the electrochemical methods makes them particularly attractive for microfabricated devices, but relatively little work has to date been carried out with regard to potentiometric and conductimetric detection. PMID:12432526

  12. Determination of carbohydrates in honey and milk by capillary electrophoresis in combination with graphene-cobalt microsphere hybrid paste electrodes.

    PubMed

    Liang, Peipei; Sun, Motao; He, Peimin; Zhang, Luyan; Chen, Gang

    2016-01-01

    A graphene-cobalt microsphere (CoMS) hybrid paste electrode was developed for the determination of carbohydrates in honey and milk in combination with capillary electrophoresis (CE). The performance of the electrodes was demonstrated by detecting mannitol, sucrose, lactose, glucose, and fructose after CE separation. The five analytes were well separated within 9 min in a 40 cm long capillary at a separation voltage of 12 kV. The electrodes exhibited pronounced electrocatalytic activity, lower detection potentials, enhanced signal-to-noise characteristics, and higher reproducibility. The relation between peak current and analyte concentration was linear over about three orders of magnitude. The proposed method had been employed to determine lactose in bovine milk and glucose and fructose in honey with satisfactory results. Because only electroactive substances in the samples could be detected on the paste electrode, the electropherograms of both food samples were simplified to some extent. PMID:26212942

  13. New advances in on-line sample preconcentration by capillary electrophoresis using dynamic pH junction.

    PubMed

    Ptolemy, Adam S; Britz-McKibbin, Philip

    2008-12-01

    The small injection volumes and narrow dimensions characteristic of microseparation techniques place constraints on concentration sensitivity that is required for trace chemical analyses. On-line sample preconcentration techniques using dynamic pH junction and its variants have emerged as simple yet effective strategies for enhancing concentration sensitivity of weakly ionic species by capillary electrophoresis (CE). Dynamic pH junction offers a convenient format for electrokinetic focusing of dilute sample plugs directly in-capillary for improved detection without off-line sample pretreatment. In this report, we highlight new advances in dynamic pH junction which have been reported to enhance method performance while discussing challenges for future research. PMID:19082065

  14. A Theoretical Analysis of the Influence of Electroosmosis on the Effective Ionic Mobility in Capillary Zone Electrophoresis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hijnen, Hens

    2009-01-01

    A theoretical description of the influence of electroosmosis on the effective mobility of simple ions in capillary zone electrophoresis is presented. The mathematical equations derived from the space-charge model contain the pK[subscript a] value and the density of the weak acid surface groups as parameters characterizing the capillary. It is…

  15. Linearity evaluation in absorbance detection: the use of light-emitting diodes for on-capillary detection in capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Macka, M; Andersson, P; Haddad, P R

    1996-12-01

    A model which takes into account both stray light and polychromatic light was used to predict and evaluate linearity in on-capillary detection in capillary electrophoresis (CE). According to the model the stray light is the major factor which determines linearity under typical CE operating conditions. By calculating theoretical absorbance versus concentration plots, the influence of different levels of stray light and polychromatic light on linearity is demonstrated. Experimentally, six light-emitting diodes (LEDs) in the range from 563 to 654 nm were examined as light sources for on-capillary detection in CE. Fitting theoretical curves to measured linearity plots enabled determination of the values of both effective path length and stray light for a particular detection system. The detector linearity for the four LEDs was compared to mercury and tungsten lamps used with interference filters. For potassium permanganate as the test compound, the linear range for a 563 nm LED was two times greater than that for a mercury lamp operated at 546 nm. The relatively poor linearity of the mercury lamp detector is explained by its high level of stray light. The noise of the LED563-based detector was the same as for the mercury lamp, whereas the other LEDs of higher light intensity gave approximately half the noise of the mercury lamp. The lowest noise level of 3 x 10(-5) AU was obtained for the LED at 554 nm (determined at a detector time constant of 0.1 s). PMID:9034772

  16. CAPILLARY ELECTROPHORESIS AND FLUORESCENCE POLARIZATION FOR MYCOTOXIN ANALYSIS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Analytical methods for mycotoxins have been continually evolving from the time that these toxins were first isolated and associated with animal and human diseases. Recurring themes during this process have been the quest for methods that are accurate, sensitive, reproducible, inexpensive, and rapid...

  17. Combined electrophoresis-electrospray interface and method

    DOEpatents

    Smith, R.D.; Udseth, H.R.; Barinaga, C.J.

    1995-06-13

    An improvement to the system and method is disclosed for analyzing molecular constituents of a composition sample that comprises improvements to an electrospray ionization source for interfacing to mass spectrometers and other detection devices. The improvement consists of establishing a unique electrical circuit pattern and nozzle configuration, a metallic coated and conical shaped capillary outlet, coupled with sizing of the capillary to obtain maximum sensitivity. 10 figs.

  18. Human neutrophil elastase inhibition studied by capillary electrophoresis with laser induced fluorescence detection and microscale thermophoresis.

    PubMed

    Syntia, Fayad; Nehmé, Reine; Claude, Bérengère; Morin, Philippe

    2016-01-29

    Capillary electrophoresis-laser induced fluorescence (CZE-LIF) and microscale thermophoresis (MST) were used for the first time to study the inhibition of human neutrophil elastase (HNE). We recently studied HNE kinetics (Km and Vmax) by developing an in-capillary CZE-LIF assay based on transverse diffusion of laminar flow profiles (TDLFP) for reactant mixing. In this work, the former assay was adapted to monitor HNE inhibition. Two natural well known HNE inhibitors from the triterpene family, ursolic acid and oleanolic acid, were tested to validate the developed assay. Since the solubility of pentacyclic triterpenes in aqueous media where the enzymatic reaction will take place is limited, the effect of DMSO and ethanol on HNE was studied using microscale thermophoresis (MST). An agglomeration of the enzyme was revealed when preparing the inhibitor in 5% (v/v) DMSO. This phenomenon did not occur in the presence of ethanol. Therefore, ethanol was used as inhibitor solvent, at a limited percentage of 20% (v/v). In these conditions and after optimization of the TDLFP approach, the repeatability (RSD on migration times and peak-areas inferior to 2.2%) of the CZE-LIF assay and the sensitivity (LOQ of few nM) were found to be satisfactory for conducting inhibition assays. IC50 values for ursolic and oleanolic acid were successfully determined. They were respectively equal to 5.62±0.10μM (r(2)=0.9807; n=3) and to 8.21±0.23μM (r(2)=0.9887; n=3). Excellent agreement was found between the results obtained by CE and those reported in literature which validates the developed method. Particularly, the CE-based assay is able to rank HNE inhibitors relative to each other. Furthermore, MST technique was used for evaluating HNE interaction with the ursolic acid. Up to 16 capillaries were automatically processed to obtain in one titration experiment the dissociation constant for the HNE-ursolic acid complex. Ki was found to be 2.72±0.66μM (n=3) which is in excellent agreement

  19. Online SERS Detection of the 20 Proteinogenic L-Amino Acids Separated by Capillary Zone Electrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Negri, Pierre; Schultz, Zachary D.

    2014-01-01

    A sheath-flow surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) detector is demonstrated to provide chemical information enabling identification of the 20 proteinogenic L-amino acids separated by capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE). Amino acids were used to illustrate the chemical specificity of SERS detection from structurally related molecules. Analysis of the SERS electropherograms obtained from the separation and sequential online detection of six groups of structurally related amino acids shows that our sheath-flow SERS detector is able to resolve the characteristic Raman bands attributed to the amine, carboxyl, and side chain constituents. The results demonstrate the chemical information available from our detector and also provide insight into the nature of the analyte interaction with the silver SERS substrate. The spectra extracted from the SERS electropherogram of a mixture containing the 20 proteinogenic L-amino acids show unique signatures characteristic to each amino acid, thus enabling identification. The results presented here demonstrate the potential of this sheath-flow SERS detector as a general purpose method for high throughput characterization and identification following separations of complex biomolecular mixtures. PMID:25268706

  20. [Recent advances in the application of high performance capillary electrophoresis for food safety].

    PubMed

    Dong, Yalei; Chen, Xiaojiao; Hu, Jing; Chen, Xingguo

    2012-11-01

    In recent years, food safety incidents become a serious social problem. Foods are usually complex mixtures consisting of a large diversity of molecules. Analysis of foods is a topic that demands the development of rapid, robust, efficient, sensitive and cost-effective analytical methodologies. Therefore, new techniques for food safety purpose are required by analytical chemists. Capillary electrophoresis (CE) is a popular separation technique that possesses fast and efficient performances in an automated way with minimum consumption of sample and reagents. Nowadays, CE represents a desired strategy for the determination of many compounds or molecules in various kinds of food. In this paper, the review intends to provide the recent innovative developments reported in food safety analysis using CE methods for a full overview. As a fundamental review, it focuses on the introduction and detection of several common hazardous materials existing in food such as non-food additives, pesticide residues, veterinary drug residues, heavy metal ion contaminants, toxins, biphenol A and phthalates in packaging materials and so on. Furthermore, this review prospects the main development direction of CE in this field for the future. A total of 63 papers published during the period of Jan 2009 - Jun 2012 are included in the present review. PMID:23451513

  1. Determination of active ingredients of Rhododendron dauricum L. by capillary electrophoresis with electrochemical detection.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yuhua; Lou, Changgang; Fang, Yuzhi; Ye, Jiannong

    2002-01-11

    High-performance capillary electrophoresis with electrochemical detection was employed to analyse active ingredients of Rhododendron dauricum L., an important crude herb frequently used in Chinese medicines. Farrerol, quercetin, syringic acid, vanillic acid, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, protocatechuic acid are major important active ingredients. Operated in a wall-jet configuration, a 300-microm diameter carbon-disk electrode was used as the working electrode, which exhibits a good response at +950 mV (vs. saturated calomel electrodes) for six analytes. Under the optimum conditions, the analytes were baseline separated within 16 min in a borax buffer (pH 8.7). Notably, excellent linearity was obtained over two orders of magnitude with detection limits (S/N=3) ranged from 9 x 10(-7) to 3.0 x 10(-6) M for all analytes. This method was successfully used in the analysis of Rhododendron dauricum L. with relatively simple extraction procedures, and the assay results were satisfactory. PMID:11820277

  2. Using capillary electrophoresis to study the chemical conditions within cracks in aluminum alloys.

    PubMed

    Cooper, K R; Kelly, R G

    1999-07-30

    The environment-assisted cracking (EAC) susceptibility of some aluminum alloys used for airplane structural components currently limits their use in the peak strength condition. Understanding the mechanism of EAC will facilitate the development of crack-resistant alloys with optimum mechanical properties. One component towards understanding the fundamental processes responsible for EAC is a comprehensive knowledge of the chemical conditions within cracks. The present work uses capillary electrophoresis (CE) to quantify the crack chemistry in order to provide insight into the nature of the mechanism controlling cracking. The highly restricted geometry of cracks in metals means that a crack typically contains less than 10 microliters of solution. The high mass sensitivity combined with the inherently robust nature of CE makes it an ideal analytical technique for this application. Complicating factors in the accurate determination of the crack environment include high levels of sodium present from the test solution. Low sample volume and analyte matrix complexity necessitated the development of specific sampling, extraction and analysis methods. Analysis of the crack solutions in EAC-susceptible material revealed high levels of Al3+, Mg2+, Zn2+, and Cl- near the crack tip. Cations arise from the anodic dissolution of the alloy, whereas chloride ingress from the external environment occurs to maintain solution electroneutrality within the crack. In contrast, EAC-resistant material exhibited significantly lower concentrations of dissolution products. PMID:10457501

  3. Application of an external contactless conductivity detector for the analysis of beverages by microchip capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Kubán, Pavel; Hauser, Peter C

    2005-08-01

    Quantitative total ionic analysis of alcoholic and nonalcoholic beverages was performed by microchip capillary electrophoresis with external contactless conductivity detection. An electrolyte solution consisting of 10.5 mM histidine, 50 mM acetic acid, and 2 mM 18-crown-6 at pH 4.1 was used for the determination of NH(4) (+), K(+), Ca(2+), Na(+), and Mg(2+). Fast analysis of Cl(-), NO(3) (-), and SO(4) (2-) was achieved in 20 mM 2-(N-morpholino)ethanesulfonic acid /histidine electrolyte solution at pH 6.0 and the simultaneous separation of up to 12 inorganic and organic anions was performed in a solution containing 10 mM His and 7 mM glutamic acid at pH 5.75. Limits of detection ranged from 90 to 250 mug/L for inorganic cations and anions, and from 200 to 2000 mug/L for organic anions and phosphate. Calibration curves showed linear dependencies over one to two orders of magnitude when the stacking effect was minimized by injecting standard solutions prepared in background electrolyte solutions. Total analysis times of 35 and 90 s were achieved for the determination of 5 inorganic cations and for the simultaneous determination of 12 inorganic and organic anions, respectively, which represents a considerable reduction of analysis time compared to conventional separation methods used in food analysis. PMID:16047312

  4. Capillary electrophoresis with electrochemiluminescent detection for highly sensitive assay of genetically modified organisms.

    PubMed

    Guo, Longhua; Yang, Huanghao; Qiu, Bin; Xiao, Xueyang; Xue, Linlin; Kim, Donghwan; Chen, Guonan

    2009-12-01

    A capillary electrophoresis coupled with electrochemiluminescent detection system (CE-ECL) was developed for the detection of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplicons. The ECL luminophore, tris(1,10-phenanthroline) ruthenium(II) (Ru(phen)(3)(2+)), was labeled to the PCR primers before amplification. Ru(phen)(3)(2+) was then introduced to PCR amplicons by PCR amplification. Eventually, the PCR amplicons were separated and detected by the homemade CE-ECL system. The detection of a typical genetically modified organism (GMO), Roundup Ready Soy (RRS), was shown as an example to demonstrate the reliability of the proposed approach. Four pairs of primers were amplified by multiple PCR (MPCR) simultaneously, three of which were targeted on the specific sequence of exogenous genes of RRS, and another was targeted on the endogenous reference gene of soybean. Both the conditions for PCR amplification and CE-ECL separation and detection were investigated in detail. Results showed that, under the optimal conditions, the proposed method can accurately identifying RRS. The corresponding limit of detection (LOD) was below 0.01% with 35 PCR cycles. PMID:19902925

  5. Optimized hydrolysis and analysis of Radix Asparagi polysaccharide monosaccharide composition by capillary zone electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jiye; Yang, Feifei; Guo, Huaizhong; Wu, Fang; Wang, Xiaohuan

    2015-07-01

    Using orthogonal design, optimized conditions for the hydrolysis of the polysaccharide from Radix Asparagi were determined, as well as its monosaccharide composition. Optimized hydrolysis conditions were a temperature of 100°C in 1.5 M sulfuric acid solution for 5 h. The resulting monosaccharides were derivatized with 1-phenyl-3-methyl-5-pyrazolone, then separated by capillary zone electrophoresis in 40 mM sodium tetraborate buffer (pH 10.1), and detected by ultraviolet absorption at 245 nm. Results indicate that the polysaccharide from Radix Asparagi is composed of xylose, arabinose, glucose, rhamnose, mannose, galactose, glucuronic acid, and galacturonic acid, which differs from published findings. Moreover, xylose, glucuronic acid, and galacturonic acid have not been previously reported in Radix Asparagi polysaccharide. This method is simple, fast, and yields a highly efficient separation. As well, these findings can be applied to quality control of Radix Asparagi and for in-depth study of the biological activity of Radix Asparagi polysaccharide. PMID:25885471

  6. Enantiodifferentiation of chiral baclofen by β-cyclodextrin using capillary electrophoresis: A molecular modeling approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suliman, FakhrEldin O.; Elbashir, Abdalla A.

    2012-07-01

    Using capillary electrophoresis baclofen (BF) enantiomers were separated only in the presence of β-cyclodextrin (βCD) as a chiral selector when added to the background electrolyte. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) techniques were used to determine the structure of the BF-βCD inclusion complexes. From the MS data BF was found to form a 1:1 complex with α- and βCD, while the NMR data suggest location of the aromatic ring of BF into the cyclodextrin cavity. A molecular modeling study, using the semiempirical PM6 calculations was used to investigate the mechanism of enantiodifferentiation of BF with cyclodextrins. Optimization of the structures of the complexes by PM6 method indicated that separation is obtained in the presence of β-CD due to a large binding energy difference (ΔΔE) of 46.8 kJ mol-1 between S-BF-βCD and R-BF-βCD complexes. In the case of αCD complexes ΔΔE was 1.3 kJ mol-1 indicating poor resolution between the two enantiomers. Furthermore, molecular dynamic simulations show that the formation of more stable S-BF-βCD complex compared to R-BF-β-CD complex is primarily due to differences in intermolecular hydrogen bonding.

  7. Chiral recognition of imperanene enantiomers by various cyclodextrins: a capillary electrophoresis and NMR spectroscopy study.

    PubMed

    Sohajda, Tamás; Szakács, Zoltán; Szente, Lajos; Noszál, Béla; Béni, Szabolcs

    2012-05-01

    The enantiomers of imperanene, a novel polyphenolic compound of Imperata cylindrica (L.), were separated via cyclodextrin-modified capillary electrophoresis. The anionic form of the analyte at pH 9.0 was subject to complexation and enantioseparation CE studies with neutral and charged cyclodextrins. As chiral selectors 27 CDs were applied differing in cavity size, sidechain, degree of substitution (DS) and charge. Three hydroxypropylated and three sulfoalkylated CD preparations provided enantioseparation and the migration order was successfully interpreted in each case in terms of complex mobilities and stability constants. The best enantioresolution (R(S)  = 1.26) was achieved using sulfobutyl-ether-γ-CD (DS ∼4), but it could be enhanced by extensive investigations on dual selector systems. After optimization (CD concentrations and pH) R(S)  = 4.47 was achieved using a 12.5 mM sulfobutyl-ether-γ-CD and 10 mM 6-monodeoxy-6-mono-(3-hydroxy)-propylamino-β-cyclodextrin dual system. The average stoichiometry of the complex was determined with Job's method using NMR-titration and resulted in a 1:1 complex for both (2-hydroxy)propyl-β- and sulfobutyl-ether-γ-CD. Further NMR experiments suggest that the coniferyl moiety of imperanene is involved in the host-guest interaction. PMID:22648815

  8. Analysis of silica nanoparticles by capillary electrophoresis coupled to an evaporative light scattering detector.

    PubMed

    Adelantado, Carlos; Rodríguez-Fariñas, Nuria; Rodríguez Martín-Doimeadios, Rosa C; Zougagh, Mohammed; Ríos, Ángel

    2016-06-01

    A simple and rapid methodology has been developed to identify and separate silica nanoparticles (SiO2NPs) of different sizes in aqueous solution by capillary zone electrophoresis coupled to an evaporative light scattering detector (CE-ELSD). SiO2NPs were separated using 3 mM ammonium acetate buffer, containing 1% methanol at pH 6.9. SiO2NPs of 20, 50 and 100 nm were successfully separated under the optimum experimental conditions. CE coupled to ELSD has been proven to be an effective separation technique to determine particles with such small sizes, although the peaks are very close to each other, and it is a promising technique that may allow the separation of other types of nanoparticles. Confirmation by TEM and quantification of the SiO2 content was also carried out by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The new method was applied to the analysis of real samples, in order to assess its ability to avoid matrix effects in the determination of SiO2NPs in these kinds of samples. PMID:27155305

  9. Two-color excitation system for fluorescence detection in DNA sequencing by capillary array electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Xue, Gang; Yeung, Edward S

    2002-05-01

    Two computer-controlled galvanometer scanners are adapted for two-dimensional step scanning across a 96-capillary array for laser-induced fluorescence detection. 488 nm and 514 nm laser lines from the same Ar(+) laser were alternately coupled for two-color excitation in each capillary. The signal at a single photomultiplier tube is temporally sorted to distinguish among the capillaries and the excitation wavelengths. Based on the differences in absorption spectra for the dyes, the peak-height ratios in the 488 nm and 514 nm excitation electropherograms were used for peak identification for multiplexed capillary electrophoresis. Successful base calling for 24-capillary DNA sequencing was achieved to 450 bp with 99% accuracy. Advantages include the efficient utilization of light due to the high duty-cycle of step scan, good detection performance due to the reduction of stray light, ruggedness due to the small mass of the galvanometer mirror, low cost due to the simplicity of components and flexibility due to the independent paths for excitation and emission. PMID:12116160

  10. Attenuated total internal reflectance infrared microspectroscopy as a detection technique for capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Brian M; Danielson, Neil D; Sommer, André J

    2004-07-01

    A novel detector for capillary electrophoresis (CE) using single-bounce attenuated total internal reflectance (ATR) Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) microspectroscopy is presented. The terminus of the CE capillary is placed approximately 1 microm from the internal reflectance crystal at the focus of an ATR infrared microscope. Using pressure driven flow injection, concentration and volume detection limits have been determined for 25- and 10-microm-i.d. silica capillaries. Upon injection of 820 pL of succinylcholine chloride in a 10-microm capillary, a concentration detection limit of approximately 0.5 parts per thousand (ppt), or 410 pg, is found. The injection volume detection limit using a 108 ppt solution is 2.0 pL (216 pg). Sample separations using a programmed series of pressure, voltage, and again pressure on 25-, 50-, and 75-microm-i.d. capillaries are shown. CE separations of citrate and nitrate, as well as succinylcholine chloride with sodium salicylate using acetone as a neutral marker, are demonstrated. Several advantages of this CE-FT-IR technique include: (1) minimization of postcolumn broadening as a result of a small detector volume; (2) the ability to signal average spectra of the same aliquot, thereby improving the signal-to-noise in a stopped-flow environment; and (3) simplicity of design. PMID:15228361

  11. Single-step enantioselective amino acid flux analysis by capillary electrophoresis using on-line sample preconcentration with chemical derivatization.

    PubMed

    Ptolemy, Adam S; Tran, Lara; Britz-McKibbin, Philip

    2006-07-15

    Capillary electrophoresis (CE) represents a versatile platform for integrating sample pretreatment with chemical analysis because of its ability to tune analyte electromigration and band dispersion properties in discontinuous electrolyte systems. In this article, a single-step method that combines on-line sample preconcentration with in-capillary chemical derivatization is developed for rapid, sensitive, and enantioselective analysis of micromolar levels of amino acids that lack intrinsic chromophores by CE with UV detection. Time-resolved electrophoretic studies revealed two distinct stages of amino acid band narrowing within the original long sample injection plug occurring both prior to and after in-capillary labeling via zone passing by ortho-phthalaldehyde/N-acetyl l-cysteine (OPA/NAC). This technique enabled direct analysis of d-amino acids in a 95% enantiomeric excess mixture with sub-micromolar detection limits and minimal sample handling, where the capillary functions as a preconcentrator, microreactor, and chiral selector. On-line sample preconcentration with chemical derivatization CE (SPCD-CE) was applied to study the enantioselective amino acid flux in Escherichia coli bacteria cultures, which demonstrated a unique l-Ala efflux into the extracellular medium. New strategies for high-throughput analyses of low-abundance metabolites are important for understanding fundamental physiological processes in bacteria required for screening the efficacy of new classes of antibiotics as well as altered metabolism in genetically modified mutant strains. PMID:16753129

  12. Capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry of basic proteins using a new physically adsorbed polymer coating. Some applications in food analysis.

    PubMed

    Simó, Carolina; Elvira, Carlos; González, Nieves; San Román, J; Barbas, Coral; Cifuentes, Alejandro

    2004-07-01

    A new physically adsorbed capillary coating for capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry (CE-MS) of basic proteins is presented, which is easily obtained by flushing the capillary with a polymer aqueous solution for two min. This coating significantly reduces the electrostatic adsorption of a group of basic proteins (i.e., cytochrome c, lysozyme, and ribonuclease A) onto the capillary wall allowing their analysis by CE-MS. The coating protocol is compatible with electrospray inonization (ESI)-MS via the reproducible separation of the standard basic proteins (%RSD values (n = 5) < 1% for analysis time reproducibility and < 5% for peak heights, measured from the total ion electropherograms (TIEs) within the same day). The LODs determined using cytochrome c with total ion current and extracted ion current defection were 24.5 and 2.9 fmol, respectively. Using this new coating lysozymes from chicken and turkey egg white could be easily distinguished by CE-MS, demonstrating the usefulness of this method to differentiate animal species. Even after sterilization at 120 degrees C for 30 min, lysozyme could be detected, as well as in wines at concentrations much lower than the limit marked by the EC Commission Regulation. Adulteration of minced meat with 5% of egg-white could also be analysed by our CE-MS protocol. PMID:15237406

  13. Dual-opposite injection capillary electrophoresis for the determination of anionic and cationic homologous surfactants in a single run.

    PubMed

    Priego-Capote, Feliciano; Luque de Castro, Maria D

    2005-06-01

    An electrophoretic method for the simultaneous separation and determination of cationic and anionic surfactants based on double electrokinetic injection from the two ends of the capillary is proposed here. Nonaqueous capillary electrophoresis (NACE) with methanol as solvent was used to reduce the electroosmotic flow so that under these conditions the analytes migrate toward the corresponding electrode. The optimization step was the key to solve the problems associated with surfactants analysis (namely, adsorption on the capillary wall, micelle formation, and those issues related to the separation of homologous compounds). Good results were obtained with the proposed method both for the analysis of both spiked and natural samples, thus demonstrating the applicability of the proposed method for routine analysis. Finally, a comparison between the proposed method and two methods for independent analysis of cationic and anionic surfactants was made. The results showed that the precision (between 1.90 and 4.10% for repeatability and 7.43 and 8.98% for within-laboratory reproducibility, both expressed as relative standard deviation) and sensitivity (limits of detection and quantification between 0.52 and 1.88 microg/mL and between 1.73 and 6.20 microg/mL, respectively) are not affected by the CE mode. The resolution was similar to or better than that of the comparison methods and the analysis time was considerably shortened as both types of compounds were determined in a single run in only 9 min. PMID:15920780

  14. Nanoparticles and capillary electrophoresis: A marriage with environmental impact.

    PubMed

    Mebert, Andrea Mathilde; Tuttolomondo, Maria Victoria; Echazú, Maria Inés Alvarez; Foglia, Maria Lucia; Alvarez, Gisela Solange; Vescina, María Cristina; Santo-Orihuela, Pablo Luis; Desimone, Martín Federico

    2016-08-01

    The impact of nanomaterials in the environment and human health is a cause of big concern and even though intensive studies are currently being carried out, there is still a lot to elucidate. The development of validated methods for the characterization and quantification of nanomaterials and their impact on the environment should be encouraged to achieve a proper, safe, and sustainable use of nanoparticles (NPs). Recently, CE emerged as a well-adapted technique for the analysis of environmental samples. This review presents the application of NPs together with CE systems for environmental pollutants analysis, as well as the application of CE techniques for the analysis of various types of NPs. PMID:27271238

  15. Separation and characterisation of detonation nanodiamond by capillary zone electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Duffy, Emer; Mitev, Dimitar P; Nesterenko, Pavel N; Kazarian, Artaches A; Paull, Brett

    2014-07-01

    A new method for the characterisation of purified detonation nanodiamond (DND) using CZE has been developed. The influence of BGE conditions on electrophoretic mobility, peak shape and particle aggregation was investigated, with resultant observations supported by zeta potential approximations and particle size measurements. Sodium tetraborate (pH 9.3), Tris (pH 9.3) and sodium phosphate (pH 7) were used in studying the BGE concentration effect on a commercial source of chemically stabilised DND. The BGE concentration had a strong effect on the stability of DND in suspension. The formation of aggregates of various sizes was observed as BGE concentration increased. The effect of pH on the electromigration of DND was examined using sodium phosphate (pH 8 and 10). The CZE method was subsequently applied to four different DND samples, which had undergone different routes of purification following detonation synthesis. Each sample produced a unique electrophoretic peak or profile in sodium tetraborate buffer (pH 9.3), such that the actual separation of DND samples from different sources could be achieved. PMID:24648270

  16. Sheathless capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry for anionic metabolic profiling.

    PubMed

    Gulersonmez, Mehmet Can; Lock, Stephen; Hankemeier, Thomas; Ramautar, Rawi

    2016-04-01

    The performance of CE coupled on-line to MS via a sheathless porous tip sprayer was evaluated for anionic metabolic profiling. A representative metabolite mixture and biological samples were used for the evaluation of various analytical parameters, such as peak efficiency (plate numbers), migration time and peak area repeatability, and LODs. The BGE, i.e. 10% acetic acid (pH 2.2), previously used for cationic metabolic profiling was now assessed for anionic metabolic profiling by using MS detection in negative ion mode. For test compounds, RSDs for migration times and peak areas were below 2 and 11%, respectively, and plate numbers ranged from 60 000 to 40 0000 demonstrating a high separation efficiency. Critical metabolites with low or no retention on reversed-phase LC could be efficiently separated and selectively analyzed by the sheathless CE-MS method. An injection volume of only circa 20 nL resulted in LODs between 10 and 200 nM (corresponding to an amount of 0.4-4 fmol), which was an at least tenfold improvement as compared to LODs obtained by conventional CE-MS approaches for these analytes. The methodology was applied to anionic metabolic profiling of glioblastoma cell line extracts. Overall, a sheathless CE-MS method has been developed for highly efficient and sensitive anionic metabolic profiling studies, which can also be used for cationic metabolic profiling studies by only switching the MS detection and separation voltage polarity. PMID:26593113

  17. Determination of NTA and EDTA and speciation of their metal complexes in aqueous solution by capillary electrophoresis

    SciTech Connect

    Owens, G.; Ferguson, V.K.; McLaughlin, M.J.; Singleton, I.; Reid, R.J.; Smith, F.A.

    2000-03-01

    The interest in the use of chelates for enhancing metal uptake by plants during phytoremediation and their widespread use in plant nutrient research requires that an easy, reproducible method be developed for chelate detection in a variety of systems. This work examined the use of capillary electrophoresis for chelate analysis. Electropherograms for nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and their metal complexes were obtained by capillary electrophoresis in a phosphate buffer by direct UV detection at 185 nm. The metals used were Va(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), Cd(II), Pb(II), and Fe(III). For the majority of metals studied, linear calibration curves were obtained in the concentration range of 10--1,000 {micro}M. The direct method of determination at 185 nm was found to give a higher detection sensitivity than direct detection at 254 nm. Limits of detection for the metal chelate complexes were in the range of 2--50 {micro}m. The analysis was fast (<6 min), exhibited low relative standard deviations for retention time (<1%) and peak corrected area (<5%), and required no complex sample pretreatment. The method was used to demonstrate speciation in complex nutrient media.

  18. Highly sensitive transient isotachophoresis sample stacking coupling with capillary electrophoresis-amperometric detection for analysis of doping substances.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Lihui; Zhang, Lan; Tong, Ping; Zheng, Xinyu; Chi, Yuwu; Chen, Guonan

    2010-06-15

    A simple and effective method of capillary electrophoresis-amperometric detection (CE-AD) coupled with transient isotachophoresis (tITP) was developed for the trace determination of doping substances. Compared with the conventional capillary electrophoresis method, the maximum enhancement factor in terms of peak heights was up to 5500-fold when the tITP technique was adopted. Under the optimum conditions, the detection limit (S/N=3) for methylephedrine (MDP), celiprolol (CEL), sotalol (SOT) and indapamide (IDP) were 4.2 x 10(-14), 6.3 x 10(-13), 5.8 x 10(-14) and 9.5 x 10(-13)molL(-1), respectively. The RSDs of four analytes were 1.0-2.3% for migration time and 2.6-3.8% for peak current, respectively. The proposed method was successfully applied to determine the contents of SOT and IDP in real urine sample, and the excretion curve of IDP within 48h was also investigated. The recoveries of the four doping in urine ranged from 90.0 to 102%. PMID:20441897

  19. Capillary zone electrophoresis of humic acids from the American continent.

    PubMed

    Pacheco, Maria de Lourdes; Havel, Josef

    2002-01-01

    A multicomponent background electrolyte (BGE) was developed and its composition optimized using artificial neural networks (ANN). The optimal BGE composition was found to be 90 mM boric acid, 115 mM Tris, and 0.75 mM EDTA (pH 8.4). A separation voltage of 20 kV, 20 degrees C and detection at 210 nm were used. The method was applied to characterize several humic acids originating from various countries of the American continent: soil (Argentina), peat (Brazil), leonardite (Guatemala and Mexico) and coal (United States). Comparison with humic acids of International Humic Substances Society (IHSS) standard samples was also done. Well reproducible electropherograms showing a relatively high number of peaks were obtained. Characterization of the samples by elemental analysis and UV spectrophotometry was also done. In spite of the very different origins, the similarities between humic acids are high and by matrix assisted desorption/ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF)-mass spectrometry it was shown that most of the m/z patterns are the same in all humic acids. This means that humic acids of different origin have the same structural units or that they contain the same components. PMID:11840535

  20. A new ionic liquid dimethyldinonylammonium bromide as a flow modifier for the simultaneous determination of eight carboxylates by capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Laamanen, Pirkko-Leena; Busi, Sara; Lahtinen, Manu; Matilainen, Rose

    2005-11-18

    Two new methods of capillary zone electrophoresis based on aqueous phosphate running buffers with UV spectrophotometric detection were developed and optimized for the determination of eight carboxylates as copper complexes. Metalcomplexes are negatively charged, so measurements were made as anion analyses with flow reversal in the capillary. Two flow modifiers were used: a common tetradecyltrimethylammonium bromide (TTAB) and a new ionic liquid dimethyldinonylammonium bromide (DMDNAB). The methods were compared to each other. Better separation was achieved with DMDNAB as the flow modifier. Method development was done using a fused silica capillary (61 cm x 50 microm i.d.). Optimization was done using 95 mmol L(-1) phosphate buffer with TTAB or DMDNAB in the concentration 0.5 mmol L(-1) at pH 7.1. A -20 kV voltage and direct UV detection at 254 nm was used in measurements. In both CE methods all the peaks in the electropherograms were properly separated, the calibration plots gave good correlation coefficients and all eight carboxylates were detected in less than 7.5 min. The two methods were tested with natural water samples and a paper mill sample, and proved to be feasible. PMID:16275297

  1. Characterization of in Vitro Modified Human Very Low-Density Lipoprotein Particles and Phospholipids by Capillary Electrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yi-Ning; Shu, Ting-Yu; Xie, Huai-Guang; Lai, Wei-Ting; Liao, Yi-Han; Su, Mei-Yu; Lin, You-Sian; Chen, Yen-Yi; Lin, Yi-Jyun; Chong, Chin-Pong; Liu, Mine-Yine

    2012-01-01

    A simple capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) method was used to characterize human very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) particles for four healthy donors. One major peak was observed for native, in vitro oxidized and glycated VLDL particles. The effective mobilities and peak areas of the capillary electrophoresis (CE) profiles showed good reproducibility and precision. The mobility of the oxidized VLDL peak was higher than that of the native VLDL. The mobility of the glycated VLDL peak was similar to that of the native VLDL. Phospholipids isolated from VLDL particles were analyzed by our recently developed micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) with a high-salt stacking method. At absorbance 200 nm, the native VLDL phospholipids showed a major peak and a minor peak for each donor. For oxidized VLDL phospholipids, the area of the major peak reduced for three donors, possibly due to phospholipid decomposition. For glycated VLDL phospholipids, the peak mobilities were more positive than native VLDL phospholipids for two donors, possibly due to phospholipid-linked advanced glycation end products (AGEs). Very interestingly, at absorbance 234 nm, the major peak of oxidized VLDL phospholipids was resolved as two peaks for each donor, possibly due to conjugated dienes formed upon oxidation. PMID:23208377

  2. Determination of enantiomers by FESI-sweeping with an acid-labile sweeper in nonaqueous capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei-feng; Zhang, Hui-ge; Qi, Sheng-da; Chen, Hong-li; Chen, Xing-guo

    2015-06-21

    In this work, a facile and highly efficient on-line concentration strategy based on a coupling of field enhanced sample injection (FESI) and sweeping was developed for the determination of trace enantiomers (propranolol, PL) by nonaqueous capillary electrophoresis (NACE). In this FESI-sweeping method, the use of a sample of high acidity and low conductivity (pH* = 2.5, 4.0 μS cm(-1)) allowed for a large amount of analyte injection. Then, the concentration of the analytes was carried out by sweeping based on the interaction of an acid-labile anionic selector, di-n-butyl L-tartrate-boric acid complex acid, and cationic analytes. Simultaneously, the concentrated analytes were released and focused at the boundary of the acid sample solution and separation buffer due to the decomposition of the selector in the acid sample solution. Under the optimum conditions, a 21,000-fold sensitivity enhancement upon normal capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) was achieved for PL enantiomers. The detection limits of R-propranolol and S-propranolol were 0.26 ng mL(-1) and 0.31 ng mL(-1), respectively. Eventually, the FESI-sweeping method was applied to detect PL enantiomers in plasma, saliva, and urine. PMID:25923176

  3. Two-dimensional separation of ionic species by hyphenation of capillary ion chromatography × capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Beutner, Andrea; Kochmann, Sven; Mark, Jonas Josef Peter; Matysik, Frank-Michael

    2015-03-17

    The separation of complex mixtures such as biological or environmental samples requires high peak capacities, which cannot be established with a single separation technique. Therefore, multidimensional systems are in demand. In this work, we present the hyphenation of the two most important (orthogonal) techniques in ion analysis, namely, ion chromatography (IC) and capillary electrophoresis (CE), in combination with mass spectrometry. A modulator was developed ensuring a well-controlled coupling of IC and CE separations. Proof-of-concept measurements were performed using a model system consisting of nucleotides and cyclic nucleotides. The data are presented in a multidimensional contour plot. Analyte stacking in the CE separation could be exploited on the basis of the fact that the suppressed IC effluent is pure water. PMID:25708415

  4. Environmental water monitoring by capillary electrophoresis and result comparison with solvent chemistry techniques.

    PubMed

    Sirén, Heli; Väntsi, Sirpa

    2002-05-24

    The aim of this work was to determine inorganic ions from natural waters by capillary electrophoresis (CE) and to compare the results obtained with those measured with conventional solvent chemistry techniques. The project was part of a larger CE study, during which we measured inorganic ions from some lake and river systems and groundwaters in Southern Finland. Results obtained from contaminated Finnish waters were compared with samples from the River Rhine in the Düsseldorf area. Two CE methods were used for analysis: one for determination of chloride, sulfate, nitrite and nitrate at pH 7.7 and the other for ammonium, potassium, calcium, sodium and magnesium at pH 3.6, both methods using identification based on indirect UV detection. Two separation methods were used in order to prevent complex formation of metals with sulfate, hydroxide and decomposed organic matter present in the environmental samples. On the basis of the CE studies dilution was needed for those samples having more than 100 mg/l of sulfate, chloride, calcium and sodium. On average, the natural waters in the study contained ammonium, magnesium, sodium, potassium and calcium below 0.3, 20, 200, 20, and 200 mg/l, respectively. The concentrations of chloride, sulfate, nitrite and nitrate were below 20, 100, 10, and 10 mg/l, respectively. Correlation of the CE results with those acquired by titration, atomic absorption spectrometry, ion chromatography and flow injection analysis were obtained; R2 values for the comparison tests varied from 0.8816 to 0.9994 depending on the ion. The repeatabilities of the anion and cation CE methods were tested using laboratory-made reference sample mixtures with high and low salt concentration. PMID:12102308

  5. Optimization of separation and detection schemes for DNA with pulsed field slab gel and capillary electrophoresis

    SciTech Connect

    McGregor, D.A.

    1993-07-01

    The purpose of the Human Genome Project is outlined followed by a discussion of electrophoresis in slab gels and capillaries and its application to deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). Techniques used to modify electroosmotic flow in capillaries are addressed. Several separation and detection schemes for DNA via gel and capillary electrophoresis are described. Emphasis is placed on the elucidation of DNA fragment size in real time and shortening separation times to approximate real time monitoring. The migration of DNA fragment bands through a slab gel can be monitored by UV absorption at 254 nm and imaged by a charge coupled device (CCD) camera. Background correction and immediate viewing of band positions to interactively change the field program in pulsed-field gel electrophoresis are possible throughout the separation. The use of absorption removes the need for staining or radioisotope labeling thereby simplifying sample preparation and reducing hazardous waste generation. This leaves the DNA in its native state and further analysis can be performed without de-staining. The optimization of several parameters considerably reduces total analysis time. DNA from 2 kb to 850 kb can be separated in 3 hours on a 7 cm gel with interactive control of the pulse time, which is 10 times faster than the use of a constant field program. The separation of {Phi}X174RF DNA-HaeIII fragments is studied in a 0.5% methyl cellulose polymer solution as a function of temperature and applied voltage. The migration times decreased with both increasing temperature and increasing field strength, as expected. The relative migration rates of the fragments do not change with temperature but are affected by the applied field. Conditions were established for the separation of the 271/281 bp fragments, even without the addition of intercalating agents. At 700 V/cm and 20{degrees}C, all fragments are separated in less than 4 minutes with an average plate number of 2.5 million per meter.

  6. Capillary electrophoresis as a technique to analyze sequence-induced anomalously migrating DNA fragments.

    PubMed Central

    Wenz, H M

    1994-01-01

    Sequence-induced anomalous migration of double-stranded (ds) DNA in native gel electrophoresis is a well known phenomenon. The retardation of migration is more obvious in polyacrylamide compared with agarose gels, and is greatly affected by the concentration of the gel and the temperature. This anomalous migration results in a difference between calculated and actual sizes of the affected DNA fragments. A low viscosity polymer solution (DNA Fragment Analysis Reagent) under investigation for use in dsDNA analysis by capillary electrophoresis is shown to be useful for the visualization of anomalies in migration of dsDNA fragments. Comparable with traditional slab gel systems, the retardation effect, indicative of bent or curved DNA, is strongly dependent on polymer concentration and separation temperature. These dependencies have implications on the accurate sizing of dsDNA fragments with unknown sequences and secondary structures. PMID:7937124

  7. Capillary electrophoresis separation of vinpocetine and related compounds: prediction of electrophoretic mobilities in partly aqueous media.

    PubMed

    Mazák, K; Szakács, Z; Nemes, A; Noszál, B

    2000-07-01

    Offord's equation, a relationship between electrophoretic mobility and charge, size and shape of peptides, has been extended to quantitate the electrophoretic mobility of vinca alkaloids. Partly aqueous protonation constants and the derived theoretical mobilities have been proven to be able to predict experimental electrophoretic mobilities. In practice, seven vincamine derivatives of very low water-solubility were separated by capillary electrophoresis. Buffer total concentration, apparent pH and methanol content, the three most important parameters of the running buffer, were used in triangular resolution mapping to characterize separation. Even though electrophoresis is well known to slow down in partly aqueous media, under our optimized circumstances a baseline separation was achieved within 8 min in each case. PMID:10939454

  8. On-line coupling of capillary gel electrophoresis with electrospray mass spectrometry for oligonucleotide analysis.

    PubMed

    Freudemann, T; von Brocke, A; Bayer, E

    2001-06-01

    Homooligodeoxyribonucleotides differing one nucleotide in length from 12- to 15-mer and from 17- to 20-mer were separated by size with capillary gel electrophoresis (CGE) using an entangled polymer solution in coated capillaries. The resolved components were analyzed by on-line coupling of CGE with electrospray mass spectrometry (ES-MS), denoted as CGE/ES-MS, in the full-scan negative ion detection mode. Baseline separation was achieved for the 12-15-mer oligonucleotide mixtures. Both synthetic phosphodiester oligonucleotide mixtures as well as their phosphorothioate analogues, serving as model compounds for antisense oligonucleotides, could be analyzed by on-line CGE/ES-MS coupling. Terminally phosphorylated and nonphosphorylated synthetic failure sequences could be electrophoretically separated and mass spectrometically characterized as well. This methodology might be a useful tool for synthesis control of phosphodiester oligonucleotides as well as for analysis of phosphorothioate analogues as they are used in antisense drug development. PMID:11403304

  9. A capillary electrophoresis procedure for the screening of oligosaccharidoses and related diseases.

    PubMed

    Casado, Mercedes; Altimira, Laura; Montero, Raquel; Castejón, Esperanza; Nascimento, Andrés; Pérez-Dueñas, Belén; Ormazabal, Aida; Artuch, Rafael

    2014-07-01

    The most widely used method for the biochemical screening of oligosaccharidoses is the analysis of the urinary oligosaccharide pattern by thin-layer chromatography on silica gel plates. However, this method is not always sensitive enough, and it is extremely time-consuming and laborious. In this work, the analysis of the urine oligosaccharide pattern was standardized for the first time by using capillary electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence (CE-LIF) detection (Beckman P/ACE MDQ) with a 488-nm argon ion laser module. All of the analyses were conducted using the Carbohydrate Labeling and Analysis Kit (Beckman-Coulter), which derivatizes samples with 8-aminopyrene-1,3,6-trisulfonate. Urine samples from 40 control subjects (age range, 1 week to 16 years) and from ten patients diagnosed with eight different lysosomal diseases (six of them included in the Educational Oligosaccharide Kit from ERNDIM EQA schemes) were analyzed. Two oligosaccharide excretion patterns were established in our control population according to age (younger or older than 1 year of age). Abnormal peaks with slower migration times than the tetrasaccharide position were observed for fucosidosis, α-mannosidosis, GM1 gangliosidosis, GM2 gangliosidosis variant 0, Pompe disease, and glycogen storage disease type 3. In conclusion, the first CE-LIF method to screen for oligosaccharidoses and related diseases, which also present oligosacchariduria, has been standardized. In all of the cases, the urine oligosaccharide analysis was strongly informative and showed abnormal patterns that were not present in any of the urine samples from the control subjects. Only urine from patients with aspartylglucosaminuria and Schindler disease displayed normal results. PMID:24788891

  10. Analysis of acrylamide in food products by in-line preconcentration capillary zone electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Bermudo, Elisabet; Núñez, Oscar; Puignou, Luis; Galceran, Maria Teresa

    2006-09-29

    Two in-line preconcentration capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) methods (field amplified sample injection (FASI) and stacking with sample matrix removal (LVSS)) have been evaluated for the analysis of acrylamide (AA) in foodstuffs. To allow the determination of AA by CZE, it was derivatized using 2-mercaptobenzoic acid. For FASI, the optimum conditions were water at pH > or = 10 adjusted with NH3 as sample solvent, 35 s hydrodynamic injection (0.5 psi) of a water plug, 35 s of electrokinetic injection (-10 kV) of the sample, and 6s hydrodynamic injection (0.5 psi) of another water plug to prevent AA removal by EOF. In stacking with sample matrix removal, the reversal time was found to be around 3.3 min. A 40 mM phosphate buffer (pH 8.5) was used as carrier electrolyte for CZE separation in both cases. For both FASI and LVSS methods, linear calibration curves over the range studied (10-1000 microg L(-1) and 25-1000 microg L(-1), respectively), limit of detection (LOD) on standards (1 microg L(-1) for FASI and 7 microg L(-1) for LVSS), limit of detection on samples (3 ng g(-1) for FASI and 20 ng g(-1) for LVSS) and both run-to-run (up to 14% for concentration and 0.8% for time values) and day-to-day precisions (up to 16% and 5% for concentration and time values, respectively) were established. Due to the lower detection limits obtained with the FASI-CZE this method was applied to the analysis of AA in different foodstuffs such as biscuits, cereals, crisp bread, snacks and coffee, and the results were compared with those obtained by LC-MS/MS. PMID:16843477

  11. Highly sensitive detection of S-nitrosylated proteins by capillary gel electrophoresis with laser induced fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Wang, Siyang; Circu, Magdalena L; Zhou, Hu; Figeys, Daniel; Aw, Tak Y; Feng, June

    2011-09-23

    S-nitrosylated proteins are biomarkers of oxidative damage in aging and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here, we report a new method for detecting and quantifying nitrosylated proteins by capillary gel electrophoresis with laser induced fluorescence detection (CGE-LIF). Dylight 488 maleimide was used to specifically label thiol group (SH) after switching the S-nitrosothiol (S-NO) to SH in cysteine using the "fluorescence switch" assay. In vitro nitrosylation model-BSA subjected to S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) optimized the labeling reactions and characterized the response of the LIF detector. The method proves to be highly sensitive, detecting 1.3 picomolar (pM) concentration of nitrosothiols in nanograms of proteins, which is the lowest limit of detection of nitrosothiols reported to date. We further demonstrated the direct application of this method in monitoring protein nitrosylation damage in MQ mediated human colon adenocarcinoma cells. The nitrosothiol amounts in MQ treated and untreated cells are 14.8±0.2 and 10.4±0.5 pmol/mg of proteins, respectively. We also depicted nitrosylated protein electrophoretic profiles of brain cerebrum of 5-month-old AD transgenic (Tg) mice model. In Tg mice brain, 15.5±0.4 pmol of nitrosothiols/mg of proteins was quantified while wild type contained 11.7±0.3 pmol/mg proteins. The methodology is validated to quantify low levels of S-nitrosylated protein in complex protein mixtures from both physiological and pathological conditions. PMID:21820121

  12. New electrolyte systems for capillary zone electrophoresis of metal cations and non-ionic organic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Y.

    1995-06-19

    Excellent separations of metal ions can be obtained very quickly by capillary electrophoresis provided a weak complexing reagent is incorporated into the electrolyte to alter the effective mobilities of the sample ions. Indirect photometric detection is possible by also adding a UV-sensitive ion to the electrolyte. Separations are described using phthalate, tartrate, lactate or hydroxyisobutyrate as the complexing reagent. A separation of twenty-seven metal ions was achieved in only 6 min using a lactate system. A mechanism for the separation of lanthanides is proposed for the hydroxyisobutyrate system.

  13. Study of cell degranulation with simultaneous microscope imaging and capillary electrophoresis

    SciTech Connect

    Su, H.; Yeung, E.S.

    1999-07-01

    The physical release of single granules from individual rat peritoneal mast cells (RPMCs) was monitored by video recording of the degranulating cells by a high-resolution charge-coupled device (CCD) microscope system. The bright granular core disappears from the image as the vesicular content is dissolved on contact with the extra-cellular fluid. After a fixed time delay, the exocytotic product, serotonin, was detected by capillary electrophoresis coupled with laser-induced native fluorescence (LINF-CE). The timing of the two events is mostly correlated, which supports a fast release mechanism of the granular products. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital Society for Applied Spectroscopy}

  14. Mapping small DNA ligand hydroxyl radical footprinting and affinity cleavage products for capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    He, Gaofei; Vasilieva, Elena; Bashkin, James K; Dupureur, Cynthia M

    2013-08-15

    The mapping of DNA footprints and affinity cleavage sites for small DNA ligands is affected by the choice of sequencing chemistry and end label, and the potential for indexing errors can be significant when mapping small ligand-DNA interactions. Described here is a mechanism for avoiding such errors based on a summary of standard labeling, cleavage, and indexing chemistries and a comparison among them for analysis of these interactions by capillary electrophoresis. The length dependence of the difference between Sanger and Maxam-Gilbert indexing is examined for a number of duplexes of mixed sequence. PMID:23608054

  15. Mapping Small DNA Ligand Hydroxyl Radical Footprinting and Affinity Cleavage Products for Capillary Electrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    He, Gaofei; Vasilieva, Elena; Bashkin, James K.; Dupureur, Cynthia M.

    2013-01-01

    The mapping of DNA footprints and affinity cleavage sites for small DNA ligands is affected by the choice of sequencing chemistry and end label, and the potential for indexing errors can be significant when mapping small ligand-DNA interactions. Described here is a mechanism for avoiding such errors based on a summary of standard labeling, cleavage and indexing chemistries and a comparison among them for analysis of these interactions by capillary electrophoresis. The length dependence of the difference between Sanger and Maxam-Gilbert indexing is examined for a number of duplexes of mixed sequence. PMID:23608054

  16. Determination of suxamethonium in a pharmaceutical formulation by capillary electrophoresis with contactless conductivity detection (CE-C(4)D).

    PubMed

    Nussbaumer, Susanne; Fleury-Souverain, Sandrine; Rudaz, Serge; Bonnabry, Pascal; Veuthey, Jean-Luc

    2009-02-20

    A simple method based on capillary electrophoresis with a capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detector (CE-C(4)D) was developed for the determination of suxamethonium (SUX) in a pharmaceutical formulation. A hydro-organic mixture, consisting of 100mM Tris-acetate buffer at pH 4.2 and acetonitrile (90:10, v/v), was selected as background electrolyte (BGE). The applied voltage was 30kV, and the sample injection was performed in the hydrodynamic mode. All analyses were carried out in a fused silica capillary with an internal diameter of 50 microm and a total length of 64.5cm. Under these conditions, a complete separation between SUX, sodium ions and the main degradation products (choline) was achieved in less than 4min. The presence of acetonitrile in the BGE allowed a reduction of SUX adsorption on the capillary wall. The CE-C(4)D method was validated, and trueness values between 98.8% and 101.1% were obtained with repeatability and intermediate precision values of 0.7-1.3% and 1.2-1.6%, respectively. Therefore, this method was found appropriate for controlling pharmaceutical formulations containing suxamethonium and degradation products. PMID:19121913

  17. Comparative analysis of conjugated bile acids in human serum using high-performance liquid chromatography and capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Lee, B L; New, A L; Ong, C N

    1997-12-19

    This paper describes the analysis of conjugated bile acids in human serum using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and micellar electrokinetic capillary electrophoresis (CE). Samples of healthy subjects and patients with different hepatic diseases were pretreated with a simple preparation procedure using a solid-phase extraction technique. The optimal analytical conditions of both chromatographic methods were investigated for the convenience and reliability for routine analysis. Both HPLC and CE methods were found to be reliable and compatible. The recoveries of nine bile acid conjugates using both methods were generally >85% and reproducibility >90%. The day-to-day variation of retention time was <5% for HPLC, while the variation of migration time for CE was <3%. Although the detection limit of the HPLC method (1 nmol/ml) was five times more sensitive than that of the CE method, the CE method was considered to be more time and cost effective. PMID:9518169

  18. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-capillary gel electrophoresis of proteins using non-cross-linked polyacrylamide.

    PubMed

    Wu, D; Regnier, F E

    1992-09-11

    Proteins with relative molecular masses of 14,000 to 205,000 were separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-capillary gel electrophoresis (SDS-CGE) using non-cross-linked linear polyacrylamide gels on both coated and uncoated fused-silica capillaries. It was determined that viscosity of the acrylamide solution was a major factor affecting column stability with linear acrylamide gels. When the viscosity of the acrylamide solution reaches 100 cP, electro-osmotically driven displacement of the gels is insignificant. Uncoated capillaries provided better resolution, stability, and reproducibility than surface coated capillaries when the concentration of linear polyacrylamide was greater than 4%. At lower gel concentrations, non-cross-linked polyacrylamide is easily displaced from the columns. A calibration plot of log molecular mass vs. mobility with non-linear polyacrylamide was linear, which indicated that resolution was equivalent to that obtained with cross-linked acrylamide. Separations with model proteins indicated that baseline resolution between protein species that vary 10% in molecular mass can be achieved. PMID:1430034

  19. Self-assembly of cellulose nanoparticles as electrolyte additive for capillary electrophoresis separation.

    PubMed

    Huang, Dihui; Yang, Qin; Jin, Shanxia; Deng, Qianchun; Zhou, Ping

    2014-11-01

    In this work, a new cellulose derivative, octadecyl modified quaternized cellulose (ODMQC), was synthesized and used as additive in the background electrolyte for capillary electrophoresis. The derivative bearing hydrophobic groups and hydrophilic groups can self-assemble into a stable nano-scaled micelle structure in aqueous solution. When ODMQC was added in running buffer, the capillaries were shown to generate applicable anodal EOF over the investigated range of pH 3.0-12.0. Due to the lack of UV active groups, the ODMQC did not disturb the UV detection. It is shown that ODMQC-added capillaries allow the separation of basic proteins by reducing their adsorption onto the capillary wall. Also, the addition of ODMQC provides adequate separation of aromatic acids with low pKa values and improved separation of sulfa drugs. Moreover, it is demonstrated that the addition of ODMQC can incorporate an additional reversed-phase mechanism that improves the separation of neutral analytes. PMID:25262028

  20. Measurements of serotonin and related indoles using capillary electrophoresis with multiphoton-induced hyperluminescence.

    PubMed

    Gostkowski, M L; Wei, J; Shear, J B

    1998-07-01

    We report the use of multiphoton-excited photochemistry to generate highly fluorescent products from hydroxyindoles fractionated in submicron capillary electrophoresis channels. In this approach, the near-infrared (750 nm) output from a modelocked titanium:sapphire laser is focused at the outlet of a 0.6-micron i.d. capillary, producing pulse intensities of approximately 10(12) W cm-2 within a femtoliter focal volume. Hydroxyindole molecules migrating through the outlet aperture of the capillary intersect the beam focus, where absorption of three to four photons (approximately 1.65 eV photon-1) initiates a photobleaching reaction. The resultant hydroxyindole photoproducts produce broadband visible emission (lambdamax approximately 500 nm) when excited with two additional near-IR photons and appear substantially more resistant to photobleaching than the parent hydroxyindoles. This multiphoton-induced conversion of analytes to hyperluminescent derivatives thus offers a more sensitive approach than UV fluorescence for detecting extremely small quantities of material. Mixtures of the hydroxyindoles serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine), 5-hydroxytryptophan, and 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid are reliably characterized (relative error approximately 10%) in 100 s, with detection limits as low as approximately 70 zmol (approximately 42,000 molecules). The sensitivity of this measurement strategy improves on the best previously reported results for capillary separations of indoles by more than one order of magnitude. PMID:9657885