Science.gov

Sample records for capillary electrophoresis method

  1. Capillary electrophoresis

    SciTech Connect

    Warner, M.

    1988-10-15

    Rapid instrumental methods for performing electrophoretic separations in capillary tubes have recently been developed, making capillary electrophoresis one of the most exciting new techniques available to analytical chemists. This article discusses detection methods, applications, and the future of capillary electrophoresis.

  2. Capillary electrophoresis systems and methods

    DOEpatents

    Dorairaj, Rathissh; Keynton, Robert S.; Roussel, Thomas J.; Crain, Mark M.; Jackson, Douglas J.; Walsh, Kevin M.; Naber, John F.; Baldwin, Richard P.; Franco, Danielle B.

    2011-08-02

    An embodiment of the invention is directed to a capillary electrophoresis apparatus comprising a plurality of separation micro-channels. A sample loading channel communicates with each of the plurality of separation channels. A driver circuit comprising a plurality of electrodes is configured to induce an electric field across each of the plurality of separation channels sufficient to cause analytes in the samples to migrate along each of the channels. The system further comprises a plurality of detectors configured to detect the analytes.

  3. Microfabricated capillary array electrophoresis device and method

    DOEpatents

    Simpson, Peter C.; Mathies, Richard A.; Woolley, Adam T.

    2004-06-15

    A capillary array electrophoresis (CAE) micro-plate with an array of separation channels connected to an array of sample reservoirs on the plate. The sample reservoirs are organized into one or more sample injectors. One or more waste reservoirs are provided to collect wastes from reservoirs in each of the sample injectors. Additionally, a cathode reservoir is also multiplexed with one or more separation channels. To complete the electrical path, an anode reservoir which is common to some or all separation channels is also provided on the micro-plate. Moreover, the channel layout keeps the distance from the anode to each of the cathodes approximately constant.

  4. Microfabricated capillary array electrophoresis device and method

    DOEpatents

    Simpson, Peter C.; Mathies, Richard A.; Woolley, Adam T.

    2000-01-01

    A capillary array electrophoresis (CAE) micro-plate with an array of separation channels connected to an array of sample reservoirs on the plate. The sample reservoirs are organized into one or more sample injectors. One or more waste reservoirs are provided to collect wastes from reservoirs in each of the sample injectors. Additionally, a cathode reservoir is also multiplexed with one or more separation channels. To complete the electrical path, an anode reservoir which is common to some or all separation channels is also provided on the micro-plate. Moreover, the channel layout keeps the distance from the anode to each of the cathodes approximately constant.

  5. Detection of Hb Constant Spring by a capillary electrophoresis method.

    PubMed

    Liao, Can; Zhou, Jian-Ying; Xie, Xing-Mei; Li, Jian; Li, Ru; Li, Dong-Zhi

    2010-01-01

    Hb Constant Spring [Hb CS; alpha142, Term-->Gln (TAA>CAA in alpha2)] is the most prevalent nondeletional alpha-thalassemia (alpha-thal) anomaly in southern China. In conjunction with alpha(0)-thal, it can cause severe Hb H (beta(4)) disease. The present study was done to evaluate the efficiency of two diagnostic methods in detecting Hb CS. Automated high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and Sebia Capillarys 2, a capillary electrophoresis method, were applied to blood samples from 21 individuals with Hb CS trait. Of the 21 cases, all (100%) were detected by capillary electrophoresis, whereas only 16 (76.2%) were detected by HPLC. We concluded that the Sebia Capillarys 2 is the preferred method for Hb CS screening. PMID:20353355

  6. An enhanced capillary electrophoresis method for characterizing natural organic matter.

    PubMed

    Cottrell, Barbara A; Cheng, Wei Ran; Lam, Buuan; Cooper, William J; Simpson, Andre J

    2013-02-21

    Natural organic matter (NOM) is ubiquitous and is one of the most complex naturally occurring mixtures. NOM plays an essential role in the global carbon cycle; atmospheric and natural water photochemistry; and the long-range transport of trace compounds and contaminants. There is a dearth of separation techniques capable of resolving this highly complex mixture. To our knowledge, this is the first reported use of ultrahigh resolution counterbalance capillary electrophoresis to resolve natural organic matter. The new separation strategy uses a low pH, high concentration phosphate buffer to reduce the capillary electroosmotic flow (EOF). Changing the polarity of the electrodes reverses the EOF to counterbalance the electrophoretic mobility. Sample stacking further improves the counterbalance separation. The combination of these conditions results in an electropherogram comprised up to three hundred peaks superimposed on the characteristic "humic hump" of NOM. Fraction collection, followed by three-dimensional emission excitation spectroscopy (EEMs) and UV spectroscopy generated a distinct profile of fluorescent and UV absorbing components. This enhanced counterbalance capillary electrophoresis method is a potentially powerful technique for the characterization and separation of NOM and complex environmental mixtures in general. PMID:23289095

  7. Means and method for capillary zone electrophoresis with laser-induced indirect fluorescence detection

    DOEpatents

    Yeung, Edward S.; Kuhr, Werner G.

    1996-02-20

    A means and method for capillary zone electrphoresis with laser-induced indirect fluorescence detection. A detector is positioned on the capillary tube of a capillary zone electrophoresis system. The detector includes a laser which generates a laser beam which is imposed upon a small portion of the capillary tube. Fluorescence of the elutant electromigrating through the capillary tube is indirectly detected and recorded.

  8. Means and method for capillary zone electrophoresis with laser-induced indirect fluorescence detection

    DOEpatents

    Yeung, Edwards; Kuhr, Werner G.

    1991-04-09

    A means and method for capillary zone electrphoresis with laser-induced indirect fluorescence detection. A detector is positioned on the capillary tube of a capillary zone electrophoresis system. The detector includes a laser which generates a laser beam which is imposed upon a small portion of the capillary tube. Fluorescence of the elutant electromigrating through the capillary tube is indirectly detected and recorded.

  9. A stability indicating capillary electrophoresis method for analysis of buserelin.

    PubMed

    Tamizi, Elnaz; Kenndler, Ernst; Jouyban, Abolghasem

    2014-01-01

    A simple and rapid stability indicating method based on capillary zone electrophoresis has been developed and validated for the analysis of buserelin (BUS). The best separations were achieved by using a bare fused silica capillary (75 μm i.d.; 65.5 cm total, 57.0 cm effective length), phosphate buffer (pH = 3.00; 26.4 mM), at 35 °C. The sample was hydrodynamically injected at 50 mbar for 5 seconds; the applied voltage was 30 kV and detection was carried out by UV-absorbance at 200 nm. Method validation resulted in the following figures of merit : the method was linear in the concentration range between 0.781 and 500 μg/mL (linear regression coefficient 0.9996), accuracy was between 99.3% and 100.9%, intra assay precision was between 0.3% and 1.0% and intermediate precision was between 1.0% and 2.1%. Evaluation of the specificity of the method showed no interference between excipients or products of force degradation and BUS. Under the selected conditions, separation of BUS and its degradation products was completed in less than 10 min, and BUS could be quantified after different stress conditions without any interference. The results enabled the conclusion that under thermal stress upon exposure to 90 °C BUS is degraded by first order kinetics. It was demonstrated that the method can be applied as a rapid and easy to use method for quantification and stability testing of BUS in biopharmaceutical formulations in quality control laboratories. PMID:25276180

  10. Multiplexed capillary electrophoresis system

    DOEpatents

    Yeung, E.S.; Li, Q.; Lu, X.

    1998-04-21

    The invention provides a side-entry optical excitation geometry for use in a multiplexed capillary electrophoresis system. A charge-injection device is optically coupled to capillaries in the array such that the interior of a capillary is imaged onto only one pixel. In Sanger-type 4-label DNA sequencing reactions, nucleotide identification (``base calling``) is improved by using two long-pass filters to split fluorescence emission into two emission channels. A binary poly(ethyleneoxide) matrix is used in the electrophoretic separations. 19 figs.

  11. Multiplexed capillary electrophoresis system

    DOEpatents

    Yeung, E.S.; Chang, H.T.; Fung, E.N.; Li, Q.; Lu, X.

    1996-12-10

    The invention provides a side-entry optical excitation geometry for use in a multiplexed capillary electrophoresis system. A charge-injection device is optically coupled to capillaries in the array such that the interior of a capillary is imaged onto only one pixel. In Sanger-type 4-label DNA sequencing reactions, nucleotide identification (``base calling``) is improved by using two long-pass filters to split fluorescence emission into two emission channels. A binary poly(ethyleneoxide) matrix is used in the electrophoretic separations. 19 figs.

  12. Multiplexed capillary electrophoresis system

    DOEpatents

    Yeung, Edward S.; Li, Qingbo; Lu, Xiandan

    1998-04-21

    The invention provides a side-entry optical excitation geometry for use in a multiplexed capillary electrophoresis system. A charge-injection device is optically coupled to capillaries in the array such that the interior of a capillary is imaged onto only one pixel. In Sanger-type 4-label DNA sequencing reactions, nucleotide identification ("base calling") is improved by using two long-pass filters to split fluorescence emission into two emission channels. A binary poly(ethyleneoxide) matrix is used in the electrophoretic separations.

  13. Multiplexed capillary electrophoresis system

    DOEpatents

    Yeung, Edward S.; Chang, Huan-Tsang; Fung, Eliza N.; Li, Qingbo; Lu, Xiandan

    1996-12-10

    The invention provides a side-entry optical excitation geometry for use in a multiplexed capillary electrophoresis system. A charge-injection device is optically coupled to capillaries in the array such that the interior of a capillary is imaged onto only one pixel. In Sanger-type 4-label DNA sequencing reactions, nucleotide identification ("base calling") is improved by using two long-pass filters to split fluorescence emission into two emission channels. A binary poly(ethyleneoxide) matrix is used in the electrophoretic separations.

  14. Microfabricated capillary electrophoresis chip and method for simultaneously detecting multiple redox labels

    DOEpatents

    Mathies, Richard A.; Singhal, Pankaj; Xie, Jin; Glazer, Alexander N.

    2002-01-01

    This invention relates to a microfabricated capillary electrophoresis chip for detecting multiple redox-active labels simultaneously using a matrix coding scheme and to a method of selectively labeling analytes for simultaneous electrochemical detection of multiple label-analyte conjugates after electrophoretic or chromatographic separation.

  15. Integrated multiplexed capillary electrophoresis system

    SciTech Connect

    Yeung, Edward S.; Tan, Hongdong

    2002-05-14

    The present invention provides an integrated multiplexed capillary electrophoresis system for the analysis of sample analytes. The system integrates and automates multiple components, such as chromatographic columns and separation capillaries, and further provides a detector for the detection of analytes eluting from the separation capillaries. The system employs multiplexed freeze/thaw valves to manage fluid flow and sample movement. The system is computer controlled and is capable of processing samples through reaction, purification, denaturation, pre-concentration, injection, separation and detection in parallel fashion. Methods employing the system of the invention are also provided.

  16. Copolymers For Capillary Gel Electrophoresis

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Changsheng; Li, Qingbo

    2005-08-09

    This invention relates to an electrophoresis separation medium having a gel matrix of at least one random, linear copolymer comprising a primary comonomer and at least one secondary comonomer, wherein the comonomers are randomly distributed along the copolymer chain. The primary comonomer is an acrylamide or an acrylamide derivative that provides the primary physical, chemical, and sieving properties of the gel matrix. The at least one secondary comonomer imparts an inherent physical, chemical, or sieving property to the copolymer chain. The primary and secondary comonomers are present in a ratio sufficient to induce desired properties that optimize electrophoresis performance. The invention also relates to a method of separating a mixture of biological molecules using this gel matrix, a method of preparing the novel electrophoresis separation medium, and a capillary tube filled with the electrophoresis separation medium.

  17. Instrumental development of novel detection and separation methods for capillary electrophoresis

    SciTech Connect

    Garner, T.

    1993-07-01

    After a general introduction, this thesis is divided into 3 parts: indirect fluorescence detection of sugars separated by capillary zone electrophoresis with visible laser excitation, absorption detection in capillary electrophoresis by fluorescence energy transfer, and increased selectivity for electrochromatography by dynamic ion exchange.

  18. Capillary Electrophoresis - Optical Detection Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sepaniak, M. J.

    2001-08-06

    Molecular recognition systems are developed via molecular modeling and synthesis to enhance separation performance in capillary electrophoresis and optical detection methods for capillary electrophoresis. The underpinning theme of our work is the rational design and development of molecular recognition systems in chemical separations and analysis. There have been, however, some subtle and exciting shifts in our research paradigm during this period. Specifically, we have moved from mostly separations research to a good balance between separations and spectroscopic detection for separations. This shift is based on our perception that the pressing research challenges and needs in capillary electrophoresis and electrokinetic chromatography relate to the persistent detection and flow rate reproducibility limitations of these techniques (see page 1 of the accompanying Renewal Application for further discussion). In most of our work molecular recognition reagents are employed to provide selectivity and enhance performance. Also, an emerging trend is the use of these reagents with specially-prepared nano-scale materials. Although not part of our DOE BES-supported work, the modeling and synthesis of new receptors has indirectly supported the development of novel microcantilevers-based MEMS for the sensing of vapor and liquid phase analytes. This fortuitous overlap is briefly covered in this report. Several of the more significant publications that have resulted from our work are appended. To facilitate brevity we refer to these publications liberally in this progress report. Reference is also made to very recent work in the Background and Preliminary Studies Section of the Renewal Application.

  19. Uniform Laser Excitation And Detection In Capillary Array Electrophoresis System And Method.

    DOEpatents

    Li, Qingbo; Zhou, Songsan; Liu, Changsheng

    2003-10-07

    A capillary electrophoresis system comprises capillaries positioned in parallel to each other forming a plane. The capillaries are configured to allow samples to migrate. A light source is configured to illuminate the capillaries and the samples therein. This causes the samples to emit light. A lens is configured to receive the light emitted by the samples and positioned directly over a first group of the capillaries and obliquely over a second group of the capillaries. The light source is further configured to illuminate the second group of capillaries more than the first group of the capillaries such that amount of light received by the lens from the first group of capillaries is substantially identical to amount of light received from the second group of capillaries when an identical amount of the samples is migrating through the first and second group capillaries.

  20. Biomedical applications of capillary electrophoresis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kartsova, L. A.; Bessonova, E. A.

    2015-08-01

    The review deals with modern analytical approaches used in capillary electrophoresis for solving medical and biological problems: search for biomarkers of various diseases and rapid diagnosis based on characteristic profiles of biologically active compounds by capillary electrophoresis with mass spectrometric detection; monitoring of the residual drugs in biological fluids for evaluating the efficiency of drug therapy; testing of the enantiomeric purity of pharmaceutical products; the use of novel materials as components of stationary and pseudo-stationary phases in capillary electrophoresis and capillary electrochromatography to increase the selectivity of separation of components of complex matrices; and identification of various on-line preconcentration techniques to reduce the detection limits of biologically active analytes. A topical trend in capillary electrophoresis required in clinical practice, viz., the design of microfluidic systems, is discussed. The bibliography includes 173 references.

  1. Capillary electrophoresis in metallodrug development.

    PubMed

    Holtkamp, Hannah; Hartinger, Christian G

    2015-09-01

    Capillary electrophoresis (CE) is a separation method based on differential migration of analytes in electric fields. The compatibility with purely aqueous separation media makes it a versatile tool in metallodrug research. Many metallodrugs undergo ligand exchange reactions that can easily be followed with this method and the information gained can even be improved by coupling the CE to advanced detectors, such as mass spectrometers. This gives the method high potential to facilitate the development of metallodrugs, especially when combined with innovative method development and experimental design. PMID:26547417

  2. DNA typing by capillary electrophoresis

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, N.

    1997-10-08

    Capillary electrophoresis is becoming more and more important in nucleic acid analysis including DNA sequencing, typing and disease gene measurements. This work summarized the background of DNA typing. The recent development of capillary electrophoresis was also discussed. The second part of the thesis showed the principle of DNA typing based on using the allelic ladder as the absolute standard ladder in capillary electrophoresis system. Future work will be focused on demonstrating DNA typing on multiplex loci and examples of disease diagnosis in the on-line format of PCR-CE. Also capillary array electrophoresis system should allow high throughput, fast speed DNA typing. Only the introduction and conclusions for this report are available here. A reprint was removed for separate processing.

  3. A new injection method for soil nutrient analysis in capillary electrophoresis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smolka, M.; Puchberger-Enengl, D.; Bipoun, M.; Fercher, G.; Klasa, A.; Krutzler, C.; Keplinger, F.; Vellekoop, M. J.

    2013-05-01

    We present a new method for the direct injection of liquid sample into a capillary electrophoresis (CE) device. Instead of a double-T injection mechanism, a single inlet provided with a membrane filter is used. From a reservoir on top of this inlet, the liquid directly enters the separation channel through the membrane. The driving force is a short electrical pulse. This avoids an additional sample channel, so that the chip needs only three microfluidic connects and no mechanical sample pumping is demanded. The high injection reproducibility and the comparatively simple setup open up the way for mobile application of soil analysis.

  4. Potentials and Method Improvements of Capillary Zone Electrophoresis for Use in Spelt Breeding Programs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) in acidic buffer systems is capable of separating cereal storage proteins based on similar separation principles as classical acidic polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. However, it is faster, its resolution is distinctly higher and data evaluation is much simpler...

  5. Microbeam-coupled capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Garty, G; Ehsan, M U; Buonanno, M; Yang, Z; Sweedler, J V; Brenner, D J

    2015-09-01

    Within the first few microseconds following a charged particle traversal of a cell, numerous oxygen and nitrogen radicals are formed along the track. Presented here is a method, using capillary electrophoresis, for simultaneous measurement, within an individual cell, of specific reactive oxygen species, such as the superoxide radical ([Formula: see text]) as well as the native and oxidised forms of glutathione, an ubiquitous anti-oxidant that assists the cell in coping with these species. Preliminary data are presented as well as plans for integrating this system into the charged particle microbeam at Columbia University. PMID:25870435

  6. Simple in-house flow-injection capillary electrophoresis with capacitively coupled contactless conductivity method for the determination of colistin.

    PubMed

    Chaisuwan, Patcharin; Moonta, Thararat; Sangcakul, Areeporn; Nacapricha, Duangjai; Wilairat, Prapin; Uraisin, Kanchana

    2015-03-01

    An in-house flow-injection capillary electrophoresis with capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection method was developed for the direct measurement of colistin in pharmaceutical samples. The flow injection and capillary electrophoresis systems are connected by an acrylic interface. Capillary electrophoresis separation is achieved within 2 min using a background electrolyte solution of 5 mM 2-morpholinoethanesulfonic acid and 5 mM histidine (pH 6). The flow-injection section allows for convenient filling of the capillary and sample introduction without the use of a pressure/vacuum manifold. Capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection is employed since colistin has no chromophore but is cationic at pH 6. Calibration curve is linear from 20 to 150 mg/L, with a correlation coefficient (r(2) ) of 0.997. The limit of quantitation is 20 mg/L. The developed method provides precision, simplicity, and short analysis time. PMID:25641810

  7. DNA Sequencing by Capillary Electrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Karger, Barry L.; Guttman, Andras

    2009-01-01

    Sequencing of human and other genomes has been at the center of interest in the biomedical field over the past several decades and is now leading toward an era of personalized medicine. During this time, DNA sequencing methods have evolved from the labor intensive slab gel electrophoresis, through automated multicapillary electrophoresis systems using fluorophore labeling with multispectral imaging, to the “next generation” technologies of cyclic array, hybridization based, nanopore and single molecule sequencing. Deciphering the genetic blueprint and follow-up confirmatory sequencing of Homo sapiens and other genomes was only possible by the advent of modern sequencing technologies that was a result of step by step advances with a contribution of academics, medical personnel and instrument companies. While next generation sequencing is moving ahead at break-neck speed, the multicapillary electrophoretic systems played an essential role in the sequencing of the Human Genome, the foundation of the field of genomics. In this prospective, we wish to overview the role of capillary electrophoresis in DNA sequencing based in part of several of our articles in this journal. PMID:19517496

  8. Capillary electrophoresis methods for the analysis of antimalarials. Part I. Chiral separation methods.

    PubMed

    Amin, N'cho Christophe; Blanchin, Marie-Dominique; Aké, Michèle; Fabre, Huguette

    2012-11-16

    This paper presents an overview on the current status of enantiomeric and diastereomeric separations of chiral antimalarials and derivatives by capillary electrophoresis (CE). The wide variety of chiral selectors which have been employed to resolve successfully antimalarial enantiomers: oligosaccharides (cyclodextrins, oligomaltodextrins), neutral (amylose, dextrin and dextran) and charged (chondroitin sulfate, heparin, dextran sulfate) polysaccharides and proteins are reviewed. Cyclodextrins were the most employed. Chiral additives added to the background electrolyte often facilitated separations of quinine/quinidine and cinchonine/cinchonidine diastereomers. However, in a few cases, using micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography or non aqueous CE, resolution of diastereomers could be achieved without additives. Quantitative applications of CE to the quality control of antimalarial drugs and their analysis in biological and food matrices are presented. PMID:23063793

  9. DNA Sequencing Using capillary Electrophoresis

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Barry Karger

    2011-05-09

    The overall goal of this program was to develop capillary electrophoresis as the tool to be used to sequence for the first time the Human Genome. Our program was part of the Human Genome Project. In this work, we were highly successful and the replaceable polymer we developed, linear polyacrylamide, was used by the DOE sequencing lab in California to sequence a significant portion of the human genome using the MegaBase multiple capillary array electrophoresis instrument. In this final report, we summarize our efforts and success. We began our work by separating by capillary electrophoresis double strand oligonucleotides using cross-linked polyacrylamide gels in fused silica capillaries. This work showed the potential of the methodology. However, preparation of such cross-linked gel capillaries was difficult with poor reproducibility, and even more important, the columns were not very stable. We improved stability by using non-cross linked linear polyacrylamide. Here, the entangled linear chains could move when osmotic pressure (e.g. sample injection) was imposed on the polymer matrix. This relaxation of the polymer dissipated the stress in the column. Our next advance was to use significantly lower concentrations of the linear polyacrylamide that the polymer could be automatically blown out after each run and replaced with fresh linear polymer solution. In this way, a new column was available for each analytical run. Finally, while testing many linear polymers, we selected linear polyacrylamide as the best matrix as it was the most hydrophilic polymer available. Under our DOE program, we demonstrated initially the success of the linear polyacrylamide to separate double strand DNA. We note that the method is used even today to assay purity of double stranded DNA fragments. Our focus, of course, was on the separation of single stranded DNA for sequencing purposes. In one paper, we demonstrated the success of our approach in sequencing up to 500 bases. Other

  10. Capillary Electrophoresis Single-Strand Conformational Polymorphisms as a Method to Differentiate Algal Species

    PubMed Central

    Jernigan, Alice; Hestekin, Christa

    2015-01-01

    Capillary electrophoresis single-strand conformational polymorphism (CE-SSCP) was explored as a fast and inexpensive method to differentiate both prokaryotic (blue-green) and eukaryotic (green and brown) algae. A selection of two blue-green algae (Nostoc muscorum and Anabaena inaequalis), five green algae (Chlorella vulgaris, Oedogonium foveolatum, Mougeotia sp., Scenedesmus quadricauda, and Ulothrix fimbriata), and one brown algae (Ectocarpus sp.) were examined and CE-SSCP electropherogram “fingerprints” were compared to each other for two variable regions of either the 16S or 18S rDNA gene. The electropherogram patterns were remarkably stable and consistent for each particular species. The patterns were unique to each species, although some common features were observed between the different types of algae. CE-SSCP could be a useful method for monitoring changes in an algae species over time as potential shifts in species occurred. PMID:26101693

  11. Capillary Electrophoresis Single-Strand Conformational Polymorphisms as a Method to Differentiate Algal Species.

    PubMed

    Jernigan, Alice; Hestekin, Christa

    2015-01-01

    Capillary electrophoresis single-strand conformational polymorphism (CE-SSCP) was explored as a fast and inexpensive method to differentiate both prokaryotic (blue-green) and eukaryotic (green and brown) algae. A selection of two blue-green algae (Nostoc muscorum and Anabaena inaequalis), five green algae (Chlorella vulgaris, Oedogonium foveolatum, Mougeotia sp., Scenedesmus quadricauda, and Ulothrix fimbriata), and one brown algae (Ectocarpus sp.) were examined and CE-SSCP electropherogram "fingerprints" were compared to each other for two variable regions of either the 16S or 18S rDNA gene. The electropherogram patterns were remarkably stable and consistent for each particular species. The patterns were unique to each species, although some common features were observed between the different types of algae. CE-SSCP could be a useful method for monitoring changes in an algae species over time as potential shifts in species occurred. PMID:26101693

  12. Capillary electrophoresis methods for the determination of covalent polyphenol-protein complexes.

    PubMed

    Trombley, John D; Loegel, Thomas N; Danielson, Neil D; Hagerman, Ann E

    2011-09-01

    The bioactivities and bioavailability of plant polyphenols including proanthocyanidins and other catechin derivatives may be affected by covalent reaction between polyphenol and proteins. Both processing conditions and gastrointestinal conditions may promote formation of covalent complexes for polyphenol-rich foods and beverages such as wine. Little is known about covalent reactions between proteins and tannin, because suitable methods for quantitating covalent complexes have not been developed. We established capillary electrophoresis methods that can be used to distinguish free protein from covalently bound protein-polyphenol complexes and to monitor polyphenol oxidation products. The methods are developed using the model protein bovine serum albumin and the representative polyphenol (-)epigallocatechin gallate. By pairing capillaries with different diameters with appropriate alkaline borate buffers, we are able to optimize resolution of either the protein-polyphenol complexes or the polyphenol oxidation products. This analytical method, coupled with purification of the covalent complexes by diethylaminoethyl cellulose chromatography, should facilitate characterization of covalent complexes in polyphenol-rich foods and beverages such as wine. PMID:21400190

  13. A capillary electrophoresis method for evaluation of Aβ proteolysis in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Alper, Benjamin J.; Schmidt, Walter K.

    2010-01-01

    According to the amyloid hypothesis, Aβ peptides are neurotoxic and underlie development and progression of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Multiple Aβ clearance mechanisms, including destruction of the peptides by proteolytic enzymes, are hypothesized to regulate physiological Aβ peptide levels. The insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE) is considered one of the predominant enzymes having Aβ degrading activity. Despite its putative role in protecting against AD, relatively few methods exist for studying IDE activity in vitro. We report the application of capillary electrophoresis (CE) as a novel method for evaluating IDE-mediated Aβ 1–40 proteolysis. This method employs chemically unmodified substrates that are readily obtained from commercial sources. It involves minimal sample preparation, and requires no specialized equipment beyond a CE instrument equipped with a standard fused silica capillary. In the present analysis, we demonstrate that this CE-based method is amenable to kinetic analysis, and show that IDE-mediated Aβ proteolysis is significantly and disproportionately inhibited in the presence of insulin, an alternative IDE substrate. PMID:19071160

  14. A capillary zone electrophoresis method to detect conformers and dimers of antithrombin in therapeutic preparations.

    PubMed

    Marie, Anne-Lise; Tran, Nguyet Thuy; Saller, François; Abdou, Youmna Mohamed; Zeau, Pascal; Plantier, Jean-Luc; Urbain, Rémi; Borgel, Delphine; Taverna, Myriam

    2016-07-01

    Antithrombin (AT) is a human plasma glycoprotein that possesses anticoagulant and anti-inflammatory properties. However, the native (active) form of AT is unstable and undergoes conformational changes, leading to latent, cleaved, and heterodimeric forms. The presence of these alternative forms mostly inactive can highly impact the quality and therapeutic activity of pharmaceutical AT preparations. We developed a capillary zone electrophoresis method, based on a neutral polyethylene oxide-coated capillary and a buffer close to physiological conditions, enabling the separation of more than eight forms of AT. Several peaks were identified as native, latent, and heterodimeric forms. The CZE method was reproducible with intraday relative standard deviations less than 0.5 and 2% for migration times and peak areas, respectively. The method was applied to the comparison of AT preparations produced by five competitive pharmaceutical companies, and statistical tests were performed. Important differences in the proportion of each form were highlighted. In particular, one AT preparation was shown to contain a high quantity of heterodimer, and two preparations contained high quantities of latent form. In addition, one AT preparation exhibited additional forms, not yet identified. PMID:26989842

  15. Development of a fast capillary electrophoresis method to determine inorganic cations in biodiesel samples.

    PubMed

    Piovezan, Marcel; Costa, Ana Carolina O; Jager, Alessandra Vincenzi; de Oliveira, Marcone Augusto Leal; Micke, Gustavo Amadeu

    2010-07-19

    The aim of this study was to develop a fast capillary electrophoresis method for the determination of inorganic cations (Na(+), K(+), Ca(2+), Mg(2+)) in biodiesel samples, using barium (Ba(2+)) as the internal standard. The running electrolyte was optimized through effective mobility curves in order to select the co-ion and Peakmaster software was used to determine electromigration dispersion and buffer capacity. The optimum background electrolyte was composed of 10 mmol L(-1) imidazole and 40 mmol L(-1) of acetic acid. Separation was conducted in a fused-silica capillary (32 cm total length and 23.5 cm effective length, 50 microm I.D.), with indirect UV detection at 214 nm. The migration time was only 36 s. In order to obtain the optimized conditions for extraction, a fractional factorial experimental design was used. The variables investigated were biodiesel mass, pH, extractant volume, agitation and sonication time. The optimum conditions were: biodiesel mass of 200 mg, extractant volume of 200 microL and agitation of 20 min. The method is characterized by good linearity in the concentration range of 0.5-20 mg kg(-1) (r>0.999), limit of detection was equal to 0.3 mg kg(-1), inter-day precision was equal to 1.88% and recovery in the range of 88.0-120%. The developed method was successfully applied to the determination of cations in biodiesel samples. PMID:20599036

  16. Chiral recognition of dapoxetine enantiomers with methylated-gamma-cyclodextrin: a validated capillary electrophoresis method.

    PubMed

    Neumajer, Gábor; Sohajda, Tamás; Darcsi, András; Tóth, Gergő; Szente, Lajos; Noszál, Béla; Béni, Szabolcs

    2012-03-25

    The enantiomers of dapoxetine, a serotonin transporter inhibitor for the treatment of premature ejaculation have been separated by cyclodextrin modified capillary zone electrophoresis using uncoated fused-silica capillary. Over 20 cyclodextrins were screened as chiral selectors, investigating the stability of the inclusion complexes and enantioseparating properties. According to the preliminary experiments as chiral selector randomly methylated-γ-cyclodextrin was chosen. The basic chemical and instrumental parameters of enantioseparation as concentration of buffer, chiral selector and organic additive, pH, temperature and applied voltage were optimized afterwards using an orthogonal experimental design. Using this methodology not only the optimal parameter values for chiral separation (15 °C, +15 kV, 70 mM acetate, 20 v/v% MeOH, pH*=4.5, 3 mM methylated-γ-CyD) but also the significance order of factors on resolution was determined. Applying these parameters an optimal resolution of 7.01 was achieved. The optimized method was then validated according to the ICH guideline Q2 (R1) with regard to repeatability, linearity range, LOD, LOQ, accuracy and robustness. PMID:22280959

  17. Capillary electrophoresis method with UV-detection for analysis of free amino acids concentrations in food.

    PubMed

    Omar, Mei Musa Ali; Elbashir, Abdalla Ahmed; Schmitz, Oliver J

    2017-01-01

    Simple and inexpensive capillary electrophoresis with UV-detection method (CE-UV) was optimized and validated for determination of six amino acids namely (alanine, asparagine, glutamine, proline, serine and valine) for Sudanese food. Amino acids in the samples were derivatized with 4-chloro-7-nitro-2,1,3-benzoxadiazole (NBD-Cl) prior to CE-UV analysis. Labeling reaction conditions (100mM borate buffer at pH 8.5, labeling reaction time 60min, temperature 70°C and NBD-Cl concentration 40mM) were systematically investigated. The optimal conditions for the separation were 100mM borate buffer at pH 9.7 and detected at 475nm. The method was validated in terms of linearity, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ), precision (repeatability) (RSD%) and accuracy (recovery). Good linearity was achieved for all amino acids (r(2)>0.9981) in the concentration range of 2.5-40mg/L. The LODs in the range of 0.32-0.56mg/L were obtained. Recoveries of amino acids ranging from 85% to 108%, (n=3) were obtained. The validated method was successfully applied for the determination of amino acids for Sudanese food samples. PMID:27507479

  18. Capillary electrophoresis for drug analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lurie, Ira S.

    1999-02-01

    Capillary electrophoresis (CE) is a high resolution separation technique which is amenable to a wide variety of solutes, including compounds which are thermally degradable, non-volatile and highly polar, and is therefore well suited for drug analysis. Techniques which have been used in our laboratory include electrokinetic chromatography (ECC), free zone electrophoresis (CZE) and capillary electrochromatography (CEC). ECC, which uses a charged run buffer additive which migrates counter to osmotic flow, is excellent for many applications, including, drug screening and analyses of heroin, cocaine and methamphetamine samples. ECC approaches include the use of micelles and charged cyclodextrins, which allow for the separation of complex mixtures. Simultaneous separation of acidic, neutral and basic solutes and the resolution of optical isomers and positional isomers are possible. CZE has been used for the analysis of small ions (cations and anions) in heroin exhibits. For the ECC and CZE experiments performed in our laboratory, uncoated capillaries were used. In contrast, CEC uses capillaries packed with high performance liquid chromatography stationary phases, and offers both high peak capacities and unique selectivities. Applications include the analysis of cannabinoids and drug screening. Although CE suffers from limited concentration sensitivity, it is still applicable to trace analysis of drug samples, especially when using injection techniques such as stacking, or detection schemes such as laser induced fluorescence and extended pathlength UV.

  19. Non-Aqueous Capillary Electrophoresis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szumski, Michał; Buszewski, Bogusław

    Non-aqueous capillary electrophoresis and capillary electrochromatography are special variants of these techniques. Here, organic solvents or their mixtures with or without dissolved electrolytes are used as separation buffer or mobile phase, respectively. The most important features of non-aqueous systems are: better solubility of more hydrophobic ionic substances (many natural products) than in water, much less current and Joule heating allows for using highly concentrated buffers and/or larger capillary internal diameters, polar interactions are enhanced in organic solvents which is often highly advantageous in chiral separation systems. This chapter presents most frequently used solvents, their properties, as well as shows pH* scale which is often used in non-aqueous systems.

  20. A rapid sample screening method for authenticity control of whiskey using capillary electrophoresis with online preconcentration.

    PubMed

    Heller, Melina; Vitali, Luciano; Oliveira, Marcone Augusto Leal; Costa, Ana Carolina O; Micke, Gustavo Amadeu

    2011-07-13

    The present study aimed to develop a methodology using capillary electrophoresis for the determination of sinapaldehyde, syringaldehyde, coniferaldehyde, and vanillin in whiskey samples. The main objective was to obtain a screening method to differentiate authentic samples from seized samples suspected of being false using the phenolic aldehydes as chemical markers. The optimized background electrolyte was composed of 20 mmol L(-1) sodium tetraborate with 10% MeOH at pH 9.3. The study examined two kinds of sample stacking, using a long-end injection mode: normal sample stacking (NSM) and sample stacking with matrix removal (SWMR). In SWMR, the optimized injection time of the samples was 42 s (SWMR42); at this time, no matrix effects were observed. Values of r were >0.99 for the both methods. The LOD and LOQ were better than 100 and 330 mg mL(-1) for NSM and better than 22 and 73 mg L(-1) for SWMR. The CE-UV reliability in the aldehyde analysis in the real sample was compared statistically with LC-MS/MS methodology, and no significant differences were found, with a 95% confidence interval between the methodologies. PMID:21662238

  1. Capillary electrophoresis electrospray ionization mass spectrometry interface

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Richard D.; Severs, Joanne C.

    1999-01-01

    The present invention is an interface between a capillary electrophoresis separation capillary end and an electrospray ionization mass spectrometry emitter capillary end, for transporting an anolyte sample from a capillary electrophoresis separation capillary to a electrospray ionization mass spectrometry emitter capillary. The interface of the present invention has: (a) a charge transfer fitting enclosing both of the capillary electrophoresis capillary end and the electrospray ionization mass spectrometry emitter capillary end; (b) a reservoir containing an electrolyte surrounding the charge transfer fitting; and (c) an electrode immersed into the electrolyte, the electrode closing a capillary electrophoresis circuit and providing charge transfer across the charge transfer fitting while avoiding substantial bulk fluid transfer across the charge transfer fitting. Advantages of the present invention have been demonstrated as effective in providing high sensitivity and efficient analyses.

  2. Capillary electrophoresis electrospray ionization mass spectrometry interface

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R.D.; Severs, J.C.

    1999-11-30

    The present invention is an interface between a capillary electrophoresis separation capillary end and an electrospray ionization mass spectrometry emitter capillary end, for transporting an analyte sample from a capillary electrophoresis separation capillary to a electrospray ionization mass spectrometry emitter capillary. The interface of the present invention has: (a) a charge transfer fitting enclosing both of the capillary electrophoresis capillary end and the electrospray ionization mass spectrometry emitter capillary end; (b) a reservoir containing an electrolyte surrounding the charge transfer fitting; and (c) an electrode immersed into the electrolyte, the electrode closing a capillary electrophoresis circuit and providing charge transfer across the charge transfer fitting while avoiding substantial bulk fluid transfer across the charge transfer fitting. Advantages of the present invention have been demonstrated as effective in providing high sensitivity and efficient analyses.

  3. Simplified universal method for determining electrolyte temperatures in a capillary electrophoresis instrument with forced-air cooling.

    PubMed

    Patel, Kevin H; Evenhuis, Christopher J; Cherney, Leonid T; Krylov, Sergey N

    2012-03-01

    Temperature increase due to resistive electrical heating is an inherent limitation of capillary electrophoresis (CE). Active cooling systems are used to decrease the temperature of the capillary, but their capacity is limited; and in addition, they leave "hot spots" at the detection interface and at the capillary ends. Until recently, the matter was complicated by the lack of a fast and generic method for temperature determination in efficiently and inefficiently cooled regions of the capillary. Our group recently introduced such a method, termed "Universal Method for determining Electrolyte Temperatures" (UMET). UMET is a probe-less approach that requires only measuring current versus voltage for different voltages and processing the data using an iterative algorithm. Here, we apply UMET to develop a Simplified Universal Method of Temperature Determination (SUMET) for a CE instrument with a forced-air cooling system using an Agilent 7100 CE instrument (Agilent Technologies, Saint Laurent, Quebec, Canada) as an example. We collected a wide set of empirical voltage-current data for a variety of buffers and capillary diameters. We further constructed empirical equations for temperature calculation in efficiently and inefficiently cooled parts of the capillary that require only the data from a single 1-min voltage-current measurement. The equations are specific for the Agilent 7100 CE instrument (Agilent Technologies) but can be applied to all kinds of capillaries and buffers. Similar SUMET approaches can be developed for other CE instruments with forced-air cooling using our approach. PMID:22528428

  4. Fast determination of cations in honey by capillary electrophoresis: a possible method for geographic origin discrimination.

    PubMed

    Maria Rizelio, Viviane; Gonzaga, Luciano Valdemiro; Borges, Graciele da Silva Campelo; Maltez, Heloisa França; Costa, Ana Carolina Oliveira; Fett, Roseane

    2012-09-15

    This study reports the development and validation of a fast capillary electrophoresis method for cation determination in honey samples and the classification of honey by geographical origin using Principal Components Analysis (PCA). The background electrolyte (BGE) was optimized using the Peakmaster(®) software, which evaluates the tendency of the analytes to undergo electromigration dispersion and the BGE buffer capacity and conductivity. The final BGE composition was defined as 30 mmol L(-1) imidazole, 300 mmol L(-1) acetic acid and 140 mmol L(-1) Lactic acid, at pH 3,0, and the separation of K(+), Na(+), Ca(2+), Mg(2+) and Mn(2+) using Ba(2+) as the internal standard was achieved in less than 2 min. The method showed satisfactory results in terms of linearity (R(2)>0.999), the detection limits ranged from 0.27-3.17 mg L(-1) and the quantification limits ranged from 0.91-10.55 mg L(-1). Precision measurements within 0.55 and 4.64%RSD were achieved and recovery values for the analytes in the honey samples ranged from 93.6%-108.6%. Forty honey samples were analyzed to test the proposed method. These samples were dissolved in deionized water and filtered before injection. The CE-UV reliability in the cation analysis in the real sample was compared statistically with ICP-MS methodology. No significant differences were found, with a 95% confidence interval between the methodologies. The PCA showed that the cumulative variance for the first two principal components explain more than 85% of the variability of the data. The analytical data suggest a significant influence of the geographical origin on the mineral composition. PMID:22967578

  5. Determination of binding constants by affinity capillary electrophoresis, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and phase-distribution methods

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhi; Weber, Stephen G.

    2008-01-01

    Many methods for determining intermolecular interactions have been described in the literature in the past several decades. Chief among them are methods based on spectroscopic changes, particularly those based on absorption or nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) [especially proton NMR (1H NMR)]. Recently, there have been put forward several new methods that are particularly adaptable, use very small quantities of material, and do not place severe requirements on the spectroscopic properties of the binding partners. This review covers new developments in affinity capillary electrophoresis, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and phasetransfer methods. PMID:19802330

  6. Use of experimental design and effective mobility calculations to develop a method for the determination of antimicrobials by capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Mamani, Mónica Cecília Vargas; Amaya-Farfan, Jaime; Reyes, Felix Guillermo Reyes; Silva, José Alberto Fracassi da; Rath, Susanne

    2008-09-15

    A capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) method for the determination of chloramphenicol (CLP), danofloxacin (DANO), ciprofloxacin (CIPRO), enrofloxacin (ENRO), sulfamethazine (SMZ), sulfaquinoxaline (SQX) and sulfamethoxazole (SMX) is described. For the development, the effective mobilities were estimated and a central composite design was performed. The method was in-house validated for CLP, CIPRO, ENRO and SMX determination in pharmaceuticals. In comparison with the HPLC method recommended by the United States Pharmacopoeia, this CZE method exhibited the same performance, with the advantage that seven different antimicrobials in pharmaceutical formulations could be simultaneously determined. PMID:18761147

  7. Novel absorption detection techniques for capillary electrophoresis

    SciTech Connect

    Xue, Y.

    1994-07-27

    Capillary electrophoresis (CE) has emerged as one of the most versatile separation methods. However, efficient separation is not sufficient unless coupled to adequate detection. The narrow inner diameter (I.D.) of the capillary column raises a big challenge to detection methods. For UV-vis absorption detection, the concentration sensitivity is only at the {mu}M level. Most commercial CE instruments are equipped with incoherent UV-vis lamps. Low-brightness, instability and inefficient coupling of the light source with the capillary limit the further improvement of UV-vis absorption detection in CE. The goals of this research have been to show the utility of laser-based absorption detection. The approaches involve: on-column double-beam laser absorption detection and its application to the detection of small ions and proteins, and absorption detection with the bubble-shaped flow cell.

  8. Validated Method for the Determination of Piroxicam by Capillary Zone Electrophoresis and Its Application to Tablets

    PubMed Central

    Dal, Arın Gül; Oktayer, Zeynep; Doğrukol-Ak, Dilek

    2014-01-01

    Simple and rapid capillary zone electrophoretic method was developed and validated in this study for the determination of piroxicam in tablets. The separation of piroxicam was conducted in a fused-silica capillary by using 10 mM borate buffer (pH 9.0) containing 10% (v/v) methanol as background electrolyte. The optimum conditions determined were 25 kV for separation voltage and 1 s for injection time. Analysis was carried out with UV detection at 204 nm. Naproxen sodium was used as an internal standard. The method was linear over the range of 0.23–28.79 µg/mL. The accuracy and precision were found to be satisfied within the acceptable limits (<2%). The LOD and LOQ were found to be 0.07 and 0.19 µg/mL, respectively. The method described here was applied to tablet dosage forms and the content of a tablet was found in the limits of USP-24 suggestions. To compare the results of capillary electrophoretic method, UV spectrophotometric method was developed and the difference between two methods was found to be insignificant. The capillary zone electrophoretic method developed in this study is rapid, simple, and suitable for routine analysis of piroxicam in pharmaceutical tablets. PMID:25295220

  9. Unexpected surface chemistry in capillaries for electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Kaupp, S; Bubert, H; Baur, L; Nelson, G; Wätzig, H

    2000-10-13

    Good and reproducible capillary quality is needed to develop robust methods and to facilitate method transfer in CE. Physical surface defects no longer play a major role in variability of fused-silica capillaries. Nevertheless, problems are frequently being reported when buffers in the pH range between 4 and 7 are used. Thus the surface chemistry has been studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Silicon-carbon bindings have been found on inner capillary surfaces for electrophoresis. This binding type is not completely removed by pre-conditioning with 1 M NaOH for 30 min. This corresponds to the result, that capillaries provide more stable migration times, especially in the pH range 4-7, when they are pre-conditioned for longer than 1 h. The origin of this Si-C bond is still not quite clear. They could be caused by graphite which is used during the fabrication of the raw cylinders prior to capillary drawing. Further investigations are intended in order to understand if there are any differences in surface carbon content from batch to batch and if this can influence experimental results in CE. A better understanding of the surface chemistry should not only improve robustness in CE, but also help to facilitate and accelerate capillary pre-conditioning and rinsing procedures to remove strongly adsorbed analytes or matrices. PMID:11100849

  10. Atomic Force Controlled Capillary Electrophoresis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Aaron; Yeshua, Talia; Palchan, Mila; Lovsky, Yulia; Taha, Hesham

    2010-03-01

    Lithography based on scanning probe microscopic techniques has considerable potential for accurate & localized deposition of material on the nanometer scale. Controlled deposition of metallic features with high purity and spatial accuracy is of great interest for circuit edit applications in the semiconductor industry, for plasmonics & nanophotonics and for basic research in surface enhanced Raman scattering & nanobiophysics. Within the context of metal deposition we will review the development of fountain pen nanochemistry and its most recent emulation Atomic Force Controlled Capillary Electrophoresis (ACCE). Using this latter development we will demonstrate achievement of unprecedented control of nanoparticle deposition using a three-electrode geometry. Three electrodes are attached: one on the outside of a metal coated glass probe, one on the inside of a hollow probe in a solution containing Au nanoparticles in the capillary, and a third on the surface where the writing takes place. The three electrodes provide electrical pulses for accurate control of deposition and retraction of the liquid from the surface overcoming the lack of control seen in both dip pen lithography & fountain pen nanochemistry when the tip contacts the surface. With this development, we demonstrate depositing a single 1.3 nm Au nanoparticle onto surfaces such as semiconductors.

  11. Adapting capillary gel electrophoresis as a sensitive, high-throughput method to accelerate characterization of nucleic acid metabolic enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Greenough, Lucia; Schermerhorn, Kelly M.; Mazzola, Laurie; Bybee, Joanna; Rivizzigno, Danielle; Cantin, Elizabeth; Slatko, Barton E.; Gardner, Andrew F.

    2016-01-01

    Detailed biochemical characterization of nucleic acid enzymes is fundamental to understanding nucleic acid metabolism, genome replication and repair. We report the development of a rapid, high-throughput fluorescence capillary gel electrophoresis method as an alternative to traditional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis to characterize nucleic acid metabolic enzymes. The principles of assay design described here can be applied to nearly any enzyme system that acts on a fluorescently labeled oligonucleotide substrate. Herein, we describe several assays using this core capillary gel electrophoresis methodology to accelerate study of nucleic acid enzymes. First, assays were designed to examine DNA polymerase activities including nucleotide incorporation kinetics, strand displacement synthesis and 3′-5′ exonuclease activity. Next, DNA repair activities of DNA ligase, flap endonuclease and RNase H2 were monitored. In addition, a multicolor assay that uses four different fluorescently labeled substrates in a single reaction was implemented to characterize GAN nuclease specificity. Finally, a dual-color fluorescence assay to monitor coupled enzyme reactions during Okazaki fragment maturation is described. These assays serve as a template to guide further technical development for enzyme characterization or nucleoside and non-nucleoside inhibitor screening in a high-throughput manner. PMID:26365239

  12. Multiplexed fluorescence detector system for capillary electrophoresis

    DOEpatents

    Yeung, Edward S.; Taylor, John A.

    1994-06-28

    A fluorescence detection system for capillary electrophoresis is provided wherein the detection system can simultaneously excite fluorescence and substantially simultaneously monitor separations in multiple capillaries. This multiplexing approach involves laser irradiation of a sample in a plurality of capillaries through optical fibers that are coupled individually with the capillaries. The array is imaged orthogonally through a microscope onto a charge-coupled device camera for signal analysis.

  13. Multiplexed fluorescence detector system for capillary electrophoresis

    DOEpatents

    Yeung, Edward S.; Taylor, John A.

    1996-03-12

    A fluorescence detection system for capillary electrophoresis is provided wherein the detection system can simultaneously excite fluorescence and substantially simultaneously monitor separations in multiple capillaries. This multiplexing approach involves laser irradiation of a sample in a plurality of capillaries through optical fibers that are coupled individually with the capillaries. The array is imaged orthogonally through a microscope onto a charge-coupled device camera for signal analysis.

  14. Multiplexed fluorescence detector system for capillary electrophoresis

    DOEpatents

    Yeung, E.S.; Taylor, J.A.

    1994-06-28

    A fluorescence detection system for capillary electrophoresis is provided wherein the detection system can simultaneously excite fluorescence and substantially simultaneously monitor separations in multiple capillaries. This multiplexing approach involves laser irradiation of a sample in a plurality of capillaries through optical fibers that are coupled individually with the capillaries. The array is imaged orthogonally through a microscope onto a charge-coupled device camera for signal analysis. 14 figures.

  15. Multiplexed fluorescence detector system for capillary electrophoresis

    DOEpatents

    Yeung, E.S.; Taylor, J.A.

    1996-03-12

    A fluorescence detection system for capillary electrophoresis is provided wherein the detection system can simultaneously excite fluorescence and substantially simultaneously monitor separations in multiple capillaries. This multiplexing approach involves laser irradiation of a sample in a plurality of capillaries through optical fibers that are coupled individually with the capillaries. The array is imaged orthogonally through a microscope onto a charge-coupled device camera for signal analysis. 14 figs.

  16. Determination of nitrate and nitrite in Hanford defense waste(HDW) by reverse polarity capillary zone electrophoresis (RPCE)method

    SciTech Connect

    Metcalf, S.G.

    1998-06-10

    This paper describes the first application of reverse polarity capillary zone electrophoresis (RPCE) for rapid and accurate determination of nitrate and nitrite in Hanford Defense Waste (HDW). The method development was carried out by using Synthetic Hanford Waste (SHW), followed by the analysis of 4 real HDW samples. Hexamethonium bromide (HMB) was used as electroosmotic flow modifier in borate buffer at pH 9.2 to decrease the electroosmotic flow (EOF) in order to enhance the speed of analysis and the resolution of nitrate and nitrite in high ionic strength HDW samples. The application of this capillary zone electrophoresis method, when compared with ion chromatography for two major components of HDW, nitrate and nitrite slightly reduced analysis time, eliminated most pre-analysis handling of the highly radioactive sample, and cut analysis wastes by more than 2 orders of magnitude. The analysis of real HDW samples that were validated by using sample spikes showed a concentration range of 1.03 to 1.42 M for both nitrate. The migration times of the real HDW and the spiked HDW samples were within a precision of less than 3% relative standard deviation. The selectivity ratio test used for peak confirmation of the spiked samples was within 96% of the real sample. Method reliability was tested by spiking the matrix with 72.4 mM nitrate and nitrite. Recoveries for these spiked samples were 93-103%.

  17. Development of a fast and selective separation method to determine histamine in tuna fish samples using capillary zone electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Vitali, Luciano; Valese, Andressa Camargo; Azevedo, Mônia Stremel; Gonzaga, Luciano Valdemiro; Costa, Ana Carolina Oliveira; Piovezan, Marcel; Vistuba, Jacqueline Pereira; Micke, Gustavo A

    2013-03-15

    This paper reports on the development of a fast and selective separation method by capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) for the determination of histamine in tuna fish samples. The background electrolyte was composed of 60 mmol L(-1) hydroxyisobutyric acid and 10 mmol L(-1) sodium hydroxide at pH 3.3. The internal standard used was imidazole. Separations were performed in a fused uncoated silica capillary (32 cm total length, 8.5 cm effective length and 50 μm internal diameter) with direct UV detection at 210 nm. The samples and standards were injected hydrodynamically (50 mbar, 3s) from the outlet capillary end (nearest to the detector) and the electrophoretic system was operated under normal polarity and constant voltage conditions of 30 kV (positive polarity on the injection side). The migration time of histamine in the proposed method was only 0.34 min. The method was then validated and different tuna fish samples were analyzed. Good linearity (R(2)>0.999), a limit of detection 0.14 mg L(-1), intra-day precision better than 3.5% (peak area of sample), and recovery in the range of 94-108% were obtained. The results of the histamine concentration determined in the samples by the CZE method were compared with the LC-MS/MS method. PMID:23598114

  18. Determination of surfactants by capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Heinig, K; Vogt, C

    1999-10-01

    Capillary electrophoresis has been increasingly used during the past few years for the separation and determination of surfactants. These substances are applied in many household and industrial products such as laundry detergents, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals, often as homologous and isomeric mixtures. Product development and control as well as toxicological and environmental analyses require selective and sensitive analytical methods. This review presents capillary electrophoretic techniques to determine important representatives of cationic, anionic, and neutral surfactants. The application of different buffer additives such as organic solvents, cyclodextrins or micelles to enhance the resolution of complex mixtures is discussed. Besides direct and indirect UV and fluorescence detection, examples for conductivity and mass spectrometric detection are also given. Derivatization procedures to improve the detectability and implement charge in neutral analytes are described. The successful use of capillary electrophoresis for surfactant determinations has proven that it can serve as a routine technique in many real-world applications. Robust, validated methods for the quantitation of single compounds, such as alkylbenzene sulfonates, sodium dodecyl sulfate and benzalkonium salts, are now available. Characteristic peak patterns (fingerprint analysis) can be used for the identification of surfactants in multicomponent formulations (e.g. ethoxylates and phosphonates). PMID:10596832

  19. Nonlinear waves in capillary electrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Ghosal, Sandip; Chen, Zhen

    2011-01-01

    Electrophoretic separation of a mixture of chemical species is a fundamental technique of great usefulness in biology, health care and forensics. In capillary electrophoresis the sample migrates in a microcapillary in the presence of a background electrolyte. When the ionic concentration of the sample is sufficiently high, the signal is known to exhibit features reminiscent of nonlinear waves including sharp concentration ‘shocks’. In this paper we consider a simplified model consisting of a single sample ion and a background electrolyte consisting of a single co-ion and a counterion in the absence of any processes that might change the ionization states of the constituents. If the ionic diffusivities are assumed to be the same for all constituents the concentration of sample ion is shown to obey a one dimensional advection diffusion equation with a concentration dependent advection velocity. If the analyte concentration is sufficiently low in a suitable non-dimensional sense, Burgers’ equation is recovered, and thus, the time dependent problem is exactly solvable with arbitrary initial conditions. In the case of small diffusivity either a leading edge or trailing edge shock is formed depending on the electrophoretic mobility of the sample ion relative to the background ions. Analytical formulas are presented for the shape, width and migration velocity of the sample peak and it is shown that axial dispersion at long times may be characterized by an effective diffusivity that is exactly calculated. These results are consistent with known observations from physical and numerical simulation experiments. PMID:20238181

  20. A microdestructive capillary electrophoresis method for the analysis of blue-pen-ink strokes on office paper.

    PubMed

    Calcerrada, Matías; González-Herráez, Miguel; Garcia-Ruiz, Carmen

    2015-06-26

    This manuscript describes the development of a capillary electrophoresis (CE) method for the detection of acid and basic dyes and its application to real samples, blue-pen-ink strokes on office paper. First, a capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) method was developed for the separation of basic and acid dyes, by studying the separation medium (buffer nature, pH and relative amount of additive) and instrumental parameters (temperature, voltage and capillary dimensions). The method performance was evaluated in terms of selectivity, resolution (above 5 and 2 for acid dyes and basic dyes, respectively, except for two basic dye standards), LOD (lower than 0.4 mg/L) and precision as intraday and interday RSD values of peak migration times (lower than 0.6%). The developed method was then applied to 34 blue pens from different technologies (rollerball, ballpoint, markers) and with different ink composition (gel, water-based, oil-based). A microdestructive sample treatment using a scalpel to scratch 0.3mg of ink stroke was performed. The entire electropherogram profile allowed the visual discrimination between different types of ink and brands, being not necessary a statistical treatment. A 100% of discrimination was achieved between pen technologies, brands, and models, although non-reproducible zones in the electropherograms were found for blue gel pen samples. The two different batches of blue oil-based pens were also differentiated. Thus, this method provides a simple, microdestructive, and rapid analysis of different blue pen technologies which may complement the current analysis of questioned documents performed by forensic laboratories. PMID:26003620

  1. Optimization of capillary electrophoresis method with contactless conductivity detection for the analysis of tobramycin and its related substances.

    PubMed

    El-Attug, Mohamed Nouri; Hoogmartens, Jos; Adams, Erwin; Van Schepdael, Ann

    2012-01-25

    A method was validated and optimized to determine tobramycin (TOB) and its related substances. TOB is an aminoglycoside antibiotic which lacks a strong UV absorbing chromophore or fluorophore. Due to the physicochemical properties of TOB, capillary electrophoresis (CE) in combination with Capacitively Coupled Contactless Conductivity Detection (C(4)D) was chosen. The optimized separation method uses a background electrolyte (BGE) composed of 25 mM morpholinoethane-sulphonic acid (MES) adjusted to pH 6.4 by L-histidine (l-His). 0.3 mM cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) was added as electroosmotic flow modifier in a concentration below the critical micellar concentration (CMC). Ammonium acetate 50 mg L(-1) was used as internal standard (IS). 30 kV was applied in reverse polarity (cathode at the injection capillary end) on a fused silica capillary (65/43 cm; 75 μm id). The optimized separation was obtained in less than 7 min with good linearity (R(2)=0.9995) for tobramycin. It shows a good precision expressed as RSD on relative peak areas equal to 0.2% and 0.7% for intraday and interday respectively. The LOD and LOQ are 0.4 and 1.3 mg L(-1) corresponding to 9 pg and 31 pg respectively. PMID:22015240

  2. Analytical biotechnology: Capillary electrophoresis and chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Horvath, C.; Nikelly, J.G.

    1990-01-01

    The papers describe the separation, characterization, and equipment required for the electrophoresis or chromatography of cyclic nucleotides, pharmaceuticals, therapeutic proteins, recombinant DNA products, pheromones, peptides, and other biological materials. One paper, On-column radioisotope detection for capillary electrophoresis, has been indexed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  3. An on-line stacking capillary electrophoresis method for the analysis of Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol and its metabolites.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Hui-Ling; Tsai, Yi-Hsuan; Hsu, Wan-Ling; Lin, Yi-Hui

    2015-12-24

    The objective of this study was to establish a practical and reliable analytical method for monitoring trace amounts of Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and its metabolites in biological samples. A novel on-line preconcentration capillary electrophoresis method combining large volume sample injection, anion selective exhaustive injection and sweeping was developed to enhance analytical sensitivity. A background buffer composed with 30mM phosphate buffer (pH 2.5) containing 40% methanol and 100mM SDS was used to suppress the electroosmotic flow of the uncoated fused silica capillary (40cm×50μm i.d.). High conductivity buffer (200mM phosphate, pH 2.5) was injected for analyte accumulation. The samples, prepared in phosphate buffer or Tris buffer, were introduced by hydrodynamic injection and electrokinetic injection. After sweeping, the separation was performed in micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) mode at -15kV. During the method validation, the coefficient of determination of the regression curve was measured at greater than 0.993, and the relative standard deviation and relative error were lower than 11.06% and 9.24%, respectively. Under optimized conditions, an improvement of up to 2000-fold higher sensitivity was achieved. This method was applied to the analysis of urine samples, indicating that it could be satisfactorily utilized in the toxicological and clinical monitoring of cannabis. PMID:26643722

  4. Using capillary electrophoresis to characterize polymeric particles.

    PubMed

    Riley, Kathryn R; Liu, Sophia; Yu, Guo; Libby, Kara; Cubicciotti, Roger; Colyer, Christa L

    2016-09-01

    Capillary electrophoresis (CE) was used for the characterization of a variety of polymeric micron and sub-micron particles based on size, surface functionality, and binding properties. First, a robust capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) method was developed for the baseline separation and quantitation of commercially available polystyrene particles with various surface modifications (including amino, carboxylate, and sulfate functional groups) and various sizes (0.2, 0.5, 1.0, and 3.0μm). The separation of DNA-templated polyacrylamide particles from untemplated particles (as used for the Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine) was demonstrated. Finally, using the 29-base thrombin aptamer and thrombin protein as a model system, a study was undertaken to determine dissociation constants for the aptamer and protein in free solution and when the aptamer was conjugated to a particle, with the goal of better understanding how the use of solid substrates, like particles, affects selection and binding processes. Dissociation constants were determined and were found to be approximately 5-fold higher for the aptamer conjugated to a particle relative to that in free solution. PMID:27543386

  5. Development of a capillary electrophoresis method for analyzing adenosine deaminase and purine nucleoside phosphorylase and its application in inhibitor screening.

    PubMed

    Qi, Yanfei; Li, Youxin; Bao, James J

    2016-08-01

    A novel capillary electrophoresis (CE) method was developed for simultaneous analysis of adenosine deaminase (ADA) and purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) in red blood cells (RBCs). The developed method considered and took advantage of the natural conversion from the ADA product, inosine to hypoxanthine. The transformation ratio was introduced for ADA and PNP analysis to obtain more reliable results. After optimizing the enzymatic incubation and electrophoresis separation conditions, the determined activities of ADA and PNP in 12 human RBCs were 0.237-0.833 U/ml and 9.013-10.453 U/ml packed cells, respectively. The analysis of ADA in mice RBCs indicated that there was an apparent activity difference between healthy and hepatoma mice. In addition, the proposed method was also successfully applied in the inhibitor screening from nine traditional Chinese medicines, and data showed that ADA activities were strongly inhibited by Rhizoma Chuanxiong and Angelica sinensis. The inhibition effect of Angelica sinensis on ADA is first reported here and could also inhibit PNP activity. PMID:27173606

  6. Microfluidic Breadboard Approach to Capillary Electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Koenka, Israel Joel; Sáiz, Jorge; Rempel, Paul; Hauser, Peter C

    2016-04-01

    A breadboard approach for electrophoretic separations with contactless conductivity detection is presented. This is based on miniature off-the-shelf components such as syringe pumps, valves, and pressure controllers which could be set up in a very compact overall arrangement. It has a high flexibility for different tasks at hand, and the common operations of hydrodynamic injection and capillary flushing are automated. For demonstration of the versatility of the proposition, several very diverse configurations and modes of electrophoresis were successfully implemented, namely, standard capillary zone electrophoresis, pressure assisted zone electrophoresis, the simultaneous separation of cations and anions by dual-capillary zone electrophoresis, the separation of cationic amino acids by isotachophoresis, as well as the separation of small carboxylic acids by gradient elution moving boundary electrophoresis. The system also allows fast separations, as demonstrated by the analysis of six inorganic cations within 35 s. The approach addresses respective limitations of either conventional capillary electrophoresis instruments as well as electrophoretic lab-on-chip devices, while maintaining a performance in terms of detection limits and reproducibility comparable to standard instrumentation. PMID:26926522

  7. A capillary electrophoresis method for the determination of selected biogenic amines and amino acids in mammalian decomposition fluid.

    PubMed

    Swann, L M; Forbes, S L; Lewis, S W

    2010-06-15

    A simple capillary zone electrophoresis method for the determination of selected biogenic amines (tyramine and tryptamine) and amino acids (tryptophan, phenylalanine and tyrosine) in mammalian decomposition fluids is presented. Separations were carried out in a fused silica capillary (75microm i.d., total length 65cm, effective length 56cm) with detection by ultraviolet absorbance spectrophotometry at 200nm. In order to improve resolution and total analysis time, the method was subjected to optimisation utilising a chemometric approach. A screening design was carried out followed by a central composite design (CCD), using peak resolution and total analysis time as response factors. The influences of four experimental variables (pH, background electrolyte concentration, percentage of organic modifier (methanol) and applied voltage) were investigated. Optimum separation conditions were determined to be; a background electrolyte of boric acid (70mM) adjusted to pH 9.5 with 0.1M sodium hydroxide with 32% methanol (v/v). Applied voltage was 30kV, with the resulting current being less than 26microA. Under these conditions the analytes were separated within 12min. Tryptamine, tyramine, tryptophan, tyrosine and phenylalanine were identified by migration time and spiking in porcine decomposition fluids. PMID:20441960

  8. High-performance capillary electrophoresis of histones

    SciTech Connect

    Gurley, L.R.; London, J.E.; Valdez, J.G.

    1991-01-01

    A high performance capillary electrophoresis (HPCE) system has been developed for the fractionation of histones. This system involves electroinjection of the sample and electrophoresis in a 0.1M phosphate buffer at pH 2.5 in a 50 {mu}m {times} 35 cm coated capillary. Electrophoresis was accomplished in 9 minutes separating a whole histone preparation into its components in the following order of decreasing mobility; (MHP) H3, H1 (major variant), H1 (minor variant), (LHP) H3, (MHP) H2A (major variant), (LHP) H2A, H4, H2B, (MHP) H2A (minor variant) where MHP is the more hydrophobic component and LHP is the less hydrophobic component. This order of separation is very different from that found in acid-urea polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and in reversed-phase HPLC and, thus, brings the histone biochemist a new dimension for the qualitative analysis of histone samples. 27 refs., 8 figs.

  9. New capillary gel electrophoresis method for fast and accurate identification and quantification of multiple viral proteins in influenza vaccines.

    PubMed

    van Tricht, Ewoud; Geurink, Lars; Pajic, Bojana; Nijenhuis, Johan; Backus, Harold; Germano, Marta; Somsen, Govert W; Sänger-van de Griend, Cari E

    2015-11-01

    Current methods for the identification and/or quantification of viral proteins in influenza virus and virosome samples suffer from long analysis times, limited protein coverage and/or low accuracy and precision. We studied and optimized capillary gel electrophoresis (CGE) in order to achieve faster and enhanced characterization and quantification of viral proteins. Sample preparation as well the composition of the gel buffer was investigated in order to achieve adequate protein separation in relatively short times. The total sample preparation (reduction and deglycosylation) could be carried out efficiently within two hours. Hydrodynamic injection, separation voltage, and capillary temperature were optimized in full factorial design. The final method was validated and showed good performance for hemagglutinin fragment 1 (HA1), hemagglutinin fragment 2 (HA2), matrix protein (M) and nucleoprotein (NP). The CGE method allowed identification of different virus strains based on their specific protein profile. B/Brisbane inactivated virus and virosome samples could be analyzed within one day. The CGE results (titers) were comparable to single radial immune-diffusion (SRID), but the method has the advantage of a much faster time to results. CGE analysis of A/Christchurch from upstream process demonstrated the applicability of the method to samples of high complexity. The CGE method could be used in the same analyte concentration range as the RP-HPLC method, but showed better precision and accuracy. Overall, the total analysis time for the CGE method was much shorter, allowing analysis of 100 samples in 4 days instead of 10 days for SRID. PMID:26452923

  10. Cytokine Analysis by Immunoaffinity Capillary Electrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Mendonca, Mark; Kalish, Heather

    2014-01-01

    Immunoaffinity capillary electrophoresis (ICE) is a powerful tool used to detect and quantify target proteins of interest in complex biological fluids. The target analyte is captured and bound to antibodies immobilized onto the wall of a capillary, labeled in situ with a fluorescent dye, eluted and detected online using laser-induced fluorescence following electrophoretic separation. Here, we illustrate how to construct an immunoaffinity capillary and utilize it to run ICE in order to capture and quantify target cytokines and chemokines from a clinical sample. PMID:22976107

  11. Analysis of spiramycin by capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    González-Hernández, R; Li, Y M; Van Schepdael, A; Roets, E; Hoogmartens, J

    1999-09-01

    The development and validation of an analytical method for the determination of spiramycin I in the presence of its related substances by capillary electrophoresis is shown. The separation, performed in a phosphate buffer (80 mM, pH 7.5) containing 12 mM cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and 20 mM sodium cholate, with a 50 microm ID and 44 cm long fused-silica capillary (36 cm effective length), applying a voltage of 12 kV (l approximately 80 microA), at 25 degrees C, is achieved in 15 min. Good selectivity among spiramycin I and its related substances was obtained. The influence of the buffer pH, and of the CTAB and sodium cholate concentrations was investigated. The method robustness, examined by means of a full-fraction factorial design, shows that it can be used within the limits set for the three parameters that were investigated. The method is linear (r = 0.9992) and precise (day-to-day corrected peak area repeatability, n = 18, relative standard deviation = 1.3%). The limits of detection and quantitation are 7 pg (0.025%) and 22 pg (0.08%), respectively, relative to a 2 mg/mL solution. PMID:10499332

  12. Capillaries for use in a multiplexed capillary electrophoresis system

    DOEpatents

    Yeung, E.S.; Chang, H.T.; Fung, E.N.

    1997-12-09

    The invention provides a side-entry optical excitation geometry for use in a multiplexed capillary electrophoresis system. A charge-injection device is optically coupled to capillaries in the array such that the interior of a capillary is imaged onto only one pixel. In Sanger-type 4-label DNA sequencing reactions, nucleotide identification (``base calling``) is improved by using two long-pass filters to split fluorescence emission into two emission channels. A binary poly(ethyleneoxide) matrix is used in the electrophoretic separations. 19 figs.

  13. Capillaries for use in a multiplexed capillary electrophoresis system

    SciTech Connect

    Yeung, Edward S.; Chang, Huan-Tsang; Fung, Eliza N.

    1997-12-09

    The invention provides a side-entry optical excitation geometry for use in a multiplexed capillary electrophoresis system. A charge-injection device is optically coupled to capillaries in the array such that the interior of a capillary is imaged onto only one pixel. In Sanger-type 4-label DNA sequencing reactions, nucleotide identification ("base calling") is improved by using two long-pass filters to split fluorescence emission into two emission channels. A binary poly(ethyleneoxide) matrix is used in the electrophoretic separations.

  14. In-vial liquid-liquid microextraction-capillary electrophoresis method for the determination of phenolic acids in vegetable oils.

    PubMed

    Abu Bakar, Nur Bahiyah; Makahleh, Ahmad; Saad, Bahruddin

    2012-09-12

    An in-vial liquid-liquid microextraction method was developed for the selective extraction of the phenolic acids (caffeic, gallic, cinnamic, ferulic, chlorogenic, syringic, vanillic, benzoic, p-hydroxybenzoic, 2,4-dihydroxybenzoic, o-coumaric, m-coumaric and p-coumaric) in vegetable oil samples. The optimised extraction conditions for 20 g sample were: volume of diluent (n-hexane), 2 mL; extractant, methanol: 5 mM sodium hydroxide (60:40; v/v); volume of extractant, 300 μL (twice); vortex, 1 min; centrifugation, 5 min. Recoveries for the studied phenolic acids were 80.1-119.5%. The simultaneous determination of the phenolic acid extracts was investigated by capillary electrophoresis (CE). Separations were carried out on a bare fused-silica capillary (50 μm i.d.× 40 cm length) involving 25 mM sodium tetraborate (pH 9.15) and 5% methanol as CE background electrolyte in the normal polarity mode, voltage of 30 kV, temperature of 25°C, injection time of 4s (50 mbar) and electropherograms were recorded at 200 nm. The phenolic acids were successfully separated in less than 10 min. The validated in-vial LLME-CE method was applied to the determination of phenolic acids in vegetable oil samples (extra virgin olive oil, virgin olive oil, pure olive oil, walnut oil and grapeseed oil). The developed method shows significant advantages over the current methods as lengthy evaporation step is not required. PMID:22884208

  15. DNA ADDUCT RESEARCH WITH CAPILLARY ELECTROPHORESIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    DNA's central importance in all biological systems dictates a wide variety of DNA-related research. or much of this research, the utilization of capillary electrophoresis (CE) can be of significant advantage. pen-tube CE yields excellent separations of DNA components, which can b...

  16. Planetary In Situ Capillary Electrophoresis System (PISCES)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willis, P. A.; Stockton, A. M.; Mora, M. F.; Cable, M. L.; Bramall, N. E.; Jensen, E. C.; Jiao, H.; Lynch, E.; Mathies, R. A.

    2012-10-01

    We propose to develop PISCES, a 3-kg, 2W, flight-capable microfluidic lab-on-a-chip capillary electrophoresis analyzer capable of ingesting solid, liquid, or gas samples and performing a suite of chemical analyses with parts per trillion sensitivity.

  17. Capillary electrophoresis with UV detection and mass spectrometry in method development for profiling metabolites of steroid hormone metabolism.

    PubMed

    Sirén, Heli; Seppänen-Laakso, Tuulikki; Oresic, Matej

    2008-08-15

    The aim of this study was to develop a method for comprehensive profiling of metabolites involved in mammalian steroid metabolism. The study was performed using the partial filling micellar electrokinetic chromatography (PF-MEKC) technique for determination of endogenous low-hydrophilic steroids. The detection techniques in capillary electrophoresis were UV absorption and electrospray mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). Thirteen steroids were included in the method development, and the selected were metabolites involved in major pathways of steroid biosynthesis. Although only eight of them could be separated and detected with UV, they could be identified by ESI-MS using selected ion monitoring (SIM) technique. Tandem MS spectra were also collected. UV detection was more sensitive than MS due to better separation of compounds and the selective signal sensitivity. The lowest limits of detection were 10-100 ng/mL for cortisone, corticosterone, hydrocortisone and testosterone. The other steroids could be detected at 500-1000 ng/mL. The identification of cortisone, corticosterone, hydrocortisone, estrogen and testosterone were made in patient urine samples and their concentrations were 1-40 microg/L. PMID:18585986

  18. Development and validation of a capillary electrophoresis method for the determination of codeine, diphenhydramine, ephedrine and noscapine in pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Gomez, María R; Sombra, Lorena; Olsina, Roberto A; Martínez, Luis D; Silva, María F

    2005-01-01

    The present work describes a simple, accurate and rapid method for the separation and simultaneous determination of codeine, diphenhydramine, ephedrine and noscapine present in cough-cold syrup formulations by capillary zone electrophoresis. Factors affecting the separation were the buffer pH and concentration, applied voltage, and presence of additives. Separations were carried out in less than 10 min with a 20 mM sodium tetraborate buffer, pH 8.50. The carrier electrolyte gave baseline separation with good resolution, great reproducibility and accuracy. Calibration plots were linear over at least three orders of magnitude of analyte concentrations, the lower limits of detection being within the range 0.42-1.33 microg ml(-1). Detection was performed by UV absorbance at wavelengths of 205 and 250 nm. Quantification of the components in actual syrup formulations was calculated against the responses of freshly prepared external standard solutions. The method was validated and met all analysis requirements of quality assurance and quality control. The procedure was fast and reliable and commercial pharmaceuticals could be analyzed without prior sample clean-up procedure. PMID:15652374

  19. An optimized capillary electrophoresis method for the simultaneous analysis of biomass degradation products in ionic liquid containing samples.

    PubMed

    Aid, Tiina; Paist, Loore; Lopp, Margus; Kaljurand, Mihkel; Vaher, Merike

    2016-05-20

    An indirect capillary electrophoresis method for a quantitative determination of mono-, di- and oligosaccharides was developed to investigate biomass degradation, the isomerization of glucose into fructose and conversion of fructose to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) in ionic liquids (ILs). Three chromophores, namely 2,6-pyridinedicarboxylic acid (PDC), maleic acid and phthalic acid, were used to perform indirect detection. The electroosmotic flow (EOF) was reversed to reduce analysis time, using 1-tetradecyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (C14MImCl). The simultaneous separation of the underivatized mono-, di- and oligosaccharides was performed using four cellodextrin oligomers (cellotriose, cellotetraose, cellopentaose, cellohexaose), eight carbohydrates (xylose, fructose, glucose, galactose, lactose, cellobiose, raffinose, sucrose), two organic acids (acetic acid, levulinic acid) and 5-HMF. The best performance was obtained using background electrolyte (BGE) composed of 138.2mM NaOH, 40mM maleic acid and 5mMC14MImCl, the applied voltage was -21.7kV. The linear ranges for analyzed compounds were following: organic acids, raffinose and sucrose from 0.20 to 7mM, cellodextrin oligomers from 0.25 to 5mM, other analyzed carbohydrates from 0.25 to 7mM and 5-HMF from 0.05 to 7mM. The relative standard deviations (RSD) of peak areas varied from 3.47 to 9.62% during a 5-day analysis period and 0.58-5.29% during one day. PMID:27095128

  20. Analysis of Stevia glycosides by capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Mauri, P; Catalano, G; Gardana, C; Pietta, P

    1996-02-01

    The determination of diterpene glycosides from Stevia rebaudiana leaves using capillary electrophoresis is described. Analyses were performed on fused silica capillaries with 20 mM sodium tetraborate buffer, pH 8.3, and 30 mM sodium dodecyl sulfate. The effect of the organic solvent injected with the sample solution on the electrophoretic solution has been confirmed, and an absolute amount of 1.6 nL per injected sample was optimal. Rebaudioside A and steviolbioside were isolated by semipreparative high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and their structure was assessed by mass spectrometry. PMID:8900944

  1. Capillary electrophoresis for regulatory analysis: is it ready? Problems encountered during an interlaboratory study utilizing capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Mopper, B; Sciacchitano, C J

    1997-01-01

    Recently, the Northeast Regional Laboratory of the Food and Drug Administration conducted a collaborative study on the method to determine histamine in tuna by capillary electrophoresis. This study, under the guidance of the AOAC International, was the first of its kind involving the use of CE and was undertaken to establish official monograph status. The results of the collaborative study, however, were highly variable. Percent recovery data obtained by 11 collaborators ranged from 54 to 281%, with an average of 111%. In this paper, problems with reproducibility, and factors such as low sensitivity, noisy baselines, and variable migration times encountered by collaborators using various commercial capillary electrophoresis units are discussed. PMID:9624572

  2. A Rapid and Cost-Effective Method for Genotyping Genome-Edited Animals: A Heteroduplex Mobility Assay Using Microfluidic Capillary Electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Chenouard, Vanessa; Brusselle, Lucas; Heslan, Jean-Marie; Remy, Séverine; Ménoret, Séverine; Usal, Claire; Ouisse, Laure-Hélène; NGuyen, Tuan Huy; Anegon, Ignacio; Tesson, Laurent

    2016-05-20

    The recent emergence and application of engineered endonucleases have led to the development of genome editing tools capable of rapidly implementing various targeted genome editions in a wide range of species. Moreover, these novel tools have become easier to use and have resulted in a great increase of applications. Whilst gene knockout (KO) or knockin (KI) animal models are relatively easy to achieve, there is a bottleneck in the detection and analysis of these mutations. Although several methods exist to detect these targeted mutations, we developed a heteroduplex mobility assay on an automated microfluidic capillary electrophoresis system named HMA-CE in order to accelerate the genotyping process. The HMA-CE method uses a simple PCR amplification of genomic DNA (gDNA) followed by an automated capillary electrophoresis step which reveals a heteroduplexes (HD) signature for each mutation. This allows efficient discrimination of wild-type and genome-edited animals down to the single base pair level. PMID:27209567

  3. Capillary electrophoresis for total glycosaminoglycan analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ucakturk, Ebru; Cai, Chao; Li, Lingyun; Li, Guoyun; Zhang, Fuming; Linhardt, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    A capillary zone electrophoresis-laser induced fluorescence detection (CZE-LIF) method was developed for the simultaneous analysis of disaccharides derived from heparan sulfate, chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate, hyaluronan and keratan sulfate. Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) were first depolymerized with the mixture of GAG lyases (heparinase I, II, III and chondroitinase ABC and chondroitinase AC II) and GAG endohydrolase (keratinase II) and the resulting disaccharides were derivatized by reductive amination with 2-aminoacridone. Nineteen fluorescently labeled disaccharides were separated using 50 mM phosphate buffer (pH 3.3) under reversed polarity at 25 kV. Using these conditions, all the disaccharides examined were baseline-separated in less then 25 min. This CZE-LIF method gave good reproducibility both migration time (≤ 1.03% for intra-day and ≤ 4.4% for inter-day) and the peak area values (≤ 5.6% for intra- and ≤ 8.69% for inter-day). This CZE-LIF method was used for profiling and quantification of GAG derivative disaccharides in bovine cornea. The results shows that the current CZE-LIF method offers fast, simple, sensitive, reproducible determination of disaccharides derived from total GAGs in a single run. PMID:24817364

  4. Capillary zone electrophoresis-mass spectrometer interface

    DOEpatents

    D'Silva, Arthur

    1996-08-06

    A device for providing equal electrical potential between two loci unconnected by solid or liquid electrical conducts is provided. The device comprises a first electrical conducting terminal, a second electrical conducting terminal connected to the first terminal by a rigid dielectric structure, and an electrically conducting gas contacting the first and second terminals. This device is particularly suitable for application in the electrospray ionization interface between a capillary zone electrophoresis apparatus and a mass spectrometer.

  5. Capillary zone electrophoresis-mass spectrometer interface

    DOEpatents

    D`Silva, A.

    1996-08-06

    A device for providing equal electrical potential between two loci unconnected by solid or liquid electrical conductors is provided. The device comprises a first electrical conducting terminal, a second electrical conducting terminal connected to the first terminal by a rigid dielectric structure, and an electrically conducting gas contacting the first and second terminals. This device is particularly suitable for application in the electrospray ionization interface between a capillary zone electrophoresis apparatus and a mass spectrometer. 1 fig.

  6. Highly multiplexed DNA sequencing by capillary electrophoresis

    SciTech Connect

    Yeung, E.S.; Ueno, K.; Chang, H.T.

    1994-12-31

    It is obvious that irrespective of whichever basic technology is eventually selected to sequence the entire human genome there are substantial gains to be made if a high degree of multiplexing of parallel runs can be implemented. Such multiplexing should not involve expensive instrumentation and should not require additional personnel, or else the main objective of cost reduction will not be satisfied even though the total time for sequencing is reduced. In the last two years, several research groups have shown that capillary electrophoresis (CE) is an attractive alternative for DNA sequencing. Part of the improvement in sequencing speed in CE is counteracted by the inherent ability of slab gels for accommodating multiple lanes in a single run. Recently, the authors have developed several excitation schemes for highly multiplexed capillary electrophoresis. Detection at the pM level was demonstrated. The authors report here the use of a novel excitation geometry to simultaneously monitor 100 capillary tubes during electrophoresis. This represents a truly parallel multiplexing scheme for high-speed DNA sequencing.

  7. Application of capillary electrophoresis in agricultural and soil chemistry research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As a modern analytical technique, capillary electrophoresis (CE) has become an attractive method for characterizing molecules wit high structural complexity and a wide range of molecular weights. CE can be used to analyze many natural chemical components such as acids, biogenic amines, peptides, pro...

  8. A quick method for determination of psychoactive agents in serum and hair by using capillary electrophoresis and mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Woźniakiewicz, Aneta; Wietecha-Posłuszny, Renata; Woźniakiewicz, Michał; Bryczek, Ewelina; Kościelniak, Paweł

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the research was to develop a new sensitive method for simultaneously the determination of psychoactive drugs: 1-benzylpiperazine, 7-aminoclonazepam, alprazolam, clonazepam, diazepam, estazolam, lorazepam and tetrazepam in human serum and hair samples. In the preparation step, microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) was used. Extracts were analyzed by means of capillary electrophoresis with mass spectrometry time-of-flight detection (CE-TOF-MS). In the validation study of the MAE/CE-TOF-MS analytical method, three concentration levels of analytes (10, 100 and 250 ng/mL for serum and 0.2, 2.2 and 5.6 ng/mL for hair) were taken into account. Such parameters as limit of detection (0.4-1.2 ng/mL for serum, 6.0-23.0 pg/mg for hair), limit of quantification (1.3-4.1 ng/mL for serum, 20.0-77.0 pg/mg for hair), precision (3.0-11.3% for serum, 2.4-14.2% for hair), accuracy of the assay (RE) (-8.0 to 12.0% for serum, -8.0 to 11.0% for hair), recovery (88.6-113.4% for serum, 86.1-107.4% for hair) and matrix effects (87.9-110.7% for serum, 85.1-108.4% for hair) were calculated for the studied compounds. Then, the MAE/CE-TOF-MS method was successfully applied to the analysis of hair samples taken from patients treated with benzodiazepines. PMID:25890213

  9. [A systematic screening and identification method for 29 central nervous system drugs in body fluid by high performance capillary electrophoresis].

    PubMed

    Wu, H F; Guan, F Y; Luo, Y

    1997-05-01

    A systematic screening method has been developed for the detection of 29 central nervous system (CNS) drugs in human plasma, urine and gastric juice by high performance capillary electrophoresis (HPCE). The first step is sample preparation. The patient's or normal human plasma (0.5 ml) spiked with CNS drugs was extracted with 2 x 4 ml dichloromethane, while 2 ml of patient's or spiked urine was extracted with 2 x 6 ml chloroform. The combined extract from plasma or urine was evaporated to dryness in a rotation evaporator at 35 degrees C. The residue was dissolved in 100 microliters methanol and subsequently 400 microliters of redistilled water was added. The patient gastric juice (3 ml) was centrifuged at 2,000 r.min-1 for 5 min. The supernatant was filtered through 0.45 micron microporous membrane for injection onto capillary columns. The second step was to perform CZE separation in acidic buffer composed of 30 mmol.L-1(NH4)3PO4(pH 2.50) and 10% acetonitrile (condition A). Most of the benzodiazepines (diazepam, nitrazepam, chlordiazepoxide, flurazepam, extazolam, alprazolam) and methaqualone were baseline separated and detected at 5-13 min, while thiodiphenylamines showed group peaks at 3-5 min and barbiturates migrate with electroosmotic fluid (EOF) together. The third step is to separate the drugs in basic buffer constituted of 70 mmol.L-1 Na2HPO4(pH 8.60) and 30% acetonitrile (condition B). The thiodiphenylamines and some other basic drugs could be well separated, which include thihexyphenidyl, imipramine, amitriptyline, diphenhydramine, chlorpromazine, doxepin, chlorprothixene, promethazine and flurazepam, while the rest of the CNS drugs did not interfere with the separation. The last step was to separate the drugs by micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) in such a buffer as 70 mmol.L-1 SDS plus 15 mmol.L-1 Na2HPO4 (pH 7.55) and 5% methanol (condition C). Barbiturates (barbital, phenobarbital, methylphenobarbital, amobarbital, thiopental, pentobarbital

  10. Development of a capillary electrophoresis method for the characterization of "palo azul" (Eysenhardtia polystachya).

    PubMed

    Salinas-Hernández, Pastora; López-Bermúdez, Francisco J; Rodríguez-Barrientos, Damaris; Ramírez-Silva, María Teresa; Romero-Romo, Mario A; Morales-Anzures, Fernando; Rojas-Hernández, Alberto

    2008-03-01

    The tree Eysenhardtia polystachya (Ortega) Sarg. has quite a wide popular use within the traditional Mexican medicine as herbal remedy. Popular practices constitute a relevant enough basis to design optimum analytical methods in order to determine basic principles of diverse medicinal plants. This has become one of the essentials needed to characterize such products, for which it is fundamentally important to develop an efficient and reliable separation method. This work presents the results concerning the development and optimization of a novel CE method for the separation of components from water/etanol (1:1) extracts of E. polystachya, using the following conditions, considered the best obtained: phosphate buffer 10 mM, 20 kV voltage, and pH 8.1 at 214 nm and 50 mM, 12.5 kV voltage with pH 8.1 at 426 nm. The optimization takes into account the parameters associated in the resulting electropherograms, such as number of peaks, migration times, and the Deltat(m) of the neighboring peaks. Under optimal conditions the separation intended was attained within 15 and 20 min for 214 and 426 nm, respectively. The characterization method developed was applied to the analysis of diverse extracts of E. polystachya. PMID:18266292

  11. Strongly nonlinear waves in capillary electrophoresis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhen; Ghosal, Sandip

    2012-05-01

    In capillary electrophoresis, sample ions migrate along a microcapillary filled with a background electrolyte under the influence of an applied electric field. If the sample concentration is sufficiently high, the electrical conductivity in the sample zone could differ significantly from the background. Under such conditions, the local migration velocity of sample ions becomes concentration-dependent, resulting in a nonlinear wave that exhibits shocklike features. If the nonlinearity is weak, the sample concentration profile, under certain simplifying assumptions, can be shown to obey Burgers’ equation [Ghosal and Chen, Bull. Math. Biol.BMTBAP0092-824010.1007/s11538-010-9527-2 72, 2047 (2010)], which has an exact analytical solution for arbitrary initial condition. In this paper, we use a numerical method to study the problem in the more general case where the sample concentration is not small in comparison to the concentration of background ions. In the case of low concentrations, the numerical results agree with the weakly nonlinear theory presented earlier, but at high concentrations, the wave evolves in a way that is qualitatively different.

  12. A capillary electrophoresis method to explore the self-assembly of a novel polypeptide ligand with quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianhao; Zhang, Chencheng; Liu, Li; Kalesh, Karunakaran A; Qiu, Lin; Ding, Shumin; Fu, Minli; Gao, Li-Qian; Jiang, Pengju

    2016-08-01

    Polyhistidine peptides are effective ligands to coat quantum dots (QDs). It is known that both the number of histidine (His) residues repeats and their structural arrangements in a peptide ligand play important roles in the assembly of the peptide onto CdSe/ZnS QDs. However, due to steric hindrance, a peptide sequence with more than six His residue tandem repeats would hardly coordinate well with Zn(2+) in the QD shell to further enhance the binding affinity. To solve this problem, a His-containing peptide ligand, ATTO 590-E2 G (NH)6 (ATTO-NH), was specifically designed and synthesized for assembly with QDs. With sequential injection of QDs and ATTO-NH into the capillary electrophoresis with fluorescence detection, strong Förster resonance energy transfer phenomenon between the QDs and the ATTO 590 dye was observed, indicating efficient self-assembly of the novel peptide onto the QDs to form ATTO-NH capped QDs inside the capillary. The binding stability of the ligand onto the QD was then systematically investigated by titrating with imidazole, His, and a his-tag containing competitive peptide. It is believed that this new in-capillary assay significantly reduced the sample consumption and the analysis time. By functionalizing QDs with certain metal cation-specific group fused peptide ligand, the QD-based probes could be even extended to the online detection of metal cations for monitoring environment in the future. PMID:27334251

  13. On-line preconcentration of sodium dodecyl sulfate-protein complexes using electrokinetic supercharging method with a prefilled water plug in capillary sieving electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing; Kang, Mingchao; Liu, Zhen

    2011-09-01

    An electrokinetic supercharging (EKS) method with a prefilled water plug at the head column of capillary was developed for on-line preconcentration of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-protein complexes in capillary sieving electrophoresis (CSE). Conventional EKS is a combination of electrokinetic injection with transient isotachophoresis (tr-ITP). The capillary is first filled with background electrolyte, then an appropriate amount of a leading electrolyte is filled and electro-injection is carried out for certain duration. After that, terminating electrolyte is filled, and tr-ITP is subsequently initiated, followed by capillary electrophoresis (CE) separation. In this work, the performance of EKS was evaluated by integrating multiple sub-methods step by step, and a water plug containing polymer was introduced before electrokinetic injection in order to further improve the concentration effect. The positive effects of the sub-methods were verified, including molecular sieving effect of polymer, field enhanced sample injection (FESI) with and without a water plug, and transient isotachophoretic electrophoresis-based FESI. It was observed that analyte discrimination usually encountered in conventional electrokinetic injection was eliminated due to the similar charge to mass ratios of SDS-protein complexes. Based on these results, a hybrid on-line preconcentration method, EKS with injecting a water plug containing polymer before sample electrokinetic injection, was proposed and used to indiscriminately preconcentrate SDS-protein complexes, which provided a sensitivity enhancement factor of more than 1000. It was very suitable for the analysis of low-abundance proteins, providing the information of their molecular mass. PMID:22233073

  14. Quantitative determination of the β-methyl carbapenem doripenem in powder for injection by a stability-indicating capillary zone electrophoresis method.

    PubMed

    Paliosa, P K; Garcia, C V; Schapoval, E E S; Mendez, A S L; Steppe, M

    2015-09-01

    A capillary zone electrophoresis method for quantitative determination of doripenem in synthetic matrix was developed. The stability-indicating capability was performed applying stress testing protocols. The selected analytical conditions include 100 mM sodium borate buffer (pH 8.0) as run electrolyte, voltage of +15 kV, hydrodynamic injection of 5s (50 mBar), detection at 298 nm and temperature of analysis of 25 degrees C. The electrophoretic separation was carried out in a fused silica capillary (effective length 40 cm, 50 μm i.d.), using procainamide hydrochloride as internal standard. The proposed method showed quickness and reproducibility, with an analytical run in a total time of 5 min. The percentage of drug amount estimated was 101.33% (RSD = 0.80), with satisfactory intra-day and inter-day precision. In the recovery test, the method was found to be reliable and accurate in the drug quantitation (mean recovery = 101.86%). The robustness was performed applying the Plackett-Burman experimental design which confirmed the assay reliability. Based on results from forced degradation study, the stability-indicating capability was established, being observed a major degradation in alkaline, photolytic and thermal conditions. In comparison to HPLC method previously developed, the proposed capillary electrophoresis assay is statistically equivalent. PMID:26492640

  15. Sheathless interface for coupling capillary electrophoresis with mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Chenchen; Tang, Keqi; Smith, Richard D.

    2014-06-17

    A sheathless interface for coupling capillary electrophoresis (CE) with mass spectrometry is disclosed. The sheathless interface includes a separation capillary for performing CE separation and an emitter capillary for electrospray ionization. A portion of the emitter capillary is porous or, alternatively, is coated to form an electrically conductive surface. A section of the emitter capillary is disposed within the separation capillary, forming a joint. A metal tube, containing a conductive liquid, encloses the joint.

  16. Coaxial capillary and conductive capillary interfaces for collection of fractions isolated by capillary electrophoresis

    SciTech Connect

    Chiu, R.W.; Walker, K.L.; Hagen, J.J.; Monning, C.A.; Wilkins, C.L.

    1995-11-15

    An instrument is described that allows the automated collection of fractions isolated by capillary electrophoresis. This instrument allows the electrical connection to be established with the separation capillary by using a coaxial capillary flow cell or by treating the outer surface of the capillary with a gold-filled epoxy to allow electrophoresis. The coaxial interface is most useful when the electroosmotic flow in the capillary is small, and the conductive capillary interface is favored when dilution and contamination of the sample must be minimized. Both geometries permit closely spaced fractions to be acquired with minimal cross-contamination and dilution. Sample recoveries were better than 80% and virtually independent of the chemical characteristics of the sample. Fractions isolated with this instrument were successfully analyzed by high-pressure liquid chromatography and electrospray mass spectrometry. 25 refs., 4 figs.

  17. Gene analysis of multiple oral bacteria by the polymerase chain reaction coupled with capillary polymer electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chenchen; Yamaguchi, Yoshinori; Sekine, Shinichi; Ni, Yi; Li, Zhenqing; Zhu, Xifang; Dou, Xiaoming

    2016-03-01

    Capillary polymer electrophoresis is identified as a promising technology for the analysis of DNA from bacteria, virus and cell samples. In this paper, we propose an innovative capillary polymer electrophoresis protocol for the quantification of polymerase chain reaction products. The internal standard method was modified and applied to capillary polymer electrophoresis. The precision of our modified internal standard protocol was evaluated by measuring the relative standard deviation of intermediate capillary polymer electrophoresis experiments. Results showed that the relative standard deviation was reduced from 12.4-15.1 to 0.6-2.3%. Linear regression tests were also implemented to validate our protocol. The modified internal standard method showed good linearity and robust properties. Finally, the ease of our method was illustrated by analyzing a real clinical oral sample using a one-run capillary polymer electrophoresis experiment. PMID:26648455

  18. Capillary Electrophoresis coupled with Automated Fraction Collection

    PubMed Central

    Huge, Bonnie Jaskowski; Flaherty, Ryan; Dada, Oluwatosin O.; Dovichi, Norman J.

    2014-01-01

    A fraction collector based on a drop-on-demand ink-jet printer was developed to interface capillary zone electrophoresis with a 96 well microtiter plate. We first evaluated the performance of the collector by using capillary zone electrophoresis to analyze a 1 mM solution of tetramethylrhodamine; a fluorescent microtiter plate reader was then used to detect the analyte and characterize fraction carryover between wells. Relative standard deviation in peak height was 20% and the relative standard deviation in migration time was 1%. The mean and standard deviation of the tetramethylrhodamine peak width was 5 ± 1 s and likely limited by the 4-s period between droplet deposition. We next injected a complex mixture of DNA fragments and used real-time PCR to quantify the product in a CE-SELEX experiment. The reconstructed electrophoretic peak was 27 s in duration. Finally, we repeated the experiment in the presence of a 30-μM thrombin solution under CE-SELEX conditions; fractions were collected and next-generation sequencing was used to characterize the DNA binders. Over 25,000 sequences were identified with close matches to known thrombin binding aptamers. PMID:25159411

  19. Capillary electrophoresis of DNA for molecular diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Righetti, P G; Gelfi, C

    1997-09-01

    A number of applications of capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) in sieving liquid polymers (notably linear polyacrylamides and cellulose) for the analysis of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products of clinically relevant, diagnostic DNA, are reviewed. The fields covered are: human genetics, quantitative gene dosage, microbiology and virology, forensic medicine and therapeutic DNA (notably, antisense nucleotides). Some unique, novel developments are highlighted, such as: (i) nonisocratic CZE, i.e., temperature-programmed CZE for detection of DNA point mutations; (ii) the synthesis of novel N-substituted acrylamides, offering extreme resistance to alkaline hydrolysis coupled to high hydrophilicity. In the field of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), as routinely performed in gel slabs, a novel methodology is described in CZE: double-gradient DGGE. In this technique, two gradients are simultaneously applied along the migration direction: a chemical (or thermal) denaturing gradient, for partially unwinding homo- and hetero-duplexes of DNA, and a porosity gradient, for recompacting diffuse bands melting over a broader range of denaturing conditions. It is thus demonstrated that chemical gradients, in addition to temperature gradients, can be easily implemented even in a capillary format. PMID:9372261

  20. Capillary electrophoresis coupled with automated fraction collection.

    PubMed

    Huge, Bonnie Jaskowski; Flaherty, Ryan J; Dada, Oluwatosin O; Dovichi, Norman J

    2014-12-01

    A fraction collector based on a drop-on-demand ink-jet printer was developed to interface capillary zone electrophoresis with a 96 well microtiter plate. We first evaluated the performance of the collector by using capillary zone electrophoresis to analyze a 1mM solution of tetramethylrhodamine; a fluorescent microtiter plate reader was then used to detect the analyte and characterize fraction carryover between wells. Relative standard deviation in peak height was 20% and the relative standard deviation in migration time was 1%. The mean and standard deviation of the tetramethylrhodamine peak width was 5 ± 1 s and likely limited by the 4-s period between droplet deposition. We next injected a complex mixture of DNA fragments and used real-time PCR to quantify the product in a CE-SELEX experiment. The reconstructed electrophoretic peak was 27 s in duration. Finally, we repeated the experiment in the presence of a 30-µM thrombin solution under CE-SELEX conditions; fractions were collected and next-generation sequencing was used to characterize the DNA binders. Over 25,000 sequences were identified with close matches to known thrombin binding aptamers. PMID:25159411

  1. Microfab-less Microfluidic Capillary Electrophoresis Devices

    PubMed Central

    Segato, Thiago P.; Bhakta, Samir A.; Gordon, Matthew; Carrilho, Emanuel; Willis, Peter A.; Jiao, Hong; Garcia, Carlos D.

    2013-01-01

    Compared to conventional bench-top instruments, microfluidic devices possess advantageous characteristics including great portability potential, reduced analysis time (minutes), and relatively inexpensive production, putting them on the forefront of modern analytical chemistry. Fabrication of these devices, however, often involves polymeric materials with less-than-ideal surface properties, specific instrumentation, and cumbersome fabrication procedures. In order to overcome such drawbacks, a new hybrid platform is proposed. The platform is centered on the use of 5 interconnecting microfluidic components that serve as the injector or reservoirs. These plastic units are interconnected using standard capillary tubing, enabling in-channel detection by a wide variety of standard techniques, including capacitively-coupled contactless conductivity detection (C4D). Due to the minimum impact on the separation efficiency, the plastic microfluidic components used for the experiments discussed herein were fabricated using an inexpensive engraving tool and standard Plexiglas. The presented approach (named 52-platform) offers a previously unseen versatility: enabling the assembly of the platform within minutes using capillary tubing that differs in length, diameter, or material. The advantages of the proposed design are demonstrated by performing the analysis of inorganic cations by capillary electrophoresis on soil samples from the Atacama Desert. PMID:23585815

  2. Identification of fentanyl derivatives at trace levels with nonaqueous capillary electrophoresis-electrospray-tandem mass spectrometry (MS(n), n = 2, 3): analytical method and forensic applications.

    PubMed

    Rittgen, Jan; Pütz, Michael; Zimmermann, Ralf

    2012-06-01

    The identification of fentanyl derivatives at trace levels employing capillary electrophoresis coupled to electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (CE-ESI-MS(n) , n = 2, 3) is presented. The studied synthetic opioid fentanyl and its derivatives have an exceeding analgesic potency which can be up to 8000 times higher that of morphine. Apart from their therapeutical applications, there is an abuse of them in the drug scene as a heroin substitute. The identification of these opioids at trace levels is of further significant forensic interest with respect to recent seizures of clandestine fentanyl laboratories in Germany. In this work, a nonaqueous capillary electrophoresis (NACE)-ESI-MS(n) procedure was developed for the separation and identification of six fentanyl derivatives including fentanyl, cis- and trans-methylfentanyl, sufentanil, alfentanil, and carfentanil. Their fragmentation pattern in MS(n) experiments were investigated as well as the influence of the sheath-liquid mixture and the influence of the inside diameter of the fused silica capillary on the peak shape and the signal to noise ratio. Method validation included determination of the detection limits (about 1-2 nmol/L) and the repeatability of migration time (at most 0.07% relative standard deviation). The NACE-MS procedure was successfully applied for the analysis of real samples from seizures in illegal fentanyl laboratories. PMID:22736362

  3. Fast methods for analysis of neurotransmitters from single cell and monitoring their releases in central nervous system by capillary electrophoresis, fluorescence microscopy and luminescence imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Ziqiang

    1999-12-10

    Fast methods for separation and detection of important neurotransmitters and the releases in central nervous system (CNS) were developed. Enzyme based immunoassay combined with capillary electrophoresis was used to analyze the contents of amino acid neurotransmitters from single neuron cells. The release of amino acid neurotransmitters from neuron cultures was monitored by laser induced fluorescence imaging method. The release and signal transduction of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in CNS was studied with sensitive luminescence imaging method. A new dual-enzyme on-column reaction method combined with capillary electrophoresis has been developed for determining the glutamate content in single cells. Detection was based on monitoring the laser-induced fluorescence of the reaction product NADH, and the measured fluorescence intensity was related to the concentration of glutamate in each cell. The detection limit of glutamate is down to 10{sup {minus}8} M level, which is 1 order of magnitude lower than the previously reported detection limit based on similar detection methods. The mass detection limit of a few attomoles is far superior to that of any other reports. Selectivity for glutamate is excellent over most of amino acids. The glutamate content in single human erythrocyte and baby rat brain neurons were determined with this method and results agreed well with literature values.

  4. Applications of capillary electrophoresis in biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Lagu, A L

    1999-10-01

    Capillary electrophoresis (CE)-related techniques are increasingly being used as a matter of routine practice in the biotechnology discipline. Since recombinant DNA-derived proteins and the antisense oligonucleotides constitute a large portion of the applications of these techniques, they have been emphasized in this review. Analyses by CE of Escherichia coli-derived proteins and glycosylated proteins derived from mammalian cell cultures are summarized, as well as those of the carbohydrate chains that have been enzymatically removed from the protein. Applications of CE in the analysis of the antisense oligonucleotides for the determination of purity and the analytical studies on the metabolism of these modified oligonucleotides, by CE are reviewed. The literature mainly covers the period from 1996. PMID:10596822

  5. Capillary zone electrophoresis of large DNA.

    PubMed

    Guszczynski, T; Pulyaeva, H; Tietz, D; Garner, M M; Chrambach, A

    1993-01-01

    Capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) of DNA 23.1 to 48.5 kb in length in polyacrylamide solutions of several concentrations provides evidence for polymer concentration and DNA length-dependent stretching and orientation of these species and suggests an effective separation at a polymer concentration of about 0.6%. Applying a 0.1% polyacrylamide concentration to the lambda-phage DNA ladder, at least 5 components are separated; separation improves with lowering of the field strength to 2 V/cm and, correspondingly, extended duration of CZE. Saccharomyces pombe chromosomal DNA separates into 3 major components on CZE at high field strength (270 V/cm) in 0.9% polyacrylamide solution, confirming a previous finding made on electrophoresis in a 1.1 mm ID tube at low field strength. However, the finding is limited to one source of the DNA plug, and the chromosomal identity of the components remains unknown. Methodological problems in the CZE of large DNA relate to the need for extended duration of pressure injection if absorbance detection is applied, the need to define the starting zone after extended pressure injection, the need to melt and digest agarose plugs prior to loading, and related needs for thermostating of the sample chamber and for software compatible with low voltage operation. PMID:8354238

  6. Capillary and microchip electrophoresis: challenging the common conceptions.

    PubMed

    Breadmore, Michael C

    2012-01-20

    Capillary electrophoresis (CE) has long been regarded as a powerful analytical separation technique that is an alternative to more traditional methods such as gel electrophoresis (GE) and liquid chromatography (LC). It is often touted as having a number of advantages over both of these, such as speed, flexibility, portability, sample and reagent requirements and cost, but also a number of disadvantages such as reproducibility and sensitivity. Microchip electrophoresis (ME), the next evolutionary step, miniaturised CE further providing improvements in speed and sample requirements as well as the possibility to perform more complex and highly integrated analyses. CE and ME are seen as a viable alternative to GE, but are often considered to be inferior to LC. This review will consider the strengths and weaknesses of both CE and ME and will challenge the common conceptions held about these. PMID:22000781

  7. Validation of STR typing by capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Moretti, T R; Baumstark, A L; Defenbaugh, D A; Keys, K M; Brown, A L; Budowle, B

    2001-05-01

    With the use of capillary electrophoresis (CE), high-resolution electrophoretic separation of short tandem repeat (STR) loci can be achieved in a semiautomated fashion. Laser-induced detection of fluorescently labeled PCR products and multicolor analysis enable the rapid generation of multilocus DNA profiles. In this study, conditions for typing PCR-amplified STR loci by capillary electrophoresis were investigated using the ABI Prism 310 Genetic Analyzer (Applied Biosystems). An internal size standard was used with each run to effectively normalize mobility differences among injections. Alleles were designated by comparison to allelic ladders that were run with each sample set. Multiple runs of allelic ladders and of amplified samples demonstrate that allele sizes were reproducible, with standard deviations typically less than 0.12 bases for fragments up to 317 bases in length (largest allele analyzed) separated in a 47 cm capillary. Therefore, 99.7% of all alleles that are the same length should fall within the measurement error window of +/- 0.36 bases. Microvariants of the tetranucleotide repeats were also accurately typed by the analytical software. Alleles differing in size by one base could be resolved in two-donor DNA mixtures in which the minor component comprised > or = 5% of the total DNA. Furthermore, the quantitative data format (i.e., peak amplitude) can in some instances assist in determining individual STR profiles in mixed samples. DNA samples from previously typed cases (typed for RFLP, AmpliType PM+DQA1, and/or D1S80) were amplified using AmpFlSTR Profiler Plus and COfiler and were evaluated using the ABI Prism 310. Most samples yielded typable results. Compared with previously determined results for other loci, there were no discrepancies as to the inclusion or exclusion of suspects or victims. CE thus provides efficient separation, resolution, sensitivity and precision, and the analytical software provides reliable genotyping of STR loci. The

  8. Determination of benzylpenicillin in pharmaceuticals by capillary zone electrophoresis

    SciTech Connect

    Hoyt, A.M. Jr. ); Sepaniak, M.J. )

    1989-04-01

    A rapid and direct method is described for the determination of benzylpenicillin (penicillin G) in pharmaceutical preparations. The method involves very little sample preparation and total analysis time for duplicate results is less 30 minutes per sample. The method takes advantage of the speed and separating power of capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE). Detection of penicillin is by absorption at 228 nm. An internal standard is employed to reduce sample injection error. The method was applied successfully to both tablets and injectable preparations. 14 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. ANALYSIS OF THE ENANTIOMERS OF CHIRAL PESTICIDES AND OTHER POLLUTANTS IN ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLES BY CAPILLARY ELECTROPHORESIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The generic method described here involves typical capillary electrophoresis (CE) techniques, with the addition of cyclodextrin chiral selectors to the electrolyte for enantiomer separation and also, in the case of neutral analytes, the further addition of a micelle forming comp...

  10. Capillary Electrophoresis Profiles and Fluorophore Components of Humic Acids in Nebraska Corn and Philippine Rice Soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As humic substances represent relatively high molecular mass polyelectrolytes containing aromatic, aliphatic and heterocyclic subunits, capillary electrophoresis (CE) has become an attractive method for “finger-print” characterization of humic acids. In addition, fluorescence excitation-emission ma...

  11. Development of a rapid method for simultaneous separation of hyaluronic acid, chondroitin sulfate, dermatan sulfate and heparin by capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ting; Song, Xinlei; Tan, Xiaoqing; Xu, Linghua; Yu, Mingxiu; Wang, Siyi; Liu, Xiumei; Wang, Fengshan

    2016-05-01

    This study reports the use of diethylenetriamine as background electrolyte for the simultaneous separation of hyaluronan acid, chondroitin sulfate, dermatan sulfate and heparin. The analytes were baseline separated by using an uncoated fused silica capillary at 37°C with a run time of 23min. The migration order, with hyaluronan acid at first and heparin at last, was related to the sulfation degree. The effect of salt concentration on resolution and migration order was also investigated. The developed method was applied to the simultaneous determination of hyaluronan acid and chondroitin sulfate in mouse plasma. Interferences in plasma were removed by protein precipitation and glycosaminoglycans were further purified by ethanol precipitation. The method was validated over the concentration range from 50 to 600μg/mL for hyaluronan acid and 500 to 6000μg/mL for chondroitin sulfate in mouse plasma. Results from assay validations showed that the method was selective and robust. PMID:26877013

  12. Fabricating PFPE Membranes for Capillary Electrophoresis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Michael C.; Willis, Peter A.; Greer, Frank; Rolland, Jason

    2009-01-01

    A process has been developed for fabricating perfluoropolyether (PFPE) membranes that contain microscopic holes of precise sizes at precise locations. The membranes are to be incorporated into laboratory-on-a-chip microfluidic devices to be used in performing capillary electrophoresis. The present process is a modified version of part of the process, described in the immediately preceding article, that includes a step in which a liquid PFPE layer is cured into solid (membrane) form by use of ultraviolet light. In the present process, one exploits the fact that by masking some locations to prevent exposure to ultraviolet light, one can prevent curing of the PFPE in those locations. The uncured PFPE can be washed away from those locations in the subsequent release and cleaning steps. Thus, holes are formed in the membrane in those locations. The most straightforward way to implement the modification is to use, during the ultraviolet-curing step, an ultraviolet photomask similar to the photomasks used in fabricating microelectronic devices. In lieu of such a photomask, one could use a mask made of any patternable ultraviolet-absorbing material (for example, an ink or a photoresist).

  13. Developing a fluorescence-coupled capillary electrophoresis based method to probe interactions between QDs and colorectal cancer targeting peptides.

    PubMed

    Liu, Feifei; Wang, Jianhao; Yang, Li; Liu, Li; Ding, Shumin; Fu, Minli; Deng, Linhong; Gao, Li-Qian

    2016-08-01

    As is well known, quantum dots (QDs) have become valuable probes for cancer imaging. In particular, QD-labeled targeting peptides are capable of identifying cancer or tumors cells. A new colorectal cancer targeting peptide, cyclo(1, 9)-CTPSPFSHC, has strong targeting ability and also shows great potential in the identification and treatment of colon cancer. Herein, we synthesized a dual functional polypeptide, cyclo(1, 9)-CTPSPFSHCD2 G2 DP9 G3 H6 (H6 -TCP), to investigate its interaction with QDs inside the capillary. Fluorescence-coupled CE was adopted and applied to characterize the self-assembly of H6 -TCP onto QDs. It was indicated that the formation of the assembly was affected by H6 -TCP/QD molar ratio and sampling time. This novel in-capillary assay greatly reduced the sample consumption and the detection time, which was beneficial for the environment. It is expected that this kind of detection method could find more applications to provide more useful information for cancer diagnosis and detection of harm and hazardous substances/organisms in the environment in the future. PMID:27159348

  14. A green capillary zone electrophoresis method for the simultaneous determination of piperacillin, tazobactam and cefepime in pharmaceutical formulations and human plasma.

    PubMed

    Al-Attas, Amirah; Nasr, Jenny Jeehan; El-Enany, Nahed; Belal, Fathalla

    2015-12-01

    A green, novel, rapid, accurate and reliable capillary zone electrophoresis method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of piperacillin, tazobactam and cefepime in pharmaceutical preparations. Separation was carried out using fused silica capillary (50 µm i.d. × 48.6 cm and 40.2 cm detection length) and applied potential of 20 kV (positive polarity) and a running buffer containing 15 m m sodium borate buffer adjusted to pH 9.3 with UV detection at 215 nm. Amoxicillin was used as an internal standard. The method was suitably validated according to International Conference on Harmonization guidelines. The method showed good linearity in the ranges of 10-100, 20-400 and 10-400 µg/mL with limits of quantitation of 1.87, 3.17 and 6.97 µg/mL and limits of detection of 0.56, 0.95 and 2.09 µg/mL for tazobactam, piperacillin and cefepime, respectively. The proposed method was successfully applied for the analysis of these drugs in their synthetic mixtures and co-formulated injection vials. The method was extended to the in vitro determination of the two drugs in spiked human plasma. It is considered a 'green' method as it consumes no organic solvents. PMID:26058453

  15. CAPILLARY ELECTROPHORESIS FOR THE CHARACTERIZATION OF HUMIC SUBSTANCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The potential of high performance capillary electrophoresis (HPCE), especially in the free solution mode (FSCE), is demonstrated for the analysis/characterization of environmental humic substances (HUS). he very high efficiency of HPCE separations allows the production of electro...

  16. Capillary zone electrophoresis and capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry for analyzing qualitative and quantitative variations in therapeutic albumin.

    PubMed

    Marie, Anne-Lise; Przybylski, Cédric; Gonnet, Florence; Daniel, Régis; Urbain, Rémi; Chevreux, Guillaume; Jorieux, Sylvie; Taverna, Myriam

    2013-10-24

    The present study describes a reproducible and quantitative capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) method, which leads to the separation of nine forms (native, oxidized and glycated) of human serum albumin (HSA). In an attempt to identify the different species separated by this CZE method, the capillary electrophoresis was coupled to mass spectrometry using a sheath liquid interface, an optimized capillary coating and a suitable CE running buffer. CE-MS analyses confirmed the heterogeneity of albumin preparation and revealed new truncated and modified forms such as Advanced Glycation End products (AGEs). Assignment of the CZE peaks was carried out using specific antibodies, carboxypeptidase A or sample reduction before or during the CE separation. Thus, five HSA forms were unambiguously identified. Using this CZE method several albumin batches produced by slightly different fractionation ways could be discriminated. Furthermore, analyses of HSA preparations marketed by five pharmaceutical industries revealed that two therapeutic albumins, including that marketed by LFB, contained the highest proportion of native form and lower levels of oxidized forms. PMID:24120174

  17. Development and validation of a cyclodextrin-modified capillary electrophoresis method for the enantiomeric separation of vildagliptin enantiomers.

    PubMed

    Kazsoki, Adrienn; Fejős, Ida; Sohajda, Tamás; Zhou, Wei; Hu, Wenhui; Szente, Lajos; Béni, Szabolcs

    2016-05-01

    The enantiomers of vildagliptin, an orally available and selective dipeptidyl-peptidase-4 inhibitor used for the treatment of type II diabetes, have been separated by CD-modified CZE, using uncoated fused-silica capillary. After screening 13 negatively charged CD derivatives as potential chiral selectors, sulfobutyl-ether-α-CD (SBE-α-CD) was selected for the enantioseparation. For the optimization, a factorial analysis study was performed by orthogonal experimental design. Six experimental factors were chosen as variable parameters: temperature, applied voltage, chiral selector and BGE concentrations, pH, and the parameters of the hydrodynamic injection. The optimized system still was not considered final as the second peak (S-enantiomer) migrated too close to the EOF, resulting in a potential inaccuracy during the determination of the chiral impurity. To fine-tune the method "one factor at a time" variation approach was applied. The final method (applying 15°C capillary temperature, 40 mbar × 4 s hydrodynamic injection, 25 kV voltage in 75 mM acetate-Tris buffer [pH 4.75] containing 20 mM SBE-α-CD as chiral selector) was validated according to the ICH guideline. RSD percentage of the resolution value, migration times, and corrected peak areas were below 5% during testing repeatability and intermediate precision. LOD and LOQ values were found to be 2.5 and 7.5 μg/mL, respectively. The method is considered linear in the 7.5-180 μg/mL range for the R-enantiomer. The robustness of the method was justified using Plackett-Burmann statistical experimental design. PMID:26871938

  18. [Does bilirubin interfere with capillary electrophoresis of serum proteins?].

    PubMed

    Hellara, Ilhem; Fekih, Ons; Triki, Sonia; Elmay, Ahlem; Neffati, Fadoua; Najjar, Mohamed Fadhel

    2014-01-01

    Capillary electrophoresis of serum proteins is a fast, reliable and simple technique, but many interference exist. The objective of our work is to study the interference of bilirubin on this technique; 70 icteric sera were analysed on Capillarys ™ (Sebia). A second electrophoresis was performed on 40 samples after bilirubin photodegradation. The bilirubin and serum proteins were determinated respectively by Jendrassik and Grof and biuret methods on Konélab 20i ™ (Thermo Electron Corporation). We found abnormal spreading of the albumin fraction of the anode side wich constitute sometimes an isolated fraction in the traditional area of pre-albumin migration. This fraction varies from 2.0 ± 2.0% (0.0 to 7.3%) or 0.98 ± 1.53 g/L (0 to 5.3 g/L) and it seems to be related to the direct bilirubin since, following overloading sera with a solution of bilirubin, no further fraction was recovered. An average decrease of bilirubin after photodegradation of 58 ± 17% (26-89%) is followed by a decrease in the same order 64 ± 38% (10-100%) of the additional fraction. Acetate cellulose electrophoresis of the same samples showed no variation. The high bilirubin levels seem modify slightly the electrophoretic profile. However the impact of the interference on the interpretation of electrophoretic trace is negligible. PMID:24492101

  19. Capillary zone electrophoresis-mass spectrometry of peptides and proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Loo, J.A.; Udseth, H.R.; Smith, R.D.

    1989-05-01

    Capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) is attracting extensive attention as a fast, high resolution analytical and micro-preparative separations technique for systems of biological interest. In zone electrophoresis, a column is filled with a single electrolyte having a specific conductivity. The mixture of substances to be separated is applied as a narrow band to the head of a buffer filled column in a band whose width is much less than the length of the column and at a concentration too low to affect the buffer conductivity. An electric field is then applied across the length of the column and the individual substances migrate and separate according to their net electrophoretic velocities. Zone electrophoresis carried out in small diameter (<100 ..mu..m) fused silica capillaries is a relatively new approach to the high resolution separation of aqueous samples. Very small volume samples (picoliter range) with separation efficiencies on the order of 10/sup 6/ theoretical plates for amino acids have been achieved. The method can be further enhanced by the dynamic combination of detection sensitivity and selectivity offered by mass spectrometry (MS). The on-line marriage of mass spectrometry to CZE is accomplished by an atmospheric pressure electrospray ionization source interface. Our research efforts have demonstrated that proteins with MW's greater than 100 kDa can be analyzed using a conventional quadrupole mass spectrometer with an upper m/z limit of only 1700. 6 refs.

  20. Determination of glycyrrhizin in liqueurs by on-line coupled capillary isotachophoresis with capillary zone electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Kvasnicka, Frantisek; Voldrich, Michal; Vyhnálek, Josef

    2007-10-26

    An on-line coupled capillary isotachophoresis-capillary zone electrophoresis method for the determination of glycyrrhizin in liqueurs is described. The optimised electrolyte system was 5 mM HCl+11 mM epsilon-aminocaproic acid+0.05% hydroxyethylcellulose+30% methanol (leading electrolyte), 5 mM caproic acid+30% methanol (terminating electrolyte) and 20 mM caproic acid+10 mM histidine+0.1% hydroxyethylcellulose+30% methanol (background electrolyte). Method characteristics, i.e., linearity (20-500 ng/ml), accuracy (recovery 99+/-4%), intra-assay repeatability (2%), intermediate repeatability (3.8%) and detection limit (8 ng/ml) were determined. Speed of analysis, low laboriousness, high sensitivity and low-running cost are the typical attributes of the capillary isotachophoresis-capillary zone electrophoresis method. Developed method was successfully applied to analysis of liqueurs with liquorice extract and some foods (sweets and food supplements) containing liquorice. Found levels of glycyrrhizin in liqueurs, sweets and food supplements varied between 1-16 mg/l, 850-1050 mg/kg and 1.6-1.8 g/kg, respectively. PMID:17875310

  1. Determination of antazoline and tetrahydrozoline in ophthalmic solutions by capillary electrophoresis and stability-indicating HPLC methods.

    PubMed

    Gumustas, Mehmet; Alshana, Usama; Ertas, Nusret; Goger, Nilgun Gunden; Ozkan, Sibel A; Uslu, Bengi

    2016-05-30

    Capillary electrophoretic (CE) and high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) methods were developed and optimized for the determination of antazoline (ANT) and tetrahydrozoline (TET) in ophthalmic formulations. Optimum electrophoretic conditions were achieved using a background electrolyte of 20mM phosphate buffer at pH 7.0, a capillary temperature of 25°C, a separation voltage of 22kV and a pressure injection of the sample at 50mbar for 17s. HPLC analysis was performed with Kinetex (150×4.6mm ID×5μm) (Phenomenex, USA) analytical column with 1mLmin(-1) flow rate of mobile phase which consisted of 0.05% TFA in bidistilled water (pH adjusted to 3.0 with 5M NaOH) and acetonitrile/buffer in the ratio of 63:37 (v/v) at room temperature. Injection volume of the samples was 10μL and the wavelength of the detector was set at 215nm for monitoring both analytes. Calibration graphs showed a good linearity with a coefficient of determination (R(2)) of at least 0.998 for both methods. Intraday and interday precision (expressed as RSD%) were lower than 2.8% for CE and 0.92% for HPLC. The developed methods were demonstrated to be simple and rapid for the determination of ANT and TET in ophthalmic solutions providing recoveries in the range between 97.9 and 102.70% for CE and HPLC. PMID:26952922

  2. PNEUMATIC MICROVALVE FOR ELECTROKINETIC SAMPLE PRECONCENTRATION AND CAPILLARY ELECTROPHORESIS INJECTION

    SciTech Connect

    Cong, Yongzheng; Rausch, Sarah J.; Geng, Tao; Jambovane, Sachin R.; Kelly, Ryan T.

    2014-10-27

    Here we show that a closed pneumatic microvalve on a PDMS chip can serve as a semipermeable membrane under an applied potential, enabling current to pass through while blocking the passage of charged analytes. Enrichment of both anionic and cationic species has been demonstrated, and concentration factors of ~70 have been achieved in just 8 s. Once analytes are concentrated, the valve is briefly opened and the sample is hydrodynamically injected onto an integrated microchip or capillary electrophoresis (CE) column. In contrast to existing preconcentration approaches, the membrane-based method described here enables both rapid analyte concentration as well as high resolution separations.

  3. Direct methods for dynamic monitoring of secretions from single cells by capillary electrophoresis and microscopy with laser-induced native fluorescence detection

    SciTech Connect

    Tong, W.

    1997-10-08

    Microscale separation and detection methods for real-time monitoring of dynamic cellular processes (e.g., secretion) by capillary electrophoresis (CE) and microscopic imaging were developed. Ultraviolet laser-induced native fluorescence (LINF) provides simple, sensitive and direct detection of neurotransmitters and proteins without any derivatization. An on-column CE-LINF protocol for quantification of the release from single cell was demonstrated. Quantitative measurements of both the amount of insulin released from and the amount remaining in the cell ({beta}TC3) were achieved simultaneously. Secretion of catecholamines (norepinephrine (NE) and epinephrine (E)) from individual bovine adrenal chromaffin cells was determined using the on-column CE-LINF. Direct visualization of the secretion process of individual bovine adrenal chromaffin cells was achieved by LINF imaging microscopy with high temporal and spatial resolution. The secretion of serotonin from individual leech Retzius neurons was directly characterized by LINF microscopy with high spatial resolution.

  4. Separation of DNA restriction fragments using capillary electrophoresis

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, K.C.; Whang, Chenwen; Yeung, E.S. )

    1993-01-01

    Gel-filled and non-gel' capillary electrophoresis (CE) have been applied to the separation of various DNA restriction fragments. 30% HydroLink gel, polymerized inside a 75[mu]m i.d. fused-silica capillary, was used in the gel-filled CE. Primary results show that the HL capillary gel was simple to cast, and its stability was reasonably good under the running conditions. In the non-gel CE experiment, a buffer containing the sieving additive hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose was used to affect the size-dependent separation. The use of GC capillaries eliminates the inconvenience of separately coating the capillary walls for efficient non-gel separation. Finally, the authors demonstrate that it is feasible to detect native DNA fragments using indirect fluorometry in non-gel capillary electrophoresis.

  5. Sub-minute method for simultaneous determination of aspartame, cyclamate, acesulfame-K and saccharin in food and pharmaceutical samples by capillary zone electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Vistuba, Jacqueline Pereira; Dolzan, Maressa Danielli; Vitali, Luciano; de Oliveira, Marcone Augusto Leal; Micke, Gustavo Amadeu

    2015-05-29

    This paper reports the development of a sub-minute separation method by capillary zone electrophoresis for the determination of aspartame, cyclamate, acesulfame-K and saccharin in food products and pharmaceutical samples. Separations were performed in a fused uncoated silica capillary with UV detection at 220nm. Samples and standards were injected hydrodynamically using the short-end injection procedure. The electrophoretic system was operated under constant voltage of -30kV. The background electrolyte was composed of 45mmolL(-1) 2-amino-2-(hydroxymethyl)-1,3-propanediol and 15mmolL(-1) benzoic acid at pH 8.4. The separation time for all analytes was less than 1min. Evaluation of analytical parameters of the method showed good linearity (r(2)>0.9972), limit of detection of 3.3-6.4mgL(-1), intermediate precision better than 9.75% (peak area of sample) and recovery in the range of 91-117%. PMID:25895731

  6. A fast and sensitive method for the determination of nitrite in human plasma by capillary electrophoresis with fluorescence detection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xu; Adams, Erwin; Van Schepdael, Ann

    2012-08-15

    Analysis of nitrite, the indicator of nitric oxide (NO) generation in vivo, provides a useful tool to study NO synthesis in vivo. A fast and sensitive fluorometric CE method was developed for determination of nitrite in human plasma through its derivatization with 2,3-diaminonaphthalene (DAN). Nitrite in human plasma was easily reacted with DAN under acid conditions to yield the highly fluorescent 2,3-naphthotriazole (NAT). Fluorescence detection was optimized to achieve subnanomolar detection which allows a direct analysis of plasma samples unlike most CE-UV methods using sample stacking. Acetonitrile was used to remove the protein. Short-end injection and a high voltage (-30 kV) were used to shorten the analysis time. The good separation was achieved with 20 mM borate buffer at pH 9.23. The separation of NAT was obtained within 1.4 min. The deproteinized plasma sample was injected hydrodynamically for 5s at -50 mbar into a 60 cm × 75 μm internal diameter uncoated fused-silica capillary. Excitation wavelength was selected with a broad-band filter (240-400 nm), and the emitted light was measured at 418 nm by the use of a cutoff filter. A good linearity (R(2)=0.9975) was obtained in the range from 2 to 500 nM. The detection limit of nitrite was 0.6 nM in original plasma samples, which is 750 times lower than our previous CE-UV method. The developed fluorometric CE method offers the advantages of more simple system and lower cost compared with the current fluorometric HPLC methods without losing sensitivity. The detected mean nitrite concentration in human plasma by this method was consistent with the most frequently reported values. PMID:22841058

  7. Integration of amperometric sensors for microchip capillary electrophoresis application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dicorato, F.; Moore, E.; Glennon, J.

    2011-08-01

    Capillary electrophoresis is a technique for the separation and analysis of chemical compounds. Techniques adopted from the microchip technology knowledge have led to recent developments of electrophoresis system with integration on microchip. Microchip Capillary Electrophoresis (μCE) systems offer a series of advantages as easy integration for Lab-on-a-chip applications, high performance, portability, speed, minimal solvent and sample requirements. A new technological challenge aims at the development of an economic modular microchip capillary electrophoresis systems using separable and independent units concerning the sensor. In this project we worked on the development of an interchangeable amperometric sensor in order to provide a solution to such electrode passivation and facilitating the use of tailored sensors for specific analyte detection besides. Fluidic chips have been machined from cyclic olefin polymer pallets (Zeonor®) using a micro-injection molding machine.

  8. Characterization of copolymer latexes by capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Anik, Nadia; Airiau, Marc; Labeau, Marie-Pierre; Bzducha, Wojciech; Cottet, Hervé

    2010-02-01

    Latexes are widely used for industrial applications, including decorative paints, binders for the papermaking industry, and drilling fluids for oil-field applications. In this work, the interest of capillary zone electrophoresis (CE) for the characterization of hydrophobic block copolymer latexes obtained by the conventional emulsion polymerization technique consisting of a core of polystyrene (PS) surrounded by a layer of poly(ethyl acrylate) (PEA) has been investigated. The PEA part of the copolymer can be partially hydrolyzed in poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) leading to PS-PEA-AA water-soluble amphiphilic copolymer having high viscosifying properties. The main purpose of this work was to evaluate the potential of CE for the characterization of the latexes at the different stages of the synthesis (PS core, PS-PEA diblock latex, and hydrolyzed PS-PEA-AA gel). The main analytical issues were to state (i) if there was free PS or PEA homopolymer latexes in the PS-PEA latex sample and (ii) if there was free PS, PEA, PS-PEA latexes, or free PAA chains in the PS-PEA-AA gel. Within this scope, this work describes the optimization of the selectivity of the separation between the different species (PS, PEA particles in the not hydrolyzed diblock latex and PS, PEA, PS-PEA particles as well as the polymer PAA chains in the PS-PEA-AA diblock gel sample obtained by latter latex hydrolysis). For that purpose, several experimental parameters were investigated such as pH and ionic strength of the background electrolyte (BGE) or the concentration of neutral surfactant added in the BGE. A challenging issue was to overcome the high viscosity of the PS-PEA-AA gel. This was resolved by the addition of 10 mM neutral surfactant in the gel sample and in the BGE. Finally, it is demonstrated that, within the detection limits, CE is a suitable analytical tool for controlling and monitoring the syntheses of these latexes and for intrinsically characterizing the distribution in charge density of

  9. Stability-indicating capillary zone electrophoresis method for the assessment of recombinant human interleukin-11 and its correlation with reversed-phase liquid chromatography and biossay.

    PubMed

    Souto, Ricardo Bizogne; Stamm, Fernanda Pavani; Schumacher, Jéssica Barbieri; Cardoso, Clovis Dervil Appratto; de Freitas, Guilherme Weber; Perobelli, Rafaela Ferreira; Dalmora, Sérgio Luiz

    2014-06-01

    A stability-indicating capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) method was validated for the analysis of recombinant human interleukin-11(rhIL-11) using rupatadine fumarate, as internal standard (IS). A fused-silica capillary, (50 µm i.d.; effective length, 40 cm) was used at 25°C; the applied voltage was 20 kV. The background electrolyte solution consisted of 50 mmol L(-1) sodium dihydrogen phosphate solution at pH 3.0. Injections were performed using a pressure mode at 50 mbar for 45 s, with detection by photodiode array detector set at 196 nm. Specificity and stability-indicating capability were established in degradation studies, which also showed that there was no interference of the excipients. The method was linear over the concentration range of 1.0-300 µg mL(-1) (r(2)=0.9992) and the limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantitation (LOQ) were 0.2 µg mL(-1) and 1.0 µg mL(-1), respectively. The accuracy was 100.4% with bias lower than 1.1%. Moreover, the in vitro cytotoxicity test of the degraded products showed significant differences (p<0.05). The method was applied for the content/potency assessment of rhIL-11 in biopharmaceutical formulations, and the results were correlated to those of a validated reversed-phase LC method (RP-LC) and an TF-1 cell culture assay, showing non-significant differences (p>0.05). In addition the CZE and RP-LC methods were applied for the analysis of rhIL-11 in human plasma. Therefore, the proposed alternative method can be applied to monitor stability, to assure the batch-to-batch consistency and quality of the bulk and finished biotechnology-derived medicine. PMID:24725881

  10. Recent Developments in Instrumentation for Capillary Electrophoresis and Microchip-Capillary Electrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Felhofer, Jessica L.; Blanes, Lucas; Garcia, Carlos D.

    2010-01-01

    Over the last years there has been an explosion in the number of developments and applications of capillary electrophoresis (CE) and microchip-CE. In part, this growth has been the direct consequence of recent developments in instrumentation associated with CE. This review, which is focused on contributions published in the last five years, is intended to complement the papers presented in this special issue dedicated to Instrumentation and to provide an overview on the general trend and some of the most remarkable developments published in the areas of high voltage power supplies, detectors, auxiliary components, and compact systems. It also includes few examples of alternative uses of and modifications to traditional CE instruments. PMID:20665910

  11. Simple and robust monitoring of ethanol fermentations by capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Oliver, James D; Sutton, Adam T; Karu, Naama; Phillips, Michael; Markham, Julie; Peiris, Paul; Hilder, Emily F; Castignolles, Patrice

    2015-01-01

    Free-solution capillary electrophoresis (CE), or capillary zone electrophoresis, with direct UV detection was used for the first time for the determination of mono- and disaccharides, sugar alcohols, and ethanol in fermentation broths. Sample preparation proved to be minimal: no derivatization or specific sample purification was needed. The CE conditions can be adapted to the type of fermentation by simply altering the background electrolyte (BGE). KOH (130 mM) or NaOH (130 mM) as the BGE led to the fastest analysis time when monitoring simple fermentations. A mixture of 65 mM NaOH and 65 mM LiOH led to a 19% improvement in resolution for a complex mixture of carbohydrates. Quantification of a simple carbohydrate fermentation by CE showed values in close agreement with that of high-performance anion exchange chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) on a cation exchange resin. For complex fermentations, quantification of carbohydrates by HPLC and CE led to similar results, whereas CE requires an injection volume of only 10-20 nL. Analysis of an ethanol fermentation of hydrolyzed plant fiber demonstrated the robustness of the separation and detection of carbohydrates, as well as ethanol. Ethanol determination is achieved by coupling the CE method to pressure mobilization, using the same instrument and the same sample. PMID:25040822

  12. Fluorescence detection for gel and capillary electrophoresis

    SciTech Connect

    Hogan, B.

    1992-07-21

    First, an indirect fluorescence detection system for the separation of proteins via gel electrophoresis. Quantities as low as 50 nanograms of bovine serum albumin and soybean trypsin inhibitor are separated and detected visually without the need for staining of the analytes. This is very similar to levels of protein commonly separated with gel electrophoresis.

  13. Fast and sensitive method to determine parabens by capillary electrophoresis using automatic reverse electrode polarity stacking mode: application to hair samples.

    PubMed

    Sako, Alysson V F; Dolzan, Maressa D; Micke, Gustavo Amadeu

    2015-09-01

    This paper describes a fast and sensitive method for the determination of methyl, ethyl, propyl, and butylparaben in hair samples by capillary electrophoresis using automatic reverse electrode polarity stacking mode. In the proposed method, solutions are injected using the flush command of the analysis software (940 mbar) and the polarity switching is carried out automatically immediately after the sample injection. The advantages compared with conventional stacking methods are the increased analytical frequency, repeatability, and inter-day precision. All analyses were performed in a fused silica capillary (50 cm, 41.5 cm in effective length, 50 μm i.d.), and the background electrolyte was composed of 20 mmol L(-1) sodium tetraborate in 10 % of methanol, pH 9.3. For the reverse polarity, -25 kV/35 s was applied followed by application of +30 kV for the electrophoretic run. Temperature was set at 20 °C, and all analytes were monitored at 297 nm. The method showed acceptable linearity (r (2) > 0.997) in the studied range of 0.1-5.0 mg L(-1), limits of detection below 0.017 mg L(-1), and inter-day, intra-day, and instrumental precision better than 6.2, 3.6, and 4.6 %, respectively. Considering parabens is widely used as a preservative in many products and the reported possibility of damage to the hair and also to human health caused by these compounds, the proposed method was applied to evaluate the adsorption of parabens in hair samples. The results indicate that there is a greater adsorption of methylparaben compared to the other parabens tested and also dyed hairs had a greater adsorption capacity for parabens than natural hairs. PMID:26168974

  14. Enantiomeric resolution of multiple chiral centres racemates by capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Ali, Imran; Suhail, Mohd; Al-Othman, Zeid A; Alwarthan, Abdulrahman; Aboul-Enein, Hassan Y

    2016-05-01

    Enantiomeric resolution of multichiral centre racemates is an important area as some multichiral centre racemates are of great medicinal importance. However, enantioseparation of such types of racemates is a challenging task. Amongst many analytical techniques, capillary electrophoresis is a powerful technique and may be used to resolve such racemates. Only few papers are available describing enantiomeric resolution of such racemates. Therefore, efforts have been made to describe the enantiomeric resolution of multichiral centre racemates by capillary electrophoresis. This article discusses the importance of multichiral racemates, the need for capillary electrophoresis in enantiomeric resolution and chiral resolution of multichiral centre racemates using various chiral selectors. Further, attempts have been made to discuss the future challenges and prospects of enantiomeric resolution of multichiral racemates. The various chiral selectors used for the purpose are chiral crown ether, cyclodextrins, polysaccharides, macrocyclic glycopeptide antibiotics and ligand exchange. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26840015

  15. Use of capillary electrophoresis and indirect detection to quantitate in-capillary enzyme-catalyzed microreactions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y; el-Maghrabi, M R; Gomez, F A

    2000-04-01

    The use of capillary electrophoresis and indirect detection to quantify reaction products of in-capillary enzyme-catalyzed microreactions is described. Migrating in a capillary under conditions of electrophoresis, plugs of enzyme and substrate are injected and allowed to react. Capillary electrophoresis is subsequently used to measure the extent of reaction. This technique is demonstrated using two model systems: the conversion of fructose-1,6-bisphosphate to dihydroxyacetone phosphate and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate by fructose-biphosphate aldolase (ALD, EC 4.1.2.13), and the conversion of fructose-1,6-bisphosphate to fructose-6-phosphate by fructose-1,6-bisphospatase (FBPase, EC 3.1.3.11). These procedures expand the use of the capillary as a microreactor and offer a new approach to analyzing enzyme-mediated reactions. PMID:10892022

  16. Development of a method for the analysis of drugs of abuse in vitreous humor by capillary electrophoresis with diode array detection (CE-DAD).

    PubMed

    Costa, Jose Luiz; Morrone, Andre Ribeiro; Resende, Rodrigo Ribeiro; Chasin, Alice Aparecida da Matta; Tavares, Marina Franco Maggi

    2014-01-15

    This work presents the development of an analytical method based on capillary electrophoresis with diode array detection for the analysis of drugs of abuse and biotransformation products in vitreous humor. Composition of the background electrolyte, implementation of an online pre-concentration strategy and sample preparation procedures were objects of study. The complete electrophoretic separation of 12 analytes (amphetamine, methamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), 3,4-methylenedioxyethylamphetamine (MDEA), ketamine, cocaine, cocaethylene, lidocaine, morphine, 6-monoacetylmorphine and heroin) and the internal standard N-methyl-1-(3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl)-2-butamine (MBDB) was obtained within 13min of run. The method was validated presenting good linearity (r(2)>0.99), recovery ≥90%, precision better than 12% RSD and acceptable accuracy in the range of 86-118% at three concentration levels (50, 100 and 500ng/mL). LODs and LOQs in the order of 1-5ng/mL and 5-10ng/mL, respectively, were obtained. After validation, the method was applied to eighty-seven vitreous humor samples and the results were compared to those obtained by a liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) screening method, routinely used by the forensic toxicology laboratory of the Sao Paulo State Police, Brazil. Cocaine was detected in 7.1%, cocaethylene in 3.6%, lidocaine in 2.4% and ketamine in 1.2% of the total number of analyzed samples. PMID:24325829

  17. A rapid and simple capillary electrophoresis method for indirect determination of the biocide 2,2-dibromo-3-nitrilo-propionamide (DBNPA) in cooling waters.

    PubMed

    Shiroma, Letícia S; Marques, Thaís T; Jesus, Dosil P

    2015-01-01

    A capillary zone electrophoresis (CE) method was developed for the determination of the biocide 2,2-dibromo-3-nitrilo-propionamide (DBNPA) in water used in cooling systems. The biocide is indirectly determined by CE measurement of the concentration of bromide ions produced by the reaction between the DBNPA and bisulfite. The relationship between the bromide peak areas and the DBNPA concentrations showed a good linearity and a coefficient of determination (R²) of 0.9997 in the evaluated concentration range of 0-75 μmol L⁻¹. The detection and quantification limits for DBNPA were 0.23 and 0.75 μmol L⁻¹, respectively. The proposed CE method was successfully applied for the analysis of samples of tap water and cooling water spiked with DBNPA. The intra-day and inter-day (intermediary) precisions were lower than 2.8 and 6.2%, respectively. The DBNPA concentrations measured by the CE method were compared to the values obtained by a spectrophotometric method and were found to agree well. PMID:25714644

  18. Capillary zone electrophoresis method for the separation of glucosidase inhibitors in extracts of Salacia reticulata, a plant used in ayurvedic treatments of type-2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Zandberg, Wesley F; Mohan, Sankar; Kumarasamy, Jayakanthan; Pinto, B Mario

    2010-06-15

    A simple and reproducible capillary-zone electrophoresis (CZE) method was developed for the separation and quantitation of sulfonium-ion-containing compounds isolated from plants of the Salacia genus which are traditionally used in Ayurvedic medicine for the treatment of type-2 diabetes. The method sufficiently resolved four different compounds with confirmed glucosidase inhibitory activity, namely, salacinol, ponkoranol, kotalanol and de-O-sulfonated kotalanol. Separation could be achieved in less than 9 min, and calibration curves showed good linearity. Detection limits were determined to be in the low mug/mL range. This method was used to demonstrate that de-O-sulfonated kotalanol isolated from natural sources has identical ionic mobility to a synthetic standard. Furthermore, new extraction conditions were developed by which the zwitterionic compounds (salacinol, ponkoranol, and kotalanol) could be separated from de-O-sulfonated kotalanol in a single solid-phase extraction (SPE) procedure. The extraction gave reproducibly high recoveries and was used to process four commercial Salacia extracts for CZE analysis to reduce the complexity of resulting electropherograms and to facilitate the detection of the four inhibitors in question. De-O-sulfonated kotalanol was detected in two of four Salacia samples while ponkoranol was present in all four. A comparison of all samples tested demonstrated that they had remarkably similar patterns of peaks, suggesting that this CZE method may be useful in the chemical fingerprinting of Salacia-containing products. PMID:20491445

  19. Suppressed conductometric capillary electrophoresis separation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Dasgupta, P.K.; Bao, L. )

    1993-04-15

    A tubular cation-exchange membrane is installed at the end of a 60-cm-long 75-[mu]m-bore fused-silica capillary. A static dilute acid regenerant solution surrounds the membranes that functions as a suppressor. With positive high voltage applied to the capillary inlet and the regenerant solution grounded, effective suppression of electrolytes such as solutions of alkalic metal borate, glycinate, or cyanide is observed. Electroosmotic flow carries the capillary effluent past the suppressor into a conductivity detection cell constituted by two platinum wires inserted through the wall of a poly(vinyl chloride) capillary. The system provides detection limits in the 10--20 [mu]g/L range for a variety of anions; a typical separation requires 15 min. Applicability to a variety of real samples is demonstrated. 26 refs., 10 figs.

  20. Construction and evaluation of a capillary electrophoresis DNA sequencer

    SciTech Connect

    Drossman, H.

    1992-01-01

    This dissertation describes the construction and evaluation of an automated DNA sequencer using capillary gel electrophoresis (CGE) for separating single-strand DNA fragments and a fluorescence detector for analyzing labeled fragments. Theories governing the electrophoretic separation of DNA, dispersion processes in CGE and high sensitivity fluorescence detection are reviewed. The CGE DNA sequencer is compared with current DNA sequencing instruments and with projections of future DNA sequencing instruments. Parameters affecting the limits of detection, DNA sample loading, sample mobility and resolution are evaluated. Predictions for the future of capillary electrophoresis for large-scale sequencing projects are presented.

  1. Development and Validation of a Micellar Capillary Electrophoresis Method for Determination of IFNβ-1b in Lyophilized Formulation of a Biosimilar Product

    PubMed Central

    Dadgarnejad, Manuchehr; Rastegar, Hosein; Ilka, Hooshmand; Shekarchi, Maryam; Adib, Nooshin; Alebouyeh, Mahmood; Keypour, Nadia; Shoeibi, Shahram; Kobarfard, Farzad; Fazeli, Mohammad Reza

    2015-01-01

    Human interferons (IFNs) are key cytokines secreted by immune system. They have several effects such as antiviral and anti tumors activity, activating immune cells and healing of multiple sclerosis. The type IFNs present in humans are α ,β and Υ. IFN β is a polypeptide, normally produced by fibroblasts and seems to be more species-specific than IFN. Structural properties of IFNs are important for their biologic effects. There are a few analytical techniques for separation, identification and determination of IFNs in its formulations such as mass spectroscopy, RP-HPLC and capillary electrophoresis (CE). In this study we used Micellar Electrokinetic Chromatography (MEKC) as a unique mode of CE because of its capability to separate neutral as well as charged solutes. We used sodium tetraborate (Borax) as buffer without any modifier and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as surfactant. The optimum MECK running buffer consisted of Borate 50 Mm; SDS 20 mM pH =9.6. The validated method was used for determination of the IFN β-1b formulation which is manufactured in Iran. From 9 collected different batches, all of them had acceptable potency as claimed on their label with average 102.25 ±10.030 %. This is the first time that a MEKC method is introduced for quantification of IFN β-1b in its pharmaceutical dosage forms. The method is reliable safe, rapid and accurate. PMID:26330863

  2. Newborn screening of inborn errors of metabolism by capillary electrophoresis-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry: a second-tier method with improved specificity and sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Chalcraft, Kenneth R; Britz-McKibbin, Philip

    2009-01-01

    The advent of electrospray-ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) has given rise to expanded newborn screening programs for the early detection of inborn errors of metabolism (IEM). Despite the benefit of high-throughput screening for disease prognosis, conventional ESI-MS methods are limited by inadequate specificity, complicated sample handling, and low positive predictive outcome that can contribute to a high rate of false-positives. Herein, we report a robust strategy for neonatal screening based on capillary electrophoresis-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (CE-ESI-MS) that offers a convenient platform for the direct analysis of amino acids, acylcarnitines, and their stereoisomers from dried blood spot (DBS) extracts without chemical derivatization. On-line sample preconcentration with desalting by CE-ESI-MS allowed for improved concentration sensitivity when detecting poorly responsive metabolites in complex biological samples without ionization suppression or isomeric/isobaric interferences. Method validation demonstrated that accurate yet precise quantification can be achieved for 20 different amino acid and acylcarnitine biomarkers associated with IEMs when using a single non-deuterated internal standard. CE-ESI-MS represents a promising second-tier method in newborn screening programs that is compatible with ESI-MS/MS technology in cases when improved specificity and sensitivity is warranted for diagnosis confirmation and subsequent monitoring. PMID:19117458

  3. Experimental design-based development and single laboratory validation of a capillary zone electrophoresis method for the determination of the artificial sweetener sucralose in food matrices.

    PubMed

    McCourt, Josephine; Stroka, Joerg; Anklam, Elke

    2005-07-01

    A capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) method, optimised chemometrically, underwent a complete in-house validation protocol for the qualification and quantification of sucralose in various foodstuffs. Separation from matrix components was obtained in a dinitrobenzoic acid (3 mM)/sodium hydroxide (20 mM) background electrolyte with a pH of 12.1, a potential of 0.11 kV cm(-1) and a temperature of 22 degrees C. Detection was achieved at 238 nm by indirect UV. Screening, optimisation and robustness testing were all carried out with the aid of experimental design. Using standard addition calibration, the CZE method has been applied to still, carbonated and alcoholic beverages, yoghurts and hard-boiled candy. The method allows the detection of sucralose at >30 mg kg(-1), with a linearity range of 50-500 mg kg(-1), making it suitable for implementation of the recently amended "Sweeteners for use in foodstuffs" Directive (European Parliament and Council (2003) Off J L237:3-12), which set maximum usable doses of sucralose for many foodstuffs, most ranging from 200 mg kg(-1) to 450 mg kg(-1). PMID:15906005

  4. Development and Validation of a Micellar Capillary Electrophoresis Method for Determination of IFNβ-1b in Lyophilized Formulation of a Biosimilar Product.

    PubMed

    Dadgarnejad, Manuchehr; Rastegar, Hosein; Ilka, Hooshmand; Shekarchi, Maryam; Adib, Nooshin; Alebouyeh, Mahmood; Keypour, Nadia; Shoeibi, Shahram; Kobarfard, Farzad; Fazeli, Mohammad Reza

    2015-01-01

    Human interferons (IFNs) are key cytokines secreted by immune system. They have several effects such as antiviral and anti tumors activity, activating immune cells and healing of multiple sclerosis. The type IFNs present in humans are α ,β and Υ. IFN β is a polypeptide, normally produced by fibroblasts and seems to be more species-specific than IFN. Structural properties of IFNs are important for their biologic effects. There are a few analytical techniques for separation, identification and determination of IFNs in its formulations such as mass spectroscopy, RP-HPLC and capillary electrophoresis (CE). In this study we used Micellar Electrokinetic Chromatography (MEKC) as a unique mode of CE because of its capability to separate neutral as well as charged solutes. We used sodium tetraborate (Borax) as buffer without any modifier and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as surfactant. The optimum MECK running buffer consisted of Borate 50 Mm; SDS 20 mM pH =9.6. The validated method was used for determination of the IFN β-1b formulation which is manufactured in Iran. From 9 collected different batches, all of them had acceptable potency as claimed on their label with average 102.25 ±10.030 %. This is the first time that a MEKC method is introduced for quantification of IFN β-1b in its pharmaceutical dosage forms. The method is reliable safe, rapid and accurate. PMID:26330863

  5. Capillary electrophoresis coupled with inductively coupled mass spectrometry as an alternative to cloud point extraction based methods for rapid quantification of silver ions and surface coated silver nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Haiou; Mudalige, Thilak K.; Linder, Sean W.

    2016-01-01

    Speciation and accurate quantification of ionic silver and metallic silver nanoparticles are critical to investigate silver toxicity and to determine the shelf-life of products that contain nano silver under various storage conditions. We developed a rapid method for quantification of silver ions and silver nanoparticles using capillary electrophoresis (CE) interfaced with inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS). The addition of 2-mercaptopropionylglycine (tiopronin) to the background electrolyte was used to facilitate the chromatographic separation of ionic silver and maintain the oxidation state of silver. The obtained limits of detection were 0.05 μg kg−1 of silver nanoparticles and 0.03 μg kg−1 of ionic silver. Nanoparticles of varied sizes (10–110 nm) with different surface coating, including citrate acid, lipoic acid, polyvinylpyrrolidone and bovine serum albumin (BSA) were successfully analyzed. Particularly good recoveries (>93%) were obtained for both ionic silver and silver nanoparticle in the presence of excess amount of BSA. The method was further tested with six commercially available dietary supplements which varied in concentration and matrix components. The summed values of silver ions and silver nanoparticles correlated well with the total silver concentration determined by ICPMS after acid digestion. This method can serve as an alternative to cloud point extraction technique when the extraction efficiency for protein coated nanoparticles is low. PMID:26724893

  6. Capillary electrophoresis coupled with inductively coupled mass spectrometry as an alternative to cloud point extraction based methods for rapid quantification of silver ions and surface coated silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Qu, Haiou; Mudalige, Thilak K; Linder, Sean W

    2016-01-15

    Speciation and accurate quantification of ionic silver and metallic silver nanoparticles are critical to investigate silver toxicity and to determine the shelf-life of products that contain nano silver under various storage conditions. We developed a rapid method for quantification of silver ions and silver nanoparticles using capillary electrophoresis (CE) interfaced with inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS). The addition of 2-mercaptopropionylglycine (tiopronin) to the background electrolyte was used to facilitate the chromatographic separation of ionic silver and maintain the oxidation state of silver. The obtained limits of detection were 0.05 μg kg(-1) of silver nanoparticles and 0.03 μg kg(-1) of ionic silver. Nanoparticles of varied sizes (10-110 nm) with different surface coating, including citrate acid, lipoic acid, polyvinylpyrrolidone and bovine serum albumin (BSA) were successfully analyzed. Particularly good recoveries (>93%) were obtained for both ionic silver and silver nanoparticle in the presence of excess amount of BSA. The method was further tested with six commercially available dietary supplements which varied in concentration and matrix components. The summed values of silver ions and silver nanoparticles correlated well with the total silver concentration determined by ICPMS after acid digestion. This method can serve as an alternative to cloud point extraction technique when the extraction efficiency for protein coated nanoparticles is low. PMID:26724893

  7. Optimized photonic crystal fibers supporting efficient capillary electrophoresis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calcerrada, M.; García-Ruiz, C.; Roy, P.; Gonzalez-Herraez, M.

    2013-05-01

    In this paper we present preliminary results on the use of Photonic Crystal Fibers (PCFs) in a conventional capillary electrophoresis system to separate and detect fluorescent species. PCFs show interesting advantages over conventional capillaries for this application, including larger surface-to-volume ratio and potential for higher resolution with comparable sensitivity. Our results illustrate some of these advantages, and we point out the need for stringent tolerances in the fabrication of specific PCFs for this application.

  8. Protein Separation by Capillary Gel Electrophoresis: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Zaifang; Lu, Joann J.; Liu, Shaorong

    2011-01-01

    Capillary gel electrophoresis (CGE) has been used for protein separation for more than two decades. Due to the technology advancement, current CGE methods are becoming more and more robust and reliable for protein analysis, and some of the methods have been routinely used for the analysis of protein-based pharmaceuticals and quality controls. In light of this progress, we survey 147 papers related to CGE separations of proteins and present an overview of this technology. We first introduce briefly the early development of CGE. We then review the methodology, in which we specifically describe the matrices, coatings, and detection strategies used in CGE. CGE using microfabricated channels and incorporation of CGE with two-dimensional protein separations are also discussed in this section. We finally present a few representative applications of CGE for separating proteins in real-world samples. PMID:22122927

  9. Nanomaterial surface chemistry design for advancements in capillary electrophoresis modes.

    PubMed

    Ivanov, Michael R; Haes, Amanda J

    2011-01-01

    Tailored surface chemistry impacts nanomaterial function and stability in applications including in various capillary electrophoresis (CE) modes. Although colloidal nanoparticles were first integrated as colouring agents in artwork and pottery over 2000 years ago, recent developments in nanoparticle synthesis and surface modification increased their usefulness and incorporation in separation science. For instance, precise control of surface chemistry is critically important in modulating nanoparticle functionality and stability in dynamic environments. Herein, recent developments in nanomaterial pseudostationary and stationary phases will be summarized. First, nanomaterial core and surface chemistry compositions will be classified. Next, characterization methods will be described and related to nanomaterial function in various CE modes. Third, methods and implications of nanomaterial incorporation into CE will be discussed. Finally, nanoparticle-specific mechanisms likely involved in CE will be related to nanomaterial surface chemistry. Better understanding of surface chemistry will improve nanoparticle design for the integration into separation techniques. PMID:20967383

  10. Capillary zone electrophoresis and packed capillary column liquid chromatographic analysis of recombinant human interleukin-4.

    PubMed

    Bullock, J

    1993-02-24

    Capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) and packed capillary column liquid chromatography (micro-LC) have been applied to the analysis of the recombinant human protein interleukin-4 (rhIL-4). Separations for both the parent protein and its enzymatic digest were developed for the purpose of characterizing protein purity and identity. CZE separations of the intact protein were investigated over the pH range of 4.5 to 8.0 using uncoated fused silica capillaries. Gradient reversed-phase micro-LC was performed using 0.32 mm packed capillary columns at flow-rates of 5-6 microliters/min. Emphasis was placed on the ability of these methods to separate close structural variants and degradation products of the protein. Peptide mapping of the tryptic digest of rhIL-4 using a combination of CZE and micro-LC provided complimentary high resolution methods for establishing protein identity. Reproducible separations were achieved using sub-picomol amounts of sample. The advantages and problems encountered with these two techniques for characterizing rhIL-4 were assessed. PMID:8450025

  11. Analysis of Anions in Ambient Aerosols by Microchip Capillary Electrophoresis

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yan; MacDonald, David A.; Yu, Xiao-Ying; Hering, Susanne V.; Collett, Jeffrey L.; Henry, Charles S.

    2006-10-01

    We describe a microchip capillary electrophoresis method for the analysis of nitrate and sulfate in ambient aerosols. Investigating the chemical composition of ambient aerosol particles is essential for understanding their sources and effects. Significant progress has been made towards developing mass spectrometry-based instrumentation for rapid qualitative analysis of aerosols. Alternative methods for rapid quantification of selected high abundance compounds are needed to augment the capacity for widespread routine analysis. Such methods could provide much higher temporal and spatial resolution than can be achieved currently. Inorganic anions comprise a large percentage of particulate mass with nitrate and sulfate among the most abundant species. While ion chromatography has proven very useful for analyzing extracts of time-integrated ambient aerosol samples collected on filters and for semi-continuous, on-line particle composition measurements, there is a growing need for development of new compact, inexpensive approaches to routine on-line aerosol ion analysis for deployment in spatially dense, atmospheric measurement networks. Microchip capillary electrophoresis provides the necessary speed and portability to address this need. In this report, on-column contact conductivity detection is used with hydrodynamic injection to create a simple microchip instrument for analysis of nitrate and sulfate. On-column contact conductivity detection was achieved using a Pd decoupler placed upstream from the working electrodes. Microchips containing two Au or Pd working electrodes showed a good linear range (5-500 µM) and low limits-of-detection for sulfate and nitrate with Au providing the lowest detection limits (1 µM) for both ions. The completed microchip system was used to analyze ambient aerosol filter samples. Nitrate and sulfate concentrations measured by the microchip matched the concentrations measured by ion chromatography.

  12. Separation of ions in acidic solution by capillary electrophoresis

    SciTech Connect

    Thornton, M.

    1997-10-08

    Capillary electrophoresis (CE) is an effective method for separating ionic species according to differences in their electrophoretic mobilities. CE separations of amino acids by direct detection are difficult due to their similar electrophoretic mobilities and low absorbances. However, native amino acids can be separated by CE as cations at a low pH by adding an alkanesulfonic acid to the electrolyte carrier which imparts selectivity to the system. Derivatization is unnecessary when direct UV detection is used at 185 nm. Simultaneous speciation of metal cations such as vanadium (IV) and vanadium (V) can easily be performed without complexation prior to analysis. An indirect UV detection scheme for acidic conditions was also developed using guanidine as the background carrier electrolyte (BCE) for the indirect detection of metal cations. Three chapters have been removed for separate processing. This report contains introductory material, references, and general conclusions. 80 refs.

  13. Comparative Study of Three Methods for Affinity Measurements: Capillary Electrophoresis Coupled with UV Detection and Mass Spectrometry, and Direct Infusion Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mironov, Gleb G.; Logie, Jennifer; Okhonin, Victor; Renaud, Justin B.; Mayer, Paul M.; Berezovski, Maxim V.

    2012-07-01

    We present affinity capillary electrophoresis and mass spectrometry (ACE-MS) as a comprehensive separation technique for label-free solution-based affinity analysis. The application of ACE-MS for measuring affinity constants between eight small molecule drugs [ibuprofen, s-flurbiprofen, diclofenac, phenylbutazone, naproxen, folic acid, resveratrol, and 4,4'-(propane-1,3-diyl) dibenzoic acid] and β-cyclodextrin is described. We couple on-line ACE with MS to combine the separation and kinetic capability of ACE together with the molecular weight and structural elucidation of MS in one system. To understand the full potential of ACE-MS, we compare it with two other methods: Direct infusion mass spectrometry (DIMS) and ACE with UV detection (ACE-UV). After the evaluation, DIMS provides less reliable equilibrium dissociation constants than separation-based ACE-UV and ACE-MS, and cannot be used solely for the study of noncovalent interactions. ACE-MS determines apparent dissociation constants for all reacting small molecules in a mixture, even in cases when drugs overlap with each other during separation. The ability of ACE-MS to interact, separate, and rapidly scan through m/z can facilitate the simultaneous affinity analysis of multiple interacting pairs, potentially leading to the high-throughput screening of drug candidates.

  14. Xanthine derivatives quantification in serum by capillary zone electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Peris-Vicente, Juan; Rambla-Alegre, Maria; Durgavanshi, Abhilasha; Bose, Devasish; Esteve-Romero, Josep; Marco-Peiró, Sergio

    2014-10-01

    A capillary electrophoresis method was developed to quantify caffeine and theophylline, xanthine derivatives with bronchodilator activity. Buffer concentration, pH and applied voltage were optimized using a central composite design-face centred. Separation conditions were: silica capillary tube, 75 μm (i.d.) and 61 cm (total length); absorbance detection, 280 nm; borate buffer, 20 mM, pH 9.0; applied voltage, 25 kV and 1 psi injection/8 s. Validation was performed in blank serum following the International Conference Harmonization guidelines: resolution (peaks without overlapping), linear range (0.125-50 µg/mL; r(2) > 0.9999), limits of detection and quantification (10; 20 and 33; 66 ppb for caffeine and theophylline, respectively), intra- and inter-day precision (Relative standard deviation lower than 1.9%) and accuracy (98-101%). Migration times were <8 min. This method is simple, specific and suitable and reaches high label claims (98.7-100.4%) in pharmaceutical formulations analysis. Moreover, the method was applied to the monitoring of the analytes in serum of patients. PMID:24220991

  15. Capillary electrophoresis of conidia from cultivated microscopic filamentous fungi.

    PubMed

    Horká, Marie; Růzicka, Filip; Kubesová, Anna; Holá, Veronika; Slais, Karel

    2009-05-15

    In immunocompromised people fungal agents are able to cause serious infections with high mortality rate. An early diagnosis can increase the chances of survival of the affected patients. Simultaneously, the fungi produce toxins and they are frequent cause of allergy. Currently, various methods are used for detection and identification of these pathogens. They use microscopic examination and growth characteristic of the fungi. New methods are based on the analysis of structural elements of the target microorganisms such as proteins, polysaccharides, glycoproteins, nucleic acids, etc. for the construction of antibodies, probes, and primers for detection. The above-mentioned methods are time-consuming and elaborate. Here hydrophobic conidia from the cultures of different strains of the filamentous fungi were focused and separated by capillary zone electrophoresis and capillary isoelectric focusing. The detection was optimized by dynamic modifying of conidia by the nonionogenic tenside on the basis of pyrenebutanoate. Down to 10 labeled conidia of the fungal strains were fluorometrically detected, and isoelectric points of conidia were determined. The observed isoelectric points were compared with those obtained from the separation of the cultured clinical samples, and they were found to be not host-specific. PMID:19385663

  16. An Inexpensive Device for Capillary Electrophoresis with Fluorescence Detection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Greg; Thompson, Jonathan E.; Shurrush, Khriesto

    2006-01-01

    We describe an inexpensive device for performing capillary electrophoresis (CE) separations with fluorescence detection. As a demonstration of the device's utility we have determined the mass of riboflavin in a commercially available dietary supplement. The device allows for separation of riboflavin in [asymptotically equivalent to] 100 s with a…

  17. Capillary electrophoresis application in metal speciation and complexation characterization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Capillary electrophoresis is amenable to the separation of metal ionic species and the characterization of metal-ligand interactions. This book chapter reviews and discusses three representative case studies in applications of CE technology in speciation and reactions of metal with organic molecules...

  18. Determination of preservatives in soft drinks by capillary electrophoresis with ionic liquids as the electrolyte additives.

    PubMed

    Sun, Bingbing; Qi, Li; Wang, Minglin

    2014-08-01

    A capillary electrophoresis method for separating preservatives with various ionic liquids as the electrolyte additives has been developed. The performances for separation of the preservatives using five ionic liquids with different anions and different substituted group numbers on imidazole ring were studied. After investigating the influence of the key parameters on the separation (the concentration of ionic liquids, pH, and the concentration of borax), it has been found that the separation efficiency could be improved obviously using the ionic liquids as the electrolyte additives and tested preservatives were baseline separated. The proposed capillary electrophoresis method exhibited favorable quantitative analysis property of the preservatives with good linearity (r(2) = 0.998), repeatability (relative standard deviations ≤ 3.3%) and high recovery (79.4-117.5%). Furthermore, this feasible and efficient capillary electrophoresis method was applied in detecting the preservatives in soft drinks, introducing a new way for assaying the preservatives in food products. PMID:24910409

  19. Improved single-strand DNA sizing accuracy in capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed Central

    Rosenblum, B B; Oaks, F; Menchen, S; Johnson, B

    1997-01-01

    Interpolation algorithms can be developed to size unknown single-stranded (ss) DNA fragments based on their electrophoretic mobilities, when they are compared with the mobilities of standard fragments of known sizes; however, sequence-specific anomalous electrophoretic migration can affect the accuracy and precision of the called sizes of the fragments. We used the anomalous migration of ssDNA fragments to optimize denaturation conditions for capillary electrophoresis. The capillary electrophoretic system uses a refillable polymer that both coats the capillary wall to suppress electro-osmotic flow and acts as the sieving matrix. The addition of 8 M urea to the polymer solution, as in slab gel electrophoresis, is insufficient to fully denature some anomalously migrating ssDNA fragments in this capillary electrophoresis system. The sizing accuracy of these fragments is significantly improved by the addition of 2-pyrrolidinone, or increased capillary temperature (60 degrees C). the effect of these two denaturing strategies is additive, and the best accuracy and precision in sizing results are obtained with a combination of chemical and thermal denaturation. PMID:9380518

  20. Acupuncture Sample Injection for Microchip Capillary Electrophoresis and Electrokinetic Chromatography.

    PubMed

    Ha, Ji Won; Hahn, Jong Hoon

    2016-05-01

    A simple nanoliter-scale injection technique was developed for polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic devices to form the well-defined sample plugs in microfluidic channels. Sample injection was achieved by performing acupuncture on a channel with a needle and applying external pressure to a syringe. This technique allowed us to achieve reproducible injection of a 3-nL segment into a microchannel for PDMS microchip-based capillary electrophoresis (CE). Capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) and capillary electrochromatography (CEC) with bead packing were successfully performed by applying a single potential in the most simplified straight channel. The advantages of this acupuncture injection over the electrokinetic injection in microchip CE include capability of minimizing sample loss and voltage control hardware, capability of serial injections of different sample solutions into a same microchannel, capability of injecting sample plugs into any position of a microchannel, independence on sample solutions during the loading step, and ease in making microchips due to the straight channel, etc. PMID:27056036

  1. Imaging Catalytic Surfaces by Multiplexed Capillary Electrophoresis With Absorption Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Christodoulou

    2002-08-27

    A new technique for in situ imaging and screening heterogeneous catalysts by using multiplexed capillary electrophoresis with absorption detection was developed. By bundling the inlets of a large number of capillaries, an imaging probe can be created that can be used to sample products formed directly from a catalytic surface with high spatial resolution. In this work, they used surfaces made of platinum, iron or gold wires as model catalytic surfaces for imaging. Various shapes were recorded including squares and triangles. Model catalytic surfaces consisting of both iron and platinum wires in the shape of a cross were also imaged successfully. Each of the two wires produced a different electrochemical product that was separated by capillary electrophoresis. Based on the collected data they were able to distinguish the products from each wire in the reconstructed image.

  2. Novel cationic polyelectrolyte coatings for capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Duša, Filip; Witos, Joanna; Karjalainen, Erno; Viitala, Tapani; Tenhu, Heikki; Wiedmer, Susanne K

    2016-01-01

    The use of bare fused silica capillary in CE can sometimes be inconvenient due to undesirable effects including adsorption of sample or instability of the EOF. This can often be avoided by coating the inner surface of the capillary. In this work, we present and characterize two novel polyelectrolyte coatings (PECs) poly(2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl trimethylammonium iodide) (PMOTAI) and poly(3-methyl-1-(4-vinylbenzyl)-imidazolium chloride) (PIL-1) for CE. The coated capillaries were studied using a series of aqueous buffers of varying pH, ionic strength, and composition. Our results show that the investigated polyelectrolytes are usable as semi-permanent (physically adsorbed) coatings with at least five runs stability before a short coating regeneration is necessary. Both PECs showed a considerably decreased stability at pH 11.0. The EOF was higher using Good's buffers than with sodium phosphate buffer at the same pH and ionic strength. The thickness of the PEC layers studied by quartz crystal microbalance was 0.83 and 0.52 nm for PMOTAI and PIL-1, respectively. The hydrophobicity of the PEC layers was determined by analysis of a homologous series of alkyl benzoates and expressed as the distribution constants. Our result demonstrates that both PECs had comparable hydrophobicity, which enabled separation of compounds with log Po/w > 2. The ability to separate cationic drugs was shown with β-blockers, compounds often misused in doping. Both coatings were also able to separate hydrolysis products of the ionic liquid 1,5-diazabicyclo[4.3.0]non-5-ene acetate at highly acidic conditions, where bare fused silica capillaries failed to accomplish the separation. PMID:26464098

  3. Application of capillary electrophoresis-electrospray ionization mass spectometry in the determination of molecular diversity.

    PubMed Central

    Dunayevskiy, Y M; Vouros, P; Wintner, E A; Shipps, G W; Carell, T; Rebek, J

    1996-01-01

    By means of capillary electrophoresis coupled online to electrospray ionization MS, a library of theoretically 171 disubstituted xanthene derivatives was analyzed. The method allowed the purity and makeup of the library to be determined: 160 of the expected compounds were found to be present, and 12 side-products were also detected in the mixture. Due to the ability of capillary electrophoresis to separate analytes on the basis of charge, most of the xanthene derivatives could be resolved by simple capillary electrophoresis-MS procedures even though 124 of the 171 theoretical compounds were isobaric with at least one other molecule in the mixture. Any remaining unresolved peaks were resolved by MS/MS experiments. The method shows promise for the analysis of small combinatorial libraries with fewer than 1000 components. PMID:8650235

  4. Theoretical model of electroosmotic flow for capillary zone electrophoresis

    SciTech Connect

    Tavares, M.F.M.; McGuffin, V.L.

    1995-10-15

    A mathematical model of electroosmotic flow in capillary zone electrophoresis has been developed by taking into consideration of the ion-selective properties of silica surfaces. The electroosmotic velocity was experimentally determined, underboth constant voltage and constant current conditions, by using the resistance-monitoring method. A detailed study of electroosmotic flow characteristics in solutions of singly charged, strong electrolytes (NaCl, LiCl, KCl, NaBr, NaI, NaNO{sub 3}, and NaClO{sub 4}), as well as the phosphate buffer system, revealed a linear correlation between the {Zeta} potential and the logarithm of the cation activity. These results suggest that the capillary surface behaves as an ion-selective electrode. Consequently, the {Zeta} potential can be calculated as a function of the composition and pH of the solution with the corresponding modified Nernst equation for ion-selective electrodes. If the viscosity and dielectric constant of the solution are known, the electroosmotic velocity can then be accurately predicted by means of the Helmholtz-Smoluchowski equation. The proposed model has been successfully applied to phosphate buffer solutions in the range of pH from 4 to 10, containing sodium chloride from 5 to 15 mM, resulting in nearly 3% error in the estimation of the electroosmotic velocity. 53 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Determination of dissociation constants of cytokinins by capillary zone electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Barták, P; Bednár, P; Stránský, Z; Bocek, P; Vespalec, R

    2000-05-12

    A method for the pKa determination, based on mobility data measured by capillary zone electrophoresis, was applied to cytokinins and their analogs. The combination of charged mobility standards with an uncharged electroosmosis marker, injected in the uncoated capillary simultaneously with the measured substances, allows one to minimize the number of runs, reduce their duration and, in addition, to inform on the run-to-run stability of electroosmosis and on contingent side-effects. pKa values of investigated cytokinins and their analogs ranged from 2.8 to 4.0 at 25 degrees C in the phosphate and acetate buffers of ionic strength 0.015 M. Standard deviations of the constants, obtained by the non-linear fitting of equations for the pKa calculation, were 3-5-times lower than standard deviations from the linear fitting or from the point-to-point calculation utilizing the Hendersson-Haselbalch equation. The equation of Boltzman sigmoid offers two checks on reliability of effective mobilities that serve as the raw data in the pKa calculation. PMID:10866070

  6. An integrated quality by design and mixture-process variable approach in the development of a capillary electrophoresis method for the analysis of almotriptan and its impurities.

    PubMed

    Orlandini, S; Pasquini, B; Stocchero, M; Pinzauti, S; Furlanetto, S

    2014-04-25

    The development of a capillary electrophoresis (CE) method for the assay of almotriptan (ALM) and its main impurities using an integrated Quality by Design and mixture-process variable (MPV) approach is described. A scouting phase was initially carried out by evaluating different CE operative modes, including the addition of pseudostationary phases and additives to the background electrolyte, in order to approach the analytical target profile. This step made it possible to select normal polarity microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography (MEEKC) as operative mode, which allowed a good selectivity to be achieved in a low analysis time. On the basis of a general Ishikawa diagram for MEEKC methods, a screening asymmetric matrix was applied in order to screen the effects of the process variables (PVs) voltage, temperature, buffer concentration and buffer pH, on critical quality attributes (CQAs), represented by critical separation values and analysis time. A response surface study was then carried out considering all the critical process parameters, including both the PVs and the mixture components (MCs) of the microemulsion (borate buffer, n-heptane as oil, sodium dodecyl sulphate/n-butanol as surfactant/cosurfactant). The values of PVs and MCs were simultaneously changed in a MPV study, making it possible to find significant interaction effects. The design space (DS) was defined as the multidimensional combination of PVs and MCs where the probability for the different considered CQAs to be acceptable was higher than a quality level π=90%. DS was identified by risk of failure maps, which were drawn on the basis of Monte-Carlo simulations, and verification points spanning the design space were tested. Robustness testing of the method, performed by a D-optimal design, and system suitability criteria allowed a control strategy to be designed. The optimized method was validated following ICH Guideline Q2(R1) and was applied to a real sample of ALM coated tablets. PMID

  7. A single-label fluorescent derivatization method for quantitative determination of neurotoxin in vivo by capillary electrophoresis coupled with laser-induced fluorescence detection.

    PubMed

    Chen, Cuiwei; Hu, Yiqin; Shi, Xiaowei; Tao, Chenghao; Zheng, Hongyue; Fei, Weidong; Han, Shunping; Zhu, Jiazhen; Wei, Yinghui; Li, Fanzhu

    2016-07-21

    Neurotoxin (NT), a short-chain α-neurotoxin, is the main neurotoxic protein identified from the venom of Naja naja atra. As an effective drug for the analgesis of advanced cancer patients, NT lasts longer than morphine and does not cause addiction. However, achieving a sensitive and high-resolution measurement of NT is difficult because of the extra-low content of NT in vivo. Therefore, developing a novel method to quantify NT is essential to study its pharmacokinetics in vivo. Although NT contains four primary amine groups that could react with the thiourea in fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC), we developed a simple and reproducible single-label fluorescent derivatization method for NT which is related to the reaction of N-terminal α-amino of NT alone under optimized derivatization conditions. Furthermore, neurotoxin labelled with fluorescein isothiocyanate (NT-FITC) was prepared by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with a purity value higher than 99.29% and identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS. Finally, NT-FITC could be detected at 0.8 nmol L(-1) in rat plasma using capillary electrophoresis coupled with laser induced fluorescence detection (CE-LIF). In this paper, the established method robustly and reliably quantified NT labelled with FITC via intravenous and intramuscular administrations in vivo. In addition, this work fully demonstrated the pharmacokinetic characteristics of NT in vivo, which could reduce the risk of drug accumulation, optimize therapies, and provide sufficient evidence for the rational use of NT in clinical and research laboratories. PMID:27175860

  8. Development and validation of a capillary electrophoresis method for determination of enantiomeric purity and related substances of esomeprazole in raw material and pellets.

    PubMed

    Estevez, Pablo; Flor, Sabrina; Boscolo, Oriana; Tripodi, Valeria; Lucangioli, Silvia

    2014-03-01

    A capillary electrophoresis method using CDs for quality control of esomeprazole (ESO) in terms of enantiomeric purity and related substances in raw material and pellets was developed. ESO is the S-enantiomer of omeprazole (OMZ). Several parameters were evaluated, including type and concentration of buffer and CD, concentration of additives and electrolyte pH. Resolution between the enantiomers of OMZ obtained for each parameter tested was calculated and the presence of the main related substance such as OMZ sulfone was carefully monitored. The optimized system consisted of 100 mM Tris-phosphate buffer pH 2.5 with 20 mM 2-hydroxypropyl-β-CD, 1 mM sodium dithionite, temperature at 15°C, voltage at 28 kV, and UV detection at 301 nm. Once optimized, the electrophoretic system was validated according to ICH guidelines. The limits of detection and quantification for R-OMZ were 0.6 μg/mL (0.06% w/w of ESO) and 2.0 μg/mL (0.2% w/w of ESO), respectively. A mean concentration of R-OMZ <0.2% limit established by the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) was found in the raw material and six-pellet samples of ESO. No other impurities were found in the samples under these conditions. Therefore, the developed method was found to be appropriate not only for enantiomeric quality control of ESO but also for the analysis of ESO and the main related substance in raw material and pharmaceutical formulations as well as for stability indicating studies. PMID:24258683

  9. Modified capillary electrophoresis system for peptide, protein and double-stranded DNA analysis.

    PubMed

    Belenkii, B G; Kassalainen, G E; Nasledov, D G

    2000-05-26

    The results of high-performance capillary electrophoresis (HPCE) studies of peptide, protein and double-stranded DNA separations on a laboratory-made HPCE system are presented. Parameters of the HPCE system are given. The new method of capillary surface modification by grafting poly(glycidyl methacrylate) is described. The problems of HPCE biopolymer analysis connected with the sample-wall interactions are discussed. PMID:10893035

  10. Implementation of USP antibody standard for system suitability in capillary electrophoresis sodium dodecyl sulfate (CE-SDS) for release and stability methods.

    PubMed

    Esterman, Abbie L; Katiyar, Amit; Krishnamurthy, Girija

    2016-09-01

    Capillary electrophoresis sodium dodecyl sulfate (CE-SDS) is widely used for purity analysis of monoclonal antibody therapeutics for release and stability to demonstrate product consistency and shelf life during the manufacturing and life cycle of the product. CE-SDS method development is focused on exploring the method capability to provide the information about the product purity and product related degradants (fragmentation, aggregation etc.). In order to establish the functionality of the instrumentation, software, and sample preparation; system suitability criteria need to be defined for analytical methods using a well characterized reference standard run under the same protocol and analysis as the test articles. Typically the reference standard is produced using a manufacturing process representative of the clinical material. The qualification, control, and maintenance of in-house reference standards are established through rigorous quality and regulatory guidelines. The U.S. Pharmacopeia (USP) has developed a monoclonal IgG System Suitability Reference Standard to be utilized for assessment of system suitability in CE-SDS methods. In this communication, we evaluate the system suitability acceptance criteria performance of the USP IgG standard using two methods, the recommended USP protocol provided in monograph <129> and a molecule specific Bristol-Myers Squibb (BMS) CE-SDS method. The results from USP IgG standard were compared with two in-house monoclonal antibody reference standards. The data suggest that the USP CE-SDS method may not be suitable for CE-SDS analysis for release and stability of monoclonal antibody therapeutics due to the high level of method induced partial reduction observed for all molecules tested. This high level of fragmentation observed utilizing the USP method will result in reporting lower purity levels, which will impact the overall quality assessment of the molecule. The system suitability criteria recommended by the USP method

  11. Differentiation of opium and poppy straw using capillary electrophoresis and pattern recognition techniques.

    PubMed

    Reid, Raymond G; Durham, David G; Boyle, Susanne P; Low, Ann S; Wangboonskul, Jinda

    2007-12-12

    Opium samples from four different locations and poppy straw from different plant varieties have been assayed using micellar capillary electrophoresis incorporating a sweeping technique. Individual alkaloids (morphine, codeine, papaverine, noscapine, thebaine, oripavine, reticuline and narceine) were quantitatively determined in the different samples by a validated capillary electrophoresis method. Unsupervised pattern recognition of the opium samples and the poppy straw samples using hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA), showed distinct clusters. Supervised pattern recognition using soft independent modelling of class analogy (SIMCA) was performed to show individual groupings and allow unknown samples to be classified according to the models built using the CZE assay results. PMID:18022406

  12. Determination of the specific activities of methionine sulfoxide reductase A and B by capillary electrophoresis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A capillary electrophoresis (CE) method for the determination of methionine sulfoxide reductase A and methionine sulfoxide reductase B activities in mouse liver is described. The method is based on detection of the 4-(dimethylamino)azobenzene-4’-sulfonyl derivative of L-methionine (dabsyl Met), the ...

  13. A fluorescent derivatization method of proteins for the detection of low-level impurities by microchip capillary gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Wenz, Christian; Marchetti-Deschmann, Martina; Herwig, Ela; Schröttner, Evita; Allmaier, Günter; Trojer, Lukas; Vollmer, Martin; Rüfer, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    A novel pre-chip fluorescent derivatization method is presented for protein sizing and quantification by microchip CGE. The derivatization reaction employed a water-soluble and stable fluorescent dye and was performed under conditions that favored the formation of homogeneous reaction products. The method delivered in terms of protein sizing similar results as microchip CGE with on-chip staining but showed an extended linear dynamic range for protein quantification encompassing four orders of magnitude. The sensitivity of the method was similar to standard silver-stained planar gels. The characterization of derivatization reaction products by MS and preparative isoelectric focusing indicated that a constant degree of dye molecule tagging was obtained over a broad range of protein/dye ratios. The method allowed detecting and quantifying an impurity spiked into an antibody preparation down to a level of 0.05%. Advantages of this method compared with CGE approaches with pre-column derivatization include a shorter analysis time and an increased robustness and ease of use. PMID:20162586

  14. "Getting the best sensitivity from on-capillary fluorescence detection in capillary electrophoresis" - A tutorial.

    PubMed

    Galievsky, Victor A; Stasheuski, Alexander S; Krylov, Sergey N

    2016-09-01

    Capillary electrophoresis with Laser-Induced Fluorescence (CE-LIF) detection is being applied to new analytical problems which challenge both the power of CE separation and the sensitivity of LIF detection. On-capillary LIF detection is much more practical than post-capillary detection in a sheath-flow cell. Therefore, commercial CE instruments utilize solely on-capillary CE-LIF detection with a Limit of Detection (LOD) in the nM range, while there are multiple applications of CE-LIF that require pM or lower LODs. This tutorial analyzes all aspects of on-capillary LIF detection in CE in an attempt to identify means for improving LOD of CE-LIF with on-capillary detection. We consider principles of signal enhancement and noise reduction, as well as relevant areas of fluorophore photochemistry and fluorescent microscopy. PMID:27543015

  15. Liquid chromatographic method for determination of water in soils and the optimization of anion separations by capillary zone electrophoresis

    SciTech Connect

    Benz, N.

    1994-10-01

    A liquid chromatographic method for the determination of water in soil or clay samples is presented. In a separate study, the optimization of electrophoretic separation of alkylated phenolate ions was optimized by varying the pH and acetonitrile concentration of the buffer solutions.

  16. Quantification of sugars in breakfast cereals using capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Toutounji, Michelle R; Van Leeuwen, Matthew P; Oliver, James D; Shrestha, Ashok K; Castignolles, Patrice; Gaborieau, Marianne

    2015-05-18

    About 80% of the Australian population consumes breakfast cereal (BC) at least five days a week. With high prevalence rates of obesity and other diet-related diseases, improved methods for monitoring sugar levels in breakfast cereals would be useful in nutrition research. The heterogeneity of the complex matrix of BCs can make carbohydrate analysis challenging or necessitate tedious sample preparation leading to potential sugar loss or starch degradation into sugars. A recently established, simple and robust free solution capillary electrophoresis (CE) method was used in a new application to 13 BCs (in Australia) and compared with several established methods for quantification of carbohydrates. Carbohydrates identified in BCs by CE included sucrose, maltose, glucose and fructose. The CE method is simple requiring no sample preparation or derivatization and carbohydrates are detected by direct UV detection. CE was shown to be a more robust and accurate method for measuring carbohydrates than Fehling method, DNS (3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid) assay and HPLC (high performance liquid chromatography). PMID:25841355

  17. Novel solid phase extraction method for the analysis of 5-nitroimidazoles and metabolites in milk samples by capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Mesa, Maykel; García-Campaña, Ana M; Cruces-Blanco, Carmen

    2014-02-15

    A new sample treatment has been developed for the extraction of 5-nitroimidazole (5-NDZ) drugs in milk samples previous to their determination by micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC). Fat removing and protein precipitation were simultaneously carried out by the addition of trichloroacetic acid (TCA) and subsequent centrifugation. Clean-up and off-line concentration were achieved by a novel solid-phase extraction (SPE) method employing mixed cation exchange (MCX) cartridges, obtaining an off-line concentration factor of 18. Analyses were performed in less than 18 min employing 20mM phosphate buffer (pH 6.5) and 150 mM SDS as background electrolyte (BGE). During the separation procedure a temperature of 20 °C and a voltage of 25 kV (normal mode) were applied. Due to sweeping effects, an on-line concentration was achieved for all the studied compounds and detection limits lower than 1.8 μg L(-1) were obtained. This method has been successfully applied to milk samples of different origins, including raw ewe milk. PMID:24128462

  18. Contactless conductivity detector for microchip capillary electrophoresis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pumera, Martin; Wang, Joseph; Opekar, Frantisek; Jelinek, Ivan; Feldman, Jason; Lowe, Holger; Hardt, Steffen; Svehla, D. (Principal Investigator)

    2002-01-01

    A microfabricated electrophoresis chip with an integrated contactless conductivity detection system is described. The new contactless conductivity microchip detector is based on placing two planar sensing aluminum film electrodes on the outer side of a poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) microchip (without contacting the solution) and measuring the impedance of the solution in the separation channel. The contactless route obviates problems (e.g., fouling, unwanted reactions) associated with the electrode-solution contact, offers isolation of the detection system from high separation fields, does not compromise the separation efficiency, and greatly simplifies the detector fabrication. Relevant experimental variables, such as the frequency and amplitude of the applied ac voltage or the separation voltage, were examined and optimized. The detector performance was illustrated by the separation of potassium, sodium, barium, and lithium cations and the chloride, sulfate, fluoride, acetate, and phosphate anions. The response was linear (over the 20 microM-7 mM range) and reproducible (RSD = 3.4-4.9%; n = 10), with detection limits of 2.8 and 6.4 microM (for potassium and chloride, respectively). The advantages associated with the contactless conductivity detection, along with the low cost of the integrated PMMA chip/detection system, should enhance the power and scope of microfluidic analytical devices.

  19. Comparison of the separation of nine tryptamine standards based on gas chromatography, high performance liquid chromatography and capillary electrophoresis methods.

    PubMed

    Wang, Man-Juing; Liu, Ju-Tsung; Chen, Hung-Ming; Lin, Jian-Jhih; Lin, Cheng-Huang

    2008-02-15

    Nine tryptamines, including alpha-methyltryptamine (AMT), N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT), 5-methoxy-alpha-methyltryptamine (5-MeO-AMT), N,N-diethyltryptamine (DET), N,N-dipropyltryptamine (DPT), N,N-dibutyltryptamine (DBT), N,N-diisopropyltryptamine (DIPT), 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine (5-MeO-DMT), and 5-methoxy-N,N-diisopropyltryptamine (5-MeO-DIPT) were selected as model compounds. Comparisons of their sensitivity, selectivity, time, cost and the order of migration are described based on different separation techniques (GC, HPLC and CE, respectively). As a result, the limit of detection (S/N=3) obtained by GC/MS and LC/UV-absorption ranged from 0.5 to 15 microg/mL and 0.3 to 1.0 microg/mL, respectively. In contrast to this, based on the CZE/UV-absorption method, the limit of detection (S/N=3) was determined to 0.5-1 microg/mL. However, when the sweeping-MEKC mode was applied, it dramatically improved to 2-10 ng/mL. In the case of GC, HPLC and CE, migration times of the nine standards ranged from 11 to 15 min and 8 to 23 min by GC and HPLC, respectively; ranged from 20 to 26 min by sweeping-MEKC. The order of migration of DMT, DET, DPT and DBT follows the molecular weight, whereas the order of migration of AMT and 5-MeO-AMT (primary amines), DIPT (an isomer of DPT) and 5-methoxy-tryptamines (5-MeO-AMT, 5-MeO-DMT and 5-MeO-DIPT) can be altered by changing the separation conditions. PMID:18177659

  20. Microchip Non-Aqueous Capillary Electrophoresis (MicronNACE) Method to Analyze Long-Chain Primary Amines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willis, Peter A.; Mora, Maria; Cable, Morgan L.; Stockton, Amanda M.

    2012-01-01

    A protocol was developed as a first step in analyzing the complex organic aerosols present on Saturn's moon Titan, as well as the analogues of these aerosols (tholins) made on Earth. Labeling of primary amines using Pacific Blue succinimidyl ester is effected in ethanol with 25 mM triethylamine to maintain basic conditions. This reaction is allowed to equilibrate for at least one hour. Separation of the labeled primary amines is performed in ethanol with 1.05 M acetic acid, and 50 mM ammonium acetate in a commercial two-layer glass device with a standard crossmicrochannel measuring 50 microns wide by 20 microns deep. Injection potentials are optimized at 2 kV from the sample (negative) to the waste well (positive), with slight bias applied to the other two wells ( 0.4 and 0.8 V) to pinch the injection plug for the 30-s injection. Separation is performed at a potential of 5 kV along the channel, which has an effective separation distance of 7 cm. The use of ethanol in this method means that long-chain primary amines can be dissolved. Due to the low pH of the separation buffer, electro-osmotic flow (EOF) is minimized to allow for separation of both short-chain and longchain amines. As the freezing point of ethanol is much lower than water, this protocol can perform separations at temperatures lower than 0 C, which would not be possible in aqueous phase. This is of particular importance when considering in situ sampling of Titan aerosols, where unnecessary heating of the sample (even to room temperature) would lead to decomposition or unpredictable side reactions, which would make it difficult to characterize the sample appropriately.

  1. Development of a capillary electrophoresis method for the analysis in alkaline media as polyoxoanions of two strategic metals: Niobium and tantalum.

    PubMed

    Deblonde, Gauthier J-P; Chagnes, Alexandre; Cote, Gérard; Vial, Jérôme; Rivals, Isabelle; Delaunay, Nathalie

    2016-03-11

    Tantalum (Ta) and niobium (Nb) are two strategic metals essential to several key sectors, like the aerospace, gas and oil, nuclear and electronic industries, but their separation is really difficult due to their almost identical chemical properties. Whereas they are currently produced by hydrometallurgical processes using fluoride-based solutions, efforts are being made to develop cleaner processes by replacing the fluoride media by alkaline ones. However, methods to analyze Nb and Ta simultaneously in alkaline samples are lacking. In this work, we developed a capillary zone electrophoresis (CE) method able to separate and quantify Nb and Ta directly in alkaline media. This method takes advantage of the hexaniobate and hexatantalate ions which are naturally formed at pH>9 and absorb in the UV domain. First, the detection conditions, the background electrolyte (BGE) pH, the nature of the BGE co-ion and the internal standard (IS) were optimized by a systematic approach. As the BGE counter-ion nature modified the speciation of both ions, sodium- and lithium-based BGE were tested. For each alkaline cation, the BGE ionic strength and separation temperature were optimized using experimental designs. Since changes in the migration order of IS, Nb and Ta were observed within the experimental domain, the resolution was not a monotonic function of ionic strength and separation temperature. This forced us to develop an original data treatment for the prediction of the optimum separation conditions. Depending on the consideration of either peak widths or peak symmetries, with or without additional robustness constraints, four optima were predicted for each tested alkaline cation. The eight predicted optima were tested experimentally and the best experimental optimum was selected considering analysis time, resolution and robustness. The best separation was obtained at 31.0°C and in a BGE containing 10mM LiOH and 35mM LiCH3COO.The separation voltage was finally optimized

  2. Microchip Capillary Electrophoresis with Electrochemical Detection for Monitoring Environmental Pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Gang; Lin, Yuehe; Wang, Joseph

    2006-01-15

    This invited paper reviews recent advances and the key strategies in microchip capillary electrophoresis (CE) with electrochemical detection (ECD) for separating and detecting a variety of environmental pollutants. The subjects covered include the fabrication of microfluidic chips, sample pretreatments, ECD, typical applications of microchip CE with ECD in environmental analysis, and future prospects. It is expected that microchip CE-ECD will become a powerful tool in the environmental field and will lead to the creation of truly portable devices.

  3. Hybridization thermodynamics of DNA oligonucleotides during microchip capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Wynne, Thomas M; McCallum, Christopher; Del Bonis-O'Donnell, Jackson Travis; Crisalli, Pete; Pennathur, Sumita

    2015-03-01

    Capillary electrophoresis (CE) is a powerful analytical tool for performing separations and characterizing properties of charged species. For reacting species during a CE separation, local concentrations change leading to nonequilibrium conditions. Interpreting experimental data with such nonequilibrium reactive species is nontrivial due to the large number of variables involved in the system. In this work we develop a COMSOL multiphysics-based numerical model to simulate the electrokinetic mass transport of short interacting ssDNAs in microchip capillary electrophoresis. We probe the importance of the dissociation constant, K(D), and the concentration of DNA on the resulting observed mobility of the dsDNA peak, μ(w), by using a full sweep of parametric simulations. We find that the observed mobility is strongly dependent on the DNA concentration and K(D), as well as ssDNA concentration, and develop a relation with which to understand this dependence. Furthermore, we present experimental microchip capillary electrophoresis measurements of interacting 10 base ssDNA and its complement with changes in buffer ionic strength, DNA concentration, and DNA sequence to vary the system equilibria. We then compare our results to thermodynamically calculated K(D) values. PMID:25634338

  4. SIMULTANEOUS DTERMINATION OF CHROMATE AND AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS IN ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLES BY CAPILLARY ELECTROPHORESIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    An analytical method was developed to determine simultaneously, the inorganic anion CrO2-4, and organic aromatic compounds including benzoate, 2-Cl-benzoate, phenol, m-cresol and o-/p-cresol by capillary electrophoresis (CE). Chromate and the aromatics were separated in a relativ...

  5. Capillary Electrophoresis and Fluorescence Excitation-Emission Matrix Characterization of Soil Mobile and Calcium Humates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Capillary electrophoresis (CE) and Excitation-emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence spectroscopy have been used in natural organic matter (NOM) studies. The mutual relevance of data collected from each of the two methods provides novel insight into the correlation of complex NOM fluorescence spectra to...

  6. Development of a hollow fibre liquid-phase micro extraction method coupled with capillary electrophoresis/mass spectrometry for determining nitrophenolic compounds from atmospheric particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teich, Monique; van Pinxteren, Dominik; Herrmann, Hartmut

    2014-05-01

    Nitrophenolic compounds present in the atmosphere gained a lot of attention as they are known for their negative effect on human health as well as for their phytotoxity being a cause for forest decline. Moreover, nitrophenols have the ability to absorb light in the range of near ultra violet to visible light, thus they are also contributing to the so-called brown carbon. Most of the available methods for determining nitrophenols in particulate matter are using organic solvents for extraction. Those methods are not applicable if one wants to focus only on the water-soluble fraction. Therefore, a method using a three-phase hollow fibre liquid-phase micro extraction (HF-LPME) was developed to enrich nine nitrophenolic compounds (2-Nitrophenol, 3-Nitrophenol, 4-Nitrophenol, 2-Methyl-4-nitrophenol, 3-Methyl-4-nitrophenol, 4-Nitrocatechol, 2,6-Dimethyl-4-nitrophenol, 2,4-Dinitrophenol, 3,4-Dinitrophenol) from aqueous extracts of atmospheric particles. Analysis was performed by capillary electrophoresis coupled with electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (CE-ESI-MS). The background electrolyte composition was optimised to a 20 mM ammonium acetate buffer at pH 9.7 containing 15% methanol (v/v). Persistent peak tailing during electrophoretic separation was observed for 4-Nitrocatechol. Flushing the capillary with Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) prior sample injection strongly improved the peak shape. Four extraction parameters (composition of organic liquid membrane, pH of acceptor phase, salting out effect, extraction time) and their effect on the analyte recoveries were examined. The HF-LPME consisted of 1.8 mL sample solution kept at pH 2 as donor phase and 15 µl 100 mM aqueous ammonia solution as acceptor phase inserted into a hollow fibre. Dihexyl ether was used to form a supported liquid membrane inside the pores of the hollow fibre. As a result low detection limits in the range of nmol L-1 were achieved and the developed method was found to be competitive

  7. [Determination of glyoxalate and oxalate by capillary zone electrophoresis].

    PubMed

    Guan, Jin; Wang, Huize; Ren, Liyan; Niu, Qiuling

    2012-01-01

    A method for the simultaneous determination of glyoxalate and oxalate by capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) was developed. The influences of type, concentration and pH of the running buffer, and the applied voltage on separation were investigated. Glyoxalate and oxalate were separated within 11 min under the conditions of 20 mmol/L borax-5.5 mmol/L potassium hydrogen phthalate (pH 9.0), applied voltage of 20 kV, and detected wavelength of 212 nm. The calibration curves of glyoxalate and oxalate showed good linearity in the ranges of 0.8 -20 g/L and 1.2-20 g/L, respectively. The correlation coefficients were 0.999 3 and 0.997 5, respectively. The limits of detection for glyoxalate and oxalate were 0.2 and 0.4 g/L (S/N = 3), respectively. The average recoveries at three spiked levels were 98.3%-102.5% with acceptable relative standard deviations of 0.35%-0.61%. This method is simple, low cost and high performance. The method was successfully used for the determination of glyoxalate and oxalate in real samples, and the assay results were satisfactory. PMID:22667103

  8. Combined electrophoresis-electrospray interface and method

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Richard P.; Udseth, Harold R.; Olivares, Jose A.

    1989-01-01

    A system and method for analyzing molecular constituents of a composition sample includes: forming a solution of the sample, separating the solution by capillary electrophoresis into an eluent of constituents longitudinally separated according to their relative electrophoretic mobilities, electrospraying the eluent to form a charged spray in which the molecular constituents have a temporal distribution; and detecting or collecting the separated constituents in accordance with the temporal distribution in the spray. A first high-voltage (e.g., 5-100 KVDC) is applied to the solution. The spray is charged by applying a second high voltage (e.g., .+-.2-8 KVDC) between the eluent at the capillary exit and a cathode spaced in front of the exit. A complete electrical circuit is formed by a conductor which directly contacts the eluent at the capillary exit, or by conduction through a sheath electrode discharged in an annular sheath flow about the capillary exit.

  9. Combined electrophoresis-electrospray interface and method

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Richard D.; Udseth, Harold R.; Olivares, Jose A.

    1994-10-18

    A system and method for analyzing molecular constituents of a composition sample includes: forming a solution of the sample, separating the solution by capillary electrophoresis into an eluent of constituents longitudinally separated according to their relative electrophoretic mobilities, electrospraying the eluent to form a charged spray in which the molecular constituents have a temporal distribution; and detecting or collecting the separated constituents in accordance with the temporal distribution in the spray. A first high-voltage (e.g., 5-100 KVDC) is applied to the solution. The spray is charged by applying a second high voltage (e.g., .+-.2-8 KVDC) between the eluent at the capillary exit and a cathode spaced in front of the exit. A complete electrical circuit is formed by a conductor which directly contacts the eluent at the capillary exit, or by conduction through a sheath electrode discharged in an annular sheath flow about the capillary exit.

  10. Combined electrophoresis-electrospray interface and method

    DOEpatents

    Smith, R.D.; Udseth, H.R.; Olivares, J.A.

    1994-10-18

    A system and method for analyzing molecular constituents of a composition sample include: forming a solution of the sample, separating the solution by capillary electrophoresis into an eluent of constituents longitudinally separated according to their relative electrophoretic mobilities, electrospraying the eluent to form a charged spray in which the molecular constituents have a temporal distribution; and detecting or collecting the separated constituents in accordance with the temporal distribution in the spray. A first high-voltage (e.g., 5--100 kVDC) is applied to the solution. The spray is charged by applying a second high voltage (e.g.,{+-}2--8 kVDC) between the eluent at the capillary exit and a cathode spaced in front of the exit. A complete electrical circuit is formed by a conductor which directly contacts the eluent at the capillary exit, or by conduction through a sheath electrode discharged in an annular sheath flow about the capillary exit. 21 figs.

  11. Combined electrophoresis-electrospray interface and method

    DOEpatents

    Smith, R.P.; Udseth, H.R.; Olivares, J.A.

    1989-12-05

    A system and method for analyzing molecular constituents of a composition sample includes: forming a solution of the sample, separating the solution by capillary electrophoresis into an eluent of constituents longitudinally separated according to their relative electrophoretic mobilities, electrospraying the eluent to form a charged spray in which the molecular constituents have a temporal distribution; and detecting or collecting the separated constituents in accordance with the temporal distribution in the spray. A first high-voltage (e.g., 5--100 kVDC) is applied to the solution. The spray is charged by applying a second high voltage (e.g., [+-]2--8 kVDC) between the eluent at the capillary exit and a cathode spaced in front of the exit. A complete electrical circuit is formed by a conductor which directly contacts the eluent at the capillary exit, or by conduction through a sheath electrode discharged in an annular sheath flow about the capillary exit. 21 figs.

  12. Detection of Salmonellae in Chicken Feces by a Combination of Tetrathionate Broth Enrichment, Capillary PCR, and Capillary Gel Electrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Carli, K. Tayfun; Unal, Can Bora; Caner, Vildan; Eyigor, Aysegul

    2001-01-01

    This report describes a rapid detection procedure for salmonellae from chicken feces by the combination of tetrathionate primary enrichment (preenrichment [PE])-bacterial lysis-capillary PCR and capillary gel electrophoresis. Pure Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis 64K was reisolated and detected by capillary PCR after buffered peptone water and nutrient broth, tetrathionate broth base Hajna (TTBH), and tetrathionate broth (TTB) preenrichments. When the same culture was mixed with intestinal homogenate, bacteriological reisolation and capillary PCR detection was achieved only by TTBH and TTB preenrichments. Capillary gel electrophoresis revealed that a Salmonella genus-specific 281-bp PCR product was detected when Salmonella strains but not non-Salmonella strains were tested. The detection limit of capillary PCR with whole-cell DNA extracted from pure Salmonella enterica serovars Enteritidis 64K, Typhimurium LT2-CIP60-62, and Gallinarum 64K was 3, 3, and 9 CFU ml−1, respectively. The detection limit of capillary PCR from whole-cell DNA extracted from intestinal homogenate artificially contaminated with the same three strains was 3, 3, and 7 CFU ml−1, respectively. We compared the results of the capillary PCR and bacteriological examination from the natural samples. Thirty-five of 53 naturally contaminated samples produced a specific PCR product. In 9 of the 35 PCR-positive samples, Salmonella could not be detected bacteriologically either by PE or a primary and delayed secondary enrichment (DSE) combination. In the 18 PCR-negative samples, 4 samples were found to harbor Salmonella by both PE and DSE and 14 samples were positive after DSE. Fifty-three additional intestinal homogenate samples, which were negative by their PE and DSE in bacteriological examination, were found to be also negative by their PCRs. The total time required to detect Salmonella with the capillary PCR method we used was approximately 20 h. If samples are from clinically diseased

  13. Capillary electrophoresis separation of the desamino degradation products of oxytocin

    PubMed Central

    Creamer, Jessica S.; Krauss, Shannon T.; Lunte, Susan M.

    2014-01-01

    Oxytocin is an endogenous and therapeutic hormone necessary for maternal health. It is also the subject of fast growing research in the field of behavioral science. This article describes a rapid capillary electrophoresis method using UV detection at 214 nm for the determination of the deamidation products of oxytocin. Deamidation is the most common degradation pathway of peptides and proteins and can lead to reduced therapeutic efficiency of biopharmaceuticals. To achieve a separation of the seven structurally similar desamino peptides from oxytocin, 11 mM sulfobutyl ether β-cyclodextrin and 10% v/v MeOH were added to a background electrolyte of 50 mM phosphate buffer at pH 6.0. The assay is linear within ≤5-100 μM for all species with a total analysis time of 12 min. The method was then applied to monitor the heat-stress degradation of oxytocin at 70°C, where all seven desamino species were observed over a 96 h period. PMID:24166826

  14. Stability measurements of antisense oligonucleotides by capillary gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Bruin, G J; Börnsen, K O; Hüsken, D; Gassmann, E; Widmer, H M; Paulus, A

    1995-08-11

    The approach of using antisense oligonucleotides as potential drugs is based on hybridization of a short chemically-modified oligonucleotide with complementary cellular DNA or RNA sequences. A critical question is the stability of chemically modified antisense oligonucleotides in cellular environments. In a model system, resistance against various nucleases was evaluated by capillary gel electrophoresis (CGE). For some of the samples, matrix assisted laser desorption and ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) was used as an additional analytical tool to perform stability measurements. Using CGE, the enzymatic degradation of single nucleotides from the oligomer can be followed after different incubation times. 10% T polyacrylamide gels give baseline resolution for oligonucleotides ranging between 5 and 30 bases in length. The kinetic influence of a specific nuclease concentration and the antisense oligonucleotide structure on the cleavage reaction are discussed. Also, a simple desalting method to improve the injection efficiency and sensitivity of the method are described. Examples of measurements of chemically modified antisense 19-mers are presented. PMID:7581844

  15. Study on Dicarboxylic Acids in Aerosol Samples with Capillary Electrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Adler, Heidi; Sirén, Heli

    2014-01-01

    The research was performed to study the simultaneous detection of a homologous series of α, ω-dicarboxylic acids (C2–C10), oxalic, malonic, succinic, glutaric, adipic, pimelic, suberic, azelaic, and sebacic acids, with capillary electrophoresis using indirect UV detection. Good separation efficiency in 2,6-pyridinedicarboxylic acid as background electrolyte modified with myristyl trimethyl ammonium bromide was obtained. The dicarboxylic acids were ionised and separated within five minutes. For the study, authentic samples were collected onto dry cellulose membrane filters of a cascade impactor (12 stages) from outdoor spring aerosols in an urban area. Hot water and ultrasonication extraction methods were used to isolate the acids from membrane filters. Due to the low concentrations of acids in the aerosols, the extracts were concentrated with solid-phase extraction (SPE) before determination. The enrichment of the carboxylic acids was between 86 and 134% with sample pretreatment followed by 100-time increase by preparation of the sample to 50 μL. Inaccuracy was optimised for all the sample processing steps. The aerosols contained dicarboxylic acids C2–C10. Then, mostly they contained C2, C5, and C10. Only one sample contained succinic acid. In the study, the concentrations of the acids in aerosols were lower than 10 ng/m3. PMID:24729915

  16. Stacking in a continuous sample flow interface in capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Gstoettenmayr, Daniel; Quirino, Joselito; Ivory, Cornelius F; Breadmore, Michael

    2015-08-21

    Using a tee connector in a commercial capillary electrophoresis instrument, the effect of field amplified sample injection from both flowing and static sample volumes was investigated. It is shown that under identical conditions (40min electrokinetic injection at 5kV from a sample volume of 295μL) the limit of detection using the continuous sample flow interface is 4 times lower than from a static vial. The relationship between different flow rates and injection voltages on the injected sample amount was also investigated using a 2D axisymmetric simulation (COMSOL 4.3b) and verified experimentally, confirming conditions under which there is near-quantitative injection of the sample target ions. Using electrokinetic injection at 30kV and a flow rate of 558nL/s the same enhancement from an even smaller volume of 184μL could be achieved in 5.5min than could be achieved from 295μL and a 40min injection. This sensitivity enhancement factor corresponded to four orders of magnitude improvement compared to a hydrodynamic injection. This is the first report showing that a continuous sample flow interface combined with stacking methods under conditions approaching quantitative injection from the entire sample volume has the potential to be more sensitive than a static system. PMID:26189205

  17. A Contactless Capacitance Detection System for Microchip Capillary Electrophoresis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Peter

    2008-05-01

    The design, construction and operation of a simple, inexpensive and compact high voltage power supply for use in conjunction with a simple cross, capillary electrophoresis microchip is presented. The detection system utilizes a single high voltage power supply (15 kV), a voltage divider network for obtaining the required voltages for enabling a gated injection valve, and two high voltage relays for switching between the open and closed gate sequences of the injection. The system is used to determine sodium monofluoroacetate (MFA) concentration in diluted fruit juices and tap water. A separation buffer consisting of 20 mM citric acid and histidine at pH 3.5 enabled the detection of the anion in diluted apple juice, cranberry juice, and orange juice without lengthy sample pretreatments. Limit of detection in diluted juices and tap water were determined to be 125, 167, 138, and 173 mg/L for tap water, apple juice, cranberry juice, and orange juice, respectively, based upon an S/N of 3:1. The total analysis time for detecting the MFA anion in fruit juices was less than 5 min, which represents a considerable reduction in analysis time compared to other analytical methods currently used in food analysis.

  18. Quantification of Carbohydrates in Grape Tissues Using Capillary Zone Electrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Lu; Chanon, Ann M.; Chattopadhyay, Nabanita; Dami, Imed E.; Blakeslee, Joshua J.

    2016-01-01

    Soluble sugars play an important role in freezing tolerance in both herbaceous and woody plants, functioning in both the reduction of freezing-induced dehydration and the cryoprotection of cellular constituents. The quantification of soluble sugars in plant tissues is, therefore, essential in understanding freezing tolerance. While a number of analytical techniques and methods have been used to quantify sugars, most of these are expensive and time-consuming due to complex sample preparation procedures which require the derivatization of the carbohydrates being analyzed. Analysis of soluble sugars using capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) under alkaline conditions with direct UV detection has previously been used to quantify simple sugars in fruit juices. However, it was unclear whether CZE-based methods could be successfully used to quantify the broader range of sugars present in complex plant extracts. Here, we present the development of an optimized CZE method capable of separating and quantifying mono-, di-, and tri-saccharides isolated from plant tissues. This optimized CZE method employs a column electrolyte buffer containing 130 mM NaOH, pH 13.0, creating a current of 185 μA when a separation voltage of 10 kV is employed. The optimized CZE method provides limits-of-detection (an average of 1.5 ng/μL) for individual carbohydrates comparable or superior to those obtained using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry, and allows resolution of non-structural sugars and cell wall components (structural sugars). The optimized CZE method was successfully used to quantify sugars from grape leaves and buds, and is a robust tool for the quantification of plant sugars found in vegetative and woody tissues. The increased analytical efficiency of this CZE method makes it ideal for use in high-throughput metabolomics studies designed to quantify plant sugars. PMID:27379118

  19. [In situ photopolymerization of polyacrylamide-based preconcentrator on a microfluidic chip for capillary electrophoresis].

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Sachio

    2012-01-01

    Microchip electrophoresis is widely used for microfluidics and has been studied extensively over the past decade. Translation of capillary electrophoresis methods from traditional capillary systems to a microchip platform provides rapid separation and easy quantitation of sample components. However, most microfluidic systems suffer from critical scaling problems. One promising solution to this problem is online sample preconcentration of all analytes in a sample reservoir before the separation channel. Herein, the following three techniques for online preconcentration during microchip electrophoresis are proposed: (1) in situ fabrication of an ionic polyacrylamide-based preconcentrator on a simple poly(methyl methacrylate) microfluidic chip for perm-selective preconcentration and capillary electrophoretic separation of anionic compounds, (2) simultaneous concentration enrichment and electrophoretic separation of weak acids on a microchip using an in situ photopolymerized carboxylate-type polyacrylamide gels as the perm-selective preconcentrator, and (3) microchip electrophoresis of oligosaccharides using lectin-immobilized preconcentrator gels fabricated by in situ photopolymerization. These techniques are expected to be powerful tools for clinical and pharmaceutical studies with on-line preconcentration during microchip electrophoresis. PMID:23023420

  20. Chip-based capillary electrophoresis with an electrodeless nanospray interface.

    PubMed

    Vrouwe, E X; Gysler, J; Tjaden, U R; van der Greef, J

    2000-01-01

    A sheathless and electrodeless nanospray interface has been used to interface a polycarbonate capillary electrophoresis (CE) chip to a mass spectrometer (MS). The chip was made of two flat polycarbonate plates which were bolted together. Channels were imprinted in one of the plates with metal wires, using a hydraulic press. A short tapered capillary connected to the chip was used as the nanospray emitter. The advantage of this electrodeless interface is that it was not necessary to apply a electrospray voltage to the chip or the nanospray emitter. Instead, the CE voltage already applied to the buffer compartment on the chip, to drive the electrophoresis, was used to generate the spray also. A low conductivity buffer of 1.25 mmol/L ammonium acetate in 80% methanol was used to obtain a large electric field across the buffer channel. The performance of the device was evaluated by analyzing a mixture of three beta-agonists Relative standard deviation (RSD) values obtained were between 4.8 and 5.0%. A sample concentration of 40 nmol/L resulted in a signal-to-noise ratio of 2 to 5 for the different components. Compared to a conventional CE analysis in a fused silica capillary with UV detection, only a minor loss of resolution was observed, which can be attributed to the design of the chip. PMID:10962491

  1. Potential of polyE-323 coated capillaries for capillary electrophoresis of lipids.

    PubMed

    Martma, Kert; Lindenburg, Petrus W; Habicht, Kaia-Liisa; Vulla, Kaspar; Resik, Kristiin; Kuut, Gunnar; Shimmo, Ruth

    2013-11-22

    In this note the feasibility of a polyamine-based capillary coating, polyE-323, for capillary electrophoresis (CE) of lipids is explored. PolyE-323 has previously been demonstrated to be suitable to suppress analyte-wall interaction of proteins in CE. However, the full applicability range of polyE-323 has not been exploited yet and it might be useful in the analysis of hydrophobic analytes, such as lipids. In this study, the stability of polyE-323 when using highly organic background electrolytes (BGEs), which are needed to solubilize the lipid analytes, was studied. For this, we used three different lipid samples: sphingomyelin, cardiolipin and a lipid extract from a cell culture. The highly organic BGEs that were used in this study consisted of 94.5% of organic solvents and 5.5% of an aqueous buffer. First, the influence of pure acetonitrile, methanol, propylene carbonate, isopropanol and chloroform on the polyE-323 coating was investigated. Then BGEs were developed and tested, using sphingomyelin and cardiolipin as test analytes in CE-UV experiments. After establishing the best BGEs (in terms of analysis time and repeatability) by CE-UV, sphingomyelin was used as a test analyte to demonstrate that method was also suitable for CE with mass-spectrometry detection (CE-MS). The LOD of sphingomyelin was estimated to be 100 nM and its migration time repeatability was 1.3%. The CE-MS analysis was further applied on a lipid extract obtained from human glioblastoma cells, which resulted in the separation and detection of a multitude of putative lipids. The results of our feasibility study indicate that CE systems based on polyE-323 coated capillaries and highly organic BGEs are promising for fast electromigration-based analysis of lipids. PMID:24011728

  2. Simultaneous determination of inorganic and organic gunshot residues by capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Morales, Ernesto Bernal; Vázquez, Alma L Revilla

    2004-12-24

    A capillary electrophoresis method was developed to analyze simultaneously 11 organic and 10 inorganic components of gunshot residues as a cheaper and possibly more specific method comparing to traditional techniques. Pre-capillary complexation and simultaneously a micellar phase were combined to determine not only the metal but also the organic residues from a firearm. In order to test the possibility to apply the developed method to real cases, residues from shot samples from different firearms were analyzed and their results were compared with those obtained with electrothermal atomic absorption spectroscopy, an established technique for gunshot residue analysis. Good agreement between both techniques for lead was found. PMID:15641366

  3. Separation and detection of DNA by capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Kasper, T J; Melera, M; Gozel, P; Brownlee, R G

    1988-12-23

    The use of capillary electrophoresis for the separation and detection of nucleic acids has been investigated. Lab-model instruments have been built, using commercially available UV absorbance and fluorescence detectors which were modified for use with 50-100 microns I.D. fused-silica capillary tubing. The sensitivity of these instruments (signal-to-noise ratio = 3) was measured as 15 micrograms/ml for fluorescence detection of ethidium bromide-stained herring-sperm DNA and 3 micrograms/ml for UV absorbance detection. With the former instruments a variety of strategies has been used to attain rapid separations of bases, oligonucleotides, restriction fragments and whole phage, viral and plasmid DNAs. PMID:3266219

  4. Theoretical and experimental separation dynamics in capillary zone electrophoresis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thormann, Wolfgang; Michaud, Jon-Pierre; Mosher, Richard A.

    1986-01-01

    The mathematical model of Bier et al. (1983) is used in a computer aided analysis of the conditions in capillary zone electrophoresis (ZE) under which sample zones migrate noninteractively with the carrier electrolyte. The monitoring of sample zones with a capillary analyzer that features both on-line conductivity and UV detection at the end of the separation trough is discussed. Data from a ZE analysis of a 5-component mixture are presented, and it is noted that all five components can be monitored via their conductivity change if enough sample is present. It is suggested from the results that the concentration ratio of background buffer to sample should be a minimum of 100:1 to effectively apply the plate concept to ZE.

  5. Capillary electrophoresis-electrochemical detection microchip device and supporting circuits

    DOEpatents

    Jackson, Douglas J.; Roussel, Jr., Thomas J.; Crain, Mark M.; Baldwin, Richard P.; Keynton, Robert S.; Naber, John F.; Walsh, Kevin M.; Edelen, John. G.

    2008-03-18

    The present invention is a capillary electrophoresis device, comprising a substrate; a first channel in the substrate, and having a buffer arm and a detection arm; a second channel in the substrate intersecting the first channel, and having a sample arm and a waste arm; a buffer reservoir in fluid communication with the buffer arm; a waste reservoir in fluid communication with the waste arm; a sample reservoir in fluid communication with the sample arm; and a detection reservoir in fluid communication with the detection arm. The detection arm and the buffer arm are of substantially equal length.

  6. High-sensitivity capillary and microchip electrophoresis using electrokinetic supercharging.

    PubMed

    Dawod, Mohamed; Chung, Doo Soo

    2011-10-01

    Electrokinetic supercharging (EKS) is considered as one of the most powerful online preconcentration techniques in electrophoresis. It combines the efficient preconcentration power of field-amplified sample injection and the exceptional selective nature of transient isotachophoresis. It has a wide range of applications to different types of analytes ranging from small ions to large proteins and DNA fragments. This comprehensive review--up to date--provides listing for all the works, developments, and advances in EKS. The review will pay particular attention to innovations, new methodologies for manipulation, challenges for improving the detection sensitivity, and various applications of EKS in capillaries and microchips. PMID:21793208

  7. Monitoring environmental pollutants by microchip capillary electrophoresis with electrochemical detection

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Gang; Lin, Yuehe; Wang, Joseph

    2006-01-15

    This is a review article. During the past decade, significant progress in the development of miniaturized microfluidic systems has Occurred due to the numerous advantages of microchip analysis. This review focuses on recent advances and the key strategies in microchip capillary electrophoresis (CE) with electrochemical detection (ECD) for separating and detecting a variety of environmental pollutants. The subjects covered include the fabrication of microfluidic chips, ECD, typical applications of microchip CE with ECD in environmental analysis, and future prospects. It is expected that microchip CE-ECD will become a powerful tool in the environmental field and will lead to the creation of truly portable devices.

  8. Miniaturized movable contactless conductivity detection cell for capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Macka, Miroslav; Hutchinson, Joseph; Zemann, Andreas; Shusheng, Zhang; Haddad, Paul R

    2003-06-01

    A miniaturized capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detector (mini-C(4)D) cell has been designed which is small enough to allow it to slide along the effective capillary length inside the capillary cassette of an Agilent capiillary electrophoresis system (CE) (or other CE brand of similar construction), including the possibility of positioning it close to the point of optical detection (4 cm), or even putting two such detector cells in one cassette. The cell was tested and the performance characteristics (noise, sensitivity, and peak width) were compared with those obtained with the previously used large C(4)D cell. No significant differences were observed. The mini-C(4)D was used in simultaneous separations of common cations and anions where its advantage over a larger C(4)D cell is the ability to vary the point of detection with the mini-C(4)D cell continuously at any point along the capillary length, so that the optimum apparent selectivity can be chosen. Other applications include providing a convenient second point of detection in addition to photometric detection, such as to measure accurately the linear velocity of a zone, or to allow placement of two mini-C(4)D cells in one capillary cassette simultaneously. PMID:12858387

  9. Application of capillary electrophoresis to the development and evaluation of aptamer affinity probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sooter, Letha J.; McMasters, Sun; Stratis-Cullum, Dimitra N.

    2007-09-01

    Nucleic acid aptamers can exhibit high binding affinities for a wide variety of targets and have received much attention as molecular recognition elements for enhanced biosensor performance. These aptamers recognize target molecules through a combination of conformational dependent non-covalent interactions in aqueous media which can be investigated using capillary electrophoresis-based methods. In this paper we report on the results of our studies of the relative binding affinity of Campylobacter jejuni aptamers using a capillary electrophoretic immunoassay. Our results show preferential binding to C. jejuni over other common food pathogen bacteria. Capillary electrophoresis can also be used to develop new aptamer recognition elements using an in vitro selection process known as systematic evolution of ligand by exponential enrichment (SELEX). Recently, this process has been adapted to use capillary electrophoresis in an attempt to shorten the overall selection process. This smart selection of nucleic acid aptamers from a large diversity of a combinatorial DNA library is under optimization for the development of aptamers which bind to Army-relevant targets. This paper will include a discussion of the establishment of CE-SELEX methods for the future development of smart aptamer probes.

  10. Rapid inorganic ion analysis using quantitative microchip capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Vrouwe, Elwin X; Luttge, Regina; Olthuis, Wouter; van den Berg, Albert

    2006-01-13

    Rapid quantitative microchip capillary electrophoresis (CE) for online monitoring of drinking water enabling inorganic ion separation in less than 15 s is presented. Comparing cationic and anionic standards at different concentrations the analysis of cationic species resulted in non-linear calibration curves. We interpret this effect as a variation in the volume of the injected sample plug caused by changes of the electroosmotic flow (EOF) due to the strong interaction of bivalent cations with the glass surface. This explanation is supported by the observation of severe peak tailing. Conducting microchip CE analysis in a glass microchannel, optimized conditions are received for the cationic species K+, Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+ using a background electrolyte consisting of 30 mmol/L histidine and 2-(N-morpholino)ethanesulfonic acid, containing 0.5 mmol/L potassium chloride to reduce surface interaction and 4 mmol/L tartaric acid as a complexing agent resulting in a pH-value of 5.8. Applying reversed EOF co-migration for the anionic species Cl-, SO42- and HCO3- optimized separation occurs in a background electrolyte consisting of 10 mmol/L 4-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1-piperazineethanesulfonic acid (HEPES) and 10 mmol/L HEPES sodium salt, containing 0.05 mmol/L CTAB (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide) resulting in a pH-value of 7.5. The detection limits are 20 micromol/L for the monovalent cationic and anionic species and 10 micromol/L for the divalent species. These values make the method very suitable for many applications including the analysis of abundant ions in tap water as demonstrated in this paper. PMID:16310794

  11. Separation of Trivalent Actinides from Lanthanides Using a Capillary Electrophoresis

    SciTech Connect

    Mori, Tomotaka; Ishii, Yasuo; Hayashi, Kazunori; Suganuma, Hideo; Satoh, Isamu

    2007-07-01

    A separation of {sup 241}Am(III) from {sup 152,154}Eu(III) was carried out using a capillary electrophoresis technique in a mixed solvent (CH{sub 3}OH/H{sub 2}O) system containing thiocyanate ion. First, the formation constants ({beta}{sub n}) between thiocyanate ion and Eu(III) or Am(III) were investigated in the mixed solvent solutions by a back-extraction technique using bis (2-ethylhexyl) hydrogen phosphate-toluene. The mean charges calculated on the basis of the data of {beta}{sub n} for Eu(III) were comparatively higher than those for Am(III). Based on the differences between the mean charges of Eu(III) and Am(III), separations for Am(III)/Eu(III) by means of capillary electrophoresis technique were tried in the (H{sup +}, Na{sup +})(SCN{sup -}, ClO{sub 4}{sup -}) mixed solvent solutions. It was proved that Am(III) was completely separated from Eu(III). (authors)

  12. Comparison of three modifications of fused-silica capillaries and untreated capillaries for protein profiling of maize extracts by capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Pobozy, Ewa; Sentkowska, Aleksandra; Piskor, Anna

    2014-09-01

    In this work, capillary electrophoresis was applied to protein profiling of fractionated extracts of maize. A comparative study on the application of uncoated fused-silica capillaries and capillaries modified with hydroxypropylmethylcellulose, ω-iodoalkylammonium salt and a commercially available neutral capillary covalently coated with polyacrylamide is presented. The coating stability, background electrolyte composition, and separation efficiency were investigated. It was found that for zeins separation, the most stable and efficient was the capillary coated with polyacrylamide. Finally, the usefulness of these methods was studied for the differentiation of zein fraction in transgenic and nontransgenic maize. Zeins extracted from maize standards containing 0 and 5% m/m genetic modification were successfully separated, but slight differences were observed in terms of the zein content. Albumin and globulin fractions were analyzed with the use of unmodified fused-silica capillary with borate buffer pH 9 and the capillary coated with polyacrylamide with phosphate buffer pH 3. In the albumin fraction, additional peaks were found in genetically modified samples. PMID:24931305

  13. Analysis of monoclonal antibody heterogeneity by post-capillary affinity detection for capillary electrophoresis

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, J.A.; Lee, Cheng S.

    1997-12-31

    Production of monoclonal antibodies seldom results in a single uniform product. Although the use of hybridomas yields antibodies with a homogeneous amino acid sequence, differences exist in degree of glycosylation. Oligosaccharide variation is known to vary with culture conditions as well as proliferation state. Glycosylation is significant biologically, particularly agalactosyl glycoforms of IgG which can be pathogenic. This suggests a need for rapid analysis of antibody heterogeneity, including glycosylation, during production to optimize quality and yield. Post-capillary affinity detection for capillary electrophoresis is a novel bioanalytical tool which analyzes protein microheterogeneity without interference from complex sample matrices. Mouse monoclonal antibody samples from cell culture media are selectively analyzed by post-capillary affinity detection. Separation of IgG variants is accomplished by capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) prior to on-line affinity detection with fragment B of Protein A lagged with fluorescein (BF). IgG isoforms are observed while serum proteins and cell culture media are discriminated against.

  14. Electrophoretically mediated microanalysis for in-capillary electrical cell lysis and fast enzyme quantification by capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Nehmé, Hala; Nehmé, Reine; Lafite, Pierre; Duverger, Eric; Routier, Sylvain; Morin, Philippe

    2013-11-01

    In this study, a novel capillary electrophoresis (CE)-based enzymatic assay was developed to evaluate enzymatic activity in whole cells. β-Galactosidase expression was used as an example, as it is a biomarker for assessing replicative senescence in mammalian cells. It catalyzes the hydrolysis of para-nitrophenyl-β-D-galactopyranoside (PNPG) into para-nitrophenol (PNP). The CE-based assay consisted of four main steps: (1) hydrodynamic injection of whole intact cells into the capillary, (2) in-capillary lysis of these cells by using pulses of electric field (electroporation), (3) in-capillary hydrolysis of PNPG by the β-galactosidase--released from the lysed cells--by the electrophoretically mediated microanalysis (EMMA) approach, and (4) on-line detection and quantification of the PNP formed. The developed method was applied to Escherichia coli as well as to human keratinocyte cells at different replicative stages. Results obtained by CE were in excellent agreement with those obtained from off-line cell lysates which proves the efficiency of the in-capillary approach developed. This work shows for the first time that cell membranes can be disrupted in-capillary by electroporation and that the released enzyme can be subsequently quantified in the same capillary. Enzyme quantification in cells after their in-capillary lysis has never been conducted by CE. The developed CE approach is automated, economic, eco-friendly, and simple to conduct. It has attractive applications in bacteria or human cells for early disease diagnostics or insights for development in biology. PMID:24057022

  15. Ultrasensitive plasmid mapping by high performance capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Maschke, H E; Frenz, J; Belenkii, A; Karger, B L; Hancock, W S

    1993-01-01

    This paper compares high performance capillary electrophoresis (HPCE) and conventional slab electrophoresis in mapping of four closely related plasmids with three different restriction enzymes. The plasmids express full length and truncated forms of a growth factor receptor oncogene product and were digested with HpaII, HaeIII and RsaI. The resulting oligonucleotide fragments were under 2000 base pairs in length, a size well suited to separation by HPCE with linear polyacrylamide as a sieving matrix. Plasmid mapping is an essential tool in biotechnology both for the design of an expression system and for monitoring the stability of the expression system during fermentation. HPCE can yield much higher resolution of oligonucleotides than attainable in conventional agarose gel electrophoretic procedures for plasmid mapping. In the examples described here, the HpaII digests provided the surest identification of individual plasmids in the HPCE analysis and could discriminate among all four plasmids. In conventional slab electrophoresis, however, the RsaI digests provided the best discrimination, although two of the plasmids in this system yielded essentially identical electrophoretic patterns. Hence the optimal restriction enzyme for plasmid mapping applications with HPCE may differ from that selected on the basis of conventional slab gel analysis, and the former technique can provide higher discrimination among related plasmids. The advantages of the HPCE format with respect to speed, low sample consumption and resolution are described. PMID:8354236

  16. Microfabricated capillary electrophoresis amino acid chirality analyzer for extraterrestrial exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutt, L. D.; Glavin, D. P.; Bada, J. L.; Mathies, R. A.

    1999-01-01

    Chiral separations of fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled amino acids have been performed on a microfabricated capillary electrophoresis chip to explore the feasibility of using such devices to analyze for extinct or extant life signs in extraterrestrial environments. The test system consists of a folded electrophoresis channel (19.0 cm long x 150 microns wide x 20 microns deep) that was photolithographically fabricated in a 10-cm-diameter glass wafer sandwich, coupled to a laser-excited confocal fluorescence detection apparatus providing subattomole sensitivity. Using a sodium dodecyl sulfate/gamma-cyclodextrin pH 10.0 carbonate electrophoresis buffer and a separation voltage of 550 V/cm at 10 degrees C, baseline resolution was observed for Val, Ala, Glu, and Asp enantiomers and Gly in only 4 min. Enantiomeric ratios were determined for amino acids extracted from the Murchison meteorite, and these values closely matched values determined by HPLC. These results demonstrate the feasibility of using microfabricated lab-on-a-chip systems to analyze extraterrestrial samples for amino acids.

  17. Simultaneous determination of five flavonoids during the growth of Fructus Sophorae by capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Li, Yu-Mei

    2013-11-01

    A method of simultaneous determination of five flavonoids during the growth of Fructus Sophorae by β-cyclodextrin (β-CD-) modified capillary zone electrophoresis was developed. The effects of various parameters such as buffer concentration, pH, applied voltage, and β-CD concentrations were investigated. After a series of optimization processes, the determination of five flavonoids in Fructus Sophorae was successfully achieved in 20 mmol/L borax buffer (pH 9.5), 25 kV applied voltage, and 8 mmol/L β-CD. The linearity, detection limits, repeatability, and recovery were satisfactory. Thus, the proposed β-CD-modified capillary zone electrophoresis method was satisfactorily used to analyze Fructus Sophorae samples. The results can be useful for the quality control and medicinal resource development of Fructus Sophorae. PMID:23604719

  18. Sensitive detection of malachite green and crystal violet by nonlinear laser wave mixing and capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Maxwell, Eric J; Tong, William G

    2016-05-01

    An ultrasensitive label-free antibody-free detection method for malachite green and crystal violet is presented using nonlinear laser wave-mixing spectroscopy and capillary zone electrophoresis. Wave-mixing spectroscopy provides a sensitive absorption-based detection method for trace analytes. This is accomplished by forming dynamic gratings within a sample cell, which diffracts light to create a coherent laser-like signal beam with high optical efficiency and high signal-to-noise ratio. A cubic dependence on laser power and square dependence on analyte concentration make wave mixing sensitive enough to detect molecules in their native form without the use of fluorescent labels for signal enhancement. A 532 nm laser and a 635 nm laser were used for malachite green and crystal violet sample excitation. The use of two lasers of different wavelengths allows the method to simultaneously detect both analytes. Selectivity is obtained through the capillary zone electrophoresis separation, which results in characteristic migration times. Measurement in capillary zone electrophoresis resulted in a limit of detection of 6.9 × 10(-10)M (2.5 × 10(-19) mol) for crystal violet and 8.3 × 10(-11)M (3.0 × 10(-20) mol) for malachite green at S/N of 2. PMID:26998858

  19. Sterility Testing by Capillary Electrophoresis: A Comparison of On-line Preconcentration Approaches in Capillaries with Greater Internal Diameters

    PubMed Central

    Petr, Jan; Jiang, Chunxia; Sevcik, Juraj; Tesarova, Eva; Armstrong, Daniel W.

    2015-01-01

    Detection of microbial contamination is of critical importance in the medical and the food industry. Rapid tests for the absence or presence of viable microorganisms are in urgent demand. Capillary electrophoresis is a modern analytical technique that can be adapted for rapid screening of microbial contamination. However, the small dimensions of capillaries allow introduction of only a small fraction of the sample, which can be problematic when examining large samples. In this article, we examine the possibilities of introducing larger sample volumes using capillaries with greater internal diameters (i.d.) together with different stacking techniques. The use of 0.32 mm i.d. capillary and the injection of 60 % of the capillary volume led to approximately 120-fold improvement of the injected sample volume over the classical injection 5% of a 0.10 mm i.d. capillary. The setup we described opens new possibilities in sterility testing using capillary electrophoresis. PMID:19847804

  20. Separation of fluorescently labeled phosphoinositides and sphingolipids by capillary electrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Kelong; Jiang, Dechen; Sims, Christopher E.; Allbritton, Nancy L.

    2012-01-01

    Phosphoinositides (PIs) and sphingolipids regulate many aspects of cell behavior and are often involved in disease processes such as oncogenesis. Capillary electrophoresis with laser induced fluorescence detection (CE-LIF) is emerging as an important tool for enzymatic assays of the metabolism of these lipids, particularly in cell-based formats. Previous separations of phosphoinositide lipids by CE required a complex buffer with polymer additives which had the disadvantages of high cost and/or short shelf life. Further a simultaneous separation of these classes of lipids has not been demonstrated in a robust buffer system. In the current work, a simple separation buffer based on NaH2PO4 and 1-propanol was optimized to separate two sphingolipids and multiple phosphoinositides by CE. The NaH2PO4 concentration, pH, 1-propanol fraction, and a surfactant additive to the buffer were individually optimized to achieve simultaneous separation of the sphingolipids and phosphoinositides. Fluorescein-labeled sphingosine (SFL) and sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1PFL), fluorescein-labeled phosphatidyl-inositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) and phosphatidyl-inositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate (PIP3), and bodipy-fluorescein (BFL)-labeled PIP2 and PIP3 were separated pairwise and in combination to demonstrate the generalizability of the method. Theoretical plate numbers achieved were as high as 2×105 in separating fluorophore-labeled PIP2 and PIP3. Detection limits for the 6 analytes were in the range of 10−18 to 10−20 mol. The method also showed high reproducibility, as the relative standard deviation of the normalized migration time for each analyte in the simultaneous separation of all 6 compounds was less than 1%. The separation of a mixture composed of diacylglycerol (DAG) and multiple phosphoinositides was also demonstrated. As a final test, fluorescent lipid metabolites formed within cells loaded with BFLPIP2 were separated from a cell lysate as well as a single cell. This simple and

  1. Ultrafast Capillary Electrophoresis Isolation of DNA Aptamer for the PCR Amplification-Based Small Analyte Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiore, Emmanuelle; Dausse, Eric; Dubouchaud, Hervé; Peyrin, Eric; Ravelet, Corinne

    2015-08-01

    Here, we report a new homogeneous DNA amplification-based aptamer assay for small analyte sensing. The aptamer of adenosine chosen as the model analyte was split into two fragments able to assemble in the presence of target. Primers were introduced at extremities of one fragment in order to generate the amplifiable DNA component. The amount of amplifiable fragment was quantifiable by Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) amplification and directly reliable on adenosine concentration. This approach combines the very high separation efficiency and the homogeneous format (without immobilization) of capillary electrophoresis and the sensitivity of real time PCR amplification. An ultrafast isolation of target-bound split aptamer (60 s) was developed by designing a capillary electrophoresis input/ouput scheme. Such method was successfully applied to the determination of adenosine with a LOD of 1 µM.

  2. The characterization of snake venoms using capillary electrophoresis in conjunction with electrospray mass spectrometry: Black Mambas.

    PubMed

    Perkins, J R; Parker, C E; Tomer, K B

    1993-01-01

    Capillary electrophoresis has been used in conjunction with electrospray mass spectrometry using both full-scan and selected ion monitoring modes to supply as much information as possible about the venom of Dendroaspis polylepis polylepis (Black Mamba). As an example of the application of capillary electrophoresis/electrospray mass spectrometry (CE/ESI/MS) to the analysis of a complex mixture of small proteins, we have analyzed the venom of Dendroaspis polylepis polylepis using the combined techniques. Both full-scan and selected ion monitoring modes were employed. CE/ESI/MS provides a rapid and extremely sensitive method for molecular weight determination, particularly when selected ion monitoring is employed. It has been utilized to provide sequence confirmation for those toxins which have already been described in the literature. Our methodology indicates the presence of at least 70 peptides in the molecular weight range 6000-9000. PMID:8354229

  3. Capillary liquid chromatography using laser-based and mass spectrometric detection. [Capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE); micellar electrokinetic capillary kchromatography (MECC)

    SciTech Connect

    Sepaniak, M.J.; Cook, K.D.

    1992-01-01

    In the years following the 1986 seminal paper (J. Chromatogr. Sci., 24, 347-352) describing modern capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE), the prominence of capillary electrokinetic separation techniques has grown. A related electrochromatographic technique is micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography (MECC). This report presents a brief synopsis of research efforts during the current 3-year period. In addition to a description of analytical separations-based research, results of efforts to develop and expand spectrometric detection for the techniques is reviewed. Laser fluorometric detection schemes have been successfully advanced. Mass spectrometric research was less fruitful, largely owing to personnel limitations. A regenerable fiber optic sensor was developed that can be used to remotely monitor chemical carcinogens, etc. (DLC)

  4. Analysis of protamine peptides in insulin pharmaceutical formulations by capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Lamalle, Caroline; Servais, Anne-Catherine; Demelenne, Alice; Crommen, Jacques; Fillet, Marianne

    2016-03-01

    Protamines are a group of highly basic peptides that are sometimes added to insulin formulations to prolong the pharmacological action. In this study, different methods were investigated to identify protamine in insulin formulations. Capillary electrophoresis in aqueous and non-aqueous media was tested to separate these peptides with very close amino acid sequences. Different buffers (phosphate or formate, both acidified) and various additives (principally negatively charged and neutral surfactants) were investigated to optimize peptide separation. Finally, a micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography method using a capillary of 120 cm effective length and an aqueous background electrolyte made up of 100 mM phosphate buffer (pH 2) and 50 mM Thesit® gave the best results, providing the separation of the four major protamine peptides within 25 min. PMID:26829340

  5. Microchip capillary electrophoresis based electroanalysis of triazine herbicides.

    PubMed

    Islam, Kamrul; Chand, Rohit; Han, Dawoon; Kim, Yong-Sang

    2015-01-01

    The number of pesticides used in agriculture is increasing steadily, leading to contamination of soil and drinking water. Herein, we present a microfluidic platform to detect the extent of contamination in soil samples. A microchip capillary electrophoresis system with in-channel electrodes was fabricated for label-free electroanalytical detection of triazine herbicides. The sample mixture contained three representative triazines: simazine, atrazine and ametryn. The electropherogram for each individual injection of simazine, atrazine and ametryn showed peaks at 58, 66 and 72 s whereas a mixture of them showed distinct peaks at 59, 67 and 71 s respectively. The technique as such may prove to be a useful qualitative and quantitative tool for the similar environmental pollutants. PMID:25231112

  6. Accessing Protein Methyltransferase and Demethylase Enzymology Using Microfluidic Capillary Electrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Wigle, Tim J.; Provencher, Laurel M.; Norris, Jacqueline L.; Jin, Jian; Brown, Peter J.; Frye, Stephen V.; Janzen, William P.

    2010-01-01

    Summary The discovery of small molecules targeting the > 80 enzymes that add (methyltransferases) or remove (demethylases) methyl marks from lysine and arginine residues, most notably present in histone tails, may yield unprecedented chemotherapeutic agents and facilitate regenerative medicine. To better enable chemical exploration of these proteins, we have developed a novel and highly quantitative microfluidic capillary electrophoresis assay to enable full mechanistic studies of these enzymes and the kinetics of their inhibition. This technology separates small biomolecules, i.e., peptides, based on their charge-to-mass ratio. Methylation, however, does not alter the charge of peptide substrates. To overcome this limitation, we have employed a methylation-sensitive endoproteinase strategy to separate methylated from unmethylated peptides. The assay was validated on a lysine methyltransferase (G9a) and a lysine demethylase (LSD1) and was employed to investigate the inhibition of G9a by small molecules. PMID:20659682

  7. Isolating aptamers using capillary electrophoresis-SELEX (CE-SELEX).

    PubMed

    Mosing, Renee K; Bowser, Michael T

    2009-01-01

    SELEX (systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment) is a process for isolating DNA or RNA sequences with high affinity and selectivity for molecular targets from random sequence libraries. These sequences are commonly referred to as aptamers. The process typically requires 10-15 cycles of enrichment, PCR amplification and nucleic acid purification to obtain high-affinity aptamers. We have demonstrated that using capillary electrophoresis (CE) as an enrichment step greatly improves the efficiency of the process. CE-SELEX is capable of isolating high-affinity aptamers in as little as 2-4 rounds of selection, shortening the process time from several weeks to as little as a few days. PMID:19377982

  8. Recent advances in affinity capillary electrophoresis for binding studies.

    PubMed

    Albishri, Hassan M; El Deeb, Sami; AlGarabli, Noura; AlAstal, Raghda; Alhazmi, Hassan A; Nachbar, Markus; El-Hady, Deia Abd; Wätzig, Hermann

    2014-01-01

    The present review covers recent advances and important applications of affinity capillary electrophoresis (ACE). It provides an overview about various ACE types, including ACE-MS, the multiple injection mode, the use of microchips and field-amplified sample injection-ACE. The most common scenarios of the studied affinity interactions are protein-drug, protein-metal ion, protein-protein, protein-DNA, protein-carbohydrate, carbohydrate-drug, peptide-peptide, DNA-drug and antigen-antibody. Approaches for the improvements of ACE in term of precision, rinsing protocols and sensitivity are discussed. The combined use of computer simulation programs to support data evaluation is presented. In conclusion, the performance of ACE is compared with other techniques such as equilibrium dialysis, parallel artificial membrane permeability assay, high-performance affinity chromatography as well as surface plasmon resonance, ultraviolet, circular dichroism, nuclear magnetic resonance, Fourier transform infrared, fluorescence, MS and isothermal titration calorimetry. PMID:25534793

  9. Cyclodextrins in capillary electrophoresis: recent developments and new trends.

    PubMed

    Escuder-Gilabert, L; Martín-Biosca, Y; Medina-Hernández, M J; Sagrado, S

    2014-08-29

    Despite the fact that extensive research in the field of separations by capillary electrophoresis (CE) has been carried out and many reviews have been published in the last years, a specific review on the use and future potential of cyclodextrins (CDs) in CE is not available. This review focuses the attention in the CD-CE topic over the January 2013-February 2014 period (not covered by previous more general CE-reviews). Recent contributions (reviews and research articles) including practical uses (e.g. solute-CD binding constant estimation and further potentials; 19% of publications), developments and applications (mainly chiral and achiral analysis; 38 and 24% of publications, respectively) are summarized in nine comprehensive tables and are commented. Statistics and predictions related to the CD-CE publications are highlighted in order to infer the current and expected research interests. Finally, trends and initiatives on CD-CE attending to real needs or practical criteria are outlined. PMID:24947884

  10. Study of capillary electrophoresis chip with conductivity detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Wang; Li, Tian; Liu, Xiao-wei; Lei, Xuan

    2006-04-01

    Microchip electrophoresis technique have been developed fully these years, especially the detection methods have been the research focuses. With the help of MEMS technique, the system integrating function are more and more. This paper presented a novel design and fabrication method about this electrophoresis chip with the detection electrodes. The two-layer structure, one is PDMS substrate to fabricate the electrophoresis microchannel, the other is the glass substrate with the Pt electrodes, are bonded together. The soft lithography with the two molds is developed to accommodate the PDMS curing and peeling off. Then the inorganic cation Cu 2+ is introduced and tested the project feasibility. All these works are laid a stable foundation for the chip appliance.

  11. Determination of acid dissociation constant of 20 coumarin derivatives by capillary electrophoresis using the amine capillary and two different methodologies.

    PubMed

    Nowak, Paweł Mateusz; Woźniakiewicz, Michał; Piwowarska, Monika; Kościelniak, Paweł

    2016-05-13

    In this work capillary electrophoresis has been used to determine acid dissociation constant of 20 structurally diverse coumarin derivatives. For a majority of compounds pKa value has been determined for the first time. The obtained values vary between 4.16-9.10pH unit, pointing to the interesting structure-acidity relationships. The amine permanently coated capillary has been applied for that purpose, because it has turned out to be more effective in pKa determination than the bare silica and other coated capillaries, ensuring good precision and shorter migration times. A traditional methodology relying on measurements in a broad pH range and fitting of a sigmoidal function has been compared to an alternative simplified approach, reported for the first time, where only two electrophoretic mobility values suffice for pKa estimation. The first value corresponds to the partially ionized form and it is measured experimentally, while the second one to the totally ionized form - it is measured experimentally (two-values method) or estimated directly from molecular mass (one-value method). We show that despite a limited measurements number, the alternative approach may be consistent with the traditional methodology, yielding the relatively low pKa deviation. Its reliability has also been confirmed by the analytical predictions, comprising resolution, migration order, migration times and peaks overlapping. Therefore, combination of the amine capillary with the simplified calculation method is an attractive tool for fast and reliable pKa estimation. PMID:27083264

  12. Capillary electrophoresis of small ssDNA molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopecka, Katerina; Slater, Gary W.; Drouin, Guy

    2004-03-01

    Recently, the electrophoretic separation of small ssDNA fragments (bellow 250 bases) has attracted a lot of attention because of applications related to Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms. In order to optimize these systems, we require a better understanding of DNA migration behavior in this size range. While the reptation model provides an excellent understanding of the dynamics of long DNA fragments in gel electrophoresis, the properties of small DNA fragments has not been studied extensively yet. At least three theoretical formulas have been proposed to explain the mobility of short ssDNA molecules in this regime. Specifically, the Ogston regime was introduced for small molecules having radii-of-gyration comparable to or smaller than the pore size of the sieving matrix. We introduce these three different formulas and discuss how their free parameters are related to actual physical parameters. We then test these formulas with new data obtained by capillary electrophoresis in our laboratory using poly(dimethylacrylamide) sieving matrices. Our results show that all three formulas provide decent fits, and that their fitting parameters are consistent with one another. This is the first step towards the development of a systematic approach to optimizing sequencing systems for this size range.

  13. Novel separation and detection methods of DNA fragments in electrophoresis

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, King Cheung

    1993-01-27

    A charge-coupled device (CCD) based electrophoresis system was developed. The system allowed non-destructive, sensitive, and on-line detection of native DNA in slab-gel electrophoresis via ultraviolet absorption measurement. The detection limit of double-stranded DNA fragment was 5 ng per band. Since the amount of DNA used in this experiment was typical, the CCD-based system could be readily implemented in molecular biology. Gel-filled and non-gel sieving capillary electrophoresis was developed for rapid and efficient separation of double-stranded DNA fragments. For the gel-filled CE separation a new gel matrix, the HydroLink gel (HL), was used. The HL capillary gel was easier to cast than the polyacrylamide capillary gel. For the non-gel separation, a GC capillary was used as the separation chamber, and cellulose additive was included in the electrophoresis as the sieving medium. Indirect fluorometry was applied in non-gel and gel electrophoresis for the detection of DNA fragments. This method allowed non-destructive and on-line detection of DNA during electrophoresis. The amount of DNA used with this method was comparable to those obtained with absorption measurement.

  14. Novel separation and detection methods of DNA fragments in electrophoresis

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, K.C.

    1992-01-01

    A charge-coupled device (CCD) based electrophoresis system was developed. The system allowed non-destructive, sensitive, and on-line detection of native DNA in slab-gel electrophoresis via ultraviolet absorption measurement. The detection limit of double-stranded DNA fragment was 5 ng per band. Since the amount of DNA used in this experiment was typical, the CCD-based system could be readily implemented in molecular biology. Gel-filled and non-gel sieving capillary electrophoresis (CE) was developed for rapid and efficient separation of double-stranded DNA fragments. For the gel-filled CE separation a new gel matrix, the HydroLink gel (HL), was used. The HL capillary gel was easier to cast than the polyacrylamide capillary gel. For the non-gel separation, a GC capillary was used as the separation chamber, and cellulose additive was included in the electrophoresis as the sieving medium. Indirect fluorometry was applied in non-gel and gel electrophoresis for the detection of DNA fragments. This method allowed nondestructive and on-line detection of DNA during electrophoresis. The amount of DNA used with this method was comparable to those obtained with absorption measurement.

  15. Capillary zone electrophoresis for analysis of complex proteomes using an electrokinetically pumped sheath flow nanospray interface

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Liangliang; Zhu, Guijie; Yan, Xiaojing; Champion, Mathew M.

    2014-01-01

    The vast majority of proteomic studies employ reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry for analysis of the tryptic digest of a cellular lysate. This technology is quite mature, and typically provides identification of hundreds to thousands of peptides, which is used to infer the identity of hundreds to thousands of proteins. These approaches usually require milligrams to micrograms of starting material. Capillary zone electrophoresis provides an interesting alternative separation method based on a different separation mechanism than HPLC. Capillary electrophoresis received some attention for protein analysis beginning 25 years ago. Those efforts stalled because of the limited performance of the electrospray interfaces and the limited speed and sensitivity of mass spectrometers of that era. This review considers a new electrospray interface design coupled with Orbitrap Velos and linear Q-trap mass spectrometers. Capillary zone electrophoresis coupled with this interface and these detectors provides single shot detection of >1,250 peptides from an E. coli digest in less than one hour, identification of nearly 5,000 peptides from analysis of seven fractions produced by solid-phase extraction of the E. coli digest in a six hour total analysis time, low attomole detection limits for peptides generated from standard proteins, and high zeptomole detection limits for selected ion monitoring of peptides. Incorporation of an integrated on-line immobilized trypsin microreactor allows digestion and analysis of picogram amounts of a complex eukaryotic proteome. PMID:24277677

  16. Protein Cross-Linking Capillary Electrophoresis for Protein-Protein Interaction Analysis.

    PubMed

    Ouimet, Claire M; Shao, Hao; Rauch, Jennifer N; Dawod, Mohamed; Nordhues, Bryce; Dickey, Chad A; Gestwicki, Jason E; Kennedy, Robert T

    2016-08-16

    Capillary electrophoresis (CE) has been identified as a useful platform for detecting, quantifying, and screening for modulators of protein-protein interactions (PPIs). In this method, one protein binding partner is labeled with a fluorophore, the protein binding partners are mixed, and then, the complex is separated from free protein to allow direct determination of bound to free ratios. Although it possesses many advantages for PPI studies, the method is limited by the need to have separation conditions that both prevent protein adsorption to capillary and maintain protein interactions during the separation. In this work, we use protein cross-linking capillary electrophoresis (PXCE) to overcome this limitation. In PXCE, the proteins are cross-linked under binding conditions and then separated. This approach eliminates the need to maintain noncovalent interactions during electrophoresis and facilitates method development. We report PXCE methods for an antibody-antigen interaction and heterodimer and homodimer heat shock protein complexes. Complexes are cross-linked by short treatments with formaldehyde after reaching binding equilibrium. Cross-linked complexes are separated by electrophoretic mobility using free solution CE or by size using sieving electrophoresis of SDS complexes. The method gives good quantitative results; e.g., a lysozyme-antibody interaction was found to have Kd = 24 ± 3 nM by PXCE and Kd = 17 ± 2 nM using isothermal calorimetry (ITC). Heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) in complex with bcl2 associated athanogene 3 (Bag3) was found to have Kd = 25 ± 5 nM by PXCE which agrees with Kd values reported without cross-linking. Hsp70-Bag3 binding site mutants and small molecule inhibitors of Hsp70-Bag3 were characterized by PXCE with good agreement to inhibitory constants and IC50 values obtained by a bead-based flow cytometry protein interaction assay (FCPIA). PXCE allows rapid method development for quantitative analysis of PPIs. PMID:27434096

  17. Reverse injection capillary electrophoresis UV detection for serotonin quantification in human whole blood.

    PubMed

    Zinellu, Angelo; Sotgia, Salvatore; Deiana, Luca; Carru, Ciriaco

    2012-05-01

    We describe the first capillary electrophoresis UV detection method to measure serotonin in human whole blood (WB). Procedural parameters such as concentration and pH of run buffer and injection mode were investigated. The reverse injection allows to decrease the analysis time by injecting samples at the outlet end of the silica capillary close to the detection window, so reducing the migration distance. Thus, when a capillary with an effective length of 10 cm and a 400 mmol/L Tris phosphate as background electrolyte at pH 3.25 was used, the migration time of the serotonin peak was 2.6 min. These conditions gave a good reproducibility of migration times (CV, 0.77%) and peak areas (CV, 2.44%). Intra- and inter-assay CV were 3.85% and 7.32%, respectively, and the analytical recovery was between 96.8% and 99.4%. PMID:22497835

  18. Single-drop microextraction as a powerful pretreatment tool for capillary electrophoresis: A review.

    PubMed

    AlOthman, Zeid A; Dawod, Mohamed; Kim, Jihye; Chung, Doo Soo

    2012-08-20

    Single drop microextraction (SDME) is a convenient and powerful preconcentration and sample cleanup method for capillary electrophoresis (CE). In SDME, analytes are typically extracted from a sample donor solution into an acceptor drop hanging at the inlet tip of a capillary. The enriched drop is then introduced to the capillary for CE analysis. Since the volume of the acceptor drop can be as small as a few nanoliters, the consumption of solvents can be minimized and the preconcentration effect is enhanced. In addition, by covering the acceptor phase with an organic layer or by using an organic acceptor phase, inorganic ions such as salts in the sample solution can be blocked from entering the acceptor phase, providing desalting effects. Here, we describe the basic principles and instrumentation for SDME and its coupling with CE. We also review recent developments and applications of SDME-CE. PMID:22819045

  19. [Development of analytical technologies for human genomic DNA using capillary electrophoresis and their applications].

    PubMed

    Baba, Y

    1997-05-01

    Capillary electrophoretic systems equipped with a multi-color detectable laser-induced fluorescent DNA detector (CE-LIF) were developed. We examined the efficiency and the performance of the CE-LIF systems for the high-speed DNA sequencing and DNA diagnosis for human diseases. The effect of the gel composition, electric field strength, and capillary length on the separation of DNA sequencing reaction product was investigated in order to achieve high-speed DNA sequencing for large-scale sequencing in the Human Genome Project. The CE-LIF system is successfully applied to ultrafast cDNA sequencing for human and yeast genomes. Under optimum separation conditions, only 10 min is required to sequence 300 base DNA. A polymer solution of cellulose derivative was utilized as a sieving medium for the CE-LIF system and gave excellent resolution of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplified polymorphic loci on the human genome. The CE-LIF system is successfully applied to the DNA diagnosis for cancers through CA repeat analysis of human D8S 1218 locus, heart diseases through VNTR (variable number of tandem repeat) analysis of human apolipoprotein B gene and Alzheimer's disease through RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism) analysis of human apolipoprotein E gene with high-speed and high resolution. Capillary affinity gel electrophoresis was developed as a new technique for the recognition of the specific DNA base and/or sequence. This technology is also applicable to the characterization of binding properties of DNA based drugs. The principle, the theory, and the methods of capillary affinity gel electrophoresis are presented. This technique is applied to the determination of association constants between an affinity ligand and oligonucleotides. The great potential of capillary affinity gel electrophoresis for the detection of the mutation on DNA is illustrated. PMID:9194395

  20. Capillary electrophoresis as a screening tool for alpha amylase inhibitors in plant extracts

    PubMed Central

    Hamdan, Imad I.; Afifi, Fatima U.

    2010-01-01

    Capillary electrophoresis (CE) method was developed for screening plant extract for potential alpha amylase (AA) inhibitory activity. The method was validated against a well established UV method. Overall, the proposed method was shown able to detect plants with significant alpha amylase inhibitory activity but not those with rather clinically insignificant activities. Fifty plant species were screened using both the proposed CE method and the UV method and seven plant species were found to possess significant AA inhibitory activities. Two plant species were proved to have alpha amylase inhibitory activity for the first time. PMID:24115900

  1. SIMULTANEOUS DETECTION OF S-ADENOSYLMETHIONINE AND S-ADENOSYLHOMOCYSTEINE IN MOUSE AND RAT TISSUES BY CAPILLARY ELECTROPHORESIS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A capillary electrophoresis method for the determination of S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) and S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH) in rat liver and kidney and mouse liver is described. The method can also be used to determine SAM in whole blood. The method provides rapid (approximately 16 min sample to sample)...

  2. On-line wall-free cell for laser-induced fluorescence detection in capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chang-Zhu; He, You-Zhao; Xie, Hai-Yang; Gao, Yong; Gan, Wu-Er; Li, Jun

    2009-05-15

    A wall-free detection method based on liquid junction in a capillary gap was proposed for laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) of capillary electrophoresis (CE). The capillary gap of the wall-free cell was fabricated by etching a 10-mm x 50-microm I.D. fused-silica capillary to obtain a polyimide coating sleeve, decoating about 6mm at one end of both 50 microm I.D. separation and liquid junction capillary, inserting the treated capillary ends into the coating sleeve oppositely, fixing the capillaries with a gap distance of 140 microm by epoxy glue and removing the coating sleeve by burning. The theoretical model, experimental results and wall-free cell images indicated that the gap distance and applied voltage were main influence factors on the wall-free detection. Since the wall-free cell increased the absorption light path and avoided the stray light from the capillary wall, it improved the ratio of signal to noise and limit of detection (LOD) of CE-LIF. Three flavin compounds of riboflavin (RF), flavin mononucleotide sodium (FMN) and flavin adenine dinucleotide disodium (FAD) were used to evaluate the wall-free detection method. Compared with on-column cell, the LODs of the wall-free cell were improved 15-, 6- and 9-fold for RF, FMN and FAD, respectively. The linear calibration concentrations of the flavins ranged from 0.005 to 5.0 micromol/L. The column efficiency was in the range from 1.0 x 10(5) to 2.5 x 10(5) plates. The wall-free detection of CE-LIF was applied to the analysis of the flavins in spinach and lettuce leaves. PMID:19329123

  3. Determination of purity degree and counter-ion content in lecirelin by capillary zone electrophoresis and capillary isotachophoresis.

    PubMed

    Sázelová, Petra; Kasicka, Václav; Solínová, Veronika; Koval, Dusan

    2006-09-01

    Capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) and capillary isotachophoresis (CITP) were applied for the determination of peptide purity degree and counter-ion content in lecirelin, the synthetic analogue of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH). CZE analyses were carried out in acidic background electrolyte (100 mM H3PO4, 50 mM Tris, pH 2.25) in bare fused silica capillary using UV-absorption detection at 206 nm. CITP analyses were performed in the electrophoretic analyzer with column coupling, equipped with contactless conductivity detectors both in preseparation capillary and in analytical capillary, and with UV-absorption detector (220 and 254 nm) in analytical capillary. Determinations of peptide purity were carried out in cationic mode with leading electrolyte (LE), 10 mM KOH/AcOH, pH 4.5, and terminating electrolyte (TE), 10 mM beta-alanine (BALA)/AcOH, pH 4.4. Degree of peptide purity determined by both CZE and CITP was in the range 60.1-80.9% for crude preparations of lecirelin and in the range 96.4-99.9% for HPLC purified batches. Concentrations of contaminating counter-ions, the anions of trifluoromethanesulfonic acid (TFMSA), trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) and acetic acid (AcOH), were determined by CITP analyses in anionic mode with LE 10 mM HCl/His, pH 6.0, and TE 10 mM 2-(N-morpholino)-ethanesulfonic acid (MES), pH 4.0, by the calibration curve method. Mass percentages of the counterion contents in the analyzed lecirelin batches varied from zero to ca. 9% (TFMSA), 3% (TFA) and 11% (AcOH), respectively. PMID:16687256

  4. Recent advances in enhancing the sensitivity of electrophoresis and electrochromatography in capillaries and microchips (2012-2014).

    PubMed

    Breadmore, Michael C; Tubaon, Ria Marni; Shallan, Aliaa I; Phung, Sui Ching; Abdul Keyon, Aemi S; Gstoettenmayr, Daniel; Prapatpong, Pornpan; Alhusban, Ala A; Ranjbar, Leila; See, Hong Heng; Dawod, Mohamed; Quirino, Joselito P

    2015-01-01

    One of the most cited limitations of capillary (and microchip) electrophoresis is the poor sensitivity. This review continues to update this series of biannual reviews, first published in Electrophoresis in 2007, on developments in the field of on-line/in-line concentration methods, covering the period July 2012-July 2014. It includes developments in the field of stacking, covering all methods from field-amplified sample stacking and large-volume sample stacking, through to ITP, dynamic pH junction, and sweeping. Attention is also given to on-line or in-line extraction methods that have been used for electrophoresis. PMID:25330057

  5. Monitoring refolding of tailspike endorhamnosidase using capillary electrophoresis-laser induced tryptophan fluorescence

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, P.K.; Lee, Cheng S.; King, J.A.

    1997-12-31

    The use of capillary electrophoresis equipped with laser-induced tryptophan fluorescence detection is presented for monitoring the refolding pathway of phage P22 tailspike endorhamnosidase. Upon initiation of refolding, tailspike polypeptides rapidly fold into structured monomeric intermediates with a high content of secondary structure. These monomeric species associate to form the triple-chain defined folding intermediates, the protrimers. Conversion of the protrimer into the native, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) resistant tailspike protein is the rate-limiting step in the refolding pathway. Refolding kinetics and yield measured by capillary electrophoresis are in good agreement with those obtained via native gel electrophoresis, SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and fluorescence spectrophotometry. To enhance separation resolution between protrimer and native protein in capillary electrophoresis, the use of poly(ethylene oxide) is investigated for the introduction of a sieving separation mechanism. The increased viscosity of the electrophoresis buffer may also play a role in resolution enhancement.

  6. Capillary electrophoresis: Imaging of electroosmotic and pressure driven flow profiles in fused silica capillaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, George O., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    This study is a continuation of the summer of 1994 NASA/ASEE Summer Faculty Fellowship Program. This effort is a portion of the ongoing work by the Biophysics Branch of the Marshall Space Flight Center. The work has focused recently on the separation of macromolecules using capillary electrophoresis (CE). Two primary goals were established for the effort this summer. First, we wanted to use capillary electrophoresis to study the electrohydrodynamics of a sample stream. Secondly, there was a need to develop a methodology for using CE for separation of DNA molecules of various sizes. In order to achieve these goals we needed to establish a procedure for detection of a sample plug under the influence of an electric field Detection of the sample with the microscope and image analysis system would be helpful in studying the electrohydrodynamics of this stream under load. Videotaping this process under the influence of an electric field in real time would also be useful. Imaging and photography of the sample/background electrolyte interface would be vital to this study. Finally, detection and imaging of electroosmotic flow and pressure driven flow must be accomplished.

  7. Application of capillary electrophoresis to anion speciation in soil water extracts: 2. Arsenic

    SciTech Connect

    Naidu, R.; Smith, J.; McLaren, R.G.; Stevens, D.P.; Sumner, M.E.; Jackson, P.E.

    2000-02-01

    A method has been developed for the speciation of arsenic (AsO{sub 2}{sup {minus}}, AsO{sub 4}{sup 3{minus}}, and dimethylarsinic [DMA]) in natural soil solutions from contaminated sites in Australia. The separation of these anions was achieved by capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) using a fused silica capillary with a basic chromate buffer and on-column indirect UV detection at 254 nm. Method parameters, such as electrolyte pH, run voltage, and capillary temperature were studied in order to establish suitable analytical conditions. The ideal separation for As(III) and DMA was achieved with a buffer pH of 8.0, a run voltage of 25 kV, and a capillary temperature of 30 C. Under these conditions, As(V) and orthophosphate ions comigrated. However, the use of a chromate buffer at pH 10, a run voltage of 20 kV, and capillary temperature of 20 C led to complete separation of As(V) and phosphate peaks. Results of these investigations together with recovery test data suggest that separation of the As species from soil solutions can be achieved in less than 5 min with detection limits of 0.50, 0.10, and 0.10 mg L{sup {minus}1} for As(III), As(V), and DMA, respectively.

  8. Screening and identification of familial defective apolipoprotein B-100 in clinical samples by capillary gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, R; Koch, M; Pfohl, M; Voelter, W; Häring, H U; Liebich, H M

    1996-09-13

    Familial defective apolipoprotein B-100 (FDB) is a dominantly inherited disorder. It is characterized by a decreased affinity of low density lipoprotein (LDL) for the LDL receptor, as a consequence of a substitution of adenine by guanine in exon 26 of the apolipoprotein B-100 gene, coding for the putative LDL receptor-binding domain of the mature protein. This disorder is associated with a strikingly high incidence of arteriosclerosis and tends to cause disease and premature death. In this communication we describe a rapid capillary gel electrophoretic method in combination with molecular biology techniques to facilitate the diagnosis of FDB. Mutation screening for FDB is performed by an allele-specific amplification followed by capillary gel electrophoresis (CGE). For the combined polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-CGE method, a total analysis time of only 3 h is needed, a period that is normally necessary for the run and for staining of the gel only, not including the time for PCR, gel casting, etc. In our pilot study 4 of 43 hypercholesterolemic patients were found to have the predominant apoB 3500 codon mutation. The verification is demonstrated by DNA-sequencing. This pilot study will be followed by a large cohort analysis of the south-west German population to determine the frequency of FDB in this area. The PCR-CGE method on the Dionex capillary electrophoresis system (CES I) allows rapid, fully automated detection of the mutation resulting in the unequivocal diagnosis of FDB. PMID:8843667

  9. A simple and fast method for chlorsulfuron and metsulfuron methyl determination in water samples using multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Springer, Valeria H; Lista, Adriana G

    2010-11-15

    A new method to determine metsulfuron methyl (MSM) and chlorsulfuron (CS) in different water samples was developed. It consists in a solid phase extraction (SPE) procedure using multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) as sorbent material in combination with capillary zone electrophoretic determination. To carry out the pre-concentration step, a simple flow injection system was developed and optimized. Thus, 250 μL of aqueous solution containing methanol 50% (v/v) and acetonitrile 2% (v/v) as eluent, 10 mL of sample and a flow rate of 1.15 mL min(-1) were selected. The CE variables also were optimized. A rapid determination and good resolution of two herbicides were obtained within 9 min using a simple electrophoretic buffer (50 mmol L(-1) sodium tetraborate with 3% of methanol, pH=9.0). Under the optimum conditions, the calibration curves were linear between 0.5 and 6 μg L(-1) for MSM and CS with R(2)=0.995 and 0.997, respectively. The repeatability of the proposed method, expressed as relative standard deviation (RSD), varied between 4.1% and 5.4% (n=10) and the detection limits for MSM and CS were 0.40 and 0.36 μg L(-1), respectively. Good results were achieved when the proposed method was applied to spiked real water samples. The recoveries percentages of the two analytes were over the range 86-108%. PMID:21035652

  10. Band broadening of DNA fragments isolated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Kaneta, Takashi; Ogura, Takehito; Yamato, Shuhei; Imasaka, Totaro

    2012-02-01

    Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) is used frequently for isolation and purification of DNA fragments. In the present study, DNA fragments extracted from polyacrylamide gels showed significant band broadening in capillary electrophoresis (CE). A pHY300PLK (a shuttle vector functioning in Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis) marker, which contained nine fragments ranging from 80 to 4870 bp, was separated by PAGE, and each fragment was isolated by phenol/chloroform extraction and ethanol precipitation. After extraction from the polyacrylamide gel, the peaks of the isolated DNA fragments exhibited band broadening in CE, where a linear poly(ethylene oxide) was used as a sieving matrix. The theoretical plate numbers of the DNA fragments contained in the pHY300PLK marker were >10(6) for all the fragments before extraction. However, the DNA fragments extracted from the polyacrylamide gel showed decreased theoretical plate numbers (5-20 times smaller). The degradation of the theoretical plate number was significant for middle sizes of the DNA fragments ranging from 489 to 1360 bp, whereas the largest and smallest fragments (80 and 4870 bp) had no obvious influence. The band broadening was attributed to contamination of the DNA fragments by polyacrylamide fibers during the separation and extraction process. PMID:22258810