Science.gov

Sample records for capitata larvae diptera

  1. Pathogenicity of Beauveria bassiana isolated from Moroccan Argan forests soil against larvae of Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) in laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Imoulan, Abdessamad; Elmeziane, Abdellatif

    2014-03-01

    The Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann (Diptera: Tephritidae), is the major tephritid pest in Morocco. This pest survives in Moroccan forests Argania spinosa and continually invades the nearest agricultural areas. Entomopathogenic fungi are an interesting tool for fruit fly control and hold a useful alternative to conventional insecticides. However, primary selection of effective pathogens should be taken in laboratory condition prior to applying them in the field. Here, we used third late instar larvae of C. capitata to investigate the effectiveness of 15 local Beauveria bassiana isolates. Results showed that all isolates were able to infect the larval stage, producing a large mortality rate in puparia ranging from 65 to 95 % and caused significant reduction in adult emergence. The fungal treatments revealed that the mycosis occurred also in adults escaping infection as pupariating larvae. The percentage of mycosed puparia was highest in strain TAM6.2 (95 %) followed by ERS4.16 (90 %), therefore they were the most virulent. Median lethal concentration (LC₅₀) was studied for five isolates at four concentrations ranging from 10⁵ to 10⁸ conidia ml⁻¹. The results showed that the slopes of regression lines for B. bassiana ERS4.16 (slope = 0.386) and TAM6.2 (slope = 0.41) were the most important and had the lowest LC₅₀ values (2.85 × 10³ and 3.16 × 10³ conidia ml⁻¹ respectively). This investigation suggests that the soil of Argan forests contains pathogenic B. bassiana isolates and highlights for the first time their potential as biological control toward C. capitata larval stage in Morocco. PMID:24122125

  2. Description of third instar larvae of Ceratitis fasciventris, C. anonae, C. rosa (FAR complex) and C. capitata (Diptera, Tephritidae)

    PubMed Central

    Steck, Gary J.; Ekesi, Sunday

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Third instar larvae of members of the Ceratitis FAR complex, including Ceratitis fasciventris (Bezzi), Ceratitis anonae Graham, and Ceratitis rosa Karsch are described and compared with those of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). Diagnostic characters, such as presence vs. absence of a secondary tooth on the mandibles, previously used to separate Ceratitis capitata from Ceratitis rosa, are shown to vary in each species. Significant variation in diagnostic morphological characters among populations of Ceratitis rosa from east and south Africa is documented; however, the differences are not simply congruent with the R1 and R2 designations based on other studies. Quantitative measures of numerous morphological characters are consistently smaller in the larvae of Ceratitis fasciventris and distinguish them from other species of the FAR complex. Larvae of Ceratitis capitata can be distinguished from those of the FAR complex by characters such as absence of accessory plates of the oral ridges, the shape of the anterior spiracle, and the pattern of dorsal spinules. Previous studies indicated that absence of accessory lobes separate the genus Ceratitis from Bactrocera, but this is shown to be incorrect, as accessory lobes are in fact present in several species of Ceratitis. PMID:26798272

  3. Export of commercial Hass avocados from Argentina poses negligible risk of Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) infestation.

    PubMed

    Villagrán, M Elvira; Willink, Eduardo; Vera, M Teresa; Follett, Peter

    2012-08-01

    Argentina has to meet quarantine restrictions because of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), to export 'Hass' avocados, Persea americana Miller, to certain countries. Hass avocado at the hard, mature green stage is potentially a conditional nonhost for C. capitata and could open export markets without the need for a quarantine treatment. Trapping data from 1998 to 2006 showed that C. capitata was present in avocado orchards, particularly early in the harvest season. The host status of hard, mature green Hass avocado to C. capitata was evaluated using laboratory and field cage tests under no-choice conditions and by assessing natural levels of infestation in commercially harvested fruit from the main avocado production area. In total, 2,250 hard, mature green avocado fruit were exposed to 11,250 gravid females for 24 or 48 h after harvest in laboratory or field cages, and no infestations were found. During 11 seasons, 5,949 fruit in total were sampled from the trees and 992 fruit were collected from the ground, and in none of them were any live or dead fruit fly larvae found. Inspection of >198,000 commercial fruit at the packinghouse from 1998 to 2011 showed no symptoms of fruit fly infestation. These data exceed the published standards for determination of nonhost status, as well as the Probit 9 standard for development of quarantine treatments. Hass avocado harvested at the hard, mature green stage was not infested by C. capitata and seems to pose a negligible quarantine risk. As a consequence, no postharvest treatment or other quarantine actions should be required by importing countries. PMID:22928296

  4. Aphaereta ceratitivora sp. n. (Hymenoptera, Braconidae), a new parasitoid of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera, Tephritidae) from the Azores

    PubMed Central

    van Achterberg, Kees; Teixeira, Tânia; Oliveira, Luísa

    2012-01-01

    Abstract A new gregarious larval-pupal endoparasitoid of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is described and illustrated: Aphaereta ceratitivora sp. n. (Braconidae: Alysiinae: Alysiini). PMID:23129984

  5. Cold treatment of Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) in oranges using a larval endpoint.

    PubMed

    Grout, Tim G; Stephen, Peter R; Daneel, John Henry; Hatfingh, Vaughan

    2011-08-01

    South Africa currently exports fresh citrus (Citrus spp.) fruit to Japan using an in-transit cold treatment protocol of 14 d or 12 d at temperatures <0 degrees C for treatment of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) in 'Clementine' mandarins (Citrus reticulata Blanco) and other citrus types, respectively. To reduce the risk of chilling injury with this treatment, research was conducted with temperatures >0 degrees C. Earlier South African research had shown that young (6-d-old) larvae were slightly more tolerant of cold treatment and that there were no significant differences between cold tolerance of these larvae in different citrus types [oranges, Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck; grapefruits, Citrus paradisi Macfad.; lemons, Citrus limon (L.) Burm.f.; and mandarins). Due to their ready availability, 'Valencia' oranges were used in this study. When 62,492 larvae in total were treated in three replicates at a mean temperature of 1.5 degrees C for 16 d, there were three larval survivors. The trial was therefore repeated with oranges using a 16-d period at a mean temperature of 1.0 degrees C and a mean of 1.4 degrees C for the hourly maximum probe readings. Three replicates were again conducted and the resultant mean mortality in the control was 8.1% of 21,801 larvae, whereas the cold treatment mortality was 100% of 71,756 larvae. This treatment at a mean temperature of 1 degree C exceeded the Japanese confidence level requirement and also exceeded the Probit-9 mortality level, but not at a confidence level of 95%. These data support the establishment of a treatment protocol of 16 d at temperatures <1.4 degrees C, commencing once all fruit pulp probes reach a temperature of 1 degree C or lower. PMID:21882680

  6. The preimaginal phases and development of Pachycrepoideus vindemmiae (Hymenoptera, Pteromalidae) on Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Diptera, Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Tormos, José; Beitia, Francisco; Böckmann, Elias A; Asís, Josep D; Fernández, Severiano

    2009-10-01

    The development and morphology of the immature phases of Pachycrepoideus vindemmiae (Rondani, 1875) (Hymenoptera, Pteromalidae) are described from a laboratory rearing culture maintained on Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, 1824) (Diptera, Tephritidae) using microscopic techniques, including light and scanning electron microscopy. The surface of the chorion of the egg is granulated, and the micropyle occurs at the anterior end. The labrum of the first instar larva does not have sensilla, and the second to fourth instar larvae have setae on the head. The mature larva is characterized by the position and number of the integumental differentiations (sensilla and setae). On completion of larval development, an adecticous and exarate pupa is produced. As for the adult, the mandibles of the pupae are toothed. Five larval instars are recorded, based on statistical analyses of the sizes of the larval mandibles in combination with characters such as the number of exuviae and excretion of the meconium. Developmental time from egg to adult emergence was 18-20 days for males and 21-23 days for females at 21-26 degrees C, 55-85 relative humidity, and a 16L:8D photoperiod. The results show that the eggs and different larval instars of this parasitoid can be unambiguously identified only by scanning electron microscope. PMID:19709460

  7. Life History Parameters of Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) Reared on Liquid Diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A liquid diet for rearing Ceratitis capitata was developed. Several yeasts were evaluated and a combination of whole cell yeast (LBI2240) and hydrolyzed yeast (such as FNILS65 and FNI200) in 1:1 to 3:1 ratio was selected for use in the study. Larvae reared in a liquid diet with LBI2240:LS65 (either ...

  8. Influence of methoprene and protein on survival, maturation and sexual performance of male Ceratitis capitata (Diptera:Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly), Ceratitis capitata (Wied.), like many other polifagous tephritids (Diptera: Tephritidae), adopts a lek as mating system. The sterile insect technique (SIT) requires the release of sterile males able to survive on the field, to compete with wild males, and attrac...

  9. Native and introduced host plants of Anastrepha fraterculus and Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) in northwestern Argentina.

    PubMed

    Ovruski, Sergio; Schliserman, Pablo; Aluja, Martín

    2003-08-01

    Wild or commercially grown, native and exotic fruit were collected in 30 localities in the Tucumán province (NW Argentina) from January 1990 to December 1995 to determine their status as hosts of Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) and/or Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), the only two fruit fly species of economic and quarantine importance in Argentina. A total of 84,094 fruit (3,466.1 kg) representing 33 species (7 native and 26 exotic) in 15 plant families were sampled. We determined the following 17 host plant associations: Annona cherimola Miller (Annonaceae), Citrus paradisi Macfadyn (Rutaceae), Diospyros kaki L. (Ebenaceae), Eugenia uniflora L., Psidium guajava L., Myrcianthes pungens (Berg) Legrand (Myrtaceae), Ficus carica L. (Moraceae), Juglans australis Grisebach (Juglandaceae), Mangifera indica L. (Anacardiaceae), Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindl., Prunus armeniaca L., P. domestica L., and P. persica (L.) Batsch (Rosaceae) were infested by both A. fraterculus and C. capitata. Citrus aurantium L., Citrus reticulata Blanco, Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck (Rutaceae), and Passiflora caerulea L. (Passifloraceae) were only infested by Ceratitis capitata. Out of a total of 99,627 adults that emerged from pupae, 69,180 (approximately 69.5%) were Anastrepha fraterculus, 30,138 (approximately 30.2%) were C. capitata, and 309 (approximately 0.3%) were an unidentified Anastrepha species. Anastrepha fraterculus predominated in native plant species while C. capitata did so in introduced species. Infestation rates (number of larvae/kg of fruit) varied sharply from year to year and between host plant species (overall there was a significant negative correlation between fruit size and infestation level). We provide information on fruiting phenology of all the reported hosts and discuss our findings in light of their practical (e.g., management of A. fraterculus and C. capitata in citrus groves) implications. PMID:14503581

  10. Microsporidium Infecting Anopheles supepictus (Diptera: Culicidae) Larvae

    PubMed Central

    Omrani, Seyed-Mohammad; Moosavi, Seyedeh-Fatemeh; Manouchehri, Kourosh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Microsporidia are known to infect a wide variety of animals including mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae). In a recent study on the mosquito fauna of Chahar Mahal and Bakhtiari Province, at the central western part of Iran, a few larvae of Anopheles superpictus were infected with a microsporidium-resembled microorganism. Current investigation deals with the identification of the responsible microorganism at the genus level. Methods: Fresh infected larvae were collected from the field. After determining the species identity they were dissected to extract their infective contents. Wet preparations were checked for general appearance and the size of the pathogenic microorganism. Fixed preparations were stained with Geimsa and Ryan-Blue modified Trichrome techniques to visualize further morphological characters. The obtained light microscopy data were used in the identification process. Results: The infected larvae were bulged by a whitish material filling the involved segments corresponding to a microsporidium infection. Bottle-shaped semioval spores ranged 4.33±0.19×2.67±0.12 and 4.18±0.43×2.45±0.33 micron in wet and fixed preparations, respectively. They were mostly arranged in globular structures comprised of 8 spores. These data was in favor of a species from the genus Parathelohania in the family Ambliosporidae. Conclusion: This is the first report of a microsporidium infection in An. superpictus. The causative agent is diagnosed as a member of the genus Parathelohania. Further identification down to the species level needs to determine its ultrastructural characteristics and the comparative analysis of ss rRNA sequence data. It is also necessary to understand the detail of the components of the transmission cycle. PMID:27308299

  11. Selection of Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) Specific Recombinant Monoclonal Phage Display Antibodies for Prey Detection Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Monzó, César; Urbaneja, Alberto; Ximénez-Embún, Miguel; García-Fernández, Julia; García, José Luis; Castañera, Pedro

    2012-01-01

    Several recombinant antibodies against the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), one of the most important pests in agriculture worldwide, were selected for the first time from a commercial phage display library of human scFv antibodies. The specificity and sensitivity of the selected recombinant antibodies were compared with that of a rabbit polyclonal serum raised in parallel using a wide range of arthropod species as controls. The selected recombinant monoclonal antibodies had a similar or greater specificity when compared with classical monoclonal antibodies. The selected recombinant antibodies were successfully used to detect the target antigen in the gut of predators and the scFv antibodies were sequenced and compared. These results demonstrate the potential for recombinant scFv antibodies to be used as an alternative to the classical monoclonal antibodies or even molecular probes in the post-mortem analysis studies of generalist predators. PMID:23272105

  12. The distribution, relative abundance, and seasonal phenology of Ceratitis capitata, Ceratitis rosa, and Ceratitis cosyra (Diptera: Tephritidae) in South Africa.

    PubMed

    De Villiers, Marelize; Manrakhan, Aruna; Addison, Pia; Hattingh, Vaughan

    2013-10-01

    Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), Ceratitis rosa Karsch, and Ceratitis cosyra (Walker) are fruit fly species (Diptera: Tephritidae) of economic importance in South Africa. These pests cause direct damage to a number of commercially produced fruit and are of phytosanitary concern. A study was conducted to determine the distribution, relative abundance, and seasonal occurrence of the three species in different climatic regions of South Africa. The relative abundance and seasonal phenology of C. capitata and C. rosa were also compared between production areas and home gardens in Stellenbosch, Western Cape. Yellow bucket traps baited with Biolure were used to trap the flies over a 2-yr period in the different sampling areas. Different fruit types were sampled in Stellenbosch to determine fruit fly infestation. C. capitata was found to have a widespread distribution in South Africa, whereas C. rosa were absent from or only present in low numbers in the drier regions. C. cosyra was restricted to the North East and East coast, following a similar pattern to the distribution of marula, Sclerocarrya birrea, an important wild host. Fruit in home gardens provided a breeding ground for C. capitata and C. rosa and a source for infestation of orchards when fruit started to mature, highlighting the need for an area-wide strategy for the control of fruit flies. PMID:24331596

  13. Fluctuation of diptera larvae in phytotelmata and relation with climate variation in West Sumatra Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Emantis; Dahelmi; Salmah, Siti; Syamsuardi

    2014-07-01

    Research of fluctuations in Diptera's larvae in Phytotelmata had been conducted at three locations in West Sumatra, Indonesia; Padang, Bukittinggi and Payakumbuh; which aimed to determine the number and fluctuations Diptera larvae in Phytotelmata. The results obtained; the highest number of individual larvae Diptera in Phytotelmata was 7109 Aedes albopictus larvae (49.56%), followed by larvae of Culex tritaeniorhynchus with 2409 individuals (16.80%). Larvae fluctuated every month and tent to increase in November and December. There was no difference in the number of Diptera larvae individuals inhabiting pandan, taro, and pineapple, but there were significant differences between the three types of Phytotelmata (pandanus, taro and pineapple) with bamboo (p < 0.05). Number of individual larvae in Phytotelmata negatively correlated with temperature and rainfall, but positively correlated with humidity (r = 0.44: p < 0.05). PMID:26035947

  14. Conditional embryonic lethality to improve the sterile insect technique in Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    PubMed Central

    Schetelig, Marc F; Caceres, Carlos; Zacharopoulou, Antigone; Franz, Gerald; Wimmer, Ernst A

    2009-01-01

    Background The sterile insect technique (SIT) is an environment-friendly method used in area-wide pest management of the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann; Diptera: Tephritidae). Ionizing radiation used to generate reproductive sterility in the mass-reared populations before release leads to reduction of competitiveness. Results Here, we present a first alternative reproductive sterility system for medfly based on transgenic embryonic lethality. This system is dependent on newly isolated medfly promoter/enhancer elements of cellularization-specifically-expressed genes. These elements act differently in expression strength and their ability to drive lethal effector gene activation. Moreover, position effects strongly influence the efficiency of the system. Out of 60 combinations of driver and effector construct integrations, several lines resulted in larval and pupal lethality with one line showing complete embryonic lethality. This line was highly competitive to wildtype medfly in laboratory and field cage tests. Conclusion The high competitiveness of the transgenic lines and the achieved 100% embryonic lethality causing reproductive sterility without the need of irradiation can improve the efficacy of operational medfly SIT programs. PMID:19173707

  15. Selection of a Bacillus pumilus Strain Highly Active against Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) Larvae▿

    PubMed Central

    Molina, C. Alfonso; Caña-Roca, Juan F.; Osuna, Antonio; Vilchez, Susana

    2010-01-01

    Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), the Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly), is one of the most important fruit pests worldwide. The medfly is a polyphagous species that causes losses in many crops, which leads to huge economic losses. Entomopathogenic bacteria belonging to the genus Bacillus have been proven to be safe, environmentally friendly, and cost-effective tools to control pest populations. As no control method for C. capitata based on these bacteria has been developed, isolation of novel strains is needed. Here, we report the isolation of 115 bacterial strains and the results of toxicity screening with adults and larvae of C. capitata. As a result of this analysis, we obtained a novel Bacillus pumilus strain, strain 15.1, that is highly toxic to C. capitata larvae. The toxicity of this strain for C. capitata was related to the sporulation process and was observed only when cultures were incubated at low temperatures before they were used in a bioassay. The mortality rate for C. capitata larvae ranged from 68 to 94% depending on the conditions under which the culture was kept before the bioassay. Toxicity was proven to be a special characteristic of the newly isolated strain, since other B. pumilus strains did not have a toxic effect on C. capitata larvae. The results of the present study suggest that B. pumilus 15.1 could be considered a strong candidate for developing strategies for biological control of C. capitata. PMID:20038689

  16. Ammonium Acetate Enhances the Attractiveness of a Variety of Protein-Based Baits to Female Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Piñero, Jaime C; Souder, Steven K; Smith, Trevor R; Fox, Abbie J; Vargas, Roger I

    2015-04-01

    Ammonia and its derivatives are used by female fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) as volatile cues to locate protein-rich food needed to produce their eggs. This need for external protein sources has led to the development of behaviorally based control strategies such as food-based lures and insecticidal baits targeting pestiferous fruit fly species. In field cage studies conducted in Hawaii, we examined the behavioral response of laboratory-reared male and female Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), to seven commercially available protein baits and to beer waste, a relatively inexpensive and readily available substance. Each material was tested alone or in combination with either ammonium acetate or ammonium carbonate. For the majority of baits evaluated, the presence of ammonium acetate, but not ammonium carbonate, elicited a significantly greater level of response of female C. capitata compared with the protein baits alone. The addition of ammonium acetate to selected baits increased bait attractiveness to a level comparable with that elicited by the most widely used spinosad-based protein bait, GF-120. Our findings indicate that the addition of ammonium acetate to commercially available proteinaceous baits and to beer waste can greatly improve their attractiveness to C. capitata, potentially increasing the bait's effectiveness for fruit fly monitoring and suppression. PMID:26470180

  17. Export of commercial 'Hass' avocados from Argentina poses negligible risk of ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) infestation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Quarantine restrictions due to the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), prevent Argentina from exporting avocados, Persea americana Miller, cv. Hass, to certain countries. Hass avocado at the hard, mature green stage is potentially a conditional nonhost for C. capitata, which cou...

  18. A novel molecular approach to assess mating success of sterile Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) males in sterile insect technique programs.

    PubMed

    San Andrés, V; Urbaneja, A; Sabater-Muñoz, B; Castañera, P

    2007-08-01

    Areawide sterile insect technique (SIT) programs against Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), are increasingly implemented worldwide. A key issue in SIT is to assess mating success of released sterile males, which could be currently estimated by egg hatchability and by stored sperm head measurements. We report here on a novel molecular approach that would allow detecting the presence of Mediterranean fruit fly sterile male sperm in the female spermathecae under field conditions, as a precise marker to assess mating performance. The simplicity (only two polymerase chain reactions) and reliability of this method, jointly with the capability to detect Vienna sperm in wild Mediterranean fruit fly maintained in monitoring traps for 7 d under field conditions, suggest that it could be an efficient tool when coupled with areawide SIT programs. PMID:17849900

  19. Solanum torvum (Solanaceae), a new host of Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Hawaii

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In Hawaii, Mediterranean fruit fly populations at low elevations have been displaced to higher elevation hosts by oriental fruit fly. That displacement, however, is not complete, as C. capitata coexists with B. dorsalis at a number of low elevation sites. Turkeyberry, Solanum torvum Sw, is a lower ...

  20. Effective sampling range of a synthetic protein-based attractant for Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies were conducted in Honduras to determine sampling range for female-targeted food-based synthetic attractants for pest tephritid fruit flies. Field studies were conducted in shaded coffee and adults of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), were captured. Traps (38 traps ...

  1. Manipulation of the microbiota of mass-reared Mediterranean fruit flies Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) improves sterile male sexual performance.

    PubMed

    Ben Ami, Eyal; Yuval, Boaz; Jurkevitch, Edouard

    2010-01-01

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) is a method of biological control whereby millions of factory reared sterile male insects are released into the field. This technique is commonly used to combat the Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata, Diptera: Tephritidae). Sterile medfly males are less competent in attracting and mating with wild females, a property commonly linked to the irradiation process responsible for the sterilization. As bacteria are important partners in the fly's life cycle, we used molecular analytical methods to study the community structure of the gut microbiota in irradiated male medflies. We find that the sterilizing irradiation procedure affects the gut bacterial community structure of the Mediterranean fruit fly. Although the Enterobacteriaceae family remains the dominant bacterial group present in the gut, the levels of Klebsiella species decreases significantly in the days after sterilization. In addition, we detected substantial differences in some bacterial species between the mass rearing strain Vienna 8 and the wild strain. Most notable among these are the increased levels of the potentially pathogenic species Pseudomonas in the industrial strain. Testing the hypothesis that regenerating the original microbiota community could result in enhanced competitiveness of the sterile flies, we found that the addition of the bacterial species Klebsiella oxytoca to the postirradiation diet enables colonization of these bacteria in the gut while resulting in decreased levels of the Pseudomonas sp. Feeding on diets containing bacteria significantly improved sterile male performance in copulatory tests. Further studies will determine the feasibility of bacterial amelioration in SIT operations. PMID:19617877

  2. Response of Ceratitis capitata, Bactrocera dorsalis, and Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae) to metabolic stress disinfection and disinfestation treatment.

    PubMed

    Arévalo-Galarza, Lourdes; Follett, Peter A

    2011-02-01

    Metabolic stress disinfection and disinfestation (MSDD) is a postharvest treatment designed to control pathogens and arthropod pests on commodities that combines short cycles of low pressure/vacuum and high CO2 with ethanol vapor. Experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of MSDD treatment on various life stages of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), Mediterranean fruit fly; Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel, oriental fruit fly; and Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillett, melon fly, in petri dishes and in papaya, Carica papaya L., fruit. In some experiments, the ethanol vapor phase was withheld to separate the effects of the physical (low pressure/ambient pressure cycles) and chemical (ethanol vapor plus low pressure) phases of treatment. In the experiments with tephritid fruit fly larvae and adults in petri dishes, mortality was generally high when insects were exposed to ethanol and low when ethanol was withheld during MSDD treatment, suggesting that ethanol vapor is highly lethal but that fruit flies are quite tolerant of short periods of low pressure treatment alone. When papaya fruit infested with fruit fly eggs or larvae were treated by MSDD, they produced fewer pupae than untreated control fruit, but a substantial number of individuals developed nonetheless. This suggests that internally feeding insects in fruit may be partially protected from the toxic effects of the ethanol because the vapor does not easily penetrate the fruit pericarp and pulp. MSDD treatment using the atmospheric conditions tested has limited potential as a disinfestation treatment for internal-feeding quarantine pests such as fruit flies infesting perishable commodities. PMID:21404842

  3. Effects of new dietary ingredients used in artificial diet for screwworm larvae (Diptera: Calliphoridae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Spray-dried whole bovine blood, dry poultry egg, and a dry milk substitute are the constituents of the standard artificial diet currently used for mass rearing screwworm larvae, Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel) (Diptera: Calliphoridae). Due to high cost and uncertainty of the commercial supply of ...

  4. Population Fluctuation of Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) as a Function of Altitude in Eastern Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Flores, S; Montoya, P; Ruiz-Montoya, L; Villaseñor, A; Valle, A; Enkerlin, W; Liedo, P

    2016-08-01

    Population fluctuations of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) were evaluated over a period of 12 mo in four altitudinal strata (400-750, 750-1,100, 1,100-1,450, and 1,450-1,800 meters above sea level, masl) in Eastern Guatemala. Within each altitudinal range, sampling plots were established in coffee plantations and adjacent areas, in which Jackson traps were set and baited with Trimedlure. Coffee berries and other host fruits were collected. Population density was lowest at the 400-750 masl stratum and highest at 1,450-1,800 masl. At every altitudinal range, the fluctuations of the pest were associated mainly with the availability of ripe coffee berries as a primary host. From 750-1,450 masl, the pest was also associated with the availability of sweet orange and mandarins in commercial and backyard orchards. The highest densities of the pest were recorded in the dry season. Citrus were the main alternate host where ripe coffee berries were not available. This knowledge on population dynamics of C. capitata will contribute to develop more effective area-wide pest management strategies including the use of sterile insects, natural enemies, and bait sprays. PMID:27247307

  5. [Mating choice of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae): influence of male ageing on mating success].

    PubMed

    Silva Neto, Alberto M da; Dias, Vanessa S; Joachim-Bravo, Iara S

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of male ageing on male pheromone release and mating success of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). The effects of male ageing on mating were evaluated on five and 21 d-old males by assessing their mating success (males chosen by a female for copulation) and the amount of males releasing the sex pheromone. The mating success was evaluated by using several ratios of young to older males by increasing the number of older males:young males from 1:1 to 5:1. The mating success of the 1:1 ratio was also evaluated in field cages. The evaluation of the mating success (in the 1:1 ratio) showed a clear preference of the females for young males. Sex pheromone emission was much more common on young than older males. Even in cases were older males were more abundant (ratios 2:1 and 3:1), females still chose the young males. However, females could not distinguish young from older males in ratios of 4:1 or 5:1. Our data indicate that the ageing of C. capitata males has a considerable negative effect on their reproductive success, especially if they are found in a proportion any lower than 3:1. PMID:19943002

  6. Courtship behavior of different wild strains of Ceratitis Capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    SciTech Connect

    Briceno, D.; Eberhard, W.; Vilardi, J.; Cayol, J.-P.; Shelly, T.

    2007-03-15

    This study documents differences in the courtship behavior of wild strains of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) from Madeira (Portugal), Hawaii (U.S.A.), Costa Rica, and Patagonia (Argentina). Some traits showed large variations and others substantial overlaps. The angle at which the male faced toward the female at the moment of transition from continuous wing vibration and intermittent buzzing changed very little during the course of courtship in all strains, but males from Madeira tended to face more directly toward the female than other males. Females tended to look more, and more directly, toward the males as courtship progressed in all strains. The distance between male and female tended to decrease as courtship proceeded in all strains, but the distances at which males initiated continuous vibration, intermittent buzzing, and jumped onto the female were relatively less variable between strains, except for the strain from Costa Rica. Flies of Madeira courted for longer and the male moved his head and buzzed his wings longer than the other strains. (author) [Spanish] Este estudio documenta diferencias en el comportamiento de cortejo de cepas silvestres de Ceratitis capitata (Wied.) provenientes de Madeira (Portugal), Hawaii (Estados Unidos de Norte America), Costa Rica y Patagonia (Argentina). Algunas caracteristicas mostraron grandes variaciones y traslape substancial. Los angulos a los cuales los machos miraron hacia las hembras cambiaron muy poco en el momento de la transicion de la vibracion continua al zumbido intermitente durante el curso del cortejo en todo las cepas, pero los machos de Madeira tendieron a enfrentar mas directamente a la hembra que otros machos. Los angulos de las hembras disminuyeron claramente durante el cortejo en todas las cepas. La distancia entre el macho y la hembra tendio a disminuir conforme el cortejo continuaba en todas las cepas, pero las distancias a las cuales los machos iniciaron la vibracion continua, el zumbido intermitente

  7. Male courtship behavior in Ceratitis Capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) that have received Aromatherapy with ginger root oil

    SciTech Connect

    Briceno, D.; Eberhard, W.; Shelly, T.

    2007-03-15

    The results of previous studies that showed that exposing mass-reared male Mediterranean fruit flies Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) to ginger root oil ('aromatherapy') increases the likelihood of mating with wild females were confirmed. The increased male success could be due to female responses to changes in male behavior or male pheromones. There were no significant differences in the types of courtship movements executed by males with and without aromatherapy. The durations of movements also did not differ when mass-reared males were paired with mass-reared females; however, when they were paired with wild females, there were a few, small differences. Previous studies indicated that the effectiveness of the male long-distance attractant pheromone is not affected by aromatherapy, but these studies did not consider pheromones released at close range during courtship, which behavioral analyses suggest may be different. We propose the following possible explanation for the different effects of aromatherapy with different females. Selection on males under mass rearing may have altered their close-range pheromones in ways that can be remedied by aromatherapy; and only wild females respond because the pheromonal responsiveness of mass-reared females has also changed. We propose observations that could test these ideas. (author) [Spanish] Los resultados de estudios previos que muestran que al exponer machos criados en masa de la mosca mediterranea de la fruta Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) al aceite de la raiz del jengibre ('aromaterapia') aumento la probabilidad del apareamiento con hembras naturales fueron confirmados. El aumento en el exito de los machos puede ser debido a las respuestas de las hembras a los cambios en el comportamiento o feromonas de los machos. No hubo una diferencia significativa en la clase de los movimientos del cortejo ejecutados por los machos con y sin la aromaterapia. La duracion de los movimientos tampoco fue diferente cuando los machos

  8. [Importance of adult protein ingestion on the mating success of Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann males (Diptera: Tephritidae)].

    PubMed

    Silva Neto, Alberto M da; Dias, Vanessa S; Joachim-Bravo, Iara S

    2010-01-01

    The importance of the protein ingestion during the adult stage on the mating success of males of Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann was evaluated in experiments of laboratory and field cage. In laboratory, the effects of protein ingestion during the first four or 12 days of the male adult life was assessed by the following parameters: mating success (capacity of being chosen by the female) and the number of males that give out pheromonal signals. Some experiments of mating success had been carried through with males in different ratios. In these tests, the number of males which had ingested protein (an unique male) was remained constant and the number of males fed without protein was gradually increased from 1:1 to 1:5. In the field cages, the mating success experiments were done using a 1:1 ratio. The results showed that the protein ingestion in the first four days of life did not influence any of the analyzed parameters. When the period of ingestion of protein was extended to 12 days, protein-fed males fed produced more pheromonal signals and had a higher mating success when at a 1:1 ratio in laboratory and field cage assays. In laboratory, females randomly chose males in any other tested ratio (1:2, 1:3, 1:4 and 1:5), indicating that the female may lose the perception to identify the male who ingested protein in the first 12 days. PMID:20498961

  9. Fluorescent sperm marking to improve the fight against the pest insect Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann; Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Scolari, Francesca; Schetelig, Marc F; Bertin, Sabrina; Malacrida, Anna R; Gasperi, Giuliano; Wimmer, Ernst A

    2008-06-01

    The Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) involving area-wide release of mass-reared and sterilized pest insects has proven successful to reduce, control and eradicate economically important pest species, such as the Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly). For the efficient application, effective monitoring to assess the number and mating success of the released medflies is essential. Here, we report sperm-specific marking systems based on the spermatogenesis-specific Ceratitis capitata beta2-tubulin (Ccbeta2t) promoter. Fluorescent sperm can be isolated from testes or spermathecae. The marking does not cause general disadvantages in preliminary laboratory competitiveness assays. Therefore, transgenic sperm marking could serve as a major improvement for monitoring medfly SIT programs. The use of such harmless transgenic markers will serve as an ideal initial condition to transfer insect transgenesis technology from the laboratory to field applications. Moreover, effective and easily recognizable sperm marking will make novel studies possible on medfly reproductive biology which will help to further improve SIT programs. PMID:18504022

  10. Infectivity of Four Entomopathogenic Nematodes in Relation to Environmental Factors and Their Effects on the Biochemistry of the Medfly Ceratitis capitata (Wied.) (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Shaurub, E H; Soliman, N A; Hashem, A G; Abdel-Rahman, A M

    2015-12-01

    Late third instars of the medfly, Ceratitis capitata (Wied.), migrate from the host fruit into the soil and leaf litter beneath host trees, where they may become a target for entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs). The effects of ultraviolet (UV) light, temperature, soil type (texture), and soil moisture level on infectivity of the four tested EPNs Heterorhabditis bacteriophora AS1, H. bacteriophora HP88, Steinernema carpocapsae ALL, and Steinernema riobrave ML29 to late third instars of C. capitata were evaluated. Biochemical alterations induced by the most virulent nematodes were quantified. The nematode infectivity decreased with increase in exposure time to UV light, whereas it increased with increase in temperature. Infectivity increased in sandy soil, whereas it decreased in silt and clay soils. Soils with high moisture levels decreased infectivity. Based on the 50% lethal concentration (LC50), H. bacteriophora AS1 and S. carpocapsae ALL were the most virulent heterorhabditid and steinernematid nematodes, respectively, with the highest virulence for H. bacteriophora AS1. The nematodes caused significant decline in total protein and cholesterol content of larvae and caused reduced activity of transaminases and phosphatases. In contrast, they significantly enhanced total glucose content. It can be concluded that the most optimum environmental conditions of the tested nematodes to elicit their infectivity against late third instars of C. capitata were sandy soil with 10% moisture level, ambient temperature of 25°C, and no exposure to UV. The EPNs tested can affect late third instars of C. capitata by targeting different biochemical molecules in different metabolic pathways. The interaction between them and the host larvae appears to be primarily nutritional. PMID:26391517

  11. Analysis of somatic and salivary gland antigens of third stage larvae of Rhinoestrus spp. (Diptera, Oestridae).

    PubMed

    Milillo, Piermarino; Traversa, Donato; Elia, Gabriella; Otranto, Domenico

    2010-04-01

    Larvae of Rhinoestrus spp. (Diptera, Oestridae) infect nasal and sinus cavities of horses, causing a nasal myiasis characterized by severe respiratory distress. Presently, the diagnosis of horse nasal botfly relies on the observation of clinical signs, on the post mortem retrieval of larvae or on molecular assays performed using pharyngeal swabs. The present study was carried out to characterize larval somatic proteins and salivary glands of Rhinoestrus spp. in a preliminary assessment towards the immunodiagnosis of equine rhinoestrosis. Out of the 212 necropsied horses 13 were positive for the presence of Rhinoestrus spp. larvae. The analysis of the sera from the infected animals by Western blotting assay showed the presence of a specific host humoral immune response against Rhinoestrus spp. larvae and proved that the salivary glands are the major immunogens in horse nasal botflies. PMID:19948170

  12. Equipment for transporting live black fly larvae (Diptera: Simuliiae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tarshis, I.B.; Adkins, T.R.

    1971-01-01

    In studies relating to the biology and ecology of black flies, live larvae of at least 70 species of Simuliidae have been collected from their natural breeding sites and transported in containers with nonagitated water for short distances to the laboratory. One of us (Tarshis 1966) found, however, that even small numbers of simuliid larvae cannot survive in containers with nonagitated water for more than 6 hr. Additionally, when massive numbers of larvae are introduced into transport containers in which the water is not agitated, the larvae perish because they become entangled within the masses of silken threads they emit whenever disturbed (Tarshis and Neil 1970). Therefore, when transporting larvae long distances or when transporting large numbers of larvae any distance, it is essential to agitate the water in the transport containers.

  13. Pupal development of Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) and Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) at different moisture values in four soil types.

    PubMed

    Bento, F de M M; Marques, R N; Costa, M L Z; Walder, J M M; Silva, A P; Parra, J R P

    2010-08-01

    This study aimed to evaluate adult emergence and duration of the pupal stage of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), and emergence of the fruit fly parasitoid, Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead), under different moisture conditions in four soil types, using soil water matric potential. Pupal stage duration in C. capitata was influenced differently for males and females. In females, only soil type affected pupal stage duration, which was longer in a clay soil. In males, pupal stage duration was individually influenced by moisture and soil type, with a reduction in pupal stage duration in a heavy clay soil and in a sandy clay, with longer duration in the clay soil. As matric potential decreased, duration of the pupal stage of C. capitata males increased, regardless of soil type. C. capitata emergence was affected by moisture, regardless of soil type, and was higher in drier soils. The emergence of D. longicaudata adults was individually influenced by soil type and moisture factors, and the number of emerged D. longicaudata adults was three times higher in sandy loam and lower in a heavy clay soil. Always, the number of emerged adults was higher at higher moisture conditions. C. capitata and D. longicaudata pupal development was affected by moisture and soil type, which may facilitate pest sampling and allow release areas for the parasitoid to be defined under field conditions. PMID:22127183

  14. What do tiger-fly larvae (Diptera: Muscidae) eat?

    PubMed

    Santos, S; Martins, J; Marcelino, J; Mateus, C; Figueiredo, E

    2013-01-01

    Coenosia attenuata, usually known as tiger-fly, is a generalist predator of agricultural and forest pests in both larval and adult stages; it has potential to be an effective biocontrol agent in protected crops. To contribute for the knowledge of which prey this predator larvae potentially consumes, and of the occurrence and the conditions that promote cannibalism by tiger-fly larvae, intact alive specimens and portions of the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris were tested as prey and the cannibalism was evaluated in the presence or in absence of fungus gnat larvae. The tiger-fly larvae fed on the bisected earthworm portions but seem to have difficulty to penetrate in the cuticle of the alive and moving L. terrestris. However, the time to start feeding on the portions of L terrestris was shorter than on fungus gnats. Cannibalism by C. attenuato was not detected, but mortality occurred in several modalities. Nevertheless, escaping from the Petri dishes was the dominant behaviour of the larvae in the cannibalism evaluation assay. PMID:25145255

  15. EARLY DETECTION AND POPULATION MONITORING OF CERATITIS CAPITATA (DIPTERA: TEPHRITIDAE) IN A MIXED-FRUIT ORCHARD IN NORTHERN GREECE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Population monitoring of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), was studied in 1998 in a mixed-fruit orchard in northern Greece, using International Pheromone McPhail traps (IPMT) baited with the female targeted attractants ammonium acetate, putrescine, and trimethylamine, and ...

  16. Capture of Anastrepha suspensa and sterile male Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) in multilure traps versus phase 4 traps

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field trials were conducted in south Florida to compare capture of wild Caribbean fruit flies, Anastrepha suspensa (Loew), and sterile male Mediterranean fruit flies, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), in Multilure traps, which are McPhail-type traps that use an aqueous solution to retain attracted fli...

  17. Development of a transgenic sexing system based on female-specific embryonic lethality in Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) is more efficient and cost-effective when only sterile males are released. A female-specific lethality system based on a female-specifically spliced intron was developed for transgenic sexing in Ceratitis capitata (Fu et al., 2007) possibly to overcome the fitness ...

  18. Development of phytosanitary cold treatments for oranges infested with Bactrocera invadens and B. zonata (Diptera: Tephritidae) by comparison...existing cold treatment schedules for Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phytosanitary cold treatments are attempted for Bactrocera invadens Drew, Tsuruta, and White and Bactrocera zonata (Saunders) by comparison with Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). Oranges were infested by puncturing holes in the peel and allowing tephritids to oviposit in the holes. The treatments were...

  19. Pyrethroid resistance in Aedes aegypti larvae (Diptera: Culicidae) from Singapore.

    PubMed

    Koou, Sin-Ying; Chong, Chee-Seng; Vythilingam, Indra; Ng, Lee-Ching; Lee, Chow-Yang

    2014-01-01

    We report the first comprehensive insecticide susceptibility status ofAedes aegypti (L.) larvae from Singapore. The study indicated that Ae. aegypti is susceptible to temephos, although resistance (RR50 = 1.29-4.43-fold) couldbe developing. Of high concern is the detection of moderate to high resistance to permethrin (RR50 = 29-47-fold) and etofenprox (RR50 = 14-34-fold). Biolarvicide Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti) remains effective. The insecticide susceptibility profile of Ae. aegypti larvae was found to be homogenous among the different sites studied across the island city. The addition of synergists piperonyl butoxide, S,S,S,-tributyl phosphorotrithioate, and triphenyl phosphate generally failed to enhance the toxicity of the insecticides investigated, suggesting an insignificant role of metabolic-based resistance, and a possible involvement of target site resistance. Further biochemical investigation of specific metabolic enzyme activities suggested that detoxifying enzymes, mono-oxygenases, esterases, glutathione S-transferases, and altered acetylcholinesterases, generally did not contribute to the resistance observed. This study clearly demonstrated that pyrethroid resistance is widespread among Ae. aegypti population and lowered susceptibility to organophosphates is developing. PMID:24605467

  20. Ability of Black Soldier Fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) Larvae to Recycle Food Waste.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Trinh T X; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Vanlaerhoven, Sherah

    2015-04-01

    Accumulation of organic wastes, especially in livestock facilities, can be a potential pollution issue. The black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens L. (Diptera: Stratiomyidae), can consume a wide range of organic material and has the potential to be used in waste management. In addition, the prepupae stage of this insect can be harvested and used as a valuable nutritious feed for animal livestock. Five waste types with a wide range of organic source matter were specifically chosen to evaluate the consumption and reduction ability of black soldier fly larvae. H. illucens was able to reduce all waste types examined: 1) control poultry feed, 2) pig liver, 3) pig manure, 4) kitchen waste, 5) fruits and vegetables, and 6) rendered fish. Kitchen waste had the greatest mean rate of reduction (consumption by black soldier fly) per day and produced the longest and heaviest black soldier flies. Larvae reared on liver, manure, fruits and vegetables, and fish were approximately the same length and weight as larvae fed the control feed, although some diets produced larvae with a higher nutritional content. The black soldier fly has the ability to consume and reduce organic waste and be utilized as valuable animal feed. Exploration of the potential use of black soldier flies as an agent for waste management on a large-scale system should continue. PMID:26313195

  1. Behavioral Response of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) Larvae to Synthetic and Natural Attractants and Repellents.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Paula V; González Audino, Paola A; Masuh, Héctor M

    2015-11-01

    Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) is the key vector of three important arboviral diseases: dengue, yellow fever, and chikungunya. Immature stages of this species inhabit human-made containers placed in residential landscapes. In this study, we evaluated a few compounds in a sensitive behavioral assay with Ae. aegypti larvae. The orientation of larvae to different compounds was surveyed using a performance index (PI). The PI represents the response to each odorant, where a value of +1 is indicative of full attraction and -1 represents complete repulsion. The widely used insect repellent N, N-diethyl-m-toluamide elicited a significantly negative PI, as did acetophenone and indole. A yeast extract, a known food source, elicited a significantly positive PI, as did 2-methylphenol, 1-octen-3-ol, 3-methylphenol, and fish food. On the other hand, no response was observed for the essential oil of Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus camaldulensis at the concentration evaluated. Pretreatment of larvae with N-ethylmaleimide and ablation of the antennae resulted in a suppression of behavioral responses. The overall mobility of ablated larvae was indistinguishable from unablated controls, and absence of any visible locomotor dysfunction was observed. This work is a contribution to the study of the chemical ecology of disease vectors with the aim of developing more efficient tools for surveillance and control.Natural and synthetic compounds attractive to Ae. aegypti larvae should be incorporated into integrated pest management programs through the use of baited traps or by improving the efficacy of larvicides commonly used in control campaigns. PMID:26352935

  2. Checklist and pictorial key to fourth-instar larvae of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) of Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Al Ahmad, Azzam M; Sallam, Mohamed F; Khuriji, Mohamed A; Kheir, Salah M; Azari-Hamidian, Shahyad

    2011-07-01

    The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia includes fauna from three zoogeographic regions: the Afrotropical, Oriental, and Palaearctic regions. To study the mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) fauna of these regions in Saudi Arabia, larval collections were made at 15 sites during 2005-2006. Thirty-three species representing nine genera were found. Six species, Anopheles culicifacies Giles s.l., Anopheles subpictus Grassi s.l., Culex arbieeni Salem, Culex simpsoni Theobald, Culex univittatus Theobald, and Ochlerotatus detritus Haliday are reported for the first time for Saudi Arabia. An annotated checklist and an illustrated key to the fourth-instar larvae of the 33 species are presented, along with some remarks about problematic species. Eleven species of genus Anopheles Meigen, five species of tribe Aedini, 13 species of genus Culex L., two species of genus Culiseta Felt, one species of genus Lutzia Theobald, and one species of genus Uranotaenia Lynch Arribátlzaga were recorded during the study. PMID:21845930

  3. Grazing trails formed by soldier fly larvae (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) and their paleoenvironmental and paleoecological implications for the fossil record

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mangano, M.G.; Buatois, L.A.; Claps, G.L.

    1996-01-01

    Recent trails formed by soldier fly larvae (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) were examined in a shallow pond in the floodplain of a braided river in Jujuy Province, northwestern Argentina. Collected specimens were identified as Stratiomys convexa van der Wulp. Simple, irregularly meandering trails were produced across the surface of a muddy-silty substrate. Since soldier fly larvae extend their caudal respiratory tube to the water-air interface, they are restricted to extremely shallow water. The presence of benthic algal remains within the mouthparts of the larvae suggests a feeding habit of algal grazing. If preserved, these trails would be included in the ichnogenus Helminthopsis, a common element in ancient freshwater ichnofaunas. Helminthopsis preserved in pond and lacustrine margin deposits younger than Late Jurassic is regarded as one possible trace fossil analogue of the trails documented herein. Additionally, it is suggested that larvae of many aquatic Diptera with similar ecologic restrictions are potential tracemakers of Helminthopsis and other simple trails in these environments, particularly in post-Paleozoic deposits. Studies of modern shallow aquatic habitats and reexamination of the ichnologic record stress the importance of fly larvae as tracemakers in lake margin and pond ecosystems. Ecologic requirements of soldier fly larvae make them inappropriate analogues of Helminthopsis tracemakers in deeper water, lacustrine settings. ?? 1996 OPA (Overseas Publishers Association) Amsterdam B.V. Published in The Netherlands by Harwood Academic Publishers GmbH.

  4. The skeletomuscular system of the larva of Drosophila melanogaster (Drosophilidae, Diptera): a contribution to the morphology of a model organism.

    PubMed

    Wipfler, Benjamin; Schneeberg, Katharina; Löffler, Andreas; Hünefeld, Frank; Meier, Rudolf; Beutel, Rolf G

    2013-01-01

    The morphological features of the third instar larva of the most important insect model, Drosophila melanogaster, are documented for the first time using a broad spectrum of modern morphological techniques. External structures of the body wall, the cephaloskeleton, and the musculature are described and illustrated. Additional information about other internal organs is provided. The systematic implications of the findings are discussed briefly. Internal apomorphic features of Brachycera and Cyclorrhapha are confirmed for Drosophila. Despite the intensive investigations of the phylogeny of the megadiverse Diptera, evolutionary reconstructions are still impeded by the scarcity of anatomical data for brachyceran larvae. The available morphological information for the life stages of three insect model organisms -D. melanogaster (Diptera, Drosophilidae), Manduca sexta (Lepidoptera, Sphingidae) and Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae) - is addressed briefly. The usefulness of a combination of traditional and innovative techniques for an optimized acquisition of anatomical data for different life stages is highlighted. PMID:23010508

  5. Mitochondrial Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) Can Distinguish Sterile, Released Flies from Wild Flies in Various Regions of the World.

    PubMed

    Parubrub, Arlene; Reyes, Ruel; Smallridge, Catherine J; Woods, Bill; Haymer, David

    2015-02-01

    In areas infested with pest species such as the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), many programs rely heavily on the sterile insect technique (SIT) as a form of biological control. However, when SIT treatments are used both for control of established infestations and for occasional outbreaks, for several reasons, programs are often unable to adequately quantify the success of this approach. Chief among these are difficulties associated with reliably and rapidly determining the strain of origin of males recaptured during and after the SIT program. In this study, we describe the use of a DNA-based marker that can be used to rapidly and reliably distinguish males originating from the two sterile strains that are most widely used in SIT rearing facilities from males originating from wild strains of various regions of the world. This method uses polymerase chain reaction amplification of material from individual specimens to directly analyze DNA sequence variants found within a portion of the mitochondrial ND4 subunit 4 (ND4) gene to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are diagnostic of different strains. Specifically, the SNPs described here reliably distinguish individual flies originating from the Vienna 7 and Vienna 8 strains used for sterile release from wild flies infesting various areas including Western Australia, Guatemala, and Hawaii. The availability of such markers for determination of the strain of origin of specimens, either from whole specimens or body parts (including their sperm), has great potential to improve the ability to monitor and quantify the success of any sterile release program. PMID:26470134

  6. Comparison of aggregation and feeding responses by normal and irradiated fruit flies, Ceratitis capitata and Anastrepha suspensa (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    SciTech Connect

    Galun, R.; Gothilf, S.; Blondheim, S.; Sharp, J.L.; Mazor, M.; Lachman, A.

    1985-12-01

    Olfactory, aggregatory, and feeding responses of normal (untreated) laboratory stocks of Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly), Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), and of Caribbean fruit fly (caribfly), Anastrepha suspensa (Loew), were compared to those of flies irradiated (10 krad in air) 2 days before eclosion. Females of both species consumed greater quantities of protein hydrolysate solutions, entered protein hydrolysate-baited olfactory traps, and aggregated on agar plates containing protein hydrolysate in greater numbers than males of the same age and condition. However, male medflies consumed more sucrose than did females of the same age and condition. In the medfly, irradiation resulted in reduced olfactory response, reduced total food intake by flies of both sexes, and a significant reduction in aggregation on and intake of protein hydrolysate by females and of sugar consumption by males. In the irradiated caribfly, there was a significant reduction in olfactory response of females to yeast hydrolysate. In both sexes, aggregation on and consumption of yeast hydrolysate were reduced. Effects of irradiation on feeding behavior are discussed in relation to the biology of the flies and their control by the sterile insect release method.

  7. Evaluation of Quality Production Parameters and Mating Behavior of Novel Genetic Sexing Strains of the Mediterranean Fruit Fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Rempoulakis, Polychronis; Taret, Gustavo; Haq, Ihsan Ul; Wornayporn, Viwat; Ahmad, Sohel; Sto Tomas, Ulysses; Dammalage, Thilakasiri; Gembinsky, Keke; Franz, Gerald; Cáceres, Carlos; Vreysen, Marc J B

    2016-01-01

    The Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is one of the most important pest of fruits and vegetables in tropical and subtropical countries. The sterile insect technique (SIT) as a component of area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) approaches is being used for the successful management of this pest. VIENNA 8 is a genetic sexing strain (GSS) that has a white pupae (wp) and temperature sensitive lethal (tsl) mutation, the latter killing all female embryos when eggs are exposed to high temperatures (34°C). The use of this GSS permits production and the release of only males which has increased the cost effectiveness of the SIT several fold for this pest. An efficient method of identification of recaptured sterile males can further increase the cost effectiveness of the SIT for this pest. Therefore, VIENNA 8-Sergeant2 (Sr2) strain and the transgenic strain VIENNA 8-1260 having visible markers were constructed. All three strains were evaluated for egg production, egg hatch, and egg sterility parameters under semi mass-rearing conditions and mating competitiveness in field cages. VIENNA 8-1260 females produced significantly fewer eggs as compared with the two other strains, which produced similar numbers of eggs. However, egg hatch of all strains was similar. Egg hatch of eggs produced by untreated females that had mated with adult males that had been irradiated with 100 Gy as pupae 2 days before emergence, was different for the three strains, i.e., egg hatch of 0.63%, 0.77%, 0.89% for VIENNA 8, VIENNA 8-1260, and VIENNA 8-Sr2, respectively. Differences in male mating competitiveness of the three strains against wild-type males were gradually reduced with successive generations under semi mass-rearing conditions. However, VIENNA 8 males adapted faster to laboratory conditions as compared with VIENNA 8-Sr2 and VIENNA 8-1260 males with respect to mating competitiveness. VIENNA 8 males of the F10 generation were equally

  8. Evaluation of Quality Production Parameters and Mating Behavior of Novel Genetic Sexing Strains of the Mediterranean Fruit Fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    PubMed Central

    Haq, Ihsan ul; Wornayporn, Viwat; Ahmad, Sohel; Sto Tomas, Ulysses; Dammalage, Thilakasiri; Gembinsky, Keke; Franz, Gerald; Cáceres, Carlos; Vreysen, Marc J. B.

    2016-01-01

    The Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is one of the most important pest of fruits and vegetables in tropical and subtropical countries. The sterile insect technique (SIT) as a component of area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) approaches is being used for the successful management of this pest. VIENNA 8 is a genetic sexing strain (GSS) that has a white pupae (wp) and temperature sensitive lethal (tsl) mutation, the latter killing all female embryos when eggs are exposed to high temperatures (34°C). The use of this GSS permits production and the release of only males which has increased the cost effectiveness of the SIT several fold for this pest. An efficient method of identification of recaptured sterile males can further increase the cost effectiveness of the SIT for this pest. Therefore, VIENNA 8-Sergeant2 (Sr2) strain and the transgenic strain VIENNA 8–1260 having visible markers were constructed. All three strains were evaluated for egg production, egg hatch, and egg sterility parameters under semi mass-rearing conditions and mating competitiveness in field cages. VIENNA 8–1260 females produced significantly fewer eggs as compared with the two other strains, which produced similar numbers of eggs. However, egg hatch of all strains was similar. Egg hatch of eggs produced by untreated females that had mated with adult males that had been irradiated with 100 Gy as pupae 2 days before emergence, was different for the three strains, i.e., egg hatch of 0.63%, 0.77%, 0.89% for VIENNA 8, VIENNA 8–1260, and VIENNA 8-Sr2, respectively. Differences in male mating competitiveness of the three strains against wild-type males were gradually reduced with successive generations under semi mass-rearing conditions. However, VIENNA 8 males adapted faster to laboratory conditions as compared with VIENNA 8-Sr2 and VIENNA 8–1260 males with respect to mating competitiveness. VIENNA 8 males of the F10 generation were

  9. A cellulose fiber-based diet for screwworm (Diptera: Calliphoridae) larvae.

    PubMed

    Chaudhury, M F; Skoda, S R

    2007-02-01

    A highly absorbent cellulose fiber from recycled paper was tested and compared with a polyacrylate gelling agent, Aquatain, normally used for bulking and solidifying larval rearing medium of screwworm, Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel) (Diptera: Calliphoridae). The absorbent fiber, when mixed with water and dietary ingredients, produced a diet medium of homogeneous texture that supported larval growth and development comparable with the standard gelled diet. Larval and pupal weights from two concentrations of cellulose fiber-based diet were significantly higher than those obtained using gelled diet. The number of pupae per tray, percentage of adult emergence, oviposition, percentage of egg hatch, and adult longevity obtained from the insects reared in the cellulose fiber-based diet were comparable or slightly better than the biological parameters recorded from flies reared in the gelled diet. Moreover, results indicate that a lesser amount of the cellulose fiber-based diet than the normal amount of gelled diet per tray would support normal larval growth. Physical properties and texture of the new diet seem to allow the larvae to move and feed more freely than they do on the semisolid gelled diet, resulting in less wasted diet. The cellulose fiber is biodegradable and inexpensive, whereas the polyacrylate gel polymer is not biodegradable and is relatively expensive. Replacing gel with cellulose fiber in the screwworm larval diet for mass rearing should result in substantial cost savings in material and labor as well as eliminating concern of environmental pollution due to diet waste disposal. PMID:17370834

  10. Incidence of Non-Immunological Defenses of Soil White Grubs on Parasitism Success of Mallophora ruficauda Larva (Diptera: Asilidae)

    PubMed Central

    Castelo, Marcela K.; Crespo, José E.

    2012-01-01

    White grubs are larvae of Coleoptera of the family Scarabaeidae. They are known because of their intensive feeding habits on crop roots. Mallophora ruficauda (Diptera: Asilidae) is a dipteran parasitoid whose larva is a natural enemy for white grubs. This species is a solitary ectoparasitoid, where both female and larva realize different steps in the host location process. Female place its eggs in high grasslands and then, the larva finds and parasitizes the host in the ground. There are nine potential hosts in the area of action of this parasitoid; however a high preference for Cyclocephala signaticollis has been observed (87% of field parasitism). It is known that many insects have developed defensive and immunological mechanisms when attacked by a parasitoid, which can be behavioral, physiological, chemical or genetic. The objectives of this work were to investigate what kind of defense and non-immunological associated mechanisms the white grubs have against this parasitoid and to understand why M. ruficauda have such a high preference for masked chafer grubs or Cyclocephala species. In particular, for each white grub species, we asked: (1) If there is a differential behavioral reaction when a parasitoid attack is simulated; (2) If body attributes of white grubs species have influence on defense behavior, and particularly for the masked chafer C. signaticollis; and (3) Why this species is the most selected by M. ruficauda. It was found that behavioral defenses of white grubs would explain the parasitism pattern of M. ruficauda larvae and its preference for C. signaticollis. PMID:26466623

  11. A compound produced by fruigivorous Tephritidae (Diptera) larvae promotes oviposition behavior by the biological control agent Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae).

    PubMed

    Stuhl, Charles; Sivinski, John; Teal, Peter; Paranhos, Beatriz; Aluja, Martin

    2011-06-01

    Tephritid fruit fly parasitoids use fruit-derived chemical cues and the vibrations that result from larval movements to locate hosts sequestered inside fruit. However, compounds produced by the larvae themselves have not been previously described nor their significance to parasitoid foraging determined. We collected the volatiles from four species of tropical and subtropical Tephritidae: Anastrepha suspensa (Loew), Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel, Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillett, and Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), representing two subfamilies (Dacinae and Trypetinae). Para-ethylacetophenone, an analog of a known tephritid parasitoid attractant, was a major constituent of all four, and was not associated with larvae of another acalypterate fly, Drosophila melanogaster Meigen, or with the calypterate Musca domestica L. It also was present in volatiles from whole, A. suspensa infested fruits of Eugenia uniflora (L.). Para-ethylacetophenone was not necessarily produced as a direct consequence of fruit consumption because it also was detected from larvae that developed in two artificial diets and in spent diets subsequent to larval development. Sensillae on both the antennae and ovipositor of the opiine braconid fruit fly parasitoid, Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead) responded to the para-ethylacetophenone in larval volatiles and as a synthetic. Although a potential cue to foraging parasitoids, para-ethylacetophenone showed no long range (>1m) attractiveness to the adult female parasitoid, but did stimulate ovipositor-insertion and oviposition into both a natural (fruit) and an artificial (parafilm) substrate. Thus it may prove useful in colonizing and mass-rearing opine fruit fly parasitoids. PMID:22251652

  12. A Guide to Basic Taxonomic Literature for the Genera of North American Chironomidae (Diptera) - Adults, Pupae, and Larvae. Bulletin No. 447.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Karl W.

    A generic list of North American Chironomidae (Diptera) is presented to help aquatic biologists quickly locate important taxonomic references for the adults, larvae, and pupae of each genus. The list (in chart format) includes literature published through 1981. When recent literature is available, older references are omitted, since the purpose of…

  13. Biology of Thrypticus truncatus and T. sagittatus (Diptera:Dolichopodidae), petiole miners of water hyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes, in Argentina. With morphological descriptions of larvae and pupae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The mining flies Thyrpticus truncatus Bickel & Hernandez and T. sagittatus Bickel & Hernandez (Diptera: Dolichopodidae) are being evaluated as biological control agents for the water hyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes (Martius) Soms-Laubach (Pontederiaceae). The bahavior of adults and larvae of these sp...

  14. Purification and partial characterization of thermal hysteresis proteins from overwintering larvae of pine needle gall midge, Thecodiplosis japonensis (Diptera: cecidomiidae).

    PubMed

    Li, Y; Gong, H; Park, H Y

    2000-01-01

    The pine needle gall midge of Thecodiplosis japonensis is a serious forest pest and overwinters as a 3rd instar larva at soil surface in Korea. The time necessary for killing 50% of larvae at -15 degree C is 160 min. During overwintering period, T. japonensis larvae accumulate relatively high content of trehalose as the main cryoprotectant. In this paper, the proteinaceous cryoprotectants were identified. Two thermal hysteresis proteins (THP-1S and 2S) were purified from overwintering larvae by ethanol fractionation, trichloroacetic acid precipitation, ion-exchange chromatography (DEAE-Sephadex A-25) and gel permeation chromatography (Sephadex G-100). Their molecular weights are 34.9 and 37.8 kD respectively. T. japonensis THPs cannot be stained by periodic acid-Schiffs' reagent, suggesting no carbohydrate in them. The thermal hysteresis activity of THP-2 at the concentration of 50 mg/ml is 11.02 +/- 0.08 degree C (mean +/- SD, n=10), perhaps the highest active insect THP. It is the first report of purified T. japonensis THPs in Diptera. PMID:12148056

  15. In vivo bioinsecticidal activity toward Ceratitis capitata (fruit fly) and Callosobruchus maculatus (cowpea weevil) and in vitro bioinsecticidal activity toward different orders of insect pests of a trypsin inhibitor purified from tamarind tree (Tamarindus indica) seeds.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Carina L; Bezerra, Ingrid W L; Oliveira, Adeliana S; Moura, Fabiano T; Macedo, Leonardo L P; Gomes, Carlos E M; Barbosa, Aulus E A D; Macedo, Francisco P; Souza, Tánia M S; Franco, Octavio L; Bloch-J, Carlos; Sales, Mauricio P

    2005-06-01

    A proteinaceous inhibitor with high activity against trypsin-like serine proteinases was purified from seeds of the tamarind tree (Tamarindus indica) by gel filtration on Shephacryl S-200 followed by a reverse-phase HPLC Vidac C18 TP. The inhibitor, called the tamarind trypsin inhibitor (TTI), showed a Mr of 21.42 kDa by mass spectrometry analysis. TTI was a noncompetitive inhibitor with a Ki value of 1.7 x 10(-9) M. In vitro bioinsecticidal activity against insect digestive enzymes from different orders showed that TTI had remarkable activity against enzymes from coleopteran, Anthonomus grandis (29.6%), Zabrotes subfasciatus (51.6%), Callosobruchus maculatus (86.7%), Rhyzopertha dominica(88.2%), and lepidopteron, Plodia interpuncptella (26.7%), Alabama argillacea (53.8%), and Spodoptera frugiperda (75.5%). Also, digestive enzymes from Diptera, Ceratitis capitata (fruit fly), were inhibited (52.9%). In vivo bioinsecticidal assays toward C. capitata and C. maculatus larvae were developed. The concentration of TTI (w/w) in the artificial seed necessary to cause 50% mortality (LD50) of larvae was 3.6%, and that to reduce mass larvae by 50.0% (ED50) was 3.2%. Furthermore, the mass C. capitata larvae were affected at 53.2% and produced approximately 34% mortality at a level of 4.0% (w/w) of TTI incorporated in artificial diets. PMID:15913299

  16. Field estimates of attraction of Ceratitis capitata to Trimedlure and Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera:Tephritidae) to Methyl Eugenol in varying environments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Measuring and modeling the attractiveness of semiochemical-baited traps is of significant importance to detection, delimitation and control of invasive pests. Here we describe the results of field mark-release-recapture experiments with Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) and Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel)...

  17. Additional tests on the efficacy of ginger root oil in enhacing the mating competitiveness of sterile males of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent studies have shown that exposure to the aroma of ginger root oil (Zingiber officinale Roscoe; termed GRO hereafter) increases the mating competitiveness of males of the Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly), Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). This result suggests that pre-release exposure of sterile ...

  18. Attraction of Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) and Nontarget Insects to the Attractant BioLure and its Individual Components in Hawaii.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    BioLure, a synthetic food attractant for Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann)) that uses a combination of three chemical components (ammonium acetate, trimethylamine hydrochloride and putrescine), was deployed in MultiLure traps in predominantly native forests, non-native forests,...

  19. Incidence of Non-Immunological Defenses of Soil White Grubs on Parasitism Success of Mallophora ruficauda Larva (Diptera: Asilidae).

    PubMed

    Castelo, Marcela K; Crespo, José E

    2012-01-01

    White grubs are larvae of Coleoptera of the family Scarabaeidae. They are known because of their intensive feeding habits on crop roots. Mallophora ruficauda (Diptera: Asilidae) is a dipteran parasitoid whose larva is a natural enemy for white grubs. This species is a solitary ectoparasitoid, where both female and larva realize different steps in the host location process. Female place its eggs in high grasslands and then, the larva finds and parasitizes the host in the ground. There are nine potential hosts in the area of action of this parasitoid; however a high preference for Cyclocephala signaticollis has been observed (87% of field parasitism). It is known that many insects have developed defensive and immunological mechanisms when attacked by a parasitoid, which can be behavioral, physiological, chemical or genetic. The objectives of this work were to investigate what kind of defense and non-immunological associated mechanisms the white grubs have against this parasitoid and to understand why M. ruficauda have such a high preference for masked chafer grubs or Cyclocephala species. In particular, for each white grub species, we asked: (1) If there is a differential behavioral reaction when a parasitoid attack is simulated; (2) If body attributes of white grubs species have influence on defense behavior, and particularly for the masked chafer C. signaticollis; and (3) Why this species is the most selected by M. ruficauda. It was found that behavioral defenses of white grubs would explain the parasitism pattern of M. ruficauda larvae and its preference for C. signaticollis. PMID:26466623

  20. Histopathological effects of Aspergillus clavatus (Ascomycota: Trichocomaceae) on larvae of the southern house mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Bawin, Thomas; Seye, Fawrou; Boukraa, Slimane; Zimmer, Jean-Yves; Raharimalala, Fara Nantenaina; Ndiaye, Mady; Compere, Philippe; Delvigne, Frank; Francis, Frédéric

    2016-04-01

    Aspergillus clavatus (Ascomycota: Trichocomaceae) was previously found to be an opportunistic pathogen of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae). In the present study, the mechanism leading to its insecticidal activity was investigated regarding histological damages on Culex quinquefasciatus larvae exposed to A. clavatus spores. Multiple concentration assays using spore suspensions (0.5-2.5 × 10(8) spores ml(-1)) revealed 17.0-74.3 % corrected mortalities after 48 h exposure. Heat-deactivated spores induced a lower mortality compared to nonheated spores suggesting that insecticidal effects are actively exerted. Spore-treated and untreated larvae were prepared for light microscopy as well as for scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Spores failed to adhere to the external body surface (except the mouth parts) of these aquatic immature stages but progressively filled the digestive tract where their metabolism seemed to activate. In parallel, the internal tissues of the larvae, i.e. the midgut wall, the skeletal muscles, and the cuticle-secreting epidermis, were progressively destroyed between 8 and 24 h of exposure. These observations suggest that toxins secreted by active germinating spores of A. clavatus in the digestive tract altered the larval tissues, leading to their necrosis and causing larval death. Fungal proliferation and sporulation then occurred during a saprophytic phase. A. clavatus enzymes or toxins responsible for these pathogenic effects need to be identified in further studies before any use of this fungus in mosquito control. PMID:27020151

  1. Nutritional Limitation on Growth and Development of Horn Fly (Diptera:Muscidae) Larvae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aging of bovine dung for 3-5 yr under refrigeration depleted nutrients required for growth and development of horn fly larvae. Growth of horn fly larvae in mixtures of nutrient-depleted dung and fresh dung resulted in production of larvae and pupae stunted in proportion to the relative amount of ag...

  2. Captures of Wild Ceratitis capitata, Bactrocera dorsalis, and Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Traps with Improved Multilure TMR Dispensers Weathered in California.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Roger I; Souder, Steven K; Morse, Joseph G; Grafton-Cardwell, Elizabeth E; Haviland, David R; Kabashima, John N; Faber, Ben A; Mackey, Bruce; Cook, Peter

    2016-04-01

    During 2012–2013, solid Mallet TMR (trimedlure [TML], methyl eugenol [ME], raspberry ketone [RK]) wafers impregnated with DDVP (2, 2-dichlorovinyl dimethyl phosphate) insecticide were weathered during summer (8 wk) and winter (12 wk) in five California citrus-growing counties (Kern, Ventura, Orange, Tulare, and Riverside). In addition, TMR wafers without DDVP and with a Hercon Vaportape II insecticidal strip were compared with TMR dispensers with DDVP at Exeter and Riverside. Weathered treatments were shipped every week (overnight delivery) to Hawaii and frozen for a later bioassay in a 1,335-ha coffee plantation near Numila, Kauai Island, HI, where Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel, and melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillett, were all present. We compared trap captures of the three species, C. capitata, B. dorsalis, and B. cucurbitae, for the five different weathering locations. Captures of C. capitata, B. dorsalis, and B. cucurbitae with Mallet TMR dispensers (with DDVP) were not significantly different for the five locations. Captures with the Mallet TMR dispenser without DDVP and Vaportape were similar to those for Mallet TMR with DDVP, although there were some slight location differences. In conclusion, based on these results, the Mallet TMR dispenser could potentially be used in California habitats where large numbers of detection traps are currently deployed. Use of Vaportape with dispensers would not require them to be registered with US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Dispensers for use as Male Annihilation Technique (MAT) devices will be tested further in Hawaii. PMID:26582906

  3. A Cellulose Fiber-Based Diet for Screwworm (Diptera: Calliphoridae) Larvae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A highly absorbent cellulose fiber from recycled paper, CF100®, was tested and compared with a polyacrylate gelling agent Aquatain® normally used for bulking the larval rearing medium for the screwworm, Cochliomyia hominivorax (Diptera: Calliphoridae). The cellulose fiber, when mixed with water and ...

  4. Some ultrastructural superficial changes in house fly (Diptera: Muscidae) and blow fly (Diptera: Calliphoridae) larvae induced by eucalyptol oil.

    PubMed

    Sukontason, Kabkaew L; Sukontason, Kom; Boonchu, Noppawan; Piangjai, Somsak

    2004-01-01

    The ultrastructural superficial changes in third instar house fly (Musca domestica) and blow fly (Chrysomya megacephala) induced by eucalyptol oil were observed using scanning electron microscopy. Dipped in 0.902 g/ml eucalyptol for 30 sec, the larvae integument of both species showed significant aberrant appearance of the body surface, particularly swelling integument, bleb formation, partial breach and deformation of spines. PMID:15517029

  5. Ammonium acetate enhances the attractiveness of a variety of protein-based baits to female Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ammonia and its derivatives are used largely by female fruit 32 flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) as volatile cues to locate protein-rich food needed to produce their eggs. This need for external protein sources has led to the development of behaviorally-based control strategies such a food-based lures a...

  6. A behavioral method for separation of house fly (Diptera: Muscidae) larvae from processed pig manure.

    PubMed

    Cicková, Helena; Kozánek, Milan; Morávek, Ivan; Takác, Peter

    2012-02-01

    A behavioral method applicable in biodegradation facilities for separation of house fly (Musca domestica L.) larvae from processed pig manure is presented. The method is based on placing a cover over the larval rearing tray, while escaping larvae are collected in collection trays. Separation units must be placed in a dark room to avoid negative phototactic responses of the larvae. After 24 h of separation, over 70% of the larvae escaped from processed manure and were collected in collection trays. Most of the larvae pupated within 48 h after separation. Mean weight of pupae recovered from manure residue was not significantly different from mean weight of pupae of separated individuals. Eclosion rate of pupae recovered from manure residue was significantly lower than eclosion of separated individuals, and was strongly related to separation success. Factors responsible for escape behavior of larvae are discussed. PMID:22420256

  7. [Ingestion of Culex quinquefasciatus larvae (Diptera: Culicidae) by Girardinus metallicus (Cyprinodontiformes: Poecilidae)].

    PubMed

    Contreras, Natividad Hernández; Pérez, Manuel Díaz; Martínez, Judith Mendiola; Báez Artelles, Juan A; Avila, Israel García

    2004-01-01

    Data on ingestion of Culex quinquefasciatus Say 1823 larvae by Girardinus metallicus, Poey 1854 under lab and field conditions were obtained and compared to those reported on the same species by other authors. It was observed that G. metallicus is not so aggressive as other species of larvivorus fish in capturing larvae. The consumption of larvae is higher in females since males prefer feeding on vegetation. Because of the bioecological characteristics of the species, resistance to management and survival in cultural conditions, G. metallicus is recommended to be used as bioregulator of mosquito larvae. PMID:15846915

  8. Notes on the first instar larvae of Ctenophora and Nephrotoma (Diptera, Tipulidae).

    PubMed

    Podeniene, Virginija; Naseviciene, Nijole; Podenas, Sigitas

    2014-01-01

    1830 egg-larvae of 7 species belonging to long palped crane flies (Tipulidae): Ctenophora guttata Meigen, Nephrotoma pratensis Linnaeus, N. dorsalis Fabricius, N. scurra Meigen, N. flavescens Linnaeus, N. submaculosa Edwards and N. crocata Linnaeus were obtained from 22 females captured in Lithuania in 2011-2012. It took from five days to more than three weeks for eggs to hatch. Crane flies have four instars of larvae. Second, third and the last instar larvae are very similar, when the first instar or egg-larvae differs radically. Descriptions and illustrations of external morphology, chaetotaxy of abdominal segments, characters of head capsules and last abdominal segments are given for the previously unknown first instar larvae of Ct. guttata, N. crocata, N. dorsalis, N. flavescens, N. pratensis, N. scurra and poorly known N. submaculosa. It was found out that difference of head capsule and last abdominal segment among the first instar larvae of above mentioned species of genus Nephrotoma are more obvious than in last instar. During this study it was found, that such characters as shape of apical teeth of mandible, shape of basal segment of antenna and number of sensillae, shape of hypostomium and arrangement of sensory structures on labrum, differ among egg-larvae of Nephrotoma. It was found, that pads on frontal part of prothorax and shape of lateral plates of egg-larvae labrum of Nephrotoma differ significantly from that of Ctenophora and could be used as genus separating characters.  PMID:24870629

  9. Larvae of North American Eukiefferiella and Tvetenia (Diptera: Chironomidae). Bulletin No. 452.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bode, Robert W.

    "Eukiefferiella" and "Tvetenia" are closely related genera belonging to the subfamily Orthocladiinae within the Chironomidae, a family of non-biting midges. All known larvae in these genera are aquatic, being found predominantly in running water. Most species prefer cold, swift-flowing, well-oxygenated streams. Although larvae and pupae of these…

  10. Black soldier fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) larvae reduce Escherichia coli in dairy manure.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qiaolin; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Brady, Jeff A; Sanford, Michelle R; Yu, Ziniu

    2008-12-01

    Escherichia coli labeled with a green fluorescent protein was inoculated into sterile dairy manure at 7.0 log cfu/g. Approximately 125 black soldier fly larvae were placed in manure inoculated and homogenized with E. coli. Manure inoculated with E. coli but without black soldier fly larvae served as the control. For the first experiment, larvae were introduced into 50, 75, 100, or 125 g sterilized dairy manure inoculated and homogenized with E. coli and stored 72 h at 27 degrees C. Black soldier fly larvae significantly reduced E. coli counts in all treatments. However, varying the amount of manure provided the black soldier fly larvae significantly affected their weight gain and their ability to reduce E. coli populations present. For the second experiment, larvae were introduced into 50 g manure inoculated with E. coli and stored for 72 h at 23, 27, 31, or 35 degrees C. Minimal bacterial growth was recorded in the control held at 35 degrees C and was excluded from the analysis. Black soldier fly larvae significantly reduced E. coli counts in manure held at remaining temperatures. Accordingly, temperature significantly influenced the ability of black soldier fly larvae to develop and reduce E. coli counts with greatest suppression occurring at 27 degrees C. PMID:19161696

  11. Cannibalism and predation behaviour of the blowfly, Chrysomyia albiceps (Wiedemann) larvae (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    PubMed

    Omar, A H

    1995-12-01

    Chrysomyia albiceps is considered as a carrion inhabitant and is essentially scavenger. It is among the first species to arrive at carrion and lays its eggs on it almost immediately under favourable conditions. Field studies in Giza area showed that although other flies arrive at the carrion shortly following Chrysomyia, as decomposition progresses, its larvae are the major component predominate, and the common fly emerging from carrion is its adults. First instar larvae is entirely necrophagous, but the 2nd and early 3rd instar larvae may be facultatively predaceous on other dipteran larvae (Muscina and Parasarcophaga) as an alternative food source under crowded or starved conditions. Cannibalism, second and early 3rd instars preying on the 1st instar larvae and on themselves has also been found. Considering the predation behaviour, C. albiceps may be considered as beneficial biological control agent to help in reducing populations of carrion flies which are of medical and veterinary importance owing to their significant role in causing the different kind of myiasis of man and animals. The second instar is less inclined than the early 3rd instar to serve as a predator. The numerous heavily sclerotized spines and fleshy processes of the robust and powerful preyer early 3rd instar larvae help in subduing the prey while their strong mouthhooks are used to penetrate the bodies of the other larvae for fluid extraction. PMID:8586867

  12. Identification of Nanopillars on the Cuticle of the Aquatic Larvae of the Drone Fly (Diptera: Syrphidae).

    PubMed

    Hayes, Matthew J; Levine, Timothy P; Wilson, Roger H

    2016-01-01

    Here, we describe a nano-scale surface structure on the rat-tailed maggot, the aquatic larva of the Drone fly Eristalis tenax(L.). Larvae of this syrphid hover fly live in stagnant, anaerobic water-courses that are rich in organic matter. The larvae burrow into fetid slurry and feed on microorganisms which they filter out from the organic material. This environment is rich in bacteria, fungi and algae with the capacity to form biofilms that might develop on the larval surface and harm them. Using transmission and scanning electron microscopy we have identified an array of slender (typically < 100 nm in diameter) nanopillars that cover the surface of the larvae. The high density and dimensions of these spine-like projections appear to make it difficult for bacteria to colonize the surface of the animal. This may interfere with the formation of biofilms and potentially act as a defence against bacterial infection. PMID:27030395

  13. Identification of Nanopillars on the Cuticle of the Aquatic Larvae of the Drone Fly (Diptera: Syrphidae)

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, Matthew J.; Levine, Timothy P.; Wilson, Roger H.

    2016-01-01

    Here, we describe a nano-scale surface structure on the rat-tailed maggot, the aquatic larva of the Drone fly Eristalis tenax (L.). Larvae of this syrphid hover fly live in stagnant, anaerobic water-courses that are rich in organic matter. The larvae burrow into fetid slurry and feed on microorganisms which they filter out from the organic material. This environment is rich in bacteria, fungi and algae with the capacity to form biofilms that might develop on the larval surface and harm them. Using transmission and scanning electron microscopy we have identified an array of slender (typically < 100 nm in diameter) nanopillars that cover the surface of the larvae. The high density and dimensions of these spine-like projections appear to make it difficult for bacteria to colonize the surface of the animal. This may interfere with the formation of biofilms and potentially act as a defence against bacterial infection. PMID:27030395

  14. Development of black soldier fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) larvae fed dairy manure.

    PubMed

    Myers, Heidi M; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Lambert, Barry D; Kattes, David

    2008-02-01

    Black soldier flies, Hermetia illucens L., are a common colonizer of animal wastes. However, all published development data for this species are from studies using artificial diets. This study represents the first examining black soldier fly development on animal wastes. Additionally, this study examined the ability of black soldier fly larvae to reduce dry matter and associated nutrients in manure. Black soldier fly larvae were fed four rates of dairy manure to determine their effects on larval and adult life history traits. Feed rate affected larval and adult development. Those fed less ration daily weighed less than those fed a greater ration. Additionally, larvae provided the least amount of dairy manure took longer to develop to the prepupal stage; however, they needed less time to reach the adult stage. Adults resulting from larvae provided 27 g dairy manure/d lived 3-4 d less than those fed 70 g dairy manure. Percentage survivorship to the prepupal or adult stages did not differ across treatments. Larvae fed 27 g dairy manure daily reduced manure dry matter mass by 58%, whereas those fed 70 g daily reduced dry matter 33%. Black soldier fly larvae were able to reduce available P by 61-70% and N by 30-50% across treatments. Based on results from this study, the black soldier fly could be used to reduce wastes and associated nutrients in confined bovine facilities. PMID:18348791

  15. Notes on facultative predation in Prosimulium larvae (Diptera: Simuliidae) in alpine and subalpine streams in Colorado.

    PubMed

    Al-Shaer, Layla; Pierce, Allison K; Larson, David; Hancock, Robert

    2015-03-01

    Although it is widely accepted that black fly larvae employ filter feeding as their primary mode of nutrient intake, other forms of food acquisition, such as predation, may be more prevalent than previously realized. It has been suggested that environments where particulate matter is low, such as high-elevation seasonal streams, may drive predatory behavior in black fly larvae. Relatively little is known about the frequency at which larvae prey on other organisms or if predation may be obligate in some species. In order to supplement the idea that larval black fly predation may be a common method of feeding under certain conditions, a preliminary survey of predation by Prosimulium larvae was conducted in order to assess predation frequency at high-elevation sites (> 3,200 m) in the Colorado Rocky Mountains. Larvae were sampled from alpine and subalpine locations, and their gut content analysis revealed evidence of facultative predation and possible cannibalism. Evidence of predation was observed in all but 1 Prosimulium species collected. Predation frequency was highest in the North Fork Snake River headwater location, a small tributary stream of the Snake River in central Colorado. This survey suggests that further inquiry into predatory behavior of black fly larvae should be conducted to determine the mechanisms, behavior, and ecological impact of this understudied feeding strategy. PMID:25843187

  16. Ultrastructural analysis of midgut cells from Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae resistant to Bacillus sphaericus.

    PubMed

    de Melo, Janaina Viana; Vasconcelos, Romero Henrique Teixeira; Furtado, André Freire; Peixoto, Christina Alves; Silva-Filha, Maria Helena Neves Lobo

    2008-12-01

    The larvicidal action of the entomopathogen Bacillus sphaericus towards Culex quinquefasciatus is due to the binary (Bin) toxin present in crystals, which are produced during bacterial sporulation. The Bin toxin needs to recognize and bind specifically to a single class of receptors, named Cqm1, which are 60-kDa alpha-glucosidases attached to the apical membrane of midgut cells by a glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor. C. quinquefasciatus resistance to B. sphaericus has been often associated with the absence of the alpha-glucosidase Cqm1 in larvae midgut microvilli. In this work, we aimed to investigate, at the ultrastructural level, the midgut cells from C. quinquefasciatus larvae whose resistance relies on the lack of the Cqm1 receptor. The morphological analysis showed that midgut columnar cells from the resistant larvae are characterized by a pronounced production of lipid inclusions, throughout the 4th instar. At the end of this stage, resistant larvae had an increased size and number of these inclusions in the midgut cells, while only a small number were observed in the cells from susceptible larvae. The morphological differences in the midgut cells of resistant larvae found in this work suggested that the lack of the Cqm1 receptor, which also has a physiological role as being an alpha-glucosidase, can be related to changes in the cell metabolism. The ultrastructural effects of Bin toxin on midgut epithelial cells from susceptible and resistant larvae were also investigated. The cytopathological alterations observed in susceptible larvae treated with a lethal concentration of toxin included breakdown of the endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondrial swelling, microvillar disruption and vacuolization. Some effects were observed in cells from resistant larvae, although those alterations did not lead to larval death, indicating that the receptor Cqm1 is essential to mediate the larvicidal action of the toxin. This is the first ultrastructural study to show differences

  17. Cloning, expression, and purification of a new antibacterial substance gene from larvae of Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae).

    PubMed

    Pei, Zhihua; Bian, Lu; Zhang, Hui; Gao, Yunhang; Ma, Hongxia

    2014-01-01

    Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae), the housefly, exhibits unique immune defenses and can produce antibacterial substances upon stimulation with bacteria. On the basis of the cDNA library constructed using the suppression subtractive hybridization method, a 1188-bp antibacterial substance gene, which we named AS566, was amplified by rapid amplification of cDNA ends from M. domestica larva stimulated with Salmonella pullorum (Enterobacteriaceae: Salmonella). In this study, the full-length AS566 gene was cloned and inserted into a His-tagged Escherichia coli (Enterobacteriaceae: Escherichia) prokaryotic expression system to enable production of the recombinant protein. The recombinant AS566 protein was purified in denatured form from inclusion bodies and renatured to obtain functionally active AS566 protein. The bacteriostatic activity of the recombinant purified AS566 protein was assessed using the Oxford plate assay system and the results indicated that AS566 had antibacterial activity against six bacteria, including an E. coli clinical isolate, S. pullorum, Streptococcus bovis (Streptococcaceae: Streptococcus), Streptococcus suis, and Staphylococcus aureus (Staphylococcaceae: Staphylococcus) in vitro. The antibacterial activity of AS566 toward Gram- bacteria was two times greater than that against Gram+ bacteria. The sequencing results and BLAST analysis showed that the antibacterial substance gene AS566 was not homologous to any other antibacterial substance genes in GenBank. The antibacterial mechanisms of the newly discovered AS566 protein warrant further study. PMID:25434038

  18. Carambola Cultivar, Fruit Ripeness, and Damage by Conspecific Larvae Influence the Host-Related Behaviors of Anastrepha obliqua (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    López-Ley, Jorge Ulises; Toledo, Jorge; Malo, Edi A; Gomez, Jaime; Santiesteban, Antonio; Rojas, Julio C

    2016-02-01

    In this study, we investigated the influence of cultivar type, fruit ripeness, and damage by conspecific larvae on the attraction of Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae) to and oviposition on carambola fruit (Averroha carambola L.). The attraction of both sexes of A. obliqua to fruit of different quality was evaluated through cage experiments in the field, and the oviposition preferences of mated females were examined in laboratory tests. Both sexes, mated or virgin, were more attracted to the "Maha" fruit than to the "Golden Star" fruit, and the females oviposited more frequently on the Maha cultivar than the Golden Star cultivar. Both sexes were more attracted to ripe and half-ripe Maha fruits than to mature green fruit, and although females did not show a preference for ovipositing on half-ripe or ripe fruits, they did not oviposit on mature green fruits. Males did not show a preference for the volatiles from uninfested, artificially damaged, or infested Maha fruits, but females were more attracted to uninfested fruits than to artificially damaged and infested Maha fruits. Furthermore, females preferred to oviposit on uninfested fruits compared with artificially damaged fruit, and they did not oviposit on infested fruits. PMID:26411483

  19. Influence of irradiation on development of Caribbean fruit fly (diptera: tephritidae) larvae

    SciTech Connect

    Nation, J.L.; Milne, K.; Dykstra, T.M.

    1995-05-01

    Larvae of the Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa (Loew), were irradiated at hatching with 0, 5, 10, 20, 50, 75, 100 and 150 Gy doses from a Cesium-137 source and dissected for measurements of the supraesophageal ganglion (brain) and proventriculus (B/Prv) as mature third instars. Cross-sectional area of a plane through the brain and proventriculus, and simple dorsal width measurements of the two organs were evaluated as indicators of radiation exposure. Brain area, brain width, and brain/proventriculus (B/Prv) ratios were significantly different from controls in insects treated with a dose {ge}20 Gy. Detailed dissections of hatching larvae exposed to 50 Gy revealed reductions in brain growth, small and misshapen compound eye and leg imaginal disks, and a ventral nerve cord that was elongated and sinuous. Larvae irradiated on the 1st d of each of the three instars had smaller brains, with the percentage of reduction in brain size being greater the younger the larvae were at the time of exposure. Brain and proventriculus measurements and calculated B/Prv values are indicative of irradiation in Caribbean fruit fly larvae, but the procedure may not be adaptable for routine use by quarantine inspectors. 14 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Characteristics of protein variants in trichlorphon-resistant Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera; Tephritidae) larvae.

    PubMed

    Jin, T; Zeng, L; Lin, Y-Y; Lu, Y-Y; Liang, G-W

    2012-01-01

    Functional proteins in larvae of Bactrocera dorsalis, a major fruit pest, play a central role in their resistance to organophosphorus insecticides. Changes in proteins in B. dorsalis larvae after trichlorphon treatment may have a role in the resistance response to trichlorphon. We analyzed 14 protein spots of crude proteins from B. dorsalis larvae post-treatment with trichlorphon in two-dimensional gel electrophoresis through mass spectrometry and protein sequencing. We found functional proteins that are responsible for signal transduction (pkaap and dual specificity tyrosine-phosphorylation-regulated kinase), immunity (hemolectin), synthesis and decomposition (twinstar, cathepsin B, RE66325p), oxidative stress metabolism (glutathione S transferase and CG7320), energy metabolism (Act57B), and cytoskeleton formation (actin). These proteins appear to be involved in the resistance response to trichlorphon. PMID:22869077

  1. A generic guide to the larvae of the Nearctic Tanytarsini, (Chironomidae:diptera)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Steiner, J.W.; Doughman, J.S.; Moore, C.R.

    1982-01-01

    Larvae of the tribe Tanytarsini occur in nearly every aquatic habitat in North America where they act as primary consumers in the food chain. This new taxonomic guide overcomes some deficiencies in existing keys to this tribe and the reviewed and updated taxonomy enables identification of the larvae that may be useful as ecological indicators. Over 2,000 specimens from 26 states were examined, identified and measured in this study. The following genera were included: Stempellinell, Zavrelia, Stempellina, Constempellina, Corynocera, Cladotanytarsus,.. Paratanytarsus, Rheotanytarsus,. Micropsectra, Lauterbornia, Nimbocera, Tanytarsus and Neozavrelia. Photographs illustrate mature larvae of these genera with the exception of Zavrelia and Neozavrelia which are not known to exist in North America. The morphological data, Which are summarized in a table of distinctive characteristics and the dichotomous key, enable identification to genus. Notes on range, habitat and food preference are included, and species identifications are presented where applicable.

  2. Diversity of larvae of littoral Chironomidae (Diptera: Insecta) and their role as bioindicators in urban reservoirs of different trophic levels.

    PubMed

    Morais, S S; Molozzi, J; Viana, A L; Viana, T H; Callisto, M

    2010-11-01

    The Chironomidae (Diptera: Insecta) have a high species richness, with species adapted to live under widely different environmental conditions. The study of the taxonomic composition of chironomid larvae and the percentage of occurrence of deformities in mouthparts, mainly in the mentum, are used in biomonitoring programmes in order to obtain information on the levels of organic and chemical pollution of aquatic ecosystems. The objective of this study was to evaluate the abundance of chironomid larvae and to quantify the occurrence of mentum deformities in the specimens collected in three urban reservoirs with different trophic levels. The reservoirs are located in the hydrographic basin of the Paraopeba River, an affluent of the São Francisco River basin (Minas Gerais State, southeastern Brazil). The Serra Azul Reservoir is oligotrophic, the Vargem das Flores Reservoir is mesotrophic, and the Ibirité Reservoir is eutrophic. Along the littoral zone of each reservoir, 30 samples were collected during each sampling campaign. Sampling was carried out every three months for one year, with two sampling campaigns during the wet season and two during the dry season in 2008. Physical and chemical parameters measured in the water column included the water depth, Secchi depth, air and water temperature, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, redox potential, dissolved oxygen, pH, turbidity, Total-N, Total-P, P-ortho, and chlorophyll-a. The chironomid larvae were identified to the genus level. The structure of the chironomid assemblages was evaluated based on taxonomic richness (24 genera), density, equitability, and diversity. The potential indicator taxa for each reservoir were established through an Indicator Species Analysis. The values for taxonomic richness (20 taxa), equitability (0.737), and Shannon-Wiener diversity (2.215) were highest in the Serra Azul Reservoir. Fissimentum was the indicator taxon in Serra Azul, the oligotrophic reservoir; whereas

  3. Larvicidal effects of some Euro-Asiatic plants against Culex quinquefasciatus Say larvae (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Pavela, Roman

    2009-09-01

    Methanol extracts of the aerial parts from 62 Euro-Asiatic plant species were tested for larvicidal activity against the mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae) under laboratory conditions. The fourth larval instar was tested. The extracts of the plants Seseli pallasii and Schisandra chinencis displayed the highest larvicidal activities with LD(50) 6 and 15 ppm, respectively, followed by Arthemisia campestris, Verbena officinalis, and Imperatoria osthruthium with LD(50) 23, 38, and 49 ppm, respectively. The appraised value of LD(50) for two species was between 51-100 ppm; eight species had lethal doses from 101 to 500 ppm, 13 species showed lethal doses from 501 to 1,000 ppm, and 34 species did not show lethal doses for low mortality (LD(50) > 1,000 ppm). PMID:19499247

  4. Gas chromatography for detection of citrus infestation by fruit fly larvae (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tephritid fruit flies are serious economic pests worldwide. As larvae, they feed and develop within the pulp of host fruits, making infestation difficult to detect by visual inspection. At U.S. ports of entry, incoming produce shipments are checked for infestation by manually cutting open a small ...

  5. Signature chemicals for detection of citrus infestation by fruit fly larvae (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tephritid fruit flies are serious economic pests worldwide. As larvae, they feed and develop within the pulp of host fruits, making infestation difficult to detect by visual inspection. At U.S. Ports of entry, incoming produce shipments are checked for infestation by manually cutting open a small sa...

  6. Effect of stalk and leaf extracts from Euphorbiaceae species on Aedes aegypti (Diptera, Culicidae) larvae.

    PubMed

    Lima, Maria Goretti Araújo de; Maia, Ismália Cassandra Costa; Sousa, Bruna Dantas de; Morais, Selene Maia de; Freitas, Sílvia Maria

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the larvicidal activity of essential oil aqueous solutions (hydrolates) obtained by steam distillation of stalks and leaves of Croton argyrophylloides, Croton nepetaefolius, Croton sonderianus and Croton zehntneri against Aedes aegypti larvae. Twenty-five larvae of third instar were placed in plastic beckers, containing the hydrolates (50 mL), in a four repetitions scheme. Water was used as control and the number of dead larvae was counted after 24 hours. The data obtained were submitted to Variance Analysis and Tukey test. Significant differences were observed among the hydrolates from different species and from different parts of each plant (p < 0.001). The hydrolates of stalk and leaf from C. nepetaefolius and C. zehntneri and leaf hydrolate of C. argyrophylloides presented 100% mortality against larvae. The compounds present in C. zenhtneri and C. nepetaefolius are oxygenated phenylpropanoids that are more soluble in water than the monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes detected in the oils of C. argyrophylloides and C. sonderianus. This study showed that all species analyzed presented compounds with larvicidal properties, with differences between each plant parts. PMID:17119677

  7. Susceptibility of black soldier fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) larvae and adults to four insecticides.

    PubMed

    Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Sheppard, D Craig; Joyce, John A

    2002-06-01

    Dosage-mortality regressions were determined for black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens (L.), larvae fed cyromazine or pyriproxifen treated media. Cyromazine LC50 for larvae dying before becoming prepupae ranged from 0.25 to 0.28 ppm with dosage-mortality regression slopes between 5.79 and 12.04. Cyromazine LC50s for larvae dying before emergence ranged from 0.13 to 0.19 ppm with dosage-mortality regression slopes between 3.94 and 7.69. Pyriproxifen dosage-mortality regressions were not generated for larvae failing to become prepupae since <32% mortality was recorded at the highest concentration of 1,857 ppm. LC50s for larvae failing to become adults ranged from 0.10 to 0.12 ppm with dosage mortality-regression slopes between 1.67 and 2.32. Lambda-cyhalothrin and permethrin dosage-mortality regressions were determined for wild adult black soldier flies and house flies, Musca domestica L., and for susceptible house flies. Our results indicate that the wild house fly, unlike the black soldier fly, population was highly resistant to each of these pyrethroids. Regression slopes for black soldier flies exposed to lambda-cyhalothrin were twice as steep as those determined for the wild house fly strain. Accordingly, LC50s for the black soldier fly and susceptible house fly were 10- to 30-fold lower than those determined for wild house flies. The differential sensitivity between wild black soldier flies and house flies might be due to behavioral differences. Adult house flies usually remain in animal facilities with the possibility of every adult receiving pesticide exposure, while black soldier fly adults are typically present only during emergence and oviposition thereby limiting their exposure. PMID:12076006

  8. Sensitivity of midge larvae of Chironomus tentans Fabricius (Diptera Chironomidae) to heavy metals

    SciTech Connect

    Khangarot, B.S.; Ray, P.K.

    1989-03-01

    The discharge of heavy metals into the natural waters has numerous obvious impacts on physical, chemical and biological parameters of aquatic ecosystem. Bioassay tests are important steps in establishing appropriate water quality criteria and standards for diverse use of ponds, lakes, streams and river waters. Therefore, the acute toxicities of various heavy metals to water flea Daphnia magna, and snail Lymnaea acuminata, and toad tadpoles Bufo mentanostictus have been reported from the authors' laboratory. Chironomid larvae might be particularly useful as indicators of water quality because they are widely distributed in freshwater systems and often from diverse communities within particular habitat. The aim of this study was to determine the acute toxicity of ten heavy metals to the midge larvae Chironomus tentans Fabricius, which forms an important link in aquatic food chain(s).

  9. Histological patterns in healing chronic wounds using Cochliomyia macellaria (Diptera: Calliphoridae) larvae and other therapeutic measures.

    PubMed

    de Masiero, Franciéle Souza; Nassu, Mariana Prado; Soares, Mauro Pereira; Thyssen, Patricia Jacqueline

    2015-08-01

    The healing process occurs due to the interaction of cellular, molecular, and biochemical events. Regarding lesions difficult to heal, especially in immunocompromised patients, monitoring and intervention to promote healing is a constant focus of research. Another aggravating factor is the increase in the number of reported cases of microbial resistance, indicating that various dressings and drugs have been increasingly inefficient. Larval therapy (LT) involves the application of sterile fly larvae on chronic and/or infected wounds, and it is an area emerging as an alternative therapy. Before the 1940s, the LT was widely used, but fell into disuse after the appearance of antibiotics. High cost and the development of resistance by certain groups of pathogenic bacteria to these drugs encouraged the resurgence of LT, currently used in approximately 20 countries and more recently in Brazil. However, many mechanisms of action of the larvae in this system remain poorly understood. Thus, the aim of the study was to investigate histopathological findings and to evaluate possible mechanisms of action of dipteran larvae during tissue repair. Lesions were induced in 24 male Wistar rats, to evaluate the effect of the type of treatment applied. The animals were divided into four groups: larval therapy (LT), LT associated with foam dressing with silver release (LTSIL), mechanical debridement and silver foam dressing (DEBSIL), and no treatment (CONT). Skin samples were collected for histopathological analysis. In LT, inflammatory response and angiogenesis were abundant; in LTSIL, inflammatory response with neutrophil infiltration was observed; in DEBSIL, scarce inflammatory response, small numbers of macrophages and lymphocytes, and bacterial colonization in depth; and in CONT, there was bacterial colonization in deeper tissues. The observed histological events show that the larvae had an important role in promoting the inflammatory response in the wound bed, drawing the

  10. Bacteria Associated with Copestylum (Diptera, Syrphidae) Larvae and Their Cactus Host Isolatocereus dumortieri

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Falcón, Ana Paola; Durbán, Ana; Latorre, Amparo; Antón, Josefa; Marcos-García, María de los Ángeles

    2011-01-01

    We describe the gut bacterial diversity inhabiting two saprophagous syrphids and their breeding substrate (decayed tissues of the columnar cactus Isolatocereus dumortieri). We analyzed the gut microbiota of Copestylum latum (scooping larvae that feed on decayed cactus tissues) and Copestylum limbipenne (whose larvae can also feed on semiliquid tissues) using molecular techniques. DNA was extracted from larval guts and cactus tissues. The V1-V3 region of the 16S rRNA genes was amplified and sequenced. A total of 31079 sequences were obtained. The main findings are: C. limbipenne is dominated by several Enterobacteriaceae, including putative nitrogen-fixing genera and pectinolitic species and some denitrifying species, whereas in C. latum unclassified Gammaproteobacteria predominate. Decayed tissues have a dominant lactic acid bacterial community. The bacterial communities were more similar between larval species than between each larva and its breeding substrate. The results suggest that the gut bacterial community in these insects is not strongly affected by diet and must be dependent on other factors, such as vertical transmission, evolutionary history and host innate immunity. PMID:22132101

  11. Larvicidal Activity of Nerium oleander against Larvae West Nile Vector Mosquito Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    El-Akhal, Fouad; Guemmouh, Raja; Ez Zoubi, Yassine; El Ouali Lalami, Abdelhakim

    2015-01-01

    Background. Outbreaks of the West Nile virus infection were reported in Morocco in 1996, 2003, and 2010. Culex pipiens was strongly suspected as the vector responsible for transmission. In the North center of Morocco, this species has developed resistance to synthetic insecticides. There is an urgent need to find alternatives to the insecticides as natural biocides. Objective. In this work, the insecticidal activity of the extract of the local plant Nerium oleander, which has never been tested before in the North center of Morocco, was studied on larval stages 3 and 4 of Culex pipiens. Methods. Biological tests were realized according to a methodology inspired from standard World Health Organization protocol. The mortality values were determined after 24 h of exposure and LC50 and LC90 values were calculated. Results. The extract had toxic effects on the larvae of culicid mosquitoes. The ethanolic extract of Nerium oleander applied against the larvae of Culex pipiens has given the lethal concentrations LC50 and LC90 in the order of 57.57 mg/mL and 166.35 mg/mL, respectively. Conclusion. This investigation indicates that N. oleander could serve as a potential larvicidal, effective natural biocide against mosquito larvae, particularly Culex pipiens. PMID:26640701

  12. Shock chloramination: potential treatment for Chironomidae (Diptera) larvae nuisance abatement in water supply systems.

    PubMed

    Broza, M; Halpern, M; Teltsch, B; Porat, R; Gasith, A

    1998-08-01

    In the early 1990s, infestations of midge larvae (Chironomidae, Chironomus sp.) were discovered in the potable water system of Tel Aviv, Israel. Control measures, such as draining and cleaning tanks, spraying water into the tank's air space, and electrocution traps of midge adults, were either inadequate or ineffective. In this system, monochloramine concentrations of up to 0.75 mg/liter are used routinely as a secondary disinfectant. This chemical was tested in the laboratory as a toxicant of midge larvae. The mortality of 4th instar midge larvae after short exposure to high chloramine concentrations (LC50 values of 32 mg/liter for 75 min) suggested the efficacy of instituting a Shock Chloramination treatment program. Tanks were partially drained until they contained only 20 cm of water and were then temporarily disconnected. Chloramine was added to this water to produce a concentration of approximately 70 mg/liter for 1-2 h. Subsequently, all dead chironomids were flushed out, and the tank was refilled to attain the operational volume of water. A 2nd identical treatment of water in the tank was suggested 7 d later to kill midges from reproductive adults and egg-masses that survived the 1st treatment. This treatment program was tested in commercial covered tanks and gave complete control of these pests for 6-10 wk. These results suggest that this treatment program may effectively prevent midge outbreaks in Israel's drinking water supply system during the height of the summer. PMID:9725031

  13. Inconsistency in the analysis of morphological deformities in chironomidae (Insecta: Diptera) larvae.

    PubMed

    Salmelin, Johanna; Vuori, Kari-Matti; Hämäläinen, Heikki

    2015-08-01

    The incidence of morphological deformities of chironomid larvae as an indicator of sediment toxicity has been studied for decades. However, standards for deformity analysis are lacking. The authors evaluated whether 25 experts diagnosed larval deformities in a similar manner. Based on high-quality digital images, the experts rated 211 menta of Chironomus spp. larvae as normal or deformed. The larvae were from a site with polluted sediments or from a reference site. The authors revealed this to a random half of the experts, and the rest conducted the assessment blind. The authors quantified the interrater agreement by kappa coefficient, tested whether open and blind assessments differed in deformity incidence and in differentiation between the sites, and identified those deformity types rated most consistently or inconsistently. The total deformity incidence varied greatly, from 10.9% to 66.4% among experts. Kappa coefficient across rater pairs averaged 0.52, indicating insufficient agreement. The deformity types rated most consistently were those missing teeth or with extra teeth. The open and blind assessments did not differ, but differentiation between sites was clearest for raters who counted primarily absolute deformities such as missing and extra teeth and excluded apparent mechanical aberrations or deviations in tooth size or symmetry. The highly differing criteria in deformity assignment have likely led to inconsistent results in midge larval deformity studies and indicate an urgent need for standardization of the analysis. PMID:26061223

  14. Control of chironomid larvae (Diptera: Chironomidae) in establishing rice crops using starch-based chlorpyrifos pellets.

    PubMed

    Stevens, M M; Warren, G N

    1995-06-01

    Starch-based pellets containing 10% (w/w) chlorpyrifos were evaluated for control of chironomid larvae in rice crops immediately after flooding. Chlorpyrifos pellets at rates of 2.0, 3.5, and 6.0 kg/ha (0.2, 0.35, and 0.6 kg AI/ha), and, as a reference treatment, 150 ml/ha of 500 g/liter chlorpyrifos emulsifiable concentrate (EC) (0.075 kg AI/ha) were evaluated in New South Wales, Australia. The pellets reduced total midge larvae by 93-94% over the initial 36 days posttreatment, with some indication of residual control 50 days posttreatment at all rates. Chironominae were reduced by 80-85%, and other chironomids (predominantly Tanypodinae) by 98% during the first 36 days posttreatment. Increasing the pellet application rate above 2.0 kg/ha did not improve control. Although the EC formulation provided 100% control of all larvae for 12 days, control declined thereafter. The EC formulation reduced total larval numbers by 55% over the first 36 days posttreatment, with Chironominae increasing by 28% and other chironomids being reduced by 84%. Significantly (P < 0.05) higher water column toxicity levels were recorded for the EC formulation in the first 3 days after application. PMID:7595447

  15. Larvicidal Activity of Nerium oleander against Larvae West Nile Vector Mosquito Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    El-Akhal, Fouad; Guemmouh, Raja; Ez Zoubi, Yassine; El Ouali Lalami, Abdelhakim

    2015-01-01

    Background. Outbreaks of the West Nile virus infection were reported in Morocco in 1996, 2003, and 2010. Culex pipiens was strongly suspected as the vector responsible for transmission. In the North center of Morocco, this species has developed resistance to synthetic insecticides. There is an urgent need to find alternatives to the insecticides as natural biocides. Objective. In this work, the insecticidal activity of the extract of the local plant Nerium oleander, which has never been tested before in the North center of Morocco, was studied on larval stages 3 and 4 of Culex pipiens. Methods. Biological tests were realized according to a methodology inspired from standard World Health Organization protocol. The mortality values were determined after 24 h of exposure and LC50 and LC90 values were calculated. Results. The extract had toxic effects on the larvae of culicid mosquitoes. The ethanolic extract of Nerium oleander applied against the larvae of Culex pipiens has given the lethal concentrations LC50 and LC90 in the order of 57.57 mg/mL and 166.35 mg/mL, respectively. Conclusion. This investigation indicates that N. oleander could serve as a potential larvicidal, effective natural biocide against mosquito larvae, particularly Culex pipiens. PMID:26640701

  16. [Small-scale evaluation of the efficacy of growth-regulating insecticides on larvae of the Simulium damnosum complex (Diptera: Simuliidae)].

    PubMed

    Doannio, J M; Dossou-Yovo, J; Duval, J; Hougard, J M

    1992-09-01

    The efficacy of insect growth regulators was assessed in small scale tests on larvae of the Simulium damnosum complex (Diptera: Simuliidae) in the Ivory Coast. Three compounds [OMS 2015 (triflumuron), OMS 3009 (teflubenzuron), OMS 3013 (chlorfluazuron)] belong to the group of benzoylphenyl-urea substitutes; these IGR's are supposed to inhibit chitin synthesis. Two other compounds are Juvenile Hormone Analogs (JHA's) (OMS 3007 and OMS 3019). The last compound (OMS 3010) is a phenoxycarbamate. The first three compounds had a low efficacy on blackfly larvae, which is consistent with the literature data for another compound of this group: diflubenzuron. The other three compounds (OMS 3007, OMS 3010 and OMS 3019) were much more efficient, OMS 3010 and OMS 3019 showing high activity at low concentrations. These results would justify further studies on the effect of larval age and exposure parameters, and eventually full scale river tests. PMID:1476468

  17. Essential oils of Satureja species: insecticidal effect on Culex pipiens larvae (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Michaelakis, Antonios; Theotokatos, Spiridon A; Koliopoulos, Georgios; Chorianopoulos, Nikos G

    2007-01-01

    The chemical composition of the essential oils of the wild growing plants of Greek S. spinosa L., S. parnassica subsp. parnassica Heldr.& Sart ex Boiss., S. thymbra and S. montana were determined by GC and GC/MS analysis. The larvicidal activities of the essential oils were assayed against Culex pipiens biotype molestus. The analytical data indicated that various monoterpene hydrocarbons and phenolic monoterpenes constitute the major constituents of the oils, but their concentration varied greatly among the oils examined. The bioassay results indicated that the oils possess significant larvicidal activities and represent an inexpensive source of natural substances mixture that exhibit potentials for use to control the mosquito larvae. PMID:18259143

  18. Larvicidal effects of various essential oils against Aedes, Anopheles, and Culex larvae (Diptera, Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Amer, Abdelkrim; Mehlhorn, Heinz

    2006-09-01

    Mosquitoes in the larval stage are attractive targets for pesticides because mosquitoes breed in water, and thus, it is easy to deal with them in this habitat. The use of conventional pesticides in the water sources, however, introduces many risks to people and/or the environment. Natural pesticides, especially those derived from plants, are more promising in this aspect. Aromatic plants and their essential oils are very important sources of many compounds that are used in different respects. In this study, the oils of 41 plants were evaluated for their effects against third-instar larvae of Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus. At first, the oils were surveyed against A. aegypti using a 50-ppm solution. Thirteen oils from 41 plants (camphor, thyme, amyris, lemon, cedarwood, frankincense, dill, myrtle, juniper, black pepper, verbena, helichrysum and sandalwood) induced 100% mortality after 24 h, or even after shorter periods. The best oils were tested against third-instar larvae of the three mosquito species in concentrations of 1, 10, 50, 100 and 500 ppm. The lethal concentration 50 values of these oils ranged between 1 and 101.3 ppm against A. aegypti, between 9.7 and 101.4 ppm for A. stephensi and between 1 and 50.2 ppm for C. quinquefasciatus. PMID:16642386

  19. Biochemical and morphological responses in Chironomus riparius (Diptera, Chironomidae) larvae exposed to lead-spiked sediment.

    PubMed

    Arambourou, Helene; Gismondi, Eric; Branchu, Philippe; Beisel, Jean-Nicolas

    2013-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the potential use of biochemical markers and mentum deformities as indicators of long-term exposure to lead (Pb) in Chironomus riparius larvae. To do this, the authors measured 3 biochemical markers (i.e., malondialdehyde level, metallothionein concentration, and energy reserve content) as well as larval growth and mentum deformities after 16-d exposure to sediment containing Pb. The concentrations studied ranged from 3.5 mg/kg to 505.5 mg/kg dry weight. Despite the bioaccumulation of Pb in C. riparius bodies, frequencies of both mentum deformities and the dry weight were not significantly different between the control and stressed groups. On the contrary, Pb exposure caused a significant increase of both malondialdehyde level and metallothionein concentration. The increase of body Pb concentrations did not significantly modify body copper and zinc concentrations. Moreover, we observed a decrease of total lipid content and an increase of glycogen content as a function of a dose-response relationship, while no variation in protein concentrations was observed. Despite the adverse effects observed at the biochemical level, larval development was not affected. These results suggested that measurements of malondialdehyde level, metallothionein concentration, and energy reserve content can be used as relevant biomarkers of long-term sublethal exposure to Pb in C. riparius larvae. PMID:23893569

  20. Leaf litter decay process and the growth performance of Aedes albopictus larvae (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Dieng, Hamady; Mwandawiro, Charles; Boots, Michael; Morales, Ronald; Satho, Tomomitsu; Tuno, Nobuko; Tsuda, Yoshio; Takagi, Masahiro

    2002-06-01

    Larvae of the mosquito Ae. albopictus typically develop in small aquatic sites such as tree holes and artificial containers. Organic detritus, in particular decaying leaves, is therefore their major carbon source. Here we demonstrate the importance of leaf characteristics, and in particular their rates of decay, in determining the development and survivorship of larvae. We compared the effects of a rapidly decaying leaf, the maple Acer buergerianum (Angiospermae: Aceraceae) and a slowly decaying leaf, the camphor Cinnamomum japonicum (Angiospermae: Lauraceae), on the larval development of Ae. albopictus at different larval densities in laboratory microcosms. Overall, the maple leaves provided a better substrate and the observed growth patterns could be explained on the basis of a difference in nutritive and chemical contents of the two leaf types. At the highest population density, the duration of the larval period was much shorter in maple litter microcosms. Larval mortality gradually increased with population density in the camphor treatment. In contrast in the rapidly decaying leaf litter microcosms, mortality remained low even as densities increased. Mean pupal size was greater in the individuals fed on the rapidly decaying leaf litter as well as at lower density. Size is likely to be correlated with fitness in the field. In general, rapidly decaying leaf litter will favor mosquito growth resulting in quicker development and higher population sizes. This work emphasizes the importance of the local environment on the development of vector mosquitoes and has important implications for control. PMID:12125870

  1. THE SALIVARY TRANSCRIPTOME OF Anopheles gambiae (DIPTERA: CULICIDAE) LARVAE: A MICROARRAY-BASED ANALYSIS

    PubMed Central

    Neira Oviedo, M.; Ribeiro, J.M.C.; Heyland, A.; VanEkeris, L.; Moroz, T.; Linser, P.J.

    2009-01-01

    In spite of the many recent developments in the field of vector sialomics, the salivary glands of larval mosquitoes have been largely unexplored. We used whole-transcriptome microarray analysis to create a gene-expression profile of the salivary gland tissue of fourth-instar Anopheles gambiae larvae, and compare it to the gene-expression profile of a matching group of whole larvae. We identified a total of 221 probes with expression values that were (a) significantly enriched in the salivary glands, and (b) sufficiently annotated as to allow the prediction of the presence/absence of signal peptides in their corresponding gene products. Based on available annotation of the protein sequences associated with these probes, we propose that the main roles of larval salivary secretions include: (a) immune response, (b) mouthpart lubrication, (c) nutrient metabolism, and (d) xenobiotic detoxification. Other highlights of the study include the cloning of a transcript encoding a previously unknown salivary defensin (AgDef5), the confirmation of mucus secretion by the larval salivary glands, and the first report of salivary lipocalins in the Culicidae. PMID:19328852

  2. Wohlfahrtiimonas larvae sp. nov., isolated from the larval gut of Hermetia illucens (Diptera: Stratiomyidae).

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae Kook; Lee, Youn Yeop; Park, Kwan Ho; Sim, Jeonggu; Choi, Youngcheol; Lee, Sung-Jae

    2014-01-01

    A novel, Gram-negative, facultative anaerobic, motile and short rod-shaped bacterium, strain KBL006(T) was isolated from the larval gut of Hermetia illucens, Black soldier fly. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain KBL006(T) showed 96.4 % similarity to that of Wohlfahrtiimonas chitiniclastica S5(T). Strain KBL006(T) grew optimally at 30 °C, at pH 8.0 and in the presence of 1-2 % (w/v) NaCl. Oxidase activity and catalase activity were positive. The major fatty acids were C18:1 ω7c, C14:0, and C16:0. The major respiratory quinone was ubiquinone-8 (Q-8). The major polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, and diphosphatidylglycerol, and two phospholipids. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 45.2 mol%. Based on these polyphasic data, strain KBL006(T) is considered to represent a novel species in the genus Wohlfahrtiimonas, for which the name Wohlfahrtiimonas larvae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is KBL006(T) (= KACC 16839(T) = JCM 18424(T)). PMID:24126466

  3. Species Composition and Seasonal Distribution of Mosquito Larvae (Diptera: Culicidae) in Southern New Jersey, Burlington County.

    PubMed

    Verna, Thomas N

    2015-09-01

    A total of 36,495 larvae consisting of 45 species from 11 genera were collected from 7,189 sites from southern New Jersey, Burlington County between the months of March and October, 2001-2014. Density and seasonal distribution were determined among natural and artificial habitat. The most dominant species collected from natural habitat was Aedes vexans (Meigen) followed by Ochlerotatus canadensis canadensis (Theobald), Culex restuans Theobald, Culex pipiens L., and Culex territans Walker. The most dominant species collected from artificial habitat was Aedes albopictus (Skuse) followed by Ochlerotatus japonicus japonicus (Theobald), Cx. restuans, Cx. pipiens, and Ochlerotatus triseriatus (Say). Cx. restuans and Cx. pipiens were the only species categorized as dominant among both natural and artificial habitat and comprised greater than half the total density. Sympatry was common among dominant species from artificial habitat where a significant percentage of the total collection contained multiple species. The most common types of natural habitats were forested depressions and stream flood plains whereas rimless vehicle tires and various plastic containers were the most common artificial habitats. The pitcher plant Sarracenia purpurea L. was the only habitat exclusive to one species. PMID:26336214

  4. The effects of Sarconesiopsis magellanica larvae (Diptera: Calliphoridae) excretions and secretions on fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Pinilla, Yudi T; Patarroyo, Manuel A; Velandia, Myriam L; Segura, Nidya A; Bello, Felio J

    2015-02-01

    Sarconesiopsis magellanica is a necrophagous blowfly which is relevant in both forensic and medical sciences. Previous studies regarding this species have led to understanding life-cycle, population and reproduction parameters, as well as identifying and characterising proteolytic enzymes derived from larval excretions and secretions (ES). As other studies have shown that ES proteolytic activity plays a significant role in wound healing and fibroblasts play a relevant role in granulation tissue formation during such healing, the present study was aimed at analysing the biological effect of S. magellanica larval ES on fibroblasts. ES were obtained from third-instar larvae and added to fibroblast cells at three concentrations (10, 5 and 1 μg/mL) to evaluate their behaviour. MTT assays were used for analysing cell proliferation and viability, whilst cell adhesion was measured by optical density with 10% SDS. Fibroblast migration and morphology was recorded by microscopic observation. ES did not affect fibroblast viability and induced an increase in cell proliferation; cell adhesion became reduced, whilst cell migration through extracellular matrix increased. ES also induced a decreased cell surface and morphological alterations. Changes in all the above-mentioned parameters were reduced when ES were incubated at 60 °C, probably due to protease denaturation. These results suggested that the proteases contained in S. magellanica larval ES contributed towards granulation tissue formation, increased cell migration and promoted cell proliferation. All these data support carrying out further experiments aimed at validating S. magellanica usefulness in larval therapy. PMID:25445745

  5. Essential oils with insecticidal activity against larvae of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Vera, Sharon Smith; Zambrano, Diego Fernando; Méndez-Sanchez, Stelia Carolina; Rodríguez-Sanabria, Fernando; Stashenko, Elena E; Duque Luna, Jonny E

    2014-07-01

    Insecticidal activity of the essential oils (EOs) isolated from Tagetes lucida, Lippia alba, Lippia origanoides, Eucalyptus citriodora, Cymbopogon citratus, Cymbopogon flexuosus, Citrus sinensis, Swinglea glutinosa, and Cananga odorata aromatic plants, grown in Colombia (Bucaramanga, Santander), and of a mixture of L. alba and L. origanoides EOs were evaluated on Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti Rockefeller larvae. The EOs were extracted by microwave-assisted hydrodistillation and characterized by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The main components of the EOs were identified using their linear retention indices and mass spectra. The lethal concentrations (LCs) of the EOs were determined between the third and fourth instar of A. aegypti. LC50 was determined by probit analysis using mortality rates of bioassays. All essential oils tested showed insecticidal activity. The following values were obtained for C. flexuosus (LC50 = 17.1 ppm); C. sinensis (LC50 = 20.6 ppm); the mixture of L. alba and L. origanoides (LC50 = 40.1 ppm); L. alba (LC50 = 42.2 ppm); C. odorata (LC50 = 52.9 ppm); L. origanoides (LC50 = 53.3 ppm); S. glutinosa (LC50 = 65.7 ppm); T. lucida (LC50 = 66.2 ppm); E. citriodora (LC50 = 71.2 ppm); and C. citratus (LC50 = 123.3 ppm). The EO from C. flexuosus, with citral (geranial + neral) as main component, showed the highest larvicidal activity. PMID:24781026

  6. Release and establishment of Diachasmimorpha kraussii (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) against Bactrocera latifrons (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Hawaii

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Laboratory tests documented that Diachasmimorpha kraussii Fullaway (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) was a potentially effective biological control agent against Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) and Bactrocera latifrons (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae). Diachasmimorpha kraussii was approved for release in Hawa...

  7. Oviposition Behavior in Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) in Response to the Presence of Heterospecific and Conspecific Larvae.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Paula V; González Audino, Paola A; Masuh, Héctor M

    2016-03-01

    In mosquitoes, location of suitable sites for oviposition requires a set of visual, tactile, and olfactory cues that influences females before laying their eggs. The ability of gravid females to distinguish among potential oviposition sites that will or will not support the growth, development, and survival of their progeny is critical. Aedes aegypti (L.) and Aedes albopictus (Skuse) share ecological niches, being highly competitive in larval stage. We studied the oviposition behavior of both species in the presence of larvae of one or the other species (heterospecific or conspecific larvae). The number of eggs laid by gravid females on oviposition sites (water with different or the same species of Aedes larvae) were compared. The presence and density of heterospecific or conspecific larvae had a positive or negative effect on the ovipositional responses, measured as an oviposition activity index. For both species, the oviposition was not affected by heterospecific larvae with densities between 10 and 100 larvae in water, but a strong attractant behavior was observed for a density of 500 larvae in water. For Ae. albopictus in the presence of larvae of the same species (conspecific oviposition), we observed an attractant effect for larvae density of 10 but not for 100 or 500 larvae in water. Instead, for Ae. aegypti, we observed attraction only for 100 larvae, not for 10 or 500 larvae. Results presented here provide an additional insight about oviposition behavior responses of gravid females in the presence of conspecific and heterospecific larvae in breeding sites. PMID:26634825

  8. Laboratory evaluation of aqueous leaf extract of Tephrosia vogelii against larvae of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) and non-target aquatic organisms.

    PubMed

    Li, Weisheng; Huang, Congling; Wang, Kun; Fu, Jiantao; Cheng, Dongmei; Zhang, Zhixiang

    2015-06-01

    Mosquito control using insecticides has been the most successful intervention known to reduce malaria prevalence or incidence. However, vector control is facing a threat due to the emergence of resistance to synthetic insecticides. Insecticides of botanical origin may serve as suitable alternative biocontrol techniques in the future. In this research, the leaf aqueous leachate of Tephrosia vogelii was evaluated for its toxicity against larvae of the most invasive mosquito worldwide, Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae), and toward adults of the water flea, Daphnia magna (Cladocera: Crustacea) and Oreochromis niloticus, two non-target aquatic organisms that share the same ecological niche of A. albopictus. The leaf aqueous leachate of T. vogelii was evaluated against fourth-instar larvae, non-blood fed 3-5 days old laboratory strains of A. albopictus under laboratory condition. In addition, the objective of the present work was to study the environmental safety evaluation for aquatic ecosystem. Mortality was then recorded after 7d exposure. The leaf aqueous leachate of T. vogelii showed high mosquitocidal activity against larvae of A. albopictus, with a LC50=1.18μg/mL. However, it had a remarkable acute toxicity also toward adults of the non-target arthropod D. magna, with a LC50=0.47μg/L and O. niloticus with a LC50=5.31μg/L. The present findings have important implications in the practical control of mosquito larvae in the aquatic ecosystem, as the medicinal plants studied are commonly available in large quantities. The extract could be used in stagnant water bodies for the control of mosquitoes acting as vector for many communicable diseases. PMID:25771114

  9. Annual Survey of Horsehair Worm Cysts in Northern Taiwan, with Notes on a Single Seasonal Infection Peak in Chironomid Larvae (Diptera: Chironomidae).

    PubMed

    Chiu, Ming-Chung; Huang, Chin-Gi; Wu, Wen-Jer; Shiao, Shiuh-Feng

    2016-06-01

    The life cycle of the freshwater horsehair worm typically includes a free-living phase (adult, egg, larva) and a multiple-host parasitic phase (aquatic paratenic host, terrestrial definitive host). Such a life cycle involving water and land can improve energy flow in riparian ecosystems; however, its temporal dynamics in nature have rarely been investigated. This study examined seasonal infection with cysts in larval Chironominae (Diptera: Chironomidae) in northern Taiwan. In the larval chironomids, cysts of 3 horsehair worm species were identified. The cysts of the dominant species were morphologically similar to those of Chordodes formosanus. Infection with these cysts increased suddenly and peaked 2 mo after the reproductive season of the adult horsehair worms. Although adult C. formosanus emerged several times in a year, only 1 distinct infection peak was detected in September in the chironomid larvae. Compared with the subfamily Chironominae, samples from the subfamilies Tanypodinae and Orthocladiinae were less parasitized. This indicates that the feeding behavior of the chironomid host likely affects horsehair worm cyst infections; however, bioconcentration in predatory chironomids was not detected. PMID:26885875

  10. Occurrence of filamentous fungi in Simulium goeldii Cerqueira & Nunes de Mello (diptera: simuliidae) larvae in central Amazonia, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Fonseca, Quézia Ribeiro; de Moura Sarquis, Maria Inez; Hamada, Neusa; Alencar, Yamile Benaion

    2008-01-01

    The family Simuliidae is the host of simbiontes fungi that inhabit the digestive tracts of arthropods. This paper reports the presence of fungi in Simulium goeldii Cerqueira & Nunes de Mello larvae in Amazonia. We observed that the larvae are a good component of aquatic systems to isolate filamentous fungi. PMID:24031217

  11. Biology and feeding requirements larval hunter flies Coenosia attenuata (Diptera:Muscidae) reared in larvae of the fungus gnat Bradysia impatiens (Diptera:Sciaridae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The larval feeding requirements and biology of the generalist predatory muscid fly Coenosia attenuata were investigated at 25 deg C. Larval C. attenuata were fed 2nd-, 3rd-, and 4th-instar (L2, L3, and L4) larvae of the fungus gnat Bradysia impatiens at variable rates to determine minimum and optimu...

  12. Predation efficiency of indigenous larvivorous fish species on Culex pipiens L. larvae (Diptera: Culicidae) in drainage ditches in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Marti, Gerardo A; Azpelicueta, M de las Mercedes; Tranchida, María C; Pelizza, Sebastián A; García, Juan J

    2006-06-01

    Two neotropical freshwater fish species, Cnesterodom decemmaculatus (Poeciliidae) and Jenynsia multidentata (Anablepidae), were collected from human-made ditches, a common habitat of the house mosquito Culex pipiens in La Plata, Argentina. Cnesterodom decemmaculatus was recorded in 62 of the 100 examined ditches, whereas J. multidentata was collected from only 21 ditches sympatrically with C. decemmaculatus. Culex pipiens was the only mosquito species collected, and its larvae and pupae were found in 38 of the 100 ditches. Fish and mosquito larvae and pupae were collected together in only two ditches and were significantly negatively correlated. Siphons of larval Culex and remnants of chironomid larvae, copepods, aquatic mites, and fish were present in the gut contents of two C. decemmaculatus from mosquito-positive ditches, while diatoms and filamentous algae were recorded in every fish dissected. Adult C. decemmaculatus and J. multidentata needed approximately 6.2 h to completely digest one Cx. pipiens 4th instar larva under laboratory conditions. When fish were confined with a density of 60 or fewer Cx. pipiens 4th instar larvae, C. decemmaculatus and J. multidentata adults consumed 100% of them in one day but only 35% and 42%, respectively, when confined with 150 larvae. Eradication of Cx. pipiens from a ditch, where densities had averaged 250 immatures per dip, was achieved 17 days after the introduction of 1,700 C. decemmaculatus. PMID:16859096

  13. Rearing Larvae of the Avian Nest Parasite, Philornis downsi (Diptera: Muscidae), on Chicken Blood-Based Diets

    PubMed Central

    Lahuatte, Paola F.; Lincango, M. P.; Heimpel, G. E.; Causton, C. E.

    2016-01-01

    Captive rearing of insect pests is necessary to understand their biology and to develop control methods. The avian nest fly, Philornis downsi Dodge and Aitken, is a blood-sucking parasite during its larval stage and a serious threat to endemic birds in the Galapagos Islands where it is considered invasive. In order to procure large numbers of flies for biological studies, rearing media and diets were trialed for rearing the larval stage of P. downsi under controlled conditions in the absence of its avian host. P. downsi eggs were obtained from field-caught female flies, and once eggs hatched they were reared on chicken blood for the first 3 d. Following this, three diets were tested on second- and third-instar larvae: 1) chicken blood only; 2) chicken blood, hydrolyzed protein and dried milk powder; and 3) chicken blood, hydrolyzed protein and brewer’s yeast. Out of 385 P. downsi larvae tested, we were able to rear 50 larvae to the adult stage. The highest level of mortality was found in the first-instar larvae. Survivorship of second- and third-instar larvae was similar irrespective of diet and diet did not significantly influence larval or pupal development times; though larvae fed the diet with brewer’s yeast developed marginally faster. Pupal weights were similar to those of larvae that had developed on bird hosts in the field. To our knowledge, this is the first effective protocol for rearing a hematophagous parasitic avian fly from egg to adult in the absence of a living host. PMID:27493240

  14. Rearing Larvae of the Avian Nest Parasite, Philornis downsi (Diptera: Muscidae), on Chicken Blood-Based Diets.

    PubMed

    Lahuatte, Paola F; Lincango, M P; Heimpel, G E; Causton, C E

    2016-01-01

    Captive rearing of insect pests is necessary to understand their biology and to develop control methods. The avian nest fly, Philornis downsi Dodge and Aitken, is a blood-sucking parasite during its larval stage and a serious threat to endemic birds in the Galapagos Islands where it is considered invasive. In order to procure large numbers of flies for biological studies, rearing media and diets were trialed for rearing the larval stage of P. downsi under controlled conditions in the absence of its avian host. P. downsi eggs were obtained from field-caught female flies, and once eggs hatched they were reared on chicken blood for the first 3 d. Following this, three diets were tested on second- and third-instar larvae: 1) chicken blood only; 2) chicken blood, hydrolyzed protein and dried milk powder; and 3) chicken blood, hydrolyzed protein and brewer's yeast. Out of 385 P. downsi larvae tested, we were able to rear 50 larvae to the adult stage. The highest level of mortality was found in the first-instar larvae. Survivorship of second- and third-instar larvae was similar irrespective of diet and diet did not significantly influence larval or pupal development times; though larvae fed the diet with brewer's yeast developed marginally faster. Pupal weights were similar to those of larvae that had developed on bird hosts in the field. To our knowledge, this is the first effective protocol for rearing a hematophagous parasitic avian fly from egg to adult in the absence of a living host. PMID:27493240

  15. First instar larvae morphology of Opiinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) parasitoids of Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae) fruit flies. Implications for interspecific competition.

    PubMed

    Murillo, Félix D; Liedo, Pablo; Nieto-López, María Guadalupe; Cabrera-Mireles, Héctor; Barrera, Juan F; Montoya, Pablo

    2016-05-01

    The morphology of the first instars of the Opiinae braconids Diachasmimorpha longicaudata, Doryctobracon areolatus, Doryctobracon crawfordi, Utetes anastrephae and Opius hirtus (the first is exotic, and the others are natives to Mexico), parasitoids of Anastrepha fruit flies, are described and compared. The possible implications on interspecific competition among these species are discussed. The most significant adaptations found were: (1) the mouth apparatus, where the large mandibles and fang-shaped maxillary lobes present in D. longicaudata and U. anastrephae larvae were absent in O. hirtus, D. areolatus and D. crawfordi larvae, and (2) the degree of mobility for exploration and escape, such as the lateral and caudal appendages that were only present in D. longicaudata (ventrolateral appendages in the base of the head capsule), U. anastrephae (caudal lobe with two appendages) and D. areolatus (caudal lobe with a round apex with a globular shape). The first instar larvae of the species D. longicaudata show morphological adaptations that apparently confer competitive advantages against the larvae of D. areolatus, D. crawfordi and O. hirtus. However, the first instar larvae of U. anastrephae show larger mandibles, an adaptation that could enable this species to resist competition from D. longicaudata. PMID:26806764

  16. Toxicity of extracts from three Tagetes against adults and larvae of yellow fever mosquito and Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Perich, M J; Wells, C; Bertsch, W; Tredway, K E

    1994-11-01

    Whole-plant Soxhlet extractions for the three Tagetes species showed that T. minuta had the greatest biocidal effect on the larvae and adults of Aedes aegypti (L.) and Anopheles stephensi Liston. Bioassays of simultaneous steam distillation extractions of the various parts of T. minuta found extracts from the flowers provided LD90s of 4 and 8 ppm against the larvae and 0.4 and 0.45% against the adults of A. aegypti and A. stephensi, respectively. Further research on T. minuta floral extracts as new biorational insecticides are discussed. PMID:7815394

  17. Inoculating poultry manure with companion bacteria influences growth and development of black soldier fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) larvae.

    PubMed

    Yu, Guohui; Cheng, Ping; Chen, Yanhong; Li, Yongjian; Yang, Zihong; Chen, Yuanfeng; Tomberlin, Jeffery K

    2011-02-01

    The growth and development of black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens (L.), larvae fed chicken manure inoculated with bacteria isolated from black soldier fly larvae and associated larval feed was evaluated. Four strains of Bacillus subtilis were evaluated. B. subtilis strains S15, S16, S19, were isolated from the gut of black soldier fly larvae. B. natto strain D1 was isolated from the diet fed to black soldier fly larvae. These bacteria were added individually into nonsterile 200 g fresh hen manure at 10(6) cfu/g and homogenized. Treated manure was then inoculated with 4-d old black soldier fly larvae. Prepupal weight ranged from 0.0606 g in the control to 0.0946 g in manure treated with the S15 strain. Larval survivorship to the prepupal stage in all treatments ranged from 98.00 ± 2.65% to 99.33 ± 1.15%. Prepupal survivorship to the pupal stage ranged from 91.92 ± 1.87% to 97.95 ± 1.03%. Adult emergence from the pupal stage did not significantly (P < 0.05) differ across treatments and ranged from 98.95 ± 1.82% to 100.00 ± 0.00%. Adult body length resulting from the larvae in each of the treatments was significantly greater than those from the control. Longevity of adults did not differ significantly between treatments. Time from hatching to the development of the first pupa did not differ significantly across treatments; however, development time from hatching to 90% reaching the prepupual stage was significantly different between treatments and ranged from 29.00 ± 1.00 d to 34.33 ± 3.51 d. Development time from hatching to 90% reaching the adult stages was significantly different between treatments. Our results demonstrate that inoculating poultry manure with bacteria from black soldier fly larvae influences the growth and development of conspecific larvae feeding on the manure. PMID:22182608

  18. Larvae of Chironomids (Insecta, Diptera) Encountered in the Mantle Cavity of Zebra Mussels, Dreissena polymorpha (Bivalvia, Dreissenidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mastitsky, Sergey E.; Samoilenko, Vera M.

    2005-02-01

    The paper includes data on species composition of chironomid larvae which were encountered in the mantle cavity of zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) within 7 waterbodies in the Republic of Belarus. All were found to be free-living species commonly present in periphyton and/or benthos. A long-term study of the seasonal dynamics of these larvae in Dreissena did not reveal any typical pattern. Our data suppose that chironomids do not have an obligate association with zebra mussels and possibly enter their mantle cavity inadvertently.

  19. First record of Neoempheria Osten Sacken (Diptera, Mycetophilidae) biology in the Neotropical region, with associations between its larvae and fungi

    PubMed Central

    Albertoni, Fabiano Fabian; Borkent, Christopher James; Amorim, Dalton S.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background Members of the family Mycetophilidae (Diptera) have life cycles that are typically associated with fungus. Their biology is relatively well known in the Palaearctic, though other regions are poorly known, and there are no associations recorded between mycetophilid immatures and fungi in the Neotropical region. Here we report the first association between a mycetophilid—Neoempheria puncticoxa Edwards—and fungi in this region. Immatures of N. puncticoxa were collected on fungi and some were reared in the laboratory until adult emergence. The immature stages and adult of N. puncticoxa are described and re-described respectively, and high resolution images and illustrations of the habitus, wings, thorax, male and female terminalia, immatures, and in situ specimens are given. New information We report the first association between Mycetophilidae and fungi in the Neotropical region. PMID:26175610

  20. Differential Accumulation of Phytohormones in Wheat Seedlings Attacked by Avirulent and Virulent Hessian Fly (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) Larvae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We analyzed the accumulation of six phytohormones and phytohormone-related compounds in a wheat [Triticum aestivium (L.)] genotype ‘Molly’ following attacks by avirulent and virulent Hessian fly [Mayetiola destructor (Say)] larvae, respectively, and examined the expression of genes in the jasmonic a...

  1. A full-scale house fly (Diptera: Muscidae) larvae bioconversion system for value-added swine manure reduction.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hang; Zhang, Zhijian; Czapar, George F; Winkler, Mari K H; Zheng, JianGuo

    2013-02-01

    Manure produced from confined animal farms can threaten public and environmental health if not managed properly. Herein, a full-scale commercial bioconversion operation in DeQing County, China for value-added swine manure reduction using house fly, Musca domestica L., larvae is reported. The greenhouse-assisted larvae bioreactor had a maximum daily treatment capacity of 35 m(3) fresh raw manure per day. The bioconversion process produced a fresh larvae yield of 95-120 kg m(3) fresh raw manure. This process provided an alternative animal foodstuff (having 56.9 and 23.8% protein and total fat as dry matter, respectively), as well as captured nutrients for agricultural re-utilization. Bioconversion reduced odour emission (characterized by 3-methylindole) and the Escherichia coli (E. coli) index by 94.5 and 92.0%, respectively, and reductions in total weight, moisture and total Kjeldahl nitrogen in solids were over 67.2, 80.0 and 76.0%, respectively. Yearly profit under this trial period ranged from US$33.4-46.1 per m(3). It is concluded that swine manure larvae bioconversion technology with subsequent production of value-added bio-products can be a promising avenue when considering a programme to reduce waste products in an intensive animal production system. PMID:23308017

  2. A compound produced by Fruigivorous Tephritidae (Diptera) larvae promotes oviposition behavior by the biological control agent Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tephritid fruit fly parasitoids use fruit-derived chemical cues and the vibrations that result from larval movements to locate hosts sequestered inside fruit. However, compounds produced by the larvae themselves have not been previously described nor their significance to parasitoid foraging determi...

  3. Field distribution of Dasineura oxycoccana (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) adults, larvae, pupae, and parasitoids and evaluation of monitoring trap designs in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Blueberry gall midge (BGM), Dasineura oxycoccana (Johnson), is a pest of cultivated blueberries throughout the world. Larvae of this tiny fly feed and develop in leaf buds, and also in flower buds of rabbiteye blueberries, which causes buds to fall the plant. These injuries can cause up to 80% yiel...

  4. Predators of Anopheles gambiae sensu lato (Diptera: Culicidae) Larvae in Wetlands, Western Kenya: Confirmation by Polymerase Chain Reaction Method

    PubMed Central

    OHBA, SHIN-YA; KAWADA, HITOSHI; DIDA, GABRIEL O.; JUMA, DUNCAN; SONYE, GORGE; MINAKAWA, NOBORU; TAKAGI, MASAHIRO

    2010-01-01

    Polymerase chain reaction analysis was performed to determine whether mosquito predators in wetland habitats feed on Anopheles gambiae sensu lato (s.l.) larvae. Aquatic mosquito predators were collected from six wetlands near Lake Victoria in Mbita, Western Kenya. This study revealed that the whole positive rate of An. gambiae s.l. from 330 predators was 54.2%. The order of positive rate was the highest in Odonata (70.2%), followed by Hemiptera (62.8%), Amphibia (41.7%), and Coleoptera (18%). This study demonstrates that the polymerase chain reaction method can determine whether aquatic mosquito predators feed on An. gambiae s.l. larvae if the predators have undigested An. gambiae s.l. in their midgut or stomach. PMID:20939371

  5. Predators of Anopheles gambiae sensu lato (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae in wetlands, western Kenya: confirmation by polymerase chain reaction method.

    PubMed

    Ohba, Shin-Ya; Kawada, Hitoshi; Dida, Gabriel O; Juma, Duncan; Sonye, Gorge; Minakawa, Noboru; Takagi, Masahiro

    2010-09-01

    Polymerase chain reaction analysis was performed to determine whether mosquito predators in wetland habitats feed on Anopheles gambiae sensu lato (s.l.) larvae. Aquatic mosquito predators were collected from six wetlands near Lake Victoria in Mbita, Western Kenya. This study revealed that the whole positive rate of An. gambiae s.l. from 330 predators was 54.2%. The order of positive rate was the highest in Odonata (70.2%), followed by Hemiptera (62.8%), Amphibia (41.7%), and Coleoptera (18%). This study demonstrates that the polymerase chain reaction method can determine whether aquatic mosquito predators feed on An. gambiae s.l. larvae if the predators have undigested An. gambiae s.l. in their midgut or stomach. PMID:20939371

  6. Species composition, co-occurrence, association and affinity indices of mosquito larvae (Diptera: Culicidae) in Mazandaran Province, northern Iran.

    PubMed

    Nikookar, Seyed Hassan; Azari-Hamidian, Shahyad; Fazeli-Dinan, Mahmoud; Nasab, Seyed Nouraddin Mousavi; Aarabi, Mohsen; Ziapour, Seyyed Payman; Enayati, Ahmadali

    2016-05-01

    Although considerable progress has been made in the past years in management of mosquito borne diseases such as malaria, dengue, yellow fever and West Nile fever through research in biology and ecology of the vectors, these diseases are still major threats to human health. Therefore, more research is required for better management of the diseases. This investigation provides information on the composition, co-occurrence, association and affinity indices of mosquito larvae in Mazandaran Province, northern Iran. In a large scale field study, mosquito larvae were collected from 120 sentinel sites in 16 counties in Mazandaran Province, using standard 350 ml dipper. Sampling took place monthly from May to December 2014. Collected larvae were mounted on glass slides using de Faure's medium and were diagnosed using morphological characters. Totally, 19,840 larvae were collected including three genera and 16 species from 120 larval habitats, as follows: Anopheles claviger, Anopheles hyrcanus, Anopheles maculipennis s.l., Anopheles marteri, Anopheles plumbeus, Anopheles pseudopictus, Culex pipiens, Culex tritaeniorhynchus, Culex torrentium, Culex perexiguus, Culex territans, Culex mimeticus, Culex hortensis, Culiseta annulata, Culiseta longiareolata, and Culiseta morsitans. Predominant species were Cx. pipiens and An. maculipennis s.l. which show the highest co-occurrence. The pair of species An. hyrcanus/An. pseudopictus showed significant affinity and association. High co-occurrence of the predominant species Cx. pipiens and An. maculipennis s.l. in the study area is of considerable importance in terms of vector ecology. It was also revealed that An. pseudopictus/An. hyrcanus often occur sympatrically indicating their common habitat requirements. The information may be equally important when vector control measures are considered. PMID:26805471

  7. Morphological identification and COI barcodes of adult flies help determine species identities of chironomid larvae (Diptera, Chironomidae).

    PubMed

    Failla, A J; Vasquez, A A; Hudson, P; Fujimoto, M; Ram, J L

    2016-02-01

    Establishing reliable methods for the identification of benthic chironomid communities is important due to their significant contribution to biomass, ecology and the aquatic food web. Immature larval specimens are more difficult to identify to species level by traditional morphological methods than their fully developed adult counterparts, and few keys are available to identify the larval species. In order to develop molecular criteria to identify species of chironomid larvae, larval and adult chironomids from Western Lake Erie were subjected to both molecular and morphological taxonomic analysis. Mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) barcode sequences of 33 adults that were identified to species level by morphological methods were grouped with COI sequences of 189 larvae in a neighbor-joining taxon-ID tree. Most of these larvae could be identified only to genus level by morphological taxonomy (only 22 of the 189 sequenced larvae could be identified to species level). The taxon-ID tree of larval sequences had 45 operational taxonomic units (OTUs, defined as clusters with >97% identity or individual sequences differing from nearest neighbors by >3%; supported by analysis of all larval pairwise differences), of which seven could be identified to species or 'species group' level by larval morphology. Reference sequences from the GenBank and BOLD databases assigned six larval OTUs with presumptive species level identifications and confirmed one previously assigned species level identification. Sequences from morphologically identified adults in the present study grouped with and further classified the identity of 13 larval OTUs. The use of morphological identification and subsequent DNA barcoding of adult chironomids proved to be beneficial in revealing possible species level identifications of larval specimens. Sequence data from this study also contribute to currently inadequate public databases relevant to the Great Lakes region, while the neighbor

  8. Morphological identification and COI barcodes of adult flies help determine species identities of chironomid larvae (Diptera, Chironomidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Failla, Andrew Joseph; Vasquez, Adrian Amelio; Hudson, Patrick L.; Fujimoto, Masanori; Ram, Jeffrey L.

    2016-01-01

    Establishing reliable methods for the identification of benthic chironomid communities is important due to their significant contribution to biomass, ecology and the aquatic food web. Immature larval specimens are more difficult to identify to species level by traditional morphological methods than their fully developed adult counterparts, and few keys are available to identify the larval species. In order to develop molecular criteria to identify species of chironomid larvae, larval and adult chironomids from Western Lake Erie were subjected to both molecular and morphological taxonomic analysis. Mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) barcode sequences of 33 adults that were identified to species level by morphological methods were grouped with COI sequences of 189 larvae in a neighbor-joining taxon-ID tree. Most of these larvae could be identified only to genus level by morphological taxonomy (only 22 of the 189 sequenced larvae could be identified to species level). The taxon-ID tree of larval sequences had 45 operational taxonomic units (OTUs, defined as clusters with >97% identity or individual sequences differing from nearest neighbors by >3%; supported by analysis of all larval pairwise differences), of which seven could be identified to species or ‘species group’ level by larval morphology. Reference sequences from the GenBank and BOLD databases assigned six larval OTUs with presumptive species level identifications and confirmed one previously assigned species level identification. Sequences from morphologically identified adults in the present study grouped with and further classified the identity of 13 larval OTUs. The use of morphological identification and subsequent DNA barcoding of adult chironomids proved to be beneficial in revealing possible species level identifications of larval specimens. Sequence data from this study also contribute to currently inadequate public databases relevant to the Great Lakes region, while the neighbor

  9. Species composition and habitat characterization of mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae in semi-urban areas of Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Bashar, Kabirul; Rahman, Md Sayfur; Nodi, Ila Jahan; Howlader, Abdul Jabber

    2016-03-01

    Mosquito larvae are purely aquatic and develop in water bodies, the type of which is more or less specific to each species. Therefore, a study was carried out to identify the habitat characters of different mosquito species along with their species composition in semi-urban area of Dhaka in Bangladesh during the month of May and June 2012. A total of 6088 mosquito larvae belonging to 12 species (Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus, Anopheles barbirostris, Anopheles peditaeniatus, Anopheles vagus, Culex gelidus, Culex hutchinsoni, Culex quinquefasciatus, Culex tritaeniorhynchus, Mansonia annulifera, Mansonia uniformis, and Toxorhynchites splendens) under 5 genera were collected from 14 different types of habitats. Culex quinquefsciatus was the dominant (21.7/500 ml) species followed by Cx. tritaeniorhynchus (10.53/500 ml). Dissolved oxygen and chlorophyll a were the preeminent predictors for the abundance of all collected mosquito larvae except Ae. aegypti. Water temperature was positively associated with the breeding of An. vagus (r = 0.421, p = <0.001), An. barbirostris (r = 0.489, p = <0.001) and An. peditaeniatus (r = 0.375, p = <0.001). Water depth, distance from nearest house, emergent plant coverage, and alkalinity were found as the basis of larval abundance. Every Culex species and Tx. splendens (r = 0.359, p = 0.001) were found positively associated with chemical oxygen demand, while Mn. annulifera showed negative association (r = -0.115, p = 0.0297). This study also highlighted that various physicochemical factors affect the presence or abundance of mosquito larvae. PMID:27241953

  10. Postmortem Attraction of Sarcosaprophagous Diptera to Tramadol-Treated Rats and Morphometric Aspects of the Developed Larvae.

    PubMed

    AbouZied, E M

    2016-06-01

    The presence of some specific drugs in animal tissues may affect the time of minimal postmortem intervals estimated during forensic entomological investigations. To test the effects of a specific drug on decomposition, a field study was conducted at Fayoum University campus, Egypt, from March to May 2013, using tramadol, a synthetic analgesic opioid used to treat moderate to severe pain in humans. Albino rats were used as the animal model during this study. The duration of the fresh stage of tramadol treated rat (Ttr) carcasses was significantly shorter (2.4 ± 0.27 days) compared to tramadol free rat (Tfr) carcasses (6.4 ± 0.49 days). The dry carcass stage of Ttr lasted longer (10.3 ± 0.99 days) as compared to (7.4 ± 0.18 days) the Tfr carcass. The decomposition process of the (Ttr) carcass was not significantly faster (24.9 ± 1.58 days) as compared to (Tfr) carcasses (29.5 ± 1.69). Lucilia cuprina (Wiedemann), Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann), and Musca domestica L. were less attracted to Ttr carcass-baited traps than traps with Tfr carcasses. However, females of Sarcophaga spp. showed a greater attraction to Ttr carcasses. Females of another sarcophagid fly, Wohlfahrtia spp. exhibited similar attraction tendencies to both types of trap baits. Larvae of S. argyrostoma (Robineau-Desvoidy) collected from Ttr carcasses developed to a significantly longer total body length (10.4 ± 0.04 mm) as compared to the average length of the larvae collected from Tfr carcasses (8.9 ± 0.34 mm). During days 9-13 after rat death, the relative lengths of larvae from Ttr carcasses were not significantly different from Tfr carcasses. Larvae fed on Ttr carcasses pupated 2 days later than the control larvae. PMID:26931613

  11. Habronema muscae (Nematoda: Habronematidae) larvae: developmental stages, migration route and morphological changes in Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae).

    PubMed

    Amado, Sávio; Silveira, Andrea Kill; Vieira, Flávio Dias; Traversa, Donato

    2014-01-01

    The present paper describes the morphological modifications occurring during the larval development of Habronema muscae (Nematoda: Habronematidae) in Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae), along with the reactions caused by parasitism and the migration route of the nematodes inside the flies. Houseflies were reared on faeces of a H. muscae-infected horse, then dissected and processed by histology. The experimental part of the study was performed in 1996 in the Parasitological Experimental Station W.O. Neitz, Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro, Seropédica, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Three different larval stages of H. muscae were recovered, measured and described. The encapsulation of larval nematodes was found in the third larval instar (L3) of M. domestica and cryptocephalic pupa. The mature capsules were observed in dipteran L3, pupae and mainly adults. In 1day-old or more M. domestica adults an active rupturing of capsules by H. muscae L3 and the migration to the head through the circulatory system and insect hemocoel were observed. Infective H. muscae L3s remained exclusively in the head of adult 5days-old or more M. domestica. PMID:24269197

  12. The suitability of Anastrepha spp. and Ceratitis capitata larvae as hosts of Diachasmimorpha longicaudata and Diachasmimorpha tryoni: Effects of host age and radiation dose and implications for quality control in mass rearing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The emergence of parasitoids from irradiated tephritid host larvae of different species and ages was evaluated. Parasitoid and fly longevity and fecundity resulting from each treatment were also assessed. Doses of 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 80, 100 and 150 Gy were applied to samples (100 larvae) of 6-, ...

  13. Review of the last instar larvae and pupae of Hexatoma (Eriocera) and Hexatoma (Hexatoma) (Diptera, Limoniidae, Limnophilinae).

    PubMed

    Podeniene, Virginija; Gelhaus, Jon K

    2015-01-01

    Description, illustrations and habitat characteristics are given for the previously unknown larvae and pupae of Nearctic species Hexatoma (Eriocera) californica, H. (E.) fuliginosa and East Palaearctic species H. (E.) sachalinensis, H. (E.) stackelbergi, H. (E.) ussuriensis and H. (s.str.) nubeculosa. Hexatoma (E.) sachalinensis, H. (E.) stackelbergi, and H. (s.str.) nubeculosa are reported new for Mongolia based on larval and reared adult collections. There are no distinguishing morphological characters to separate last instar larvae of the subgenera H. (Eriocera) and H. (Hexatoma), while pupae of these subgenera can be separated by the size and shape of the spines on the terminal segments. This study indicates that microscopic setae on the last abdominal segment, length of maxillary palpi, sclerotization of the spiracular field, length of spiracular lobes, length of setae on the apical part of the ventral lobes, the shape of the labrum and the arrangement of sensory structures on the labrum are the main larval characters to distinguish among species in this genus. The shape and length of the respiratory horns, size and number of the horns of the cephalic crest, length of the antennal sheaths, the lengths of the sheaths of the legs, size and shape of tubercles on the antennal scape are the main distinguishing pupal characters for the species of this genus. Nearly all known species of Hexatoma develop in sand or gravel in bottom of large and medium size rivers, smaller streams and creeks while last instar larvae and pupae can be found in the riparian zone, usually in gravel, sand or under stones. PMID:26624121

  14. Isolation of fourth-instars larva of Aedes (Finlaya) harveyi (Diptera: Culicidae) from the Nilgiri hills, Southern India.

    PubMed

    Bhuyan, Pranab Jyoti; Hiriyan, J; Nath, Anjan Jyoti

    2016-03-01

    During the post monsoon season of 2012, the ovitraps were employed for dengue vector surveillance nearer to human habitations in the Nilgiri hills of Southern India. All the eggs obtained were brought to laboratory, and reared individually to adult stage for identification. A total of 30 exuviae of fourth-instars larva specimen were identified as Aedes (Finlaya) harveyi which were compared to other closely related species. Though the adult male and female of Aedes (Finlaya) harveyi were recorded from some parts of India but so far the larval stage has not been recorded. PMID:27065629

  15. Differential Induction of Proteins in Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto (Diptera: Cullicidae) Larvae in Response to Heavy Metal Selection

    PubMed Central

    Mireji, Paul O.; Keating, Joseph; Kenya, Eucharia; Mbogo, Charles; Nyambaka, Hudson; Osir, Ellie; Githure, John; Beier, John

    2009-01-01

    Investigations were conducted to establish the magnitude and pattern of differential expression of proteins due to generational selection of third instar An. gambiae s.s. larvae by cadmium, copper and lead heavy metals, three possible common urban pollutants. A susceptible strain of An. gambiae s.s. third instar larvae was separately placed under selection pressure with cadmium, copper and lead at LC30 and controls through five generations. First, third and fifth generation selection survivors were screened for differentially expressed proteins relative to non-exposed control by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Distribution patterns of the spots were analysed by Chi Square or Fishers exact test and variations in expressions between and within generation by ANOVA. Most differentially expressed spots were acidic and of low molecular weight among all metals and generations. Type of heavy metals and generation were main indicators of variations in differential expressions. Variation between generations was most significant among cadmium-selected populations of which most number of spots were induced in the fifth generation. Most spots were induced in the copper-selected population in the third generation. The induced protein spots may be products from respective genes that respond to heavy metals and counter their toxicity, thus building An. gambiae s.s. tolerance to these pollutants. The differential pattern and magnitude of expressed spots has potential application as molecular markers for assessment of anopheline adaptation status to heavy metals, and provide insight into the extent of environmental pollution. PMID:20651951

  16. Potential of biologically active plant oils to control mosquito larvae (Culex pipiens, Diptera: Culicidae) from an Egyptian locality.

    PubMed

    Khater, Hanem Fathy; Shalaby, Afaf Abdel-Salam

    2008-01-01

    The insecticidal effect of six commercially available plant oils was tested against 4th larval instars of Culex pipiens. Larvae were originally collected from Meit El-Attar, Qalyubia Governorate, Egypt, and then reared in the laboratory until F1 generation. The LC50 values were 32.42, 47.17, 71.37, 83.36, 86.06, and 152.94 ppm for fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-grecum), earth almond (Cyperus esculentus), mustard (Brassica compestris), olibanum (Boswellia serrata), rocket (Eruca sativa), and parsley (Carum ptroselinum), respectively. The tested oils altered some biological aspects of C. pipiens, for instance, developmental periods, pupation rates, and adult emergences. The lowest concentrations of olibanum and fenugreek oils caused remarkable prolongation of larval and pupal durations. Data also showed that the increase of concentrations was directly proportional to reduction in pupation rates and adult emergences. Remarkable decrease in pupation rate was achieved by mustard oil at 1000 ppm. Adult emergence was suppressed by earth almond and fenugreek oils at 25 ppm. In addition, the tested plant oils exhibited various morphological abnormalities on larvae, pupae, and adult stages. Consequently, fenugreek was the most potent oil and the major cause of malformation of both larval and pupal stages. Potency of the applied plant oils provided an excellent potential for controlling C. pipiens. PMID:18488090

  17. Morphometric study of third-instar larvae from five morphotypes of the Anastrepha fraterculus cryptic species complex (Diptera, Tephritidae)

    PubMed Central

    Canal, Nelson A.; Hernández-Ortiz, Vicente; Salas, Juan O. Tigrero; Selivon, Denise

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The occurrence of cryptic species among economically important fruit flies strongly affects the development of management tactics for these pests. Tools for studying cryptic species not only facilitate evolutionary and systematic studies, but they also provide support for fruit fly management and quarantine activities. Previous studies have shown that the South American fruit fly, Anastrepha fraterculus, is a complex of cryptic species, but few studies have been performed on the morphology of its immature stages. An analysis of mandible shape and linear morphometric variability was applied to third-instar larvae of five morphotypes of the Anastrepha fraterculus complex: Mexican, Andean, Ecuadorian, Peruvian and Brazilian-1. Outline geometric morphometry was used to study the mouth hook shape and linear morphometry analysis was performed using 24 linear measurements of the body, cephalopharyngeal skeleton, mouth hook and hypopharyngeal sclerite. Different morphotypes were grouped accurately using canonical discriminant analyses of both the geometric and linear morphometry. The shape of the mandible differed among the morphotypes, and the anterior spiracle length, number of tubules of the anterior spiracle, length and height of the mouth hook and length of the cephalopharyngeal skeleton were the most significant variables in the linear morphometric analysis. Third-instar larvae provide useful characters for studies of cryptic species in the Anastrepha fraterculus complex. PMID:26798253

  18. Field trials of solid triple lure (trimedlure, methyl eugenol, raspberry ketone, and DDVP) dispensers for detection and male annihilation of Ceratitis capitata, Bactrocera dorsalis, and Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Roger I; Souder, Steven K; Mackey, Bruce; Cook, Peter; Morse, Joseph G; Stark, John D

    2012-10-01

    Solid Mallet TMR (trimedlure [TML], methyl eugenol [ME], raspberry ketone [RK]) wafers and Mallet CMR (ceralure, ME, RK, benzyl acetate) wafers impregnated with DDVP (2,2-dichlorovinyl dimethyl phosphate) insecticide were measured in traps as potential detection and male annihilation technique (MAT) devices. Comparisons were made with 1) liquid lure and insecticide formulations, 2) solid cones and plugs with an insecticidal strip, and 3) solid single and double lure wafers with DDVP for captures of Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann); oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel; and melon fly, B. cucurbitae Coquillett. Bucket and Jackson traps were tested in a coffee plantation near Eleele, Kauai Island, HI (trials at high populations) and avocado orchards near Kona, HI Island, HI (trials at low populations). Captures of all three species with Mallet TMR were not different from Mallet CMR; therefore, subsequent experiments did not include Mallet CMR because of higher production costs. In MAT trials near Eleele, HI captures in AWPM traps with Mallet TMR wafers were equal to any other solid lure (single or double) except the Mallet ME wafer. In survey trials near Kona, captures of C. capitata, B. cucurbitae, and B. dorsalis with Mallet TMR wafers were equal to those for the standard TML, ME, and C-L traps used in FL and CA. A solid Mallet TMR wafer is safer, more convenient to handle, and may be used in place of several individual lure and trap systems, potentially reducing costs of large survey and detection programs in Florida and California, and MAT programs in Hawaii. PMID:23156150

  19. A guide to the larvae of the Nearctic Diamesinae (Diptera; Chironomidae), the genera Boreoheptagyia, Protanypus, Diamesa, and Pseudokiefferiella

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Doughman, J.S.

    1983-01-01

    The subfamily Diamesinae consists of the monogeneric tribes Boreoheptagnini and Parotanypini and the diverse tribe Diamesini with seven genera. These midges are prevalent in clean, cool arctic-alpine waters, but less abundant in the lowlands. Keys and descriptions herein to the known species of these nine genera may prove valuable in the biomonitoring of these cool aquatic habitats. The larvae of Protanypus saetheri Wiederholm is described for the first time. Identification is based upon the absence of other species in the collection area. Examination of a series of larval D. incallida Walker collected in Wyoming and a review of pertinent literature shows that there is considerable variation in the procerus and the labral armature. Because these characters are often used in keys, this variability can lead to misidentification of less recognizable species of Diamesa. (USGS)

  20. Hot Water Immersion Quarantine Treatment Against Mediterranean Fruit Fly and Oriental Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) Eggs and Larvae in Litchi and Longan Fruits Exported from Hawaii

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Immersion of litchi fruit in 49ºC water for 20 min followed by hydrocooling in ambient (24 ± 4ºC) temperature water for 20 min was tested as a quarantine treatment against potential infestations of Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann); and oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (...

  1. Morphology of the larvae, male genitalia and DNA sequences of Anopheles (Kerteszia) pholidotus (Diptera: Culicidae) from Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Escovar, Jesús Eduardo; González, Ranulfo; Quiñones, Martha L; Wilkerson, Richard C; Ruiz, Fredy; Harrison, Bruce A

    2014-01-01

    Since 1984, Anopheles (Kerteszia) lepidotus has been considered a mosquito species that is involved in the transmission of malaria in Colombia, after having been incriminated as such with epidemiological evidence from a malaria outbreak in Cunday-Villarrica, Tolima. Subsequent morphological analyses of females captured in the same place and at the time of the outbreak showed that the species responsible for the transmission was not An. lepidotus, but rather Anopheles pholidotus. However, the associated morphological stages and DNA sequences of An. pholidotus from the foci of Cunday-Villarrica had not been analysed. Using samples that were caught recently from the outbreak region, the purpose of this study was to provide updated and additional information by analysing the morphology of female mosquitoes, the genitalia of male mosquitoes and fourth instar larvae of An. pholidotus, which was confirmed with DNA sequences of cytochrome oxidase I and rDNA internal transcribed spacer. A total of 1,596 adult females were collected in addition to 37 larval collections in bromeliads. Furthermore, 141 adult females, which were captured from the same area in the years 1981-1982, were analysed morphologically. Ninety-five DNA sequences were analysed for this study. Morphological and molecular analyses showed that the species present in this region corresponds to An. pholidotus. Given the absence of An. lepidotus, even in recent years, we consider that the species of mosquitoes that was previously incriminated as the malaria vector during the outbreak was indeed An. pholidotus, thus ending the controversy. PMID:25075785

  2. Conversion of Solid Organic Wastes into Oil via Boettcherisca peregrine (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) Larvae and Optimization of Parameters for Biodiesel Production

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Sen; Li, Qing; Zeng, Qinglan; Zhang, Jibin; Yu, Ziniu; Liu, Ziduo

    2012-01-01

    The feedstocks for biodiesel production are predominantly from edible oils and the high cost of the feedstocks prevents its large scale application. In this study, we evaluated the oil extracted from Boettcherisca peregrine larvae (BPL) grown on solid organic wastes for biodiesel production. The oil contents detected in the BPL converted from swine manure, fermentation residue and the degreased food waste, were 21.7%, 19.5% and 31.1%, respectively. The acid value of the oil is 19.02 mg KOH/g requiring a two-step transesterification process. The optimized process of 12∶1 methanol/oil (mol/mol) with 1.5% H2SO4 reacted at 70°C for 120 min resulted in a 90.8% conversion rate of free fatty acid (FFA) by esterification, and a 92.3% conversion rate of triglycerides into esters by alkaline transesterification. Properties of the BPL oil-based biodiesel are within the specifications of ASTM D6751, suggesting that the solid organic waste-grown BPL could be a feasible non-food feedstock for biodiesel production. PMID:23029331

  3. Morphology of the larvae, male genitalia and DNA sequences of Anopheles (Kerteszia) pholidotus (Diptera: Culicidae) from Colombia.

    PubMed

    Escovar, Jesús Eduardo; González, Ranulfo; Quiñones, Martha L; Wilkerson, Richard C; Ruiz, Fredy; Harrison, Bruce A

    2014-07-01

    Since 1984, Anopheles (Kerteszia) lepidotus has been considered a mosquito species that is involved in the transmission of malaria in Colombia, after having been incriminated as such with epidemiological evidence from a malaria outbreak in Cunday-Villarrica, Tolima. Subsequent morphological analyses of females captured in the same place and at the time of the outbreak showed that the species responsible for the transmission was not An. lepidotus, but rather Anopheles pholidotus. However, the associated morphological stages and DNA sequences of An. pholidotus from the foci of Cunday-Villarrica had not been analysed. Using samples that were caught recently from the outbreak region, the purpose of this study was to provide updated and additional information by analysing the morphology of female mosquitoes, the genitalia of male mosquitoes and fourth instar larvae of An. pholidotus, which was confirmed with DNA sequences of cytochrome oxidase I and rDNA internal transcribed spacer. A total of 1,596 adult females were collected in addition to 37 larval collections in bromeliads. Furthermore, 141 adult females, which were captured from the same area in the years 1981-1982, were analysed morphologically. Ninety-five DNA sequences were analysed for this study. Morphological and molecular analyses showed that the species present in this region corresponds to An. pholidotus. Given the absence of An. lepidotus, even in recent years, we consider that the species of mosquitoes that was previously incriminated as the malaria vector during the outbreak was indeed An. pholidotus, thus ending the controversy. PMID:25075785

  4. Effect of ultraviolet-A radiation on the production of Leptolegnia chapmanii (Saprolegniales: Saprolegniaceae) zoospores on dead Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae and their larvicidal activity.

    PubMed

    Rueda Páramo, Manuel E; López Lastra, Claudia C; García, Juan J; Fernandes, Éverton K K; Marreto, Ricardo N; Luz, Christian

    2015-09-01

    Impact of UV-radiation in entomopathogens in aquatic environments remains little investigated. The present study reports on the effect of UV-A on the larvicidal activity of Leptolegnia chapmanii zoospores in Aedes aegypti; on the production of zoospores in larvae killed by the pathogen and then exposed to UV-A; and on the activity of these zoospores against healthy larvae. Whereas the virulence of free zoospores in A. aegypti larvae was affected by a UV-A exposure time longer than 10min, production of zoospores in larvae and their virulence were not hampered at a maximal 8h exposure of dead larvae to UV-A. Findings suggest that dead larvae and zoosporangia provide a certain protection to zoospores against UV-A and emphasize the susceptibility of free encysted zoospores to such radiation. PMID:26259676

  5. Radiation-induced changes in melanization and phenoloxidase in Caribbean fruit fly larvae (diptera:tephritidae) as the basis for a simple test of irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Nation, J.L.; Milne, K.; Smittle, B.J.

    1995-03-01

    First instars of the Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa (Loew), were irradiated with 0, 5, 10, 20, 50, 75, 100, and 150 Gy doses from a Cs-137 source, and observed for whole body melanization as late third instars. Control larvae rapidly melanized, whereas larvae irradiated at {ge}20 Gy failed to show typical melanization after freezing and thawing. Assays of phenoloxidase in control and irradiated larvae showed greatly decreased enzyme activity at {ge}20 Gy and substantial reduction at lower doses. Larvae were also irradiated on the 1st d of each instar, and phenoloxidase activity was determined when they became late third instars. Larvae irradiated on the 1st d of the first instar and on 1st d of the second instar has {approx}90% or greater reduction in phenoloxidase activity as late third instars. Larvae irradiated on the 1st d of the instar had {approx}50% reduction in phenoloxidase activity at the time they became late third instars leaving the food to pupate. A simple spot test for phenoloxidase was developed that produced a red color with a crushed control larvae and no color with a larva irradiated at {ge}25 Gy. The radiation induced changes in melanization and phenoloxidase activity, and a simple spot test may serve as tests for irradiation treatment of Caribbean fruit fly larvae. 10 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Effects of Toxic Compounds in Montipora capitata on Exogenous and Endogenous Zooxanthellae Performance and Fertilization Success

    PubMed Central

    Hagedorn, Mary; Farrell, Ann; Carter, Virginia; Zuchowicz, Nikolas; Johnston, Erika; Padilla-Gamiño, Jacqueline; Gunasekera, Sarath; Paul, Valerie

    2015-01-01

    Studies have identified chemicals within the stony coral genus Montipora that have significant biological activities. For example, Montiporic acids A and B and other compounds have been isolated from the adult tissue and eggs of Montipora spp. and have displayed antimicrobial activity and cytotoxicity in cultured cells. The ecological role of these toxic compounds is currently unclear. This study examines the role these toxins play in reproduction. Toxins were found in the eggs and larvae of the coral Montipora capitata. Releasing these toxins by crushing both the eggs and larvae resulted in irreversible inhibition of photosynthesis in endogenous and exogenous zooxanthellae within minutes. Moreover, these toxins were stable, as frozen storage of eggs and larvae did not affect toxicity. Photosynthetic competency of Porites compressa zooxanthellae treated with either frozen or fresh, crushed eggs was inhibited similarly (P > 0.05, ANCOVA). Addition of toxic eggs plugs to live P. compressa fragments caused complete tissue necrosis under the exposed area on the fragments within 1 week. Small volumes of M. capitata crushed eggs added to sperm suspensions reduced in vitro fertilization success by killing the sperm. After 30 min, untreated sperm maintained 90 ± 1.9% SEM motility while those treated with crushed eggs were rendered immotile, 4 ± 1.4% SEM. Flow cytometry indicated membrane disruption of the immotile sperm. Fertilization success using untreated sperm was 79 ± 4% SEM, whereas the success rate dropped significantly after exposure to the crushed eggs, 1.3 ± 0% SEM. Unlike the eggs and the larvae, M. capitata sperm did not reduce the photosynthetic competency of P. compressa zooxanthellae, suggesting the sperm was nontoxic. The identity of the toxins, cellular mechanism of action, advantage of the toxins for M. capitata and their role on the reef are still unknown. PMID:25714606

  7. Effects of toxic compounds in Montipora capitata on exogenous and endogenous zooxanthellae performance and fertilization success.

    PubMed

    Hagedorn, Mary; Farrell, Ann; Carter, Virginia; Zuchowicz, Nikolas; Johnston, Erika; Padilla-Gamiño, Jacqueline; Gunasekera, Sarath; Paul, Valerie

    2015-01-01

    Studies have identified chemicals within the stony coral genus Montipora that have significant biological activities. For example, Montiporic acids A and B and other compounds have been isolated from the adult tissue and eggs of Montipora spp. and have displayed antimicrobial activity and cytotoxicity in cultured cells. The ecological role of these toxic compounds is currently unclear. This study examines the role these toxins play in reproduction. Toxins were found in the eggs and larvae of the coral Montipora capitata. Releasing these toxins by crushing both the eggs and larvae resulted in irreversible inhibition of photosynthesis in endogenous and exogenous zooxanthellae within minutes. Moreover, these toxins were stable, as frozen storage of eggs and larvae did not affect toxicity. Photosynthetic competency of Porites compressa zooxanthellae treated with either frozen or fresh, crushed eggs was inhibited similarly (P > 0.05, ANCOVA). Addition of toxic eggs plugs to live P. compressa fragments caused complete tissue necrosis under the exposed area on the fragments within 1 week. Small volumes of M. capitata crushed eggs added to sperm suspensions reduced in vitro fertilization success by killing the sperm. After 30 min, untreated sperm maintained 90 ± 1.9% SEM motility while those treated with crushed eggs were rendered immotile, 4 ± 1.4% SEM. Flow cytometry indicated membrane disruption of the immotile sperm. Fertilization success using untreated sperm was 79 ± 4% SEM, whereas the success rate dropped significantly after exposure to the crushed eggs, 1.3 ± 0% SEM. Unlike the eggs and the larvae, M. capitata sperm did not reduce the photosynthetic competency of P. compressa zooxanthellae, suggesting the sperm was nontoxic. The identity of the toxins, cellular mechanism of action, advantage of the toxins for M. capitata and their role on the reef are still unknown. PMID:25714606

  8. The Neotropical tanyderid Araucoderus gloriosus (Alexander) (Diptera, Tanyderidae), with description of the egg, larva and pupa, redescription of adults, and notes on natural history.

    PubMed

    Madriz, R Isaí; Courtney, Gregory W

    2016-01-01

    Larvae, pupae and adults of Araucoderus gloriosus (Alexander) were collected during fieldwork in Chilean Patagonia, December 2013 and January 2014. Eggs were obtained from females that oviposited in captivity. Association of all life stages is based on co-occurrence and rearing of individual larvae to adults. A diagnosis for the genus and species is provided. Descriptions of the egg, larva and pupa and redescriptions of the male and female are completed. Eggs of A. gloriosus are the first described for Tanyderidae. Natural history characteristics for this species, including microhabitat, copulatory behavior and oviposition, are discussed. PMID:27615889

  9. Description of male, pupa and larva of Simulium (Asiosimulium) wanchaii (Diptera: Simuliidae) from Thailand, with keys to identify four species of the subgenus Asiosimulium.

    PubMed

    Srisuka, W; Takaoka, H; Saeung, A

    2015-09-01

    The male, pupa and mature larva of Simulium (Asiosimulium) wanchaii Takaoka & Choochote, one of the four species of the small Oriental black fly subgenus Asiosimulium, are described for the first time based on samples collected from Thailand. The male S. (A.) wanchaii is characterized based on the enlarged hind basitarsus and the ventral plate which is much wider than long. The pupa and larva are characterized by the gill with 19 filaments and the deep postgenal cleft, respectively. Keys are provided to identify all the four species of the subgenus Asiosimulium for females, males, pupae and mature larvae. PMID:26695212

  10. Wound repair in Montipora capitata.

    PubMed

    Work, Thierry M; Aeby, Greta S

    2010-09-01

    We documented the microscopic morphology of tissue healing in Montipora capitata. Fragments from two healthy coral colonies were traumatized by scraping tissue and skeleton and monitored in flow-through seawater tables every 2-4 days for 40 days for gross and cellular changes. Grossly, corals appeared healed and repigmented by Day 40. Histologically, traumatized issues were undistinguishable from intact untraumatized tissues by Day 12. We suspect that the calicoblastic epidermis of basal body wall is pluripotential and can develop into surface epidermis when needed. PMID:20471389

  11. Wound repair in Montipora capitata

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Work, T.M.; Aeby, G.S.

    2010-01-01

    We documented the microscopic morphology of tissue healing in Montipora capitata. Fragments from two healthy coral colonies were traumatized by scraping tissue and skeleton and monitored in flow-through seawater tables every 2-4. days for 40. days for gross and cellular changes. Grossly, corals appeared healed and repigmented by Day 40. Histologically, traumatized issues were undistinguishable from intact untraumatized tissues by Day 12. We suspect that the calicoblastic epidermis of basal body wall is pluripotential and can develop into surface epidermis when needed. ?? 2010.

  12. Diagnoses for Nubensia, n. gen. (Diptera, Chironomidae, Chironomini), with the first full descriptions of the adult female and larva of N. nubens (Edwards, 1929).

    PubMed

    Spies, Martin; Dettinger-Klemm, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    A new genus, Nubensia Spies, is proposed for N. nubens (Edwards, 1929), n. comb., based on morphological evaluation of both adult sexes, the pupa and larva. The material studied includes name-bearing syntype specimens and the first reared associations linking three life stages for individual members of this species. The larva represents a unique morphotype previously described incompletely only from studies of subfossil chironomid remains. The problems with placement of the species in any previously established genus are discussed in detail, and various related issues in taxonomy and nomenclature are commented on. The verified distribution of N. nubens ranges from the British Isles and central Europe to the western Mediterranean, including northern Africa, with possible extensions to Turkey and central Asia. Larvae have been found on mostly coarse, variously covered substrates near the shores of lakes and banks of slowly flowing running waters, under both oligotrophic and eutrophic conditions. PMID:26250262

  13. A COMPOUND PRODUCED BY FRUIGIVOROUS TEPHRITIDAE (DIPTERA) LARVAE PROMOTES OVIPOSITION BEHAVIOR BY THE BIOLOGICAL CONTROL AGENT Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead) (HYMENOPTERA: BRACONIDAE)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tephritid parasitoids use fruit-derived chemical cues and the vibrations that result from larval movements to locate hosts sequestered inside fruit. However, compounds produced by the larvae themselves have not been previously described nor their significance to parasitoid foraging determined. We co...

  14. Description of the last instar larva and new contributions to the knowledge of the pupa of Dasyhelea mediomunda Minaya (Diptera, Culicomorpha, Ceratopogonidae).

    PubMed

    Díaz, Florentina; Anjos-Santos, Danielle; Funes, Amparo; Ronderos, María M

    2016-07-11

    The fourth instar larva of Dasyhelea mediomunda Minaya is described for the first time and a complete description of the pupa is provided, through use of phase-contrast microscope and scanning electron microscope. Studied specimens were collected in a pond connected to a small wetland "mallin" on the Patagonian steppe, Chubut province, Argentina. PMID:27411066

  15. Evaluating the Effect of Sarconesiopsis magellanica (Diptera: Calliphoridae) Larvae-Derived Haemolymph and Fat Body Extracts on Chronic Wounds in Diabetic Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Góngora, Jennifher; Díaz-Roa, Andrea; Ramírez-Hernández, Alejandro; Cortés-Vecino, Jesús A.; Gaona, María A.; Patarroyo, Manuel A.

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated extracts taken from S. magellanica third instar larvae fat body and haemolymph using a diabetic rabbit model and compared this to the effect obtained with the same substances taken from Lucilia sericata larvae. Alloxan (a toxic glucose analogue) was used to induce experimental diabetes in twelve rabbits. Dorsal wounds were made in each animal and they were infected with Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. They were then treated with haemolymph and lyophilized extracts taken from the selected blowflies' larvae fat bodies. Each wound was then evaluated by using rating scales and histological analysis. More favourable scores were recorded on the PUSH and WBS scales for the wounds treated with fat body derived from the larvae of both species compared to that obtained with haemolymph; however, wounds treated with the substances taken from S. magellanica had better evolution. Histological analysis revealed that treatment led to tissue proliferation and more effective neovascularisation in less time with both species' fat body extracts compared to treatment with just haemolymph. The results suggest the effectiveness of the substances evaluated and validate them in the animal model being used here as topical agents in treating chronic wounds. PMID:25866825

  16. Structural and Genetic Investigation of the Egg and First-Instar Larva of an Egg-Laying Population of Blaesoxipha plinthopyga (Diptera: Sarcophagidae), a Species of Forensic Importance.

    PubMed

    Pimsler, Meaghan L; Pape, Thomas; Johnston, J Spencer; Wharton, Robert A; Parrott, Jonathan J; Restuccia, Danielle; Sanford, Michelle R; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Tarone, Aaron M

    2014-11-01

    Flies in the family Sarcophagidae incubate their eggs and are known to be ovoviviparous (i.e., ovolarviparous), but a laboratory-maintained colony of Blaesoxipha plinthopyga (Wiedemann) deposited clutches of viable eggs over 10 generations. A description of the egg and first-instar larva of this species is provided along with genetic data (genome size and cytochrome oxidase I sequences). The egg is similar to previously described eggs of other Sarcophagidae but differs in the configuration of the micropyle. In the first-instar larva, the oral ridges are much more developed than has been described for other species. B. plinthopyga has forensic importance, and the present descriptive information is critical for proper case management. PMID:26309319

  17. Evaluation of mentum deformities of Chironomus spp. (Chironomidae: Diptera) larvae using modified toxic score index (MTSI) to assess the environmental stress in Juru River Basin, Penang, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Al-Shami, Salman Abdo; Salmah, Mad Rawi Che; Hassan, Ahmad Abu; Azizah, Mohd Nor Siti

    2011-06-01

    Morphological mentum deformities which represent sublethal effect of exposure to different types of pollutants were evaluated in Chironomus spp. larvae inhabiting three polluted rivers of Juru River Basin in northwestern peninsular Malaysia. Using mentum deformity incidences, the modified toxic score index (MTSI) was developed based on Lenat's toxic score index (TSI). The suggested MTSI was compared with TSI in terms of its effectiveness to identify different pollutants including heavy metals. The MTSI showed stronger relationship to total deformity incidence expressed as percentage. Additionally, the multivariate RDA model showed higher capability of MTSI to explain the variations in heavy metal contents of the river sediments. The MTSI was recommended in bioassessment of water and sediment quality using the mentum deformities of Chironomus spp. larvae from aquatic ecosystems receiving anthropogenic, agricultural, or industrial discharges. PMID:20697808

  18. Larvae and Nests of Six Aculeate Hymenoptera (Hymenoptera: Aculeata) Nesting in Reed Galls Induced by Lipara spp. (Diptera: Chloropidae) with a Review of Species Recorded

    PubMed Central

    Bogusch, Petr; Astapenková, Alena; Heneberg, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Wetland species of aculeate Hymenoptera are poorly known, even though many of them may serve as diagnostic or flagship species in nature conservation. Here we examined 6,018 galls induced ≥1 year prior their collection by the chloropid flies Lipara spp. The galls were collected at 34 sites in Central Europe. We examined 1,389 nests (4,513 individuals) of nine species, part of which were parasitized by one dipteran and two chrysidid parasitoid species. We describe the nests of seven dominant species and larvae of four species (Pemphredon fabricii, Trypoxylon deceptorium, Hoplitis leucomelana and Hylaeus pectoralis) and two parasitoids (Trichrysis cyanea and Thyridanthrax fenestratus, both in nests of Pemphredon fabricii and Trypoxylon deceptorium). All the species, but H. pectoralis, preferred robust galls at very thin stalks (induced typically by Lipara lucens) over the narrow galls on thick stalks. The larvae of P. fabricii and T. deceptorium resembled strongly their sibling species (Pemphredon lethifer and Trypoxylon attenuatum sensu lato, respectively). The larvae of T. fenestratus showed features different from those previously described. By hatching set of another 10,583 galls induced by Lipara spp. ≥1 year prior their collection, we obtained 4,469 individuals of 14 nesting hymenopteran species, two cleptoparasites, three chrysidid and one dipteran parasitoid. Of these species, four new nesting species have been recorded for the first time in galls induced by Lipara spp.: Chelostoma campanularum, Heriades rubicola, Pseudoanthidium lituratum and Hylaeus incongruus. We also provide first records of their nest cleptoparasites Stelis breviuscula and Stelis ornatula, and the parasitoid Holopyga fastuosa generosa. Thyridanthrax fenestratus formed strong populations in nests of Pemphredon fabricii and Trypoxylon deceptorium, which are both newly recorded hosts for T. fenestratus. The descriptions provided here allow for the first time to identify the larvae of

  19. Effects of the essential oils of Lippia turbinata and Lippia polystachya (Verbenaceae) on the temporal pattern of locomotion of the mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae.

    PubMed

    Kembro, Jackelyn M; Marin, Raúl H; Zygadlo, Julio A; Gleiser, Raquel M

    2009-04-01

    The essential oils (EO) of Lippia turbinata (TUR) and Lippia polystachya (POL) have shown lethal effects against mosquito larvae. The present work evaluated whether these EO at doses ranging from sublethal to lethal (20, 40 and 80 ppm) modify the temporal pattern of locomotion of Culex quinquefasciatus larvae. Larvae were individually placed in glass boxes, and their activity recorded at 0.3 s intervals during 40 min. Individuals treated with doses >40 ppm of either EO significantly decreased their ambulation speed and the percentage of total time ambulating compared to controls. TUR 80 ppm decreased their ambulation even sooner than POL 80 ppm, when compared to their respective controls. These findings are consistent with the neurotoxic effect against insects attributed to alpha-Thujone, a main component of both EO. A detrended fluctuation fractal analysis evaluating the complexity and organisation of the temporal pattern of locomotion showed fractal patterns in all animals. Both sublethal and lethal doses of TUR and POL increased the complexity of ambulation. Interestingly, for POL 20 ppm, an increase in complexity was observed, while no changes in general activity were detected, suggesting that fractal analysis may be more sensitive to detect behavioural changes than general activity evaluation. PMID:19085007

  20. The bioefficacy of crude extracts of Azadirachta indica (Meliaceae) on the survival and development of myiasis-causing larvae of Chrysomya bezziana (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    PubMed

    Singh, Amandeep; Kaur, Jasneet

    2016-01-01

    Myiasis is a type of parasitosis originating from the invasion of tissues of live humans and other vertebrates by dipteran larvae. The Old World screwworm fly—Chrysomya bezziana—is known worldwide in the tropical regions for causing myiasis among man and domestic animals, thereby leading to health hazards and severe economic losses to the dairy farmers. Management techniques for controlling populations of the fly are needed to minimize these losses. Plant-derived materials have been increasingly evaluated these days in controlling the insects of medical and veterinary importance. This study evaluated the efficacy of crude extracts of the plant neem, Azadirachta indica, against C. bezziana. The dried leaves of the plant were extracted successively with four different solvents viz. petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol and were evaluated against the third instar larvae of C. bezziana using dipping method and thin film application technique. In the dipping method, larvae were dipped in four different concentrations of plant extracts for 30 s, whereas in the thin film application, they were exposed to a thin film of plant extracts. The results showed that all the extracts had toxic effect on the larvae in both the techniques. In the dipping method, the highest mortalities were recorded in methanol extract followed by chloroform, petroleum ether and ethyl acetate extracts with LC50 values 1.07 g/100 ml, 1.7 g/100 ml, 3.39 g/100 ml and 4.9 g/100 ml, respectively. In the thin film application method, methanol extract showed the highest mortalities followed by chloroform, ethyl acetate and petroleum ether with LC50 values 0.4 mg/cm2, 0.6 mg/cm2, 2.1 mg/cm2 and 2.5 mg/cm2. It is concluded that the crude extracts of A. indica can be used in controlling the larvae of C. bezziana by using the dipping as well as thin film application technique. PMID:26494546

  1. Effect of preservative solutions on preservation of Calliphora augur and Lucilia cuprina larvae (Diptera: Calliphoridae) with implications for post-mortem interval estimates.

    PubMed

    Day, Donnah M; Wallman, James F

    2008-07-18

    A major role of forensic entomology is to estimate the post-mortem interval. An entomologist's estimate of post-mortem interval is based on a series of generally valid assumptions, error in any of which can alter the accuracy of an estimate. The initial process of collecting and preserving maggots can itself lead to error, as can the method of killing and preservation. Since circumstances exist where it is not possible to rear maggots, methods of killing and preservation can be vital to preserving the integrity of entomological evidence. In this study, a number of preservation techniques used at crime scenes and in mortuaries were examined, and their effect on feeding third-instar larvae of Calliphora augur and Lucilia cuprina evaluated. The preservatives used were 70, 75, 80, 90 and 100% EtOH, Kahle's solution and 10% formalin. Each treatment was replicated three times. The effect of handling on first- and second-instar, feeding and post-feeding third-instar larvae of C. augur was also examined and compared to unhandled controls. Finally, the effects of preservatives were noted when larvae of C. augur and L. cuprina were placed into preservatives alive. It was found that continued handling is detrimental to specimens because preservative evaporates from both the vial and the specimens. No single preservative type was found to be entirely suitable for both species if DNA retrieval is desired. Specimens placed into most preservatives alive exhibited adverse colour changes, desiccation, sunkeness and agglomeration. It is concluded that the reaction to preservative type might be species specific and that different instars of the same species might also react differently. PMID:18514451

  2. Simulated field evaluation of the efficacy of two formulations of diflubenzuron, a chitin synthesis inhibitor against larvae of Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) in water-storage containers.

    PubMed

    Thavara, Usavadee; Tawatsin, Apiwat; Chansang, Chitti; Asavadachanukorn, Preecha; Zaim, Morteza; Mulla, Mir S

    2007-03-01

    Tablet (40 mg a.i./tablet) and granular (2% a.i.) formulations of diflubenzuron, a chitin synthesis inhibitor, insect growth regulator, were evaluated for larvicidal efficacy against the larvae of Aedes aegypti (L.) in water-storage containers under field conditions in Thailand. Each formulation was applied to 200-1 clay jars at 5 different dosages (0.02, 0.05, 0.1, 0.5 and 1 mg/l a.i.). The jars were covered with solid celocrete sheets and placed in the shade under a roof. Another experiment was also carried out using 3 different dosages (0.1, 0.5 and 1 mg/l) where half the water in each treated jar and the control was removed and refilled weekly. Each treatment was replicated four times. The treatments were challenged by adding 25 3rd instar larvae/jar weekly. Assessments were made of each treatment through emergence inhibition (%EI) by removing and counting pupal skins one week after larval addition. Using these assessment techniques, a high degree of larvicidal efficacy (96-100%EI) was achieved with 4 dosages (0.05, 0.1, 0.5 and 1 mg/l) of both (tablet and granular) formulations for a period of 23 weeks post-treatment. The efficacy of the lowest dosage (0.02 mg/l) of tablet and granular formulations lasted for 21 and 22 weeks post-treatment, respectively. Under the conditions of water removal and weekly refilling, a high degree of larvicidal efficacy (96-100%El) at the 3 dosages was obtained with the tablet formulation 18 to 21 weeks post-treatment, whereas the efficacy of the granular formulation persisted 15 to 23 weeks post-treatment depending on the dosage. This study clearly demonstrates a high level of residual activity with both formulations of diflubenzuron against larvae of Ae. aegypti in water-storage containers. Considering environmental factors and water-use conditions, it is likely that dosages of 0.05 to 0.1 mg a.i./l are effective dosages providing long-lasting control for 3 to 4 months in the field. PMID:17539276

  3. Two Bacillus sphaericus binary toxins share the midgut receptor binding site: implications for resistance of Culex pipiens complex (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae.

    PubMed

    Silva-Filha, Maria Helena Neves Lobo; Oliveira, Cláudia Maria Fontes de; Regis, Lêda; Yuan, Zhiming; Rico, Clara Martinez; Nielsen-LeRoux, Christina

    2004-12-15

    This work demonstrates that Bin1 and Bin2 toxins, produced by Bacillus sphaericus strains IAB59 and 2362, respectively, share a binding site in midgut brush border membranes (BBMF) from Culex pipiens complex larvae. However, a colony selected with strain IAB59, displaying a resistance ratio of only 42-fold to IAB59, but a 162,000-fold resistance to strain 2362, was found to miss receptors for Bin2 in the BBMF. This correlates with results showing that Bin1, produced in strain IAB59, failed to bind specifically to BBMF from other colony highly resistant to strain 2362. Data indicate the loss of the BBMF bound receptor as a general mechanism of resistance to binary toxins in mosquito. PMID:15598531

  4. Effects of uranium-contaminated sediments on the bioturbation activity of Chironomus riparius larvae (Insecta, Diptera) and Tubifex tubifex worms (Annelida, Tubificidae).

    PubMed

    Lagauzère, S; Boyer, P; Stora, G; Bonzom, J-M

    2009-07-01

    Freshwater sediments represent a compartment for accumulation of toxic substances, notably of metallic pollutants such as uranium. However, they also constitute a privileged habitat for many benthic macro-invertebrate species with important roles in the functioning of these ecosystems, particularly through their bioturbation activities. Uranium accumulation in sediments can thus have harmful effects on these organisms (e.g., developmental delay, malformations, mortality). The present study aimed to evaluate the consequences of these effects on the bioturbation activity of Chironomus riparius larvae and Tubifex tubifex worms. These two species, which are widespread in freshwater ecosystems, are characteristic of two different modes of bioturbation: bioirrigation and upward bioconveying, respectively. By quantifying the burial and redistribution of fluorescent particulate tracers (microspheres), sediment reworking induced by these macro-invertebrates was measured after 12d of exposure. Biodiffusion D(b) and bioadvection W rates, as well as several other parameters, were estimated to assess and compare the bioturbation activity of the two species, separately and in combination, between uncontaminated and uranium-spiked sediments. The results reveal that C. riparius larvae were more sensitive to uranium, but their bioturbation activity, even under uncontaminated conditions, had little effect on sediment reworking. Particle mixing was mainly induced by T. tubifex worms, which were only affected by uranium at high concentrations in the sediment. Finally, bioturbation by T. tubifex led to a high degree of uranium release from sediment to the overlying water, which highlights the crucial role of this mostly dominant species on uranium biogeochemical cycles at concentrations existing in naturally contaminated sites. PMID:19403158

  5. Differences in performance and transcriptome-wide gene expression associated with Rhagoletis (Diptera: Tephritidae) larvae feeding in alternate host fruit environments.

    PubMed

    Ragland, Gregory J; Almskaar, Kristin; Vertacnik, Kim L; Gough, Harlan M; Feder, Jeffrey L; Hahn, Daniel A; Schwarz, Dietmar

    2015-06-01

    Host race formation, the establishment of new populations using novel resources, is a major hypothesized mechanism of ecological speciation, especially in plant-feeding insects. The initial stages of host race formation will often involve phenotypic plasticity on the novel resource, with subsequent genetically based adaptations enhancing host-associated fitness differences. Several studies have explored the physiology of the plastic responses of insects to novel host environments. However, the mechanisms underlying evolved differences among host races and species remain poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate a reciprocal larval performance difference between two closely related species of Rhagoletis flies, R. pomonella and R. zephyria, specialized for feeding in apple and snowberry fruit, respectively. Microarray analysis of fly larvae feeding in apples versus snowberries revealed patterns of transcriptome-wide differential gene expression consistent with both plastic and evolved responses to the different fruit resources, most notably for detoxification-related genes such as cytochrome p450s. Transcripts exhibiting evolved expression differences between species tended to also demonstrate plastic responses to fruit environment. The observed pattern suggests that Rhagoletis larvae exhibit extensive plasticity in gene expression in response to novel fruit that may potentiate shifts to new hosts. Subsequent selection, particularly selection to suppress initially costly plastic responses, could account for the evolved expression differences observed between R. pomonella and R. zephyria, creating specialized races and new fly species. Thus, genetically based ecological adaptations generating new biodiversity may often evolve from initial plastic responses in gene expression to the challenges posed by novel environments. PMID:25851077

  6. Inter-specific coral chimerism: Genetically distinct multicellular structures associated with tissue loss in Montipora capitata

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Work, Thierry M.; Forsman, Zac H.; Szabo, Zoltan; Lewis, Teresa D.; Aeby, Greta S.; Toonen, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    Montipora white syndrome (MWS) results in tissue-loss that is often lethal to Montipora capitata, a major reef building coral that is abundant and dominant in the Hawai'ian Archipelago. Within some MWS-affected colonies in Kane'ohe Bay, Oahu, Hawai'i, we saw unusual motile multicellular structures within gastrovascular canals (hereafter referred to as invasive gastrovascular multicellular structure-IGMS) that were associated with thinning and fragmentation of the basal body wall. IGMS were in significantly greater densities in coral fragments manifesting tissue-loss compared to paired normal fragments. Mesenterial filaments from these colonies yielded typical M. capitata mitochondrial haplotypes (CO1, CR), while IGMS from the same colony consistently yielded distinct haplotypes previously only found in a different Montipora species (Montipora flabellata). Protein profiles showed consistent differences between paired mesenterial filaments and IGMS from the same colonies as did seven microsatellite loci that also exhibited an excess of alleles per locus inconsistent with a single diploid organism. We hypothesize that IGMS are a parasitic cellular lineage resulting from the chimeric fusion between M. capitata and M. flabellata larvae followed by morphological reabsorption of M. flabellata and subsequent formation of cell-lineage parasites. We term this disease Montiporaiasis. Although intra-specific chimerism is common in colonial animals, this is the first suspected inter-specific example and the first associated with tissue loss.

  7. Inter-Specific Coral Chimerism: Genetically Distinct Multicellular Structures Associated with Tissue Loss in Montipora capitata

    PubMed Central

    Work, Thierry M.; Forsman, Zac H.; Szabó, Zoltán; Lewis, Teresa D.; Aeby, Greta S.; Toonen, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    Montipora white syndrome (MWS) results in tissue-loss that is often lethal to Montipora capitata, a major reef building coral that is abundant and dominant in the Hawai'ian Archipelago. Within some MWS-affected colonies in Kane'ohe Bay, Oahu, Hawai'i, we saw unusual motile multicellular structures within gastrovascular canals (hereafter referred to as invasive gastrovascular multicellular structure-IGMS) that were associated with thinning and fragmentation of the basal body wall. IGMS were in significantly greater densities in coral fragments manifesting tissue-loss compared to paired normal fragments. Mesenterial filaments from these colonies yielded typical M. capitata mitochondrial haplotypes (CO1, CR), while IGMS from the same colony consistently yielded distinct haplotypes previously only found in a different Montipora species (Montipora flabellata). Protein profiles showed consistent differences between paired mesenterial filaments and IGMS from the same colonies as did seven microsatellite loci that also exhibited an excess of alleles per locus inconsistent with a single diploid organism. We hypothesize that IGMS are a parasitic cellular lineage resulting from the chimeric fusion between M. capitata and M. flabellata larvae followed by morphological reabsorption of M. flabellata and subsequent formation of cell-lineage parasites. We term this disease Montiporaiasis. Although intra-specific chimerism is common in colonial animals, this is the first suspected inter-specific example and the first associated with tissue loss. PMID:21829541

  8. Inter-specific coral chimerism: Genetically distinct multicellular structures associated with tissue loss in Montipora capitata

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Work, Thierry M.; Forsman, Zac H.; Szabo, Zoltan; Lewis, Teresa D.; Aeby, Greta S.; Toonen, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    Montipora white syndrome (MWS) results in tissue-loss that is often lethal to Montipora capitata, a major reef building coral that is abundant and dominant in the Hawai'ian Archipelago. Within some MWS-affected colonies in Kane'ohe Bay, Oahu, Hawai'i, we saw unusual motile multicellular structures within gastrovascular canals (hereafter referred to as invasive gastrovascular multicellular structure-IGMS) that were associated with thinning and fragmentation of the basal body wall. IGMS were in significantly greater densities in coral fragments manifesting tissue-loss compared to paired normal fragments. Mesenterial filaments from these colonies yielded typical M. capitata mitochondrial haplotypes (CO1, CR), while IGMS from the same colony consistently yielded distinct haplotypes previously only found in a different Montipora species (Montipora flabellata). Protein profiles showed consistent differences between paired mesenterial filaments and IGMS from the same colonies as did seven microsatellite loci that also exhibited an excess of alleles per locus inconsistent with a single diploid organism. We hypothesize that IGMS are a parasitic cellular lineage resulting from the chimeric fusion between M. capitata and M. flabellata larvae followed by morphological reabsorption of M. flabellata and subsequent formation of cell-lineage parasites. We term this disease Montiporaiasis. Although intra-specific chimerism is common in colonial animals, this is the first suspected inter-specific example and the first associated with tissue loss.

  9. Inter-specific coral chimerism: genetically distinct multicellular structures associated with tissue loss in Montipora capitata.

    PubMed

    Work, Thierry M; Forsman, Zac H; Szabó, Zoltán; Lewis, Teresa D; Aeby, Greta S; Toonen, Robert J

    2011-01-01

    Montipora white syndrome (MWS) results in tissue-loss that is often lethal to Montipora capitata, a major reef building coral that is abundant and dominant in the Hawai'ian Archipelago. Within some MWS-affected colonies in Kane'ohe Bay, Oahu, Hawai'i, we saw unusual motile multicellular structures within gastrovascular canals (hereafter referred to as invasive gastrovascular multicellular structure-IGMS) that were associated with thinning and fragmentation of the basal body wall. IGMS were in significantly greater densities in coral fragments manifesting tissue-loss compared to paired normal fragments. Mesenterial filaments from these colonies yielded typical M. capitata mitochondrial haplotypes (CO1, CR), while IGMS from the same colony consistently yielded distinct haplotypes previously only found in a different Montipora species (Montipora flabellata). Protein profiles showed consistent differences between paired mesenterial filaments and IGMS from the same colonies as did seven microsatellite loci that also exhibited an excess of alleles per locus inconsistent with a single diploid organism. We hypothesize that IGMS are a parasitic cellular lineage resulting from the chimeric fusion between M. capitata and M. flabellata larvae followed by morphological reabsorption of M. flabellata and subsequent formation of cell-lineage parasites. We term this disease Montiporaiasis. Although intra-specific chimerism is common in colonial animals, this is the first suspected inter-specific example and the first associated with tissue loss. PMID:21829541

  10. Medfly Ceratitis capitata as Potential Vector for Fire Blight Pathogen Erwinia amylovora: Survival and Transmission.

    PubMed

    Ordax, Mónica; Piquer-Salcedo, Jaime E; Santander, Ricardo D; Sabater-Muñoz, Beatriz; Biosca, Elena G; López, María M; Marco-Noales, Ester

    2015-01-01

    Monitoring the ability of bacterial plant pathogens to survive in insects is required for elucidating unknown aspects of their epidemiology and for designing appropriate control strategies. Erwinia amylovora is a plant pathogenic bacterium that causes fire blight, a devastating disease in apple and pear commercial orchards. Studies on fire blight spread by insects have mainly focused on pollinating agents, such as honeybees. However, the Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly) Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae), one of the most damaging fruit pests worldwide, is also common in pome fruit orchards. The main objective of the study was to investigate whether E. amylovora can survive and be transmitted by the medfly. Our experimental results show: i) E. amylovora can survive for at least 8 days inside the digestive tract of the medfly and until 28 days on its external surface, and ii) medflies are able to transmit the bacteria from inoculated apples to both detached shoots and pear plants, being the pathogen recovered from lesions in both cases. This is the first report on E. amylovora internalization and survival in/on C. capitata, as well as the experimental transmission of the fire blight pathogen by this insect. Our results suggest that medfly can act as a potential vector for E. amylovora, and expand our knowledge on the possible role of these and other insects in its life cycle. PMID:25978369

  11. Male-specific phosphorylated SR proteins in adult flies of the Mediterranean Fruitfly Ceratitis capitata

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Alternative splicing is a widely used mechanism of gene regulation in sex determination pathways of Insects. In species from orders as distant as Diptera, Hymenoptera and Coleoptera, female differentiation relies on the activities of conserved splicing regulators, TRA and TRA-2, promoting female-specific expression of the global effector doublesex (dsx). Less understood is to what extent post-translational modifications of splicing regulators plays a role in this pathway. In Drosophila melanogaster phosphorylation of TRA, TRA-2 and the general RBP1 factor by the LAMMER kinase doa (darkener of apricot) is required for proper female sex determination. To explore whether this is a general feature of the pathway we examined sex-specific differences in phosphorylation levels of SR splicing factors in the dipteran species D. melanogaster, Ceratitis capitata (Medfly) and Musca domestica (Housefly). We found a distinct and reproducible pattern of male-specific phosphorylation on protein extracts enriched for SR proteins in C. capitata suggesting that differential phosphorylation may also contribute to the regulation of sex-specific splicing in the Medfly. PMID:25472723

  12. Medfly Ceratitis capitata as Potential Vector for Fire Blight Pathogen Erwinia amylovora: Survival and Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Ordax, Mónica; Piquer-Salcedo, Jaime E.; Santander, Ricardo D.; Sabater-Muñoz, Beatriz; Biosca, Elena G.; López, María M.; Marco-Noales, Ester

    2015-01-01

    Monitoring the ability of bacterial plant pathogens to survive in insects is required for elucidating unknown aspects of their epidemiology and for designing appropriate control strategies. Erwinia amylovora is a plant pathogenic bacterium that causes fire blight, a devastating disease in apple and pear commercial orchards. Studies on fire blight spread by insects have mainly focused on pollinating agents, such as honeybees. However, the Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly) Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae), one of the most damaging fruit pests worldwide, is also common in pome fruit orchards. The main objective of the study was to investigate whether E. amylovora can survive and be transmitted by the medfly. Our experimental results show: i) E. amylovora can survive for at least 8 days inside the digestive tract of the medfly and until 28 days on its external surface, and ii) medflies are able to transmit the bacteria from inoculated apples to both detached shoots and pear plants, being the pathogen recovered from lesions in both cases. This is the first report on E. amylovora internalization and survival in/on C. capitata, as well as the experimental transmission of the fire blight pathogen by this insect. Our results suggest that medfly can act as a potential vector for E. amylovora, and expand our knowledge on the possible role of these and other insects in its life cycle. PMID:25978369

  13. Assessment of productivity of Culex spp. larvae (Diptera: Culicidae) in urban storm water catch basin system in Wrocław (SW Poland).

    PubMed

    Rydzanicz, Katarzyna; Jawień, Piotr; Lonc, Elżbieta; Modelska, Magdalena

    2016-04-01

    In urban environments, catch basins serve as major developmental and resting sites for anthropophilic and zoophilic mosquitoes. However, the use of this habitat is inconsistent, with abundance of larvae varying significantly across catch basins at a fine spatial scale. During seasonal summer investigations on mosquito species composition, their spatial and temporal distribution and the environmental characteristic of the breeding sites in the underground storm drain systems of the Wrocław urban area (SW Poland) were assessed from May to September in 2012-2013. The study was conducted in order to develop a rational strategy to control mosquito populations and prevent the potential human exposure to mosquito-transmitted pathogens. Mosquito larvae and pupae were collected and identified weekly from 100 regularly inspected street catch basins located in the town center. All existing and potential breeding habitats in the study area were recorded using a GPS receiver (Magellan MobileMapper CX) and transferred to the computer database. Collected data on the geographical location of inspected breeding places, water quality parameters in inspected catch basins, daily temperature, and precipitation were imposed on orthophotomap in ArcGIS (ESRI, USA). Water quality parameters including pH, electrical conductivity, and water temperature were measured by standard methods. Chemical water analysis of cations (Na(+), NH4 (+), K(+), Mg(2+), Ca(2+)) and anions (Cl(-), NO2 (-), NO3 (-), SO4 (2-)) were carried out using Waters Alliance high-performance liquid chromatograph (HPLC) 2695 with 432 Conductivity Detector and 2998 Photodiode Array Detector, an IC-Pak Anion HR column (glauconate/borate eluent) and IC-Pak Cation M/D column (EDTA/HNO3 eluent). Over two seasonal studies and 3739 samplings in total, 3669 mosquito larvae and 274 pupae/1 dip (from 0 to 110 individuals/dip) were collected by dipper. Culex pipiens s.l. (L.) and Cx. torrentium (Martini) prevailed at all catch basins

  14. Laboratory and simulated field evaluation of a new recombinant of Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. israelensis and Bacillus sphaericus against Culex mosquito larvae (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Zahiri, Nayer S; Federici, Brian A; Mulla, Mir S

    2004-05-01

    In the laboratory, three microbial mosquito larvicidal products consisting of Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. israelensis de Barjac (Bti), Bacillus sphaericus (Neide) (Bsph) (strain 2362), and the University of California Riverside (UCR) recombinant (producing toxins of both Bacillus sphaericus and Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. israelensis) were bioassayed against larvae of Culex quinequefasciatus Say (susceptible and resistant to Bsph 2362), and Aedes aegypti (L.). Bti proved highly effective against Cx. Quinequefasciatus susceptible and resistant strains, with LC50 values of 0.009 and 0.011 ppm and LC90 values of 0.057 and 0.026 ppm for Bsph-susceptible and -resistant strains, respectively. Bti was also highly active against Ae. eagypti with LC50 and LC90 values of 0.014 and 0.055 ppm, respectively. The UCR recombinant was equally active against both Bsph-susceptible and -resistant strains of Cx. Quinquefasciatus; LC50 values were 0.005 and 0.009 and LC90 values were 0.030 and 0.043 ppm, respectively. Bti and the UCR recombinant essentially showed similar activity against Bsph-susceptible and -resistant strains. UCR recombinant showed high toxicity against Ae. eagypti with LC50 and LC90 values of 0.023 and 0.064 ppm, respectively. Bsph was highly active against susceptible strain of Cx. quinequefasciatus with LC50 and LC9o values of 0.006 and 0.024 ppm, respectively. Bsph exhibited little toxicity against Ae. eagypti larvae and also no toxicity to Bsph resistance. In the field, we evaluated four experimental corn grit formulations of Bti (VBC 60021), Bsph (VBC 60022), UCR recombinants VBC 60023 (7.89%), and VBC 60024 (1.87%) in simulated field (microcosms) against Bsph-susceptible Culex mosquitoes. Bti and low-concentrate UCR recombinant showed similar initial activity as well as persistence. Both materials provided high-to-moderate level of control for 2-7 d posttreatment at low treatment rates. At low dosages, residual activity of Bti and UCR recombinant lasted for

  15. Unique biochemical and molecular biological mechanism of synergistic actions of formamidine compounds on selected pyrethroid and neonicotinoid insecticides on the fourth instar larvae of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Mohamed Ahmed Ibrahim; Vogel, Christoph F A; Matsumura, Fumio

    2015-05-01

    We recently reported that formamidine pesticides such as amitraz and chlordimeform effectively synergize toxic actions of certain pyrethroid and neonicotinoid insecticides in some insect species on the 4th instar larvae of Aedes aegypti. Here we studied the biochemical basis of the synergistic actions of the formamidines in amplifying the toxicity of neonicotinoids and pyrethroids such as dinotefuran and thiamethoxam, as well as deltamethrin-fenvalerate type of pyrethroids. We tested the hypothesis that their synergistic actions are mediated by the octopamine receptor, and that the major consequence of octopamine receptor activation is induction of trehalase to increase glucose levels in the hemolymph. The results show that formamidines cause a significant up-regulation of the octopamine receptor and trehalase mRNA expressions. Furthermore, formamidines significantly elevate levels of free glucose when co-treated with dinotefuran, deltamethrin and fenvalerate, but not with permethrin or fenitrothion, which showed no synergistic toxic effects with formamidines. These results support the conclusion that the main mode of synergism is based on the ability to activate the octopamine receptor, which is particularly effective with insecticides causing hyperexcitation-induced glucose release and consequently leading to quick energy exhaustion. PMID:25987221

  16. Impact of Source Reduction on the Spatial Distribution of Larvae and Pupae of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) in Suburban Neighborhoods of a Piedmont Community in North Carolina

    PubMed Central

    RICHARDS, STEPHANIE L.; GHOSH, SUJIT K.; ZEICHNER, BRIAN C.; APPERSON, CHARLES S.

    2008-01-01

    Aedes albopictus (Skuse) is a principal nuisance mosquito species and a potential arbovirus vector throughout its geographic range in the United States. This species lays eggs, and progeny complete development in water-filled containers that are discarded in suburban landscapes. Source reduction of containers, achieved through environmental sanitation, was used to experimentally manipulate mosquito production to gain insight into the spatial structure of the population of immature Ae. albopictus. Our studies were conducted in suburban landscapes in Raleigh, NC, during the 2002 and 2003 mosquito seasons. Spatial analyses, using estimates of the mean and total standing crop of pupae and counts of the numbers of mosquito-positive containers, showed that the distribution of mosquito production was not spatially dependent on a neighborhood-wide basis. However, in all neighborhoods, mosquito production was clustered in at least one and often more than one adjacent residence. Point pattern analyses that considered only the presence or absence of pupae showed that pupae-positive residences were dispersed throughout neighborhoods receiving monthly source reduction treatments and clustered throughout control neighborhoods, indicating that source reduction affected the spatial distribution of pupae. Conversely, spatial analyses based on the presence or absence of larvae and pupae showed that mosquito production was randomly distributed among residences in both control and source reduction neighborhoods, showing that Ae. albopictus recolonized containers within several weeks after source reduction was implemented. Knowledge of the spatial distribution of production sites would allow management efforts for Ae. albopictus to be targeted to residences supporting high levels of mosquito production. PMID:18714860

  17. How functional genomics will impact fruit fly pest control: the example of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The highly invasive agricultural insect pest Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) is the most thoroughly studied tephritid fruit fly at the genetic and molecular levels. It has become a model for the analysis of fruit fly invasions and for the development of area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) programmes based on the environmentally-friendly Sterile Insect Technique (SIT). Extensive transcriptome resources and the recently released genome sequence are making it possible to unravel several aspects of the medfly reproductive biology and behaviour, opening new opportunities for comparative genomics and barcoding for species identification. New genes, promotors and regulatory sequences are becoming available for the development/improvement of highly competitive sexing strains, for the monitoring of sterile males released in the field and for determining the mating status of wild females. The tools developed in this species have been transferred to other tephritids that are also the subject of SIT programmes. PMID:25471105

  18. Area-Wide Suppression of the Mediterranean Fruit Fly, Ceratitis capitata, and the Oriental Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, in Kamuela, Hawaii

    PubMed Central

    Vargas, Roger I.; Piñero, Jaime C.; Mau, Ronald F. L.; Jang, Eric B.; Klungness, Lester M.; McInnis, Donald O.; Harris, Ernest B.; McQuate, Grant T.; Bautista, Renato C.; Wong, Lyle

    2010-01-01

    The United States Department of Agriculture's Agricultural Research Service initiated an area-wide fruit fly management program in Hawaii in 2000. The first demonstration site was established in Kamuela, Hawaii, USA. This paper documents suppression of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), and the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae), in a 40 km2 area containing urban, rural and agricultural zones during a 6 year period. The suppression techniques included sanitation, GF-120 NF Naturalyte Fruit Fly Bait sprays, male annihilation, Biolure® traps, and parasitoids against C. capitata and B. dorsalis. In addition, small numbers of sterile males were released against B. dorsalis. Substantial reductions in fruit infestation levels were achieved for both species (90.7 and 60.7% for C. capitata and B. dorsalis, respectively) throughout the treatment period. Fruit fly captures in the 40 km2 treatment area were significantly lower during the 6 year period than those recorded in three non-treated areas. The strategy of combining suppression techniques in an area-wide approach is discussed. PMID:20883128

  19. Life table assay of field-caught Mediterranean fruit flies, Ceratitis capitata, reveals age bias

    PubMed Central

    Kouloussis, Nikos A.; Papadopoulos, Nikos T.; Müller, Hans-Georg; Wang, Jane-Ling; Mao, Meng; Katsoyannos, Byron I.; Duyck, Pierre-François; Carey, James R.

    2012-01-01

    Though traps are used widely to sample phytophagous insects for research or management purposes, and recently in aging research, possible bias stemming from differential response of individuals of various ages to traps has never been examined. In this paper, we tested the response of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) males and females of four ages (spanning from 1 to 40 days) to McPhail-type traps baited with a synthetic food attractant in field cages and found that the probability of trapping was significantly influenced by age. The type of food on which flies were maintained before testing (sugar or protein) also had a strong effect and interacted with age. In another experiment, we collected wild C. capitata adults of unknown age using 1–3 methods and then reared them in the laboratory until death. The survival schedules of these flies were subsequently used in a life table assay to infer their age at the time of capture. Results showed that on a single sampling date, males captured in traps baited with a food attractant were younger compared with males aspirated from fruiting host trees, or males captured in traps baited with a sex attractant. Likewise, females captured in food-baited traps were younger compared with aspirated females. In addition to providing the first evidence of age-dependent sampling bias for a phytophagous insect species, this paper also provides a novel approach to estimate the differences in the age composition of samples collected with different techniques. These findings are of utmost importance for several categories of insects, medically important groups notwithstanding. PMID:22844133

  20. Temperature-dependent development and survival of Brazilian populations of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata, from tropical, subtropical and temperate regions.

    PubMed

    Ricalde, Marcelo P; Nava, Dori E; Loeck, Alci E; Donatti, Michele G

    2012-01-01

    The Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is one of the principal exotic pests affecting Brazilian production in the northeastern and southeastern regions of Brazil. In the south, it is has potential as a serious threat to temperate-climate fruit farms, since it is already found in urban and suburban communities in this region. We studied the biological characteristics of C. capitata populations from Pelotas-RS (temperate climate), Petrolina-PE (tropical), and Campinas-SP (subtropical). Ceratitis capitata biology was studied under controlled temperature (15, 20, 25, 30, and 35 ± 1 °C), 70 ± 10% RH, and 14:10 L:D photoperiod. The duration and survival rate of the egg, larval, and pupal stages were evaluated and the thermal requirements of these three populations were determined. The duration and survival of these developmental stages varied with temperature, with similar values for the three populations, except for some variation in the egg phase. Egg to adult developmental time for all three populations was inversely proportional to temperature; from 15 to 30 °C developmental time varied from 71.2 to 17.1, 70.2 to 17.1, and 68.5 to 16.9 days, respectively. Survival during development was affected at 15 to 30 °C, and differed significantly from survival at 20 to 25 °C. At 35 °C, immature stages did not develop. The basal temperature and degree-day requirement were similar for all immature stages except for the egg stage. The basal temperatures and thermal constants were 9.30 and 350, 8.47 and 341, and 9.60 °C and 328 degree-days for the Pelotas, Petrolina, and Campinas populations, respectively. Results suggested that survival and thermal requirements are similar for these tropical, subtropical, and temperate populations of C. capitata, and demonstrate the species' capacity to adapt to different climate conditions. PMID:22963468

  1. Temperature-Dependent Development and Survival of Brazilian Populations of the Mediterranean Fruit Fly, Ceratitis capitata, from Tropical, Subtropical and Temperate Regions

    PubMed Central

    Ricalde, Marcelo P.; Nava, Dori E.; Loeck, Alci E.; Donatti, Michele G.

    2012-01-01

    The Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is one of the principal exotic pests affecting Brazilian production in the northeastern and southeastern regions of Brazil. In the south, it is has potential as a serious threat to temperate-climate fruit farms, since it is already found in urban and suburban communities in this region. We studied the biological characteristics of C. capitata populations from Pelotas-RS (temperate climate), Petrolina-PE (tropical), and Campinas-SP (subtropical). Ceratitis capitata biology was studied under controlled temperature (15, 20, 25, 30, and 35 ± 1 °C), 70 ± 10% RH, and 14:10 L:D photoperiod. The duration and survival rate of the egg, larval, and pupal stages were evaluated and the thermal requirements of these three populations were determined. The duration and survival of these developmental stages varied with temperature, with similar values for the three populations, except for some variation in the egg phase. Egg to adult developmental time for all three populations was inversely proportional to temperature; from 15 to 30 °C developmental time varied from 71.2 to 17.1, 70.2 to 17.1, and 68.5 to 16.9 days, respectively. Survival during development was affected at 15 to 30 °C, and differed significantly from survival at 20 to 25 °C. At 35 °C, immature stages did not develop. The basal temperature and degree-day requirement were similar for all immature stages except for the egg stage. The basal temperatures and thermal constants were 9.30 and 350, 8.47 and 341, and 9.60 °C and 328 degree-days for the Pelotas, Petrolina, and Campinas populations, respectively. Results suggested that survival and thermal requirements are similar for these tropical, subtropical, and temperate populations of C. capitata, and demonstrate the species' capacity to adapt to different climate conditions. PMID:22963468

  2. Performance of Psyttalia humilis (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) reared from irradiated host on olive fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) in California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The parasitoid Psytallia humilis (Silvestri) was reared on Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), larvae irradiated at different doses from 0-70 Gy at the USDA, APHIS, PPQ, Moscamed biological control laboratory in San Miguel Petapa, Guatemala and shipped to the USDA, ARS, Parlier,...

  3. Leg impairment magnifies reproductive costs in male Mediterranean fruit flies, Ceratitis capitata.

    PubMed

    Harwood, James F; Vargas, Roger I; Carey, James R

    2013-04-01

    Injuries frequently accumulate with age in nature. Despite the commonality of injury and the resulting impairment, there are limited experimental data for the effects of impairment on life history trade-offs between reproduction and survival in insects. We tested the effects of artificial injury and the resulting impairment on the reproductive costs and behavior of male medflies, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae). Treatment flies were impaired by amputating tarsomere segments 2-5 from the right foreleg at either eclosion or age 22 days. The effect of impairment and age on the cost of reproduction was tested by varying the timing of female availability among the treatments. Courtship behavior and copulation rates were observed hourly from age 2-5 days to determine the effects of impairment on reproductive behavior. Female access combined with the impairment reduced the life expectancy of males more than the impairment alone, whereas the health effect of amputation was influenced by age. Conversely, the risk of death due to impairment was not influenced by the males' mating status prior to amputation. The males' copulation success was reduced due to impairment, whereas courtship behavior was not affected. Impairment does not reduce the males' impulse to mate but decreases the females' receptivity to copulation, while also increasing the cost of each successful mating. Overall, minor impairment lowers the reproductive success of males and reduces longevity. PMID:23525182

  4. Laboratory and field evaluation of formulated Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis as a feed additive and using topical applications for control of Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae) larvae in caged-poultry manure.

    PubMed

    Mwamburi, L A; Laing, M D; Miller, R

    2011-02-01

    Infestations of house flies, Musca domestica L., are a continual problem around poultry establishments. Acute toxicity of two commercial Bacillus thuringiensis variety israelensis (Bti) formulations (water-dispersible granules and bran formulation) was evaluated against larvae in the laboratory and against natural populations of M. domestica larvae in the field applied in feed to chickens and as topical applications in the poultry houses. Bioassay data showed that susceptibility of M. domestica larvae increased to a given concentration of Bti as the duration of exposure increased. In the laboratory studies, the LC(50) values of Bti for the larvae ranged between 65 and 77.4 μg/ml. In the field, a concentration of 10 g Bti/kg of feed resulted in 90% reduction of larvae at 4 wk after treatment. A higher concentration (2 g/liter) of Bti in spray applications was not significantly more effective than the lower concentration of 1 g/liter. Adding Bti to chicken feed is potentially an efficient measure for the management and control of house flies in caged-poultry facilities. PMID:22182611

  5. Influence of resources on Hermetia illucens (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) larval development.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Trinh T X; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Vanlaerhoven, Sherah

    2013-07-01

    Arthropod development can be used to determine the time of colonization of human remains to infer a minimum postmortem interval. The black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens L. (Diptera. Stratiomyidae) is native to North America and is unique in that its larvae can consume a wide range of decomposing organic material, including carrion. Larvae development was observed on six resources: control poultry feed, liver, manure, kitchen waste, fruits and vegetables, and fish rendering. Larvae fed manure were shorter, weighed less, and took longer to develop. Kitchen waste produced longer and heavier larvae, whereas larvae fed fish had almost 100% mortality. Black soldier flies can colonize human remains, which in many instances can coincide with food and organic wastes. Therefore, it is necessary to understand black soldier fly development on different food resources other than carrion tissue to properly estimate their age when recovered from human remains. PMID:23926790

  6. Comments on the association of immatures of Hemerodromia (Diptera, Empididae) and Simulium (Diptera, Simuliidae), and first record of this association in the Atlantic Forest (Brazil).

    PubMed

    Sánchez Molina, Óscar; Gil-Azevedo, Leonardo Henrique

    2016-11-01

    Larvae of Empididae (Diptera) prey on black fly immatures and its pupae can be collected from pupal cases of Simuliidae (Diptera). The aim of our work was to report the second record of association between immatures of Empididae and Simuliidae in the Neotropical Region and the first for the Atlantic Forest (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil). We collected 4982 pupae and exuviae of Simulium Latreille, (Diptera, Simuliidae) and found three with a pupa of Hemerodromia Meigen (Diptera, Empididae) inside. This shows that the use of black flies cocoons by dance flies occurs at extremely low frequencies, which might explain why this association is so rarely recorded. Our results are relevant for a better comprehension of the predator-prey relationship between these families. PMID:27456938

  7. [Larva migrans].

    PubMed

    Chabasse, D; Le Clec'h, C; de Gentile, L; Verret, J L

    1995-01-01

    Larbish, cutaneous larva migrans or creeping eruption, is a serpiginous cutaneous eruption caused by skin penetration of infective larva from various animal nematodes. Hookworms (Ancylostoma brasiliense, A. caninum) are the most common causative parasites. They live in the intestines of dogs and cats where their ova are deposited in the animal feces. In sandy and shady soil, when temperature and moisture are elevated, the ova hatch and mature into infective larva. Infection occurs when humans have contact with the infected soil. Infective larva penetrate the exposed skin of the body, commonly around the feet, hands and buttocks. In humans, the larva are not able to complete their natural cycle and remain trapped in the upper dermis of the skin. The disease is widespread in tropical or subtropical regions, especially along the coast on sandy beaches. The diagnosis is easy for the patient who is returning from a tropical or subtropical climate and gives a history of beach exposure. The characteristic skin lesion is a fissure or erythematous cord which is displaced a few millimeters each day in a serpiginous track. Scabies, the larva currens syndrome due to Strongyloides stercoralis, must be distinguished from other creeping eruptions and subcutaneous swelling lesions caused by other nematodes or myiasis. Medical treatments are justified because it shortens the duration of the natural evolution of the disease. Topical tiabendazole is safe for localized invasions, but prolonged treatment may be necessary. Oral thiabendazole treatment for three days is effective, but sometimes is associated with adverse effects. Trials using albendazole for one or four consecutive days appear more efficacious. More recent trials using ivermectine showed that a single oral dose can cure 100% of the patients; thus, this drug looks very promising as a new form of therapy. Individual prophylaxis consists of avoiding skin contact with soil which has been contaminated with dog or cat feces

  8. Identification of pheromone components and their binding affinity to the odorant binding protein CcapOBP83a-2 of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata

    PubMed Central

    Siciliano, P.; He, X.L.; Woodcock, C.; Pickett, J.A.; Field, L.M.; Birkett, M.A.; Kalinova, B.; Gomulski, L.M.; Scolari, F.; Gasperi, G.; Malacrida, A.R.; Zhou, J.J.

    2014-01-01

    The Mediterranean fruit fly (or medfly), Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann; Diptera: Tephritidae), is a serious pest of agriculture worldwide, displaying a very wide larval host range with more than 250 different species of fruit and vegetables. Olfaction plays a key role in the invasive potential of this species. Unfortunately, the pheromone communication system of the medfly is complex and still not well established. In this study, we report the isolation of chemicals emitted by sexually mature individuals during the “calling” period and the electrophysiological responses that these compounds elicit on the antennae of male and female flies. Fifteen compounds with electrophysiological activity were isolated and identified in male emissions by gas chromatography coupled to electroantennography (GC–EAG). Within the group of 15 identified compounds, 11 elicited a response in antennae of both sexes, whilst 4 elicited a response only in female antennae. The binding affinity of these compounds, plus 4 additional compounds known to be behaviourally active from other studies, was measured using C. capitata OBP, CcapOBP83a-2. This OBP has a high homology to Drosophila melanogaster OBPs OS-E and OS-F, which are associated with trichoid sensilla and co-expressed with the well-studied Drosophila pheromone binding protein LUSH. The results provide evidence of involvement of CcapOBP83a-2 in the medfly's odorant perception and its wider specificity for (E,E)-α-farnesene, one of the five major compounds in medfly male pheromone emission. This represents the first step in the clarification of the C. capitata and pheromone reception pathway, and a starting point for further studies aimed towards the creation of new powerful attractants or repellents applicable in the actual control strategies. PMID:24607850

  9. Isolation and characterization of storage lipids in sugarbeet root maggot larvae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sugarbeet root maggot, Tetanops myopaeformis (Röder) (Diptera: Ulidiidae), survives the winter by undergoing diapause as a matured third-instar larva. Third instars of this insect have been successfully maintained in cold (6±1 deg.C) storage for up to six years. The energy cost associated with t...

  10. Autophagy is required for the degeneration of the ovarian follicular epithelium in higher Diptera.

    PubMed

    Nezis, Ioannis P; Stravopodis, Dimitrios J; Margaritis, Lukas H; Papassideri, Issidora S

    2006-01-01

    Autophagy is a major pathway for the degradation of long-lived proteins and cytoplasmic organelles and an essential part of programmed cell death, as well. Our findings indicate that programmed cell death of the ovarian follicle cells in the higher Diptera species Bactrocera oleae and Ceratitis capitata manifests features of autophagic cell death. The follicle cells during the developmental stage 14 contain autophagic vacuoles and they do not exhibit caspase activity in any area of the egg chamber. Their nuclei are characterized by condensed chromatin, accompanied with high-but not low-molecular weight DNA fragmentation events exclusively detected in distinct cells of the anterior pole. The above results are likely associated with the abundant phagocytosis observed at the entry of the lateral oviducts, where numerous cell bodies are massively engulfed by epithelial cells. The similarity of the cell death process among B. oleae, C. capitata and Drosophila melanogaster species strongly suggests that autophagy-mediated cell death is conserved in higher Diptera species. PMID:16921270

  11. Picture-winged fly (Euxesta, Chaetopsis spp.; Diptera: Ulidiidae) semiochemical investigations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Picture-winged flies (Euxesta, Chaetopsis spp., Diptera: Ulidiidae) are severe primary pests of sweet corn in southern Florida. Females oviposit in silks and larvae consume the silks and kernels, rendering the ear unmarketable. Growers treat their fields with numerous broad spectrum insecticide ap...

  12. Examination of the pest status of corn-infesting Ulidiidae (Diptera)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Larvae of eleven species of picture-winged flies (Diptera: Ulidiidae) are known to feed on corn plants (Zea mays L.) in the western hemisphere. Choice and no-choice tests were conducted in greenhouse and field trials to determine the pest status on sweet corn of three of these species found in Flor...

  13. The Significance of Genetic Polymorphisms within and between Founder Populations of Ceratitis capitata (Wied.) from Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Basso, Alicia; Martinez, Laura; Manso, Fanny

    2009-01-01

    Background The Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis Capitata (DIPTERA: Tephritidae) is a major agricultural pest in Argentina. One main cause for the success of non-contaminant control programs based on genetic strategies is compatibility between natural and laboratory germplasms. A comprehensive characterization of the fruit fly based on genetic studies and compatibility analysis was undertaken on two founder populations from the provinces of Buenos Aires and Mendoza, used in pioneering sterile male technique control programmes in our country. The locations are 1,000 km apart from each other. Methodology/Principal Findings We compared the genetic composition of both populations based on cytological, physiological and morphological characterization. Compatibility studies were performed in order to determine the presence of isolation barriers. Results indicate that the Buenos Aires germplasm described previously is partially different from that of the Mendoza population. Both laboratory colonies are a reservoir of mutational and cytological polymorphisms. Some sexual chromosome variants such as the XL and the YL resulting from attachment of a B-chromosome to the X-chromosome or Y-chromosome behave as a lethal sex-linked factor. Our results also show incompatibility between both germplasms and pre-zygotic isolation barriers between them. Our evidence is consistent with the fact that polymorphisms are responsible for the lack of compatibility. Conclusions The genetic control mechanism should be directly produced in the germplasm of the target population in order to favour mating conditions. This is an additional requirement for the biological as well as economic success of control programs based on genetic strategies such as the sterile insect technique. The analysis of representative samples also revealed natural auto-control mechanisms which could be used in modifying pest population dynamics. PMID:19252742

  14. Continuation of sexual reproduction in Montipora capitata following bleaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, E. F.

    2007-09-01

    Bleaching is generally expected to produce detrimental impacts on coral reproduction. This study compared the fecundity of bleached and unbleached colonies of the Hawaiian coral Montipora capitata. It was hypothesized that bleaching would have no effect on reproduction because previous studies have shown that Montipora capitata can increase heterotrophic feeding following bleaching. Reproductive parameters, total reproductive output (bundles released ml-1 coral colony), number of eggs bundle-1, and egg size, measured in the summer of 2005 did not differ between colonies that bleached or did not bleach during 2004. These data were collected following a single bleaching event and cannot be used to predict the outcome should bleaching episodes become more frequent or severe.

  15. Intraguild predation influences oviposition behavior of blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    PubMed

    Galindo, Luciane A; Moral, Rafael A; Moretti, Thiago C; Godoy, Wesley A C; Demétrio, Clarice G B

    2016-05-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine whether blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) are able to identify larvae of an intraguild predator species in the substrate and avoid laying eggs there. Blow flies oviposited in traps with different treatments: substrate only and substrate with larvae of Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann, 1819), Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1794), or Chrysomya putoria (Wiedemann, 1830). Ch. megacephala, Ch. putoria, and Lucilia eximia (Wiedemann, 1819) avoided laying eggs in the trap containing Ch. albiceps larvae. Cochliomyia macellaria (Fabricius, 1775) did not oviposit differently in each substrate but had overall low abundance. The prevalence of species on corpses may be influenced by the ability of the species to detect the presence of other species, mainly predators. In this sense, intraguild predation may result in misinterpretations of a crime scene and should be considered when assessing the minimum postmortem interval. PMID:26888288

  16. How does wheat resistance mediated by H genes prevent manipulation of cell development by Hessian fly larvae?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The larva of the Hessian fly, Mayetiola destructor (Say) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), induces a gall nutritive tissue in susceptible wheat Triticum aestivum L. The nutritive tissue acts as a resource sink within the wheat seedling and causes serious crop losses. Hessian fly populations have been succes...

  17. Larval feeding behavior of the truncatus group of Thrypticus (Diptera:Dolichopodidae) that breed in the aerenchyma of Pontederiaceae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Larval feeding behavior of the truncatus group of Thrypticus (Diptera: Dolichopodidae) that breed in Pontederiaceae species are presented. The larvae of T. circularis Bickel & Hernández develop in globous petioles of Eichhornia crassipes (Martius) Solms- Laubach (Pontederiaceae), digging a mine near...

  18. Solidifying agent and processing of blood used for the larval diet affect screwworm (Diptera: Calliphoridae) life-history parameters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The current artificial diet for mass rearing screwworm, Cochliomyia hominivorax, (Coquerel) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) larvae is a semi-solid medium consisting of dry whole bovine blood, poultry egg powder and a milk substitute mixed with a bulking and solidifying agent and water. To reduce the mass r...

  19. HOST PLANT USE BY APPLE MAGGOT, WESTERN CHERRY FRUIT FLY, AND OTHER RHAGOLETIS SPECIES (DIPTERA: TEPHRITIDAE): IN CENTRAL WASHINGTON STATE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Host plant use by apple maggot fly, Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh), western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran, and other Rhagoletis species (Diptera: Tephritidae) in western Washington state and northwestern Oregon were determined by rearing larvae in fruit to adults in 2004 to 2006. Rh...

  20. Life History and Cost Analysis for Rearing Ceratitis Capitata (Diptera:Tephritidae) in a Liquid Diet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A liquid diet for rearing Bactrocera dorsalis was developed. Three hydrolyzed yeast (LS65, FNI200, FNI210), a glutamine enriched yeast (G, Fermaid SuperRelax, GSH), RDA500 (R, an enriched high vitamins yeast), Korea yeast, and their yeast products (FNI200+G, FNI200+R, FNI200+G+R, LS65 +G, LS65+R, L...

  1. Global assessment of seasonal potential distribution of Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Szyniszewska, Anna M; Tatem, Andrew J

    2014-01-01

    The Mediterranean fruit fly (Medfly) is one of the world's most economically damaging pests. It displays highly seasonal population dynamics, and the environmental conditions suitable for its abundance are not constant throughout the year in most places. An extensive literature search was performed to obtain the most comprehensive data on the historical and contemporary spatio-temporal occurrence of the pest globally. The database constructed contained 2328 unique geo-located entries on Medfly detection sites from 43 countries and nearly 500 unique localities, as well as information on hosts, life stages and capture method. Of these, 125 localities had information on the month when Medfly was recorded and these data were complemented by additional material found in comprehensive databases available online. Records from 1980 until present were used for medfly environmental niche modeling. Maximum Entropy Algorithm (MaxEnt) and a set of seasonally varying environmental covariates were used to predict the fundamental niche of the Medfly on a global scale. Three seasonal maps were also produced: January-April, May-August and September-December. Models performed significantly better than random achieving high accuracy scores, indicating a good discrimination of suitable versus unsuitable areas for the presence of the species. PMID:25375649

  2. Transgenic sexing system for Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) based on female-specific embryonic lethality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruit fly pest species have been successfully controlled and managed via the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT), a control strategy that uses infertile matings of sterile males to wild females to reduce pest populations. Biological efficiency in the field is higher if only sterile males are released in...

  3. Effect of Dietary Components on Larval Life History Characteristics in the Medfly (Ceratitis capitata: Diptera, Tephritidae)

    PubMed Central

    Nash, William J.; Chapman, Tracey

    2014-01-01

    Background The ability to respond to heterogenous nutritional resources is an important factor in the adaptive radiation of insects such as the highly polyphagous Medfly. Here we examined the breadth of the Medfly’s capacity to respond to different developmental conditions, by experimentally altering diet components as a proxy for host quality and novelty. Methodology/Principal Findings We tested responses of larval life history to diets containing protein and carbohydrate components found in and outside the natural host range of this species. A 40% reduction in the quantity of protein caused a significant increase in egg to adult mortality by 26.5%±6% in comparison to the standard baseline diet. Proteins and carbohydrates had differential effects on larval versus pupal development and survival. Addition of a novel protein source, casein (i.e. milk protein), to the diet increased larval mortality by 19.4%±3% and also lengthened the duration of larval development by 1.93±0.5 days in comparison to the standard diet. Alteration of dietary carbohydrate, by replacing the baseline starch with simple sugars, increased mortality specifically within the pupal stage (by 28.2%±8% and 26.2%±9% for glucose and maltose diets, respectively). Development in the presence of the novel carbohydrate lactose (milk sugar) was successful, though on this diet there was a decrease of 29.8±1.6 µg in mean pupal weight in comparison to pupae reared on the baseline diet. Conclusions The results confirm that laboratory reared Medfly retain the ability to survive development through a wide range of fluctuations in the nutritional environment. We highlight new facets of the responses of different stages of holometabolous life histories to key dietary components. The results are relevant to colonisation scenarios and key to the biology of this highly invasive species. PMID:24465851

  4. Global Assessment of Seasonal Potential Distribution of Mediterranean Fruit Fly, Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    PubMed Central

    Szyniszewska, Anna M.; Tatem, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    The Mediterranean fruit fly (Medfly) is one of the world's most economically damaging pests. It displays highly seasonal population dynamics, and the environmental conditions suitable for its abundance are not constant throughout the year in most places. An extensive literature search was performed to obtain the most comprehensive data on the historical and contemporary spatio-temporal occurrence of the pest globally. The database constructed contained 2328 unique geo-located entries on Medfly detection sites from 43 countries and nearly 500 unique localities, as well as information on hosts, life stages and capture method. Of these, 125 localities had information on the month when Medfly was recorded and these data were complemented by additional material found in comprehensive databases available online. Records from 1980 until present were used for medfly environmental niche modeling. Maximum Entropy Algorithm (MaxEnt) and a set of seasonally varying environmental covariates were used to predict the fundamental niche of the Medfly on a global scale. Three seasonal maps were also produced: January-April, May-August and September-December. Models performed significantly better than random achieving high accuracy scores, indicating a good discrimination of suitable versus unsuitable areas for the presence of the species. PMID:25375649

  5. New genetic tools for improving SIT in Ceratitis capitata: embryonic lethality and sperm marking

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of this research is the development of a sperm marking system for Ceratitis capitata, which is based on the use of the Ceratitis capitata spermatogenesis-specific Beta 2t promoter driving a fluorescent marker. The testes-specific Beta 2-tubulin gene was isolated by a degenerate PCR approach,...

  6. Excision of furuncular myiasis larvae using a punch: a simple, practical and aesthetic method*

    PubMed Central

    Pascoal, Gianne; de Oliveira, Fernanda Queiroz; Siqueira, Rosana Rocon; Lopes, Maria Gabriela Araújo; Martins Neto, Marcelino Pereira; Gamonal, Aloísio Carlos Couri

    2016-01-01

    Myiasis refers to Diptera larvae infesting vertebrate animals. There are two forms of the disease: primary and secondary. In primary myiasis, fly larvae invade and develop in healthy tissue; in secondary myiasis, flies lay their eggs in skin ulcerations, and the larvae develop in tissue necrosis products. Furuncular myiasis is a type of primary myiasis. Treatment for it consists of techniques such as the production of localized hypoxia to force the emergence of the larvae, and mechanical or surgical removal of the maggots. These techniques, however, are painful and often unsuccessful. We propose a new technique for extraction of myiasis larvae, which might facilitate the surgical procedure and constitute a virtually painless and aesthetic option for the patient.

  7. Demographic and quality control parameters of Anastrepha Fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) maintained under artificial rearing

    SciTech Connect

    Vera, T.; Abraham, S.; Oviedo, A.; Willink, E.

    2007-03-15

    The integration of the sterile insect technique (SIT) in the management of the South American fruit fly Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is a promising alternative to chemically-based control in those areas where it is sympatric with Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) or other tephritid species for which the SIT is being used. Implementation of the SIT requires the development of a cost effective mass-rearing protocol. In this work, we present demographic and quality control parameters for the A. fraterculus strain reared at the Estacion Experimental Agroindustrial Obispo Colombres, Tucuman, Argentina. Considering the rearing cage as the reproduction unit, we observed that fecundity is optimal during the first 3 weeks after the onset of oviposition. Fertility was constant during this period. During 2003 and 2004, some improvements were made to the existing rearing protocol, which resulted in increased larval viability, pupal weight, and adult emergence. Current weekly egg production is 1 million per week. These eggs are used to maintain the colony and to assess quality parameters. Finally, research needs leading to improved yields and fly quality are discussed. (author) [Spanish] La integracion de la Tecnica del Insecto Esteril (TIE) en el combate integrado de la mosca Sudamericana de la fruta, Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), es una alternativa interesante para reemplazar al control quimico en aquellas zonas donde esta especie es simpatrica con Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) u otros tefritidos para los que ya se utiliza la TIE. La implementacion de la TIE requiere del desarrollo de un protocolo de cria masiva que sea costo-efectivo. En este trabajo presentamos parametros demograficos y de control de calidad de la cepa criada en la Estacion Experimental Agroindustrial Obispo Colombres, Tucuman, Argentina. Considerando a la jaula de cria como unidad reproductiva, se observo

  8. Using genetic diversity information to establish core collections of Stylosanthes capitata and Stylosanthes macrocephala

    PubMed Central

    Santos-Garcia, Melissa Oliveira; de Toledo-Silva, Guilherme; Sassaki, Rodrigo Possidonio; Ferreira, Thais Helena; Resende, Rosângela Maria Simeão; Chiari, Lucimara; Karia, Cláudio Takao; Carvalho, Marcelo Ayres; Faleiro, Fábio Gelape; Zucchi, Maria Imaculada; de Souza, Anete Pereira

    2012-01-01

    Stylosanthes species are important forage legumes in tropical and subtropical areas. S. macrocephala and S. capitata germplasm collections that consist of 134 and 192 accessions, respectively, are maintained at the Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation Cerrados (Embrapa-Cerrados). Polymorphic microsatellite markers were used to assess genetic diversity and population structure with the aim to assemble a core collection. The mean values of HO and HE for S. macrocephala were 0.08 and 0.36, respectively, whereas the means for S. capitata were 0.48 and 0.50, respectively. Roger’s genetic distance varied from 0 to 0.83 for S. macrocephala and from 0 to 0.85 for S. capitata. Analysis with STRUCTURE software distinguished five groups among the S. macrocephala accessions and four groups among those of S. capitata. Nei’s genetic diversity was 27% in S. macrocephala and 11% in S. capitata. Core collections were assembled for both species. For S. macrocephala, all of the allelic diversity was represented by 23 accessions, whereas only 13 accessions were necessary to represent all allelic diversity for S. capitata. The data presented herein evidence the population structure present in the Embrapa-Cerrados germplasm collections of S. macrocephala and S. capitata, which may be useful for breeding programs and germplasm conservation. PMID:23271947

  9. Fauna europaea: Diptera - brachycera.

    PubMed

    Pape, Thomas; Beuk, Paul; Pont, Adrian Charles; Shatalkin, Anatole I; Ozerov, Andrey L; Woźnica, Andrzej J; Merz, Bernhard; Bystrowski, Cezary; Raper, Chris; Bergström, Christer; Kehlmaier, Christian; Clements, David K; Greathead, David; Kameneva, Elena Petrovna; Nartshuk, Emilia; Petersen, Frederik T; Weber, Gisela; Bächli, Gerhard; Geller-Grimm, Fritz; Van de Weyer, Guy; Tschorsnig, Hans-Peter; de Jong, Herman; van Zuijlen, Jan-Willem; Vaňhara, Jaromír; Roháček, Jindřich; Ziegler, Joachim; Majer, József; Hůrka, Karel; Holston, Kevin; Rognes, Knut; Greve-Jensen, Lita; Munari, Lorenzo; de Meyer, Marc; Pollet, Marc; Speight, Martin C D; Ebejer, Martin John; Martinez, Michel; Carles-Tolrá, Miguel; Földvári, Mihály; Chvála, Milan; Barták, Miroslav; Evenhuis, Neal L; Chandler, Peter J; Cerretti, Pierfilippo; Meier, Rudolf; Rozkosny, Rudolf; Prescher, Sabine; Gaimari, Stephen D; Zatwarnicki, Tadeusz; Zeegers, Theo; Dikow, Torsten; Korneyev, Valery A; Richter, Vera Andreevna; Michelsen, Verner; Tanasijtshuk, Vitali N; Mathis, Wayne N; Hubenov, Zdravko; de Jong, Yde

    2015-01-01

    Fauna Europaea provides a public web-service with an index of scientific names (including important synonyms) of all extant multicellular European terrestrial and freshwater animals and their geographical distribution at the level of countries and major islands (east of the Urals and excluding the Caucasus region). The Fauna Europaea project comprises about 230,000 taxonomic names, including 130,000 accepted species and 14,000 accepted subspecies, which is much more than the originally projected number of 100,000 species. Fauna Europaea represents a huge effort by more than 400 contributing taxonomic specialists throughout Europe and is a unique (standard) reference suitable for many user communities in science, government, industry, nature conservation and education. The Diptera-Brachycera is one of the 58 Fauna Europaea major taxonomic groups, and data have been compiled by a network of 55 specialists. Within the two-winged insects (Diptera), the Brachycera constitute a monophyletic group, which is generally given rank of suborder. The Brachycera may be classified into the probably paraphyletic 'lower brachyceran grade' and the monophyletic Eremoneura. The latter contains the Empidoidea, the Apystomyioidea with a single Nearctic species, and the Cyclorrhapha, which in turn is divided into the paraphyletic 'aschizan grade' and the monophyletic Schizophora. The latter is traditionally divided into the paraphyletic 'acalyptrate grade' and the monophyletic Calyptratae. Our knowledge of the European fauna of Diptera-Brachycera varies tremendously among families, from the reasonably well known hoverflies (Syrphidae) to the extremely poorly known scuttle flies (Phoridae). There has been a steady growth in our knowledge of European Diptera for the last two centuries, with no apparent slow down, but there is a shift towards a larger fraction of the new species being found among the families of the nematoceran grade (lower Diptera), which due to a larger number of small

  10. [Dipteran parasitoidism on larvae of Caligo atreus (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) in Cartago, Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    Calvo, Renin

    2004-12-01

    Parasitoids on larvae of Caligo atreus were studied at the Estación de Biologia Tropical in Rio Macho, Cartago, Costa Rica. (1 600 masl), from March through July 2000. Fifth instar larvae of C. atreus were placed on Heliconia tortuosa Griggs var. Red Twist (Heliconiaceae) host plants at a mean temperature of 16.7 degrees C. The parasitoids obtained belong to an unidentified species of the genus Winthemia (Diptera: Tachinidae). Most flies emerge some 40 days after the eggs were laid (maximum 68 days). They make an orifice on the upper ventral part of the lepidopteran pupa. Winthemia is used commercially as biological control of cotton and banana. PMID:17354401

  11. Patient with Tracheostomy Parasitized in Hospital by Larvae of the Screwworm, Cochliomyia hominivorax

    PubMed Central

    Batista-da-Silva, José A.; Borja, Gonzalo E. M.; Queiroz, Margareth M. C.

    2011-01-01

    Myiasis is the infestation of living vertebrates by fly larvae that feed for at least part of their development on the host's dead or living tissues, body substances, or ingested food. The occurrences of traumatic myiasis in humans and animals in urban and rural environments represent serious economic and public health concerns. This study reports a 49-year-old tracheostomized man undergoing chemotherapy treatment who was parasitized in the hospital in São Gonçalo, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, by larvae of the screwworm, Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in the thoracic cavity. PMID:22243525

  12. Multi-state survey of picture-winged flies (Diptera:Ulidiidae) attacking sweet corn in the southern U.S.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four picture-winged fly (Diptera: Ulidiidae) species in two genera were identified as direct pests of sweet and field corn ears in Florida from surveys conducted during 2007 and 2008. Larvae emerge from eggs deposited mostly in the silk canal to damage silk, kernels and cob rendering infested sweet...

  13. The preparation of the rice coral Montipora capitata nubbins for application in coral-reef ecotoxicology.

    PubMed

    Vijayavel, K; Richmond, R H

    2012-04-01

    Securing adequate and appropriate source material for coral-reef ecotoxicology studies is a significant impediment to conducting various experiments supporting the goal of conserving coral-reef ecosystems. Collecting colonies from wild stocks may be counter to protecting coral reef populations. To address this issue the rice coral Montipora capitata was used to generate sufficient genetically identical nubbins for research purposes. Growth and survival rates of these laboratory-prepared M. capitata nubbins were studied over a period of 90 days. The resulting data support the conclusion that the laboratory-prepared M. capitata nubbins showed successful growth and survival rates and are the best solution to solve the source material issue for lab experimentation. This paper describes the laboratory method used for the preparation and maintenance of these M. capitata nubbins and discusses the benefits and difficulties of using these nubbins in ecotoxicity studies. PMID:22218977

  14. External morphology of stable fly (Diptera: Muscidae) larvae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scanning electron microscopy was used to examine the external morphology of first-, second-, and third-instar stable flies (Stomoxys calcitrans (L.)). In the cephalic region, the antennae, labial lobe, and maxillary palpi are morphologically similar among instars. Antennae comprise a prominent ante...

  15. Effects of antinutrient proteins on Hessian fly (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) larvae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The most effective and economical control of Hessian fly, Mayetiola destructor (Say), is through deployment of genetically resistant wheat. Unfortunately, the deployment of single dominant resistance genes places a selection pressure on Hessian fly field populations that leads to the appearance of ...

  16. Lectins stain cells differentially in the coral, Montipora capitata.

    PubMed

    Work, Thierry M; Farah, Yael

    2014-03-01

    A limitation in our understanding of coral disease pathology and cellular pathogenesis is a lack of reagents to characterize coral cells. We evaluated the utility of plant lectins to stain tissues of a dominant coral, Montipora capitata, from Hawaii. Of 22 lectins evaluated, nine of these stained structures in the upper or basal body wall of corals. Specific structures revealed by lectins that were not considered distinct or evident on routine hematoxylin and eosin sections of coral tissues included apical and basal granules in gastrodermis and epidermis, cnidoglandular tract and actinopharynx cell surface membranes, capsules of mature holotrichous isorhizas, and perivitelline and periseminal cells. Plant lectins could prove useful to further our understanding of coral physiology, anatomy, cell biology, and disease pathogenesis. PMID:24518620

  17. Lectins stain cells differentially in the coral, Montipora capitata

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Work, Thierry M.; Farah, Yael

    2014-01-01

    A limitation in our understanding of coral disease pathology and cellular pathogenesis is a lack of reagents to characterize coral cells. We evaluated the utility of plant lectins to stain tissues of a dominant coral, Montipora capitata, from Hawaii. Of 22 lectins evaluated, nine of these stained structures in the upper or basal body wall of corals. Specific structures revealed by lectins that were not considered distinct or evident on routine hematoxylin and eosin sections of coral tissues included apical and basal granules in gastrodermis and epidermis, cnidoglandular tract and actinopharynx cell surface membranes, capsules of mature holotrichous isorhizas, and perivitelline and periseminal cells. Plant lectins could prove useful to further our understanding of coral physiology, anatomy, cell biology, and disease pathogenesis.

  18. Growth and survival of blowfly Lucilia sericata larvae under simulated wound conditions: implications for maggot debridement therapy.

    PubMed

    Čičková, H; Kozánek, M; Takáč, P

    2015-12-01

    Maggot debridement therapy has become a well-established method of wound debridement. Despite its success, little information is available about the optimum duration of the treatment cycle and larval growth in wounds. This study examines the development of Lucilia sericata (Diptera: Calliphoridae) larvae under two containment conditions (bagged and free range) under simulated wound conditions and assesses the impact of transport and further storage of larvae on their survival and growth. There was no significant difference in size between bagged and free-range larvae over the 72-h experimental period. Larvae grew fastest 8-24 h after inoculation and completed their growth at 40-48 h. Mortality rates were similar (0.12-0.23% per hour) in both containment conditions and did not differ significantly (P = 0.3212). Survival of free-range larvae was on average 16% lower than survival of bagged larvae. Refrigeration of larvae upon simulated delivery for > 1 day reduced their survival to < 50% and caused a reduction in growth of up to 30% at 12 h, but not at 48 h, of incubation. Therefore, it is recommended that free-range larvae are left in the wound for a maximum of 40-48 h, and bagged larvae for 48-72 h. Larvae should be used within 24 h of delivery to avoid high mortality caused by prolonged refrigeration. PMID:26382290

  19. Symbiotic bacteria enable olive fly larvae to overcome host defences

    PubMed Central

    Ben-Yosef, Michael; Pasternak, Zohar; Jurkevitch, Edouard; Yuval, Boaz

    2015-01-01

    Ripe fruit offer readily available nutrients for many animals, including fruit fly larvae (Diptera: Tephritidae) and their associated rot-inducing bacteria. Yet, during most of their ontogeny, fruit remain chemically defended and effectively suppress herbivores and pathogens by high levels of secondary metabolites. Olive flies (Bactrocera oleae) are uniquely able to develop in unripe olives. Unlike other frugivorous tephritids, the larvae maintain bacteria confined within their midgut caeca. We examined the interaction between larvae, their associated bacteria, and fruit chemical defence, hypothesizing that bacterial contribution to larval development is contingent on the phenology of fruit defensive chemistry. We demonstrate that larvae require their natural complement of bacteria (Candidatus Erwinia dacicola: Enterobacteriaceae) in order to develop in unripe olives. Conversely, when feeding on ripe fruit, larval development proceeds independently of these bacteria. Our experiments suggest that bacteria counteract the inhibitory effect of oleuropein—the principal phenolic glycoside in unripe olives. In light of these results, we suggest that the unique symbiosis in olive flies, compared with other frugivorous tephritids, is understood by considering the relationship between the fly, bacteria and fruit chemistry. When applied in an evolutionary context, this approach may also point out the forces which shaped symbioses across the Tephritidae. PMID:26587275

  20. From Parent to Gamete: Vertical Transmission of Symbiodinium (Dinophyceae) ITS2 Sequence Assemblages in the Reef Building Coral Montipora capitata

    PubMed Central

    Padilla-Gamiño, Jacqueline L.; Pochon, Xavier; Bird, Christopher; Concepcion, Gregory T.; Gates, Ruth D.

    2012-01-01

    Parental effects are ubiquitous in nature and in many organisms play a particularly critical role in the transfer of symbionts across generations; however, their influence and relative importance in the marine environment has rarely been considered. Coral reefs are biologically diverse and productive marine ecosystems, whose success is framed by symbiosis between reef-building corals and unicellular dinoflagellates in the genus Symbiodinium. Many corals produce aposymbiotic larvae that are infected by Symbiodinium from the environment (horizontal transmission), which allows for the acquisition of new endosymbionts (different from their parents) each generation. In the remaining species, Symbiodinium are transmitted directly from parent to offspring via eggs (vertical transmission), a mechanism that perpetuates the relationship between some or all of the Symbiodinium diversity found in the parent through multiple generations. Here we examine vertical transmission in the Hawaiian coral Montipora capitata by comparing the Symbiodinium ITS2 sequence assemblages in parent colonies and the eggs they produce. Parental effects on sequence assemblages in eggs are explored in the context of the coral genotype, colony morphology, and the environment of parent colonies. Our results indicate that ITS2 sequence assemblages in eggs are generally similar to their parents, and patterns in parental assemblages are different, and reflect environmental conditions, but not colony morphology or coral genotype. We conclude that eggs released by parent colonies during mass spawning events are seeded with different ITS2 sequence assemblages, which encompass phylogenetic variability that may have profound implications for the development, settlement and survival of coral offspring. PMID:22701642

  1. From parent to gamete: vertical transmission of Symbiodinium (Dinophyceae) ITS2 sequence assemblages in the reef building coral Montipora capitata.

    PubMed

    Padilla-Gamiño, Jacqueline L; Pochon, Xavier; Bird, Christopher; Concepcion, Gregory T; Gates, Ruth D

    2012-01-01

    Parental effects are ubiquitous in nature and in many organisms play a particularly critical role in the transfer of symbionts across generations; however, their influence and relative importance in the marine environment has rarely been considered. Coral reefs are biologically diverse and productive marine ecosystems, whose success is framed by symbiosis between reef-building corals and unicellular dinoflagellates in the genus Symbiodinium. Many corals produce aposymbiotic larvae that are infected by Symbiodinium from the environment (horizontal transmission), which allows for the acquisition of new endosymbionts (different from their parents) each generation. In the remaining species, Symbiodinium are transmitted directly from parent to offspring via eggs (vertical transmission), a mechanism that perpetuates the relationship between some or all of the Symbiodinium diversity found in the parent through multiple generations. Here we examine vertical transmission in the Hawaiian coral Montipora capitata by comparing the Symbiodinium ITS2 sequence assemblages in parent colonies and the eggs they produce. Parental effects on sequence assemblages in eggs are explored in the context of the coral genotype, colony morphology, and the environment of parent colonies. Our results indicate that ITS2 sequence assemblages in eggs are generally similar to their parents, and patterns in parental assemblages are different, and reflect environmental conditions, but not colony morphology or coral genotype. We conclude that eggs released by parent colonies during mass spawning events are seeded with different ITS2 sequence assemblages, which encompass phylogenetic variability that may have profound implications for the development, settlement and survival of coral offspring. PMID:22701642

  2. Are all eggs created equal? A case study from the Hawaiian reef-building coral Montipora capitata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padilla-Gamiño, Jacqueline L.; Bidigare, Robert R.; Barshis, Daniel J.; Alamaru, Ada; Hédouin, Laetitia; Hernández-Pech, Xavier; Kandel, Frederique; Leon Soon, Sherril; Roth, Melissa S.; Rodrigues, Lisa J.; Grottoli, Andrea G.; Portocarrero, Claudia; Wagenhauser, Stephanie A.; Buttler, Fenina; Gates, Ruth D.

    2013-03-01

    Parental effects have been largely unexplored in marine organisms and may play a significant role in dictating the phenotypic range of traits in coral offspring, influencing their ability to survive environmental challenges. This study explored parental effects and life-stage differences in the Hawaiian reef-building coral Montipora capitata from different environments by examining the biochemical composition of mature coral colonies and their eggs. Our results indicate that there are large biochemical differences between adults and eggs, with the latter containing higher concentration of lipids (mostly wax esters), ubiquitinated proteins (which may indicate high turnover rate of proteins) and antioxidants (e.g., manganese superoxide dismutase). Adults displayed high phenotypic plasticity, with corals from a high-light environment having more wax esters, lighter tissue δ13C signatures and higher Symbiodinium densities than adults from the low-light environment who had higher content of accessory pigments. A green-algal pigment (α-carotene) and powerful antioxidant was present in eggs; it is unclear whether this pigment is acquired from heterotrophic food sources or from endolithic green algae living in the adult coral skeletons. Despite the broad phenotypic plasticity displayed by adults, parental investment in the context of provisioning of energy reserves and antioxidant defense was the same in eggs from the different sites. Such equality in investment maximizes the capacity of all embryos and larvae to cope with challenging conditions associated with floating at the surface and to disperse successfully until an appropriate habitat for settlement is found.

  3. Sedimentation and the reproductive biology of the Hawaiian reef-building coral Montipora capitata.

    PubMed

    Padilla-Gamiño, Jacqueline L; Hédouin, Laetitia; Waller, Rhian G; Smith, Derek; Truong, William; Gates, Ruth D

    2014-02-01

    Environmental conditions can influence the physiology of marine organisms and have important implications for their reproductive performance and capacity to supply new recruits. This study examined the seasonal reproductive patterns of the coral Montipora capitata in habitats exposed to different sedimentation regimes. Although M. capitata is a main reef-building coral in the Hawaiian Archipelago, little is known about the gametogenic cycle and reproductive ecology of this important species. Our results indicate that gamete production in M. capitata is a resilient process; no differences in gamete development or fecundity were observed among sites with very different sedimentation regimes. The gametogenic cycle of M. capitata lasts between 10 and 11 months, with spawning occurring over 3-5 months during warmer months (May-September). Oocytes were found throughout the year, but spermatocysts were only found April-August. The largest increases in oocyte size occurred during February to May, the months when solar radiation increased rapidly. The largest variation in oocyte sizes was found during July and August; during this period individual colonies contained mature oocytes for immediate spawning and new oocytes being formed for spawning the next year. The capacity of M. capitata to reproduce in areas with high sedimentation is an interesting finding highlighting the potential of the species for acclimatization, adaptation, or both. Despite this optimistic finding, the management of terrestrial runoff and the restoration of habitat quality for corals remains a top priority to ensure the renewal and maintenance of coral populations. PMID:24648203

  4. De Novo Assembly and Transcriptome Analysis of the Mediterranean Fruit Fly Ceratitis capitata Early Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Salvemini, Marco; Arunkumar, Kallare P.; Nagaraju, Javaregowda; Sanges, Remo; Petrella, Valeria; Tomar, Archana; Zhang, Hongyu; Zheng, Weiwei; Saccone, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    The agricultural pest Ceratitis capitata, also known as the Mediterranean fruit fly or Medfly, belongs to the Tephritidae family, which includes a large number of other damaging pest species. The Medfly has been the first non-drosophilid fly species which has been genetically transformed paving the way for designing genetic-based pest control strategies. Furthermore, it is an experimentally tractable model, in which transient and transgene-mediated RNAi have been successfully used. We applied Illumina sequencing to total RNA preparations of 8–10 hours old embryos of C. capitata, This developmental window corresponds to the blastoderm cellularization stage. In summary, we assembled 42,614 transcripts which cluster in 26,319 unique transcripts of which 11,045 correspond to protein coding genes; we identified several hundreds of long ncRNAs; we found an enrichment of transcripts encoding RNA binding proteins among the highly expressed transcripts, such as CcTRA-2, known to be necessary to establish and, most likely, to maintain female sex of C. capitata. Our study is the first de novo assembly performed for Ceratitis capitata based on Illumina NGS technology during embryogenesis and it adds novel data to the previously published C. capitata EST databases. We expect that it will be useful for a variety of applications such as gene cloning and phylogenetic analyses, as well as to advance genetic research and biotechnological applications in the Medfly and other related Tephritidae. PMID:25474564

  5. Reclassification of Paenibacillus larvae subsp. pulvifaciens and Paenibacillus larvae subsp. larvae as Paenibacillus larvae without subspecies differentiation.

    PubMed

    Genersch, Elke; Forsgren, Eva; Pentikäinen, Jaana; Ashiralieva, Ainura; Rauch, Sandra; Kilwinski, Jochen; Fries, Ingemar

    2006-03-01

    A polyphasic taxonomic study of the two subspecies of Paenibacillus larvae, Paenibacillus larvae subsp. larvae and Paenibacillus larvae subsp. pulvifaciens, supported the reclassification of the subspecies into one species, Paenibacillus larvae, without subspecies separation. Our conclusions are based on the analysis of six reference strains of P. larvae subsp. pulvifaciens and three reference strains and 44 field isolates of P. larvae. subsp. larvae. The latter originated from brood or honey of clinically diseased honey bee colonies or from honey of both clinically diseased and asymptomatic colonies from Sweden, Finland and Germany. Colony and spore morphology, as well as the metabolism of mannitol and salicin, did not allow a clear identification of the two subspecies and SDS-PAGE of whole-cell proteins did not support the subspecies differentiation. For genomic fingerprinting, repetitive element-PCR fingerprinting using ERIC primers and PFGE of bacterial DNA were performed. The latter method is a high-resolution DNA fingerprinting method proven to be superior to most other methods for biochemical and molecular typing and has not previously been used to characterize P. larvae. ERIC-PCR identified four different genotypes, while PFGE revealed two main clusters. One cluster included most of the P. larvae subsp. larvae field isolates, as well as all P. larvae subsp. pulvifaciens reference strains. The other cluster comprised the pigmented variants of P. larvae subsp. larvae. 16S rRNA gene sequences were determined for some strains. Finally, exposure bioassays demonstrated that reference strains of P. larvae subsp. pulvifaciens were pathogenic for honey bee larvae, producing symptoms similar to reference strains of P. larvae subsp. larvae. In comparison with the type strain for P. larvae subsp. larvae, ATCC 9545T, the P. larvae subsp. pulvifaciens strains tested were even more virulent, since they showed a shorter LT100. An emended description of the species is given

  6. [Larva migrans cutanea].

    PubMed

    Nevoralová, Z

    2006-01-01

    A case of rare skin disease in Czech Republic caused by nematode larva is presented. The disease is most frequently caused by Ankylostoma brasiliensis and was imported from Brazil. It was successfully treated by peroral therapy with albendazol. PMID:16639935

  7. Unusual Occurrence of Cocoons in Population of Haplodiplosis marginata (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) in Belgium

    PubMed Central

    Censier, F.; Chavalle, S.; Knor, S.; De Proft, M.; Bodson, B.; Skuhravá, M.

    2014-01-01

    The saddle gall midge, Haplodiplosis marginata (von Roser) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), is a phytophagous species that develops in saddle-shaped galls on stems of wheat Triticum vulgare, barley Hordeum sativum, rye Secale cereale, and some other species of Poaceae. Only one generation develops per year. Full-grown larvae leave galls and drop onto the soil where they remain up to the springtime of the following year. Larvae do not usually spin cocoons. However, formation of cocoons by larvae was observed in populations developing in western Europe: in England in 1954, in the Netherlands in the 1960s, and in Belgium in 2011. On the basis of our analysis, a part of the larval population forms cocoons as protection against unfavorable weather conditions, especially drought. PMID:25525104

  8. Baylisascaris larva migrans.

    PubMed

    Kazacos, Kevin R; Jelicks, Linda A; Tanowitz, Herbert B

    2013-01-01

    Baylisascaris procyonis is a roundworm of the raccoon found primarily in North America but also known to occur in other parts of the world including South America, Europe, and Japan. Migration of the larvae of this parasite is recognized as a cause of clinical neural larva migrans (NLM) in humans, primarily children. It is manifested as meningoencephalitis associated with marked eosinophilia of the cerebrospinal fluid and peripheral blood. Diagnosis is made by recovering and identifying larvae in or from the tissues, epidemiological history, serology, and imaging of the central nervous system. Treatment is with albendazole and steroids, although the prognosis is generally poor. This parasite can also cause ocular larva migrans (OLM) which usually presents as diffuse unilateral subacute neuroretinitis (DUSN). The ocular diagnosis can be made by visualizing the larva in the eye and by serology. Intraocular larvae can be destroyed by photocoagulation although albendazole and steroids may also be used. However, once visual disturbance is established the prognosis for improved vision is poor. Related Baylisascaris species occur in skunks, badgers, and certain other carnivores, although most cases of NLM are caused by B. procyonis. Baylisascaris procyonis has also been found in kinkajous in the USA and South America and may also occur in related procyonids (coatis, olingos, etc.). PMID:23829916

  9. Confirming Hypoderma tarandi (Diptera: Oestridae) human ophthalmomyiasis by larval DNA barcoding.

    PubMed

    Rukke, Bjørn Arne; Cholidis, Symira; Johnsen, Arild; Ottesen, Preben

    2014-06-01

    DNA barcoding is a practical tool for species identification, when morphological classification of an organism is difficult. Herein we describe the utilisation of this technique in a case of ophthalmomyiasis interna. A 12-year-old boy was infested during a summer holiday in northern Norway, while visiting an area populated with reindeer. Following medical examination, a Diptera larva was surgically removed from the boy's eye and tentatively identified from its morphological traits as Hypoderma tarandi (L.) (Diptera: Oestridae). Ultimately, DNA barcoding confirmed this impression. The larval cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (COI) DNA sequence was matched with both profiles of five adult H. tarandi from the same region where the boy was infested, and other established profiles of H. tarandi in the Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD) identification engine. PMID:24827102

  10. Multiple species of scuttle flies (Diptera: Phoridae) as contaminants in forensic entomology laboratory insect colony.

    PubMed

    Zuha, R M; Jenarthanan, L X Q; Disney, R H L; Omar, B

    2015-09-01

    In forensic entomology, larval rearing usually includes the presence of biological contaminants including scuttle flies (Diptera: Phoridae). Scuttle flies are recognized as forensically important insects and have been reported causing nuisance and contamination in laboratory environments. This paper reports for the first time the finding of multiple scuttle fly species affecting colonies of third instar larvae of the Oriental latrine blowfly, Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), reared indoors at the Forensic Science Simulation Site, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. Adult scuttle flies were discovered inside a rearing container after the emergence of adult C. megacephala., The scuttle fly species are Megaselia scalaris (Loew), M. spiracularis Schmitz and Puliciphora borinquenensis (Wheeler). Notes on the life history and biology of these species are discussed herein. PMID:26695221

  11. Using black soldier fly larvae for processing organic leachates.

    PubMed

    Popa, Radu; Green, Terrence R

    2012-04-01

    A large number of biodegradable byproducts including alcohols, soluble saccharides, volatile organic acids, and amines accumulate in the liquid fraction (leachate) produced as vegetal and food scrap waste decomposes. Untreated leachate, because it is rich in nutrients and organic byproducts, has a high chemical oxygen demand and is normally cleared of soluble organic byproducts by mineralization before its discharge into waterways. Mineralizing leachates using chemical and microbial biotechnologies is, however, a lengthy and costly process. We report here that the larvae of the black soldier fly Hermetia illucens (L.) (Diptera: Stratiomyidae), an insect rich in protein and lipids, and having significant commercial value, while feeding and growing off of compost leachate, lowers its chemical oxygen demand relative to that of leachate unexposed to larvae, neutralizes its acidity, and clears it of volatile organic acids, amines, and alcohols. These observations demonstrate that black soldier fly larvae could be used to help offset the cost and clean up of organic solutes in leachate waste streams while recycling carbon, nitrogen, and phosphate into usable and commercially valuable biomass. PMID:22606806

  12. Baylisascaris larva migrans

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kazacos, Kevin R.

    2016-01-01

    SummaryBaylisascaris procyonis, the common raccoon roundworm, is the most commonly recognized cause of clinical larva migrans (LM) in animals, a condition in which an immature parasitic worm or larva migrates in a host animal’s tissues, causing obvious disease. Infection with B. procyonis is best known as a cause of fatal or severe neurologic disease that results when the larvae invade the brain, the spinal cord, or both; this condition is known as neural larva migrans (NLM). Baylisascariasis is a zoonotic disease, that is, one that is transmissible from animals to humans. In humans, B. procyonis can cause damaging visceral (VLM), ocular (OLM), and neural larva migrans. Due to the ubiquity of infected raccoons around humans, there is considerable human exposure and risk of infection with this parasite. The remarkable disease-producing capability of B. procyonis in animals and humans is one of the most significant aspects of the biology of ascarids (large roundworms) to come to light in recent years. Infection with B. procyonis has important health implications for a wide variety of free-ranging and captive wildlife, zoo animals, domestic animals, as well as human beings, on both an individual and population level. This report, eighth in the series of U.S. Geological Survey Circulars on zoonotic diseases, will help us to better understand the routes of Baylisascaris procyonis infections and how best to adequately monitor this zoonotic disease.

  13. Hepatic visceral larva migrans

    PubMed Central

    Rohilla, Seema; Jain, Nitin; Yadav, Rohtas; Dhaulakhandi, Dhara Ballabh

    2013-01-01

    Visceral larva migrans (VLM) is a systemic manifestation of migration of second stage larvae of nematodes through the tissue of human viscera. It is not uncommon but is underdiagnosed in developing countries. The liver is the most common organ to be involved due to its portal venous blood supply. The imaging findings are subtle and differentiation from hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), metastases, cystic mesenchymal hamartoma and granulomatous diseases is difficult. This case report highlights the imaging features of hepatic lesions of VLM along with clinical and laboratory data which help in clinching the diagnosis. PMID:23853189

  14. Invasive infection due to Saprochaete capitata in a young patient with hematological malignancies.

    PubMed

    Parahym, Ana Maria Rabelo de Carvalho; Rolim Neto, Pedro José; da Silva, Carolina Maria; Domingos, Igor de Farias; Gonçalves, Sarah Santos; Leite, Edinalva Pereira; de Morais, Vera Lúcia Lins; Macêdo, Danielle Patrícia Cerqueira; de Lima Neto, Reginaldo Gonçalves; Neves, Rejane Pereira

    2015-06-01

    We report a case of invasive infection due to Saprochaete capitata in a patient with hematological malignancies after chemotherapy treatment and empiric antifungal therapy with caspofungin. Although severely immunocompromised the patient survived been treated with amphotericin B lipid complex associated with voriconazole. PMID:26273269

  15. Laboratory evaluation of the chemosterilant lufenuron against Ceratitis capitata, Bactrocera dorsalis, B. cucurbitae, and B. latifrons.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four species of tephritid fruit flies, Ceratitis capitata, Bactrocera dorsalis, B. cucurbitae, and B. latifrons were evaluated for toxic, developmental, and physiological responses to the chemosterilant lufenuorn incorporated in an agar adult diet and a liquid larval diet. No significant mortality o...

  16. An agent-based simulation of extirpation of Ceratitis capitata applied to invasions in California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We describe and validate an Agent-Based Simulation(ABS) of invasive insects and use it to investigate the time to extirpation of Ceratitis capitata using data from seven outbreaks that occurred in California from 2008-2010. Results are compared with the length of intervention and quarantine imposed ...

  17. Development of an embryonic lethality system for transgenic sit in the fruit pest, ceratitis capitata

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ceratitis capitata, known as one of the world's most destructive insect pest, costs farmers billions of dollars annually. Improved biological strategies are needed to increase the efficacy of area-wide pest management. Transgenic methodology should enhance and widen the applicability of the sterile ...

  18. Invasive infection due to Saprochaete capitata in a young patient with hematological malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Parahym, Ana Maria Rabelo de Carvalho; Rolim, Pedro José; da Silva, Carolina Maria; Domingos, Igor de Farias; Gonçalves, Sarah Santos; Leite, Edinalva Pereira; de Morais, Vera Lúcia Lins; Macêdo, Danielle Patrícia Cerqueira; de Lima, Reginaldo Gonçalves; Neves, Rejane Pereira

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of invasive infection due to Saprochaete capitata in a patient with hematological malignancies after chemotherapy treatment and empiric antifungal therapy with caspofungin. Although severely immunocompromised the patient survived been treated with amphotericin B lipid complex associated with voriconazole. PMID:26273269

  19. Phytochemical and biological studies of Butia capitata Becc. leaves cultivated in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Ammar, Nagwa Mohamed; Hefnawy, Mohammed Said; Al-Okbi, Sahar Youssef; Mohamed, Doha Abdou; El-Sayed, Nabil Khamis; El-Anssary, Amira Ahmed; Mabry, Tom

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity of Butia capitata (B. capitata) leaf extracts along with phytochemical analysis of the proposed bioactive constituents. Methods Different successive extracts of B. capitata Becc. leaves were prepared with selective organic solvents and screened for their anti-inflammatory activities in tested animals and in-vitro antioxidant effect. An extensive phytochemical investigation of the bioactive extracts through paper chromatography, thin layer chromatography, column chromatography, gas-liquid chromatography (GLC), high pressure liquid chromatography and spectral analysis. GC-Mass, ultraviolet, hydrogen and carbon nuclear magnetic resonance, electron ionization-mass spectrometry, heteronuclear multiple bond correlation and heteronuclear multiple quantum correlation were carried out. Results Results showed that different extracts possess promising antioxidant effect and significant anti-inflammatory activity with variable degrees. The results of the phytochemical investigation of the bioactive extracts revealed the presence of volatile substances, lipoidal matter, α-tocopherol, free sugars, polysaccharides and flavonoidal compounds. Conclusions B. capitata leaf extracts were shown to possess variable antioxidant effect, the most promising was methanol extract. Both polar and non polar extracts were proved to have anti-inflammatory activity, the non polar extract was superior in this respect. The bioactivity of the extracts was ascribed to the presence of flavonoids, sterols and α-tocopherol. PMID:25182947

  20. Soil application of Beauveria bassiana to control Ceratitis capitata in semi field conditions.

    PubMed

    Ali, Ali; Sermann, Helga; Lerche, Sandra; Büttner, Carmen

    2009-01-01

    The Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) is a highly polyphagous pest of economic importance cultures in Syria, as in many other parts of the world. The potential of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiona BALS (VUIL.) strain 412 against adults of Mediterranean fruit fly C. capitata was evaluated in semi field conditions during the summer. Soil (5-7 cm high) was filled into plastic container (27 cm x 32 cm). In one container 75 pupae, two days before emergency, were spread uniformly on the soil. Then the pupae were covered with soil (4-5 cm layer). After that, 30 ml suspension of fungal spores (4 x 10(8) spores/ml) was applied to the soil surface using a dash bottle. This corresponded to a spore density of 1.3 x 10(7) spores/cm2 on soil. Water and food (1:4 yeast, sucrose) were placed in the cages for the emerged flies. The semi-field evaluation of B. bassiana revealed a fly mortality of about 46% compared to 16% in the control. In addition 72% of dead flies were moulded in the treatment. These results indicated that the entomopathogenic fungus B. bassiana was pathogen against the adults of C. capitata not only in the laboratory condition but also under field condition. That means B. bassiana could decrease the offspring of C. capitata. Therefore B. bassiana could be an effective factor to control C. capitata in combination with other control methods, used in IPM program in the field. PMID:20222591

  1. The Use of the Developmental Rate of the Aquatic Midge Chironomus riparius (Diptera, Chironomidae) in the Assessment of the Postsubmersion Interval.

    PubMed

    González Medina, Alejandro; Soriano Hernando, Óscar; Jiménez Ríos, Gilberto

    2015-05-01

    Nonbiting midges (Diptera, Chironomidae) are the most abundant members of the fauna associated with submerged carcasses, but their use in the medicolegal context is very restricted because of their complex ontogeny. In this case, the corpse of a woman was recovered in late spring from a river in Granada (Iberian Peninsula). It showed obvious signs of long permanence in the aquatic environment and, along with pulmonary and microscopical analyses, led to the conclusion that the cause of death was drowning. Several larvae-like specimens were sampled from the scalp and later identified by morphological external features as IV instar larvae of Chironomus riparius Meigen, 1804 (Diptera, Chironomidae). Sequencing of cytochrome oxidase subunit I was performed to confirm the identification. The knowledge of the biology of C. riparius at low temperatures was critical to assess a postsubmersion interval of 16-17 days. PMID:25613586

  2. Medhost: An encyclopedic bibliography of the host plants of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), version 3.0

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Mediterranean fruit fly (Medfly), Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), causes direct damage to fruits and vegetables through oviposition and larval feeding. Rigorous quarantine procedures are currently enforced to prevent domestic and transnational spread of Medfly. Accessible and reliable informatio...

  3. Response of Ceratitis capitata, Bactrocera dorsalis, and Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera:Tephritidae) to metabolic stress disinfection and disinfestation treatment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Metabolic stress disinfection and disinfestation (MSDD) is a postharvest treatment designed to control pathogens and arthropod pests on commodities that combines short cycles of low pressure/vacuum and high CO2 with ethanol vapor. Experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of MSDD treatment o...

  4. Improving male mating competitiveness and survival in the field for medfly, Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) SIT programs.

    PubMed

    McInnis, D O; Shelly, T E; Komatsu, J

    2002-09-01

    The success of the sterile insect technique (SIT) depends critically upon mating between released sterilized males and wild females. In Hawaii, improvements in the efficiency of sterile males were attempted on two separate fronts--mating enhancement and survival improvement. In the former, two methods have been investigated--selective breeding and aromatherapy. In the latter, flies which survived in field cages for several days were selected and bred to produce progeny with enhanced survival ability compared to control flies. Regarding mating selection, standard laboratory-reared males that successfully mated with wild females in field cages were allowed to breed. F1 offspring were inbred, then the selection procedure was repeated for four additional cycles. In the aromatherapy procedure, laboratory-reared males were exposed to ginger root oil for several hours 1 day prior to testing in field cages. Compared to controls, the selected flies improved the mating competitiveness of male flies ca. 3-fold, irradiation reduced this increase to ca. 2.5-fold. Exposing the selected, hybrid strain raised the fitness of the lab males to ca. 9-fold that of wild males. In the ongoing survival selection study, we have obtained lines in which the selected males survived ca. 2-fold better than laboratory control males over several days in an outdoor field cage, with food and water provided. The goal is to combine the traits of higher survival and mating ability into a single strain for SIT release. PMID:12484531

  5. Anatomical modifications, viviparous reproduction and hydraulic expulsion of larvae by Cephenemyia nasopharyngeal bot flies of deer.

    PubMed

    Anderson, J R

    2013-12-01

    Several specialized adaptations of the reproductive and respiratory systems associated with the retention and expulsion of larvae in ovoviviparous Cephenemyia species (Diptera: Oestridae) are described and illustrated. In these flies the anterior section of the common oviduct is modified into a large sac-like uterus that contains larvae, and the posterior section is modified into a larvipositor with a central tubular vagina. During larviposition, contraction of abdominal muscles forces haemolymph into a perivaginal sinus, causing a hydraulically driven exsertion of the larvipositor. A group of larvae and uterine fluid sealed off within the lumen of the vagina are then expelled from the vulva via hydraulic pressure as the stretched vagina is compressed. A one-way, non-return valve between the uterus and vagina prevents a reflux of larvae upward into the uterus during larviposition. All mutually dependent actions associated with larviposition occur almost simultaneously. All species have evolved a similar mechanism of expelling their larvae, but the shape of the non-return valve is different in each species studied. PMID:23489106

  6. In vitro effects of household products on Calliphoridae larvae development: implication for forensic entomology.

    PubMed

    Aubernon, Cindy; Devigne, Cedric; Hedouin, Valery; Gosset, Didier; Charabidze, Damien

    2015-01-01

    Several parameters can delay the first arrival of flies on a corpse and the subsequent development of the larvae. This study focuses on the development of Lucilia sericata (Diptera: Calliphoridae) (Meigen, 1826) on household chemical-contaminated substrates. bleach, perfume, hydrochloric acid, caustic soda, insecticide, mosquito repellent, and gasoline in quantities consistent with an amount that could possibly be spilled on a corpse were mixed with beef liver to simulate contaminated fleshes. Larvae were bred at 25 °C on these media until emergence. Four developmental parameters were followed: survival rates, development times, sex ratios, and adult sizes. Hydrochloric acid, insecticide, and gasoline killed all larvae. In low quantities, caustic soda and mosquito repellent increased the development time and decreased the adult size. However, high quantities of these chemicals killed all larvae. Lastly, bleach and perfume did not affect the survival rate and barely impacted the development time or adult size. These results demonstrate common household products spilled on a corpse can strongly affect the development of Calliphoridae larvae. The effects of such products should be considered in forensic entomology cases. PMID:25066081

  7. A comparative assessment of the response of three fruit fly species (Diptera: Tephritidae) to a spinosad-based bait: effect of ammonium acetate, female age, and protein hunger.

    PubMed

    Piñero, J C; Mau, R F L; Vargas, R I

    2011-08-01

    Ammonia-releasing substances are known to play an important role in fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) attraction to food sources, and this information has been exploited for the development of effective synthetic food-based lures and insecticidal baits. In field studies conducted in Hawaii, we examined the behavioural response of wild female oriental fruit fly (Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel)), melon fly (B. cucurbitae (Coquillett)), and Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann)) to spinosad-based GF-120 NF Naturalyte Fruit Fly Bait(©) formulated to contain either 0, 1 or 2% ammonium acetate. Use of visually-attractive yellow bait stations for bait application in the field allowed for proper comparisons among bait formulations. Field cage tests were also conducted to investigate, using a comparative behavioural approach, the effects of female age and protein starvation on the subsequent response of F1 generation B. cucurbitae and B. dorsalis to the same three bait formulations that were evaluated in the field. Our field results indicate a significant positive effect of the presence, regardless of amount, of AA in GF-120 for B. dorsalis and B. cucurbitae. For C. capitata, there was a significant positive linear relationship between the relative amounts of AA in bait and female response. GF-120 with no AA was significantly more attractive to female C. capitata, but not to female B. dorsalis or B. cucurbitae, than the control treatment. Our field cage results indicate that the effects of varying amounts of AA present in GF-120 can be modulated by the physiological stage of the female flies and that the response of female B. cucurbitae to GF-120 was consistently greater than that of B. dorsalis over the various ages and levels of protein starvation regimes evaluated. Results are discussed in light of their applications for effective fruit fly suppression. PMID:20961468

  8. Antibacterial and antioxidant activities of essential oils isolated from Thymbra capitata L. (Cav.) andOriganum vulgare L.

    PubMed

    Faleiro, Leonor; Miguel, Graça; Gomes, Sónia; Costa, Ludmila; Venâncio, Florencia; Teixeira, Adriano; Figueiredo, A Cristina; Barroso, José G; Pedro, Luis G

    2005-10-19

    Antilisterial activities of Thymbra capitata and Origanum vulgare essential oils were tested against 41 strains of Listeria monocytogenes. The oil of T. capitata was mainly constituted by one component, carvacrol (79%), whereas for O. vulgare three components constituted 70% of the oil, namely, thymol (33%), gamma-terpinene (26%), and p-cymene (11%). T. capitata essential oil had a significantly higher antilisterial activity in comparison to O. vulgare oil and chloramphenicol. No significant differences in L. monocytogenes susceptibilities to the essential oils tested were registered. The minimum inhibitory concentration values of T. capitata essential oil and of carvacrol were quite similar, ranging between 0.05 and 0.2 microL/mL. Antioxidant activity was also tested, the essential oil of T. capitata showing significantly higher antioxidant activity than that of O. vulgare. Use of T. capitata and O. vulgare essential oils can constitute a powerful tool in the control of L. monocytogenes in food and other industries. PMID:16218659

  9. The Community of Hymenoptera Parasitizing Necrophagous Diptera in an Urban Biotope

    PubMed Central

    Frederickx, Christine; Dekeirsschieter, Jessica; Verheggen, François J.; Haubruge, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Most reports published in the field of forensic entomology are focused on Diptera and neglect the Hymenoptera community. However, Hymenoptera are part of the entomofaunal colonization of a dead body. The use of Hymenoptera parasitoids in forensic entomology can be relevant to evaluate the time of death. Hymenoptera parasitoids of the larvae and pupae of flies may play an important role in the estimation of the post-mortem period because their time of attack is often restricted to a small, well-defined window of time in the development of the host insect. However, these parasitoids can interfere with the developmental times of colonizing Diptera, and therefore a better understanding of their ecology is needed. The work reported here monitored the presence of adult Hymenoptera parasitoids on decaying pig carcasses in an urban biotope during the summer season (from May to September). Six families and six species of parasitoids were recorded in the field: Aspilota fuscicornis Haliday (Braconidae), Alysia manducator Panzer, Nasonia vitripennis Walker (Pteromalidae), Tachinaephagus zealandicus Ashmead (Encyrtidae), Trichopria sp. (Diapriidae), and Figites sp. (Figitidae). In the laboratory, five species emerged from pupae collected in the field: Trichopria sp., Figites sp., A. manducator, N. vitripennis, and T. zealandicus. These five species colonize a broad spectrum of Diptera hosts, including those species associated with decomposing carcasses, namely those from the families Calliphoridae, Muscidae, Fanniidae, and Sarcophagidae. PMID:23895458

  10. Faecal sludge management with the larvae of the black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens)--from a hygiene aspect.

    PubMed

    Lalander, Cecilia; Diener, Stefan; Magri, Maria Elisa; Zurbrügg, Christian; Lindström, Anders; Vinnerås, Björn

    2013-08-01

    Inadequate and lacking sanitation and wastewater treatment systems can lead to the spreading of diarrhoeal diseases. One contributing factor in the lack of such treatment systems is the lack of economic incentives for stakeholders throughout the service chain. However, the organic fraction of the waste is high in valuable plant nutrients and could be reused in agriculture and as animal feed. For example, grown larvae of the black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens L. (Diptera: Stratiomyidae), make an excellent protein source in animal feed, while the feeding activity of the larvae substantially reduces the dry mass of the treated material. This study examined the effect of black soldier fly larvae on the concentration of pathogenic microorganisms in human faeces and found a 6 log10 reduction in Salmonella spp. in human faeces in eight days, compared with a <2 log10 reduction in the control. No increased reduction was observed for Enterococcus spp., bacteriophage ΦX174 or Ascaris suum ova. PMID:23669577

  11. [Cutaneous myiasis by Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel) (Diptera Calliphoridae) in Hospital Universidad del Norte, Soledad, Atlántico].

    PubMed

    de la Ossa, Napoleón; Castro, Luis Eduardo; Visbal, Lila; Santos, Ana María; Díaz, Esther; Romero-Vivas, Claudia M E

    2009-03-01

    Human myiasis is the parasitism of human tissues by fly larvae. Diagnoses are based on clinical pattern of tissue damage and presence of insect stages. Herein, a case myiasis is described in a seven-year-old female child. She presented with fever associated with abscessed scalp lesions containing exposed larvae. Severe pediculosis was also observed. The patient was hospitalized and treated with clindamycin, gentamicin (for bacterial secondary infections) and ivermectin (treatment for lice) after which the patient showed clinical improvement and was discharged four days later. Since human myiasis can be caused by a number of different species, larvae were collected from the patient and identified as those of Cochliomyia hominivorax (Diptera: Calliphoridae). Because other cases of coinfestation of flies and lice are on record, health workers are to be alerted about the possible pediculosis-myasis risk. PMID:19753834

  12. Human Cutaneous Myiasis by the Australian Sheep Blowfly, Lucilia cuprina (Diptera: Calliphoridae), in Oklahoma.

    PubMed

    Ahadizadeh, Emily N; Ketchum, Heather R; Wheeler, Russell

    2015-07-01

    This case report describes an incident of myiasis in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. Paramedics treated a 53-year-old man in the field when he suffered cardiac arrest. He was intubated by the paramedics and transported to an emergency room, where he received two stents and a balloon pump. He was found to have a GCS of three and remained in the hospital for 7 days before passing away. After his death, the breathing tube was removed, revealing the presence of several maggots. On closer inspection, the dipteran larvae were found in both the oral and nasal cavities. Four of these larvae were reared to adulthood and identified as Lucilia cuprina (Weidemann) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), commonly known as the Australian sheep blowfly, by the Biology Department of the University of Oklahoma. Based on the fly's life cycle and rate of development, the infestation is suspected to be hospital acquired. PMID:25824092

  13. Phytosanitary cold treatment for oranges infested with Bactrocera zonata (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Hallman, Guy J; Myers, Scott W; Taret, Gustavo; Fontenot, Emily A; Vreysen, Marc J B

    2013-12-01

    The peach fruit fly, Bactrocera zonata (Saunders), attacks a wide range of tree fruits in countries from Egypt to Vietnam and is occasionally trapped in the United States. Phytosanitary treatments may be required to export fruit hosts of this insect from countries where it is endemic to countries where it is absent but could become established. This research describes comparative studies to determine if B. zonata could be phytosanitarily controlled by cold treatment schedules existing for Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) and Anastrepha ludens (Loew), and the development of a cold treatment of 18 d at 1.7 degrees C for B. zonata infesting oranges. Fruit were infested by puncturing holes in oranges and allowing tephritids to oviposit in the holes. The treatments were initiated when the larvae reached late third instar because previous research had shown that stage to be the most cold-tolerant. B. zonata was not found to be confidently as or less cold tolerant than C. capitata; therefore, treatment schedules for the latter are not supported by this research for the former. B. zonata was found to be more susceptible to 1.7 degrees C than A. ludens; therefore, the use of treatment schedules for A. ludens is supported by this research for B. zonata. However, the treatment for A. ludens requires 22 d. A shorter treatment was verified for B. zonata when 36,820 third instars reared from the eggs in oranges were stored at 1.7 degrees C for 18 d with no larvae moving on examination 24 h after removal from the cold treatment chamber. PMID:24498731

  14. Extreme adaptations for aquatic ectoparasitism in a Jurassic fly larva

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jun; Wang, Bo; Engel, Michael S; Wappler, Torsten; Jarzembowski, Edmund A; Zhang, Haichun; Wang, Xiaoli; Zheng, Xiaoting; Rust, Jes

    2014-01-01

    The reconstruction of ancient insect ectoparasitism is challenging, mostly because of the extreme scarcity of fossils with obvious ectoparasitic features such as sucking-piercing mouthparts and specialized attachment organs. Here we describe a bizarre fly larva (Diptera), Qiyia jurassica gen. et sp. nov., from the Jurassic of China, that represents a stem group of the tabanomorph family Athericidae. Q. jurassica exhibits adaptations to an aquatic habitat. More importantly, it preserves an unusual combination of features including a thoracic sucker with six radial ridges, unique in insects, piercing-sucking mouthparts for fluid feeding, and crocheted ventral prolegs with upward directed bristles for anchoring and movement while submerged. We demonstrate that Q. jurassica was an aquatic ectoparasitic insect, probably feeding on the blood of salamanders. The finding reveals an extreme morphological specialization of fly larvae, and broadens our understanding of the diversity of ectoparasitism in Mesozoic insects. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02844.001 PMID:24963142

  15. Extreme adaptations for aquatic ectoparasitism in a Jurassic fly larva.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jun; Wang, Bo; Engel, Michael S; Wappler, Torsten; Jarzembowski, Edmund A; Zhang, Haichun; Wang, Xiaoli; Zheng, Xiaoting; Rust, Jes

    2014-01-01

    The reconstruction of ancient insect ectoparasitism is challenging, mostly because of the extreme scarcity of fossils with obvious ectoparasitic features such as sucking-piercing mouthparts and specialized attachment organs. Here we describe a bizarre fly larva (Diptera), Qiyia jurassica gen. et sp. nov., from the Jurassic of China, that represents a stem group of the tabanomorph family Athericidae. Q. jurassica exhibits adaptations to an aquatic habitat. More importantly, it preserves an unusual combination of features including a thoracic sucker with six radial ridges, unique in insects, piercing-sucking mouthparts for fluid feeding, and crocheted ventral prolegs with upward directed bristles for anchoring and movement while submerged. We demonstrate that Q. jurassica was an aquatic ectoparasitic insect, probably feeding on the blood of salamanders. The finding reveals an extreme morphological specialization of fly larvae, and broadens our understanding of the diversity of ectoparasitism in Mesozoic insects.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02844.001. PMID:24963142

  16. Bioenergetic and kinematic consequences of limblessness in larval Diptera.

    PubMed

    Berrigan, D; Lighton, J R

    1993-06-01

    We report the cost of transport and kinematics of terrestrial locomotion by larval blowflies (Protophormia terraenovae, Diptera: Calliphoridae). We contrast inter- and intra-individual methods for estimating minimum cost of transport (MCOT) and the relationship between speed, contraction frequency and distance traveled per contraction. The minimum cost of transport calculated from intra-individual data is 2297 +/- 317 J kg-1 m-1 (S.E.M.) and the MCOT calculated from inter-individual comparisons is statistically indistinguishable at 1910 +/- 327 J kg-1 m-1. These values are almost ten times higher than the predicted value for a similar-sized limbed arthropod. Fly larvae travel by repeated peristaltic contractions and individual contractions cost about the same amount as individual strides in limbed insects. Both contraction frequency and distance traveled per contraction increase linearly with speed. Doubling the contraction frequency or the distance traveled per contraction approximately doubles speed. The cost of transport in fly larvae is among the highest recorded for terrestrial locomotion, confirming the suggestion that biomechanical and kinematic properties of limbless organisms with hydraulic skeletons lead to very high costs of transport. PMID:8340729

  17. Efficacy of Posaconazole in a Murine Model of Systemic Infection by Saprochaete capitata

    PubMed Central

    Thomson, Pamela; Guarro, Josep; Mayayo, Emilio

    2015-01-01

    The fungus Saprochaete capitata causes opportunistic human infections, mainly in immunocompromised patients with hematological malignancies. The best therapy for this severe infection is still unknown. We evaluated the in vitro killing activity and the in vivo efficacy of posaconazole at 5, 10, or 20 mg/kg twice a day (BID) in a murine neutropenic model of systemic infection with S. capitata by testing a set of six clinical isolates. Posaconazole showed fungistatic activity against all of the isolates tested. The different doses of the drug, especially the highest one, showed good efficacy, measured by prolonged survival, reduction of (1-3)-β-d-glucan levels in serum, tissue burden reduction, and histopathology. PMID:26392490

  18. Histopathology of growth anomaly affecting the coral, Montipora capitata: implications on biological functions and population viability.

    PubMed

    Burns, John H R; Takabayashi, Misaki

    2011-01-01

    Growth anomalies (GAs) affect the coral, Montipora capitata, at Wai'ōpae, southeast Hawai'i Island. Our histopathological analysis of this disease revealed that the GA tissue undergoes changes which compromise anatomical machinery for biological functions such as defense, feeding, digestion, and reproduction. GA tissue exhibited significant reductions in density of ova (66.1-93.7%), symbiotic dinoflagellates (38.8-67.5%), mesenterial filaments (11.2-29.0%), and nematocytes (28.8-46.0%). Hyperplasia of the basal body wall but no abnormal levels of necrosis and algal or fungal invasion was found in GA tissue. Skeletal density along the basal body wall was significantly reduced in GAs compared to healthy or unaffected sections. The reductions in density of the above histological features in GA tissue were collated with disease severity data to quantify the impact of this disease at the colony and population level. Resulting calculations showed this disease reduces the fecundity of M. capitata colonies at Wai'ōpae by 0.7-49.6%, depending on GA severity, and the overall population fecundity by 2.41±0.29%. In sum, GA in this M. capitata population reduces the coral's critical biological functions and increases susceptibility to erosion, clearly defining itself as a disease and an ecological threat. PMID:22205976

  19. Prevalence of parasitism and adult survival time of Aedes albifasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) parasitized by Strelkovimermis spiculatus (Nematoda: Mermithidae).

    PubMed

    Di Battista, Cristian M; Fischer, Sylvia; Campos, Raúl E

    2015-12-01

    We described the carryover of Strelkovimermis spiculatus (Poinar and Camino) (Nematoda: Mermithidae) from mosquito larvae, the primary site of maturation, to adults. We analyzed the survival time of male and female Aedes albifasciatus (Macquart) (Diptera: Culicidae) parasitized by S. spiculatus, the time of emergence of nematodes from adult mosquitoes, and the state of parasitism in the same mosquito cohorts during the immature stages. Mosquito larvae with single and multiple parasitism (up to 11 parasites) were observed. The mortality of mosquito larvae and adults was produced in all cases where at least one mermithid emerged. The mortality of S. spiculatus showed an increasing trend in mosquito larvae with larger numbers of nematodes and was higher in larvae parasitized by eight or more nematodes. Maximum survival of parasitized adult females of Ae. albifasciatus was 38 days, while non-parasitized adult males and females survived 39 and 41 days, respectively. Strelkovimermis spiculatus mortality was observed in Ae. albifasciatus larvae with single or multiple parasitisms. The spread of mermithid parasitism in adult mosquito populations is discussed. PMID:26611976

  20. Cumulative mortality of Aedes aegypti larvae treated with compounds.

    PubMed

    Torres, Sandra Maria; Cruz, Nadine Louise Nicolau da; Rolim, Vitor Pereira de Matos; Cavalcanti, Maria Inês de Assis; Alves, Leucio Câmara; Silva Júnior, Valdemiro Amaro da

    2014-06-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the larvicidal activity of Azadirachta indica, Melaleuca alternifolia, carapa guianensis essential oils and fermented extract of Carica papaya against Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762) (Diptera: Culicidae). METHODS The larvicide test was performed in triplicate with 300 larvae for each experimental group using the third larval stage, which were exposed for 24h. The groups were: positive control with industrial larvicide (BTI) in concentrations of 0.37 ppm (PC1) and 0.06 ppm (PC2); treated with compounds of essential oils and fermented extract, 50.0% concentration (G1); treated with compounds of essential oils and fermented extract, 25.0% concentration (G2); treated with compounds of essential oils and fermented extract, 12.5% concentration (G3); and negative control group using water (NC1) and using dimethyl (NC2). The larvae were monitored every 60 min using direct visualization. RESULTS No mortality occurred in experimental groups NC1 and NC2 in the 24h exposure period, whereas there was 100% mortality in the PC1 and PC2 groups compared to NC1 and NC2. Mortality rates of 65.0%, 50.0% and 78.0% were observed in the groups G1, G2 and G3 respectively, compared with NC1 and NC2. CONCLUSIONS The association between three essential oils from Azadirachta indica, Melaleuca alternifolia, Carapa guianensis and fermented extract of Carica papaya was efficient at all concentrations. Therefore, it can be used in Aedes aegypti Liverpool third larvae stage control programs. PMID:25119939

  1. Cumulative mortality of Aedes aegypti larvae treated with compounds

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Sandra Maria; da Cruz, Nadine Louise Nicolau; Rolim, Vitor Pereira de Matos; Cavalcanti, Maria Inês de Assis; Alves, Leucio Câmara; da Silva, Valdemiro Amaro

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the larvicidal activity of Azadirachta indica, Melaleuca alternifolia, carapa guianensis essential oils and fermented extract of Carica papaya against Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762) (Diptera: Culicidae). METHODS The larvicide test was performed in triplicate with 300 larvae for each experimental group using the third larval stage, which were exposed for 24h. The groups were: positive control with industrial larvicide (BTI) in concentrations of 0.37 ppm (PC1) and 0.06 ppm (PC2); treated with compounds of essential oils and fermented extract, 50.0% concentration (G1); treated with compounds of essential oils and fermented extract, 25.0% concentration (G2); treated with compounds of essential oils and fermented extract, 12.5% concentration (G3); and negative control group using water (NC1) and using dimethyl (NC2). The larvae were monitored every 60 min using direct visualization. RESULTS No mortality occurred in experimental groups NC1 and NC2 in the 24h exposure period, whereas there was 100% mortality in the PC1 and PC2 groups compared to NC1 and NC2. Mortality rates of 65.0%, 50.0% and 78.0% were observed in the groups G1, G2 and G3 respectively, compared with NC1 and NC2. CONCLUSIONS The association between three essential oils from Azadirachta indica, Melaleuca alternifolia, Carapa guianensis and fermented extract of Carica papaya was efficient at all concentrations. Therefore, it can be used in Aedes aegypti Liverpool third larvae stage control programs. PMID:25119939

  2. An evaluation of alternative insecticides to diazinon for control of tephritid fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in soil.

    PubMed

    Stark, John D; Vargas, Roger

    2009-02-01

    Diazinon has been used extensively in the past as part of California eradication programs for tephritid fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) as a soil drench, but it is being phased out for this purpose in the United States. Therefore, in this study, the toxicity of Platinum, Force, Admire, Regent, and Warrior was estimated after application to sand and soil as drenches for control of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann); melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett); and oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), in Hawaii. Susceptibility of each species differed. In sand, the order of toxicity at LC50 based on the 95% confidence limit overlap approach for C. capitata from most toxic to least toxic was diazinon > Force = Warrior > Admire = Platinum > Regent. The order of toxicity for B. dorsalis was diazinon > Platinum = Warrior = Force > Regent = Admire. The order of toxicity for B. cucurbitae was Warrior = diazinon > Force = Regent = Platinum = Admire. Based on the dose ratio method, Warrior was not significantly different at LC50 than diazinon for B. cucurbitae only. All other insecticides were significantly different from diazinon at LC50. Studies in sand were followed by an evaluation of specific concentrations of Warrior and Force in soil collected from two sites on the island of Kauai. Average concentrations that caused at least 95% mortality in soil in all three fruit fly species were 121 g active ingredient (AI)/ha for Force and 363 g (AI)/ha for Warrior compared with 182 g (AI)/ha for diazinon. These results indicate that Force and Warrior could be used as soil treatments for control of tephritid fruit flies. PMID:19253629

  3. Conversion of organic material by black soldier fly larvae: establishing optimal feeding rates.

    PubMed

    Diener, Stefan; Zurbrügg, Christian; Tockner, Klement

    2009-09-01

    Larvae of the black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens (Diptera: Stratiomyidae), are voracious feeders of organic material and may thus be used in simple engineered systems to reduce organic waste in low- and middle-income countries. Controlled feeding experiments with standard fodder were conducted to assess the optimum amount of organic waste to be added to a CORS system (Conversion of Organic Refuse by Saprophages). A daily feeding rate of 100 mg chicken feed (60% moisture content) per larva resulted in an optimum trade-off between material reduction efficiency (41.8%, SE 0.61) and biomass production (prepupal dry weight: 48.0 mg, SE 2.0). Applied to market waste and human faeces, this corresponds to a potential daily feeding capacity of 3-5 kg/m(2) and 6.5 kg/m(2), respectively. In addition, H. illucens prepupae quality was assessed to determine their suitability to substitute fishmeal in animal feed production. The chitin-corrected crude protein content ranged from 28.2 to 42.5%, depending on the amount of food provided to the larvae. Based on our study, a waste processing unit could yield a daily prepupal biomass of 145 g (dry mass) per m(2). We conclude that larvae of the black soldier fly are potentially capable of converting large amounts of organic waste into protein-rich biomass to substitute fishmeal, thereby contributing to sustainable aquaculture. PMID:19502252

  4. An Adaptive Kernel Smoothing Method for Classifying Austrosimulium tillyardianum (Diptera: Simuliidae) Larval Instars

    PubMed Central

    Cen, Guanjun; Zeng, Xianru; Long, Xiuzhen; Wei, Dewei; Gao, Xuyuan; Zeng, Tao

    2015-01-01

    In insects, the frequency distribution of the measurements of sclerotized body parts is generally used to classify larval instars and is characterized by a multimodal overlap between instar stages. Nonparametric methods with fixed bandwidths, such as histograms, have significant limitations when used to fit this type of distribution, making it difficult to identify divisions between instars. Fixed bandwidths have also been chosen somewhat subjectively in the past, which is another problem. In this study, we describe an adaptive kernel smoothing method to differentiate instars based on discontinuities in the growth rates of sclerotized insect body parts. From Brooks’ rule, we derived a new standard for assessing the quality of instar classification and a bandwidth selector that more accurately reflects the distributed character of specific variables. We used this method to classify the larvae of Austrosimulium tillyardianum (Diptera: Simuliidae) based on five different measurements. Based on head capsule width and head capsule length, the larvae were separated into nine instars. Based on head capsule postoccipital width and mandible length, the larvae were separated into 8 instars and 10 instars, respectively. No reasonable solution was found for antennal segment 3 length. Separation of the larvae into nine instars using head capsule width or head capsule length was most robust and agreed with Crosby’s growth rule. By strengthening the distributed character of the separation variable through the use of variable bandwidths, the adaptive kernel smoothing method could identify divisions between instars more effectively and accurately than previous methods. PMID:26546689

  5. Does Autocthonous Primary Production Influence Oviposition by Aedes japonicus japonicus (Diptera: Culicidae) in Container Habitats?

    PubMed Central

    LORENZ, AMANDA R.; WALKER, EDWARD D.; KAUFMAN, MICHAEL G.

    2014-01-01

    Aedes (Finlaya) japonicus japonicus (Theobald) (Diptera: Culicidae) is recently invasive in North America and has expanded its range rapidly since 1998. Throughout its native and expanded range, Ae. j. japonicus larvae are commonly observed in many types of natural and artificial water-filled containers that vary in organic matter content and exposure to sunlight. Larvae are most often found in containers with decaying leaf material or algae, and we postulated that the added autocthonous primary production from algae could be both an important food source for larvae and an influential oviposition attractant to adult Ae. j. japonicus. We tested this hypothesis by placing plastic containers with varied levels of shading to manipulate algal density in the field, and then monitored oviposition by natural populations of Ae. j. japonicus. Over 99% of larvae hatching from eggs laid on the walls of our containers were Ae. j. japonicus, indicating that this species is a dominant colonizer of artificial containers in the study areas. Although full shading treatments effectively reduced algal biomass (significant reduction in chlorophyll a levels), at only one of three sites did this appear to affect Ae. j. japonicus oviposition. We conclude that algae in larval habitats are not a major factor in oviposition choices of adult Ae. j. japonicus females except when in situ primary production is high enough to substantially alter overall organic matter content cues. PMID:23427654

  6. [Visceral and cutaneous larva migrans].

    PubMed

    Petithory, Jean-Claude

    2007-11-30

    The syndrome of visceral larva migrans was described for the first time in 1952 by Beaver. He demonstrated that the presence of nematodes larvae, particularly in the liver, were those of Toxocara canis and T. cati. Baylisascaris procyonis, the common racoon ascarid in the U.S.A. can also cause serious diseases in human. Digestive and respiratory clinical symptoms are usually moderate, however severe disease resulting from invasion of the myocardium or the brain has been reported. A blood hypereosinophilia is usually present the first few years after infection. Diagnosis uses serological methods, among them the ELISA test. Ocular larva is also possible with in that case, immunological modifications of the aqueous. Cutaneous larva migrans characterized by a linear, progressing, serpigenous eruption and intense itching is easy to diagnose. Larva migrans is due to dogs, cats and horses helminths. Dogs and cats (referred here as pets) now receive antihelmintitic treatments and parasites are now in decrease. PMID:18326429

  7. Rift Valley fever virus (family Bunyaviridae, genus Phlebovirus). Isolations from Diptera collected during an inter-epizootic period in Kenya.

    PubMed Central

    Linthicum, K. J.; Davies, F. G.; Kairo, A.; Bailey, C. L.

    1985-01-01

    A total of 134 876 Diptera collected in Kenya during a 3-year period were tested in 3383 pools for Rift Valley fever (RVF) virus. Nineteen pools of unengorged mosquitoes were found positive for RVF. All isolations were made from specimens collected at or near the naturally or artificially flooded grassland depressions that serve as the developmental sites for the immature stages of many mosquito species. The isolation of virus from adult male and female A. lineatopennis which had been reared from field-collected larvae and pupae suggests that transovarial transmission of the virus occurs in this species. PMID:2862206

  8. Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) in Mauritania: First Report on the Presence of the Arbovirus Mosquito Vector in Nouakchott.

    PubMed

    Mint Lekweiry, Khadijetou; Ould Ahmedou Salem, Mohamed Salem; Ould Brahim, Khyarhoum; Ould Lemrabott, Mohamed Aly; Brengues, Cécile; Faye, Ousmane; Simard, Frédéric; Ould Mohamed Salem Boukhary, Ali

    2015-07-01

    Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae) is a major vector of yellow fever, dengue, and chikungunya viruses throughout tropical and subtropical areas of the world. Although the southernmost part of Mauritania along the Senegal river has long been recognized at risk of yellow fever transmission, Aedes spp. mosquitoes had never been reported northwards in Mauritania. Here, we report the first observation of Aedes aegypti aegypti (L.) and Aedes (Ochlerotatus) caspius (Pallas, 1771) in the capital city, Nouakchott. We describe the development sites in which larvae of the two species were found, drawing attention to the risk for emergence of arbovirus transmission in the city. PMID:26335483

  9. Natural Distribution of Parasitoids of Larvae of the Fall Armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda, in Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Gabriela Murúa, M.; Molina-Ochoa, Jaime; Fidalgo, Patricio

    2009-01-01

    To develop a better understanding of the natural distribution of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), and to update the knowledge of the incidence of its complex of parasitoids. S. frugiperda, samplings in whorl-stage corn were carried out in provinces of Argentina from 1999 to 2003. S. frugiperda larvae were collected from corn in localities of the provinces of Tucumán, Salta, Jujuy, Santiago del Estero, La Rioja, Córdoba, San Luis, Chaco and Misiones. In each locality 30 corn plants were sampled and only larvae located in those plants were collected. The parasitoids that emerged from S. frugiperda larvae were identified and counted. The abundance of the parasitoids and the parasitism rate were estimated. The S. frugiperda parasitoids collected were Campoletis grioti (Blanchard) (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae), Chelonus insularis (Cresson) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), Archytas marmoratus (Townsend) (Diptera Tachinidae) and/or A. incertus (Macquart), Ophion sp. (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae), Euplectrus platyhypenae Howard (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), and Incamyia chilensis (Aldrich) (Diptera Tachinidae). C. grioti was the most abundant and frequent during the five-year survey. Similar diversity of parasitoids was obtained in all the provinces, with the exception of I. chilensis and E. platyhypenae that were recovered only in the province of Salta. In the Northwestern region, in Tucumán, C. grioti and species of Archytas were the most abundant and frequent parasitoids. On the contrary, in Salta and Jujuy Ch. insularis was the parasitoid most abundant and frequently recovered. The parasitism rate obtained in Tucumán, Salta and Jujuy provinces were 21.96%, 17.87% and 6.63% respectively with an average of 18.93%. These results demonstrate that hymenopteran and dipteran parasitoids of S. frugiperda occurred differentially throughout the Argentinian provinces and played an important role on the natural control of the S. frugiperda larval

  10. Diet-Induced Over-Expression of Flightless-I Protein and Its Relation to Flightlessness in Mediterranean Fruit Fly, Ceratitis capitata

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Il Kyu; Chang, Chiou Ling; Li, Qing X.

    2013-01-01

    The Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly), Ceratitis capitata is among the most economically important pests worldwide. Understanding nutritional requirement helps rearing healthy medfly for biocontrol of its population in fields. Flight ability is a high priority criterion. Two groups of medfly larvae were reared with two identical component diets except one with fatty acids (diet A) and another without it (diet B). Adults from larvae reared on diet B demonstrated 20±8% of normal flight ability, whereas those from larvae reared on diet A displayed full flight ability of 97±1%. Proteomes were profiled to compare two groups of medfly pupae using shotgun proteomics to study dietary effects on flight ability. When proteins detected in pupae A were compared with those in pupae B, 233 and 239 proteins were, respectively, under- and over-expressed in pupae B, while 167 proteins were overlapped in both pupae A and B. Differential protein profiles indicate that nutritional deficiency induced over-expression of flightless-I protein (fli-I) in medfly. All proteins were subjected to Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) to create 13 biological networks and 17 pathways of interacting protein clusters in human ortholog. Fli-I, leucine-rich repeat (LRR)-containing G protein-coupled receptor 2, LRR protein soc-2 and protein wings apart-like were over-expressed in pupae B. Inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor, protocadherin-like wing polarity protein stan and several Wnt pathway proteins were under-expressed in pupae B. These results suggest down-regulation of the Wnt/wingless signaling pathway, which consequently may result in flightlessness in pupae B. The fli-I gene is known to be located within the Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) region on chromosome 17, and thus, we speculate that nutritional deficiency might induce over-expression of fli-I (or fli-I gene) and be associated with human SMS. However, more evidence would be needed to confirm our speculation. PMID:24312525

  11. A Fly in the Ointment: Evaluation of Traditional Use of Plants to Repel and Kill Blowfly Larvae in Fermented Fish

    PubMed Central

    de Boer, Hugo J.; Vongsombath, Chanda; Käfer, Jos

    2011-01-01

    Introduction In rural areas in Laos, fly larvae infestations are common in fermenting fish. Blowflies (Chrysomya megacephala, Diptera: Calliphoridae) are attracted to oviposit (and/or larviposit) onto fermenting fish which results in infestations with fly larvae. Knowledge of traditional use of plants to repel larvae during the production of fermented fish is common and widespread in Lao PDR. Research Questions How effective are the most salient species in repelling, and killing fly larvae in fermenting fish? Material and Methods The three plant species most frequently reported to repel fly larvae during an ethnobotanical survey throughout Lao PDR were tested for repellence and larvicidal activity of fly larvae infesting fermented fish. The lethality and repellence of Tadehagi triquetrum (L.) H. Ohashi (Fabaceae), Uraria crinita (L.) Desv. ex DC. (Fabaceae) and Bambusa multiplex (Lour.) Raeusch. ex Schult. & Schult. f. (Poaceae) were tested in an experimental design using fermenting fish in Vientiane, Lao PDR. Results The repellent effect of fresh material of T. triquetrum and U. crinita, and the larvicidal effect of fresh B. multiplex, is significantly more effective than that of dried material of the same species, and the total effect (repellence and larvicidal effect combined) for each of the three species was significantly more effective for fresh than for dry material. Fresh material of T. triquetrum, U. crinita, or B. multiplex added on top of the fermenting fish repelled 50%, 54%, 37%, and killed 22%, 28%, and 40% of fly larvae. The total effect was not significantly different per species at 72%, 82%, and 77%, respectively. Discussion and Conclusions The three most salient species are effective in repelling and killing fly larvae in the production of fermented fish, and may be essential to augment food safety during traditional fermentation in open jars. PMID:22206019

  12. Evaluation of larval density Cochliomyia macellaria F. (Diptera: Calliphoridae) for therapeutic use in the recovery of tegumentar injuries.

    PubMed

    Nassu, Mariana Prado; Thyssen, Patricia Jacqueline

    2015-09-01

    Larval therapy (LT) is the application of carrion flies (Diptera) sterile larvae on chronic or infected wounds to promote or accelerate the healing process. High cost and the development of resistance by certain groups of pathogenic bacteria to these drugs encouraged the resurgence of LT, currently used in approximately 20 countries and more recently in Brazil. This study evaluated the behavior and larval density of Cochliomyia macellaria F. (Calliphoridae), one of the most appropriate species for debridement of injuries with necrotic tissue. Tegumentar lesions were induced in Wistar rats by subcutaneously application of 0.2 ml of a 1:4 hydrochloric acid and sterile distilled water in the dorsal region. Five experimental groups were set up: (LT 5) treatment with 5 larvae/cm(2); (LT 15) 15 larvae/cm(2); (LT 25) 25 larvae/cm(2); (DEB) mechanical debridement, and (NUL) animals that did not receive any treatment. In the LT groups, larvae used were sterilized with sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) and maintained for 12 h in the lesions. The healing process was assessed qualitatively (macroscopically and microscopically) and quantitatively (time interval to complete healing). It was observed that the immature fed only on necrotic tissue, thus C. macellaria is an excellent candidate for use in LT. There was no significant difference in healing time between experimental groups. However, it was observed that in LT 25, there was greater vascularization in tissues when compared to the other treatments. The mechanisms involved in this process are unknown, but it is evident that the larvae have an important role in modulating the host immune response. It is essential that future applications of larval therapy consider using a higher density of larvae (minimum of 25 larvae/cm(2)) than is currently recommended. PMID:26022143

  13. Microgavage of zebrafish larvae.

    PubMed

    Cocchiaro, Jordan L; Rawls, John F

    2013-01-01

    The zebrafish has emerged as a powerful model organism for studying intestinal development(1-5), physiology(6-11), disease(12-16), and host-microbe interactions(17-25). Experimental approaches for studying intestinal biology often require the in vivo introduction of selected materials into the lumen of the intestine. In the larval zebrafish model, this is typically accomplished by immersing fish in a solution of the selected material, or by injection through the abdominal wall. Using the immersion method, it is difficult to accurately monitor or control the route or timing of material delivery to the intestine. For this reason, immersion exposure can cause unintended toxicity and other effects on extraintestinal tissues, limiting the potential range of material amounts that can be delivered into the intestine. Also, the amount of material ingested during immersion exposure can vary significantly between individual larvae(26). Although these problems are not encountered during direct injection through the abdominal wall, proper injection is difficult and causes tissue damage which could influence experimental results. We introduce a method for microgavage of zebrafish larvae. The goal of this method is to provide a safe, effective, and consistent way to deliver material directly to the lumen of the anterior intestine in larval zebrafish with controlled timing. Microgavage utilizes standard embryo microinjection and stereomicroscopy equipment common to most laboratories that perform zebrafish research. Once fish are properly positioned in methylcellulose, gavage can be performed quickly at a rate of approximately 7-10 fish/ min, and post-gavage survival approaches 100% depending on the gavaged material. We also show that microgavage can permit loading of the intestinal lumen with high concentrations of materials that are lethal to fish when exposed by immersion. To demonstrate the utility of this method, we present a fluorescent dextran microgavage assay that can be

  14. Odonate Nymphs: Generalist Predators and Their Potential in the Management of Dengue Mosquito, Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Akram, Waseem; Ali-Khan, Hafiz Azhar

    2016-01-01

    Background: Dengue is amongst the most serious mosquito-borne infectious disease with hot spots in tropical and subtropical parts of the world. Unfortunately, no licensed vaccine for the disease is currently available in medicine markets. The only option available is the management of dengue vector mosquito, Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae). Method: Predatory potential of five odonate nymphs namely Anax parthenope, Bradinopyga geminate, Ischnura forcipata, Rhinocypha quadrimaculata, and Orthetrum sabina were evaluated against the 4th instar larvae of the dengue vector mosquito, Aedes aegypti, under laboratory conditions. The consumption of the mosquito larvae was evaluated at three water volume levels viz., 1 liter, 2 liter and 3 liter. Results: The number of Ae. aegypti larvae consumed varied significantly among the five species, and at different levels of water volume (P< 0.01). However, the interaction between odonate nymphs and the water volumes was statistically non-significant (P> 0.05). Ischnura forcipata consumed the highest number of Ae. aegypti larvae (n=56) followed by A. parthenope (n=47) and B. geminate (n=46). The number of larvae consumed was decreased with increasing search area or water volume, and the highest predation was observed at 1-liter water volume. Conclusion: The odonate nymphs could be a good source of biological agents for the management of the mosquitoes at larval stages. PMID:27308283

  15. Estimating SIT-driven population reduction in the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata, from sterile mating.

    PubMed

    Juan-Blasco, M; Sabater-Muñoz, B; Pla, I; Argilés, R; Castañera, P; Jacas, J A; Ibáñez-Gual, M V; Urbaneja, A

    2014-04-01

    Area-wide sterile insect technique (SIT) programs assume that offspring reduction of the target population correlates with the mating success of the sterile males released. However, there is a lack of monitoring tools to prove the success of these programs in real-time. Field-cage tests were conducted under the environmental conditions of the Mediterranean coast of Spain to estimate: (a) the mating success of sterile Vienna-8 (V8) Ceratitis capitata males using molecular markers and (b) their efficacy to reduce C. capitata populations under six release ratios of wild females to wild males to V8 males (1:0:0, 1:1:0, 1:1:1, 1:1:5, 1:1:10, and 1:1:20). Statistical models were developed to predict: (a) the number of females captured in traps, (b) sperm ID (sterile or not) in spermathecae of the trapped females, and (c) the viable offspring produced, using release ratio and temperature as predictors. The number of females captured was affected by relative humidity. However, its influence in the model was low. Female captures were significantly higher in ratios 1:0:0 compared to ratios where V8 males were released. The proportion of V8 sperm in spermathecae increased with temperature and with the number of V8 males released, but leveled off between ratios 1:1:10 and 1:1:20. In all seasons, except winter (no offspring), viable offspring increased with temperature and was lowest for ratio 1:1:20. For the first time, a strong negative relationship between proportion of V8 sperm detected by molecular tools and C. capitata offspring was established. The models obtained should contribute to enhance the efficacy of SIT programs against this pest. PMID:24444376

  16. Fauna Europaea: Diptera – Brachycera

    PubMed Central

    Beuk, Paul; Pont, Adrian Charles; Shatalkin, Anatole I.; Ozerov, Andrey L.; Woźnica, Andrzej J.; Merz, Bernhard; Bystrowski, Cezary; Raper, Chris; Bergström, Christer; Kehlmaier, Christian; Clements, David K.; Greathead, David; Kameneva, Elena Petrovna; Nartshuk, Emilia; Petersen, Frederik T.; Weber, Gisela; Bächli, Gerhard; Geller-Grimm, Fritz; Van de Weyer, Guy; Tschorsnig, Hans-Peter; de Jong, Herman; van Zuijlen, Jan-Willem; Vaňhara, Jaromír; Roháček, Jindřich; Ziegler, Joachim; Majer, József; Hůrka, Karel; Holston, Kevin; Rognes, Knut; Greve-Jensen, Lita; Munari, Lorenzo; de Meyer, Marc; Pollet, Marc; Speight, Martin C. D.; Ebejer, Martin John; Martinez, Michel; Carles-Tolrá, Miguel; Földvári, Mihály; Chvála, Milan; Barták, Miroslav; Evenhuis, Neal L.; Chandler, Peter J.; Cerretti, Pierfilippo; Meier, Rudolf; Rozkosny, Rudolf; Prescher, Sabine; Gaimari, Stephen D.; Zatwarnicki, Tadeusz; Zeegers, Theo; Dikow, Torsten; Korneyev, Valery A.; Richter, Vera Andreevna; Michelsen, Verner; Tanasijtshuk, Vitali N.; Mathis, Wayne N.; Hubenov, Zdravko

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Fauna Europaea provides a public web-service with an index of scientific names (including important synonyms) of all extant multicellular European terrestrial and freshwater animals and their geographical distribution at the level of countries and major islands (east of the Urals and excluding the Caucasus region). The Fauna Europaea project comprises about 230,000 taxonomic names, including 130,000 accepted species and 14,000 accepted subspecies, which is much more than the originally projected number of 100,000 species. Fauna Europaea represents a huge effort by more than 400 contributing taxonomic specialists throughout Europe and is a unique (standard) reference suitable for many user communities in science, government, industry, nature conservation and education. The Diptera–Brachycera is one of the 58 Fauna Europaea major taxonomic groups, and data have been compiled by a network of 55 specialists. Within the two-winged insects (Diptera), the Brachycera constitute a monophyletic group, which is generally given rank of suborder. The Brachycera may be classified into the probably paraphyletic 'lower brachyceran grade' and the monophyletic Eremoneura. The latter contains the Empidoidea, the Apystomyioidea with a single Nearctic species, and the Cyclorrhapha, which in turn is divided into the paraphyletic 'aschizan grade' and the monophyletic Schizophora. The latter is traditionally divided into the paraphyletic 'acalyptrate grade' and the monophyletic Calyptratae. Our knowledge of the European fauna of Diptera–Brachycera varies tremendously among families, from the reasonably well known hoverflies (Syrphidae) to the extremely poorly known scuttle flies (Phoridae). There has been a steady growth in our knowledge of European Diptera for the last two centuries, with no apparent slow down, but there is a shift towards a larger fraction of the new species being found among the families of the nematoceran grade (lower Diptera), which due to a larger

  17. Integrated Taxonomy and DNA Barcoding of Alpine Midges (Diptera: Chironomidae)

    PubMed Central

    Montagna, Matteo; Mereghetti, Valeria; Lencioni, Valeria; Rossaro, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Rapid and efficient DNA-based tools are recommended for the evaluation of the insect biodiversity of high-altitude streams. In the present study, focused principally on larvae of the genus Diamesa Meigen 1835 (Diptera: Chironomidae), the congruence between morphological/molecular delimitation of species as well as performances in taxonomic assignments were evaluated. A fragment of the mitochondrial cox1 gene was obtained from 112 larvae, pupae and adults (Diamesinae, Orthocladiinae and Tanypodinae) that were collected in different mountain regions of the Alps and Apennines. On the basis of morphological characters 102 specimens were attributed to 16 species, and the remaining ten specimens were identified to the genus level. Molecular species delimitation was performed using: i) distance-based Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery (ABGD), with no a priori assumptions on species identification; and ii) coalescent tree-based approaches as the Generalized Mixed Yule Coalescent model, its Bayesian implementation and Bayesian Poisson Tree Processes. The ABGD analysis, estimating an optimal intra/interspecific nucleotide distance threshold of 0.7%-1.4%, identified 23 putative species; the tree-based approaches, identified between 25–26 entities, provided nearly identical results. All species belonging to zernyi, steinboecki, latitarsis, bertrami, dampfi and incallida groups, as well as outgroup species, are recovered as separate entities, perfectly matching the identified morphospecies. In contrast, within the cinerella group, cases of discrepancy arose: i) the two morphologically separate species D. cinerella and D. tonsa are neither monophyletic nor diagnosable exhibiting low values of between-taxa nucleotide mean divergence (0.94%); ii) few cases of larvae morphological misidentification were observed. Head capsule color is confirmed to be a valid character able to discriminate larvae of D. zernyi, D. tonsa and D. cinerella, but it is here better defined as a color

  18. Integrated Taxonomy and DNA Barcoding of Alpine Midges (Diptera: Chironomidae).

    PubMed

    Montagna, Matteo; Mereghetti, Valeria; Lencioni, Valeria; Rossaro, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Rapid and efficient DNA-based tools are recommended for the evaluation of the insect biodiversity of high-altitude streams. In the present study, focused principally on larvae of the genus Diamesa Meigen 1835 (Diptera: Chironomidae), the congruence between morphological/molecular delimitation of species as well as performances in taxonomic assignments were evaluated. A fragment of the mitochondrial cox1 gene was obtained from 112 larvae, pupae and adults (Diamesinae, Orthocladiinae and Tanypodinae) that were collected in different mountain regions of the Alps and Apennines. On the basis of morphological characters 102 specimens were attributed to 16 species, and the remaining ten specimens were identified to the genus level. Molecular species delimitation was performed using: i) distance-based Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery (ABGD), with no a priori assumptions on species identification; and ii) coalescent tree-based approaches as the Generalized Mixed Yule Coalescent model, its Bayesian implementation and Bayesian Poisson Tree Processes. The ABGD analysis, estimating an optimal intra/interspecific nucleotide distance threshold of 0.7%-1.4%, identified 23 putative species; the tree-based approaches, identified between 25-26 entities, provided nearly identical results. All species belonging to zernyi, steinboecki, latitarsis, bertrami, dampfi and incallida groups, as well as outgroup species, are recovered as separate entities, perfectly matching the identified morphospecies. In contrast, within the cinerella group, cases of discrepancy arose: i) the two morphologically separate species D. cinerella and D. tonsa are neither monophyletic nor diagnosable exhibiting low values of between-taxa nucleotide mean divergence (0.94%); ii) few cases of larvae morphological misidentification were observed. Head capsule color is confirmed to be a valid character able to discriminate larvae of D. zernyi, D. tonsa and D. cinerella, but it is here better defined as a color gradient

  19. Culturing larvae of marine invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Strathmann, Richard R

    2014-01-01

    Larvae of marine invertebrates cultured in the laboratory experience conditions that they do not encounter in nature, but development and survival to metamorphic competence can be obtained in such cultures. This protocol emphasizes simple methods suitable for a wide variety of larvae. Culturing larvae requires seawater of adequate quality and temperature within the tolerated range. Beyond that, feeding larvae require appropriate food, but a few kinds of algae and animals are sufficient as food for diverse larvae. Nontoxic materials include glass, many plastics, hot-melt glue, and some solvents, once evaporated. Cleaners that do not leave toxic residues after rinsing include dilute hydrochloric or acetic acid, sodium hypochlorite (commercial bleach), and ethanol. Materials that can leave toxic residues, such as formaldehyde, glutaraldehyde, detergents, and hand lotions, should be avoided, especially with batch cultures that lack continuously renewed water. Reverse filtration can be used to change water gently at varying frequencies, depending on temperature and the kinds of food that are provided. Bacterial growth can be limited by antibiotics, but antibiotics are often unnecessary. Survival and growth are increased by low concentrations of larvae and stirring of large or dense cultures. One method of stirring large numbers of containers is a rack of motor-driven paddles. Most of the methods and materials are inexpensive and portable. If necessary, a room within a few hours of the sea could be temporarily equipped for larval culture. PMID:24567204

  20. A new species of Dasineura Rondani (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) in flower galls of Camassia (Asparagaceae: Agavoideae) in the Pacific Northwest, USA.

    PubMed

    Gagné, Raymond J; Barosh, Theresa; Kephart, Susan

    2014-01-01

    A new species, Dasineura camassiae Gagné (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), is described, illustrated and compared to some of its congeners from related hosts and western North America. The new species causes flower galls on Camassia (Agavoideae; Asparagaceae) in the Pacific Northwest. Its current known distribution is Oregon and Washington, USA. Larvae develop in spring in flowers of Camassia spp., causing the young ovaries to enlarge prematurely and eventually abort, without forming seeds or mature fruit. Full-grown larvae crawl out of the gall in rapid succession and drop to the soil where they pupate; they remain there until spring of the following year when the adults emerge and lay eggs. The galls they induce in camas lily buds represent the first known association of the cosmopolitan genus Dasineura with the group of plants that includes Agave and its relatives. PMID:25543738

  1. Life history of the gall-maker Eugeniamyia dispar Maia, Mendonça-Jr. & Romanowski, 1996 (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae).

    PubMed

    Mendonça, M de S; Romanowski, H P

    2002-05-01

    The development of the galls of the midge Eugeniamyia dispar Maia, Mendonça-Jr. & Romanowski, 1996 (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) was monitored weekly on its host plant, Eugenia uniflora (Myrtaceae). The work was carried out in the urban area of Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil, from October 1993 to September 1995. Galls were collected from the field and raised in the laboratory to obtain adults. The females oviposit on young leaves of the host plant, with the first instar larvae inducing the gall, which is unilocular. The last instar larvae drop to the soil to pupate and later emerge as adults. The galls occur from late August to early June, when young leaves of the host can be found, with populations peaking during the summer. So far this species is only known from the two southernmost states of Brazil (RS and SC). PMID:12489401

  2. Marking Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) With Rubidium or 15N.

    PubMed

    Klick, J; Yang, W Q; Bruck, D J

    2015-06-01

    Drosophila suzukii Matsumura (Diptera: Drosophilidae) has caused significant economic damage to berry and stone fruit production regions. Markers that are systemic in plants and easily transferred to target organisms are needed to track D. suzukii exploitation of host resources and trophic interactions. High and low concentrations of the trace element, rubidium (Rb), and the stable isotope, 15N, were tested to mark D. suzukii larvae feeding on fruits of enriched strawberry plants grown in containers under greenhouse conditions. Fly marker content and proportion of flies marked 1, 7, and 14 d after emergence from enriched fruits and fly dry mass were analyzed. Nearly 100% of the flies analyzed 14 d after emerging from 15N-enriched plants were marked, whereas only 30-75% and 0-3% were marked 14 d after emerging from high and low Rb concentration plants, respectively. Rapid Rb decay, strong 15N persistence, and the economics of using these markers in the field to elucidate D. suzukii pest ecology are discussed. PMID:26470275

  3. Attraction and Electroantennography responses of the male Mediterranean Fruit Fly, Ceratitis capitata, to natural essential oils and synthetic blends.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field experiments and long range bioassays were used to understand the difference in attractiveness among various natural essential oils for the Mediterranean Fruit Fly, Ceratitis capitata. Using electroantennography, we have selected various antennally active chemicals and tested their role in the ...

  4. Thymbra capitata essential oil prevents cell death induced by 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal in neonatal rat cardiac myocytes.

    PubMed

    Hortigón-Vinagre, María P; Blanco, José; Ruiz, Trinidad; Henao, Fernando

    2014-10-01

    An interdisciplinary experimental investigation on the antioxidant activity of Thymbra capitata essential oil was made. This plant is a Mediterranean culinary herb, whose essential oil antioxidant power has recently been demonstrated in vitro as one of the highest in nature. We tested if this in vitro antioxidant capacity was reproducible on biological systems using as model system primary cultures of neonatal rat cardiomyocytes treated with the lipid peroxidation product 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal. The composition and the in vitro antioxidant activity of the T. capitata essential oil were also assessed. Cell viability, mitochondrial membrane potential, and reactive oxygen species level were measured in cells treated with pathophysiologic doses of 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (< 10 µM) or vehicle after being pre-incubated with small concentrations of the T. capitata essential oil, and the ability of small doses (< 40 ppm) to prevent the death of neonatal rat cardiomyocytes proved very remarkable. Long-term pre-incubation (12 h) with 20 ppm prevented 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal-induced cell death and avoided mitochondrial membrane potential loss and reactive oxygen species generation caused by 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal. A deleterious effect was shown at doses higher than 40 ppm. The results of this study pave the way to further analysis in animal models to achieve a deeper understanding of the in vivo antioxidant power of T. capitata essential oil. PMID:25203731

  5. MEDHOST: An encyclopedic bibliography of the host plants of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), version 1.1

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This monograph is a compendium of all plant species reported as hosts of C. capitata (or potential hosts based on mere appearance on some lists). There are 353 species (312 have valid genera and species names and 41 have species identified as "sp." or "spp.") included in the monograph; 79 species ha...

  6. Morphology, severity, and distribution of growth anomalies in the coral, Montipora capitata, at Wai`ōpae, Hawai`i

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, J. H. R.; Rozet, N. K.; Takabayashi, M.

    2011-09-01

    This study investigated the morphology, severity, and distribution of growth anomalies (GAs) in the coral, Montipora capitata, from Wai`ōpae tide pools, southeast Hawai`i Island. A macro-image analysis of skeletal microstructure placed GAs into two definable categories; Type A and Type B. Type A GAs had polyp density reduced by 43.05 ± 0.80% (mean ± SE) compared to healthy M. capitata tissue, with many fused and protrusive tuberculae. Type B GAs had no discernable polyps or calices and fused protuberant coenosteum. The prevalence of Type A and Type B GAs among all M. capitata colonies ( n = 1,093) in 8 tide pools at Wai`ōpae was 22.1% (range 2.8-33.7%) and 8.2% (range 0.0-16.9%), respectively. The proportion of colony surface area occupied by GA (relative GA cover) was quantified to assess the severity of this disease among all surveyed colonies. The relative GA cover was significantly greater on colonies larger than 1 m in diameter than smaller colonies and in the central portion of colonies than in the periphery. Furthermore, relative GA cover was negatively related to water motion ( R 2 = 0.748, P < 0.01). Developing field diagnostic criteria of M. capitata GA allowed for a detailed epizootiological assessment that determined several cofactors associated with disease severity. Such epizootiological analysis is applicable to future studies of GAs elsewhere.

  7. The Effect of Dose Size on Bioavailability of Acylated and Nonacylated Anthocyanins from Red Cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent studies indicate that anthocyanin (ACN) intake conveys a variety of health benefits, which depend on absorption and metabolic mechanisms that deliver ACNs and their bioactive metabolites to responsive tissues. We evaluated red cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata) ACN bioavailability a...

  8. First report of bacterial blight of cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.) caused by Pseudomonas cannabina pv. alisalensis in California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A novel bacterial leaf blight was seen in field grown cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.) in Monterey County, California in 2006. Koch’s postulates were completed and etiology of the pathogen was determined. Physiological and molecular characterization showed that the pathogen was Pseudomon...

  9. Differences in Bacterial Community Structure in Two Color Morphs of the Hawaiian Reef Coral Montipora capitata.

    PubMed

    Shore-Maggio, Amanda; Runyon, Christina M; Ushijima, Blake; Aeby, Greta S; Callahan, Sean M

    2015-10-01

    Corals harbor diverse bacterial associations that contribute to the health of the host. Using 16S rRNA pyrosequencing, we compared the bacterial communities of red and orange morphs of the Hawaiian coral Montipora capitata. Although both color morphs shared dominant bacterial genera, weighted and unweighted UniFrac analyses showed distinct bacterial communities. A single operational taxonomic unit (OTU), classified as Vibrio, represented the largest driver of differences between the color morphs. This OTU comprised 35.4% (±5.5%) of the orange morph bacterial community yet comprised 1.1% (±0.6%) of the red morph bacterial community. Cultivable bacteria from the two color morphs were also compared and tested for antibacterial activity. Cultured isolates represented 14 genera (7% of the total genera identified from sequencing data), and all but two cultured isolates had a matching OTU from the sequencing data. Half of the isolates tested (8 out of 16) displayed antibacterial activity against other cultured isolates but not against two known bacterial pathogens of M. capitata. The results from this study demonstrate that the specificity of coral-bacterial associations extends beyond the level of coral species. In addition, culture-dependent methods captured bacterial diversity that was representative of both rare and abundant members of the associated bacterial community, as characterized by culture-independent methods. PMID:26253663

  10. Agronomical and chemical characterisation of Thymbra capitata (L.) Cav. biotypes from Sicily, Italy.

    PubMed

    Tuttolomondo, Teresa; Dugo, Giacomo; Leto, Claudio; Cicero, Nicola; Tropea, Alessia; Virga, Giuseppe; Leone, Raffaele; Licata, Mario; La Bella, Salvatore

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the agronomical and chemical characterisation of 13 Sicilian biotypes of Thymbra capitata (L.) Cav., grown under the same agricultural and environmental condition, are reported. The main morpho-productive parameters and quali-quantitative profile of essential oils (EOs) were determined. The EOs were analysed by gas chromatography-flame ionisation detector and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analysis statistical methods were used to group biotypes according to the EOs chemical composition. The EO yield ranged between 4.6 and 8.1 (v/w). A total of 38 EO compounds have been identified. The compounds mostly represented were α-pinene, myrcene, α-terpinene, p-cymene, γ-terpinene, borneol, carvacrol and β-caryophyllene. In all biotypes, the carvacrol (67.4-79.5%) was the main compound, confirming that T. capitata is a carvacrol chemotype. The results showed that all Sicilian Thymbra biotypes have a good adaptation to the climatic conditions of the test environment. PMID:25600887

  11. Wild Thymbra capitata from Western Rif (Morocco): essential oil composition, chemical homogeneity and yield variability.

    PubMed

    Bakhy, Khadija; Benlhabib, Ouafae; Al Faiz, Chaouki; Bighelli, Ange; Casanova, Joseph; Tomi, Felix

    2013-08-01

    Essential oils (EO, 15 collective samples and 47 individual samples) of Thymbra capitata collected from Moroccan Western Rif were analyzed using gas chromatography (GC) in combination with retention indices (RI), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-SM) and 13C NMR spectroscopy. Twenty components were identified. Carvacrol (68.2%-85.9%) was by far the major component of all the samples, while the content of thymol (0.1-0.3%) was very low. Other components present in appreciable amounts were gamma-terpinene (up to 8.9%), p-cymene (up to 7.1%), linalool (up to 4.4%) and (E)-beta-caryophyllene (up to 4.1%). In contrast, the yield of EO varied drastically from sample to sample (0.5-3.7%). No correlation could be established between yield of EO and altitude, pH, chemical composition and granularity of the soil. Cultivation under controlled conditions is suggested to improve the quantitative characteristics of carvacrol-rich Moroccan T. capitata. PMID:24079192

  12. Ointment of Brassica oleracea var. capitata Matures the Extracellular Matrix in Skin Wounds of Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Sarandy, Mariáurea Matias; Novaes, Rômulo Dias; da Matta, Sérgio Luiz Pinto; Mezencio, Jose Mario da Silveira; da Silva, Marcelo Barreto; Zanuncio, José Cola; Gonçalves, Reggiani Vilela

    2015-01-01

    Wound healing is a complex process that aims to restore damaged tissue. Phytotherapeutics, such as cabbage, Brassica oleracea var. capitata (Brassicaceae), and sunflower, Helianthus annuus L. (Asteraceae) oil, are used as wound healers. Five circular wounds, each 12 mm in diameter, were made in the dorsolateral region of each rat. The animals were divided into four groups: balsam (B. oleracea); ointment (B. oleracea); sunflower oil (Helianthus annuus); control (saline solution 0.9%). These products were applied daily for 20 days and every four days the tissues of different wounds were removed. The wound contraction area, total collagen, types I and III collagen, glycosaminoglycans, and tissue cellularity were analyzed. In the groups that received ointment and balsam there was reduction in the wound area on days 4, 8, 12, and 20. Throughout the trial period, the balsam and ointment groups showed a higher amount of total collagen, type I collagen, and glycosaminoglycan compared to the others groups. The rats in the groups treated with B. oleracea var. capitata showed a higher number of cells on days 8, 16, and 20. B. oleracea was effective in stimulating the maturation of collagen and increasing the cellularity, as also in improving the mechanical resistance of the newly formed tissue. PMID:26170889

  13. Bleached Porites compressa and Montipora capitata corals catabolize δ13C-enriched lipids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grottoli, Andréa G.; Rodrigues, Lisa J.

    2011-09-01

    Corals rely on stored energy reserves (i.e., lipids, carbohydrates, and protein) to survive bleaching events. To better understand the physiological implications of coral bleaching on lipid catabolism and/or synthesis, we measured the δ13C of coral total lipids (δ13CTL) in experimentally bleached (treatment) and non-bleached (control) Porites compressa and Montipora capitata corals immediately after bleaching and after 1.5 and 4 months of recovery on the reef. Overall δ13CTL values in treatment corals were significantly lower than in control corals because of a 1.9 and 3.4‰ decrease in δ13CTL immediately after bleaching in P. compressa and M. capitata, respectively. The decrease in δ13CTL coincided with decreases in total lipid concentration, indicating that corals catabolized δ13C-enriched lipids. Since storage lipids are primarily depleted during bleaching, we hypothesize that they are isotopically enriched relative to other lipid classes. This work further helps clarify our understanding of changes to coral metabolism and biogeochemistry when bleached and helps elucidate how lipid classes may influence recovery from bleaching and ultimately coral survival.

  14. Ointment of Brassica oleracea var. capitata Matures the Extracellular Matrix in Skin Wounds of Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Sarandy, Mariáurea Matias; Novaes, Rômulo Dias; da Matta, Sérgio Luiz Pinto; Mezencio, Jose Mario da Silveira; da Silva, Marcelo Barreto; Zanuncio, José Cola; Gonçalves, Reggiani Vilela

    2015-01-01

    Wound healing is a complex process that aims to restore damaged tissue. Phytotherapeutics, such as cabbage, Brassica oleracea var. capitata (Brassicaceae), and sunflower, Helianthus annuus L. (Asteraceae) oil, are used as wound healers. Five circular wounds, each 12 mm in diameter, were made in the dorsolateral region of each rat. The animals were divided into four groups: balsam (B. oleracea); ointment (B. oleracea); sunflower oil (Helianthus annuus); control (saline solution 0.9%). These products were applied daily for 20 days and every four days the tissues of different wounds were removed. The wound contraction area, total collagen, types I and III collagen, glycosaminoglycans, and tissue cellularity were analyzed. In the groups that received ointment and balsam there was reduction in the wound area on days 4, 8, 12, and 20. Throughout the trial period, the balsam and ointment groups showed a higher amount of total collagen, type I collagen, and glycosaminoglycan compared to the others groups. The rats in the groups treated with B. oleracea var. capitata showed a higher number of cells on days 8, 16, and 20. B. oleracea was effective in stimulating the maturation of collagen and increasing the cellularity, as also in improving the mechanical resistance of the newly formed tissue. PMID:26170889

  15. Differences in Bacterial Community Structure in Two Color Morphs of the Hawaiian Reef Coral Montipora capitata

    PubMed Central

    Shore-Maggio, Amanda; Runyon, Christina M.; Ushijima, Blake; Aeby, Greta S.

    2015-01-01

    Corals harbor diverse bacterial associations that contribute to the health of the host. Using 16S rRNA pyrosequencing, we compared the bacterial communities of red and orange morphs of the Hawaiian coral Montipora capitata. Although both color morphs shared dominant bacterial genera, weighted and unweighted UniFrac analyses showed distinct bacterial communities. A single operational taxonomic unit (OTU), classified as Vibrio, represented the largest driver of differences between the color morphs. This OTU comprised 35.4% (±5.5%) of the orange morph bacterial community yet comprised 1.1% (±0.6%) of the red morph bacterial community. Cultivable bacteria from the two color morphs were also compared and tested for antibacterial activity. Cultured isolates represented 14 genera (7% of the total genera identified from sequencing data), and all but two cultured isolates had a matching OTU from the sequencing data. Half of the isolates tested (8 out of 16) displayed antibacterial activity against other cultured isolates but not against two known bacterial pathogens of M. capitata. The results from this study demonstrate that the specificity of coral-bacterial associations extends beyond the level of coral species. In addition, culture-dependent methods captured bacterial diversity that was representative of both rare and abundant members of the associated bacterial community, as characterized by culture-independent methods. PMID:26253663

  16. Population genetics of Ceratitis capitata in South Africa: implications for dispersal and pest management.

    PubMed

    Karsten, Minette; van Vuuren, Bettine Jansen; Barnaud, Adeline; Terblanche, John S

    2013-01-01

    The invasive Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly), Ceratitis capitata, is one of the major agricultural and economical pests globally. Understanding invasion risk and mitigation of medfly in agricultural landscapes requires knowledge of its population structure and dispersal patterns. Here, estimates of dispersal ability are provided in medfly from South Africa at three spatial scales using molecular approaches. Individuals were genotyped at 11 polymorphic microsatellite loci and a subset of individuals were also sequenced for the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene. Our results show that South African medfly populations are generally characterized by high levels of genetic diversity and limited population differentiation at all spatial scales. This suggests high levels of gene flow among sampling locations. However, natural dispersal in C. capitata has been shown to rarely exceed 10 km. Therefore, documented levels of high gene flow in the present study, even between distant populations (>1600 km), are likely the result of human-mediated dispersal or at least some form of long-distance jump dispersal. These findings may have broad applicability to other global fruit production areas and have significant implications for ongoing pest management practices, such as the sterile insect technique. PMID:23342117

  17. Examination of the pest status of corn-infesting Ulidiidae (Diptera).

    PubMed

    Goyal, Gaurav; Nuessly, Gregg S; Seal, Dakshina R; Steck, Gary J; Capinera, John L; Meagher, Robert L

    2012-10-01

    Larvae of 11 species of picture-winged flies (Diptera: Ulididae) are known to feed on corn plants (Zea mays L.) in the western hemisphere. Larvae emerge from eggs deposited in leaf axils and corn silk to feed mostly within ears, but the primary versus secondary nature (i.e., pest status) of their infestation is not known for all of these species. Choice and no-choice tests by using a split-plot design were conducted in greenhouse and field trials to determine the pest status on sweet corn of three of these species found in Florida: Chaetopsis massyla (Walker), Euxesta eluta Loew, and E. stigmatias Loew. The main treatments (uninfested ears and ears experimentally infested with either Spodoptera frugiperda [Lepidoptera: Noctuidae] or E. eluta larvae) were applied at first silk. The subtreatments (C. massyla, E. eluta, or E. stigmatias adults caged on ears) were applied 7 d later and maintained for 10 d. All three fly species were reared from uninfested and experimentally infested ears in both choice and no-choice tests in greenhouse and field trials confirming both primary and secondary modes of ear infestation. More flies of all three species emerged from ears that were preinfested with S. frugiperda compared with uninfested ears suggesting either preference for or greater survival within ears previously infested by S. frugiperda. Fewer E. eluta and E. stigmatias emerged from ears preinfested with E. eluta in no-choice field tests, suggesting that previous infestation by this fly may negatively affect oviposition or that older fly larvae affect survival of neonate larvae. All three species studied here should be considered primary pests that can render unprotected sweet corn ears unmarketable. PMID:23068169

  18. Host status of grapefruit and Valencia oranges for Anastrepha serpentina and Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Mangan, Robert L; Thomas, Donald B; Moreno, Aleena M Tarshis

    2011-04-01

    Anastrepha serpentina (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is sporadically captured in the Rio Grande Valley of Texas. Although its preferred hosts are in the Sapotaceae family, several varieties of Citrus, including grapefruit and oranges are listed as alternate hosts. Although Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew), is known to be a major pest of Citrus, doubt exists as to the status of Citrus as a breeding host for A. serpentina. To evaluate the host status of commercial Citrus for A. serpentina we compared oviposition and development with that of A. ludens under laboratory conditions with 'Rio Red' grapefruit (Citrus paradisi MacFayden) and 'Valencia' oranges [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck] in different stages of maturity. Both fly species oviposited in early season fruit in which the eggs and larvae died in the fruit albedo. Survival of either species to the adult stage occurred in later season grapefruit. In oranges, no A. serpentina larvae survived compared with 150 A. ludens surviving to adults. Survival on both Citrus species was much lower for A. serpentina, only approximately 5% of eggs eclosed into larvae in grapefruit compared with approximatley 50% for A. ludens. In oranges approximately 16% of A. serpentina eggs eclosed compared with approximately 76% for A. ludens. In grapefruit, only one fourth as many A. serpentina larvae survived to the adult stage compared with A. ludens. Additional experiments were performed in a greenhouse on small, caged trees of la coma (Sideroxylon celastrinum H.B.K.), a Texas species of Sapotaceae. The A. serpentina females readily oviposited into these berries and normal adults emerged. The present low incidence of the adults, coupled with the high mortality during development of the larvae, suggests that Texas citrus is unlikely to support a breeding population of A. serpentina. PMID:21510184

  19. Effects of the Antibiotics Gentamicin on the Postembryonic Development of Chrysomya putoria (Diptera: Calliphoridae)

    PubMed Central

    Ferraz, Adriana C. P.; Dallavecchia, Daniele L.; Silva, Débora C.; Figueiredo, Adriana L.; Proença, Barbara; Silva-Filho, Renato G.; Aguiar, Valéria M.

    2014-01-01

    We evaluate the effects the antibiotic Gentamicin on the development of Chrysomya putoria (Wiedemann, 1818). Third-generation, first-instar larvae were reared in a climatic chamber on 60 g of homogenate + agar 65% and were treated with three concentrations of Gentamicin: 4.44 mg/ml, 13.33 mg/ml, and 66.66 mg/ml. The control consisted of distilled water. The relationships between mean body mass of mature larvae (measured after diet abandonment, in batches of five individuals), duration of larval and pupal stages, and overall duration of development were analyzed. The actual sex ratio was compared against the expected using the chi square. None of the parameters measured differed significantly among the four treatments, with one exception: when Gentamicin concentration was 13.33 mg/ml, larval viability differed significantly from the control. All larvae from all treatments were considered normal. We conclude that the antibiotic did not significantly alter the development of C. putoria (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Calliphoridae). PMID:25527588

  20. Histopathological changes in third-instar and adult Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae) after in vitro heat treatment.

    PubMed

    Caro-Corrales, Lorena; Caro-Corrales, Jose; Valdez-Ortiz, Angel; Lopez-Valenzuela, Jose; Lopez-Moreno, Hector; Coronado-Velazquez, Daniel; Hernandez-Ortiz, Emilio; Rendon-Maldonado, Jose

    2015-01-01

    The Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens Loew (Diptera: Tephritidae), is one of the most harmful pests of mango causing direct damage by oviposition on the fruit pulp. Mango for export is subjected to hydrothermal treatment as a quarantine method for the control of this pest, but exposure to heat for long periods of time reduces considerably the quality and shelf-life of treated fruit. The aim of this work was to study morphological changes of third-instar larvae and adults of A. ludens after in vitro exposure to high temperature at sublethal times. A heating block system was used to expose larvae at 46.1°C for 19.6 and 12.9 min, producing 94.6 and 70% mortality, respectively. Treated larvae were processed for optical microscopy. A fraction of surviving treated larvae was separated into containers with artificial diet to allow development into adults. Adult sexual organs were dissected and processed for transmission electron microscopy analysis. Results showed that 94.6% of the treated larvae died at 46.1°C for 19.6 min and none of the surviving larvae eclosed to adulthood, as they developed as malformed puparia. For the in vitro treatment at 46.1°C during 12.9 min, 70% of the treated larvae died and only 3.75% reached the adult stage, but ultrastructural damage in the male testes and in the female ovaries was observed. Additionally, 11.1% of the adult flies from the in vitro treatment also showed wing malformation and were incapable of flying. The analysis showed that surviving flies were unable to reproduce. PMID:25797796

  1. Histopathological Changes in Third-Instar and Adult Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae) After in vitro Heat Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Caro-Corrales, Lorena; Caro-Corrales, Jose; Valdez-Ortiz, Angel; Lopez-Valenzuela, Jose; Lopez-Moreno, Hector; Coronado-Velazquez, Daniel; Hernandez-Ortiz, Emilio; Rendon-Maldonado, Jose

    2015-01-01

    The Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens Loew (Diptera: Tephritidae), is one of the most harmful pests of mango causing direct damage by oviposition on the fruit pulp. Mango for export is subjected to hydrothermal treatment as a quarantine method for the control of this pest, but exposure to heat for long periods of time reduces considerably the quality and shelf-life of treated fruit. The aim of this work was to study morphological changes of third-instar larvae and adults of A. ludens after in vitro exposure to high temperature at sublethal times. A heating block system was used to expose larvae at 46.1°C for 19.6 and 12.9 min, producing 94.6 and 70% mortality, respectively. Treated larvae were processed for optical microscopy. A fraction of surviving treated larvae was separated into containers with artificial diet to allow development into adults. Adult sexual organs were dissected and processed for transmission electron microscopy analysis. Results showed that 94.6% of the treated larvae died at 46.1°C for 19.6 min and none of the surviving larvae eclosed to adulthood, as they developed as malformed puparia. For the in vitro treatment at 46.1°C during 12.9 min, 70% of the treated larvae died and only 3.75% reached the adult stage, but ultrastructural damage in the male testes and in the female ovaries was observed. Additionally, 11.1% of the adult flies from the in vitro treatment also showed wing malformation and were incapable of flying. The analysis showed that surviving flies were unable to reproduce. PMID:25797796

  2. Proteolytic activity regarding Sarconesiopsis magellanica (Diptera: Calliphoridae) larval excretions and secretions.

    PubMed

    Pinilla, Yudi T; Moreno-Pérez, Darwin A; Patarroyo, Manuel A; Bello, Felio J

    2013-12-01

    Sarconesiopsis magellanica (Diptera: Calliphoridae) is a medically important necrophagous fly which is used for establishing the post-mortem interval. Diptera maggots release proteolytic enzymes contained in larval excretion and secretion (ES) products playing a key role in digestion. Special interest in proteolytic enzymes has also been aroused regarding understanding their role in wound healing since they degrade necrotic tissue during larval therapy. This study was thus aimed at identifying and characterising S. magellanica proteolytic enzyme ES products for the first time. These products were obtained from first-, second- and third-instar larvae taken from a previously-established colony. ES proteins were separated by SDS-PAGE and their proteolytic activity was characterised by zymograms and inhibition assays involving BAPNA (Nα-benzoyl-dl-Arg-p-nitroanilide) and SAPNA substrates, using synthetic inhibitors. The protein profile ranged from ∼69kDa to ∼23kDa; several of them coincided with the Lucilia sericata ES protein profile. Serine-protease hydrolysis activity (measured by zymogram) was confirmed when a ∼25kDa band disappeared upon ES incubation with PMSF inhibitor at pH 7.8. Analysis of larval ES proteolytic activity on BAPNA and SAPNA substrates (determined by using TLCK and TPCK specific inhibitors) suggested a greater amount of trypsin-like protease. These results support the need for further experiments aimed at validating S. magellanica use in larval therapy. PMID:24076089

  3. Effects of bioirrigation of non-biting midges (Diptera: Chironomidae) on lake sediment respiration

    PubMed Central

    Baranov, Viktor; Lewandowski, Jörg; Romeijn, Paul; Singer, Gabriel; Krause, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Bioirrigation or the transport of fluids into the sediment matrix due to the activities of organisms such as bloodworms (larvae of Diptera, Chironomidae), has substantial impacts on sediment respiration in lakes. However, previous quantifications of bioirrigation impacts of Chironomidae have been limited by technical challenges such as the difficulty to separate faunal and bacterial respiration. This paper describes a novel method based on the bioreactive tracer resazurin for measuring respiration in-situ in non-sealed systems with constant oxygen supply. Applying this new method in microcosm experiments revealed that bioirrigation enhanced sediment respiration by up to 2.5 times. The new method is yielding lower oxygen consumption than previously reported, as it is only sensitive to aerobic heterotrophous respiration and not to other processes causing oxygen decrease. Hence it decouples the quantification of respiration of animals and inorganic oxygen consumption from microbe respiration in sediment. PMID:27256514

  4. Effects of bioirrigation of non-biting midges (Diptera: Chironomidae) on lake sediment respiration.

    PubMed

    Baranov, Viktor; Lewandowski, Jörg; Romeijn, Paul; Singer, Gabriel; Krause, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Bioirrigation or the transport of fluids into the sediment matrix due to the activities of organisms such as bloodworms (larvae of Diptera, Chironomidae), has substantial impacts on sediment respiration in lakes. However, previous quantifications of bioirrigation impacts of Chironomidae have been limited by technical challenges such as the difficulty to separate faunal and bacterial respiration. This paper describes a novel method based on the bioreactive tracer resazurin for measuring respiration in-situ in non-sealed systems with constant oxygen supply. Applying this new method in microcosm experiments revealed that bioirrigation enhanced sediment respiration by up to 2.5 times. The new method is yielding lower oxygen consumption than previously reported, as it is only sensitive to aerobic heterotrophous respiration and not to other processes causing oxygen decrease. Hence it decouples the quantification of respiration of animals and inorganic oxygen consumption from microbe respiration in sediment. PMID:27256514

  5. Trap capture of three economically important fruit fly species (Diptera: Tephritidae): evaluation of a solid formulation containing multiple male lures in a Hawaiian coffee field.

    PubMed

    Shelly, Todd; Nishimoto, Jon; Kurashima, Rick

    2012-08-01

    Invasive fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) pose a global threat to agriculture through direct damage to food crops and the accompanying trade restrictions that often result. Early detection is vital to controlling fruit flies, because it increases the probability of limiting the growth and spread of the invasive population and thus may greatly reduce the monetary costs required for eradication or suppression. Male-specific lures are an important component of fruit fly detection, and three such lures are used widely: trimedlure (TML), cue lure (CL), and methyl eugenol (ME), attractive to Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann); melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett); and oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), respectively. In California, Florida, and Texas, the two Bactrocera lures are applied to separate species-specific traps as liquids (with a small amount of the insecticide naled added), whereas TML is delivered as a solid plug in another set of traps. Thus, the detection protocol involves considerable handling time as well as potential contact with a pesticide. The purpose of this study was to compare trap capture between liquid male lures and "trilure" wafers that contain TML, ME, raspberry ketone (RK, the hydroxy equivalent of CL), and the toxicant DDVP embedded within a solid matrix. Field studies were conducted in a Hawaiian coffee (Coffea arabica L.) field where the three aforementioned species co-occur, showed that the wafer captured at least as many flies as the liquid baits for all three species. This same result was obtained in comparisons using both fresh and aged (6-wk) baits. Moreover, the wafers performed as well as the single-lure traps in an ancillary experiment in which TML plugs were substituted for liquid TML. Additional experiments demonstrated explicitly that the presence of ME and RK had no effect on captures of C. capitata males and similarly that the presence of TML had no effect on the capture of B

  6. Botfly (Diptera:Oestridae) parasitism of Ord's kangaroo rats (Dipodomys ordii) at Suffield National Wildlife Area, Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Gummer, D L; Forbes, M R; Bender, D J; Barclay, R M

    1997-08-01

    During field study of Ord's kangaroo rat (Dipodomys ordii) at Suffield National Wildlife Area, Alberta, Canada, a high prevalence of parasitism by botfly (Diptera: Oestridae) larvae was observed. Botflies have not previously been documented as parasites of kangaroo rats. Botfly parasitism could have a significant impact on the growth, survival, and reproduction of Ord's kangaroo rat, which is considered a vulnerable species in Canada. Therefore, it is important to investigate how botfly parasitism varies with season and with gender or age of host. In 1995, 525 individual kangaroo rats were caught by nightlighting and live trapping for a total of 952 capture records. Upon capture, each kangaroo rat was ear-tagged and thoroughly examined for parasites and wounds. Third-instar botfly (Cuterebra polita) larvae were observed in kangaroo rats between 16 June and 23 August. Prevalence was 34% based on 454 kangaroo rats sampled during that time, whereas the mean intensity was 2.3 larvae per infested host (n = 156, range = 1-11). In contrast to some other studies of botfly parasitism of rodents, there were no gender or age biases in either prevalence or intensity of infestation. The index of dispersion was 2.8, indicating that the parasites were aggregated in hosts. Botfly parasitism could be an important factor affecting northern populations of kangaroo rats; future investigations into the potential effects of botfly larvae on host fitness are warranted. PMID:9267398

  7. Determination of Opiinae parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) associated with crop infesting Bactrocera spp. (Diptera: Tephritidae) using COI and Cyt b sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shariff, Safiah; Yaakop, Salmah; Zain, Badrul Munir Md.

    2013-11-01

    Members of the Opiinae subfamily (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) are well known as important parasitoids of fruit fly larvae (Diptera: Tephritidae). They are widely used as biological control agents of fruit flies, especially the Bactrocera Macquart species that infest fruits. In this study, the larvae of fruit flies were collected from infested crops including star fruit, guava, wax apple and ridge gourd. The parasitized larvae were then reared under laboratory conditions until emergence of the adult parasitoids. Additionally, Malaise trap also was used to collect parasitoid species. The general concept of the multiplex PCR has been performed is to amplify two mitochondrial DNA markers, namely cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) and cytochrome b (Cyt b) simultaneously. Therefore, the lengthy process of reaction will be reduced. The status of the fruit fly species has also been confirmed by using COI marker on the early stage of the larvae. Maximum parsimony (MP) and Bayesian Inference (BI) were implemented to help and support the identification of Opiinae species. The result obtained from this study showed three parasitoid genera of the Opiinae viz. Fopius Wharton, Psyttalia Walker and Diachasmimorpha Viereck. Each genus has been determined by clustering together in a similar clade according to their infested crops. Therefore, accurate determination of parasitoids and the fruit fries species was highly useful and necessary for successful biological control of Bactrocera species.

  8. Oral Delivery of Double-Stranded RNA in Larvae of the Yellow Fever Mosquito, Aedes aegypti: Implications for Pest Mosquito Control

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Aditi D.; Wong, Sylvia; Ryan, Calen P.; Whyard, Steven

    2013-01-01

    RNA interference has already proven itself to be a highly versatile molecular biology tool for understanding gene function in a limited number of insect species, but its widespread use in other species will be dependent on the development of easier methods of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) delivery. This study demonstrates that RNA interference can be induced in the mosquito Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae) simply by soaking larvae in a solution of dsRNA for two hours. The mRNA transcripts for β-tubulin, chitin synthase-1 and -2, and heat shock protein 83 were reduced between 30 and 50% three days post-dsRNA treatment. The dsRNA was mixed with a visible dye to identify those individuals that fed on the dsRNA, and based on an absence of RNA interference in those individuals that contained no dye within their guts, the primary route of entry of dsRNA is likely through the gut epithelium. RNA interference was systemic in the insects, inducing measurable knock down of gene expression in tissues beyond the gut. Silencing of the β-tubulin and chitin synthase-1 genes resulted in reduced growth and/or mortality of the larvae, demonstrating the utility of dsRNA as a potential mosquito larvicide. Silencing of chitin synthase-2 did not induce mortality in the larvae, and silencing of heat shock protein 83 only induced mortality in the insects if they were subsequently subjected to a heat stress. Drosophila melanogaster Meigen (Diptera: Drosophilidae) larvae were also soaked in dsRNA designed to specifically target either their own β-tubulin gene, or that of A. aegypti, and significant mortality was only seen in larvae treated with dsRNA targeting their own gene, which suggests that dsRNA pesticides could be designed to be species-limited. PMID:24224468

  9. Sediment bioassays with oyster larvae

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, P.M.; Morgan, J.D.

    1983-10-01

    Tests with naturally-occurring sediments are rare and sediment testing methodology is not standardized. The authors present a simple methodology for undertaking sediment bioassays with oyster larvae, and present data from a recent study to prove the utility of this method.

  10. The colonization of carrion by soldier fly, Ptecticus melanurus (Walker) (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) in a tropical forest in Malaysia: a new potential species for minimum PMI estimation.

    PubMed

    Azwandi, A; Omar, B

    2012-12-01

    This paper discusses the colonization of the stratiomyid species Ptecticus melanurus (Walker) (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) in monkey carrion and its potential for the determination of the minimum time since death (PMI). A study was conducted in a tropical forest at Bangi, Malaysia from 13 November 2009 to 8 June 2011. Twelve monkey carcasses (Macaca fascicularis Raffles) were used and divided in equal number into three different field trials. Adults of P. melanurus were first observed on monkey carrions on the second day the carcasses were placed in the field while their penultimate instar larvae were found in the wet soil under and beside carcass from day 8 to 31 days postmortem. PMID:23202610

  11. How the pilidium larva feeds

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The nemertean pilidium is a long-lived feeding larva unique to the life cycle of a single monophyletic group, the Pilidiophora, which is characterized by this innovation. That the pilidium feeds on small planktonic unicells seems clear; how it does so is unknown and not readily inferred, because it shares little morphological similarity with other planktotrophic larvae. Results Using high-speed video of trapped lab-reared pilidia of Micrura alaskensis, we documented a multi-stage feeding mechanism. First, the external ciliation of the pilidium creates a swimming and feeding current which carries suspended prey past the primary ciliated band spanning the posterior margins of the larval body. Next, the larva detects prey that pass within reach, then conducts rapid and coordinated deformations of the larval body to re-direct passing cells and surrounding water into a vestibular space between the lappets, isolated from external currents but not quite inside the larva. Once a prey cell is thus captured, internal ciliary bands arranged within this vestibule prevent prey escape. Finally, captured cells are transported by currents within a buccal funnel toward the stomach entrance. Remarkably, we observed that the prey of choice – various cultured cryptomonads – attempt to escape their fate. Conclusions The feeding mechanism deployed by the pilidium larva coordinates local control of cilia-driven water transport with sensorimotor behavior, in a manner clearly distinct from any other well-studied larval feeding mechanisms. We hypothesize that the pilidium’s feeding strategy may be adapted to counter escape responses such as those deployed by cryptomonads, and speculate that similar needs may underlie convergences among disparate planktotrophic larval forms. PMID:23927417

  12. Workbook on the Identification of Mosquito Larvae.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, Harry D.; And Others

    This self-instructional booklet is designed to enable public health workers identify larvae of some important North American mosquito species. The morphological features of larvae of the various genera and species are illustrated in a programed booklet, which also contains illustrated taxonomic keys to the larvae of 11 North American genera and to…

  13. Origanum vulgare and Thymbra capitata Essential Oils from Spain: Determination of Aromatic Profile and Bioactivities.

    PubMed

    Carrasco, Alejandro; Perez, Enrique; Cutillas, Ana-Belen; Martinez-Gutierrez, Ramiro; Tomas, Virginia; Tudela, Jose

    2016-01-01

    Oregano (Thymbra capitata and Origanum vulgare) essential oils (EOs), cultivated and extracted in the South-East of Spain, were analysed by GC/MS to determine their composition. (E)-β-Caryophyllene (0.5-4.9%), thymol (0.2-5.8%), p-cymene (3.8-8.2%), γ-terpinene (2.1-10.7%) and carvacrol (58.7-77.4%) were determined as the main molecules. This characterisation was completed with enantioselective gas chromatography, where (-)-(E)-β-caryophyllene, (+)-a- pinene and (+)-β-pinene were determined as the main enantiomers. Antioxidant activity was evaluated positively by several methods, accounting for activity against free radicals and reducing power. Important inhibitory activity on lipoxygenase (LOX) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) was observed supporting potential anti-inflammatory, anti-Alzheimer and insecticidal activities, mainly due to carvacrol. These properties support the potential use of oregano EOs as natural cosmetic and natural pharmaceutical ingredients. PMID:26996035

  14. Hermes-mediated germ-line transformation of the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata.

    PubMed

    Michel, K; Stamenova, A; Pinkerton, A C; Franz, G; Robinson, A S; Gariou-Papalexiou, A; Zacharopoulou, A; O'Brochta, D A; Atkinson, P W

    2001-04-01

    We report the use of the Hermes transposable element for germ-line transformation of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata. Hermes was able to genetically transform this insect at an estimated frequency between 0.6 and 1.1%, which is comparable to the transformation frequencies obtained for this species when using other transposable elements. Hermes integrates into the medfly genome by a cut-and-paste mechanism and the sequences integrated into the genome are delimited by the terminal nucleotides of the Hermes inverted terminal repeats. Integration resulted in the generation of 8 bp target site duplications, the sequences of which conformed to the target site duplications generated by hAT element transposition in insects. The Hermes element is one additional genetic tool that can be deployed in manipulating and characterizing the medfly genome. PMID:11422511

  15. Plastid transformation in cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata L.) by the biolistic process.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Menq-Jiau; Yang, Ming-Te; Chu, Wan-Ru; Liu, Cheng-Wei

    2014-01-01

    Cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata L.) is one of the most important vegetable crops grown worldwide. Scientists are using biotechnology in addition to traditional breeding methods to develop new cabbage varieties with desirable traits. Recent biotechnological advances in chloroplast transformation technology have opened new avenues for crop improvement. In 2007, we developed a stable plastid transformation system for cabbage and reported the successful transformation of the cry1Ab gene into the cabbage chloroplast genome. This chapter describes the methods for cabbage transformation using biolistic procedures. The following sections are included in this protocol: preparation of donor materials, coating gold particles with DNA, biolistic bombardment, as well as the regeneration and selection of transplastomic cabbage plants. The establishment of a plastid transformation system for cabbage offers new possibilities for introducing new agronomic and horticultural traits into Brassica crops. PMID:24599866

  16. An agent-based simulation of extirpation of Ceratitis capitata applied to invasions in California.

    PubMed

    Manoukis, Nicholas C; Hoffman, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    We present an agent-based simulation (ABS) of Ceratitis capitata ("Medfly") developed for estimating the time to extirpation of this pest in areas where quarantines and eradication treatments were immediately imposed. We use the ABS, implemented in the program MED-FOES, to study seven different outbreaks that occurred in Southern California from 2008 to 2010. Results are compared with the length of intervention and quarantine imposed by the State, based on a linear developmental model (thermal unit accumulation, or "degree-day"). MED-FOES is a useful tool for invasive species managers as it incorporates more information from the known biology of the Medfly, and includes the important feature of being demographically explicit, providing significant improvements over simple degree-day calculations. While there was general agreement between the length of quarantine by degree-day and the time to extirpation indicated by MED-FOES, the ABS suggests that the margin of safety varies among cases and that in two cases the quarantine may have been excessively long. We also examined changes in the number of individuals over time in MED-FOES and conducted a sensitivity analysis for one of the outbreaks to explore the role of various input parameters on simulation outcomes. While our implementation of the ABS in this work is motivated by C. capitata and takes extirpation as a postulate, the simulation is very flexible and can be used to study a variety of questions on the invasion biology of pest insects and methods proposed to manage or eradicate such species. PMID:24563646

  17. Experimental and DFT studies on the antioxidant activity of a C-glycoside from Rhynchosia capitata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Praveena, R.; Sadasivam, K.; Kumaresan, R.; Deepha, V.; Sivakumar, Raman

    2013-02-01

    Rhynchosia capitata (=Glycine capitata) Heyne ex roth, was found to possess polyphenolics including flavonoids, which acts as potential antioxidant. The study of ethanolic extract of roots and leaves reveals that the leaves possess high polyphenolics including flavonoids than roots. This was also confirmed by DPPH radical scavenging activity. Leaf powder of the plant was extracted with different solvents by soxhlet apparatus in the order of increasing polarity. The DPPH scavenging activity of methanol fraction was found to be high compared to the crude extract and other fractions. Nitric oxide scavenging activity was dominant in chloroform fraction compared to methanol fraction. Presence of flavonoids especially vitexin, a C-glycoside in methanol and chloroform fractions were confirmed by high pressure thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) analysis. The structural and molecular characteristics of naturally occurring flavonoid, vitexin was investigated in gas phase using density functional theory (DFT) approach with B3LYP/6-311G(d,p) level of theory. Analysis of bond dissociation enthalpy (BDE) reveals that the OH site that requires minimum energy for dissociation is 4'-OH from B-ring. To explore the radical scavenging activity of vitexin, the adiabatic ionization potential, electron affinity, hardness, softness, electronegativity and electrophilic index properties were computed and interpreted. The nonvalidity of Koopman's theorem has been verified by the computation of Eo and Ev energy magnitudes. Interestingly, from BDE calculations it was observed that BDE for 4'-OH, 5-OH and 7-OH are comparatively low for vitexin than its aglycone apigenin and this may be due to the presence of C-8 glucoside in vitexin. To substantiate this, plot of frontier molecular orbital and spin density distribution analysis for neutral and the corresponding radical species for the compound vitexin have been presented.

  18. Sniffing Out Chemosensory Genes from the Mediterranean Fruit Fly, Ceratitis capitata

    PubMed Central

    Siciliano, Paolo; Scolari, Francesca; Gomulski, Ludvik M.; Falchetto, Marco; Manni, Mosè; Gabrieli, Paolo; Field, Linda M.; Zhou, Jing-Jiang; Gasperi, Giuliano; Malacrida, Anna R.

    2014-01-01

    The Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (medfly), is an extremely invasive agricultural pest due to its extremely wide host range and its ability to adapt to a broad range of climatic conditions and habitats. Chemosensory behaviour plays an important role in many crucial stages in the life of this insect, such as the detection of pheromone cues during mate pursuit and odorants during host plant localisation. Thus, the analysis of the chemosensory gene repertoire is an important step for the interpretation of the biology of this species and consequently its invasive potential. Moreover, these genes may represent ideal targets for the development of novel, effective control methods and pest population monitoring systems. Expressed sequence tag libraries from C. capitata adult heads, embryos, male accessory glands and testes were screened for sequences encoding putative odorant binding proteins (OBPs). A total of seventeen putative OBP transcripts were identified, corresponding to 13 Classic, three Minus-C and one Plus-C subfamily OBPs. The tissue distributions of the OBP transcripts were assessed by RT-PCR and a subset of five genes with predicted proteins sharing high sequence similarities and close phylogenetic affinities to Drosophila melanogaster pheromone binding protein related proteins (PBPRPs) were characterised in greater detail. Real Time quantitative PCR was used to assess the effects of maturation, mating and time of day on the transcript abundances of the putative PBPRP genes in the principal olfactory organs, the antennae, in males and females. The results of the present study have facilitated the annotation of OBP genes in the recently released medfly genome sequence and represent a significant contribution to the characterisation of the medfly chemosensory repertoire. The identification of these medfly OBPs/PBPRPs permitted evolutionary and functional comparisons with homologous sequences from other tephritids of the genera Bactrocera and

  19. [Parasitism on medfly by Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in different guava cultivars].

    PubMed

    Paranhos, Beatriz A J; Walder, Júlio M M; Alvarenga, Clarice D

    2007-01-01

    The parasitism efficiency of the Braconidae wasp, Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead), was checked on four guava cultivars (Paluma, Sassaoca, Pedro Sato and Kumagai) infested with larvae of medfly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae). Five blocks of eight fruits, each with two fruits of each cultivar, were put inside C. capitata adult cages, during 2h for oviposition, and a week later, when the larvae inside guavas were developed, the fruits were exposed to parasitoids for 24h. The mean fruit weight, larvae mortality, number of pupae, percentage of medfly and parasitoid emergence were evaluated. There was not statistical difference among cultivars to weight, larvae mortality, number of pupae e emergence of medfly. The percentage of parasitism was higher in Pedro Sato cultivar (19.8%) compared with Kumagai cultivar (2.9%), but it was statistically similar to the other cultivars. PMID:17607457

  20. Thermoregulation in larval aggregations of carrion-feeding blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Slone, D.H.; Gruner, Susan V.

    2007-01-01

    The growth and development of carrion-feeding calliphorid (Diptera Calliphoridae) larvae, or maggots, is of great interest to forensic sciences, especially for estimation of a postmortem interval (PMI). The development rate of calliphorid larvae is influenced by the temperature of their immediate environment. Heat generation in larval feeding aggregations (=maggot masses) is a well-known phenomenon, but it has not been quantitatively described. Calculated development rates that do not include internally generated temperatures will result in overestimation of PMI. Over a period of 2.5 yr, 80 pig, Sus scrofa L., carcasses were placed out at study sites in north central Florida and northwestern Indiana. Once larval aggregations started to form, multiple internal and external temperatures, and weather observations were taken daily or every few days between 1400 and 1800 hours until pupation of the larvae. Volume of each aggregation was determined by measuring surface area and average depth. Live and preserved samples of larvae were taken for species identification. The four most common species collected were Lucilia coeruleiviridis (=Phaenicia) (Macquart) (77%), Cochliomyia macellaria (F.) (8.3%), Chrysomya rufifaces (Macquart) (7.7%), and Phormia regina (Meigen) (5.5%). Statistical analyses showed that 1) volume of a larval mass had a strong influence on its temperature, 2) internal temperatures of masses on the ground were influenced by soil temperature and mass volume, 3) internal temperatures of masses smaller than 20 cm3 were influenced by ambient air temperature and mass volume, and 4) masses larger than 20 cm3 on the carcass had strongly regulated internal temperatures determined only by the volume of the mass, with larger volumes associated with higher temperatures. Nonsignificant factors included presence of rain or clouds, shape of the aggregation, weight of the carcass, species composition of the aggregation, time since death, or season.

  1. Assessing fertilization success of the coral Montipora capitata under copper exposure: does the night of spawning matter?

    PubMed

    Hédouin, Laetitia; Gates, Ruth D

    2013-01-15

    Metal pollution is a major threat in tropical areas due to increasing pressure from anthropogenic activities along coastlines. Unfortunately there are very few toxicological studies that assess the effects of metals on marine organisms in tropical areas. To help fill this gap, this study investigated how Cu alters the fertilization success of the coral Montipora capitata over several nights of spawning. Results indicate that gametes of M. capitata are sensitive to Cu pollution, with EC₅₀ after 3 h ranging from 16.6 to 31.7 μg l⁻¹. Moreover, the sensitivity of the gametes to Cu toxicity was influenced by the night of spawning during which fertilization experiments were performed. This result likely reflected changes in the quality of gamete over the spawning period. PMID:23246128

  2. Trapping systems for Zaprionus indianus (Diptera: Drosophilidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    62nd Annual Meeting of the Entomological Society of America 16-19 November 2014; Portland, OR Title: Trapping systems for Zaprionus indianus (Diptera: Drosophilidae) Nancy D. Epsky, Micah A. Gill, C. Teri Allen, Dong H. Cha, and Peter J. Landolt Nancy D. Epsky USDA-ARS, Subtropical Horticulture...

  3. Evaluation of traps for monitoring higher Diptera

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The two main members of the higher Diptera for which monitoring traps have been developed (at least in countries where tsetse does not exist) are the house fly, Musca domestica, and the stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans. Both flies are major pest species in the US and elsewhere and the development of ...

  4. Treatment of cutaneous larva migrans.

    PubMed

    Caumes, E

    2000-05-01

    Cutaneous larva migrans caused by the larvae of animal hookworms is the most frequent skin disease among travelers returning from tropical countries. Complications (impetigo and allergic reactions), together with the intense pruritus and the significant duration of the disease, make treatment mandatory. Freezing the leading edge of the skin track rarely works. Topical treatment of the affected area with 10%-15% thiabendazole solution or ointment has limited value for multiple lesions and hookworm folliculitis, and requires applications 3 times a day for at least 15 days. Oral thiabendazole is poorly effective when given as a single dose (cure rate, 68%-84%) and is less well tolerated than either albendazole or ivermectin. Treatment with a single 400-mg oral dose of albendazole gives cure rates of 46%-100%; a single 12-mg oral dose of ivermectin gives cure rates of 81%-100%. PMID:10816151

  5. How the pilidium larva grows

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background For animal cells, ciliation and mitosis appear to be mutually exclusive. While uniciliated cells can resorb their cilium to undergo mitosis, multiciliated cells apparently can never divide again. Nevertheless, many multiciliated epithelia in animals must grow or undergo renewal. The larval epidermis in a number of marine invertebrate larvae, such as those of annelids, mollusks and nemerteans, consists wholly or in part of multiciliated epithelial cells, generally organized into a swimming and feeding apparatus. Many of these larvae must grow substantially to reach metamorphosis. Do individual epithelial cells simply expand to accommodate an increase in body size, or are there dividing cells amongst them? If some cells divide, where are they located? Results We show that the nemertean pilidium larva, which is almost entirely composed of multiciliated cells, retains pockets of proliferative cells in certain regions of the body. Most of these are found near the larval ciliated band in the recesses between the larval lobes and lappets, which we refer to as axils. Cells in the axils contribute both to the growing larval body and to the imaginal discs that form the juvenile worm inside the pilidium. Conclusions Our findings not only explain how the almost-entirely multiciliated pilidium can grow, but also demonstrate direct coupling of larval and juvenile growth in a maximally-indirect life history. PMID:24690541

  6. Age-dependent variation in mating success of sterile male Mediterranean fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae): implications for sterile insect technique.

    PubMed

    Shelly, Todd E; Edu, James; Pahio, Elaine

    2007-08-01

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) is widely used in integrated programs against the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae). Unfortunately, the mass-rearing procedures inherent to the SIT often lead to a reduction in the mating ability of the released males. To counter this deficiency, SIT programs rely upon the production and release of large numbers of sterile males to achieve high overflooding (sterile:wild male) ratios. To ensure a high release volume, emergence facilities release adult males at a young age (2 d old in some cases). The primary objective of this study was to describe age-dependent variation in the mating propensity and competitiveness of sterile males of C. capitata. Males that were 2 or 3 d old had lower mating propensity than males that were > or =4 d old, and 3-d-old males had lower mating competitiveness than males that were > or =4 d old. Given these results, we measured the effect of a longer holding period on male mortality in storage boxes. With delayed food placement, males held in storage boxes for 4 d after emergence showed no higher mortality than males held for only 2 d (the standard interval). Using large field enclosures, we compared the levels of egg sterility attained via releases of 2- versus 4-d-old sterile males at two overflooding ratios (5:1 and 100:1). At the lower ratio, the proportion of unhatched eggs observed for trials involving 2-d-old sterile males was not, on average, significantly higher than that observed for matings between wild flies (33 versus 25%, respectively), whereas the level of egg sterility observed for releases of 4 d old sterile males was 62%. At the 100:1 overflooding ratio, the proportion of unhatched eggs associated with the 2-d-old sterile males was 58%, a level not significantly different from that induced by 4-d-old sterile males at the 5:1 ratio and significantly lower than the level (79%) observed for 4-d-old sterile males at 100:1 overflooding ratio

  7. Multiple Modes of Action of the Squamocin in the Midgut Cells of Aedes aegypti Larvae.

    PubMed

    da Silva Costa, Marilza; de Paula, Sérgio Oliveira; Martins, Gustavo Ferreira; Zanuncio, José Cola; Santana, Antônio Euzébio Goulart; Serrão, José Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Annonaceous acetogenins are botanical compounds with good potential for use as insecticides. In the vector, Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae), squamocin (acetogenin) has been reported to be a larvicide and cytotoxic, but the modes of action of this molecule are still poorly understood. This study evaluated the changes in the cell morphology, and in the expression of genes, for autophagy (Atg1 and Atg8), for membrane ion transporter V-ATPase, and for water channel aquaporin-4 (Aqp4) in the midgut of A. aegypti larvae exposed to squamocin from Annona mucosa Jacq. (Annonaceae). Squamocin showed cytotoxic action with changes in the midgut epithelium and digestive cells of A. aegypti larvae, increase in the expression for autophagy gene Atg1 and Atg8, decrease in the expression of V-ATPase, decrease in the expression of Aqp4 gene in LC20 and inhibition of Apq4 genes in the midgut of this vector in LC50. These multiple modes of action for squamocin are described for the first time in insects, and they are important because different sites of action of squamocin from A. mucosa may reduce the possibility of resistance of A. aegypti to this molecule. PMID:27532504

  8. Molecular phylogenetic profiling of gut-associated bacteria in larvae and adults of flesh flies.

    PubMed

    Gupta, A K; Rastogi, G; Nayduch, D; Sawant, S S; Bhonde, R R; Shouche, Y S

    2014-12-01

    Flesh flies of the genus Sarcophaga (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) are carrion-breeding, necrophagous insects important in medical and veterinary entomology as potential transmitters of pathogens to humans and animals. Our aim was to analyse the diversity of gut-associated bacteria in wild-caught larvae and adult flesh flies using culture-dependent and culture-independent methods. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences from cultured isolates and clone libraries revealed bacteria affiliated to Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes in the guts of larval and adult flesh flies. Bacteria cultured from larval and adult flesh fly guts belonged to the genera Acinetobacter, Bacillus, Budvicia, Citrobacter, Dermacoccus, Enterococcus, Ignatzschineria, Lysinibacillus, Myroides, Pasteurella, Proteus, Providencia and Staphylococcus. Phylogenetic analysis showed clone sequences of the genera Aeromonas, Bacillus, Bradyrhizobium, Citrobacter, Clostridium, Corynebacterium, Ignatzschineria, Klebsiella, Pantoea, Propionibacterium, Proteus, Providencia, Serratia, Sporosarcina, Weissella and Wohlfahrtiimonas. Species of clinically significant genera such as Ignatzschineria and Wohlfahrtiimonas spp. were detected in both larvae and adult flesh flies. Sequence analysis of 16S rRNA gene libraries supported culture-based results and revealed the presence of additional bacterial taxa. This study determined the diversity of gut microbiota in flesh flies, which will bolster the ability to assess microbiological risk associated with the presence of these flies. The present data thereby establish a platform for a much larger study. PMID:24805263

  9. Multiple Modes of Action of the Squamocin in the Midgut Cells of Aedes aegypti Larvae

    PubMed Central

    de Paula, Sérgio Oliveira; Martins, Gustavo Ferreira; Zanuncio, José Cola

    2016-01-01

    Annonaceous acetogenins are botanical compounds with good potential for use as insecticides. In the vector, Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae), squamocin (acetogenin) has been reported to be a larvicide and cytotoxic, but the modes of action of this molecule are still poorly understood. This study evaluated the changes in the cell morphology, and in the expression of genes, for autophagy (Atg1 and Atg8), for membrane ion transporter V-ATPase, and for water channel aquaporin-4 (Aqp4) in the midgut of A. aegypti larvae exposed to squamocin from Annona mucosa Jacq. (Annonaceae). Squamocin showed cytotoxic action with changes in the midgut epithelium and digestive cells of A. aegypti larvae, increase in the expression for autophagy gene Atg1 and Atg8, decrease in the expression of V-ATPase, decrease in the expression of Aqp4 gene in LC20 and inhibition of Apq4 genes in the midgut of this vector in LC50. These multiple modes of action for squamocin are described for the first time in insects, and they are important because different sites of action of squamocin from A. mucosa may reduce the possibility of resistance of A. aegypti to this molecule. PMID:27532504

  10. Development sites and early stages of eleven species of Clusiidae (Diptera) occurring in Europe.

    PubMed

    Rotheray, Graham E; Horsfield, David

    2013-01-01

    Two hundred and ninety-six rearing records of 11 clusiid species (Diptera, Clusiidae) were obtained from 8 tree species in England, Finland, France, Norway, Russia and Scotland, mainly during the period 1994 to 2004. Larvae and puparia were found between annual layers of whitewood (sapwood and heartwood) of wet, decay-softened, dead wood. Levels of host tree specificity were low, most species were reared from 2-4 host trees, maximum 6. The clusiid larva is distinguished by: a small, translucent head skeleton with an obliquely-shaped apex to the artium; a pseudocephalon fixed in an inverted position except for an external, flattened section bearing the antennomaxillary organs; a spherical prothorax with a truncate rim embedded with sensilla and, a wedge-shaped anal segment bearing a pair of conspicuous, sclerotised, red-brown hooks on the inner margins of which are the posterior spiracular plates. Many of these features support a distinctive feeding mechanism, spot-sucking of biofilm coating wet, decaying whitewood. Early stage characters support the results of recent supraspecific taxonomic and systematic investigations, such as the synonymy of Paraclusia Czerny under Clusia Haliday and the recognition of species groups in Clusiodes Coquillett. Based on early stages, supraspecific clusiid taxa are easily recognised but at species level, differences are relatively fine-grained and minor. A key is provided to identify puparia of species reared in this study. PMID:26131483

  11. Substrate effects on pupation and adult emergence of Hermetia illucens (Diptera: Stratiomyidae).

    PubMed

    Holmes, L A; Vanlaerhoven, S L; Tomberlin, J K

    2013-04-01

    Black soldier flies, Hermetia illucens (L.) (Diptera: Stratiomyidae), are of particular interest for their applications in waste management. Feeding on decaying organic waste, black soldier flies successfully reduce manure in confined animal feeding operations of poultry, swine, and cattle. To optimize waste conversion in confined animal feeding operations and landfill facilities, it is imperative to optimize black soldier fly development. Unfortunately, black soldier flies only convert waste during their larval feeding stages and therefore it is of interest to optimize the nonfeeding stages of development, specifically, the postfeeding and pupal stages. The time spent in these stages is thought to be determined by the pupation substrate encountered by the postfeeding larvae. The objective of this study was to determine the effect different pupation substrates have on postfeeding development time, pupation time, and adult emergence success. Five pupation substrates were compared: wood shavings, potting soil, topsoil, sand, and nothing. Postfeeding larvae took longer to reach pupation in the absence of a pupation substrate, although reaching pupation in the shortest time in potting soil and wood shavings. The time spent in the pupal stage was shortest in the absence of a pupation substrate. However, fewer adults emerged when a pupation substrate was not provided. PMID:23575028

  12. Conochironomus (Diptera: Chironomidae) in Asia: new and redescribed species and vouchering issues.

    PubMed

    Cranston, Peter S

    2016-01-01

    The presence of the Afro-Australian genus Conochironomus Freeman, 1961 (Diptera: Chironomidae) in Asia has been recognised only informally. An unpublished thesis included Conochironomus from Singapore, and the genus has been keyed from Malaysia without named species. Here, the Sumatran Conochironomus tobaterdecimus (Kikuchi & Sasa, 1980) comb. n. is recorded from Singapore and Thailand. The species is transferred from Sumatendipes Kikuchi & Sasa, 1980, rendering the latter a junior synonym (syn. n.) of Conochironomus Freeman. Conochironomus nuengthai sp. n. and Conochironomus sawngthai sp. n. are described as new to science, based on adult males from Chiang Mai, Thailand. All species conform to existing generic diagnoses for all life stages, with features from male and female genitalia, pupal cephalic tubercles and posterolateral 'spurs' of tergite VIII providing evidence for species distinction. Some larvae are linked to C. tobaterdecimus through molecular barcoding. Variation in other larvae, which clearly belong to Conochironomus and are common throughout Thailand, means that they cannot be segregated to species. Larval habitats include pools in river beds, urban storage reservoirs, drains with moderately high nutrient loadings, and peat swamps. Endochironomus effusus Dutta, 1994 from north-eastern India may be a congener but may differ in adult morphology, thereby precluding formal new combination until discrepancies can be reconciled. Many problems with vouchering taxonomic and molecular material are identified that need to be rectified in the future. PMID:27394867

  13. Neotropical Copestylum Macquart (Diptera: Syrphidae) Breeding in Fruits and Flowers, Including 7 New Species

    PubMed Central

    Ricarte, Antonio; Marcos-García, M. Ángeles; Hancock, E. Geoffrey; Rotheray, Graham E.

    2015-01-01

    Ten species of Copestylum (Diptera: Syrphidae) were reared from fruits and flowers in Costa Rica, Ecuador and Trinidad. Seven were new and in this paper, we describe them, their development sites and the third stage larva and/or the puparium of all ten species. One new synonym is proposed, Copestylum pinkusi (Curran) [= Copestylum cinctiventre (Curran)]. Similarities and differences between these new and other Copestylum species, suggest they separate into two groups, referred to as the Vagum and Cinctiventre species groups. Features characterising these groups for both adult and early stages are assessed. Each species was also distinguished using adult and early stage characters. Within the Vagum group, adults were more disparate morphologically than the larval stage; this was reversed in the Cinctiventre group. Adult colour patterns are probably cryptic in function and for disguise. Vagum species have disruptive marks, while the Cinctiventre species have reflective colours. Biologically, the groups are almost distinguished by larval development sites. Vagum species use predominantly fruits and have a larval stage that is relatively generalised in form and habit. Cinctiventre species are confined to developing in flowers and the larva is more specialised. A key to both adult and early stages of all ten species is provided. PMID:26580811

  14. Response to short term ultraviolet stress in the reef-building coral Pocillopora capitata (Anthozoa: Scleractinia).

    PubMed

    Liñán-Cabello, Marco A; Flores-Ramírez, Laura A; Cobo-Díaz, José Francisco; Zenteno-Savin, Tania; Olguín-Monroy, Norma O; Olivos-Ortiz, Aramís; Tintos-Gómez, Adrián

    2010-03-01

    Coral reefs are impacted by a range of environmental variables that affect their growth and survival, the main factors being the high irradiance and temperature fluctuations. Specimens of Pocillopora capitata Verrill 1864 were exposed to photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and ultraviolet radiation (UVR) for 32 h under laboratory conditions. We examined lipid peroxidation (MDA), antioxidant enzyme activities (SOD, CAT, GPx and GST), chlorophyll a (Chl a), carotenoid pigments (CPs), mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs), and expulsion of zooxanthellae. Our results revealed that corals exposed to UVR had relatively low levels of carotenoids and antioxidant enzyme activities compared to those exposed to PAR, as well as lower CPs/Chl a ratios. Although MAAs and CPs are rapidly produced as non-enzymatic antioxidants in response to UVR in corals, these were not sufficient, even in the dark phase of the experiment, to mitigate the damage caused by formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which caused breakdown of the symbiotic relationship between the zooxanthellae and the host animal to an extent 33 times greater than in the PAR treatment. In this study, it could be possible to distinguish that, parallel to the short-term adjustments, such as the amount of pigment in the algae or the sensitivity of the photosynthetic response reported in other species of coral, P. capitata exhibits at the enzymatic level a series of responses oriented to resist the effects derived from the propagation of ROS and, thus, to adapt to and maintain its reproductive capacity in shallow oceanic environments that commonly exhibit high UVR levels. Nevertheless, as a result of the inappropriate location of the artificial intercommunication structure of the Juluapan Lagoon with respect to the arrecifal area of study and therefore of the tides influence, other variables, such as the changes in short-term in turbidity, sediment inputs, nutrients, temperature and osmolarity, can act in

  15. Hunger-dependent and Sex-specific Antipredator Behaviour of Larvae of a Size-dimorphic Mosquito

    PubMed Central

    Wormington, Jillian; Juliano, Steven

    2014-01-01

    1. Modification of behaviors in the presence of predators or predation cues is widespread among animals. Costs of a behavioral change in the presence of predators or predation cues depend on fitness effects of lost feeding opportunities and, especially when organisms are sexually dimorphic in size or timing of maturation, these costs are expected to differ between the sexes. 2. Larval Aedes triseriatus (Say) (Diptera: Culicidae) were used to test the hypothesis that behavioral responses of the sexes to predation cues have been selected differently due to different energy demands. 3. Even in the absence of water-borne predation cues, hungry females (the larger sex) spent more time browsing than did males, indicating a difference in energy needs. 4. In the presence of predation cues, well-fed larvae of both sexes reduced their activity more than did hungry larvae, and males shifted away from high-risk behaviors to a greater degree than did females, providing the first evidence of sex-specific antipredator behavior in foraging mosquito larvae. 5. Because sexual size dimorphism is common across taxa, and energetic demands are likely correlated with size dimorphism, this research demonstrates the importance of investigating sex specific behavior and behavioral responses to enemies and cautions against generalizing results between sexes. PMID:25309025

  16. The impacts of larval density and protease inhibition on feeding in medicinal larvae of the greenbottle fly Lucilia sericata.

    PubMed

    Wilson, M R; Nigam, Y; Jung, W; Knight, J; Pritchard, D I

    2016-03-01

    Larval therapy, the therapeutic use of blowfly larvae to treat chronic wounds, is primarily used in debridement. There are, however, gaps in current knowledge of the optimal clinical application of the therapy and mechanisms of action in the debridement process. Using an artificial assay, two studies were undertaken to investigate these aspects of larval debridement by Lucilia sericata Meigen (Diptera: Calliphoridae); the first studied the effects of the density of larvae on tissue digestion and larval mass, and the second considered the effects on the same parameters of incorporating protease inhibitors into the feeding substrate. The total mass of tissue digested increased with larval density until saturation was observed at 5.0-7.5 larvae/cm(2) . This range was considered optimal as lower doses resulted in the removal of less tissue and higher doses offered no additional tissue removal and appeared to exacerbate competition for feeding. In the second study, increased protease inhibitor concentration led to significant decreases in tissue digestion and larval mass, suggesting that serine proteases, particularly trypsin, may play major roles in larval digestion. Such information is important in elucidating the main constituents that make up larval digestive products and may be significant in the development of new therapies. PMID:26463514

  17. Multi-character approach reveals a discordant pattern of phenotypic variation during ontogeny in Culex pipiens biotypes (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Krtinić, B; Ludoški, J; Milankov, V

    2015-02-01

    Culex (Culex) pipiens s.l. (Diptera: Culicidae) comprises two distinct biotypes, pipiens ('rural') and molestus ('urban'), both of which are thought to have differing capacities due to different host preferences. To better understand West Nile encephalitis epidemiology and improve risk assessment, local distinction between these forms is essential. This study assesses phenotypic variation at larval and adult stages of 'urban' and 'rural' biotypes of the species by complementary use of meristic, univariate and multivariate traits analyzed by traditional and geometric morphometrics. Third- and fourth-instar larvae from a broad area of the city of Novi Sad (Serbia) were collected and reared in the laboratory. After adult eclosion, the sex of each larva was recorded based on the sex of the corresponding adult. Examination of the association between variations of larval traits revealed contrasting variations regarding pecten spines vs. siphonal size and siphonal shape in the 'rural' biotype. Siphons of larvae collected in marshes and forest ecosystems outside urban areas were found to be the largest, but possessed the smallest number of pecten spines. In addition, statistically significant female-biased sexual dimorphism was observed in siphonal size, wing size and wing shape. Finally, we propose that an integrative approach is essential in delimitation of Cx. pipiens s.l. biotypes, since their differentiation was not possible based solely on larval and adult traits. Our findings shed light on the phenotypic plasticity important for population persistence in the changing environment of these medically important taxa. PMID:25424880

  18. Development and validation of a GC-MS method for nicotine detection in Calliphora vomitoria (L.) (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    PubMed

    Magni, Paola A; Pazzi, Marco; Vincenti, Marco; Alladio, Eugenio; Brandimarte, Marco; Dadour, Ian R

    2016-04-01

    Entomotoxicology is the application of toxicological methods and analytical procedures on necrophagous insects feeding on decomposing tissues to detect drugs and other chemical components, and their mechanisms affecting insect development and morphology and modifying the methodology for estimation of minimum time since death. Nicotine is a readily available potent poison. Because of its criminal use, a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method for the detection of nicotine in Calliphora vomitoria L. (Diptera: Calliphoridae) was developed and validated. Furthermore, the effect of nicotine on the development, growth rate, and survival of this blowfly was studied. Larvae were reared on liver substrates homogeneously spiked with measured amounts of nicotine (2, 4, and 6ng/mg) based on concentrations that are lethal to humans. The results demonstrated that (a) the GC-MS method can detect both nicotine and its metabolite cotinine in immature C. vomitoria; (b) the presence of nicotine in the aforementioned three concentrations in food substrates did not modify the developmental time of C. vomitoria; (c) during the pupation period, larvae exposed to nicotine died depending on the concentration of nicotine in the substrate; and (d) the resultant lengths of larvae and pupae exposed to 4 and 6ng/mg concentrations of nicotine were significantly shorter than those of the control. PMID:26874739

  19. Effects of the microbial secondary metabolite benzothiazole on the nutritional physiology and enzyme activities of Bradysia odoriphaga (Diptera: Sciaridae).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yunhe; Xu, Chunmei; Wang, Qiuhong; Wei, Yan; Liu, Feng; Xu, Shuangyu; Zhang, Zhengqun; Mu, Wei

    2016-05-01

    Bradysia odoriphaga (Diptera: Sciaridae) is the major pest that damages Chinese chive production. As a volatile compound derived from microbial secondary metabolites, benzothiazole has been determined to possess fumigant activity against B. odoriphaga. However, the mechanism of action of benzothiazole is not well understood. In the present study, fourth-instar larvae of B. odoriphaga were exposed to LC10 and LC30 of benzothiazole. Sublethal concentrations (LC10 and LC30) of benzothiazole significantly reduced the food consumption of the larvae on the second day after treatment (2 DAT). However, there were no significant changes in pupal weight among the different treatments. We also measured the protein, lipid, carbohydrate, and trehalose contents and the digestive enzyme activities of the larvae, and the results suggest that benzothiazole reduced the nutrient accumulation and decreased the digestive enzyme activities of B. odoriphaga. In addition, the activity of glutathione S-transferase was significantly decreased at 6h after treatment with benzothiazole, whereas general esterase activities were significantly increased at 6 and 24h after treatment. The results of this study indicate that benzothiazole interferes in the normal food consumption and digestion process by decreasing the activities of digestive enzymes. These results provide valuable information for understanding the toxicity of benzothiazole and for exploring volatile compound for the control of this pest. PMID:27017881

  20. Biology of Paenibacillus larvae, a deadly pathogen of honey bee larvae.

    PubMed

    Ebeling, Julia; Knispel, Henriette; Hertlein, Gillian; Fünfhaus, Anne; Genersch, Elke

    2016-09-01

    The gram-positive bacterium Paenibacillus larvae is the etiological agent of American Foulbrood of honey bees, a notifiable disease in many countries. Hence, P. larvae can be considered as an entomopathogen of considerable relevance in veterinary medicine. P. larvae is a highly specialized pathogen with only one established host, the honey bee larva. No other natural environment supporting germination and proliferation of P. larvae is known. Over the last decade, tremendous progress in the understanding of P. larvae and its interactions with honey bee larvae at a molecular level has been made. In this review, we will present the recent highlights and developments in P. larvae research and discuss the impact of some of the findings in a broader context to demonstrate what we can learn from studying "exotic" pathogens. PMID:27394713

  1. Taste processing in Drosophila larvae

    PubMed Central

    Apostolopoulou, Anthi A.; Rist, Anna; Thum, Andreas S.

    2015-01-01

    The sense of taste allows animals to detect chemical substances in their environment to initiate appropriate behaviors: to find food or a mate, to avoid hostile environments and predators. Drosophila larvae are a promising model organism to study gustation. Their simple nervous system triggers stereotypic behavioral responses, and the coding of taste can be studied by genetic tools at the single cell level. This review briefly summarizes recent progress on how taste information is sensed and processed by larval cephalic and pharyngeal sense organs. The focus lies on several studies, which revealed cellular and molecular mechanisms required to process sugar, salt, and bitter substances. PMID:26528147

  2. Phenology of stable fly (Diptera: Muscidae) larvae in round bale hay feeding sites in Eastern Nebraska

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The temporal and spatial patterns of adult stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), emergence from six sites where large round baled hay had been provided to pastured cattle as winter feed were studied using emergence traps. The substrate at these sites, consisting of waste hay mixed with bovine manure...

  3. Atypical mechanoreceptors in larvae of biting midges Forcipomyia nigra (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae).

    PubMed

    Urbanek, Aleksandra; Kapusta, Małgorzata

    2016-09-01

    The dorsolateral setae of Forcipomyia nigra have been investigated. They are mechanoreceptors, sensilla trichoidea, innerved by a single neuron. The tubular body is located at the base of the hair shaft. Although the fine structure of the dorsolateral setae is similar to dorsal setae that perform a double function: secretion of a hygroscopic viscous substance through the pores and mechanoreception dorsolateral setae, they do not secrete any fluid. In both types of setae, trichogen cells (hair forming cells) produce the hair shafts and thereafter do not retract from the cavity of the setae. They contain a large polyploid nucleus and expanded bundles of microtubules. In dorsolateral mechanoreceptors, the microtubules form a network around the nucleus of the trichogen cell and are especially numerous in the cytoplasm invading the interior of the seta, which is evidenced by immunofluorescence light microscopy. No tormogen cell, responsible for the production of the setal socket, was found. Our observations indicate that the dorsolateral setae are solely mechanoreceptors but their trichogen cells reveal some glandular activity. PMID:27428285

  4. Susceptibility of Cabbage Maggot Larvae (Diptera: Anthomyiidae) to Hypocreales Entomopathogenic Fungi.

    PubMed

    Myrand, V; Buffet, J P; Guertin, C

    2015-02-01

    The pathogenicity of six Metarhizium spp., four Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin, and four Tolypocladium cylindrosporum Gams (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) fungal pathogens exposed to third-instar Delia radicum L. was evaluated in laboratory bioassays. The presence of intra- and intergeneric variations concerning the pathogenicity of the isolates was investigated. Results show that all Metarhizium spp. and T. cylindrosporum isolates caused a noteworthy mortality to the third instar and consequently reduced adult eclosion. The well-known standard, F52 strain (identified as Metarhizium brunneum), resulted in up to 79% reduction in D. radicum eclosion. The other Metarhizium isolates including UAMH 9197 (Metarhizium anisopliae) and UAMH 2801 (M. brunneum), as well as T. cylindrosporum DAOM 167325 and DAOM 183952, produced a mean eclosion reduction of >50%. While the pathogenicity of Metarhizium spp. and T. cylindrosporum is similar, the B. bassiana isolates are undoubtedly less pathogenic. Based on the results obtained with the selected isolates, no intrageneric differences relative to the pathogenicity of the isolates appeared to be present. Globally, this study deepened the knowledge about D. radicum susceptibility toward Hypocreales entomopathogenic fungi, chiefly T. cylindrosporum. The implications of this study regarding the development of a biological control agent are discussed. PMID:26470101

  5. Late-instar Behavior of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) Larvae in Different Thermal and Nutritive Environments.

    PubMed

    Reiskind, Michael H; Janairo, M Shawn

    2015-09-01

    The effects of temperature on ectotherm growth have been well documented. How temperature affects foraging behavior is less well explored, and has not been studied in larval mosquitoes. We hypothesized that temperature changes foraging behavior in the aquatic larval phase of the mosquito, Aedes aegypti L. Based on empirical results in other systems, we predicted that foraging effort would increase at higher temperatures in these insects. We tested this prediction over three temperature conditions at two food levels. We measured behaviors by video recording replicated cohorts of fourth-instar mosquitoes and assessing individual behavior and time budgets using an ethogram. We found both food level and temperature had significant impacts on larval foraging behavior, with more time spent actively foraging at low food levels and at low temperatures, and more occurrences of active foraging at both temperature extremes. These results are contrary to some of our predictions, but fit into theoretical responses to temperature based upon dynamic energy budget models. PMID:26336228

  6. Toxicity of thiophenes from echinops transiliensis (Asteraceae) against aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Six known thiophenes, 5-(3,4-diacetoxybut-1-ynyl)-2,2'-bithiophene (3), 2-(penta-1,3-diynyl)-5-(3,4-diacetoxybut-1-ynyl)thiophene (4), 5-(4-acetoxy-3-hydroxybut-1-ynyl)-2,2'-bithiophene (5), 2-(penta-1,3-diynyl)-5-(4-acetoxy-3-hydroxybut-1-ynyl)thiophene (6), 2-(penta-1,3-diynyl)-5-(3-acetoxy-4-hydr...

  7. ACUTE AND CHRONIC EFFECTS OF ALUM TO MIDGE LARVA (DIPTERA: CHIRONOMIDAE)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The use of aluminum sulfate (alum) to precipitate phosphorus in highly eutrophic lakes is increasing. As use increases, the need to study the effects of alum on the biota increases. Possible adverse effects of alum on lake organisms may be due to chemical toxicity from dissolved ...

  8. Natural vertical transmission of Ndumu virus in Culex pipiens (Diptera; Culicidae) mosquitoes collected as larvae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ndumu virus (NDUV) is a member of the Family: Togaviridae and Genus: Alphavirus. In Kenya the virus has been isolated from a range of mosquito species but has not been associated with human or animal morbidity. Little is know about the transmission dynamics or vertebrate reservoirs of this virus. We...

  9. Diet pH, and viscosity affect development and survival of screwworm larvae (Diptera:Calliphoridae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of dietary pH and viscosity on larval development of the new world screwworms, Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel), were studied in the laboratory using standard rearing procedures for screwworms. The effects of pH were studied in two different screwworm diets – a gelled-based and a cellu...

  10. Single stimulus learning in zebrafish larvae.

    PubMed

    O'Neale, Ashley; Ellis, Joseph; Creton, Robbert; Colwill, Ruth M

    2014-02-01

    Learning about a moving visual stimulus was examined in zebrafish larvae using an automated imaging system and a t1-t2 design. In three experiments, zebrafish larvae were exposed to one of two inputs at t1 (either a gray bouncing disk or an identical but stationary disk) followed by a common test at t2 (the gray bouncing disk). Using 7days post-fertilization (dpf) larvae and 12 stimulus exposures, Experiment 1 established that these different treatments produced differential responding to the moving disk during testing. Larvae familiar with the moving test stimulus were significantly less likely to be still in its presence than larvae that had been exposed to the identical but stationary stimulus. Experiment 2 confirmed this result in 7dpf larvae and extended the finding to 5 and 6dpf larvae. Experiment 3 found differential responding to the moving test stimulus with 4 or 8 stimulus exposures but not with just one exposure in 7dpf larvae. These results provide evidence for learning in very young zebrafish larvae. The merits and challenges of the t1-t2 framework to study learning are discussed. PMID:24012906

  11. First report of Dolichozele koebelei Viereck, 1911 (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) on larvae of Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith, 1797) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in maize (Zea mays L.) under different cropping systems.

    PubMed

    Silva, R B; Cruz, I; Penteado-Dias, A M

    2014-08-01

    In the context of the modern agriculture, pest control is important in order to increase productivity in maize (Zea mays L.). However, this control should be done rationally, prioritising environmentally safer methods such as biological control. This paper aims to report the occurrence of Dolichozele koebelei Viereck, 1911 (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith, 1797) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae collected in maize subjected to different cropping systems. The experiment was conducted at the Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Milho e Sorgo (CNPMS) in Sete Lagoas, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, using organic and conventional production. Ten plants were sampled from each of the 24 plots and for each production system, three times a week during the entire cycle of maize (variety BR 106). In the laboratory, larvae were distributed in individual rearing containers with artificial diet until the end of the biological cycle. An increased number of S. frugiperda larvae was observed in organic single crop maize; hence a higher percentage of S. frugiperda larvae parasitised by Hymenoptera and Diptera also occurred in the maize under this production system. Dolichozele koebelei had not yet been described in association with larvae of S. frugiperda. The percentage of parasitism of S. frugiperda larvae was high in both experiments, indicating the importance of natural control agents in reducing the population density of S. frugiperda, and especially the importance of an appropriate crop management. PMID:25627388

  12. Metalloprotease production by Paenibacillus larvae during the infection of honeybee larvae.

    PubMed

    Antúnez, Karina; Arredondo, Daniela; Anido, Matilde; Zunino, Pablo

    2011-05-01

    American foulbrood is a bacterial disease of worldwide distribution that affects larvae of the honeybee Apis mellifera. The causative agent is the Gram-positive, spore-forming bacterium Paenibacillus larvae. Several authors have proposed that P. larvae secretes metalloproteases that are involved in the larval degradation that occurs after infection. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the production of a metalloprotease by P. larvae during larval infection. First, the complete gene encoding a metalloprotease was identified in the P. larvae genome and its distribution was evaluated by PCR in a collection of P. larvae isolates from different geographical regions. Then, the complete gene was amplified, cloned and overexpressed, and the recombinant metalloprotease was purified and used to generate anti-metalloprotease antibodies. Metalloprotease production was evaluated by immunofluorescence and fluorescence in situ hybridization. The gene encoding a P. larvae metalloprotease was widely distributed in isolates from different geographical origins in Uruguay and Argentina. Metalloprotease was detected inside P. larvae vegetative cells, on the surface of P. larvae spores and secreted to the external growth medium. Its production was also confirmed in vivo, during the infection of honeybee larvae. This protein was able to hydrolyse milk proteins as described for P. larvae, suggesting that could be involved in larval degradation. This work contributes to the knowledge of the pathogenicity mechanisms of a bacterium of great economic significance and is one step in the characterization of potential P. larvae virulence factors. PMID:21330433

  13. Impact of copper toxicity on stone-head cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) in hydroponics

    PubMed Central

    Shahbaz, Muhammad; Shahzad, Ahmad Naeem; Khan, Hafiz Azhar Ali; Anees, Moazzam; Haider, Muhammad Saleem; Fatima, Ammara

    2015-01-01

    Arable soils are frequently subjected to contamination with copper as the consequence of imbalanced fertilization with manure and organic fertilizers and/or extensive use of copper-containing fungicides. In the present study, the exposure of stone-head cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) to elevated Cu2+ levels resulted in leaf chlorosis and lesser biomass yield at ≥2 µ M. Root nitrate content was not statistically affected by Cu2+ levels, although it was substantially decreased at ≥5 µ M Cu2+ in the shoot. The decrease in nitrate contents can be related to lower nitrate uptake rates because of growth inhibition by Cu-toxicity. Shoot sulfate content increased strongly at ≥2 µ M Cu2+ indicating an increase in demand for sulfur under Cu stress. Furthermore, at ≥2 µM concentration, concentration of water-soluble non-protein thiol increased markedly in the roots and to a smaller level in the shoot. When exposed to elevated concentrations of Cu2+ the improved sulfate and water-soluble non-protein thiols need further studies for the evaluation of their direct relation with the synthesis of metal-chelating compounds (i.e., phytochelatins). PMID:26290787

  14. Variation of volatiles in Tunisian populations of Thymbra capitata (L.) Cav. (Lamiaceae).

    PubMed

    Ali, Imen Ben El Hadj; Guetat, Arbi; Boussaid, Mohamed

    2012-07-01

    Volatiles from 14 wild Tunisian populations of Thymbra capitata (=Thymus capitatus Hoffmanns. et Link=Coridothymus capitatus Rchb.f.), sampled in five ecological areas (sub-humid, upper semi-arid, mean semi-arid, lower semi-arid, and upper arid areas) were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) techniques. Thirty-nine constituents representing 94.2 to 99.5% of the total oil were identified. Carvacrol (38; 51.1-75.9%), p-cymene (13; 3.7-15%), γ-terpinene (12; 1.4-11.9%), and trans-β-caryophyllene (22; 2.9-4.6%) are the major compounds. A significant variation among populations and population's bioclimatic stage for the majority of compounds was shown. The chemical population structure, estimated using a principal-component analysis (PCA) and an unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) cluster analysis performed on all populations and compounds and based on Euclidean distances among populations, was high. Both methods allowed separation of the populations into distinct groups defined rather by minor than by major compounds. The spatial compound distribution is linked to ecological factors, indicating that local selective environmental factors influence chemical-composition diversity. Conservation strategies should involve all populations because of their low size and their high level of destruction. Populations exhibiting particular compounds other than the major ones should first be protected. In situ conservation of populations should be accomplished appropriately according to bioclimate. PMID:22782875

  15. Chemical composition and antifungal activity of the essential oil of Thymbra capitata.

    PubMed

    Salgueiro, L R; Pinto, E; Gonçalves, M J; Pina-Vaz, C; Cavaleiro, C; Rodrigues, A G; Palmeira, A; Tavares, C; Costa-de-Oliveira, S; Martinez-de-Oliveira, J

    2004-06-01

    The composition and the antifungal activity of the essential oil of Thymbra capitata on Candida, Aspergillus and dermatophyte strains were studied. Twenty-two samples of the essential oils from the aerial parts of the plant were obtained by hydrodistillation and analysed by GC and GC-MS. All samples are of the carvacrol type, with a high content of carvacrol (60.0 - 65.8 %) and its biogenetic precursors, gamma-terpinene (8.2 - 9.5 %) and p-cymene (6.0 - 7.5 %). The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimal lethal concentration (MLC) were used to evaluate the antifungal activity against Candida (7 clinical isolates and 3 ATCC type strains), Aspergillus (5 clinical isolates, 2 CECT and 2 ATCC type strains) and 5 dermatophyte clinical strains. To clarify its mechanism of action on Candida strains, the inhibition of germ tube and a flow cytometry assay with propidium iodide (PI) were used. The oil exhibited antifungal activity for all the tested strains, particularly for dermatophytes, with MIC values ranging from 0.08 to 0.32 microL/mL. Regarding Candida, concentrations lower than the MIC values prevented germ tube formation. After a short incubation time the cells incorporated quickly PI, meaning that the fungicidal effect is mainly due to direct lesion of the membrane. PMID:15229809

  16. Formation and structural organization of the egg-sperm bundle of the scleractinian coral Montipora capitata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padilla-Gamiño, J. L.; Weatherby, T. M.; Waller, R. G.; Gates, R. D.

    2011-06-01

    The majority of scleractinian corals are hermaphrodites that broadcast spawn their gametes separately or packaged as egg-sperm bundles during spawning events that are timed to the lunar cycle. The egg-sperm bundle is an efficient way of transporting gametes to the ocean surface where fertilization takes place, while minimizing sperm dilution and maximizing the opportunity for gamete encounters during a spawning event. To date, there are few studies that focus on the formation and structure of egg-sperm bundle. This study explores formation, ultrastructure, and longevity of the egg-sperm bundle in Montipora capitata, a major reef building coral in Hawai`i. Our results show that the egg-sperm bundle is formed by a mucus layer secreted by the oocytes. The sperm package is located at the center of each bundle, possibly reflecting the development of male and female gametes in different mesenteries. Once the egg-sperm bundle has reached the ocean surface, it breaks open within 10-35 min, depending on the environmental conditions (i.e., wind, water turbulence). Although the bundle has an ephemeral life span, the formation of an egg-sperm bundle is a fundamental part of the reproductive process that could be strongly influenced by climate change and deterioration of water quality (due to anthropogenic effects) and thus requires further investigation.

  17. Expression of galaxin and oncogene homologs in growth anomaly in the coral Montipora capitata.

    PubMed

    Spies, Narrissa P; Takabayashi, Misaki

    2013-06-13

    Growth anomaly (GA) is a coral disease characterized by enlarged skeletal lesions. Although negative effects of GA on several of coral's biological functions have been determined, the etiology and molecular pathology of this disease is very poorly understood. We studied the expression of 5 genes suspected to play a role in pathological development of GA in the endemic Hawaiian coral Montipora capitata, which is particularly susceptible to this disease. Transcript abundances of the 5 target genes in healthy tissue, GA-affected tissue, and unaffected tissue (apparently healthy tissue adjacent to GA) relative to 3 internal control genes (actin, NADH, and rpS3) were compared using quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR. Galaxin, which codes for a protein suspected to be involved in calcification and thus hypothesized to be differentially expressed in GA, was up-regulated in unaffected tissue but remained at baseline levels in GA tissue. The gene expressions of murine double minute 2 (MDM2) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) remained unchanged in GA tissue. The expression of tyrosine protein kinase (TPK) and βγ-crystallin (BGC) were both down-regulated. These expression patterns were all inconsistent with the expression patterns of homologous genes in neoplastic diseases featuring similar morphological symptoms in humans. These expression data therefore suggest that the calcification mechanism is likely not enhanced in coral GA and that coral GA is not a malignant neoplasia. PMID:23759562

  18. Expression of salicylic acid-related genes in Brassica oleracea var. capitata during Plasmodiophora brassicae infection.

    PubMed

    Manoharan, Ranjith Kumar; Shanmugam, Ashokraj; Hwang, Indeok; Park, Jong-In; Nou, Ill-Sup

    2016-06-01

    Brassica oleracea var. capitata (cabbage) is an important vegetable crop in Asian countries such as Korea, China, and Japan. Cabbage production is severely affected by clubroot disease caused by the soil-borne plant pathogen Plasmodiophora brassicae. During clubroot development, methyl salicylate (MeSA) is biosynthesized from salicylic acid (SA) by methyltransferase. In addition, methyl salicylate esterase (MES) plays a major role in the conversion of MeSA back into free SA. The interrelationship between MES and methytransferases during clubroot development has not been fully explored. To begin to examine these relationships, we investigated the expression of MES genes in disease-susceptible and disease-resistant plants during clubroot development. We identified three MES-encoding genes potentially involved in the defense against pathogen attack. We found that SS1 was upregulated in both the leaves and roots of B. oleracea during P. brassicae infection. These results support the conclusion that SA biosynthesis is suppressed during pathogen infection in resistant plants. We also characterized the expression of a B. oleracea BSMT gene, which appears to be involved in glycosylation rather than MeSA biosynthesis. Our results provide insight into the functions and interactions of genes for MES and methyltransferase during infection. Taken together, our findings indicate that MES genes are important candidates for use to control clubroot diseases. PMID:27171821

  19. Impact of copper toxicity on stone-head cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) in hydroponics.

    PubMed

    Ali, Sajid; Shahbaz, Muhammad; Shahzad, Ahmad Naeem; Khan, Hafiz Azhar Ali; Anees, Moazzam; Haider, Muhammad Saleem; Fatima, Ammara

    2015-01-01

    Arable soils are frequently subjected to contamination with copper as the consequence of imbalanced fertilization with manure and organic fertilizers and/or extensive use of copper-containing fungicides. In the present study, the exposure of stone-head cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) to elevated Cu(2+) levels resulted in leaf chlorosis and lesser biomass yield at ≥2 µ M. Root nitrate content was not statistically affected by Cu(2+) levels, although it was substantially decreased at ≥5 µ M Cu(2+) in the shoot. The decrease in nitrate contents can be related to lower nitrate uptake rates because of growth inhibition by Cu-toxicity. Shoot sulfate content increased strongly at ≥2 µ M Cu(2+) indicating an increase in demand for sulfur under Cu stress. Furthermore, at ≥2 µM concentration, concentration of water-soluble non-protein thiol increased markedly in the roots and to a smaller level in the shoot. When exposed to elevated concentrations of Cu(2+) the improved sulfate and water-soluble non-protein thiols need further studies for the evaluation of their direct relation with the synthesis of metal-chelating compounds (i.e., phytochelatins). PMID:26290787

  20. Transcriptome Profiling of Sexual Maturation and Mating in the Mediterranean Fruit Fly, Ceratitis capitata

    PubMed Central

    Gomulski, Ludvik M.; Dimopoulos, George; Xi, Zhiyong; Scolari, Francesca; Gabrieli, Paolo; Siciliano, Paolo; Clarke, Anthony R.; Malacrida, Anna R.; Gasperi, Giuliano

    2012-01-01

    Sexual maturation and mating in insects are generally accompanied by major physiological and behavioural changes. Many of these changes are related to the need to locate a mate and subsequently, in the case of females, to switch from mate searching to oviposition behaviour. The prodigious reproductive capacity of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata, is one of the factors that has led to its success as an invasive pest species. To identify the molecular changes related to maturation and mating status in male and female medfly, a microarray-based gene expression approach was used to compare the head transcriptomes of sexually immature, mature virgin, and mated individuals. Attention was focused on the changes in abundance of transcripts related to reproduction, behaviour, sensory perception of chemical stimulus, and immune system processes. Broad transcriptional changes were recorded during female maturation, while post-mating transcriptional changes in females were, by contrast, modest. In male medfly, transcriptional changes were consistent both during maturation and as a consequence of mating. Of particular note was the lack of the mating-induced immune responses that have been recorded for Drosophila melanogaster, that may be due to the different reproductive strategies of these species. This study, in addition to increasing our understanding of the molecular machinery behind maturation and mating in the medfly, has identified important gene targets that might be useful in the future management of this pest. PMID:22303464

  1. Transcriptome profiling of sexual maturation and mating in the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata.

    PubMed

    Gomulski, Ludvik M; Dimopoulos, George; Xi, Zhiyong; Scolari, Francesca; Gabrieli, Paolo; Siciliano, Paolo; Clarke, Anthony R; Malacrida, Anna R; Gasperi, Giuliano

    2012-01-01

    Sexual maturation and mating in insects are generally accompanied by major physiological and behavioural changes. Many of these changes are related to the need to locate a mate and subsequently, in the case of females, to switch from mate searching to oviposition behaviour. The prodigious reproductive capacity of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata, is one of the factors that has led to its success as an invasive pest species. To identify the molecular changes related to maturation and mating status in male and female medfly, a microarray-based gene expression approach was used to compare the head transcriptomes of sexually immature, mature virgin, and mated individuals. Attention was focused on the changes in abundance of transcripts related to reproduction, behaviour, sensory perception of chemical stimulus, and immune system processes. Broad transcriptional changes were recorded during female maturation, while post-mating transcriptional changes in females were, by contrast, modest. In male medfly, transcriptional changes were consistent both during maturation and as a consequence of mating. Of particular note was the lack of the mating-induced immune responses that have been recorded for Drosophila melanogaster, that may be due to the different reproductive strategies of these species. This study, in addition to increasing our understanding of the molecular machinery behind maturation and mating in the medfly, has identified important gene targets that might be useful in the future management of this pest. PMID:22303464

  2. Bioinvasions of the medfly Ceratitis capitata: source estimation using DNA sequences at multiple intron loci.

    PubMed

    Davies, N; Villablanca, F X; Roderick, G K

    1999-09-01

    The Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata, is a devastating agricultural pest that threatens to become established in vulnerable areas such as California and Florida. Considerable controversy surrounds the status of Californian medfly infestations: Do they represent repeated introductions or the persistence of a resident population? Attempts to resolve this question using traditional population genetic markers and statistical methods are problematic because the most likely source populations in Latin America were themselves only recently colonized and are genetically very similar. Here, significant population structure among several New World medfly populations is demonstrated through the analysis of DNA sequence variation at four intron loci. Surprisingly, in these newly founded populations, estimates of population structure increase when measures of subdivision take into account the relatedness of alleles as well as their frequency. A nonequilibrium, likelihood-based statistical test that utilizes multilocus genotypes suggests that the sole medfly captured in California during 1996 was introduced from Latin America and was less likely to be a remnant of an ancestral Californian population. Many bioinvasions are hierarchical in nature, consisting of several sequential or overlapping invasion events, the totality of which can be termed a metainvasion. Phylogenetic data from multilocus DNA sequences will be vital to understanding the evolutionary and ecological processes that underlie metainvasions and to resolving their constituent levels. PMID:10471718

  3. Genetic sexing strains in medfly, Ceratitis capitata, sterile insect technique programmes.

    PubMed

    Robinson, A S

    2002-09-01

    The introduction of genetic sexing strains (GSS) into medfly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), sterile insect technique (SIT) programmes started in 1994 and it was accompanied by extensive evaluation of the strains both in field cages and in open field situations. Two male-linked translocation systems, one based on pupal colour, wp, and the other based on temperature sensitivity, tsl, have been used in medfly SIT programmes and they have quite different impacts on mass rearing strategy. In strains based on tsl, female zygotes are killed using high temperature and for wp strains, female and male pupae are separated based on their colour. In all these systems the colony females are homozygous for the mutation requiring that the mutation is not too deleterious and the males are also semi-sterile due to the presence of a male-linked translocation. Managing strain stability during large-scale mass rearing has presented some problems that have been essentially solved by selecting particular translocations for GSS and by the introduction of a filter rearing system (FRS). The FRS operates by removing from the colony any recombinant individuals that threaten the integrity of the strain. The use of GSS opens up the possibility of using the SIT for suppression as opposed to eradication and different radiation strategies can be considered. Some of the many field trials of the strains that were carried out before the strains were introduced into operational programmes are reviewed and an overview is given of their current use. PMID:12484522

  4. Genomic organization and characterization of the white locus of the Mediterranean fruitfly, Ceratitis capitata.

    PubMed

    Gomulski, L M; Pitts, R J; Costa, S; Saccone, G; Torti, C; Polito, L C; Gasperi, G; Malacrida, A R; Kafatos, F C; Zwiebel, L J

    2001-03-01

    An approximately 14-kb region of genomic DNA encoding the wild-type white eye (w+) color gene from the medfly, Ceratitis capitata has been cloned and characterized at the molecular level. Comparison of the intron-exon organization of this locus among several dipteran insects reveals distinct organizational patterns that are consistent with the phylogenetic relationships of these flies and the dendrogram of the predicted primary amino acid sequence of the white loci. An examination of w+ expression during medfly development has been carried out, displaying overall similarity to corresponding studies for white gene homologues in Drosophila melanogaster and other insects. Interestingly, we have detected two phenotypically neutral allelic forms of the locus that have arisen as the result of an apparently novel insertion or deletion event located in the large first intron of the medfly white locus. Cloning and sequencing of two mutant white alleles, w1 and w2, from the we,wp and M245 strains, respectively, indicate that the mutant conditions in these strains are the result of independent events--a frameshift mutation in exon 6 for w1 and a deletion including a large part of exon 2 in the case of w2. PMID:11238408

  5. Relationships among thermal stress, bleaching and oxidative damage in the hermatypic coral, Pocillopora capitata.

    PubMed

    Flores-Ramírez, Laura A; Liñán-Cabello, Marco A

    2007-01-01

    To examine the response to exposure to a thermal gradient in coral, we assessed the effect of a gradual 10 degrees C temperature increase (22 to 32 degrees C over 10 h) on normal (N), partially bleached (P) and control (C) samples collected from different branches of the same coral (Pocillopora capitata). We examined markers of oxidative stress, including lipid peroxidation (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, indicators of bleaching, including chlorophyll a (Chl a) and carotenoid pigment (PC) levels, as well as zooxanthellae density. Our results revealed that N, P and C coral samples all contained higher levels of PC versus Chl a. The levels of both pigments increased as the temperature increased from 22 to 28 degrees C only in N and C samples, whereas P samples showed less cellular damage than N and C samples at temperatures between 26 and 28 degrees C, and had greater antioxidant activities at temperatures between 26 and 30 degrees C. The rate of zooxanthellar expulsion consistently increased with temperature in all three coral types across the entire temperature range. Collectively, these results indicate that temperature has a direct effect on the antagonistic relationship between temperature-induced damage and protective antioxidant mechanisms in this type of coral. PMID:17240200

  6. Ganzfeld ERG in zebrafish larvae.

    PubMed

    Seeliger, Mathias W; Rilk, Albrecht; Neuhauss, Stephan C F

    2002-01-01

    In developmental biology, zebrafish are widely used to study the impact of mutations. The fast pace of development allows for a definitive morphological evaluation of the phenotype usually 5 days post fertilization (dpf). At that age, a functional analysis is already feasible using electroretinographic (ERG) methods. Corneal Ganzfeld ERGs were recorded with a glass microelectrode in anaesthetized, dark-adapted larvae aged 5 dpf, using a platinum wire beneath a moist paper towel as reference. ERG protocols included flash, flicker, and ON/OFF stimuli, both under scotopic and photopic conditions. Repetitive, isoluminant stimuli were used to assess the dynamic effect of pharmacological agents on the ERG. Single flash, flicker, and ON/OFF responses had adequately matured at this point to be informative. Typical signs of the cone dominance were the small scotopic a-wave and the large OFF responses. The analysis of consecutive single traces was possible because of the lack of EKG, breathing, and blink artefacts. After application of APB, which selectively blocks the ON channel via the mGluR6 receptor, the successive loss of the b-wave could be observed, which was quite different from the deterioration of the ERG after a circulatory arrest. The above techniques allowed to reliably obtain Ganzfeld ERGs in larvae aged 5 dpf. This underlines the important role of the zebrafish as a model for the functional analysis of mutations disrupting the visual system. PMID:11949809

  7. Insecticide resistance in two Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) strains from Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Bisset, J A; Marín, R; Rodríguez, M M; Severson, D W; Ricardo, Y; French, L; Díaz, M; Pérez, O

    2013-03-01

    Dengue (family Flaviridae, genus Flavivirus, DENV) and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) are presently important public health problems in Costa Rica. The primary strategy for disease control is based on reducing population densities of the main mosquito vector Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae). This is heavily dependent on use of chemical insecticides, thus the development of resistance is a frequent threat to control program effectiveness. The objective of this study was to determine the levels of insecticide resistance and the metabolic resistance mechanisms involved in two Ae. aegypti strains collected from two provinces (Puntarenas and Limon) in Costa Rica. Bioassays with larvae were performed according to World Health Organization guidelines and resistance in adults was measured through standard bottle assays. The activities of beta-esterases, cytochrome P450 monooxygenases, and glutathione S-transferases (GST), were assayed through synergists and biochemical tests, wherein the threshold criteria for each enzyme was established using the susceptible Rockefeller strain. The results showed higher resistance levels to the organophosphate (OP) temephos and the pyrethroid deltamethrin in larvae. The efficacy of commercial formulations of temephos in controlling Ae. aegypti populations was 100% mortality up to 11 and 12 d posttreatment with daily water replacements in test containers. Temephos and deltamethrin resistance in larvae were associated with high esterase activity, but not to cytochrome P450 monooxygenase or GST activities. Adult mosquitoes were resistant to deltamethrin, and susceptible to bendiocarb, chlorpyrifos, and cypermethrin. Because temephos and deltamethrin resistance are emerging at the studied sites, alternative insecticides should be considered. The insecticides chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin could be good candidates to use as alternatives for Ae. aegypti control. PMID:23540124

  8. Inheritance of Resistance to Deltamethrin in Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) From Cuba.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, María Magdalena; Hurtado, Daymi; Severson, David W; Bisset, Juan A

    2014-11-01

    The development of pyrethroid resistance in Aedes aegypti (L) (Diptera: Culicidae) is a serious concern because major A. aegypti control programs are predominantly based on pyrethroid use during epidemic disease outbreaks. Research about the genetic basis for pyrethroid resistance and how it is transmitted among mosquito populations is needed. The objective of this study was to determine how deltamethrin resistance is inherited in the Cuban A. aegypti-resistant reference strain. Here, a field population of A. aegypti from Santiago de Cuba (SAN-F14), subjected to 14 generations of selection for high deltamethrin resistance level (91.25×), was used to prepare reciprocal F1 and backcross progeny with the insecticide-susceptible Rockefeller strain. Bioassays with larvae were performed according to World Health Organization guidelines. The activities of metabolic enzymes were assayed through synergist and biochemical tests. The null hypothesis of the parallelism test between the two probit regression lines of the reciprocal F1 (susceptible females × resistant males and vice versa) was not rejected at the 5% significance level (P = 0.42), indicating autosomal inheritance. The LC50 response of both F1 progenies to deltamethrin was elevated but less than the highly resistant SAN-F14 strain. DLC values for the F1 progenies were 0.91 and 0.87, respectively, suggesting that deltamethrin resistance in the SAN-F14 strain is inherited as an autosomal incompletely dominant trait, involving at least two factors, which implies a faster development of deltamethrin resistance in larvae and lost product effectiveness. Metabolic enzymes including esterases and cytochrome P-450 monooxygenases but not glutathione-S-transferases were involved in deltamethrin resistance in larvae. PMID:26309309

  9. Cold susceptibility and disinfestation of Bactrocera invadens (Diptera: Tephritidae) in oranges.

    PubMed

    Grout, T G; Daneel, J H; Mohamed, S A; Ekesi, S; Nderitu, P W; Stephen, P R; Hattingh, V

    2011-08-01

    To develop a cold disinfestation treatment for the fruit fly Bactrocera invadens Drew, Tsuruta & White (Diptera: Tephritidae) that is rapidly spreading across Africa, research was conducted in Nairobi, Kenya, using flies from a laboratory culture and 'Valencia' orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) as the host. The developmental rate of B. invadens in Valencia oranges was determined at 28 degrees C, and the third instar was found to be the least susceptible of the egg and larval life stages to cold treatment at 1.1 degrees C in oranges. When 22,449 B. invadens third instars were exposed in oranges to a cold treatment with an approximate midpoint of 1.1 +/- 0.5 degrees C, the results suggested that a period of 16 d would be worthwhile verifying on a larger scale in oranges. Results from the first replicate of 16,617 larvae showed no survivors, but the second replicate of 23,536 larvae had three survivors. Because a longer cold treatment based on a mean temperature of 1.1 degrees C would create logistical difficulties for some export markets, further replicates were conducted at an approximate midpoint of 0.5 degrees C and at mean hourly maximum of 0.9 +/- 0.5 degrees C, for 16 d. After three replicates, in which 65,752 B. invadens third instars in total were treated with no survivors, the Japanese requirement of 99.99% mortality at the 95% confidence level was surpassed. The following treatment protocol for B. invadens larvae in oranges can therefore be recommended: fruit pulp to be maintained at temperatures of 0.9 degrees C or lower for 16 consecutive days. PMID:21882681

  10. Insecticidal effect of plant extracts on Phlebotomus argentipes (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Bihar, India

    PubMed Central

    Dinesh, Diwakar Singh; Kumari, Seema; Pandit, Vibhishan; Kumar, Jainendra; Kumari, Nisha; Kumar, Prahlad; Hassan, Faizan; Kumar, Vijay; Das, Pradeep

    2015-01-01

    Background & objectives: Phlebotomus argentipes (Diptera: Psychodidae), the established vector for kala-azar is presently being controlled by indoor residual spray of DDT in kala-azar endemic areas in India. Search for non-hazardous and non-toxic biodegradable active molecules from botanicals may provide cost-effective and eco-friendly alternatives to synthetic insecticides. The present study was aimed at evaluating various plant extracts from endemic and non-endemic areas of Bihar for their insecticidal activity against sandfly to identify the most effective plant extract. Methods: Bio-assay test was conducted with larvae and adult of P. argentipes with different plant extracts collected in distilled water, hexane, ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol. Thin layer chromatography (TLC), column chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) were conducted for detection of active molecules. Results: Adults and larvae of sandflies exposed to the aqueous extract of Nicotiana tabacum resulted in 100 per cent mortality. The hexane extract of Clerodendrum infortunatum was found to kill 77 per cent adults but was ineffective against larvae. Bio-assay test of the ninth fraction (hexane extract-methanol phase) separated by column chromatography was found to be 63 per cent effective. The purple spot on the TLC of this fraction indicated the presence of a diterpenoid. HPLC of this fraction detected nine compounds with two peaks covering 20.44 and 56.52 per cent areas with retention time of 2.439 and 5.182 min, respectively supporting the TLC results. Interpretation & conclusions: The column separated 9th fraction of C. infortunatum extract was found to be effective in killing 63 per cent of adult P. argentipes. Compounds of this fraction need to be evaluated further for identification and characterization of the active molecule by conducting individual bio-assay tests followed by further fractionation and HPLC. Once the structure of the active molecule is

  11. Checklist of the Cecidomyiidae (Diptera) of Finland

    PubMed Central

    Jaschhof, Mathias; Skuhravá, Marcela; Penttinen, Jouni

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A list of the 356 species of Cecidomyiidae (Diptera) recorded from Finland is presented, which comprises 6 Lestremiinae, 156 Micromyinae, 16 Winnertziinae, 69 Porricondylinae, and 109 Cecidomyiinae. The faunistic knowledge of Finnish Winnertziinae, Porricondylinae and Cecidomyiinae is regarded as particularly poor. Based on species numbers known from other countries in Europe, a conservative estimate is 700–800 species of Cecidomyiidae actually occurring in Finland. PMID:25337012

  12. Metalimnobia crane flies (Diptera: Limoniidae) from Korea.

    PubMed

    Podenas, Sigitas; Byun, Hye-Woo

    2016-01-01

    Korean species of the crane fly genus Metalimnobia Matsumura, 1911 (Diptera: Limoniidae), are taxonomically revised. Metalimnobia (Metalimnobia) channpayna new species, is described and figured, M. (M.) bifasciata (Schrank, 1781), M. (M.) quadrinotata (Meigen, 1818) and M. (M.) zetterstedti (Tjeder, 1968) are listed for the first time in Korea, new information for previously known species, M. (M.) quadrimaculata (Linnaeus, 1760) is added. Identification key for all Korean Metalimnobia species is given. Wings, male and female terminalia are illustrated for all species. PMID:27395675

  13. A Qualitative Evidence of the Breeding Sites of Anopheles arabiensis Patton (Diptera: Culicidae) in and Around Kassala Town, Eastern Sudan

    PubMed Central

    Hamza, Asma Mahmoud; El Rayah, El Amin

    2016-01-01

    Anopheles arabiensis Patton (Diptera: Culicidae) is considered the most efficient malaria vector in eastern Sudan. This study aims to characterize the breeding sites of An. arabiensis throughout the year in and around Kassala town, eastern Sudan. Diverse larval habitat types were visited and characterized based on the habitat type and chemical composition. Mosquito larvae were found in many diverse habitats. During the rainy season, rain pools and water bodies created by the seasonal Gash River serve as the main breeding sites. In the dry season, irrigation canals, seepage from water pipes, neglected wells, artificial containers, and man-made ditches serve as the main breeding sites. Breeding water showed a pH of 7.9 and a low concentration of the total dissolved salts. The results of this study may be considered in planning and implementing larval control programs in the area. PMID:27547039

  14. A Qualitative Evidence of the Breeding Sites of Anopheles arabiensis Patton (Diptera: Culicidae) in and Around Kassala Town, Eastern Sudan.

    PubMed

    Hamza, Asma Mahmoud; El Rayah, El Amin

    2016-01-01

    Anopheles arabiensis Patton (Diptera: Culicidae) is considered the most efficient malaria vector in eastern Sudan. This study aims to characterize the breeding sites of An. arabiensis throughout the year in and around Kassala town, eastern Sudan. Diverse larval habitat types were visited and characterized based on the habitat type and chemical composition. Mosquito larvae were found in many diverse habitats. During the rainy season, rain pools and water bodies created by the seasonal Gash River serve as the main breeding sites. In the dry season, irrigation canals, seepage from water pipes, neglected wells, artificial containers, and man-made ditches serve as the main breeding sites. Breeding water showed a pH of 7.9 and a low concentration of the total dissolved salts. The results of this study may be considered in planning and implementing larval control programs in the area. PMID:27547039

  15. Cuterebrid myiasis (Diptera: Oestridae) in captive ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta) at a South Carolina zoo.

    PubMed

    Tuten, Holly C; Miller, Heather C; Ellis, Angela E

    2011-09-01

    In September 2008, two ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta), comprising a mother-daughter pair, at the Greenville Zoo, Greenville, South Carolina, USA, were diagnosed with cuterebrid myiasis (Diptera: Oestridae) subsequent to sudden death of the adult lemur. On necropsy, a single bot warble was discovered in the subcutis of the axillary region. Histopathology revealed a severe eosinophilic bronchopneumonia. The juvenile lemur was inspected and found to have warbles on three separate dates in late September. One representative bot fly larva was identified as a Cuterebra sp. that normally infests lagomorphs in the southeastern United States. Cuterebrid myiasis is rarely reported in lemurs and has not been previously associated with pneumonia or death in these animals. PMID:22950327

  16. Amplified fragment length polymorphism used for inter- and intraspecific differentiation of screwworms (Diptera: Calliphoridae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Morphologically, early immature stages of screwworms, Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), and secondary screwworms, Cochliomyia macellaria (Fabricius) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), are nearly indistinguishable. Correct identification is crucial to the ongoing eradication and exc...

  17. Numerous Transitions of Sex Chromosomes in Diptera

    PubMed Central

    Vicoso, Beatriz; Bachtrog, Doris

    2015-01-01

    Many species groups, including mammals and many insects, determine sex using heteromorphic sex chromosomes. Diptera flies, which include the model Drosophila melanogaster, generally have XY sex chromosomes and a conserved karyotype consisting of six chromosomal arms (five large rods and a small dot), but superficially similar karyotypes may conceal the true extent of sex chromosome variation. Here, we use whole-genome analysis in 37 fly species belonging to 22 different families of Diptera and uncover tremendous hidden diversity in sex chromosome karyotypes among flies. We identify over a dozen different sex chromosome configurations, and the small dot chromosome is repeatedly used as the sex chromosome, which presumably reflects the ancestral karyotype of higher Diptera. However, we identify species with undifferentiated sex chromosomes, others in which a different chromosome replaced the dot as a sex chromosome or in which up to three chromosomal elements became incorporated into the sex chromosomes, and others yet with female heterogamety (ZW sex chromosomes). Transcriptome analysis shows that dosage compensation has evolved multiple times in flies, consistently through up-regulation of the single X in males. However, X chromosomes generally show a deficiency of genes with male-biased expression, possibly reflecting sex-specific selective pressures. These species thus provide a rich resource to study sex chromosome biology in a comparative manner and show that similar selective forces have shaped the unique evolution of sex chromosomes in diverse fly taxa. PMID:25879221

  18. Numerous transitions of sex chromosomes in Diptera.

    PubMed

    Vicoso, Beatriz; Bachtrog, Doris

    2015-04-01

    Many species groups, including mammals and many insects, determine sex using heteromorphic sex chromosomes. Diptera flies, which include the model Drosophila melanogaster, generally have XY sex chromosomes and a conserved karyotype consisting of six chromosomal arms (five large rods and a small dot), but superficially similar karyotypes may conceal the true extent of sex chromosome variation. Here, we use whole-genome analysis in 37 fly species belonging to 22 different families of Diptera and uncover tremendous hidden diversity in sex chromosome karyotypes among flies. We identify over a dozen different sex chromosome configurations, and the small dot chromosome is repeatedly used as the sex chromosome, which presumably reflects the ancestral karyotype of higher Diptera. However, we identify species with undifferentiated sex chromosomes, others in which a different chromosome replaced the dot as a sex chromosome or in which up to three chromosomal elements became incorporated into the sex chromosomes, and others yet with female heterogamety (ZW sex chromosomes). Transcriptome analysis shows that dosage compensation has evolved multiple times in flies, consistently through up-regulation of the single X in males. However, X chromosomes generally show a deficiency of genes with male-biased expression, possibly reflecting sex-specific selective pressures. These species thus provide a rich resource to study sex chromosome biology in a comparative manner and show that similar selective forces have shaped the unique evolution of sex chromosomes in diverse fly taxa. PMID:25879221

  19. Captures of Wild Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), and Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) (Diptera: Tephritidae) in traps with improved Multi-Lure TMR-Dispensers weathered in California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During 2012-2013 two “attract and kill” systems were weathered in California as potential detection and male annihilation treatments (MAT). Solid Mallet TMR (trimedlure [TML], methyl eugenol [ME], raspberry ketone [RK]) wafers impregnated with DDVP (2, 2-dichlorovinyl dimethyl phosphate) insecticide...

  20. Optimizing Trap Design and Trapping Protocols for Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae).

    PubMed

    Renkema, Justin M; Buitenhuis, Rosemarije; Hallett, Rebecca H

    2014-12-01

    Drosophila suzukii Matsumura (Diptera: Drosophilidae) is a recent invasive pest of fruit crops in North America and Europe. Carpophagous larvae render fruit unmarketable and may promote secondary rot-causing organisms. To monitor spread and develop programs to time application of controls, further work is needed to optimize trap design and trapping protocols for adult D. suzukii. We compared commercial traps and developed a new, easy-to-use plastic jar trap that performed well compared with other designs. For some trap types, increasing the entry area led to increased D. suzukii captures and improved selectivity for D. suzukii when populations were low. However, progressive entry area enlargement had diminishing returns, particularly for commercial traps. Unlike previous studies, we found putting holes in trap lids under a close-fitting cover improved captures compared with holes on sides of traps. Also, red and black traps outperformed yellow and clear traps when traps of all colors were positioned 10-15 cm apart above crop foliage. In smaller traps, attractant surface area and entry area, but not other trap features (e.g., headspace volume), appeared to affect D. suzukii captures. In the new, plastic jar trap, tripling attractant volume (360 vs 120 ml) and weekly attractant replacement resulted in the highest D. suzukii captures, but in the larger commercial trap these measures only increased by-catch of large-bodied Diptera. Overall, the plastic jar trap with large entry area is affordable, durable, and can hold high attractant volumes to maximize D. suzukii capture and selectivity. PMID:26470076

  1. Sterile insect technique and Mediterranean fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae): assessing the utility of aromatherapy in a Hawaiian coffee field.

    PubMed

    Shelly, Todd E; McInnis, Donald O; Rodd, Charles; Edu, James; Pahio, Elaine

    2007-04-01

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) is widely used in integrated programs against tephritid fruit fly pests, particularly the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae). Unfortunately, the mass-rearing procedures inherent to the SIT often lead to a reduction in the mating ability of the released males. One potential solution involves the prerelease exposure of males to particular attractants. In particular, exposure of male Mediterranean fruit flies to ginger, Zingiber officinale Roscoe, root oil (GRO) has been shown to increase mating success in laboratory and field cage trials. Here, we describe a field experiment that compares the level of egg sterility observed in two Hawaiian coffee, Coffea arabica L., plots, with GRO-exposed, sterile males released in one (treated) plot and nonexposed, sterile males released in the other (control) plot. Once per week in both plots over a 13-wk period, sterile males were released, trap captures were scored to estimate relative abundance of sterile and wild males, and coffee berries were collected and dissected in the laboratory to estimate the incidence of unhatched (sterile) eggs. Data on wild fly abundance and the natural rate of egg hatch also were collected in a remote area that received no sterile males. Despite that sterile:wild male ratios were significantly lower in the treated plot than in the control plot, the incidence of sterile eggs was significantly higher in the treated plot than in the control plot. Correspondingly, significantly higher values of Fried's competitiveness index (C) were found, on average, for treated than control sterile males. This study is the first to identify an association between the GRO "status" of sterile males and the incidence of egg sterility in the field and suggests that prerelease, GRO exposure may represent a simple and inexpensive means to increase the effectiveness of Mediterranean fruit fly SIT programs. PMID:17461047

  2. Workbook on Identification of Aedes Aegypti Larvae.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, Harry D.; And Others

    This self-instructional booklet is designed to enable yellow fever control workers to identify the larvae of "Aedes aegypti." The morphological features of mosquito larvae are illustrated in this partially programed text, and the distinguishing features of "A. aegypti" indicated. A glossary is included. (AL)

  3. The limits of drought-induced rapid cold-hardening: extremely brief, mild desiccation triggers enhanced freeze-tolerance in Eurosta solidaginis larvae.

    PubMed

    Gantz, J D; Lee, Richard E

    2015-02-01

    Rapid cold-hardening (RCH) is a highly conserved response in insects that induces physiological changes within minutes to hours of exposure to low temperature and provides protection from chilling injury. Recently, a similar response, termed drought-induced RCH, was described following as little as 6h of desiccation, producing a loss of less than 10% of fresh mass. In this study, we investigated the limits and mechanisms of this response in larvae of the goldenrod gall fly Eurosta solidaginis (Diptera, Tephritidae). The cold-hardiness of larvae increased markedly after as few as 2h of desiccation and a loss of less than 1% fresh mass, as organismal survival increased from 8% to 41% following exposure to -18 °C. Tissue-level effects of desiccation were observed within 1h, as 87% of midgut cells from desiccated larvae remained viable following freezing compared to 57% of controls. We also demonstrated that drought-induced RCH occurs independently of neuroendocrine input, as midgut tissue desiccated ex vivo displayed improved freeze-tolerance relative to control tissue (78-11% survival, respectively). Finally, though there was an increase in hemolymph osmolality beyond the expected effects of the osmo-concentration of solutes during dehydration, we determined that this increase was not due to the synthesis of glycerol, glucose, sorbitol, or trehalose. Our results indicate that E. solidaginis larvae are extremely sensitive to desiccation, which is a triggering mechanism for one or more physiological pathways that confer enhanced freeze-tolerance. PMID:25545423

  4. Larvicidal and Pupicidal Activities of Alizarin Isolated from Roots of Rubia cordifolia Against Culex quinquefasciatus Say and Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Gandhi, M R; Reegan, A D; Ganesan, P; Sivasankaran, K; Paulraj, M G; Balakrishna, K; Ignacimuthu, S; Al-Dhabi, N A

    2016-08-01

    The mosquitocidal activities of different fractions and a compound alizarin from the methanol extract of Rubia cordifolia roots were evaluated on larvae and pupae of Culex quinquefasciatus Say and Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae). Larvae and pupae were exposed to concentrations of 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10 ppm for fractions and 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 ppm for compound. After 24 h, the mortality was assessed and the LC50 and LC90 values were estimated for larvae and pupae. Among the 23 fractions screened, fraction 2 from the methanol extract of R. cordifolia showed good mosquitocidal activity against C. quinquefasciatus and A. aegypti. LC50 and LC90 values of fraction 2 were 3.53 and 7.26 ppm for C. quinquefasciatus and 3.86 and 8.28 ppm for A. aegypti larvae, and 3.76 and 7.50 ppm for C. quinquefasciatus and 3.92 and 8.05 ppm for A. aegypti pupae, respectively. Further, the isolated compound alizarin presented good larvicidal and pupicidal activities. LC50 and LC90 values of alizarin for larvae were 0.81 and 3.86 ppm against C. quinquefasciatus and 1.31 and 6.04 ppm for A. aegypti larvae, respectively. Similarly, the LC50 and LC90 values of alizarin for pupae were 1.97 and 4.79 ppm for C. quinquefasciatus and 2.05 and 5.59 ppm for A. aegypti pupae, respectively. The structure of the isolated compound was identified on the basis of spectroscopic analysis and compared with reported spectral data. The results indicated that alizarin could be used as a potential larvicide and pupicide. PMID:27004695

  5. The nitrogen and nitrate economy of butterhead lettuce (Lactuca sativa var capitata L).

    PubMed

    Broadley, Martin R; Seginer, Ido; Burns, Amanda; Escobar-Gutiérrez, Abraham J; Burns, Ian G; White, Philip J

    2003-09-01

    Quantifying and simulating the relationships between crop growth, total-nitrogen (total-N) and nitrate-N (NO3--N) concentration can improve crop nutritional husbandry. In this study, the relationship between shoot relative growth rate (RGR) and shoot total-N, organic-N and NO3--N concentration of hydroponically-grown lettuce (Lactuca sativa var. capitata L. cv. Kennedy) was described and simulated. Plants were grown hydroponically for up to 74 d. Nitrogen was supplied throughout (control; T1), or removed at 35 d (T2) and 54 d (T3), respectively, after sowing. The organic-N and NO3--N concentration declined in the shoots of control plants with growth, until commercial maturity approached when organic-N and NO3--N concentration increased. There were sub-linear relationships between both total-N and organic-N concentration, and shoot RGR, in the N-limited treatments, i.e. shoot RGR approached an asymptote at high shoot N concentration. The proportional effects of total-N and organic-N concentration on shoot RGR were independent of plant age. A dynamic simulation model ('Nicolet'), derived previously under different conditions, was used to simulate the growth, dry matter content, organic-N, and NO3--N concentration of lettuce grown under the extreme N-stress conditions experienced by the plants. In view of the largely successful fitting of the model to experimental data, the model was used to interpret the results. Suggestions for model improvement are made. PMID:12885858

  6. Cryopreservation of Embryos of the Mediterranean Fruit Fly Ceratitis capitata Vienna 8 Genetic Sexing Strain

    PubMed Central

    Augustinos, Antonios A.; Rajamohan, Arun; Kyritsis, Georgios A.; Zacharopoulou, Antigone; Haq, Ihsan ul; Targovska, Asya; Caceres, Carlos; Bourtzis, Kostas; Abd-Alla, Adly M. M.

    2016-01-01

    The Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata, is one of the most serious pests of fruit crops world-wide. During the last decades, area-wide pest management (AW-IPM) approaches with a sterile insect technique (SIT) component have been used to control populations of this pest in an effective and environment-friendly manner. The development of genetic sexing strains (GSS), such as the Vienna 8 strain, has been played a major role in increasing the efficacy and reducing the cost of SIT programs. However, mass rearing, extensive inbreeding, possible bottleneck phenomena and hitch-hiking effects might pose major risks for deterioration and loss of important genetic characteristics of domesticated insect. In the present study, we present a modified procedure to cryopreserve the embryos of the medfly Vienna 8 GSS based on vitrification and used this strain as insect model to assess the impact of the cryopreservation process on the genetic structure of the cryopreserved insects. Forty-eight hours old embryos, incubated at 24°C, were found to be the most suitable developmental stage for cryopreservation treatment for high production of acceptable hatch rate (38%). Our data suggest the absence of any negative impact of the cryopreservation process on egg hatch rate, pupation rates, adult emergence rates and stability of the temperature sensitive lethal (tsl) character on two established cryopreserved lines (flies emerged from cryopreserved embryos), named V8-118 and V8-228. Taken together, our study provides an optimized procedure to cryopreserve the medfly Vienna 8 GSS and documents the absence of any negative impact on the genetic structure and quality of the strain. Benefits and sceneries for utilization of this technology to support operational SIT projects are discussed in this paper. PMID:27537351

  7. Cryopreservation of Embryos of the Mediterranean Fruit Fly Ceratitis capitata Vienna 8 Genetic Sexing Strain.

    PubMed

    Augustinos, Antonios A; Rajamohan, Arun; Kyritsis, Georgios A; Zacharopoulou, Antigone; Haq, Ihsan Ul; Targovska, Asya; Caceres, Carlos; Bourtzis, Kostas; Abd-Alla, Adly M M

    2016-01-01

    The Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata, is one of the most serious pests of fruit crops world-wide. During the last decades, area-wide pest management (AW-IPM) approaches with a sterile insect technique (SIT) component have been used to control populations of this pest in an effective and environment-friendly manner. The development of genetic sexing strains (GSS), such as the Vienna 8 strain, has been played a major role in increasing the efficacy and reducing the cost of SIT programs. However, mass rearing, extensive inbreeding, possible bottleneck phenomena and hitch-hiking effects might pose major risks for deterioration and loss of important genetic characteristics of domesticated insect. In the present study, we present a modified procedure to cryopreserve the embryos of the medfly Vienna 8 GSS based on vitrification and used this strain as insect model to assess the impact of the cryopreservation process on the genetic structure of the cryopreserved insects. Forty-eight hours old embryos, incubated at 24°C, were found to be the most suitable developmental stage for cryopreservation treatment for high production of acceptable hatch rate (38%). Our data suggest the absence of any negative impact of the cryopreservation process on egg hatch rate, pupation rates, adult emergence rates and stability of the temperature sensitive lethal (tsl) character on two established cryopreserved lines (flies emerged from cryopreserved embryos), named V8-118 and V8-228. Taken together, our study provides an optimized procedure to cryopreserve the medfly Vienna 8 GSS and documents the absence of any negative impact on the genetic structure and quality of the strain. Benefits and sceneries for utilization of this technology to support operational SIT projects are discussed in this paper. PMID:27537351

  8. Gene discovery in an invasive tephritid model pest species, the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata

    PubMed Central

    Gomulski, Ludvik M; Dimopoulos, George; Xi, Zhiyong; Soares, Marcelo B; Bonaldo, Maria F; Malacrida, Anna R; Gasperi, Giuliano

    2008-01-01

    Background The medfly, Ceratitis capitata, is a highly invasive agricultural pest that has become a model insect for the development of biological control programs. Despite research into the behavior and classical and population genetics of this organism, the quantity of sequence data available is limited. We have utilized an expressed sequence tag (EST) approach to obtain detailed information on transcriptome signatures that relate to a variety of physiological systems in the medfly; this information emphasizes on reproduction, sex determination, and chemosensory perception, since the study was based on normalized cDNA libraries from embryos and adult heads. Results A total of 21,253 high-quality ESTs were obtained from the embryo and head libraries. Clustering analyses performed separately for each library resulted in 5201 embryo and 6684 head transcripts. Considering an estimated 19% overlap in the transcriptomes of the two libraries, they represent about 9614 unique transcripts involved in a wide range of biological processes and molecular functions. Of particular interest are the sequences that share homology with Drosophila genes involved in sex determination, olfaction, and reproductive behavior. The medfly transformer2 (tra2) homolog was identified among the embryonic sequences, and its genomic organization and expression were characterized. Conclusion The sequences obtained in this study represent the first major dataset of expressed genes in a tephritid species of agricultural importance. This resource provides essential information to support the investigation of numerous questions regarding the biology of the medfly and other related species and also constitutes an invaluable tool for the annotation of complete genome sequences. Our study has revealed intriguing findings regarding the transcript regulation of tra2 and other sex determination genes, as well as insights into the comparative genomics of genes implicated in chemosensory reception and

  9. Chill-coma recovery time, age and sex determine lipid profiles in Ceratitis capitata tissues.

    PubMed

    Pujol-Lereis, Luciana Mercedes; Fagali, Natalia Soledad; Rabossi, Alejandro; Catalá, Ángel; Quesada-Allué, Luis Alberto

    2016-04-01

    The remodeling of membrane composition by changes in phospholipid head groups and fatty acids (FA) degree of unsaturation has been associated with the maintenance of membrane homeostasis under stress conditions. Overall lipid levels and the composition of cuticle lipids also influence insect stress resistance and tissue protection. In a previous study, we demonstrated differences in survival, behavior and Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase gene expression between subgroups of Ceratitis capitata flies that had a reversible recovery from chill-coma and those that developed chilling-injury. Here, we analyzed lipid profiles from comparable subgroups of 15 and 30-day-old flies separated according to their recovery time after a chill-coma treatment. Neutral and polar lipid classes of chill-coma subgroups were separated by thin layer chromatography and quantified by densitometry. FA composition of polar lipids of chill-coma subgroups and non-stressed flies was evaluated using gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Higher amounts of neutral lipids such as triglycerides, diacylglycerol, wax esters, sterol esters and free esters were found in male flies that recovered faster from chill-coma compared to slower flies. A multivariate analysis revealed changes in patterns of storage and cuticle lipids among subgroups both in males and females. FA unsaturation increased after cold exposure, and was higher in thorax of slower subgroups compared to faster subgroups. The changes in neutral lipid patterns and FA composition depended on recovery time, sex, age and body-part, and were not specifically associated with the development of chilling-injury. An analysis of phospholipid classes showed that the phosphatidylcholine to lysophosphatidylcholine ratio (PC/LPC) was significantly higher, or showed a tendency, in subgroups that may have developed chilling-injury compared to those with a reversible recovery from coma. PMID:26868723

  10. Thermal stress induces HSP70 proteins synthesis in larvae of the cold stream non-biting midge Diamesa cinerella Meigen.

    PubMed

    Lencioni, Valeria; Bernabò, Paola; Cesari, Michele; Rebecchi, Lorena; Cesari, Michele

    2013-05-01

    Laboratory experiments on the cold stenothermal midge Diamesa cinerella (Diptera, Chironomidae) were performed to study the relationship between increasing temperature and heat shock proteins (HSP70) expression at translational level (Western blotting). Thermotolerance of IV instar larvae collected in nature at 1.5-4.3°C during seasons was analyzed through short-term (1 h at ten different temperatures from 26°C to 35°C) and long-term (1-14 h at 26°C and 1-4 h at 32°C) heat shocks. A high thermotolerance was detected (LT50=30.9-32.8°C and LT100=34.0-37.8°C). However, survival decreased consistently with increasing exposure time, especially at higher temperature (LTime50=7.64 h at 26°C and LTime50=1.73 h at 32°C). The relationship between such heat resistance and HSP70 expression appeared evident because a relationship between HSP70 level and larval survival rate was generally found. A heat shock response (HSR) was consistent only in the summer larvae. The absence of HSR in the other populations coupled with even higher amounts of HSP70 than in summer, led us to hypothesize that other macromolecules and other adaptive mechanisms, apart from biochemical ones, are involved in the response of D. cinerella larvae to high temperature. Altogether these results stressed how in this midge the HSP70 protein family confers resistance against cold, being detected under natural conditions in control larvae collected in all seasons, but also against warm under experimental heat shocks. These results give new insights into possible responses to climate changes in freshwater insects within the context of global warming. PMID:23404797

  11. Checklist of the Empidoidea of Finland (Insecta, Diptera)

    PubMed Central

    Kahanpää, Jere

    2014-01-01

    Abstract An updated checklist of the Atelestidae, Brachystomatidae, Dolichopodidae, Empididae and Hybotidae (Diptera) recorded from Finland is presented. The genera with uncertain placement within superfamily Empidoidea (= the Iteaphila group) are also included in this paper. PMID:25337016

  12. Directional flow sensing by passively stable larvae.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, Heidi L; Christman, Adam J; Gerbi, Gregory P; Hunter, Elias J; Diez, F Javier

    2015-09-01

    Mollusk larvae have a stable, velum-up orientation that may influence how they sense and react to hydrodynamic signals applied in different directions. Directional sensing abilities and responses could affect how a larva interacts with anisotropic fluid motions, including those in feeding currents and in boundary layers encountered during settlement. Oyster larvae (Crassostrea virginica) were exposed to simple shear in a Couette device and to solid-body rotation in a single rotating cylinder. Both devices were operated in two different orientations, one with the axis of rotation parallel to the gravity vector, and one with the axis perpendicular. Larvae and flow were observed simultaneously with near-infrared particle-image velocimetry, and behavior was quantified as a response to strain rate, vorticity and centripetal acceleration. Only flows rotating about a horizontal axis elicited the diving response observed previously for oyster larvae in turbulence. The results provide strong evidence that the turbulence-sensing mechanism relies on gravity-detecting organs (statocysts) rather than mechanosensors (cilia). Flow sensing with statocysts sets oyster larvae apart from zooplankters such as copepods and protists that use external mechanosensors in sensing spatial velocity gradients generated by prey or predators. Sensing flow-induced changes in orientation, rather than flow deformation, would enable more efficient control of vertical movements. Statocysts provide larvae with a mechanism of maintaining their upward swimming when rotated by vortices and initiating dives toward the seabed in response to the strong turbulence associated with adult habitats. PMID:26333930

  13. Behavior of Settling Marine Larvae in Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez, J.; Koehl, M. A.

    2012-12-01

    Many bottom-dwelling marine animals produce microscopic larvae that are dispersed by ambient water currents. These larvae can only recruit to habitats on which they have landed if they can resist being washed away by ambient water flow. We found that larvae on marine surfaces do not experience steady water flow, but rather are exposed to brief pulses of water movement as turbulent eddies sweep across them. We made video recordings of larvae of the tube worm, Hydroides elegans, (important members of the community of organisms growing on docks and ships) on surfaces subjected to measured realistic flow pulses to study factors that might affect their dislodgement from surfaces in nature. We found that the response of a larva of H. elegans to a realistic pulse of water flow depended on its behavior at the time of the pulse and on its recent history of exposure to flow pulses, and that stationary larvae were less likely than locomoting larvae to be blown away when hit by the first pulse of water flow.; ;

  14. The Complete Nucleotide Sequence of the Mitochondrial Genome of Bactrocera minax (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Bin; Nardi, Francesco; Hull-Sanders, Helen; Wan, Xuanwu; Liu, Yinghong

    2014-01-01

    The complete 16,043 bp mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Bactrocera minax (Diptera: Tephritidae) has been sequenced. The genome encodes 37 genes usually found in insect mitogenomes. The mitogenome information for B. minax was compared to the homologous sequences of Bactrocera oleae, Bactrocera tryoni, Bactrocera philippinensis, Bactrocera carambolae, Bactrocera papayae, Bactrocera dorsalis, Bactrocera correcta, Bactrocera cucurbitae and Ceratitis capitata. The analysis indicated the structure and organization are typical of, and similar to, the nine closely related species mentioned above, although it contains the lowest genome-wide A+T content (67.3%). Four short intergenic spacers with a high degree of conservation among the nine tephritid species mentioned above and B. minax were observed, which also have clear counterparts in the control regions (CRs). Correlation analysis among these ten tephritid species revealed close positive correlation between the A+T content of zero-fold degenerate sites (P0FD), the ratio of nucleotide substitution frequency at P0FD sites to all degenerate sites (zero-fold degenerate sites, two-fold degenerate sites and four-fold degenerate sites) and amino acid sequence distance (ASD) were found. Further, significant positive correlation was observed between the A+T content of four-fold degenerate sites (P4FD) and the ratio of nucleotide substitution frequency at P4FD sites to all degenerate sites; however, we found significant negative correlation between ASD and the A+T content of P4FD, and the ratio of nucleotide substitution frequency at P4FD sites to all degenerate sites. A higher nucleotide substitution frequency at non-synonymous sites compared to synonymous sites was observed in nad4, the first time that has been observed in an insect mitogenome. A poly(T) stretch at the 5′ end of the CR followed by a [TA(A)]n-like stretch was also found. In addition, a highly conserved G+A-rich sequence block was observed in front of the

  15. Effect of temperature and larval density on Aedes polynesiensis (Diptera: Culicidae) laboratory rearing productivity and male characteristics.

    PubMed

    Hapairai, Limb K; Marie, Jérôme; Sinkins, Steven P; Bossin, Hervé C

    2014-04-01

    Aedes polynesiensis Marks (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae were reared to adulthood in the laboratory under a range of temperatures and larval densities. We studied the effect of these variables on several life table parameters of relevance to male-release-based vector control strategies including: larval survivorship, developmental time to pupation, male to female ratio, male pupae yield, adult male size and survival. The range of tested rearing temperatures (20, 25, 27, and 30 °C) and larval densities (50, 100, 200, and 400 larvae/L) was selected within the conditions allowing larval growth and survival. Larval survivorship was the highest when larvae were reared at 200 larvae/L for all temperatures except 20 °C. Male to female ratio was male biased at all temperatures and densities. Time to pupation decreased with increasing temperatures. Larval density and temperature influenced the proportion of males pupating on first day of pupation with 43-47% of total male pupae produced at 25 °C. No significant differences in mean wing length were observed between male mosquitoes reared in the laboratory (except at 20 and 30 °C for some densities) and field collected males. Altogether, the study allowed the identification of rearing conditions delivering high male yield with essentially no female contamination, adequate adult male size and survival. Ae. polynesiensis thus appears particularly amenable to biological and mechanical sex separation offering good prospects for Ae. polynesiensis population suppression trials that rely on the production and release of large numbers of incompatible or sterile males. PMID:24316237

  16. New records of Sylvicola (Diptera: Anisopodidae) from Romania

    PubMed Central

    Dvořák, Libor; Beuk, Paul LT

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Anisopodidae (window gnats or wood gnats) is a small family of nematocerous Diptera. Until now only Sylvicola (Anisopus) punctatus (Fabricius, 1787) and Sylvicola (Sylvicola) fenestralis (Scopoli, 1763)​ were reported from Romania. New information New faunistic records of Sylvicola (Diptera: Anisopodidae) are presented. Sylvicola (Sylvicola) cinctus (Fabricius, 1787) and S. (Anisopus) fuscatus (Fabricius, 1775) are recorded from Romania for the first time. An identification key and illustrations of Romanian Sylvicola species are presented. PMID:26929721

  17. Cutaneous Larva Migrans in Early Infancy.

    PubMed

    Siddalingappa, Karjigi; Murthy, Sambasiviah Chidambara; Herakal, Kallappa; Kusuma, Marganahalli Ramachandra

    2015-01-01

    Cutaneous larva migrans or creeping eruptions is a cutaneous dermatosis caused by hookworm larvae, Ancylostoma braziliense. A 2-month-old female child presented with a progressive rash over the left buttock of 4 days duration. Cutaneous examination showed an urticarial papule progressing to erythematous, tortuous, thread-like tract extending a few centimeters from papule over the left gluteal region. A clinical diagnosis of cutaneous larva migrans was considered. Treatment with albendazole led to complete resolution, confirming the diagnosis. This is to the best of our knowledge, the youngest age at which this condition is being reported. PMID:26538729

  18. Cutaneous Larva Migrans in Early Infancy

    PubMed Central

    Siddalingappa, Karjigi; Murthy, Sambasiviah Chidambara; Herakal, Kallappa; Kusuma, Marganahalli Ramachandra

    2015-01-01

    Cutaneous larva migrans or creeping eruptions is a cutaneous dermatosis caused by hookworm larvae, Ancylostoma braziliense. A 2-month-old female child presented with a progressive rash over the left buttock of 4 days duration. Cutaneous examination showed an urticarial papule progressing to erythematous, tortuous, thread-like tract extending a few centimeters from papule over the left gluteal region. A clinical diagnosis of cutaneous larva migrans was considered. Treatment with albendazole led to complete resolution, confirming the diagnosis. This is to the best of our knowledge, the youngest age at which this condition is being reported. PMID:26538729

  19. Insecticidal Activity of Basil Oil, trans-Anethole, Estragole, and Linalool to Adults of Ceratitis capitata, Bactrocera dorsalis, and B. cucurbitae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pest tephritid fruit flies, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), and B. cucurbitae (Cocquillett) are among the species of economic significance. Their management has primarily relied on the use of food baits, male attractants and their combinations with insecticides. Basil o...

  20. Medhost: An encyclopedic bibliography of the host plants of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann),Version 2.0

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    MEDHOST,Version 2.0 is the second revision of:"MEDHOST: An encyclopedic bibliography of the host plants of the Mediterranean fruit fly,Ceratitis capitata(Wiedemann),Version 1.0," which was released in 1998 as a Windows-based executable database and listed all plant species reported as hosts of Medit...

  1. Palythine-threonine, a major novel mycosporine-like amino acid (MAA) isolated from the hermatypic coral Pocillopora capitata.

    PubMed

    Carignan, Mario O; Cardozo, Karina H M; Oliveira-Silva, Diogo; Colepicolo, Pio; Carreto, José I

    2009-03-01

    Using a high-resolution reverse-phase liquid chromatography method we found that the tissues of the hermatypic coral Pocillopora capitata (collected in Santiago Bay, Mexico) contain a high diversity of primary and secondary mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) typical of some reef-building coral species: mycosporine-glycine, shinorine, porphyra-334, mycosporine-methylamine-serine, mycosporine-methylamine-threonine, palythine-serine, palythine and one additional novel predominant MAA, with an absorbance maximum of 320 nm. Here we document the isolation and characterization of this novel MAA from the coral P. capitata. Using low multi-stage mass analyses of deuterated and non deuterated compounds, high-resolution mass analyses (Time of Flight, TOF) and other techniques, this novel compound was characterized as palythine-threonine. Palythine-threonine was also present in high concentrations in the corals Pocillopora eydouxi and Stylophora pistillata indicating a wider distribution of this MAA among reef-building corals. From structural considerations we suggest that palythine-threonine is formed by decarboxylation of porphyra-334 followed by demethylation of mycosporine-methylamine-threonine. PMID:19128981

  2. Highly differentiated populations of the freshwater diatom Sellaphora capitata suggest limited dispersal and opportunities for allopatric speciation.

    PubMed

    Evans, Katharine M; Chepurnov, Victor A; Sluiman, Hans J; Thomas, Sindu J; Spears, Bryan M; Mann, David G

    2009-08-01

    The diversities and distributions of diatoms are much more complex than was ever imagined. To understand the underlying mechanisms, research must focus on evolutionary processes occurring at a population level and employ sufficiently informative molecular markers. Using ten microsatellites and ITS rDNA sequence data, we investigated the genetic structure of populations of the benthic freshwater diatom Sellaphora capitata (until 2004 a cryptic entity within the S. pupula agg. species complex). This is the first time that microsatellites have been used to investigate the genetic structure of any freshwater or benthic microalga. Using an integrated approach (morphology, DNA barcoding and specificity of the microsatellite primers), we verified the identity of 70 S. capitata isolates obtained from lakes in the UK, Belgium and Australia. Standardized F'(ST) values were very high (>0.4) and in Bayesian analyses, isolates clustered according to their country of origin, with limited evidence of admixture. However, selected isolates from all countries were sexually compatible, a result consistent with limited ITS divergence. Considering the apparent absence of desiccation-resistant resting stages in most diatoms, we conclude that such levels of differentiation are likely to be a consequence of limited dispersal. With restricted dispersal, previously unacknowledged opportunities for allopatric speciation exist, which may help to explain the huge extant diversity of diatoms. PMID:19345143

  3. Effect of the volatile constituents isolated from Thymus albicans, Th. mastichina, Th. carnosus and Thymbra capitata in sunflower oil.

    PubMed

    Miguel, Maria G; Figueiredo, A Cristina; Costa, Monya M; Martins, Denise; Duarte, João; Barroso, José G; Pedro, Luis G

    2003-12-01

    The composition of essential oils isolated from Thymus albicans and Thymbra capitata collected in Algarve (Portugal), Th. mastichina collected in Algarve and Estremadura (Portugal) and Th. carnosus also collected in Algarve, during the flowering phase, was analysed by gas chromatography (GC) and GC coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The antioxidant capacity of the oils as well as some of their main components was determined by periodic evaluation of the peroxide values in sunflower oils stored at 60 degrees C. These peroxide values were compared to that of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and control (without adding antioxidants) under the same experimental conditions. The oils of Th. albicans and Th. mastichina, collected in Algarve, were dominated by 1,8-cineole (68% and 45%, respectively), whereas linalool (52%) was the main component from the oils isolated from Th. mastichina collected in Estremadura. Carvacrol (68%) was the major component present in the oils of Thymbra capitata while borneol (18%), terpinen-4-ol (11%) and camphene (9%) were the major ones in the essential oil of Th. carnosus. The essential oils as well as some of their main components showed higher antioxidant capacity than that of the synthetic antioxidant BHT. At the end of the experiment (57 days), BHT showed a percentage of inhibition of 20%, while that of the essential oils ranged from 46% for Th. carnosus, to 59% for Th. mastichina collected in Estremadura. PMID:14727767

  4. Tissue loss (white syndrome) in the coral Montipora capitata is a dynamic disease with multiple host responses and potential causes.

    PubMed

    Work, Thierry M; Russell, Robin; Aeby, Greta S

    2012-11-01

    Tissue loss diseases or white syndromes (WS) are some of the most important coral diseases because they result in significant colony mortality and morbidity, threatening dominant Acroporidae in the Caribbean and Pacific. The causes of WS remain elusive in part because few have examined affected corals at the cellular level. We studied the cellular changes associated with WS over time in a dominant Hawaiian coral, Montipora capitata, and showed that: (i) WS has rapidly progressing (acute) phases mainly associated with ciliates or slowly progressing (chronic) phases mainly associated with helminths or chimeric parasites; (ii) these phases interchanged and waxed and waned; (iii) WS could be a systemic disease associated with chimeric parasitism or a localized disease associated with helminths or ciliates; (iv) corals responded to ciliates mainly with necrosis and to helminths or chimeric parasites with wound repair; (v) mixed infections were uncommon; and (vi) other than cyanobacteria, prokaryotes associated with cell death were not seen. Recognizing potential agents associated with disease at the cellular level and the host response to those agents offers a logical deductive rationale to further explore the role of such agents in the pathogenesis of WS in M. capitata and helps explain manifestation of gross lesions. This approach has broad applicability to the study of the pathogenesis of coral diseases in the field and under experimental settings. PMID:22951746

  5. Tissue loss (white syndrome) in the coral Montipora capitata is a dynamic disease with multiple host responses and potential causes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Work, Thierry M.; Russell, Robin; Aeby, Greta S.

    2012-01-01

    Tissue loss diseases or white syndromes (WS) are some of the most important coral diseases because they result in significant colony mortality and morbidity, threatening dominant Acroporidae in the Caribbean and Pacific. The causes of WS remain elusive in part because few have examined affected corals at the cellular level. We studied the cellular changes associated with WS over time in a dominant Hawaiian coral, Montipora capitata, and showed that: (i) WS has rapidly progressing (acute) phases mainly associated with ciliates or slowly progressing (chronic) phases mainly associated with helminths or chimeric parasites; (ii) these phases interchanged and waxed and waned; (iii) WS could be a systemic disease associated with chimeric parasitism or a localized disease associated with helminths or ciliates; (iv) corals responded to ciliates mainly with necrosis and to helminths or chimeric parasites with wound repair; (v) mixed infections were uncommon; and (vi) other than cyanobacteria, prokaryotes associated with cell death were not seen. Recognizing potential agents associated with disease at the cellular level and the host response to those agents offers a logical deductive rationale to further explore the role of such agents in the pathogenesis of WS in M. capitata and helps explain manifestation of gross lesions. This approach has broad applicability to the study of the pathogenesis of coral diseases in the field and under experimental settings.

  6. Wing Morphometry and Acoustic Signals in Sterile and Wild Males: Implications for Mating Success in Ceratitis capitata

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, João Maria Gomes Alencar; Molina, Wagner Franco; de Almeida, Lúcia Maria; de Gouveia, Milson Bezerra; de Macêdo, Francisco Pepino; Laumann, Raul Alberto; Paranhos, Beatriz Aguiar Jordão

    2015-01-01

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) is widely utilized in the biological control of fruit flies of the family Tephritidae, particularly against the Mediterranean fruit fly. This study investigated the interaction between mating success and morphometric variation in the wings and the production of acoustic signals among three male groups of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann): (1) wild males, (2) irradiated with Co-60 (steriles), and (3) irradiated (steriles) and treated with ginger oil. The canonical variate analysis discriminated two groups (males irradiated and males wild), based on the morphological shape of the wings. Among males that emit buzz signals, wild males obtained copulation more frequently than males in Groups 2 and 3. The individuals of Group 3 achieved more matings than those in Group 2. Wild males displayed lower pulse duration, higher intervals between pulses, and higher dominant frequency. Regarding the reproductive success, the morphological differences in the wings' shape between accepted and nonaccepted males are higher in wild males than in the irradiated ones. The present results can be useful in programs using the sterile insect technique for biological control of C. capitata. PMID:26075293

  7. Wing Morphometry and Acoustic Signals in Sterile and Wild Males: Implications for Mating Success in Ceratitis capitata.

    PubMed

    de Souza, João Maria Gomes Alencar; de Lima-Filho, Paulo Augusto; Molina, Wagner Franco; de Almeida, Lúcia Maria; de Gouveia, Milson Bezerra; de Macêdo, Francisco Pepino; Laumann, Raul Alberto; Paranhos, Beatriz Aguiar Jordão

    2015-01-01

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) is widely utilized in the biological control of fruit flies of the family Tephritidae, particularly against the Mediterranean fruit fly. This study investigated the interaction between mating success and morphometric variation in the wings and the production of acoustic signals among three male groups of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann): (1) wild males, (2) irradiated with Co-60 (steriles), and (3) irradiated (steriles) and treated with ginger oil. The canonical variate analysis discriminated two groups (males irradiated and males wild), based on the morphological shape of the wings. Among males that emit buzz signals, wild males obtained copulation more frequently than males in Groups 2 and 3. The individuals of Group 3 achieved more matings than those in Group 2. Wild males displayed lower pulse duration, higher intervals between pulses, and higher dominant frequency. Regarding the reproductive success, the morphological differences in the wings' shape between accepted and nonaccepted males are higher in wild males than in the irradiated ones. The present results can be useful in programs using the sterile insect technique for biological control of C. capitata. PMID:26075293

  8. TIME management by medicinal larvae.

    PubMed

    Pritchard, David I; Čeřovský, Václav; Nigam, Yamni; Pickles, Samantha F; Cazander, Gwendolyn; Nibbering, Peter H; Bültemann, Anke; Jung, Wilhelm

    2016-08-01

    Wound bed preparation (WBP) is an integral part of the care programme for chronic wounds. The acronym TIME is used in the context of WBP and describes four barriers to healing in chronic wounds; namely, dead Tissue, Infection and inflammation, Moisture imbalance and a non-migrating Edge. Larval debridement therapy (LDT) stems from observations that larvae of the blowfly Lucilia sericata clean wounds of debris. Subsequent clinical studies have proven debriding efficacy, which is likely to occur as a result of enzymatically active alimentary products released by the insect. The antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and wound healing activities of LDT have also been investigated, predominantly in a pre-clinical context. This review summarises the findings of investigations into the molecular mechanisms of LDT and places these in context with the clinical concept of WBP and TIME. It is clear from these findings that biotherapy with L. sericata conforms with TIME, through the enzymatic removal of dead tissue and its associated biofilm, coupled with the secretion of defined antimicrobial peptides. This biotherapeutic impact on the wound serves to reduce inflammation, with an associated capacity for an indirect effect on moisture imbalance. Furthermore, larval serine proteinases have the capacity to alter fibroblast behaviour in a manner conducive to the formation of granulation tissue. PMID:26179750

  9. Image-based automatic recognition of larvae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sang, Ru; Yu, Guiying; Fan, Weijun; Guo, Tiantai

    2010-08-01

    As the main objects, imagoes have been researched in quarantine pest recognition in these days. However, pests in their larval stage are latent, and the larvae spread abroad much easily with the circulation of agricultural and forest products. It is presented in this paper that, as the new research objects, larvae are recognized by means of machine vision, image processing and pattern recognition. More visional information is reserved and the recognition rate is improved as color image segmentation is applied to images of larvae. Along with the characteristics of affine invariance, perspective invariance and brightness invariance, scale invariant feature transform (SIFT) is adopted for the feature extraction. The neural network algorithm is utilized for pattern recognition, and the automatic identification of larvae images is successfully achieved with satisfactory results.

  10. What's eating you? Cutaneous larva migrans.

    PubMed

    Prickett, Kyle A; Ferringer, Tammie C

    2015-03-01

    This article provides a focused update and clinical review on cutaneous larva migrans (CLM), including atypical clinical presentations and newer management recommendations. The results and recommendations are subject to modification based on future studies. PMID:25844779

  11. First evidence of fish larvae producing sounds

    PubMed Central

    Staaterman, Erica; Paris, Claire B.; Kough, Andrew S.

    2014-01-01

    The acoustic ecology of marine fishes has traditionally focused on adults, while overlooking the early life-history stages. Here, we document the first acoustic recordings of pre-settlement stage grey snapper larvae (Lutjanus griseus). Through a combination of in situ and unprovoked laboratory recordings, we found that L. griseus larvae are acoustically active during the night, producing ‘knock’ and ‘growl’ sounds that are spectrally and temporally similar to those of adults. While the exact function and physiological mechanisms of sound production in fish larvae are unknown, we suggest that these sounds may enable snapper larvae to maintain group cohesion at night when visual cues are reduced. PMID:25274018

  12. New species of Afrotropical Muscidae (Diptera: Muscoidea).

    PubMed

    Couri, Márcia; Pont, Adrian C

    2014-01-01

    The study of recently collected Afrotropical Muscidae (Diptera) from Burundi, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Kenya and South Africa has revealed ten new species which are described herein: Coenosia duomaculata sp. nov., C. nigromaculata sp. nov., C. fragilis sp. nov., Helina harrisorum sp. nov., H. ferfriniorum sp. nov., Hydrotaea tantula sp. nov., Limnophora diminuta sp. nov., L. antennalis sp. nov., Spilogona brunnea sp. nov. and S. bella sp. nov. Coenosia, Helina and Limnophora are speciose muscid genera, found throughout the Afrotropical Region, while Hydrotaea and Spilogona have a more restricted geographic distribution and include some 20 species each.  PMID:25284400

  13. Rhipidia crane flies (Diptera: Limoniidae) from Korea.

    PubMed

    Podenas, Sigitas; Byun, Hye-Woo; Kim, Sam-Kyu

    2016-01-01

    Korean species of the crane fly genus Rhipidia Meigen, 1818 (Diptera: Limoniidae), are taxonomically revised. Rhipidia (Rhipidia) serena, new species, is described and figured. Rhipidia (R.) longa Zhang, Li, Yang, 2014, R. (R.) maculata Meigen, 1818 and R. (R.) sejuga Zhang, Li, Yang, 2014 are recorded for the first time in Korea. Previously known species, Rhipidia (R.) septentrionis Alexander, 1913 is redescribed and illustrated. Identification key for all Korean Rhipidia species is given. Most antennae, wings, male and female terminalia of all species are illustrated for the first time. PMID:27395731

  14. Laboratory development and field validation of Phormia regina (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    PubMed

    Núñez-Vázquez, Carolina; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Cantú-Sifuentes, Mario; García-Martínez, Oswaldo

    2013-03-01

    Immature blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) collected from decomposing human remains are often used to determine the minimum postmortem interval (PMImin). Phormia regina (Meigen) is a common blow fly of cosmopolitan distribution that is often associated in such cases. P. regina development at two different cyclic temperatures was examined in this study. A field validation study was conducted to determine the accuracy of applying these data to determine the PMImin. Minimal total development time was 32.52 d at cyclic 14.0 +/- 2.0 degrees C and 16.60 d at cyclic 20.5 +/- 3.1 degrees C. The minimal larval development was significantly different (P < 0.05) across temperatures. Larval development needed 15.5 d at 14.0 degrees C and 7.5 d at 20.5 degrees C. For the validation study, instar, mean, and maximum of length and weight data of the larvae collected in the field were analyzed with data generated from the 20.5 degrees C treatment, as it more closely reflected the field conditions experienced. Accuracy in estimating PMImin, was highly variable depending on the unit of measurement used and instar of P. regina collected from the field. Using the oldest instar to estimate a PMImin resulted in ranges that always encompassed the true time of colonization. Accuracy in hours when using measurements units as mean length or weight, and maximal length or weight, varied among the larval instars. In the first instar the greatest overestimation was made with maximal weight while the greatest underestimation was made with mean weight. The most accurate estimate produced with first instars was based on maximal length. In the second instar, there was no overestimation and the greatest underestimation was made with mean weight and the most accurate estimate produced was with maximal length. In the third instar, the greatest overestimation was made with maximal length, and the greatest underestimation was made with mean weight. The estimated time of colonization based on maximal

  15. Coral Larvae Move toward Reef Sounds

    PubMed Central

    Vermeij, Mark J. A.; Marhaver, Kristen L.; Huijbers, Chantal M.; Nagelkerken, Ivan; Simpson, Stephen D.

    2010-01-01

    Free-swimming larvae of tropical corals go through a critical life-phase when they return from the open ocean to select a suitable settlement substrate. During the planktonic phase of their life cycle, the behaviours of small coral larvae (<1 mm) that influence settlement success are difficult to observe in situ and are therefore largely unknown. Here, we show that coral larvae respond to acoustic cues that may facilitate detection of habitat from large distances and from upcurrent of preferred settlement locations. Using in situ choice chambers, we found that settling coral larvae were attracted to reef sounds, produced mainly by fish and crustaceans, which we broadcast underwater using loudspeakers. Our discovery that coral larvae can detect and respond to sound is the first description of an auditory response in the invertebrate phylum Cnidaria, which includes jellyfish, anemones, and hydroids as well as corals. If, like settlement-stage reef fish and crustaceans, coral larvae use reef noise as a cue for orientation, the alleviation of noise pollution in the marine environment may gain further urgency. PMID:20498831

  16. Coral larvae move toward reef sounds.

    PubMed

    Vermeij, Mark J A; Marhaver, Kristen L; Huijbers, Chantal M; Nagelkerken, Ivan; Simpson, Stephen D

    2010-01-01

    Free-swimming larvae of tropical corals go through a critical life-phase when they return from the open ocean to select a suitable settlement substrate. During the planktonic phase of their life cycle, the behaviours of small coral larvae (<1 mm) that influence settlement success are difficult to observe in situ and are therefore largely unknown. Here, we show that coral larvae respond to acoustic cues that may facilitate detection of habitat from large distances and from upcurrent of preferred settlement locations. Using in situ choice chambers, we found that settling coral larvae were attracted to reef sounds, produced mainly by fish and crustaceans, which we broadcast underwater using loudspeakers. Our discovery that coral larvae can detect and respond to sound is the first description of an auditory response in the invertebrate phylum Cnidaria, which includes jellyfish, anemones, and hydroids as well as corals. If, like settlement-stage reef fish and crustaceans, coral larvae use reef noise as a cue for orientation, the alleviation of noise pollution in the marine environment may gain further urgency. PMID:20498831

  17. Automated analysis of behavior in zebrafish larvae.

    PubMed

    Creton, Robbert

    2009-10-12

    Zebrafish larvae have become a popular model system to examine genetic and environmental factors that affect behavior. However, studying complex behavior in large numbers of fish larvae can be challenging. The present study describes a novel high-resolution imaging system that is unique in its ability to automatically analyze the location and orientation of zebrafish larvae in multiwell plates. The system revealed behaviors in zebrafish larvae that would have been missed by more manual approaches, including a preference to face a threatening stimulus from a distance and a clockwise orientation in a two-fish assay. The clockwise orientation of the larvae correlates with a clockwise orientation of molecular structures during early development. Larvae with reversed embryonic asymmetries display a counter-clockwise orientation in the two-fish assay, suggesting that embryonic asymmetry and chiral behavior are regulated by the same developmental mechanisms. The developed imaging techniques may be used in large-scale screens to identify genes, pharmaceuticals, and environmental toxicants that influence complex behaviors. PMID:19409932

  18. Chironomid larvae inhabiting bromeliad phytotelmata in a fragment of the Atlantic Rainforest in Rio de Janeiro State.

    PubMed

    Sodré, V M; Rocha, O; Messias, M C

    2010-08-01

    A study of chironomids (Diptera, Chironomidae) occurring in phytotelmata of Bromeliaceae was carried out in a fragment of the Atlantic Rain Forest in an area of the city of Magé, Pau Grande, one of the metropolitan areas of Rio de Janeiro City, during a period of 13 months between September 2006 and September 2007. Eight samplings were performed at intervals of 1 (1/2) months and the content of the phytotelmata of the bromeliad species Neoregelia concentrica (Vellozo) L.B. Smith, 1934 and Aechmea nudicaulis (Linnaeus) Grisebach, 1864, were examined. A taxonomical inventory and evaluation of the numerical abundance of Chironomidae larvae were performed in 50 specimens of the bromeliads, being 13 individuals of N. concentrica and 37 of A. nudicaulis. Three taxa of Chironomidae belonging to three distinct subfamilies were recorded: Polypedilum sp., Orthocladiinae genus A and Monopelopia sp. A total of 293 individuals of Chironomidae, were recorded, being 9 Polypedilum sp., 233 Orthocladiinae genus A, and 51 Monopelopia sp., the latter representing the first record of Monopelopia in phytotelmata in Rio de Janeiro State. Considering all samples, a mean density of 3.32 +/- 2.62 chironomid larvae per phytotelmata was recorded. There was a positive relationship between the chironomid abundance and both precipitation and the volume of water in the phytotelmata. Apparently there is no preference by the chironomids regarding the colonistion of the bromeliad species. PMID:20730345

  19. Spatial and Temporal Distribution of Non-Biting Midge Larvae Assemblages in Streams in a Mountainous Region in Southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Floss, Elzira Cecília Serafini; Secretti, Elisangela; Kotzian, Carla Bender; Spies, Marcia Regina; Pires, Mateus Marques

    2013-01-01

    The spatial and temporal structure of non-biting midge (Diptera: Chironomidae) larvae assemblages and some environmental factors that affect their distribution were analyzed in a montane river and its tributaries in a temperate climate region of southernmost Brazil. In total, 69 taxa were recorded after four seasonal samplings (winter, spring, summer, and autumn). The dominant taxa were Rheotanytarsus sp. 1, Rheotanytarsus sp. 2, Cricotopus sp. 2, and Polypedilum (Polypedilum) sp., although dominance varied among the four sampling sites. The variations in dominance, abundance, and richness among the different sites were affected by environmental characteristics, such as the presence of marginal vegetation and a heterogeneous substratum, and also by human activities. Strictly environmental factors, such as altitude, and factors related to annual weather patterns, such as mean temperature and precipitation, influenced the spatial and temporal distribution of certain taxa and the structure of faunal assemblages. The influence of the riparian vegetation and riverbed heterogeneity on the composition, richness, and abundance of the chironomid larvae assemblages indicates that human activities, such as deforestation and the construction of dams, constitute a serious threat to the conservation of these insects and to the fauna that depends on them for food. PMID:24784953

  20. Morphological and Ecological Characterization of Steinernema feltiae (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae) Rioja Strain Isolated from Bibio hortulanus (Diptera: Bibionidae) in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Campos-Herrera, R.; Escuer, M.; Robertson, L.; Gutiérrez, C.

    2006-01-01

    A new strain of Steinernema feltiae (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae) was isolated in La Rioja (Spain) from larvae of Bibio hortulanus (Diptera: Bibionidae). A comparative morphometric analysis of this new strain and four additional S. feltiae isolates was performed. Although significant differences in morphometric measurements were observed, PCR-RFLP profiles and sequence analysis of the ITS region of rDNA confirmed the identity of the new strain as A2 RFLP type of S. feltiae. A comparative morphometric study among nematodes from three hosts, Galleria mellonella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), Spodoptera littoralis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and B. hortulanus, was conducted. Ecological characterization of the Rioja isolate was performed in G. mellonella larvae. Larval mortality was 75.3 and 78.12% in penetration and sand column assays, respectively, and the percentage of penetrating infective juveniles was 12.0 and 2.8% in these assays. Larval mortality in the one-on-one bioassay was 4.2%, and in exposure-time bioassays, it was 50% at 11.25 hours. Relationships between morphometric characteristics and host mortality are discussed for this new strain of entomopathogenic nematode. PMID:19259432

  1. Morphological and Ecological Characterization of Steinernema feltiae (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae) Rioja Strain Isolated from Bibio hortulanus (Diptera: Bibionidae) in Spain.

    PubMed

    Campos-Herrera, R; Escuer, M; Robertson, L; Gutiérrez, C

    2006-03-01

    A new strain of Steinernema feltiae (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae) was isolated in La Rioja (Spain) from larvae of Bibio hortulanus (Diptera: Bibionidae). A comparative morphometric analysis of this new strain and four additional S. feltiae isolates was performed. Although significant differences in morphometric measurements were observed, PCR-RFLP profiles and sequence analysis of the ITS region of rDNA confirmed the identity of the new strain as A2 RFLP type of S. feltiae. A comparative morphometric study among nematodes from three hosts, Galleria mellonella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), Spodoptera littoralis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and B. hortulanus, was conducted. Ecological characterization of the Rioja isolate was performed in G. mellonella larvae. Larval mortality was 75.3 and 78.12% in penetration and sand column assays, respectively, and the percentage of penetrating infective juveniles was 12.0 and 2.8% in these assays. Larval mortality in the one-on-one bioassay was 4.2%, and in exposure-time bioassays, it was 50% at 11.25 hours. Relationships between morphometric characteristics and host mortality are discussed for this new strain of entomopathogenic nematode. PMID:19259432

  2. Patterns of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) Infestation and Container Productivity Measured Using Pupal and Stegomyia Indices in Northern Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Garelli, F. M.; Espinosa, M. O.; Weinberg, D.; Coto, H. D.; Gaspe, M. S.; Gürtler, R. E.

    2011-01-01

    A citywide control program of Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) mainly based on the use of larvicides reduced infestations but failed to achieve the desired target levels in Clorinda, northeastern Argentina, over 5 yr of interventions. To understand the underlying causes of persistent infestations and to develop new control tactics adapted to the local context, we conducted two pupal surveys in a large neighborhood with ≈2,500 houses and recorded several variables for every container inspected in fall and spring 2007. In total, 4,076 lots and 4,267 containers were inspected over both surveys, and 8,391 Ae. aegypti pupae were collected. Large tanks used for potable water storage were the most abundant and the most productive type of container, accounting for 65–84% of all the pupae collected. Therefore, large tanks were key containers and candidates for improved targeted interventions. Multivariate analysis showed that containers located in the yard, at low sun exposure, unlidded, filled with rain water, and holding polluted water were all more likely to be infested by larvae or pupae. When only infested containers were considered, productivity of pupae was most closely associated with large tanks and rain water. A stochastic simulation model was developed to calculate the expected correlations between pupal and Stegomyia indices according to the characteristics of the distribution of larvae and pupae per container and the spatial scale at which the indices were computed. The correlation between pupal and Stegomyia indices is expected to increase as infestation levels decline. PMID:19769052

  3. Experimental study of Lucilia sericata (Diptera Calliphoridae) larval development on rat cadavers: Effects of climate and chemical contamination.

    PubMed

    Aubernon, Cindy; Charabidzé, Damien; Devigne, Cédric; Delannoy, Yann; Gosset, Didier

    2015-08-01

    Household products such as bleach, gasoline or hydrochloric acid have been used to mask the presence of a cadaver or to prevent the colonization of insects. These types of chemicals affect insect development and alter the forensic entomology analysis. This study was designed to test the effects of six household products (bleach, mosquito repellent, perfume, caustic soda, insecticide and unleaded gasoline) on blowfly (Lucilia sericata, Diptera: Calliphoridae) larval development. Furthermore, the effects of climate (rain or dry conditions) on larval development were analyzed. For each replication, 100 first instars were placed on a rat cadaver on which one household product was spilled. We observed a decrease in the survival rates of the larvae but no significant effect on their development times or the adult size. The same trends were observed under rainy conditions. However, the rain altered the effects of some tested household products, especially gasoline. These results demonstrate for the first time the successful development of necrophagous larvae on chemically contaminated cadavers, and provide evidence for the range of possible effects to expect. PMID:26123620

  4. Developmental Variation of Indian Thermophilic Variety of Scuttle Fly Megaselia (Megaselia) scalaris (Loew, 1866) (Diptera: Phoridae) on Different Substrates

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Abesh; Naskar, Atanu; Parui, Panchanan; Banerjee, Dhriti

    2016-01-01

    The scuttle flies (Diptera: Phoridae) are important in forensic dipterology, because of their necrophagous habit. They are amongst the first wave of insects visiting human corpses in mechanically barricaded environments; hence their immature stages are generally used for estimation of PMI. The effect of different substrates commonly used for developmental studies was studied to analyze the variation of growth of the thermophilic variety of Megaselia (M.) scalaris prevalent in India on GDM, EDM, and SMS (n = 3). One approach of PMI estimation depends on larvae collected from the crime scene and comparing them with reference data derived from larval rearing to establish PMI. Results showed that there was a significant variation in avg. length (F(2,111) = 15.79873, p = 0.000000917), width (F(2,111) = 14.60528, p = 0.00000234), and biomass (F(2,111) = 37.01727, p = 0.000000000000482) of the immature stages in the three media and the larvae grow maximally in the SMS medium. The results of the present study thus provide baseline data on the growth and developmental pattern of the Megaselia (M.) scalaris, which can be utilized in conjunction with specific geoclimatic reference data, for forensic entomological studies and also for using the phorid as a biocontrol agent of pestiferous insects. PMID:27471604

  5. Hatching response of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) eggs at low temperatures: effects of hatching media and storage conditions.

    PubMed

    Byttebier, B; De Majo, M S; De Majo, M S; Fischer, S

    2014-01-01

    In temperate regions, Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) populations remain in the egg stage during the cold season. To ensure the start of a new breeding season, eggs should hatch at the beginning of a favorable period. The aim of the current study was to investigate the hatching response of two Ae. aegypti egg batches collected and stored for 3 mo under different conditions, to different low immersion temperatures. Two different hatching media (water and yeast solution) were used for the first batch and only one (water) for the second egg batch. Eggs were immersed for 8 d, during which the number of hatched eggs was recorded daily. The proportion of hatched eggs, delay of the hatching response, proportion of dead larvae, and proportion of remaining eggs within the first egg batch were compared between the two hatching media at each temperature. These parameters also were compared between the two batches immersed in water. Hatching rates were higher and faster in the yeast solution. The hatching response was lower at lower immersion temperatures and among eggs stored under field conditions at colder temperatures (second batch). Among the eggs stored in the laboratory (first batch), older eggs exhibited lower hatching response. The proportion of dead larvae was higher in the yeast solution and in the eggs stored in the laboratory. The conditions that triggered a lower hatching response led to higher proportions of remaining eggs, allowing the population to maintain an egg bank for future favorable opportunities. PMID:24605458

  6. Chemical Composition and Larvicidal Activity of Essential Oils Extracted from Brazilian Legal Amazon Plants against Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Dias, Clarice Noleto; Alves, Luciana Patrícia Lima; Rodrigues, Klinger Antonio da Franca; Brito, Maria Cristiane Aranha; Rosa, Carliane Dos Santos; do Amaral, Flavia Maria Mendonça; Monteiro, Odair Dos Santos; Andrade, Eloisa Helena de Aguiar; Maia, José Guilherme Soares; Moraes, Denise Fernandes Coutinho

    2015-01-01

    The mosquito Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae) is the major vector of dengue and chikungunya fever. The lack of effective therapies and vaccines for these diseases highlights the need for alternative strategies to control the spread of virus. Therefore, this study investigated the larvicidal potential of essential oils from common plant species obtained from the Chapada das Mesas National Park, Brazil, against third instar A. aegypti larvae. The chemical composition of these oils was determined by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. The essential oils of Eugenia piauhiensis Vellaff., Myrcia erythroxylon O. Berg, Psidium myrsinites DC., and Siparuna camporum (Tul.) A. DC. were observed to be mainly composed of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons. The essential oil of Lippia gracilis Schauer was composed of oxygenated monoterpenes. Four of the five tested oils were effective against the A. aegypti larvae, with the lethal concentration (LC50) ranging from 230 to 292 mg/L after 24 h of exposure. Overall, this work demonstrated the possibility of developing larvicidal products against A. aegypti by using essential oils from the flora of the Brazilian Legal Amazon. This in turn demonstrates the potential of using natural resources for the control of disease vectors. PMID:25949264

  7. Chemical Composition and Larvicidal Activity of Essential Oils Extracted from Brazilian Legal Amazon Plants against Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Dias, Clarice Noleto; Alves, Luciana Patrícia Lima; Rodrigues, Klinger Antonio da Franca; Brito, Maria Cristiane Aranha; Rosa, Carliane dos Santos; do Amaral, Flavia Maria Mendonça; Monteiro, Odair dos Santos; Andrade, Eloisa Helena de Aguiar; Maia, José Guilherme Soares; Moraes, Denise Fernandes Coutinho

    2015-01-01

    The mosquito Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae) is the major vector of dengue and chikungunya fever. The lack of effective therapies and vaccines for these diseases highlights the need for alternative strategies to control the spread of virus. Therefore, this study investigated the larvicidal potential of essential oils from common plant species obtained from the Chapada das Mesas National Park, Brazil, against third instar A. aegypti larvae. The chemical composition of these oils was determined by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. The essential oils of Eugenia piauhiensis Vellaff., Myrcia erythroxylon O. Berg, Psidium myrsinites DC., and Siparuna camporum (Tul.) A. DC. were observed to be mainly composed of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons. The essential oil of Lippia gracilis Schauer was composed of oxygenated monoterpenes. Four of the five tested oils were effective against the A. aegypti larvae, with the lethal concentration (LC50) ranging from 230 to 292 mg/L after 24 h of exposure. Overall, this work demonstrated the possibility of developing larvicidal products against A. aegypti by using essential oils from the flora of the Brazilian Legal Amazon. This in turn demonstrates the potential of using natural resources for the control of disease vectors. PMID:25949264

  8. Developmental Variation of Indian Thermophilic Variety of Scuttle Fly Megaselia (Megaselia) scalaris (Loew, 1866) (Diptera: Phoridae) on Different Substrates.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Abesh; Naskar, Atanu; Parui, Panchanan; Banerjee, Dhriti

    2016-01-01

    The scuttle flies (Diptera: Phoridae) are important in forensic dipterology, because of their necrophagous habit. They are amongst the first wave of insects visiting human corpses in mechanically barricaded environments; hence their immature stages are generally used for estimation of PMI. The effect of different substrates commonly used for developmental studies was studied to analyze the variation of growth of the thermophilic variety of Megaselia (M.) scalaris prevalent in India on GDM, EDM, and SMS (n = 3). One approach of PMI estimation depends on larvae collected from the crime scene and comparing them with reference data derived from larval rearing to establish PMI. Results showed that there was a significant variation in avg. length (F(2,111) = 15.79873, p = 0.000000917), width (F(2,111) = 14.60528, p = 0.00000234), and biomass (F(2,111) = 37.01727, p = 0.000000000000482) of the immature stages in the three media and the larvae grow maximally in the SMS medium. The results of the present study thus provide baseline data on the growth and developmental pattern of the Megaselia (M.) scalaris, which can be utilized in conjunction with specific geoclimatic reference data, for forensic entomological studies and also for using the phorid as a biocontrol agent of pestiferous insects. PMID:27471604

  9. Dewatering as a non-toxic control of nuisance midge larvae in algal wastewater treatment floways.

    PubMed

    Keller, Troy A; Husted, Emily M

    2015-01-01

    Attached-algae floways have tremendous potential for use in wastewater treatment because natural algal communities show high nutrient removal efficiencies, have low operating costs, and are easy to maintain. Algal wastewater floways may also serve as a sustainable option for producing renewable energy because algae grow rapidly, are easily harvested, and can serve as a source of biomass for biofuel. However, pests such as chironomids (Diptera) colonize open channel periphyton floways and their larvae damage the biofilms. While pesticides can control midge larvae, little information is known about alternative, non-toxic controls. This study examined the effectiveness of periodic, short-term dewatering (4 hours every 9 days) on midge abundance and periphyton growth in 16 recirculating, outdoor floways (3 m long, 0.1 m wide). We compared midge abundance and algal accumulation (chlorophyll a, b, c, and pheophytin) among control (n=8) and dewatered (n=8) floways filled with secondarily treated wastewater (27 days, 10 hours of daylight). Dewatered flumes had 42% fewer midges and 28-49% lower algal productivity (as measured by chlorophyll a, b, c, and pheophytin pigments). Chlorophyll a production rates averaged (±1 SD) 0.5±0.2 μg/cm2/day in control floways compared to 0.3±0.1 μg/cm2/day dewatered floways. Short-term dewatering effectively reduced midges but also damaged periphyton. To maximize the recovery of periphyton biomass, operators should harvest periphyton from floways during dewatering events before periphyton is damaged by desiccation or direct exposure to sunlight. PMID:25607663

  10. Cloning, expression, and purification of a new antimicrobial peptide gene from Musca domestica larva.

    PubMed

    Pei, Zhihua; Sun, Xiaoning; Tang, Yan; Wang, Kai; Gao, Yunhang; Ma, Hongxia

    2014-10-01

    Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae), the housefly, exhibits unique immune defences and can produce antimicrobial peptides upon stimulation with bacteria. Based on the cDNA library constructed using the suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) method, a 198-bp antimicrobial peptide gene, which we named MDAP-2, was amplified by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) from M. domestica larvae stimulated with Salmonella pullorum (Enterobacteriaceae: Salmonella). In the present study, the full-length MDAP-2 gene was cloned and inserted into a His-tagged Escherichia coli prokaryotic expression system to enable production of the recombinant peptide. The recombinant MDAP-2 peptide was purified using Ni-NTA HisTrap FF crude column chromatography. The bacteriostatic activity of the recombinant purified MDAP-2 protein was assessed. The results indicated that MDAP-2 had in vitro antibacterial activity against all of the tested Gram- bacteria from clinical isolates, including E. coli (Enterobacteriaceae: Escherichia), one strain of S. pullorum (Enterobacteriaceae: Salmonella), and one strain of Pasteurella multocida. DNA sequencing and BLAST analysis showed that the MDAP-2 antimicrobial peptide gene was not homologous to any other antimicrobial peptide genes in GenBank. The antibacterial mechanisms of the newly discovered MDAP-2 peptide warrant further study. PMID:25020259

  11. Deformities of chironomid larvae and heavy metal pollution: from laboratory to field studies.

    PubMed

    Di Veroli, A; Santoro, F; Pallottini, M; Selvaggi, R; Scardazza, F; Cappelletti, D; Goretti, E

    2014-10-01

    Mouthpart deformities of Chironomus riparius larvae (Diptera) have been investigated to evaluate the toxic effects of contamination by heavy metals in the Genna Stream (Central Italy), situated in an area subjected to intensive swine farms (40000 heads). The livestock farming (fertirrigation) contributes to metal pollution of the Genna Stream with an increase of copper, zinc, cadmium, chromium and nickel in the sediments of the downstream stations. The incidence of mentum deformities was very high at all sampling stations, about 56%. The highest values of deformities were found in the intermediate river reach (St. 3: 65%) and in March (66%), mainly due to an increase in severe deformities. The high incidence of severe deformities (30%) is attributed to the high pollution level by heavy metals in the sediments, in particular to copper and zinc, which showed the highest average value at St. 3 and in March. This field study reflected the relationships between sediment metal concentrations and chironomid mouthpart deformities, previously observed in laboratory tests, and highlighted these deformities as toxicity endpoints. This feature paves the way for their use as an effective tool in freshwater bioassessment monitoring programs to evaluate the toxic effects of metal contamination in freshwater ecosystems. PMID:25048882

  12. Scathophagid fly Larvae as Predators of Neophylax rickeri (Trichoptera: Uenoidae) egg Masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purcell, A. H.; Hoffman, A.; Resh, V. H.

    2005-05-01

    We examined the predator-prey interaction of an undescribed predator (Diptera: Scathophagidae) on egg masses of Neophylax rickeri (Trichoptera: Uenoidae). Over a two-year period, we regularly surveyed 14 riffles within a 200-m reach of Redwood Creek and Webb Creek (Marin County, California). In Webb Creek, scathophagid predators were absent despite the abundance of N. rickeri egg masses. However, in Redwood Creek scathophagid predators were found within 11% (n=1594 egg masses) of the N. rickeri egg masses collected. N. rickeri egg masses were more frequently found clustered in aggregations (86%) than singly (14%), and scathophagid predators were more frequently found within N. rickeri egg mass aggregations (23% infestation rate) than in singly deposited egg masses (5%). Scathophagid predators exhibited a bivoltine life cycle with an increase in abundance after the first winter rains (November/December) and again in late spring (May/June). The abundance of predator larvae in the winter coincided with the peak oviposition period of N. rickeri, but in the late spring when N. rickeri egg masses were absent, the predator fed on egg masses of several other trichopteran (Brachycentridae) and dipteran (Ceratopogonidae, Chironomidae) species.

  13. Transcriptional response of honey bee larvae infected with the bacterial pathogen Paenibacillus larvae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    American foulbrood disease of honey bees is caused by the bacterium Paenibacillus larvae. Infection occurs per os in larvae and systemic infection requires a breaching of the host peritrophic matrix and midgut epithelium. Genetic variation exists for both bacterial virulence and host resistance, and...

  14. A Drosophila heat shock response represents an exception rather than a rule amongst Diptera species.

    PubMed

    Zatsepina, O G; Przhiboro, A A; Yushenova, I A; Shilova, V; Zelentsova, E S; Shostak, N G; Evgen'ev, M B; Garbuz, D G

    2016-08-01

    Heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) is the major player that underlies adaptive response to hyperthermia in all organisms studied to date. We investigated patterns of Hsp70 expression in larvae of dipteran species collected from natural populations of species belonging to four families from different evolutionary lineages of the order Diptera: Stratiomyidae, Tabanidae, Chironomidae and Ceratopogonidae. All investigated species showed a Hsp70 expression pattern that was different from the pattern in Drosophila. In contrast to Drosophila, all of the species in the families studied were characterized by high constitutive levels of Hsp70, which was more stable than that in Drosophila. When Stratiomyidae Hsp70 proteins were expressed in Drosophila cells, they became as short-lived as the endogenous Hsp70. Interestingly, three species of Ceratopogonidae and a cold-water species of Chironomidae exhibited high constitutive levels of Hsp70 mRNA and high basal levels of Hsp70. Furthermore, two species of Tabanidae were characterized by significant constitutive levels of Hsp70 and highly stable Hsp70 mRNA. In most cases, heat-resistant species were characterized by a higher basal level of Hsp70 than more thermosensitive species. These data suggest that different trends were realized during the evolution of the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of the responses of Hsp70 genes to temperature fluctuations in the studied families. PMID:27089053

  15. Screening of Asteraceae (Compositae) plant extracts for larvicidal activity against Aedes fluviatilis (Diptera:Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Macêdo, M E; Consoli, R A; Grandi, T S; dos Anjos, A M; de Oliveira, A B; Mendes, N M; Queiróz, R O; Zani, C L

    1997-01-01

    Ethanol extracts of 83 plants species belonging to the Asteraceae (Compositae) family, collected in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, were tested for larvicidal activity against the mosquito Aedes fluviatilis--Diptera: Culicidae). The extract from Tagetes minuta was the most active with a LC90 of 1.5 mg/l and LC50 of 1.0 mg/l. This plant has been the object of several studies by other groups and its active components have already been identified as thiophene derivatives, a class of compounds present in many Asteraceae species. The extract of Eclipta paniculata was also significantly active, with a LC90 of 17.2 mg/l and LC50 of 3.3 mg/l and no previous studies on its larvicidal activity or chemical composition could be found in the literature. Extracts of Achryrocline satureoides, Gnaphalium spicatum, Senecio brasiliensis, Trixis vauthieri, Tagetes patula and Vernonia ammophila were less active, killing more than 50% of the larvae only at the higher dose tested (100 mg/l). PMID:9361755

  16. Wolbachia Infection and Resource Competition Effects on Immature Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Gavotte, Laurent; Mercer, David R.; Vandyke, Rhonda; Mains, James W.; Dobson, Stephen L.

    2009-01-01

    Wolbachia pipientis Hertig and Wolbach (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae) are intracellular α-proteobacteria that occur naturally in Aedes albopictus (Skuse) (Diptera: Culicidae) and numerous other invertebrates. These endosymbionts can invade host populations by manipulating host reproduction. Wolbachia infections have been shown to impart both costs and benefits to hosts in terms of development, survival, and fecundity. Here, we monitor intraspecific competition among independent cohorts of infected or uninfected larvae. Levels of competition are manipulated by varying initial larval densities and food levels. Although larval density is observed to have major impacts on immature survivorship, sex ratio of eclosing adults, and developmental rates, the Wolbachia infection status had minimal impact on male immatures and no effect on immature females under these experimental conditions. Female and male immatures were observed to respond differently to competitive pressure, with the functional relationships of females and males consistent with scramble and contest competition, respectively. The results are discussed in relation to the evolution of naturally occurring Wolbachia infections in Ae. albopictus (i.e., natural population replacement events) and public health strategies that propose the manipulation of Wolbachia infections in Ae. albopictus populations. PMID:19496412

  17. Larvicidal Effects of Four Citrus Peel Essential Oils Against the Arbovirus Vector Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Campolo, Orlando; Romeo, Flora V; Algeri, Giuseppe M; Laudani, Francesca; Malacrinò, Antonino; Timpanaro, Nicolina; Palmeri, Vincenzo

    2016-02-01

    In this study, we evaluated the larvicidal activity of four citrus essential oils (EOs; sweet orange, mandarin, bergamot, and lemon) against the arbovirus vector Aedes albopictus (Skuse) (Diptera: Culicidae) under laboratory conditions. Through gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses, we found that in sweet orange, mandarin, and lemon EOs, limonene was the most abundant compound, whereas linalyl acetate was the most abundant in the bergamot EO. All tested EOs showed a marked larvicidal activity, in particular sweet orange, lemon, and bergamot that killed all treated larvae. After 24 h of exposure, the LC50 values of the tested citrus EOs ranged from 145.27 (lemon EO) to 318.07 mg liter(-1) (mandarin EO), while LC(95) ranged from 295.13 to 832.44 mg liter(-1). After 48 h of exposure, the estimated LC(50) values decreased to values ranging from 117.29 to 209.38 mg liter(-1), while LC(95) ranged from 231.85 to 537.36 mg liter(-1). The results obtained from these evaluations, together with the large availability at reasonable costs of citrus EOs, are promising for the potential development of a new botanical mosquitocide. PMID:26357845

  18. Inhibitory Effects of Amorphigenin on the Mitochondrial Complex I of Culex pipiens pallens Coquillett (Diptera: Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Mingshan; Liang, Yaping; Gu, Zumin; Li, Xiuwei

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies in our laboratory found that the extract from seeds of Amorpha fruticosa in the Leguminosae family had lethal effects against mosquito larvae, and an insecticidal compound amorphigenin was isolated. In this study, the inhibitory effects of amorphigenin against the mitochondrial complex I of Culex pipiens pallens (Diptera: Culicidae) were investigated and compared with that of rotenone. The results showed that amorphigenin and rotenone can decrease the mitochondrial complex I activity both in vivo and in vitro as the in vivo IC50 values (the inhibitor concentrations leading to 50% of the enzyme activity lost) were determined to be 2.4329 and 2.5232 μmol/L, respectively, while the in vitro IC50 values were 2.8592 and 3.1375 μmol/L, respectively. Both amorphigenin and rotenone were shown to be reversible and mixed-I type inhibitors of the mitochondrial complex I of Cx. pipiens pallens, indicating that amorphigenin and rotenone inhibited the enzyme activity not only by binding with the free enzyme but also with the enzyme-substrate complex, and the values of KI and KIS for amorphigenin were determined to be 20.58 and 87.55 μM, respectively, while the values for rotenone were 14.04 and 69.23 μM, respectively. PMID:26307964

  19. Forensically important calliphoridae (diptera) associated with pig carrion in rural north-central Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gruner, Susan V.; Slone, D.H.; Capinera, J.L.

    2007-01-01

    A study to determine the relative abundance and seasonality of forensically important blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in rural north-central Florida was conducted using pig carcasses (Sus scrofa L.) as models for human bodies. Seven species of Calliphoridae were collected: Lucilia coeruleiviridis (=Phoenicia) (Macquart), Cochliomyia macellaria (F.), Chrysomya rufifaces (Macquart), Phormia regina (Meigen), Chrysomya megacephala (F.), and a few specimens of Calliphora livida Hall, and Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy. Species composition in aerial collections of adult flies, preserved larval collections, and samples of larvae reared to the adult stage were all highly correlated. Relative abundance of the species found was significantly different, with L. coeruleiviridis the most abundant species year-round. The relative abundance of the collected species varied significantly by day of decomposition and by season, with significant interactions between season and day, season and species, and day and species. L. coeruleiviridis, C. macellaria, C. rufifaces, and P. regina were found during the entire year, two C. vicina specimens and 11 C. livida specimens were collected from December to March, whereas C. megacephala was collected only from June through September. ?? 2007 Entomological Society of America.

  20. Dominant fitness costs of resistance to fipronil in Musca domestica Linnaeus (Diptera: Muscidae).

    PubMed

    Abbas, Naeem; Shah, Rizwan Mustafa; Shad, Sarfraz Ali; Azher, Faheem

    2016-08-15

    House fly, Musca domestica L., (Diptera: Muscidae) a common pest of poultry, has developed resistance to the commonly used insecticide fipronil. The life history traits were examined in the fipronil-selected (Fipro-SEL), susceptible counterpart (UNSEL), and their hybrid progeny strains in order to design an effective resistant management strategy. Compared to the UNSEL strain, the Fipro-SEL was 181.94-fold resistant to fipronil. This resistance was unstable after five generations without selection. The Fipro-SEL had a significantly longer larval duration, lower pupal weight, lower fecundity, lower hatchability, lower number of next generation larvae, lower intrinsic rate of population increase and lower biotic potential than the UNSEL strain. Most fitness parameters of the hybrid progeny were similar and significantly lower than that in the UNSEL strain, suggesting autosomal and dominant fitness costs. Compared to the UNSEL strain, relative the fitness of the Fipro-SEL, Hybrid1 and Hybrid2 was 0.13, 0.33 and 0.30, respectively. Fipronil resistance resulted in high fitness costs and these fitness costs were dominant and autosomal in the Fipro-SEL strain of M. domestica. Rotation of fipronil with other insecticides having no cross resistance should be useful for delaying the development of resistance in M. domestica. PMID:27514889

  1. Ventral polarization vision in tabanids: horseflies and deerflies (Diptera: Tabanidae) are attracted to horizontally polarized light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horváth, Gábor; Majer, József; Horváth, Loránd; Szivák, Ildikó; Kriska, György

    2008-11-01

    Adult tabanid flies (horseflies and deerflies) are terrestrial and lay their eggs onto marsh plants near bodies of fresh water because the larvae develop in water or mud. To know how tabanids locate their host animals, terrestrial rendezvous sites and egg-laying places would be very useful for control measures against them, because the hematophagous females are primary/secondary vectors of some severe animal/human diseases/parasites. Thus, in choice experiments performed in the field we studied the behavior of tabanids governed by linearly polarized light. We present here evidence for positive polarotaxis, i.e., attraction to horizontally polarized light stimulating the ventral eye region, in both males and females of 27 tabanid species. The novelty of our findings is that positive polarotaxis has been described earlier only in connection with the water detection of some aquatic insects ovipositing directly into water. A further particularity of our discovery is that in the order Diptera and among blood-sucking insects the studied tabanids are the first known species possessing ventral polarization vision and definite polarization-sensitive behavior with known functions. The polarotaxis in tabanid flies makes it possible to develop new optically luring traps being more efficient than the existing ones based on the attraction of tabanids by the intensity and/or color of reflected light.

  2. A taxonomic revision of genus Labrundinia Fittkau, 1962 (Diptera: Chironomidae: Tanypodinae).

    PubMed

    Da Silva, Fabio Laurindo; Fonseca-Gessner, Alaide Aparecida; Ekrem, Torbjørn

    2014-01-01

    The species of the genus Labrundinia (Diptera: Chironomidae: Tanypodinae: Pentaneurini) are revised, described and figured. Keys to known adult males, pupae and larvae are provided. Fourteen previously known species are redescribed, and 25 species from Neotropical region are diagnosed and described as new to science. These species treated are L. amandae sp. n., L. amazonica sp. n., L. becki Beck et Beck, L. carolae sp. n., L. costaricae sp. n., L. fera Roback, L. fiorelinii sp. n., L. fittkaui sp. n., L. fosteri Roback, L. hirsuta Roback, L. gregi sp. n., L. jasoni sp. n., L. johannseni Beck et Beck, L. kogilamae sp. n., L. longipalpis Goetghebuer, L. mayaca sp. n., L. meta Roback, L. multidentata sp. n., L. nathani sp. n., L. neopilosella Beck et Beck, L. nicaraguensis sp. n., L. opela Roback, L. panamensis sp. n., L. parabecki Roback, L. parafittkaui sp. n., L. parareniformis sp. n., L. paravirescens sp. n., L. paulae sp. n., L. pilosella Loew, L. reniformis sp. n., L. robacki sp. n., L. semicurvata sp. n., L. setosa sp. n., L. separata Edwards, L. sofiae sp. n., L. tenata Roback, L. trilucida sp. n., L. unicolor sp. n., L. virescens Beck et Beck. A diagnosis of the genus is presented and morphological differences to closely related genera are discussed. PMID:24871279

  3. Predation and control efficacies of Misgurnus mizolepis (Cypriniformes: Cobitidae) toward Culex pipiens molestus (Diptera: Culicidae) and fish toxicity of temephos in laboratory and septic tank conditions.

    PubMed

    Chae, Seong Chun; Kwon, Young Hyun; Min, Kyung Il; Kim, Hyung Soo; Kim, Nam-Jin; Kim, Jun-Ran; Son, Bong Gi; Ahn, Young-Joon

    2014-07-01

    Culex pipiens molestus Forskal (Diptera: Culicidae) is the dominant mosquito species in septic tanks in South Korea. An assessment was made of the biological control potential of mud loaches, Misgurnus mizolepis Günther (Cypriniformes: Cobitidae), toward Cx. p. molestus larvae in laboratory and septic tanks. Results were compared with those of temephos 20% emulsifiable concentrate. In laboratory tests, all mud loaches survived on sedimentation chamber- and effluent chamber-collected water of aerobic septic tanks (ASTs), whereas all mud loaches died within 3-12 h after introduction into sedimentation chamber- and effluent chamber-collected water of anaerobic septic tanks, Gill hyperplasia and hemorrhages at the bases of pectoral fins were detected in all dead mud loaches. These appeared to have been caused by bacterial disease, rather than the physical and chemical characteristics of the septic tank water. A mud loach consumed an average range of 1,072-1,058 larvae of Cx. p. molestus in the AST water at 24 h. At the manufacturer's recommended rate (10 ml/ton) in the AST water, the temephos formulation did not cause fish mortality. In the AST experiment, predation of mosquito larvae by mud loaches at a release rate of one fish per 900 mosquito larvae resulted in complete mosquito control from the third day after treatment throughout the 18-wk survey period, compared with temephos 20% emulsifiable concentrate-treated AST water (reduction rate, 40% at 28 days after treatment). Reasonable mosquito control in aerobic septic tanks can be achieved by mosquito breeding season stocking of a rate of one mud loach per 900 mosquito larvae. PMID:25118414

  4. Aerial ultra-low-volume application of naled: impact on nontarget imperiled butterfly larvae (Cyclargus thomasi bethunebakeri) and efficacy against adult mosquitoes (Aedes taeniorhynchus).

    PubMed

    Zhong, H; Hribar, L J; Daniels, J C; Feken, M A; Brock, C; Trager, M D

    2010-12-01

    We assessed the exposure and acute toxicity of naled, applied aerially as an ultra-low-volume spray for mosquito control, on late instar larvae of the Miami blue (Cyclargus thomasi bethunebakeri) (Comstock and Huntington 1943) (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae), an imperiled South Florida butterfly. We concurrently evaluated the control efficacy against caged adult female salt-marsh mosquitoes (Aedes taeniorhynchus) (Wiedemann 1821) (Diptera: Culicidae). This 3-yr study was conducted in north Key Largo (Monroe County, FL) beginning in 2006. The field trials incorporated 15 sampling stations: nine in the target spray zone, three in the spray drift zone at varying distances from the target zone, and three in the control zone not subjected to naled spray drift. A total of six field spray trials were completed, three at an altitude of 30.5 m (100 feet), and three at 45.7 m (150 feet). For all trials, the ultra-low-volume application of Trumpet EC insecticide (78% naled) at a rate of 54.8 ml/ha (0.75 fl. oz/acre) was effective in killing caged adult mosquitoes in the target zone. Butterfly larvae survival was significantly reduced in the spray zone compared with drift and control zones. Analysis of insecticide residue data revealed that the mortality of the late instar butterfly larvae was a result of exposure to excess residues of naled. Additional research is needed to determine mitigation strategies that can limit exposure of sensitive butterflies to naled while maintaining mosquito control efficacy. PMID:22182563

  5. Rates of development of immatures of three species of Chrysomya (Diptera: Calliphoridae) reared in different types of animal tissues: implications for estimating the postmortem interval.

    PubMed

    Thyssen, Patricia Jacqueline; de Souza, Carina Mara; Shimamoto, Paula Midori; Salewski, Thais de Britto; Moretti, Thiago Carvalho

    2014-09-01

    Blowflies have major medical and sanitary importance because they can be vectors of viruses, bacteria, and helminths and are also causative agents of myiasis. Also, these flies, especially those belonging to the genus Chrysomya, are among the first insects to arrive at carcasses and are therefore valuable in providing data for the estimation of the minimum postmortem interval (PMImin). The PMImin can be calculated by assessing the weight, length, or development stage of blowfly larvae. Lack of information on the variables that might affect these parameters in different fly species can generate inaccuracies in estimating the PMImin. This study evaluated the effects of different types of bovine tissues (the liver, muscle, tongue, and stomach) and chicken heart on the development rates of larvae of Chrysomya albiceps Wiedemann, Chrysomya megacephala Fabricius, and Chrysomya putoria Wiedemann (Diptera: Calliphoridae). The efficiency of each rearing substrate was assessed by maggot weight gain (mg), larval development time (h), larval and pupal survival (%), and emergence interval (h). The development rates of larvae of all blowfly species studied here were directly influenced by the type of food substrate. Tissues that have high contents of protein and fat (muscle and heart) allowed the highest larval weight gain. For bovine liver, all Chrysomya species showed slower growth, by as much as 48 h, compared to the other tissues. Different rates of development are probably associated with specific energy requirements of calliphorids and the nutritional composition of each type of food. PMID:25082014

  6. A new record of Chironomus (Chironomus) acidophilus Keyl (Diptera, Chironomidae) from the Uzon volcanic caldera (Kronotsky Reserve, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia), its karyotype, ecology and biology.

    PubMed

    Orel, Oksana V; Lobkova, Ludmila E; Zhirov, Sergey V; Petrova, Ninel A

    2015-01-01

    Morphology, cytology, ecology and biology of Holarctic Chironomus (Chironomus) acidophilus Keyl, 1960 (Diptera, Chironomidae) was examined from material collected in the geothermal Vosmerka Lake (pH=2.0-2.5). An illustrated redescription of C. acidophilus is given on the basis of adult males reared from field-collected pupae, and of simultaneously collected larvae. Additional larvae belonging to the pseudothummi-complex were identified as C. acidophilus on the basis of their karyotype. The karyotype of C. acidophilus (2n=8) and detailed mapping of the 4 chromosome arms A, E, D and F are provided. The population of C. acidophilus from Kamchatka was found to be karyologically monomorphic. Information on distribution and ecology of C. acidophilus from Vosmerka Lake (total mineralization 1583.5 mg/l) is also given. Chironomus acidophilus is the only species of aquatic insects recorded in this lake. Lack of competition and a richness of food resources contribute to the high abundance (35161 ind./m2) and biomass (11.342 g/m2) of the larvae of C. acidophilus in Vosmerka Lake. PMID:26249988

  7. Antioxidant and Antiproliferative Activities of the Essential Oils from Thymbra capitata and Thymus Species Grown in Portugal

    PubMed Central

    Miguel, Maria Graça; Gago, Custódia; Antunes, Maria Dulce; Megías, Cristina; Cortés-Giraldo, Isabel; Vioque, Javier; Lima, A. Sofia; Figueiredo, A. Cristina

    2015-01-01

    The antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of the essential oils from Thymbra capitata and Thymus species grown in Portugal were evaluated. Thymbra and Thymus essential oils were grouped into two clusters: Cluster I in which carvacrol, thymol, p-cymene, α-terpineol, and γ-terpinene dominated and Cluster II in which thymol and carvacrol were absent and the main constituent was linalool. The ability for scavenging ABTS•+ and peroxyl free radicals as well as for preventing the growth of THP-1 leukemia cells was better in essential oils with the highest contents of thymol and carvacrol. These results show the importance of these two terpene-phenolic compounds as antioxidants and cytotoxic agents against THP-1 cells. PMID:26229547

  8. Antioxidant and Antiproliferative Activities of the Essential Oils from Thymbra capitata and Thymus Species Grown in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Miguel, Maria Graça; Gago, Custódia; Antunes, Maria Dulce; Megías, Cristina; Cortés-Giraldo, Isabel; Vioque, Javier; Lima, A Sofia; Figueiredo, A Cristina

    2015-01-01

    The antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of the essential oils from Thymbra capitata and Thymus species grown in Portugal were evaluated. Thymbra and Thymus essential oils were grouped into two clusters: Cluster I in which carvacrol, thymol, p-cymene, α-terpineol, and γ-terpinene dominated and Cluster II in which thymol and carvacrol were absent and the main constituent was linalool. The ability for scavenging ABTS(•+) and peroxyl free radicals as well as for preventing the growth of THP-1 leukemia cells was better in essential oils with the highest contents of thymol and carvacrol. These results show the importance of these two terpene-phenolic compounds as antioxidants and cytotoxic agents against THP-1 cells. PMID:26229547

  9. High-Throughput Sequencing and De Novo Assembly of Brassica oleracea var. Capitata L. for Transcriptome Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sangmi; Choe, Jun Kyoung; Jo, Sung-Hwan; Baek, Namkwon; Kwon, Suk-Yoon

    2014-01-01

    Background The cabbage, Brassica oleracea var. capitata L., has a distinguishable phenotype within the genus Brassica. Despite the economic and genetic importance of cabbage, there is little genomic data for cabbage, and most studies of Brassica are focused on other species or other B. oleracea subspecies. The lack of genomic data for cabbage, a non-model organism, hinders research on its molecular biology. Hence, the construction of reliable transcriptomic data based on high-throughput sequencing technologies is needed to enhance our understanding of cabbage and provide genomic information for future work. Methodology/Principal Findings We constructed cDNAs from total RNA isolated from the roots, leaves, flowers, seedlings, and calcium-limited seedling tissues of two cabbage genotypes: 102043 and 107140. We sequenced a total of six different samples using the Illumina HiSeq platform, producing 40.5 Gbp of sequence data comprising 401,454,986 short reads. We assembled 205,046 transcripts (≥ 200 bp) using the Velvet and Oases assembler and predicted 53,562 loci from the transcripts. We annotated 35,274 of the loci with 55,916 plant peptides in the Phytozome database. The average length of the annotated loci was 1,419 bp. We confirmed the reliability of the sequencing assembly using reverse-transcriptase PCR to identify tissue-specific gene candidates among the annotated loci. Conclusion Our study provides valuable transcriptome sequence data for B. oleracea var. capitata L., offering a new resource for studying B. oleracea and closely related species. Our transcriptomic sequences will enhance the quality of gene annotation and functional analysis of the cabbage genome and serve as a material basis for future genomic research on cabbage. The sequencing data from this study can be used to develop molecular markers and to identify the extreme differences among the phenotypes of different species in the genus Brassica. PMID:24682075

  10. Transcriptional Profiles of Mating-Responsive Genes from Testes and Male Accessory Glands of the Mediterranean Fruit Fly, Ceratitis capitata

    PubMed Central

    Scolari, Francesca; Gomulski, Ludvik M.; Ribeiro, José M. C.; Siciliano, Paolo; Meraldi, Alice; Falchetto, Marco; Bonomi, Angelica; Manni, Mosè; Gabrieli, Paolo; Malovini, Alberto; Bellazzi, Riccardo; Aksoy, Serap; Gasperi, Giuliano; Malacrida, Anna R.

    2012-01-01

    Background Insect seminal fluid is a complex mixture of proteins, carbohydrates and lipids, produced in the male reproductive tract. This seminal fluid is transferred together with the spermatozoa during mating and induces post-mating changes in the female. Molecular characterization of seminal fluid proteins in the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata, is limited, although studies suggest that some of these proteins are biologically active. Methodology/Principal Findings We report on the functional annotation of 5914 high quality expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from the testes and male accessory glands, to identify transcripts encoding putative secreted peptides that might elicit post-mating responses in females. The ESTs were assembled into 3344 contigs, of which over 33% produced no hits against the nr database, and thus may represent novel or rapidly evolving sequences. Extraction of the coding sequences resulted in a total of 3371 putative peptides. The annotated dataset is available as a hyperlinked spreadsheet. Four hundred peptides were identified with putative secretory activity, including odorant binding proteins, protease inhibitor domain-containing peptides, antigen 5 proteins, mucins, and immunity-related sequences. Quantitative RT-PCR-based analyses of a subset of putative secretory protein-encoding transcripts from accessory glands indicated changes in their abundance after one or more copulations when compared to virgin males of the same age. These changes in abundance, particularly evident after the third mating, may be related to the requirement to replenish proteins to be transferred to the female. Conclusions/Significance We have developed the first large-scale dataset for novel studies on functions and processes associated with the reproductive biology of Ceratitis capitata. The identified genes may help study genome evolution, in light of the high adaptive potential of the medfly. In addition, studies of male recovery dynamics in terms

  11. Toxicity of aristolochic acids isolated from Aristolochia indica Linn (Aristolochiaceae) against the malarial vector Anopheles stephensi Liston (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Pradeepa, Venkatraman; Sathish-Narayanan, Subbiah; Kirubakaran, Suyambulingam Arunachalam; Thanigaivel, Annamalai; Senthil-Nathan, Sengottayan

    2015-06-01

    With the growth of resistance to overused insecticides, vector management has become highly problematic. Hence more concentration has been focused on botanicals. Therefore our present study was aimed to evaluate the toxicity of compounds, aristolochic acid I and aristolochic acid II from the methanol extract of Aristolochia indica L. (Aristolochiaceae) leaves on larvae of Anopheles stephensi L. (Diptera: Culicidae) employing World Health Organization standard larvicide testing procedures. The soxhlet extraction was carried out using polar solvent, methanol. The isolated toxic compounds were purified through RP-HPLC. The FTIR spectroscopic studies revealed different peak values with functional groups in the mixed compounds (AA-I and AA- II). These two aristolochic acids were further studied through (13)C and (1)HNMR analysis with confirmed by structures. Bioassay-guided fractionation through flash chromatography lead to the isolation of two larvicidal compounds namely aristolochic acid I and II. In these bioassays, the larvae were exposed to concentrations of 100, 250, 500,750 and 1000 ppm for each compound. Between the two, AA-I exerted no significant toxicity difference (P < 0.05) on mosquito larvae with LC₅₀- 171.3, 209.8, 269.1, 502.3 ppm and LC₉₀-751.6, 963.8, 972.7, 990.8 ppm compared to AA-II with LC₅₀-134.8, 166.7, 240.4,543.2 ppm and LC₉₀- 636.7, 792.5, 990.8, 986.2 ppm against first, second, third and fourth instars, respectively. Further, the isolated compounds were severely affecting the mosquito gut. From the results, A. indica toxic compounds could be considered as one of the influential applicant to bring about useful botanicals so as to prevent the resurrection of mosquito vectors. PMID:25660198

  12. Quantifying and predicting Drosophila larvae crawling phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Günther, Maximilian N; Nettesheim, Guilherme; Shubeita, George T

    2016-01-01

    The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster is a widely used model for cell biology, development, disease, and neuroscience. The fly's power as a genetic model for disease and neuroscience can be augmented by a quantitative description of its behavior. Here we show that we can accurately account for the complex and unique crawling patterns exhibited by individual Drosophila larvae using a small set of four parameters obtained from the trajectories of a few crawling larvae. The values of these parameters change for larvae from different genetic mutants, as we demonstrate for fly models of Alzheimer's disease and the Fragile X syndrome, allowing applications such as genetic or drug screens. Using the quantitative model of larval crawling developed here we use the mutant-specific parameters to robustly simulate larval crawling, which allows estimating the feasibility of laborious experimental assays and aids in their design. PMID:27323901

  13. Quantifying and predicting Drosophila larvae crawling phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Günther, Maximilian N.; Nettesheim, Guilherme; Shubeita, George T.

    2016-01-01

    The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster is a widely used model for cell biology, development, disease, and neuroscience. The fly’s power as a genetic model for disease and neuroscience can be augmented by a quantitative description of its behavior. Here we show that we can accurately account for the complex and unique crawling patterns exhibited by individual Drosophila larvae using a small set of four parameters obtained from the trajectories of a few crawling larvae. The values of these parameters change for larvae from different genetic mutants, as we demonstrate for fly models of Alzheimer’s disease and the Fragile X syndrome, allowing applications such as genetic or drug screens. Using the quantitative model of larval crawling developed here we use the mutant-specific parameters to robustly simulate larval crawling, which allows estimating the feasibility of laborious experimental assays and aids in their design. PMID:27323901

  14. Sensorimotor structure of Drosophila larva phototaxis

    PubMed Central

    Kane, Elizabeth A.; Gershow, Marc; Afonso, Bruno; Larderet, Ivan; Klein, Mason; Carter, Ashley R.; de Bivort, Benjamin L.; Sprecher, Simon G.; Samuel, Aravinthan D. T.

    2013-01-01

    The avoidance of light by fly larvae is a classic paradigm for sensorimotor behavior. Here, we use behavioral assays and video microscopy to quantify the sensorimotor structure of phototaxis using the Drosophila larva. Larval locomotion is composed of sequences of runs (periods of forward movement) that are interrupted by abrupt turns, during which the larva pauses and sweeps its head back and forth, probing local light information to determine the direction of the successive run. All phototactic responses are mediated by the same set of sensorimotor transformations that require temporal processing of sensory inputs. Through functional imaging and genetic inactivation of specific neurons downstream of the sensory periphery, we have begun to map these sensorimotor circuits into the larval central brain. We find that specific sensorimotor pathways that govern distinct light-evoked responses begin to segregate at the first relay after the photosensory neurons. PMID:24043822

  15. Arthropod larvae misidentified as parasitic worm infection.

    PubMed

    Munisamy, Sreetharan; Kilner, Rachael

    2011-01-01

    A healthy, asymptomatic man living in London, presented with seeing 'worms' in his toilet for two successive summer seasons. Repeated microscopic examination and cultures of both his faeces and urine were normal. He was empirically treated with multiple courses of antihelminthics without resolution of this problem. A sample of the worms was obtained, and positively identified as arthropod larvae under microscopic examination. These larvae do not parasitically colonise humans. It was subsequently deduced that a flying arthropod (most likely Culex pipiens mosquito) had laid eggs in standing toilet water, and the hatched larvae had been mistaken for parasitic worms. The patient was declared free of parasites and remains healthy. This case illustrates the dangers of starting empirical treatment without positive confirmation of causative organisms, which can result in unnecessary and potentially harmful treatment. PMID:22675109

  16. Breakfast of champions or kiss of death? Survival and sexual performance of protein-fed, sterile Mediterranean fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    SciTech Connect

    Yuval, B.; Maor, M.; Levy, K.; Kaspi, R.; Taylor, P.; Shelly, T.

    2007-03-15

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) is increasingly being used around the world to control Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), the Mediterranean fruit fly as part of an area-wide integrated approach. One option that may improve the effectiveness of the SIT, by increasing the sexual competitiveness of released sterile males, consists of feeding males protein during the post-teneral stage, a diet that increases sexual performance of wild males. We examine the effects of diet on the successive hurdles males must overcome in order to inseminate females, i.e., joining leks, copulating females, having their sperm stored and inhibition of female remating. In addition, we address the effects of diet on post-release foraging success, longevity, and the ability to withstand starvation. While protein feeding universally increases the sexual success of wild males, its effect on sterile males varies with strain, experimental settings, and environmental conditions. In some cases, treatments that resulted in the best sexual performance were significantly associated with increased vulnerability to starvation. However, no particular diet affected the ability of sterile males to find nutrients in the field when these where available. We suggest it may be better to release relatively short-lived flies that are highly competitive, rather than long-lived, sexually ineffective ones. (author) [Spanish] El uso de la tecnica de insecto esteril (TIE) esta aumentando alrededor del mundo para el control de Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), la mosca mediterranea de la fruta como parte de un enfoque integrado por toda el area. Una opcion que puede mejorar la eficiencia de TIE, por medio del aumento de la capacidad de los machos esteriles liberados para competir, consiste en la alimentacion de los machos con proteina durante la etapa de pos-teneral, una dieta que aumenta el desempeno sexual de los machos naturales. Nosotros examinamos los efectos de la

  17. Cannibalistic behavior in Armigeres subalbatus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Rajavel, A R

    1992-09-01

    Phenomenon of natural cannibalism was observed to be exhibited by late (III and IV) instar larvae of Armigeres subalbatus. Cannibalistic behavior in this species was studied in response to food and density. Cannibalism among late instars was found to occur even in the presence of an adequate quantity of food. The rate of cannibalism was enhanced when food was restricted to only the early stages. Even in the total absence of food early instars did not show any cannibalistic behavior. Density had no influence on the rate of cannibalism. Under forced cannibalism and predation fourth instar larvae could not successfully pupate but the duration was prolonged. Cannibalism was thus facultative without any value for the survival of larvae. It may help in maintaining a balance in immature density in their natural habitats. PMID:1362627

  18. The use of Eucalyptus tereticornis Sm. (Myrtaceae) oil (leaf extract) as a natural larvicidal agent against the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi Liston (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Senthil Nathan, Sengottayan

    2007-07-01

    Secondary metabolites obtained from the indigenous plants with proven mosquito control potential can be used as an alternative to synthetic insecticides under the integrated vector control. The essential oil extract from the forest redgum, Eucalyptus tereticornis Sm. (Myrtaceae) was tested against mature and immature mosquito vector Anopheles stephensi Liston (Diptera) under laboratory condition. The extract showed strong larvicidal, pupicidal and adulticidal activity. The leaf oil extracts showed high bioactivity at high doses. Results obtained from the laboratory experiment showed that the leaf extracts suppressed the pupal and adult activity of Anopheles stephensi at higher doses. In general, first and second instar larvae were more susceptible to all treatments. Clear dose -response relationships were established with the highest dose of 160ppm plant extract evoking almost 100% mortality. The results obtained suggest that, in addition to their medicinal activities, E. tereticornis can also serve as a natural mosquitocide. PMID:16997545

  19. Density-dependent effects in experimental larval populations of Anopheles arabiensis (Diptera: Culicidae) can be negative, neutral, or overcompensatory depending on density and diet levels.

    PubMed

    Gilles, J R L; Lees, R S; Soliban, S M; Benedict, M Q

    2011-03-01

    Anopheles arabiensis Patton (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae were reared from hatching to the adult stage in the laboratory under a range of diet and larval concentrations using a factorial design. The range circumscribed most of the larval densities and diet concentrations that would allow larval growth and survival using the particular diet formulation and water volume we tested. We determined how these variables affected three outcomes, as follows: larval development rate, survival, and wing length. As has been reported previously, negative density dependence of survival as a function of increased larval density was the prevalent effect on all outcomes when diet was limiting. When diet was not limiting, density dependence was not observed, and three cases of overcompensatory survival were seen. We discuss these results in the context of diet and larval densities for mass rearing and the effect of larval competition on control strategies. PMID:21485365

  20. [Stereotactic aspiration of Spirometra mansonides larvae].

    PubMed

    Caballero, Joel; Morales, Losmill; García, Diana; Alarcón, Idelmys; Torres, Anay; Sáez, Gladys

    2015-08-01

    Brain sparganosis is a non-common parasite infection by Diphyllobothrium or Spirometra mansonoides larvae. This last one is responsible for most of the infestations in humans. We report a 19 years male patient bearer of a brain sparganosis. The patient presented with headache and left hemiparesis. CT diagnosis of right thalamic lesions was made and aspiration biopsy was performed using stereotactic system, obtaining a whole and death larvae. Histopathology confirms a CNS parasitism and it was treated initially with albendazol. ELISA test confirmed Spirometra spp. infestation. The patient developed asymptomatic with total remission of the lesions. It constitutes the second report in Cuba of brain sparganosis. PMID:26436792

  1. Wolbachia in Anastrepha fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Coscrato, Virginia E; Braz, Antônio S K; P Perondini, André L; Selivon, Denise; Marino, Celso L

    2009-09-01

    Endosymbiotic bacteria of the genus Wolbachia are widespread among arthropods and cause a variety of reproductive abnormalities, such as cytoplasmic incompatibility, thelytokous parthenogenesis, male-killing, and host feminization. In this study, we used three sets of Wolbachia-specific primers (16S rDNA, ftsZ, and wsp) in conjunction with the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), cloning and sequencing to study the infection of fruit flies (Anastrepha spp. and Ceratitis capitata) by Wolbachia. The flies were collected at several localities in Brazil and at Guayaquil, Ecuador. All of the fruit flies studied were infected with Wolbachia supergroup A, in agreement with the high prevalence of this group in South America. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the wsp gene was the most sensitive gene for studying the relationships among Wolbachia strains. The Wolbachia sequences detected in these fruit flies were similar to those such as wMel reported for other fruit flies. These results show that the infection of Anastrepha fruit flies by Wolbachia is much more widespread than previously thought. PMID:19536597

  2. Interspecific Competition of a New Invasive Mosquito, Culex coronator, and Two Container Mosquitoes, Aedes albopictus and Cx. quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae), Across Different Detritus Environments

    PubMed Central

    YEE, D. A.; SKIFF, J. F.

    2014-01-01

    The mosquito Culex coronator (Dyar and Knab) (Diptera: Culicidae) has undergone rapid range expansion in the United States since 2003, with its historical distribution in the southwest expanding eastward to the Atlantic coast. Although Cx. coronator nominally use small natural aquatic habitats for development, the use of containers (e.g., tires) makes it potentially important as container invasive. To determine the potential ecological effects of Cx. coronator on resident container species, we conducted a laboratory experiment to assess its competitive ability with two common tire-inhabiting species, Aedes albopictus (Skuse) and Culex quinquefasciatus (Say) (Diptera: Culicidae). Larvae were reared under a factorial design with each species alone and in combination (Cx. coronator + Ae. albopictus, Cx. coronator + Cx. quinquefasciatus) across three different resource environments (leaf detritus only, animal detritus only, animal + leaf). Mosquito performance (survival, adult male and female mass, and development time) was measured for each species across treatments. Female Cx. coronator developed slowest when grown with Ae. albopictus, or when grown with leaves only regardless of species combinations; similar patterns emerged for males although species effects were restricted to mass. Few differences were evident in performance for male and female Cx. coronator across detritus environments when grown with Cx. quinquefasciatus. Cx. quinquefasciatus did not vary in mass or development time in the presence of Cx. coronator compared with when grown alone. Ae. albopictus female mass was 15% lower in the presence of Cx. coronator. Survival of Cx. coronator was highest in animal and leaf detritus containers, although survival was generally lower when larvae were grown with Ae. albopictus. These findings suggest that the performance of Cx. coronator is similar to that of Cx. quinquefasciatus but it suffers in the presence of Ae. albopictus under some resource environments

  3. Mosquito repellent attracts Culicoides imicola (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae).

    PubMed

    Braverman, Y; Chizov-Ginzburg, A; Mullens, B A

    1999-01-01

    A plant-derived mosquito repellent, based on the oil of Eucalyptus maculata var. citriodora Hook, was evaluated against the biting midge Culicoides imicola Kieffer. Suction black light-traps covered with repellent-impregnated polyester mesh and deployed near horses attracted large numbers of C. imicola, which were seen near the treated net within a few minutes of the start of the experiment. Initial collections in the traps were approximately 3 times as large as those in control traps with untreated mesh. Numbers collected in treated traps were similar to untreated control traps after 4 h. Traps with mesh treated with DEET or another plant-derived (Meliaceae) proprietary product, AG1000, acted as repellents relative to the control. The differential activity of repellents against blood-feeding Diptera is discussed. PMID:10071502

  4. EFFECTS OF THERMAL POLLUTION OF PELAGIC LARVAE OF CRUSTACEA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Larvae of six species, Cancer irroratus, C. borealis and Homarus americanus of coastal waters (high salinity), and Palaemonetes pugio, Pagurus longicarpus and Rhithropanopeus harrisii, from the estuarine region (variable salinity) were studied. Larvae were cultured at various com...

  5. Butia capitata (Mart.) Becc. lamina anatomy as a tool for taxonomic distinction from B. odorata (Barb. Rodr.) Noblick comb. nov (Arecaceae).

    PubMed

    Sant'anna-Santos, Bruno F; Carvalho Júnior, Wellington G O; Amaral, Vanessa B

    2015-03-01

    The distinction between Butia capitata and B. odorata is based only on a few morphological characteristics, therefore there is a need for additional studies for supporting the separation of the species. As lamina anatomy characteristics are relevant in circumscribing Arecaceae taxa, this work aimed to describe B. capitata lamina anatomy and compare it with B. odorata. Samples from the middle portion of the pinnae were collected and processed in accordance with standard plant anatomy techniques. The epidermis is uniseriate and composed of a thick cuticle and epicuticular waxes into like hooked filaments. The subsidiary cells that arch over the guard cells are located at the hypodermis. The mesophyll is isobilateral and compact. The vascular bundles are collateral with a sclerenchymatic sheath extension that reaches the hypodermis. The stegmata cells have spherical and druse-like silica bodies. The midrib faces the adaxial surface with a thick fibrous layer surrounding the vascular bundles adjacent to the chlorenchyma. The stratified expansion tissue is on the abaxial surface, within the boundary between the mesophyll and midrib. Raphides are only found in B. capitata. Small bundles of the midrib fully surround the fibrous cylinder only in B. odorata. These characteristics are diagnostic and useful for supporting the proposed separation. PMID:25789791

  6. Composition and anti-insect activity of essential oils from Tagetes L. species (Asteraceae, Helenieae) on Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann and Triatoma infestans Klug.

    PubMed

    López, Sandra B; López, María L; Aragón, Liliana M; Tereschuk, María L; Slanis, Alberto C; Feresin, Gabriela E; Zygadlo, Julio A; Tapia, Alejandro A

    2011-05-25

    Essential oils from four species of the genus Tagetes L. (Asteraceae, Helenieae) collected in Tucumán province, Argentina, were evaluated for their chemical composition, toxicity, and olfactory activity on Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann adults and for repellent properties on Triatoma infestans (Klug) (Chagas disease vector). Yields of essential oils range from 0.2 to 0.8% (v/w). The same main constituents among Tagetes minuta L., Tagestes rupestris Cabrera, and Tagetes terniflora Kunth, (cis-trans)-ocimenes, (cis-trans)-tagetones, and (cis-trans)-ocimenones showed important differences in their relative compositions. Tagetes filifolia Lag. was characterized by the recognized phenylpropanoids methylchavicol and trans-anethole as the main components. LD(50) was ≤20 μg/insect in topical bioassays. T. rupestris was the most toxic to C. capitata females, whereas the other oils presented similar toxicities against males and females. Tagetes rupestris oil attracted both sexes of C. capitata at 5 μg, whereas T. minuta showed opposite activities between males (attractant) and females (repellent). Oils from T. minuta and T. filifolia were the most repellent to T. infestans. The results suggest that compositions of essential oils influence their insecticidal and olfactory properties. The essential oils from Tagetes species show an important potential as infochemical agents on insects' behaviors. This study highlights the chemical variability of essential oils as a source of variation of anti-insect properties. PMID:21469658

  7. Evolution of foraging behavior in Drosophilid larvae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivera-Alba, Marta; Kabra, Mayank; Branson, Kristin; Mirth, Christen

    2015-03-01

    Drosophilids, like other insects, go through a larval phase before metamorphosing into adults. Larvae increase their body weight by several orders of magnitude in a few days. We therefore hypothesized that foraging behavior is under strong evolutionary pressure to best fit the larval environment. To test our hypothesis we used a multidisciplinary approach to analyze foraging behavior across species and larval stages. First, we recorded several videos of larvae foraging for each of 47 Drosophilid species. Then, using a supervised machine learning approach, we automatically annotated the video collection for the foraging sub-behaviors, including crawling, turning, head casting or burrowing. We also computed over 100 features to describe the posture and dynamics of each animal in each video frame. From these data, we fit models to the behavior of each species. The models each had the same parametric form, but differed in the exact parameters. By simulating larva behavior in virtual arenas we can infer which properties of the environments are better for each species. Comparisons between these inferred environments and the actual environments where these animals live will give us a deeper understanding about the evolution of foraging behavior in Drosophilid larvae.

  8. An Introduction to the Identification of Chironomid Larvae.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, William T., Jr.

    This publication is an introductory guide to the identification of Chironomid (Midge) larvae. The larvae of these small flies are an important link in the food chain between algae and microinvertebrates. As a family, the larvae exhibit a wide range of tolerance to environmental factors such as amounts and types of pollutants. Much of this…

  9. Workbook on the Identification of Anopheles Larvae. Preliminary Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, Harry D.; Stojanovich, Chester J.

    This self-instructional booklet is designed to enable malarial control workers to identify the larvae of "Anopheles" species that are important malaria vectors. The morphological features of the larvae are illustrated in a programed booklet, which also contains an illustrated taxonomic key to 25 species of anopheline larvae. A glossary and a short…

  10. Toxicity of silver to two freshwater algae, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Pseudokirchneriella sub-capitata, grown under continuous culture conditions: influence of thiosulphate.

    PubMed

    Hiriart-Baer, Véronique P; Fortin, Claude; Lee, Dae-Young; Campbell, Peter G C

    2006-06-15

    In a test of the biotic ligand model (BLM), the uptake and toxicity of silver, in the absence or presence of the inorganic ligand, thiosulphate, were assessed for two freshwater green algae, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Pseudokirchneriella sub-capitata, using turbidostat continuous cultures. In the initial experiments, run in the absence of thiosulphate, the influent Ag concentration was varied from 0 to 75 nM in steps; for each influent concentration, silver uptake was calculated and the algal growth rate was determined. Silver uptake rates at low Ag concentrations were similar for both algae (e.g., 14-19 nmolm(-2)h(-1), for influent Ag(+) concentrations of approximately 9 nM) but at higher exposures uptake by P. sub-capitata exceeded that of C. reinhardtii. Despite this higher uptake rate, in the absence of thiosulphate P. sub-capitata was not more sensitive to free silver; 50% growth inhibition was reached at influent free Ag(+) concentrations of 15+/-7 and 22+/-13 nM for C. reinhardtii and P. sub-capitata, respectively. In the second series of experiments, the free Ag(+) concentration was held constant ( approximately 9 nM in the influent; 2-3 nM in the effluent) while the concentration of the silver thiosulphate complex, AgS(2)O(3)(-), was increased from 9 to 90 nM in steps. Under such conditions, the BLM would predict that silver uptake and toxicity should remain constant. On the contrary, both silver uptake and silver toxicity increased, indicating that the anionic silver thiosulphate complex enters the algal cells via a membrane-bound sulphate transporter and contributes to uptake and toxicity. However, for both algae there were indications that silver assimilated in this manner was somewhat less toxic to the algal cell than silver that entered via cation transport only. Physiological indicators of stress revealed possible different intracellular targets for these two freshwater algae, proteins and enzymes for C. reinhardtii and the photosynthetic

  11. Larval habitat for the avian malaria vector Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) in altered mid-elevation mesic-dry forests in Hawai'i.

    PubMed

    Reiter, Matthew E; Lapointe, Dennis A

    2009-12-01

    Effective management of avian malaria (Plasmodium relictum) in Hawai'i's endemic honeycreepers (Drepanidinae) requires the identification and subsequent reduction or treatment of larval habitat for the mosquito vector, Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae). We conducted ground surveys, treehole surveys, and helicopter aerial surveys from 2001-2003 to identify all potential larval mosquito habitat within two 100+ ha mesic-dry forest study sites in Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park, Hawai'i; 'Ainahou Ranch and Mauna Loa Strip Road. At 'Ainahou Ranch, anthropogenic sites (43%) were more likely to contain mosquitoes than naturally occurring (8%) sites. Larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus were predominately found in anthropogenic sites while Aedes albopictus larvae occurred less frequently in both anthropogenic sites and naturally-occurring sites. Additionally, moderate-size (~ 20-22,000 liters) anthropogenic potential larval habitat had >50% probability of mosquito presence compared to larger- and smaller-volume habitat (<50%). Less than 20% of trees surveyed at 'Ainahou Ranch had treeholes and few mosquito larvae were detected. Aerial surveys at 'Ainahou Ranch detected 56% (95% CI: 42-68%) of the potential larval habitat identified in ground surveys. At Mauna Loa Strip Road, Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae were only found in the rock holes of small intermittent stream drainages that made up 20% (5 of 25) of the total potential larval habitat. The volume of the potential larval habitat did not influence the probability of mosquito occurrence at Mauna Loa Strip Road. Our results suggest that Cx. quinquefasciatus abundance, and subsequently avian malaria, may be controlled by larval habitat reduction in the mesic-dry landscapes of Hawai'i where anthropogenic sources predominate. PMID:20836824

  12. Contributions of temporal segregation, oviposition choice, and non-additive effects of competitors to invasion success of Aedes japonicus (Diptera: Culicidae) in North America

    PubMed Central

    Murrell, Ebony G.; Noden, Bruce H.; Juliano, Steven A.

    2015-01-01

    The mosquito Aedes japonicus (Diptera: Culicidae) has spread rapidly through North America since its introduction in the 1990s. The mechanisms underlying its establishment in container communities occupied by competitors Aedes triseriatus and Aedes albopictus are unclear. Possibilities include (A) temporal separation of A. japonicus from other Aedes, (B) oviposition avoidance by A. japonicus of sites containing heterospecific Aedes larvae, and (C) non-additive competitive effects in assemblages of multiple Aedes. Containers sampled throughout the summer in an oak-hickory forest near Eureka, MO showed peak abundance for A. japonicus occurring significantly earlier in the season than either of the other Aedes species. Despite this, A. japonicus co-occurred with one other Aedes species in 53 % of samples when present, and co-occurred with both other Aedes in 18 % of samples. In a field oviposition experiment, A. japonicus laid significantly more eggs in forest edge containers than in forest interior containers, but did not avoid containers with low or high densities of larvae of A. triseriatus, A. albopictus, or both, compared to containers without larvae. Interspecific competitive effects (measured as decrease in the index of performance, λ′) of A. triseriatus or A. albopictus alone on A. japonicus larvae were not evident at the densities used, but the effect of both Aedes combined was significantly negative and super-additive of effects of individual interspecific competitors. Thus, neither oviposition avoidance of competitors nor non-additive competitive effects contribute to the invasion success of A. japonicus in North America. Distinct seasonal phenology may reduce competitive interactions with resident Aedes. PMID:26101466

  13. Larval habitat for the avian malaria vector culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) in altered mid-elevation mesic-dry forests in Hawai'i

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reiter, M.E.; Lapointe, D.A.

    2009-01-01

    Effective management of avian malaria (Plasmodium relictum) in Hawai'i's endemic honeycreepers (Drepanidinae) requires the identification and subsequent reduction or treatment of larval habitat for the mosquito vector, Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae). We conducted ground surveys, treehole surveys, and helicopter aerial surveys from 20012003 to identify all potential larval mosquito habitat within two 100+ ha mesic-dry forest study sites in Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park, Hawai'i; 'Ainahou Ranch and Mauna Loa Strip Road. At 'Ainahou Ranch, anthropogenic sites (43%) were more likely to contain mosquitoes than naturally occurring (8%) sites. Larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus were predominately found in anthropogenic sites while Aedes albopictus larvae occurred less frequently in both anthropogenic sites and naturally-occurring sites. Additionally, moderate-size (???20-22,000 liters) anthropogenic potential larval habitat had >50% probability of mosquito presence compared to larger- and smaller-volume habitat (<50%). Less than 20% of trees surveyed at ' Ainahou Ranch had treeholes and few mosquito larvae were detected. Aerial surveys at 'Ainahou Ranch detected 56% (95% CI: 42-68%) of the potential larval habitat identified in ground surveys. At Mauna Loa Strip Road, Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae were only found in the rock holes of small intermittent stream drainages that made up 20% (5 of 25) of the total potential larval habitat. The volume of the potential larval habitat did not influence the probability of mosquito occurrence at Mauna Loa Strip Road. Our results suggest that Cx. quinquefasciatus abundance, and subsequently avian malaria, may be controlled by larval habitat reduction in the mesic-dry landscapes of Hawai'i where anthropogenic sources predominate.

  14. Complete Genome Sequence of Paenibacillus larvae MEX14, Isolated from Honey Bee Larvae from the Xochimilco Quarter in Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Peréz de la Rosa, D; Pérez de la Rosa, J J; Cossio-Bayugar, R; Miranda-Miranda, E; Lozano, L; Bravo-Díaz, M A; Rocha-Martínez, M K; Sachman-Ruiz, B

    2015-01-01

    Paenibacillus larvae strain MEX14 is a facultative anaerobic endospore-forming bacterium that infects Apis mellifera larvae. Strain MEX14 was isolated from domestic bee larvae collected in a backyard in Mexico City. The estimated genome size was determined to be 4.18 Mb, and it harbors 4,806 protein coding genes (CDSs). PMID:26316636

  15. Complete Genome Sequence of Paenibacillus larvae MEX14, Isolated from Honey Bee Larvae from the Xochimilco Quarter in Mexico City

    PubMed Central

    Peréz de la Rosa, D.; Pérez de la Rosa, J. J.; Cossio-Bayugar, R.; Miranda-Miranda, E.; Lozano, L.; Bravo-Díaz, M. A.; Rocha-Martínez, M. K.

    2015-01-01

    Paenibacillus larvae strain MEX14 is a facultative anaerobic endospore-forming bacterium that infects Apis mellifera larvae. Strain MEX14 was isolated from domestic bee larvae collected in a backyard in Mexico City. The estimated genome size was determined to be 4.18 Mb, and it harbors 4,806 protein coding genes (CDSs). PMID:26316636

  16. Larva of Palaemnema brasiliensis Machado (Odonata: Platystictidae), from Amazonas, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Neiss, Ulisses Gaspar; Hamada, Neusa

    2016-01-01

    The larva of Palaemnema brasiliensis Machado, 2009 is described and illustrated based on last-instar larvae and exuviae of reared larvae collected in a blackwater stream in Barcelos and Presidente Figueiredo municipalities, Amazonas state, Brazil. The larva of P. brasiliensis can be distinguished from the two South American species of the genus with described larvae (P. clementia Selys and P. mutans Calvert), mainly by presence of a single obtuse cusp on the labial palp, the presence and configuration of setae in the caudal lamellae, and the proportional length of terminal filaments of the caudal lamellae. The family is recorded here for the first time in Brazilian state of Amazonas. PMID:27395963

  17. Toxicity of dissolved ozone to fish eggs and larvae

    SciTech Connect

    Asbury, C.; Coler, R.

    1980-07-01

    To find levels of dissolved residual ozone lethal to fish eggs and larvae during brief exposures, continuous-flow toxicity tests were performed with eggs and larvae of yellow perch (Perca flavescens), and fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas), eggs of white sucker (Catastomus commersoni), and larvae of bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus). The 50 and 99% lethal concentrations with confidence limits were calculated. Eggs of the species tested were more tolerant than larvae, which were destroyed by very brief exposures (less than 2 minutes) to residuals less than 0.1 mg/1. Because of the sensitivity of the larvae, residual ozone concentrations in natural waters should remain well below 50 ..mu..g/1.

  18. Diet-induced over-expression of flightless-I protein and its relation to flightlessness in Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two groups of medfly larvae were reared with two identical component diets except one with fatty acids (diet A) and another without it (diet B). Adults from larvae reared on diet B demonstrated 20+8% of normal flight ability, whereas those from larvae reared on diet A displayed full flight ability ...

  19. Checklist of the family Syrphidae (Diptera) of Finland

    PubMed Central

    Haarto, Antti; Kerppola, Sakari

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A checklist of the Syrphidae (Diptera) recorded from Finland. Three species of Syrphidae, Platycheirus modestus Ide, 1926, Cheilosia barovskii (Stackelberg, 1930) and Mallota tricolor Loew, 1871, are published as new to the Finnish fauna. Platycheirus modestus is also new to the Palaearctic. PMID:25337020

  20. Descriptions of two new species of Afrotropical Psychodidae (Diptera).

    PubMed

    Ježek, Jan; Oboňa, Jozef

    2016-01-01

    Two new species of moth flies (Diptera: Psychodidae: Psychodinae) are described and illustrated on the basis of male morphological characters. Neoarisemus nyahururuensis sp. nov. was collected in the vicinity of Thomson's Falls (Nyahururu) in Kenya and Tonnoiriella veronikae sp. nov. in Toamasina province, Madagascar, Analamazaotra 1.4 km SSW Andasibe vill. (Périnet). PMID:27470871

  1. Response of Lucilia sericata (Diptera: Calliphoridae) to Screwworm Oviposition Attractant

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sheep blow fly, Lucilia sericata Meigen (Diptera: Calliphoridae), causes sheep myiasis in various parts of the world. The females are attracted to sheep, following various olfactory cues emanating from the sheep's body, and oviposit on suitable substrates on sheep ultimately causing myiasis. Ear...

  2. A new species of Culcua Walker (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) from Vietnam

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new species of Culcua Walker (Diptera: Stratiomyidae), C. lingafelteri Woodley, new species, is described from northern Vietnam. It is diagnosed relative to other species using the recent revision of the genus by Rozkošný and Kozánek (2007). This is the first species of Culcua reported from Viet...

  3. Development of Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera:Tephritidae) in crabapple

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens, Curran, 1932 (Diptera: Tephritidae), was reared from naturally-infested Chinese crabapple, Malus spectabilis (Ait.) Borkh. (Rosaceae), in Washington state, U.S.A. Pupae from Chinese crabapple were smaller than those from sweet cherry, Prunus avium (...

  4. Frass semiochemicals important to corn-infesting Ulidiidae (Diptera)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several similarly appearing species of silk fly (Diptera: Ulidiidae) are extremely destructive pests of sweet corn in southern Florida. Currently, silk flies are managed solely with multiple broad spectrum insecticide applications, and there is concern that some species are developing resistance to ...

  5. Cryopreservation of embryos of Lucilia sericata (Diptera: Calliphoridae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Embryos of Lucilia (Phaenicia) sericata (Meigen) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), the green blowfly, were successfully cryopreserved by vitrification in liquid nitrogen and stored for 8 yr. Embryos incubated at 19 deg. C for 17 h after oviposition were found to be the most appropriate stage to cryopreserve...

  6. Ethology of Omniablautus nigronotum (Wilcox) (Diptera: Asilidae) in Wyoming

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In southwest Wyoming, Omniablautus nigronotum (Wilcox), hunted primarily from the surface of the sandy substrate in a greasewood community. Prey, captured in flight, represented four insect orders with Diptera and Hymenoptera predominating. Courtship consisted of the male approaching the female from...

  7. Crowdsourcing for large-scale mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) sampling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sampling a cosmopolitan mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) species throughout its range is logistically challenging and extremely resource intensive. Mosquito control programmes and regional networks operate at the local level and often conduct sampling activities across much of North America. A method f...

  8. Susceptibility of cranberries to Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Drosophila suzukii Mastsumura (Diptera: Drosophilidae), commonly referred to as the spotted-wing drosophila, is an exotic species that has proven a troublesome pest of fruit production in the U.S. The fly targets small fruit and thus represents a concern for the U.S. cranberry industry. Two studies ...

  9. Encysted parasitic larvae in the mouth.

    PubMed

    Hansen, L S; Allard, R H

    1984-04-01

    Oral appearances of intestinal parasitic disease are rare. One such appearance is the presence in oral tissues of encysted or encapsulated larvae of organisms from the classes Cestoidea and Nematoda. Cestode larvae form cyst-like lesions that are often clinically diagnosed as mucoceles. In these lesions, the cyst cavity is lined by fibrous tissue with inflammatory cells, and contains fluid and the larval stage of a parasite. The diagnosis of these parasitic cysts is more frequently made in younger persons. The cysts may be treated by simple excision, but care must be taken that the cyst does not rupture, as in some parasites this may result in new cyst formation. Nematode infection in the oral cavity, the most common of which appears to be trichinosis, is rarely reported. Patients with oral or maxillofacial (or both) parasitic disease must undergo a thorough medical investigation to exclude possible life-threatening involvement in other parts of the body. PMID:6586809

  10. Visceral larva migrans (toxocariasis) in Toronto.

    PubMed Central

    Fanning, M; Hill, A; Langer, H M; Keystone, J S

    1981-01-01

    A 7-year-old child was admitted to Toronto's Hospital for Sick Children in 1976 with symptoms and laboratory findings compatible with visceral larva migrans, a disease usually caused by Toxocara canis. This prompted a search for other cases seen at the hospital during the period 1952 through 1978. Only 18 cases were discovered that met at least three of six criteria and thus were considered possible or probably cases of the disease. Three possible cases of ocular toxocariasis during the same period were also uncovered. Fever was the commonest presenting symptom. Eosinophilia, leukocytosis and hyperglobulinemia were the most frequent laboratory findings. In view of the small number of cases found in 27 years at this large pediatric hospital with a broad referral base, it is concluded that visceral larva migrans poses little risk to the health of children in the Toronto area. PMID:7459767

  11. The early stress responses in fish larvae.

    PubMed

    Pederzoli, Aurora; Mola, Lucrezia

    2016-05-01

    During the life cycle of fish the larval stages are the most interesting and variable. Teleost larvae undergo a daily increase in adaptability and many organs differentiate and become active. These processes are concerted and require an early neuro-immune-endocrine integration. In larvae communication among the nervous, endocrine and immune systems utilizes several known signal molecule families which could be different from those of the adult fish. The immune-neuroendocrine system was studied in several fish species, among which in particular the sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax), that is a species of great commercial interest, very important in aquaculture and thus highly studied. Indeed the immune system of this species is the best known among marine teleosts. In this review the data on main signal molecules of stress carried out on larvae of fish are considered and discussed. For sea bass active roles in the early immunological responses of some well-known molecules involved in the stress, such as ACTH, nitric oxide, CRF, HSP-70 and cortisol have been proposed. These molecules and/or their receptors are biologically active mainly in the gut before complete differentiation of gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT), probably acting in an autocrine/paracrine way. An intriguing idea emerges from all results of these researches; the molecules involved in stress responses, expressed in the adult cells of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, during the larval life of fish are present in several other localizations, where they perform probably the same role. It may be hypothesized that the functions performed by hypothalamic-pituitary system are particularly important for the survival of the larva and therefore they comprises several other localizations of body. Indeed the larval stages of fish are very crucial phases that include many physiological changes and several possible stress both internal and environmental. PMID:26968620

  12. Caffeine Taste Signaling in Drosophila Larvae

    PubMed Central

    Apostolopoulou, Anthi A.; Köhn, Saskia; Stehle, Bernhard; Lutz, Michael; Wüst, Alexander; Mazija, Lorena; Rist, Anna; Galizia, C. Giovanni; Lüdke, Alja; Thum, Andreas S.

    2016-01-01

    The Drosophila larva has a simple peripheral nervous system with a comparably small number of sensory neurons located externally at the head or internally along the pharynx to assess its chemical environment. It is assumed that larval taste coding occurs mainly via external organs (the dorsal, terminal, and ventral organ). However, the contribution of the internal pharyngeal sensory organs has not been explored. Here we find that larvae require a single pharyngeal gustatory receptor neuron pair called D1, which is located in the dorsal pharyngeal sensilla, in order to avoid caffeine and to associate an odor with caffeine punishment. In contrast, caffeine-driven reduction in feeding in non-choice situations does not require D1. Hence, this work provides data on taste coding via different receptor neurons, depending on the behavioral context. Furthermore, we show that the larval pharyngeal system is involved in bitter tasting. Using ectopic expressions, we show that the caffeine receptor in neuron D1 requires the function of at least four receptor genes: the putative co-receptors Gr33a, Gr66a, the putative caffeine-specific receptor Gr93a, and yet unknown additional molecular component(s). This suggests that larval taste perception is more complex than previously assumed already at the sensory level. Taste information from different sensory organs located outside at the head or inside along the pharynx of the larva is assembled to trigger taste guided behaviors. PMID:27555807

  13. Caffeine Taste Signaling in Drosophila Larvae.

    PubMed

    Apostolopoulou, Anthi A; Köhn, Saskia; Stehle, Bernhard; Lutz, Michael; Wüst, Alexander; Mazija, Lorena; Rist, Anna; Galizia, C Giovanni; Lüdke, Alja; Thum, Andreas S

    2016-01-01

    The Drosophila larva has a simple peripheral nervous system with a comparably small number of sensory neurons located externally at the head or internally along the pharynx to assess its chemical environment. It is assumed that larval taste coding occurs mainly via external organs (the dorsal, terminal, and ventral organ). However, the contribution of the internal pharyngeal sensory organs has not been explored. Here we find that larvae require a single pharyngeal gustatory receptor neuron pair called D1, which is located in the dorsal pharyngeal sensilla, in order to avoid caffeine and to associate an odor with caffeine punishment. In contrast, caffeine-driven reduction in feeding in non-choice situations does not require D1. Hence, this work provides data on taste coding via different receptor neurons, depending on the behavioral context. Furthermore, we show that the larval pharyngeal system is involved in bitter tasting. Using ectopic expressions, we show that the caffeine receptor in neuron D1 requires the function of at least four receptor genes: the putative co-receptors Gr33a, Gr66a, the putative caffeine-specific receptor Gr93a, and yet unknown additional molecular component(s). This suggests that larval taste perception is more complex than previously assumed already at the sensory level. Taste information from different sensory organs located outside at the head or inside along the pharynx of the larva is assembled to trigger taste guided behaviors. PMID:27555807

  14. Molecular detection of marine invertebrate larvae.

    PubMed

    Goffredi, Shana K; Jones, William J; Scholin, Christopher A; Marin, Roman; Vrijenhoek, Robert C

    2006-01-01

    The ecological patterns of many invertebrate larvae remain an ongoing mystery, in large part owing to the difficult task of detecting them in the water column. The development of nucleic-acid-based technology has the potential to resolve this issue by direct identification and monitoring of embryonic and larval forms in situ. We report herein on the successful development and application of nucleic-acid-based sandwich hybridization assays that detect barnacles using rRNA-targeted probes with both group-(order Thoracica) and species-(Balanus glandula) specificity. Primary results include the determination of target 18S rRNA sequences and the construction of "capture" probes for detection of larvae using hybridization techniques. In addition, we modified existing protocols for whole cell hybridization of invertebrate larvae as confirmation of the sandwich hybridization results. We used both hybridization techniques successfully in the laboratory on a plankton time series collected over 3 months, as well as a week-long in situ deployment of the technique in Monterey Bay, CA. The adaptability of this technology promises to be further applicable to various organisms and could be used to enhance our understanding of larval presence in the world's oceans. PMID:16380809

  15. Biochemical characterization of different genotypes of Paenibacillus larvae subsp. larvae, a honey bee bacterial pathogen.

    PubMed

    Neuendorf, Sandra; Hedtke, Kati; Tangen, Gerhard; Genersch, Elke

    2004-07-01

    Paenibacillus larvae subsp. larvae (P. l. larvae) is the aetiological agent of American foulbrood (AFB), the most virulent bacterial disease of honey bee brood worldwide. In many countries AFB is a notifiable disease since it is highly contagious, in most cases incurable and able to kill affected colonies. Genotyping of field isolates of P. l. larvae revealed at least four genotypes (AB, Ab, ab and alpha B) present in Germany which are genotypically different from the reference strain DSM 7030. Therefore, based on these data, five different genotypes of P. l. larvae are now identified with genotype AB standing out with a characteristic brown-orange and circled two-coloured colony morphology. Analysing the metabolic profiles of three German genotypes (AB, Ab and ab) as well as of the reference strain using the Biolog system, a characteristic biochemical fingerprint could be obtained for each strain. Cluster analysis showed that while genotypes Ab, ab and the reference strain DSM 7030 are rather similar, genotype AB is clearly different from the others. Analysis of all isolates for plasmid DNA revealed two different plasmids present only in isolates belonging to genotype AB. Therefore, genotype AB is remarkable in all aspects analysed so far. Future analysis will show whether or not these differences will expand to differences in virulence. PMID:15256579

  16. Size relationships of different body parts in the three dipteran species Drosophila melanogaster, Ceratitis capitata and Musca domestica.

    PubMed

    Siomava, Natalia; Wimmer, Ernst A; Posnien, Nico

    2016-06-01

    Body size is an integral feature of an organism that influences many aspects of life such as fecundity, life span and mating success. Size of individual organs and the entire body size represent quantitative traits with a large reaction norm, which are influenced by various environmental factors. In the model system Drosophila melanogaster, pupal size and adult traits, such as tibia and thorax length or wing size, accurately estimate the overall body size. However, it is unclear whether these traits can be used in other flies. Therefore, we studied changes in size of pupae and adult organs in response to different rearing temperatures and densities for D. melanogaster, Ceratitis capitata and Musca domestica. We confirm a clear sexual size dimorphism (SSD) for Drosophila and show that the SSD is less uniform in the other species. Moreover, the size response to changing growth conditions is sex dependent. Comparison of static and evolutionary allometries of the studied traits revealed that response to the same environmental variable is genotype specific but has similarities between species of the same order. We conclude that the value of adult traits as estimators of the absolute body size may differ among species and the use of a single trait may result in wrong assumptions. Therefore, we suggest using a body size coefficient computed from several individual measurements. Our data is of special importance for monitoring activities of natural populations of the three dipteran flies, since they are harmful species causing economical damage (Drosophila, Ceratitis) or transferring diseases (Musca). PMID:27116604

  17. The forgotten flies: the importance of non-syrphid Diptera as pollinators

    PubMed Central

    Orford, Katherine A.; Vaughan, Ian P.; Memmott, Jane

    2015-01-01

    Bees, hoverflies and butterflies are taxa frequently studied as pollinators in agricultural and conservation contexts. Although there are many records of non-syrphid Diptera visiting flowers, they are generally not regarded as important pollinators. We use data from 30 pollen-transport networks and 71 pollinator-visitation networks to compare the importance of various flower-visiting taxa as pollen-vectors. We specifically compare non-syrphid Diptera and Syrphidae to determine whether neglect of the former in the literature is justified. We found no significant difference in pollen-loads between the syrphid and non-syrphid Diptera. Moreover, there was no significant difference in the level of specialization between the two groups in the pollen-transport networks, though the Syrphidae had significantly greater visitation evenness. Flower visitation data from 33 farms showed that non-syrphid Diptera made up the majority of the flower-visiting Diptera in the agricultural studies (on average 82% abundance and 73% species richness), and we estimate that non-syrphid Diptera carry 84% of total pollen carried by farmland Diptera. As important pollinators, such as bees, have suffered serious declines, it would be prudent to improve our understanding of the role of non-syrphid Diptera as pollinators. PMID:25808886

  18. Drosophila larvae: Thermal ecology in changing environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, George

    Temperature affects almost all aspects of life. Although much work has been done to assess the impact of temperature on organismal performance, relatively little is known about how organisms behaviorally regulate temperature, how these behaviors effect population fitness, or how changing climate may interact with these behaviors. I explore these questions with the model system Drosophila larvae. Larvae are small, with a low thermal mass and limited capacity for physiological thermoregulation. Mortality is generally high in larvae, with large potential impacts on population growth rate. Thus behavioral thermoregulation in larvae should be of critical selective importance. I present a review of the current knowledge of Drosophila thermal preference. I describe quantifiable thermoregulatory behaviors ( TMV and TW) unique to larvae. I show interspecific variation of these behaviors in Drosophila melanogaster and several close relatives, and intraspecific variation between populations collected from different environments. I also investigate these behaviors in two mutant lines, ssa and biz, to investigate the genetic basis of these behaviors. I show that larval thermoregulatory systems are independent of those of adults. Further these thermoregulatory behaviors differ between two sister species, D. yakuba and D. santomea. Although these two species readily hybridize in laboratory conditions, very few hybrids are observed in the field. The surprising result that hybrids of D. yakuba and D. santomea seem to inherit TMV from D. yakuba suggests a novel extrinsic isolation mechanism between the two species. I explore how fitness is the result of the interaction between genetics and the environment. I utilize Monte Carlo simulation to show how non-linear norms of reaction generate variation in populations even in the absence of behavior or epigenetic evolutionary mechanisms. Finally I investigate the global distribution of temperatures in which these organisms exist using

  19. Requirements for in vitro germination of Paenibacillus larvae spores.

    PubMed

    Alvarado, Israel; Phui, Andy; Elekonich, Michelle M; Abel-Santos, Ernesto

    2013-03-01

    Paenibacillus larvae is the causative agent of American foulbrood (AFB), a disease affecting honey bee larvae. First- and second-instar larvae become infected when they ingest food contaminated with P. larvae spores. The spores then germinate into vegetative cells that proliferate in the midgut of the honey bee. Although AFB affects honey bees only in the larval stage, P. larvae spores can be distributed throughout the hive. Because spore germination is critical for AFB establishment, we analyzed the requirements for P. larvae spore germination in vitro. We found that P. larvae spores germinated only in response to l-tyrosine plus uric acid under physiologic pH and temperature conditions. This suggests that the simultaneous presence of these signals is necessary for spore germination in vivo. Furthermore, the germination profiles of environmentally derived spores were identical to those of spores from a biochemically typed strain. Because l-tyrosine and uric acid are the only required germinants in vitro, we screened amino acid and purine analogs for their ability to act as antagonists of P. larvae spore germination. Indole and phenol, the side chains of tyrosine and tryptophan, strongly inhibited P. larvae spore germination. Methylation of the N-1 (but not the C-3) position of indole eliminated its ability to inhibit germination. Identification of the activators and inhibitors of P. larvae spore germination provides a basis for developing new tools to control AFB. PMID:23264573

  20. Interactions among Drosophila larvae before and during collision.

    PubMed

    Otto, Nils; Risse, Benjamin; Berh, Dimitri; Bittern, Jonas; Jiang, Xiaoyi; Klämbt, Christian

    2016-01-01

    In populations of Drosophila larvae, both, an aggregation and a dispersal behavior can be observed. However, the mechanisms coordinating larval locomotion in respect to other animals, especially in close proximity and during/after physical contacts are currently only little understood. Here we test whether relevant information is perceived before or during larva-larva contacts, analyze its influence on behavior and ask whether larvae avoid or pursue collisions. Employing frustrated total internal reflection-based imaging (FIM) we first found that larvae visually detect other moving larvae in a narrow perceptive field and respond with characteristic escape reactions. To decipher larval locomotion not only before but also during the collision we utilized a two color FIM approach (FIM(2c)), which allowed to faithfully extract the posture and motion of colliding animals. We show that during collision, larval locomotion freezes and sensory information is sampled during a KISS phase (german: Kollisions Induziertes Stopp Syndrom or english: collision induced stop syndrome). Interestingly, larvae react differently to living, dead or artificial larvae, discriminate other Drosophila species and have an increased bending probability for a short period after the collision terminates. Thus, Drosophila larvae evolved means to specify behaviors in response to other larvae. PMID:27511760