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Sample records for capitis anoplura pediculidae

  1. The potential application of plant essential oils to control Pediculus humanus capitis (Anoplura: Pediculidae).

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, María Mercedes; Werdin-González, Jorge Omar; Stefanazzi, Natalia; Bras, Cristina; Ferrero, Adriana Alicia

    2016-02-01

    The human head louse, Pediculus humanus capitis (Anoplura: Pediculidae), is an ectoparasite confined to the scalp and human hairs. The repeated use of insecticides for the control of head lice during past decades has resulted in the development of marked levels of resistance. Natural compounds such as essential oils (EOs) have been suggested as alternative sources for insect control agents. In order to introduce a new pediculicide based on EOs, the effectiveness of the product and their effects on human being must be analyzed. In consequence, the biological activity of EOs from the leaves and fruits of Schinus areira (Anacardiaceae) and the leaves of Thymus vulgaris (Lamiaceae), Aloysia polystachya and Aloysia citriodora (Verbenacea) were evaluated against the eggs and adults of P. humanus capitis by fumigant and contact toxicity bioassays. Additionally, dermal corrosion/irritation tests were performed on New Zealand albino rabbits. In a fumigant bioassay, EOs from the leaves and fruits of S. areira were the most toxic against P. humanus capitis adults while these EOs and T. vulgaris were the most effective against the eggs. In contact bioassay, the EO from T. vulgaris was the most toxic against both stages. In the corrosion/irritation tests, the EOs did not produce dermal effects. According to the results, the essential oils from the leaves of T. vulgaris would be a valid tool for the management of P. humanus capitis. This EO produces a high knockdown effect in adults (followed by mortality) and toxicity in the eggs when it is applied for 21 min at a low concentration. PMID:26462802

  2. Ovicidal and adulticidal activity of Eucalyptus globulus leaf oil terpenoids against Pediculus humanus capitis (Anoplura: Pediculidae).

    PubMed

    Yang, Young-Cheol; Choi, Han-Young; Choi, Won-Sil; Clark, J M; Ahn, Young-Joon

    2004-05-01

    The toxic effects of Eucalyptus globulus leaf oil-derived monoterpenoids [1,8-cineole, l-phellandrene, (-)-alpha-pinene, 2-beta-pinene, trans-pinocarveol, gamma-terpinene, and 1-alpha-terpineol] and the known Eucalyptusleaf oil terpenoids (beta-eudesmol and geranyl acetate) on eggs and females of the human head louse, Pediculus humanus capitis, were examined using direct contact and fumigation bioassays and compared with the lethal activity of delta-phenothrin and pyrethrum, two commonly used pediculicides. In a filter paper contact bioassay with female P. h. capitis, the pediculicidal activity was more pronounced with Eucalyptus leaf oil than with either delta-phenothrin or pyrethrum on the basis of LT(50) values (0.125 vs 0.25 mg/cm(2)). 1,8-Cineole was 2.2- and 2.3-fold more toxic than either delta-phenothrin or pyrethrum, respectively. The pediculicidal activities of (-)-alpha-pinene, 2-beta-pinene, and (E)-pinocarveol were comparable to those of delta-phenothrin and pyrethrum. l-Phellandrene, gamma-terpinene, and 1-alpha-terpineol were relatively less active than delta-phenothrin and pyrethrum. beta-Eudesmol and geranyl acetate were ineffective. 1-alpha-Terpineol and (E)-pinocaveol were highly effective at 0.5 and 1.0 mg/cm(2), respectively, against P. h. capitis eggs. At 1.0 mg/cm(2), (-)-alpha-pinene, 2-beta-pinene, and gamma-terpinene exhibited moderate ovicidal activity, whereas little or no ovicidal activity was observed with the other terpenoids and with delta-phenothrin and pyrethrum. In fumigation tests with female P. h. capitis at 0.25 mg/cm(2), 1,8-cineole, (-)-alpha-pinene, (E)-pinocarveol, and 1-alpha-terpineol were more effective in closed cups than in open ones, indicating that the effect of the monoterpenoids was largely due to action in the vapor phase. Neither delta-phenothrin nor pyrethrum exhibited fumigant toxicity. Eucalyptus leaf oil, particularly 1,8-cineole, 1-alpha-terpineol, and (E)-pinocaveol, merits further study as potential

  3. The fumigant and repellent activity of aliphatic lactones against Pediculus humanus capitis (Anoplura: Pediculidae).

    PubMed

    Toloza, Ariel Ceferino; Zygadlo, Julio; Mougabure-Cueto, Gastón; Zerba, Eduardo; Faillaci, Silvina; Picollo, María Inés

    2006-02-01

    New alternative insecticides are necessary for the chemical control of head lice. In this study the fumigant knockdown time 50% (KT50) and repellency index (RI) of three aliphatic lactones was compared with two essential oils and DDVP, against permethrin-resistance Pediculus humanus capitis from Argentina. In the fumigant assay, none of the lactones were effective compared to the highest activity of eucalyptus (KT50 15.53 m). In the repellency test, the three lactones were equally or more effective (RI ranging from 60.50 to 76.68) than the positive control (piperonal). These lactones are promising as head lice repellents. PMID:16699710

  4. Increased monooxygenase activity associated with resistance to permethrin in Pediculus humanus capitis (Anoplura: Pediculidae) from Argentina.

    PubMed

    González Audino, P; Barrios, S; Vassena, C; Mougabure Cueto, G; Zerba, E; Picollo, M I

    2005-05-01

    We studied the profile of permethrin resistance in populations of head lice infesting children 6-12 yr old in schools and their homes in and around Buenos Aires, Argentina. Five permethrin-resistant populations with different levels of resistance were collected: Hogar Loyola (HL), Republica de Turquia (RT), Hogar Mitre (HM), Guardia de Honor (GH), and Ricardo Guiraldes (RG). One susceptible population, Bandera Argentina (BA), also was collected. Their level of resistance was evaluated, and results showed resistance ratios of 13 for HL, 16 for RT, 22 for HM, 61 for GH, and 69 for RG. To elucidate the possible involvement of the cytochrome P450 monooxygenase system in conferring permethrin resistance, ethoxycoumarin-O-deethylase (ECOD) activity was measured in abdomens of individual third instars and adults by using a fluorometric assay. The ECOD activity was lower in the susceptible BA population (4.7 ng per louse) than in the resistant ones (13.7 ng per louse for RG, 12.3 ng per louse for GH, 8.6 ng per louse for RT, and 8.2 ng per louse for HL). ECOD activity was significantly correlated with the level of resistance in the field populations (r = 0.97, P = 0.0009), suggesting a role for cytochrome monooxygenase P450 system in permethrin resistance by head louse, Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer. PMID:15962785

  5. Fumigant and repellent properties of essential oils and component compounds against permethrin-resistant Pediculus humanus capitis (Anoplura: Pediculidae) from Argentina.

    PubMed

    Toloza, Ariel Ceferino; Zygadlo, Julio; Cueto, Gastón Mougabure; Biurrun, Fernando; Zerba, Eduardo; Picollo, María Inés

    2006-09-01

    The repeated use of permethrin and other insecticides for the control of head lice, Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer (Anoplura: Pediculidae), during past decades has resulted in the development of marked levels of resistance. Thus, new alternative insecticides are needed for the control of head lice. We studied the fumigant and repellent properties of essential oils from 16 native and exotic plants in Argentina, and 21 chemical components against permethrin-resistant head lice from Argentina. With a direct vapor-exposure bioassay, the most effective oil was from the native Myrcianthes cisplatensis Cambess (Myrtaceae) with a time to 50% knockdown (KT50) of 1.3 min, followed by exotic species, Eucalyptus cinerea F.V. Muell., Eucalyptus viminalis Labill., and Eucalyptus saligna Smith. with KT50 values of 12.0, 14.9, and 17.4 min, respectively. The most effective components were 1,8-cineole and anisole, with KT50 values of 11.1 and 12.7 min, respectively. Regression analysis of KT50 values and vapor pressures and water-partition coefficients for the essential oil components revealed that the most effective fumigants were among the more volatile components. Repellency assays indicated that the essential oil from Mentha pulegium L. and its benzyl alcohol component were the most effective repellents, having repellency indices of 75.5 and 57.8%, respectively. Thus, some Argentinean plants contain essential oils and components that function as fumigants or as repellents and thereby show potential for development of new control products for head lice. PMID:17017225

  6. Resistance to insecticides and effect of synergists on permethrin toxicity in Pediculus capitis (Anoplura: Pediculidae) from Buenos Aires.

    PubMed

    Picollo, M I; Vassena, C V; Mougabure Cueto, G A; Vernetti, M; Zerba, E N

    2000-09-01

    Permethrin-resistant colonies of Pediculus capitis (De Geer) from Buenos Aires were used to establish a resistance profile and to examine resistance mechanisms. All permethrin-resistant head lice (resistance ratio from 52.8 to > 88.7) were also resistant to d-phenothrin (resistance ratio from 40.86 to > 48.39) and deltamethrin (resistance ratio from 16.24 to 38.06). No cross-resistance to carbaryl was found in any of the pyrethroid-resistant P. capitis tested. Otherwise, all resistant colonies showed low to high levels of resistance to beta-cypermethrin. This pyrethroid had never been applied as a pediculicide in Argentina; however, the high level of resistance found in these permethrin-resistant colonies (resistance ratio from 9.74 to 50.97) demonstrated that pyrethroid cross-resistance occurred to this novel insecticide. Treatment with piperonyl butoxide (PBO) or triphenylphosphate (TPP) significantly decreased the toxicity of permethrin in the four colonies tested. The esterase inhibitor TPP produced lower enhancement of toxicity than the multifunction oxidase inhibitor PBO in the colonies having the highest resistance levels. Results presented here concerning the cross-resistance profile and synergism by enzyme inhibitors in permethrin-resistant head lice demonstrated that enhanced metabolism was involved in the pyrethroid resistance. However, the substantial degree of resistance that remained after synergism suggested the presence of another resistance mechanism. Cross-resistance to pyrethroid and susceptibility to the carbamate carbaryl suggested a common action mechanism. PMID:11004784

  7. Prevalence and risk factors of Pediculus (humanus) capitis (Anoplura: Pediculidae), in primary schools in Sanandaj City, Kurdistan Province, Iran.

    PubMed

    Vahabi, A; Shemshad, K; Sayyadi, M; Biglarian, A; Vahabi, B; Sayyad, S; Shemshad, M; Rafinejad, J

    2012-06-01

    Human head lice, Pediculus (humanus) capitis, infest people worldwide and are most prevalent in children. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of head lice, in relation to socioeconomic status of the family and hygienic practices in the home. The prevalence rate was determined in 27 primary schools that had 810 students in Sanandaj city who were selected by multistage, systematic random sampling. A total of 38 students from all grades were infested with different rates of infestations. In addition, standard questionnaire recorded information about demographic features of each student were fulfilled. Children aged 10-11 years were the most frequently affected, there was a significant relationship between head louse infestation, family income and parents education level (α=5%). Pediculosis is a public health problem in many parts of the world. Pediculosis was found to be more prevalent among children of fathers with lower level of education and socioeconomic status, it is necessary to give health education to families in order to prevent pediculosis in this area. PMID:22735841

  8. Ovicidal and adulticidal activities of Origanum majorana essential oil constituents against insecticide-susceptible and pyrethroid/malathion-resistant Pediculus humanus capitis (Anoplura: Pediculidae).

    PubMed

    Yang, Young-Cheol; Lee, Si Hyeock; Clark, J Marshall; Ahn, Young-Joon

    2009-03-25

    The toxicity of essential oil constituents from marjoram, Origanum majorana, to eggs and adult females of the susceptible KR-HL and dual malathion- and permethrin-resistant BR-HL strains of human head louse, Pediculus humanus capitis, was examined using contact + fumigant mortality bioassay. Results were compared with those following treatment with two pyrethroid pediculicides, d-phenothrin or pyrethrum. As judged by the lethal time to 50% mortality (LT(50)) values at the exposure rate of 0.25 mg/cm(2), 1,8-cineole (14.1 min) was the most toxic compound, followed by linalool (15.4 min) to KR-HL females. These compounds were faster acting than either d-phenothrin (24.1 min) or pyrethrum (33.4 min). Based on the lethal concentration causing 50% mortality (LC(50)) values, (-)-camphor (0.022 mg/cm(2)) was the most toxic compound, followed by linalool (0.035 mg/cm(2)), (-)-terpinen-4-ol (0.040 mg/cm(2)), alpha-terpineol (0.045 mg/cm(2)), and 1,8-cineole (0.068 mg/cm(2)) against KR-HL females. These monoterpenoids were less toxic than either d-phenothrin (LC(50), 0.0015 mg/cm(2)) or pyrethrum (0.0013 mg/cm(2)). However, the toxicities of these monoterpenoids were almost identical against females from either of the two strains, even though the BR-HL females exhibited high levels of resistance to d-phenothrin [resistance ratio (RR), 667] and pyrethrum (RR, 754). After a 24 h exposure to linalool, BR-HL egg hatch was inhibited 100 and 84% at 0.25 or 0.125 mg/cm(2), respectively, while (-)-terpinen-4-ol caused 94 and 69% inhibition of egg hatch at 0.25 and 0.125 mg/cm(2). alpha-Terpineol caused 88 and 76% inhibition of egg hatch at 0.5 and 0.25 mg/cm(2), respectively. Thus, certain monoterpenoids from O. majorana essential oil, particularly linalool, (-)-terpinen-4-ol and alpha-terpineol, merit further study as potential pediculicides and ovicides for the control of insecticide-resistant P. h. capitis populations as fumigants with contact action. PMID:19292466

  9. A new ivermectin formulation topically kills permethrin-resistant human head lice (Anoplura: Pediculidae).

    PubMed

    Strycharz, Joseph P; Yoon, Kyong Sup; Clark, J Marshall

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the effectiveness of a new ivermectin formulation for the topical treatment of the human head louse, Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer (Anoplura: Pediculidae). Permethrin-resistant lice originally obtained from south Florida and maintained on an in vitro rearing system were 100% susceptible to ivermectin formulations by using a semiclinical hair tuft bioassay. The formulation was 100% effective at killing lice using 1, 0.5, and 0.25% ivermectin concentrations after 10-min exposures. As judged by the lethal time (LT)50 and LT95 values, 0.5% formulated ivermectin was 3.8 and 3.2 times faster at killing lice, respectively, than 0.5% nonformulated ivermectin, indicating that the formulation may facilitate the penetration of ivermectin into the louse. The hair tuft-based bioassay in conjunction with the in vitro rearing system provides a standardized method to assess the comparative efficacy of pediculicide formulations in a reproducible format that mimics the exposure scenario that occurs on the human scalp. PMID:18283945

  10. Evidence of pyrethroid resistance in eggs of Pediculus humanus capitis (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae) from Argentina.

    PubMed

    Cueto, Gastón Mougabure; Zerba, Eduardo Nicolás; Picollo, María Inés

    2008-07-01

    Insecticide resistance in Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer 1778 (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae) from different countries has been well documented in the last years. Otherwise, little research has been reported about insecticide resistance in insect embryos and none in human louse embryos. In this work, we studied insecticide resistance in eggs of three head lice populations whose pyrethroid resistance was shown in adults and nymphs compared with a susceptible laboratory body louse strain. All head louse populations showed high permethrin resistance in eggs. Levels of permethrin resistance (LCRs) assessed in eggs by immersion technique were higher than those previously reported for the corresponding populations of adults by topical application. Comparison of LCR values for different populations showed that there was a direct relationship between the resistance levels assessed in eggs and those in adults. All permethrin-resistant eggs showed high resistance to d-phenothrin and dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT) and low resistance to carbaryl, which is in common with the resistance profile established for adults and nymphs. The results concerning the high resistance to pyrethroid (permethrin and d-phenothrin) and the cross-resistance to DDT and carbaryl detected in head louse eggs and adults suggested similar resistance mechanisms in eggs and adults of head louse populations from adults. PMID:18714869

  11. Insecticidal activity of individual and mixed monoterpenoids of geranium essential oil against Pediculus humanus capitis (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae).

    PubMed

    Gallardo, A; Picollo, M I; González-Audino, P; Mougabure-Cueto, G

    2012-03-01

    The major components of geranium (Geranium maculatum L.) oil and their mixtures were tested against female Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae). Chemical analysis by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry revealed four major constituents: citronellol (38%), geraniol (16%), citronellyl formate (10.4%), and linalool (6.45%) (concentration expressed as percentage of total). Topical application demonstrated that the most potent component was citronellol and geraniol, with LD50 values 9.7 and 12.7 microg/insect, respectively. Linalool and Citronellyl formate were less toxic with LD50 values 24.7 and 38.5 microg/insect, respectively. Toxicity of these four major constituents in the same proportion as the natural oil, was greater than whole oil and each individual component. Removal of any four constituents produced a decreased in effectiveness. The absence of citronellol caused the greatest decrease in toxicity (DL50 from 2.2 to 10.9 microg/insect), leading us to conclude that this constituent is the major contributor to oil toxicity. The knowledge of the role of each constituent in the toxicity of the whole oil gives the possibility to create artificial blends of different constituents for the development of more effective control agents. PMID:22493851

  12. Eucalyptus essential oil toxicity against permethrin-resistant Pediculus humanus capitis (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae).

    PubMed

    Toloza, Ariel C; Lucía, Alejandro; Zerba, Eduardo; Masuh, Hector; Picollo, María Inés

    2010-01-01

    During the past decades, chemical control against the head louse Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer has been based in the application of products containing permethrin. The repetitive overuse of pediculicides has resulted in the development of high levels of resistance to one or more of these products worldwide. Essential oils obtained from aromatic plants like Eucalyptus are good and safe alternatives due to their low toxicity to mammals and easy biodegradability. In the present study, we reported the chemical composition of Eucalyptus dunnii and Eucalyptus gunni, and the fumigant activity of five Eucalyptus essential oils and their main compounds against permethrin-resistant head lice from Argentina. The most effective essential oils were Eucalyptus sideroxylon, Eucalyptus globulus ssp globulus, and Eucalyptus globulus ssp maidenii, with knockdown time 50% (KT(50)) values of 24.75, 27.73, and 31.39 min. A linear regression analysis between percentage of 1,8-Cineole and KT(50) values of the essential oils showed a significant correlation at a p < 0.01. Since Eucalyptus essential oils showed to be effective against head lice and are classified as safer compounds, they can be employed into pediculicide formulations. PMID:19902249

  13. Ovicidal Response of NYDA Formulations on the Human Head Louse (Anoplura: Pediculidae) Using a Hair Tuft Bioassay

    PubMed Central

    STRYCHARZ, JOSEPH P.; LAO, ALICE R.; ALVES, ANNA-MARIA; CLARK, J. MARSHALL

    2012-01-01

    Using the in vitro rearing system in conjunction with the hair tuft bioassay, NYDA and NYDA without fragrances formulations (92% wt:wt dimeticones) were 100% ovicidal (0% of treated eggs hatched) after an 8-h exposure of the eggs of the human head louse (Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer) following the manufacturer’s instructions. Comparatively, 78 and 66% of eggs similarly exposed hatched after distilled deionized water or Nix (1% permethrin) treatments, respectively. NYDA and NYDA without fragrances formulations were also statistically and substantially more ovicidal than either distilled deionized water or Nix treatments after 10, 30 min, and 1 h exposures. Only the 10 min exposure of eggs to NYDA and NYDA without fragrances formulations resulted in hatched lice that survived to adulthood (5–8% survival). Of the lice that hatched from eggs exposed to NYDA formulations for 10 min, there were no significant differences in the time it took them to become adults, female fecundity or the viability of eggs laid by surviving females. The longevity of adults, however, was reduced after the 10 min treatments of eggs with NYDA and NYDA without fragrances formulations compared with either the distilled deionized water or Nix treatments. PMID:22493852

  14. Ovicidal response of NYDA formulations on the human head louse (Anoplura: Pediculidae) using a hair tuft bioassay.

    PubMed

    Strycharz, Joseph P; Lao, Alice R; Alves, Anna-Maria; Clark, J Marshall

    2012-03-01

    Using the in vitro rearing system in conjunction with the hair tuft bioassay, NYDA and NYDA without fragrances formulations (92% wt:wt dimeticones) were 100% ovicidal (0% of treated eggs hatched) after an 8-h exposure of the eggs of the human head louse (Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer) following the manufacturer's instructions. Comparatively, 78 and 66% of eggs similarly exposed hatched after distilled deionized water or Nix (1% permethrin) treatments, respectively. NYDA and NYDA without fragrances formulations were also statistically and substantially more ovicidal than either distilled deionized water or Nix treatments after 10, 30 min, and 1 h exposures. Only the 10 min exposure of eggs to NYDA and NYDA without fragrances formulations resulted in hatched lice that survived to adulthood (5-8% survival). Of the lice that hatched from eggs exposed to NYDA formulations for 10 min, there were no significant differences in the time it took them to become adults, female fecundity or the viability of eggs laid by surviving females. The longevity of adults, however, was reduced after the 10 min treatments of eggs with NYDA and NYDA without fragrances formulations compared with either the distilled deionized water or Nix treatments. PMID:22493852

  15. Effect of Environmental Conditions and Toxic Compounds on the Locomotor Activity of Pediculus humanus capitis (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae).

    PubMed

    Ortega-Insaurralde, I; Toloza, A C; Gonzalez-Audino, P; Mougabure-Cueto, G A; Alvarez-Costa, A; Roca-Acevedo, G; Picollo, M I

    2015-09-01

    In this work, we evaluated the effect of environmental variables such as temperature, humidity, and light on the locomotor activity of Pediculus humanus capitis. In addition, we used selected conditions of temperature, humidity, and light to study the effects of cypermethrin and N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET) on the locomotor activity of head lice. Head lice increased their locomotor activity in an arena at 30°C compared with activity at 20°C. When we tested the influence of the humidity level, the locomotor activity of head lice showed no significant differences related to humidity level, both at 30°C and 20°C. Concerning light influence, we observed that the higher the intensity of light, the slower the movement of head lice. We also demonstrated that sublethal doses of toxics may alter locomotor activity in adults of head lice. Sublethal doses of cypermethrin induced hyperactivated responses in adult head lice. Sublethal doses of DEET evocated hypoactivated responses in head lice. The observation of stereotyped behavior in head lice elicited by toxic compounds proved that measuring locomotor activity in an experimental set-up where environmental conditions are controlled would be appropriate to evaluate compounds of biological importance, such as molecules involved in the host-parasite interaction and intraspecific relationships. PMID:26336260

  16. Prevalence of Pediculus humanus capitis infestation among kindergarten children in Bahía Blanca city, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, María Mercedes; González, Jorge Werdin; Stefanazzi, Natalia; Serralunga, Gabriela; Yañez, Loreto; Ferrero, Adriana Alicia

    2012-09-01

    The human head louse, Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer (Anoplura: Pediculidae), is a worldwide public health concern. This human obligate ectoparasite usually infests school age children. The aim of this work was to investigate the prevalence of head lice in kindergarten children from Bahia Blanca. In addition, the influence of risk factors for pediculosis infestation, such as gender, hair characteristics, and socioeconomic class, was studied in relation to the prevalence of this ectoparasite. From a total of 220 pupils examined (125 girls and 95 boys), 94 showed pediculosis. The overall prevalence of head lice infestation was 42.7 %. Pediculosis was more frequent in girls (53.6 %) than in boys (28.4 %) and in medium, long, and very long hairs. No differences were found between socioeconomic classes. This indicated that head lice are relatively common in kindergarten children from Bahía Blanca. PMID:22752696

  17. Efficacy of spray formulations containing binary mixtures of clove and eucalyptus oils against susceptible and pyrethroid/ malathion-resistant head lice (Anoplura: Pediculidae).

    PubMed

    Choi, Han-Young; Yang, Young-Cheol; Lee, Si Hyeock; Clark, J Marshall; Ahn, Young-Joon

    2010-05-01

    The control efficacy of clove, Eugenia caryophyllata, and eucalyptus, Eucalyptus globulus, essential oils and 15 formulations containing these essential oils alone (8, 12, and 15% sprays) and their binary mixtures (7:3, 5:5, and 3:7 by weight) against adult females of insecticide-susceptible KR-HL and dual malathion- and permethrin-resistant BR-HL strains of head louse, Pediculus humanus capitis (De Geer), was examined by using contact plus fumigant and human hair wig (placed over the head of mannequin) mortality bioassays. In contact plus fumigant mortality bioassay, essential oils from eucalyptus (0.225 mg/cm2) and clove (1.149 mg/cm2) were less effective than either d-phenothrin (0.0029 mg/cm2) or pyrethrum (0.0025 mg/cm2) based on 6-h median lethal concentration values. However, the efficacies of eucalyptus and clove oils were almost identical against females fromn both strains, despite high levels of resistance of the BR-HL females to d-phenothrin (resistance ratio, 667) and pyrethrum (resistance ratio, 754). In human hair wig mortality bioassay, eucalyptus oil spray treatment gave better control efficacy than either spray treatment with clove oil alone or their binary mixtures. Thus, eucalyptus applied as 8% sprays (15 or 20 ml) appears to provide effective protection against pediculosis even to insecticide-resistant head louse populations. Once the safety issues resolved, covering the treated hair and scalp with bath shower cap or hat would ensure the fumigant action of the essential oil. PMID:20496586

  18. Clinical efficacy and safety in head lice infection by Pediculus humanis capitis De Geer (Anoplura: Pediculidae) of a capillary spray containing a silicon-oil complex.

    PubMed

    Izri, A; Uzzan, B; Maigret, M; Gordon, M S; Bouges-Michel, C

    2010-12-01

    Head lice are endemic worldwide. Resistance to permethrin and doubts about the safety of pesticides promoted the use of physical therapies (wet-combing, dry-on suffocation). The aim of our study was to test the pediculicidal and ovicidal effects of one application of a silicon-oil complex composed of dimethiconol and castor oil. The study was a prospective cohort of 108 infested patients (11 males, 97 females; 58 children, 50 adults), in Sri-Lanka. Pediculicidal efficacy was evaluated as the percentage of patients free of live lice one hour after the application of the treatment and at day 1 (wet combing). Ovicidal efficacy was calculated as the proportion of subjects without larval stages at days 1 and 7 among subjects followed up all over the study. In normal conditions of use, in this open cohort, a pediculicidal effect of a dimethiconol-castor-oil lotion was.shown one hour after application in 99/108 (91.7%) treated subjects and at day 1 in 86/99 (87%) subjects and an ovicidal effect at day 7 in 79/108 (73.2%) treated subjects. A second application of the same product was necessary to increase the cure rate to 79.6% (86/108) at day 8. In our study, the second application of the same product was performed seven days later, but the best time for additional applications should be defined in further studies. However, the efficacy of this safe physical treatment was similar to that of chemical pediculicides (malathion, permethrin). PMID:21275239

  19. Contact and fumigant toxicity of hexane flower bud extract of Syzygium aromaticum and its compounds against Pediculus humanus capitis (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae).

    PubMed

    Bagavan, Asokan; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul; Kamaraj, Chinnaperumal; Elango, Gandhi; Zahir, Abdul Abduz; Jayaseelan, Chidambaram; Santhoshkumar, Thirunavukkarasu; Marimuthu, Sampath

    2011-11-01

    The head lice, Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer is an obligate ectoparasite of humans that causes pediculosis capitis, a nuisance for millions of people worldwide, with high prevalence in children. P. humanus capitis has been treated by methods that include the physical remotion of lice, various domestic treatments, and conventional insecticides. None of these methods render complete protection, and there is clear evidence for the evolution of resistance and cross-resistance to conventional insecticides. Non-toxic alternative options are hence needed for head lice treatment and/or prevention, and natural products from plants are good candidates for safer control agents that may provide good anti-lice activity. The plant extracts are good and safe alternatives due to their low toxicity to mammals and easy biodegradability. The present study carried out the pediculocidal activity using the hexane flower bud extract of Syzygium aromaticum (Myrtaceae) against P. humanus capitis examined by direct contact and fumigant toxicity (closed- and open-container methods) bioassay. The chemical composition of S. aromaticum flower bud hexane extract was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The major chemical constituent (58.79%) of flower bud hexane extract S. aromaticum was identified as chavibetol (5-allyl-2-methoxyphenol) by comparison of mass spectral data and retention times. The hexane extract of S. aromaticum was subjected to gas chromatography analysis, and totally 47 compounds were detected, of which chavibetol was predominantly present. The other major constituents present in the hexane extract were eugenol acetate (phenol,2-methoxy-4-(2-propenyl)-,acetate (15.09%), caryophyllene-(I1) (2,6,10,10-tetramethyl bicyclo [7.2.0] undeca-1,6-diene (13.75%), caryophyllene oxide (3.04%), 2,6,6,9-tetramethyl-1,4,8-cycloundecatriene (1.67%), and copaene (1.33%). The filter paper contact bioassay study showed pronounced pediculicidal activity in the flower bud hexane

  20. White piedra and pediculosis capitis in the same patient.

    PubMed

    Marques, Silvio Alencar; Richini-Pereira, Virgínia Bodelão; Camargo, Rosângela Maria Pires de

    2012-01-01

    White piedra is a superficial mycosis caused by the genus Trichosporon. It is characterized by nodules on the hair shaft. Pediculosis capitis is caused by Pediculus humanus var. capitis of the suborder Anoplura. Whereas pediculosis is a common infestation, clinical reports of white piedra are rare. Molecular biology procedures identified T. inkin as the agent of white piedra in this case report. The authors present associations between the two diseases in the same patient in order to highlight their clinical differences. PMID:23044579

  1. Tinea capitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... special test that uses a lamp called a Wood's lamp can help diagnose a fungal scalp infection. ... scalp; Ringworm - scalp Images Ringworm of the scalp Wood's lamp test - of the scalp Ringworm, tinea capitis - ...

  2. Tinea capitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... tinea capitis. A special test that uses a lamp called a Wood's lamp can help diagnose a fungal scalp infection. Your ... ketoconazole or selenium sulfide. Shampooing may slow or stop the spread of infection, but it does not ...

  3. Scalp Ringworm (Tinea Capitis)

    MedlinePlus

    ... rash and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Ringworm, Scalp (Tinea Capitis) A parent's guide to condition and treatment ... fungal infection may be the cause. Overview Scalp ringworm (tinea capitis) is a common mild infection of ...

  4. Knockdown Resistance Allele Frequencies in North American Head Louse (Anoplura: Pediculidae) Populations

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Kyong Sup; Previte, Domenic J.; Hodgdon, Hilliary E.; Poole, Bryan C.; Kwon, Deok Ho; El-Ghar, Gamal E. Abo; Lee, Si Hyeock; Clark, J. Marshall

    2014-01-01

    The study examines the extent and frequency of a knockdown-type resistance allele (kdr type) in North American populations of human head lice. Lice were collected from 32 locations in Canada and the United States. DNA was extracted from individual lice and used to determine their zygosity using the serial invasive signal amplification technique to detect the kdr-type T917I (TI) mutation, which is most responsible for nerve insensitivity that results in the kdr phenotype and permethrin resistance. Previously sampled sites were resampled to determine if the frequency of the TI mutation was changing. The TI frequency was also reevaluated using a quantitative sequencing method on pooled DNA samples from selected sites to validate this population genotyping method. Genotyping substantiated that TI occurs at high levels in North American lice (88.4%). Overall, the TI frequency in U.S. lice was 84.4% from 1999 to 2009, increased to 99.6% from 2007 to 2009, and was 97.1% in Canadian lice in 2008. Genotyping results using the serial invasive signal amplification reaction (99.54%) and quantitative sequencing (99.45%) techniques were highly correlated. Thus, the frequencies of TI in North American head louse populations were found to be uniformly high, which may be due to the high selection pressure from the intensive and widespread use of the pyrethrins- or pyrethroid-based pediculicides over many years, and is likely a main cause of increased pediculosis and failure of pyrethrins- or permethrin-based products in Canada and the United States. Alternative approaches to treatment of head lice infestations are critically needed. PMID:24724296

  5. Knockdown resistance allele frequencies in North American head louse (Anoplura: Pediculidae) populations.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Kyong Sup; Previte, Domenic J; Hodgdon, Hilliary E; Poole, Bryan C; Kwon, Deok Ho; El-Ghar, Gamal E Abo; Lee, Si Hyeock; Clark, J Marshall

    2014-03-01

    The study examines the extent and frequency of a knockdown-type resistance allele (kdr type) in North American populations of human head lice. Lice were collected from 32 locations in Canada and the United States. DNA was extracted from individual lice and used to determine their zygosity using the serial invasive signal amplification technique to detect the kdr-type T917I (TI) mutation, which is most responsible for nerve insensitivity that results in the kdr phenotype and permethrin resistance. Previously sampled sites were resampled to determine if the frequency of the TI mutation was changing. The TI frequency was also reevaluated using a quantitative sequencing method on pooled DNA samples from selected sites to validate this population genotyping method. Genotyping substantiated that TI occurs at high levels in North American lice (88.4%). Overall, the TI frequency in U.S. lice was 84.4% from 1999 to 2009, increased to 99.6% from 2007 to 2009, and was 97.1% in Canadian lice in 2008. Genotyping results using the serial invasive signal amplification reaction (99.54%) and quantitative sequencing (99.45%) techniques were highly correlated. Thus, the frequencies of TI in North American head louse populations were found to be uniformly high, which may be due to the high selection pressure from the intensive and widespread use of the pyrethrins- or pyrethroid-based pediculicides over many years, and is likely a main cause of increased pediculosis and failure of pyrethrins- or permethrin-based products in Canada and the United States. Alternative approaches to treatment of head lice infestations are critically needed. PMID:24724296

  6. [Comparative activity of different groups of insecticides against permethrin-resistant lice (anoplura: pediculidae)].

    PubMed

    Lopatina, Iu V; Eremina, O Iu

    2013-01-01

    The activity of insecticides (CK50, CK95 ) from different chemical classes against permethrin-resistant body and head lice was investigated. Having developed resistance to pyrethroids (permethrin, d-phenothrin, cypermethrin, and deltamethrin), the lice remain susceptible to organophosphorus compounds, phenylpyrazoles, neonicotinoids, and avermectins. The susceptibility of lice to the insecticides having a mechanism of action that is different from that of pyrethroids does not depend on the level of their resistance to permethrin. PMID:23805484

  7. [Pyrethroid resistance in human lice (Anoplura, Pediculidae): toxicological and molecular genetic methods].

    PubMed

    Lopatina, Iu V; Eremina, O Iu; Karan', L S

    2015-01-01

    The paper gives the data obtained in toxicological experiments versus analysis by a real-time polymerase chain reaction assay in permethrin-resistant human lice (VSSC1 gene kdr mutations leading to the amino acid replacements T9171 and L920F have been found). It is shown that the results of toxicological experiments may be indirectly indicative of the genetic composition of a study sample of lice. PMID:25850312

  8. Geographical distribution of pyrethroid resistance allele frequency in head lice (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae) from Argentina.

    PubMed

    Toloza, Ariel Ceferino; Ascunce, Marina S; Reed, David; Picollo, María Inés

    2014-01-01

    The human head louse, Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae), is an obligate ectoparasite that causes pediculosis capitis and has parasitized humans since the beginning of humankind. Head louse infestations are widespread throughout the world and have been increasing since the early 1990s partially because of ineffective pediculicides. In Argentina, the overuse of products containing pyrethroids has led to the development of resistant louse populations. Pyrethroid insecticides act on the nervous system affecting voltage-sensitive sodium channels. Three point mutations at the corresponding amino acid sequence positions M815I, T917I, and L920F in the voltage-gated sodium channel gene are responsible for contributing to knockdown resistance (kdr). The management of pyrethroid resistance requires either early detection or the characterization of the mechanisms involved in head louse populations. In the current study, we estimated the distribution of kdr alleles in 154 head lice from six geographical regions of Argentina. Pyrethroid resistance kdr alleles were found in high frequencies ranging from 67 to 100%. Of these, 131 (85.1%) were homozygous resistant, 13 (8.4%) were homozygous susceptible, and 10 (6.5%) were heterozygous. Exact tests for the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium for each location showed that genotype frequencies differed significantly from expectation in four of the six sites studied. These results show that pyrethroid resistance is well established reaching an overall frequency of 88%, thus close to fixation. With 30 yr of pyrethroid-based pediculicides use in Argentina, kdr resistance has evolved rapidly among these head louse populations. PMID:24605463

  9. Ovicidal and adulticidal effects of monoterpenoids against permethrin-resistant human head lice, Pediculus humanus capitis.

    PubMed

    Toloza, A C; Vassena, C; Picollo, M I

    2008-12-01

    The improper use of pediculicides containing permethrin has led to the development of resistance. Thus, new alternatives for control are needed. Plant-derived insecticides are attractive alternatives to common chemical insecticides because most of them are environmentally friendly and non-toxic to mammals. The toxic activity of 23 monoterpenoids belonging to several chemical classes was tested against the eggs of permethrin-resistant head lice, Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae). Significant differences in ovicidal action were observed among the tested substances. The most effective chemicals were hydrocarbons and ethers, followed by ketones, alcohols, phenols and esters. A linear relationship between egg mortality and knockdown time (KT(50)) on adults by the tested components revealed that most of the components were effective on both egg and adult stages. The monoterpenoids described herein are good candidates as effective pediculicides. PMID:19120961

  10. Pediculosis capitis: an update.

    PubMed

    Madke, Bhushan; Khopkar, Uday

    2012-01-01

    Head louse infestation, or pediculosis capitis, caused by Pediculus humanus var. capitis, is a common health concern in pediatric age group. An itching of the scalp is the chief symptom, whereas presence of viable nits confirms the diagnosis of head louse infestation. Secondary bacterial infection with impetignization with cervical and occipital lymphadenopathy can complicate the clinical scenario with physician misdiagnosing pediculosis to a primary bacterial infection. Screening and treatment of all close contacts is necessary for an adequate management of pediculosis. Medical management of head louse infestation requires proper application of topical pediculicidal agents', chiefly permethrin lotion and wet combing with a fine toothcomb. Severe cases with high parasitic load justify the use of either oral cotrimoxazole or Ivermectin. Other described technique involves a single application of hot air for 30 minutes. Radical but culturally unacceptable method would be shaving of scalp in resistant cases. Environmental fogging with insecticides is neither necessary nor recommended. PMID:22772612

  11. Tinea capitis mimicking dissecting cellulitis.

    PubMed

    Torok, Rachel D; Bellet, Jane S

    2013-01-01

    Tinea capitis is a common disease of childhood that typically follows one of several clinical patterns. Our patient and several previously reported cases demonstrate the existence of a dissecting cellulitis-like presentation of tinea capitis. This variant should be recognized to prevent misdiagnosis of dissecting cellulitis and allow proper treatment to prevent scarring alopecia. PMID:24134312

  12. Tinea Capitis in Infants

    PubMed Central

    Michaels, Brent D.

    2012-01-01

    Tinea capitis is a reasonably common infection among the pediatric population; however, it is still a relatively rare entity among infants less than one year of age. As such, a high index of suspicion is necessary for diagnosis among infants and an appropriate diagnostic work up should be employed in any case where a dermatophyte infection is suspected. Several methods are available for diagnosis. In addition, proper identification of the specific dermatophyte genera involved should be considered as treatment options may be altered based on the causative pathogen identified. PMID:22468173

  13. Comparative efficacy of commercial combs in removing head lice (Pediculus humanus capitis) (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae).

    PubMed

    Gallardo, Anabella; Toloza, Ariel; Vassena, Claudia; Picollo, María Inés; Mougabure-Cueto, Gastón

    2013-03-01

    The use of a fine comb for removing lice from the head of the human host is a relevant tool both in the diagnosis of infestations and as part of an integrated control strategy of head lice. The effectiveness of a fine comb depends, in part, on the design and material they are built. The aim of this study was to compare in vivo the efficacy of metal and plastic combs that are currently used in the removal of head lice and eggs worldwide. The space between comb teeth and the length was 0.23 and 13 mm in KSL® plastic, 0.3 and 10.7 mm in NOPUCID® plastic, 0.15 and 31 mm in KSL® metal and 0.09 and 37 mm in ASSY® metal. The assays were performed comparing the combs in pairs: (a) KSL® vs. NOPUCID® plastic combs, (b) KSL® vs. ASSY® metal combs and (c) KSL® plastic comb vs. ASSY® metal comb. The most effective plastic comb was KSL®, removing a higher number of individuals of all stages. The most effective metal comb was ASSY®, removing more insects of all stages (except adults). The comparative test between KSL® plastic and ASSY® metal showed that ASSY® was the most effective in removing head lice and their eggs. PMID:23212391

  14. Efficacy of products to remove eggs of Pediculus humanus capitis (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae) from the human hair.

    PubMed

    Lapeere, Hilde; Brochez, Lieve; Verhaeghe, Evelien; Stichele, Robert H Vander; Remon, Jean-Paul; Lambert, Jo; Leybaert, Luc

    2014-03-01

    Head lice infestations are very common in children aged between 3 and 12 yr old. The eggs of the head louse are difficult to remove and remain firmly attached to the hair even after any head louse treatment. Solid in vitro and in vivo evidence to support the use of any of the proposed products to facilitate nit removal is scarce. The objective of the current study was to determine the efficacy of several products to remove eggshells from human hair using an objective measurement procedure. Water and ordinary hair conditioner significantly facilitated the removal of nits in vitro. We found no difference between ordinary conditioner and products specifically marketed for the purpose of nit removal. Other products such as formic acid solution and almond oil did not have a beneficial effect. PMID:24724290

  15. Influence of the formulations in removing eggs of Pediculus humanus capitis (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae).

    PubMed

    Ortega-Insaurralde, Isabel; Toloza, Ariel Ceferino; Picollo, María Inés; Vassena, Claudia

    2014-09-01

    Head lice lay eggs in human head hairs in order to reproduce. There is a difficulty associated to the process of detaching these eggs: they are tightly gripped to the hair by a secretion produced by female head lice. The physical removal of eggs has become an important part of treatment of louse infestations. The finding of new products to loosen the eggs is necessary to avoid mistaken diagnosis or reinfestations. This work aimed to compare different kinds of pediculicide formulations in order to find if their presentations represented differences in the egg remover effect. We also wanted to present a new device to test the efficacy of the egg remover formulations. Products with creamy presentations (Bio infant lice and egg remover and hair conditioner) and one containing dimethicone (Nyda) showed the lower mean forces compared with the control (lower mean forces represented best removal activity). Whereas, the Biferdil egg remover (gel) and Nopucid Tribit (hydroalcoholic lotion) had no egg removal effect, presenting the highest mean forces (177.82 and 189.99 mN, respectively) compared with the control. Additionally, we proposed a removal index (RI) to compare the efficacy of different products on the egg removal activity (RI > 0, good performance). The higher index values were for Bio infant lice and egg remover (0.72) and Biferdil hair conditioner (0.58). The lowest index values were for Biferdil egg remover (-0.26) and Nopucid Tribit (-0.35).The formulation of over the counter pediculicides in the egg remover effect was discussed. PMID:25033812

  16. Spinosad: in pediculosis capitis.

    PubMed

    McCormack, Paul L

    2011-10-01

    Spinosad 0.9% suspension is a topical treatment for head-lice infestation (pediculosis capitis) that has been approved in the US as a prescription medicine. Spinosad is a natural mixture of the pediculicidal tetracyclic macrolides spinosyn A and spinosyn D. Spinosad 0.9% mainly interferes with nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in insects, thereby producing neuronal excitation that results in paralysis of lice from neuromuscular fatigue after extended periods of hyperexcitation. Spinosad 0.9% kills both permethrin-susceptible and permethrin-resistant populations of lice. It is also ovicidal, killing both eggs (nits) and lice. Systemic absorption was not detectable after a single topical application of spinosad 1.8% for 10 minutes in children. In randomized, evaluator-blind, multicenter clinical trials, topical spinosad 0.9% without nit combing was significantly more effective than permethrin 1% with nit combing in the eradication of head lice assessed 14 days after one or two treatments. The majority of subjects treated with spinosad 0.9% without nit combing required only a single treatment to eradicate head lice, while the majority of those treated with permethrin 1% with nit combing required two treatments. Spinosad was generally well tolerated in clinical trials, with no severe or serious adverse events. Cutaneous and ocular irritation were the most common adverse events. PMID:21834600

  17. Bioactivity of Argentinean essential oils against permethrin-resistant head lice, Pediculus humanus capitis.

    PubMed

    Toloza, Ariel C; Zygadlo, Julio; Biurrun, Fernando; Rotman, Alicia; Picollo, María I

    2010-01-01

    Infestation with the head louse, Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae), is one of the most common parasitic infestation of humans worldwide. Traditionally, the main treatment for control of head lice is chemical control that is based in a wide variety of neurotoxic synthetic insecticides. The repeated overuse of these products has resulted in the selection of resistant populations of head lice. Thus, plant-derived insecticides, such as the essential oils seem to be good viable alternatives as some have low toxicity to mammals and are biodegradable. We determined the insecticidal activity of 25 essential oils belonging to several botanical families present in Argentina against permethrin-resistant head lice. Significant differences in fumigant activity against head lice were found among the essential oils from the native and exotic plant species. The most effective essential oils were Cinnamomum porphyrium, followed by Aloysia citriodora (chemotype 2) and Myrcianthes pseudomato, with KT(50) values of 1.12, 3.02 and 4.09; respectively. The results indicate that these essential oils are effective and could be incorporated into pediculicide formulations to control head lice infestations once proper formulation and toxicological tests are performed. PMID:21062140

  18. Bioactivity of Argentinean Essential Oils Against Permethrin-Resistant Head Lice, Pediculus humanus capitis

    PubMed Central

    Toloza, Ariel C; Zygadlo, Julio; Biurrun, Fernando; Rotman, Alicia; Picollo, María I

    2010-01-01

    Infestation with the head louse, Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae), is one of the most common parasitic infestation of humans worldwide. Traditionally, the main treatment for control of head lice is chemical control that is based in a wide variety of neurotoxic synthetic insecticides. The repeated overuse of these products has resulted in the selection of resistant populations of head lice. Thus, plant-derived insecticides, such as the essential oils seem to be good viable alternatives as some have low toxicity to mammals and are biodegradable. We determined the insecticidal activity of 25 essential oils belonging to several botanical families present in Argentina against permethrin-resistant head lice. Significant differences in fumigant activity against head lice were found among the essential oils from the native and exotic plant species. The most effective essential oils were Cinnamomum porphyrium, followed by Aloysia citriodora (chemotype 2) and Myrcianthes pseudomato, with KT50 values of 1.12, 3.02 and 4.09; respectively. The results indicate that these essential oils are effective and could be incorporated into pediculicide formulations to control head lice infestations once proper formulation and toxicological tests are performed. PMID:21062140

  19. Effectiveness of lotions based on essential oils from aromatic plants against permethrin resistant Pediculus humanus capitis.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez Audino, Paola; Vassena, Claudia; Zerba, Eduardo; Picollo, María

    2007-10-01

    In Argentina, field populations of the head louse Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae) have developed resistance to permethrin and other pyrethroids. Thus, the aim of this work was the development of a lotion containing essential oils from plants and an alcoholic coadjuvant to improve biological effect. Ethanol + isopropanol (1 + 1 in volume) 50% in water and ethanol 96% were taken as bases for preparation of experimental lotions containing essential oils from plants. We found that experimental lotions containing lavender, peppermint and eucalyptus oils in a 5% composition and the combination of eucalyptus and peppermint in a total concentration of 10%, dissolved in 50% ethanol + isopropanol (1 + 1) in water, showed the best knockdown effect. On the other side, lotion containing peppermint oil and eucalyptus oil (1 + 1) 10%, dissolved in ethanol 96%, showed to be as effective as the best commercial lotion now available in Argentina. Furthermore, addition of 1-dodecanol in all cases increased the effectiveness of all the experimental lotions. This difference is significantly important for 1-dodecanol concentration of 10%, reaching a toxic activity compared to the best commercial lotion available in the market. PMID:17647002

  20. Clinical Practice Update: Pediculosis Capitis.

    PubMed

    Bohl, Brittany; Evetts, Jessica; McClain, Kymberli; Rosenauer, Amanda; Stellitano, Emily

    2015-01-01

    A review of the current evidence on primary treatment modalities of head lice demonstrates increasing resistance to current regimens. New and alternative therapies are now available. A treatment algorithm was created to address safety and efficacy of treatments, as well as to guide clinicians through navigation of the regimens. Through an online journal search, 59 articles were selected for the review. Literature searches were performed through PubMed, Medline, Ebsco Host, and CINAHL, with key search words of "Pediculosis capitis" and "head lice" in the title, abstract, and index. Meta-analyses and controlled clinical trials were viewed with greater weight if they had a large sample size, were statistically significant, and did not allude to bias. When resistant infestations are well-documented in a locality, changes to the treatment regimen are indicated, and alternative treatments should be considered. Recent studies and U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approvals have changed the available treatment options for Pediculosis capitis, including benzyl alcohol, topical ivermectin, spinosad, and the LouseBuster. Further, environmental management and prevention measures should be taken to avoid reinfestation and to prevent the spread of head lice. Continued study is recommended to establish long-term safety of new and alternative agents. PMID:26665422

  1. Evolutionary history of mammalian sucking lice (Phthiraptera: Anoplura)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Sucking lice (Phthiraptera: Anoplura) are obligate, permanent ectoparasites of eutherian mammals, parasitizing members of 12 of the 29 recognized mammalian orders and approximately 20% of all mammalian species. These host specific, blood-sucking insects are morphologically adapted for life on mammals: they are wingless, dorso-ventrally flattened, possess tibio-tarsal claws for clinging to host hair, and have piercing mouthparts for feeding. Although there are more than 540 described species of Anoplura and despite the potential economical and medical implications of sucking louse infestations, this study represents the first attempt to examine higher-level anopluran relationships using molecular data. In this study, we use molecular data to reconstruct the evolutionary history of 65 sucking louse taxa with phylogenetic analyses and compare the results to findings based on morphological data. We also estimate divergence times among anopluran taxa and compare our results to host (mammal) relationships. Results This study represents the first phylogenetic hypothesis of sucking louse relationships using molecular data and we find significant conflict between phylogenies constructed using molecular and morphological data. We also find that multiple families and genera of sucking lice are not monophyletic and that extensive taxonomic revision will be necessary for this group. Based on our divergence dating analyses, sucking lice diversified in the late Cretaceous, approximately 77 Ma, and soon after the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary (ca. 65 Ma) these lice proliferated rapidly to parasitize multiple mammalian orders and families. Conclusions The diversification time of sucking lice approximately 77 Ma is in agreement with mammalian evolutionary history: all modern mammal orders are hypothesized to have diverged by 75 Ma thus providing suitable habitat for the colonization and radiation of sucking lice. Despite the concordant timing of diversification events

  2. Fragmented mitochondrial genomes in two suborders of parasitic lice of eutherian mammals (Anoplura and Rhynchophthirina, Insecta)

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Renfu; Barker, Stephen C; Li, Hu; Song, Simon; Poudel, Shreekanta; Su, Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Parasitic lice (order Phthiraptera) infest birds and mammals. The typical animal mitochondrial (mt) genome organization, which consists of a single chromosome with 37 genes, was found in chewing lice in the suborders Amblycera and Ischnocera. The sucking lice (suborder Anoplura) known, however, have fragmented mt genomes with 9–20 minichromosomes. We sequenced the mt genome of the elephant louse, Haematomyzus elephantis – the first species of chewing lice investigated from the suborder Rhynchophthirina. We identified 33 mt genes in the elephant louse, which were on 10 minichromosomes. Each minichromosome is 3.5–4.2 kb in size and has 2–6 genes. Phylogenetic analyses of mt genome sequences confirm that the elephant louse is more closely related to sucking lice than to the chewing lice in the Amblycera and Ischnocera. Our results indicate that mt genome fragmentation is shared by the suborders Anoplura and Rhynchophthirina. Nine of the 10 mt minichromosomes of the elephant louse differ from those of the sucking lice (Anoplura) known in gene content and gene arrangement, indicating that distinct mt karyotypes have evolved in Anoplura and Rhynchophthirina since they diverged ~92 million years ago. PMID:26617060

  3. Cytogenetic Features of Human Head and Body Lice (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae).

    PubMed

    Bressa, María José; Papeschi, Alba Graciela; Toloza, Ariel Ceferino

    2015-09-01

    The genus Pediculus L. that parasitize humans comprise two subspecies: the head lice Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer and the body lice Pediculus humanus humanus De Geer. Despite the 200 yr of the first description of these two species, there is still a long debate about their taxonomic status. Some authors proposed that these organisms are separate species, conspecifics, or grouped in clades. The sequencing of both forms indicated that the difference between them is one gene absent in the head louse. However, their chromosomal number remains to be determined. In this study, we described the male and female karyotypes, and male meiosis of head and body lice, and examined the chromatin structure by means of C-banding. In P. h. humanus and P. h. capitis, the diploid chromosome complement was 2 n = 12 in both sexes. In oogonial prometaphase and metaphase and spermatogonial metaphase, it is evident that chromosomes lack of a primary constriction. No identifiable sex chromosomes or B chromosomes were observed in head and body lice. Neither chiasmata nor chromatin connections between homologous chromosomes were detected in male meiosis. The meiotic behaviour of the chromosomes showed that they are holokinetic. C-banding revealed the absence of constitutive heterochromatin. Our results provide relevant information to be used in mapping studies of genes associated with sex determination and environmental sensing and response. PMID:26336229

  4. Black Dot Tinea Capitis in an Immunosuppressed Man

    PubMed Central

    Mendese, Gary W.; Loo, Daniel S.

    2013-01-01

    Tinea capitis is a common superficial fungal infection of the scalp primarily afflicting young children. In adults, this infection may have an atypical presentation that may lead to a delay in diagnosis. The authors present a case report of black dot tinea capitis in an immunosuppressed Asian man with psoriasis and provide a review of the literature. PMID:23710273

  5. Lousicidal activity of synthesized silver nanoparticles using Lawsonia inermis leaf aqueous extract against Pediculus humanus capitis and Bovicola ovis.

    PubMed

    Marimuthu, Sampath; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul; Santhoshkumar, Thirunavukkarasu; Jayaseelan, Chidambaram; Kirthi, Arivarasan Vishnu; Bagavan, Asokan; Kamaraj, Chinnaperumal; Elango, Gandhi; Zahir, Abdul Abduz; Rajakumar, Govindasamy; Velayutham, Kanayairam

    2012-11-01

    In the present work, we describe inexpensive, nontoxic, unreported and simple procedure for synthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) using leaf aqueous extract of Lawsonia inermis as eco-friendly reducing and capping agent. The aim of the present study was to assess the lousicidal activity of synthesized Ag NPs against human head louse, Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae), and sheep body louse, Bovicola ovis Schrank (Phthiraptera: Trichodectidae). Direct contact method was conducted to determine the potential of pediculocidal activity and impregnated method was used with slight modifications to improve practicality and efficiency of tested materials of synthesized Ag NPs against B. ovis. The synthesized Ag NPs characterized with the UV showing peak at 426 nm. X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra clearly shows that the diffraction peaks in the pattern indexed as the silver with lattice constants. XRD analysis showed intense peaks at 2θ values of 38.34°, 44.59°, 65.04°, and 77.77° corresponding to (111), (200), (220), and (311) Bragg's reflection based on the fcc structure of Ag NPs. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) spectra of Ag NPs exhibited prominent peaks at 3,422.13, 2,924.12, 2,851.76, 1,631.41, 1,381.60, 1,087.11, and 789.55 cm(-1). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrograph showed mean size of 59.52 nm and aggregates of spherical shape Ag NPs. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) showed the complete chemical composition of the synthesized Ag NPs. In pediculocidal activity, the results showed that the optimal times for measuring percent mortality effects of synthesized Ag NPs were 26, 61, 84, and 100 at 5, 10, 15, and 20 min, respectively. The average percent mortality for synthesized Ag NPs was 33, 84, 91, and 100 at 10, 15, 20, and 35 min, respectively against B. ovis. The maximum activity was observed in the aqueous leaf extract of L. inermis, 1 mM AgNO(3) solution, and synthesized Ag NPs against P. humanus

  6. A pediculid case: autosensitization dermatitis caused by pediculosis capitis.

    PubMed

    Takcı, Zennure; Tekin, Ozlem; Karadağ, Ayşe Serap

    2012-01-01

    Pediculosis capitis is a worldwide infestation caused by Pediculus humanus capitis ectoparasite that only lives on the hairs of the scalp. As a result of severe itching excoriation, secondary bacterial infection, cervical and occipital lymphadenopathy are seen frequently where, sometimes bite reaction, viral exanthema mimicking hypersensitivity eruption and conjunctivitis may occur. Hereby, with the presentation of a quite rarely seen pediculid case, characterized with common autosensitization dermatitis as an -id reaction to pediculosis capitis, the importance of exploring the source of the infection and/or infestation on the patients who have presented with generalized pruritic maculopapular eruption, is emphasized. PMID:23169166

  7. Four cases of pediculosis caused by Pthirus pubis Linnaeus, 1758 (Diptera: Anoplura) from peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Pakeer, O; Jeffery, J; Mohamed, A M; Ahmad, F; Baharudin, O

    2007-12-01

    Four cases of pediculosis, two in adults and two in children, caused by the crab-louse, Pthirus pubis Linnaeus, 1758 (Diptera: Anoplura) is reported from peninsular Malaysia. This is the second report of the problem to be documented from the country. Although P. pubis is closely associated with genital hairs, it is, however, also found to occur on the eyelashes, eyebrows, hairs of the body, head and axilla. The few reported cases of pthiriasis probably do not reflect the true situation. PMID:18209717

  8. Repellency against head lice (Pediculus humanus capitis).

    PubMed

    Semmler, Margit; Abdel-Ghaffar, Fathy; Al-Rasheid, Khaled; Klimpel, Sven; Mehlhorn, Heinz

    2010-02-01

    The head louse problem increases at all levels of the international societies due to activities or life conditions that lead to often hair contacts among people. Lice occur exclusively on humans. Thus, they avoid dropping down from a head and therefore accept even a bad smelling hair of new a host. Due to this behaviour, there are only a few products on the markets which dare to claim a repellency activity that protects humans from infestation with head lice. The present study shows that a combination of an extract of the seeds of the plant Vitex agnus castus (monk pepper) and the compound paramenthan-3,8-diol (which is also found in some plants, e.g. Eucalyptus) act synergistically and are able to protect human hair for at least 7 h from invasion of head lice (Pediculus humanus capitis). The recently developed product containing both compounds is named Licatack Preventive Spray. PMID:20054562

  9. Activity of increased specific and non-specific esterases and glutathione transferases associated with resistance to permethrin in pediculus humanus capitis (phthiraptera: pediculidae) from Argentina.

    PubMed

    Barrios, Silvia; Zerba, Eduardo; Picollo, Maria I; Audino, Paola Gonzalez

    2010-01-01

    Enhanced metabolism by oxidative enzymes is a major cause of pyrethroid resistance in insects. In this work, we evaluated the role of specific and non-specific esterases in head louse populations from Buenos Aires with different levels of resistance to permethrin. As esterase activity is substrate-dependent, four different esters were used as unspecific substrates in order to obtain a better characterization of the possible role of these enzymes in the resistance phenomenon. The unspecific substrates were phenylthioacetate, 1- and 2-naphtyl-acetate, and p-nitrophenyl acetate. A 7-coumaryl permethrate was synthesized and used as a specific substrate to measure pyrethroid esterases by a very sensitive microfluorometric method. The results on pyrethroid esterase activity obtained with this substrate showed that these enzymes contribute to the detoxifying activity in resistant populations, although no correlation was found between pyrethroid esterase activity and resistance ratios. In this study, we established that the activity of esterase against specific and non-specific substrates is increased in pyrethroid-resistant populations of head lice from Buenos Aires. Also, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) resistance values demonstrated that there is a DDT cross-resistance phenomenon in pyrethroid-resistant head louse populations and suggested that an alteration in the receptor of the nervous system (kdr gen) is a key factor of the resistance phenomena in these head louse populations. PMID:19921258

  10. Efficacy of herbal shampoo base on native plant against head lice (Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer, Pediculidae: Phthiraptera) in vitro and in vivo in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Soonwera, Mayura

    2014-09-01

    Head lice infestation (or pediculosis) is an important public health problem in Thailand, especially in children between the ages 5 and 11 years. Head lice resistance is increasing, chemical pediculicides have lost their efficacy, and, therefore, alternative pediculicides such as herbal shampoos have been proposed to treat head lice infestation. Thus, the present study investigated the efficacy of three herbal shampoos based on native plants in Thailand (Acorus calamus Linn., Phyllanthus emblica Linn., and Zanthoxylum limonella Alston) against head lice and compared them with carbaryl shampoo (Hafif shampoo, 0.6% w/v carbaryl), malathion shampoo (A-Lice shampoo, 1.0% w/v malathion), and commercial shampoos (Babi Mild Natural' N Mild and Johnson's baby shampoo) in order to assess their in vitro and in vivo efficacy. For in vitro study, doses of 0.12 and 0.25 ml/cm(2) of each herbal shampoo were applied to filter paper, then 10 head lice were place on the filter paper. The mortalities of head lice were recorded at 5, 15, 30, and 60 min. The results revealed that all herbal shampoo were more effective on pediculicidal activity than chemical and commercial shampoos with 100% mortality at 15 min; LT₅₀ values ranged from 0.25 to 1.90 min. Meanwhile, chemical shampoos caused 20-80% mortality, and LT₅₀ values ranged from 6.50 to 85.43 min. On the other side, commercial shampoos showed 4.0% mortality. The most effective pediculicide was Z. limonella shampoo, followed by A. calamus shampoo, P. emblica shampoo, carbaryl shampoo, malathion shampoo, and commercial shampoo, respectively. In vivo results showed that all herbal shampoos were also more effective for head lice treatment than chemical and commercial shampoos with 94.67-97.68% of cure rate after the first treatment; the second treatment, 7 days later, revealed that the cure rate was 100%. Meanwhile, chemical shampoo showed 71.67-93.0% of cure rate and, unfortunately, commercial shampoos were nontoxic to head lice and showed 0% of cure rate after the first and the second treatments. Our data showed that three herbal shampoos of native plants in Thailand in this study are suitable to be used as pediculicides for Thai children since it is safe for children and there is no side-effect after application. PMID:24948104

  11. In vitro efficacy of over-the-counter botanical pediculicides against the head louse Pediculus humanus var capitis based on a stringent standard for mortality assessment.

    PubMed

    Heukelbach, J; Canyon, D V; Oliveira, F A; Muller, R; Speare, R

    2008-09-01

    Infestation of the head louse Pediculus humanus var capitis DeGeer (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae) is an important public health problem in Australia, with up to a third of children infested in some primary schools. Insecticide resistance and inadequate attention to the application instructions of topical pediculicides are common reasons for treatment failure. This study evaluated six popular Australian over-the-counter products against head lice, primarily comprised of different botanical extracts, and compared them with permethrin 1% (Quellada) and a non-treatment control in order to assess their in vitro efficacy. We also assessed commonly used criteria for evaluating pediculicide efficacy in vitro. All tested products failed to demonstrate high levels of efficacy with the exception of Tea Tree Gel((R)), which outperformed 1% permethrin. Permethrin had a high level of efficacy, but using stringent criteria 18% of lice were not dead at 3 h, indicating some resistance to Quellada. Commonly used less stringent criteria were shown to overestimate mortality of head lice as a result of the protective phenomenon of stasis or sham death observed in exposed lice that may recover after some time. Using two different levels of stringency resulted in different rankings of efficacy for most products, with the exception of the first ranked product, Tea Tree Gel. Rankings of efficacy also varied over time, even within the different assessment criteria. Government regulatory agencies should require standard in vitro tests using stringent mortality criteria, with an observation period of >or= 6 h, to determine the efficacy of new pediculicides, and only products that cause a minimum mortality rate (e.g. 80%) in head lice collected from the target population should be licensed for sale. PMID:18816275

  12. Insights on virulence from the complete genome of Staphylococcus capitis

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, David R.; Jiang, Jhih-Hang; Hassan, Karl A.; Elbourne, Liam D. H.; Tuck, Kellie L.; Paulsen, Ian T.; Peleg, Anton Y.

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus capitis is an opportunistic pathogen of the coagulase negative staphylococci (CoNS). Functional genomic studies of S. capitis have thus far been limited by a lack of available complete genome sequences. Here, we determined the closed S. capitis genome and methylome using Single Molecule Real Time (SMRT) sequencing. The strain, AYP1020, harbors a single circular chromosome of 2.44 Mb encoding 2304 predicted proteins, which is the smallest of all complete staphylococcal genomes sequenced to date. AYP1020 harbors two large mobile genetic elements; a plasmid designated pAYP1020 (59.6 Kb) and a prophage, ΦAYP1020 (48.5 Kb). Methylome analysis identified significant adenine methylation across the genome involving two distinct methylation motifs (1972 putative 6-methyladenine (m6A) residues identified). Putative adenine methyltransferases were also identified. Comparative analysis of AYP1020 and the closely related CoNS, S. epidermidis RP62a, revealed a host of virulence factors that likely contribute to S. capitis pathogenicity, most notably genes important for biofilm formation and a suite of phenol soluble modulins (PSMs); the expression/production of these factors were corroborated by functional assays. The complete S. capitis genome will aid future studies on the evolution and pathogenesis of the coagulase negative staphylococci. PMID:26441910

  13. Management of tinea capitis in childhood

    PubMed Central

    Bennassar, Antoni; Grimalt, Ramon

    2010-01-01

    Tinea capitis (TC) is a common dermatophyte infection affecting primarily prepubertal children. The causative pathogens belong to only two genera: Trichophyton and Microsporum. Although there is a great local variation in the epidemiology of TC worldwide, T. tonsurans is currently the most common cause of TC with M. canis second. Even though there is an emerging number of anthropophilic scalp infections, M. canis remains the predominant causative organism in many countries of the Mediterranean basin, the most important dermatophyte carriers being stray cats and dogs as well as pet puppies, kittens and rabbits. TC always requires systemic treatment because topical antifungal agents do not penetrate down to the deepest part of the hair follicle. Since the late 1950s, griseofulvin has been the gold standard for systemic therapy of TC. It is active against dermatophytes and has a long-term safety profile. The main disadvantage of griseofulvin is the long duration of treatment required which may lead to reduced compliance. The newer oral antifungal agents including terbinafine, itraconazole, ketokonazole, and fluconazole appear to have efficacy rates and potential adverse effects similar to those of griseofulvin in children with TC caused by Trichophyton species, while requiring a much shorter duration of treatment. They may, however, be more expensive. PMID:21437064

  14. Solanum trilobatum extract-mediated synthesis of titanium dioxide nanoparticles to control Pediculus humanus capitis, Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum and Anopheles subpictus.

    PubMed

    Rajakumar, Govindasamy; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul; Jayaseelan, Chidambaram; Santhoshkumar, Thirunavukkarasu; Marimuthu, Sampath; Kamaraj, Chinnaperumal; Bagavan, Asokan; Zahir, Abdul Abduz; Kirthi, Arivarasan Vishnu; Elango, Gandhi; Arora, Pooja; Karthikeyan, Rajan; Manikandan, Sivan; Jose, Sujin

    2014-02-01

    Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) are widely used in paints, printing ink, rubber, paper, cosmetics, sunscreens, car materials, cleaning air products, industrial photocatalytic processes, and decomposing organic matters in wastewater due to their unique physical, chemical, and biological properties. The present study was conducted to assess the antiparasitic efficacies of synthesized TiO2 NPs utilizing leaf aqueous extract of Solanum trilobatum against the adult head louse, Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae); larvae of cattle tick Hyalomma anatolicum (a.) anatolicum Koch (Acari: Ixodidae), and fourth instar larvae of malaria vector Anopheles subpictus Grassi (Diptera: Culicidae). The green synthesized TiO2 NPs were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis (EDX), and Atomic force microscopy (AFM). XRD analysis of synthesized TiO2 NPs revealed that the particles were in the form of nanocrystals as evidenced by the major peaks at 2θ values of 27.52°, 36.21°, and 54.43° identified as 110, 101, and 211 reflections, respectively. FTIR spectra exhibited a prominent peak at 3,466 cm(-1) and showed OH stretching due to the alcoholic group, and the OH group may act as a capping agent. SEM images displayed NPs that were spherical, oval in shape, individual, and some in aggregates with an average size of 70 nm. Characterization of the synthesized TiO2 NPs using AFM offered a three-dimensional visualization and uneven surface morphology. The pediculocidal and acaricidal activities of synthesized TiO2 NPs showed the percent mortality of 31, 42, 63, 82, 100; 36, 44, 67, 89, and 100 at 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 mg/L, respectively, against P. h. capitis and H. a. anatolicum. The average larval percent mortality of synthesized TiO2 NPs was 38, 47, 66, 79, and 100 at 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 mg/L, respectively, against A. subpictus

  15. Perifolliculitis capitis abscedens et suffodiens successfully controlled with topical isotretinoin.

    PubMed

    Karpouzis, Anthony; Giatromanolaki, Alexandra; Sivridis, Efthymios; Kouskoukis, Constantin

    2003-01-01

    Perifolliculitis capitis abscedens et suffodiens (or dissecting folliculitis of the scalp or dissecting cellulitis of the scalp or dissecting perifolliculitis of the scalp) is a rare entity and constitutes the equivalent over the scalp, of hidradenitis suppurativa and acne conglobata. Etiologic factors are unknown. Diagnosis is proven histologically. Management is very difficult and consists in systemic administration or intralesional injection of several drugs or in surgical manipulations. An 18 year-old white patient with cystic infiltrations, alopecia plaques, pustules and other inflammatory elements (clinicohistological features consistent with dissecting folliculitis of the scalp), is presented. Isotretinoin topical application assured successful control of the disease and averted the evolution of the clinical aspect to scarring alopecia and nodule formation. Topical isotretinoin exercises a curative, inhibitory and antiproliferative action, in perifolliculitis capitis abscedens et suffodiens. PMID:12695138

  16. Tinea capitis in Kwa-Zulu Natal, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Morar, Nilesh; Dlova, Ncoza C; Gupta, Aditya K; Aboobaker, Jamila

    2004-01-01

    Tinea capitis is the most common dermatophyte infection in children. The hair involvement can be classified as endothrix, ectothrix, or favus, and the clinical appearance is variable. The goal of this study was to determine the demography, etiology, and clinical patterns of tinea capitis in South Africa. A prospective, cross-sectional study was conducted over a 1-year period. All cases were classified clinically and subject to Wood light examination, microscopy, and culture. One hundred patients were studied. The male:female ratio was 1.4:1. The mean age was 4.6 years (range 1-11 years). Trichophyton violaceum was isolated in 90% of positive cultures. Wood light was positive in one patient with Microsporum gypseum. The most common clinical variety was the "black dot" type, seen in 50% of patients. Twenty percent of the children presented with more than one clinical type simultaneously. We concluded that the most common cause of tinea capitis in South Africa is T. violaceum. The presentation is variable. PMID:15283786

  17. Pediculosis capitis: new insights into epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Feldmeier, H

    2012-09-01

    Pediculosis capitis is a ubiquitous parasitic skin disease caused by Pediculus humanus capitis. Head lice are highly specialised parasites which can propagate only on human scalp and hair. Transmission occurs by direct head-to-head contact. Head lice are vectors of important bacterial pathogens. Pediculosis capitis usually occurs in small epidemics in play groups, kindergartens and schools. Population-based studies in European countries show highly diverging prevalences, ranging from 1% to 20%. The diagnosis of head lice infestation is made through the visual inspection of hair and scalp or dry/wet combing. The optimal method for the diagnosis of active head lice infestation is dry/wet combing. Topical application of a pediculicide is the most common treatment. Compounds with a neurotoxic mode of action are widely used but are becoming less effective due to resistant parasite populations. Besides, their use is restricted by safety concerns. Dimeticones, silicone oils with a low surface tension and the propensity to perfectly coat surfaces, have a purely physical mode of action. This group of compounds is highly effective and safe, and there is no risk that head lice become resistant. The control of epidemics requires active contact tracing and synchronised treatment with an effective and safe pediculicide. PMID:22382818

  18. SdrX, a serine-aspartate repeat protein expressed by Staphylococcus capitis with collagen VI binding activity.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yule; Ames, Brenda; Gorovits, Elena; Prater, Bradley D; Syribeys, Peter; Vernachio, John H; Patti, Joseph M

    2004-11-01

    Staphylococcus capitis (S. capitis) has been implicated in a large proportion of coagulase-negative staphylococcal infections in very-low-birth-weight infants. To identify potential therapeutic targets, the S. capitis genome was probed for the presence of genes encoding microbial surface components recognizing adhesive matrix molecules (MSCRAMM). By using Southern blot analysis, an S. capitis gene, designated sdrX, that contained sequence motifs consistent with the Sdr family of MSCRAMM proteins was identified. By using monospecific antisera in Western blot and flow cytometry, SdrX was demonstrated to be expressed on the surface of S. capitis. Human collagen type VI was found to bind both the recombinant A domain of SdrX and viable S. capitis expressing SdrX. SdrX is the first collagen-binding Sdr protein described and is the first MSCRAMM protein identified in S. capitis. PMID:15501749

  19. An unusual presentation: trichomycosis (trichobacteriosis) capitis in an infant.

    PubMed

    Takcı, Zennure; Karadağ, Ayşe Serap

    2014-01-01

    Trichomycosis (trichobacteriosis) is an asymptomatic superficial bacterial colonization of the hair shaft that is clinically characterized by pale yellowish, reddish or blackish sticky, cylindrical concretions surrounding the hair shaft in the axillary or pubic region. As far as we know, the first and only case of trichomycosis capitis was reported in a 8-year-old boy in 2011. We encountered no cases of trichomycosis in infancy in the literature. The current case displays an atypical presentation of trichobacteriosis involving head hair in a 10-month-old male infant. PMID:26388604

  20. Pediculosis capitis is a growing neglected infestation due to migration in southeast Turkey.

    PubMed

    Eroglu, Fadime; Basaran, Ümit; Kürklü, Cennet Gizem; Yüceer, Mervenur; Yalcıntürk, Rabia Gül; Tanrıverdi, Mustafa; Daglı, Eda Icbay; Koltas, Ismail Soner

    2016-06-01

    Demographic, socio-economical, and environmental changes affecting prevalence of Pediculosis capitis. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of P. capitis and external factors affecting the distribution of P. capitis. A total of 6004 primary-school students between 5 and 11 years were screened for P. capitis at 28 different primary-schools in Gaziantep, located in southeastern of Turkey, during different two education terms (First education term is in September 2013 to May 2014, second education term is in September 2014 and May 2015). The prevalence of P. capitis was found to be positive 1.5 % (90/6004) and 6.9 % (415/6004) in first education term and in second education term, respectively. In this study shown that the rate of P. capitis's prevalence was increased 5.4 % in Gaziantep. P. capitis is a neglected infestation and it has re-emerged in Gaziantep, located in the southeastern of Turkey. Health staff member must improve health education programs in primary-school students especially girl students. PMID:27038249

  1. Prevalence of Tinea Capitis among School Children in Nok Community of Kaduna State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Dogo, Josephine; Afegbua, Seniyat Larai; Dung, Edward Christopher

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the prevalence of tinea capitis, an infection of the scalp by dermatophytes, has increased in children worldwide. This cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence and risk factor of tinea capitis among school children in Nok community of Kaduna State, Nigeria. A total of 100 children were screened and 45% were diagnosed to have tinea capitis after fungal culture and microscopy. The prevalence of tinea capitis among girls was higher (51.4%) than that among boys (41.5%) but not significantly different (p = 0.402). The prevalence with respect to age was lower for the age group 5-10 years (42.6%) than that of 11-15 years (50%) but was not significantly different (p = 0.524). Trichophyton rubrum (28.8%) and Microsporum canis (22.7%) were the most prevalent dermatophytes isolated and the least were Trichophyton verrucosum (4.5%) and Trichophyton tonsurans (4.5%). There were 73.3% single infection while 26.7% had 2-4 dermatophytes of the genera Microsporum and Trichophyton. The predisposing factors with statistically significant association with tinea capitis were number of children in the family (p = 0.02) and sharing of the same bed (p = 0.002). This indicates the high tendencies of spread of tinea capitis through human-to-human mode of transmission and possible animal contact. Community health education on the cause, mode of transmission, prevention, and prompt treatment of tinea capitis is recommended. PMID:27471603

  2. Prevalence of Tinea Capitis among School Children in Nok Community of Kaduna State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Dogo, Josephine; Dung, Edward Christopher

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the prevalence of tinea capitis, an infection of the scalp by dermatophytes, has increased in children worldwide. This cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence and risk factor of tinea capitis among school children in Nok community of Kaduna State, Nigeria. A total of 100 children were screened and 45% were diagnosed to have tinea capitis after fungal culture and microscopy. The prevalence of tinea capitis among girls was higher (51.4%) than that among boys (41.5%) but not significantly different (p = 0.402). The prevalence with respect to age was lower for the age group 5–10 years (42.6%) than that of 11–15 years (50%) but was not significantly different (p = 0.524). Trichophyton rubrum (28.8%) and Microsporum canis (22.7%) were the most prevalent dermatophytes isolated and the least were Trichophyton verrucosum (4.5%) and Trichophyton tonsurans (4.5%). There were 73.3% single infection while 26.7% had 2–4 dermatophytes of the genera Microsporum and Trichophyton. The predisposing factors with statistically significant association with tinea capitis were number of children in the family (p = 0.02) and sharing of the same bed (p = 0.002). This indicates the high tendencies of spread of tinea capitis through human-to-human mode of transmission and possible animal contact. Community health education on the cause, mode of transmission, prevention, and prompt treatment of tinea capitis is recommended. PMID:27471603

  3. Different trichoscopic features of tinea capitis and alopecia areata in pediatric patients.

    PubMed

    El-Taweel, Abd-Elaziz; El-Esawy, Fatma; Abdel-Salam, Osama

    2014-01-01

    Background. Diagnosis of patchy hair loss in pediatric patients is often a matter of considerable debate among dermatologists. Trichoscopy is a rapid and noninvasive tool to detect more details of patchy hair loss. Like clinical dermatology, trichoscopy works parallel to the skin surface and perpendicular to the histological plane; like the histopathology, it thus allows the viewing of structures not discovered by the naked eye. Objective. Aiming to compare the different trichoscopic features of tinea capitis and alopecia areata in pediatric patients. Patients and Methods. This study included 40 patients, 20 patients with tinea capitis and 20 patients with alopecia areata. They were exposed toclinical examination, laboratory investigations (10% KOH and fungal culture), and trichoscope examination. Results. Our obtained results reported that, in tinea capitis patients, comma shaped hairs, corkscrew hairs, and zigzag shaped hairs are the diagnostic trichoscopic features of tinea capitis. While in alopecia areata patients, the most trichoscopic specific features were yellow dots, exclamation mark, and short vellus hairs. Conclusion. Trichoscopy can be used as a noninvasive tool for rapid diagnosis of tinea capitis and alopecia areata in pediatric patients. PMID:25024698

  4. Epidemiology of Pediculus humanus capitis infestation in Malaysian school children.

    PubMed

    Sinniah, B; Sinniah, D; Rajeswari, B

    1981-05-01

    A survey of 308,101 primary school children in Peninsular Malaysia conducted in 1979 by the School Health Services, Ministry of Health, Malaysia, revealed that 10.7% of children were infested with Pediculus humanus capitis. The prevalence rate was higher in the economically less advanced states of Terenganu (34%), Kelantan (23%), and Perlis (21%) than in the other states (4-13%). Of 14,233 school children examined in the State of Melaka, 26% of Indians, 18.7% of Malays, 6.1% of Europeans, and 0.7% of Chinese had pediculosis. The prevalence rate, which has remained unchanged over the past 5 years, does not appear to vary with age but is higher in children with long hair and those from the lower socioeconomic groups. Boys have a lower infestation rate than do girls. The higher incidence in Indians and Malays correlates well with their lower socioeconomic status in the community, and their cultural habit of maintaining longer hair than do the Chinese. The difference become less apparent in the higher socioeconomic groups. PMID:7258487

  5. Prevalence and Risk Factors Associated with Pediculosis Capitis in an Impoverished Urban Community in Lima, Peru

    PubMed Central

    Lesshafft, Hannah; Baier, Andreas; Guerra, Humberto; Terashima, Angelica; Feldmeier, Hermann

    2013-01-01

    Background: Pediculosis capitis is a ubiquitous parasitic skin disease associated with intense pruritus of the scalp. In developing countries it frequently affects children and adults, but epidemiological data at the community level are rare. Objectives: To assess prevalence and risk factors associated with pediculosis capitis in a resource-poor community in Lima, Peru. Materials and Methods: In total, 736 persons living in 199 households in a circumscribed neighbourhood were examined for head lice and nits by visual inspection. At the same time, socio-demographic data were collected using a structured questionnaire. Variables associated with pediculosis were identified by performing a bivariate analysis, followed by a multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results: Prevalence of pediculosis capitis was 9.1% (95% confidence interval (CI): 7.0-11.2 %) in the general population and 19.9% (CI: 15.4-24.4%) in children ≤15 years of age. Multivariate analysis showed that pediculosis capitis was significantly associated with age ≤ 15 years (OR: 16.85; CI:7.42-38.24), female sex (OR: 2.84; CI: 1.58-5.12), household size of >4 persons (OR: 1.98; CI: 1.11-3.55), low quality of house construction material (OR:2.22; CI: 1.20-4.12), and presence of animals in the household (OR: 1.94; CI: 1.11-3.39). Conclusion: Pediculosis capitis was a very common disease in the studied community in Lima, Peru. Our logistic regression analysis affirms that young age is the most important risk factor for pediculosis capitis. Moreover, female sex, large household size, living in wooden houses and the presence of animals were identified as being significantly associated with head lice infestation. PMID:24672174

  6. Prophylactic Ketoconazole Shampoo for Tinea Capitis in a High-Risk Pediatric Population

    PubMed Central

    Bookstaver, P. Brandon; Watson, Holly J.; Winters, Shauna D.; Carlson, Adrian L.; Schulz, Richard M.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Although topical agents for the treatment of tinea capitis decrease viable fungal elements and reduce shedding, their use as a prophylactic agent has not been investigated. This study evaluated the effectiveness of a prophylactic ketoconazole shampoo (Nizoral 2%) protocol to reduce the number of clinically evident tinea capitis infections in a high-risk African American, urban population. METHODS We conducted a retrospective analysis of a ketoconazole prophylaxis protocol that was implemented at an urban pediatric clinic for medically fragile children. Patients at high risk for tinea capitis received twice-weekly ketoconazole shampoo. The primary outcome of the study was a reduction in the number of documented tinea capitis infections between the 12-month preprotocol and 12-month postprotocol periods. A secondary outcome included the evaluation of predisposing risk factors for acquiring tinea infections. RESULTS Ninety-seven patients, with a mean age of 8.06 years, were included. Most patients (78%) were African American. There were a total of 13 tinea capitis infections during the 12-month preprotocol period. During the 12-month postprotocol period, 41 infections were documented: 37 (90.2%) in the prophylaxis group and 4 (9.8%) in the nonprophylaxis group. The average numbers of per-patient infections in the postprotocol period were 0.79 and 0.08 in the prophylaxis and nonprophylaxis groups, respectively. Initiation of prophylaxis did not reduce tinea capitis infections (p=NS). Previous history of infection and a high level of care were significant predictors of infections (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS Improved hygiene, adherence to prescribed treatment regimens, and prevention of recurrent environmental exposure to surviving fomites should be stressed in high-risk patients and supersede the need for an antifungal (ketoconazole shampoo) prophylaxis protocol. PMID:22479162

  7. A genome-wide identification of basic helix-loop-helix motifs in Pediculus humanus corporis (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae).

    PubMed

    Wang, Xu-Hua; Wang, Yong; Zhang, De-Bao; Liu, A-Ke; Yao, Qin; Chen, Ke-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) proteins comprise a large superfamily of transcription factors, which are involved in the regulation of various developmental processes. bHLH family members are widely distributed in various eukaryotes including yeast, fruit fly, zebrafish, mouse, and human. In this study, we identified 55 bHLH motifs encoded in genome sequence of the human body louse, Pediculus humanus corporis (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae). Phylogenetic analyses of the identified P. humanus corporis bHLH (PhcbHLH) motifs revealed that there are 23, 11, 9, 1, 10, and 1 member(s) in groups A, B, C, D, E, and F, respectively. Examination to GenBank annotations of the 55 PhcbHLH members indicated that 29 PhcbHLH proteins were annotated in consistence with our analytical result, 8 were annotated different with our analytical result, 12 were merely annotated as hypothetical protein, and the rest 6 were not deposited in GenBank. A comparison on insect bHLH gene composition revealed that human body louse possibly has more hairy and E(spl) genes than other insect species. Because hairy and E(spl) genes have been found to negatively regulate the differentiation of insect preneural cells, it is suggested that the existence of additional hairy and E(spl) genes in human body louse is probably the consequence of its long period adaptation to the relatively dark and stable environment. These data provide good references for further studies on regulatory functions of bHLH proteins in the growth and development of human body louse. PMID:25434030

  8. An experience from an outbreak of tinea capitis gladiatorum due to Trichophyton tonsurans.

    PubMed

    Ergin, S; Ergin, C; Erdoğan, B S; Kaleli, I; Evliyaoğlu, D

    2006-03-01

    'Tinea corporis gladiatorum' describes a dermatophytosis transmitted mainly from close skin contact among wrestlers. Although tinea corporis is well recognized, no data are available for tinea capitis infections in wrestlers. After finding tinea capitis infection in a student wrestler, we aimed to search for possible ringworm infections among wrestlers in a wrestling boarding-school. Of the 32 wrestlers, 29, aged 12-18 years, were affected, of whom 22 had scalp involvement. Trichophyton tonsurans was isolated from 20 of the patients, and T. mentagrophytes from the remaining two. Isolated strains of dermatophytes were susceptible to terbinafine and itraconazole. The patients with tinea capitis received oral terbinafine for 4 weeks, and patients with more than two lesions but without scalp involvement received oral terbinafine for 2 weeks. Overall clinical and mycological cure rate was 72.4% and 70%, respectively, at assessment at week 6. The asymptomatic dermatophyte carrier rate was negative 1 year after control of the epidemic. Terbinafine seems to be an alternative drug for the treatment of tinea capitis caused by T. tonsurans; however, control of an outbreak may be very difficult and effective preventive measures should be considered. PMID:16487093

  9. Inflammatory tinea capitis (kerion) mimicking dissecting cellulitis. Occurrence in two adolescents.

    PubMed

    Sperling, L C

    1991-03-01

    Tinea capitis is unusual in postpubertal individuals and is frequently misdiagnosed. In cases of inflammatory disease, prompt initiation of therapy is essential to prevent scarring and permanent hair loss. Two examples are presented to illustrate principles of evaluation and treatment. PMID:2037403

  10. Aspergillus niger - a possible new etiopathogenic agent in Tinea capitis? Presentation of two cases.

    PubMed

    Chokoeva, Anastasiya Atanasova; Zisova, Liliya; Chorleva, Kristina; Tchernev, Georgi

    2016-01-01

    Tinea capitis is generally considered as the most frequent fungal infection in childhood, as it accounts for approximately 92% of all mycosis in children. The epidemiology of this disease varies widely ranging from antropophillic, zoophilic, and geophillic dermatophytes, as the main causative agent in different geographic areas, depending on several additional factors. Nowadays, the etiology is considered to vary with age, as well with gender, and general health condition. The former reported extraordinary Tinea capitis case reports have been replaced by original articles and researches dealing with progressively changing patterns in etiology and clinical manifestation of the disease. This fact is indicative that under the umbrella of the well-known disease there are facts still hidden for future revelations. Herein, we present two rare cases of Tinea capitis in children, which totally differ from the recently established pattern, in their clinical presentation, as well as in the etiological aspect, as we discuss this potential new etiological pattern of the disease, focusing on our retrospective and clinical observation. Collected data suggest that pathogenic molds should be considered as a potential source of infection in some geographic regions, which require total rationalization of the former therapeutic conception, regarding the molds' higher antimitotic resistance compared to dermatophytes. Molds-induced Tinea capitis should be also considered in clinically resistant and atypical cases, with further investigations of the antifungal susceptibility of the newest pathogens in the frame of the old disease. Further investigations are still needed to confirm or reject this proposal. PMID:26963152

  11. Patterns of attachment of the myodural bridge by the rectus capitis posterior minor muscle.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Xiao-Ying; Yu, Sheng-Bo; Li, Yun-Fei; Chi, Yan-Yan; Zheng, Nan; Gao, Hai-Bin; Luan, Bing-Yi; Zhang, Zhao-Xi; Sui, Hong-Jin

    2016-03-01

    The myodural bridge was first described by Hack in 1995 and was thought to be related to chronic cervicogenic headaches. For a long time, few studies revealed the patterns of the myodural bridge considering the rectus capitis posterior minor muscle. In this study, P45 plastination technology and anatomical dissection were performed on head specimens, and four different terminal region types of the rectus capitis posterior minor muscle were observed, including the posterior atlanto-occipital interspace, posterior arch of the atlas and posterior atlanto-axial interspace. We propose that the myodural complex structures in the posterior atlanto-occipital and posterior atlanto-axial interspace have cooperative effects on cerebrospinal fluid and work together. This force might be an important source for the circulation of cerebrospinal fluid. PMID:25859757

  12. The prevalence of pediculus capitis among the middle schoolchildren in Fars Province, southern Iran

    PubMed Central

    Davarpanah, Mohammad Ali; Rasekhi Kazerouni, Akbar; Rahmati, Hashem; Neirami, Roxana Neirami; Bakhtiary, Hamid; Sadeghi, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Background: Pediculosis capitis is a common parasitic infection of children. In this study we assessed the prevalence of head pediculosis among the middle schoolchildren in the urban and rural areas of Fars province, southern Iran. Methods: All middle schoolchildren ages 11-14, in all the urban and rural areas of the province were screened for head lice infestation by examining their hair and scalp. The parents of the infested children were also examined. The study was repeated in the different seasons in the same areas. Moreover, the infested children were treated with permethrin shampoo and re-examined one week later for any relapse. Results: The general prevalence of head lice infestation in middle school students was 0.23% in autumn, 0.27% in winter and 0.11% in spring. In all three seasons, pediculosis capitis prevalence was higher among females and in the rural areas. Treatment with permethrin shampoo was markedly more successful in males from both regions in all months except the urban areas in spring. Conclusion: The results show that pediculus capitis is generally uncommon among Fars Province middle schoolchildren. It is needed that health providers promote heath education programs especially in the rural areas. PMID:24009945

  13. Intractable occipital neuralgia caused by an entrapment in the semispinalis capitis.

    PubMed

    Son, Byung-Chul; Kim, Deok-Ryeong; Lee, Sang-Won

    2013-09-01

    Occipital neuralgia is a rare pain syndrome characterized by periodic lancinating pain involving the occipital nerve complex. We present a unique case of entrapment of the greater occipital nerve (GON) within the semispinalis capitis, which was thought to be the cause of occipital neuralgia. A 66-year-old woman with refractory left occipital neuralgia revealed an abnormally low-loop of the left posterior inferior cerebellar artery on the magnetic resonance imaging, suggesting possible vascular compression of the upper cervical roots. During exploration, however, the GON was found to be entrapped at the perforation site of the semispinalis capitis. There was no other compression of the GON or of C1 and C2 dorsal roots in their intracranial course. Postoperatively, the patient experienced almost complete relief of typical neuralgic pain. Although occipital neuralgia has been reported to occur by stretching of the GON by inferior oblique muscle or C1-C2 arthrosis, peripheral compression in the transmuscular course of the GON in the semispinalis capitis as a cause of refractory occipital neuralgia has not been reported and this should be considered when assessing surgical options for refractory occipital neuralgia. PMID:24278663

  14. Molecular typing study of the Microsporum canis strains isolated from an outbreak of tinea capitis in a school.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jin; Wan, Zhe; Chen, Wei; Wang, Wenling; Li, Ruoyu

    2004-01-01

    Tinea capitis is a dermatophyte infection of the scalp that occurs most often in prepubescent children. Tinea capitis may be transmitted by shared use of contaminated hairbrush, by contact with fomites or by direct physical contact with an infected person. Occasionally, outbreak of tinea capitis would happen under some special conditions. Last year, we found an outbreak of tinea capitis in a school due to Microsporum canis. In epidemiological study, we performed the prevalence survey to all of the exposed persons by physical examinations and mycological laboratory tests, including KOH preparation and fungal cultures. We also investigated the environment in the school. In molecular typing study of the M. canis isolated from patients and the environment, random primer amplification polymorphic DNA (RAPD) method, the specific amplification of subrepeat element in the ribosomal DNA nontranscribed spacer (NTS), and the analysis of DNA sequence in the intertranscribed spacer (ITS) of rDNA were performed. The total number of exposed children was seventy-one, among them forty-two were attacked by tinea capitis. The ratio between boy and girl was 13:1. The ages of the patients was ranged from 3.5 years old to 10 years old. Four patients bred cat or dog as pet. Most patients appeared noninflammatory type of tinea capitis and several patients were inflammatory type. Under microscopic examination the invaded hair were all ectothrix. The pathogens isolated from these patients were M. canis. And we also isolated M. canis from the carpet and the pillowcase in the school. The patterns of total strains of M. canis in the RAPD method and PCR amplification of the rDNA NTS region study were identical, and the isolates from patients and the environment contained the same DNA sequences in the ITS region. The outbreak of tinea capitis was caused by M. canis. The M. canis isolated from patients and from the environment were probably the same origin. PMID:15008343

  15. Evolution of tinea capitis in the Nanchang area, Southern China: a 50-year survey (1965-2014).

    PubMed

    Zhan, Ping; Geng, Chengfang; Li, Zhihua; Jin, Yun; Jiang, Qing; Tao, Li; Luo, Yunpeng; Xiong, Zhiwei; Wu, Shaoxi; Li, Dongmei; Liu, Weida; de Hoog, G Sybren

    2015-05-01

    Tinea capitis remains a common public health problem worldwide especially in developing areas. Aetiologic agents and clinical pattern vary with geography and history of socioeconomic conditions. Three community surveys and a prospective study were carried out over the past 50 years (1965-2014) in the Qingyunpu District of Nanchang, Southern China. Clinical presentation and spectrum of aetiological agents were monitored to understand the evolution of tinea capitis. In 1965 favus was highly epidemic and Trichophyton schoenleinii presented as the overwhelming aetiological agents of scalp infection in the study area, with a prevalence of 3.41% of the population. During a governmental campaign to eliminate tinea capitis initiated in mid of 1960s, favus was successfully controlled and the prevalence decreased to less than 0.01% in 1977. After that period, clinical presentation and spectrum of fungi changed with social development. Trichophyton schoenleinii was replaced by Trichophyton violaceum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. Nowadays, the species corresponds with a dominant black dot type of tinea capitis in the Nanchang area. The prevalence of causative agents of tinea capitis is not only related to geography but also to socioeconomic factors. Multiple factors have to be considered for the management for control of this disease. PMID:25756741

  16. [Identification of geophilic and zoophilic dermatophytes in siblings with tinea capitis. A pathogenic factor or contamination?].

    PubMed

    Lehmann, S; Ott, H; Barker, M; Heimann, G; Poblete-Gutiérrez, P; Frank, J

    2004-10-01

    Two siblings of African origin presented with multiple scaling patches and alopecia on the scalp four weeks after returning from a vacation in Eritrea. Direct KOH examination revealed fungal elements; Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Trichophyton terrestre were identified in the fungal culture. We discuss the putative pathogenic role of both microorganisms in causing disease. Although infection with Microsporum canis currently accounts for almost fifty percent of all cases of tinea capitis in Germany, other fungi have gained importance due to tourism and increasing migration. PMID:15340708

  17. Study of archaeological nits/eggs of Pediculus humanus capitis by scanning electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Arriaza, Bernardo; Standen, Vivien; Núñez, Hipólito; Reinhard, Karl

    2013-02-01

    This paper presents and discusses archaeological samples of Pediculus humanus capitis nits/eggs in Arica, northern Chile, dating between 2000 B.C. and A.D. 500. Eight samples of nits/eggs taken directly from seven mummified bodies of both the valley and the coast of Arica, were collected and studied. Samples were analysed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), uncoated, using low and variable pressure modes. The aim was to study the morphology of the nits/eggs, the different degrees of preservation and their research potential. All samples were in good external condition and due to manipulation before SEM analysis, the oldest ones were fractured allowing the observation in situ of the hatching ad portas of an embryo. This inside view of the egg allowed observation and identification of microstructures of the embryo such as abdominal and thoracic spiracles and claws. In the most recent and best preserved samples, external structures characteristic of the egg such as aeropyles and operculum were observed. SEM can contribute significantly to the study of ectoparasites that affected ancient American populations and in this particular case to illustrate the stages and morphology of Andean archaeological specimens of P. humanus capitis. PMID:23176818

  18. Perifolliculitis capitis abscedens et suffodiens in a caucasian: diagnostic and therapeutic challenge.

    PubMed

    Mihić, Liborija Lugović; Tomas, Davor; Situm, Mirna; Krolo, Iva; Sebetić, Klaudija; Sjerobabski-Masnec, Ines; Barišić, Freja

    2011-01-01

    Perifolliculitis capitis abscedens et suffodiens or dissecting cellulitis of the scalp is a rare, chronic destructive folliculitis of the scalp, characterized by painful nodules, purulent drainage, sinus tracts, keloid formation and cicatricial alopecia. The cause of the disease is unknown, but it is similar in many features to hidradenitis suppurativa and acne conglobata. In our case report, the patient's dermatologic appearance included one slightly erythematous, infiltrated alopecic area with draining lesions in the right parietal part of the scalp with a few alopecic areas in other parts of the scalp. The identification of the infectious agent, repeated swabs and KOH examination/or fungal cultures and tissue sampling for histopathologic analysis were necessary to confirm the diagnosis of perifolliculitis capitis abscedens et suffodiens. The patient received systemic antibiotics (azithromycin and amoxicillin-clavulanate) and oral antimycotic therapy (fluconazole), followed by a long period of oral isotretinoin with local skin care, which led to resolution and thus inhibited the evolution to scarring and nodular stage of the disease. Thus, such combined approach could be useful for other patients with these dermatologic problems. PMID:21703156

  19. Can neck exercises enhance the activation of the semispinalis cervicis relative to the splenius capitis at specific spinal levels?

    PubMed

    Schomacher, Jochen; Erlenwein, Joachim; Dieterich, Angela; Petzke, Frank; Falla, Deborah

    2015-10-01

    The deep cervical extensor, semispinalis cervicis, displays changes in behaviour and structure in people with chronic neck pain yet there is limited knowledge on how activation of this muscle can be emphasized during training. Using intramuscular electromyography (EMG), this study investigated the activity of the deep semispinalis cervicis and the superficial splenius capitis muscle at two spinal levels (C2 and C5) in ten healthy volunteers during a series of neck exercises: 1. Traction and compression, 2. Resistance applied in either flexion or extension at the occiput, at the level of the vertebral arch of C1 and of C4, and 3. Maintaining the neck in neutral while inclined on the elbows, with and without resistance at C4. The ratio between semispinalis cervicis and the splenius capitis EMG amplitude was quantified as an indication of whether the exercise could emphasize the activation of the semispinalis cervicis muscle relative to the splenius capitis. Manual resistance applied in extension over the vertebral arch emphasized the activation of the semispinalis cervicis relative to the splenius capitis at the spinal level directly caudal to the site of resistance (ratio: 2.0 ± 1.1 measured at C5 with resistance at C4 and 2.1 ± 1.2 measured at C2 with resistance at C1). This study confirmed the possibility of emphasizing the activation of the semispinalis cervicis relative to the splenius capitis which may be relevant for targeted exercise interventions for this deep extensor muscle. Further studies are required to investigate the clinical efficacy of these exercises for people with neck pain. PMID:25935795

  20. Benign and malignant thyroid neoplasms after childhood irradiation for Tinea capitis. [X-ray

    SciTech Connect

    Ron, E.; Modan, B.

    1980-07-01

    The incidence of all thyroid surgery was studied among 10,842 persons whose thyroid glands had been exposed in childhood to an average dose of 9 rads of x-radiation during treatment for tinea capitis and among 2 matched control groups. A statistically significant increased risk for both benign and malignant neoplasms was found in the exposed group. The excess risk was 8.3 cases/year/rad/million population. There were no differences in other surgical conditions between the irradiated and nonirradiated groups. Persons irradiated under age 6 years had the highest excess risk for developing carcinomas. The incidence of thyroid neoplasms was approximately threefold higher in women than in men among the irradiated persons and among the controls, but the relative risk for the irradiated group of women was greater than the addition of the relative risks of the other groups. Low-dose radiation is instrumental in the development of both benign and malignant thyroid neoplasms.

  1. Tinea capitis due to Trichophyton soudanense with a papular IDE reaction in Northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Di Landro, A; Marchesi, L; Passera, M; Arosio, M

    2008-12-01

    A little boy from a Nigerian family who lives in a little industrialized village in the suburbs of Bergamo, (Northern Italy), has never been to his country but presented with tinea capitis and with a secondary papular pruritic eruption of the trunk. Fungal cultures analysis have shown the development of Trichophyton soudanense, an anthropophilic dermatophyte which is endemic in Africa, but only rarely reported in Italy and in other European countries. The growing racial mixing related to migratory movements is favoring, also in Italy, the integration of this strain with the species which are most commonly responsible for dermatophytoses and the appearance of papular IDE reactions which were only occasionally seen in the Italian children population. PMID:19169215

  2. Tinea capitis caused by Trichophyton tonsurans presenting as an obscure patchy hair loss due to daily antifungal shampoo use.

    PubMed

    Sombatmaithai, Alita; Pattanaprichakul, Penvadee; Tuchinda, Papapit; Surawan, Theetat; Muanprasart, Chanai; Matthapan, Lalita; Bunyaratavej, Sumanas

    2015-04-01

    Tinea capitis is unusual and often misdiagnosed in healthy adults. We report a case of a healthy woman with a several-year history of asymptomatic, bizarre-shaped, non-scarring alopecia. She had used over-the-counter ketoconazole shampoo regularly for a long time. An initial potassium hydroxide preparation showed negative result for fungal organism. The scalp biopsy revealed endothrix infection, and dermoscopic examination demonstrated the comma hair and corkscrew hair signs. The fungal culture showed Trichophyton tonsurans. The daily use of antifungal shampoo could be the important factor to conceal clinical and laboratory findings for diagnosis of T. tonsurans tinea capitis in our case, which required high clinical suspicion and histopathology and dermoscopic examinations. PMID:26114071

  3. An ultrastructural study on corkscrew hairs and cigarette-ash-shaped hairs observed by dermoscopy of tinea capitis.

    PubMed

    Lu, Mao; Ran, Yuping; Dai, Yaling; Lei, Song; Zhang, Chaoliang; Zhuang, Kaiwen; Hu, Wenying

    2016-01-01

    This study was aimed to explain the formation mechanisms of corkscrew hairs and cigarette-ash-shaped hairs observed by dermoscopy of tinea capitis. In the present work, the ultrastructure of the involved hairs collected from a girl with tinea capitis caused by Trichophyton violaceum was observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). SEM observation of the corkscrew hair revealed bent hair shaft and asymmetrically disrupted cuticle layer. TEM findings demonstrated the hair shaft became weak. The corkscrew hairs closely covered by scales on the scalp were observed under dermoscopy. We speculate that the formation of corkscrew hairs is a result of a combination of internal damage due to hair degradation by T. violaceum and external resistance due to scales covering the hair. SEM observation of the cigarette-ash-shaped hair revealed irregularly disrupted and incompact end, which might represent the stump of the broken corkscrew hair after treatment. PMID:26301780

  4. Tinea capitis caused by Trichophyton tonsurans presenting as an obscure patchy hair loss due to daily antifungal shampoo use

    PubMed Central

    Sombatmaithai, Alita; Pattanaprichakul, Penvadee; Tuchinda, Papapit; Surawan, Theetat; Muanprasart, Chanai; Matthapan, Lalita; Bunyaratavej, Sumanas

    2015-01-01

    Tinea capitis is unusual and often misdiagnosed in healthy adults. We report a case of a healthy woman with a several-year history of asymptomatic, bizarre-shaped, non-scarring alopecia. She had used over-the-counter ketoconazole shampoo regularly for a long time. An initial potassium hydroxide preparation showed negative result for fungal organism. The scalp biopsy revealed endothrix infection, and dermoscopic examination demonstrated the comma hair and corkscrew hair signs. The fungal culture showed Trichophyton tonsurans. The daily use of antifungal shampoo could be the important factor to conceal clinical and laboratory findings for diagnosis of T. tonsurans tinea capitis in our case, which required high clinical suspicion and histopathology and dermoscopic examinations. PMID:26114071

  5. Emergence of linezolid resistance in a clinical Staphylococcus capitis isolate from Jiangsu Province of China in 2012

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yiling; Xu, Yanling; Liu, Genyan; Mei, Yaning; Xia, Wenying; Xu, Ting

    2014-01-01

    Linezolid (LZD) is an important antimicrobial agent for the treatment of infections caused by Gram-positive organisms, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococci. And until now, LZD resistance in clinical is still rare. Here we reported the first case of LZD resistance Staphylococcus capitis in Jiangsu, China. This strain was isolated from a 92-year old female who received long-term and repeatedly antibiotics treatment because of recurrent pulmonary infections in August 2012. Isolated from blood, the Staphylococcus capitis showed a resistance to LZD with a minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 64 µg/mL, and the followed gene detection showed that the isolates existed C2190T and C2561Y point mutations in the 23S rRNA. Moreover, the isolation was also found carrying the cfr gene. PMID:24822125

  6. A ghost covered in lice: a case of severe blood loss with long-standing heavy pediculosis capitis infestation.

    PubMed

    Hau, Veronica; Muhi-Iddin, Nadia

    2014-01-01

    An 11-year-old child presented with poor school attendance, and signs and symptoms of severe anaemia. He was heavily covered in lice. He was investigated for other causes of anaemia. Following treatment for head lice and also iron supplementation, he was back in full-time education. This case highlights the link between head lice (pediculosis capitis) infestation and iron-deficiency anaemia. PMID:25527684

  7. Perifolliculitis Capitis Abscedens et Suffodiens in a 7 Years Male: A Case Report with Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Gaopande, Vandana L; Kulkarni, Maithili M; Joshi, Avinash R; Dhande, Ashish N

    2015-01-01

    Perifolliculitis capitis abscedens et suffodiens is the least common of the three conditions included in the follicular occlusion triad. It is one of the causes of scarring alopecia in adult males. Clinically it has to be differentiated from other causes of folliculitis affecting the scalp. The histopathology is diagnostic. The treatment is prolonged and the clinical course is characterized by remissions and relapses. PMID:26903747

  8. Perifolliculitis Capitis Abscedens et Suffodiens in a 7 Years Male: A Case Report with Review of Literature.

    PubMed

    Gaopande, Vandana L; Kulkarni, Maithili M; Joshi, Avinash R; Dhande, Ashish N

    2015-01-01

    Perifolliculitis capitis abscedens et suffodiens is the least common of the three conditions included in the follicular occlusion triad. It is one of the causes of scarring alopecia in adult males. Clinically it has to be differentiated from other causes of folliculitis affecting the scalp. The histopathology is diagnostic. The treatment is prolonged and the clinical course is characterized by remissions and relapses. PMID:26903747

  9. Inflammatory tinea capitis mimicking dissecting cellulitis in a postpubertal male: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Stein, Loretta L; Adams, Erin G; Holcomb, Katherine Z

    2013-09-01

    Tinea capitis in postpubertal patients is unusual and may be misdiagnosed as dissecting cellulitis. We report a case of a healthy 19-year-old Hispanic male presenting with a 2-month history of a large, painful subcutaneous boggy plaque on the scalp with patchy alopecia, erythematous papules, cysts and pustules. Although initially diagnosed as dissecting cellulitis, potassium hydroxide evaluation (KOH preparation) of the hair from the affected region was positive. A punch biopsy of the scalp demonstrated endothrix consistent with tinea capitis, but with a brisk, deep mixed inflammatory infiltrate as can be seen with chronic dissecting cellulitis. Fungal culture revealed Trichophyton tonsurans, and a diagnosis of inflammatory tinea capitis was made. The patient was treated over the course of 17 months with multiple systemic and topical antifungal medications, with slow, but demonstrable clinical and histopathological improvement. A rare diagnosis in adults, clinicians should have a high index of suspicion for this condition in an adult with an inflammatory scalp disorder not classic for dissecting cellulitis or with a recalcitrant dissecting cellulitis. Prompt, appropriate diagnosis and treatment is necessary to prevent the long-term complications of scarring alopecia. PMID:23582018

  10. Epidemiology of Pediculosis capitis in elementary schools of Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Toloza, Ariel; Vassena, Claudia; Gallardo, Anabella; González-Audino, Paola; Picollo, María Inés

    2009-06-01

    The infestation with the human obligate ectoparasite Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer is a common public health problem affecting mainly schoolchildren worldwide. The aim of the present study was to investigate the infestation levels of head lice in elementary schools from Buenos Aires with resistant levels to permethrin >100. A total of 1,856 children aged 3-13 years old from eight selected elementary schools were examined for head lice. Pediculosis was observed in all the studied schools. The overall infestation rate was 29.7%. Girls were statistically significant more infested than boys, with infestation rate values of 36.1% and 26.7%, respectively (P < 0.0001). Only 42 of the infested girls (12%) and 23 of the infested boys (11.4%) had >10 lice on their hair. The proportions of infested children-both girls and boys-in each age group were not found to differ significantly from one another. The infestation rate among schools varied from 19.12% to 42.74%. This indicated that pediculosis is relatively common in elementary schools from Buenos Aires, and those levels are of epidemic importance. The differences of pediculosis among the studied schools could be explained by the different control strategies applied by parents or advisors to eradicate head lice. PMID:19148682

  11. Tinea capitis outbreak among paediatric refugee population, an evolving healthcare challenge.

    PubMed

    Mashiah, Jacob; Kutz, Ana; Ben Ami, Ronen; Savion, Mihal; Goldberg, Ilan; Gan Or, Tamar; Zidan, Omri; Sprecher, Eli; Harel, Avikam

    2016-09-01

    Outbreaks of tinea capitis (TC) represent a major medical and economic burden. Population migrations have become a phenomenon of increasing relevance for medical conditions management. Given the recent massive arrival of immigrants, we sought to determine epidemiologic trends for TC among paediatric populations at the Tel Aviv Medical Center. We conducted a retrospective study of all TC cases diagnosed between 2010 and 2014 in a paediatric dermatology unit of a tertiary medical centre, serving as a referral centre for the paediatric refugee population from the great Tel Aviv area. Epidemiologic, clinical and treatment data including effectiveness and safety were reviewed. In all, 145 children met the inclusion criteria. Trend analyses showed increases in TC rates over the study period. Incidence rates were higher in boys than in girls. Children of African origin had the highest TC incidence rates as compared with other ethnic groups. Trichophyton violaceum and Microsporum audouinii were the predominant causative organisms. Treatment with griseofulvin was satisfactory in all cases. There was a significant increase in TC incidence rates in the Tel Aviv area over the study period. TV and MA were the predominant organisms. These trends may be a result of poor living conditions and crowded school premises. PMID:27061446

  12. [Tinea capitis profunda due to Trichophyton verrucosum with cMRSA superinfection in an infant].

    PubMed

    Blömer, R-H; Keilani, N; Faber, A; Rodeck, B; Krüger, C; Uhrlaß, S; Gräser, Y; Nenoff, P

    2012-08-01

    A 28-month-old boy developed a cutaneous and subcutaneous lesion of the scalp together with alopecia. Treatment with sulfadiazine silver ointment and oral administration of cefaclor failed. The boy lived on a farm where cows and calves were present. He presented with a 5 cm erythematous, erosive, edematous, and sharply defined lesion with yellow crusts and circumscribed alopecia on the temporoparietal scalp. Peripheral hairs were easily epilated. Swabs from the wound revealed cMRSA (community acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Panton Valentine Leukocidin [PVL] toxin negative). There was no improvement after treatment with cefuroxime intravenously over 3 days. Therapy was changed to vancomycin and fosfomycin. Because of the purulent abscess, surgical incision was performed. PCR (polymerase chain reaction)-Elisa assay detected Trichophyton (T.) interdigitale-DNA from wound secretion and skin biopsy. Because of the clinical and molecular diagnosis of tinea capitis, oral antifungal therapy with fluconazole 5 mg kg(-1) body weight was started, along with cotrimoxazole and fosfomycin for the cMRSA. After 4 weeks incubation, the causative agent T. verrucosum was grown on culture and its identity confirmed by sequencing of the "internal transcribed spacer" (ITS) region of the ribosomal DNA. After 4 weeks of fluconazole, the lesion was nearly healed. PMID:22406762

  13. Microsporum canis infection in three familial cases with tinea capitis and tinea corporis.

    PubMed

    Yin, Bin; Xiao, Yuling; Ran, Yuping; Kang, Daoxian; Dai, Yaling; Lama, Jebina

    2013-10-01

    We report a familial infection caused by Microsporum canis. The first two patients were a 30-year-old female and her son, a 5-year-old boy, who came in contact with a pet dog at a farm house. The boy then suffered from hair loss for 3 months. There were circular and patchy alopecia with diffuse scaling on his scalp. Meanwhile, his mother also developed patchy erythema and scaling on her face. Several weeks later, the boy's sister, a 4-year-old girl, was noted to have inconspicuous scaly plaques in the center of her scalp. The development of tinea capitis in the two children and tinea corporis in their mother were diagnosed based on the positive KOH examination. Morphologic characteristics and sequencing of the internal transcribed spacers 1 and 2, amplified from primary culture isolates, confirmed that their infections were caused by the zoophilic M. canis. Repetitive sequence-based molecular typing using the DiversiLab system secreted enzymatic activity analysis, and antifungal susceptibility indicated that these isolates might share the same source. The boy and girl were cured by the treatment with oral itraconazole and topical naftifine-ketoconazole cream after washing the hair with 2 % ketoconazole shampoo, and their mother was successfully treated by terbinafine orally in combination with topical application of naftifine-ketoconazole cream. PMID:23918090

  14. Characterization of a Novel Composite Staphylococcal Cassette Chromosome mec (SCCmec-SCCcad/ars/cop) in the Neonatal Sepsis-Associated Staphylococcus capitis Pulsotype NRCS-A

    PubMed Central

    Rasigade, J.-P.; Lemriss, H.; Butin, M.; Ginevra, C.; Lemriss, S.; Goering, R. V.; Ibrahimi, A.; Picaud, J. C.; El Kabbaj, S.; Vandenesch, F.; Laurent, F.

    2013-01-01

    Multiresistant Staphylococcus capitis pulsotype NRCS-A has been reported to be a major pathogen causing nosocomial bacteremia in preterm infants. We report that the NRCS-A strain CR01 harbors a novel 60.9-kb composite staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) element, composed of an SCCmec with strong homologies to Staphylococcus aureus ST398 SCCmec and of an SCCcad/ars/cop harboring resistance genes for cadmium, arsenic, and copper. Whole-genome-based comparisons of published S. capitis strains suggest that strain CR01 acquired the two elements independently. PMID:24060879

  15. Response of Pediculus humanus humanus (Pediculidae: Phthiraptera) to water or 70% ethanol immersion and determination of optimal times for measuring toxic effects.

    PubMed

    Mougabure Cueto, Gastón; Inés Picollo, María

    2010-05-01

    Human pediculosis is caused by Pediculus humanus humanus (Linnaeus 1758) and Pediculus humanus capitis (De Geer 1767). We studied the response of body lice to immersion in water and ethanol 70% and determined the optimal times for measuring knockdown and mortality. After immersion in water, all lice remained alive from 5 min to 22 h for both times of exposure. A low proportion of lice were affected after 2 min of immersion in ethanol in the 10-min exposure test, but recovered completely after 5 min. Different proportions of lice were affected between 2 and 7 h after immersion in ethanol, depending on the immersion time. However, a high proportion of lice recovered after 22 h. The results suggest that the optimal times for measuring early knockdown effects of insecticides are the 5-min to 7-h interval for water and 5-min to 1-h interval for ethanol. On the other hand, the best time for measuring mortality is 22 h after immersion. These results should improve the interpretations of the effects of pediculicides in immersion bioassays. PMID:20358227

  16. Purification and molecular characterization of glycylglycine endopeptidase produced by Staphylococcus capitis EPK1.

    PubMed Central

    Sugai, M; Fujiwara, T; Akiyama, T; Ohara, M; Komatsuzawa, H; Inoue, S; Suginaka, H

    1997-01-01

    A novel staphylolytic enzyme, ALE-1, acting on Staphylococcus aureus, was purified from a Staphylococcus capitis EPK1 culture supernatant. The optimal pH range for staphylolytic activity was 7 to 9. ALE-1 contains one Zn2+ atom per molecule. Analysis of peptidoglycan fragments released by ALE-1 indicated that the enzyme is a glycylglycine endopeptidase. The effects of various modulators were determined, and we found that o-phenanthroline, iodoacetic acid, diethylpyrocarbonate, and Cu2+ reduced the staphylolytic activity of ALE-1. beta-Casein, elastin, and pentaglycine were poor substrates for ALE-1. Molecular cloning data revealed that ALE-1 is composed of 362 amino acid residues and is synthesized as a precursor protein which is cleaved after Ala at position 35, thus producing a mature ALE-1 of 35.6 kDa. The primary structure of mature ALE-1 is very similar to the proenzyme form of lysostaphin. It has the modular design of an N-terminal domain of tandem repeats of a 13-amino-acid sequence fused to the active site containing C-terminal domain. Unlike lysostaphin, ALE-1 does not undergo processing of the N-terminal repeat domain in broth culture. ale-1 is encoded on the plasmid. Protein homology search suggested that ALE-1 and lysostaphin are members of the novel Zn2+ protease family with a homologous 38-amino-acid-long motif, Tyr-X-His-X(11)-Val-X(12/20)-Gly-X(5-6)-His. PMID:9023202

  17. Chemical composition and efficacy of some selected plant oils against Pediculus humanus capitis in vitro.

    PubMed

    Yones, Doaa A; Bakir, Hanaa Y; Bayoumi, Soad A L

    2016-08-01

    Natural compounds have been suggested as alternative sources for pediculosis capitis control. We aimed to investigate the chemical composition and evaluate the pediculicidal activity of spearmint, clove, cassia, thyme, eucalyptus, and anise essential oils in addition to sesame oil against human head lice in vitro. A filter paper contact bioassay method was used by applying 0.25 and 0.5 mg/cm(2) of each tested oil to filter paper in Petri dishes with 15 females head lice and another with ten nits. The lice mortalities were reported every 5 min for 180 min. The percentage of inhibition of hatch (PIH) was used to calculate ovicidal activity by daily microscopic inspections 5 days after the hatching of controls. Comparison with the widely used pediculicide (malathion) was performed. The most effective essential oil was spearmint followed by cassia and clove with KT50 values of 4.06, 7.62, and 12.12 at 0.5 mg/cm(2) and 8.84, 11.38, and 19.73 at 0.25 mg/cm(2), respectively. Thyme, eucalyptus, and anise were also effective adulticides with KT50 values of 18.61, 32.65, and 37.34 at 0.5 mg/cm(2) and 29.92, 43.16, and 45.37 at 0.25 mg/cm(2), respectively. Essential oils were also successful in inhibiting nymph emergence. Spearmint oil was the most effective, with a complete inhibition of emergence at 0.5 mg/cm(2). Sesame fixed oil did not show any adulticidal or ovicidal activity against head lice in vitro. The observed insecticidal activity was comparable to malathion. The results herein described the effectiveness of these essential oils as potential pediculicides for head lice control. Incorporation of essential oils in pediculicide formulations needs proper formulation and clinical trials. PMID:27112758

  18. Fibre type composition of female longus capitis and longus colli muscles.

    PubMed

    Miller, Alexandra; Woodley, Stephanie J; Cornwall, Jon

    2016-03-01

    Effective management of neck pain requires detailed knowledge of cervical muscle structure and function. Information on muscle fibre type assists in determining function; few data exist on the fibre type composition of many cervical muscles. The purpose of this study was to investigate the fibre type composition of longus capitis (LCa) and longus colli (LCo) to provide a better understanding of their function. Muscle sections were harvested unilaterally from LCa (C2-C7) and LCo (C3, C6, T1) in seven female cadavers (mean age 86 ± 9 years). Immunohistochemistry was used to identify type I and type II fibres, and stereology (random systematic sampling) used to determine fibre numbers. Data were assessed using descriptive statistics and one-way ANOVA (significance P < 0.05). Fifty-two sections were assessed (82,785 fibres; mean 1,592 ± 927 per section). LCa had a significantly greater proportion of type I fibres than LCo (64.3 % vs 55.7 %, P = 0.011). The percentage of fibre types varied significantly between individuals in LCa, but not LCo. No significant difference was found in the proportion of type I fibres between cervical levels for either LCa or LCo. LCa and LCo appear functionally different in elderly females, with LCa potentially having a more postural role (higher type I fibre proportion). Fibre types were homogenous throughout each muscle, indicating that contractile function is similar across the length of individual muscles. Further studies across a larger age-span and in males are required to determine whether results are representative of other populations. PMID:25794488

  19. Epidemiological and Clinical Study of Infested Cases with Pediculus capitis and P. corporis in Khorasan-e-Razavi, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Riabi, H Ramezani Awal; Atarodi, AR

    2012-01-01

    Background Pediculosis (head lice) is considered as one of the most common health problems of the students in primary schools. The purpose of this study was to survey the prevalence rate of the infestation in the schools of Gonabad City (south of Khorasan-e-Razavi Province) to prevent its outbreak by on-time planning. Methods In this retrospective-descriptive study, data were collected from the files of recorded health examinations of 55,997 female and male students of Gonabad City. We surveyed the infested cases to Pediculus capitis and P. corporis during 2006-2010. We used schools health unit of the city health center and review reports of infestation to head lice and body lice in cumulative centers. Results The reports showed 398 cases of P. capitis and 3 P. corporis infestations, which 91.5% were female (P <0.05). Generally 46.4% were from rural and 63.6% were from urban areas (P <0.05). 71.3% of the infestation to head lice was from the last month and the rest had recently been infested. The most age group being infested were students of 6-10 years old and the lowest were >17 yr. Conclusion Pediculosis infestation has become a major health problem in primary school students in south of Khorasan-e-Razavi. PMID:23133477

  20. Tinea Capitis: Mixed or Consecutive Infection with White and Violet Strains of Trichophyton violaceum: A Diagnostic or Therapeutic Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Goyal, Roma

    2015-01-01

    Tinea capitis is a common dermatophyte infection affecting scalp and hair of pre-pubertal children. With introduction of Griseofulvin in 1958, there has been considerable improvement in the treatment of tinea capitis. A seven-year-old male child was brought to the dermatology clinic. He presented with diffuse white scaly patches of alopecia on scalp of one-year duration. The child was sent to the microbiology section of the National Health laboratory, Botswana for the collection of the samples. The samples consisted of scalp scrapings and few plucked hairs from the suspicious areas, which were collected by swab and scalpel blade methods. Potassium hydroxide (10% KOH) mounts were prepared for scales and hair samples. Scales were positive for fungal elements and endothrix type of perforation was seen in hair. Cultures on Sabouraud’s dextrose agar (SDA) and Derm agar were incubated at 25°C, which yielded white variant of Trichophyton violaceum after two weeks of incubation. T. vioaceum (white variant) grew in all the plates. After six weeks of treatment with griseofulvin, the repeat culture grew only T. violaceum (violet strain). The child showed a definite clinical improvement. PMID:26814801

  1. A Novel Nit Comb Concept Using Ultrasound Actuation: Preclinical Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Burgess, Mark N; Brunton, Elizabeth R; Burgess, Ian F

    2016-01-01

    Nit combing and removal of head louse, Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer (Anoplura: Pediculidae), eggs is a task made more difficult because "nit combs" vary in efficiency. There is currently no evidence that the binding of the eggshell to the hair can be loosened chemically and few hair treatments improve the slip of the louse eggs along the hair. Ultrasound, applied through the teeth of a nit comb, may facilitate the flow of fluids into the gap between the hair shaft and the tube of fixative holding louse eggs in place to improve lubrication. Ultrasound alone had little effect to initiate sliding, requiring a force of 121.5 ± 23.8 millinewtons (mN) compared with 125.8 ± 18.0 mN without ultrasound, but once the egg started to move it made the process easier. In the presence of a conditioner-like creamy lotion, ultrasound reduced the Peak force required to start movement to 24.3 ± 8.8 mN from 50.4 ± 13.0 mN without ultrasound. In contrast, some head louse treatments made removal of eggs more difficult, requiring approximately twice the Peak force to initiate movement compared with dry hair in the absence of ultrasound. However, following application of ultrasound, the forces required to initiate movement increased for an essential oil product, remained the same for isopropyl myristate and cyclomethicone, and halved for 4% dimeticone lotion. Fixing the nit comb at an estimated angle of 16.5° to the direction of pull gave an optimum effect to improve the removal process when a suitable lubricant was used. PMID:26545717

  2. Lethal effects of treatment with a special dimeticone formula on head lice and house crickets (Orthoptera, Ensifera: Acheta domestica and Anoplura, phthiraptera: Pediculus humanus). Insights into physical mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Richling, Ira; Böckeler, Wolfgang

    2008-01-01

    The present study provides the first convincing explanation of the mode of action of the medical device NYDA, a special dimeticone (CAS 9006-65-9) formula containing 92% of two dimeticones with different viscosities specifically designed for the physical treatment of head lice infestations (pediculosis capitis) by suffocation. Both, lice (Pediculus humanus) and house crickets (Acheta domestica) treated with this anti-head lice product are knocked out to the status "of no major vital signs" within less than 1 min that in consequence is accompanied irreversibly with the death of the respective insects. Scanning electron microscopical investigations have revealed that the cuticle is coated by a thin closed layer of the dimeticone formula that also enters the stigmata. In vivo observations and dissections of Acheta domestica have shown that application of the medical device to the thoracic stigmata invariably leads to rapid death; this is strongly correlated with the influx of the special dimeticone formula into the head trachea, whereby the solution effectively blocks the oxygen supply of the central nervous system. Dissections after application of the stained product show that it also enters the finest tracheal branches. Analogous in vivo observations in Pediculus humanus have confirmed the correlation between the disappearance of major vital signs and the displacement of air by the dimeticone formula in the tracheal system of the head. For both insect species, statistical data are provided for the chronological sequence of the filling of the tracheal system in relation to the respective vitality conditions of the Insects. On average, the special dimeticone formula reaches the insect's head tracheae within 0.5 min in house crickets and in less than 1 min in lice with a complete filling of the entire head tracheal system of lice within 3.5 min. In addition, a timed sequence of images illustrates this process for lice. The experiments clearly reveal the exclusive and

  3. Analysis of [Gossypium capitis-viridis × (G.hirsutum × G.australe)2] Trispecific Hybrid and Selected Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiling; Li, Fuguang

    2015-01-01

    Speciation is always a contentious and challenging issue following with the presence of gene flow. In Gossypium, there are many valuable resources and wild diploid cotton especially C and B genome species possess some excellent traits which cultivated cotton always lacks. In order to explore character transferring rule from wild cotton to upland tetraploid cotton, the [G. capitis-viridis × (G. hirsutum × G. australe)2] triple hybrid was synthesized by interspecies hybridization and chromosome doubling. Morphology comparisons were measured among this hybrid and its parents. It showed that trispecific hybrid F1 had some intermediate morphological characters like leaf style between its parents and some different characters from its parents, like crawl growth characteristics and two kind flower color. It is highly resistant to insects comparing with other cotton species by four year field investigation. By cytogenetic analysis, triple hybrid was further confirmed by meiosis behavior of pollen mother cells. Comparing with regular meiosis of its three parents, it was distinguished by the occurrence of polyads with various numbers of unbalanced microspores and finally generating various abnormal pollen grains. All this phenomenon results in the sterility of this hybrid. This hybrid was further identified by SSR marker from DNA molecular level. It showed that 98 selected polymorphism primers amplified effective bands in this hybrids and its parents. The genetic proportion of three parents in this hybrid is 47.8% from G. hirsutum, 14.3% from G. australe, 7.0% from G. capitis-viridis, and 30.9% recombination bands respectively. It was testified that wild genetic material has been transferred into cultivated cotton and this new germplasm can be incorporated into cotton breeding program. PMID:26035817

  4. [Prevalence and seasonal variation of Pediculosis capitis in children and the young population of the health region, Buenos Aires, Argentina].

    PubMed

    Castro, D del C; Abrahamovich, A H; Cicchino, A C; Rigoni, A M; Raffaeli, C; de Barrio, A

    1994-08-01

    The prevalence of the parasitic disease Pediculosis capitis was studied over a period of one year from 1-8-1992 to 31-7-1993, in Sanitary Region XI of the Buenos Aires province, Argentina which is composed of 15 districts located on the ENE, and in other areas under the influence of the Hospital Interzonal de Agudos, Especialidad Pediatría "Sup. Sor María Ludovica" de Plata, center of this Sanitary Region. A total number of 552 individuals of from medium to medium low social level of the child population of from 0 to 16 years of age were sampled at random over 52 consecutive weeks. All individuals who actually had the parasite at the time of examination were considered as positive for this disease. The results are expressed in terms of prevalence and its monthly and seasonal variations analyzed. Prevalence showed high values during all months, the lowest being in February (12%) and the highest in August (56.8%), the annual mean being of 38.04% (+/- 4.05%). Seasonally, its lowest value occurred in the summer (16.8%), the values for the remaining seasons being very similar to one another, but always higher than 38%. PMID:7660026

  5. Use of a poultry model to assess the transfer inhibition effect of head lice (Pediculus humanus capitis) products.

    PubMed

    Ketzis, Jennifer K; Clements, Kathleen; Honraet, Kris

    2014-05-01

    Head lice (Pediculus humanus capitis) remain a nuisance, predominantly in school age children. Despite the availability of pediculicidal products, children, after treatment, easily become re-infested if the outbreak has not been controlled on a class or school level. Lice repellents and re-infestation deterrents have been developed to protect children post-treatment. In vitro assays, which are used to evaluate the performance of these products, have limited correlation to in vivo efficacy. In this study, a chicken model was developed as an alternative to in vitro models, more closely mimicking the in vivo situation of children at school. Chickens with natural infestations of Menopon spp. and Menacanthus spp. were divided into three groups and co-housed for 23 h: Group 1 was treated with a commercial product designed to kill lice and protect from re-infestation (Oystershell Laboratories); group 2 was used to assess lice re-population onto lice-free, untreated chickens; and group 3, the seeder group, consisted of lice-infested chickens. The chickens were examined for lice before and at regular intervals after treatment. The group 1 chickens had an average of 40 lice pre-treatment, 0 lice post-treatment and did not become re-infested during the 23-h period. Lice were slow to re-populate the group 2 chickens but were seen 3 h after co-housing with an average of 6 lice each at the end of the study. Group 3 chickens maintained their lice throughout the study (average of 32 at end of study). Based on this study, chickens can be used as a model to test the performance of lice repellents and re-infestation deterrents. PMID:24647985

  6. Identification and characterization of an esterase involved in malathion resistance in the head louse Pediculus humanus capitis.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Deok Ho; Kim, Ju Hyeon; Kim, Young Ho; Yoon, Kyong Sup; Clark, J Marshall; Lee, Si Hyeock

    2014-06-01

    Enhanced malathion carboxylesterase (MCE) activity was previously reported to be involved in malathion resistance in the head louse Pediculus humanus capitis (Gao et al., 2006 [8]). To identify MCE, the transcriptional profiles of all five esterases that had been annotated to be catalytically active were determined and compared between the malathion-resistant (BR-HL) and malathion-susceptible (KR-HL) strains of head lice. An esterase gene, designated HLCbE3, exhibited approximately 5.4-fold higher transcription levels, whereas remaining four esterases did not exhibit a significant increase in their transcription in BR-HL, indicating that HLCbE3 may be the putative MCE. Comparison of the entire cDNA sequences of HLCbE3 revealed no sequence differences between the BR-HL and KR-HL strains and suggested that no single nucleotide polymorphism is associated with enhanced MCE activity. Two copies of the HLCbE3 gene were observed in BR-HL, implying that the over-transcription of HLCbE3 is due to the combination of a gene duplication and up-regulated transcription. Knockdown of HLCbE3 expression by RNA interference in the BR-HL strain led to increases in malathion susceptibility, confirming the identity of HLCbE3 as a MCE responsible for malathion resistance in the head louse. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that HLCbE3 is a typical dietary esterase and belongs to a clade containing various MCEs involved in malathion resistance. PMID:24974112

  7. Effectiveness of isopropyl myristate/cyclomethicone D5 solution of removing cuticular hydrocarbons from human head lice (Pediculus humanus capitis)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In the treatment of human head lice infestation, healthcare providers are increasingly concerned about lice becoming resistant to existing pesticide treatments. Traditional pesticides, used to control these pests, have a neurological mechanism of action. This publication describes a topical solution with a non-traditional mechanism of action, based on physical disruption of the wax layer that covers the cuticle of the louse exoskeleton. This topical solution has been shown clinically to cure 82% of patients with only a 10-minute treatment time, repeated once after 7 days. All insects, including human head lice, have a wax-covered exoskeleton. This wax, composed of hydrocarbons, provides the insect with protection against water loss and is therefore critical to its survival. When the protective wax is disrupted, water loss becomes uncontrollable and irreversible, leading to dehydration and death. A specific pattern of hydrocarbons has been found in all of the head louse cuticular wax studied. Iso-octane effectively removes these hydrocarbons from human head lice’s cuticular wax. Methods A method of head louse cuticle wax extraction and analysis by gas chromatography was developed. Human head lice (Pediculus humanus capitis) were collected from infested patients and subjected to any of three extraction solvents comprising either the test product or one of two solvents introduced as controls. A gas chromatograph equipped with a flame ionization detector (GC/FID) was used to determine the presence of hydrocarbons in the three head lice extracts. Results In the study reported herein, the test product isopropyl myristate/cyclomethicone D5 (IPM/D5) was shown to perform comparably with iso-octane, effectively extracting the target hydrocarbons from the cuticular wax that coats the human head louse exoskeleton. Conclusions Disruption of the integrity of the insect cuticle by removal of specific hydrocarbons found in the cuticular wax appears to offer a

  8. In vitro pediculicidal activity of herbal shampoo base on Thai local plants against head louse (Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer).

    PubMed

    Rassami, Watcharawit; Soonwera, Mayura

    2013-04-01

    Head lice infestation, a worldwide head infestation caused Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer, is an important public health problem in Thailand. Several chemical pediculicides have lost in efficacy due to increasing resistance of lice against insecticide. Therefore, non-toxic alternative products, such as natural products from plants, e.g. plant extract pediculicides, are needed for head lice control. The aims of this study were to evaluate the potential of pediculicidal activity of herbal shampoo base on three species of Thai local plants (Accacia concinna (Willd.) DC, Averrhoa bilimbi Linn. and Tamarindus indica Linn.) against head lice and to compare them with carbaryl shampoo (Hafif shampoo®; 0.6% w/v carbaryl) and non-treatment control in order to assess their in vitro. Doses of 0.12 and 0.25 ml/cm2 of each herbal shampoo were applied to filter paper, and ten head lice were place on the filter paper. The mortalities of head lice on the filter paper were recorded at 1, 5, 10, 30 and 60 min by sterio-microscope. All herbal shampoos at 0.25 ml/cm2 were more effective pediculicide than carbaryl shampoo with 100% mortality at 5 min. The median lethal time (LT50) of all herbal shampoos at 0.25 ml/cm2 showed no significant differences over at 0.12 ml/cm2 (P<0.01). The most effective pediculicide was T. indica extract shampoo, followed by Av. bilimbi extract shampoo and Ac. concinna extract shampoo, with LT50 values<1.0 min. Our data showed that all herbal shampoos have high potential of pediculicide to head lice treatments for schoolchildren. PMID:23334727

  9. Impact of family ownerships, individual hygiene, and residential environments on the prevalence of pediculosis capitis among schoolchildren in urban and rural areas of northwest of Iran.

    PubMed

    Dehghanzadeh, Reza; Asghari-Jafarabadi, Mohammad; Salimian, Shahin; Asl Hashemi, Ahmad; Khayatzadeh, Simin

    2015-11-01

    In the appraisal of head lice outbreak, in addition to socioeconomic factors and availability of health care services, environmental conditions of the households must be taken into account. However, interviewing with children or mailing questionnaires to families may not reflect the actualities. Therefore, in this study, all the inclusive factors which may be associated with head lice outbreak were thoroughly and closely investigated. The data were collected by examining students at schools and surveying patients' households. A questionnaire concerning children's personal hygienic practices, family features, and environmental conditions of the households was filled out during the close assessment of the residential area. The overall prevalence of head lice was obtained as 5.9%, and the difference was not significant within the urban (5.1%) and rural (6.1%) communities. Overall, the number of infested students was more frequent in girls (6.6%) than boys (2.8%), but the difference was not significant. The highest infestation rate was obtained in the examined students whose fathers were unemployed, farmer, and herdsman. Family income showed greater correlation with the prevalence of pediculosis capitis. A high frequency of pediculosis capitis was identified among the students who were sharing individual items with siblings. Assessment of households showed that room flooring material and keeping animals at home were highly correlated with head lice prevalence. Households should be informed that infestations happen, irrespective of socioeconomic status. However, the physical and environmental conditions of living areas and households play an important role in head lice prevention. PMID:26276644

  10. Long-Term Effects of Exposure to Ionizing Irradiation on Periodontal Health Status - The Tinea capitis Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Sadetzki, Siegal; Chetrit, Angela; Sgan-Cohen, Harold D; Mann, Jonathan; Amitai, Tova; Even-Nir, Hadas; Vered, Yuval

    2015-01-01

    Studies among long-term survivors of childhood cancer who had received high-dose irradiation therapy of 4-60 Gy, demonstrated acute and chronic dental effects, including periodontal diseases. However, the possible effects of low to moderate doses of radiation on dental health are sparse. The aim of this study is to investigate the association between childhood exposure to low-moderate doses of ionizing radiation and periodontal health following 50 years since exposure. The study population included 253 irradiated subjects (treated for Tinea capitis in the 1950s) and, 162 non-irradiated subjects. The estimated dose to the teeth was 0.2-0.4 Gy. Dental examination was performed according to the community periodontal index (CPI). Socioeconomic and health behavior variables were obtained through a personal questionnaire. Periodontal disease was operationally defined as "deep periodontal pockets." A multivariate logistic regression model was used for the association of irradiation status and other independent variables with periodontal status. The results showed that among the irradiated subjects, 23%, (95% CI 18-28%) demonstrated complete edentulousness or insufficient teeth for CPI scoring as compared to 13% (95% CI 8-19%) among the non-irradiated subjects (p = 0.01). Periodontal disease was detected among 54% of the irradiated subjects as compared to 40% of the non-irradiated (p = 0.008). Controlling for education and smoking, the ORs for the association between radiation and periodontal disease were 1.61 (95% CI 1.01-2.57) and 1.95 (95% CI 1.1-3.5) for ever never and per 1 Gy absorbed in the salivary gland, respectively. In line with other studies, a protective effect for periodontal diseases among those with high education and an increased risk for ever smokers were observed. In conclusion, childhood exposure to low-moderate doses of ionizing radiation might be associated with later outcomes of dental health. The results add valuable data on the long

  11. Caries Experience among Adults Exposed to Low to Moderate Doses of Ionizing Radiation in Childhood – The Tinea Capitis Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Vered, Yuval; Chetrit, Angela; Sgan-Cohen, Harold D.; Amitai, Tova; Mann, Jonathan; Even-Nir, Hadas; Sadetzki, Siegal

    2016-01-01

    While the impact of therapeutic levels of ionizing radiation during childhood on dental defects has been documented, the possible effect of low doses on dental health is unknown. The study aim was to assess the association between childhood exposure to low–moderate doses of therapeutic radiation and caries experience among a cohort of adults 50 years following the exposure. The analysis was based on a sample of 253 irradiated (in the treatment of tinea capitis) and 162 non-irradiated subjects. The decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT) index was assessed during a clinical dental examination and questions regarding dental care services utilization, oral hygiene behavior, current self-perceived mouth dryness, socio-demographic parameters, and health behavior variables were obtained through a face-to-face interview. An ordered multivariate logistic regression model was used to assess the association of the main independent variable (irradiation status) and other relevant independent variables on the increase in DMFT. Mean caries experience levels (DMFT) were 18.6 ± 7.5 for irradiated subjects compared to 16.4 ± 7.2 for the non-irradiated (p = 0.002). Controlling for gender, age, education, income, smoking, dental visit in the last year, and brushing teeth behavior, irradiation was associated with a 72% increased risk for higher DMFT level (95% CI: 1.19–2.50). A quantification of the risk by dose absorbed in the salivary gland and in the thyroid gland showed adjusted ORs of 2.21 per 1 Gy (95% CI: 1.40–3.50) and 1.05 per 1 cGy (95% CI: 1.01–1.09), respectively. Childhood exposure to ionizing radiation (0.2–0.4 Gy) might be associated with late outcomes of dental health. In line with the guidelines of the American Dental Association, these results call for caution when using dental radiographs. PMID:26942172

  12. Long-Term Effects of Exposure to Ionizing Irradiation on Periodontal Health Status – The Tinea capitis Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Sadetzki, Siegal; Chetrit, Angela; Sgan-Cohen, Harold D.; Mann, Jonathan; Amitai, Tova; Even-Nir, Hadas; Vered, Yuval

    2015-01-01

    Studies among long-term survivors of childhood cancer who had received high-dose irradiation therapy of 4–60 Gy, demonstrated acute and chronic dental effects, including periodontal diseases. However, the possible effects of low to moderate doses of radiation on dental health are sparse. The aim of this study is to investigate the association between childhood exposure to low–moderate doses of ionizing radiation and periodontal health following 50 years since exposure. The study population included 253 irradiated subjects (treated for Tinea capitis in the 1950s) and, 162 non-irradiated subjects. The estimated dose to the teeth was 0.2–0.4 Gy. Dental examination was performed according to the community periodontal index (CPI). Socioeconomic and health behavior variables were obtained through a personal questionnaire. Periodontal disease was operationally defined as “deep periodontal pockets.” A multivariate logistic regression model was used for the association of irradiation status and other independent variables with periodontal status. The results showed that among the irradiated subjects, 23%, (95% CI 18–28%) demonstrated complete edentulousness or insufficient teeth for CPI scoring as compared to 13% (95% CI 8–19%) among the non-irradiated subjects (p = 0.01). Periodontal disease was detected among 54% of the irradiated subjects as compared to 40% of the non-irradiated (p = 0.008). Controlling for education and smoking, the ORs for the association between radiation and periodontal disease were 1.61 (95% CI 1.01–2.57) and 1.95 (95% CI 1.1–3.5) for ever never and per 1 Gy absorbed in the salivary gland, respectively. In line with other studies, a protective effect for periodontal diseases among those with high education and an increased risk for ever smokers were observed. In conclusion, childhood exposure to low-moderate doses of ionizing radiation might be associated with later outcomes of dental health. The results add

  13. Caries Experience among Adults Exposed to Low to Moderate Doses of Ionizing Radiation in Childhood - The Tinea Capitis Cohort.

    PubMed

    Vered, Yuval; Chetrit, Angela; Sgan-Cohen, Harold D; Amitai, Tova; Mann, Jonathan; Even-Nir, Hadas; Sadetzki, Siegal

    2016-01-01

    While the impact of therapeutic levels of ionizing radiation during childhood on dental defects has been documented, the possible effect of low doses on dental health is unknown. The study aim was to assess the association between childhood exposure to low-moderate doses of therapeutic radiation and caries experience among a cohort of adults 50 years following the exposure. The analysis was based on a sample of 253 irradiated (in the treatment of tinea capitis) and 162 non-irradiated subjects. The decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT) index was assessed during a clinical dental examination and questions regarding dental care services utilization, oral hygiene behavior, current self-perceived mouth dryness, socio-demographic parameters, and health behavior variables were obtained through a face-to-face interview. An ordered multivariate logistic regression model was used to assess the association of the main independent variable (irradiation status) and other relevant independent variables on the increase in DMFT. Mean caries experience levels (DMFT) were 18.6 ± 7.5 for irradiated subjects compared to 16.4 ± 7.2 for the non-irradiated (p = 0.002). Controlling for gender, age, education, income, smoking, dental visit in the last year, and brushing teeth behavior, irradiation was associated with a 72% increased risk for higher DMFT level (95% CI: 1.19-2.50). A quantification of the risk by dose absorbed in the salivary gland and in the thyroid gland showed adjusted ORs of 2.21 per 1 Gy (95% CI: 1.40-3.50) and 1.05 per 1 cGy (95% CI: 1.01-1.09), respectively. Childhood exposure to ionizing radiation (0.2-0.4 Gy) might be associated with late outcomes of dental health. In line with the guidelines of the American Dental Association, these results call for caution when using dental radiographs. PMID:26942172

  14. Treatment of Pediculosis Capitis.

    PubMed

    Verma, Prashant; Namdeo, Chaitanya

    2015-01-01

    An endeavour to delineate the salient details of the treatment of head lice infestation has been made in the present article. Treatment modalities including over the counter permethrin and pyrethrin, and prescription medicines, including malathion, lindane, benzyl alcohol, spinosad are discussed. Salient features of alternative medicine and physical treatment modalities are outlined. The problem of resistance to treatment has also been taken cognizance of. PMID:26120148

  15. Head Lice (Pediculosis Capitis)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pronto®, R&C®, RID®, Triple X®) and permethrin lotion 1% (Nix®). Both medicines kill only live lice, ... than recommended. Before applying the over-the-counter lotions, do not use conditioner on the hair, as ...

  16. Treatment of Pediculosis Capitis

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Prashant; Namdeo, Chaitanya

    2015-01-01

    An endeavour to delineate the salient details of the treatment of head lice infestation has been made in the present article. Treatment modalities including over the counter permethrin and pyrethrin, and prescription medicines, including malathion, lindane, benzyl alcohol, spinosad are discussed. Salient features of alternative medicine and physical treatment modalities are outlined. The problem of resistance to treatment has also been taken cognizance of. PMID:26120148

  17. Pediculus humanus capitis (head lice) and Pediculus humanus humanus (body lice): response to laboratory temperature and humidity and susceptibility to monoterpenoids.

    PubMed

    Gallardo, A; Mougabure Cueto, G; Picollo, M I

    2009-07-01

    Human pediculosis is produced by Pediculus humanus humanus (Linnaeus 1758) and Pediculus humanus capitis (De Geer 1767). Laboratory-reared body lice, susceptible to insecticides, were used as reference in toxicological studies on head lice. In this work, we evaluated the survival of both subspecies at different temperatures and relative humidities and we propose the optimal conditions for comparative bioassays. Moreover, we used these conditions to test the activity of three monoterpenoids against both lice. The results showed differential response to changes in temperature and humidity between both organisms. The survival of body lice ranged between 83% and 100% and was not affected for the tested conditions. The survival of head lice depended on temperature, humidity, and exposure time. The optimal conditions for head lice were 18 masculineC and 97% relative humidity at 18 h of exposition. The insecticidal activity of three monoterpenoids (pulegone, linalool, and 1,8-cineole), evaluated according the selected conditions by topical application, showed no significant differences between males of body and head lice. To conclude, as head lice required more special laboratory conditions than body lice, the optimal head lice conditions should be used in both organisms in comparative bioassays. Body louse is an appropriate organism for testing products against of head louse. PMID:19242723

  18. The prevalence of Pediculus humanus capitis and the coexistence of intestinal parasites in young children in boarding schools in Sivas, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Değerli, Serpil; Malatyali, Erdoğan; Çeliksöz, Ali; Özçelik, Semra; Mumcuoğlu, Kosta Y

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of Pediculus humanus capitis and the coexistence of intestinal parasites in boarding primary schools in Sivas, Turkey. Seven hundred seventy-two students (350 [45.3%] girls, 422 [54.7%] boys) were evaluated with combing for the presence of head lice, collection of fecal samples, and examination of the perianal region for intestinal parasites using the cellophane tape method. The overall infestation rate for head lice was 6% (n=46). Nine children had evidence of nits only (1.2%), whereas living lice and nits or eggs were found in 37 children (4.8%). Girls were significantly more commonly infested (12.9%) than boys (0.2%). Of the parameters evaluated, socioeconomic level, number of rooms per family, and size and weight of the children were statistically significantly different between the children with and without lice. Although the infestation rate of children with intestinal parasites was higher in the head louse-infested group (23.9%) than in the group of children without lice (17.6%), the differences were not statistically significant. PMID:22107034

  19. epr, which encodes glycylglycine endopeptidase resistance, is homologous to femAB and affects serine content of peptidoglycan cross bridges in Staphylococcus capitis and Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed Central

    Sugai, M; Fujiwara, T; Ohta, K; Komatsuzawa, H; Ohara, M; Suginaka, H

    1997-01-01

    Staphylococcus capitis EPK1 produces a glycylglycine endopeptidase, ALE-1 (M. Sugai, T. Fujiwara, T. Akiyama, M. Ohara, H. Komatsuzawa, S. Inoue, and H. Suginaka, J. Bacteriol. 179:1193-1202, 1997), which hydrolyzes interpeptide pentaglycine chains of cell wall peptidoglycan of S. aureus. Characterizations of the enzyme activity and cloning of ale-1 revealed that ALE-1 is very similar to prolysostaphin produced by S. simulans bv. staphylolyticus. Strain EPK1 is resistant to lysis by ALE-1 and by lysostaphin. A gene that renders the cells resistant to glycylglycine endopeptidase (epr) was found 322 bp upstream of and in the opposite orientation to ale-1. The deduced amino acid sequence of epr showed similarities to FemA and FemB, which have been characterized as factors essential for methicillin resistance of S. aureus. Inactivation of either femA or femB causes decreased resistance to methicillin, increased resistance to lysostaphin, and decreased glycine content in the interpeptide chains of peptidoglycan. Therefore, femAB is suggested to be involved in the addition of glycine to pentapeptide peptidoglycan precursor. S. aureus with epr on a multicopy plasmid had phenotypes similar to those of femAB mutants except that it did not alter resistance level to methicillin. These results suggest that epr and femAB belong to the protein family involved in adding amino acids to the pentapeptide peptidoglycan precursor and that epr is involved in the addition of serine to the pentapeptide. PMID:9209049

  20. Treatment of head lice (Pediculus humanus capitis) infestation: is regular combing alone with a special detection comb effective at all levels?

    PubMed

    Kurt, Özgür; Balcıoğlu, I Cüneyt; Limoncu, M Emin; Girginkardeşler, Nogay; Arserim, Süha K; Görgün, Serhan; Oyur, Tuba; Karakuş, Mehmet; Düzyol, Didem; Gökmen, Aysegül Aksoy; Kitapçıoğlu, Gül; Özbel, Yusuf

    2015-04-01

    Head lice infestation (HLI) caused by Pediculus humanus capitis has been a public health problem worldwide. Specially designed combs are used to identify head lice, while anti-lice products are applied on the scalp for treatment. In the present study, we aimed to test whether combing only by precision detection comb (PDC) or metal pin comb (MPC) could be effective alternatives to the use of anti-lice products in children. A total of 560 children from two rural schools in Turkey were screened. In the PDC trial, children were combed every second day for 14 days, while in the MPC trial, combing was performed once in every four days for 15 days. Children were divided into two groups (dry combing and wet combing) for both trials and results were compared. The results showed no significant differences between dry and wet combing strategies for both combs for the removal of head lice (p > 0.05). The number of adult head lice declined significantly on each subsequent combing day in both approaches, except on day 15 in the MPC trial. In the end, no louse was found in 54.1 and 48.9% of children in the PDC and MPC trials, respectively. Since family members of infested children were not available, they were not checked for HLI. Four times combing within 2 weeks with MPC combs was found effective for both treatment of low HLI and prevention of heavy HLI. In conclusion, regular combing by special combs decreases HLI level in children and is safely applicable as long-term treatment. PMID:25604670

  1. Prevalence of Pediculus humanus capitis among school girls of Chuang-Wei and Nan-Ao Districts in I-Lan County and Man-Chow District in Ping-Tung County, Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chao, D; Liu, H Y; Fan, P C

    1981-03-01

    By using the naked eye examination and comb method, a field survey and combing collection of head louse (Pediculus humanus capitis) among school girls in three different area (Man-Chow, Nan-Ao and Chuang-Wei) of Taiwan were performed from July 1979 to February, 1980. The general infestation rate of head louse was 39.8% (or 998/2,509). In the primary schools, comparatively, the rate at Man-Chow (66.7%) was highest, the next at Nan-Ao (55.4%) and the lowest at Chuang-Wei (39.4%). While in the junior high schools, the rate was apparently higher at Nan-Ao (38.4%) than that at Man-Chow (15.6%) and Chang-Wei (12.0%). The highest rate in the primary schools was found in 3rd graders except at Chuang-Wei in 5th graders. The corresponding figure in the junior high schools was found in 1st graders except at Nan-Ao in 2nd graders. Of 774 infested girls studied, according to the number of lice per infested girl, the percentages of infestation in the 5 groups were: the very light (nits only) 54.5, light (1-10) 38.5, moderate (11-50) 6.5, heavy (51-100) 0.4 and very heavy (over 100) 0.1 respectively. Of 2,178 head lice examined, 53.0% was nymphs; 28.7% females; 18.2% males. The average number of head louse in each infested girl 6.2. PMID:7261698

  2. Dissecting cellulitis (Perifolliculitis Capitis Abscedens et Suffodiens): a comprehensive review focusing on new treatments and findings of the last decade with commentary comparing the therapies and causes of dissecting cellulitis to hidradenitis suppurativa.

    PubMed

    Scheinfeld, Noah

    2014-05-01

    Dissecting cellulitis (DC) also referred to as to as perifolliculitis capitis abscedens et suffodiens (Hoffman) manifests with perifollicular pustules, nodules, abscesses and sinuses that evolve into scarring alopecia. In the U.S., it predominantly occurs in African American men between 20-40 years of age. DC also occurs in other races and women more rarely. DC has been reported worldwide. Older therapies reported effective include: low dose oral zinc, isotretinoin, minocycline, sulfa drugs, tetracycline, prednisone, intralesional triamcinolone, incision and drainage, dapsone, antiandrogens (in women), topical clindamycin, topical isotretinoin, X-ray epilation and ablation, ablative C02 lasers, hair removal lasers (800nm and 694nm), and surgical excision. Newer treatments reported include tumor necrosis factor blockers (TNFB), quinolones, macrolide antibiotics, rifampin, alitretinoin, metronidazole, and high dose zinc sulphate (135-220 mg TID). Isotretinoin seems to provide the best chance at remission, but the number of reports is small, dosing schedules variable, and the long term follow up beyond a year is negligible; treatment failures have been reported. TNFB can succeed when isotretinoin fails, either as monotherapy, or as a bridge to aggressive surgical treatment, but long term data is lacking. Non-medical therapies noted in the last decade include: the 1064 nm laser, ALA-PDT, and modern external beam radiation therapy. Studies that span more than 1 year are lacking. Newer pathologic hair findings include: pigmented casts, black dots, and "3D" yellow dots. Newer associations include: keratitis-ichthyosis-deafness syndrome, Crohn disease and pyoderma gangrenosum. Older associations include arthritis and keratitis. DC is likely a reaction pattern, as is shown by its varied therapeutic successes and failures. The etiology of DC remains enigmatic and DC is distinct from hidradenitis suppurativa, which is shown by their varied responses to therapies and their

  3. High diversity and rapid diversification in the head louse, Pediculus humanus (Pediculidae: Phthiraptera).

    PubMed

    Ashfaq, Muhammad; Prosser, Sean; Nasir, Saima; Masood, Mariyam; Ratnasingham, Sujeevan; Hebert, Paul D N

    2015-01-01

    The study analyzes sequence variation of two mitochondrial genes (COI, cytb) in Pediculus humanus from three countries (Egypt, Pakistan, South Africa) that have received little prior attention, and integrates these results with prior data. Analysis indicates a maximum K2P distance of 10.3% among 960 COI sequences and 13.8% among 479 cytb sequences. Three analytical methods (BIN, PTP, ABGD) reveal five concordant OTUs for COI and cytb. Neighbor-Joining analysis of the COI sequences confirm five clusters; three corresponding to previously recognized mitochondrial clades A, B, C and two new clades, "D" and "E", showing 2.3% and 2.8% divergence from their nearest neighbors (NN). Cytb data corroborate five clusters showing that clades "D" and "E" are both 4.6% divergent from their respective NN clades. Phylogenetic analysis supports the monophyly of all clusters recovered by NJ analysis. Divergence time estimates suggest that the earliest split of P. humanus clades occurred slightly more than one million years ago (MYa) and the latest about 0.3 MYa. Sequence divergences in COI and cytb among the five clades of P. humanus are 10X those in their human host, a difference that likely reflects both rate acceleration and the acquisition of lice clades from several archaic hominid lineages. PMID:26373806

  4. High diversity and rapid diversification in the head louse, Pediculus humanus (Pediculidae: Phthiraptera)

    PubMed Central

    Ashfaq, Muhammad; Prosser, Sean; Nasir, Saima; Masood, Mariyam; Ratnasingham, Sujeevan; Hebert, Paul D. N.

    2015-01-01

    The study analyzes sequence variation of two mitochondrial genes (COI, cytb) in Pediculus humanus from three countries (Egypt, Pakistan, South Africa) that have received little prior attention, and integrates these results with prior data. Analysis indicates a maximum K2P distance of 10.3% among 960 COI sequences and 13.8% among 479 cytb sequences. Three analytical methods (BIN, PTP, ABGD) reveal five concordant OTUs for COI and cytb. Neighbor-Joining analysis of the COI sequences confirm five clusters; three corresponding to previously recognized mitochondrial clades A, B, C and two new clades, “D” and “E”, showing 2.3% and 2.8% divergence from their nearest neighbors (NN). Cytb data corroborate five clusters showing that clades “D” and “E” are both 4.6% divergent from their respective NN clades. Phylogenetic analysis supports the monophyly of all clusters recovered by NJ analysis. Divergence time estimates suggest that the earliest split of P. humanus clades occured slightly more than one million years ago (MYa) and the latest about 0.3 MYa. Sequence divergences in COI and cytb among the five clades of P. humanus are 10X those in their human host, a difference that likely reflects both rate acceleration and the acquisition of lice clades from several archaic hominid lineages. PMID:26373806

  5. Prevalence of Haemodipsus (Anoplura: Polyplacidae) species found on hares (Lepus europaeus L.) in Konya Province, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Dik, Bilal; Uslu, Ugur

    2008-01-01

    This study was carried out in order to determine the prevalence of lice on hares (Lepus europaeus L.) in the Konya province of Turkey from October 2003 to January 2007. During this period, 54 hares were examined for lice, 5 of them (11%) were found to be infested with lice and a total of 41 lice specimens were collected from the infested hares. Two species; Haemodipsus lyriocephalus (Burmeister, 1839) and H. setoni Ewing, 1924 were identified and H. lyriocephalus was more abundant than H. setoni. PMID:18645947

  6. Two Bacterial Genera, Sodalis and Rickettsia, Associated with the Seal Louse Proechinophthirus fluctus (Phthiraptera: Anoplura)

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Julie M.; Koga, Ryuichi; Fukatsu, Takema; Sweet, Andrew D.; Johnson, Kevin P.; Reed, David L.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Roughly 10% to 15% of insect species host heritable symbiotic bacteria known as endosymbionts. The lice parasitizing mammals rely on endosymbionts to provide essential vitamins absent in their blood meals. Here, we describe two bacterial associates from a louse, Proechinophthirus fluctus, which is an obligate ectoparasite of a marine mammal. One of these is a heritable endosymbiont that is not closely related to endosymbionts of other mammalian lice. Rather, it is more closely related to endosymbionts of the genus Sodalis associated with spittlebugs and feather-chewing bird lice. Localization and vertical transmission of this endosymbiont are also more similar to those of bird lice than to those of other mammalian lice. The endosymbiont genome appears to be degrading in symbiosis; however, it is considerably larger than the genomes of other mammalian louse endosymbionts. These patterns suggest the possibility that this Sodalis endosymbiont might be recently acquired, replacing a now-extinct, ancient endosymbiont. From the same lice, we also identified an abundant bacterium belonging to the genus Rickettsia that is closely related to Rickettsia ricketsii, a human pathogen vectored by ticks. No obvious masses of the Rickettsia bacterium were observed in louse tissues, nor did we find any evidence of vertical transmission, so the nature of its association remains unclear. IMPORTANCE Many insects are host to heritable symbiotic bacteria. These heritable bacteria have been identified from numerous species of parasitic lice. It appears that novel symbioses have formed between lice and bacteria many times, with new bacterial symbionts potentially replacing existing ones. However, little was known about the symbionts of lice parasitizing marine mammals. Here, we identified a heritable bacterial symbiont in lice parasitizing northern fur seals. This bacterial symbiont appears to have been recently acquired by the lice. The findings reported here provide insights into how new symbioses form and how this lifestyle is shaping the symbiont genome. PMID:26994086

  7. [Micromorphology of the malpighian tubules in the louse Pediculus humanus corporis (Anoplura)].

    PubMed

    Chaĭka, S Iu

    1985-01-01

    The ultrastructure of the Malpighian tubes in human louse Pediculus humanus corporis has been studied. The cells of the Malpighian tubules have the uniform structure: the apical surface is covered with microvilli, the basal plasmatic membrana forms relatively small invaginations. The microvilli are most developed in cells of the proximal department of the Malpighian tubules. Microvilli of the apical surface of the cells do not contain mitochondria which are localized mainly in supranuclear part of the cell. Cells are lined with a homogenous basal membrane. PMID:3986247

  8. [A case of Tinea capitis caused by Trichophyton tonsurans].

    PubMed

    Urano, Shoko; Shirai, Shigeko; Suzuki, Yoko; Sugaya, Keiko; Takigawa, Masahiro; Mochizuki, Takashi

    2003-01-01

    A 10-year-old Peruvian girl, living in Japan since 1996, visited our hospital in August 2000 complaining of alopecia which had been present on her scalp for one year. The bald areas appeared as multiple small, scattered, angular patches with indistinct margins. Follicular pustules, erythemic nodules and lymphadenopathy were also seen. In the culture of the affected hair, a tan surface with wiry undulations grew on Sabouraud's media. The colony reverse had reddish-brown central pigmentation. Slide cultured fungi produced great numbers of round and short club-shaped microconidia, hyphae and intercalary chlamydospores. These fungi showed the following characteristics: positive urease test, no pigment production on cornmeal agar and positive thiamine dependency. The restriction fragment length polymorphism pattern and the nucleotide sequences of ribosomal-DNA internal transcribed spacer region of the causative fungus was compatible with Trichophyton tonsurans. Daily administration of 125 mg of terbinafine resulted in a satisfactory response and the lesion healed almost completely. PMID:12590256

  9. Genome Sequences of Multiresistant Staphylococcus capitis Pulsotype NRCS-A and Methicillin-Susceptible S. capitis Pulsotype NRCS-C.

    PubMed

    Lemriss, H; Dumont, Y; Lemriss, S; Martins-Simoes, P; Butin, M; Lahlou, L; Rasigade, J P; El Kabbaj, S; Laurent, F; Ibrahimi, A

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report the draft genome sequences of methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus captis pulsotype NCRS-C (CR02 strain) and multiresistant Staphylococcus captis pulsotype NCRS-A (CR07 strain). PMID:27284154

  10. Genome Sequences of Multiresistant Staphylococcus capitis Pulsotype NRCS-A and Methicillin-Susceptible S. capitis Pulsotype NRCS-C

    PubMed Central

    Dumont, Y.; Lemriss, S.; Martins-Simoes, P.; Butin, M.; Lahlou, L.; Rasigade, J. P.; El Kabbaj, S.; Laurent, F.; Ibrahimi, A.

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report the draft genome sequences of methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus captis pulsotype NCRS-C (CR02 strain) and multiresistant Staphylococcus captis pulsotype NCRS-A (CR07 strain). PMID:27284154

  11. Expansion of the Knockdown Resistance Frequency Map for Human Head Lice (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae) in the United States Using Quantitative Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Gellatly, Kyle J.; Krim, Sarah; Palenchar, Daniel J.; Shepherd, Katie; Yoon, Kyong Sup; Rhodes, Christopher J.; Lee, Si Hyeock; Marshall Clark, J.

    2016-01-01

    Pediculosis is a prevalent parasitic infestation of humans, which is increasing due, in part, to the selection of lice resistant to either the pyrethrins or pyrethroid insecticides by the knockdown resistance (kdr) mechanism. To determine the extent and magnitude of the kdr-type mutations responsible for this resistance, lice were collected from 138 collection sites in 48 U.S. states from 22 July 2013 to 11 May 2015 and analyzed by quantitative sequencing. Previously published data were used for comparisons of the changes in the frequency of the kdr-type mutations over time. Mean percent resistance allele frequency (mean % RAF) values across the three mutation loci were determined from each collection site. The overall mean % RAF (±SD) for all analyzed lice was 98.3 ± 10%. 132/138 sites (95.6%) had a mean % RAF of 100%, five sites (3.7%) had intermediate values, and only a single site had no mutations (0.0%). Forty-two states (88%) had a mean % RAF of 100%. The frequencies of kdr-type mutations did not differ regardless of the human population size that the lice were collected from, indicating a uniformly high level of resistant alleles. The loss of efficacy of the Nix formulation (Prestige Brand, Tarrytown, NY) from 1998 to 2013 was correlated to the increase in kdr-type mutations. These data provide a plausible reason for the decrease in the effectiveness of permethrin in the Nix formulation, which is the parallel increase of kdr-type mutations in lice over time. PMID:27032417

  12. Review of the systematics, biology and ecology of lice from pinnipeds and river otters (Insecta: Phthiraptera: Anoplura: Echinophthiriidae).

    PubMed

    Soledad Leonardi, Maria; Palma, Ricardo Luis

    2013-01-01

    We present a literature review of the sucking louse family Echinophthiriidae, its five genera and twelve species parasitic on pinnipeds (fur seals, sea lions, walruses, true seals) and the North American river otter. We give detailed synonymies and published records for all taxonomic hierarchies, as well as hosts, type localities and repositories of type material; we highlight significant references and include comments on the current taxonomic status of the species. We provide a summary of present knowledge of the biology and ecology for eight species. Also, we give a host-louse list, and a bibliography to the family as complete as possible. PMID:26131525

  13. Chlorpyrifos for control of the short-nosed cattle louse, Haematopinus eurysternus (Nitzsch) (Anoplura, Haematopinidae) during winter.

    PubMed Central

    Khan, M A; Schaalje, G B

    1985-01-01

    Two groups (A and C) of range cows were treated in February with chlorpyrifos (16 mL Dursban 44/cow) for the control of heavy infestations of the short-nosed cattle louse. Group A was treated in 1977 and group C in 1979 and each treated group was compared with a separate untreated group. Some of the treated cows were identified as carriers of louse infestation (subgroups A1 and C1), while others were noncarriers (subgroups A2 and C2). The maximum level of reduction in louse populations was 99% at week 4 posttreatment in subgroup A1, 99% from weeks 2-16 posttreatment in subgroup A2, 92% at week 3 posttreatment in subgroup C1 and 100% at weeks 15-17 in subgroup C2. Clinically, the treated cows, which were anemic at the time of treatment, recovered from anemia during the posttreatment period of 25 weeks for group A and 17 weeks for group C. Remission of anemia also occurred in the two untreated groups, possibly because of natural summer decline in louse population. The treatment had no effect on the whole blood cholinesterase of the cows and the treated cows showed no signs of organophosphorous toxicity. PMID:2416414

  14. A new species of sucking louse (Phthiraptera: Anoplura: Linognathidae) from Günther's Dikdik (Madoqua guentheri) in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Durden, Lance A; Mihalca, Andrei D; Sándor, Attila D; Kanyari, Paul W N

    2015-04-01

    Linognathus samburi n. sp. is described from adult male and female specimens collected from a juvenile female Günther's dikdik (Madoqua guentheri) live-trapped near Olturot Village, Samburu district (Rift Valley Province) in northern Kenya. The new species is distinguished from other species of Linognathus including Linognathus geigyi and Linognathus damarensis, both of which parasitize Kirk's dikdik (Madoqua kirkii). A dichotomous key to the species of Linognathus that are known to parasitize dikdiks is included. PMID:25394219

  15. Second-generation sequencing of entire mitochondrial coding-regions (∼15.4 kb) holds promise for study of the phylogeny and taxonomy of human body lice and head lice.

    PubMed

    Xiong, H; Campelo, D; Pollack, R J; Raoult, D; Shao, R; Alem, M; Ali, J; Bilcha, K; Barker, S C

    2014-08-01

    The Illumina Hiseq platform was used to sequence the entire mitochondrial coding-regions of 20 body lice, Pediculus humanus Linnaeus, and head lice, P. capitis De Geer (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae), from eight towns and cities in five countries: Ethiopia, France, China, Australia and the U.S.A. These data (∼310 kb) were used to see how much more informative entire mitochondrial coding-region sequences were than partial mitochondrial coding-region sequences, and thus to guide the design of future studies of the phylogeny, origin, evolution and taxonomy of body lice and head lice. Phylogenies were compared from entire coding-region sequences (∼15.4 kb), entire cox1 (∼1.5 kb), partial cox1 (∼700 bp) and partial cytb (∼600 bp) sequences. On the one hand, phylogenies from entire mitochondrial coding-region sequences (∼15.4 kb) were much more informative than phylogenies from entire cox1 sequences (∼1.5 kb) and partial gene sequences (∼600 to ∼700 bp). For example, 19 branches had > 95% bootstrap support in our maximum likelihood tree from the entire mitochondrial coding-regions (∼15.4 kb) whereas the tree from 700 bp cox1 had only two branches with bootstrap support > 95%. Yet, by contrast, partial cytb (∼600 bp) and partial cox1 (∼486 bp) sequences were sufficient to genotype lice to Clade A, B or C. The sequences of the mitochondrial genomes of the P. humanus, P. capitis and P. schaeffi Fahrenholz studied are in NCBI GenBank under the accession numbers KC660761-800, KC685631-6330, KC241882-97, EU219988-95, HM241895-8 and JX080388-407. PMID:25171606

  16. [Understanding mitochondrial genome fragmentation in parasitic lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera)].

    PubMed

    Dong, Wen-Ge; Guo, Xian-Guo; Jin, Dao-Chao; Xue, Shi-Peng; Qin, Feng; Simon, Song; Stephen, C Barker; Renfu, Shao

    2013-07-01

    Lice are obligate ectoparasites of mammals and birds. Extensive fragmentation of mitochondrial genomes has been found in some louse species in the families Pediculidae, Pthiridae, Philopteridae and Trichodectidae. For example, the mt genomes of human body louse (Pediculus humanus), head louse (Pediculus capitis), and public louse (Pthirus pubis) have 20, 20 and 14 mini-chromosomes, respectively. These mini-chromosomes might be the results of deletion and recombination of mt genes. The factors and mechanisms of mitochondrial genome fragmentation are currently unknown. The fragmentation might be the results of evolutionary selection or random genetic drift or it is probably related to the lack of mtSSB (mitochondrial single-strand DNA binding protein). Understanding the fragmentation of mitochondrial genomes is of significance for understanding the origin and evolution of mitochondria. This paper reviews the recent advances in the studies of mito-chondrial genome fragmentation in lice, including the phenomena of mitochondrial genome fragmentation, characteristics of fragmented mitochondrial genomes, and some factors and mechanisms possibly leading to the mitochondrial genome fragmentation of lice. Perspectives for future studies on fragmented mt genomes are also discussed. PMID:23853355

  17. How long do louse eggs take to hatch? A possible answer to an age-old riddle.

    PubMed

    Burgess, I F

    2014-06-01

    There are no rigorous data on how long eggs of the head louse, Pediculus capitis (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae), take to hatch. Pediculicide users often report reinfestations after apparently successful treatments in the absence of infective contacts. This study aimed to resolve the question of whether some louse eggs hatch after the completion of treatment, thereby giving rise to a new infestation. Data were extracted from the records of lice collected after treatments in 20 clinical intervention trials. All datasets were eliminated except those in which only newly hatched louse nymphs were found prior to the final assessment. This excluded the possibility that new eggs were laid after the first treatment and thus any young lice found must have originated from eggs laid before the start of treatment. This identified 23 of 1895 (1.2%) records with evidence of louse nymphs emerging at 13 days or more after the first treatment, 3–6 days longer than previous estimates. Current treatment regimens for pediculicides of two applications 7–10 days apart appear inadequate, which may explain continuing infestation in the community. Therefore, it is suggested that a revised approach using three treatments applied at intervals of 1 week should prevent the survival of any nymphs and their development into a new generation of adults. PMID:24987776

  18. Common Hair Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... lice (pediculosis capitis), and fungal infection of scalp ringworm (tinea capitis). Itching and excessive flaking of the scalp ... sites of shaving, skin friction, or rubbing from… Ringworm, Scalp (Tinea Capitis) Scalp ringworm (tinea capitis) is ...

  19. PREHISTORICAL Pediculus humanus capitis INFESTATION: QUANTITATIVE DATA AND LOW VACUUM SCANNING MICROSCOPY

    PubMed Central

    Dutra, Juliana M.F.; Alves, Arthur Daniel; Pessanha, Thaila; Rachid, Rachel; de Souza, Wanderley; Linardi, Pedro Marcos; Ferreira, Luiz Fernando; de Souza, Sheila Mendonça; Araujo, Adauto

    2014-01-01

    A pre-Columbian Peruvian scalp was examined decades ago by a researcher from the Oswaldo Cruz Foundation. Professor Olympio da Fonseca Filho described nits and adult lice attached to hair shafts and commented about the origin of head lice infestations on mankind. This same scalp was sent to our laboratory and is the subject of the present paper. Analysis showed a massive infestation with nine eggs/cm2 and an impressive number of very well preserved adult lice. The infestation age was roughly estimated as nine months before death based on the distance of nits from the hair root and the medium rate of hair growth. A small traditional textile was associated with the scalp, possibly part of the funerary belongings. Other morphological aspects visualized by low-vacuum scanning electron microscopy are also presented here for adults and nits. PMID:24626412

  20. Comparative efficacy of new commercial pediculicides against adults and eggs of Pediculus humanus capitis (head lice).

    PubMed

    Gallardo, Anabella; Mougabure-Cueto, Gastón; Vassena, Claudia; Picollo, María Inés; Toloza, Ariel Ceferino

    2012-05-01

    The use of pyrethroids to control head louse infestations have suffered considerable loss of efficacy due to the development of resistance. In the last past years, several new alternative products to synthetic pyrethroids have been developed and are sold in the Argentinean market against head lice. The present study investigated the efficacy of two new Argentinean products Nopucid Qubit® and Nopucid Bio Citrus® and its comparison with two reference products Nyda® and Hedrin®. Nopucid Qubit® is a two-phase lotion containing geraniol and citronellol (phase 1) and ciclopentaxiloxane (phase 2); while Nopucid Bio Citrus® contains dimethicone, ciclopentaxiloxane, and bergamot essential oil. These products are physically acting compounds. The sensitivity of two laboratory assays for testing insecticide activity of new formulations was also compared. Mortality (100%) of motile forms occurred after they were exposed to any product for 1 and 2 min, either by in vitro or ex vivo test. Concerning ovicidal activity, the most effective pediculicides were Nopucid Bio Citrus® and Nyda®, followed by Hedrin® and Nopucid Qubit®. The present study revealed, for the first time, the efficacy of over-the-counter commercial pediculicides available in Argentine (Nopucid Bio Citrus® and Nopucid Qubit®) on either motile stages or eggs against head lice. PMID:21984369

  1. Prehistorical Pediculus humanus capitis infestation: quantitative data and low vacuum scanning microscopy.

    PubMed

    Dutra, Juliana M F; Alves, Arthur Daniel; Pessanha, Thaila; Rachid, Rachel; Souza, Wanderley de; Linardi, Pedro Marcos; Ferreira, Luiz Fernando; Souza, Sheila Mendonça de; Araujo, Adauto

    2014-01-01

    A pre-Columbian Peruvian scalp was examined decades ago by a researcher from the Oswaldo Cruz Foundation. Professor Olympio da Fonseca Filho described nits and adult lice attached to hair shafts and commented about the origin of head lice infestations on mankind. This same scalp was sent to our laboratory and is the subject of the present paper. Analysis showed a massive infestation with nine eggs/cm2 and an impressive number of very well preserved adult lice. The infestation age was roughly estimated as nine months before death based on the distance of nits from the hair root and the medium rate of hair growth. A small traditional textile was associated with the scalp, possibly part of the funerary belongings. Other morphological aspects visualized by low-vacuum scanning electron microscopy are also presented here for adults and nits. PMID:24626412

  2. Pediculicidal effect of herbal shampoo against Pediculus humanus capitis in vitro.

    PubMed

    Watcharawit, R; Soonwera, M

    2013-06-01

    Human head lice infestation is an important public health problem in Thailand. Lice resistance is increasing, chemical pediculicides have lost their efficacy and thus alternative products such as herbal shampoos have been proposed to treat lice infestation. The present study investigated the efficacy of twenty nine herbal shampoos based on zinbiberaceae plants, piperaceae plants and native plants against human head lice and compared them with malathion shampoo (A-lices shampoo®: 1% w/v malathion) and commercial shampoo (BabiMild Natural'N Mild®) in order to assess their in vitro efficacy. All herbal shampoo were more effective than commercial shampoo with 100% mortality at 60 seconds and LT50 values ranged from 11.30 to 31.97 seconds, meanwhile, commercial shampoo caused 14.0-15.0% mortality and LT50 values ranged from 83.96 to 87.43 seconds. The nine herbal shampoos from Zingiber cassumunar, Piper betle, Piper ribesioides, Averrhoa bilimbi, Clitoria ternatea, Plectranthus amboincus, Myristica fragrans, Tacca chantrieri and Zanthoxylum limonella were more effective pediculicide than malathion shampoo with 100% mortality at 30 seconds and LT50 values ranged from 11.30-13.58 seconds, on the other hand malathion shampoo showed LT50 values ranging from 12.39 to 13.67 seconds. LT50 values indicated the order of pediculicidal activity in the herbal shampoos as Z. cassumunar shampoo > P. betle shampoo > Za. limonella shampoo > Av. bilimbi shampoo > P. ribesioides shampoo > My. fragrans shampoo > T. chantrieri shampoo > Pl. amboincus shampoo. Our data showed that eight of the twenty nine herbal shampoos in this study were of high potential pediculicide to human head lice treatments for Thai children. PMID:23959497

  3. Present status of head louse (Pediculus capitis) infestation among school children in Yunlin County, Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Fan, P C; Chung, W C; Kuo, C L; Hsu, H M; Chow, C Y

    1991-04-01

    In December 1990, 35 children in one kindergarten; 7,870 children in twenty-six primary schools and 2,657 students in three junior high schools in Kou-Hu, Ku-Keng and Szu-Hu Districts in Yunlin County, Taiwan, were examined by naked eye observation (NEO) for head louse infestation. The overall infestation rate was 16%. The infestation rate was highest in Kou-Hu (25%) and lowest in Ku-Keng (8%). The rate was higher among primary school children (21%) than among junior high school students (2%). The infestation rate of girls (34% in primary school children and 4% in junior high school students) was higher than that of boys (9%, less than 1% respectively). Among the primary school children the rate was highest in girls in grade 5 (39%) and boys in grade 4 (14%). The lowest rates were in girls in grade 6 (27%) and in boys in grades 5 and 6 (6%). In junior high school students, the rate of grade 1 (4%) was higher than those of grade 2 (less than 1%) and 3 (less than 1%). PMID:2030521

  4. Efficacy of ivermectin for the treatment of head lice (Pediculosis capitis).

    PubMed

    Glaziou, P; Nyguyen, L N; Moulia-Pelat, J P; Cartel, J L; Martin, P M

    1994-09-01

    Twenty six male and female patients aged 5 to 17 years who had head lice infestation confirmed by eggs presence and received treatments with a single 200 mu/kg oral dose of ivermectin in open fashion. At day 14 after treatment, 20 responded to the treatment (77%), and 6 patients (23%) presented with a complete disappearance of eggs and all clinical symptoms. At day 28, 7 patients were healed (27%), but 4 patients of the 6 healed at day 14 presented with signs of reinfestation. This study suggests that ivermectin is a promising treatment of head lice, and a second dose at day 10 should be appropriate for a further comparative trial. PMID:7899799

  5. Epidemiological comparative study of pediculosis capitis among primary school children in Fayoum and Minofiya governorates, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Abd El Raheem, Talal A; El Sherbiny, Naglaa A; Elgameel, Alkasseem; El-Sayed, Ghada A; Moustafa, Nada; Shahen, Sally

    2015-04-01

    Pediculosis is a frequent public health problem. The pattern and prevalence of Pediculosis is dependent on many socio-demographic and economic factors. It is common in schoolchildren especially primary level; it may affect their learning performance. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of head louse among primary students, in Fayoum and Bagor districts, and explore the predisposing factors of head louse infestation in both public and private schools. The study was a cross-sectional descriptive study, conducted in two governorates: Fayoum and Minofiya governorates which represent upper and lower Egypt respectively during the academic year of 2012-2013. The students were selected from different grades with a total of 10,935 students. The prevalence of head lice in the study group was 16.7 %. The incidence was higher in public schools 20.7 % than private schools 9.04 % and in girls 25.8 % more than boys, especially covered hair girls 6.2 %. There was a socio-demographic influence of louse infestation on residence, presence of water supply, number of house rooms, and number of family member. It is concluded that head lice are a common childhood problem related to poor hygiene and socioeconomic status. There is a need for collaboration effort between family, school, community, and media, to create an environment that establishes healthy behaviors and health promotion. PMID:25086565

  6. [The Prevalence and Management of Pediculosis Capitis in Turkey: A Systematic Review].

    PubMed

    Özkan, Özlem; Hamzaoğlu, Onur; Yavuz, Melike

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to examine scientific articles performed in Turkey on the prevalence and management of PK (diagnosis, contagion, prevention, treatment) from a critical perspective. The population of the systematic review consisted of total 63 published and unpublished theses or dissertations and peer-reviewed articles published in Turkish or English in national or foreign scientific journals from studies performed in Turkey between 1982 and 2012 years. It reached 578,938 people in 63 studies. Seventy-eight percent of the studies were related to the prevalence of PK and/or associated factors. The number of the studies was limited regarding diagnosis, prevention, contagion, treatment compliance, difficulties and causes of failure. Of the studies, 90.5% had been performed in public schools, almost exclusively elementary schools. The prevalence of PK was 0.3-34.1%, 0-35.4%, and it was 0.3-34.1% in elementary school children. It increased with years of education. It was double that of the boys in the girls (p<0.05). The prevalence among the subjects with low economic status were 1.9-42.3%, and it increased with worsening economic status (p<0.05). The prevalence reached up to 44.1% among children with illiterate mother. Basic recommendations include increasing the number of studies on the diagnosis, prevention, contagion, treatment compliance and efficacy, treatment failures and difficulties; public health workers also should prioritize investigation of head lice infestation. PMID:26081888

  7. Synthesis of pediculocidal and larvicidal silver nanoparticles by leaf extract from heartleaf moonseed plant, Tinospora cordifolia Miers.

    PubMed

    Jayaseelan, Chidambaram; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul; Rajakumar, Govindasamy; Vishnu Kirthi, Arivarasan; Santhoshkumar, Thirunavukkarasu; Marimuthu, Sampath; Bagavan, Asokan; Kamaraj, Chinnaperumal; Zahir, Abdul Abduz; Elango, Gandhi

    2011-07-01

    Insecticide resistance and inadequate attention to the application instructions of topical pediculicides are common reasons for treatment failure. Essential oils or plant extracts are good and safe alternatives due to their low toxicity to mammals and easy biodegradability. The present study was carried out to establish the pediculocidal and larvicidal activity of synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using leaf aqueous extract of Tinospora cordifolia Miers (Menispermaceae) against the head louse Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae) and fourth instar larvae of malaria vector, Anopheles subpictus Grassi and filariasis vector, Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae). We reported the aqueous plant extract and synthesized AgNPs against head lice and vectors. Direct contact method was conducted to determine the potential of pediculocidal activity. The synthesized AgNPs characterized by UV-vis spectrum, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared, and X-ray diffraction. Head lice and mosquito larvae were exposed to varying concentrations of aqueous extracts and synthesized AgNPs for 24 h. The results suggest that the optimal times for measuring mortality effects of synthesized AgNPs were 33% at 5 min, 67% at 15 min, and 100% after 1 h. The maximum activity was observed in the synthesized AgNPs against lice, A. subpictus and C. quinquefasciatus (LC(50) = 12.46, 6.43 and 6.96 mg/L; r (2) = 0.978, 0.773 and 0.828), respectively. The findings revealed that synthesized AgNPs possess excellent anti-lice and mosquito larvicidal activity. These results suggest that the green synthesis of AgNPs have the potential to be used as an ideal ecofriendly approach for the control of head lice and vectors. PMID:21212979

  8. Ex vivo effectiveness of French over-the-counter products against head lice (Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer, 1778).

    PubMed

    Combescot-Lang, Catherine; Vander Stichele, Robert H; Toubate, Berthine; Veirron, Emilie; Mumcuoglu, Kosta Y

    2015-05-01

    Head lice infestation is still a public health problem worldwide, with an intracountry and intercountry prevalence variation of 0.7 to 59%. There is a large variety of over-the-counter anti-louse products, but their efficacy is not always well assessed. Our objective was to test the pediculicidal and ovicidal efficacy of 21 over-the-counter head louse products, available in France during the period of 2008 to 2012. We tested children living in Tours City in central France and visiting preschools, primary schools, kindergarten, camps, and child care facilities, as well as children in their family houses, and were examined for the presence of lice. The products were collected from randomly selected pharmacies by covert investigators and then tested in the laboratory on an ex vivo sample of head lice and their eggs, collected from the hair of infested children. Living lice and unharmed eggs were collected from the scalps of 3-12 years old. The laboratory conditions for ex vivo testing mimicked the manufacturers' instructions for exposure time and application method. In 21 runs, 3919 living lice and 4321 undamaged living eggs were collected from the scalp of over 400 children. The 21 products were classified in three groups: 6 products in a group of potentially 100% pediculicidal activity and potentially 100% ovicidal activity, 8 products in a group of potentially 100% pediculicidal activity but insufficient ovicidal activity (including 2 products with claims of single application treatment), and 7 products in a group of insufficient pediculicidal activity and ovicidal activity. The pharmaceutical market for head lice products in France is swamped with poorly tested and ineffective products. Rigorous efficacy testing preregistration and periodic screening and testing of effectiveness in the post-registration period should be endorsed by the health authorities. PMID:25716822

  9. Determination, mechanism and monitoring of knockdown resistance in permethrin-resistant human head lice, Pediculus humanus capitis.

    PubMed

    Clark, J Marshall

    2009-03-01

    Permethrin resistance has been reported worldwide and clinical failures to commercial pediculicides containing permethrin have likewise occurred. Permethrin resistance in head lice populations from the U.S. is widespread but is not yet uniform and the level of resistance is relatively low (~4-8 fold). Permethrin-resistant lice are cross-resistant to pyrethrins, PBO-synergized pyrethrins and to DDT. Nix((R)), when applied to human hair tufts following manufacture's instructions, did not provide 100% control when assessed by the hair tuft bioassay in conjunction with the in vitro rearing system. Resistance to permethrin is due to knockdown resistance (kdr), which is the result of three point mutations within the alpha-subunit gene of the voltage-gated sodium channel that causes amino acid substitutions, leading to nerve insensitivity.A three-tiered resistance monitoring system has been established based on molecular resistance detection techniques. Quantitative sequencing (QS) has been developed to predict the kdr allele frequency in head lice at a population level. The speed, simplicity and accuracy of QS made it an ideal candidate for a routine primary resistance monitoring tool to screen a large number of louse populations as an alternative to conventional bioassay. As a secondary monitoring method, real-time PASA (rtPASA) has been devised for a more precise determination of low resistance allele frequencies. To obtain more detailed information on resistance allele zygosity, as well as allele frequency, serial invasive signal amplification reaction (SISAR) has been developed as an individual genotyping method. Our approach of using three tiers of molecular resistance detection should facilitate large-scale routine resistance monitoring of permethrin resistance in head lice using field-collected samples. PMID:20161186

  10. A Study of Head Lice Infestation (Pediculosis Capitis) among Primary School Students in the Villages of Abadan in 2012.

    PubMed

    Salehi, Shayesteh; Ban, Maryam; Motaghi, Minoo

    2014-07-01

    Head lice contamination has a global distribution and it is regarded as a main health problem throughout the world. Given the importance of physical health of students and head lice prevalence at school age, we aimed to examine the rate of head lice contamination among primary school students in the villages of Abadan in 2012. In this descriptive study, 624 students were randomly selected from primary schools. The hair of all students under the study was examined by the researcher (community health nurse) and the result was registered in the checklist confidentially. Moreover, one questionnaire including personal and family information was filled out for each student. The obtained data were later analyzed in SPSS software, version 18, using statistical test Chi-square and central qualitative and distribution statistics. The frequency of lice contamination was 27 cases (4.33%) in total, all of whom were girls. Although the difference between the head lice contamination and gender was statistically significant (P=0.00), the difference between this contamination type and grade of students and their parents' education and fathers' occupation was not significance. The highest rate of contamination (6.73%) was, however, observed in fifth graders. All contaminations were seen in girls, which could be due to their longer hair or wearing scarf as compared with boys. Unfavorable health condition and regional hot weather can be effective as well. Therefore, it is essential to provide the students, especially girls, with health training. PMID:25349862

  11. A Study of Head Lice Infestation (Pediculosis Capitis) among Primary School Students in the Villages of Abadan in 2012

    PubMed Central

    Salehi, Shayesteh; Ban, Maryam; Motaghi, Minoo

    2014-01-01

    Head lice contamination has a global distribution and it is regarded as a main health problem throughout the world. Given the importance of physical health of students and head lice prevalence at school age, we aimed to examine the rate of head lice contamination among primary school students in the villages of Abadan in 2012. In this descriptive study, 624 students were randomly selected from primary schools. The hair of all students under the study was examined by the researcher (community health nurse) and the result was registered in the checklist confidentially. Moreover, one questionnaire including personal and family information was filled out for each student. The obtained data were later analyzed in SPSS software, version 18, using statistical test Chi-square and central qualitative and distribution statistics. The frequency of lice contamination was 27 cases (4.33%) in total, all of whom were girls. Although the difference between the head lice contamination and gender was statistically significant (P=0.00), the difference between this contamination type and grade of students and their parents’ education and fathers’ occupation was not significance. The highest rate of contamination (6.73%) was, however, observed in fifth graders. All contaminations were seen in girls, which could be due to their longer hair or wearing scarf as compared with boys. Unfavorable health condition and regional hot weather can be effective as well. Therefore, it is essential to provide the students, especially girls, with health training. PMID:25349862

  12. Examining the prevalence rate of Pediculus capitis infestation according to sex and social factors in primary school children

    PubMed Central

    Doroodgar, Abbas; Sadr, Fakhraddin; Doroodgar, Masoud; Doroodgar, Moein; Sayyah, Mansour

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the prevalence rate of head louse infestation among elementary students, and examine the associated factors with infection in the city of Aran and Bidgol. Methods A total of 19 boys' and girls' primary schools were selected by multistage, systematic random sampling. Overall, 3 590 students were examined for head lice infestation in urban areas of Aran and Bidgol during 2008. The diagnosis was based on live louse or nit on the scalp of students. The students were screened by standard questionnaire and demographic data in addition to related information were obtained by interview and observation. The data were analyzed by SPSS software using chi-square and Fisher's exact tests. Results The mean age of students was (8.68±1.58) years ranging between 6-12 years. The total prevalence of head louse infestation was 0.47%. This rate was 0.42% and 0.05% in female and male, respectively. There was a significant association between pediculosis and sex, father's job, mother's education, access to bathroom in home, prior infection, drug use and nationality, respectively (P<0.05). Conclusions The results showed that pediculosis was not a major health priority among primary school in city of Aran and Bidgol. However, enhancing the knowledge of students about head lice infestation and the existence of health teachers in schools can play a significant role in disease control.

  13. Kerion mimicking bacterial infection in an elderly patient

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Sheikh Manzoor; Wani, GH Mohiuddin; Khursheed, Bilques

    2014-01-01

    Tinea capitis is generally thought to be a common disease in children but not in adults. When infection does occur in adults, it may have an atypical appearance. We report an elderly female with inflammatory tinea capitis caused by Trichophyton rubrum. She had numerous pustular lesions throughout the scalp with alopecia, initially treated for bacterial infection. We concluded that tinea capitis should remain in the differential diagnosis of elderly patients with alopecia and pyoderma like presentations and culture test should be routinely done in such patients to avoid complications. PMID:25396139

  14. Recent developments in the management of common childhood skin infections.

    PubMed

    Oranje, Arnold P; de Waard-van der Spek, Flora B

    2015-06-01

    A literature review and clinical commentary on diagnosis and treatment of common childhood bacterial, fungal and viral skin infections is presented including impetigo, folliculitis, staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome, tinea capitis, warts and molluscum contagiosum. PMID:25936745

  15. Lice, body with stool (Pediculus humanus) (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... capitis ), or the pubic area ( Phthirus pubis ). Some body lice may carry diseases such as epidemic typhus, relapsing fever, or trench fever. (Image courtesy of the Centers for Disease Control and ...

  16. Hair loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... continual hair pulling or scalp rubbing Radiation therapy Tinea capitis (ringworm of the scalp) Tumor of the ovary or ... a plucked hair Skin biopsy If you have ringworm on the scalp, you may be prescribed an ...

  17. Dermatophytosis among Schoolchildren in Three Eco-climatic Zones of Mali

    PubMed Central

    Coulibaly, Oumar; Kone, Abdoulaye K.; Niaré-Doumbo, Safiatou; Goïta, Siaka; Gaudart, Jean; Djimdé, Abdoulaye A.; Piarroux, Renaud; Doumbo, Ogobara K.; Thera, Mahamadou A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Dermatophytosis, and particularly the subtype tinea capitis, is common among African children; however, the risk factors associated with this condition are poorly understood. To describe the epidemiology of dermatophytosis in distinct eco-climatic zones, three cross-sectional surveys were conducted in public primary schools located in the Sahelian, Sudanian and Sudano-Guinean eco-climatic zones in Mali. Principal Findings Among 590 children (average age 9.7 years) the overall clinical prevalence of tinea capitis was 39.3%. Tinea capitis prevalence was 59.5% in the Sudano-Guinean zone, 41.6% in the Sudanian zone and 17% in the Sahelian eco-climatic zone. Microsporum audouinii was isolated primarily from large and/or microsporic lesions. Trichophyton soudanense was primarily isolated from trichophytic lesions. Based on the multivariate analysis, tinea capitis was independently associated with male gender (OR = 2.51, 95%CI [1.74–3.61], P<10−4) and residing in the Sudano-Guinean eco-climatic zone (OR = 7.45, 95%CI [4.63–11.99], P<10−4). Two anthropophilic dermatophytes species, Trichophyton soudanense and Microsporum audouinii, were the most frequent species associated with tinea capitis among primary schoolchildren in Mali. Conclusions Tinea capitis risk increased with increasing climate humidity in this relatively homogenous schoolchild population in Mali, which suggests a significant role of climatic factors in the epidemiology of dermatophytosis. PMID:27124571

  18. An analysis of the activity and muscle fatigue of the muscles around the neck under the three most frequent postures while using a smartphone

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jung-Hyun; Jung, Min-Ho; Yoo, Kyung-Tae

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to identify changes in the activity and fatigue of the splenius capitis and upper trapezius muscles, which are agonists to the muscles supporting the head, under the three postures most frequently adopted while using a smartphone. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 15 college students in their 20s. They formed a single group and had to adopt three different postures (maximum bending, middle bending, and neutral). While the 15 subjects maintained the postures, muscle activity and fatigue were measured using surface electromyography. [Results] Comparison of the muscle fatigue caused by each posture showed statistically significant differences for the right splenius capitis, left splenius capitis, and left upper trapezius muscles. In addition, maintaining the maximum bending posture while using a smartphone resulted in higher levels of fatigue in the right splenius capitis, left splenius capitis, and left upper trapezius muscles compared with those for the middle bending posture. [Conclusion] Therefore, this study suggests that individuals should bend their neck slightly when using a smartphone, rather than bending it too much, or keep their neck straight to reduce fatigue of the cervical erector muscles. PMID:27313393

  19. An analysis of the activity and muscle fatigue of the muscles around the neck under the three most frequent postures while using a smartphone.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jung-Hyun; Jung, Min-Ho; Yoo, Kyung-Tae

    2016-05-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to identify changes in the activity and fatigue of the splenius capitis and upper trapezius muscles, which are agonists to the muscles supporting the head, under the three postures most frequently adopted while using a smartphone. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 15 college students in their 20s. They formed a single group and had to adopt three different postures (maximum bending, middle bending, and neutral). While the 15 subjects maintained the postures, muscle activity and fatigue were measured using surface electromyography. [Results] Comparison of the muscle fatigue caused by each posture showed statistically significant differences for the right splenius capitis, left splenius capitis, and left upper trapezius muscles. In addition, maintaining the maximum bending posture while using a smartphone resulted in higher levels of fatigue in the right splenius capitis, left splenius capitis, and left upper trapezius muscles compared with those for the middle bending posture. [Conclusion] Therefore, this study suggests that individuals should bend their neck slightly when using a smartphone, rather than bending it too much, or keep their neck straight to reduce fatigue of the cervical erector muscles. PMID:27313393

  20. Functional variation of neck muscles and their relation to feeding style in Tyrannosauridae and other large theropod dinosaurs.

    PubMed

    Snively, Eric; Russell, Anthony P

    2007-08-01

    Reconstructed neck muscles of large theropod dinosaurs suggest influences on feeding style that paralleled variation in skull mechanics. In all examined theropods, the head dorsiflexor m. transversospinalis capitis probably filled in the posterior dorsal concavity of the neck, for a more crocodilian- than avian-like profile in this region. The tyrannosaurine tyrannosaurids Daspletosaurus and Tyrannosaurus had relatively larger moment arms for latero-flexion by m. longissimus capitis superficialis and m. complexus than albertosaurine tyrannosaurids, and longer dorsiflexive moment arms for m. complexus. Areas of dorsiflexor origination are significantly larger relative to neck length in adult Tyrannosaurus rex than in other tyrannosaurids, suggesting relatively large muscle cross-sections and forces. Tyrannosaurids were not particularly specialized for neck ventro-flexion. In contrast, the hypothesis that Allosaurus co-opted m. longissimus capitis superficialis for ventro-flexion is strongly corroborated. Ceratosaurus had robust insertions for the ventro-flexors m. longissimus capitis profundus and m. rectus capitis ventralis. Neck muscle morphology is consistent with puncture-and-pull and powerful shake feeding in tyrannosaurids, relatively rapid strikes in Allosaurus and Ceratosaurus, and ventroflexive augmentation of weaker jaw muscle forces in the non tyrannosaurids. PMID:17654673

  1. Hair shafts in trichoscopy: clues for diagnosis of hair and scalp diseases.

    PubMed

    Rudnicka, Lidia; Rakowska, Adriana; Kerzeja, Marta; Olszewska, Małgorzata

    2013-10-01

    Trichoscopy (hair and scalp dermoscopy) analyzes the structure and size of growing hair shafts, providing diagnostic clues for inherited and acquired causes of hair loss. Types of hair shaft abnormalities observed include exclamation mark hairs (alopecia areata, trichotillomania, chemotherapy-induced alopecia), Pohl-Pinkus constrictions (alopecia areata, chemotherapy-induced alopecia, blood loss, malnutrition), comma hairs (tinea capitis), corkscrew hairs (tinea capitis), coiled hairs (trichotillomania), flame hairs (trichotillomania), and tulip hairs (in trichotillomania, alopecia areata). Trichoscopy allows differential diagnosis of most genetic hair shaft disorders. This article proposes a classification of hair shaft abnormalities observed by trichoscopy. PMID:24075554

  2. Fungal infections and parasitic infestations in sports: expedient identification and treatment.

    PubMed

    Winokur, Rebecca C; Dexter, William W

    2004-10-01

    Common fungal infections include tinea corporis, capitis, cruris, versicolor, and pedis, as well as onychomycosis. Prevention of spread is important and involves frequent skin surveillance, avoidance of shared equipment, and regular equipment cleaning. The NCAA recommends treatment of tinea corporis and capitis infections and covering any exposed infection before return to play. Parasitic infestations occur because of the close physical contact of team members and athletes in contact sports. Both scabies and pediculosis should be treated before return to play, according to NCAA guidelines. Cutaneous larva migrans, a chronic parasitic infection caused by a hookworm, may be seen in beach volleyball players. PMID:20086381

  3. Evidence that clade A and clade B head lice live in sympatry and recombine in Algeria.

    PubMed

    Boutellis, A; Bitam, I; Fekir, K; Mana, N; Raoult, D

    2015-03-01

    Pediculus humanus L. (Psocodea: Pediculidae) can be characterized into three deeply divergent lineages (clades) based on mitochondrial DNA. Clade A consists of both head lice and clothing lice and is distributed worldwide. Clade B consists of head lice only and is mainly found in North and Central America, and in western Europe and Australia. Clade C, which consists only of head lice, is found in Ethiopia, Nepal and Senegal. Twenty-six head lice collected from pupils at different elementary schools in two localities in Algiers (Algeria) were analysed using molecular methods for genotyping lice (cytochrome b and the multi-spacer typing (MST) method. For the first time, we found clade B head lice in Africa living in sympatry with clade A head lice. The phylogenetic analysis of the concatenated sequences of these populations of head lice showed that clade A and clade B head lice had recombined, suggesting that interbreeding occurs when lice live in sympatry. PMID:25346378

  4. Microcystic adnexal carcinoma following radiotherapy in childhood

    SciTech Connect

    Borenstein, A.; Seidman, D.S.; Trau, H.; Tsur, H. )

    1991-04-01

    A 36-year-old man was treated by radiotherapy for tinea capitis many years before discovery of microcystic adnexal carcinoma (MAC). Because of patient's refusal of any surgical intervention, we were able to follow the natural course of this tumor for 13 years. This case emphasizes the typical slow development of (MAC). The implication of the association of MAC and radiotherapy are discussed.

  5. Parasitic Skin Infections for Primary Care Physicians.

    PubMed

    Dadabhoy, Irfan; Butts, Jessica F

    2015-12-01

    The 2 epidermal parasitic skin infections most commonly encountered by primary care physicians in developed countries are scabies and pediculosis. Pediculosis can be further subdivided into pediculosis capitis, corporis, and pubis. This article presents a summary of information and a review of the literature on clinical findings, diagnosis, and treatment of these commonly encountered parasitic skin infestations. PMID:26612378

  6. Diagnosis and management of tinea infections.

    PubMed

    Ely, John W; Rosenfeld, Sandra; Seabury Stone, Mary

    2014-11-15

    Tinea infections are caused by dermatophytes and are classified by the involved site. The most common infections in prepubertal children are tinea corporis and tinea capitis, whereas adolescents and adults are more likely to develop tinea cruris, tinea pedis, and tinea unguium (onychomycosis). The clinical diagnosis can be unreliable because tinea infections have many mimics, which can manifest identical lesions. For example, tinea corporis can be confused with eczema, tinea capitis can be confused with alopecia areata, and onychomycosis can be confused with dystrophic toenails from repeated low-level trauma. Physicians should confirm suspected onychomycosis and tinea capitis with a potassium hydroxide preparation or culture. Tinea corporis, tinea cruris, and tinea pedis generally respond to inexpensive topical agents such as terbinafine cream or butenafine cream, but oral antifungal agents may be indicated for extensive disease, failed topical treatment, immunocompromised patients, or severe moccasin-type tinea pedis. Oral terbinafine is first-line therapy for tinea capitis and onychomycosis because of its tolerability, high cure rate, and low cost. However, kerion should be treated with griseofulvin unless Trichophyton has been documented as the pathogen. Failure to treat kerion promptly can lead to scarring and permanent hair loss. PMID:25403034

  7. Epidemiological prediction of the distribution of insects of medical significance: comparative distributions of fleas and sucking lice on the rat host Rattus norvegicus in Yunnan Province, China.

    PubMed

    Zuo, X H; Guo, X G

    2011-12-01

    Determining the distribution patterns of ectoparasites is important for predicting the spread of vector-borne diseases. A simple epidemiological model was used to compare the distributions of two different taxa of ectoparasitic insects, sucking lice (Insecta: Siphonaptera) and fleas (Insecta: Anoplura), on the same rodent host, Rattus norvegicus Berkenhout (Rodentia: Muridae), in Yunnan Province, China. Correlations between mean abundance and prevalence were determined. Both fleas and sucking lice were aggregated on their hosts, and sucking lice showed a higher degree of aggregation than fleas. The prevalence of both fleas and sucking lice increased with log-transformed mean abundance and a highly linear correlation and modelling efficiency of predicted prevalence against observed prevalence were obtained. The results demonstrate that prevalence can be explained simply by mean abundance. PMID:21453420

  8. Changes in cervical muscle activity according to the traction force of an air-inflatable neck traction device.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jong Ho; Park, Tae-Sung

    2015-09-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to analyze cervical muscle activity at different traction forces of an air-inflatable neck traction device. [Subjects] Eighteen males participated in this study. [Methods] The subjects put on an air-inflatable neck traction device and the traction forces administered were 40, 80, and 120 mmHg. The electromyography (EMG) signals of the splenius capitis, and upper trapezius were measured to assess the muscle activity. [Results] The muscle activity of the splenius capitis was significantly higher at 80, and 120 mmHg compared to 40 mmHg. The muscle activity of the upper trapezius did not show significant differences among the traction forces. [Conclusion] Our research result showed that the air-inflatable home neck traction device did not meet the condition of muscle relaxation. PMID:26504278

  9. Radiation-induced cerebral meningioma: a recognizable entity

    SciTech Connect

    Rubinstein, A.B.; Shalit, M.N.; Cohen, M.L.; Zandbank, U.; Reichenthal, E.

    1984-11-01

    The authors retrospectively analyzed the clinical and histopathological findings in 201 patients with intracranial meningiomas operated on in the period 1978 to 1982. Forty-three of the patients (21.4%) had at some previous time received radiation treatment to their scalp, the majority for tinea capitis. The findings in these 43 irradiated patients were compared with those in the 158 non-irradiated patients. Several distinctive clinical and histological features were identified in the irradiated group, which suggest that radiation-induced meningiomas can be defined as a separate nosological subgroup. The use of irradiation in large numbers of children with tinea capitis in the era prior to the availability of griseofulvin may be responsible for a significantly increased incidence of intracranial meningiomas.

  10. Changes in cervical muscle activity according to the traction force of an air-inflatable neck traction device

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Jong Ho; Park, Tae-Sung

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to analyze cervical muscle activity at different traction forces of an air-inflatable neck traction device. [Subjects] Eighteen males participated in this study. [Methods] The subjects put on an air-inflatable neck traction device and the traction forces administered were 40, 80, and 120 mmHg. The electromyography (EMG) signals of the splenius capitis, and upper trapezius were measured to assess the muscle activity. [Results] The muscle activity of the splenius capitis was significantly higher at 80, and 120 mmHg compared to 40 mmHg. The muscle activity of the upper trapezius did not show significant differences among the traction forces. [Conclusion] Our research result showed that the air-inflatable home neck traction device did not meet the condition of muscle relaxation. PMID:26504278

  11. Epidemiology and control of human head louse in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Sinniah, B; Sinniah, D; Rajeswari, B

    1983-12-01

    A survey of 4.112 primary school children living in and around Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, revealed that 12.9% of the children were infested with Pediculus humanus capitis. Indians (28.3%) and Malays (18.9%) have a higher prevalence than Chinese (4.6%). The higher prevalence among Indians and Malays correlates well with their lower socio-economic status in the community; long hair also contributes to the higher rates of pediculosis among them. The prevalence rate was found to be related to socio-economic status, length of hair, family size, age, crowding and personal hygiene. Treatment with 0.2% and 0.5% malathion in coconut oil gave cure rates of 93% and 100%. Treatment with gammexane and actellic at 0.5% concentration gave a cure rate of 100% against adults and nymphs of Pediculus humanus capitis. PMID:6670116

  12. Tinea corporis due to Trichophyton violaceum: A report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Smriti, C; Anuradha, S; Kamlesh, T; Isampreet, K; Nitin, K

    2015-01-01

    Dermatophytes are Fungi which infect keratinized tissues, that is, skin epidermis, hair and nails. Trichophyton violaceum is an anthropophilic, cosmopolitan dermatophyte. It primarily causes tinea capitis and less commonly tinea corporis and tinea unguium. We present a report of two cases of tinea corporis due to T. violaceum in children. Infections due to T. violaceum are important because of its transmissibility within families and community and its potential to spread and establish in new geographical areas. PMID:26470976

  13. Mycology - an update. Part 1: Dermatomycoses: causative agents, epidemiology and pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Nenoff, Pietro; Krüger, Constanze; Ginter-Hanselmayer, Gabriele; Tietz, Hans-Jürgen

    2014-03-01

    Dermatomycoses are caused most commonly by dermatophytes. The anthropophilic dermatophyte Trichophyton rubrum is still the most frequent causative agent worldwide. Keratinolytic enzymes, e.g. hydrolases and keratinases, are important virulence factors of T. rubrum. Recently, the cysteine dioxygenase was found as new virulence factor. Predisposing host factors play a similarly important role for the development of dermatophytosis of the skin and nails. Chronic venous insufficiency, diabetes mellitus, disorders of cellular immunity, and genetic predisposition should be considered as risk factors for onychomycosis. A new alarming trend is the increasing number of cases of onychomycosis - mostly due to T. rubrum - in infancy. In Germany, tinea capitis is mostly caused by zoophilic dermatophytes, in particular Microsporum canis. New zoophilic fungi, primarily Trichophyton species of Arthroderma benhamiae, should be taken into differential diagnostic considerations of tinea capitis, tinea faciei, and tinea corporis. Source of infection are small household pets, particularly rodents, like guinea pigs. Anthropophilic dermatophytes may be introduced by families which immigrate from Africa or Asia to Europe. The anthropophilic dermatophytes T. violaceum, T. tonsurans (infections occurring in fighting sports clubs as "tinea gladiatorum capitis et corporis") and M. audouinii are causing outbreaks of small epidemics of tinea corporis and tinea capitis in kindergartens and schools. Superficial infections of the skin and mucous membranes due to yeasts are caused by Candida species. Also common are infections due to the lipophilic yeast fungus Malassezia. Today, within the genus Malassezia more than 10 different species are known. Malassezia globosa seems to play the crucial role in pityriasis versicolor. Molds (also designated non-dermatophyte molds, NDM) are increasingly found as causative agents in onychomycosis. Besides Scopulariopsis brevicaulis, several species of

  14. Treatment of head lice.

    PubMed

    Diamantis, Stephanie A; Morrell, Dean S; Burkhart, Craig N

    2009-01-01

    Pediculosis capitis, or head lice, is a common infestation among children worldwide. Multiple therapies exist for the treatment of this condition, including topical pediculicides and oral medications. When used in combination with environmental decontamination, these drugs can be very effective in eradicating head lice infestation without significant adverse events. The present study discusses the use of available over-the-counter and prescription treatments, including pyrethroids and permethrin, lindane, malathion, ivermectin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, in the treatment of head lice. PMID:19580574

  15. Head louse control by suffocation due to blocking their oxygen uptake.

    PubMed

    Al-Quraishy, Saleh; Abdel-Ghaffar, Fathy; Mehlhorn, Heinz

    2015-08-01

    The present study shows that head lice (Pediculus humanus capitis) are killed by suffocation when submersed into the anti-louse shampoo Licener®, which contains a mild shampoo component and an extract of neem seeds after their oil components had been pressed off. It is shown that the inner tracheal system becomes completely filled by the very fluid product. Within 3-10 min, oxygen uptake is prohibited and death of all thus treated lice stages occurred. PMID:25990060

  16. Red face revisited: Disorders of hair growth and the pilosebaceous unit.

    PubMed

    Ramos-e-Silva, Marcia; Pirmez, Rodrigo

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews the recent literature on the diseases of the hair and pilosebaceous unit that may cause a red face. We discuss the epidemiology, clinicals, pathogenesis, and therapy of lichen planopilaris with its variants, discoid lupus erythematosus, folliculitis decalvans, dissecting folliculitis, acne keloidalis nuchae, pseudofolliculitis barbae, tinea capitis, tinea barbae, folliculitis of diverse causative factors and inflammatory follicular keratotic syndromes, ulerythema ophryogenes, atrophoderma vermiculatum, keratosis follicularis spinulosa decalvans, and folliculitis spinulosa decalvans. PMID:25441472

  17. Hypertrophy in the cervical muscles and thoracic discs in bed rest?

    PubMed

    Belavý, Daniel L; Miokovic, Tanja; Armbrecht, Gabriele; Felsenberg, Dieter

    2013-09-01

    The impact of prolonged bed rest on the cervical and upper thoracic spine is unknown. In the 2nd Berlin BedRest Study (BBR2-2), 24 male subjects underwent 60-day bed rest and performed either no exercise, resistive exercise, or resistive exercise with whole body vibration. Subjects were followed for 2 yr after bed rest. On axial cervical magnetic resonance images from the skull to T3, the volumes of the semispinalis capitis, splenius capitis, spinalis cervicis, longus capitis, longus colli, levator scapulae, sternocleidomastoid, middle and posterior scalenes, and anterior scalenes were measured. Disc height, anteroposterior width, and volume were measured from C2/3 to T6/7 on sagittal images. The volume of all muscles, with the exception of semispinalis capitis, increased during bed rest (P < 0.025). There were no significant differences between the groups for changes in the muscles. Increased upper and midthoracic spine disc height and volume (P < 0.001) was seen during bed rest, and disc height increases persisted at least 6 mo after bed rest. Increases in thoracic disc height were greater (P = 0.003) in the resistive vibration exercise group than in control. On radiological review, two subjects showed new injuries to the mid-lower thoracic spine. One of these subjects reported a midthoracic pain incident during maximal strength testing before bed rest and the other after countermeasure exercise on day 3 of bed rest. We conclude that bed rest is associated with increased disc size in the thoracic region and increases in muscle volume at the neck. The exercise device needs to be modified to ensure that load is distributed in a more physiological fashion. PMID:23813530

  18. Itch Management in Childhood.

    PubMed

    Fölster-Holst, Regina

    2016-01-01

    Itch in children is a very common symptom and is mainly related to a skin disease rather than an underlying systemic disorder. The most common dermatoses include atopic dermatitis, contact dermatitis, insect bites, scabies, and pediculosis capitis. There are specific diagnostic patterns which require the evaluation of a careful history and dermatological examination. For dermatological treatment, we have to consider that children, especially infants, show differences in physiology and pathophysiology, and also in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics compared with adults. PMID:27578087

  19. Bacterial response to acetate challenge: a comparison of tolerance among species.

    PubMed

    Lasko, D R; Zamboni, N; Sauer, U

    2000-08-01

    Although acetate formation and tolerance are important criteria for various aspects of biotechnological process development, available studies on acetate tolerance in different species are disparate. We evaluate the response of eight bacterial strains, including two variants of Escherichia coli, two variants of Staphylococcus capitis, and one each of Acetobacter aceti, Gluconobacter suboxydans, Lactobacillus acetotolerans, and L. bulgaricus, to acetate challenges under identical conditions. Our findings were: (1) wild-type organisms of species that are considered tolerant of acetate perform only slightly better than E. coli in unadapted shaker cultures; (2) the ability to tolerate acetate is strongly dependent on the carbon source, and is, especially for E. coli, much greater on glycerol than on glucose; (3) respiration is not as important to acetate tolerance in E. coli and S. capitis as has been reported for the acetic acid bacteria; (4) S. capitis was the least affected by acetate under all conditions and grew at up to 44 g/l acetate without any preconditioning; and (5) qualitative high-throughput screening of growth characteristics can be achieved with relatively inexpensive multiwell plate readers. PMID:10968640

  20. Assessment of topical versus oral ivermectin as a treatment for head lice.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Hesham M; Abdel-Azim, Eman S; Abdel-Aziz, Rasha T

    2014-01-01

    Many medications are available for treatment of pediculosis capitis including ivermectin. Our aim is to compare the efficacy and safety of topical versus oral ivermectin in treatment of pediculosis capitis. Sixty-two patients with proved head lice infestation were included and divided into group I (31 patients; received single topical application of 1% ivermectin) and group II (31 patients; received single dose of oral ivermectin). Treatment was repeated after 1 week for nonresponders. At 1 week after treatment, the eradication rates and improvement of pruritus were significantly higher among patients who received topical than oral ivermectin. When a second treatment, topical or oral, was given to nonresponders, the cure rates of infestation and pruritus was 100% and 97% among patients treated with topical and oral ivermectin, respectively with no significant difference between the two groups. This study suggests that both topical and oral ivermectin demonstrate high efficacy and tolerability in treatment of pediculosis capitis. However, a single treatment with topical ivermectin provides significantly higher cure of infestation and faster relief of pruritus than oral ivermectin. In addition, whether topical or oral ivermectin is used to treat head lice, a second dose is required in some cases to ensure complete eradication. PMID:25041547

  1. [Pediculosis in rural schools of Lublin Province].

    PubMed

    Buczek, A; Kawa, I M; Markowska-Gosik, D; Widomska, D

    2001-01-01

    The aim of the work was to study the prevalence of pediculosis capitis among schoolchildren in rural areas of Lublin Province in Eastern Poland and to examine its correlation with socio-economic conditions. A group of 42759 schoolchildren aged between 6 and 15 years from 52 rural primary schools were examined. The level of unemployment, number of physicians and number of nurses per 10000 inhabitants were examined in the area of experiment. We achieved the following results: a total of 682 children were found to be infested with Pediculus humanus capitis, mean prevalence was 1.6%. The girls were more frequently infected than boys (75% for girls and 24% for boys). The children most frequently affected were those aged 6 (1.6%) and 8 to 12 years (1.6-2.1%). The children least affected were those aged 13 to 14 years (0.8-1.1%). The infestation rate was strictly correlated with the number of nurses per 10000 inhabitants. There was no relationship between the level of unemployment or the number of physicians and the infestation rate on experimental area. Our investigations seems to confirme that the prevalence of P. h. capitis is influenced by the level of primary health care, particulary quality of school nurses' work. PMID:16894747

  2. [Serological analysis of coagulase-negative staphylococci: study of characteristic agglutinogens in type strains of the nine species individualized by Schleifer and Kloos (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Pillet, J; Orta, B

    1977-01-01

    The occurrence of characteristic agglutinogens has been searched for in the type strains of the following species: Staphylococcus xylosus, S. cohnii, S. epidermidis, S. capitis, S. saprophyticus, S. warneri, S. haemolyticus, S. hominis and S. simulans. Serotyping of these nine strains and study of their antisera have been carried out with formalin-treated and autoclaved bacteria. It has been shown that the characteristic agglutinogens of S. epidermidis and S. haemolyticus were respectively identical to the agglutinogens previously described in the coagulase-negative type strain 52.186 and in the S. aureus type strain 18. Characteristic agglutinogens have been found in each of the other seven type strains. Agglutinogens found in S. xylosus and S. saprophyticus are thermolabile, the corresponding absorbed sera reacting only with the formalin-treated homologous strain. Concerning S. cohnii, S. capitis, S. hominis and S. simulans, their absorbed sera reacting both with formalin-treated and autoclaved homologous strains, the observed reactions can be accounted either by one thermostable agglutinogen or by two characteristic agglutinogens, one thermostable, the other thermolabile. In S. warneri, only one thermostable agglutinogen has been characterized, the specificity of the reaction observed between the absorbed S. warneri antiserum and the homologous formalin-treated strain having to be confirmed. The use for serotyping of absorbed sera prepared against the type strains of the species S. xylosus, S. cohnii, S. capitis, S. saprophyticus, S. warneri, S. hominis and S. simulans should permit to improve the individualization of coagulase-negative staphylococci. PMID:610502

  3. Noninvasive analysis of human neck muscle function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conley, M. S.; Meyer, R. A.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Feeback, D. L.; Dudley, G. A.

    1995-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN. Muscle use evoked by exercise was determined by quantifying shifts in signal relaxation times of T2-weighted magnetic resonance images. Images were collected at rest and after exercise at each of two intensities (moderate and intense) for each of four head movements: 1) extension, 2) flexion, 3) rotation, and 4) lateral flexion. OBJECTIVE. This study examined the intensity and pattern of neck muscle use evoked by various movements of the head. The results will help elucidate the pathophysiology, and thus methods for treating disorders of the cervical musculoskeletal system. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA. Exercise-induced contrast shifts in T2 has been shown to indicate muscle use during the activity. The noninvasive nature of magnetic resonance imaging appears to make it an ideal approach for studying the function of the complex neuromuscular system of the neck. METHODS. The extent of T2 increase was examined to gauge how intensely nine different neck muscles or muscle pairs were used in seven subjects. The absolute and relative cross-sectional area of muscle showing a shift in signal relaxation was assessed to infer the pattern of use among and within individual neck muscles or muscle pairs. RESULTS. Signal relaxation increased with exercise intensity for each head movement. The absolute and relative cross-sectional area of muscle showing a shift in signal relaxation also increased with exercise load. Neck muscles or muscle pairs extensively used to perform each head movement were: extension--semispinalis capitis and cervicis and splenius capitis; flexion--sternocleidomastoid and longus capitis and colli; rotation--splenius capitis, levator scapulae, scalenus, semispinalis capitis ipsilateral to the rotation, and sternocleidomastoid contralateral; and lateral flexion--sternocleidomastoid CONCLUSION. The results of this study, in part, agree with the purported functions of neck muscles derived from anatomic location. This also was true for the few

  4. Parasites in harbour seals ( Phoca vitulina) from the German Wadden Sea between two Phocine Distemper Virus epidemics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehnert, K.; Raga, J. A.; Siebert, U.

    2007-12-01

    Parasites were collected from 107 harbour seals ( Phoca vitulina) found on the coasts of Schleswig-Holstein, Germany, between 1997 and 2000. The prevalence of the parasites and their associated pathology were investigated. Eight species of parasites, primarily nematodes, were identified from the examined organs: two anisakid nematodes ( Pseudoterranova decipiens (sensu lato) , Contracaecum osculatum (sensu lato)) from the stomach, Otostrongylus circumlitus (Crenosomatidae) and Parafilaroides gymnurus (Filaroididae) from the respiratory tract, one filarioid nematode ( Acanthocheilonema spirocauda) from the heart, two acanthocephalans, Corynosoma strumosum and C. semerme (Polymorphidae), from the intestine and an ectoparasite, Echinophthirius horridus (Anoplura, Insecta). Lungworm infection was the most prominent parasitological finding and secondary bacterial bronchopneumonia the most pathogenic lesion correlated with the parasites. Heavy nematode burdens in the respiratory tract were highly age-related and more frequent in young seals. A positive correlation was observed between high levels of pulmonary infection and severity of bronchopneumonia. The prevalence of lungworms in this study was higher than in seals that died during the 1988/1989 Phocine Distemper Virus epidemic, and the prevalence of acanthocephalans and heartworms had decreased compared to findings from the first die-off.

  5. The parasitic fauna of the European bison (Bison bonasus) (Linnaeus, 1758) and their impact on the conservation. Part 1. The summarising list of parasites noted.

    PubMed

    Karbowiak, Grzegorz; Demiaszkiewicz, Aleksander W; Pyziel, Anna M; Wita, Irena; Moskwa, Bożena; Werszko, Joanna; Bień, Justyna; Goździk, Katarzyna; Lachowicz, Jacek; Cabaj, Władysław

    2014-09-01

    During the current century, 88 species of parasites have been recorded in Bison bonasus. These are 22 species of protozoa (Trypanosoma wrublewskii, T. theileri, Giardia sp., Sarcocystis cruzi, S. hirsuta, S. hominis, S. fusiformis, Neospora caninum, Toxoplasma gondii, Cryptosporidium sp., Eimeria cylindrica, E. subspherica, E. bovis, E. zuernii, E. canadensis, E. ellipsoidalis, E. alabamensis, E. bukidnonensis, E. auburnensis, E. pellita, E. brasiliensis, Babesia divergens), 4 trematodes species (Dicrocoelium dendriticum, Fasciola hepatica, Parafasciolopsis fasciolaemorpha, Paramphistomum cervi), 4 cestodes species (Taenia hydatigena larvae, Moniezia benedeni, M. expansa, Moniezia sp.), 43 nematodes species (Bunostomum trigonocephalum, B. phlebotomum, Chabertia ovina, Oesophagostomum radiatum, O. venulosum, Dictyocaulus filaria, D.viviparus, Nematodirella alcidis, Nematodirus europaeus, N. helvetianus, N. roscidus, N. filicollis, N. spathiger, Cooperia oncophora, C. pectinata, C. punctata, C. surnabada, Haemonchus contortus, Mazamastrongylus dagestanicus, Ostertagia lyrata, O. ostertagi, O. antipini, O. leptospicularis, O. kolchida, O. circumcincta, O. trifurcata, Spiculopteragia boehmi, S. mathevossiani, S. asymmetrica, Trichostrongylus axei, T. askivali, T. capricola, T. vitrinus, Ashworthius sidemi, Onchocerca lienalis, O. gutturosa, Setaria labiatopapillosa, Gongylonema pulchrum, Thelazia gulosa, T. skrjabini, T. rhodesi, Aonchotheca bilobata, Trichuris ovis), 7 mites (Demodex bisonianus, D. bovis, Demodex sp., Chorioptes bovis, Psoroptes equi, P. ovis, Sarcoptes scabiei), 4 Ixodidae ticks (Ixodes ricinus, I. persulcatus, I. hexagonus, Dermacentor reticulatus), 1 Mallophaga species (Bisonicola sedecimdecembrii), 1 Anoplura (Haematopinus eurysternus), and 2 Hippoboscidae flies (Lipoptena cervi, Melophagus ovinus). There are few monoxenous parasites, many typical for cattle and many newly acquired from Cervidae. PMID:25119348

  6. Effects of 16S rDNA sampling on estimates of the number of endosymbiont lineages in sucking lice.

    PubMed

    Allen, Julie M; Burleigh, J Gordon; Light, Jessica E; Reed, David L

    2016-01-01

    Phylogenetic trees can reveal the origins of endosymbiotic lineages of bacteria and detect patterns of co-evolution with their hosts. Although taxon sampling can greatly affect phylogenetic and co-evolutionary inference, most hypotheses of endosymbiont relationships are based on few available bacterial sequences. Here we examined how different sampling strategies of Gammaproteobacteria sequences affect estimates of the number of endosymbiont lineages in parasitic sucking lice (Insecta: Phthirapatera: Anoplura). We estimated the number of louse endosymbiont lineages using both newly obtained and previously sequenced 16S rDNA bacterial sequences and more than 42,000 16S rDNA sequences from other Gammaproteobacteria. We also performed parametric and nonparametric bootstrapping experiments to examine the effects of phylogenetic error and uncertainty on these estimates. Sampling of 16S rDNA sequences affects the estimates of endosymbiont diversity in sucking lice until we reach a threshold of genetic diversity, the size of which depends on the sampling strategy. Sampling by maximizing the diversity of 16S rDNA sequences is more efficient than randomly sampling available 16S rDNA sequences. Although simulation results validate estimates of multiple endosymbiont lineages in sucking lice, the bootstrap results suggest that the precise number of endosymbiont origins is still uncertain. PMID:27547523

  7. Effects of 16S rDNA sampling on estimates of the number of endosymbiont lineages in sucking lice

    PubMed Central

    Burleigh, J. Gordon; Light, Jessica E.; Reed, David L.

    2016-01-01

    Phylogenetic trees can reveal the origins of endosymbiotic lineages of bacteria and detect patterns of co-evolution with their hosts. Although taxon sampling can greatly affect phylogenetic and co-evolutionary inference, most hypotheses of endosymbiont relationships are based on few available bacterial sequences. Here we examined how different sampling strategies of Gammaproteobacteria sequences affect estimates of the number of endosymbiont lineages in parasitic sucking lice (Insecta: Phthirapatera: Anoplura). We estimated the number of louse endosymbiont lineages using both newly obtained and previously sequenced 16S rDNA bacterial sequences and more than 42,000 16S rDNA sequences from other Gammaproteobacteria. We also performed parametric and nonparametric bootstrapping experiments to examine the effects of phylogenetic error and uncertainty on these estimates. Sampling of 16S rDNA sequences affects the estimates of endosymbiont diversity in sucking lice until we reach a threshold of genetic diversity, the size of which depends on the sampling strategy. Sampling by maximizing the diversity of 16S rDNA sequences is more efficient than randomly sampling available 16S rDNA sequences. Although simulation results validate estimates of multiple endosymbiont lineages in sucking lice, the bootstrap results suggest that the precise number of endosymbiont origins is still uncertain. PMID:27547523

  8. Environment-related and host-related factors affecting the occurrence of lice on rodents in Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Stanko, Michal; Fričová, Jana; Miklisová, Dana; Khokhlova, Irina S; Krasnov, Boris R

    2015-06-01

    We studied the effects of environment- (habitat, season) and host-related (sex, body mass) factors on the occurrence of four species of lice (Insecta:Phthiraptera:Anoplura) on six rodent species (Rodentia:Muridae). We asked how these factors influence the occurrence of lice on an individual host and whether different rodent-louse associations demonstrate consistent trends in these effects. We found significant effects of at least one environment-related and at least one host-related factor on the louse occurrence in five of six host-louse associations. The effect of habitat was significant in two associations with the occurrence of lice being more frequent in lowland than in mountain habitats. The effect of season was significant in five associations with a higher occurrence of infestation during the warm season in four associations and the cold season in one association. Host sex affected significantly the infestation by lice in three associations with a higher frequency of infestation in males. Host body mass affected the occurrence of lice in all five associations, being negative in wood mice and positive in voles. In conclusion, lice were influenced not only by the host- but also by environment-related factors. The effects of the latter could be mediated via life history parameters of a host. PMID:25651932

  9. Vestibulocollic reflexes in the absence of head postural control

    PubMed Central

    Forbes, Patrick A.; Siegmund, Gunter P.; Happee, Riender; Schouten, Alfred C.

    2014-01-01

    Percutaneous electrical vestibular stimulation evokes reflexive responses in appendicular muscles that are suppressed during tasks in which the muscles are not contributing to balance control. In neck muscles, which stabilize the head on the torso and in space, it is unclear whether similar postural task dependence shapes vestibular reflexes. We investigated whether vestibulocollic reflexes are modulated during tasks in which vestibular information is not directly relevant to maintaining the head balanced on the torso. We hypothesized that vestibulocollic reflexes would be 1) evoked when neck muscles are not involved in balancing the head on the torso and 2) invariant across synergistic neck muscle contraction tasks. Muscle activity was recorded bilaterally in sternocleidomastoid and splenius capitis muscles during head-free and head-fixed conditions while subjects were exposed to stochastic electrical vestibular stimulation (±5 mA, 0–75 Hz). Significant vestibular reflex responses (P < 0.05) were observed during head-free and head-fixed trials. Response magnitude and timing were similar between head-free and head-fixed trials for sternocleidomastoid, but splenius capitis magnitudes decreased with the head fixed by ∼25% (P < 0.05). Nevertheless, this indicates that vestibulocollic responses are evoked independent of the requirement to maintain postural control of the head on the torso. Response magnitude and timing were similar across focal muscle contractions (i.e., axial rotation/flexion/extension) provided the muscle was active. In contrast, when subjects cocontracted neck muscles, vestibular-evoked responses decreased in sternocleidomastoid by ∼30–45% (P < 0.05) compared with focal muscle contractions but remained unchanged in splenius capitis. These results indicate robust vestibulocollic reflex coupling, which we suggest functions through its closed-loop influence on head posture to ensure cervical spine stabilization. PMID:25008409

  10. Analysis of right anterolateral impacts: the effect of head rotation on the cervical muscle whiplash response

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Shrawan; Ferrari, Robert; Narayan, Yogesh

    2005-01-01

    Background The cervical muscles are considered a potential site of whiplash injury, and there are many impact scenarios for whiplash injury. There is a need to understand the cervical muscle response under non-conventional whiplash impact scenarios, including variable head position and impact direction. Methods Twenty healthy volunteers underwent right anterolateral impacts of 4.0, 7.6, 10.7, and 13.0 m/s2 peak acceleration, each with the head rotated to the left, then the head rotated to the right in a random order of impact severities. Bilateral electromyograms of the sternocleidomastoids, trapezii, and splenii capitis following impact were measured. Results At a peak acceleration of 13.0 m/s2, with the head rotated to the right, the right trapezius generated 61% of its maximal voluntary contraction electromyogram (MVC EMG), while all other muscles generated 31% or less of this variable (31% for the left trapezius, 13% for the right spleinus. capitis, and 16% for the left splenius capitis). The sternocleidomastoids muscles also tended to show an asymmetric EMG response, with the left sternocleidomastoid (the one responsible for head rotation to the right) generating a higher percentage (26%) of its MVC EMG than the left sternocleidomastoid (4%) (p < 0.05). When the head is rotated to the left, under these same conditions, the results are reversed even though the impact direction remains right anterolateral. Conclusion The EMG response to a right anterolateral impact is highly dependent on the head position. The sternocleidomastoid responsible for the direction of head rotation and the trapezius ipsilateral to the direction of head rotation generate the most EMG activity. PMID:15927056

  11. A report on radiation-induced gliomas

    SciTech Connect

    Salvati, M.; Artico, M.; Caruso, R.; Rocchi, G.; Orlando, E.R.; Nucci, F. )

    1991-01-15

    Radiation-induced gliomas are uncommon, with only 73 cases on record to date. The disease that most frequently occasioned radiation therapy has been acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Three more cases are added here, two after irradiation for ALL and one after irradiation for tinea capitis. In a review of the relevant literature, the authors stress the possibility that the ALL-glioma and the retinoblastoma-glioma links point to syndromes in their own right that may occur without radiation therapy.56 references.

  12. Wet combing for the eradication of head lice.

    PubMed

    2013-03-01

    Manual removal (using conditioner and comb or a wet comb) can be used in the treatment of head lice. Head lice infestation (Pediculosis humanus capitis) is a common problem. It is diagnosed by visualising the lice. As half of people infested with head lice will not scratch, all people in contact with a person affected with head lice should be manually checked for infestations. Wet combing is easily and safely performed at home, but persistence is needed. This article describes the process of head lice removal using a wet comb. It has NHMRC Level 2 evidence of efficacy and no serious adverse effects have been reported. PMID:23529522

  13. Imposters of androgenetic alopecia: diagnostic pearls for the hair restoration surgeon.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Nicole

    2013-08-01

    It is crucial that hair restoration surgeons understand the basic clinical diagnosis and pathologic condition of other hair loss conditions that are not always amenable to successful hair transplantation. In this article nonscarring and scarring mimickers of androgenetic alopecia are discussed. Nonscarring conditions include alopecia areata, telogen effluvium, and tinea capitis. Some of the more common scarring alopecias include lichen planopilaris, frontal fibrosing alopecia, and central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia. Less common inflammatory conditions include pseudopelade of Brocq, discoid lupus erythematosus, and folliculitis decalvans. PMID:24017974

  14. Dissecting cellulitis of the scalp treated with rifampicin and isotretinoin: case reports.

    PubMed

    Georgala, Sofia; Korfitis, Chrysovalantis; Ioannidou, Dikaia; Alestas, Theodosis; Kylafis, Georgios; Georgala, Caterina

    2008-09-01

    Dissecting cellulitis of the scalp, or perifolliculitis capitis abscedens et suffodiens, is an uncommon chronic suppurative disease of the scalp manifested by follicular and perifollicular inflammatory nodules that suppurate and undermine, forming intercommunicating sinuses, and leading to scarring alopecia. Treatment generally fails to obtain a permanently successful result; thus, many therapeutic options have been proposed. We report 4 cases of dissecting cellulitis of the scalp successfully treated with oral rifampicin and oral isotretinoin. To our knowledge, this is the first report of oral rifampicin used concomitantly with oral isotretinoin in this disease entity. We also present a brief review of the literature on the topic. PMID:18856159

  15. An enlarged endocranial venous system in Steneosaurus pictaviensis (Crocodylia: Thalattosuchia) from the Upper Jurassic of LesLourdines, FranceUn système veineux endocrânien volumineux chez Steneosaurus pictaviensis (Crocodylia: Thalattosuchia) du Jurassique supérieur des Lourdines, France.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wharton, Deborah Susan

    2000-08-01

    Large endocranial features are revealed in a three-dimensionally preserved specimen of the thalattosuchian crocodile Steneosaurus pictaviensis. Structures found on an endocast indicate the presence of the same venous blood system, although much enlarged, as found within the cranial cavity of modern crocodilians. An exceptionally large longitudinal dorsal blood sinus forms an expanded torcular herophili above the junction of the midbrain and hindbrain. The venous canals entering the posterodorsal part of the torcular herophili are the capiti dorsalis, which drain blood from the temporal and occipital musculature, entering the braincase in this region as in many extant and extinct Archosauria.

  16. Eradication of head lice with a single treatment.

    PubMed

    DiNapoli, J B; Austin, R D; Englender, S J; Gomez, M P; Barrett, J F

    1988-08-01

    Single application of Nix (permethrin 1% creme rinse) and Rid were compared as treatments for Pediculosis capitis in 435 patients, the majority of whom were children. Seven days after the treatment, 98 per cent of the permethrin-treated and 85 per cent of the Rid-treated patients were free of lice. At 14 days, prior to nit removal, 96 per cent of the permethrin-treated and 62 per cent of the Rid-treated patients were still lice free. Seventeen (7 per cent) permethrin-treated and 32 (16 per cent) Rid-treated patients were reported to have adverse experiences. PMID:3291623

  17. Hair and scalp dermatoscopy.

    PubMed

    Miteva, Mariya; Tosti, Antonella

    2012-11-01

    Dermatoscopy is a noninvasive diagnostic tool that allows the recognition of morphologic structures not visible by the naked eye. Trichoscopy (scalp dermatoscopy and videodermatoscopy) is useful for the diagnosis and follow-up of hair and scalp disorders. However, it is not widely used in the management of hair disorders. This review provides updated information from the literature and our experience on the dermoscopic features of the most common hair and scalp disorders. This will enable dermatologists to make fast diagnoses of tinea capitis and alopecia areata, distinguish early androgenetic alopecia from telogen effluvium, and differentiate scarring from nonscarring alopecia. PMID:22405573

  18. Identification of Staphylococcus species and subspecies with the MicroScan Pos ID and Rapid Pos ID panel systems.

    PubMed

    Kloos, W E; George, C G

    1991-04-01

    The accuracies of the MicroScan Pos ID and Rapid Pos ID panel systems (Baxter Diagnostic Inc., MicroScan Division, West Sacramento, Calif.) were compared with each other and with the accuracies of conventional methods for the identification of 25 Staphylococcus species and 4 subspecies. Conventional methods included those used in the original descriptions of species and subspecies and DNA-DNA hybridization. The Pos ID panel uses a battery of 18 tests, and the Rapid Pos ID panel uses a battery of 42 tests for the identification of Staphylococcus species. The Pos ID panel has modified conventional and chromogenic tests that can be read after 15 to 48 h of incubation; the Rapid Pos ID panel has tests that use fluorogenic substrates or fluorometric indicators, and test results can be read after 2 h of incubation in the autoSCAN-W/A. Results indicated that both MicroScan systems had a high degree of congruence (greater than or equal to 90%) with conventional methods for the species S. capitis, S. aureus, S. auricularis, S. saprophyticus, S. cohnii, S. arlettae, S. carnosus, S. lentus, and S. sciuri and, in particular, the subspecies S. capitis subsp. capitis and S. cohnii subsp. cohnii. The Rapid Pos ID panel system also had greater than or equal to 90% congruence with conventional methods for S. epidermidis, S. caprae, S. warneri subsp. 2, S. xylosus, S. kloosii, and S. caseolyticus. For both MicroScan systems, congruence with conventional methods was 80 to 90% for S. haemolyticus subsp. 1, S. equorum, S. intermedius, and S. hyicus; and in addition, with the Rapid Pos ID panel system congruence was 80 to 89% for S. capitis subsp. ureolyticus, S. warneri subsp. 1, S. hominis, S. cohnii subsp. urealyticum, and S. simulans. The MicroScan systems identified a lower percentage (50 to 75%) of strains of S. lugdunensis, S. gallinarum, S. schleiferi, and S. chromogenes, although the addition of specific tests to the systems might increase the accuracy of identification

  19. Identification of Staphylococcus species and subspecies with the MicroScan Pos ID and Rapid Pos ID panel systems.

    PubMed Central

    Kloos, W E; George, C G

    1991-01-01

    The accuracies of the MicroScan Pos ID and Rapid Pos ID panel systems (Baxter Diagnostic Inc., MicroScan Division, West Sacramento, Calif.) were compared with each other and with the accuracies of conventional methods for the identification of 25 Staphylococcus species and 4 subspecies. Conventional methods included those used in the original descriptions of species and subspecies and DNA-DNA hybridization. The Pos ID panel uses a battery of 18 tests, and the Rapid Pos ID panel uses a battery of 42 tests for the identification of Staphylococcus species. The Pos ID panel has modified conventional and chromogenic tests that can be read after 15 to 48 h of incubation; the Rapid Pos ID panel has tests that use fluorogenic substrates or fluorometric indicators, and test results can be read after 2 h of incubation in the autoSCAN-W/A. Results indicated that both MicroScan systems had a high degree of congruence (greater than or equal to 90%) with conventional methods for the species S. capitis, S. aureus, S. auricularis, S. saprophyticus, S. cohnii, S. arlettae, S. carnosus, S. lentus, and S. sciuri and, in particular, the subspecies S. capitis subsp. capitis and S. cohnii subsp. cohnii. The Rapid Pos ID panel system also had greater than or equal to 90% congruence with conventional methods for S. epidermidis, S. caprae, S. warneri subsp. 2, S. xylosus, S. kloosii, and S. caseolyticus. For both MicroScan systems, congruence with conventional methods was 80 to 90% for S. haemolyticus subsp. 1, S. equorum, S. intermedius, and S. hyicus; and in addition, with the Rapid Pos ID panel system congruence was 80 to 89% for S. capitis subsp. ureolyticus, S. warneri subsp. 1, S. hominis, S. cohnii subsp. urealyticum, and S. simulans. The MicroScan systems identified a lower percentage (50 to 75%) of strains of S. lugdunensis, S. gallinarum, S. schleiferi, and S. chromogenes, although the addition of specific tests to the systems might increase the accuracy of identification

  20. Facial reconstruction for radiation-induced skin cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Panje, W.R.; Dobleman, T.J. )

    1990-04-01

    Radiation-induced skin cancers can be difficult to diagnose and treat. Typically, a patient who has received orthovoltage radiotherapy for disorders such as acne, eczema, tinea capitis, skin tuberculosis, and skin cancer can expect that aggressive skin cancers and chronic radiodermatitis may develop subsequently. Cryptic facial cancers can lead to metastases and death. Prophylactic widefield excision of previously irradiated facial skin that has been subject to multiple recurrent skin cancers is suggested as a method of deterring future cutaneous malignancy and metastases. The use of tissue expanders and full-thickness skin grafts offers an expedient and successful method of subsequent reconstruction.

  1. Genomics of Staphylococcus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindsay, Jodi A.

    The staphylococci are Gram-positive cocci that divide to form clusters that look like grapes. By 16S ribosomal sequencing, they are most closely related to the Gram-positive, low G+C content Bacillus-Lactobacillus-Staphylococcus genera (Woese, 1987). There are over 30 species of staphylococci identified, and they are typically found on the skin and mucous membranes of mammals. About a dozen species are frequently carried on humans, including Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus haemolyticus, Staphylococcus capitis, Staphylococcus hominis, Staphylococcus cohnii, Staphylococcus lugdunensis, Staphylococcus schleiferi, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Staphylococcus simulans, Staphylococcus warneri and Staphylococcus xylosus.

  2. Efficacy and phytochemical analysis of latex of Calotropis procera against selected dermatophytes

    PubMed Central

    Aliyu, Rabiu Muhammad; Abubakar, Mikaeel Bala; Kasarawa, Adamu Bello; Dabai, Yakubu Umar; Lawal, Nafiu; Bello, Muhammad Bashir; Fardami, Aminu Yusuf

    2015-01-01

    Background: Since ancient time, increased interest has been witnessed in the use of an alternative herbal medicine for managing, and the treatment of fungal diseases worldwide. This may be connected to the cost and relative toxicities of the available antifungal drugs. It has been a known tradition practiced in the northern part of Nigeria that parents and teachers use the white latex of Calotropis procera to treat Tinea capitis in children attending the local religious school in the area. This study was conducted in 2009 to ascertain the above claim. Materials and Methods: Fresh latex of C. procera was screened for their antifungal activity against species of dermatophytes: Trichophyton spp., Microsporum spp. and Epidermophyton spp. using the agar incorporation method. Results: The result shows that the latex inhibits the in vitro growth of these pathogenic fungi to varying extents with Trichophyton spp. being the most susceptible (P < 0.05) and thus highly inhibited by the latex followed by the Microsporum spp. and Epidermopyton spp. was least inhibited. These inhibitions followed a dose-dependent trend as undiluted latex (100%) gave the highest inhibitory impacts (P < 0.05) when compared to serially diluted latex. The phytochemical analysis of the fresh latex indicated the presence of alkaloids, saponin, tannins, steroids, flavonoids, anthraquinone, and triterpenoids. Conclusion: The findings of this study confirmed the perceived usefulness of the latex in the treatment of T. capitis (ringworm) practiced in our society and therefore, its use topically in the treatment of dermatomycotic infection is encouraged. PMID:26649237

  3. A Nonrandomized Study of Trichoscopy Patterns Using Nonpolarized (Contact) and Polarized (Noncontact) Dermatoscopy in Hair and Shaft Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Nikam, Vivek V; Mehta, Hita H

    2014-01-01

    Aims: The aim was to study the trichoscopy features of selected hair and scalp conditions by two dermoscopic devices with different modes that is, polarized (noncontact) and nonpolarized (contact) mode. Materials And Methods: The present study included 11 clinical varieties of cases with total 112 patients, attending Sir Takhtasinh Hospital, Bhavnagar in the last 2 years. The clinical history was recorded for each case, and images were taken in both the Heine and DermLite II pro dermatoscope. We used polarized mode of the noncontact device (DermLite II) and the nonpolarized mode of the contact device (Heine) for our study. Statistical Analysis Used: Fisher's exact test to study dermoscopic observations for each mode. Results: We observed different nonscarring alopecia cases such as alopecia areata, androgenetic alopecia, trichotillomania, and tinea capitis. Scarring alopecia included discoid lupus erythematosus, lichen planopilaris, pseudopelade of Brocq, systemic lupus erythematosus. Scaling disorders included the psoriasis and seborrheic dermatitis. Furthermore, infestations like pediculosis capitis were included in the study. Various features were divided into follicular, interfollicular, pigmentary, vascular and hair shaft patterns. Each of the features was correlated in both the Heine (nonpolarized) and DermLite II (polarized) dermoscope, and observational finding was put forward accordingly. Conclusions: Various variations were observed in the documentation of dermoscopic patterns of the two dermatoscopes with certain features such as vascular patterns, scaling, and reticular pigmentation being better appreciated in polarized mode, while certain features were better documented in nonpolarized mode that is, black dots and tapered hair. PMID:25191038

  4. Trichophyton species of Arthroderma benhamiae - a new infectious agent in dermatology.

    PubMed

    Nenoff, Pietro; Uhrlaß, Silke; Krüger, Constanze; Erhard, Marcel; Hipler, Uta-Christina; Seyfarth, Florian; Herrmann, Jürgen; Wetzig, Tino; Schroedl, Wieland; Gräser, Yvonne

    2014-07-01

    In Germany, infections due to the zoophilic dermatophyte Trichophyton (T.) species of Arthroderma benhamiae are being more frequently diagnosed. The source of infection of this emerging pathogen overlaps with that of the zoophilic species T. interdigitale. The most common source are guinea pigs. T. species of Arthroderma benhamiae causes inflammatory dermatophytosis in children and adolescents. In addition to tinea capitis, it may cause both tinea corporis, tinea manus and frequently tinea faciei. In Germany, T. species of Arthroderma benhamiae is a frequent zoophilic dermatophyte, which in regions is probably more frequent than Microsporum canis. The mycological identification of the isolates with their yellow stained colonies is based on their macroscopic and microscopic features. However, some exhibit colony features consistent with those of T. interdigitale. These strains only can be identified unambiguously by means of molecular techniques. Using detection methods such as PCR-ELISA or real-time PCR, the dermatophyte can be identified directly from clinical material. Sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) of the ribosomal DNA has been approved as culture confirmation test for T. species of Arthroderma benhamiae. In addition, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI TOF MS) is useful. Widespread dermatophytosis due to T. species of Arthroderma benhamiae, in particular of tinea capitis, requires oral antifungal agents. Terbinafine is most effective, alternatives are fluconazole and itraconazole. PMID:24981469

  5. Trichophyton tonsurans infection in Japan: epidemiology, clinical features, diagnosis and infection control.

    PubMed

    Hiruma, Junichiro; Ogawa, Yumi; Hiruma, Masataro

    2015-03-01

    In this review, we summarize the status of Trichophyton tonsurans infection in Japan in terms of epidemiology, clinical features, diagnosis and infection control. Since approximately 2000, outbreaks of T. tonsurans infections among combat sports club members have been reported frequently, with the infection then spreading to their friends and family members. The most common clinical features of T. tonsurans infection are tinea corporis, which is difficult to differentiate from eczema, and tinea capitis. Tinea capitis is classified as the seborrheic form, kerion celsi form or "black dot" form, although 90% or more of patients are asymptomatic carriers. The diagnosis of symptomatic T. tonsurans infection is established by potassium hydroxide examination and fungal culture. However, because there are many asymptomatic carriers of T. tonsurans infection, tests using the hairbrush culture method are necessary. An increase in asymptomatic carriers of T. tonsurans makes assessment of the current prevalence of the infection challenging and underscores the importance of educational efforts and public awareness campaigns to prevent T. tonsurans epidemics. PMID:25736317

  6. The Efficacy of Botulinum Toxin in Patients with Cervicogenic Headache: a Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Karadaş, Ömer; Öztürk, Bilgin; Ulaş, Ümit Hıdır; Kütükçü, Yaşar; Odabaşı, Zeki

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Botulinum toxin type-A (BoNTA) has been considered a treatment option for CH. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of BoNTA treatment in patients with medically resistant CH. Materials and Methods: Forty patients with CH were included in the study. Patients in the BoNTA group (n=20) were administered 10 U of BoNTA bilaterally to the frontal muscles, 20 U to the temporal muscles, 15 U to the semispinalis capitis, 15 U to the splenius capitis, and 15 U to the trapezius muscles (total: 150 U). Patients in the placebo group (n=20) received 0.2 mL of saline administrated to the same sites. All participations were evaluated 6 and 12 weeks after treatment; side effects, the number of painful days, severity (by visual analogue scale, VAS) and frequency of pain were evaluated. Results: In the BoNTA group, the severity and frequency of pain 6 and 12 weeks post treatment were significantly lower than pre-treatment levels (p<0.05). At 12 weeks post treatment, the severity and frequency of pain in the BoNTA group were lower than in the placebo group (p<0.05). Conclusion: The findings suggest that BoNTA was an effective treatment for CH. PMID:25206992

  7. A one-year survey of Microsporum audouinii infections in Belgium: epidemiological and genotypic characterization.

    PubMed

    Sacheli, R; Adjetey, C; Darfouf, R; Harag, S; Huynen, P; Meex, C; Descy, J; Melin, P; Arrese, J; Hayette, M-P

    2016-03-01

    During recent years the proportion of tinea capitis infections due to Microsporum audouinii has increased in both Belgium and other European countries. To better understand the emergence of this species, the Belgian National Reference Centre for dermatophytes launched an epidemiological survey on the main anthropophilic dermatophytes causing tinea capitis in Belgium and included the genomic characterization of M. audouinii isolates. In total, 116 strains of M. audouinii were confirmed and characterized by the DiversiLab(®) system (bioMérieux). Six genotypic variants were identified, among which one major group included 90 isolates and the reference strain. Another variant group (11 strains) was exclusively confined to a geographical region in south Belgium. Analysis of epidemiological characteristics of the infected population showed that the main age category was 5- to 9-year-old children with a sex ratio (male/female) of 1.97. Data concerning the geographic origin of the family revealed a majority of Belgian nationality (44.7%), suggesting that the infection originated in Belgium. Other nationalities were primarily African. At this time, no clear correlation has been established between one particular strain and a specific country of origin. PMID:26686810

  8. Skin Commensal Staphylococci May Act as Reservoir for Fusidic Acid Resistance Genes

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Wei-Chun; Chen, Hsiao-Jan; Lin, Yu-Tzu; Tsai, Jui-Chang; Chen, Chiao-Wei; Lu, Hsiao-Hung; Tseng, Sung-Pin; Jheng, Yao-Yu; Leong, Kin Hong; Teng, Lee-Jene

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed the occurrence and mechanisms of fusidic acid resistance present in staphylococci isolated from 59 healthy volunteers. The fingers of the volunteers were screened for the presence of staphylococci, and the collected isolates were tested for resistance to fusidic acid. A total of 34 fusidic acid resistant staphylococcal strains (all were coagulase-negative) were isolated from 22 individuals (22/59, 37.3%). Examination of the resistance genes revealed that acquired fusB or fusC was present in Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus capitis subsp. urealyticus, Staphylococcus hominis subsp. hominis, Staphylococcus warneri and Staphylococcus haemolyticus. Resistance islands (RIs) carrying fusB were found in S. epidermidis and S. capitis subsp. urealyticus, while staphylococcal chromosome cassette (SCC)-related structures harboring fusC were found in S. hominis subsp. hominis. Genotypic analysis of S. epidermidis and S. hominis subsp. hominis indicated that the fus elements were disseminated in diverse genetic strain backgrounds. The fusC elements in S. hominis subsp. hominis strains were highly homologous to SCCfusC in the epidemic sequence type (ST) 239/SCCmecIII methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) or the pseudo SCCmec in ST779 MRSA. The presence of acquired fusidic acid resistance genes and their genetic environment in commensal staphylococci suggested that the skin commensal staphylococci may act as reservoir for fusidic acid resistance genes. PMID:26581090

  9. Skin diseases in internationally adopted children.

    PubMed

    Rigal, Émilie; Nourrisson, Céline; Sciauvaud, Julie; Pascal, Julie; Texier, Charlotte; Corbin, Violaine; Poirier, Véronique; Beytout, Jean; Labbe, André; Lesens, Olivier

    2016-08-01

    Internationally adopted children often present diseases contracted in the country of origin. Skin diseases are common in new arrivals, and diagnosis may prove challenging for GPs or even dermatologists if they are inexperienced in the extensive geographic and ethnic diversity of international adoptees. To analyse the frequency and characteristics of skin diseases in international adoptees. In total, 142 adoptees were evaluated for a cross-sectional cohort study. The most frequent diseases observed at arrival were dermatological conditions. Of the adoptees, 70% presented at least one skin disease, of which 57.5% were infectious; Tinea capitis being the most frequent (n = 42). The recovery rate of Tinea capitis was 89% (n = 32/36). Ten cases of scabies were diagnosed. Other diseases included viral skin infection (n = 22), with 16 cases of Molluscum contagiosum and bacterial infection. Skin diseases are very common in internationally adopted children. There is a need for close collaboration between dermatologists and paediatricians to diagnose such infections, as well as clear guidelines to treat them. PMID:27436771

  10. Clinical and radiographical results of labral reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Camenzind, Roland S.; Steurer-Dober, Isabelle; Beck, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Treatment of femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) includes correction of underlying bony deformities. Labrum preservation is recommended whenever possible. In hips, where the labrum is missing or damaged beyond preservation, labral reconstruction is an option to restore labral seal. Between 2008 and 2011, 84 hips underwent treatment for FAI by means of a surgical hip dislocation. In 13 of these hips (11 patients), the severely damaged or missing labrum was reconstructed with ligamentum capitis femoris. Pre- and postoperative radiographic and clinical data were analysed with a mean follow-up of 38 months (range: 19–65 months). Clinical outcome was determined with Oxford hip score (OHS) and overall satisfaction, rest and load pain with a visual analogue scale (VAS; 0–100). Clinical outcome was compared with a control group where labral refixation was performed. Mean OHS improved significantly (P ≤ 0.001) from 29 (SD 8) to 44 (SD 4). Overall satisfaction with the hip increased significantly (P = 0.002) from 44 (SD 35) to 87 (SD 15). Mean VAS for rest pain decreased significantly (P = 0.0004) from 45 (SD 35) to 5 (SD 7) as well as for load pain (P = 0.0007) from 59 (SD 26) to 16 (SD 19). There were no significant differences between the two groups. Reconstruction of the acetabular labrum with ligamentum capitis femoris yields good clinical results. Technical superiority of open labral reconstruction may explain the unexpected, excellent outcome. PMID:27011865

  11. Alopecia: Kids are not just little people.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Lynne J; Castelo-Soccio, Leslie A

    2015-01-01

    Alopecia is a disorder that affects all patients, young and old. Many diagnoses, particularly the scarring alopecias, are more common in adults; however, others, such as tinea capitis, are more common in children, and some, such as alopecia areata, often affect both age groups. The approach to, and evaluation of, an alopecia patient is thus highly dependent on his or her age. In adults with diffuse, non-scarring hair loss, a part-width examination can help detect pattern hair loss, the most common cause of diffuse loss in this age group. In children this is much less likely, and a careful evaluation for tinea capitis is in order. The same holds true for patchy alopecia in children, as well as scarring alopecia-tinea needs to always be considered. In adults, patchy alopecia is often due to alopecia areata and sometimes to one of the primary scarring alopecias. A laboratory evaluation, and especially a biopsy, would be a more appropriate undertaking for an adult than a child, and an adult would be more likely to tolerate certain therapeutic regimens such as intralesional injections. In a conversational manner, the authors discuss their individual approaches to the alopecia patient, highlighting the differences in diagnosis, workup, and management that depend on whether the affected individual is an adult or a child. PMID:26686014

  12. High dermatophyte contamination levels in hairdressing salons of a West African suburban community.

    PubMed

    Coulibaly, O; Thera, M A; Piarroux, R; Doumbo, O K; Ranque, S

    2015-02-01

    Tinea capitis is a dermatophyte infection of scalp is commonly spread by currently infected patients, asymptomatic carriers or by fomites, such as hairdressing tools. However, studies on the risk factors of Tinea capitis remain scarce. The aim of this study was to evaluate the dermatophytes contamination level of the hairdressing tools to which hairdressing salon customers are exposed in Sirakoro-Méguétana, a suburb of Bamako, the capital city of Mali. A total of 41 hairdressing tools were sampled in five hairdressing salons. Two anthropophilic dermatophytes species, Microsporum audouinii (53.3%) and Trichophyton soudanense (46.7%), were cultured from 30 (73.2%) samples. This first study, addressing hairdressing salons dermatophyte contamination, revealed a strikingly high contamination of hairdressing tools with dermatophyte propagules, which exposes hairdressing salons customers to an important dermatophytosis risk. The sterilisation of hairdressing tools is central to preventing dermatophytoses spreading. Appropriate community information and hairdressers training should be implemented in this view. PMID:25385435

  13. In vitro screening of anti-lice activity of Pongamia pinnata leaves.

    PubMed

    Anbu Jeba Sunilson, John Samuel; Suraj, Radhamani; Rejitha, Gopinath; Anandarajagopal, Kalusalingam; Vimala, Anita Gnana Kumari Anbumani; Husain, Hj Azman

    2009-12-01

    Growing patterns of pediculocidal drug resistance towards head louse laid the foundation for research in exploring novel anti-lice agents from medicinal plants. In the present study, various extracts of Pongamia pinnata leaves were tested against the head louse Pediculus humanus capitis. A filter paper diffusion method was conducted for determining the potential pediculocidal and ovicidal activity of chloroform, petroleum ether, methanol, and water extracts of P. pinnata leaves. The findings revealed that petroleum ether extracts possess excellent anti-lice activity with values ranging between 50.3% and 100% where as chloroform and methanol extracts showed moderate pediculocidal effects. The chloroform and methanol extracts were also successful in inhibiting nymph emergence and the petroleum ether extract was the most effective with a complete inhibition of emergence. Water extract was devoid of both pediculocidal and ovicidal activities. All the results were well comparable with benzoyl benzoate (25% w/v). These results showed the prospect of using P. pinnata leave extracts against P. humanus capitis in difficult situations of emergence of resistance to synthetic anti-lice agents. PMID:19967085

  14. Superficial mycoses in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Venugopal, P V; Venugopal, T V

    1992-01-01

    Between June 1988 and December 1990, 1018 cases of superficial mycoses were investigated. Diagnosis was confirmed by microscopic examination in 503 cases and the causal agent was isolated in 490 cases. Tinea capitis accounted for 47.7% (92.5% in children below 10 years of age). The frequency of other clinical types in descending order was pityriasis versicolor 25.8%, tinea corporis 9%, onychomycosis 5.8%, tinea pedis 4%, intertrigo 3.9% and tinea cruris 2.8%. Erythrasma was encountered three times and mixed piedra and trichomycosis axillaris once. Microsporum canis was the commonest aetiological agent, responsible for 46.9% of ringworm infections. Malassezia furfur was the next most common agent (26.5%) followed by Candida albicans (8.6%) and Trichophyton violaceum (8.2%). Other species were found less frequently. T.simii was isolated from four cases of tinea cruris and one each of tinea capitis and tinea corporis, and Piedraia hortae and Trichosporon beigelii from a case of mixed piedra infection. PMID:1445094

  15. Virulence factors genes of Staphylococcus spp. isolated from caprine subclinical mastitis.

    PubMed

    Salaberry, Sandra Renata Sampaio; Saidenberg, André Becker Simões; Zuniga, Eveline; Melville, Priscilla Anne; Santos, Franklin Gerônimo Bispo; Guimarães, Ednaldo Carvalho; Gregori, Fábio; Benites, Nilson Roberti

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate genes involved in adhesion expression, biofilm formation, and enterotoxin production in isolates of Staphylococcus spp. from goats with subclinical mastitis and associate these results with the staphylococcal species. One hundred and twenty-four isolates were identified and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed to detect the following genes: cna, ebpS, eno, fib, fnbA, fnbB, bap, sea, seb, sec, sed and see. The most commonly Staphylococcus species included S. epidermidis, S. lugdunensis, S. chromogenes, S. capitis ss capitis and S. intermedius. With the exception of fnbB, the genes were detected in different frequencies of occurrence in 86.3% of the Staphylococcus spp. isolates. Eno (73.2%) and bap (94.8%) were more frequently detected in coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS); ebpS (76%), fib (90.9%) and fnbA (87%) were the most frequent genes in coagulase-positive staphylococci (CPS). Regarding enterotoxins, genes sed (28.2%) and see (24.2%) had a higher frequency of occurrence; sec gene was more frequently detected in CPS (58.8%). There was no association between the presence of the genes and the Staphylococcus species. Different virulence factors genes can be detected in caprine subclinical mastitis caused by CNS and CPS. The knowledge of the occurrence of these virulence factors is important for the development of effective control and prevention measures of subclinical mastitis caused by CNS and CPS in goats. PMID:26026835

  16. Fragmented mitochondrial genomes of the rat lice, Polyplax asiatica and Polyplax spinulosa: intra-genus variation in fragmentation pattern and a possible link between the extent of fragmentation and the length of life cycle

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Blood-sucking lice (suborder Anoplura) parasitize eutherian mammals with 67% of the 540 described species found on rodents. The five species of blood-sucking lice that infest humans and pigs have fragmented mitochondrial genomes and differ substantially in the extent of fragmentation. To understand whether, or not, any life-history factors are linked to such variation, we sequenced the mt genomes of Polyplax asiatica and Polyplax spinulosa, collected from the greater bandicoot rat, Bandicota indica, and the Asian house rat, Rattus tanezumi, respectively. Results We identified all of the 37 mitochondrial genes common to animals in Polyplax asiatica and Polyplax spinulosa. The mitochondrial genes of these two rat lice are on 11 circular minichromosomes; each minichromosome is 2–4 kb long and has 2–7 genes. The two rat lice share the same pattern for the distribution of the protein-coding genes and ribosomal RNA genes over the minichromosomes, but differ in the pattern for the distribution of 8 of the 22 transfer RNA genes. The mitochondrial genomes of the Polyplax rat lice have 3.4 genes, on average, on each minichromosome and, thus, are less fragmented than those of the human lice (2.1 and 2.4 genes per minichromosome), but are more fragmented than those of the pig lice (4.1 genes per minichromosome). Conclusions Our results revealed distinct patterns of mitochondrial genome fragmentation within the genus Polyplax and, furthermore, indicated a possible inverse link between the extent of mitochondrial genome fragmentation and the length of life cycle of the blood-sucking lice. PMID:24438034

  17. Mitochondrial genome deletions and minicircles are common in lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The gene composition, gene order and structure of the mitochondrial genome are remarkably stable across bilaterian animals. Lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera) are a major exception to this genomic stability in that the canonical single chromosome with 37 genes found in almost all other bilaterians has been lost in multiple lineages in favour of multiple, minicircular chromosomes with less than 37 genes on each chromosome. Results Minicircular mt genomes are found in six of the ten louse species examined to date and three types of minicircles were identified: heteroplasmic minicircles which coexist with full sized mt genomes (type 1); multigene chromosomes with short, simple control regions, we infer that the genome consists of several such chromosomes (type 2); and multiple, single to three gene chromosomes with large, complex control regions (type 3). Mapping minicircle types onto a phylogenetic tree of lice fails to show a pattern of their occurrence consistent with an evolutionary series of minicircle types. Analysis of the nuclear-encoded, mitochondrially-targetted genes inferred from the body louse, Pediculus, suggests that the loss of mitochondrial single-stranded binding protein (mtSSB) may be responsible for the presence of minicircles in at least species with the most derived type 3 minicircles (Pediculus, Damalinia). Conclusions Minicircular mt genomes are common in lice and appear to have arisen multiple times within the group. Life history adaptive explanations which attribute minicircular mt genomes in lice to the adoption of blood-feeding in the Anoplura are not supported by this expanded data set as minicircles are found in multiple non-blood feeding louse groups but are not found in the blood-feeding genus Heterodoxus. In contrast, a mechanist explanation based on the loss of mtSSB suggests that minicircles may be selectively favoured due to the incapacity of the mt replisome to synthesize long replicative products without mtSSB and thus the

  18. Uncovering deep mysteries: the underwater life of an amphibious louse.

    PubMed

    Leonardi, Maria Soledad; Aznar, F Javier; Crespo, Enrique A; Lazzari, Claudio R

    2014-12-01

    Despite the incredible success of insects in colonizing almost every habitat, they remain virtually absent in one major environment--the open sea. A variety of hypotheses have been raised to explain why just a few insect species are present in the ocean, but none of them appears to be fully explanatory. Lice belonging to the family Echinophthiriidae are ectoparasites on different species of pinnipeds and river otters, i.e. they have amphibious hosts, who regularly perform long excursions into the open sea reaching depths of hundreds of meters (thousands of feets). Consequently, lice must be able to support not only changes in their surrounding media, but also extreme variations in hydrostatic pressure as well as breathing in a low oxygen atmosphere. In order to shed some light on the way lice can survive during the diving excursions of their hosts, we have performed a series of experiments to test the survival capability of different instars of Antarctophthirus microchir (Phthiraptera: Anoplura) from South American sea lions Otaria flavescens, when submerged into seawater. These experiments were aimed at analyzing: (a) immersion tolerance along the louse life; (b) lice's ability to obtain oxygen from seawater; (c) physiological responses and mechanisms involved in survival underwater. Our experiments showed that the forms present in non-diving pups--i.e. eggs and first-instar nymphs--were unable to tolerate immersion in water, while following instars and adults, all usually found in diving hosts, supported it very well. Furthermore, as long as the level of oxygen dissolved in water was higher, the lice survival capability underwater increased, and the recovery period after returning to air declined. These results are discussed in relation to host ecology, host exploitation and lice functional morphology. PMID:25449903

  19. The spectrum of dermatological disorders among primary school children in Dar es Salaam

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Dermatologic disorders are common in many countries but the spectrum varies greatly. Many studies have reported a significant burden of skin diseases in school children. The objective of this study was to determine the current spectrum of dermatological disorders in primary school children in Dar es Salaam city. Methods Primary school children were recruited by multistage sampling. Detailed interview, dermatological examination and appropriate laboratory investigations were performed. Data was analyzed using the 'Statistical Package for Social Sciences' (SPSS) program version 10.0 and EPI6. A p-value of < 0.5 was significant. Results A total of 420 children were recruited (51% males; mean age 11.4 ± 2.8 years; range 6-19 years). The overall point prevalence of any skin disorder was 57.3% and it was 61.9% and 52.6% in males and females respectively (p = 0.05). Infectious dermatoses accounted for 30.4% with superficial fungal infections (dermatophytoses and pityriasis versicolor) being the commonest (20%). Dermatophytoses were diagnosed in 11.4% (48/420); the prevalence in males and females being 12.6% and 10.1% respectively (p = 0.41) and higher (21.8%) in the age-group 6-10 years (p = 0.045). Fungal cultures were positive in 42/48 children (88%). All three dermatophyte genera were isolated. Tinea capitis was the commonest disease among culture-positive dermatophytoses (30/42; 71.4%) with an overall prevalence of 7.1% (30/420) followed by tinea pedis (11/42; 26.1%) whose overall prevalence was 2.6%. Microsporum canis was common in tinea capitis (14/30; 46.7%) followed by Trichophyton violaceum (6/30; 20%). Trichophyton rubrum was common in tinea pedis (5/11; 45.5%). Thirty six children (8.6%) had pityriasis versicolor which was more prevalent (6/27; 22.l2%) in the age group 16-19 years (p = 0.0004). The other common infectious dermatoses were pyodermas (4%) and pediculosis capitis (3.6%). Common non-infectious dermatoses were: acne vulgaris (36.4%), non

  20. An overview of topical antifungal therapy in dermatomycoses. A North American perspective.

    PubMed

    Gupta, A K; Einarson, T R; Summerbell, R C; Shear, N H

    1998-05-01

    Dermatophytes cause fungal infections of keratinised tissues, e.g. skin, hair and nails. The organisms belong to 3 genera, Trichophyton, Epidermophyton and Microsporum. Dermatophytes may be grouped into 3 categories based on host preference and natural habitat. Anthropophilic species predominantly infect humans, geophilic species are soil based and may infect both humans and animals, zoophilic species generally infect non-human mammals. It is important to confirm mycologically the clinical diagnosis of onychomycosis and other tinea infections prior to commencing therapy. The identity of the fungal organism may provide guidance about the appropriateness of a given topical antifungal agent. Special techniques may be required to obtain the best yield of fungal organisms from a given site, especially the scalp and nails. It is also important to realise the limitations of certain diagnostic aids e.g., Wood's light examination is positive in tinea capitis due to M. canis and M. audouinii (ectothrix organisms); however, Wood's light examination is negative in T. tonsurans (endothrix organism). Similarly, it is important to be aware that cicloheximide in culture medium will inhibit growth of non-dermatophytes. Appropriate media are therefore required to evaluate the growth of some significant non-dermatophyte moulds. For tinea infections other than tinea capitis and tinea unguium, topical antifungals may be considered. For effective therapy of tinea capitis an oral antifungal is generally necessary. Similarly, oral antifungals are the therapy of choice, especially if onychomycosis is moderate to severe. Furthermore, where the tinea infection involves a large area, in an immunocompromised host or if infection is recurrent with poor response to topical agents, then oral antifungal therapy may be necessary. Topical antifungal agents may be broadly divided into specific and nonspecific agents. The former group includes the polyenes, azoles, allylamines, amorolfine, ciclopirox

  1. Origins of Microsatellite Diversity in the Trichophyton rubrum- T. violaceum Clade (Dermatophytes)

    PubMed Central

    Ohst, T.; de Hoog, S.; Presber, W.; Stavrakieva, V.; Gräser, Y.

    2004-01-01

    We analyzed the population structure of the anthropophilic dermatophyte species Trichophyton violaceum, which mainly causes tinea capitis, and T. rubrum, the most frequently isolated agent of dermatophytosis worldwide. A microsatellite marker (T1) was developed by using the enrichment technique for microsatellites. The T1 marker containing a (GT)8-10 repeat was proven to specifically amplify both species, underlining their close kinship. Four polymorphic alleles were detected within a set of about 130 strains by using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis with this marker. An association with geographic origin of the isolates was apparent. Given the close relatedness of both species, these data suggest an African origin of the entire T. rubrum complex, followed by the emergence of a new genotype (B) in Asia with subsequent spread of this genotype over Europe and the United States. PMID:15472291

  2. Demystifying pediculosis: school nurses taking the lead.

    PubMed

    Pontius, Deborah J

    2014-01-01

    The treatment of Pediculosis capitis, or head lice, is fraught with misinformation, myths, and mismanagement. Common myths include the need to exclude children from school, the need to remove all visible nits ("no-nit" policies), the need for massive environmental cleaning, that head lice live for long periods of time, and that schools are a common location for lice transmission. Head lice are a common childhood nuisance, causing embarrassment and emotional trauma in both children and families. This article explores and challenges the commonly held beliefs about the identification, management, and treatment of Pediculosis by presenting current recommended evidence-based practice. It also challenges pediatric nurses, and school nurses in particular, in alignment with the National Association of School Nurses (NASN) Position Statement on Pediculosis Management in the School Setting, to act as change agents for reasonable and effective school policies and practices. PMID:25929113

  3. Microsporum canis scalp ringworm: its primary or secondary ectothrix character.

    PubMed

    Vismer, H F

    1993-06-01

    This study supports the view that, in cases of tinea capitis due to a Microsporum canis infection, ectothrix arthroconidium formation is extrapilary and arises from intrapilary hyphae. The hyphae of M. canis perforate and digest the hair cuticle to alter its appearance from a normally identifiable structure of imbricated cells with a distal free border, to a grossly altered and pathological layer. Conidium production mainly takes place outside the hair shaft and forms thick clusters between the cuticular tiles. Finally, a shaft of conidia is formed around the hair. The cuticular covering of such a conidium sheath belongs to the root sheath of the hair follicle, and not to the hair structure proper. PMID:8108682

  4. Radiation-induced basal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Zargari, Omid

    2015-01-01

    Background: The treatment of tinea capitis using radiotherapy was introduced at the beginning of the twentieth century. A variety of cancers including basal cell carcinoma (BCC) are seen years after this treatment. Objective: We sought to determine the clinical characteristics of BCCs among irradiated patients. Methods: The clinical records of all patients with BCC in a clinic in north of Iran were reviewed. Results: Of the 58 cases of BCC, 29 had positive history for radiotherapy in their childhood. Multiple BCCs were seen in 79.3% and 10.3% of patients with history and without history of radiotherapy, respectively. Conclusions: X-ray radiation is still a major etiologic factor in developing BCC in northern Iran. Patients with positive history for radiotherapy have higher rate of recurrence. PMID:26114066

  5. Periocular and anterior orbital necrosis after upper eyelid gold weight loading: operation-related or self-inflicted?

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Roy; Ben Cnaan, Ran; Schein, Ophir; Giladi, Michael; Raz, Michal; Leibovitch, Igal

    2014-01-01

    A 44-year-old woman, who had undergone gold-weight implantation due to facial palsy and lagophthalmos, arrived at the ophthalmology ward with eyelid swelling and erythema, which rapidly deteriorated under intravenous antibiotics to a necrotic process involving the periocular tissues, the eye, and the anterior orbit. Despite prompt removal of the gold weight, the patient’s ocular and systemic condition continued to deteriorate, necessitating evisceration and debridement of necrotic tissue. Cultures showed growth of Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus capitis, Candida glabrata, and Candida albicans, and histopathology demonstrated an acute nonspecific necrotizing panophthalmitis. Later on, the patient was admitted to a plastic surgery ward with recurrent severe burns of her thigh, which were highly suggestive of being self-induced, raising the possibility of self-induced damage. PMID:24812491

  6. Acne tetrad in a family.

    PubMed

    Zisova, L; Sakakushev, B

    1994-01-01

    The authors report, for the first time in Bulgarian literature, a case of acne tetrad syndrome in a family. The patients were sisters who were found to have three of the four components of the syndrome: hidradenitis suppurativa, acne conglobata, and cysta pillaris. There was no evidence or anamnestic data for perifolliculitis capitis abscedens et suffodiens. In one of the sisters the syndrome showed a more precipitate clinical picture and was combined with other skin disorders (lichen ruber planus, neurodermitis circumscripta, hirsutismus). The patients had a familial predisposition to acne and pilar cycts. The complete blood analysis, all biochemical parameters, the cytogenetic analysis and hormonal status (testosterone and estrogens) showed no deviation from normal values. The patients did not report any disturbances during their menstrual cycles. The cellular immunity in one of the sisters was depressed. The patients and their children will be closely monitored. PMID:8698287

  7. What's bugging you? An update on the treatment of head lice infestation.

    PubMed

    Tebruegge, Marc; Pantazidou, Anastasia; Curtis, Nigel

    2011-02-01

    Head lice infestation (pediculosis capitis) is a common problem in paediatric practice. It can cause considerable distress to children and their families and may lead to bullying and social stigmatisation. Therapy with "conventional" topical pediculicides with neurotoxic mode of action-such as malathion, permethrin, phenothrin and carbaryl-is increasingly associated with treatment failure as a result of the emergence of resistance within the parasite population. This review provides an overview of the natural history, clinical symptoms and diagnosis of head lice infestation. It also discusses general management principles and summarises the current data on novel treatment strategies, including wet combing, dimeticone, isopropyl myristate, benzyl alcohol, plant-based compounds and oral medication. PMID:20688849

  8. Spinosad: An effective and safe pediculicide.

    PubMed

    Aditya, Suruchi; Rattan, Aditya

    2012-09-01

    Although head lice are not a major health hazard, they have been a source of irritation and disgust for thousands of years. Despite the use of over-the-counter (OTC) treatments, it has high prevalence, and epidemics occur regularly. Permethrin 1% is currently recommended as a drug of choice, but many areas have shown resistance to this insecticide. A 0.9% suspension of spinosad, a naturally occurring pest control product, has recently been approved by the USFDA for treatment of pediculosis capitis. It acts by enhancing the action of nicotinic acetylcholine, resulting in paralysis of the parasite. Clinical trials show that spinosad is more effective and safe than current drugs of treatment. Additionally, it does not require nit combing. Spinosad appears as a powerful recruit in the battle against head lice. PMID:23189260

  9. [Treatment of dermatoses : Significance and use of glucocorticoids in fixed combination with antifungals].

    PubMed

    Mayser, P

    2016-09-01

    Treating eczema with fungal and/or bacterial superinfections or superficial mycoses are a common problem in daily practice. A fungal superinfection as a consequence of a diminished skin barrier might complicate the course of eczema. In addition, in an inflammatory superficial mycotic infection a delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction may result in healing of the lesion, but might also be responsible for irreversible damage of epidermal structures. An example is permanent hair loss by scarring alopecia in the context of inflammatory tinea capitis. In both cases, combination of an antifungal and a glucocorticoid is appropriate in therapy, preferentially in topical application. The use of azole antimycotics is especially helpful, as they are also effective against gram-positive bacteria. PMID:27411685

  10. [Trichophyton species of Arthroderma benhamiae : Clinical therapeutic aspects of a new pathogen in dermatology].

    PubMed

    Hiernickel, C; Wiegand, C; Schliemann, S; Seyfarth, F; Jung, K; Elsner, P; Hipler, U-C

    2016-09-01

    Cutaneous infections with Trichophyton species of Arthroderma (A.) benhamiae are increasingly being detected in Germany. This dermatophyte typically causes tinea corporis, tinea faciei or tinea capitis with in part heavy clinical manifestation like kerion celsi. In special cases diagnosis and therapy can be difficult. In this article, four clinical cases are presented, whereby attention is given to special clinical situations and therapeutic aspects with regard to Trichophyton species of A. benhamiae: Case 1: Kerion celsi by in a 6-year-old boy; Case 2: Deep trichophytia at the mons pubis in a 32-year-old man working in a pet shop and his 27-year-old female partner; Case 3: Tinea manuum in a 7-year-old girl; Case 4: Tinea corporis in an 8‑year-old girl. PMID:27380384

  11. New trichoscopy findings in trichotillomania: flame hairs, V-sign, hook hairs, hair powder, tulip hairs.

    PubMed

    Rakowska, Adriana; Slowinska, Monika; Olszewska, Malgorzata; Rudnicka, Lidia

    2014-05-01

    Differential diagnosis of trichotillomania is often difficult in clinical practice. Trichoscopy (hair and scalp dermoscopy) effectively supports differential diagnosis of various hair and scalp diseases. The aim of this study was to assess the usefulness of trichoscopy in diagnosing trichotillomania. The study included 370 patients (44 with trichotillomania, 314 with alopecia areata and 12 with tinea capitis). Statistical analysis revealed that the main and most characteristic trichoscopic findings of trichotillomania are: irregularly broken hairs (44/44; 100% of patients), v-sign (24/44; 57%), flame hairs (11/44; 25%), hair powder (7/44; 16%) and coiled hairs (17/44; 39%). Flame hairs, v-sign, tulip hairs, and hair powder were newly identified in this study. In conclusion, we describe here specific trichoscopy features, which may be applied in quick, non-invasive, in-office differential diagnosis of trichotillomania. PMID:24096547

  12. Pityriasis amiantacea: a case report.

    PubMed

    Ayanlowo, O O; Olowoyo, O O; Akinkugbe, A O; Adelekan, F A; Ahamneze, N C

    2014-06-01

    Pityriasis amiantacea (PA) is a papulosquamous condition of the scalp,characterized by asbestos - like thick scales attached to the hair shaft. It is thought to represent a reaction pattern to inflammatory skin disorders like psoriasis, seborrhoeic dermatitis, tinea capitis, atopic dermatitis and lichen planus, rather than a distinctive disease. The scaling may be localised or generalised, depending on the underlying condition and its duration.This report highlights the clinical features of pityriasis amiantacea secondary to atopic dermatitis and the differential features of other papulo-squamous scalp disorders such as scalp psoriasis, seborrhoeic dermatitis and lichen planus.Scalp psoriasis and seborrhoeic dermatitis are the commonest causes of PA as well as the closest differentials hence should be excluded in all cases. The longterm sequelae of PA include scalp fibrosis and permanent hair loss hence should be identified and treated promptly. The management modalities of PA will also be discussed. PMID:25167599

  13. Spinosad: An effective and safe pediculicide

    PubMed Central

    Aditya, Suruchi; Rattan, Aditya

    2012-01-01

    Although head lice are not a major health hazard, they have been a source of irritation and disgust for thousands of years. Despite the use of over-the-counter (OTC) treatments, it has high prevalence, and epidemics occur regularly. Permethrin 1% is currently recommended as a drug of choice, but many areas have shown resistance to this insecticide. A 0.9% suspension of spinosad, a naturally occurring pest control product, has recently been approved by the USFDA for treatment of pediculosis capitis. It acts by enhancing the action of nicotinic acetylcholine, resulting in paralysis of the parasite. Clinical trials show that spinosad is more effective and safe than current drugs of treatment. Additionally, it does not require nit combing. Spinosad appears as a powerful recruit in the battle against head lice. PMID:23189260

  14. Rapid and Accurate Identification of Human-Associated Staphylococci by Use of Multiplex PCR▿

    PubMed Central

    Hirotaki, Shintaro; Sasaki, Takashi; Kuwahara-Arai, Kyoko; Hiramatsu, Keiichi

    2011-01-01

    Although staphylococci are identified by phenotypic analysis in many clinical laboratories, these results are often incorrect because of phenotypic variation. Genetic analysis is necessary for definitive species identification. In the present study, we developed a simple multiplex-PCR (M-PCR) for species identification of human-associated staphylococci, which were as follows: Staphylococcus aureus, S. capitis, S. caprae, S. epidermidis, S. haemolyticus, S. hominis, S. lugdunensis, S. saprophyticus, and S. warneri. This method was designed on the basis of nucleotide sequences of the thermonuclease (nuc) genes that were universally conserved in staphylococci except the S. sciuri group and showed moderate sequence diversity. In order to validate this assay, 361 staphylococcal strains were studied, which had been identified at the species levels by sequence analysis of the hsp60 genes. In consequence, M-PCR demonstrated a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 100%. By virtue of simplicity and accuracy, this method will be useful in clinical research. PMID:21832022

  15. The antidandruff efficacy of a shampoo containing piroctone olamine and salicylic acid in comparison to that of a zinc pyrithione shampoo.

    PubMed

    Lodén, M; Wessman, C

    2000-08-01

    Dandruff (pityriasis capitis) is a chronic scalp condition characterized by scaling and sometimes itching and redness. Shampoos containing antifungal agents are used to control the scaling condition. In the present study, two shampoos with different actives are compared in a double-blind, randomised and bilateral study on 19 subjects. One shampoo contained piroctone olamine (0.75%) combined with salicylic acid (2%) and the other contained zinc pyrithione (1%) as active ingredient. The subjects were treated twice weekly with the shampoos for almost 4 weeks. Before each treatment the degree of dandruff was evaluated. Both shampoos were highly effective in reducing the dandruff. The combination of piroctone olamine and salicylic acid appeared to be slightly more effective than zinc pyrithione in reducing the severity and area affected by the scaling. PMID:18503415

  16. A case of dissecting cellulitis and a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Scheinfeld, Noah S

    2003-02-01

    Dissecting cellulitis (also called perifolliculitis capitis abscedens et suffodiens) manifests with perifollicular pustules, nodules, abscesses and sinuses that evolve into scarring alopecia. It predominantly occurs in African American men between 20-40 years of age, but can occasionally affect other races and women too. Associated musculoskeletal findings are sometimes reported. When it occurs with acne conglobata, hidradenitis suppurativa, and pilonidal cysts, the syndrome is referred to as the follicular occlusion triad or tetrad. Its course is chronic and relapsing, and treatment is often difficult. Medical therapies include isotretinoin, antibiotics, and prednisone. Destructive therapies include X-ray therapy, surgical excision, and skin grafting. Laser epilation of hair follicles is a promising new therapy for dissecting cellulitis. PMID:12639466

  17. Trichoscopy in Alopecias: Diagnosis Simplified

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Nilam; Doshi, Bhavana; Khopkar, Uday

    2013-01-01

    Trichoscopy is the term coined for dermoscopic imaging of the scalp and hair. This novel diagnostic technique, both simple and non-invasive, can be used as a handy bed side tool for diagnosing common hair and scalp disorders. Trichoscopic observations can be broadly grouped as hair signs, vascular patterns, pigment patterns and interfollicular patterns. In this article, we have briefly described the trichoscopic findings in the common categories of cicatricial and non-cicatricial alopecias such as androgenetic alopecia, alopecia areata, telogen effluvium, tinea capitis, trichotillomania, lichen planopilaris, discoid lupus erythematosus and hair shaft disorders. Besides diagnosing alopecia, it has the potential for obviating unnecessary biopsies and when a biopsy is still needed it is helpful in choosing an ideal biopsy site. Moreover, trichoscopy is a valuable tool for evaluating the treatment response photographically at each follow-up. The last statement here is deleted as asked. PMID:24778525

  18. Alopecia areata: Clinical presentation, diagnosis, and unusual cases.

    PubMed

    Finner, Andreas M

    2011-01-01

    Alopecia areata (AA) is a nonscarring hair loss disorder with a 2% lifetime risk. Most patients are below 30 years old. Clinical types include patchy AA, AA reticularis, diffuse AA, AA ophiasis, AA sisiapho, and perinevoid AA. Besides scalp and body hair, the eyebrows, eyelashes, and nails can be affected. The disorder may be circumscribed, total (scalp hair loss), and universal (loss of all hairs). Atopy, autoimmune thyroid disease, and vitiligo are more commonly associated. The course of the disease is unpredictable. However, early, long-lasting, and severe cases have a less favorable prognosis. The clinical diagnosis is made by the aspect of hairless patches with a normal skin and preserved follicular ostia. Exclamations mark hairs and a positive pull test signal activity. Dermoscopy may reveal yellow dots. White hairs may be spared; initial regrowth may also be nonpigmented. The differential diagnosis includes trichotillomania, scarring alopecia, and other nonscarring hair loss disorders such as tinea capitis and syphilis. PMID:21689244

  19. The burden of serious fungal diseases in Russia.

    PubMed

    Klimko, N; Kozlova, Y; Khostelidi, S; Shadrivova, O; Borzova, Y; Burygina, E; Vasilieva, N; Denning, D W

    2015-10-01

    The incidence and prevalence of fungal infections in Russia is unknown. We estimated the burden of fungal infections in Russia according to the methodology of the LIFE program (www.LIFE-worldwide.org). The total number of patients with serious and chronic mycoses in Russia in 2011 was three million. Most of these patients (2,607,494) had superficial fungal infections (recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis, oral and oesophageal candidiasis with HIV infection and tinea capitis). Invasive and chronic fungal infections (invasive candidiasis, invasive and chronic aspergillosis, cryptococcal meningitis, mucormycosis and Pneumocystis pneumonia) affected 69,331 patients. The total number of adults with allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis and severe asthma with fungal sensitisation was 406,082. PMID:26449508

  20. Skin and wound infections: an overview.

    PubMed

    O'Dell, M L

    1998-05-15

    Skin infections are common and may be caused by bacteria, fungi or viruses. Breaks in the skin integrity, particularly those that inoculate pathogens into the dermis, frequently cause or exacerbate skin infections. Bacterial skin infections caused by corynebacteria include erythrasma, trichomycosis axillaris and pitted keratolysis. Staphylococci may cause impetigo, ecthyma and folliculitis. Streptococcal skin infections include impetigo and erysipelas. Human papillomavirus skin infections present as several different types of warts, depending on the surface infected and its relative moisture, and the patterns of pressure. The many dermatomycoses (skin infections caused by fungi or yeasts) include tinea capitis, tinea barbae, tinea cruris, tinea manus, tinea pedis and tinea unguium (onychomycosis). Candidal infections occur in moist areas, such as the vulva, mouth, penis, skinfolds and diaper area. Wounds caused by wood splinters or thorns may result in sporotrichosis. Animal bites may result in complex, serious infections, requiring tetanus and, possibly, rabies prophylaxis in addition to appropriate antibiotic therapy. PMID:9614412

  1. Dermatophytes and other associated fungi in patients attending to some hospitals in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Abd Elmegeed, Al Shimaa M.; Ouf, S.A.; Moussa, Tarek A.A.; Eltahlawi, S.M.R.

    2015-01-01

    Dermatophytes are keratinophilic fungi that infect keratinized tissues causing diseases known as dermatophytoses. Dermatophytes are classified in three genera, Epidermophyton, Microsporum, and Trichophyton. This investigation was performed to study the prevalence of dermatomycosis among 640 patients being evaluated at the dermatology clinics at Kasr elainy, El-Husein and Said Galal hospitals in Cairo and Giza between January 2005 and December 2006. The patients were checked for various diseases. Tinea capitis was the most common clinical disease followed by tinea pedis and tinea corporis. Tinea cruris and tinea unguium were the least in occurrence. Tinea versicolor also was detected. The most susceptible persons were children below 10 years followed by those aged 31–40 years. Unicellular yeast was the most common etiological agent and T. tonsuranswas the second most frequent causative agent followed by M. canis. PMID:26413063

  2. Peripheral nerve stimulation for treatment of chronic headache: a case report.

    PubMed

    Green, Adam; Issa, Mohammed A; Kim, Chong H

    2013-01-01

    Chronic daily headaches can be debilitating. Multiple treatments have been suggested with varying degrees of success. We present a case of a 27-year-old female with greater than ten years of chronic daily headaches. The patient was evaluated at the headache clinic where she was diagnosed with complex migraine with components of occipital neuralgia. Multiple medication regimens were tried without significant benefit. The patient also underwent bilateral occipital blocks along with trigger point injections of various muscles including the semispinalis capitis with significant but limited duration of benefit. After other treatments were unsuccessful, the patient was referred to the Pain Management Center and underwent a trial of peripheral nerve stimulation with significant pain relief without complications. She then proceeded with permanent implantation of the peripheral nerve stimulator with continued pain relief. This case demonstrates the utility of peripheral nerve stimulation for the treatment of refractory chronic daily headaches and should be part of our armamentarium. PMID:24371861

  3. [Scalp neuralgia and headache elicited by cranial superficial anatomical causes: supraorbital neuralgia, occipital neuralgia, and post-craniotomy headache].

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Satoru

    2014-01-01

    Most scalp neuralgias are supraorbital or occipital. Although they have been considered idiopathic, recent studies revealed that some were attributable to mechanical irritation with the peripheral nerve of the scalp by superficial anatomical cranial structures. Supraorbital neuralgia involves entrapment of the supraorbital nerve by the facial muscle, and occipital neuralgia involves entrapment of occipital nerves, mainly the greater occipital nerve, by the semispinalis capitis muscle. Contact between the occipital artery and the greater occipital nerve in the scalp may also be causative. Decompression surgery to address these neuralgias has been reported. As headache after craniotomy is the result of iatrogenic injury to the peripheral nerve of the scalp, post-craniotomy headache should be considered as a differential diagnosis. PMID:24943074

  4. Articular soft tissue anatomy of the archosaur hip joint: Structural homology and functional implications.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Henry P; Holliday, Casey M

    2015-06-01

    Archosaurs evolved a wide diversity of locomotor postures, body sizes, and hip joint morphologies. The two extant archosaurs clades (birds and crocodylians) possess highly divergent hip joint morphologies, and the homologies and functions of their articular soft tissues, such as ligaments, cartilage, and tendons, are poorly understood. Reconstructing joint anatomy and function of extinct vertebrates is critical to understanding their posture, locomotor behavior, ecology, and evolution. However, the lack of soft tissues in fossil taxa makes accurate inferences of joint function difficult. Here, we describe the soft tissue anatomies and their osteological correlates in the hip joint of archosaurs and their sauropsid outgroups, and infer structural homology across the extant taxa. A comparative sample of 35 species of birds, crocodylians, lepidosaurs, and turtles ranging from hatchling to skeletally mature adult were studied using dissection, imaging, and histology. Birds and crocodylians possess topologically and histologically consistent articular soft tissues in their hip joints. Epiphyseal cartilages, fibrocartilages, and ligaments leave consistent osteological correlates. The archosaur acetabulum possesses distinct labrum and antitrochanter structures on the supraacetabulum. The ligamentum capitis femoris consists of distinct pubic- and ischial attachments, and is homologous with the ventral capsular ligament of lepidosaurs. The proximal femur has a hyaline cartilage core attached to the metaphysis via a fibrocartilaginous sleeve. This study provides new insight into soft tissue structures and their osteological correlates (e.g., the antitrochanter, the fovea capitis, and the metaphyseal collar) in the archosaur hip joint. The topological arrangement of fibro- and hyaline cartilage may provide mechanical support for the chondroepiphysis. The osteological correlates identified here will inform systematic and functional analyses of archosaur hindlimb evolution and

  5. Multi-Acupuncture Point Injections and Their Anatomical Study in Relation to Neck and Shoulder Pain Syndrome (So-Called Katakori) in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Kanazawa, Teruhisa; Suyama, Kaori; Tanaka, Osamu; Sawada, Makoto; Ito, Miho; Ito, Kenji; Akamatsu, Tadashi; Masuda, Ritsuko; Suzuki, Toshiyasu; Sakabe, Kou

    2015-01-01

    Katakori is a symptom name that is unique to Japan, and refers to myofascial pain syndrome-like clinical signs in the shoulder girdle. Various methods of pain relief for katakori have been reported, but in the present study, we examined the clinical effects of multi-acupuncture point injections (MAPI) in the acupuncture points with which we empirically achieved an effect, as well as the anatomical sites affected by liquid medicine. The subjects were idiopathic katakori patients (n = 9), and three cadavers for anatomical investigation. BL-10, GB-21, LI-16, SI-14, and BL-38 as the WHO notation were selected as the acupuncture point. Injections of 1 mL of 1% w/v mepivacaine were introduced at the same time into each of these points in the patients. Assessment items were the Pain Relief Score and the therapeutic effect period. Dissections were centered at the puncture sites of cadavers. India ink was similarly injected into each point, and each site that was darkly-stained with India ink was evaluated. Katakori pain in the present study was significantly reduced by MAPI. Regardless of the presence or absence of trigger points, pain was significantly reduced in these cases. Dark staining with India ink at each of the points in the anatomical analysis was as follows: BL-10: over the rectus capitis posterior minor muscle and rectus capitis posterior major muscle fascia; GB-21: over the supraspinatus muscle fascia; LI-16: over the supraspinatus muscle fascia; SI-14: over the rhomboid muscle fascia; and BL-38: over the rhomboid muscle fascia. The anatomical study suggested that the drug effect was exerted on the muscles above and below the muscle fascia, as well as the peripheral nerves because the points of action in acupuncture were darkly-stained in the spaces between the muscle and the muscle fascia. PMID:26046784

  6. [Tropical and travel-related dermatomycoses: Part 1: Dermatophytoses].

    PubMed

    Nenoff, P; Reinel, D; Krüger, C; Grob, H; Mugisha, P; Süß, A; Mayser, P

    2015-06-01

    Today, tropical and travel-related dermatomycoses must be increasingly anticipated to present in dermatological offices and clinics. Skin infections due to dermatophytes or other fungi may occur after a journey in countries with a high prevalence for the respective causative fungal pathogen, e.g., tinea corporis due to Trichophyton soudanense. Otherwise, more frequently, single infections and even localized outbreaks due to "exotic" or "imported" pathogens of dermatophytoses occur. These epidemics are observed in childcare facilities in Germany and in other European countries. Source of infection are immigrants from Africa and sometimes from Asian countries. Furthermore, African children, and sometimes also adults, are often only asymptomatic carriers of such anthropophilic dermatophytes. Outbreaks of dermatophyte infections with one and more affected children and also adult staff and teachers due to Trichophyton violaceum or Microsporum audouinii in kindergartens and schools are not a rarity these days. Further tropical and travel-associated dermatophytes are Trichophyton tonsurans, Trichophyton schoenleinii, and Trichophyton concentricum. Tinea capitis should be treated in a species-specific manner. Griseofulvin is the treatment of choice for infections due to Microsporum species. In contrast, tinea capitis due to Trichophyton species has to be treated by terbinafine, however, because the agent is not approved for children in Germany, only after receiving written consent of parents. Alternatives are fluconazole and itraconazole. Onset and aggravation of tinea pedis during travel has its origin in a preexisting neglected fungal infection of the feet. In the tropics, exacerbations and secondary bacterial complications of tinea pedis develop under distinctly promoting conditions. PMID:25868571

  7. Dermatophyte and non dermatophyte fungi in Riyadh City, Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Khaled, Jamal M.; Golah, Hammed A; Khalel, Abdulla S.; Alharbi, Naiyf S.; Mothana, Ramzi A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Dermatophytes are a scientific label for a group of three genera (Microsporum, Epidermophyton and Trichophyton) of fungus that causes skin disease in animals and humans. Conventional methods for identification of these fungi are rapid and simple but are not accurate comparing to molecular methods. Objective This study aimed to isolate human pathogenic dermatophytes which cause dermatophytosis in Riyadh City, Saudi Arabia and to identify these fungi by using conventional and molecular methods. Methods The study was conducted in Medical Complex, Riyadh and King Saud University. Samples of infected skin, hairs and nails were collected from 112 patients. Diagnosis of skin infections, direct microscopic test, isolation and identification of dermatophytes by conventional and molecular methods were carried out. Results The results indicated that the tinea capitis infection had the highest prevalence among the patients (22.3%) while Tinea barbae had the lowest. In this study the identified dermatophyte isolates belong to nine species as Trichophyton violaceum, Trichophyton verrucosum, Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton schoenleinii, Trichophyton concentricum, Microsporum canis, Microsporum audouinii and Epidermophyton floccosum which cause skin infections were isolated during this study. Non dermatophyte isolates included 5 isolates from Aspergillus spp. 4 isolates from Acremonium potronii and 15 isolates from Candida spp. M. canis were the most common species (25% of isolated dermatophytes). Out of the 52 dermatophyte isolates identified by conventional methods, there were 45 isolates identified by the molecular method. Conclusions The results concluded that approximately M. canis caused a quarter of dermatophyte cases, tinea capitis infection was prevalent and the molecular method was more accurate than conventional methods. PMID:26288566

  8. Pathogenic fungus Microsporum canis activates the NLRP3 inflammasome.

    PubMed

    Mao, Liming; Zhang, Liping; Li, Hua; Chen, Wei; Wang, Hongbin; Wu, Shuxian; Guo, Caiqin; Lu, Ailing; Yang, Guiwen; An, Liguo; Abliz, Paride; Meng, Guangxun

    2014-02-01

    Microsporum canis is a pathogenic fungus with worldwide distribution that causes tinea capitis in animals and humans. M. canis also causes invasive infection in immunocompromised patients. To defy pathogenic fungal infection, the host innate immune system is the first line of defense. As an important arm of innate immunity, the inflammasomes are intracellular multiprotein complexes that control the activation of caspase-1, which cleaves proinflammatory cytokine pro-interleukin-1β (IL-1β) into its mature form. To determine whether the inflammasome is involved in the host defense against M. canis infection, we challenged human monocytic THP-1 cells and mouse dendritic cells with a clinical strain of M. canis isolated from patients with tinea capitis. We found that M. canis infection triggered rapid secretion of IL-1β from both THP-1 cells and mouse dendritic cells. Moreover, by using gene-specific shRNA and competitive inhibitors, we determined that M. canis-induced IL-1β secretion was dependent on NLRP3. The pathways proposed for NLRP3 inflammasome activation, namely, cathepsin B activity, K(+) efflux, and reactive oxygen species production, were all required for the inflammasome activation triggered by M. canis. Meanwhile, Syk, Dectin-1, and Card9 were found to be involved in M. canis-induced IL-1β secretion via regulation of pro-IL-1β transcription. More importantly, our data revealed that M. canis-induced production of IL-1β was dependent on the NLRP3 inflammasome in vivo. Together, this study unveils that the NLRP3 inflammasome exerts a critical role in host innate immune responses against M. canis infection, and our data suggest that diseases that result from M. canis infection might be controlled by regulating the activation of inflammasomes. PMID:24478101

  9. Age and sex prevalence of infectious dermatoses among primary school children in a rural South-Eastern Nigerian community

    PubMed Central

    Kalu, Eziyi Iche; Wagbatsoma, Victoria; Ogbaini-Emovon, Ephraim; Nwadike, Victor Ugochukwu; Ojide, Chiedozie Kingsley

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Various dermatoses, due to their morbidity characteristics, have been shown to negatively impact on learning. The most epidemiologically important seem to be the infectious types because of their transmissibility and amenability to simple school-health measures. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and sex/age correlates of infectious dermatoses in a rural South-eastern Nigerian community. Methods The pupils were proportionately recruited from the three primary schools based on school population. Stratified simple random sampling method was adopted and a table of random numbers was used to select required pupils from each arm. Clinical and laboratory examination was done to establish diagnoses of infectious skin disease. Data collected were analyzed using SPSS version 16. Results The 400 pupils consisted of 153 males and 247 females. Age range was between 6 and 12 years. The prevalence of infectious dermatoses was 72.3%. The five most prevalent clinical forms of infectious dermatoses, in order of decreasing prevalence, were tinea capitis (35.2%), scabies (10.5%), tinea corporis (5.8%), tinea pedis (5.5%), and impetigo (5.0%). More cases, generally, occurred among males than females (80.4% vs 67.2%)); while some specific clinical types, pediculosis and seborrheic dermatitis, exhibited predilection for females. Pyodermas and scabies were significantly more prevalent in the 7-9 age-group; while tinea capitis, tinea corporis, seborrheic dermatitis and pediculosis were more associated with ≥10 age-group. Conclusion Infectious dermatoses were highly prevalent in the surveyed population. Many of the clinical types exhibited sex- and age-specificity. PMID:26430479

  10. In Vivo Efficacy and Pharmacokinetics of Voriconazole in an Animal Model of Dermatophytosis▿

    PubMed Central

    Saunte, D. M.; Simmel, F.; Frimodt-Moller, N.; Stolle, L. B.; Svejgaard, E. L.; Haedersdal, M.; Kloft, C.; Arendrup, M. C.

    2007-01-01

    The standard treatment for tinea capitis caused by Microsporum species for many years has been oral griseofulvin, which is no longer universally marketed. Voriconazole has been demonstrated to inhibit growth of Microsporum canis in vitro. We evaluated the efficacy and tissue pharmacokinetics of oral voriconazole in a guinea pig model of dermatophytosis. Guinea pigs (n = 16) were inoculated with M. canis conidia on razed skin. Voriconazole was dosed orally at 20 mg/kg/day for 12 days (days 3 to 14). The guinea pigs were scored clinically (redness and lesion severity) and mycologically (microscopy and culture) until day 17. Voriconazole concentrations were measured day 14 in blood, skin biopsy specimens, and interstitial fluid obtained by microdialysis in selected animals. Clinically, the voriconazole-treated animals had significantly less redness and lower lesion scores than untreated animals from days 7 and 10, respectively (P < 0.05). Skin scrapings from seven of eight animals in the voriconazole-treated group were microscopy and culture negative in contrast to zero of eight animals from the untreated group at day 14. The colony counts per specimen were significantly higher in samples from untreated animals (mean colony count of 28) than in the voriconazole-treated animals (<1 in the voriconazole group [P < 0.0001]). The voriconazole concentration in microdialysate (unbound) ranged from 0.9 to 2.0 μg/ml and in the skin biopsy specimens total from 9.1 to 35.9 μg/g. In conclusion, orally administered voriconazole leads to skin concentrations greater than the necessary MICs for Microsporum and was shown to be highly efficacious in an animal model of dermatophytosis. Voriconazole may be a future alternative for treatment of tinea capitis in humans. PMID:17576826