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1

Antiglycating potential of gum arabic capped-silver nanoparticles.  

PubMed

Advanced glycation end products are major contributors to the pathology of diabetes, Alzheimer's disease, and atherosclerosis; accordingly, identification of antiglycation compounds is attracting considerable interest. In the present study, the inhibitory effect of gum arabic capped-silver nanoparticles on advanced glycation end products formation was monitored by several biophysical techniques. Silver nanoparticles were characterized by ultraviolet-visible, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Bovine serum albumin and methylglyoxal mixtures incubated with increasing concentrations of silver nanoparticles showed significant reductions in advanced glycation end product formation that were confirmed by ultraviolet-visible, fluorescence spectrometry, and high-performance liquid chromatography techniques. High-performance liquid chromatography showed decreased adduct formation of glycated protein in the presence of silver nanoparticles. The structural changes induced by silver nanoparticles were further confirmed by circular dichroism and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Strong inhibition of advanced glycation end product formation was observed in the presence of elevated silver nanoparticles. The results of this study suggest that silver nanoparticles are a potent antiglycating agent. PMID:25080376

Ashraf, Jalaluddin M; Ansari, Mohammad Azam; Choi, Inho; Khan, Haris M; Alzohairy, Mohammad A

2014-09-01

2

CTAB capped silver nanoparticles for plasmonic dye-sensitized solar cell  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To improve the light harvesting efficiency of Dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC), we have explored the surface plasmon property of metal nanoparticles in this paper. Cetyl trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) capped silver nanoparticles have been synthesized by wet chemical method and studied for spectroscopic and structural investigations. FTIR confirms the capping of CTAB on silver nanoparticles occurs via their head group. Williamson Hall plot revealed the presence of tensile strain. Finally, these particles have been incorporated in DSSC to study the plasmonic effect of nanoparticles on performance of DSSC.

Tanvi, Mahajan, Aman; Bedi, R. K.; Kumar, Subodh

2014-04-01

3

Laser-fabricated castor oil-capped silver nanoparticles  

PubMed Central

Silver nanoparticles were fabricated by ablation of a pure silver plate immersed in castor oil. A Nd:YAG-pulsed Q-switch laser with 1064-nm wavelength and 10-Hz frequency was used to ablate the plate for 10 minutes. The sample was characterized by ultraviolet-visible, atomic absorption, Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopies, and transmission electron microscopy. The results of the fabricated sample showed that the nanoparticles in castor oil were about 5-nm in diameter, well dispersed, and showed stability for a long period of time. PMID:21698083

Zamiri, Reza; Zakaria, Azmi; Abbastabar, Hossein; Darroudi, Majid; Husin, Mohd Shahril; Mahdi, Mohd Adzir

2011-01-01

4

Capsaicin-capped silver nanoparticles: its kinetics, characterization and biocompatibility assay  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Capsaicin was used as a bio-reductant for the reduction of silver nitrate to form silver nanoparticles. The formation of the silver nanoparticles was initially confirmed by color change and Tyndall effect of light scattering. It was characterized with UV-visible spectroscopy, FTIR and TEM. Hemagglutination (H) test and H-inhibition assay were performed in the presence of AgNPs-capsaicin conjugates. The silver colloid solution after complete reduction turned into pale gray color. The characteristic surface plasmon resonance of silver nanoparticles (SNPs) was observed at 450 nm. Time taken for complete bio-reduction of silver nitrate and capping was found to be 16 hours. The amount of capsaicin required to reduce 20 ml of 1 mM silver nitrate solution was found to be 40 ?g approximately. The FTIR results confirmed the capping of capsaicin on the silver metal. The particle size was within the range of 20-30 nm. The hemagglutination and H-inhibition test was negative for all the blood groups. The capsaicin-capped silver nanoparticles were compatible with blood cells in hemagglutination test implying biocompatibility as future therapeutic drug.

Amruthraj, Nagoth Joseph; Preetam Raj, John Poonga; Lebel, Antoine

2014-07-01

5

A Facile Route for Synthesis of Octyl Amine Capped Silver Nanoparticle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a simple and convenient procedure for the preparation of octyl amine capped silver nanoparticles. AgNO3 has been reduced by octyl amine with benzene or toluene as solvent at 100°C to produce silver nanoparticles. Octyl amine plays its role both as reducing and capping agent and thus provides the advantage of avoiding the use of extra stabilizing agent. Time dependent formation mechanism of silver nanoparticle has been investigated. Thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) shows weight change due to loss of capping agent. The reaction can easily be monitored from variation of color with time. The method is easy and reproducible. Very low concentration (1 mM) of metal ion is used. The particles synthesized were characterized by UV-Visible, FTIR, TGA, TEM and X-ray diffraction studies.

Agasti, Nityananda; Kaushik, N. K.

2014-11-01

6

The Influence of the Capping Agent on the Oxidation of Silver Nanoparticles: Nano-impacts versus Stripping Voltammetry.  

PubMed

The influence of capping agents on the oxidation of silver nanoparticles was studied by using the electrochemical techniques of anodic stripping voltammetry and anodic particle coulometry ("nano-impacts"). Five spherical silver nanoparticles each with a different capping agent (branched polyethylenimine (BPEI), citrate, lipoic acid, polyethylene glycol (PEG) and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)) were used to perform comparative experiments. In all cases, regardless of the capping agent, complete oxidation of the single nanoparticles was seen in anodic particle coulometry. The successful quantitative detection of the silver nanoparticle size displays the potential application of anodic particle coulometry for nanoparticle characterisation. In contrast, for anodic stripping voltammetry using nanoparticles drop casting, it was observed that the capping agent has a very significant effect on the extent of silver oxidation. All five samples gave a low oxidative charge corresponding to partial oxidation. It is concluded that the use of anodic stripping voltammetry to quantify nanoparticles is unreliable, and this is attributed to nanoparticle aggregation. PMID:25581121

Toh, Her Shuang; Jurkschat, Kerstin; Compton, Richard G

2015-02-01

7

Keratin capped silver nanoparticles - synthesis and characterization of a nanomaterial with desirable handling properties  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Silver nanoparticles (NPs) were produced with keratin stabilizer and the NPs exhibited unimodal Gaussian distribution with average diameter of 3.5nm +/- 0.7 nm. The molecular mass of keratin stabilizer was 6-8 kDa. The mass of keratin capped NPs was >250 kDa to indicate the formation of crosslinked...

8

Biomimetic synthesis and characterisation of protein capped silver nanoparticles  

Microsoft Academic Search

A controlled and up-scalable route for the biosynthesis of silver nanopartilces (NPs) mediated by fungal proteins of Coriolus versicolor has been undertaken for the first time. The fungus when challenged with silver nitrate solution accumulated silver NPs on its surface in 72h which could be reduced to 1h by tailoring the reaction conditions. Under alkaline conditions, the reaction was much

Rashmi Sanghi; Preeti Verma

2009-01-01

9

Hydroxy propyl cellulose capped silver nanoparticles produced by simple dialysis process  

SciTech Connect

Silver (Ag) nanoparticles ({approx}6 nm) were synthesized using a novel dialysis process. Silver nitrate was used as a starting precursor, ethylene glycol as solvent and hydroxy propyl cellulose (HPC) introduced as a capping agent. Different batches of reaction mixtures were prepared with different concentrations of silver nitrate (AgNO{sub 3}). After the reduction and aging, these solutions were subjected to ultra-violet visible spectroscopy (UVS). Optimized solution, containing 250 mg AgNO{sub 3} revealed strong plasmon resonance peak at {approx}410 nm in the spectrum indicating good colloidal state of Ag nanoparticles in the diluted solution. The optimized solution was subjected to dialysis process to remove any unreacted solvent. UVS of the optimized solution after dialysis showed the plasmon resonance peak shifting to {approx}440 nm indicating the reduction of Ag ions into zero-valent Ag. This solution was dried at 80 {sup o}C and the resultant HPC capped Ag (HPC/Ag) nanoparticles were studied using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) for their particle size and morphology. The particle size distribution (PSD) analysis of these nanoparticles showed skewed distribution plot with particle size ranging from 3 to 18 nm. The nanoparticles were characterized for phase composition using X-ray diffractrometry (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR).

Francis, L. [University of Genova, Department of Chemistry and Industrial Chemistry, via Dodecaneso 31, 16146 Genova (Italy)] [University of Genova, Department of Chemistry and Industrial Chemistry, via Dodecaneso 31, 16146 Genova (Italy); Balakrishnan, A. [Laboratoire SIMaP - GPM2, Grenoble-INP/UJF/CNRS BP46, 38042 Saint Martin d'Heres cedex (France)] [Laboratoire SIMaP - GPM2, Grenoble-INP/UJF/CNRS BP46, 38042 Saint Martin d'Heres cedex (France); Sanosh, K.P. [Department of Innovation Engineering, University of Lecce, via per Monteroni, 73100 Lecce (Italy)] [Department of Innovation Engineering, University of Lecce, via per Monteroni, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Marsano, E., E-mail: marsano@chimica.unige.it [University of Genova, Department of Chemistry and Industrial Chemistry, via Dodecaneso 31, 16146 Genova (Italy)

2010-08-15

10

Hansen solubility parameters of surfactant-capped silver nanoparticles for ink and printing technologies.  

PubMed

Optimal ink formulations, inclusive of nanoparticles, are often limited to matching the nanoparticle's capping agent or surface degree of polarity to the solvent of choice. Rather than relying on this single attribute, nanoparticle dispersibility was optimized by identifying the Hansen solubility parameters (HSPs) of decanoic-acid-capped 5 nm silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) by broad spectrum dispersion testing and a more specific binary solvent gradient dispersion method. From the HSPs, solvents were chosen to disperse poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and nanoparticles, give uniform evaporation profiles, and yield a phase-separated microstructure of nanoparticles on PMMA via film formation by solvent evaporation. The goal of this research was to yield a film that is reflective or transparent depending on the angle of incident light (i.e., optically variable). The nanoparticle HSPs were very close to alkanes with added small polar and hydrogen-bonding components. This led to two ink formulations: one of 90:10 vol % toluene/methyl benzoate and one containing 80:10:10 vol % toluene/p-xylene/mesitylene, both of which yielded the desired final microstructure of a nanoparticle layer on a PMMA film. This approach to nanoparticle ink formulation allows one to obtain an ink that has desirable dispersive qualities, rheology, and evaporation to give a desired printed structure. PMID:25469943

Petersen, Jacob B; Meruga, Jeevan; Randle, James S; Cross, William M; Kellar, Jon J

2014-12-30

11

Formation of colloidal silver nanoparticles: Capping action of citrate  

SciTech Connect

Colloidal silver sols of long-time stability are formed in the {gamma}-irradiation of 1.0 x 10{sup {minus}4} M AgClO{sub 4} solutions, which also contain 0.3 M 2-propanol, 2.5 x 10{sup {minus}2} M N{sub 2}O, and sodium citrate in various concentrations. The reduction of Ag{sup +} in these solutions is brought about by the 1-hydroxyalkyl radical generated in the radiolysis of 2-propanol; citrate does not act as a reductant but solely as a stabilizer of the colloidal particles formed. Its concentration is varied in the range from 5.0 x 10{sup {minus}5} to 1.5 x 10{sup {minus}3} M, and the size and size distribution of the silver particles are studied by electron microscopy. At low citrate concentration, partly agglomerated large particles are formed that have many imperfections. In an intermediate range (a few 10{sup {minus}4} M), well-separated particles with a rather narrow size distribution and little imperfections are formed, the size slightly decreasing with increasing citrate concentration. At high citrate concentrations, large lumps of coalesced silver particles are present, due to destabilization by the high ionic strength of the solution. These findings are explained by two growth mechanisms: condensation of small silver clusters (type-1 growth), and reduction of Ag{sup +} on silver particles via radical-to-particle electron transfer (type-2 growth). The particles formed in the intermediate range of citrate concentration were studied by high-resolution electron microscopy and computer simulations. They constitute icosahedra and cuboctahedra.

Henglein, A.; Giersig, M.

1999-11-04

12

Formation of colloidal silver nanoparticles: Capping action of citrate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Colloidal silver sols of long-time stability are formed in the γ-irradiation of 1.0 x 10⁻⁴ M AgClOâ solutions, which also contain 0.3 M 2-propanol, 2.5 x 10⁻² M NâO, and sodium citrate in various concentrations. The reduction of Ag{sup +} in these solutions is brought about by the 1-hydroxyalkyl radical generated in the radiolysis of 2-propanol; citrate does not act

Arnim Henglein; Michael Giersig

1999-01-01

13

Green synthesis of chondroitin sulfate-capped silver nanoparticles: characterization and surface modification.  

PubMed

A one-step route for the green synthesis of highly stable and nanosized silver metal particles with narrow distribution is reported. In this environmentally friendly synthetic method, silver nitrate was used as silver precursor and biocompatible chondroitin sulfate (ChS) was used as both reducing agent and stabilizing agent. The reaction was carried out in a stirring aqueous medium at the room temperature without any assisted by microwave, autoclave, laser irradiation, ?-ray irradiation or UV irradiation. The transparent colorless solution was converted to the characteristics light red then deep red-brown color as the reaction proceeds, indicating the formation of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs). The Ag NPs were characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis), photon correlation spectroscopy, laser Doppler anemometry, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The results demonstrated that the obtained metallic nanoparticles were Ag NPs capped with ChS. In this report, dynamic light scattering (DLS) was used as a routinely analytical tool for measuring size and distribution in a liquid environment. The effects of the reaction time, reaction temperature, concentration and the weight ratio of ChS/Ag+ on the particle size and zeta potential were investigated. The TEM image clearly shows the morphology of the well-dispersed ChS-capped Ag NPs are spherical in shape, and the average size (<20 nm) is much smaller than the Z-average value (76.7 nm) measured by DLS. Meanwhile, the ChS-capped Ag NPs coated with N-[(2-hydroxy-3-trimethylammonium) propyl] chitosan chloride (HTCC) were prepared by an ionic gelation method and the surface charge of Ag NPs was switched from negative to positive. PMID:24906746

Cheng, Kuang-ming; Hung, Yao-wen; Chen, Cheng-cheung; Liu, Cheng-che; Young, Jenn-jong

2014-09-22

14

Green synthesis of silk sericin-capped silver nanoparticles and their potent anti-bacterial activity  

PubMed Central

In this study, a ‘green chemistry’ approach was introduced to synthesize silk sericin (SS)-capped silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) under an alkaline condition (pH 11) using SS as a reducing and stabilizing agent instead of toxic chemicals. The SS-capped AgNPs were successfully synthesized at various concentrations of SS and AgNO3, but the yields were different. A higher yield of SS-capped AgNPs was obtained when the concentrations of SS and AgNO3 were increased. The SS-capped AgNPs showed a round shape and uniform size with diameter at around 48 to 117 nm. The Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy result proved that the carboxylate groups obtained from alkaline degradation of SS would be a reducing agent for the generation of AgNPs while COO? and NH2?+ groups stabilized the AgNPs and prevented their precipitation or aggregation. Furthermore, the SS-capped AgNPs showed potent anti-bacterial activity against various gram-positive bacteria (minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) 0.008 mM) and gram-negative bacteria (MIC ranging from 0.001 to 0.004 mM). Therefore, the SS-capped AgNPs would be a safe candidate for anti-bacterial applications. PMID:24533676

2014-01-01

15

Green synthesis of silk sericin-capped silver nanoparticles and their potent anti-bacterial activity.  

PubMed

In this study, a 'green chemistry' approach was introduced to synthesize silk sericin (SS)-capped silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) under an alkaline condition (pH 11) using SS as a reducing and stabilizing agent instead of toxic chemicals. The SS-capped AgNPs were successfully synthesized at various concentrations of SS and AgNO3, but the yields were different. A higher yield of SS-capped AgNPs was obtained when the concentrations of SS and AgNO3 were increased. The SS-capped AgNPs showed a round shape and uniform size with diameter at around 48 to 117 nm. The Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy result proved that the carboxylate groups obtained from alkaline degradation of SS would be a reducing agent for the generation of AgNPs while COO- and NH2?+ groups stabilized the AgNPs and prevented their precipitation or aggregation. Furthermore, the SS-capped AgNPs showed potent anti-bacterial activity against various gram-positive bacteria (minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) 0.008 mM) and gram-negative bacteria (MIC ranging from 0.001 to 0.004 mM). Therefore, the SS-capped AgNPs would be a safe candidate for anti-bacterial applications. PMID:24533676

Aramwit, Pornanong; Bang, Nipaporn; Ratanavaraporn, Juthamas; Ekgasit, Sanong

2014-01-01

16

Improving SERS activity of inositol hexaphosphate capped silver nanoparticles: Fe3+ as a switcher.  

PubMed

Inositol hexaphosphate (IP6) capped silver nanoparticles (IP6@AgNPs) were fabricated as surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) active substrates. SERS activity of IP6@AgNPs could be further improved via adding due amounts of Fe(3+) to form Fe(3+)-IP6@AgNPs. The mechanism of Fe(3+)-induced SERS improvement of IP6@AgNPs can be attributed to the strong interaction of IP6 and Fe(3+), which leads to controllable adjustment of the gap among neighboring nanoparticles to produce "hot spots". The above mechanism was confirmed with ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy, transmission electron microscope (TEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Such Fe(3+)-IP6@AgNPs-based SERS system was used to detect Rhodamine 6G (R6G) down to the trace level of 10(-10) mol L(-1). Besides, New Fuchsin (NF) was also used as a Raman probe to calculate the enhancement factor (EF) of IP6@AgNPs without and with Fe(3+). The SERS activity of IP6@AgNPs happened extreme decrease after one-year storage and could be recovered to great extent aided by the addition of Fe(3+). The Fe(3+) optimized IP6@AgNPs system could be applied to detect thymine at trace level by SERS. PMID:25010733

Guo, Xiaoyu; Fu, Yichen; Fu, Shuyue; Wang, Hui; Yang, Tianxi; Wen, Ying; Yang, Haifeng

2014-07-21

17

Potent antimicrobial activity of bone cement encapsulating silver nanoparticles capped with oleic acid  

PubMed Central

Bone cement is widely used in surgical treatments for the fixation for orthopaedic devices. Subsequently, 2–3% of patients undergoing these procedures develop infections that are both a major health risk for patients and a cost for the health service providers; this is also aggravated by the fact that antibiotics are losing efficacy because of the rising resistance of microorganisms to these substances. In this study, oleic acid capped silver nanoparticles (NP) were encapsulated into Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA)-based bone cement samples at various ratios. Antimicrobial activity against Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus, S. aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Acinetobacter baumannii was exhibited at NP concentrations as low as 0.05% (w/w). Furthermore, the mechanical properties and cytotoxicity of the bone cement containing these NP were assessed to guarantee that such material is safe to be used in orthopaedic surgical practice. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B: Applied Biomaterials Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 103B: 273–281, 2015. PMID:24819471

Prokopovich, Polina; Köbrick, Mathias; Brousseau, Emmanuel; Perni, Stefano

2015-01-01

18

Potent antimicrobial activity of bone cement encapsulating silver nanoparticles capped with oleic acid.  

PubMed

Bone cement is widely used in surgical treatments for the fixation for orthopaedic devices. Subsequently, 2-3% of patients undergoing these procedures develop infections that are both a major health risk for patients and a cost for the health service providers; this is also aggravated by the fact that antibiotics are losing efficacy because of the rising resistance of microorganisms to these substances. In this study, oleic acid capped silver nanoparticles (NP) were encapsulated into Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA)-based bone cement samples at various ratios. Antimicrobial activity against Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus, S. aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Acinetobacter baumannii was exhibited at NP concentrations as low as 0.05% (w/w). Furthermore, the mechanical properties and cytotoxicity of the bone cement containing these NP were assessed to guarantee that such material is safe to be used in orthopaedic surgical practice. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B: Applied Biomaterials Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 103B: 273-281, 2015. PMID:24819471

Prokopovich, Polina; Köbrick, Mathias; Brousseau, Emmanuel; Perni, Stefano

2015-02-01

19

Green synthesis of protein capped silver nanoparticles from phytopathogenic fungus Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid with antimicrobial properties against multidrug-resistant bacteria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, green synthesis of nanoparticles, i.e., synthesizing nanoparticles using biological sources like bacteria, algae, fungus, or plant extracts have attracted much attention due to its environment-friendly and economic aspects. The present study demonstrates an eco-friendly and low-cost method of biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using cell-free filtrate of phytopathogenic fungus Macrophomina phaseolina. UV-visible spectrum showed a peak at 450 nm corresponding to the plasmon absorbance of silver nanoparticles. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed the presence of spherical silver nanoparticles of the size range 5 to 40 nm, most of these being 16 to 20 nm in diameter. X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectrum of the nanoparticles exhibited 2 ? values corresponding to silver nanoparticles. These nanoparticles were found to be naturally protein coated. SDS-PAGE analysis showed the presence of an 85-kDa protein band responsible for capping and stabilization of the silver nanoparticles. Antimicrobial activities of the silver nanoparticles against human as well as plant pathogenic multidrug-resistant bacteria were assayed. The particles showed inhibitory effect on the growth kinetics of human and plant bacteria. Furthermore, the genotoxic potential of the silver nanoparticles with increasing concentrations was evaluated by DNA fragmentation studies using plasmid DNA.

Chowdhury, Supriyo; Basu, Arpita; Kundu, Surekha

2014-07-01

20

Biopolymer capped silver nanoparticles as fluorophore for ultrasensitive and selective determination of malathion.  

PubMed

This paper describes a novel luminescent sensor for malathion using chitosan capped silver nanoparticles (Chi-AgNPs) as fluorophore. The Chi-AgNPs were synthesized by the wet-chemical method and were characterized by absorption, fluorescence, HR-TEM, XRD and DLS techniques. The Chi-AgNPs show the absorption maximum at 394 nm and emission maximum at 536 nm. While adding 10 µM malathion, yellow color Chi-AgNPs was changed to brown and the absorbance was decreased along with a redshift. The observed spectral and color changes were mainly due to the aggregation of Chi-AgNPs. This was confirmed by zeta potential, DLS and HR-TEM studies. No significant absorption spectral change was observed for Chi-AgNPs in the presence of less than micromolar concentrations of malathion. However, the emission intensity of Chi-AgNPs was decreased and the emission maximum was shifted toward higher wavelength in the presence of picomolar concentration of malathion. Based on the decrease in emission intensity, the concentration of malathion was determined. The Stern-Volmer constant, Gibbs free energy change, association constant, quantum yield and binding constant were calculated and the quenching mechanism was proposed. The Chi-AgNPs show good selectivity toward the determination of 10nM malathion in the presence of 1000-fold higher concentrations of common interferents. A good linearity was observed for the emission intensity against 1 × 10(-9)-10 × 10(-12)M malathion and the detection limit was found to be 94 fM L(-1) (S/N=3). The proposed method was successfully applied to determine malathion in fruits and water samples and the obtained results were validated with HPLC. PMID:24054557

Vasimalai, N; Abraham John, S

2013-10-15

21

Colorimetric detection of trivalent chromium in aqueous solution using tartrate-capped silver nanoparticles as probe.  

PubMed

This study describes a simple and highly selective method for the colorimetric detection of trivalent chromium (Cr3+) using tartrate-capped silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) as probe. The addition of tartrate to the initially prepared AgNPs gives tartrate-stabilized AgNPs ascribing to the electrostatic repulsion of the highly negatively charged tartrate ions covered on the surface of AgNPs. It is found that, in the presence of Cr3+ in aqueous solution, the aggregation of tartrate-stabilized AgNPs occurs. The color of AgNPs suspension changes from yellow to pink and the surface plasmon absorption band broadens and red shifts, which could be applied for the colorimetric detection of Cr3+ in aqueous solution. The utilization of tartrate-stabilized AgNPs as probe substantially increases the selectivity and sensitivity for colorimetric detection of Cr3+. Control experiments with the addition of over 14 other metal ions, such as Pb2+, Zn2+, Cr2O7(2-), Cd2+, Co2+, Cu2+, Al3+, Ni2+, Mn2+, Ba2+, Fe3+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Sr+ do not result in a distinct change in the color or in the spectrum of the suspension, indicating that these metal ions do not interfere with the colorimetric detection of Cr3+. Under the conditions employed here, A502/A393 (ratio of absorption value at 502 nm to 393 nm) is linear with the concentration of Cr3+ within a concentration range from 0.1 to 1.17 microM with a detection limit of 0.06 microM. This study may offer a simple, rapid and sensitive approach to colorimetric detection of Cr3+ in aqueous solution. PMID:24245149

Xu, Yunbo; Dong, Yangjun; Jiang, Xue; Zhu, Ningning

2013-10-01

22

Effect of poly-?, ?, L-glutamic acid as a capping agent on morphology and oxidative stress-dependent toxicity of silver nanoparticles  

PubMed Central

Highly stable dispersions of nanosized silver particles were synthesized using a straightforward, cost-effective, and ecofriendly method. Nontoxic glucose was utilized as a reducing agent and poly-?, ?, L-glutamic acid (PGA), a naturally occurring anionic polymer, was used as a capping agent to protect the silver nanoparticles from agglomeration and render them biocompatible. Use of ammonia during synthesis was avoided. Our study clearly demonstrates how the concentration of the capping agent plays a major role in determining the dimensions, morphology, and stability, as well as toxicity of a silver colloidal solution. Hence, proper optimization is necessary to develop silver colloids of narrow size distribution. The samples were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and zeta potential measurement. MTT assay results indicated good biocompatibility of the PGA-capped silver nanoparticles. Formation of intracellular reactive oxygen species was measured spectrophotometrically using 2,7-dichlorofluorescein diacetate as a fluorescent probe, and it was shown that the PGA-capped silver nanoparticles did not induce intracellular formation of reactive oxygen species. PMID:22131829

Stevanovi?, Magdalena; Kova?evi?, Branimir; Petkovi?, Jana; Filipi?, Metka; Uskokovi?, Dragan

2011-01-01

23

Integrated approach to evaluating the toxicity of novel cysteine-capped silver nanoparticles to Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.  

PubMed

Because of microbial resistance to conventional antibiotics, there is increasing interest in silver, including silver nanoparticles (nano-Ag), in antimicrobial applications. However, questions remain regarding the relative roles of nano-Ag particles, versus Ag(+) ions released from nano-Ag dissolution, in imparting bacterial toxicity. Here, we developed a novel nano-Ag that, based on its cysteine cap, was expected to dissolve slowly and thus potentially allow for differentiating nanoparticle, versus ionic, effects of Ag. The nano-Ag was systematically tested for its differential toxicity to Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Bacterial growth, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, particle dissolution, cellular electron transfer activity, and cell membrane damage and potential were evaluated. In minimal growth medium, E. coli and P. aeruginosa growth were slowed at 100 mg L(-1) (0.93 mM) and 5 mg L(-1) (0.046 mM), respectively; P. aeruginosa was completely inhibited at and above 10 mg L(-1) (0.093 mM). For both strains, toxicity was associated with ROS and cell membrane damage. Based on comparisons to AgNO3 exposures, toxicity from nano-Ag was due to Ag(+) ions and not intact nano-Ag, even though nanoparticle dissolution was less than 2% in minimal growth medium. Because of their stability and slow Ag(+) ion release, the cysteine-capped nano-Ag particles here are useful to antimicrobial applications. Additionally, our systematic approach to evaluating toxicity, membrane damage, and ROS generation can be applied with other nanomaterials and bacteria. PMID:24343373

Priester, John H; Singhal, Aditi; Wu, Binghui; Stucky, Galen D; Holden, Patricia A

2014-03-01

24

Toxicity of Citrate-Capped Silver Nanoparticles in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio)  

PubMed Central

Juvenile common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were used as a model to investigate acute toxicity and oxidative stress caused by silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs). The fish were exposed to different concentrations of Ag-NPs for 48 h and 96 h. After exposure, antioxidant enzyme levels were measured, including glutathione-S-transferase (GST), superoxidase dismutase, and catalase (CAT). Other biochemical parameters and histological abnormalities in different tissues (i.e., the liver, gills, and brain) were also examined. The results showed that Ag-NPs agglomerated in freshwater used during the exposure experiments, with particle size remaining <100?nm. Ag-NPs had no lethal effect on fish after 4 days of exposure. Biochemical analysis showed that enzymatic activities in the brain of the fish exposed to 200??g/L of Ag-NPs were significantly reduced. Varied antioxidant enzyme activity was recorded in the liver and gills. Varied antioxidant enzyme activity was recorded for CAT in the liver and GST in the gills of the fish. However, the recovery rate of fish exposed to 200??g/L of Ag-NPs was slower than when lower particle concentrations were used. Other biochemical indices showed no significant difference, except for NH3 and blood urea nitrogen concentrations in fish exposed to 50??g/L of Ag-NPs. This study provides new evidence about the effects of nanoparticles on aquatic organisms. PMID:23093839

Lee, Byoungcheun; Duong, Cuong Ngoc; Cho, Jaegu; Lee, Jaewoo; Kim, Kyungtae; Seo, Youngrok; Kim, Pilje; Choi, Kyunghee; Yoon, Junheon

2012-01-01

25

Poly(ethylene) glycol-capped silver and magnetic nanoparticles: synthesis, characterization, and comparison of bactericidal and cytotoxic effects.  

PubMed

Silver and magnetic (Fe3O4) nanoparticles have attracted wide attention as novel antimicrobial agents due to their unique chemical and physical properties. In order to study the comparative effects on antibacterial and animal cytotoxicity, Staphylococcus aureus and NIH 3T3 fibroblasts were used, respectively. Both nanoparticles were synthesized via a novel matrix-mediated method using poly(ethylene) glycol. Formation of silver nanoparticles was confirmed by fluorescence and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopic techniques. The poly(ethylene) glycol-coated silver and Fe3O4 nanoparticles were characterized by scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope, zeta potential, particle size analysis, Fourier-transform infrared, X-ray diffraction, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The antimicrobial results indicate that both poly(ethylene) glycol-coated silver and Fe3O4 nanoparticles inhibited S. aureus growth at the concentrations of 5 and 10?µg/mL at all time points without showing any significant cytotoxicity on NIH 3T3 fibroblasts. The particle size of both the poly(ethylene) glycol-coated silver and Fe3O4 nanoparticles dominated in the range 10-15?nm, obtained by particle size analyzer. The poly(ethylene) glycol coating on the particles showed less aggregation of nanoparticles, as observed by scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope. The overall obtained results indicated that these two nanoparticles were stable and could be used to develop a magnetized antimicrobial scaffolds for biomedical applications. PMID:23959858

Mandal, A; Sekar, S; Chandrasekaran, N; Mukherjee, A; Sastry, T P

2013-11-01

26

LL37 peptide@silver nanoparticles: combining the best of the two worlds for skin infection control.  

PubMed

Capping silver nanoparticles with LL37 peptide eradicates the antiproliferative effect of silver on primary skin cells, but retains the bactericidal properties of silver nanoparticles with activities comparable to silver nitrate or silver sulfadiazine. In addition, LL37 capped silver nanoparticles have anti-biofilm formation activity. PMID:24789474

Vignoni, Mariana; de Alwis Weerasekera, Hasitha; Simpson, Madeline J; Phopase, Jaywant; Mah, Thien-Fah; Griffith, May; Alarcon, Emilio I; Scaiano, Juan C

2014-06-01

27

Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This series of videos, presented by the Materials Research Science and Engineering Center at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, deals with the synthesis of silver nanoparticles. The experiment allows students to view the formation of silver nanoparticles that can be detected by the reflection of a laser beam. Silver nanoparticles are used in the creation of yellow stained glass in churches around the country, an interesting, but little known fact. This is a fairly inexpensive activity as it involves stock solutions, and equipment present in any science laboratory. Overall, students will enjoy this basic, but still challenging, experiment.

Johnson, Chris

28

Cytotoxicity and antimicrobial activities of green synthesized silver nanoparticles.  

PubMed

Bio-inspired silver nanoparticles are synthesized using Malus domestica (apple) extract. Polyphenols present in the apple extract act as a reducing and capping agent to produce the silver nanoparticles. UV-Visible analysis shows the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) absorption at 420 nm. The FTIR analysis was used to identify the functional groups responsible for the bio-reduction of silver ion. The XRD and HRTEM images confirm the formation of silver nanoparticles. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of silver nanoparticles was recorded against most of the bacteria and fungus. Further, MCF-7 human breast adenocarcinoma cancer cell line was employed to observe the efficacy of cancer cell killing. PMID:24583606

Lokina, S; Stephen, A; Kaviyarasan, V; Arulvasu, C; Narayanan, V

2014-04-01

29

A versatile synthesis of highly bactericidal Myramistin® stabilized silver nanoparticles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Silver nanoparticles stabilized by a well-known antibacterial surfactant benzyldimethyl[3-(myristoylamino)propyl]ammonium chloride (Myramistin®) were produced for the first time by borohydride reduction of silver chloride sol in water. Stable aqueous dispersions of silver nanoparticles without evident precipitation for several months could be obtained. In vitro bactericidal tests showed that Myramistin® capped silver NPs exhibited notable activity against six different microorganisms---gram-positive and gram-negative

G. K. Vertelov; Yu A. Krutyakov; O. V. Efremenkova; A. Yu Olenin; G. V. Lisichkin

2008-01-01

30

A versatile synthesis of highly bactericidal Myramistin® stabilized silver nanoparticles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Silver nanoparticles stabilized by a well-known antibacterial surfactant benzyldimethyl[3-(myristoylamino)propyl]ammonium chloride (Myramistin®) were produced for the first time by borohydride reduction of silver chloride sol in water. Stable aqueous dispersions of silver nanoparticles without evident precipitation for several months could be obtained. In vitro bactericidal tests showed that Myramistin® capped silver NPs exhibited notable activity against six different microorganisms—gram-positive and gram-negative

G K Vertelov; Yu A Krutyakov; O V Efremenkova; A Yu Olenin; G V Lisichkin

2008-01-01

31

Stability of citrate-capped silver nanoparticles in exposure media and their effects on the development of embryonic zebrafish (Danio rerio).  

PubMed

The stability of citrate-capped silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and the embryonic developmental toxicity were evaluated in the fish test water. Serious aggregation of AgNPs was observed in undiluted fish water (DM-100) in which high concentration of ionic salts exist. However, AgNPs were found to be stable for 7 days in DM-10, prepared by diluting the original fish water (DM-100) with deionized water to 10 %. The normal physiology of zebrafish embryos were evaluated in DM-10 to see if DM-10 can be used as a control vehicle for the embryonic fish toxicity test. As results, DM-10 without AgNPs did not induce any significant adverse effects on embryonic development of zebrafish determined by mortality, hatching, malformations and heart rate. When embryonic toxicity of AgNPs was tested in both DM-10 and in DM-100, AgNPs showed higher toxicity in DM-10 than in DM-100. This means that the big-sized aggregates of AgNPs were low toxic compared to the nano-sized AgNPs. AgNPs induced delayed hatching, decreased heart rate, pericardial edema, and embryo death. Accumulation of AgNPs in the embryo bodies was also observed. Based on this study, citrate-capped AgNPs are not aggregated in DM-10 and it can be used as a control vehicle in the toxicity test of fish embryonic development. PMID:23325492

Park, Kwangsik; Tuttle, George; Sinche, Federico; Harper, Stacey L

2013-01-01

32

Formation of Silver Nanoparticles and Self-Assembled Two-Dimensional Ordered Superlattice  

E-print Network

of the silver nanoparticle colloidal phase obtained finally show that the system is monodisperse and can remainFormation of Silver Nanoparticles and Self-Assembled Two-Dimensional Ordered Superlattice Shengtai, 2000 1-Nonanethiol-capped silver nanoparticles of about 4.18 nm in diameter were prepared using

Gao, Hongjun

33

Facile synthesis of anisotropic silver nanoparticles and their surface-enhanced Raman scattering properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, polyvinylpyrrolidone(PVP)-capped silver nanoparticles were synthesized using ethylene glycol as solvent and reducing agent through a simple, one-pot solvothermal method at 160 °C. UV-vis spectroscopy, TEM and Raman spectra are used to characterize the PVP-capped silver nanoparticles. The results show that the formed silver nanoparticles are anisotropy with different size and morphology such as triangle, hexagon and pentagon. Moreover, the formation process of silver nanoparticles was discussed in detail. Furthermore, the formed silver nanoparticles displayed high surface-enhanced Raman scattering effects.

Zhang, Danhui; Yang, Houbo

2014-02-01

34

Silver Nanoparticles in Dental Biomaterials  

PubMed Central

Silver has been used in medicine for centuries because of its antimicrobial properties. More recently, silver nanoparticles have been synthesized and incorporated into several biomaterials, since their small size provides great antimicrobial effect, at low filler level. Hence, these nanoparticles have been applied in dentistry, in order to prevent or reduce biofilm formation over dental materials surfaces. This review aims to discuss the current progress in this field, highlighting aspects regarding silver nanoparticles incorporation, such as antimicrobial potential, mechanical properties, cytotoxicity, and long-term effectiveness. We also emphasize the need for more studies to determine the optimal concentration of silver nanoparticle and its release over time. PMID:25667594

Corrêa, Juliana Mattos; Mori, Matsuyoshi; Sanches, Heloísa Lajas; da Cruz, Adriana Dibo; Poiate, Isis Andréa Venturini Pola

2015-01-01

35

Antimicrobial Properties of Silver Nanoparticles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module provides students the opportunity to "explore silver nanoparticles and their effectiveness against bacterial growth in hands-on laboratory activities." Students first make silver nanoparticles and then use them in an experiment they design. This lesson will require two or more class periods and is aimed at secondary students.The document is available to download in PDF file format.

Kouadio, Carrie

36

Synthesis of silver nanoparticles using medicinal Zizyphus xylopyrus bark extract  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present paper, biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Zizyphus xylopyrus bark extract is reported. Z. xylopyrus bark extract is efficiently used for the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles. UV-Visible spectroscopy showed surface plasmon resonance peaks in the range 413-420 nm confirming the formation of silver nanoparticles. Different factors affecting the synthesis of silver nanoparticles like methodology for the preparation of extract, concentration of silver nitrate solution used for biosynthesis and initial pH of the reaction mixture were studied. The extract prepared with 10 mM AgNO3 solution by reflux extraction method at optimum initial pH of 11, resulted in higher conversion of silver ions to silver nanoparticles as compared with those prepared by open heating or ultrasonication. SEM analysis showed that the biosynthesized nanoparticles are spherical in nature and ranged from 60 to 70 nm in size. EDX suggested that the silver nanoparticles must be capped by the organic components present in the plant extract. This simple process for the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using aqueous extract of Z. xylopyrus is a green technology without the usage of hazardous and toxic solvents and chemicals and hence is environment friendly. The process has several advantages with reference to cost, compatibility for its application in medical and drug delivery, as well as for large-scale commercial production.

Sumi Maria, Babu; Devadiga, Aishwarya; Shetty Kodialbail, Vidya; Saidutta, M. B.

2014-11-01

37

Composition-Controlled Synthesis of Bimetallic Gold-Silver Nanoparticles  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports finding of an investigation of the synthesis of monolayer-capped binary gold-silver bimetallic nanoparticles that is aimed at understanding the control factors governing the formation of the bimetallic compositions. The findings have important implications to the exploration of gold-based bimetallic nanoparticles for biosensing and fuell cell catalytic nanomaterials.

Kariuki, Nancy N.; Luo, Jin; Maye, Mathew M.; Hassan, Syed A.; Menard, Tanya; Naslund, H. R.; Lin, Yuehe; Wang, Chong M.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Zhong, Chuan-Jian

2004-12-07

38

Synthesis, characterization and SERS activity of biosynthesized silver nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Silver nanoparticles were rapidly synthesized using Moringa oleifera flower extract as the reducing agent shows surface plasmon resonance peak at 439 nm. The size and shape of the nanoparticles controlled by varying the concentration of M. oleifera flower extract in the reaction medium. The synthesized silver nanoparticles were well-dispersed spherical nanoparticles with the average size of 14 nm. The retinoic acid present in M. oleifera flower extract used as reducing agent and proteins was responsible for capping of the bioreduced silver nanoparticles. The obtained nanoparticle shows size-dependent SERS activity. The SERS spectrum indicates that the pyridine adsorbed on the silver surface in a stand-on orientation via its nitrogen lone pair electrons.

Bindhu, M. R.; Sathe, V.; Umadevi, M.

2013-11-01

39

Synthesis, characterization and SERS activity of biosynthesized silver nanoparticles.  

PubMed

Silver nanoparticles were rapidly synthesized using Moringa oleifera flower extract as the reducing agent shows surface plasmon resonance peak at 439nm. The size and shape of the nanoparticles controlled by varying the concentration of M. oleifera flower extract in the reaction medium. The synthesized silver nanoparticles were well-dispersed spherical nanoparticles with the average size of 14nm. The retinoic acid present in M. oleifera flower extract used as reducing agent and proteins was responsible for capping of the bioreduced silver nanoparticles. The obtained nanoparticle shows size-dependent SERS activity. The SERS spectrum indicates that the pyridine adsorbed on the silver surface in a stand-on orientation via its nitrogen lone pair electrons. PMID:23867642

Bindhu, M R; Sathe, V; Umadevi, M

2013-11-01

40

Toxicity of silver nanoparticles in zebrafish models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study was initiated to enhance our insight on the health and environmental impact of silver nanoparticles (Ag-np). Using starch and bovine serum albumin (BSA) as capping agents, silver nanoparticles were synthesized to study their deleterious effects and distribution pattern in zebrafish embryos (Danio rerio). Toxicological endpoints like mortality, hatching, pericardial edema and heart rate were recorded. A concentration-dependent increase in mortality and hatching delay was observed in Ag-np treated embryos. Additionally, nanoparticle treatments resulted in concentration-dependent toxicity, typified by phenotypes that had abnormal body axes, twisted notochord, slow blood flow, pericardial edema and cardiac arrhythmia. Ag+ ions and stabilizing agents showed no significant defects in developing embryos. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of the embryos demonstrated that nanoparticles were distributed in the brain, heart, yolk and blood of embryos as evident from the electron-dispersive x-ray analysis (EDS). Furthermore, the acridine orange staining showed an increased apoptosis in Ag-np treated embryos. These results suggest that silver nanoparticles induce a dose-dependent toxicity in embryos, which hinders normal development.

Asharani, P. V.; Lian Wu, Yi; Gong, Zhiyuan; Valiyaveettil, Suresh

2008-06-01

41

Malva parviflora extract assisted green synthesis of silver nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Five plant leaf extracts (Malva parviflora, Beta vulgaris subsp. Vulgaris, Anethum graveolens, Allium kurrat and Capsicum frutescens) were screened for their bioreduction behavior for synthesis of silver nanoparticles. M. parviflora (Malvaceae) was found to exhibit the best reducing and protecting action in terms of synthesis rate and monodispersity of the prepared silver nanoparticles. Our measurements indicate that biosynthesis of Ag nanoparticles by M. parviflora produces Ag nanoparticles with the diameters in the range of 19-25 nm. XRD studies reveal a high degree of crystallinity and monophasic Ag nanoparticles of face-centered cubic structure. FTIR analysis proved that particles are reduced and stabilized in solution by the capping agent that is likely to be proteins secreted by the biomass. The present process is an excellent candidate for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles that is simple, easy to perform, pollutant free and inexpensive.

Zayed, Mervat F.; Eisa, Wael H.; Shabaka, A. A.

2012-12-01

42

Toxicity, Bioaccumulation and Biotransformation of Silver Nanoparticles in Marine Organisms  

EPA Science Inventory

The toxicity, bioaccumulation and biotransformation of citrate and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) capped silver nanoparticles (NPs) (AgNP-citrate and AgNP-PVP) and titanium dioxide (TiO2) NPs in marine organisms via marine sediment exposure were investigated. Results from 7-d sedimen...

43

Antituberculous effect of silver nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The in vitro experiment, involving 1164 strains of the tuberculosis mycobacteria, exhibited a potentiating effect of silver nanoparticles on known antituberculous preparations in respect of overcoming drug-resistance of the causative agent. The in vitro experiment, based on the model of resistant tuberculosis, was performed on 65 white mice. An evident antituberculous effect of the nanocomposite on the basis of silver nanoparticles and isoniazid was proved. Toxicological assessment of the of nanopreparations was carried out. The performed research scientifically establishes efficacy and safety of the nanocomposite application in combination therapy of patients suffering from drug-resistant tuberculosis.

Kreytsberg, G. N.; Gracheva, I. E.; Kibrik, B. S.; Golikov, I. V.

2011-04-01

44

Silver Nanoparticles Shoot Up from the Root of Daucus carrota (L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extensive work has been done to explore the potential promises of plant systems in the synthesis of metal nanoparticles. Herein, a convenient and rapid process for the formation of silver nanoparticles with natural reducing and capping agents of Daucus carrota (L.) is reported. The synchronization of secondary metabolites and enzymes as reducing\\/capping agents plays a vital role in the synthesis

K. S. Mukunthan; S. Balaji

2012-01-01

45

Evaluation of green synthesized silver nanoparticles against parasites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Green nanoparticle synthesis has been achieved using environmentally acceptable plant extract and eco-friendly reducing and\\u000a capping agents. The present study was based on assessments of the antiparasitic activities to determine the efficacies of\\u000a synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using aqueous leaf extract of Mimosa pudica Gaertn (Mimosaceae) against the larvae of malaria vector, Anopheles subpictus Grassi, filariasis vector Culex quinquefasciatus Say

Sampath Marimuthu; Abdul Abdul Rahuman; Govindasamy Rajakumar; Thirunavukkarasu Santhoshkumar; Arivarasan Vishnu Kirthi; Chidambaram Jayaseelan; Asokan Bagavan; Abdul Abduz Zahir; Gandhi Elango; Chinnaperumal Kamaraj

2011-01-01

46

Sulfidation of silver nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rapid development of nanotechnologies that exploit the properties of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) raises questions concerning the impact of Ag on the environment. Ag-NPs are currently among the most widely used in the nanotechnology industry and the amount released into the environment is expected to increase along with production (1). When present in geochemical systems, Ag-NPs may undergo a variety of changes due to varying redox, pH, and chemical conditions. Expected changes range from surface modification (e.g., oxidation, sulfidation, chloridation etc.) to complete dissolution and re-precipitation. In this context, the focus of our work is on understanding the behavior of synthetic Ag-NPs with different particle sizes under varying conditions relevant to the environment. Sulfidation of Ag-NPs is of particular interest since it among the processes most likely to occur in aqueous systems, in particular under reducing conditions. Three sizes of Ag-NPs coated with polyvinyl pyrrolidone were produced using the polyol process (2) (7 ±1; 20 ±4, and 40 ±9 nm). Batch solutions containing the different Ag-NPs were subsequently reacted with Na2S solutions of different concentrations. The sulfidation process was followed step-wise for 24 hours and the corrosion products formed were characterized by electron microscopy (TEM/SEM), diffraction (XRD), and photo-electron spectroscopy (XPS). Surface charge (pHPZC) of the products formed during this process was also measured, as were changes in solubility and reactivity. Based on experimental observations we infer that the sulfidation process is the result of dissolution-precipitation and find that: (i) acanthite (Ag2S) is formed as a corrosion product; (ii) Ag-NPs aggregation increased with sulfidation rate; (iii) pHPZC increases with the rate of sulfidation; and (iv) the solubility of the corrosion products formed from sulfidation appears lower than that of non-sulfidated Ag-NPs. We observe size-dependent differences in the kinetics of sulfidation and in solubility behavior. The results of this type of fundamental study are important for predicting the behavior and fate of Ag-NPs in natural ecosystems. For example, aggregation caused by sulfidation may limit transport in porous media such as soils. Modification of surface charge during the sulfidation process may have an important impact on electrostatic interactions between Ag-NPs and charged phases such as natural organic matter. Finally, it is well known that Ag+ has a greater toxicity than metallic Ag (3) and the observed decrease in solubility of Ag-NPs after sulfidation may strongly impact the toxicity of silver in the environment. (1) www.nanotechproject.org (2) F. Fievet, J.P. Lagier, B. Blin, B. Beaudoin and M. Figlarz, Solid State Ionics 32/33, 198 (1989) (3) G.A. Sotiriou and S.E. Pratsinis, Environmental Science & Technology 14, 5649 (2010).

Levard, C.; Michel, F. M.; Brown, G. E.

2010-12-01

47

LL37 peptide@silver nanoparticles: combining the best of the two worlds for skin infection control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Capping silver nanoparticles with LL37 peptide eradicates the antiproliferative effect of silver on primary skin cells, but retains the bactericidal properties of silver nanoparticles with activities comparable to silver nitrate or silver sulfadiazine. In addition, LL37 capped silver nanoparticles have anti-biofilm formation activity.Capping silver nanoparticles with LL37 peptide eradicates the antiproliferative effect of silver on primary skin cells, but retains the bactericidal properties of silver nanoparticles with activities comparable to silver nitrate or silver sulfadiazine. In addition, LL37 capped silver nanoparticles have anti-biofilm formation activity. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Changes on AgNP-SPB absorption; changes on AgNP-SPB as A/A0 measured in LB or DMEM media; number of survival colonies in the presence of LL37; human skin fibroblasts cell toxicity in the presence of different silver sources measured using MTS assay; effect of LL37@AgNP on the proliferation profile of human skin fibroblasts; effect of AgSD and AgNO3 on the proliferation profile of human skin fibroblasts in the presence of LL37 peptide; representative flow cytometry profiles for human skin fibroblasts stained with Alexa Fluor®488 annexin V/Dead cell apoptosis kit. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr01284d

Vignoni, Mariana; de Alwis Weerasekera, Hasitha; Simpson, Madeline J.; Phopase, Jaywant; Mah, Thien-Fah; Griffith, May; Alarcon, Emilio I.; Scaiano, Juan C.

2014-05-01

48

Temporal evolution of capped cadmium sulfide nanoparticles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cadmium sulfide nanoparticles capped with thioglycolic acid as an organic ligand were synthesized by solution chemistry. Temporal evolution was studied by optical absorption, fluorescence, TEM, FTIR and x-ray diffraction measurements to understand the growth and stability of nanocrystals\\/ligand composites. The results suggest that besides being a good capping agent, thioglycolic acid also acts as an effective passivating ligand for electronically

M N Kalasad; M K Rabinal; B G Mulimani; G S Avadhani

2008-01-01

49

Silver Nanoparticles Part 2: BDo Silver Nanoparticles Inhibit Bacterial Growth?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The NACK Center is an organization committed to supporting two â??year degree programs in micro and nanotechnology. The center offers online educational material for curriculum enhancement in this subject field. One of these resources is a lab documentation focusing on the topic of silver nanoparticles. The lab "may be used with a middle school through high school biology class.â? The lesson includes objectives, sample solution preparations, and sample data and calculations. Overall, the objectives of this lesson are to practice aseptic techniques to inoculate/grow bacteria and describe the impact of silver nanoparticles on bacterial growth. The site requires a free log-in for access to the material.

50

Dithiocarbamate-capped silver nanoparticles as a resonance light scattering probe for simultaneous detection of lead(II) ions and cysteine.  

PubMed

We investigated the suitability of dithiocarbamate (DTC) capped Ag nanoparticles (NPs) as resonance light scattering (RLS) probes for the simultaneous sensing of Pb(2+) and cysteine. The DTC capping ligands are generated by a very simple in situ method through reaction of carbon disulfide with diethanolamine as primary precursor molecules under ultrasonic irradiation. This strategy was based on the fact that Pb(2+) could induce the aggregation of DTC-Ag NPs due to the strong metal affinity of DTC along with an enhanced RLS signal. After optimizing some experimental conditions (including the pH value of the solution, concentration of DTC-Ag NPs, and ion strength), a very simple and facile sensing system has been developed for the detection of Pb(2+) in water based on RLS technology. The proposed system promises excellent selectivity, a wide linear response range and high sensitivity for Pb(2+). The linear response range for Pb(2+) was from 0.01 ?M to 60 ?M. The limit of detection (S/N = 3?) for Pb(2+) was as low as 4 nM. The proposed method was successfully used to detect Pb(2+) in river and tap water samples, indicating the potential of this new, sensitive and selective method in water quality monitoring. Meanwhile, due to the strong binding preference of cysteine toward Pb(2+) by the formation of Pb(2+)-S bonds, Pb(2+) was removed from the surfaces of the DTC-Ag NPs, leading to redispersion of DTC-Ag NPs, along with a decreased RLS signal. The possibility of the proposed system for the sensing of cysteine was also investigated. PMID:23463028

Cao, Haiyan; Wei, Minghong; Chen, Zhaohui; Huang, Yuming

2013-04-21

51

Coconut water assisted green synthesis of silver nanoparticles  

PubMed Central

Aim of the Study: The synthesis, characterization and application of biologically synthesized nanomaterials are an important aspect in nanotechnology. Materials and Methods: The present study deals with the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) using the coconut water (C. nucifera) as the reducing agent. The formation of Ag-NPs was characterized by UV-Visible Spectroscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), EDX, X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and FTIR spectroscopy. Results: The synthesized Ag-NPs were predominately polydispersed. Crystalline nature of the nanoparticle in the face centered cubic (fcc) structure are confirmed by the peaks in the XRD pattern corresponding to (111), (200), (220) and (311) planes. Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FT-IR) spectroscopy analysis showed that the synthesized nanoparicles was capped with bimolecular compounds which are responsible for the reduction of silver ions. Conclusion: The approach of green synthesis appears to be cost efficient, ecofriendly and easy alternative to conventional methods of silver nanoparticle synthesis. PMID:25400406

Elumalai, Erusan Kuppan; Kayalvizhi, Karuppsamy; Silvan, Simon

2014-01-01

52

Influence of surfactant on the preparation of silver nanoparticles by polyol method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, silver nanoparticles were synthesized from silver nitrate via a polyol method in ambient atmosphere. In our synthesis route, polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) is used as both size controller and capping agent, ethylene glycol acts both as solvent and reducing agent. The obtained silver nanoparticles were characterized by ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry which indicated the formation of nanoparticles. Investigation of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy clearly demonstrated the coordination between silver nanoparticles and PVP. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) contributed to the particle size analysis. The surface plasmon resonance peak in absorption spectra of silver colloidal solution showed absorption from 406 to 409 nm. The average size of the resulting silver nanoparticles was below 10 nm with a dependency on the PVP concentration.

Dung Dang, Thi My; Thu Tuyet Le, Thi; Fribourg-Blanc, Eric; Chien Dang, Mau

2012-09-01

53

Efficient synthesis of silver nanoparticles from Prosopis juliflora leaf extract and its antimicrobial activity using sewage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, aqueous extract of fresh leaves of Prosopis juliflora was used for the synthesis of silver (Ag) nanoparticles. UV-Vis spectroscopy studies were carried out to asses silver nanoparticles formation within 5 min, scanning electron microscopic was used to characterize shape of the Ag nanoparticles, X-ray diffraction analysis confirms the nanoparticles as crystalline silver and facecentered cubic type and Fourier transform infra-red assed that shows biomolecule compounds which are responsible for reduction and capping material of silver nanoparticles. The anti microbial activity of silver nanoparticle was performed using sewage. The approach of plant-mediated synthesis appears to be cost efficient, eco-friendly and easy methods.

Raja, K.; Saravanakumar, A.; Vijayakumar, R.

2012-11-01

54

Biosynthesis, characterization and cytotoxic effect of plant mediated silver nanoparticles using Morinda citrifolia root extract.  

PubMed

Silver has been used since time to control bodily infection, prevent food spoilage and heal wounds by preventing infection. The present study aims at an environmental friendly method of synthesizing silver nanoparticles, from the root of Morinda citrifolia; without involving chemical agents associated with environmental toxicity. The obtained nanoparticles were characterized by UV-vis absorption spectroscopy with an intense surface plasmon resonance band at 413 nm clearly reveals the formation of silver nanoparticles. Fourier transmission infra red spectroscopy (FTIR) showed nanopartilces were capped with plant compounds. Field emission-scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed that the spherical nature of the silver nanoparticles with a size of 30-55 nm. The X-ray diffraction spectrum XRD pattern clearly indicates that the silver nanoparticles formed in the present synthesis were crystalline in nature. In addition these biologically synthesized nanoparticles were also proved to exhibit excellent cytotoxic effect on HeLa cell. PMID:23434694

Suman, T Y; Radhika Rajasree, S R; Kanchana, A; Elizabeth, S Beena

2013-06-01

55

Coleus aromaticus leaf extract mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles and its bactericidal activity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The utilization of various plant resources for the biosynthesis of metallic nanoparticles is called green nanotechnology, and it does not utilize any harmful chemical protocols. The present study reports the plant-mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles using the plant leaf extract of Coleus aromaticus, which acts as a reducing and capping agent. The silver nanoparticles were characterized by ultraviolet visible spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and the size of the silver nanoparticles is 44 nm. The bactericidal activity of the silver nanoparticles was carried out by disc diffusion method that showed high toxicity against Bacillus subtilis and Klebsiella planticola. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles by using plant resources is an eco-friendly, reliable process and suitable for large-scale production. Moreover, it is easy to handle and a rapid process when compared to chemical, physical, and microbe-mediated synthesis process.

Vanaja, Mahendran; Annadurai, Gurusamy

2013-06-01

56

Antibacterial activities of silver nanoparticles and antibiotic-adsorbed silver nanoparticles against biorecycling microbes.  

PubMed

Silver nanoparticles have a huge share in nanotechnology based products used in clinical and hygiene products. Silver nanoparticles leaching from these medical and domestic products will eventually enter terrestrial ecosystems and will interact with the microbes present in the land and water. These interactions could be a threat to biorecycling microbes present in the Earth's crust. The antimicrobial action towards biorecycling microbes by leached silver nanoparticles from medical waste could be many times greater compared to that of silver nanoparticles leached from other domestic products, since medical products may contain traditional antibiotics along with silver nanoparticles. In the present article, we have evaluated the antimicrobial activities of as-synthesized silver nanoparticles, antibiotics - tetracycline and kanamycin, and antibiotic-adsorbed silver nanoparticles. The antimicrobial action of silver nanoparticles with adsorbed antibiotics is 33-100% more profound against the biorecycling microbes B. subtilis and Pseudomonas compared to the antibacterial action of silver nanoparticles of the same concentration. This study indicates that there is an immediate and urgent need for well-defined protocols for environmental exposure to silver nanoparticles, as the use of silver nanoparticles in nanotechnology based products is poorly restricted. PMID:25000128

Khurana, Chandni; Vala, Anjana K; Andhariya, Nidhi; Pandey, O P; Chudasama, Bhupendra

2014-09-20

57

Biogenic synthesis of silver nanoparticles by leaf extract of Cassia angustifolia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study Cassia angustifolia (senna) is used for the environmentally friendly synthesis of silver nanoparticles. Stable silver nanoparticles having symmetric surface plasmon resonance (SPR) band centred at 420 nm were obtained within 10 min at room temperature by treating aqueous solutions of silver nitrate with C. angustifolia leaf extract. The water soluble components from the leaves, probably the sennosides, served as both reducing and capping agents in the synthesis of silver nanoparticles. The nanoparticles were characterized using UV–Vis, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic techniques and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The nanoparticles were poly-dispersed, spherical in shape with particle size in the range 9–31 nm, the average size was found to be 21.6 nm at pH 11. The zeta potential was –36.4 mV and the particles were stable for 6 months. The crystalline phase of the nanoparticles was confirmed from the selected area diffraction pattern (SAED). The rate of formation and size of silver nanoparticles were pH dependent. Functional groups responsible for capping of silver nanoparticles were identified from the FTIR spectrum. The synthesized silver nanoparticles exhibited good antibacterial potential against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus.

Amaladhas, T. Peter; Sivagami, S.; Akkini Devi, T.; Ananthi, N.; Priya Velammal, S.

2012-12-01

58

Genotoxicity of silver nanoparticles in Allium cepa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Potential health and environmental effects of nanoparticles need to be thoroughly assessed before their widespread commercialization. Though there are few studies on cytotoxicity of nanoparticles on mammalian and human cell lines, there are hardly any reports on genotoxic and cytotoxic behavior of nanoparticles in plant cells. This study aims to investigate cytotoxic and genotoxic impacts of silver nanoparticles using root

Mamta Kumari; A. Mukherjee; N. Chandrasekaran

2009-01-01

59

Amorphous silicon coatings with silver nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe a plasma-ion sputtering technology for obtaining amorphous silicon coatings containing dispersed silver nanoparticles with average dimensions of 20-30 nm. Results of X-ray diffraction and electron-microscopic investigations of these coatings are presented, and a possible mechanism of silver nano-particle formation from 2- to 3-nm-sized nanoclusters is considered.

Tuleushev, Yu. Zh.; Volodin, V. N.; Zhakanbaev, E. A.; Zdorovets, M. V.

2013-11-01

60

Photocatalytic activity of biogenic silver nanoparticles synthesized using yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) extract  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Synthesis of metallic and semiconductor nanoparticles through physical and chemical route is quiet common but biological synthesis procedures are gaining momentum due to their simplicity, cost-effectivity and eco-friendliness. Here, we report green synthesis of silver nanoparticles from aqueous solution of silver salts using yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) extract. The nanoparticles formation was gradually investigated by UV-Vis spectrometer. X-ray diffraction analysis was done to identify different phases of biosynthesized Ag nanoparticles. Transmission electron microscopy was performed to study the particle size and morphology of silver nanoparticles. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy of the nanoparticles was performed to study the role of biomolecules capped on the surface of Ag nanoparticles during interaction. Photocatalytic activity of these biosynthesized nanoparticles was studied using an organic dye, methylene blue under solar irradiation and these nanoparticles showed efficacy in degrading the dye within a few hours of exposure.

Roy, Kaushik; Sarkar, C. K.; Ghosh, C. K.

2014-12-01

61

Immobilization of silver nanoparticles on polyethylene terephthalate  

PubMed Central

Two different procedures of grafting with silver nanoparticles (AgNP) of polyethylene terephthalate (PET), activated by plasma treatment, are studied. In the first procedure, the PET foil was grafted with biphenyl-4,4?-dithiol and subsequently with silver nanoparticles. In the second one, the PET foil was grafted with silver nanoparticles previously coated with the same dithiol. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and electrokinetic analysis were used for characterization of the polymer surface at different modification steps. Silver nanoparticles were characterized by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy and by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The first procedure was found to be more effective. It was proved that the dithiol was chemically bonded to the surface of the plasma-activated PET and that it mediates subsequent grafting of the silver nanoparticles. AgNP previously coated by dithiol bonded to the PET surface much less. PMID:24994960

2014-01-01

62

Synthesis of gold and silver nanoparticles using leaf extract of Perilla frutescens--a biogenic approach.  

PubMed

The present investigation demonstrates a rapid biogenic approach for the synthesis of gold and silver nanoparticles using biologically active and medicinal important Perilla frutescens leaf extract as a reducing and stabilizing agent under ambient conditions. Gold and silver nanoparticles were first synthesized from Perilla frutescens leaf extract which was used as a vegetable and in traditional medicines for a long time in Korea, Japan, and China. The nanoparticles obtained were characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Surface plasmon resonance spectra of gold and silver nanoparticles were obtained at 540 and 430 nm and triangular and spherical shape respectively. TEM studies showed that the particle sizes of gold and silver nanoparticles ranges -50 nm and -40 nm respectively. X-ray diffraction studies confirm that the biosynthesized nanoparticles were crystalline gold and silver. Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy revealed that biomolecules were involved in the synthesis and capping of the nanoparticles produced. XRD and EDX confirmed the formation of gold and silver nanoparticles. This is a simple, efficient and rapid method to synthesize gold and silver nanoparticles at room temperature without use of toxic chemicals. Obtained gold and silver nanoparticles can be used in various biomedical and biotechnological applications. PMID:24738399

Basavegowda, Nagaraj; Lee, Yong Rok

2014-06-01

63

Biosynthesis of iron and silver nanoparticles at room temperature using aqueous sorghum bran extracts.  

PubMed

Iron and silver nanoparticles were synthesized using a rapid, single step, and completely green biosynthetic method employing aqueous sorghum extracts as both the reducing and capping agent. Silver ions were rapidly reduced by the aqueous sorghum bran extracts, leading to the formation of highly crystalline silver nanoparticles with an average diameter of 10 nm. The diffraction peaks were indexed to the face-centered cubic (fcc) phase of silver. The absorption spectra of colloidal silver nanoparticles showed a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) peak centered at a wavelength of 390 nm. Amorphous iron nanoparticles with an average diameter of 50 nm were formed instantaneously under ambient conditions. The reactivity of iron nanoparticles was tested by the H(2)O(2)-catalyzed degradation of bromothymol blue as a model organic contaminant. PMID:21133391

Njagi, Eric C; Huang, Hui; Stafford, Lisa; Genuino, Homer; Galindo, Hugo M; Collins, John B; Hoag, George E; Suib, Steven L

2011-01-01

64

Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles by Leishmania tropica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biosynthesis and characterizations of nanoparticles have become an important branch of nanotechnology. A novel biosynthesis route for Silver Nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) was attempted in the present study using Leishmania tropica the causative agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis in different countries, particularly in Mediterranean region in Iraq. Silver nanoparticles were successfully synthesized from AgNO3 by reduction of aqueous Ag+ ions with the cell

Abdulsadah A. Rahi; Magda A. Ali; Alaa H. Al-Charrakh

2013-01-01

65

Glutathione promoted expeditious green synthesis of silver nanoparticles in water using microwaves  

EPA Science Inventory

Silver nanoparticles with size range 5-10 nm has been synthesized under microwave irradiation conditions using gluathione, an absolutely benign antioxidant that serves as the reducing as well as capping agent in aqueous medium. This rapid protocol yields the nanoparticles within ...

66

Silver nanoparticles -- allies or adversaries?  

PubMed

Nanoparticles (NP) are structures with at least one dimension of less than 100 nanometers (nm) and unique properties. Silver nanoparticles (AgNP), due to their bactericidal action, have found practical applications in medicine, cosmetics, textiles, electronics, and other fields. Nevertheless, their less advantageous properties which make AgNP potentially harmful to public health or the environment should also be taken into consideration. These nanoparticles are cyto- and genotoxic and accumulate in the environment, where their antibacterial properties may be disadvantageous for agriculture and waste management. The presented study reviews data concerning the biological effects of AgNP in mammalian cells in vitro: cellular uptake and excretion, localization in cellular compartments, cytotoxicity and genotoxicity. The mechanism of nanoparticle action consists on induction of the oxidative stress resulting in a further ROS generation, DNA damage and activation of signaling leading to various, cell type-specific pathways to inflammation, apoptotic or necrotic death. In order to assure a safe application of AgNP, further detailed studies are needed on the mechanisms of the action of AgNP on mammalian cells at the molecular level. PMID:23540211

Bart?omiejczyk, Teresa; Lankoff, Anna; Kruszewski, Marcin; Szumiel, Irena

2013-01-01

67

Hybrid nanocomposites containing carboxymethylcellulose and silver nanoparticles.  

PubMed

Silver nanoparticles have high temperature stability and low volatility, and at the nanoscale are known to be an effective antifungal and antimicrobial agent. The present investigation involves the synthesis of silver nanoparticle/carboxymethylcellulose nanocomposites. The nanoparticles synthesised in this study had sizes in the range of 100 and 40 nm. The nanocomposites formed by a combination of metallic nanoparticles and carboxymethylcellulose were characterised by contact angle measurements, solubility tests, thermal and mechanical analyses, and morphological images. Improvements in the hydrophobic properties were observed with inclusion of the nanoparticles in the nanocomposites, with the best results occurring after the addition of 40 nm nanoparticles in a carboxymethylcellulose matrix. The silver nanoparticles tend to occupy the empty spaces in the pores of the carboxymethylcellulose matrix, inducing the collapse of these pores and thereby improving the tensile and barrier properties of the film. PMID:23755626

de Moura, Márcia R; Aouada, Fauze A; Mattoso, Luiz H C; Zucolotto, Valtencir

2013-03-01

68

Drastic nickel ion removal from aqueous solution by curcumin-capped Ag nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A completely green synthesis protocol has been adopted to obtain silver nanoaggregates capped by the natural compound (1E, 6E)-1,7-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1,6-heptadiene-3,5-diene), also known as curcumin. The synthesis has been monitored by infrared, Raman, visible and fluorescence spectroscopies. Characterization confirms that curcumin reduces and caps the nanoparticles, and such a procedure allows its solubility in water and drastically increases curcumin stability. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs)/curcumin complex has been dispersed in a water solution containing a known nickel ion concentration. After three days, a grey precipitate is observed and nickel concentration in the solution is reduced by about 70%.A completely green synthesis protocol has been adopted to obtain silver nanoaggregates capped by the natural compound (1E, 6E)-1,7-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1,6-heptadiene-3,5-diene), also known as curcumin. The synthesis has been monitored by infrared, Raman, visible and fluorescence spectroscopies. Characterization confirms that curcumin reduces and caps the nanoparticles, and such a procedure allows its solubility in water and drastically increases curcumin stability. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs)/curcumin complex has been dispersed in a water solution containing a known nickel ion concentration. After three days, a grey precipitate is observed and nickel concentration in the solution is reduced by about 70%. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr02583k

Bettini, S.; Pagano, R.; Valli, L.; Giancane, G.

2014-08-01

69

Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using citrus sinensis peel extract and its antibacterial activity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) was achieved by a novel, simple green chemistry procedure using citrus sinensis peel extract as a reducing and a capping agent. The effect of temperature on the synthesis of silver nanoparticles was carried out at room temperature (25 °C) and 60 °C. The successful formation of silver nanoparticles has been confirmed by UV-vis, FTIR, XRD, EDAX, FESEM and TEM analysis and their antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Gram-negative), and Staphylococcus aureus (Gram-positive) has been studied. The results suggest that the synthesized AgNPs act as an effective antibacterial agent.

Kaviya, S.; Santhanalakshmi, J.; Viswanathan, B.; Muthumary, J.; Srinivasan, K.

2011-08-01

70

Fabrication of tunable grating with silver nanoparticles  

Microsoft Academic Search

A tunable grating was fabricated with silver nanoparticles in a gradient increase of nanoparticle size along the grating direction in this study. Owing to the gradual increment of the nanoparticle size, the first order diffraction efficiencies of incident light presented as a function of the impinging position of the probe beam. Via a probe of monochromatic light ranged from 450

Tung-Kai Liu; Wen-Chi Hung; Ming-Shan Tsai; Yong-Chang Tsao; I.-Min Jiang

2009-01-01

71

Photoactivable caps for reactive metal nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The synthesis and stabilization of reactive metal nanoparticles is often challenging under normal atmospheric conditions. This problem can be alleviated by capping and passivation. Our lab has focused on forming polymer coatings on the surface of reactive metal nanoparticles. We discovered a convenient and effective route for stabilization of aluminum nanoparticles (Al NPs), which uses the nascent metal core as a polymerization initiator for various organic monomers. In our previous work, we used this method to passivate the Al NPs using variety of epoxides and copolymers of epoxides and alkenes. These products have demonstrated air stability for weeks to months with little to no degradation in the active Al content. Since our previously synthesized Al NP's were not beneficial for rapid and efficient thermodynamic access to the active Al core, our goal was find polymers that could easily be photochemically activated to enhance such access. Since poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) has photodegrading properties, we used PMMA as a capping agent to passivate Al NPs. In this work, we present capping and stabilization of Al NPs with PMMA, and also with 1,2-epoxyhexane/ PMMA. In our previous work, we increased the stability of Al NP capped with 1,2-epoxy-9-decene by adding 1,13-tetradecadiene as a cross-linker. Here, we used the methyl methacrylate (MMA) monomer as cross-linker for Al NP capped with 1,2-epoxy-9-decene. We have also used the MMA as capping agent. We use powder x-ray diffractametry (PXRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and thermogravity analysis (TGA) to confirm the presence of elemental Al and ATR-FTIR to confirm the presence of polymers.

Patel, Ashish

72

Nanosecond laser ablation of silver nanoparticle film  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanosecond laser ablation of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) protected silver nanoparticle (20 nm diameter) film is studied using a frequency doubled Nd:YAG nanosecond laser (532 nm wavelength, 6 ns full width half maximum pulse width). In the sintered silver nanoparticle film, absorbed light energy conducts well through the sintered porous structure, resulting in ablation craters of a porous dome shape or crown shape depending on the irradiation fluence due to the sudden vaporization of the PVP. In the unsintered silver nanoparticle film, the ablation crater with a clean edge profile is formed and many coalesced nanoparticles of 50 to 100 nm in size are observed inside the ablation crater. These results and an order of magnitude analysis indicate that the absorbed thermal energy is confined within the nanoparticles, causing melting of nanoparticles and their coalescence to larger agglomerates, which are removed following melting and subsequent partial vaporization.

Chung, Jaewon; Han, Sewoon; Lee, Daeho; Ahn, Sanghoon; Grigoropoulos, Costas P.; Moon, Jooho; Ko, Seung H.

2013-02-01

73

Electrodeposited Silver Nanoparticles Patterned Hexagonally for SERS  

SciTech Connect

We have fabricated hexagonally patterned silver nanoparticles for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) by electrodepositing silver on the surface of an aluminum plate prepared by completely removing the oxide from anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) templates. Even after completely removing the oxide, well-ordered hexagonal patterns, similar to the shape of graphene, remained on the surface of the aluminum plate. The borders of the hexagonal pattern protruded up to form sorts of nano-mountains at both the sides and apexes of the hexagon, with the apexes protruding even more significantly than the sides. The aluminum plate prepared by completely removing the oxide has been used in the preparation of SERS substrates by sputter-coating of gold or silver on it. Instead of sputter-coating, here we have electro-deposited silver on the aluminum plate. When silver was electro-deposited on the plate, silver nanoparticles were made along the hexagonal margins.

Gu, Geun Hoi; Lee, Sue Yeone; Suh, Jung Sang [Nano-materials Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Seoul National University, Kwanakgu, Kwanakro 599, Seoul 151-747 (Korea, Republic of)

2010-08-06

74

Cytotoxic Potential of Silver Nanoparticles  

PubMed Central

Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been widely used in industrial, household, and healthcare-related products due to their excellent antimicrobial activity. With increased exposure of AgNPs to human beings, the risk of safety has attracted much attention from the public and scientists. In review of recent studies, we discuss the potential impact of AgNPs on individuals at the cell level. In detail, we highlight the main effects mediated by AgNPs on the cell, such as cell uptake and intracellular distribution, cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, and immunological responses, as well as some of the major factors that influence these effects in vivo and in vivo, such as dose, time, size, shape, surface chemistry, and cell type. At the end, we summarize the main influences on the cell and indicate the challenges in this field, which may be helpful for assessing the risk of AgNPs in future. PMID:24532494

Zhang, Tianlu; Wang, Liming

2014-01-01

75

Biological Sciences SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF SILVER NANOPARTICLES  

E-print Network

Silver nanoparticles exhibit new optical properties, which are observed neither in molecules nor in bulk metals. In the present study silver nanoparticle colloid was produced by chemical reduction method of silver salt (silver nitrate AgNO3) solution. The silver nanoparticles were characterized by using UV-VIS spectrometer and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The Surface Plasmon Resonance peak in absorption spectra of silver colloidal solution showed an absorption maximum at 450 nm which indicated formation of silver nanoparticles. The size range 44nm to 56.55nm of silver nanoparticles was determined by using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The absorbance range of prepared silver nanoparticles solution was checked on 1 st day, 5 th day, 18 th day and on 30 th day. There was no obvious change observed in peak position for 30 days, depicting the stability of Silver nanoparticles.

Basavaraj Udapudi; Praveenkumar Naik; Sabiha Tabassum Savadatti; Rupali Sharma; Samprita Balgi

76

Synthesis and characterization of monodispersed silver nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Synthesis of silver nanoparticles (NPs) has become a fascinating and important field of applied chemical research. In this paper silver NPs were prepared using silver nitrate (AgNO3), gelatin, and cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB). The prepared silver NPs were exposed under the laser ablation. In our photochemical procedure, gelatin acts as a biopolymer and CTAB acts as a reducing agent. The appearance of surface plasmon band around 410 nm indicates the formation of silver NPs. The nature of the prepared silver NPs in the face-centered cubic (fcc) structure are confirmed by the peaks in the x-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern corresponding to (111), (200), (220) and (311) planes. Monodispersed, stable, spherical silver NPs with diameter about 10 nm were obtained and confirmed by high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM).

Jegatha Christy, A.; Umadevi, M.

2012-09-01

77

Antimicrobial activity of spherical silver nanoparticles prepared using a biocompatible macromolecular capping agent: evidence for induction of a greatly prolonged bacterial lag phase  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We have evaluated the antimicrobial properties of Ag-based nanoparticles (Np) using two solid platform-based bioassays and found that 10-20 uL of 0.3-3 uM keratin-based Nps (depending on the starting bacteria concentration = CI) completely inhibited the growth of an equivalent volume of ca. 1,000 to...

78

Evaluation of antioxidant, antibacterial and cytotoxic effects of green synthesized silver nanoparticles by Piper longum fruit.  

PubMed

Silver nanoparticles synthesized through bio-green method has been reported to have biomedical applications to control pathogenic microbes as it is cost effective compared to commonly used physical and chemical methods. In present study, silver nanoparticles were synthesized using aqueous Piper longum fruit extract (PLFE) and confirmed by UV-visible spectroscopy. The nanoparticles were spherical in shape with an average particle size of 46nm as determined by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) particle size analyzer respectively. FT-IR spectrum revealed the capping of the phytoconstituents, probably polyphenols from P. longum fruit extract and stabilizing the nanoparticles. Further the ferric ion reducing test, confirmed that the capping agents were condensed tannins. The aqueous P. longum fruit extract (PLFE) and the green synthesized silver nanoparticles (PLAgNPs) showed powerful antioxidant properties in in vitro antioxidant assays. The results from the antimicrobial assays suggested that green synthesized silver nanoparticles (PLAgNPs) were more potent against pathogenic bacteria than the P. longum fruit extract (PLFE) alone. The nanoparticles also showed potent cytotoxic effect against MCF-7 breast cancer cell lines with an IC 50 value of 67?g/ml/24h by the MTT assay. These results support the advantages of using bio-green method for synthesizing silver nanoparticles with antioxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities those are simple and cost effective as well. PMID:24268240

Reddy, N Jayachandra; Nagoor Vali, D; Rani, M; Rani, S Sudha

2014-01-01

79

Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles from aqueous Aegle marmelos leaf extract  

SciTech Connect

Graphical abstract: Silver nanoparticles capped with polyphenols present in Aegle marmelos leaf extract. Display Omitted Highlights: ? Silver nanoparticles are synthesized using Aegle marmelos leaf extract in aqueous media. ? Reduction reaction is fast and occurs at room temperature. ? The presence of polyphenols acts as in situ capping agent. -- Abstract: Synthesis of nanoparticles by green route is an emerging technique drawing more attention recently because of several advantages over the convention chemical routes. The present study reports one-pot synthesis and in situ stabilization of silver nanoparticles using Aegle marmelos leaf extract. Nanoparticles of almost uniform spherical size (?60 nm) were synthesized within ?25 min reaction time at room temperature. The size of particles depends on the ratio of AgNO{sub 3} and leaf extract. The crystallinity, size, and shape of the nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction, dynamic light scattering, and scanning electron microscopy respectively. The size stability was attained by the capping effect of polyphenolic tannin compound, procatacheuate in the extract. The capped polyphenols can be removed from the particle surface by simple NaOH/methanol wash. The involvement of phenolic compounds in metal ion reduction and capping were supported by UV–visible spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy, high performance liquid chromatography, and zeta potential measurements.

Jagajjanani Rao, K. [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Rourkela 769 008, Orissa (India)] [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Rourkela 769 008, Orissa (India); Paria, Santanu, E-mail: santanuparia@yahoo.com [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Rourkela 769 008, Orissa (India)] [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Rourkela 769 008, Orissa (India)

2013-02-15

80

Extracellular biosynthesis of gold and silver nanoparticles using Krishna tulsi ( Ocimum sanctum) leaf  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aqueous extract of Ocimum sanctum leaf is used as reducing agent for the environmentally friendly synthesis of gold and silver nanoparticles. The nanoparticles were characterized using UV-vis, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and FTIR analysis. These methods allow the synthesis of hexagonal gold nanoparticles having size ?30 nm showing two surface plasmon resonance (SPR) bands by changing the relative concentration of HAuCl 4 and the extract. Broadening of SPR is observed at larger quantities of the extract possibly due to biosorption of gold ions. Silver nanoparticles with size in the range 10-20 nm having symmetric SPR band centered around 409 nm are obtained for the colloid synthesized at room temperature at a pH of 8. Crystallinity of the nanoparticles is confirmed from the XRD pattern. Biomolecules responsible for capping are different in gold and silver nanoparticles as evidenced by the FTIR spectra.

Philip, Daizy; Unni, C.

2011-05-01

81

Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles from Trichoderma species.  

PubMed

A total of 75 isolates belonging to five different species of Trichoderma viz., T. asperellum, T. harzianum, T. longibrachiatum, T. pseudokoningii and T. virens were screened for the production of silver nanoparticles. Although all the isolates produced nanoparticles, T. virens VN-11 could produce maximum nanoparticles as evident from the UV-Vis study. The highest Plasmon band was observed at 420 nm at every 24 h that attained maximum intensity at 120 h (0.543). The high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) further provided the morphology of the nanoparticles. These nanoparticles were found single or aggregated with round and uniform in shape and 8-60 nm in size. The nitrate reductase activity of VN-11 was found to be 150 nmol/h/mL which confirmed the production of silver nanoparticles through reduction of Ag+ to Ag0. PMID:23898553

Devi, T Prameela; Kulanthaivel, S; Kamil, Deeba; Borah, Jyoti Lekha; Prabhakaran, N; Srinivasa, N

2013-07-01

82

Green synthesis of colloidal silver nanoparticles using natural rubber latex extracted from Hevea brasiliensis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Colloidal silver nanoparticles were synthesized by an easy green method using thermal treatment of aqueous solutions of silver nitrate and natural rubber latex (NRL) extracted from Hevea brasiliensis. The UV-Vis spectra detected the characteristic surface plasmonic absorption band around 435 nm. Both NRL and AgNO 3 contents in the reaction medium have influence in the Ag nanoparticles formation. Lower AgNO 3 concentration led to decreased particle size. The silver nanoparticles presented diameters ranging from 2 nm to 100 nm and had spherical shape. The selected area electron diffraction (SAED) patterns indicated that the silver nanoparticles have face centered cubic (fcc) crystalline structure. FTIR spectra suggest that reduction of the silver ions are facilitated by their interaction with the amine groups from ammonia, which is used for conservation of the NRL, whereas the stability of the particles results from cis-isoprene binding onto the surface of nanoparticles. Therefore natural rubber latex extracted from H. brasiliensis can be employed in the preparation of stable aqueous dispersions of silver nanoparticles acting as a dispersing and/or capping agent. Moreover, this work provides a new method for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles that is simple, easy to perform, pollutant free and inexpensive.

Guidelli, Eder José; Ramos, Ana Paula; Zaniquelli, Maria Elisabete D.; Baffa, Oswaldo

2011-11-01

83

Trichoderma koningii assisted biogenic synthesis of silver nanoparticles and evaluation of their antibacterial activity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present study demonstrates the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Trichoderma koningii and evaluation of their antibacterial activity. Trichoderma koningii secretes proteins and enzymes that act as reducing and capping agent. The biosynthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were characterized by UV–Vis spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering (DLS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and x-ray diffraction (XRD). UV–Vis spectra showed absorbance peak at 413 nm corresponding to the surface plasmon resonance of silver nanoparticles. DLS was used to find out the size distribution profile. The size and morphology of the AgNPs was determined by TEM, which shows the formation of spherical nanoparticles in the size range of 8–24 nm. X-ray diffraction showed intense peaks corresponding to the crystalline silver. The antibacterial activity of biosynthesized AgNPs was evaluated by growth curve and inhibition zone and it was found that the AgNPs show potential effective antibacterial activity.

Tripathi, R. M.; Gupta, Rohit Kumar; Shrivastav, Archana; Singh, M. P.; Shrivastav, B. R.; Singh, Priti

2013-09-01

84

Green synthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticles using alcoholic flower extract of Nyctanthes arbortristis and in vitro investigation of their antibacterial and cytotoxic activities.  

PubMed

Here we report the synthesis of silver nanoparticles using ethanolic flower extract of Nyctanthes arbortristis, UVvisible spectra and TEM indicated the successful formation of silver nanoparticles. Crystalline nature of the silver nanoparticles was confirmed by X-ray diffraction. Fourier Transform Infra-Red Spectroscopy analysis established the capping of the synthesized silver nanoparticles with phytochemicals naturally occurring in the ethanolic flower extract of N. arbortristis. The synthesized silver nanoparticles showed antibacterial activity against the pathogenic strain of Escherichia coli MTCC 443. Furthermore, cytotoxicity of the silver nanoparticles was tested on mouse fibroblastic cell line (L929) and found to be non-toxic, which thus proved their biocompatibility. Antibacterial activity and cytotoxicity assay carried out in this study open up an important perspective of the synthesized silver nanoparticles. PMID:25492011

Gogoi, Nayanmoni; Babu, Punuri Jayasekhar; Mahanta, Chandan; Bora, Utpal

2015-01-01

85

Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of biogenic silver nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biogenic silver nanoparticles with 40.3 ± 3.5 nm size and negative surface charge (- 40 mV) were prepared with Fusarium oxysporum. The cytotoxicity of 3T3 cell and human lymphocyte were studied by a TaliTM image-based cytometer and the genotoxicity through Allium cepa and comet assay. The results of BioAg-w (washed) and BioAg-nw (unwashed) biogenic silver nanoparticles showed cytotoxicity exceeding 50 ?g/mL with no significant differences of response in 5 and 10 ?g/mL regarding viability. Results of genotoxicity at concentrations 5.0 and 10.0 ug/mL show some response, but at concentrations 0.5 and 1.0 ?g/mL the washed and unwashed silver nanoparticles did not present any effect. This in an important result since in tests with different bacteria species and strains, including resistant, MIC (minimal inhibitory concentration) had good answers at concentrations less than 1.9 ?g/mL. This work concludes that biogenic silver nanoparticles may be a promising option for antimicrobial use in the range where no cyto or genotoxic effect were observed. Furthermore, human cells were found to have a greater resistance to the toxic effects of silver nanoparticles in comparison with other cells.

Lima, R.; Feitosa, L. O.; Ballottin, D.; Marcato, P. D.; Tasic, L.; Durán, N.

2013-04-01

86

Optical limiting properties of silver nanoparticles fabricated by laser ablation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Silver nanoparticles have been fabricated by laser ablation of a silver metal foil in solution. The presence of sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate increases the yield of the nanoparticles and enhances their stability. The optical limiting performance of the silver nanoparticles embedded in a PMMA film is compared to that in an aqueous solution.

Ong, T. S.; Lee, S. S.; Van, L. H.; Hong, Ming Hui; Chong, Tow Chong

2004-10-01

87

Honey mediated green synthesis of silver nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper reports the pH controlled synthesis of silver nanoparticles using honey as reducing and stabilizing agents. By adjusting the pH of the aqueous solution containing metal ions and honey, nanoparticles of various size could be obtained at room temperature. The nanoparticles were characterized by UV-visible, high-resolution TEM, XRD and FTIR measurements. The colloid obtained at a pH of 8.5 is found to consist of monodispersed and nearly spherical silver nanoparticles of size ˜4 nm which is a significant advancement in biosynthesis. The high crystallinity with fcc phase is evidenced by clear lattice fringes in the high-resolution TEM image and peaks in the XRD pattern corresponding to (1 1 1), (2 0 0), (2 2 0), (3 1 1) and (2 2 2) planes. FTIR spectrum indicates that the nanoparticles are bound to protein through the carboxylate ion group.

Philip, Daizy

2010-03-01

88

Mechanism of growth of colloidal silver nanoparticles stabilized by polyvinyl pyrrolidone in ?-irradiated silver nitrate solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Silver nanoparticles were prepared by using polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) as a stabilizer and ?-irradiation. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) results showed that both the amount and the molecular weight of PVP in the irradiated solution considerably affect the average size of the silver nanoparticles. The average size of the silver nanoparticles decreases with increasing the amount of PVP in the solution,

Hyeon Suk Shin; Hyun Jung Yang; Seung Bin Kim; Mu Sang Lee

2004-01-01

89

Biomimetic synthesis and patterning of silver nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The creation of nanoscale materials for advanced structures has led to a growing interest in the area of biomineralization. Numerous microorganisms are capable of synthesizing inorganic-based structures. For example, diatoms use amorphous silica as a structural material, bacteria synthesize magnetite (Fe3O4) particles and form silver nanoparticles, and yeast cells synthesize cadmium sulphide nanoparticles. The process of biomineralization and assembly of nanostructured inorganic components into hierarchical structures has led to the development of a variety of approaches that mimic the recognition and nucleation capabilities found in biomolecules for inorganic material synthesis. In this report, we describe the in vitro biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using silver-binding peptides identified from a combinatorial phage display peptide library.

Naik, Rajesh R.; Stringer, Sarah J.; Agarwal, Gunjan; Jones, Sharon E.; Stone, Morley O.

2002-11-01

90

Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles from Premna serratifolia L. leaf and its anticancer activity in CCl4-induced hepato-cancerous Swiss albino mice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we report the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using the ethanolic leaf powder extract of Premna serratifolia L. and its anticancer activity in carbon tetra chloride (CCl4)-induced liver cancer in Swiss albino mice (Balb/c). The synthesized silver nanoparticles were characterized by SEM, FTIR and XRD analyses. The Debye-Scherrer equation was used to calculate particle size and the average size of silver nanoparticles synthesized from P. serratifolia leaf extract was 22.97 nm. The typical pattern revealed that the sample contained cubic structure of silver nanoparticles. FTIR analysis confirmed that the bioreduction of silver ions to silver nanoparticles is due to reduction by capping material of the plant extract. The silver nanoparticles of P. serratifolia leaf extract were effective in treating liver cancer in Swiss albino mice when compared with P. serratifolia leaf extract with isoleucine.

Arockia John Paul, J.; Karunai Selvi, B.; Karmegam, N.

2015-01-01

91

Biofabrication of silver nanoparticles using Andrographis paniculata.  

PubMed

New and novel strategies are of recent interest in the development of silver nanoparticles. The plant extracts are eco-friendly, economical and cost effective for synthesis of nanoparticles. In this paper, we represent biofabrication of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using Andrographis paniculata and the synthesized AgNPs was monitored by ultra-violet visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis). The morphology and crystalline nature of AgNPs were determined from scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), X-ray diffraction patterns (XRD), Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The size and the stability were detected by using Nanoparticle analyzer. The average size of the AgNPs was found to be 54 ± 2 nm and the Zeta potential was found to be -50.7 mV. The synthesized AgNPs have very good antifungal activity. PMID:24389508

Kotakadi, Venkata S; Gaddam, Susmila Aparna; Subba Rao, Y; Prasad, T N V K V; Varada Reddy, A; Sai Gopal, D V R

2014-02-12

92

Biosynthesis, Antimicrobial and Cytotoxic Effect of Silver Nanoparticles Using a Novel Nocardiopsis sp. MBRC-1  

PubMed Central

The biosynthesis of nanoparticles has been proposed as a cost effective environmental friendly alternative to chemical and physical methods. Microbial synthesis of nanoparticles is under exploration due to wide biomedical applications, research interest in nanotechnology and microbial biotechnology. In the present study, an ecofriendly process for the synthesis of nanoparticles using a novel Nocardiopsis sp. MBRC-1 has been attempted. We used culture supernatant of Nocardiopsis sp. MBRC-1 for the simple and cost effective green synthesis of silver nanoparticles. The reduction of silver ions occurred when silver nitrate solution was treated with the Nocardiopsis sp. MBRC-1 culture supernatant at room temperature. The nanoparticles were characterized by UV-visible, TEM, FE-SEM, EDX, FTIR, and XRD spectroscopy. The nanoparticles exhibited an absorption peak around 420?nm, a characteristic surface plasmon resonance band of silver nanoparticles. They were spherical in shape with an average particle size of 45 ± 0.15?nm. The EDX analysis showed the presence of elemental silver signal in the synthesized nanoparticles. The FTIR analysis revealed that the protein component in the form of enzyme nitrate reductase produced by the isolate in the culture supernatant may be responsible for reduction and as capping agents. The XRD spectrum showed the characteristic Bragg peaks of 1 2 3, 2 0 4, 0 4 3, 1 4 4, and 3 1 1 facets of the face centered cubic silver nanoparticles and confirms that these nanoparticles are crystalline in nature. The prepared silver nanoparticles exhibited strong antimicrobial activity against bacteria and fungi. Cytotoxicity of biosynthesized AgNPs against in vitro human cervical cancer cell line (HeLa) showed a dose-response activity. IC50 value was found to be 200??g/mL of AgNPs against HeLa cancer cells. Further studies are needed to elucidate the toxicity and the mechanism involved with antimicrobial and anticancer activity of the synthesized AgNPs as nanomedicine. PMID:23936787

Manivasagan, Panchanathan; Senthilkumar, Kalimuthu; Sivakumar, Kannan; Kim, Se-Kwon

2013-01-01

93

Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Alternanthera sessilis (Linn.) extract and their antimicrobial, antioxidant activities.  

PubMed

The present work focuses the use of the aqueous extract of Alternanthera sessilis Linn. (Amaranthaceae) in producing silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) from silver nitrate aqueous. Phytochemical analysis of the extract revealed the presence of alkaloid, tannins, ascorbic acid, carbohydrates and proteins and they serve as effective reducing and capping agents for converting silver nitrate into nanoparticles. The synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were also tested for proteins and ascorbic acid. Its pH was also determined (5.63). The AgNPs obtained was characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, FT-IR spectroscopy, SEM, Zeta sizer and TG-DSC. SEM images which revealed the presence of various shapes and sizes. FT-IR spectrum showed the AgNPs having a coating of proteins indicating a dual role of bio-molecules responsible for capping and efficient stabilization of the silver nanoparticles. Presence of impurities and melting point profile were screened by TG-DSC analyzer. AgNPs were synthesized from the silver nitrate through the reducing power of ascorbic acid present in A. sessilis leaves. In this study, we also investigated antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of green synthesized AgNPs. The antimicrobial activity is investigated by Bauer et al.'s method. Antioxidant activity was done by DPPH method. PMID:23006568

Niraimathi, K L; Sudha, V; Lavanya, R; Brindha, P

2013-02-01

94

Characteristic time scales of coalescence of silver nanocomposite and nanoparticle films induced by continuous wave laser irradiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In-situ optical probing has been performed to analyze and compare the characteristic coalescence time scales of silver ion-doped polyvinylalcohol nanocomposite (Ag-PVA NC) and polyvinylpyrrolidone-capped silver nanoparticle (Ag-PVP NP) films subjected to continuous wave laser irradiation. The Ag-PVA NC yielded conductive metallic patterns by photothermal reduction of PVA, formation of nanoparticles from silver ions and their subsequent coalescence. On the other hand, Ag-PVP NP thin films produced conductive patterns through only coalescence of nanoparticles. Upon laser irradiation, Ag-PVA NC and Ag-PVP NP films exhibited different coalescence characteristics.

Paeng, Dongwoo; Lee, Daeho; Grigoropoulos, Costas P.

2014-08-01

95

Interactions between silver nanoparticles and polyvinyl alcohol nanofibers  

SciTech Connect

The interaction of polyvinylalcohol (PVA) nanofibers with silver (Ag) nanoparticles (mean diameter 8nm) has been modeled using density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The physical adsorption of PVA through the hydroxyl group, to the Ag, and its corresponding molecular orientation was compared with experimental results obtained from surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) studies of the same material. A good agreement was found between the computational model of the vibrational spectrum of the adsorbate and the experimentally observed SERS. In general, aliphatic capping molecules are used to passivate the surface of Ag{sub 55} nanocrystals (55 = atomic number of Ag). In this study, a DFT simulation was employed to show binding energies and electron contour map analyses of Ag{sub 55} with PVA. Here we show that the PVA interacts with the Ag nanoparticle's surface, through the OH group, thereby contributing significantly to the increase in SERS activity.

Chou, H. L. [Graduate Institute of Applied Science and Technology, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, 43, Section 4, Keelung Road, Taipei, 106, Taiwan. (China); Wu, C. M., E-mail: cmwu@mail.ntust.edu.tw [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, 43, Section 4, Keelung Road, Taipei, 106, Taiwan. (China); Lin, F. D. [Department of Fiber and Composite Materials, Feng-Chia University, 40724, Taiwan. (China); Rick, J. [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, 43, Section 4, Keelung Road, Taipei, 106, Taiwan. (China)

2014-08-15

96

Interactions between silver nanoparticles and polyvinyl alcohol nanofibers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The interaction of polyvinylalcohol (PVA) nanofibers with silver (Ag) nanoparticles (mean diameter 8nm) has been modeled using density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The physical adsorption of PVA through the hydroxyl group, to the Ag, and its corresponding molecular orientation was compared with experimental results obtained from surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) studies of the same material. A good agreement was found between the computational model of the vibrational spectrum of the adsorbate and the experimentally observed SERS. In general, aliphatic capping molecules are used to passivate the surface of Ag55 nanocrystals (55 = atomic number of Ag). In this study, a DFT simulation was employed to show binding energies and electron contour map analyses of Ag55 with PVA. Here we show that the PVA interacts with the Ag nanoparticle's surface, through the OH group, thereby contributing significantly to the increase in SERS activity.

Chou, H. L.; Wu, C. M.; Lin, F. D.; Rick, J.

2014-08-01

97

Phytotoxicity, accumulation and transport of silver nanoparticles by Arabidopsis thaliana.  

PubMed

The widespread availability of nano-enabled products in the global market may lead to the release of a substantial amount of engineered nanoparticles in the environment, which frequently display drastically different physiochemical properties than their bulk counterparts. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the impact of citrate-stabilised silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) on the plant Arabidopsis thaliana at three levels, physiological phytotoxicity, cellular accumulation and subcellular transport of AgNPs. The monodisperse AgNPs of three different sizes (20, 40 and 80 nm) aggregated into much larger sizes after mixing with quarter-strength Hoagland solution and became polydisperse. Immersion in AgNP suspension inhibited seedling root elongation and demonstrated a linear dose-response relationship within the tested concentration range. The phytotoxic effect of AgNPs could not be fully explained by the released silver ions. Plants exposed to AgNP suspensions bioaccumulated higher silver content than plants exposed to AgNO3 solutions (Ag(+) representative), indicating AgNP uptake by plants. AgNP toxicity was size and concentration dependent. AgNPs accumulated progressively in this sequence: border cells, root cap, columella and columella initials. AgNPs were apoplastically transported in the cell wall and found aggregated at plasmodesmata. In all the three levels studied, AgNP impacts differed from equivalent dosages of AgNO3. PMID:22263604

Geisler-Lee, Jane; Wang, Qiang; Yao, Ying; Zhang, Wen; Geisler, Matt; Li, Kungang; Huang, Ying; Chen, Yongsheng; Kolmakov, Andrei; Ma, Xingmao

2013-05-01

98

Extracellular biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using the fungus Fusarium semitectum  

SciTech Connect

Development of environmental friendly procedures for the synthesis of metal nanoparticles through biological processes is evolving into an important branch of nanobiotechnology. In this paper, we report on the use of fungus 'Fusarium semitectum' for the extracellular synthesis of silver nanoparticles from silver nitrate solution (i.e. through the reduction of Ag{sup +} to Ag{sup 0}). Highly stable and crystalline silver nanoparticles are produced in solution by treating the filtrate of the fungus F. semitectum with the aqueous silver nitrate solution. The formations of nanoparticles are understood from the UV-vis and X-ray diffraction studies. Transmission electron microscopy of the silver particles indicated that they ranged in size from 10 to 60 nm and are mostly spherical in shape. Interestingly the colloidal suspensions of silver nanoparticles are stable for many weeks. Possible medicinal applications of these silver nanoparticles are envisaged.

Basavaraja, S.; Balaji, S.D. [Department of Materials Science, Gulbarga University, Gulbarga 585106, Karnataka (India); Department of Chemistry, Gulbarga University, Gulbarga 585106, Karnataka (India); Lagashetty, Arunkumar [Appa Institute of Engineering and Technology, Gulbarga 585102, Karnataka (India); Rajasab, A.H. [Department of Botany, Gulbarga University, Gulbarga 585106, Karnataka (India); Venkataraman, A. [Department of Materials Science, Gulbarga University, Gulbarga 585106, Karnataka (India); Department of Chemistry, Gulbarga University, Gulbarga 585106, Karnataka (India)], E-mail: raman_chem@rediffmail.com

2008-05-06

99

Luminescent and Raman Active Silver Nanoparticles with Polycrystalline Jie Zheng,*,,,  

E-print Network

to colloidal silver NPs prepared by typical solution-phase methods, of which only 2% of the particles emitLuminescent and Raman Active Silver Nanoparticles with Polycrystalline Structure Jie Zheng wavelength (0.5 nm for silver and gold), metal nanoparticles (NPs) often display strong single- electron

Wang, Zhong L.

100

Size-Controlled and Optical Properties of Monodispersed Silver Nanoparticles Synthesized by the Radiolytic Reduction Method  

PubMed Central

Size-controlled and monodispersed silver nanoparticles were synthesized from an aqueous solution containing silver nitrate as a metal precursor, polyvinyl alcohol as a capping agent, isopropyl alcohol as hydrogen and hydroxyl radical scavengers, and deionized water as a solvent with a simple radiolytic method. The average particle size decreased with an increase in dose due to the domination of nucleation over ion association in the formation of the nanoparticles by gamma reduction. The silver nanoparticles exhibit a very sharp and strong absorption spectrum with the absorption maximum ?max blue shifting with an increased dose, owing to a decrease in particle size. The absorption spectra of silver nanoparticles of various particle sizes were also calculated using a quantum physics treatment and an agreement was obtained with the experimental absorption data. The results suggest that the absorption spectrum of silver nanoparticles possibly derived from the intra-band excitations of conduction electrons from the lowest energy state (n = 5, l = 0) to higher energy states (n ? 6; ?l = 0, ±1; ?s = 0, ±1), allowed by the quantum numbers principle. This demonstrates that the absorption phenomenon of metal nanoparticles based on a quantum physics description could be exploited to be added into the fundamentals of metal nanoparticles and the related fields of nanoscience and nanotechnology. PMID:23579953

Saion, Elias; Gharibshahi, Elham; Naghavi, Kazem

2013-01-01

101

Synthesis of gold nanoparticles and silver nanoparticles via green technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The proposed work describes the comparison of various methods of green synthesis for preparation of Gold and Silver nanoparticles. Pure extracts of Lemon (Citrus limon) and Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) were mixed with aqueous solution of auric tetrachloride and silver nitrate. The resultant solutions were treated with four common techniques to assist in the reduction namely photo catalytic, thermal, microwave assisted reduction and solvo - thermal reduction. UV - Visible Spectroscopy results and STM images of the final solutions confirmed the formation of stable metallic nanoparticles. A preliminary account of the green synthesis work is presented here.

Ahmed, Zulfiqaar; Balu, S. S.

2012-11-01

102

Genotoxicity of silver nanoparticles in Allium cepa.  

PubMed

Potential health and environmental effects of nanoparticles need to be thoroughly assessed before their widespread commercialization. Though there are few studies on cytotoxicity of nanoparticles on mammalian and human cell lines, there are hardly any reports on genotoxic and cytotoxic behavior of nanoparticles in plant cells. This study aims to investigate cytotoxic and genotoxic impacts of silver nanoparticles using root tip cells of Allium cepa as an indicator organism. A.cepa root tip cells were treated with four different concentrations (25, 20, 75, and 100 ppm) of engineered silver nanoparticles (below 100 nm size) dispersion, to study endpoints like mitotic index, distribution of cells in mitotic phases, different types of chromosomal aberrations, disturbed metaphase, sticky chromosome, cell wall disintegration, and breaks. For each concentration five sets of microscopic observations were carried out. No chromosomal aberration was observed in the control (untreated onion root tips) and the mitotic index (MI) value was 60.3%. With increasing concentration of the nanoparticles decrease in the mitotic index was noticed (60.30% to 27.62%). The different cytological effects including the chromosomal aberrations were studied in detail for the treated cells as well as control. We infer from this study that silver nanoparticles could penetrate plant system and may impair stages of cell division causing chromatin bridge, stickiness, disturbed metaphase, multiple chromosomal breaks and cell disintegration. The findings also suggest that plants as an important component of the ecosystems need to be included when evaluating the overall toxicological impact of the nanoparticles in the environment. PMID:19616276

Kumari, Mamta; Mukherjee, A; Chandrasekaran, N

2009-09-15

103

Silver nanoparticles: Synthesis methods, bio-applications and properties.  

PubMed

Abstract Silver nanoparticles size makes wide range of new applications in various fields of industry. Synthesis of noble metal nanoparticles for applications such as catalysis, electronics, optics, environmental and biotechnology is an area of constant interest. Two main methods for Silver nanoparticles are the physical and chemical methods. The problem with these methods is absorption of toxic substances onto them. Green synthesis approaches overcome this limitation. Silver nanoparticles size makes wide range of new applications in various fields of industry. This article summarizes exclusively scalable techniques and focuses on strengths, respectively, limitations with respect to the biomedical applicability and regulatory requirements concerning silver nanoparticles. PMID:24937409

Abbasi, Elham; Milani, Morteza; Fekri Aval, Sedigheh; Kouhi, Mohammad; Akbarzadeh, Abolfazl; Tayefi Nasrabadi, Hamid; Nikasa, Parisa; Joo, San Woo; Hanifehpour, Younes; Nejati-Koshki, Kazem; Samiei, Mohammad

2014-06-17

104

Synthesis of silver nanoparticles and antibacterial property of silk fabrics treated by silver nanoparticles  

PubMed Central

A silver nanoparticle solution was prepared in one step by mixing AgNO3 and a multi-amino compound (RSD-NH2) solution under ambient condition. RSD-NH2 was in-house synthesized by methacrylate and polyethylene polyamine in methanol, which has abundant amino and imino groups. However, the characterization of silver nanoparticles indicated that these nanoparticles are easy to agglomerate in solution. Therefore, an in situ synthesis method of silver nanoparticles on the silk fabrics was developed. The examined results confirmed that the in situ synthesized silver nanoparticles were evenly distributed on the surface of fibers. The inhibition zone test and the antibacterial rate demonstrated that the finished fabrics have an excellent antibacterial property against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Moreover, the nanosilver-treated silk fabrics were laundered 0, 5, 10, 20, and 50 times and still retained the exceptional antibacterial property. When the treated fabrics were washed 50 times, the antibacterial rate is more than 97.43% for S. aureus and 99.86% for E. coli. The excellent laundering durability may be attributed to the tight binding between silver nanoparticles and silk fibers through the in situ synthesis. This method provides an economic method to enhance the antibacterial capability of silk fabrics with good resistance to washings. PMID:24872803

2014-01-01

105

Synthesis of silver nanoparticles and antibacterial property of silk fabrics treated by silver nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A silver nanoparticle solution was prepared in one step by mixing AgNO3 and a multi-amino compound (RSD-NH2) solution under ambient condition. RSD-NH2 was in-house synthesized by methacrylate and polyethylene polyamine in methanol, which has abundant amino and imino groups. However, the characterization of silver nanoparticles indicated that these nanoparticles are easy to agglomerate in solution. Therefore, an in situ synthesis method of silver nanoparticles on the silk fabrics was developed. The examined results confirmed that the in situ synthesized silver nanoparticles were evenly distributed on the surface of fibers. The inhibition zone test and the antibacterial rate demonstrated that the finished fabrics have an excellent antibacterial property against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Moreover, the nanosilver-treated silk fabrics were laundered 0, 5, 10, 20, and 50 times and still retained the exceptional antibacterial property. When the treated fabrics were washed 50 times, the antibacterial rate is more than 97.43% for S. aureus and 99.86% for E. coli. The excellent laundering durability may be attributed to the tight binding between silver nanoparticles and silk fibers through the in situ synthesis. This method provides an economic method to enhance the antibacterial capability of silk fabrics with good resistance to washings.

Zhang, Guangyu; Liu, Yan; Gao, Xiaoliang; Chen, Yuyue

2014-05-01

106

Biosynthesis and structural characterization of silver nanoparticles from bacterial isolates  

SciTech Connect

Graphical abstract: In this study five bacterial isolates belong to different genera were found to be able to biosynthesize silver nanoparticles. Biosynthesis and spectral characterization are reported here. Highlights: {yields} About 300 bacterial isolates were screened for their ability to produce nanosilvers {yields} Five of them were potential candidates for synthesis of silver nanoparticles {yields} Production of silver nanoparticles was examined using UV-Vis, XRD, SEM and EDS. {yields} The presence of nanoparticles with all five bacterial isolates was confirmed. -- Abstract: This study aimed to develop a green process for biosynthesis of silver nanomaterials by some Egyptian bacterial isolates. This target was achieved by screening an in-house culture collection consists of 300 bacterial isolates for silver nanoparticle formation. Through screening process, it was observed that strains belonging to Escherichia coli (S30, S78), Bacillus megaterium (S52), Acinetobacter sp. (S7) and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (S54) were potential candidates for synthesis of silver nanoparticles. The extracellular production of silver nanoparticles by positive isolates was investigated by UV-Vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The results demonstrated that UV-visible spectrum of the aqueous medium containing silver ion showed a peak at 420 nm corresponding to the plasmon absorbance of silver nanoparticles. Scanning electron microscopy micrograph showed formation of silver nanoparticles in the range of 15-50 nm. XRD-spectrum of the silver nanoparticles exhibited 2{theta} values corresponding to the silver nanocrystal that produce in hexagonal and cubic crystal configurations with different plane of orientation. In addition, the signals of the silver atoms were observed by EDS-spectrum analysis that confirms the presence of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in all positive bacterial isolates.

Zaki, Sahar, E-mail: saharzaki@yahoo.com [Environmental Biotechnology Department, Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Research Institute, Mubarak City for Scientific Research and Technology Applications, Alexandria, 21934 New Burgelarab City (Egypt)] [Environmental Biotechnology Department, Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Research Institute, Mubarak City for Scientific Research and Technology Applications, Alexandria, 21934 New Burgelarab City (Egypt); El Kady, M.F. [Fabrication Technology Department, Advanced Technology and New Materials Research Institute (ATNMRI), Mubarak City for Scientific Research and Technology Applications, Alexandria (Egypt)] [Fabrication Technology Department, Advanced Technology and New Materials Research Institute (ATNMRI), Mubarak City for Scientific Research and Technology Applications, Alexandria (Egypt); Abd-El-Haleem, Desouky [Environmental Biotechnology Department, Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Research Institute, Mubarak City for Scientific Research and Technology Applications, Alexandria, 21934 New Burgelarab City (Egypt)] [Environmental Biotechnology Department, Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Research Institute, Mubarak City for Scientific Research and Technology Applications, Alexandria, 21934 New Burgelarab City (Egypt)

2011-10-15

107

Biotemplates in the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles.  

PubMed

This article recapitulates the scientific advancement towards the greener synthesis of silver nanoparticles. Applications of noble metals have increased throughout human civilization, and the uses for nano-sized particles are even more remarkable. "Green" nanoparticle synthesis has been achieved using environmentally acceptable solvent systems and eco-friendly reducing and capping agents. Numerous microorganisms and plant extracts have been applied to synthesize inorganic nanostructures either intracellularly or extracellularly. The use of nanoparticles derived from noble metals has spread to many areas including jewelery, medical fields, electronics, water treatment and sport utilities, thus improving the longevity and comfort in human life. The application of nanoparticles as delivery vehicles for bactericidal agents represents a new paradigm in the design of antibacterial therapeutics. Orientation, size and physical properties of nanoparticles influences the performance and reproducibility of a potential device, thus making the synthesis and assembly of shape- and size-controlled nanocrystals an essential component for any practical application. This need has motivated researchers to explore different synthesis protocols. PMID:20669257

Vijayaraghavan, Krishnan; Nalini, S P Kamala

2010-10-01

108

Murraya Koenigii leaf-assisted rapid green synthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A facile bottom-up 'green' and rapid synthetic route using Murraya Koenigii leaf extract as reducing and stabilizing agent produced silver nanoparticles at ambient conditions and gold nanoparticles at 373 K. The nanoparticles were characterized using UV-vis, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and FTIR analysis. This method allows the synthesis of well-dispersed silver and gold nanoparticles having size ˜10 nm and ˜20 nm, respectively. Silver nanoparticles with size ˜10 nm having symmetric SPR band centered at 411 nm is obtained within 5 min of addition of the extract to the solution of AgNO 3 at room temperature. Nearly spherical gold nanoparticles having size ˜20 nm with SPR at 532 nm is obtained on adding the leaf extract to the boiling solution of HAuCl 4. Crystallinity of the nanoparticles is confirmed from the high-resolution TEM images, selected area electron diffraction (SAED) and XRD patterns. From the FTIR spectra it is found that the biomolecules responsible for capping are different in gold and silver nanoparticles. A comparison of the present work with the author's earlier reports on biosynthesis is also included.

Philip, Daizy; Unni, C.; Aromal, S. Aswathy; Vidhu, V. K.

2011-02-01

109

Substrate independent silver nanoparticle based antibacterial coatings.  

PubMed

Infections arising from bacterial adhesion and colonization on medical device surfaces are a significant healthcare problem. Silver based antibacterial coatings have attracted a great deal of attention as a potential solution. This paper reports on the development of a silver nanoparticles based antibacterial surface that can be applied to any type of material surface. The silver nanoparticles were surface engineered with a monolayer of 2-mercaptosuccinic acid, which facilitates the immobilization of the nanoparticles to the solid surface, and also reduces the rate of oxidation of the nanoparticles, extending the lifetime of the coatings. The coatings had excellent antibacterial efficacy against three clinically significant pathogenic bacteria i.e. Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Studies with primary human fibroblast cells showed that the coatings had no cytotoxicity in vitro. Innate immune studies in cultures of primary macrophages demonstrated that the coatings do not significantly alter the level of expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines or the adhesion and viability of these cells. Collectively, these coatings have an optimal combination of properties that make them attractive for deposition on medical device surfaces such as wound dressings, catheters and implants. PMID:24630091

Taheri, Shima; Cavallaro, Alex; Christo, Susan N; Smith, Louise E; Majewski, Peter; Barton, Mary; Hayball, John D; Vasilev, Krasimir

2014-05-01

110

Toxicogenomic responses of nanotoxicity in Daphnia magna exposed to silver nitrate and coated silver nanoparticles  

EPA Science Inventory

Applications for silver nanomaterials in consumer products are rapidly expanding, creating an urgent need for toxicological examination of the exposure potential and ecological effects of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). The integration of genomic techniques into environmental toxic...

111

Synergistic antibacterial effects of ?-lactam antibiotic combined with silver nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The bactericidal action of silver (0) nanoparticles and amoxicillin on Escherichia coli is studied, respectively. Increasing concentration of both amoxicillin (0-0.525 mg ml-1) and silver nanoparticles (0-40 µg ml-1) showed a higher antibacterial effect in Luria-Bertani (LB) medium. Escherichia coli cells have different bactericidal sensitivity to them. When amoxicillin and silver nanoparticles are combined, it results in greater bactericidal efficiency on Escherichia coli cells than when they were applied separately. Dynamic tests on bacterial growth indicated that exponential and stationary phases are greatly decreased and delayed in the synergistic effect of amoxicillin and silver nanoparticles. In addition, the effect induced by a preincubation with silver nanoparticles is examined. The results show that solutions with more silver nanoparticles have better antimicrobial effects. One hypothesized mechanism is proposed to explain this phenomenon.

Li, Ping; Li, Juan; Wu, Changzhu; Wu, Qingsheng; Li, Jian

2005-09-01

112

Antimicrobial activity of silver nanoparticles impregnated wound dressing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, silver nanoparticles were synthesized by simple wet chemical reduction method. The silver nitrate was reduced by Sodium borohydride used as reducing agent and Poly (vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP) as stabilizing agent. The formation of silver nanoparticles was evaluated by UV-visible spectroscope and transmission electron microscope (TEM). Absorption spectrum consist two plasmon peaks at 410 and 668 nm revels the formation of anisotropic nanoparticles confirmed by TEM. The formation of silver nanoparticles was also evidenced by dynamic light scattering (DLS) study. DLS showed polydisperse silver nanoparticles with hydrodynamic size 32 nm. Protecting mechanism of PVP was manifested by FT-Raman study. Silver nanoparticles were impregnated into wound dressing by sonochemical method. The Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion methods were used for antimicrobial susceptibility testing. The antimicrobial activity of the samples has been tested against gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli and gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus.

Shinde, V. V.; Jadhav, P. R.; Patil, P. S.

2013-06-01

113

Electronic properties of phenylated ligand-capped nanoparticle films  

E-print Network

An investigation was carried out of the electronic characteristics of drop-cast films comprised of phenylated ligand-capped gold nanoparticles. In homoligand-type films, the dominant mechanism of charge transfer was expected ...

Schilling, Thomas C

2006-01-01

114

Silver nanoparticle studded porous polyethylene scaffolds: bacteria struggle to grow on them while mammalian cells thrive.  

PubMed

Silver nanoparticle studded scaffolds were prepared by exploiting the Ag(+) ion reducing activity of sophorolipids--a class of 'glycolipids' that cap the ensuing nanoparticles as well. To achieve this, the porous polyethylene scaffolds are subjected to N(2) + H(2) plasma treatment, in the first step. Subsequently the sophorolipids are covalently attached to the amine groups on the polymer surface through simple amide chemistry to yield sophorolipid grafted polymer scaffolds. These are then exposed to Ag(+) ions under appropriate conditions leading to the formation of silver nanoparticles immobilized on the polymer scaffolds. It has been found that while bacteria do not survive on these silver studded scaffolds, CHO-K1 cells thrive on them making them good candidates for tissue engineering and bio-implant applications. PMID:21643585

D'Britto, Virginia; Kapse, Harsha; Babrekar, Harshada; Prabhune, A A; Bhoraskar, S V; Premnath, V; Prasad, B L V

2011-07-01

115

Antibacterial and catalytic activities of green synthesized silver nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aqueous beetroot extract was used as reducing agent for silver nanoparticles synthesis. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized using UV-visible spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The surface plasmon resonance peak of synthesized nanoparticles was observed at 438 nm. As the concentration of beetroot extract increases, absorption spectra shows blue shift with decreasing particle size. The prepared silver nanoparticles were well dispersed, spherical in shape with the average particle size of 15 nm. The prepared silver nanoparticles are effective in inhibiting the growth of both gram positive and gram negative bacteria. The prepared silver nanoparticles reveal faster catalytic activity. This natural method for synthesis of silver nanoparticles offers a valuable contribution in the area of green synthesis and nanotechnology avoiding the presence of hazardous and toxic solvents and waste.

Bindhu, M. R.; Umadevi, M.

2015-01-01

116

Oxidation of Ag nanoparticles in aqueous media: Effect of particle size and capping  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many applications and environmental impact of silver-bearing nanomaterials critically depend upon their specific reactivity, which is still poorly understood. Here, silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) of about 3-5 nm and 10-12 nm in diameter, uncapped and capped with L-glucose or citrate, were prepared, characterized using UV-vis absorption spectroscopy, SAXS, TEM, and their (electro)chemical oxidation was examined in comparison with each other and bulk metal applying scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry, and XPS. A resistive switching effect was found in the tunneling spectra measured in air at the smaller uncapped Ag NPs deposited on HOPG and was interpreted in terms of Ag transfer between the particle and the probe. The anodic oxidation of these Ag NPs in 1 M NaOH yielded 3D Ag2O, while only a layer of "primary" Ag(I) oxide emerged on larger uncapped nanoparticles during the potential sweep. The formation of AgO at higher potentials proceeded readily at the "primary" oxide but was retarded at the smaller NPs. The citrate- and glucose-capping substantially impeded the formation both of Ag2O and AgO. The findings highlighted, particularly, a non-trivial effect of particle size and transient mobilization of Ag species on the reactions of silver nanoparticles.

Mikhlin, Yuri L.; Vishnyakova, Elena A.; Romanchenko, Alexander S.; Saikova, Svetlana V.; Likhatski, Maxim N.; Larichev, Yurii V.; Tuzikov, Fedor V.; Zaikovskii, Vladimir I.; Zharkov, Sergey M.

2014-04-01

117

The effect of silver ions and nanoparticles on biofilms and planktonic cultures of Nitrosomonas europaea.  

E-print Network

??Due to the effective antimicrobial properties of silver nanoparticles they represent a significant proportion of all consumer-?????related nanomaterials. The introduction of silver nanoparticles from these… (more)

Giska, Jonathan R., 1978-

2013-01-01

118

Enhanced thermal stability of phosphate capped magnetite nanoparticles  

SciTech Connect

We have studied the effect of phosphate capping on the high temperature thermal stability and magnetic properties of magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) nanoparticles synthesized through a single-step co-precipitation method. The prepared magnetic nanoparticles are characterized using various techniques. When annealed in air, the phosphate capped nanoparticle undergoes a magnetic to non-magnetic phase transition at a temperature of 689?°C as compared to 580?°C in the uncoated nanoparticle of similar size. The observed high temperature phase stability of phosphate capped nanoparticle is attributed to the formation of a phosphocarbonaceous shell over the nanoparticles, which acts as a covalently attached protective layer and improves the thermal stability of the core material by increasing the activation energy. The phosphocarbonaceous shell prevents the intrusion of heat, oxygen, volatiles, and mass into the magnetic core. At higher temperatures, the coalescence of nanoparticles occurs along with the restructuring of the phosphocarbonaceous shell into a vitreous semisolid layer on the nanoparticles, which is confirmed from the small angle X-ray scattering, Fourier transform infra red spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy measurements. The probable mechanism for the enhancement of thermal stability of phosphocarbonaceous capped nanoparticles is discussed.

Muthukumaran, T.; Philip, John, E-mail: philip@igcar.gov.in [SMARTS, Metallurgy and Materials Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam, Tamil Nadu-603 102 (India)

2014-06-14

119

Antibacterial activity of biogenic silver nanoparticles synthesized with gum ghatti and gum olibanum: a comparative study.  

PubMed

Presently, silver nanoparticles produced by biological methods have received considerable significance owing to the natural abundance of renewable, cost-effective and biodegradable materials, thus implementing the green chemistry principles. Compared with the nanoparticles synthesized using chemical methods, most biogenic silver nanoparticles are protein capped, which imparts stability and biocompatibility, and enhanced antibacterial activity. In this study, we compared the antibacterial effect of two biogenic silver nanoparticles produced with natural plant gums: gum ghatti and gum olibanum against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Bacterial interaction with nanoparticles was probed both in planktonic and biofilm modes of growth; employing solid agar and liquid broth assays for inhibition zone, antibiofilm activity, inhibition of growth kinetics, leakage of intracellular contents, membrane permeabilization and reactive oxygen species production. In addition, cytotoxicity of the biogenic nanoparticles was evaluated in HeLa cells, a human carcinoma cell line. Antibacterial activity and cytotoxicity of the silver nanoparticles synthesized with gum ghatti (Ag NP-GT) was greater than that produced with gum olibanum (Ag NP-OB). This could be attributed to the smaller size (5.7?nm), monodispersity and zeta potential of the Ag NP-GT. The study suggests that Ag NP-GT can be employed as a cytotoxic bactericidal agent, whereas Ag NP-OB (7.5?nm) as a biocompatible bactericidal agent.The Journal of Antibiotics advance online publication, 20 August 2014; doi:10.1038/ja.2014.114. PMID:25138141

Kora, Aruna Jyothi; Sashidhar, Rao Beedu

2014-08-20

120

Silver nanoparticles incorporated onto ordered mesoporous silica from Tollen's reagent  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Noble metal nanostructures supported on mesoporous silica are bridge between traditional silica adsorbents and modern catalysts. In this work the Ag/SBA-15 mesoporous materials were synthesized and characterized. Various forms of nanosilver supported on ordered mesoporous template have been successfully obtained via proposed procedures. In all synthesized materials, Tollen's reagent (diammine silver complex [Ag(NH3)2]+) was used as a silver source. Silver nanoparticles were prepared by reduction of ammoniacal silver complex by formaldehyde in the solution of stabilizer. After reduction, Ag nanoparticles could be deposited on SBA-15, or added during traditional synthesis of SBA-15 giving silver or silver chloride nanoparticles in the combination with porous silica. Silver nanostructures as nanoparticles or nanowires were also embedded onto the SBA-15 by incipient wetness impregnation of silver ions. Absorbed silver ions were next reduced under hydrogen at high temperature. There are many advantages of utilized ammoniacal silver complex as a silver source. Proposed method is capable to synthesis of various metal nanostructures with controlled composition and morphology. The silver ammonia complex is composed of two ions surrounding and protecting the central silver ion, so it is possible to obtain very small nanoparticles using simple approach without any functionalization of external and internal surface of SBA-15. This approach allows obtaining greatly small silver nanoparticles on SBA-15 (4 nm) or nanowires depending on the metal loading amount. Moreover, the colloidal silver solution prepared from Tollen's reagent, in the presence of triblock copolymer, remains stable for a long time. Reduction of Tollen's reagent to silver colloidal solution seems to be efficient, fast and interesting approach for the preparation of supported silver nanostructures Obtained samples were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), UV-vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms and photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS).

Zienkiewicz-Strza?ka, M.; Pasieczna-Patkowska, S.; Kozak, M.; Pikus, S.

2013-02-01

121

Silver nanoparticle studded porous polyethylene scaffolds: bacteria struggle to grow on them while mammalian cells thrive  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Silver nanoparticle studded scaffolds were prepared by exploiting the Ag+ ion reducing activity of sophorolipids--a class of `glycolipids' that cap the ensuing nanoparticles as well. To achieve this, the porous polyethylene scaffolds are subjected to N2 + H2 plasma treatment, in the first step. Subsequently the sophorolipids are covalently attached to the amine groups on the polymer surface through simple amide chemistry to yield sophorolipid grafted polymer scaffolds. These are then exposed to Ag+ ions under appropriate conditions leading to the formation of silver nanoparticles immobilized on the polymer scaffolds. It has been found that while bacteria do not survive on these silver studded scaffolds, CHO-K1 cells thrive on them making them good candidates for tissue engineering and bio-implant applications.Silver nanoparticle studded scaffolds were prepared by exploiting the Ag+ ion reducing activity of sophorolipids--a class of `glycolipids' that cap the ensuing nanoparticles as well. To achieve this, the porous polyethylene scaffolds are subjected to N2 + H2 plasma treatment, in the first step. Subsequently the sophorolipids are covalently attached to the amine groups on the polymer surface through simple amide chemistry to yield sophorolipid grafted polymer scaffolds. These are then exposed to Ag+ ions under appropriate conditions leading to the formation of silver nanoparticles immobilized on the polymer scaffolds. It has been found that while bacteria do not survive on these silver studded scaffolds, CHO-K1 cells thrive on them making them good candidates for tissue engineering and bio-implant applications. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: See DOI: 10.1039/c1nr10152d

D'Britto, Virginia; Kapse, Harsha; Babrekar, Harshada; Prabhune, A. A.; Bhoraskar, S. V.; Premnath, V.; Prasad, B. L. V.

2011-07-01

122

Antimicrobial efficacy and ocular cell toxicity from silver nanoparticles.  

PubMed

Silver in various forms has long been recognized for antimicrobial properties, both in biomedical devices and in eyes. However, soluble drugs used on the ocular surface are rapidly cleared through tear ducts and eventually ingested, resulting in decreased efficacy of the drug on its target tissue and potential concern for systemic side effects. Silver nanoparticles were studied as a source of anti-microbial silver for possible controlled-release contact lens controlled delivery formulations. Silver ion release over a period of several weeks from nanoparticle sources of various sizes and doses in vitro was evaluated in vitro against Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PA01. Mammalian cell viability and cytokine expression in response to silver nanoparticle exposure is evaluated using corneal epithelial cells and eye-associated macrophages cultured in vitro in serum-free media. Minimal microcidal and cell toxic effects were observed for several silver nanoparticle suspensions and aqueous extraction times for bulk total silver concentrations commensurate with comparative silver ion (e.g., Ag(+) ((aq))) toxicity. This indicates that (1) silver particles themselves are not microcidal under conditions tested, and (2) insufficient silver ion is generated from these particles at these loadings to produce observable biological effects in these in vitro assays. If dosing allows substantially increased silver particle loading in the lens, the bactericidal efficacy of silver nanoparticles in vitro is one possible approach to limiting bacterial colonization problems associated with extended-wear contact lenses. PMID:19865601

Santoro, Colleen M; Duchsherer, Nicole L; Grainger, David W

2007-05-01

123

Degradation of Methylene Blue Using Biologically Synthesized Silver Nanoparticles  

PubMed Central

Nowadays plant mediated synthesis of nanoparticles has great interest and achievement due to its eco-benign and low time consuming properties. In this study silver nanoparticles were successfully synthesized by using Morinda tinctoria leaf extract under different pH. The aqueous leaf extract was added to silver nitrate solution; the color of the reaction medium was changed from pale yellow to brown and that indicates reduction of silver ions to silver nanoparticles. Thus synthesized silver nanoparticles were characterized by UV-Vis spectrophotometer. Dispersity and morphology was characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM); crystalline nature and purity of synthesized silver nanoparticles were revealed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). FTIR spectrum was examined to identify the effective functional molecules responsible for the reduction and stabilization of silver nanoparticles synthesized by leaf extract. The photocatalytic activity of the synthesized silver nanoparticles was examined by degradation of methylene blue under sunlight irradiation. Green synthesized silver nanoparticles were effectively degrading the dye nearly 95% at 72?h of exposure time. PMID:24772055

Vanaja, M.; Paulkumar, K.; Baburaja, M.; Rajeshkumar, S.; Gnanajobitha, G.; Malarkodi, C.; Sivakavinesan, M.; Annadurai, G.

2014-01-01

124

Synthesis of silver nanoparticles using DL-alanine for ESR dosimetry applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The potential use of alanine for the production of nanoparticles is presented here for the first time. Silver nanoparticles were synthesized using a simple green method, namely the thermal treatment of silver nitrate aqueous solutions with DL-alanine. The latter compound was employed both as a reducing and a capping agent. Particles with average size equal to 7.5 nm, face-centered cubic crystalline structure, narrow size distribution, and spherical shape were obtained. Interaction between the silver ions present on the surface of the nanoparticles and the amine group of the DL-alanine molecule seems to be responsible for reduction of the silver ions and for the stability of the colloid. The bio-hybrid nano-composite was used as an ESR dosimeter. The amount of silver nanoparticles in the nanocomposite was not sufficient to cause considerable loss of tissue equivalency. Moreover, the samples containing nanoparticles presented increased sensitivity and reduced energetic dependence as compared with pure DL-alanine, contributing to the construction of small-sized dosimeters.

Guidelli, Eder José; Ramos, Ana Paula; Zaniquelli, Maria Elisabete D.; Nicolucci, Patricia; Baffa, Oswaldo

2012-03-01

125

Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of silver nanoparticles biosynthesized from aqueous leaves extracts of four Terminalia species  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The environmentally friendly synthesis of nanoparticles process is a revolutionary step in the field of nanotechnology. In recent years plant mediated biological synthesis of nanoparticles has been gaining importance due to its simplicity and eco-friendliness. In this study, a simple and an efficient eco-friendly approach for the biosynthesis of stable, monodisperse silver nanoparticles using aqueous extracts of four Terminalia species, namely, Terminalia catappa, Terminalia mellueri, Terminalia bentazoe and Terminalia bellerica were described. The silver nanoparticles were characterized in terms of synthesis, capping functionalities (polysaccharides, phenolics and flavonoidal compounds) and microscopic evaluation by UV-visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The results showed a simple and feasible approach for obtaining stable aqueous monodispersive silver nanoparticles. Furthermore, biological activity of the biosynthesized silver nanoparticles was examined. Concerning this, dose-dependent antioxidant activity of silver nanoparticles imparted by the plant phenolic and flavonoidal components was evaluated using in vitro 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay and found to be comparable to standard ascorbic acid. The same holds true for the anti-inflammatory activity where Terminalia catappa and Terminalia mellueri have a high-test inhibition percentage better than that of ascorbic acid in the carrageenan induced hind paw edema. The results also revealed that the aqueous extract of Terminallia catapa and its silver nanoparticles recorded the most potent in vivo antioxidant effect.

El-Rafie, Hanaa Mohamed; Abdel-Aziz Hamed, Manal

2014-09-01

126

Active Silver Nanoparticles for Wound Healing  

PubMed Central

In this preliminary study, the silver nanoparticle (Ag NP)-based dressing, Acticoat™ Flex 3, has been applied to a 3D fibroblast cell culture in vitro and to a real partial thickness burn patient. The in vitro results show that Ag NPs greatly reduce mitochondrial activity, while cellular staining techniques show that nuclear integrity is maintained, with no signs of cell death. For the first time, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analyses were carried out on skin biopsies taken from a single patient during treatment. The results show that Ag NPs are released as aggregates and are localized in the cytoplasm of fibroblasts. No signs of cell death were observed, and the nanoparticles had different distributions within the cells of the upper and lower dermis. Depth profiles of the Ag concentrations were determined along the skin biopsies. In the healed sample, most of the silver remained in the surface layers, whereas in the unhealed sample, the silver penetrated more deeply. The Ag concentrations in the cell cultures were also determined. Clinical observations and experimental data collected here are consistent with previously published articles and support the safety of Ag NP-based dressing in wound treatment. PMID:23455461

Rigo, Chiara; Ferroni, Letizia; Tocco, Ilaria; Roman, Marco; Munivrana, Ivan; Gardin, Chiara; Cairns, Warren R. L.; Vindigni, Vincenzo; Azzena, Bruno; Barbante, Carlo; Zavan, Barbara

2013-01-01

127

Chitin membranes containing silver nanoparticles for wound dressing application.  

PubMed

Silver nanoparticles are gaining importance as an antimicrobial agent in wound dressings. Chitin is a biopolymer envisioned to promote rapid dermal regeneration and accelerate wound healing. This study was focused on the evaluation of chitin membranes containing silver nanoparticles for use as an antimicrobial wound dressing. Silver nanoparticles were synthesised by gamma irradiation at doses of 50 kGy in the presence of sodium alginate as stabiliser. The UV-Vis absorption spectra of nanoparticles exhibited an absorption band at 415-420 nm, which is the typical plasmon resonance band of silver nanoparticles. The peaks in the X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern are in agreement with the standard values of the face-centred cubic silver. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images indicate silver nanoparticles with spherical morphology and small particle size in the range of 3-13 nm. In vitro antimicrobial tests were performed using Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus to determine the antimicrobial efficiency of the chitin membranes containing 30, 50, 70 and 100 ppm nanosilver. No viable counts for P. aeruginosa were detected with 70 ppm silver nanoparticles dressing after 1-hour exposure. A 2-log reduction in viable cell count was observed for S. aureus after 1 hour and a 4-log reduction after 6 hours with 100 ppm nanosilver chitin membranes. This study demonstrates the antimicrobial capability of chitin membranes containing silver nanoparticles. The chitin membranes with 100 ppm nanosilver showed promising antimicrobial activity against common wound pathogens. PMID:22958740

Singh, Rita; Singh, Durgeshwer

2014-06-01

128

Transformation of Silver Nanoparticles in Fresh, Aged, and Incinerated Biosolids  

EPA Science Inventory

Abstract The purpose of this research was to assess the chemical transformation of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in aged, fresh, and incinerated biosolids in order to provide information for AgNP life cycle analyses. Silver nanoparticles were introduced to the influent of a pilot...

129

Tuning of optical properties of PMMA by incorporating silver nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanocomposite films of Poly (methylmethacrylate) filled with different concentration of silver nanoparticles were prepared by ex-situ method. Firstly, silver nanoparticles were obtained by reducing the aqueous solution of silver nitrate with sodium borohydride then Ag/PMMA films were prepared by mixing colloidal solution of silver nanoparticles with solution of polymer. From absorption and specular reflection spectra, the optical band gap and refractive index (n) have been calculated. The decrease in optical bandgap and increase in refractive index has been indicative of the modifications in optical band structure of the PMMA matrix.

Alisha, Rozra, Jyoti; Saini, Isha; Sharma, Annu; Sharma, Pawan

2012-06-01

130

Impact of Environmental Conditions (pH, Ionic Strength, And Electrolyte Type) On The Surface Charge And Aggregation Of Silver Nanoparticles Suspensions  

EPA Science Inventory

The impact of capping agents and environmental conditions (pH, ionic strength, and background electrolytes) on surface charge and aggregation potential of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) suspensions were investigated. Capping agents are chemicals used in the synthesis of nanopartic...

131

Silver and gold nanoparticles for sensor and antibacterial applications.  

PubMed

Green biogenic method for the synthesis of gold and silver nanoparticles using Solanum lycopersicums extract as reducing agent was studied. The biomolecules present in the extract was responsible for reduction of Au(3+) and Ag(+) ions from HAuCl4 and AgNO3 respectively. The prepared nanoparticles were characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) technique to identify the size, shape of nanoparticles and biomolecules act as reducing agents. UV-visible spectra show the surface plasmon resonance peak at 546 nm and 445 nm corresponding to gold and silver nanoparticles respectively. Crystalline nature of the nanoparticles was evident from TEM images and XRD analysis. TEM images showed average size of 14 nm and 12 nm for prepared gold and silver nanoparticles respectively. FTIR analysis provides the presence of biomolecules responsible for the reduction and stability of the prepared silver and gold nanoparticles. XRD analysis of the silver and gold nanoparticles confirmed the formation of metallic silver and gold. The prepared gold and silver nanoparticles show good sensing and antimicrobial activity. PMID:24657466

Bindhu, M R; Umadevi, M

2014-07-15

132

Sonochemical synthesis of silver nanoparticles using starch: a comparison.  

PubMed

A novel approach was applied to synthesize silver nanoparticles using starch under sonication. Colloidal silver nanoparticles solution exhibited an increase of absorption from 420 to 440?nm with increase starch quantity. Transmission electron microscopy followed by selected area electron diffraction pattern analysis indicated the formation of spherical, polydispersed, amorphous, silver nanoparticles of diameter ranging from 23 to 97?nm with mean particle size of 45.6?nm. Selected area electron diffraction (SAED) confirmed partial crystalline and amorphous nature of silver nanoparticles. Silver nanoparticles synthesized in this manner can be used for synthesis of 2-aryl substituted benzimidazoles which have numerous biomedical applications. The optimized reaction conditions include 10?ml of 1?mM AgNO3, 25?mg starch, 11 pH range, and sonication for 20?min at room temperature. PMID:24587771

Kumar, Brajesh; Smita, Kumari; Cumbal, Luis; Debut, Alexis; Pathak, Ravinandan Nath

2014-01-01

133

Polyhexamethylene biguanide functionalized cationic silver nanoparticles for enhanced antimicrobial activity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polyhexamethylene biguanide (PHMB), a broad spectrum disinfectant against many pathogens, was used as a stabilizing ligand for the synthesis of fairly uniform silver nanoparticles. The particles formed were characterized using UV-visible spectroscopy, FTIR, dynamic light scattering, electrophoretic mobility, and TEM to measure their morphology and surface chemistry. PHMB-functionalized silver nanoparticles were then evaluated for their antimicrobial activity against a gram-negative bacterial strain, Escherichia coli. These silver nanoparticles were found to have about 100 times higher bacteriostatic and bactericidal activities, compared to the previous reports, due to the combined antibacterial effect of silver nanoparticles and PHMB. In addition to other applications, PHMB-functionalized silver nanoparticles would be extremely useful in textile industry due to the strong interaction of PHMB with cellulose fabrics.

Ashraf, Sumaira; Akhtar, Nasrin; Ghauri, Muhammad Afzal; Rajoka, Muhammad Ibrahim; Khalid, Zafar M.; Hussain, Irshad

2012-05-01

134

Polyhexamethylene biguanide functionalized cationic silver nanoparticles for enhanced antimicrobial activity  

PubMed Central

Polyhexamethylene biguanide (PHMB), a broad spectrum disinfectant against many pathogens, was used as a stabilizing ligand for the synthesis of fairly uniform silver nanoparticles. The particles formed were characterized using UV-visible spectroscopy, FTIR, dynamic light scattering, electrophoretic mobility, and TEM to measure their morphology and surface chemistry. PHMB-functionalized silver nanoparticles were then evaluated for their antimicrobial activity against a gram-negative bacterial strain, Escherichia coli. These silver nanoparticles were found to have about 100 times higher bacteriostatic and bactericidal activities, compared to the previous reports, due to the combined antibacterial effect of silver nanoparticles and PHMB. In addition to other applications, PHMB-functionalized silver nanoparticles would be extremely useful in textile industry due to the strong interaction of PHMB with cellulose fabrics. PMID:22625664

2012-01-01

135

Polyhexamethylene biguanide functionalized cationic silver nanoparticles for enhanced antimicrobial activity.  

PubMed

Polyhexamethylene biguanide (PHMB), a broad spectrum disinfectant against many pathogens, was used as a stabilizing ligand for the synthesis of fairly uniform silver nanoparticles. The particles formed were characterized using UV-visible spectroscopy, FTIR, dynamic light scattering, electrophoretic mobility, and TEM to measure their morphology and surface chemistry. PHMB-functionalized silver nanoparticles were then evaluated for their antimicrobial activity against a gram-negative bacterial strain, Escherichia coli. These silver nanoparticles were found to have about 100 times higher bacteriostatic and bactericidal activities, compared to the previous reports, due to the combined antibacterial effect of silver nanoparticles and PHMB. In addition to other applications, PHMB-functionalized silver nanoparticles would be extremely useful in textile industry due to the strong interaction of PHMB with cellulose fabrics. PMID:22625664

Ashraf, Sumaira; Akhtar, Nasrin; Ghauri, Muhammad Afzal; Rajoka, Muhammad Ibrahim; Khalid, Zafar M; Hussain, Irshad

2012-01-01

136

Comparison of bioconcentration of ionic silver and silver nanoparticles in zebrafish eleutheroembryos.  

PubMed

The production of silver nanoparticles has reached nowadays high levels. Bioconcentration studies, information on persistence and toxicity are fundamental to assess their global risk and thus necessary to establish legislations regarding their use. Previous studies on silver nanoparticle toxicity have determined a clear correlation between their chemical stability and toxicity. In this work, experimental conditions able to assure silver nanoparticles stability have been optimized. Then, zebrafish (Danio rerio) eleutheroembryos were exposed to ionic silver and to Ag NPs for comparison purposes. A protocol alternative to the OECD 305 technical guideline was used. To determine silver concentration in both the eleutheroembryos and the exposure media, an analytical method consisting in ultrasound assisted extraction, followed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry, was developed. Then, bioconcentration factors were calculated. The results revealed that ionic silver was more accumulative for zebrafish eleutheroembryos than nanoparticles at the levels tested. PMID:24858804

López-Serrano, A; Muñoz-Olivas, R; Sanz-Landaluze, J; Olasagasti, M; Rainieri, S; Cámara, C

2014-08-01

137

Photocatalytic studies of capped ZnS nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, we report on the synthesis of ZnS semiconductor nanoparticles stabilized with sodium hexa meta phosphate (SHMP). Capped ZnS nanoparticles were synthesized by a chemical route. The as obtained nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), uv-vis absorption spectroscopy, and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. The average particle size was found to be 2-3 nm. UV-Vis optical spectra showed a blue shift with respect to the bulk counterpart. The room temperature photoluminescence spectra of the nanoparticles showed emission peaks in the range of 363 - 446 nm at excitation wavelength of 325 nm for different concentrations of SHMP. Photocatalytic degradation of bromophenol blue dye was done using capped ZnS nanoparticles. It took about 3.5 hours to degrade the dye completely under uv irradiation.

Kaur, Jagdeep; Sharma, Manoj; Pandey, O. P.

2013-06-01

138

Remobilisation of silver and silver sulphide nanoparticles in soils.  

PubMed

Manufactured nanoparticles (NPs) present in consumer products could enter soils through re-use of biosolids. Among these NPs are those based on silver (Ag), which are found sulphidised (e.g. silver sulphide, Ag2S) in biosolids. Herein, our aim was to examine the release of retained Ag(0) and Ag2S NPs in soils and biosolids as facilitated by environmentally and agriculturally relevant ligands. Under natural soil conditions, exemplified by potassium nitrate and humic acid experiments, release of Ag retained in soil was limited. The highest total Ag release was facilitated by ligands that simulated root exudates (citrate) or fertilisers (thiosulphate). Released Ag was predominantly present in the colloidal phase (>3 kDa-< 0.45 ?m); intact NPs only identified in Ag2S-NP extracts. For biosolids containing nanoparticulate-Ag-S, release was also enhanced by thiosulphate, though mostly as colloidal-Ag - not intact NPs. These results suggest that exposure to NPs as a result of its release from soils or biosolids will be low. PMID:25014017

Navarro, Divina A; Kirby, Jason K; McLaughlin, Mike J; Waddington, Lynne; Kookana, Rai S

2014-10-01

139

Biological coating of paper using silver nanoparticles.  

PubMed

The capacity of Ag nanoparticles to destroy various micro-organisms makes it one of the most powerful antimicrobial agents, an attractive feature against antibiotic resistant bacteria. Here, a simple method to develop coating of colloidal silver on paper using a biological method is presented. The coated paper was studied by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction technique and atomic absorption spectroscopy. The antibacterial activity of the coated paper against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus was measured by agar diffusion method. This study shows the potential use of the coated paper as a food antimicrobial packing material for longer shelf life. PMID:25429506

Ghorbani, Hamid Reza

2014-12-01

140

Anti-Bacterial Properties of Silver Nanoparticles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson from The Lawrence Hall of Science was taught in spring 2013 and focuses on synthesizing and testing silver nanoparticles. The three part lab involves "synthesis, testing and characterization and was implemented with a collaborative model." Each part of the lab is to be completed by a different class of students - those studying chemistry, biology, and engineering, respectively. This page includes links to Source Articles for the Hands-on Module, the Project Staff Write-up of the Hands-on Module, as well as a PowerPoint presentation and three documents detailing the labs.

141

Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Pinus eldarica Bark Extract  

PubMed Central

Recently, development of reliable experimental protocols for synthesis of metal nanoparticles with desired morphologies and sizes has become a major focus of researchers. Green synthesis of metal nanoparticles using organisms has emerged as a nontoxic and ecofriendly method for synthesis of metal nanoparticles. The objectives of this study were production of silver nanoparticles using Pinus eldarica bark extract and optimization of the biosynthesis process. The effects of quantity of extract, substrate concentration, temperature, and pH on the formation of silver nanoparticles are studied. TEM images showed that biosynthesized silver nanoparticles (approximately in the range of 10–40?nm) were predominantly spherical in shape. The preparation of nano-structured silver particles using P. eldarica bark extract provides an environmentally friendly option, as compared to currently available chemical and/or physical methods. PMID:24083233

Iravani, Siavash; Zolfaghari, Behzad

2013-01-01

142

Multiutility sophorolipids as nanoparticle capping agents: synthesis of stable and water dispersible Co nanoparticles.  

PubMed

Sophorolipids are a class of glycolipids that can be obtained from fatty acids by simply treating them with yeast cells (Candida bombicola, ATCC 22214) and glucose. In this letter, we demonstrate the application of sophorolipids obtained from oleic acid as a capping agent for Co nanoparticles. Upon capping the nanoparticle surface, the sugar moiety of these sophorolipids is exposed to the solvent environment, making the nanoparticles stable and water-redispersible. PMID:17935370

Kasture, Manasi; Singh, Sanjay; Patel, Pitamber; Joy, P A; Prabhune, A A; Ramana, C V; Prasad, B L V

2007-11-01

143

Toxicity of Silver Nanoparticles at the Air-Liquid Interface  

PubMed Central

Silver nanoparticles are one of the most prevalent nanomaterials in consumer products. Some of these products are likely to be aerosolized, making silver nanoparticles a high priority for inhalation toxicity assessment. To study the inhalation toxicity of silver nanoparticles, we have exposed cultured lung cells to them at the air-liquid interface. Cells were exposed to suspensions of silver or nickel oxide (positive control) nanoparticles at concentrations of 2.6, 6.6, and 13.2??g cm?2 (volume concentrations of 10, 25, and 50??g?ml?1) and to 0.7??g?cm?2 silver or 2.1??g?cm?2 nickel oxide aerosol at the air-liquid interface. Unlike a number of in vitro studies employing suspensions of silver nanoparticles, which have shown strong toxic effects, both suspensions and aerosolized nanoparticles caused negligible cytotoxicity and only a mild inflammatory response, in agreement with animal exposures. Additionally, we have developed a novel method using a differential mobility analyzer to select aerosolized nanoparticles of a single diameter to assess the size-dependent toxicity of silver nanoparticles. PMID:23484109

Holder, Amara L.; Marr, Linsey C.

2013-01-01

144

Biological Mechanism of Silver Nanoparticle Toxicity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), like almost all nanoparticles, are potentially toxic beyond a certain concentration because the survival of the organism is compromised due to scores of pathophysiological abnormalities above that concentration. However, the mechanism of AgNP toxicity remains undetermined. Instead of applying a toxic dose, these investigations were attempted to monitor the effects of AgNPs at a non-lethal concentration on wild type Drosophila melanogaster by exposing them to nanoparticles throughout their development. All adult flies raised in AgNP doped food indicated that of not more than 50 mg/L had no negative influence on median survival; however, these flies appeared uniformly lighter in body color due to the loss of melanin pigments in their cuticle. Additionally, fertility and vertical movement ability were compromised after AgNP feeding. The determination of the amount of free ionic silver (Ag+) indicated that the observed biological effects had resulted from the AgNPs and not from Ag+. Biochemical analysis suggests that the activity of copper dependent enzymes, namely tyrosinase and Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase, were decreased significantly following the consumption of AgNPs, despite the constant level of copper present in the tissue. Furthermore, copper supplementation restored the loss of AgNP induced demelanization, and the reduction of functional Ctr1 in Ctr1 heterozygous mutants caused the flies to be resistant to demelanization. Consequently, these studies proposed a mechanism whereby consumption of excess AgNPs in association with membrane bound copper transporter proteins cause sequestration of copper, thus creating a condition that resembles copper starvation. This model also explained the cuticular demelanization effect resulting from AgNP since tyrosinase activity is essential for melanin biosynthesis. Finally, these investigations demonstrated that Drosophila, an established genetic model system, can be well utilized for further characterizing the biological effects of nanoparticles.

Armstrong, Najealicka Nicole

145

Novel Cationic Gemini Lipids, Click Chemistry Based Adducts And Amphiphile-Capped Silver Nanostructures : Synthesis, Aggregation And Biological Properties.  

E-print Network

??The thesis entitled “Novel Cationic Gemini Lipids, Click Chemistry Based Adducts and Amphiphile-Capped Silver Nanostructures: Synthesis, Aggregation and Biological Properties” elucidates the design, synthesis, aggregation… (more)

Biswas, Joydeep

2010-01-01

146

Optimization of Biological Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles using Fusarium oxysporum  

PubMed Central

Silver nanoparticles are increasingly used in various fields of biotechnology and applications in the medicine. Objectives of this study were optimization of production of silver nanoparticles using biotransformations by Fusarium oxysporum, and a further study on the location of nanoparticles synthesis in this microorganism. The reaction mixture contained the following ingredients (final concentrations): AgNO3 (1-10 mM) as the biotransformation substrate, biomass as the biocatalyst, glucose (560 mM) as the electron donor, and phosphate buffer (pH= 7, 100 mM). The samples were taken from the reaction mixtures at different times, and the absorbance (430 nm) of the colloidal suspensions of silver nanoparticles hydrosols was read freshly (without freezing) and immediately after dilution (1:40). SEM and TEM analyses were performed on selected samples. The presence of AgNO3 (0.1 mM) in the culture as enzyme inducer, and glucose (560 mM) as electron donor had positive effects on nanoparticle production. In SEM micrographs, silver nanoparticles were almost spherical, single (25-50 nm) or in aggregates (100 nm), attached to the surface of biomass. The reaction mixture was successfully optimized to increase the yield of silver nanoparticles production. More details of the location of nanoparticles production by this fungus were revealed, which support the hypothesis that silver nanoparticles are synthesized intracellularly and not extracellularly. PMID:24250635

Korbekandi, Hassan; Ashari, Zeynab; Iravani, Siavash; Abbasi, Sajjad

2013-01-01

147

Bio-conjugated silver nanoparticles: from Ocimum sanctum and role of cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide.  

PubMed

In this paper we have reported the spectrophotometeric and transmission electron microscopic (TEM) data to the shape-directing role of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) on the green extra-cellular synthesis of bio-conjugated Ag-nanoparticles using Ocimum sanctum leaves extract. TEM images revealed that the nanoparticles are mostly spherical (average particle size ranged from 18 to 35nm) with some truncated triangular nanoplates, aggregated in a beautiful manner to yield locket-like silver and capped by a thin layer of biomolecules of O. sanctum, whereas nanoparticles are highly poly-dispersed in presence of CTAB. The shape and position of wavelength maxima strongly depends on the reaction time, [leaves extract] and [CTAB]. The visual observations also suggest that the prefect transparent silver sol becomes turbid in presence of CTAB after some time. PMID:23524081

Zaheer, Zoya; Rafiuddin

2013-08-01

148

Growth mechanisms of silver nanoparticles: a molecular dynamics study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The shape control of metal nanoparticles allows one to finely tune their properties with great versatility. A self-seeding coreduction method has recently been developed for the synthesis of silver nanodiscs, triangular nanoplates and nanospheres. The addition of surfactants was found to be one of the most important factors in determining the final particle shape. In this paper, molecular dynamics simulations are performed to understand the growth mechanisms of silver nanoparticles for different surfactants (i.e. bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate, 1-dodecanethiol and cetyltrimethyl ammonium). The interaction energies between the surfactants and the silver crystal plane (i.e. (100), (110), (111)) are calculated. The molecular structural property of surfactants at the silver surface is also examined. It is demonstrated that the calculated interaction energies explain well the growth behaviour observed in the silver nanoparticle systems. Molecular dynamics simulation could provide a theoretical guideline for the choice of surfactants and hence the synthesis of various metal nanoparticles with controlled shape.

Zeng, Qinghua; Jiang, Xuchuan; Yu, Aibing; Lu, Gaoqing Max

2007-01-01

149

Successively amplified electrochemical immunoassay based on biocatalytic deposition of silver nanoparticles and silver enhancement.  

PubMed

A successively signal-amplified electrochemical immunoassay has been reported on the basis of the biocatalytic deposition of silver nanoparticles with their subsequent enlargement by nanoparticle-promoted catalytic precipitation of silver from the silver-enhancer solution. The immunoassay was carried out based on a heterogeneous sandwich procedure using polystyrene microwells to immobilize antibody. After all the processes comprising the formation of immunocomplex, biocatalytic deposition of silver nanoparticles and following silver enhancement were completed, the silver on polystyrene microwells was dissolved and quantified by anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV). The effect of relevant experimental conditions, including the concentration of ascorbic acid 2-phosphate (AA-p) substrate and Ag(I) ions, the biocatalytic deposition time, and of crucial importance, the silver enhancement time, were investigated and optimized. The anodic stripping peak current was proportional to the concentration of human IgG in a dynamic range of 0.1-10 ng ml(-1) with a detection limit of 0.03 ng ml(-1). Scanning electron microscope (SEM) was applied to characterize the silver nanoparticles before and after silver enhancement on the surface of polystyrene microplates. By coupling the highly catalytic effect of enzyme and nanoparticles to successively amplify the analytical signal, the sensitivity of immunoassay was enhanced so dramatically that this approach would be a promising strategy to achieve a lower detection limit for bioassays. PMID:17720472

Chen, Zhao-Peng; Peng, Zhao-Feng; Luo, Yan; Qu, Bo; Jiang, Jian-Hui; Zhang, Xiao-Bing; Shen, Guo-Li; Yu, Ru-Qin

2007-11-30

150

A novel bone cement impregnated with silver–tiopronin nanoparticles: its antimicrobial, cytotoxic, and mechanical properties  

PubMed Central

Post-operatory infections in orthopedic surgeries pose a significant risk. The common approach of using antibiotics, both parenterally or embedded in bone cement (when this is employed during surgery) faces the challenge of the rising population of pathogens exhibiting resistance properties against one or more of these compounds; therefore, novel approaches need to be developed. Silver nanoparticles appear to be an exciting prospect because of their antimicrobial activity and safety at the levels used in medical applications. In this paper, a novel type of silver nanoparticles capped with tiopronin is presented. Two ratios of reagents during synthesis were tested and the effect on the nanoparticles investigated through TEM, TGA, and UV-Vis spectroscopy. Once encapsulated in bone cement, only the nanoparticles with the highest amount of inorganic fraction conferred antimicrobial activity against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) at concentrations as low as 0.1% w/w. No other characteristics of the bone cement, such as cytotoxicity or mechanical properties, were affected by the presence of the nanoparticles. Our work presents a new type of silver nanoparticles and demonstrates that they can be embedded in bone cement to prevent infections once the synthetic conditions are tailored for such applications. PMID:23818779

Prokopovich, Polina; Leech, Ralph; Carmalt, Claire J; Parkin, Ivan P; Perni, Stefano

2013-01-01

151

Characterization of silver nanoparticles synthesized by using marine isolate Streptomyces albidoflavus.  

PubMed

Silver nanoparticles production by the green chemistry approach was investigated using an isolated marine actinomycetes strain. The isolated strain was identified as Streptomyces albidoflavus based on chemotaxonomic and ribotyping properties. The strain revealed production of silver nanoparticles both extracellular and intracellularly. Surface Plasmon Resonance analysis with the function of time revealed that particle synthesis by this strain is reaction time dependent. The produced particles were spherical shaped and monodispersive in nature and showed a single surface plasmon resonance peak at 410 nm. Size distribution histograms indicated production of 10-40- nm-size nanoparticles with a mean size of 14.5 nm. FT-IR spectra of nanopartilces showed N-H, C-H, and C-N stretching vibrations, denoting the presence of amino acid/ peptide compounds on the surface of silver nanoparticles produced by S. albidoflavus. Synthesized nanoparticles revealed a mean negative zeta potential and electrophoretic mobility of -8.5 mV and -0.000066 cm2/Vs, respectively. The nanoparticles produced were proteinaceous compounds as capping agents with -8.5 mV zeta potential and revealed antimicrobial activity against both Gram-negative and -positive bacterial strains. Owing to their small size, these particles have greater impact on industrial application spectra. PMID:22561854

Prakasham, Reddy Shetty; Buddana, Sudheer Kumar; Yannam, Sudheer Kumar; Guntuku, Girija Shankar

2012-05-01

152

Shape effects in plasmon resonance of individual colloidal silver nanoparticles  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a systematic study of the effect of size and shape on the spectral response of individual silver nanoparticles. An experimental method has been developed that begins with the detection and characterization of isolated nanoparticles in the optical far field. The plasmon resonance optical spectrum of many individual nanoparticles are then correlated to their size and shape using high-resolution

J. J. Mock; M. Barbic; D. R. Smith; D. A. Schultz; S. Schultz

2002-01-01

153

Dynamics of colloid silver nanoparticles in an evaporating water drop  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The method of photon correlation spectroscopy is used to investigate the distribution of the diffusion coefficient of silver nanoparticles in an evaporating water drop given that the drop base area remains unchanged (the pinning condition). It is established that the capillary flow dominates over the diffusion nanoparticle motion in redistribution of concentration of the dissolved nanoparticles.

Myslitskaya, N. A.; Khitrin, A. V.; Ivanov, A. M.; Samusev, I. G.; Bryukhanov, V. V.

2012-04-01

154

Development of nanostructured silver vanadates decorated with silver nanoparticles as a novel antibacterial agent  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work we report the synthesis, characterization and application of silver vanadate nanowires decorated with silver nanoparticles as a novel antibacterial agent. These hybrid materials were synthesized by a precipitation reaction of ammonium vanadate and silver nitrate followed by hydrothermal treatment. The silver vanadate nanowires have lengths of the order of microns and diameters around 60 nm. The silver nanoparticles decorating the nanowires present a diameter distribution varying from 1 to 20 nm. The influence of the pH of the reaction medium on the chemical structure and morphology of silver vanadates was studied and we found that synthesis performed at pH 5.5-6.0 led to silver vanadate nanowires with a higher morphological yield. The antimicrobial activity of these materials was evaluated against three strains of Staphylococcus aureus and very promising results were found. The minimum growth inhibiting concentration value against a MRSA strain was found to be ten folds lower than for the antibiotic oxacillin.

Holtz, R. D.; Souza Filho, A. G.; Brocchi, M.; Martins, D.; Durán, N.; Alves, O. L.

2010-05-01

155

Separation and measurement of silver nanoparticles and silver ions using magnetic particles.  

PubMed

The recent surge in consumer products and applications using metallic nanoparticles has increased the possibility of human or ecosystem exposure due to unintentional release into the environment. To protect consumer health and the environment, there is an urgent need to develop tools that can characterize and quantify these materials at low concentrations and in complex matrices. In this study, magnetic nanoparticles coated with either dopamine or glutathione were used to develop a new, simple and reliable method for the separation/pre-concentration of trace amounts of silver nanoparticles followed by their quantification using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The structurally modified magnetic particles were able to capture trace amounts of silver nanoparticles (~2 ppb) and concentrate (up to 250 times) the particles for analysis with ICP-MS. Under laboratory conditions, recovery of silver nanoparticles was >99%. More importantly, the magnetic particles selectively captured silver nanoparticles in a mixture containing both nano-particulate and ionic silver. This unique feature addresses the challenges of separation and quantification of silver nanoparticles in addition to the total silver in environmental samples. Spiking experiments showed recoveries higher than 97% for tap water and both fresh and saline surface water. PMID:24295749

Mwilu, Samuel K; Siska, Emily; Baig, R B Nasir; Varma, Rajender S; Heithmar, Ed; Rogers, Kim R

2014-02-15

156

Characterization and antimicrobial activity of silver nanoparticles prepared by a thermal decomposition technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, there has been an increasing need of efficient synthetic protocols using eco-friendly conditions including low costs and green chemicals for production of metal nanoparticles. In this work, silver nanoparticles (silver NPs) with average particle size about 10 nm were synthesized by using a thermal decomposition technique. Unlike the colloidal chemistry method, the thermal decomposition method developed has advantages such as the high crystallinity, single-reaction synthesis, and easy dispersion ability of the synthesized NPs in organic solvents. In a modified synthesis process, we used sodium oleate as a capping agent to modify the surface of silver NPs because the oleate has a C18 tail with a double bond in the middle, therefore, forming a kink which is to be effective for aggregative stability. Importantly, the as-synthesized silver NPs have demonstrated strong antimicrobial effects against various bacteria and fungi strains. Electron microscopic studies reveal physical insights into the interaction and bactericidal mechanism between the prepared silver NPs and tested bacteria in question. The observed excellent antibacterial and antifungal activity of the silver NPs make them ideal for disinfection and biomedicine applications.

Tam, Le Thi; Phan, Vu Ngoc; Lan, Hoang; Thuy, Nguyen Thanh; Hien, Tran Minh; Huy, Tran Quang; Quy, Nguyen Van; Chinh, Huynh Dang; Tung, Le Minh; Tuan, Pham Anh; Lam, Vu Dinh; Le, Anh-Tuan

2013-11-01

157

Thermostability and reversibility of silver nanoparticle-protein binding.  

PubMed

The interactions between nanoparticles (NPs) and proteins in living systems are a precursor to the formation of a NP-protein "corona" that underlies cellular and organism responses to nanomaterials. However, the thermodynamic properties and reversibility of NP-protein interactions have rarely been examined. Using an automated, high-throughput and temperature-controlled dynamic light scattering (DLS) technique we observed a distinct hysteresis in the hydrodynamic radius of branched polyethyleneimine (BPEI) coated-silver nanoparticles (bAgNPs) exposed to like-charged lysozyme during the processes of heating and cooling, in contrast to the irreversible interactions between bAgNPs and oppositely charged alpha lactalbumin (ALact). Our discrete molecular dynamics (DMD) simulations offered a new molecular insight into the differential structure, dynamics and thermodynamics of bAgNPs binding with the two protein homologs and further revealed the different roles of the capping agents of citrate and BPEI in NP-protein interactions. This study facilitates our understanding of the transformation of nanomaterials in living systems, whose implications range from the field study of nanotoxicology to nanomaterials synthesis, nanobiotechnology and nanomedicine. PMID:25461673

Wang, Bo; Seabrook, Shane A; Nedumpully-Govindan, Praveen; Chen, Pengyu; Yin, Hong; Waddington, Lynne; Epa, V Chandana; Winkler, David A; Kirby, Jason K; Ding, Feng; Ke, Pu Chun

2015-01-21

158

Non-hazardous anticancerous and antibacterial colloidal 'green' silver nanoparticles.  

PubMed

Poly(ethylene glycol) stabilized colloidal silver nanoparticles were prepared using the reductive potency of the aqueous extract of Thuja occidentalis leaves under ambient conditions. The nanoparticles were well dispersed within a narrow size spectrum (7-14 nm) and displayed characteristic surface plasmon resonance peak at around 420 nm and Bragg's reflection planes of fcc structure. MTT assay revealed the dose-dependent cytocompatibility and toxicity of the nanoparticles with the L929 normal cell line. On the other hand, the antiproliferative action of the nanoparticles was evaluated on HeLa cell (cancerous cells) line. Fluorescence and phase contrast microscopic imaging indicated the appearance of multinucleate stages with aggregation and nuclear membrane disruption of the HeLa cells post treatment with the nanoparticles. The interaction at the prokaryotic level was also assessed via differential antibacterial efficacy against Staphylococcus aureus (MTCC 3160) and Escherichia coli (MTCC 40). Under these perspectives, it is also necessary to observe the environmental impact of the prepared silver nanoparticles. Hence, the dose dependent toxicity of silver nanoparticles was evaluated upon the earthworm species Eisenia fetida. Neither the survival nor the reproduction was affected by the addition of silver nanoparticles up to 1000 ppm. Thus these 'green' silver nanoparticles have promising potential as future materials. PMID:23352940

Barua, Shaswat; Konwarh, Rocktotpal; Bhattacharya, Satya Sundar; Das, Pallabi; Devi, K Sanjana P; Maiti, Tapas K; Mandal, Manabendra; Karak, Niranjan

2013-05-01

159

Catalytically and biologically active silver nanoparticles synthesized using essential oil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are numerous reports on phytosynthesis of silver nanoparticles and various phytochemicals are involved in the reduction and stabilization. Pure explicit phytosynthetic protocol for catalytically and biologically active silver nanoparticles is of importance as it is an environmentally benign green method. This paper reports the use of essential oil of Myristica fragrans enriched in terpenes and phenyl propenes in the reduction and stabilization. FTIR spectra of the essential oil and the synthesized biogenic silver nanoparticles are in accordance with the GC-MS spectral analysis reports. Nanosilver is initially characterized by an intense SPR band around 420 nm, followed by XRD and TEM analysis revealing the formation of 12-26 nm sized, highly pure, crystalline silver nanoparticles. Excellent catalytic and bioactive potential of the silver nanoparticles is due to the surface modification. The chemocatalytic potential of nanosilver is exhibited by the rapid reduction of the organic pollutant, para nitro phenol and by the degradation of the thiazine dye, methylene blue. Significant antibacterial activity of the silver colloid against Gram positive, Staphylococcus aureus (inhibition zone - 12 mm) and Gram negative, Escherichia coli (inhibition zone - 14 mm) is demonstrated by Agar-well diffusion method. Strong antioxidant activity of the biogenic silver nanoparticles is depicted through NO scavenging, hydrogen peroxide scavenging, reducing power, DPPH and total antioxidant activity assays.

Vilas, Vidya; Philip, Daizy; Mathew, Joseph

2014-11-01

160

Catalytically and biologically active silver nanoparticles synthesized using essential oil.  

PubMed

There are numerous reports on phytosynthesis of silver nanoparticles and various phytochemicals are involved in the reduction and stabilization. Pure explicit phytosynthetic protocol for catalytically and biologically active silver nanoparticles is of importance as it is an environmentally benign green method. This paper reports the use of essential oil of Myristica fragrans enriched in terpenes and phenyl propenes in the reduction and stabilization. FTIR spectra of the essential oil and the synthesized biogenic silver nanoparticles are in accordance with the GC-MS spectral analysis reports. Nanosilver is initially characterized by an intense SPR band around 420 nm, followed by XRD and TEM analysis revealing the formation of 12-26 nm sized, highly pure, crystalline silver nanoparticles. Excellent catalytic and bioactive potential of the silver nanoparticles is due to the surface modification. The chemocatalytic potential of nanosilver is exhibited by the rapid reduction of the organic pollutant, para nitro phenol and by the degradation of the thiazine dye, methylene blue. Significant antibacterial activity of the silver colloid against Gram positive, Staphylococcus aureus (inhibition zone--12 mm) and Gram negative, Escherichia coli (inhibition zone--14 mm) is demonstrated by Agar-well diffusion method. Strong antioxidant activity of the biogenic silver nanoparticles is depicted through NO scavenging, hydrogen peroxide scavenging, reducing power, DPPH and total antioxidant activity assays. PMID:24956490

Vilas, Vidya; Philip, Daizy; Mathew, Joseph

2014-11-11

161

Characterization and Biocompatibility of ``Green'' Synthesized Silver Nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With ever increasing emphasis on nanotechnology, silver nanoparticle are being considered for many antimicrobial needs ranging from catheter coatings, to burn wound bandages. Current synthesis methods for creating silver nanoparticles typically call for potentially hazardous chemicals, extreme heat, and produce environmentally dangerous byproducts. As a culture intent on reducing our carbon footprint on the earth, societies' focus has turned to ``green'' production capabilities. Therefore, if nanotechnology is to continue to grow at its current rate it is essential that novel ``green'' synthesis of nanoparticles becomes a reality. Furthermore, with the current and near-future applications of silver nanoparticles in biological systems it is imperative to fully analyze the potential toxic effects of these nanoparticles. In this study we have shown that by reducing silver nitrate in solutions of tea extract or epinephrine of varying concentrations spherical silver nanoparticle are formed. Furthermore, evaluation of mitochondrial function (MTS) and membrane integrity (LDH) in alveolar rat macrophages and human keratinocytes showed that these ``green'' synthesized silver nanoparticles were nontoxic.

Moulton, Michael; Kunzelman, Samantha; Braydich-Stolle, Laura; Nadagouda, M.; Varma, R.; Hussain, Saber

2008-10-01

162

Completely green synthesis of dextrose reduced silver nanoparticles, its antimicrobial and sensing properties.  

PubMed

We herein report the green synthesis of highly monodispersed, water soluble, stable and smaller sized dextrose reduced gelatin capped-silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) via an eco-friendly, completely green method. The synthesis involves the use of silver nitrate, gelatin, dextrose and water as the silver precursor, stabilizing agent, reducing agent and solvent respectively. By varying the reaction time, the temporal evolution of the growth, optical, antimicrobial and sensing properties of the as-synthesised Ag-NPs were investigated. The nanoparticles were characterized using UV-vis absorption spectroscopy, Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM). The absorption maxima of the as-synthesized materials at different reaction time showed characteristic silver surface plasmon resonance (SPR) peak. The as-synthesised Ag-NPs show better antibacterial efficacy than the antibiotics; ciproflaxin and imipenem against Pseudomonas aeruginosa with minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) of 6 ?g/mL, and better efficacy than imipenem against Escherichia coli with MIC of 10 ?g/mL. The minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of the as-synthesised Ag-NPs is 12.5 ?g/mL. The sensitivity of the dextrose reduced gelatin-capped Ag-NPs towards hydrogen peroxide indicated that the sensor has a very good sensitivity and a linear response over wide concentration range of 10(-1)-10(-6)M H2O2. PMID:24721103

Mohan, Sneha; Oluwafemi, Oluwatobi S; George, Soney C; Jayachandran, V P; Lewu, Francis B; Songca, Sandile P; Kalarikkal, Nandakumar; Thomas, Sabu

2014-06-15

163

Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Cycas Leaf  

Microsoft Academic Search

A green, low-cost, and reproducible Cycas leaf–negotiated synthesis of silver nanoparticles is reported. X-ray and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analyses are performed to ascertain the formation of Ag nanoparticles. Nanoparticles almost spherical in shape having the size of 2–6 nm are found. Rietveld analysis to the X-ray data indicated that Ag nanoparticles have fcc unit cell structure. Ultraviolet (UV)-visible study

Anal K. Jha; K. Prasad

2010-01-01

164

Silver nanoparticle structures realized by digital surface micromachining  

E-print Network

We report a new surface micromachining process using commercial silver nanoparticle inks and digital fabrication methods. This process is entirely digital (non-lithographic patterning), the feature sizes can be <20 mum, ...

Schmidt, Martin Arnold

165

Facile preparation of silver nanoparticles immobilized on chitin nanofiber surfaces to endow antifungal activities.  

PubMed

Silver nanoparticles were prepared on chitin nanofiber surfaces by UV light reduction of silver ions. The chitin nanofibers could be efficient substrates to immobilize silver nanoparticles with stable dispersion states. The dispersion and the nanocomposite film with acrylic resin showed characteristic absorption property in the visible light region due to the effect of the silver nanoparticles. Silver nanoparticles endowed strong antifungal activity to chitin nanofibers. PMID:25498704

Ifuku, Shinsuke; Tsukiyama, Yui; Yukawa, Taisuke; Egusa, Mayumi; Kaminaka, Hironori; Izawa, Hironori; Morimoto, Minoru; Saimoto, Hiroyuki

2015-03-01

166

Silver Nanoparticles Part 1: Synthesis and Spectroscopy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The NACK Center is an organization committed to supporting two âÂÂyear degree programs in micro and nanotechnology. The center offers online educational material for curriculum enhancement in this subject field. One of these resources is a lab documentation focusing on the topic of silver nanoparticles. The lab is "designed for an advanced chemistry class, but may also be done with first year student. Prior experience with spectroscopy is recommended.â The lesson includes objectives, sample solution preparations, and sample data and calculations. Overall, the objectives of this lesson are to demonstrate the use of a spectrophotometer, the observation of nanoscale physical properties and conversion of different unit measurements. The site requires a free log-in for access to the material.

2010-03-31

167

Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using pink guava waste extract (PGWE)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bio-inspired silver nanoparticles were synthesized with the aid of a novel, non-toxic, eco-friendly biological material namely, pink guava waste extract (PGWE). The pink guava waste extract will act as the reducing agent in reduction process in order to reduce the aqueous salt solutions of the silver nitrate. Moreover, economically, this process will also lower the cost of producing metal nanoparticles

Norashikin Ahmad Zamanhuri; Rasyidah Alrozi; Mohamed Syazwan Osman

2012-01-01

168

Photosensitized synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Withania somnifera leaf powder and silver nitrate.  

PubMed

The metal nanoparticle synthesis is highly explored field of nanotechnology. The biological methods seem to be more effective; however, due to slow reduction rate and polydispersity of the resulting products, they are less preferred. In the present study, we report rapid and facile synthesis of silver nanoparticles at room temperature. The exposure of reaction mixtures containing silver nitrate and dried leaf powder of Withania somnifera Linn to direct sunlight resulted in reduction of metal ions within five minutes whereas, the dark exposure took almost 12h. Further studies using different light filters reveal the role of blue light in reduction of silver ions. The synthesized silver nanoparticles were characterized by UV-Vis, Infrared spectroscopy (IR), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), X-ray Diffraction studies (XRD), Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis (NTA), Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS), and Cyclic Voltammetry (CV). The Antibacterial and antifungal studies showed significant activity as compared to their respective standards. PMID:24602813

Raut, Rajesh Warluji; Mendhulkar, Vijay Damodhar; Kashid, Sahebrao Balaso

2014-03-01

169

Green synthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles using Zingiber officinale root extract and antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles against food pathogens.  

PubMed

In the present study, we synthesized silver and gold nanoparticles with a particle size of 10-20 nm, using Zingiber officinale root extract as a reducing and capping agent. Chloroauric acid (HAuCl4) and silver nitrate (AgNO3) were mixed with Z. officinale root extract for the production of silver (AgNPs) and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). The surface plasmon absorbance spectra of AgNPs and AuNPs were observed at 436-531 nm, respectively. Optimum nanoparticle production was achieved at pH 8 and 9, 1 mM metal ion, a reaction temperature 50 °C and reaction time of 150-180 min for AgNPs and AuNPs, respectively. An energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) study provides proof for the purity of AgNPs and AuNPs. Transmission electron microscopy images show the diameter of well-dispersed AgNPs (10-20 nm) and AuNPs (5-20 nm). The nanocrystalline phase of Ag and Au with FCC crystal structures have been confirmed by X-ray diffraction analysis. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis shows the respective peaks for the potential biomolecules in the ginger rhizome extract, which are responsible for the reduction in metal ions and synthesized AgNPs and AuNPs. In addition, the synthesized AgNPs showed a moderate antibacterial activity against bacterial food pathogens. PMID:24668029

Velmurugan, Palanivel; Anbalagan, Krishnan; Manosathyadevan, Manoharan; Lee, Kui-Jae; Cho, Min; Lee, Sang-Myeong; Park, Jung-Hee; Oh, Sae-Gang; Bang, Keuk-Soo; Oh, Byung-Taek

2014-10-01

170

Antibacterial properties of silver nanoparticles synthesized using Pulicaria glutinosa plant extract as a green bioreductant  

PubMed Central

The antibacterial properties of nanoparticles (NPs) can be significantly enhanced by increasing the wettability or solubility of NPs in aqueous medium. In this study, we investigated the effects of the stabilizing agent on the solubility of silver NPs and its subsequent effect on their antimicrobial activities. Silver NPs were prepared using an aqueous solution of Pulicaria glutinosa plant extract as bioreductant. The solution also acts as a capping ligand. During this study, the antimicrobial activities of silver NPs, as well as the plant extract alone, were tested against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and Micrococcus luteus. Silver NPs were prepared with various concentrations of the plant extract to study its effect on antimicrobial activity. Interestingly, various concentrations of P. glutinosa extract did not show any effect on the growth of tested bacteria; however, a significant effect on the antimicrobial property of plant extract capped silver NPs (Ag-NPs-PE) was observed. For instance, the half maximal inhibitory concentration values were found to decrease (from 4% to 21%) with the increasing concentrations of plant extract used for the synthesis of Ag-NPs-PE. These results clearly indicate that the addition of P. glutinosa extracts enhances the solubility of Ag-NPs-PE and, hence, increases their toxicity against the tested microorganisms. PMID:25114525

Khan, Mujeeb; Khan, Shams Tabrez; Khan, Merajuddin; Adil, Syed Farooq; Musarrat, Javed; Al-Khedhairy, Abdulaziz A; Al-Warthan, Abdulrahman; Siddiqui, Mohammed Rafiq H; Alkhathlan, Hamad Z

2014-01-01

171

Luminescent Silicon Nanoparticles Capped by Conductive Polyaniline through the Self-Assembly Method  

E-print Network

Luminescent Silicon Nanoparticles Capped by Conductive Polyaniline through the Self-Assembly Method polymer coating on free-standing luminescent silicon nanoparticles. The silicon nanoparticles maintained electron microscopy. The silane self-assembled monolayer effectively protected the silicon particles

Swihart, Mark T.

172

Silver ion mediated shape control of platinum nanoparticles: Removal of silver by selective etching leads to increased catalytic activity  

SciTech Connect

A procedure has been developed for the selective etching of Ag from Pt nanoparticles of well-defined shape, resulting in the formation of elementally-pure Pt cubes, cuboctahedra, or octahedra, with a largest vertex-to-vertex distance of {approx}9.5 nm from Ag-modified Pt nanoparticles. A nitric acid etching process was applied Pt nanoparticles supported on mesoporous silica, as well as nanoparticles dispersed in aqueous solution. The characterization of the silica-supported particles by XRD, TEM, and N{sub 2} adsorption measurements demonstrated that the structure of the nanoparticles and the mesoporous support remained conserved during etching in concentrated nitric acid. Both elemental analysis and ethylene hydrogenation indicated etching of Ag is only effective when [HNO{sub 3}] {ge} 7 M; below this concentration, the removal of Ag is only {approx}10%. Ethylene hydrogenation activity increased by four orders of magnitude after the etching of Pt octahedra that contained the highest fraction of silver. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy of the unsupported particles after etching demonstrated that etching does not alter the surface structure of the Pt nanoparticles. High [HNO{sub 3}] led to the decomposition of the capping agent, polyvinylpyrollidone (PVP); infrared spectroscopy confirmed that many decomposition products were present on the surface during etching, including carbon monoxide.

Grass, Michael E.; Yue, Yao; Habas, Susan E.; Rioux, Robert M.; Teall, Chelsea I.; Somorjai, G.A.

2008-01-09

173

Toxicity mechanisms in Escherichia coli vary for silver nanoparticles and differ from ionic silver.  

PubMed

Silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) are commonly added to various consumer products and materials to impair bacterial growth. Recent studies suggested that the primary mechanism of antibacterial action of silver nanoparticles is release of silver ion (Ag(+)) and that particle-specific activity of silver nanoparticles is negligible. Here, we used a genome-wide library of Escherichia coli consisting of ?4000 single gene deletion mutants to elucidate which physiological pathways are involved in how E. coli responds to different Ag NPs. The nanoparticles studied herein varied in both size and surface charge. AgNO3 was used as a control for soluble silver ions. Within a series of differently sized citrate-coated Ag NPs, smaller size resulted in higher Ag ion dissolution and toxicity. Nanoparticles functionalized with cationic, branched polyethylene imine (BPEI) exhibited equal toxicity with AgNO3. When we used a genome-wide approach to investigate the pathways involved in the response of E. coli to different toxicants, we found that only one of the particles (Ag-cit10) exhibited a pattern of response that was statistically similar to that of silver ion. By contrast, the pathways involved in E. coli response to Ag-BPEI particles were more similar to those observed for another cationic nanoparticle that did not contain Ag. Overall, we found that the pathways involved in bacterial responses to Ag nanoparticles are highly dependent on physicochemical properties of the nanoparticles, particularly the surface characteristics. These results have important implications for the regulation and testing of silver nanoparticles. PMID:24341736

Ivask, Angela; Elbadawy, Amro; Kaweeteerawat, Chitrada; Boren, David; Fischer, Heidi; Ji, Zhaoxia; Chang, Chong Hyun; Liu, Rong; Tolaymat, Thabet; Telesca, Donatello; Zink, Jeffrey I; Cohen, Yoram; Holden, Patricia Ann; Godwin, Hilary A

2014-01-28

174

Biogenic antimicrobial silver nanoparticles produced by fungi.  

PubMed

Aspergillus tubingensis and Bionectria ochroleuca showed excellent extracellular ability to synthesize silver nanoparticles (Ag NP), spherical in shape and 35?±?10 nm in size. Ag NP were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis, and photon correlation spectroscopy for particle size and zeta potential. Proteins present in the fungal filtrate and in Ag NP dispersion were analyzed by electrophoresis (sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis). Ag NP showed pronounced antifungal activity against Candida sp, frequently occurring in hospital infections, with minimal inhibitory concentration in the range of 0.11-1.75 ?g/mL. Regarding antibacterial activity, nanoparticles produced by A. tubingensis were more effective compared to the other fungus, inhibiting 98.0 % of Pseudomonas. aeruginosa growth at 0.28 ?g/mL. A. tubingensis synthesized Ag NP with surprisingly high and positive surface potential, differing greatly from all known fungi. These data open the possibility of obtaining biogenic Ag NP with positive surface potential and new applications. PMID:22707055

Rodrigues, Alexandre G; Ping, Liu Yu; Marcato, Priscyla D; Alves, Oswaldo L; Silva, Maria C P; Ruiz, Rita C; Melo, Itamar S; Tasic, Ljubica; De Souza, Ana O

2013-01-01

175

Chemiluminescent Reactions Catalyzed by Nanoparticles of Gold, Silver, and Gold/Silver Alloys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chemiluminescence (CL) reactions are catalyzed by metals nanoparticles, which display unique catalytic properties due to an increased surface area. The present study describes the catalytic effects of nanoparticles (NP) of silver, gold, and alloys of Au/Ag nanoparticles on the chemiluminescent reaction taking place between luminol and potassium ferricyanide. It was found that silver nanoparticles and alloy nanoparticles enhance the CL process when their sizes remained in the range of 30 nm to 50 nm. The data show that the intensity and rate of chemiluminescence were influenced by the mole fraction of gold and silver in the alloy. Data to this chemiluminescence reaction are modeled by a double exponential curve, which indicates that two competing processes are occurring.

Abideen, Saqib Ul

176

Cellular oxido-reductive proteins of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii control the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles  

PubMed Central

Background Elucidation of molecular mechanism of silver nanoparticles (SNPs) biosynthesis is important to control its size, shape and monodispersity. The evaluation of molecular mechanism of biosynthesis of SNPs is of prime importance for the commercialization and methodology development for controlling the shape and size (uniform distribution) of SNPs. The unicellular algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii was exploited as a model system to elucidate the role of cellular proteins in SNPs biosynthesis. Results The C. reinhardtii cell free extract (in vitro) and in vivo cells mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles reveals SNPs of size range 5 ± 1 to 15 ± 2 nm and 5 ± 1 to 35 ± 5 nm respectively. In vivo biosynthesized SNPs were localized in the peripheral cytoplasm and at one side of flagella root, the site of pathway of ATP transport and its synthesis related enzymes. This provides an evidence for the involvement of oxidoreductive proteins in biosynthesis and stabilization of SNPs. Alteration in size distribution and decrease of synthesis rate of SNPs in protein-depleted fractions confirmed the involvement of cellular proteins in SNPs biosynthesis. Spectroscopic and SDS-PAGE analysis indicate the association of various proteins on C. reinhardtii mediated in vivo and in vitro biosynthesized SNPs. We have identified various cellular proteins associated with biosynthesized (in vivo and in vitro) SNPs by using MALDI-MS-MS, like ATP synthase, superoxide dismutase, carbonic anhydrase, ferredoxin-NADP+ reductase, histone etc. However, these proteins were not associated on the incubation of pre-synthesized silver nanoparticles in vitro. Conclusion Present study provides the indication of involvement of molecular machinery and various cellular proteins in the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles. In this report, the study is mainly focused towards understanding the role of diverse cellular protein in the synthesis and capping of silver nanoparticles using C. reinhardtii as a model system. PMID:22152042

2011-01-01

177

Biosynthesis, characterization and antibacterial studies of silver nanoparticles using pods extract of Acacia auriculiformis.  

PubMed

The present study reports an environmental friendly method for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) using an aqueous extract of Acacia auriculiformis that acts as reducing agent as well as capping agent. The obtained NPs were characterized by UV-vis absorption spectroscopy and showed a sharp surface plasmon absorption band at ?400 nm. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) showed nanoparticles were capped with plant compounds. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed that the particles were spherical in nature with diameter ranging from 20 to 150 nm depending on the pH of the solution. The as-synthesized Ag NPs showed antibacterial activity against both Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria with more efficacy against Gram negative bacteria. PMID:24727170

Nalawade, Pradnya; Mukherjee, Poulomi; Kapoor, Sudhir

2014-08-14

178

Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles from Gloriosa superba L. leaf extract and their catalytic activity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present work focuses the use of aqueous extract of Gloriosa superba Linn. (Glory Lily) for producing silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) from silver nitrate aqueous solution. Phytochemical analysis of the extract revealed the presence of alkaloid, amino acids, carbohydrates and proteins in the extract and they serve as effective reducing and capping agents for converting silver nitrate to silver nanoparticles. The nanoparticles were characterised by UV (Ultra violet), FT-IR (Fourier Transform Infrared), XRD (X-ray diffraction), TEM (Transmission Electron Microscope) SEM-EDX (Scanning Electron Microscopy-Energy Dispersive X-ray), and PL (Photoluminescence) studies. Moreover, the catalytic activity of synthesized AgNPs in the reduction of methylene blue was studied by UV-vis spectrophotometer. The synthesized AgNPs are observed to have a good catalytic activity on the reduction of methylene blue by G. superba extract which is confirmed by the decrease in absorbance maximum values of methylene blue with respect to time using UV-vis spectrophotometer.

Ashokkumar, S.; Ravi, S.; Velmurugan, S.

2013-11-01

179

The Use of chitosan in The Formation of Silver Nanoparticles, Chitosanic Nanoparticles and Fibrous Structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanoscale materials have attracted much attention in the last two decades due to their unique properties. The size effect attains new chemical and physical properties to these materials. Nanoparticles and nanofiber are major component of nanomaterials and they have heavily investigated in the literature for different applications. Nanoparticles could be produced from both metals as well as polymers. Chitosan, which is a natural polymer, can be used as capping agent in the preparation of metallic nanoparticles and itself, can produce nanoparticles. The utilization of nanoparticles and nanofibers for wound dressing materials is a very popular approach. Acquiring antibacterial properties to the wound dressing materials could be obtained either by formulation of nanomaterials composites or direct chemical modification of the substance. To improve the antibacterial properties of chitosan two approaches were applied. First, is through the formulation of chitosan with silver nanoparticles and the formation of nanofiber mats. In this study, the concepts of green chemistry were applied and silver nanoparticles were prepared in high concentration using chitosan as a capping polymer and glucose as a reducing agent. Nanofiber mats of polyvinyl alcohol/chitosan/silvernanoparticles were produced via electrospinning. The antibacterial activity of these fibers shows bactericidal effect against E. coli at low concentrations of Ag-NPs. In the second approach, direct chemical modification of chitosan was performed by grafting of Iodoacetic acid to the amino group at carbon-2. The chemical structure of chitosan Iodoacetamide derivative (CIA) was confirmed by FTIR and H1-NMR. The derivative was amorphous and water soluble at neutral pH. The minimum inhibitory concentration of CIA, against E. coli, was 400ig/mL and the derivative was bacteriostatic after 4h of treatment. Nanofiber mats of polyvinyl alcohol/chitosan/chitosan Iodoacetamide were produced via electrospinning. The antibacterial testing of the nanofiber mats were performed according to AATCC-100 protocol. PVA/CS/CIA system was found to have superior antibacterial action over PVA/CS/thiolchitosan counterparts. In the last part of the thesis, chitosan nanoparticles were prepared; for the first time in the literature instead of Tripolyphosphate (TPP), via ionic crosslinking with hexametaphosphate (HMP). A systematic study was conducted to apply the chitosan/HMP nanoparticles as a hydrophilic drug carrier for protein drugs. Chitosan/HMP systems were found to be unstable in the acidic medium. The optimum complexation conditions were established as pH 5 and the nanoparticles showed better stability at 21 days. Chitosan concentration plays an important role in improving particles stability by increasing zeta potential; however, it adversely affects the particles size. BSA loading capacity of chitosan/HMP was higher, 96.3%, than that of TPP, 91.87%, equivalents due to larger average size.

Abdelgawad, Abdelrahman Mohamed

180

Trapping and release of citrate-capped gold nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An electrical method to trap and release charged gold nanoparticles onto and from the surface of gold electrodes modified by an alkanethiol self-assembled monolayer (SAM) is presented. To form electrodes coated with gold nanoparticles (GNPs), amine-terminated SAMs on gold electrodes were immersed in a solution of negatively charged citrate-capped GNPs. Accumulation of GNPs on the electrode surface was monitored by a decrease in the impedance of the SAM-modified electrode and by an increase in the electrochemical activity at the electrode as shown through cyclic voltammetry (CV). Electrostatic interactions between the GNPs and the amine-terminated SAM trap the GNPs on the electrode surface. Application of a subsequent negative bias to the electrode initiated a partial release of the GNPs from the electrode surface. Impedance spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry, ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were used to monitor and confirm the attraction of GNPs to and release from the aminealkanethiolated gold electrodes. This work describes a method of trapping and release for citrate-capped GNPs that could be used for on-demand nanoparticle delivery applications such as in assessing and modeling nanoparticle toxicology, as well as for monitoring the functionalization of gold nanoparticles.

Reyes, Darwin R.; Mijares, Geraldine I.; Nablo, Brian; Briggman, Kimberly A.; Gaitan, Michael

2011-08-01

181

Green synthesis of colloid silver nanoparticles and resulting biodegradable starch/silver nanocomposites.  

PubMed

Environmentally friendly silver nanocomposite films were prepared by an ex situ method consisting firstly in the preparation of colloidal silver dispersions and secondly in the dispersion of the as-prepared nanoparticles in a potato starch/glycerol matrix, keeping a green chemistry process all along the synthesis steps. In the first step concerned with the preparation of the colloidal silver dispersions, water, glucose and soluble starch were used as solvent, reducing agent and stabilizing agent, respectively. The influences of the glucose amount and reaction time were investigated on the size and size distribution of the silver nanoparticles. Two distinct silver nanoparticle populations in size (diameter around 5 nm size for the first one and from 20 to 50 nm for the second one) were distinguished and still highlighted in the potato starch/glycerol based nanocomposite films. It was remarkable that lower nanoparticle mean sizes were evidenced by both TEM and UV-vis analyses in the nanocomposites in comparison to the respective colloidal silver dispersions. A dispersion mechanism based on the potential interactions developed between the nanoparticles and the polymer matrix and on the polymer chain lengths was proposed to explain this morphology. These nanocomposite film series can be viewed as a promising candidate for many applications in antimicrobial packaging, biomedicines and sensors. PMID:24751276

Cheviron, Perrine; Gouanvé, Fabrice; Espuche, Eliane

2014-08-01

182

Agricultural waste Annona squamosa peel extract: Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Development of reliable and eco-friendly process for the synthesis of metallic nanoparticles is an important step in the field of application of nanotechnology. We have developed modern method by using agriculture waste to synthesize silver nanoparticles by employing an aqueous peel extract of Annona squamosa in AgNO3. Controlled growth of silver nanoparticles was formed in 4 h at room temperature (25 °C) and 60 °C. AgNPs were irregular spherical in shape and the average particle size was about 35 ± 5 nm and it is consistent with particle size obtained by XRD Scherer equation.

Kumar, Rajendran; Roopan, Selvaraj Mohana; Prabhakarn, Arunachalam; Khanna, Venkatesan Gopiesh; Chakroborty, Subhendu

2012-05-01

183

New Paradigm Shift for the Green Synthesis of Antibacterial Silver Nanoparticles Utilizing Plant Extracts  

PubMed Central

This review covers general information regarding the green synthesis of antibacterial silver nanoparticles. Owing to their antibacterial properties, silver nanoparticles are widely used in many areas, especially biomedical applications. In green synthesis practices, the chemical reducing agents are eliminated, and biological entities are utilized to convert silver ions to silver nanoparticles. Among the various biological entities, natural plant extracts have emerged as green reducing agents, providing eco-friendly routes for the preparation of silver nanomaterials. The most obvious merits of green synthesis are the increased biocompatibility of the resulting silver nanoparticles and the ease with which the reaction can be carried out. This review summarizes some of the plant extracts that are used to produce antibacterial silver nanoparticles. Additionally, background information regarding the green synthesis and antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles is provided. Finally, the toxicological aspects of silver nanoparticles are briefly mentioned. PMID:25343010

2014-01-01

184

Plasmonic coupling of SiO{sub 2}-Ag 'post-cap' nanostructures and silver film for surface enhanced Raman scattering  

SciTech Connect

We demonstrate a surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrate consisting of SiO{sub 2}-Ag''post-cap'' nanostructures with an underlying silver film fabricated by the glancing angle deposition technique. Electromagnetic simulations predict that SERS enhancement is strongly polarization-dependent, consistent with experimental measurements. Optimized coupling between Ag cap nanoparticles and the underlying silver film can be achieved by controlling the thickness of SiO{sub 2} post sandwiched between them to significantly enhance local electric-field intensity and to increase the density of electromagnetic hot spots. A maximum SERS enhancement factor of 2.38x10{sup 9} within the hot spot region is demonstrated, providing sufficient sensitivity for many important applications.

Wu, Hsin-Yu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Cunningham, Brian T. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Department of Bioengineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)

2011-04-11

185

Antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles synthesized from serine.  

PubMed

Silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) were synthesized by a simple microwave irradiation method using polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) as a capping agent and serine as a reducing agent. UV-Visible spectra were used to confirm the formation of Ag NPs by observing the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) band at 443nm. The emission spectrum of Ag NPs showed an emission band at 484nm. In the presence of microwave radiation, serine acts as a reducing agent, which was confirmed by Fourier transformed infrared (FT-IR) spectrum. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) and high-resolution scanning electron microscopy (HR-SEM) were used to investigate the morphology of the synthesized sample. These images showed the sphere-like morphology. The elemental composition of the sample was determined by the energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). Selected area electron diffraction (SAED) was used to find the crystalline nature of the Ag NPs. The electrochemical behavior of the synthesized Ag NPs was analyzed by the cyclic voltammetry (CV). Antibacterial experiments showed that the prepared Ag NPs showed relatively similar antibacterial activities, when compared with AgNO3 against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. PMID:25686955

Jayaprakash, N; Judith Vijaya, J; John Kennedy, L; Priadharsini, K; Palani, P

2015-04-01

186

Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Rhodobacter Sphaeroides  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of microorganisms in the synthesis of nanoparticles emerges as an eco-friendly and exciting approach. In this study,\\u000a silver nanoparticles were successfully synthesized from AgNO3 by reduction of aqueous Ag+ ions with the cell filtrate of Rhodobacter sphaeroides. Nanoparticles were characterized by means of UV–vis absorption spectroscopy, X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), transmission electron\\u000a microscopy (TEM) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy

Hong-Juan Bai; Bin-Sheng Yang; Chun-Jing Chai; Guan-E. Yang; Wan-Li Jia; Zhi-Ben Yi

187

PVP-coated, negatively charged silver nanoparticles: A multi-center study of their physicochemical characteristics, cell culture and in vivo experiments.  

PubMed

PVP-capped silver nanoparticles with a diameter of the metallic core of 70 nm, a hydrodynamic diameter of 120 nm and a zeta potential of -20 mV were prepared and investigated with regard to their biological activity. This review summarizes the physicochemical properties (dissolution, protein adsorption, dispersability) of these nanoparticles and the cellular consequences of the exposure of a broad range of biological test systems to this defined type of silver nanoparticles. Silver nanoparticles dissolve in water in the presence of oxygen. In addition, in biological media (i.e., in the presence of proteins) the surface of silver nanoparticles is rapidly coated by a protein corona that influences their physicochemical and biological properties including cellular uptake. Silver nanoparticles are taken up by cell-type specific endocytosis pathways as demonstrated for hMSC, primary T-cells, primary monocytes, and astrocytes. A visualization of particles inside cells is possible by X-ray microscopy, fluorescence microscopy, and combined FIB/SEM analysis. By staining organelles, their localization inside the cell can be additionally determined. While primary brain astrocytes are shown to be fairly tolerant toward silver nanoparticles, silver nanoparticles induce the formation of DNA double-strand-breaks (DSB) and lead to chromosomal aberrations and sister-chromatid exchanges in Chinese hamster fibroblast cell lines (CHO9, K1, V79B). An exposure of rats to silver nanoparticles in vivo induced a moderate pulmonary toxicity, however, only at rather high concentrations. The same was found in precision-cut lung slices of rats in which silver nanoparticles remained mainly at the tissue surface. In a human 3D triple-cell culture model consisting of three cell types (alveolar epithelial cells, macrophages, and dendritic cells), adverse effects were also only found at high silver concentrations. The silver ions that are released from silver nanoparticles may be harmful to skin with disrupted barrier (e.g., wounds) and induce oxidative stress in skin cells (HaCaT). In conclusion, the data obtained on the effects of this well-defined type of silver nanoparticles on various biological systems clearly demonstrate that cell-type specific properties as well as experimental conditions determine the biocompatibility of and the cellular responses to an exposure with silver nanoparticles. PMID:25383306

Ahlberg, Sebastian; Antonopulos, Alexandra; Diendorf, Jörg; Dringen, Ralf; Epple, Matthias; Flöck, Rebekka; Goedecke, Wolfgang; Graf, Christina; Haberl, Nadine; Helmlinger, Jens; Herzog, Fabian; Heuer, Frederike; Hirn, Stephanie; Johannes, Christian; Kittler, Stefanie; Köller, Manfred; Korn, Katrin; Kreyling, Wolfgang G; Krombach, Fritz; Lademann, Jürgen; Loza, Kateryna; Luther, Eva M; Malissek, Marcelina; Meinke, Martina C; Nordmeyer, Daniel; Pailliart, Anne; Raabe, Jörg; Rancan, Fiorenza; Rothen-Rutishauser, Barbara; Rühl, Eckart; Schleh, Carsten; Seibel, Andreas; Sengstock, Christina; Treuel, Lennart; Vogt, Annika; Weber, Katrin; Zellner, Reinhard

2014-01-01

188

Distribution of silver in rats following 28 days of repeated oral exposure to silver nanoparticles or silver acetate  

PubMed Central

Background The study investigated the distribution of silver after 28 days repeated oral administration of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and silver acetate (AgAc) to rats. Oral administration is a relevant route of exposure because of the use of silver nanoparticles in products related to food and food contact materials. Results AgNPs were synthesized with a size distribution of 14 ± 4 nm in diameter (90% of the nanoparticle volume) and stabilized in aqueous suspension by the polymer polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). The AgNPs remained stable throughout the duration of the 28-day oral toxicity study in rats. The organ distribution pattern of silver following administration of AgNPs and AgAc was similar. However the absolute silver concentrations in tissues were lower following oral exposure to AgNPs. This was in agreement with an indication of a higher fecal excretion following administration of AgNPs. Besides the intestinal system, the largest silver concentrations were detected in the liver and kidneys. Silver was also found in the lungs and brain. Autometallographic (AMG) staining revealed a similar cellular localization of silver in ileum, liver, and kidney tissue in rats exposed to AgNPs or AgAc. Using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), nanosized granules were detected in the ileum of animals exposed to AgNPs or AgAc and were mainly located in the basal lamina of the ileal epithelium and in lysosomes of macrophages within the lamina propria. Using energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy it was shown that the granules in lysosomes consisted of silver, selenium, and sulfur for both AgNP and AgAc exposed rats. The diameter of the deposited granules was in the same size range as that of the administered AgNPs. No silver granules were detected by TEM in the liver. Conclusions The results of the present study demonstrate that the organ distribution of silver was similar when AgNPs or AgAc were administered orally to rats. The presence of silver granules containing selenium and sulfur in the intestinal wall of rats exposed to either of the silver forms suggests a common mechanism of their formation. Additional studies however, are needed to gain further insight into the underlying mechanisms of the granule formation, and to clarify whether AgNPs dissolve in the gastrointestinal system and/or become absorbed and translocate as intact nanoparticles to organs and tissues. PMID:21631937

2011-01-01

189

Nanoparticle Silver Catalysts That Show Enhanced Activity for Carbon Dioxide Electrolysis  

E-print Network

Nanoparticle Silver Catalysts That Show Enhanced Activity for Carbon Dioxide Electrolysis Amin is about 10 times higher on 5 nm silver nanoparticles than on bulk silver even though measurements of two catalysts, a silver metal and ionic liquid 1- ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (EMIM

Kenis, Paul J. A.

190

Catalytic degradation of organic dyes using biosynthesized silver nanoparticles.  

PubMed

The green synthesis of metallic nanoparticles paved the way to improve and protect the environment by decreasing the use of toxic chemicals and eliminating biological risks in biomedical applications. Plant mediated synthesis of metal nanoparticles is gaining more importance owing to its simplicity, rapid rate of synthesis of nanoparticles and eco-friendliness. The present article reports an environmentally benign and unexploited method for the synthesis of silver nanocatalysts using Trigonella foenum-graecum seeds, which is a potential source of phytochemicals. The UV-visible absorption spectra of the silver samples exhibited distinct band centered around 400-440 nm. The major phytochemicals present in the seed extract responsible for the formation of silver nanocatalysts are identified using FTIR spectroscopy. The report emphasizes the effect of the size of silver nanoparticles on the degradation rate of hazardous dyes, methyl orange, methylene blue and eosin Y by NaBH4. The efficiency of silver nanoparticles as a promising candidate for the catalysis of organic dyes by NaBH4 through the electron transfer process is established in the present study. PMID:24210247

Vidhu, V K; Philip, Daizy

2014-01-01

191

Photothermal-reaction-assisted two-photon lithography of silver nanocrystals capped with thermally cleavable ligands  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report an alternative approach to produce micropatterns of metallic nanoparticles using photothermal-reaction-assisted two-photon direct laser writing. The patterns are achieved using a facile surface treatment of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) functionalized with thermally cleavable ligands; N-(tert-butoxycarbonyl)-L-cysteine methyl ester. The ligand cleavage initiated by pulsed laser-induced thermal reaction results in a significant change in dispersiblility of the nanocrystals, thereby enabling

Won Jin Kim; Xavier Vidal; Alexander Baev; Hong Sub Jee; Mark T. Swihart; Paras N. Prasad

2011-01-01

192

Green biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Curcuma longa tuber powder  

PubMed Central

Green synthesis of noble metal nanoparticles is a vastly developing area of research. Metallic nanoparticles have received great attention from chemists, physicists, biologists, and engineers who wish to use them for the development of a new-generation of nanodevices. In this study, silver nanoparticles were biosynthesized from aqueous silver nitrate through a simple and eco-friendly route using Curcuma longa tuber-powder extracts, which acted as a reductant and stabilizer simultaneously. Characterizations of nanoparticles were done using different methods, which included ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. The ultraviolet-visible spectrum of the aqueous medium containing silver nanoparticles showed an absorption peak at around 415 nm. Transmission electron microscopy showed that mean diameter and standard deviation for the formation of silver nanoparticles was 6.30 ± 2.64 nm. Powder X-ray diffraction showed that the particles are crystalline in nature, with a face-centered cubic structure. The most needed outcome of this work will be the development of value-added products from C. longa for biomedical and nanotechnology-based industries. PMID:23341739

Shameli, Kamyar; Ahmad, Mansor Bin; Zamanian, Ali; Sangpour, Parvanh; Shabanzadeh, Parvaneh; Abdollahi, Yadollah; Zargar, Mohsen

2012-01-01

193

Preparation of starch-stabilized silver nanoparticles from amylose-sodium palmitate inclusion complexes  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Starch-stabilized silver nanoparticles were prepared from amylose-sodium palmitate complexes by first converting sodium palmitate to silver palmitate by reaction with silver nitrate and then reducing the silver ion to metallic silver. This process produced water solutions that could be dried and the...

194

Photocurrent enhancement in polythiophene doped with silver nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We studied the spectral dependence of the influence of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) on the photoconductivity of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) thin films. 7 ± 2 nm silver nanoparticles were synthesized by thermal decomposition of an organometallic silver salt in organic solvent. Optical properties of the mixture of P3HT and Ag NPs and thin films with various Ag content were investigated. Spectral dependences of the photocurrent were measured for the films cast on the top of interdigitated microelectrodes. Antibatic behavior of the photocurrent with respect to the absorption spectrum was observed. Results shows 40-150 times enhancement of the photocurrents, depending on the wavelength, in films doped with Ag NPs compared with the pristine films. The existing theories on the influence of metallic nanoparticles in the photoactive layer of organic solar cells are reviewed and discussed.

Szeremeta, Janusz; Nyk, Marcin; Samoc, Marek

2014-11-01

195

Sulfidation of Silver Nanoparticles: Natural antidote to their toxicity  

PubMed Central

Nanomaterials are highly dynamic in biological and environmental media. A critical need for advancing environmental health and safety research for nanomaterials is to identify commonly occurring physical and chemical transformations affecting nanomaterial properties and toxicity. Silver nanoparticles, one of the most ecotoxic and well-studied nanomaterials, readily sulfidize in the environment. Here, we show that very low degrees of sulfidation (0.019 S/Ag mass ratio) universally and significantly decreases the toxicity of silver nanoparticles to four diverse types of aquatic and terrestrial eukaryotic organisms. Toxicity reduction is primarily associated with a decrease in Ag+ availability after sulfidation due to the lower solubility of Ag2S relative to elemental Ag (Ag(0)). We also show that chloride in exposure media determines silver nanoparticle toxicity by controlling the speciation of Ag. These results highlight the need to consider environmental transformation of NPs in assessing their toxicity to accurately portray their potential environmental risks. PMID:24180218

Levard, Clément; Hotze, Ernest M.; Colman, Benjamin P.; Truong, Lisa; Yang, X. Y.; Bone, Audrey; Brown, Gordon E.; Tanguay, Robert L.; Di Giulio, Richard T.; Bernhardt, Emily S.; Meyer, Joel N.; Wiesner, Mark R.; Lowry, Gregory V.

2014-01-01

196

Silver Nanoparticle Fabrication by Laser Ablation in Polyvinyl Alcohol Solutions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A laser ablation technique is applied for synthesis of silver nanoparticles in different concentrations of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) aqueous solution. The ablation of high pure silver plate in the solution is carried out by a nanosecond Q-switched Nd:YAG pulsed laser. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy are implemented to explore the particles sizes. The effects of PVA concentrations on the absorbance of the silver nanoparticles are studied as well, by using a UV-vis spectrophotometer. The preparation process is carried out for deionized water as a reference sample. The comparison of the obtained results with the reference sample shows that the formation efficiency of nanoparticles in PVA is much higher and the sizes of particles are also smaller.

Halimah Mohamed., K.; Mahmoud Goodarz, Naseri; Amir, Reza Sadrolhosseini; Arash, Dehzangi; Ahmad, Kamalianfar; Elias, B. Saion; Reza, Zamiri; Hossein Abastabar, Ahangar; Burhanuddin, Y. Majlis

2014-07-01

197

Heteroaggregation of Silver Nanoparticles with Clay Minerals in Aqueous System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanoparticles are increasingly being used in industrial processes and consumer products that exploit their beneficial properties and improve our daily lives. Nevertheless, they also attract attention when released into natural environment due to their potential for causing adverse effects. The fate and transport of nanoparticles in aqueous systems have been the focus of intense study. However, their interactions with other natural particles have received only limited attention. Clay minerals are ubiquitous in most aquatic systems and their variably charged surfaces can act as deposition sites that can alter the fate and transport of nanoparticles in natural aqueous environments. In this study, we investigated the homoaggregation of silver nanoparticles with different coating layers and their heteroaggregation behavior with clay minerals (illite, kaolinite, montmorillonite) in neutral pH solutions. Silver nanoparticles with a nominal diameter of 80 nm were synthesized with three different surface coating layers: uncoated, citrate-coated and Tween-coated. Illite (IMt-2), kaolinite (KGa-2), and montmorillonite (SWy-2) were purchased from the Clay Mineral Society (Indiana) and pretreated to obtain monocationic (Na-clay) and dicationic (Ca-clay) suspensions before the experiments. The change in hydrodynamic diameter as a function of time was monitored using dynamic light scattering (DLS) measurements in order to evaluate early stage aggregation as a function of electrolyte concentration in both the homo- and heteroaggregation scenarios. A shift in the critical coagulation concentration (CCC) values to lower electrolyte concentrations was observed in binary systems, compared to single silver nanoparticle and clay systems. The results also suggest more rapid aggregation in binary system during the early aggregation stage when compared to the single-particle systems. The behavior of citrate-coated silver nanoparticles was similar to that of the bare particles, while the Tween-coated silver nanoparticles showed high stability in both single and binary systems. There were no significant differences in early stage aggregation kinetics observed inthe Na-clay-nanoparticle or Ca-clay-nanoparticle systems, which suggested that the CCC values of the single Na- or Ca-clay suspensions depend only on the electrolyte concentration, not the original cations on the clay surface. These results provide a basic idea for understanding the heteroaggregation of different silver nanoparticles and clays, which can be utilized in further study of fate and transport of engineered nanoparticles in natural aqueous system.

Liu, J.; Burrow, E.; Hwang, Y.; Lenhart, J.

2013-12-01

198

Evolution of Silver Nanoparticles in the Rat Lung Investigated by X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy.  

PubMed

Following a 6-h inhalation exposure to aerosolized 20 and 110 nm diameter silver nanoparticles, lung tissues from rats were investigated with X-ray absorption spectroscopy, which can identify the chemical state of silver species. Lung tissues were processed immediately after sacrifice of the animals at 0, 1, 3, and 7 days post exposure and the samples were stored in an inert and low-temperature environment until measured. We found that it is critical to follow a proper processing, storage and measurement protocol; otherwise only silver oxides are detected after inhalation even for the larger nanoparticles. The results of X-ray absorption spectroscopy measurements taken in air at 85 K suggest that the dominating silver species in all the postexposure lung tissues were metallic silver, not silver oxide, or solvated silver cations. The results further indicate that the silver nanoparticles in the tissues were transformed from the original nanoparticles to other forms of metallic silver nanomaterials and the rate of this transformation depended on the size of the original nanoparticles. We found that 20 nm diameter silver nanoparticles were significantly modified after aerosolization and 6-h inhalation/deposition, whereas larger, 110 nm diameter nanoparticles were largely unchanged. Over the seven-day postexposure period the smaller 20 nm silver nanoparticles underwent less change in the lung tissue than the larger 110 nm silver nanoparticles. In contrast, silica-coated gold nanoparticles did not undergo any modification processes and remained as the initial nanoparticles throughout the 7-day study period. PMID:25517690

Davidson, R Andrew; Anderson, Donald S; Van Winkle, Laura S; Pinkerton, Kent E; Guo, T

2015-01-15

199

Electronic conductivity of alkyne-capped ruthenium nanoparticles.  

PubMed

Ruthenium nanoparticles (2.12 ± 0.72 nm in diameter) were stabilized by the self-assembly of alkyne molecules (from 1-hexyne to 1-hexadecyne) onto the Ru surface by virtue of the formation of Ru-vinylidene interfacial linkages. Infrared measurements depicted three vibrational bands at 2050 cm(-1), 1980 cm(-1) and 1950 cm(-1), which were ascribed to the vibrational stretches of the terminal triple bonds that were bound onto the nanoparticle surface. Thermogravimetric analysis showed that there were about 65 to 96 alkyne ligands per nanoparticle (depending on the ligand chainlength), corresponding to a molecular footprint of 20 to 15 Å(2). This suggests that the ligands likely adopted a head-on configuration on the nanoparticle surface, consistent with a vinylidene bonding linkage due to interfacial tautomeric rearrangements. With this conjugated interfacial bonding interaction, electronic conductivity measurements of the corresponding nanoparticle solid films showed that the nanoparticles all exhibited linear current-potential curves within the potential range of -0.8 V to +0.8 V at varied temperatures (200 to 300 K). The ohmic characters were partly ascribed to the spilling of core electrons into the organic capping layer that facilitated interparticle charge transfer. Furthermore, based on the temperature dependence of the nanoparticle electronic conductivity, the activation energy for interparticle charge transfer was estimated to be in the range of 70 to 90 meV and significantly, the coupling coefficient (?) was found to be 0.31 Å(-1) for nanoparticles stabilized by short-chain alkynes (1-hexyne, 1-octyne, and 1-decyne), and 1.44 Å(-1) for those with long alkynes such as 1-dodecyne, 1-tetradecyne, and 1-hexadecyne. This may be accounted for by the relative contributions of the conjugated metal-ligand interfacial bonding interactions versus the saturated aliphatic backbones of the alkyne ligands to the control of interparticle charge transfer. PMID:22441806

Kang, Xiongwu; Chen, Shaowei

2012-07-21

200

Biosynthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles using Bacillus licheniformis.  

PubMed

Owing to the wide-ranging applications of noble metal nanoparticles in diverse areas of science and technology, different methods have been proposed for their synthesis. Here, we describe the methods for the intracellular biosynthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles using the bacterium Bacillus licheniformis KK2 and this same procedure can be followed for other bacteria as well. The biological synthesis of nanoparticles is highly eco-friendly and possesses distinct advantages such as enhanced stability, better control over the size, shape, and monodispersity of the nanoparticles, when compared with the more traditional physical and chemical methods which often involves the use of hazardous chemicals creating environmental concern. PMID:22791422

Sriram, Muthu Irulappan; Kalishwaralal, Kalimuthu; Gurunathan, Sangiliyandi

2012-01-01

201

In situ formation of silver nanoparticles in PMMA via reduction of silver ions by butylated hydroxytoluene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) were efficiently generated by in situ reduction of silver ions via butylated hydroxytoluene\\u000a (BHT), in poly(methyl methacrylate). The characterization of Ag\\/PMMA by TEM, SEM, XRD, and FTIR indicated that Ag NPs with\\u000a a face center cubic (fcc) crystal structure and a mean diameter of about 30 nm were dispersed in PMMA matrix with a relatively\\u000a uniform distribution.

M. Z. Kassaee; M. Mohammadkhani; A. Akhavan; R. Mohammadi

2011-01-01

202

Biocide silver nanoparticles in two different silica-based coating  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Silica-based coatings containing biocide silver nanoparticles have been synthesized using low temperature sol-gel method. Two different silane based matrices, phenyltriethoxysilane (PhTEOS) and tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS), were selected as precursor to prepare silica-based film. The films were analyzed by using UV-visible spectrophotometry, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) for their optical, surface morphological as well as structural properties. Optical properties of nanosilver in these two matrices showed that the peak absorption observed at different wavelength, which is due to the fact that optical absorption of nanoparticles is affected by the surrounding medium. It is also found that the silver absorption has higher intensity in PhTEOS than in TEOS matrix, indicating higher concentration of silver nanoparticles being loaded into the coating. To study silver release property, the films were immersed in water for 12 and 20 days. AFM and SEM analyzes present that higher concentration of silver nanoparticles and smaller particle sizes were synthesis in PhTEOS coating and consequently, more particles remains on the surfaces after 20 days which leads to longer antibacterial activity of PhTEOS coating.

Babapour, A.; Yang, B.; Bahang, S.; Cao, W.

2012-09-01

203

Thermoluminescence of mercaptoethanol-capped ZnS:Mn nanoparticles.  

PubMed

The thermoluminescence (TL) of nanoparticles has become a matter of keen interest in recent times but is rarely reported. This article reports the synthesis of ZnS:Mn nanocrystals using a chemical route, with mercaptoethanol (ME) as the capping agent. The particle sizes for the nanocrystals were measured by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and also by studying transmission electron microscopy (TEM) patterns. The particle sizes of the synthesized samples were found to be between 1 and 3?nm. For samples with different concentrations of the capping agent, it was found that the TL intensity of the ZnS:Mn nanoparticles increased as the particle size decreased. A shift in the peak position of the TL glow curve was also seen with decreasing particle size. The TL intensity was found to be maximal for samples with 1.2% of Mn. A change in the peak position was not found for samples with different concentrations of Mn. The half-width glow peak curve method was used to determine the trap-depth. The frequency factor of the synthesized samples was also calculated. The stability of the charge carriers in the traps increases with decreasing nanoparticle size. The higher stability may be attributed to the higher surface/volume ratio and also to the increase in the trap-depth with decreasing particle size. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24953864

Sharma, Ravi; Bisen, D P

2014-06-22

204

Interaction between Silver Nanoparticles and Spinach Leaf  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interactions of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) with plant surfaces are critical to assessing the bioavailability of ENPs to edible plants and to further evaluating impacts of ENPs on ecological health and food safety. Silver nanoparticles (i.e., nanoAg) could enter the agroecosystems either as an active ingredient in pesticides or from other industrial and consumer applications. Thus, in the events of pesticide application, rainfall, and irrigation, vegetable leaves could become in contact and then interact with nanoAg. The present study was to assess whether the interaction of nanoAg with spinach leaves can be described by classical sorption models and to what extent it depends on and varies with dispersion methods, environmental temperature, and ion release. We investigated the stability and ion release of nanoAg dispersed by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS, 1%) and humic acid (HA, 10 mg C/L) solutions, as well as sorption and desorption of nanoAg on and from the fresh spinach leaf. Results showed SDS-nanoAg released about 2%-8% more Ag ion than HA-nanoAg. The sorption of Ag ion, described by the Freundlich model in the initial concentration range of 0.6-50 mg/L, was 2-4 times higher than that of nanoAg. The sorption of nanoAg on spinach leaf can be fitted by the Langmuir model, and the maximum sorption amount of HA-nanoAg and SDS-nanoAg was 0.21 and 0.41 mg/g, respectively. The higher sorption of SDS-nanoAg relative to that of HA-nanoAg could be partially resulted from the higher release of Ag ion from the former. The maximum desorption amount of HA-nanoAg and SDS-nanoAg in 1% SDS solution was 0.08 and 0.10 mg/g, respectively. NanoAg attachment on and its penetration to the spinach leaf was visualized by the Scanning Electron Microscope equipped with an Energy Dispersive Spectrometer (SEM-EDS). It is equally important that the less sorption of nanoAg under low environmental temperature could be partially due to the closure of stomata, as verified by SEM-EDS. CytoViva Hyperspectral Imaging System was also employed to map the distribution of nanoAg in the leaf profile. Significant sorption of nanoAg on spinach leaf should urge the precaution with potential widespread use of ENPs in agriculture.

Tian, Y.; Li, H.; Zhang, Y.; Riser, E.; He, S.; Zhang, W.

2013-12-01

205

Ultrasensitive nanosensor based on silver nanoparticles to detect hydrogen peroxide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Studies to determine the concentration of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) are important in biological system due to cellular damages provoked by reative oxygen species that include H2O2. An alternative to detect H2O2 is through an optical nanosensors based on silver nanoparticles, which have great potential for chemical and biological sensing applications. Here we demonstrate that attenuated total reflectance (ATR) from interaction of silver nanoparticles and hydrogen peroxide were able to detect very low levels of H2O2 around 0,001mM.

Oliveira, J. P.; Prado, A. R.; Volkers, R. E.; Pontes, M. J.; Ribeiro, M. N.; Nogueira, B. V.; Guimãraes, M. C. C.

2014-08-01

206

Silver Nanoparticles as Real Topical Bullets for Wound Healing  

PubMed Central

Nanotechnology is on the threshold of providing a host of new materials and approaches, revolutionizing the medical and pharmaceutical fields. Several areas of medical care are already profiting from the advantage that nanotechnology offers. Recently, silver nanoparticles are attracting interest for a clinical application because of its potential biological properties such as antibacterial activity, anti-inflammatory effects, and wound healing efficacy, which could be exploited in developing better dressings for wounds and ulcers. This article reviews the role of silver nanoparticles in wound healing. PMID:24527370

Gunasekaran, Thirumurugan; Nigusse, Tadele; Dhanaraju, Magharla Dasaratha

2012-01-01

207

Nonlinear optical characterization of silver nanoparticles embedded in phosphate glass  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The nonequilibrium carrier dynamics in spherical silver nanoparticles embedded in aluminophosphate glass system was explored by femtosecond optical pump-probe technique. Photoluminescence and absorption spectroscopy were used for characterization of linear optical properties and particle size estimation. The two temperature model is employed to study the hot electron subsystem and evolution of electronic and lattice temperatures. The electron scattering dynamics on the 10 -13-10 -12 sec scale and two-photon absorption process are discussed. The laser-induced coherent vibrations of silver nanoparticles were observed in transient transmission experiments for relatively large particles with radii ~35 nm.

Lysenko, S.; Jimenez, J.; Zhang, G.; Liu, H.

2006-03-01

208

An insight into silver nanoparticles bioavailability in rats.  

PubMed

A comprehensive study of the bioavailability of orally administered silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) was carried out using a rat model. The silver uptake was monitored in liver and kidney tissues, as well as in urine and in feces. Significant accumulation of silver was found in both organs, the liver being the principal target of AgNPs. A significant (?50%) fraction of silver was found in feces whereas the fraction excreted via urine was negligible (<0.01%). Intact silver nanoparticles were found in feces by asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation (AsFlFFF) coupled with UV-Vis analysis. Laser ablation-ICP MS imaging showed that AgNPs were able to penetrate into the liver, in contrast to kidneys where they were retained in the cortex. Silver speciation analysis in cytosols from kidneys showed the metallothionein complex as the major species whereas in the liver the majority of silver was bound to high-molecular (70-25 kDa) proteins. These findings demonstrate the presence of Ag(i), released by the oxidation of AgNPs in the biological environment. PMID:25363792

Jiménez-Lamana, Javier; Laborda, Francisco; Bolea, Eduardo; Abad-Álvaro, Isabel; Castillo, Juan R; Bianga, Juliusz; He, Man; Bierla, Katarzyna; Mounicou, Sandra; Ouerdane, Laurent; Gaillet, Sylvie; Rouanet, Jean-Max; Szpunar, Joanna

2014-12-20

209

Synthesis of silver nanoparticles from Melia dubia leaf extract and their in vitro anticancer activity.  

PubMed

Silver nanoparticles have a significant role in the pharmaceutical science. Especially, silver nanoparticles synthesized by the plant extracts lead a significant role in biological activities such as antimicrobial, antioxidant and anticancer. Keeping this in mind, the present work investigation has been taken up with the synthesized silver nanoparticles using the plant extract of Melia dubia and it characterizes by using UV-visible, XRD and SEM-EDS. The effect of the silver nanoparticles on human breast cancer (KB) cell line has been tested. Silver nanoparticles showed remarkable cytotoxicity activity against KB cell line with evidence of high therapeutic index value are the results are discussed. PMID:24769382

Kathiravan, V; Ravi, S; Ashokkumar, S

2014-09-15

210

Synthesis of silver nanoparticles from Melia dubia leaf extract and their in vitro anticancer activity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Silver nanoparticles have a significant role in the pharmaceutical science. Especially, silver nanoparticles synthesized by the plant extracts lead a significant role in biological activities such as antimicrobial, antioxidant and anticancer. Keeping this in mind, the present work investigation has been taken up with the synthesized silver nanoparticles using the plant extract of Melia dubia and it characterizes by using UV-visible, XRD and SEM-EDS. The effect of the silver nanoparticles on human breast cancer (KB) cell line has been tested. Silver nanoparticles showed remarkable cytotoxicity activity against KB cell line with evidence of high therapeutic index value are the results are discussed.

Kathiravan, V.; Ravi, S.; Ashokkumar, S.

2014-09-01

211

Green Synthesis of Robust, Biocompatible Silver Nanoparticles Using Garlic Extract  

PubMed Central

This paper details a facile approach for the synthesis of stable and monodisperse silver nanoparticles performed at ambient/low temperature where Allium sativum (garlic) extract functions as the silver salt reducing agent during nanoparticle synthesis as well as the post-synthesis stabilizing ligands. Varying the synthesis conditions provides control of particle size, size-distribution, and kinetics of particle formation. Infrared spectroscopy, energy dispersive x-ray chemical analysis, and high performance liquid chromatography indicated that the carbohydrates present in the garlic extract are the most likely nanoparticle stabilizing chemistry. The synthesized silver nanoparticles also demonstrate potential for biomeical applications, owing to the 1) enhanced stability in biological media, 2) resistance to oxidation by the addition of H2O2, 3) ease and scalability of synthesis, and 4) lack of harsh chemicals required for synthesis. Cytotoxicity assays indicated no decrease in cellular proliferation for vascular smooth muscle cells and 3T3 fibroblasts at a concentration of 25 ?g/ml, confirming that garlic extract prepared silver nanoparticles are ideal candidates for future experimentation and implementation into biomedical applications. PMID:24683414

Von White, Gregory; Kerscher, Petra; Brown, Ryan M.; Morella, Jacob D.; McAllister, William; Dean, Delphine; Kitchens, Christopher L.

2012-01-01

212

Characterization of silver nanoparticles deposited by an enzyme  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on their various interesting properties metal nanoparticles show the potential as analytical tool in electronic, optical, and catalytical applications. The different properties depending on composition, shape, and size of the single particles were utilized in many different approaches such as optics, magnetics and laser technology1. We present a way for enzymatic deposition of silver nanoparticles and a bioanalytical application in DNA microarray technology for this method. The technology consists of a microstructured chip with 10?m broad electrode gaps on the surface and specially designed readout device2. In principle we immobilize gold nanoparticle-labelled DNA in a gap between two electrodes. Afterwards a silver deposition on the bound gold nanoparticles generates a conductive layer between the electrodes. The measured drop in the resistance serves as signal for the chip-based electrical detection of DNA 3. To further optimize this system the gold nanoparticles as seed are replaced by the enzyme horseradish peroxidase. For a better understanding of the enzymatically silver deposition process the formed silver particles were analyzed by spectroscopic characterization on a single particle level. Further investigations of these particles by AFM and SEM should give a hint to the connection between size/shape and the plasmonic properties at individual particles.

Schüler, Thomas; Möller, Robert; Steinbrück, Andrea; Fritzsche, Wolfgang; Popp, Jürgen

2007-07-01

213

Adding two active silver atoms on au25 nanoparticle.  

PubMed

Alloy nanoparticles with atomic monodispersity is of importance for some fundamental research (e.g., the investigation of active sites). However, the controlled preparation of alloy nanoparticles with atomic monodispersity has long been a major challenge. Herein, for the first time a unique method, antigalvanic reduction (AGR), is introduced to synthesize atomically monodisperse Au25Ag2(SC2H4Ph)18 in high yield (89%) within 2 min. Interestingly, the two silver atoms in Au25Ag2(SC2H4Ph)18 do not replace the gold atoms in the precursor particle Au25(SC2H4Ph)18 but collocate on Au25, which was supported by experimental and calculated results. Also, the two silver atoms are active to play roles in stabilizing the alloy nanoparticle, triggering the nanoparticle fluorescence and catalyzing the hydrolysis of 1,3-diphenylprop-2-ynyl acetate. PMID:25580617

Yao, Chuanhao; Chen, Jishi; Li, Man-Bo; Liu, Liren; Yang, Jinlong; Wu, Zhikun

2015-02-11

214

Modelling small gold and silver nanoparticles with electronic structure methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electronic structure methods, especially density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT, have found significant applications in understanding the structure and properties of nanoparticles. In this review, recent studies of the geometric and electronic structure, optical absorption, circular dichroism, growth mechanisms, ligand exchange mechanisms and other properties of thiolate-protected and phosphine-protected gold and silver nanoparticles are discussed in relation to our

Christine M. Aikens

2012-01-01

215

Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Plectranthus amboinicus leaf extract and its antimicrobial activity.  

PubMed

This study reports the simple green synthesis method for the preparation of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) using Plectranthus amboinicus leaf extract. The pathway of nanoparticles formation is by means of reduction of AgNO3 by leaf extract, which acts as both reducing and capping agents. Synthesized Ag NPs were subjected to different characterizations for studying the structural, chemical, morphological, optical and antimicrobial properties. The bright circular fringes in SAED pattern and diffraction peaks in XRD profile reveals high crystalline nature of biosynthesized Ag NPs. Morphological studies shows the formation of nearly spherical nanoparticles. FTIR spectrum confirms the existence of various functional groups of biomolecules capping the nanoparticles. UV-visible spectrum displays single SPR band at 428 nm indicating the absence of anisotropic particles. The synthesized Ag NPs exhibited better antimicrobial property towards gram negative Escherichia coli and towards tested Penicillium spp. than other tested microorganisms using disc diffusion method. Finally it has proven that the synthesized bio-inspired Ag NPs have potent antimicrobial effect. PMID:24674916

Ajitha, B; Ashok Kumar Reddy, Y; Sreedhara Reddy, P

2014-07-15

216

Gold and silver nanoparticles from Trianthema decandra: synthesis, characterization, and antimicrobial properties  

PubMed Central

Background There is an increasing commercial demand for nanoparticles due to their wide applicability in various markets, including medicine, catalysis, electronics, chemistry, and energy. In this report, a simple and ecofriendly chemical reaction for the synthesis of gold and silver nanoparticles from Trianthema decandra (Aizoaceae) has been developed. Methods and results On treatment of aqueous solutions containing chloroauric acid or silver nitrate with root extract of T. decandra, stable gold or silver nanoparticles were rapidly formed. The kinetics of reduction of gold and silver ions during the reaction was analyzed by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. Field emission-scanning electron microscopy showed formation of gold nanoparticles in various shapes, including spherical, cubical, triangular, and hexagonal, while silver nanoparticles were spherical. The size of the gold nanoparticles was 33–65 nm and that of the silver nanoparticles was 36–74 nm. Energy dispersive x-ray and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirmed the presence of metallic gold and metallic silver in the respective nanoparticles. The antimicrobial properties of the synthesized nanoparticles were analyzed using the Kirby-Bauer method. The results show varied susceptibility of microorganisms to the gold and silver nanoparticles. Conclusion It is believed that phytochemicals present in T. decandra extract reduce the silver and gold ions into metallic nanoparticles. This strategy reduces the cost of production and the environmental impact. The silver and gold nanoparticles formed showed strong activity against all microorganisms tested. PMID:23091381

Geethalakshmi, R; Sarada, DVL

2012-01-01

217

Toxicity, bioaccumulation, and biotransformation of silver nanoparticles in marine organisms.  

PubMed

The toxicity, bioaccumulation, and biotransformation of citrate and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) coated silver nanoparticles (NPs) (AgNP-citrate and AgNP-PVP) in marine organisms via marine sediment exposure was investigated. Results from 7-d sediment toxicity tests indicate that AgNP-citrate and AgNP-PVP did not exhibit toxicity to the amphipod (Ampelisca abdita) and mysid (Americamysis bahia) at ?75 mg/kg dry wt. A 28-d bioaccumulation study showed that Ag was significantly accumulated in the marine polychaete Nereis virens (N. virens) in the AgNP-citrate, AgNP-PVP and a conventional salt (AgNO3) treatments. Synchrotron X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) results showed the distribution of Ag species in marine sediments amended with AgNP-citrate, AgNP-PVP, and AgNO3 was AgCl (50–65%) > Ag2S (32–42%) > Ag metal (Ag0) (3–11%). In N virens, AgCl (25–59%) and Ag2S (10–31%) generally decreased and, Ag metal (32–44%) increased, relative to the sediments. The patterns of speciation in the worm were different depending upon the coating of the AgNP and both types of AgNPs were different than the AgNO3 salt. These results show that the AgNP surface capping agents influenced Ag uptake, biotransformation, and/or excretion. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of the bioaccumulation and speciation of AgNPs in a marine organism (N. virens). PMID:25369427

Wang, Huanhua; Ho, Kay T; Scheckel, Kirk G; Wu, Fengchang; Cantwell, Mark G; Katz, David R; Horowitz, Doranne Borsay; Boothman, Warren S; Burgess, Robert M

2014-12-01

218

Synthesis and Characterization of Silver Nanoparticles and Silver Inks: Review on the Past and Recent Technology Roadmaps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The synthesis of silver nanoparticles for silver ink formation has attracted broad interest in the electronic part printing and semiconductor chip industry due to the extraordinary electrical and mechanical properties of these materials. The preparation of silver nanoparticles through a physical or chemical reduction process is the most common methodology applied to obtain nanoparticles with the required size, shape and surface morphology. The chemical solution or solvent carrier applied for silver ink formulation must be applied simultaneously with the direct writing technique to produce the desired adherence, viscosity, and reliable performance. This review paper discusses the details concerning the past and recent advancement of the synthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticles and silver ink formation. A review on the advantages of various sintering techniques, which aim to achieve the electrical and mechanical properties of the required printed structure, is also included. A brief summary concerning the recent challenges and improvement approaches is presented at the end of this review.

Lai, Chin Yung; Cheong, Choke Fei; Mandeep, Jit Singh; Abdullah, Huda Binti; Amin, Nowshad; Lai, Khin Wee

2014-10-01

219

Electrochemical synthesis, characterisation and phytogenic properties of silver nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work exemplifies a simple and rapid method for the synthesis of silver nanodendrite with a novel electrochemical technique. The antibacterial activity of these silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) against pathogenic bacteria was investigated along with the routine study of optical and spectral characterisation. The optical properties of the silver nanoparticles were characterised by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The optical band gap energy of the electrodeposited Ag NPs was determined from the diffuse reflectance using Kubelka-Munk formula. X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies were carried out to determine the crystalline nature of the silver nanoparticles which confirmed the formation of silver nanocrystals. The XRD pattern revealed that the electrodeposited Ag NPs were in the cubic geometry with dendrite preponderance. The average particle size and the peak broadening were deliberated using Debye-Scherrer equation and lattice strain due to the peak broadening was studied using Williamson-Hall method. Surface morphology of the Ag NPs was characterised by high-resolution scanning electron microscope and the results showed the high degree of aggregation in the particles. The antibacterial activity of the Ag NPs was evaluated and showed unprecedented level antibacterial activity against multidrug resistant strains such as Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Klebsiella pneumonia and Escherichia coli in combination with Streptomycin.

Singaravelan, R.; Bangaru Sudarsan Alwar, S.

2015-01-01

220

Adsorption mechanisms of RNA mononucleotides on silver nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) of four RNA mononucleotides (AMP, GMP, CMP and UMP) has been studied on the citrate-reduced silver colloid aggregated with sodium sulfate. Concentration dependent spectra in the range of 1 × 10-7-1 × 10-4 mol dm-3 were obtained, assigned and interpreted according to the surface selection rules. For purine mononucleotides, AMP and GMP, adsorption onto the silver nanoparticles through the six-membered ring of the nitrogenous base was suggested. Concentration dependent splitting of the ring breathing band in the spectra of AMP indicated coexistence of two species on the silver surface, which differed in contribution of the adenine N1 atom and the exocyclic NH2 group in binding. Unlike the AMP spectra, the spectra of GMP implied only one mode of adsorption of the molecules onto the silver nanoparticles, taking place through the guanine N1H and Cdbnd O group. Weak SERS spectra of pyrimidine mononucleotides, CMP and UMP, pointed to involvement of carbonyl oxygen in adsorption process, whereby the molecules adopted the position on the nanoparticles with ribose close to the metal surface. Intense bands in the low wavenumber region, associated with stretching of the formed Agsbnd N and/or Agsbnd O bonds, supported chemical binding of the RNA mononucleotides with the silver surface.

Miljani?, Snežana; Dijanoši?, Adriana; Mati?, Ivona

2015-02-01

221

The Speciation Of Silver Nanoparticles In Antimicrobial Fabric Before and After Exposure To A Hypochlorite/Detergent Solution  

EPA Science Inventory

Because of their antibacterial properties, silver nanoparticles are often used in consumer products. To assess environmental and/or human health risks from these nanoparticles, there is a need to identify the chemical transformations that Silver nanoparticles undergo in differen...

222

Cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of silver nanoparticles in testicular cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serious concerns have been expressed about potential risks of engineered nanoparticles. Regulatory health risk assessment of such particles has become mandatory for the safe use of nanomaterials in consumer products and medicines; including the potential effects on reproduction and fertility, are relevant for this risk evaluation. In this study, we examined effects of silver particles of nano- (20nm) and submicron-

Nana Asare; Christine Instanes; Wiggo J. Sandberg; Magne Refsnes; Per Schwarze; Marcin Kruszewski; Gunnar Brunborg

223

Investigation of the cytotoxicity mechanism of silver nanoparticles in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nowadays, more and more nanotechnology products and nanomaterials are being applied in our lives. Silver nanoparticles (SNPs) are used in infection prevention and treatment due to their antimicrobial activity. However, as a kind of nanomaterial, the toxicology of SNPs has not been completely studied. The mechanism of cytotoxicity of SNPs in vitro to mouse's fibroblast cells (L929) was investigated in

Lina Wei; Jinglong Tang; Zhixiong Zhang; Yanmei Chen; Gui Zhou; Tingfei Xi

2010-01-01

224

Light-driven transformation processes of anisotropic silver nanoparticles.  

PubMed

The photoinduced formation of silver nanoprisms from smaller silver seed particles in the presence of citrate anions is a classic example of a photomorphic reaction. In this case, light is used as a convenient tool to dynamically manipulate the shape of metal nanoparticles. To date, very little is known about the prevailing reaction mechanism of this type of photoreaction. Here we provide a detailed study of the shape transformation dynamics as a function of a range of different process parameters, such as photon energy and photon flux. For the first time, we provide direct evidence that the photochemical synthesis of silver nanoprisms from spherical seed nanoparticles proceeds via a light-activated two-dimensional coalescence mechanism. On the other hand, we could show that Ostwald ripening becomes the dominant reaction mechanism when larger silver nanoprisms are grown from photochemically synthesized smaller nanoprisms. This two-step reaction proceeds significantly faster and yields more uniform, sharper nanoprisms than the classical one-step photodevelopment process from seeds. The ability to dynamically control nanoparticle shapes and properties with light opens up novel synthesis avenues but also, more importantly, allows one to conceive new applications that exploit the nonstatic character of these nanoparticles and the ability to control and adjust their properties at will in a highly dynamic fashion. PMID:23730850

Lee, George P; Shi, Yichao; Lavoie, Ellen; Daeneke, Torben; Reineck, Philipp; Cappel, Ute B; Huang, David M; Bach, Udo

2013-07-23

225

Structure evolution and dielectric behavior of polystyrene-capped barium titanate nanoparticles  

E-print Network

Structure evolution and dielectric behavior of polystyrene-capped barium titanate nanoparticles H35600g Polystyrene-capped barium titanate (BaTiO3) nanoparticles with sizes of 11 nm and 27 nm were nanocrystals. 1. Introduction Barium titanate (BaTiO3), one of the most commonly used perovskite compounds

Lin, Zhiqun

226

In Vivo Toxicity of Silver Nanoparticles and Silver Ions in Zebrafish (Danio rerio)  

PubMed Central

The influence of water chemistry on characterised polyvinyl pyrrolidone- (PVP-) coated silver nanoparticles (81?nm) was investigated. NaCl solution series of 100–800?mg L?1 lead to initial and temporal increase in nanoparticles size, but agglomeration was limited. pH variation (5–8) had only minor influence on the hydrodynamic particle size. Acute toxicity of nanosivler to zebrafish (Danio rerio) was investigated in a 48-hour static renewal study and compared with the toxicity of silver ions (AgNO3). The nanosilver and silver ion 48-hour median lethal concentration (LC50) values were 84??g L?1 and 25??g L?1, respectively. To investigate exposure-related stress, the fish behaviour was observed visually after 0, 3, 6, 12, 24, 27, 30, and 48 hours of both nanosilver and ionic silver treatments. These observations revealed increased rate of operculum movement and surface respiration after nanosilver exposure, suggesting respiratory toxicity. The present study demonstrates that silver nanoparticles are lethal to zebrafish. PMID:22174711

Bilberg, Katrine; Hovgaard, Mads Bruun; Besenbacher, Flemming; Baatrup, Erik

2012-01-01

227

Synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Sacha inchi (Plukenetia volubilis L.) leaf extracts.  

PubMed

Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are fabricated using Sacha inchi (SI) or (Plukenetia volubilis L.) leaf extract as non-toxic reducing agent with particle size ranging from 4 to 25 nm. Optical, structural and morphological properties of the synthesized nanoparticles have been characterized by using Visual, UV-Vis spectrophotometer, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) analysis. Selected area electron diffraction (SAED) confirmed the formation of metallic Ag. Infrared spectrum measurement was carried out to hypothesize the possible phytochemicals responsible for stabilization and capping of the AgNPs. It shows the significant antioxidant efficacy in comparison with SI leaf extracts against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl. From the results obtained it is suggested that green AgNPs could be used effectively in future engineering and medical concerns. PMID:25473370

Kumar, Brajesh; Smita, Kumari; Cumbal, Luis; Debut, Alexis

2014-12-01

228

Green synthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticle using Aloe barbadensis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles was achieved by simple visible light irradiation using aloe barbadensis leaf extract as reducing agent. UV-Vis spectroscopic analysis was used for confirmation of the successful formation of nanoparticles. Investigated the effect of light irradiation time on the light absorption of the nanoparticles. It is observed that upto 25 minutes of light irradiation, the absorption is linearly increasing with time and after that it becomes saturated. Finally, theoretically fitted the time-absorption graph and modeled a relation between them with the help of simulation software.

Thappily, Praveen; Shiju, K.

2014-10-01

229

Sunflower oil mediated biomimetic synthesis and cytotoxicity of monodisperse hexagonal silver nanoparticles.  

PubMed

In this work, sunflower oil was utilized for the biomimetic synthesis of silver (Ag) nanoparticles (NPs), leading to highly mono-dispersed hexagonal-shaped silver nanoparticles (NPs) at various concentrations. It was found that the biomolecules of the oil not only have the capability to reduce silver ions, due to its extended phenolic system, but also appear to recognize and affect the Ag nanocrystal growth on the (110) face, leading to hexagonal growth of the NPs of 50 nm size. Initially, some spherical AgNPs of less than 10nm diameter were observed; however, over a longer period of time, a majority of hexagonal-shaped nanocrystals were formed. The one step synthesis can be extended for other metals. The as prepared sunflower oil capped AgNPs being completely free of toxic chemicals can be directly utilized for in vitro studies and offer a more rational approach for cellular applications. The NP solution exhibited dose-dependent cytotoxicity in human lung carcinoma cells and physiologically relevant cell model (3T3L1 cells). PMID:25280698

Thakore, Sonal; Rathore, Puran Singh; Jadeja, Ravirajsinh N; Thounaojam, Menaka; Devkar, Ranjitsinh V

2014-11-01

230

Plant-mediated biosynthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles.  

PubMed

Single-pot biosynthesis of silver and gold quasi-spherical nanoparticles (SNPs and GNPs) in the size range of 10-30 nm was attempted using Chenopodium album (an obnoxious weed). This method is rapid, facile, convenient and environmentally safe. Average crystal size was approximately 12 nm and 10 nm for silver and gold nanocrystals respectively. Synthesized NPs were stable in a wide range of pH as there was less variation in zeta potential values. In synthesis of SNPs and GNPs, naturally occurring oxalic acid played significant role in bio-reduction of silver nitrate and auric acid solution into their corresponding silver and gold nano-colloids in single step rapid process. PMID:21485852

Dwivedi, Amarendra Dhar; Gopal, Krishna

2011-02-01

231

Synthesis of silver nanoparticles with antibacterial activity using the lichen Parmotrema praesorediosum  

PubMed Central

Development of a green chemistry process for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles has become a focus of interest. This would offer numerous benefits, including ecofriendliness and compatibility for biomedical applications. Here we report the synthesis of silver nanoparticles from the reduction of silver nitrate and an aqueous extract of the lichen Parmotrema praesorediosum as a reductant as well as a stabilizer. The physical appearance of these silver nanoparticles was characterized using ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, electron microscopy, energy-dispersive spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction techniques. The results show that silver nanoparticles synthesized using P. praesorediosum have an average particle size of 19 nm with a cubic structure. The antibacterial activity of the synthesized silver nanoparticles was tested against eight micro-organisms using the disk diffusion method. The results reveal that silver nanoparticles synthesized using P. praesorediosum have potential antibacterial activity against Gram-negative bacteria. PMID:24379670

Mie, Ropisah; Samsudin, Mohd Wahid; Din, Laily B; Ahmad, Azizan; Ibrahim, Nazlina; Adnan, Siti Noor Adnalizawati

2014-01-01

232

Development of antimicrobial water filtration hybrid material from bio source calcium carbonate and silver nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biobased calcium carbonate and silver hybrid nanoparticles were synthesized using a simple mechanochemical milling technique. The XRD spectrum showed that the hybrid materials is composed of crystalline calcite and silver nanoparticles. The TEM results indicated that the silver nanoparticles are discrete, uncapped and well stabilized in the surface of the eggshell derived calcium carbonate particles. The silver nanoparticles are spherical in shape and 5-20 nm in size. The SEM studies indicated that the eggshells are in micron size with the silver nanoparticle embedded in their surface. The hybrid eggshell/silver nanocomposite exhibited superior inhibition of E. coli growth using the Kirby-Bauer discs diffusion assay and comparing the zone of inhibition around the filter paper disc impregnated with the hybrid particles against pristine silver nanoparticles.

Apalangya, Vitus; Rangari, Vijaya; Tiimob, Boniface; Jeelani, Shaik; Samuel, Temesgen

2014-03-01

233

Mechanistic aspects of biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles by several Fusarium oxysporum strains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extracellular production of metal nanoparticles by several strains of the fungus Fusarium oxysporum was carried out. It was found that aqueous silver ions when exposed to several Fusarium oxysporum strains are reduced in solution, thereby leading to the formation of silver hydrosol. The silver nanoparticles were in the range of 20–50 nm in dimensions. The reduction of the metal ions

Nelson Durán; Priscyla D Marcato; Oswaldo L Alves; Gabriel IH De Souza; Elisa Esposito

2005-01-01

234

Structural and spectroscopic studies of thin film of silver nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the deposition of thin film of silver (Ag) nanoparticles by wet chemical method. The as-synthesized Ag nanoparticles have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), field emission transmission electron microscopy (FETEM) and high-resolution TEM (HRTEM), UV-vis spectroscopy and thermogravimetric-differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA) respectively. FESEM image indicates that the silver film prepared on the quartz substrate is smooth and dense. XRD pattern reveals the face-centered cubic (fcc) structure of silver nanoparticles. EDS spectrum indicates that samples are nearly stoichiometric. From TEM analysis, it is found that the size of high purity Ag nanoparticles is ranging from 10 to 20 nm with slight agglomeration. Absorption in UV-vis region by these nanoparticles is characterized by the features reported in the literature, namely, a possible Plasmon peak at ˜403 nm. Optical absorbance spectra analysis reveals that the Ag film has an indirect band structure with bandgap energy 3.88 eV. TGA/DTA studies revealed that a considerable weight loss occurs between 175 and 275 °C; and the reaction is exothermic.

Khan, M. A. Majeed; Kumar, Sushil; Ahamed, Maqusood; Alrokayan, Salman A.; Alsalhi, M. S.; Alhoshan, Mansour; Aldwayyan, A. S.

2011-10-01

235

Silver-Based Crystalline Nanoparticles, Microbially Fabricated  

Microsoft Academic Search

One mechanism of silver resistance in microorganisms is accumulation of the metal ions in the cell. Here, we report on the phenomenon of biosynthesis of silver-based single crystals with well-defined compositions and shapes, such as equilateral triangles and hexagons, in Pseudomonas stutzeri AG259. The crystals were up to 200 nm in size and were often located at the cell poles.

Tanja Klaus; Ralph Joerger; Eva Olsson; Claes-Goran Granqvist

1999-01-01

236

Optical absorption properties of dispersed gold and silver alloy nanoparticles.  

PubMed

The oldest topic in nanoscience is the size-dependent optical properties of gold and silver colloids or nanoparticles, first investigated scientifically by Michael Faraday in 1857. In the modern era, advances in both synthesis and characterization have resulted in new insights into the size-dependent absorbance of Au and Ag nanoparticles with sizes below the classical limit for Mie theory. In this paper we discuss the synthesis and properties of core/shell and nanoalloy particles of Au and Ag, compare them to particles of pure gold and silver, and discuss how alloying affects nanoparticle chemical stability. We show that composition, size, and nanostructure (e.g., core/shell vs quasi-random nanoalloy) can all be employed to adjust the optical absorbance properties. The type of nanostructure--core/shell vs alloy--is reflected in their optical absorbance features. PMID:19708105

Wilcoxon, Jess

2009-03-01

237

Bioinspired synthesis of highly stabilized silver nanoparticles using Ocimum tenuiflorum leaf extract and their antibacterial activity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biosynthesis of nanoparticles is under exploration due to wide biomedical applications and research interest in nanotechnology. We herein reports bioinspired synthesis of silver nanoparticles with the aid of novel, non toxic ecofriendly biological material namely Ocimum tenuiflorum leaf extract. It acts as reducing as well as stabilizing agent. An intense surface plasmon resonance band at ˜450 nm in the UV-visible spectrum clearly reveals the formation of silver nanoparticles. The photoluminescence spectrum was recorded to study excitation and emission. TEM and PSD by dynamic light scattering studies showed that size of silver nanoparticles to be in range 25-40 nm. Face centered cubic structure of silver nanoparticles are confirmed by SAED pattern. The charge on synthesized silver nanoparticles was determined by zeta potential. The colloidal solution of silver nanoparticles were found to exhibit high antibacterial activity against three different strains of bacteria Escherichia coli (Gram negative), Corney bacterium (gram positive), Bacillus substilus (spore forming).

Patil, Rupali S.; Kokate, Mangesh R.; Kolekar, Sanjay S.

2012-06-01

238

A physiologically based pharmacokinetic model for ionic silver and silver nanoparticles.  

PubMed

Silver is a strong antibiotic that is increasingly incorporated into consumer products as a bulk, salt, or nanosilver, thus potentially causing side-effects related to human exposure. However, the fate and behavior of (nano)silver in the human body is presently not well understood. In order to aggregate the existing experimental information, a physiologically based pharmacokinetic model (PBPK) was developed in this study for ionic silver and nanosilver. The structure of the model was established on the basis of toxicokinetic data from intravenous studies. The number of calibrated parameters was minimized in order to enhance the predictive capability of the model. We validated the model structure for both silver forms by reproducing exposure conditions (dermal, oral, and inhalation) of in vivo experiments and comparing simulated and experimentally assessed organ concentrations. Therefore, the percutaneous, intestinal, or pulmonary absorption fraction was estimated based on the blood silver concentration of the respective experimental data set. In all of the cases examined, the model could successfully predict the biodistribution of ionic silver and 15-150 nm silver nanoparticles, which were not coated with substances designed to prolong the circulatory time (eg, polyethylene glycol). Furthermore, the results of our model indicate that: (1) within the application domain of our model, the particle size and coating had a minor influence on the biodistribution; (2) in vivo, it is more likely that silver nanoparticles are directly stored as insoluble salt particles than dissolve into Ag?; and (3) compartments of the mononuclear phagocytic system play a minor role in exposure levels that are relevant for human consumers. We also give an example of how the model can be used in exposure and risk assessments based on five different exposure scenarios, namely dietary intake, use of three separate consumer products, and occupational exposure. PMID:24039420

Bachler, Gerald; von Goetz, Natalie; Hungerbühler, Konrad

2013-01-01

239

A physiologically based pharmacokinetic model for ionic silver and silver nanoparticles  

PubMed Central

Silver is a strong antibiotic that is increasingly incorporated into consumer products as a bulk, salt, or nanosilver, thus potentially causing side-effects related to human exposure. However, the fate and behavior of (nano)silver in the human body is presently not well understood. In order to aggregate the existing experimental information, a physiologically based pharmacokinetic model (PBPK) was developed in this study for ionic silver and nanosilver. The structure of the model was established on the basis of toxicokinetic data from intravenous studies. The number of calibrated parameters was minimized in order to enhance the predictive capability of the model. We validated the model structure for both silver forms by reproducing exposure conditions (dermal, oral, and inhalation) of in vivo experiments and comparing simulated and experimentally assessed organ concentrations. Therefore, the percutaneous, intestinal, or pulmonary absorption fraction was estimated based on the blood silver concentration of the respective experimental data set. In all of the cases examined, the model could successfully predict the biodistribution of ionic silver and 15–150 nm silver nanoparticles, which were not coated with substances designed to prolong the circulatory time (eg, polyethylene glycol). Furthermore, the results of our model indicate that: (1) within the application domain of our model, the particle size and coating had a minor influence on the biodistribution; (2) in vivo, it is more likely that silver nanoparticles are directly stored as insoluble salt particles than dissolve into Ag+; and (3) compartments of the mononuclear phagocytic system play a minor role in exposure levels that are relevant for human consumers. We also give an example of how the model can be used in exposure and risk assessments based on five different exposure scenarios, namely dietary intake, use of three separate consumer products, and occupational exposure. PMID:24039420

Bachler, Gerald; von Goetz, Natalie; Hungerbühler, Konrad

2013-01-01

240

Photothermal-reaction-assisted two-photon lithography of silver nanocrystals capped with thermally cleavable ligands  

SciTech Connect

We report an alternative approach to produce micropatterns of metallic nanoparticles using photothermal-reaction-assisted two-photon direct laser writing. The patterns are achieved using a facile surface treatment of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) functionalized with thermally cleavable ligands; N-(tert-butoxycarbonyl)-L-cysteine methyl ester. The ligand cleavage initiated by pulsed laser-induced thermal reaction results in a significant change in dispersiblility of the nanocrystals, thereby enabling a solvent-selective development process after photopatterning. We demonstrated that Ag NP patterns with submicron linewidths can be achieved using near infrared pulsed laser illumination.

Kim, Won Jin; Vidal, Xavier; Baev, Alexander; Jee, Hong Sub; Swihart, Mark T.; Prasad, Paras N. [Department of Chemistry, Institute for Lasers, Photonics, and Biophotonics, University at Buffalo, State University of New York, Buffalo, New York 14260 (United States)

2011-03-28

241

Comparison of in vitro toxicity of silver ions and silver nanoparticles on human hepatoma cells.  

PubMed

Scientific information on the potential harmful effects of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) on human health severely lags behind their exponentially growing applications in consumer products. In assessing the toxic risk of AgNP usage, liver, as a detoxifying organ, is particularly important. The aim of this study was to explore the toxicity mechanisms of nano and ionic forms of silver on human hepatoblastoma (HepG2) cells. The results showed that silver ions and citrate-coated AgNPs reduced cell viability in a dose-dependent manner. The IC50 values of silver ions and citrate-coated AgNPs were 0.5 and 50 mg L(-1) , respectively. The LDH leakage and inhibition of albumin synthesis, along with decreased ALT activity, indicated that treatment with either AgNP or Ag ions resulted in membrane damage and reduced the cell function of human liver cells. Evaluation of oxidative stress markers demonstrating depletion of GSH, increased ROS production, and increased SOD activity, indicated that oxidative stress might contribute to the toxicity effects of nano and ionic forms of silver. The observed toxic effect of AgNP on HepG2 cells was substantially weaker than that caused by ionic silver, while the uptake of nano and ionic forms of silver by HepG2 cells was nearly the same. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol, 2014. PMID:25448069

Vr?ek, Ivana Vinkovi?; Zuntar, Irena; Petlevski, Roberta; Pavi?i?, Ivan; Dutour Sikiri?, Maja; Curlin, Marija; Goessler, Walter

2014-11-28

242

Presence of nanoparticles in wash water from conventional silver and nano-silver textiles.  

PubMed

Questions about how to regulate nanoenhanced products regularly arise as researchers determine possible nanoparticle transformation(s). Focusing concern on the incorporation and subsequent release of nano-Ag in fabrics often overshadows the fact that many "conventional silver" antimicrobials such as ionic silver, AgCl, metallic Ag, and other forms will also form different species of silver. In this study we used a laboratory washing machine to simulate the household laundering of a number of textiles prepared with known conventional Ag or nano-Ag treatments and a commercially available fabric incorporating yarns coated with bulk metallic Ag. Serial filtration allowed for quantification of total Ag released in various size fractions (>0.45 ?m, < 0.45 ?m, <0.1 ?m, and <10 kDa), while characterization of particles with TEM/EDX provided insight on Ag transformation mechanisms. Most conventional Ag additives yielded more total Ag and more nanoparticulate-sized Ag in the washing liquid than fabrics that used nano-Ag treatments. Incorporating nano-silver into the fiber (as opposed to surface treatments) yielded less total Ag during fabric washing. A variety of metallic Ag, AgCl, and Ag/S particles were observed in washing solution by TEM/EDX to various extents depending on the initial Ag speciation in the fabrics. Very similar particles were also observed when dissolved ionic Ag was added directly into the washing liquid. On the basis of the present study, we can state that all silver-treated textiles, regardless of whether the treatment is "conventional" or "nano", can be a source of silver nanoparticles in washing solution when laundering fabrics. Indeed, in this study we observed that textiles treated with "conventional" silver have equal or greater propensity to form nano-silver particles during washing conditions than those treated with "nano"-silver. This fact needs to be strongly considered when addressing the risks of nano-silver and emphasizes that regulatory assessment of nano-silver warrants a similar approach to conventional silver. PMID:24941455

Mitrano, Denise M; Rimmele, Elisa; Wichser, Adrian; Erni, Rolf; Height, Murray; Nowack, Bernd

2014-07-22

243

PEG conjugated citrate-capped magnetite nanoparticles for biomedical applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We aim to develop polyethylene glycol decorated, citric acid capped magnetite nanoparticles (MNPs) with proper physicochemical characteristics including particle size distribution, morphology, magnetic property and stability in a biologic medium. MNP of about 10 nm were synthesized by a biocompatible chemical co-precipitation of Fe2+ and Fe3+ in an ammonia solution. A synthetic methodology has been developed to get a well dispersed and homogeneous aqueous suspension of MNPs. The naked MNPs are often insufficient for their stability, hydrophilicity and further functionalization. In order to overcome these limitations, citric acid was used to stabilize the magnetite particle suspension, which was anchored on the surface of freshly prepared MNPs by a direct addition method. Polyethylene glycol was covalently attached to the carboxylic moieties of citric acid anchored MNPs by carbodiimide chemistry. The microstructure and morphology of the nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Also, the magnetic properties were investigated by vibrating sample magnetometry. It was found that the nanoparticles demonstrated superparamagnetic behavior.

Cheraghipour, Elham; Tamaddon, A. M.; Javadpour, S.; Bruce, I. J.

2013-02-01

244

Green synthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticles using Lantana camara leaf extract.  

PubMed

In this work, we have investigated on Lantana camara mediated silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) with different leaf extract (LE) quantity for the evaluation of efficient bactericidal activity. The AgNPs were prepared by simple, capable, eco-friendly and biosynthesis method using L. camara LE. This method allowed the synthesis of crystalline nanoparticles, which was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and selected area electron diffraction (SAED) patterns. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis confirmed the formation of metallic silver and elucidates the surface state composition of AgNPs. UV-vis spectra of AgNPs and visual perception of brownish yellow color from colorless reaction mixture confirmed the AgNP formation. Involvement of functional groups of L. camara leaf extract in the reduction and capping process of nanoparticles was well displayed in Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Decrement of particle size with an increment of leaf extract volume was evident in AFM, TEM images and also through a blue shift in the UV-vis spectra. The rate of formation and size of AgNPs were dependent on LE quantity. Meanwhile, these AgNPs exhibited effective antibacterial activity with the decrement of particle size against all tested bacterial cultures. PMID:25686962

Ajitha, B; Ashok Kumar Reddy, Y; Sreedhara Reddy, P

2015-04-01

245

Enhanced antibacterial activity of silver/polyrhodanine-composite-decorated silica nanoparticles.  

PubMed

This work describes the synthesis of silver/polyrhodanine-composite-decorated silica nanoparticles and their antibacterial activity. Polymerization of polyrhodanine proceeded preferentially on the surface of the silica nanoparticles where Ag(+) ions were located. In addition, the embedded Ag(+) ions were reduced to form metallic Ag nanoparticles; consequently, silver/polyrhodanine-composite nanoparticles (approximately 7 nm in diameter) were formed on the surface of the silica nanoparticles. The resulting nanostructure was investigated using electron microscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The silver/polyrhodanine-nanocomposite-decorated silica nanoparticles exhibited excellent antimicrobial activity toward gram-negative Escherichia coli and gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus because of the antibacterial effects of the silver nanoparticles and the polyrhodanine. The silver/polyrhodanine-composite nanoparticles may therefore have potential for use as a long-term antibacterial agent. PMID:24156562

Song, Jooyoung; Kim, Hyunyoung; Jang, Yoonsun; Jang, Jyongsik

2013-11-27

246

Biogenic synthesis of multi-applicative silver nanoparticles by using Ziziphus Jujuba leaf extract.  

PubMed

Herein, we are reporting for the first time one step biogenic synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) at room temperature by using Ziziphus Jujuba leaf extract as a reducing and stabilizing agent. The process of nanoparticles preparation is green, rapid, environmentally benign and cost effective. The synthesized AgNPs were characterized by means of UV-Vis., XRD, FT-IR, TEM, DLS and Zeta potential. The absorption band centered at ?max 434 nm in UV-Vis. reflects surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of AgNPs. XRD analysis revealed, that biosynthesized AgNPs are crystalline in nature with the face centered cubic structure. FT-IR analysis indicates that nanoparticles were capped with the leaf extract. TEM images shows the synthesized nanoparticles are having different shapes with 20-30 nm size. The data obtained from DLS that support the hydrodynamic size of 28 nm. Zeta potential of -26.4 mV indicates that the nanoparticles were highly stable in colloidal state. The effect of pH, quantity of leaf extract and concentrations of AgNO3 were also studied to attend control over the particle size and stability. The synthesized AgNPs shows highly efficient catalytic activity towards the reduction of anthropogenic pollutant 4-nitrophenol (4-NP) and Methylene Blue (MB) for environmental protection. Synthesized AgNPs also exhibited good antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli. PMID:25459621

Gavade, N L; Kadam, A N; Suwarnkar, M B; Ghodake, V P; Garadkar, K M

2015-02-01

247

Biogenic synthesis of multi-applicative silver nanoparticles by using Ziziphus Jujuba leaf extract  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Herein, we are reporting for the first time one step biogenic synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) at room temperature by using Ziziphus Jujuba leaf extract as a reducing and stabilizing agent. The process of nanoparticles preparation is green, rapid, environmentally benign and cost effective. The synthesized AgNPs were characterized by means of UV-Vis., XRD, FT-IR, TEM, DLS and Zeta potential. The absorption band centered at ?max 434 nm in UV-Vis. reflects surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of AgNPs. XRD analysis revealed, that biosynthesized AgNPs are crystalline in nature with the face centered cubic structure. FT-IR analysis indicates that nanoparticles were capped with the leaf extract. TEM images shows the synthesized nanoparticles are having different shapes with 20-30 nm size. The data obtained from DLS that support the hydrodynamic size of 28 nm. Zeta potential of -26.4 mV indicates that the nanoparticles were highly stable in colloidal state. The effect of pH, quantity of leaf extract and concentrations of AgNO3 were also studied to attend control over the particle size and stability. The synthesized AgNPs shows highly efficient catalytic activity towards the reduction of anthropogenic pollutant 4-nitrophenol (4-NP) and Methylene Blue (MB) for environmental protection. Synthesized AgNPs also exhibited good antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli.

Gavade, N. L.; Kadam, A. N.; Suwarnkar, M. B.; Ghodake, V. P.; Garadkar, K. M.

2015-02-01

248

Preparation of silver nanofluid by the submerged arc nanoparticle synthesis system (SANSS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is fabrication and characterization of silver nanofluid by the submerged arc nanoparticle synthesis system (SANSS). The silver metal electrodes under the electrical discharge will melt and evaporate rapidly and condense to form the nanoparticles in the lower temperature dielectric liquid and produce the suspended nanoparticle. The results showed that the spherical nanosilver particle formed in

Chih-Hung Lo; Tsing-Tshih Tsung; Hong-Ming Lin

2007-01-01

249

Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles for the control of mosquito disease vectors  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A biological method was used to synthesize stable silver nanoparticles. The nanoparticles were tested as larvicides against Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi, and Culex quinquefasciatus. Annona squamosa leaf broth (5%) reduced aqueous AgNO3 to stable silver nanoparticles with average particle siz...

250

Attenuation of allergic airway inflammation and hyperresponsiveness in a murine model of asthma by silver nanoparticles  

PubMed Central

The use of silver in the past demonstrated the certain antimicrobial activity, though this has been replaced by other treatments. However, nanotechnology has provided a way of producing pure silver nanoparticles, and it shows cytoprotective activities and possible pro-healing properties. But, the mechanism of silver nanoparticles remains unknown. This study was aimed to investigate the effects of silver nanoparticles on bronchial inflammation and hyperresponsiveness. We used ovalbumin (OVA)-inhaled female C57BL/6 mice to evaluate the roles of silver nanoparticles and the related molecular mechanisms in allergic airway disease. In this study with an OVA-induced murine model of allergic airway disease, we found that the increased inflammatory cells, airway hyperresponsiveness, increased levels of IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13, and the increased NF-?B levels in lungs after OVA inhalation were significantly reduced by the administration of silver nanoparticles. In addition, we have also found that the increased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid after OVA inhalation were decreased by the administration of silver nanoparticles. These results indicate that silver nanoparticles may attenuate antigen-induced airway inflammation and hyperresponsiveness. And antioxidant effect of silver nanoparticles could be one of the molecular bases in the murine model of asthma. These findings may provide a potential molecular mechanism of silver nanoparticles in preventing or treating asthma. PMID:20957173

Park, Hee Sun; Kim, Keun Hwa; Jang, Sunhyae; Park, Ji Won; Cha, Hye Rim; Lee, Jeong Eun; Kim, Ju Ock; Kim, Sun Young; Lee, Choong Sik; Kim, Joo Pyung; Jung, Sung Soo

2010-01-01

251

Synthesis, Characterization and Manipulation of Creighton Silver Nanoparticles for Future Cytotoxicity Studies.  

E-print Network

??Nowadays, 24% of the nanomaterial-based consumer products contain silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and exploit the well-known antimicrobial properties of silver. Although AgNPs have a wide range… (more)

Paluri, Sesha Lakshmi Arathi

2011-01-01

252

TOXICITY OF SILVER NANOPARTICLES TO DAPHNIA MAGNA  

EPA Science Inventory

Relatively little is known regarding toxicity of nanoparticles in the environment. It is widely assumed that the toxicity of nanoparticles will be less than that of their metallic ions. Also the effect of organics on metal toxicity is well established. Presented here are the resu...

253

Inoculation of silicon nanoparticles with silver atoms  

E-print Network

-sputter inert-gas aggregation has emerged as one of the most prevalent and flexible techniques because chemistries of Si and Ag28 . Nanoparticles were produced using a modified inert-gas aggregated magnetron condense, nucleate and diffuse into the liquid Si nanoparticles in a process that we term ``inoculation

Nordlund, Kai

254

Silver and Gold Nanoparticles Alter Cathepsin Activity In vitro  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanomaterials are being incorporated into many biological applications for use as therapeutics, sensors, or labels. Silver nanomaterials are being utilized for biological implants and wound dressings as an antiviral material, whereas gold nanomaterials are being used as biological labels or sensors due to their surface properties and biocompatibility. Cytotoxicity data of these materials are becoming more prevalent; however, little research has been performed to understand how the introduction of these materials into cells affects cellular processes. Here, we demonstrate the impact that silver and gold nanoparticles have on cathepsin activity in vitro. Cathepsins are important cellular proteases that are imperative for proper immune system function. We have selected to examine gold and silver nanoparticles due to the increased use of these materials in biological applications. This manuscript depicts how both of these types of nanomaterials affect cathepsin activity, which could impact the host's immune system and its ability to respond to pathogens. Cathepsin B activity decreases in a dose-dependent manner with all nanoparticles tested. Alternatively, the impact of nanoparticles on cathepsin L activity depends greatly on the type and size of the material.

Speshock, Janice L.; Braydich-Stolle, Laura K.; Szymanski, Eric R.; Hussain, Saber M.

2010-12-01

255

Silver and Gold Nanoparticles Alter Cathepsin Activity In vitro  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanomaterials are being incorporated into many biological applications for use as therapeutics, sensors, or labels. Silver nanomaterials are being utilized for biological implants and wound dressings as an antiviral material, whereas gold nanomaterials are being used as biological labels or sensors due to their surface properties and biocompatibility. Cytotoxicity data of these materials are becoming more prevalent; however, little research has been performed to understand how the introduction of these materials into cells affects cellular processes. Here, we demonstrate the impact that silver and gold nanoparticles have on cathepsin activity in vitro. Cathepsins are important cellular proteases that are imperative for proper immune system function. We have selected to examine gold and silver nanoparticles due to the increased use of these materials in biological applications. This manuscript depicts how both of these types of nanomaterials affect cathepsin activity, which could impact the host's immune system and its ability to respond to pathogens. Cathepsin B activity decreases in a dose-dependent manner with all nanoparticles tested. Alternatively, the impact of nanoparticles on cathepsin L activity depends greatly on the type and size of the material.

Speshock, Janice L.; Braydich-Stolle, Laura K.; Szymanski, Eric R.; Hussain, Saber M.

2011-12-01

256

Synthesis of silver nanoparticles in methacrylic acid solution by gamma radiolysis and their application for estimation of dopamine at low concentrations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polymethacrylate capped silver nanoparticles have been synthesized in aqueous solution by gamma radiolysis method. The nanoparticle synthesis and polymerization of methacrylic acid occurred simultaneously in situ. Effect of different parameters such as precursor concentration and alkalinity on nanoparticle formation has been studied. These silver nanoparticles were tested for estimation of dopamine (DA) by monitoring surface plasmon band of nanoparticles at various DA concentrations. The result showed the response of spectral change towards DA concentration is linear in the DA concentration in the range of 5.27×10-7 to 1.58×10-5 mol dm-3. Also the interference of ascorbic acid (AA) in estimation of DA has also been studied. AA concentration up to 1.0×10-4 mol dm-3 does not interfere in the estimation of DA in the range of 5.27×10-7 to 1.05×10-5 mol dm-3.

Biswal, Jayashree; Misra, Nilanjal; Borde, Lalit C.; Sabharwal, S.

2013-02-01

257

Suspended hybrid films assembled from thiol-capped gold nanoparticles  

PubMed Central

In this work, we explored the formation processes of suspended hybrid thin films of thiol-capped Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) inside metal oxide tubular structures. We found that a balance between in-film interactions of the AuNPs and boundary interactions with metal oxides is a key in making these special organic–inorganic thin films. The hybrid films process many processing advantages and flexibilities, such as controllable film thickness, interfacial shape and inter-AuNPs distance, tuning of particle sizes, thiol population, chain lengths, and other new properties by introducing functional groups to thiol chains. Among their many unique features, the assembly-disassembly property may be useful for future on-off or store-release applications. PMID:22673303

2012-01-01

258

Radiation synthesis and characterization of hyaluronan capped gold nanoparticles.  

PubMed

Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) with diameter from 4 to 10nm, capping by hyaluronan (HA) were synthesized using a ?-irradiation method. The maximum absorption wavelengths at 517-525 nm of colloidal AuNPs/HA solutions were measured by UV-vis spectroscopy. The size and size distribution of AuNPs were determined from TEM images. The influence of various factors on the size of AuNPs particularly the concentration of Au3+ and HA, and dose rate were also investigated. Results indicated that higher dose rate and HA concentration favor smaller sizes of AuNPs whereas the size increases with Au3+ concentration. The colloidal AuNPs/HA solution was fairly stable more than 6 months under storage at ambient condition. The AuNPs stabilized by biocompatible HA with the size less than 10nm as prepared can potentially be applied in biomedicines and cosmetics. PMID:24750755

Hien, Nguyen Quoc; Van Phu, Dang; Duy, Nguyen Ngoc; Quoc, Le Anh

2012-06-20

259

Tuning the electromagnetic field coupling between nanoporous silver and silver nanoparticles connected by hybridized oligonucleotide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On monolithic nanoporous silver (NPS), via DNA hybridization, we constructed an NPS/DNA-Cy5/silver nanoparticle (Ag NP) sandwich to investigate its SERS effect. In this sandwich, no chemical enhancement contributes to the SERS signal of Cy5. As compared with NPS, the present substrate exhibits particularly strong electromagnetic (EM) field enhancement. At the same Ag NPs surface loading, the SERS intensity decreases exponentially with increasing the length of double-stranded DNA (dsDNA). A larger pore size of NPS leads to weaker EM enhancement within the sandwich, but the relative intensity is not sensitive to the sizes and it is determined by the length of dsDNA.

Zhao, Yin; Yan, Keqian; Huang, Xirong; Zhang, Zhonghua; Qu, Yinbo

2013-01-01

260

Silver Nanoparticles Dispersed in Poly(methyl methacrylate) Thin Films: Spectroscopic and Electrical Properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Silver nanoparticles of different sizes were prepared following chemical route and using silver nitrate as starting material. The nanoparticles were dispersed in Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) matrix and thin films were prepared. The PMMA films with dispersed silver nanoparticles were characterized by UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy and FESEM. The electrical measurements were carried out by using surface type cells. The absorption spectra of the films have shown plasmon peaks at different wavelengths with the variation in size of the silver nanoparticles. The film with dispersed silver nanoparticles showing plasmon peak at higher wavelength manifested increasing trend in dark current values with time at room temperature. On the contrary, the decreasing dark current values with time were observed in the case of the film showing plasmon peak at lower wavelength under similar measuring conditions. The photocurrent profile of the PMMA film with dispersed silver nanoparticles as a function of photoexcitation wavelength showed dependence on the position of the plasmon bands.

Majumder, Manisree; Chakraborty, Aloke Kumar; Mallik, Biswanath

2009-06-01

261

Effect of silver nanoparticles on human mesenchymal stem cell differentiation  

PubMed Central

Summary Background: Silver nanoparticles (Ag-NP) are one of the fastest growing products in nano-medicine due to their enhanced antibacterial activity at the nanoscale level. In biomedicine, hundreds of products have been coated with Ag-NP. For example, various medical devices include silver, such as surgical instruments, bone implants and wound dressings. After the degradation of these materials, or depending on the coating technique, silver in nanoparticle or ion form can be released and may come into close contact with tissues and cells. Despite incorporation of Ag-NP as an antibacterial agent in different products, the toxicological and biological effects of silver in the human body after long-term and low-concentration exposure are not well understood. In the current study, we investigated the effects of both ionic and nanoparticulate silver on the differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) into adipogenic, osteogenic and chondrogenic lineages and on the secretion of the respective differentiation markers adiponectin, osteocalcin and aggrecan. Results: As shown through laser scanning microscopy, Ag-NP with a size of 80 nm (hydrodynamic diameter) were taken up into hMSCs as nanoparticulate material. After 24 h of incubation, these Ag-NP were mainly found in the endo-lysosomal cell compartment as agglomerated material. Cytotoxicity was observed for differentiated or undifferentiated hMSCs treated with high silver concentrations (?20 µg·mL?1 Ag-NP; ?1.5 µg·mL?1 Ag+ ions) but not with low-concentration treatments (?10 µg·mL?1 Ag-NP; ?1.0 µg·mL?1 Ag+ ions). Subtoxic concentrations of Ag-NP and Ag+ ions impaired the adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs in a concentration-dependent manner, whereas chondrogenic differentiation was unaffected after 21 d of incubation. In contrast to aggrecan, the inhibitory effect of adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation was confirmed by a decrease in the secretion of specific biomarkers, including adiponectin (adipocytes) and osteocalcin (osteoblasts). Conclusion: Aside from the well-studied antibacterial effect of silver, little is known about the influence of nano-silver on cell differentiation processes. Our results demonstrate that ionic or nanoparticulate silver attenuates the adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs even at non-toxic concentrations. Therefore, more studies are needed to investigate the effects of silver species on cells at low concentrations during long-term treatment.

Diendorf, Jörg; Epple, Matthias; Schildhauer, Thomas A; Köller, Manfred

2014-01-01

262

Oxidative stress mediated cytotoxicity of biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles in human lung epithelial adenocarcinoma cell line  

PubMed Central

The goal of the present study was to investigate the toxicity of biologically prepared small size of silver nanoparticles in human lung epithelial adenocarcinoma cells A549. Herein, we describe a facile method for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles by treating the supernatant from a culture of Escherichia coli with silver nitrate. The formation of silver nanoparticles was characterized using various analytical techniques. The results from UV-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis show a characteristic strong resonance centered at 420 nm and a single crystalline nature, respectively. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirmed the possible bio-molecules responsible for the reduction of silver from silver nitrate into nanoparticles. The particle size analyzer and transmission electron microscopy results suggest that silver nanoparticles are spherical in shape with an average diameter of 15 nm. The results derived from in vitro studies showed a concentration-dependent decrease in cell viability when A549 cells were exposed to silver nanoparticles. This decrease in cell viability corresponded to increased leakage of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), increased intracellular reactive oxygen species generation (ROS), and decreased mitochondrial transmembrane potential (MTP). Furthermore, uptake and intracellular localization of silver nanoparticles were observed and were accompanied by accumulation of autophagosomes and autolysosomes in A549 cells. The results indicate that silver nanoparticles play a significant role in apoptosis. Interestingly, biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles showed more potent cytotoxicity at the concentrations tested compared to that shown by chemically synthesized silver nanoparticles. Therefore, our results demonstrated that human lung epithelial A549 cells could provide a valuable model to assess the cytotoxicity of silver nanoparticles. PMID:25242904

2014-01-01

263

Oxidative stress mediated cytotoxicity of biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles in human lung epithelial adenocarcinoma cell line  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The goal of the present study was to investigate the toxicity of biologically prepared small size of silver nanoparticles in human lung epithelial adenocarcinoma cells A549. Herein, we describe a facile method for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles by treating the supernatant from a culture of Escherichia coli with silver nitrate . The formation of silver nanoparticles was characterized using various analytical techniques. The results from UV-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis show a characteristic strong resonance centered at 420 nm and a single crystalline nature, respectively. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirmed the possible bio-molecules responsible for the reduction of silver from silver nitrate into nanoparticles. The particle size analyzer and transmission electron microscopy results suggest that silver nanoparticles are spherical in shape with an average diameter of 15 nm. The results derived from in vitro studies showed a concentration-dependent decrease in cell viability when A549 cells were exposed to silver nanoparticles. This decrease in cell viability corresponded to increased leakage of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), increased intracellular reactive oxygen species generation (ROS), and decreased mitochondrial transmembrane potential (MTP). Furthermore, uptake and intracellular localization of silver nanoparticles were observed and were accompanied by accumulation of autophagosomes and autolysosomes in A549 cells. The results indicate that silver nanoparticles play a significant role in apoptosis. Interestingly, biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles showed more potent cytotoxicity at the concentrations tested compared to that shown by chemically synthesized silver nanoparticles. Therefore, our results demonstrated that human lung epithelial A549 cells could provide a valuable model to assess the cytotoxicity of silver nanoparticles.

Han, Jae Woong; Gurunathan, Sangiliyandi; Jeong, Jae-Kyo; Choi, Yun-Jung; Kwon, Deug-Nam; Park, Jin-Ki; Kim, Jin-Hoi

2014-09-01

264

Silver and nanoparticles of silver in wound dressings: a review of efficacy and safety.  

PubMed

Wound infections present a significant clinical challenge, impacting on patient morbidity and mortality, with significant economic implications. Silver-impregnated wound dressings have the potential to reduce both wound bioburden and healing time. The silver ion Ag+ is the active antimicrobial entity; it can interfere with thiol (-SH) groups and provoke the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), a major contributor to its antibacterial efficacy. Recently, silver nanoparticles have gained considerable interest in wound bioburden reduction and in anti-inflammation, as they can release Ag+ ions at a greater rate than bulk silver, by virtue of their large surface area. If released from dressings, they also have the potential to cross biological compartments. This review aims to consolidate recent findings as to the efficacy and safety of different formulations of silver used as an antiseptic agent in dressings, summarising the features of silver nanomaterials, with particular attention to the dose-dependencies for biological effects, highlighting the need for information on their uptake and potential biological effects. PMID:22240850

Wilkinson, L J; White, R J; Chipman, J K

2011-11-01

265

A Preliminary Assessment of Silver Nanoparticle Inhibition of Monkeypox Virus Plaque Formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of nanotechnology and nanomaterials in medical research is growing. Silver-containing nanoparticles have previously\\u000a demonstrated antimicrobial efficacy against bacteria and viral particles. This preliminary study utilized an in vitro approach\\u000a to evaluate the ability of silver-based nanoparticles to inhibit infectivity of the biological select agent, monkeypox virus\\u000a (MPV). Nanoparticles (10–80 nm, with or without polysaccharide coating), or silver nitrate (AgNO3)

James V. Rogers; Christopher V. Parkinson; Young W. Choi; Janice L. Speshock; Saber M. Hussain

2008-01-01

266

Sprayable elastic conductors based on block copolymer silver nanoparticle composites.  

PubMed

Block copolymer silver nanoparticle composite elastic conductors were fabricated through solution blow spinning and subsequent nanoparticle nucleation. The reported technique allows for conformal deposition onto nonplanar substrates. We additionally demonstrated the ability to tune the strain dependence of the electrical properties by adjusting nanoparticle precursor concentration or localized nanoparticle nucleation. The stretchable fiber mats were able to display electrical conductivity values as high as 2000 ± 200 S/cm with only a 12% increase in resistance after 400 cycles of 150% strain. Stretchable elastic conductors with similar and higher bulk conductivity have not achieved comparable stability of electrical properties. These unique electromechanical characteristics are primarily the result of structural changes during mechanical deformation. The versatility of this approach was demonstrated by constructing a stretchable light emitting diode circuit and a strain sensor on planar and nonplanar substrates. PMID:25491507

Vural, Mert; Behrens, Adam M; Ayyub, Omar B; Ayoub, Joseph J; Kofinas, Peter

2015-01-27

267

Can silver nanoparticles be useful as potential biological labels?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Silver (Ag) nanoparticles have unique plasmon-resonant optical scattering properties that are finding use in nanomedical applications such as signal enhancers, optical sensors, and biomarkers. In this study, we examined the chemical and biological properties of Ag nanoparticles of similar sizes, but that differed primarily in their surface chemistry (hydrocarbon versus polysaccharide), in neuroblastoma cells for their potential use as biological labels. We observed strong optical labeling of the cells in a high illumination light microscopy system after 24 h of incubation due to the excitation of plasmon resonance by both types of Ag nanoparticle. Surface binding of both types of Ag nanoparticle to the plasma membrane of the cells was verified with scanning electron microscopy as well as the internalization and localization of the Ag nanoparticles into intracellular vacuoles in thin cell sections with transmission electron microscopy. However, the induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS), degradation of mitochondrial membrane integrity, disruption of the actin cytoskeleton, and reduction in proliferation after stimulation with nerve growth factor were found after incubation with Ag nanoparticles at concentrations of 25 µg ml-1 or greater, with a more pronounced effect produced by the hydrocarbon-based Ag nanoparticles in most cases. Therefore, the use of Ag nanoparticles as potential biological labels, even if the surface is chemically modified with a biocompatible material, should be approached with caution.

Schrand, Amanda M.; Braydich-Stolle, Laura K.; Schlager, John J.; Dai, Liming; Hussain, Saber M.

2008-06-01

268

Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles: Elucidation of prospective mechanism and therapeutic potential.  

PubMed

The synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) was accomplished using Syzygium cumini fruit extract at room temperature. Various techniques were used to characterize the newly synthesized silver nanoparticles and their size was determined to be 10-15nm. Important findings of this study were the identification of biomolecules responsible for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles and elucidate the mechanism of biosynthesis. Flavonoids present in S. cumini were mainly responsible for the reduction and the stabilization of nanoparticles. The antioxidant properties of AgNPs were evaluated using various assays. The nanoparticles were also found to destroy Dalton lymphoma cell lines under in vitro condition. Silver nanoparticles (100?g/mL) decreased the viability of Dalton lymphoma (DL) cell lines up to 50%. The studies describing the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles by fruit extract followed by the investigation of synthesis mechanism and anti-cancer activities may be useful for nanobiotechnology research opening a new arena in this field. PMID:24267328

Mittal, Amit Kumar; Bhaumik, Jayeeta; Kumar, Sanjay; Banerjee, Uttam Chand

2014-02-01

269

Antibacterial activity of pH-dependent biosynthesized silver nanoparticles against clinical pathogen.  

PubMed

Simple, nontoxic, environmental friendly method is employed for the production of silver nanoparticles. In this study the synthesized nanoparticles UV absorption band occurred at 400 nm because of the surface Plasmon resonance of silver nanoparticles. The pH of the medium plays important role in the synthesis of control shaped and sized nanoparticles. The colour intensity of the aqueous solution varied with pH. In this study, at pH 9, the colour of the aqueous solution was dark brown, whereas in pH 5 the colour was yellowish brown; the colour difference in the aqueous solution occurred due to the higher production of silver nanoparticles. The antibacterial activity of biosynthesized silver nanoparticles was carried out against E. coli. The silver nanoparticles synthesized at pH 9 showed maximum antibacterial activity at 50 ?L. PMID:24967396

Chitra, Kethirabalan; Annadurai, Gurusamy

2014-01-01

270

Gold and silver nanoparticles conjugated with heparin derivative possess anti-angiogenesis properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Silver and gold nanoparticles display unique physical and biological properties that have been extensively studied for biological and medical applications. Typically, gold and silver nanoparticles are prepared by chemical reductants that utilize excess toxic reactants, which need to be removed for biological purposes. We utilized a clean method involving a single synthetic step to prepare metal nanoparticles for evaluating potential effects on angiogenesis modulation. These nanoparticles were prepared by reducing silver nitrate and gold chloride with diaminopyridinyl (DAP)-derivatized heparin (HP) polysaccharides. Both gold and silver nanoparticles reduced with DAPHP exhibited effective inhibition of basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2)-induced angiogenesis, with an enhanced anti-angiogenesis efficacy with the conjugation to DAPHP (P<0.01) as compared to glucose conjugation. These results suggest that DAPHP-reduced silver nanoparticles and gold nanoparticles have potential in pathological angiogenesis accelerated disorders such as cancer and inflammatory diseases.

Kemp, Melissa M.; Kumar, Ashavani; Mousa, Shaymaa; Dyskin, Evgeny; Yalcin, Murat; Ajayan, Pulickel; Linhardt, Robert J.; Mousa, Shaker A.

2009-11-01

271

Antibacterial Activity of pH-Dependent Biosynthesized Silver Nanoparticles against Clinical Pathogen  

PubMed Central

Simple, nontoxic, environmental friendly method is employed for the production of silver nanoparticles. In this study the synthesized nanoparticles UV absorption band occurred at 400?nm because of the surface Plasmon resonance of silver nanoparticles. The pH of the medium plays important role in the synthesis of control shaped and sized nanoparticles. The colour intensity of the aqueous solution varied with pH. In this study, at pH 9, the colour of the aqueous solution was dark brown, whereas in pH 5 the colour was yellowish brown; the colour difference in the aqueous solution occurred due to the higher production of silver nanoparticles. The antibacterial activity of biosynthesized silver nanoparticles was carried out against E. coli. The silver nanoparticles synthesized at pH 9 showed maximum antibacterial activity at 50??L. PMID:24967396

Chitra, Kethirabalan; Annadurai, Gurusamy

2014-01-01

272

Time-dependent effect in green synthesis of silver nanoparticles  

PubMed Central

The application of “green” chemistry rules to nanoscience and nanotechnology is very important in the preparation of various nanomaterials. In this work, we successfully developed an eco-friendly chemistry method for preparing silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) in natural polymeric media. The colloidal Ag-NPs were synthesized in an aqueous solution using silver nitrate, gelatin, and glucose as a silver precursor, stabilizer, and reducing agent, respectively. The properties of synthesized colloidal Ag-NPs were studied at different reaction times. The ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectra were in excellent agreement with the obtained nanostructure studies performed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and their size distributions. The prepared samples were also characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The use of eco-friendly reagents, such as gelatin and glucose, provides green and economic attributes to this work. PMID:21556342

Darroudi, Majid; Ahmad, Mansor Bin; Zamiri, Reza; Zak, AK; Abdullah, Abdul Halim; Ibrahim, Nor Azowa

2011-01-01

273

Time-dependent effect in green synthesis of silver nanoparticles.  

PubMed

The application of "green" chemistry rules to nanoscience and nanotechnology is very important in the preparation of various nanomaterials. In this work, we successfully developed an eco-friendly chemistry method for preparing silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) in natural polymeric media. The colloidal Ag-NPs were synthesized in an aqueous solution using silver nitrate, gelatin, and glucose as a silver precursor, stabilizer, and reducing agent, respectively. The properties of synthesized colloidal Ag-NPs were studied at different reaction times. The ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectra were in excellent agreement with the obtained nanostructure studies performed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and their size distributions. The prepared samples were also characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The use of eco-friendly reagents, such as gelatin and glucose, provides green and economic attributes to this work. PMID:21556342

Darroudi, Majid; Ahmad, Mansor Bin; Zamiri, Reza; Zak, A K; Abdullah, Abdul Halim; Ibrahim, Nor Azowa

2011-01-01

274

Effect of Accelerator in Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles  

PubMed Central

Silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) were successfully synthesized in the natural polymeric matrix. Silver nitrate, gelatin, glucose, and sodium hydroxide have been used as silver precursor, stabilizer, reducing agent, and accelerator reagent, respectively. This study investigated the role of NaOH as the accelerator. The resultant products have been confirmed to be Ag-NPs using powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), UV-vis spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The colloidal sols of Ag-NPs obtained at different volumes of NaOH show strong and different surface plasmon resonance (SPR) peaks, which can be explained from the TEM images of Ag-NPs and their particle size distribution. Compared with other synthetic methods, this work is green, rapid, and simple to use. The newly prepared Ag-NPs may have many potential applications in chemical and biological industries. PMID:21152307

Darroudi, Majid; Ahmad, Mansor Bin; Abdullah, Abdul Halim; Ibrahim, Nor Azowa; Shameli, Kamyar

2010-01-01

275

Biosynthesis of Silver Nanoparticles by Geotricum sp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nanoparticles are usually 1–100 nm in each spatial dimension considered as building blocks of the next generation of optoelectronics,\\u000a electronics, and various chemical and biochemical sensors. In the synthesis of nanoparticles use of microorganisms emerges\\u000a as an eco-friendly and exciting approach that reduce waste products (ultimately leading to atomically precise molecular manufacturing\\u000a with zero waste); the use of nanomaterials as catalysts

Ali Jebali; Fatemeh Ramezani; Bahram Kazemi

2011-01-01

276

Spectroscopic analysis of biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles under clinorotation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanoparticles are one of the hot topics of research due to their size dependent optical, electrical and magnetic properties & their anti-bacterial and anti-fungal nature. Synthesis of nano particles can be done by various physical and chemical methods. However, Biosynthesis of nanoparticles is environment friendly, can take place around room temperature, and require little intervention or input of energy. In the present study, the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using bacteria and the effect of clinorotation on rate of synthesis is discussed. The freshly grown bacterial isolate was inoculated in to 250-ml Erlenmeyer flask containing 50 ml sterile nutrient broth (LB). The cultured flasks were incubated in a shaker at 120 rpm for 24 h at 370C. Culture was centrifuged at 10,000 rpm for 10 min. The supernatant was used for carrying extracellular production of silver nanoparticles by mixing it with 5mM AgNO3 solution. The above solution was clinorotated at 2 rpm for 24 h. The synthesis was carried out at 60oC. Visual observation was conducted periodically to check for the nanoparticles formation in normal gravity as well as under clinorotation. UV-visible spectroscopic analysis showed that rate of synthesis was faster in case of clinorotated sample than control. Further, the results of FTIR and XRD characterization will be discussed.

Jagtap, Sagar; Vidyasagar, Pandit; Ghemud, Vipul; Dixit, Jyotsana

277

Silver-Based Crystalline Nanoparticles, Microbially Fabricated  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One mechanism of silver resistance in microorganisms is accumulation of the metal ions in the cell. Here, we report on the phenomenon of biosynthesis of silver-based single crystals with well-defined compositions and shapes, such as equilateral triangles and hexagons, in Pseudomonas stutzeri AG259. The crystals were up to 200 nm in size and were often located at the cell poles. Transmission electron microscopy, quantitative energy-dispersive x-ray analysis, and electron diffraction established that the crystals comprise at least three different types, found both in whole cells and thin sections. These Ag-containing crystals are embedded in the organic matrix of the bacteria. Their possible potential as organic-metal composites in thin film and surface coating technology is discussed.

Klaus, Tanja; Joerger, Ralph; Olsson, Eva; Granqvist, Claes-Goran

1999-11-01

278

Phycosynthesis of silver nanoparticles and photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange dye using silver (Ag) nanoparticles synthesized from Hypnea musciformis (Wulfen) J.V. Lamouroux  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present investigation, simple and eco-friendly chemical reaction for the synthesis reported on biological synthesis of nano-sized silver and biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Hypnea musciformis at room temperature along with photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange dye. The nanoparticles of silver were formed by the reduction of silver nitrate to aqueous silver metal ions during exposure to the extract of red alga H. musciformis. The optical properties of the obtained silver nanoparticles were characterized by applying UV-visible absorption and room temperature photoluminescence. The X-ray diffraction results revealed that the synthesized silver nanoparticles were in the cubic phase. The existence of functional groups was identified using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The morphology and size of the synthesized particles were studied with atomic force microscope measurements. Photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange was measured spectrophotometrically by using silver as nanocatalyst under visible light illumination. The results revealed that biosynthesized silver nanoparticles using H. musciformis was found to be impressive in degrading methyl orange.

Ganapathy Selvam, G.; Sivakumar, K.

2014-09-01

279

Characterization by spectroscopic Ellipsometry, the physical properties of silver nanoparticles.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Physicists are able to change their minds through their experiments. I think it is time to go kick the curse and go further in research if we want a human future. I work in the Nano-Optics and Plasmonics research. I defined with ellipsomètrie the structure of new type of Nano particles of silver. It's same be act quickly to replace the old dirty leaded electronic-connexion chip and by the other hand to find a new way for the heath care of cancer disease by nanoparticles the next killers of bad cells. Silver nanoparticle layers are obtained by Spark Plasma Sintering are investigated as an alternative to lead alloy based material for solder joint in power mechatronics modules. These layers are characterized by mean of conventional techniques that is the dilatometry technique, the resistivity measurement through the van der Pauw method, and the flash laser technique. Furthermore, the nanoparticles of silver layer are deeply studied by UV-Visible spectroscopic ellipsometry. Spectroscopic angles parameters are determined in function of temperature and dielectric constants are deduced and analyzed through an optical model which takes into account a Drude and a Lorentz component within the Bruggeman effective medium approximation (EMA). The relaxation times and the electrical conductivity are plot in function of temperature. The obtained electrical conductivity give significant result in good agreement to those reported by four points electrical measurement method.

Coanga, Jean-Maurice

2013-04-01

280

A novel aptasensor based on silver nanoparticle enhanced fluorescence.  

PubMed

In the present study, we report a novel aptasensor based on silver nanoparticle enhanced fluorescence for the detection of adenosine. First, the distance dependence nature of silver nanoparticle enhanced fluorescence was investigated through fluorescent dyes modified oligonucleotides to control the spacing distance between dyes and AgNP. The results showed that the fluorescence intensity reached the maximum value with the spacing distance of dyes about 8 nm from AgNP surface. The fluorescence intensity decreases when the spacing distance is either above or below this value. Based on this result, a fluorescence switch is constructed. In the "OFF" state, without the target molecules, there is a greater spacing distance between the Cy3 dyes and the AgNP giving comparatively lower fluorescence intensity. While in the "ON" state, in the presence of target molecules, the fluorescence signals increased for the conformation structure change of the aptamer which shorten the spacing distance between the Cy3 dyes and the AgNP to 8 nm. Using adenosine as target, the aptasensor produced a linear range from 200 nM to 200 ?M with a correlation coefficient of 0.9949 and the detection limit was 48 nM estimated using 3?. The aptasensor was also found to be specific in targeting adenosine. The presented method shows a new strategy of combining aptamer recognition and silver nanoparticle for fluorescence signal enhancement and increasing sensitivity. PMID:22209330

Wang, Ying; Li, Zhonghui; Li, Hui; Vuki, Maika; Xu, Danke; Chen, Hong-Yuan

2012-02-15

281

Molecular recognition by gold, silver and copper nanoparticles  

PubMed Central

The intrinsic physical properties of the noble metal nanoparticles, which are highly sensitive to the nature of their local molecular environment, make such systems ideal for the detection of molecular recognition events. The current review describes the state of the art concerning molecular recognition of Noble metal nanoparticles. In the first part the preparation of such nanoparticles is discussed along with methods of capping and stabilization. A brief discussion of the three common methods of functionalization: Electrostatic adsorption; Chemisorption; Affinity-based coordination is given. In the second section a discussion of the optical and electrical properties of nanoparticles is given to aid the reader in understanding the use of such properties in molecular recognition. In the main section the various types of capping agents for molecular recognition; nucleic acid coatings, protein coatings and molecules from the family of supramolecular chemistry are described along with their numerous applications. Emphasis for the nucleic acids is on complementary oligonucleotide and aptamer recognition. For the proteins the recognition properties of antibodies form the core of the section. With respect to the supramolecular systems the cyclodextrins, calix[n]arenes, dendrimers, crown ethers and the cucurbitales are treated in depth. Finally a short section deals with the possible toxicity of the nanoparticles, a concern in public health. PMID:23977421

Tauran, Yannick; Brioude, Arnaud; Coleman, Anthony W; Rhimi, Moez; Kim, Beonjoom

2013-01-01

282

The Role of Organic Capping Layers of Platinum Nanoparticles in Catalytic Activity of CO Oxidation  

SciTech Connect

We report the catalytic activity of colloid platinum nanoparticles synthesized with different organic capping layers. On the molecular scale, the porous organic layers have open spaces that permit the reactant and product molecules to reach the metal surface. We carried out CO oxidation on several platinum nanoparticle systems capped with various organic molecules to investigate the role of the capping agent on catalytic activity. Platinum colloid nanoparticles with four types of capping layer have been used: TTAB (Tetradecyltrimethylammonium Bromide), HDA (hexadecylamine), HDT (hexadecylthiol), and PVP (poly(vinylpyrrolidone)). The reactivity of the Pt nanoparticles varied by 30%, with higher activity on TTAB coated nanoparticles and lower activity on HDT, while the activation energy remained between 27-28 kcal/mol. In separate experiments, the organic capping layers were partially removed using ultraviolet light-ozone generation techniques, which resulted in increased catalytic activity due to the removal of some of the organic layers. These results indicate that the nature of chemical bonding between organic capping layers and nanoparticle surfaces plays a role in determining the catalytic activity of platinum colloid nanoparticles for carbon monoxide oxidation.

Park, Jeong Y.; Aliaga, Cesar; Renzas, J. Russell; Lee, Hyunjoo; Somorjai, Gabor A.

2008-12-17

283

Partitioning of silver and chemical speciation of free Ag in soils amended with nanoparticles  

PubMed Central

Background Knowledge about silver nanoparticles in soils is limited even if soils are a critical pathway for their environmental fate. In this paper, speciation results have been acquired using a silver ion selective electrode in three different soils. Results Soil organic matter and pH were the most important soil properties controlling the occurrence of silver ions in soils. In acidic soils, more free silver ions are available while in the presence of organic matter, ions were tightly bound in complexes. The evolution of the chemical speciation of the silver nanoparticles in soils was followed over six months. Conclusion During the first few hours, there appeared to be a strong sorption of the silver with soil ligands, whereas over time, silver ions were released, the final concentration being approximately 10 times higher than at the beginning. Ag release was associated with either the oxidation of the nanoparticles or a dissociation of adsorbed silver from the soil surfaces. PMID:23617903

2013-01-01

284

Preparation and Characterization of Gelatin Nanofibers Containing Silver Nanoparticles  

PubMed Central

Ag nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized in formic acid aqueous solutions through chemical reduction. Formic acid was used for a reducing agent of Ag precursor and solvent of gelatin. Silver acetate, silver tetrafluoroborate, silver nitrate, and silver phosphate were used as Ag precursors. Ag+ ions were reduced into Ag NPs by formic acid. The formation of Ag NPs was characterized by a UV-Vis spectrophotometer. Ag NPs were quickly generated within a few minutes in silver nitrate (AgNO3)/formic acid solution. As the water content of formic acid aqueous solution increased, more Ag NPs were generated, at a higher rate and with greater size. When gelatin was added to the AgNO3/formic acid solution, the Ag NPs were stabilized, resulting in smaller particles. Moreover, gelatin limits further aggregation of Ag NPs, which were effectively dispersed in solution. The amount of Ag NPs formed increased with increasing concentration of AgNO3 and aging time. Gelatin nanofibers containing Ag NPs were fabricated by electrospinning. The average diameters of gelatin nanofibers were 166.52 ± 32.72 nm, but these decreased with the addition of AgNO3. The average diameters of the Ag NPs in gelatin nanofibers ranged between 13 and 25 nm, which was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). PMID:24758929

Jeong, Lim; Park, Won Ho

2014-01-01

285

Preferential Interaction of Na+ over K+ to Carboxylate-functionalized Silver Nanoparticles  

EPA Science Inventory

Elucidating mechanistic interactions between specific ions (Na+/ K+) and nanoparticle surfaces to alter particle stability in polar media has received little attention. We investigated relative preferential binding of Na+ and K+ to carboxylate-functionalized silver nanoparticles ...

286

Oral toxicity of silver ions, silver nanoparticles and colloidal silver--a review.  

PubMed

Orally administered silver has been described to be absorbed in a range of 0.4-18% in mammals with a human value of 18%. Based on findings in animals, silver seems to be distributed to all of the organs investigated, with the highest levels being observed in the intestine and stomach. In the skin, silver induces a blue-grey discoloration termed argyria. Excretion occurs via the bile and urine. The following dose-dependent animal toxicity findings have been reported: death, weight loss, hypoactivity, altered neurotransmitter levels, altered liver enzymes, altered blood values, enlarged hearts and immunological effects. Substantial evidence exists suggesting that the effects induced by particulate silver are mediated via silver ions that are released from the particle surface. With the current data regarding toxicity and average human dietary exposure, a Margin of Safety calculation indicates at least a factor of five before a level of concern to the general population is reached. PMID:24231525

Hadrup, Niels; Lam, Henrik R

2014-02-01

287

High-frequency mechanical stirring initiates anisotropic growth of seeds requisite for synthesis of asymmetric metallic nanoparticles like silver nanorods.  

PubMed

High-speed stirring at elevated temperatures is shown to be effective in the symmetry-breaking process needed for the growth of the hard-to-synthesize silver nanorods from the polyol reduction of silver ions. This process competes with the facile formation of more symmetrical, spherical and cubic, nanoparticles. Once the seed is formed, further growth proceeds predominantly along the long axis, with a consequent increase of the particles' aspect ratio (that of the nanorod). When stirring is stopped shortly after seed formation, nanorods with a broad distribution of aspect ratios are obtained, while when the high-frequency stirring continues the distribution narrows significantly. The width of the nanorods can only be increased if the initial concentration of Ag(+) ions increases. Reducing the stirring speeds during seed formation lowers the yield of nanorods. Molecular dynamics simulations reveal that the formation of a nanometer-scale thin boundary region between a solid facet of the nanoparticle and the liquid around it, and the accommodation processes of metal (Ag) atoms transported through this boundary region from the liquid to the solid growth interface, are frustrated by sufficiently fast shear flow caused by high-frequency stirring. This arrests growth on seed facets parallel to the flow, leading, together with the preferential binding of the capping polymer to the (100) facet, to the observed growth in the (110) direction, resulting in silver nanorods capped at the ends by (111) facets and exposing (100) facets on the side walls. PMID:24053557

Mahmoud, Mahmoud A; El-Sayed, Mostafa A; Gao, Jianping; Landman, Uzi

2013-10-01

288

Low-cost silver capped polystyrene nanotube arrays as super-hydrophobic substrates for SERS applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we describe the fabrication, simulation and characterization of dense arrays of freestanding silver capped polystyrene nanotubes, and demonstrate their suitability for surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) applications. Substrates are fabricated in a rapid, low-cost and scalable way by melt wetting of polystyrene (PS) in an anodized alumina (AAO) template, followed by silver evaporation. Scanning electron microscopy reveals that substrates are composed of a dense array of freestanding polystyrene nanotubes topped by silver nanocaps. SERS characterization of the substrates, employing a monolayer of 4-aminothiophenol (4-ABT) as a model molecule, exhibits an enhancement factor of ˜1.6 × 106, in agreement with 3D finite difference time domain simulations. Contact angle measurements of the substrates revealed super-hydrophobic properties, allowing pre-concentration of target analyte into a small volume. These super-hydrophobic properties of the samples are taken advantage of for sensitive detection of the organic pollutant crystal violet, with detection down to ˜400 ppt in a 2 ?l aliquot demonstrated.

Lovera, Pierre; Creedon, Niamh; Alatawi, Hanan; Mitchell, Micki; Burke, Micheal; Quinn, Aidan J.; O'Riordan, Alan

2014-05-01

289

Green synthesis, optical properties and catalytic activity of silver nanoparticles in the synthesis of N-monosubstituted ureas in water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles by using Euphorbia condylocarpa M. bieb root extract for the synthesis of N-monosubstituted ureas in water. UV-visible studies show the absorption band at 420 nm due to surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of the silver nanoparticles. This reveals the reduction of silver ions (Ag+) to silver (Ago) which indicates the formation of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs). This method has the advantages of high yields, simple methodology and easy work up.

Nasrollahzadeh, Mahmoud; Babaei, Ferydon; Mohammad Sajadi, S.; Ehsani, Ali

2014-11-01

290

Green synthesis, optical properties and catalytic activity of silver nanoparticles in the synthesis of N-monosubstituted ureas in water.  

PubMed

We report the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles by using Euphorbia condylocarpa M. bieb root extract for the synthesis of N-monosubstituted ureas in water. UV-visible studies show the absorption band at 420 nm due to surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of the silver nanoparticles. This reveals the reduction of silver ions (Ag+) to silver (Ago) which indicates the formation of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs). This method has the advantages of high yields, simple methodology and easy work up. PMID:24887504

Nasrollahzadeh, Mahmoud; Babaei, Ferydon; Sajadi, S Mohammad; Ehsani, Ali

2014-11-11

291

Caging antimicrobial silver nanoparticles inside cotton  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In this study, a stable, non-leaching Ag-cotton nanocomposite fiber has been characterized. Siver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) were previously synthesized in the alkali-swollen substructure of cotton fiber; the nano-sized micofibrillar channels allowed diffusion-controlled conditions to produce mono-dispe...

292

Antiviral activity of mycosynthesized silver nanoparticles against herpes simplex virus and human parainfluenza virus type 3  

PubMed Central

The interaction between silver nanoparticles and viruses is attracting great interest due to the potential antiviral activity of these particles, and is the subject of much research effort in the treatment of infectious diseases. In this work, we demonstrate that silver nanoparticles undergo a size-dependent interaction with herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 and with human parainfluenza virus type 3. We show that production of silver nanoparticles from different fungi is feasible, and their antiviral activity is dependent on the production system used. Silver nanoparticles are capable of reducing viral infectivity, probably by blocking interaction of the virus with the cell, which might depend on the size and zeta potential of the silver nanoparticles. Smaller-sized nanoparticles were able to inhibit the infectivity of the viruses analyzed. PMID:24235828

Gaikwad, Swapnil; Ingle, Avinash; Gade, Aniket; Rai, Mahendra; Falanga, Annarita; Incoronato, Novella; Russo, Luigi; Galdiero, Stefania; Galdiero, Massimilano

2013-01-01

293

Synthesis of silver nanoparticles using A. indicum leaf extract and their antibacterial activity.  

PubMed

Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles has been achieved using environmentally acceptable plant extract. It is observed that Abutilon indicum leaf extract can reduce silver ions into silver nanoparticles within 15 min of reaction time. The formation and stability of the reduced silver nanoparticles in the colloidal solution were monitored by UV-Vis spectrophotometer analysis. The mean particle diameter of silver nanoparticles was calculated from the XRD pattern. FT-IR spectra of the leaf extract after the development of nanoparticles are determined to allow identification of possible functional groups responsible for the conversion of metal ions to metal nanoparticles. The AgNPs thus obtained showed highly potent antibacterial activity toward Gram-positive (Staphyloccocus aureus and Bacillus subtilis) and Gram-negative (Salmonella typhi and Escherichia coli) microorganisms. PMID:24997264

Ashokkumar, S; Ravi, S; Kathiravan, V; Velmurugan, S

2015-01-01

294

Synthesis of silver nanoparticles using A. indicum leaf extract and their antibacterial activity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles has been achieved using environmentally acceptable plant extract. It is observed that Abutilon indicum leaf extract can reduce silver ions into silver nanoparticles within 15 min of reaction time. The formation and stability of the reduced silver nanoparticles in the colloidal solution were monitored by UV-Vis spectrophotometer analysis. The mean particle diameter of silver nanoparticles was calculated from the XRD pattern. FT-IR spectra of the leaf extract after the development of nanoparticles are determined to allow identification of possible functional groups responsible for the conversion of metal ions to metal nanoparticles. The AgNPs thus obtained showed highly potent antibacterial activity toward Gram-positive (Staphyloccocus aureus and Bacillus subtilis) and Gram-negative (Salmonella typhi and Escherichia coli) microorganisms.

Ashokkumar, S.; Ravi, S.; Kathiravan, V.; Velmurugan, S.

2015-01-01

295

Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles by a Bacillus sp. of marine origin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study was aimed to explore the nanoparticle synthesizing properties of a silver resistant Bacillus sp. isolated from a marine water sample. The 16SrDNA sequence analysis of the isolate proved it as a Bacillus strain. Very interestingly, the isolate was found to have the ability to form intracellular silver nanoparticles at room temperature within 24 hours. This was confirmed by the UV-Vis absorption analysis which showed a peak at 430 nm corresponding to the plasmon absorbance of silver nanoparticles. Further characterization of the nanoparticles was carried out by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. The presence of silver nanoparticles with the size less than 100 nm was confirmed. These particles were found to be extremely stable as confirmed by the TEM analysis after three months of purification. So, the current study is the demonstration of an efficient synthesis of stable silver nanoparticles by a marine Bacillus strain.

Janardhanan, A.; Roshmi, T.; Varghese, Rintu T.; Soniya, E. V.; Mathew, Jyothis; Radhakrishnan, E. K.

2013-04-01

296

Enhanced antibacterial activity of bimetallic gold-silver core-shell nanoparticles at low silver concentration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Herein we report the development of bimetallic Au@Ag core-shell nanoparticles (NPs) where gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) served as the seeds for continuous deposition of silver atoms on its surface. The core-shell structure and morphology were examined by UV-Vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The core-shell NPs showed antibacterial activity against both Gram negative (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and Gram positive (Enterococcus faecalis and Pediococcus acidilactici) bacteria at low concentration of silver present in the shell, with more efficacy against Gram negative bacteria. TEM and flow cytometric studies showed that the core-shell NPs attached to the bacterial surface and caused membrane damage leading to cell death. The enhanced antibacterial properties of Au@Ag core-shell NPs was possibly due to the more active silver atoms in the shell surrounding gold core due to high surface free energy of the surface Ag atoms owing to shell thinness in the bimetallic NP structure.Herein we report the development of bimetallic Au@Ag core-shell nanoparticles (NPs) where gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) served as the seeds for continuous deposition of silver atoms on its surface. The core-shell structure and morphology were examined by UV-Vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The core-shell NPs showed antibacterial activity against both Gram negative (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and Gram positive (Enterococcus faecalis and Pediococcus acidilactici) bacteria at low concentration of silver present in the shell, with more efficacy against Gram negative bacteria. TEM and flow cytometric studies showed that the core-shell NPs attached to the bacterial surface and caused membrane damage leading to cell death. The enhanced antibacterial properties of Au@Ag core-shell NPs was possibly due to the more active silver atoms in the shell surrounding gold core due to high surface free energy of the surface Ag atoms owing to shell thinness in the bimetallic NP structure. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c1nr10703h

Banerjee, Madhuchanda; Sharma, Shilpa; Chattopadhyay, Arun; Ghosh, Siddhartha Sankar

2011-12-01

297

Characterization of citrates on gold and silver nanoparticles.  

PubMed

In this paper, we report different coordinations of citrates on gold (AuNP) and silver (AgNP) nanoparticles, as determined using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and molecular orbital (MO) calculations. AuNPs and AgNPs are found to have completely different interactions with the carboxylate anchoring groups, as indicated by their unique asymmetric stretching vibrations in the FTIR spectra. The ?as (COO(-)) of citrate exhibits a high-frequency shift resulting from the formation of a unidentate coordination on AuNPs, whereas this vibration exhibits a low-frequency shift as a result of ionic bond formation on AgNPs, as predicted from the MO calculations of the corresponding metal complex salts. The enhancement in the IR signals when their vibration direction was perpendicular to the nanoparticle surface revealed the influence of localized surface plasmons excited on the metal nanoparticles. PMID:25454448

Wulandari, Priastuti; Nagahiro, Takeshi; Fukada, Nobuko; Kimura, Yasuo; Niwano, Michio; Tamada, Kaoru

2015-01-15

298

Field effect on digestive ripening of thiol-capped gold nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We studied the digestive ripening of thiol-capped gold nanoparticles under simultaneous action of electric field and reflux heating in a silicone oil bath at 130 °C, using transmission electron microscopy. Observation revealed that a polydispersed gold nanoparticle system reached the state of nearly monodispersity under the action of an electric field and the thiol-capped gold nanoparticles carried negative charges. The electric field caused the increase of the particle size for the nearly monodispersed gold nanoparticle system. The self-assembly of the nearly monodisperse gold nanoparticles under the action of an electric field of a high field intensity was observed. The gold nanoparticles tended to form self-assembled nanostructures of six-fold symmetry. This study provides a new route for system engineering to control the particle size of metallic nanoparticles by electric field and digestive ripening.

Lin, Meng-Lin; Yang, Fuqian; Peng, J. S.; Lee, Sanboh

2014-02-01

299

Field effect on digestive ripening of thiol-capped gold nanoparticles  

SciTech Connect

We studied the digestive ripening of thiol-capped gold nanoparticles under simultaneous action of electric field and reflux heating in a silicone oil bath at 130?°C, using transmission electron microscopy. Observation revealed that a polydispersed gold nanoparticle system reached the state of nearly monodispersity under the action of an electric field and the thiol-capped gold nanoparticles carried negative charges. The electric field caused the increase of the particle size for the nearly monodispersed gold nanoparticle system. The self-assembly of the nearly monodisperse gold nanoparticles under the action of an electric field of a high field intensity was observed. The gold nanoparticles tended to form self-assembled nanostructures of six-fold symmetry. This study provides a new route for system engineering to control the particle size of metallic nanoparticles by electric field and digestive ripening.

Lin, Meng-Lin; Peng, J. S.; Lee, Sanboh, E-mail: sblee@mx.nthu.edu.tw [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Yang, Fuqian [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky 40506 (United States)

2014-02-07

300

Antibacterial applications of silver nanoparticles synthesized by aqueous extract of Azadirachta indica (Neem) leaves.  

PubMed

Silver nanoparticles are known to have bactericidal effects. A new generation of dressings incorporating antimicrobial agents like silver nanoparticles is being formulated to reduce or prevent infections. The particles can be incorporated in materials and cloth rendering them sterile. Recently, it was found that aqueous silver ions can be reduced by aqueous extract of plant parts to generate extremely stable silver nanoparticles in water. Apart from being environmentally friendly process, use of Neem leaves extract might add synergistic antibacterial effect of Neem leaves to the biosynthesized nanoparticles. With this hypothesis the biosynthetic production of silver nanoparticles by aqueous extract of Neem leaves and its bactericidal effect in cotton cloth against E. Coli were studied in this work. Silver nanoparticles were synthesized by short-term (1 day) and long-term (21 days) interaction of Neem extract (20% w/v) and 0.01 M AgNO3 solution in 1:4 mixing ratio. The synthesized particles were characterized by UV visible spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and incorporated into cotton disks by (i) centrifuging the disks with liquid broth containing nanoparticles, (ii) in-situ coating process during synthesis, and (iii) coating with dried and purified nanoparticles. The antibacterial property of the nanoparticles coated cotton disks was studied by disk diffusion method. The effect of consecutive washing of the coated disks with distilled water on antibacterial property was also investigated. This work demonstrates the possible use of biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles by its incorporation in cloths leading them to sterilization. PMID:20055111

Tripathi, A; Chandrasekaran, N; Raichur, A M; Mukherjee, A

2009-02-01

301

Homogeneous silver-coated nanoparticle substrates for enhanced fluorescence detection.  

PubMed

A simple method has been developed for the deposition of uniform silver-coated nanoparticles on glass substrates, with a homogeneous distribution shown by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). UV-visible spectroscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) have been used to characterize both the optical density and elemental content of the deposited nanoparticles. The fluorescence enhancement was investigated using a monolayer of FITC-conjugated human serum albumin (FITC-HSA) and tested using laser scanning microscopy at 488 nm excitation wavelength. The enhancement factor was calculated from individual spectra recorded with a Fluorolog-Tau-3 spectrofluorometer. We identified the nanoparticle growth regime which led to fluorescence enhancement. Such enhancement is detectable when Au core-Ag shell nanoparticles increased their size to 47 nm, in agreement with theoretical estimates. The origin of this enhancement for appropriate size nanoparticles is attributed to the effect of an increased excitation rate from the local field enhanced by the interaction of incident light with the nanoparticles and/or higher quantum yield from an increase of the intrinsic decay rate of the fluorophore. We thus demonstrated that the Au core-Ag shell nanostructures on glass surfaces are promising substrates for fluorescence enhancement with outstanding macroscopic homogeneity. This important feature will pave the way for the application of our substrates in biotechnology and life sciences such as imaging and sensing of biomolecules in proteomics. PMID:17107148

Xie, Fang; Baker, Mark S; Goldys, Ewa M

2006-11-23

302

Tunable morphological properties of silver enriched platinum allied nanoparticles and their catalysed reduction of p-nitrophenol  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A robust polymer based and polyol mediated procedure to synthesize nanobimetallic particles has been modified to produce core–shell and alloy Ag/Pt nanoparticles with tunable properties. Novel three-dimensional (3D) quasi nanocubes entangled in nanowebs were produced by rapid solution phase transformation with hot addition of absolute ethanol. The optical characterization showed extinction of plasmon resonance band occurring with incremental feeding ratio of Pt source in all cases. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) and high resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) images revealed that the shape, size and size distribution of as-prepared silver platinum nanoparticles depended on the stabilizer or capping agent, mole ratio of metal ion sources, temperature and time of reaction. Meanwhile, catalytic activity was highest in the reduction of p-nitrophenol in the presence of polyvinylpyrrolidone/diethylene glycol stabilized Ag/Pt nanoparticles.

Adeyemi Adekoya, Joseph; Olugbenga Dare, Enock; Adediran Mesubi, Michael

2014-09-01

303

Silver Nanoparticle Enhanced Freestanding Thin-Film Silicon Solar Cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the supply of fossil fuels diminishes in quantity the demand for alternative energy sources will consistently increase. Solar cells are an environmentally friendly and proven technology that suffer in sales due to a large upfront cost. In order to help facilitate the transition from fossil fuels to photovoltaics, module costs must be reduced to prices well below $1/Watt. Thin-film solar cells are more affordable because of the reduced materials costs, but lower in efficiency because less light is absorbed before passing through the cell. Silver nanoparticles placed at the front surface of the solar cell absorb and reradiate the energy of the light in ways such that more of the light ends being captured by the silicon. Silver nanoparticles can do this because they have free electron clouds that can take on the energy of an incident photon through collective action. This bulk action of the electrons is called a plasmon. This work begins by discussing the economics driving the need for reduced material use, and the pros and cons of taking this step. Next, the fundamental theory of light-matter interaction is briefly described followed by an introduction to the study of plasmonics. Following that we discuss a traditional method of silver nanoparticle formation and the initial experimental studies of their effects on the ability of thin-film silicon to absorb light. Then, Finite-Difference Time-Domain simulation software is used to simulate the effects of nanoparticle morphology and size on the scattering of light at the surface of the thin-film.

Winans, Joshua David

304

Substrates coated with silver nanoparticles as a neuronal regenerative material  

PubMed Central

Much effort has been devoted to the design of effective biomaterials for nerve regeneration. Here, we report the novel use of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) as regenerative agents to promote neuronal growth. We grew neuroblastoma cells on surfaces coated with AgNPs and studied the effect on the development of the neurites during the initiation and the elongation growth phases. We find that the AgNPs function as favorable anchoring sites, and the growth on the AgNP-coated substrates leads to a significantly enhanced neurite outgrowth. Cells grown on substrates coated with AgNPs have initiated three times more neurites than cells grown on uncoated substrates, and two times more than cells grown on substrates sputtered with a plain homogenous layer of silver. The growth of neurites on AgNPs in the elongation phase was enhanced as well. A comparison with substrates coated with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs) demonstrated a clear silver material-driven promoting effect, in addition to the nanotopography. The growth on substrates coated with AgNPs has led to a significantly higher number of initiating neurites when compared to substrates coated with AuNPs or ZnONPs. All nanoparticle-coated substrates affected and promoted the elongation of neurites, with a significant positive maximal effect for the AgNPs. Our results, combined with the well-known antibacterial effect of AgNPs, suggest the use of AgNPs as an attractive nanomaterial – with dual activity – for neuronal repair studies. PMID:24872701

Alon, Noa; Miroshnikov, Yana; Perkas, Nina; Nissan, Ifat; Gedanken, Aharon; Shefi, Orit

2014-01-01

305

Coloring of silica glass with silver nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The possibility of doping of surface layers of optical fused silica with silver nanogranules upon heating of a thin Ag film on the silica surface by a CO2 laser beam (P ? 30 W, ? = 10.6 ?m) is established. The effect of exposure time on the doped layer structure has been investigated. The absorption band of the colloidal solution of Ag in silica has been studied. It is shown that this band is homogeneously broadened and its peak (at 420 nm) corresponds to the small volume filling factor (q < 0.1) at an average granule radius of about 3 nm. Based on the measurements of the radial distributions of the reflectance and refractive index over the doped region at ? = 633 nm, it is revealed that the doped layer is an area-irregular asymmetric step waveguide.

Ageev, L. A.; Miloslavski?, V. K.; Makovetski?, E. D.

2007-03-01

306

Ultrastructural Analysis of Candida albicans When Exposed to Silver Nanoparticles  

PubMed Central

Candida albicans is the most common fungal pathogen in humans, and recently some studies have reported the antifungal activity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) against some Candida species. However, ultrastructural analyses on the interaction of AgNPs with these microorganisms have not been reported. In this work we evaluated the effect of AgNPs on C. albicans, and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was found to have a fungicidal effect. The IC50 was also determined, and the use of AgNPs with fluconazole (FLC), a fungistatic drug, reduced cell proliferation. In order to understand how AgNPs interact with living cells, the ultrastructural distribution of AgNPs in this fungus was determined. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis revealed a high accumulation of AgNPs outside the cells but also smaller nanoparticles (NPs) localized throughout the cytoplasm. Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) analysis confirmed the presence of intracellular silver. From our results it is assumed that AgNPs used in this study do not penetrate the cell, but instead release silver ions that infiltrate into the cell leading to the formation of NPs through reduction by organic compounds present in the cell wall and cytoplasm. PMID:25290909

Vazquez-Muñoz, Roberto; Avalos-Borja, Miguel; Castro-Longoria, Ernestina

2014-01-01

307

Silver nanoparticle-specific mitotoxicity in Daphnia magna.  

PubMed

Silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) are gaining popularity as bactericidal agents in commercial products; however, the mechanisms of toxicity (MOT) of Ag NPs to other organisms are not fully understood. It is the goal of this research to determine differences in MOT induced by ionic Ag(+) and Ag NPs in Daphnia magna, by incorporating a battery of traditional and novel methods. Daphnia embryos were exposed to sublethal concentrations of AgNO3 and Ag NPs (130-650 ng/L), with uptake of the latter confirmed by confocal reflectance microscopy. Mitochondrial function was non-invasively monitored by measuring proton flux using self-referencing microsensors. Proton flux measurements revealed that while both forms of silver significantly affected proton efflux, the change induced by Ag NPs was greater than that of Ag(+). This could be correlated with the effects of Ag NPs on mitochondrial dysfunction, as determined by confocal fluorescence microscopy and JC-1, an indicator of mitochondrial permeability. However, Ag(+) was more efficient than Ag NPs at displacing Na(+) within embryonic Daphnia, based on inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) analysis. The abnormalities in mitochondrial activity for Ag NP-exposed organisms suggest a nanoparticle-specific MOT, distinct from that induced by Ag ions. We propose that the MOT of each form of silver are complementary, and can act in synergy to produce a greater toxic response overall. PMID:23927462

Stensberg, Matthew C; Madangopal, Rajtarun; Yale, Gowri; Wei, Qingshan; Ochoa-Acuña, Hugo; Wei, Alexander; McLamore, Eric S; Rickus, Jenna; Porterfield, D Marshall; Sepúlveda, Maria S

2014-12-01

308

Structural and morphological properties of silver nanoparticles phosphate glass composites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New types of composite materials belonging to the (100 - x) [50P 2O 5 · 30CaO · 20Na 2O] xAg 2O glasses system with 0 ? x ? 0.25 are obtained. Their local structure is analyzed with the help of Raman and infrared spectroscopy and it was found that the glasses structure is built up from predominantly ionic phosphate units. UV-VIS absorption measurements performed on the samples reveal the existence of silver nanoparticles within the soda-calcium-phosphate glass matrix. The electronic absorption spectra and TEM pictures analyses indicate the presence of silver nanoparticles of almost spherical shapes and various sizes inside the glass matrix, depending on the Ag 2O content. By using the experimental UV-VIS data and a theoretical approach important structural and morphological parameters, such as the radius of the silver nanospheres and the volume fraction of the spheres are determined for one of the investigated composites ( x = 0.05 mol%).

Baia, L.; Baia, M.; Kiefer, W.; Popp, J.; Simon, S.

2006-08-01

309

Green synthesis of hyaluronan fibers with silver nanoparticles.  

PubMed

The application of green chemistry in the nano-science and technology is very important in the area of the preparation of various materials. In this work, an eco-friendly chemical method was successfully used for the preparation of hyaluronan fibers containing silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). Thus, hyaluronic acid (HA) was dissolved in an aqueous solution of sodium hydroxide to prepare a transparent solution, which was used for the preparation of fibers by a wet-spinning technique. Consequently, silver nanoparticles inside the fiber were prepared. Different parameters affecting the preparation of final product, such as concentration of silver nitrate, hyaluronan fiber concentration, time and temperature of the reaction, pH of the reaction mixture, were studied. AgNPs were confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), two-dimensional X-ray scattering (2D SWAXS), UV/Vis spectroscopy, inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES) and scan electron microscopy (SEM). Mechanical properties of prepared fibers were also measured. PMID:24750738

Abdel-Mohsen, A M; Hrdina, Radim; Burgert, Ladislav; Krylová, Gabriela; Abdel-Rahman, Rasha M; Krej?ová, Anna; Steinhart, Miloš; Beneš, Ludvík

2012-06-20

310

Silver-nanoparticle dispersion from the consolidation of Ag-attached silica colloid  

E-print Network

Silver-nanoparticle dispersion from the consolidation of Ag-attached silica colloid Tae-Gon Kima; accepted 16 January 2004) Silver nanoparticles dispersed in a silica matrix were made by the consolidation of a Ag-attached silica colloid, which was synthesized via the electrolysis of a pure Ag electrode

Park, Byungwoo

311

BOTTOMUP MEETS TOPDOWN FOR SILVER NANOPARTICLES Christine Aikens, Shuzhou Li, and George C. Schatz  

E-print Network

BOTTOMUP MEETS TOPDOWN FOR SILVER NANOPARTICLES Christine Aikens, Shuzhou Li, and George C. Schatz & Engineering Center (NUNSEC) Award Number: EEC ­ 0647560 The vivid colors of colloidal nanoparticles bottomup (quantum) and topdown (wave) results. The results for silver tetrahedral particles obtained

Shull, Kenneth R.

312

Characterization of silver nanoparticle-infused tissue adhesive for ophthalmic use  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research examined if the infusion of silver nanoparticles into a 2-octyl cyanoacrylate tissue adhesive alters the antibacterial effectiveness and mechanical properties of the adhesive. Silver nanoparticle size and concentration combinations were varied to determine the effects of these factors. Uniform distribution of the silver nanoparticles was achieved before proceeding to testing. Antibacterial effectiveness of the composite adhesive was determined via the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion susceptibility test and by CFU counting. Doping the adhesive with silver nanoparticles resulted in an order of magnitude reduction in bacterial growth. The greatest antibacterial effect came from imbuing 10 microg/mL of 4 nm silver nanoparticles into the tissue adhesive. Despite the noticeable reduction of bacterial growth for the doped adhesives, the difference among the varying silver nanoparticle size and concentration combinations was minimal. The breaking strength of the adhesive increased when silver nanoparticles were added. The adhesive strength of the composite adhesive attached to an incised porcine sclera was also greater than the unaltered adhesive. The greatest breaking load and adhesive force was the 10 microg/mL of 10 nm silver nanoparticle-doped adhesive. The increased mechanical strength of the doped adhesive expands the possible applications of treatment on different areas of the body.

Yee, William

313

The effect of femtosecond laser irradiation conditions on precipitation of silver nanoparticles in silicate glasses  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the effect of femtosecond laser irradiation conditions on precipitation of silver nanoparticles in silicate glasses. Absorption spectra show that the intensity of the absorption peak due to the surface plasmon resonance of silver nanoparticles increases with increase of the light intensity of the laser beam, beam diameter in the focal plane, Rayleigh length of the focusing lens and

Huidan Zeng; Jianrong Qiu; Xiongwei Jiang; Congshan Zhu; Fuxi Gan

2004-01-01

314

Intensified biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using a native extremophilic Ureibacillus thermosphaericus strain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The microflora of Ramsar geothermal hot springs located in Mazandaran province, Iran was screened for native thermophilic bacteria that are capable of biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles. One isolate identified as “Ureibacillus thermosphaericus” showed high potential for silver nanoparticle biosynthesis with extracellular mechanism and selected for the biosynthesis optimization. Biosynthesis reactions were conducted using the culture supernatant at different temperatures (60–80°C)

M. Motamedi Juibari; S. Abbasalizadeh; Gh. Salehi Jouzani; M. Noruzi

2011-01-01

315

Synthesis, characterization and evaluation of silver nanoparticles through leaves of Abrus precatorius L.: an important medicinal plant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biologically synthesized nanoparticles have been widely used in the field of medicine. The present study reports the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Abrus precatorius leaf extract with silver nitrate solution as reducing agent. The synthesized silver nanoparticles were analyzed through UV-Visible spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray analysis, atomic force microscopy and Fourier transform infrared. The synthesized silver nanoparticles were disk shaped with an average size of 19 nm. These silver nanoparticles were evaluated for antibacterial activity. The diameter of inhibition zones around the disk of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus are resistant to silver nanoparticles, whereas Escherichia coli and Bacillus thuringiensis are susceptible when compared with the other two species. The results were compared with the ciprofloxacin-positive control and silver nitrate. It is concluded that the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles is very fast, easy, cost-effective and eco-friendly and without any side effects.

Gaddala, Bhumi; Nataru, Savithramma

2015-01-01

316

Silver nanoparticle-doped zirconia capillaries for enhanced bacterial filtration.  

PubMed

Membrane clogging and biofilm formation are the most serious problems during water filtration. Silver nanoparticle (Agnano) coatings on filtration membranes can prevent bacterial adhesion and the initiation of biofilm formation. In this study, Agnano are immobilized via direct reduction on porous zirconia capillary membranes to generate a nanocomposite material combining the advantages of ceramics being chemically, thermally and mechanically stable with nanosilver, an efficient broadband bactericide for water decontamination. The filtration of bacterial suspensions of the fecal contaminant Escherichia coli reveals highly efficient bacterial retention capacities of the capillaries of 8 log reduction values, fulfilling the requirements on safe drinking water according to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Maximum bacterial loading capacities of the capillary membranes are determined to be 3×10(9)bacterialcells/750mm(2) capillary surface until back flushing is recommendable. The immobilized Agnano remain accessible and exhibit strong bactericidal properties by killing retained bacteria up to maximum bacterial loads of 6×10(8)bacterialcells/750mm(2) capillary surface and the regenerated membranes regain filtration efficiencies of 95-100%. Silver release is moderate as only 0.8% of the initial silver loading is leached during a three-day filtration experiment leading to average silver contaminant levels of 100?g/L. PMID:25579912

Wehling, Julia; Köser, Jan; Lindner, Patrick; Lüder, Christian; Beutel, Sascha; Kroll, Stephen; Rezwan, Kurosch

2015-03-01

317

Synthesis of silver nanoparticles by silver salt reduction and its characterization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The wet chemical method route by metal salt reduction has been used to synthesize nanoparticles, using silver nitrate as an inorganic salt, aldehyde as a reducing agent and amino acid as a catalyst. During the reaction aldehyde oxidizes to carboxylic acid and encapsulates the silver nanoparticles to prevent agglomeration and provide barrier in the growth of particle. The existing work produces particles using lab grade chemical, here the presented work is by using industrial grade chemicals to make the process more cost & time effective. The nano silver powder has been studied for their formation, particle size, shape & compositional analysis using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) equipped with EDS. The particles size distributions were analyzed by Laser Particle Analyzer (LPA), structure & morphological analysis using x-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier-transform-infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) confirmed the stabilization of particles by coating of carboxylic group. These studies infer that the particles are mostly spherical in shape and have an average size between 70 to 350 nm.

Muzamil, Muhammad; Khalid, Naveed; Danish Aziz, M.; Aun Abbas, S.

2014-06-01

318

Irradiation of silver and agar/silver nanoparticles with argon, oxygen glow discharge plasma, and mercury lamp.  

PubMed

The irradiation effect of argon, oxygen glow discharge plasma, and mercury lamp on silver and agar/silver nanoparticle samples is studied. The irradiation time dependence of the synthesized silver and agar/silver nanoparticle absorption spectra and their antibacterial effect are studied and compared. In the agar/silver nanoparticle sample, as the irradiation time of argon glow discharge plasma or mercury lamp increases, the peak intensity and the full width at half maximum, FWHM, of the surface plasmon resonance absorption band is increased, however a decrease of the peak intensity with oxygen glow plasma has been observed. In the silver nanoparticle sample, as the irradiation time of argon, oxygen glow discharge plasma or mercury lamp increases, the peak intensity of the surface plasmon resonance absorption band is increased, however, there is no significant change in the FWHM of the surface plasmon resonance absorption band. The SEM results for both samples showed nanoparticle formation with mean size about 50 nm and 40 nm respectively. Throughout the irradiation time with the argon, oxygen glow discharge plasma or mercury lamp, the antibacterial activity of several kinds of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria has been examined. PMID:25184109

Ahmad, Mahmoud M; Abdel-Wahab, Essam A; El-Maaref, A A; Rawway, Mohammed; Shaaban, Essam R

2014-01-01

319

Fabrication Of Biogenic Silver Nanoparticles Using Agricultural Crop Plant Leaf Extracts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanoparticles are being viewed as fundamental building blocks of nanotechnology. Biosynthesis of nanoparticles by plant extracts is currently under exploitation. Use of agricultural crop plant extracts for synthesis of metal nanoparticles would add a new dimension to the agricultural sector in the utilization of crop waste. Silver has long been recognized as having an inhibitory effect towards many bacterial strains and microorganisms commonly present in medical and industrial processes. Four pulse crop plants and three cereal crop plants (Vigna radiata, Arachis hypogaea, Cyamopsis tetragonolobus, Zea mays, Pennisetum glaucum, Sorghum vulgare) were used and compared for their extra cellular synthesis of metallic silver nanoparticles. Stable silver nanoparticles were formed by treating aqueous solution of AgNO3 with the plant leaf extracts as reducing agent at temperatures 50 °C-95 °C. UV-Visible spectroscopy was utilized to monitor the formation of silver nanoparticles. XRD analysis of formed silver nanoparticles revealed face centered cubic structure with (111), (200), (220) and (311) planes. SEM and EDAX analysis confirm the size of the formed silver nanoparticles to be in the range of 50-200 nm. Our proposed work offers a enviro-friendly method for biogenic silver nanoparticles production. This could provide a faster synthesis rate comparable to those of chemical methods and potentially be used in areas such as cosmetics, food and medical applications.

Rajani, P.; SriSindhura, K.; Prasad, T. N. V. K. V.; Hussain, O. M.; Sudhakar, P.; Latha, P.; Balakrishna, M.; Kambala, V.; Reddy, K. Raja

2010-10-01

320

Silver nanoparticles: mechanism of antimicrobial action, synthesis, medical applications, and toxicity effects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Silver nanoparticles are nanoparticles of silver which are in the range of 1 and 100 nm in size. Silver nanoparticles have unique properties which help in molecular diagnostics, in therapies, as well as in devices that are used in several medical procedures. The major methods used for silver nanoparticle synthesis are the physical and chemical methods. The problem with the chemical and physical methods is that the synthesis is expensive and can also have toxic substances absorbed onto them. To overcome this, the biological method provides a feasible alternative. The major biological systems involved in this are bacteria, fungi, and plant extracts. The major applications of silver nanoparticles in the medical field include diagnostic applications and therapeutic applications. In most of the therapeutic applications, it is the antimicrobial property that is being majorly explored, though the anti-inflammatory property has its fair share of applications. Though silver nanoparticles are rampantly used in many medical procedures and devices as well as in various biological fields, they have their drawbacks due to nanotoxicity. This review provides a comprehensive view on the mechanism of action, production, applications in the medical field, and the health and environmental concerns that are allegedly caused due to these nanoparticles. The focus is on effective and efficient synthesis of silver nanoparticles while exploring their various prospective applications besides trying to understand the current scenario in the debates on the toxicity concerns these nanoparticles pose.

Prabhu, Sukumaran; Poulose, Eldho K.

2012-10-01

321

Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Neem Leaf (Azadirachta indica) Extract  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Silver nanoparticles were successfully synthesized using crude neem leaf (Azadirachta indica) extract at room temperature. The formation and crystallinity of synthesized silver nanoparticles was confirmed by X-Ray diffraction (XRD) pattern. The average size of these silver nanoparticles is about 20-50 nm as observed by Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images. Optical absorption measurements were performed to determine band-edge energy gap of these silver nanoparticles. Photoluminescence (PL) studies were performed to emphasize its emission properties. The synthesized silver nanoparticles could have major applications in the area of nanoscale optoelectronics devices and biomedical engineering. Our synthesis method has advantage over other conventional chemical routes because it is cost effective & environmental compatibility.

Shukla, Vineet Kumar; Pandey, Shipra; Pandey, Avinash C.

2010-10-01

322

Surface segregation of silver nanoparticles in the in-situ synthesized Ag\\/PMMA nanocomposites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Silver nanoparticles were synthesized in-situ, by thermal decomposition of (1,1,1,5,5,5 Hexafluoroacetylacetonato)silver(I), Ag(hfac), precursor at 185 ^oC, in thin films of Poly(methyl methacryalate), PMMA. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, RBS, was used to observe and quantify the silver distribution along the thickness of the sample. Strong surface segregation of nanoparticles to the polymer surface and substrate was observed in PMMA thin films by

Ranjan D. Deshmukh; Russell J. Composto

2006-01-01

323

Toxicity Effect of Silver Nanoparticles in Brine Shrimp Artemia  

PubMed Central

The present study revealed the toxic effect of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in Artemia nauplii and evaluated the mortality rate, hatching percentage, and genotoxic effect in Artemia nauplii/cysts. The AgNPs were commercially purchased and characterized using field emission scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Nanoparticles were spherical in nature and with size range of 30–40?nm. Artemia cysts were collected from salt pan, processed, and hatched in sea water. Artemia nauplii (II instar) were treated using silver nanoparticles of various nanomolar concentrations and LC50 value (10?nM) and mortality rate (24 and 48 hours) was evaluated. Hatching percentage of decapsulated cysts treated with AgNPs was examined. Aggregation of AgNPs in the gut region of nauplii was studied using phase contrast microscope and apoptotic cells in nauplii stained with acridine orange were observed using fluorescence microscope. DNA damage of single cell of nauplii was determined by comet assay. This study showed that as the concentration of AgNPs increased, the mortality rate, aggregation in gut region, apoptotic cells, and DNA damage increased in nauplii, whereas the percentage of hatching in Artemia cysts decreased. Thus this study revealed that the nanomolar concentrations of AgNPs have toxic effect on both Artemia nauplii and cysts. PMID:24516361

Arulvasu, Chinnasamy; Jennifer, Samou Michael; Prabhu, Durai; Chandhirasekar, Devakumar

2014-01-01

324

Differently environment stable bio-silver nanoparticles: study on their optical enhancing and antibacterial properties.  

PubMed

Generally, limited research is extended in studying stability and applicational properties of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) synthesized by adopting 'green chemistry' protocol. In this work, we report on the synthesis of stable Ag NPs using plant-derived materials such as leaf extract of Neem (Azadirachta indica) and biopolymer pectin from apple peel. In addition, the applicational properties of Ag NPs such as surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) and antibacterial efficiencies were also investigated. As-synthesized nanoparticles (NPs) were characterized using various instrumentation techniques. Both the plant materials (leaf extract and biopolymer) favored the synthesis of well-defined NPs capped with biomaterials. The NPs were spherical in shape with an average particle size between 14-27 nm. These bio-NPs exhibited colloidal stability in most of the suspended solutions such as water, electrolyte solutions (NaCl; NaNO3), biological solution (bovine serum albumin), and in different pH solutions (pH 7; 9) for a reasonable time period of 120 hrs. Both the bio-NPs were observed to be SERS active through displaying intrinsic SERS signals of the Raman probe molecule (Nile blue A). The NPs were effective against the Escherichia coli bacterium when tested in nutrient broth and agar medium. Scanning and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (SEM and HRTEM) images confirmed cellular membrane damage of nanoparticle treated E. coli cells. These environmental friendly template Ag NPs can be used as an antimicrobial agent and also for SERS based analytical applications. PMID:24130832

Balachandran, Yekkuni L; Girija, Shanmugam; Selvakumar, Rajendran; Tongpim, Saowanit; Gutleb, Arno C; Suriyanarayanan, Sarvajeyakesavalu

2013-01-01

325

Differently Environment Stable Bio-Silver Nanoparticles: Study on Their Optical Enhancing and Antibacterial Properties  

PubMed Central

Generally, limited research is extended in studying stability and applicational properties of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) synthesized by adopting ‘green chemistry’ protocol. In this work, we report on the synthesis of stable Ag NPs using plant-derived materials such as leaf extract of Neem (Azadirachta indica) and biopolymer pectin from apple peel. In addition, the applicational properties of Ag NPs such as surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) and antibacterial efficiencies were also investigated. As-synthesized nanoparticles (NPs) were characterized using various instrumentation techniques. Both the plant materials (leaf extract and biopolymer) favored the synthesis of well-defined NPs capped with biomaterials. The NPs were spherical in shape with an average particle size between 14-27 nm. These bio-NPs exhibited colloidal stability in most of the suspended solutions such as water, electrolyte solutions (NaCl; NaNO3), biological solution (bovine serum albumin), and in different pH solutions (pH 7; 9) for a reasonable time period of 120 hrs. Both the bio-NPs were observed to be SERS active through displaying intrinsic SERS signals of the Raman probe molecule (Nile blue A). The NPs were effective against the Escherichia coli bacterium when tested in nutrient broth and agar medium. Scanning and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (SEM and HRTEM) images confirmed cellular membrane damage of nanoparticle treated E. coli cells. These environmental friendly template Ag NPs can be used as an antimicrobial agent and also for SERS based analytical applications. PMID:24130832

Balachandran, Yekkuni L.; Girija, Shanmugam; Selvakumar, Rajendran; Tongpim, Saowanit; Gutleb, Arno C.; Suriyanarayanan, Sarvajeyakesavalu

2013-01-01

326

Sulfidation of silver nanoparticle reduces its toxicity in zebrafish.  

PubMed

Chemical transformations of metal nanoparticles can be an important way to mitigate nanoparticle toxicity. Sulfidation of silver nanoparticle (AgNPs) is a natural process shown to occur in environment. Very few studies, employing microbes and embryonic stages of zebrafish, have shown reduction in AgNPs toxicity as a direct result of sulfidation. However the feasibility of reducing nanoparticle toxicity by sulfidation of AgNPs has never been studied in adult vertebrates. In this study, we have used adult zebrafish as a model to study the efficacy of sulfidation of AgNPs in reducing nanoparticle toxicity by employing a battery of biomarkers in liver and brain. While AgNPs enhanced liver oxidative stress, altered detoxification enzymes and affected brain acetylcholinesterase activity, sulfidation of AgNPs resulted in significant alleviation of changes in these parameters. Histopathological analyses of liver and sulphydryl levels also support the significance of sulfidated AgNPs in controlling the toxicity of AgNPs. Our study provides the first biochemical data on the importance of sulfidation of AgNPs in reducing biological toxicity in adult vertebrates. PMID:25438120

Devi, G Prathinkra; Ahmed, Khan Behlol Ayaz; Varsha, M K N Sai; Shrijha, B S; Lal, K K Subin; Anbazhagan, Veerappan; Thiagarajan, R

2015-01-01

327

Biochemical changes in cyanobacteria during the synthesis of silver nanoparticles.  

PubMed

The methods of synthesis of silver (Ag) nanoparticles by the cyanobacteria Spirulina platensis and Nostoc linckia were studied. A complex of biochemical, spectral, and analytical methods was used to characterize biomass and to assess changes in the main components of biomass (proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, and phycobilin) during nanoparticle formation. The size and shape of Ag nanoparticles in the biomass of both types of cyanobacteria were determined. Neutron activation analysis was used to study the accumulation dynamics of the Ag quantity. The analytical results suggest that the major reduction of Ag concentration in solutions and the increase in biomass occur within the first 24 h of experiments. While in this time interval minor changes in the N. linckia and S. platensis biomass took place, a significant reduction of the levels of proteins, carbohydrates, and phycobiliproteins in both cultures and of lipids in S. platensis was observed after 48 h. At the same time, the antiradical activity of the biomass decreased. The obtained results show the necessity of determining the optimal conditions of the interaction between the biomass and the solution containing Ag ions that would allow nanoparticle formation without biomass degradation at the time of Ag nanoparticle formation by the studied cyanobacteria. PMID:25444587

Cepoi, L; Rudi, L; Chiriac, T; Valuta, A; Zinicovscaia, I; Duca, Gh; Kirkesali, E; Frontasyeva, M; Culicov, O; Pavlov, S; Bobrikov, I

2015-01-01

328

Plasmon-enhanced optical absorption and photocurrent in organic bulk heterojunction photovoltaic devices using self-assembled layer of silver  

E-print Network

devices using self-assembled layer of silver nanoparticles Woo-Jun Yoon a , Kyung-Young Jung a,1 , Jiwen a colloidal solution. With the presence of suitable nanoparticle organic capping groups that inhibit its

329

Procedure optimization for green synthesis of silver nanoparticles by aqueous extract of Eucalyptus oleosa.  

PubMed

The present study is dealing with the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using the aqueous extract of Eucalyptus oleosa as a green synthesis procedure without any catalyst, template or surfactant. Colloidal silver nanoparticles were synthesized by reacting aqueous AgNO3 with E. oleosa leaf extract at non-photomediated conditions. The significance of some synthesis conditions such as: silver nitrate concentration, concentration of the plant extract, time of synthesis reaction and temperature of plant extraction procedure on the particle size of synthesized silver particles was investigated and optimized. The participations of the studied factors in controlling the particle size of reduced silver were quantitatively evaluated via analysis of variance (ANOVA). The results of this investigation showed that silver nanoparticles could be synthesized by tuning significant parameters, while performing the synthesis procedure at optimum conditions leads to form silver nanoparticles with 21nm as averaged size. Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy was used to monitor the development of silver nanoparticles formation. Meanwhile, produced silver nanoparticles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray, and FT-IR techniques. PMID:25456666

Pourmortazavi, Seied Mahdi; Taghdiri, Mehdi; Makari, Vajihe; Rahimi-Nasrabadi, Mehdi

2014-10-16

330

Procedure optimization for green synthesis of silver nanoparticles by aqueous extract of Eucalyptus oleosa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present study is dealing with the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using the aqueous extract of Eucalyptus oleosa as a green synthesis procedure without any catalyst, template or surfactant. Colloidal silver nanoparticles were synthesized by reacting aqueous AgNO3 with E. oleosa leaf extract at non-photomediated conditions. The significance of some synthesis conditions such as: silver nitrate concentration, concentration of the plant extract, time of synthesis reaction and temperature of plant extraction procedure on the particle size of synthesized silver particles was investigated and optimized. The participations of the studied factors in controlling the particle size of reduced silver were quantitatively evaluated via analysis of variance (ANOVA). The results of this investigation showed that silver nanoparticles could be synthesized by tuning significant parameters, while performing the synthesis procedure at optimum conditions leads to form silver nanoparticles with 21 nm as averaged size. Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy was used to monitor the development of silver nanoparticles formation. Meanwhile, produced silver nanoparticles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray, and FT-IR techniques.

Pourmortazavi, Seied Mahdi; Taghdiri, Mehdi; Makari, Vajihe; Rahimi-Nasrabadi, Mehdi

2015-02-01

331

Silver release and antimicrobial properties of PMMA films doped with silver ions, nano-particles and complexes.  

PubMed

Materials prepared on the base of bioactive silver compounds have become more and more popular due to low microbial resistance to silver. In the present work, the efficiency of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) thin films doped with silver ions, nanoparticles and silver-imidazole polymer complex was studied by a combination of AAS, XPS and AFM techniques. The biological activities of the proposed materials were discussed in view of the rate of silver releasing from the polymer matrix. Concentrations of Ag active form were estimated by its ability to interact with l-cysteine using electronic circular dichroism spectroscopy. Rates of the released silver were compared with the biological activity in dependence on the form of embedded silver. Antimicrobial properties of doped polymer films were studied using two bacterial strains: Staphylococcus epidermidis and Escherichia coli. It was found that PMMA films doped with Ag(+) had greater activity than those doped with nanoparticles and silver-imidazole polymeric complexes. However, the antimicrobial efficiency of Ag(+) doped films was only short-term. Contrary, the antimicrobial activity of silver-imidazole/PMMA films increased in time of sample soaking. PMID:25686981

Lyutakov, O; Goncharova, I; Rimpelova, S; Kolarova, K; Svanda, J; Svorcik, V

2015-04-01

332

Synthesis of anisotropic silver nanoparticles using novel strain, Bacillus flexus and its biomedical application.  

PubMed

Synthesis of metallic nanoparticles has attracted by bacterial based production and alternative to physical and chemical approaches. The present work was focused to nominate a bacterial strain for synthesis of potential silver nanoparticles. The target was achieved by screening of 127 isolates from silver mining wastes. A strain designated S-27 found to be a potential candidate for rapid synthesis of silver nanoparticles among tested microorganisms. It was subjected to molecular characterization by 16S rDNA sequence analysis. It was found that S-27 belonging to Bacillus flexus. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles was achieved by addition of culture supernatants with aqueous silver nitrate solution, immediately it turns to brown colour solution showed a peak at 420 nm corresponding to the plasmon absorbance of silver nanoparticles by UV-vis spectroscopy. Various instrumentation techniques, such as AFM, FESEM, XRD and FTIR, were adopted to characterize the synthesized nanoparticles. Anisotropic nanoparticles, such as spherical and triangular shaped nanoparticles, have been synthesized and sizes were found to be 12 and 65 nm, respectively. It was stable in aqueous solution in five months period of storage at room temperature in the dark. Synthesized nanoparticles showed efficacy on antibacterial property against clinically isolated multi-drug resistant (MDR) microorganisms. It is suggested that biogenic synthesis of nanoparticles have wide-application in medicine and physical chemistry and it can produce with eco-friendly, easy downstream processing and rapid scale-up processing. PMID:23018021

Priyadarshini, S; Gopinath, V; Meera Priyadharsshini, N; MubarakAli, D; Velusamy, P

2013-02-01

333

Influence of liberated silver from silver nanoparticles on nitrification inhibition of Nitrosomonas europaea.  

PubMed

The ecotoxicity of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) to wastewater biota, including ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB), is gaining increasing interest as the number of products containing Ag-NPs continues to rise exponentially and they are expected to accumulate in wastewater treatment plants. This research demonstrated that the addition order of Ag-NP and the media constituents had a profound influence on the stability of the Ag-NP suspension and the corresponding repeatability of results and sensitivity of Nitrosomonas europaea. N. europaea, a model AOB, was found to be extremely sensitive to ionic silver (Ag(+)) and two sizes of Ag-NPs (20 and 80 nm). Ag(+) exposures resulted in the highest level of toxicity with smaller Ag-NPs (20 nm) being more toxic than larger Ag-NPs (80 nm). The increased sensitivity of N. europaea to smaller Ag-NPs was caused by their higher rates of dissolved silver (dAg) release, via dissolution, due to a greater surface area to volume ratio. dAg was shown to be responsible for the vast majority of the observed Ag-NP toxicity, as determined by abiotic Ag-NP dissolution tests. For the sizes of Ag-NP studied (20 and 80 nm), there appears to be a negligible nanoparticle-specific toxicity. This was further supported by similarities in inhibition mechanisms between Ag(+) and Ag-NP, with both causing decreases in AMO activity and destabilization of the outer-membrane of N. europaea. Finally, equal concentrations of total silver were found to be tightly associated to both Ag(+) and Ag-NP-exposed cells despite Ag-NP concentrations being five times greater, by mass, than Ag(+) concentrations. PMID:21757219

Radniecki, Tyler S; Stankus, Dylan P; Neigh, Arianne; Nason, Jeffrey A; Semprini, Lewis

2011-09-01

334

Photoemission Electron Microscopy of a Plasmonic Silver Nanoparticle Trimer  

SciTech Connect

We present a combined experimental and theoretical study to investigate the spatial distribution of photoelectrons emitted from core-shell silver (Ag) nanoparticles. We use two-photon photoemission microscopy (2P-PEEM) to spatially resolve electron emission from a trimeric core-shell aggregate of triangular symmetry. Finite difference time domain (FDTD) simulations are performed to model the intensity distributions of the electromagnetic near-fields resulting from femtosecond (fs) laser excitation of localized surface plasmon oscillations in the triangular core-shell structure. We demonstrate that the predicted FDTD near-field intensity distribution reproduces the 2P-PEEM photoemission pattern.

Peppernick, Samuel J.; Joly, Alan G.; Beck, Kenneth M.; Hess, Wayne P.; Wang, Jinyong; Wang, Yi-Chung; Wei, Wei

2013-07-01

335

Silver nanoparticle toxicity in sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus.  

PubMed

Silver nanoparticles (AgNPS) are an important model system for studying potential environmental risks posed by the use of nanomaterials. So far there is no consensus as to whether toxicity is due to AgNPs themselves or Ag(+) ions leaching from their surfaces. In sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus, AgNPs cause dose dependent developmental defects such as delayed development, bodily asymmetry and shortened or irregular arms, as well as behavioural changes, particularly in swimming patterns, at concentration ?0.3 mg/L AgNPs. It has been observed that AgNPs are more toxic than their equivalent Ag(+) ion dose. PMID:23561841

Siller, Lidija; Lemloh, Marie-Louise; Piticharoenphun, Sunthon; Mendis, Budhika G; Horrocks, Benjamin R; Brümmer, Franz; Medakovi?, Davorin

2013-07-01

336

Merging of metal nanoparticles driven by selective wettability of silver nanostructures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The welding and sintering of nanomaterials is relevant, for example, to form electrical contacts between metallic particles in printed electronic devices. Usually the welding of nanoparticles is achieved at high temperatures. Here we find that merging of two different metals, silver and gold nanoparticles, occurs on contact at room temperature. The merging process was investigated by experimental and molecular dynamics simulations. We discovered that the merging of these particles is driven by selective wettability of silver nanoparticles, independent of their size and shape (spheres or rods); silver behaves as a soft matter, whereas gold as a hard surface being wetted and retaining its original morphology. During that process, the silver atoms move towards the surface of the Au nanoparticles and wrap the Au nanoparticles in a pulling up-like process, leading to the wetting of Au nanoparticles.

Grouchko, Michael; Roitman, Polina; Zhu, Xi; Popov, Inna; Kamyshny, Alexander; Su, Haibin; Magdassi, Shlomo

2014-01-01

337

Biosynthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles by novel sundried Cinnamomum camphora leaf  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The synthesis of nanocrystals is in the limelight in modern nanotechnology. Biosynthesis of nanoparticles by plant extracts is currently under exploitation. Not only could silver nanoparticles ranging from 55 to 80 nm in size be fabricated, but also triangular or spherical shaped gold nanoparticles could be easily modulated by reacting the novel sundried biomass of Cinnamomum camphora leaf with aqueous silver or gold precursors at ambient temperature. The marked difference of shape control between gold and silver nanoparticles was attributed to the comparative advantage of protective biomolecules and reductive biomolecules. The polyol components and the water-soluble heterocyclic components were mainly responsible for the reduction of silver ions or chloroaurate ions and the stabilization of the nanoparticles, respectively. The sundried leaf in this work was very suitable for simple synthesis of nanoparticles.

Huang, Jiale; Li, Qingbiao; Sun, Daohua; Lu, Yinghua; Su, Yuanbo; Yang, Xin; Wang, Huixuan; Wang, Yuanpeng; Shao, Wenyao; He, Ning; Hong, Jinqing; Chen, Cuixue

2007-03-01

338

Phytosynthesis and Characterization of Silver Nanoparticles Using Callus of JATROPHA CURCAS: a Biotechnological Approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present study reports a rapid plant-based biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using callus extract of Jatropha curcas L. The particle size and morphological analyses were carried out using Zetasizer, SEM, TEM. The physicochemical properties were monitored using UV-Vis spectroscopic, IR and DSC. The formation of silver nanoparticle was confirmed by using UV-Vis spectrophotometer and absorbance peaks at 421 nm. The silver nanoparticle was found to be a negatively charged with size ranging from 2 nm to 50 nm. The morphology of the nanoparticle is uniformly spherical and has a dispersion ratio of 0.14. The physicochemical study using DSC indicated significant thermal stability and crystalline nature of the nanoparticle. This intracellular biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles is simple, cheap and eco-friendly than other mechanical and chemical approaches.

Demissie, A. G.; Lele, S. S.

2013-04-01

339

In-situ investigation of the formation of silver nanoparticles in polyvinyl alcohol through micro-Raman spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel investigation of in-situ formation of silver nanoparticles in thin films was carried out through light scattering phenomena. The Raman scattering signal of polyvinyl alcohol which acts as a stabilizing agent for the silver nanoparticles, was found to get enhanced with the formation of the silver nanoparticles. In-situ studies were carried out to record the Raman scattering to monitor the growth of the silver nanoparticles. The formation of the silver nanoparticles was confirmed by monitoring the surface plasmon absorption peak and the micrographs of field emission scanning electron microscope.

Shadak Alee, K.; Kuladeep, R.; Narayana Rao, D.

2013-04-01

340

Sensing purine nucleoside phosphorylase activity by using silver nanoparticles.  

PubMed

In this paper, an electrochemical biosensor to assay purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) activity is reported. Due to the facilitation of sliver nanoparticles, which are modified on an electrode surface, to the electron transfer reactivity of guanosine and guanine, the electrochemical response of these species can clearly reveal the activity of the enzyme PNP. This electrochemical biosensor for the assay of PNP activity may have a broad linear range of 4-20 unit/mL with a detection limit of 0.1 unit/mL, which is good enough for clinical applications. Meanwhile, on the basis of the finding that guanosine and guanine can induce silver nanoparticles to different agglomeration degrees, we have also developed a rapid UV-vis spectroscopy assay method for PNP activity. This work may show acceptable reliability and specificity for the assay of PNP activity, and may avoid the utilization of coupled enzymes or radiochemical reagents, which are required to the previous reports. PMID:19825511

Cao, Ya; Wang, Jing; Xu, Yuanyuan; Li, Genxi

2010-01-15

341

Structural, optical and thermal properties of silver colloidal nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, colloidal silver nanoparticles were prepared by chemical reduction of AgNO3 and pure Sn in a new and simple method. The type of crystallite lattice and the size of nanopowders were estimated by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis. The geometric, heterogeneous and mixing structure of synthesized nanopowders were studied by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Optical properties such as plasmon absorption and frequency of soluble colloidal nanopowders in two solutions of distilled water and oil were investigated by UV-Visible spectroscopy, which was developed to calculate the absorbance spectra of nanoparticles solution containing a size distribution of particles using the Mie theory. Dipole and quadrupole plasmons related to molecular structure of water and oil were found by absorbance spectra. Also, Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) analysis was used for determining the thermal behavior, endothermic and exothermic peaks of Ag nanopowder.

Naderi, S.; Ghaderi, A.; Solaymani, S.; Golzan, M. M.

2012-05-01

342

Preparation and optical properties of colloidal silver nanoparticles at a high Ag + concentration  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have prepared colloidal silver nanoparticles by reducing a high molar concentration of AgNO3 (up to 0.735 M) with glycerol in the presence of m-phenylenediamine. These silver nanoparticles had anisotropic shapes, including truncated rectangles, truncated triangles, and spheroid-type particles. The UV–Vis spectra of these nanoparticle systems display two distinct plasmon modes and a shoulder that correspond to the in-plane dipole,

M. Habib Ullah; Kim Il; Chang-Sik Ha

2006-01-01

343

Effects of silver nitrate and silver nanoparticles on a planktonic community: general trends after short-term exposure.  

PubMed

Among metal pollutants silver ions are one of the most toxic forms, and have thus been assigned to the highest toxicity class. Its toxicity to a wide range of microorganisms combined with its low toxicity to humans lead to the development of a wealth of silver-based products in many bactericidal applications accounting to more than 1000 nano-technology-based consumer products. Accordingly, silver is a widely distributed metal in the environment originating from its different forms of application as metal, salt and nanoparticle. A realistic assessment of silver nanoparticle toxicity in natural waters is, however, problematic and needs to be linked to experimental approaches. Here we apply metatranscriptome sequencing allowing for elucidating reactions of whole communities present in a water sample to stressors. We compared the toxicity of ionic silver and ligand-free silver nanoparticles by short term exposure on a natural community of aquatic microorganisms. We analyzed the effects of the treatments on metabolic pathways and species composition on the eukaryote metatranscriptome level in order to describe immediate molecular responses of organisms using a community approach. We found significant differences between the samples treated with 5 µg/L AgNO3 compared to the controls, but no significant differences in the samples treated with AgNP compared to the control samples. Statistical analysis yielded 126 genes (KO-IDs) with significant differential expression with a false discovery rate (FDR) <0.05 between the control (KO) and AgNO3 (NO3) groups. A KEGG pathway enrichment analysis showed significant results with a FDR below 0.05 for pathways related to photosynthesis. Our study therefore supports the view that ionic silver rather than silver nanoparticles are responsible for silver toxicity. Nevertheless, our results highlight the strength of metatranscriptome approaches for assessing metal toxicity on aquatic communities. PMID:24755991

Boenigk, Jens; Beisser, Daniela; Zimmermann, Sonja; Bock, Christina; Jakobi, Jurij; Grabner, Daniel; Gro?mann, Lars; Rahmann, Sven; Barcikowski, Stephan; Sures, Bernd

2014-01-01

344

Effects of Silver Nitrate and Silver Nanoparticles on a Planktonic Community: General Trends after Short-Term Exposure  

PubMed Central

Among metal pollutants silver ions are one of the most toxic forms, and have thus been assigned to the highest toxicity class. Its toxicity to a wide range of microorganisms combined with its low toxicity to humans lead to the development of a wealth of silver-based products in many bactericidal applications accounting to more than 1000 nano-technology-based consumer products. Accordingly, silver is a widely distributed metal in the environment originating from its different forms of application as metal, salt and nanoparticle. A realistic assessment of silver nanoparticle toxicity in natural waters is, however, problematic and needs to be linked to experimental approaches. Here we apply metatranscriptome sequencing allowing for elucidating reactions of whole communities present in a water sample to stressors. We compared the toxicity of ionic silver and ligand-free silver nanoparticles by short term exposure on a natural community of aquatic microorganisms. We analyzed the effects of the treatments on metabolic pathways and species composition on the eukaryote metatranscriptome level in order to describe immediate molecular responses of organisms using a community approach. We found significant differences between the samples treated with 5 µg/L AgNO3 compared to the controls, but no significant differences in the samples treated with AgNP compared to the control samples. Statistical analysis yielded 126 genes (KO-IDs) with significant differential expression with a false discovery rate (FDR) <0.05 between the control (KO) and AgNO3 (NO3) groups. A KEGG pathway enrichment analysis showed significant results with a FDR below 0.05 for pathways related to photosynthesis. Our study therefore supports the view that ionic silver rather than silver nanoparticles are responsible for silver toxicity. Nevertheless, our results highlight the strength of metatranscriptome approaches for assessing metal toxicity on aquatic communities. PMID:24755991

Boenigk, Jens; Beisser, Daniela; Zimmermann, Sonja; Bock, Christina; Jakobi, Jurij; Grabner, Daniel; Großmann, Lars; Rahmann, Sven; Barcikowski, Stephan; Sures, Bernd

2014-01-01

345

Biological activities of green silver nanoparticles synthesized with Acorous calamus rhizome extract.  

PubMed

Nanomedicine utilize biocompatible nanomaterials for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. This study reports the synthesis of silver nanoparticles using aqueous rhizome extract of Acorus calamus (ACRE) and evaluation of antioxidant, antibacterial as well as anticancer effects of synthesized A. calamus silver nanoparticles (ACAgNPs). The formation of ACAgNPs was confirmed by UV-visible spectroscopy and their average size was found to be 31.83 nm by DLS particle size analyzer. Scanning electron micrograph (SEM) revealed spherical shape of ACAgNPs and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDX) data showed the presence of metallic silver. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis indicated the presence of phenol/alcohol, aromatic amine and carbonyl groups in ACRE that were involved in reduction and capping of nanoparticles. ACRE and ACAgNPs exhibited substantial free radical quenching ability in various in vitro antioxidant assays performed in this study. ACAgNPs also displayed appreciable antibacterial activity against three different pathogenic bacteria and the growth kinetic study with Escherichia coli designated the inhibition of bacterial growth at the log phase. The cytotoxic effect of ACAgNPs was assessed by MTT assay in HeLa and A549 cells. The IC50 value of ACAgNPs respectively after 24 and 48 h was found to be 92.48 and 69.44 ?g/ml in HeLa cells and in A549 cells it was 53.2 and 32.1 ?g/ml. Apoptotic cell death in ACAgNPs treated cells was indicated by acridine orange/ethidium bromide (AO/EB) and annexinV-Cy3 staining techniques. Staining with propidium iodide (PI) and 4', 6-diamidino-2-phenylindole, dihydrochloride (DAPI) also confirmed nuclear changes such as condensation and fragmentation. Further, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay showed distribution of ACAgNPs treated cells in the late apoptotic stage. These findings emphasize that such biocompatible green nanoparticles with multifaceted biological activities may find their applications in the field of nanomedicine. PMID:25147142

Nakkala, Jayachandra Reddy; Mata, Rani; Gupta, Arvind Kumar; Sadras, Sudha Rani

2014-10-01

346

Improving of enzyme immunoassay for detection and quantification of the target molecules using silver nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modern routine enzyme immunoassays for detection and quantification of biomolecules have several disadvantages such as high cost, insufficient sensitivity, complexity and long-term execution. The surface plasmon resonance of silver nanoparticles gives reasons of creating new in the basis of simple, highly sensitive and low cost colorimetric assays that can be applied to the detection of small molecules, DNA, proteins and pollutants. The main aim of the study was the improving of enzyme immunoassay for detection and quantification of the target molecules using silver nanoparticles. For this purpose we developed method for synthesis of silver nanoparticles with hyaluronic acid and studied possibility of use these nanoparticles in direct determination of target molecules concentration (in particular proteins) and for improving of enzyme immunoassay. As model we used conventional enzyme immunoassays for determination of progesterone and estradiol concentration. We obtained the possibility to produce silver nanoparticles with hyaluronan homogeneous in size between 10 and 12 nm, soluble and stable in water during long term of storage using modified procedure of silver nanoparticles synthesis. New method allows to obtain silver nanoparticles with strong optical properties at the higher concentrations - 60-90 ?g/ml with the peak of absorbance at the wavelength 400 nm. Therefore surface plasmon resonance of silver nanoparticles with hyaluronan and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy provide an opportunity for rapid determination of target molecules concentration (especial protein). We used silver nanoparticles as enzyme carriers and signal enhancers. Our preliminary data show that silver nanoparticles increased absorbance of samples that allows improving upper limit of determination of estradiol and progesterone concentration.

Syrvatka, Vasyl J.; Slyvchuk, Yurij I.; Rozgoni, Ivan I.; Gevkan, Ivan I.; Overchuk, Marta O.

2014-02-01

347

Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Moringa oleifera leaf extract and its application to optical limiting.  

PubMed

The Development of biologically inspired experimental processes for the synthesis of nanoparticles is evolving into an important branch of nanotechnology. The work presented here with the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Moringa oleifera leaf extract as reducing and stabilizing agent and its application in nonlinear optics. The aqueous silver ions when exposed to Moringa oleifera leaf extract are reduced resulting in silver nanoparticles demonstrating the biosynthesis. The silver nanoparticles were characterized by UV-Visible, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FT-IR) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. TEM analysis shows a dispersion of the nanoparticles in a range of 5-80 nm with the average around 46 nm and are crystallized in face centred cubic symmetry. To show that these biosynthesized silver nanoparticles possess very good nonlinear properties similar to those nanoparticles synthesized by chemical route, we carried out the Z-scan studies with a 6 ns, 532 nm pulsed laser. We estimated the nonlinear absorption coefficient and compare it with the literature values of the nanoparticles synthesized through chemical route. The silver nanoparticles suspended in solution exhibited reverse saturable absorption with optical limiting threshold of 100 mJ/cm2. PMID:21449344

Sathyavathi, R; Krishna, M Bala Murali; Rao, D Narayana

2011-03-01

348

Sorption of silver nanoparticles to environmental and model surfaces.  

PubMed

The fate of engineered nanoparticles in environmental systems is controlled by changes in colloidal stability and their interaction with different environmental surfaces. Little is known about nanoparticle-surface interactions on the basis of sorption isotherms under quasi-equilibrium conditions, although sorption isotherms are a valuable means of studying sorbate-sorbent interactions. We tested the extent to which the sorption of engineered silver nanoparticles (nAg) from stable and unstable suspensions to model (sorbents with specific chemical functional groups) and environmental (plant leaves and sand) surfaces can be described by classical sorption isotherms. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) qualitative and quantitative analyses were also used to assess the morphology and nanomechanical parameters of the covered surfaces. The sorption of nAg from stable suspensions was nonlinear and best described by the Langmuir isotherm. Langmuir coefficients varied with sorbent surface chemistry. For nAg sorption from an unstable suspension, the sorption isotherms did not follow any classical sorption models, suggesting interplay between aggregation and sorption. The validity of the Langmuir isotherm suggests monolayer sorption, which can be explained by the blocking effect due to electrostatic repulsion of individual nanoparticles. In unstable suspensions, aggregates are instead formed in suspension and then sorbed, formed on the surface itself, or formed in both ways. PMID:23621856

Abraham, Priya M; Barnikol, Sandra; Baumann, Thomas; Kuehn, Melanie; Ivleva, Natalia P; Schaumann, Gabriele E

2013-05-21

349

Synthesis, characterization and optical properties of gelatin doped with silver nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, silver nanoparticles were synthesized by chemical reduction of silver salt (AgNO3) solution. Formation of nanoparticles was confirmed by UV-visible spectrometry. The surface plasmon resonance peak is located at 430 nm. Doping of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) with gelatin biopolymer was studied. The silver content in the polymer matrix was in the range of 0.4-1 wt%. The formation of nanoparticles disappeared for silver content higher than 1 wt%. The morphology and interaction of gelatin doped with Ag NPs was examined by transmission electron microscopy and FTIR spectroscopy. The content of Ag NPs has a pronounced effect on optical and structural properties of gelatin. Optical parameters such as refractive index, complex dielectric constant were calculated. The dispersion of the refractive index was discussed in terms of the single - oscillator Wemple-DiDomenico model. Color properties of the prepared samples were discussed in the framework of CIE L*u*v* color space.

Mahmoud, K. H.; Abbo, M.

2013-12-01

350

Magnetite and magnetite/silver core/shell nanoparticles with diluted magnet-like behavior  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present work is reported the use of the biopolymer chitosan as template for the preparation of magnetite and magnetite/silver core/shell nanoparticles systems, following a two step procedure of magnetite nanoparticles in situ precipitation and subsequent silver ions reduction. The crystalline and morphological characteristics of both magnetite and magnetite/silver core/shell nanoparticles systems were analyzed by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and nanobeam diffraction patterns (NBD). The results of these studies corroborate the core/shell morphology and the crystalline structure of the magnetite core and the silver shell. Moreover, magnetization temperature dependent, M( T), measurements show an unusual diluted magnetic behavior attributed to the dilution of the magnetic ordering in the magnetite and magnetite/silver core/shell nanoparticles systems.

Garza-Navarro, Marco; Torres-Castro, Alejandro; González, Virgilio; Ortiz, Ubaldo; De la Rosa, Elder

2010-01-01

351

Influence of ammonia on silver nanoparticle dissolution and toxicity to Nitrosomonas europaea.  

PubMed

Nitrosomonas europaea, a model ammonia oxidizing bacterium, was sensitive to both ionic silver (Ag(+)) and 20 nm citrate capped silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). AgNP toxicity has been previously shown to be primarily due to the dissolution of Ag(+). The rate of AgNP dissolution dramatically increased in test medium containing ammonium sulfate ((NH4)2SO4) and HEPES buffer compared to test medium containing either deionized water or HEPES buffer alone. The AgNP dissolution rates accelerated with increases in ammonia (NH3) concentrations either through increases in pH or through higher (NH4)2SO4 concentrations. Ammonia likely participated in the oxidation of the AgNP to form [Formula: see text] in solution leading to the observed increase in AgNP dissolution rates. AgNP toxicity was enhanced as NH3 concentrations increased. However, Ag(+) toxicity was constant at all NH3 concentrations tested. Therefore, it can be concluded that the increased AgNP toxicity was due to increased Ag(+) release and not due to a synergistic effect between NH3 and Ag(+). The results of this study may provide insights in the fate and toxicity of AgNPs in high NH3 environments including wastewater treatment plants, eutrophic waterways and alkaline environments. PMID:24120011

Kostigen Mumper, Cameron; Ostermeyer, Ann-Kathrin; Semprini, Lewis; Radniecki, Tyler S

2013-11-01

352

Biosynthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticles using panchakavya, an Indian traditional farming formulating agent  

PubMed Central

Synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) with biological properties is of vast significance in the development of scientifically valuable products. In the present study, we describe simple, unprecedented, nontoxic, eco-friendly, green synthesis of AgNPs using an Indian traditional farming formulating agent, panchakavya. Silver nitrate (1 mM) solution was mixed with panchakavya filtrate for the synthesis of AgNPs. The nanometallic dispersion was characterized by surface plasmon absorbance measuring 430 nm. Transmission electron microscopy showed the morphology and size of the AgNPs. Scanning electron microscopy–energy-dispersive spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed the presence of AgNPs. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis revealed that proteins in the panchakavya were involved in the reduction and capping of AgNPs. In addition, we studied the antibacterial activity of synthesized AgNPs. The synthesized AgNPs (1–4 mM) extensively reduced the growth rate of antibiotic resistant bacteria such as Aeromonas sp., Acinetobacter sp., and Citrobacter sp., according to the increasing concentration of AgNPs. PMID:24741307

Govarthanan, Muthusamy; Selvankumar, Thangasamy; Manoharan, Koildhasan; Rathika, Rajiniganth; Shanthi, Kuppusamy; Lee, Kui-Jae; Cho, Min; Kamala-Kannan, Seralathan; Oh, Byung-Taek

2014-01-01

353

Interactive effects of silver nanoparticles and phosphorus on phytoplankton growth in natural waters.  

PubMed

Increasing amounts of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are expected to enter the aquatic ecosystems where their effects on natural phytoplankton communities are poorly understood. We investigated the effects of AgNPs and its interactions with phosphorus (P) supply on the growth kinetics and stoichiometry of natural phytoplankton. Lake water was dosed with AgNPs (carboxy-functionalized capping agent; ?10-nm particle size; ?20% Ag w/w) at four different concentrations and five P concentrations and incubated in situ for 3 days. A treatment with ionic silver (AgNO3) was used as a positive control. We found that growth rates, calculated from changes in seston carbon and chlorophyll, responded significantly and interactively (p < 0.0001) to both AgNPs and P. AgNPs reduced the maximum phytoplankton growth rates by 11-85%. In the positive control, no or very little growth was observed. Inhibition of growth rates after exposure to Ag might be related to the reduction in chlorophyll and the inhibition of C and N acquisition rather than P uptake mechanisms. AgNPs, P supply and their interactions also significantly (p < 0.0001) reduced sestonic C:P and N:P ratios and increased C:N, C:Chl and cell-bound Ag stoichiometry. Our results indicate that fate and toxicity of AgNP will vary with phosphorus pollution level in aquatic ecosystems. PMID:24628458

Das, Pranab; Metcalfe, Chris D; Xenopoulos, Marguerite A

2014-04-15

354

Effect of capping agent concentration on thermoluminescence and photoluminescence of copper-doped zinc sulfide nanoparticles.  

PubMed

Copper-doped zinc sulfide (ZnS:Cu) nanoparticles with varying concentrations of capping agent were prepared using a chemical route technique. These particles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Optical absorption studies showed that the absorption edge shifted towards the blue region as the concentration of the capping agent increased. Using effective mass approximation, calculation of the nanoparticle size indicated that effective band gap energy increases with decreasing particle size. The thermoluminescence (TL) properties of sodium hexameta phosphate (SHMP)-passivated ZnS:Cu nanoparticles were investigated after UV irradiation at room temperature. The TL glow curve of capped ZnS:Cu showed variations in TL peak position and intensity with the change in capping agent concentration. The photoluminescence (PL) spectra of ZnS:Cu nanoparticles excited at 254?nm exhibited a broad green emission band peaking around 510?nm, which confirmed the characteristic feature of Zn(2+) as well as Cu(2+) ions as the luminescent centres in the lattice. The PL spectra of ZnS:Cu nanoparticles with increasing capping agent concentrations revealed that the emission becomes more intense and shifted towards shorter wavelengths as the sizes of the samples were reduced. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25377525

Wanjari, Lata; Bisen, D P; Brahme, Namita; Sahu, Ishwar Prasad; Sharma, Ravi

2014-11-01

355

Assessment of orally dosed commercial silver nanoparticles on human ex vivo platelet aggregation.  

PubMed

Enhanced in vitro human and ex vivo rat platelet aggregation from direct exposure to silver nanoparticles is previously reported. Given the increasing human use of engineered silver nanoscale products, platelet aggregation prompted by silver nanoparticles may contribute to human cardiovascular events. To understand how direct washed platelet exposure to silver nanoparticles translates to ex vivo platelet aggregation, the authors conducted a placebo-controlled, single-blind, dose-monitored, cross-over study design in 18 healthy human volunteers. After 2 weeks of daily oral silver nanoparticle ingestion, platelet aggregation was evaluated by light transmission aggregometry in response to collagen and ADP agonists, both at baseline and after silver nanoparticle or placebo diluent oral dosing. Final percent aggregation (PA) and the changes in PA were determined using a paired design (i.e., active and placebo solutions). Enhanced ex vivo platelet activation was not detectable at peak serum silver concentrations <10 µg/L. Further studies of colloidal silver nanoparticles on human platelet activities are warranted. PMID:23517080

Smock, Kristi J; Schmidt, Robert L; Hadlock, Greg; Stoddard, Greg; Grainger, David W; Munger, Mark A

2014-05-01

356

Procedures for the synthesis and capping of metal nanoparticles.  

PubMed

The increasing impact of metallic nanoparticles in life sciences has stimulated the development of new techniques and multiple improvements of the existing methods of manufacturing nanoparticles with tailored properties. Nanoparticles can be synthesized through a variety of physical and chemical methods. The choice of preparation procedure will depend on the physical and chemical characteristics required on the final product, such as size, dispersion, chemical miscibility, optical properties, among others. Here we review basic practical procedures used for the preparation of protected and unprotected metallic nanoparticles and describe a number of experimental procedures based on colloidal chemistry methods. These include gold nanoparticle synthesis by reduction with trisodium citrate, ascorbic acid, or sugars in aqueous phase; nanoparticle passivation with alkanethiols, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, or bovin serum albumin. We also describe microwave-assisted synthesis, nanoparticle synthesis in ethylene glycol, template-assisted synthesis with dendrimers and briefly describe how to control nanoparticle shape (star-shaped and branched nanoparticles). PMID:22791420

Gutiérrez-Wing, Claudia; Velázquez-Salazar, J Jesús; José-Yacamán, Miguel

2012-01-01

357

A Novel Photosynthesis of Carboxymethyl Starch-Stabilized Silver Nanoparticles  

PubMed Central

The water soluble photoinitiator (PI) 4-(trimethyl ammonium methyl) benzophenone chloride is used for the first time in the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). A new green synthesis method involves using PI/UV system, carboxymethyl starch (CMS), silver nitrate, and water. A mechanism of the reduction of silver ions to AgNPs by PI/UV system as well as by the newly born aldehydic groups was proposed. The synthesis process was assessed by UV-vis spectra and TEM of AgNPs colloidal solution. The highest absorbance was obtained using CMS, PI and AgNO3 concentrations of 10?g/L, 1?g/L, and 1?g/L, respectively; 40°C; 60?min; pH 7; and a material?:?liquor ratio 1?:?20. AgNPs so-obtained were stable in aqueous solution over a period of three weeks at room temperature (~25°C) and have round shape morphology. The sizes of synthesized AgNPs were in the range of 1–21?nm and the highest counts % of these particles were for particles of 6–10 and 1–3?nm, respectively. PMID:24672325

El-Sheikh, M. A.

2014-01-01

358

Memecylon edule leaf extract mediated green synthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles  

PubMed Central

We used an aqueous leaf extract of Memecylon edule (Melastomataceae) to synthesize silver and gold nanoparticles. To our knowledge, this is the first report where M. edule leaf broth was found to be a suitable plant source for the green synthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles. On treatment of aqueous solutions of silver nitrate and chloroauric acid with M. edule leaf extract, stable silver and gold nanoparticles were rapidly formed. The gold nanoparticles were characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX) and Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR). The kinetics of reduction of aqueous silver and gold ions during reaction with the M. edule leaf broth were easily analyzed by UV-visible spectroscopy. SEM analysis showed that aqueous gold ions, when exposed to M. edule leaf broth, were reduced and resulted in the biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles in the size range 20–50 nm. TEM analysis of gold nanoparticles showed formation of triangular, circular, and hexagonal shapes in the size range 10–45 nm. The resulting silver nanoparticles were predominantly square with uniform size range 50–90 nm. EDAX results confirmed the presence of triangular nanoparticles in the adsorption peak of 2.30 keV. Further FTIR analysis was also done to identify the functional groups in silver and gold nanoparticles. The characterized nanoparticles of M. edule have potential for various medical and industrial applications. Saponin presence in aqueous extract of M. edule is responsible for the mass production of silver and gold nanoparticles. PMID:21753878

Elavazhagan, Tamizhamudu; Arunachalam, Kantha D

2011-01-01

359

Sulfidation of silver nanoparticles: natural antidote to their toxicity.  

PubMed

Nanomaterials are highly dynamic in biological and environmental media. A critical need for advancing environmental health and safety research for nanomaterials is to identify physical and chemical transformations that affect the nanomaterial properties and their toxicity. Silver nanoparticles, one of the most toxic and well-studied nanomaterials, readily react with sulfide to form Ag(0)/Ag2S core-shell particles. Here, we show that sulfidation decreased silver nanoparticle toxicity to four diverse types of aquatic and terrestrial eukaryotic organisms (Danio rerio (zebrafish), Fundulus heteroclitus (killifish), Caenorhabditis elegans (nematode worm), and the aquatic plant Lemna minuta (least duckweed)). Toxicity reduction, which was dramatic in killifish and duckweed even for low extents of sulfidation (about 2 mol % S), is primarily associated with a decrease in Ag(+) concentration after sulfidation due to the lower solubility of Ag2S relative to elemental Ag (Ag(0)). These results suggest that even partial sulfidation of AgNP will decrease the toxicity of AgNPs relative to their pristine counterparts. We also show that, for a given organism, the presence of chloride in the exposure media strongly affects the toxicity results by affecting Ag speciation. These results highlight the need to consider environmental transformations of NPs in assessing their toxicity to accurately portray their potential environmental risks. PMID:24180218

Levard, Clement; Hotze, Ernest M; Colman, Benjamin P; Dale, Amy L; Truong, Lisa; Yang, X Y; Bone, Audrey J; Brown, Gordon E; Tanguay, Robert L; Di Giulio, Richard T; Bernhardt, Emily S; Meyer, Joel N; Wiesner, Mark R; Lowry, Gregory V

2013-12-01

360

Antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles: sensitivity of different Salmonella serovars  

PubMed Central

Salmonella spp. is one of the main causes of foodborne illnesses in humans worldwide. Consequently, great interest exists in reducing its impact on human health by lowering its prevalence in the food chain. Antimicrobial formulations in the form of nanoparticles exert bactericidal action due to their enhanced reactivity resultant from their high surface/volume ratio. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are known to be highly toxic to Gram-negative and Gram-positive microorganisms, including multidrug resistant bacteria. However, few data concerning their success against different Salmonella serovars are available. Aims of the present study were to test the antimicrobial effectiveness of AgNPs, against Salmonella Enteritidis, Hadar, and Senftenberg, and to investigate the causes of their different survival abilities from a molecular point of view. Results showed an immediate, time-limited and serovar-dependent reduction of bacterial viability. In the case of S. Senftenberg, the reduction in numbers was observed for up to 4 h of incubation in the presence of 200 mg/l of AgNPs; on the contrary, S. Enteritidis and S. Hadar resulted to be inhibited for up to 48 h. Reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction experiments demonstrated the constitutive expression of the plasmidic silver resistance determinant (SilB) by S. Senftenberg, thus suggesting the importance of a cautious use of AgNPs. PMID:24904542

Losasso, Carmen; Belluco, Simone; Cibin, Veronica; Zavagnin, Paola; Mi?eti?, Ivan; Gallocchio, Federica; Zanella, Michela; Bregoli, Lisa; Biancotto, Giancarlo; Ricci, Antonia

2014-01-01

361

Adhesion mechanisms of nanoparticle silver to substrate materials: identification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanoparticle silver (NPS) conductors are increasingly being investigated for printed electronics applications. However, the adhesion mechanism of the nanoparticle silver to substrate materials has not been identified yet. In particular, the adhesion of NPS to organic materials such as the widely used polyimide Kapton HN and Kapton FPC dry films is concerned with low adhesion strength because the processed polymer surface is chemically inert. Moreover, its adhesion to substrate materials such as benzocyclobutene (BCB), copper and aluminum was found to be very weak. Therefore, in this paper, the mechanisms of NPS adhesion to organic and inorganic materials are identified as the first step in improving NPS adhesion strength. Improving the adhesion strength of NPS will be the key issue for printed electronics applications. The adhesion of NPS to substrate materials was found to be mainly attributed to van der Waals forces based on particle adhesion mechanisms. This finding provides the initiative of developing an adhesion prediction model of NPS to substrate materials in order to provide guidelines for improving the NPS adhesion strength to the substrate materials used in printed electronics.

Joo, Sungchul; Baldwin, Daniel F.

2010-02-01

362

Effects of silver nanoparticles exposure in the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis.  

PubMed

Silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) have emerged as one of the most commonly used NPs in a wide range of industrial and commercial applications. This has caused increasing concern about their fate in the environment as well as uptake and potential toxicity towards aquatic organisms. Accordingly, mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis were exposed to 10 ?g L(-1) of Ag NPs and ionic silver (Ag(+)) for 15 days, and biomarkers of oxidative stress and metal accumulation were determined. Accumulation results show that both Ag NPs and Ag(+) accumulated in both gills and digestive glands. Antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase) were activated by Ag NPs and Ag(+), showing different antioxidant patterns in both gills and digestive glands. Moreover, metallothionein was inducted in gills, directly related to Ag accumulation, while in the digestive glands only a small fraction of Ag seems to be associated with this protein. Lipid peroxidation was higher in gills exposed to Ag NPs, whereas in the digestive glands only Ag(+) induced lipid peroxidation. Ag NPs and Ag(+) cause oxidative stress with distinct modes of action and it's not clear if for Ag NPs the observed effects are attributed to free Ag(+) ions associated with the nanoparticle effect. PMID:25066339

Gomes, Tânia; Pereira, Catarina G; Cardoso, Cátia; Sousa, Vânia Serrão; Teixeira, Margarida Ribau; Pinheiro, José P; Bebianno, Maria João

2014-10-01

363

Studies on the chemical synthesis and characterization of lead oxide nanoparticles with different organic capping agents  

SciTech Connect

Lead oxide (PbO) nanoparticles were chemically synthesized using Lead (II) acetate as precursor. The effects of organic capping agents such as Oleic acid, Ethylene Diamine Tetra Acetic acid (EDTA) and Cetryl Tri Methyl Butoxide (CTAB) on the size and morphology of the nanoparticles were studied. Characterization techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform-Infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Photoluminescence (PL) Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM), Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) were used to analyse the prepared nanoparticles for their physical, structural and optical properties. The characterization studies reveal that the synthesized PbO nanoparticles had well defined crystalline structure and sizes in the range of 25 nm to 36 nm for capping agents used and 40 nm for pure PbO nanoparticles.

Arulmozhi, K. T., E-mail: arulsheelphy@gmail.com [Physics Wing (DDE), Annamalai University, Tamil Nadu, India - 608 002 (India); Mythili, N. [Department of Physics, Annamalai University, Tamil Nadu, India - 608 002 (India)] [Department of Physics, Annamalai University, Tamil Nadu, India - 608 002 (India)

2013-12-15

364

Studies on the chemical synthesis and characterization of lead oxide nanoparticles with different organic capping agents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lead oxide (PbO) nanoparticles were chemically synthesized using Lead (II) acetate as precursor. The effects of organic capping agents such as Oleic acid, Ethylene Diamine Tetra Acetic acid (EDTA) and Cetryl Tri Methyl Butoxide (CTAB) on the size and morphology of the nanoparticles were studied. Characterization techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform-Infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Photoluminescence (PL) Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM), Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) were used to analyse the prepared nanoparticles for their physical, structural and optical properties. The characterization studies reveal that the synthesized PbO nanoparticles had well defined crystalline structure and sizes in the range of 25 nm to 36 nm for capping agents used and 40 nm for pure PbO nanoparticles.

Arulmozhi, K. T.; Mythili, N.

2013-12-01

365

The segregation of silver nanoparticles in low-cost ceramic water filters  

SciTech Connect

As an impregnated constituent in low-cost ceramic water filters, silver nanoparticles have a demonstrated antibacterial effect. The bactericidal mechanism is believed to be based on direct contact between silver and the cell wall of a contaminant organism. In this study microstructural analysis was used to examine the effect of the processing method on the distribution of silver nanoparticles in the filter material. Silver nanofluid was impregnated into fired clay ceramic samples by a low-cost soak-and-dry method. Analyses of filter samples by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and digital optical topological mapping showed that silver was concentrated in near surface pores, a condition that is not optimal for highest probability of silver contact. A simple experiment showed that segregation of silver occurs during the drying phase of impregnation. Drying curves showed that 90% of contained liquid evaporates from the external surface.

Larimer, Curtis; Ostrowski, Nicole [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, 15261 (United States); Speakman, Jacquelyn [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, 15261 (United States); Nettleship, Ian, E-mail: nettles@pitt.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, 15261 (United States)

2010-04-15

366

Bacterial flagella as biotemplate for the synthesis of silver nanoparticle impregnated bionanomaterial  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present study was carried out to synthesize one dimensional silver nanoparticle impregnated flagellar bionanomaterial. Flagella was isolated from Salmonella typhimurium and depolymerised into flagellin monomers. The flagellin monomers were repolymerised again into flagella using suitable technique. The molecular weight of native (NF) and polymerized flagella (PF) was determined using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The NF and PF were used as a template, over which silver nanoparticles were impregnated using in situ chemical reduction process. The synthesized flagellar-silver nanoparticle bionanomaterials were characterized using UV-vis, FT-IR Raman and XRD spectroscopy, and High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM). The characterization studies confirmed the attachment of silver nanoparticles over flagella and repolymerised flagella. The size of the silver nanoparticles on the flagella and repolymerised flagella varied and was in the range of 3-11 nm. I-V characteristics of the bionanomaterials were analyzed using Kethley meter which indicated the increase of conductivity after impregnation of silver nanoparticles. The results indicated that flagellar-silver nanoparticle bionanomaterials can be used as a potential one dimensional bionanomaterials for various applications.

Gopinathan, Priya; Ashok, Anuradha M.; Selvakumar, R.

2013-07-01

367

Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using lemon leaves extract and its application for antimicrobial finish on fabric  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Preparation of silver nanoparticles have been carried out using aqueous extract of lemon leaves ( Citrus limon) which acts as reducing agent and encapsulating cage for the silver nanoparticles. These silver nanoparticles have been used for durable textile finish on cotton and silk fabrics. Remarkable antifungal activity has been observed in the treated fabrics. The antimicrobial activity of silver nanoparticles derived from lemon leaves showed enhancement in activity due to synergistic effect of silver and essential oil components of lemon leaves. The present investigation shows the extracellular synthesis of highly stable silver nanoparticles by biotransformation using the extract of lemon leaves by controlled reduction of the Ag+ ion to Ag0. Further the silver nanoparticles were used for antifungal treatment of fabrics which was tested by antifungal activity assessment of textile material by Agar diffusion method against Fusarium oxysporum and Alternaria brassicicola. Formation of the metallic nanoparticles was established by FT-IR, UV-Visible spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy.

Vankar, Padma S.; Shukla, Dhara

2012-06-01

368

Potential of silver nanoparticle-coated polyurethane foam as an antibacterial water filter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Silver nanoparticles can be coated on common polyurethane (PU) foams by overnight exposure of the foams to nanoparticle solutions. Repeated washing and air-drying yields uniformly coated PU foam, which can be used as a drinking water filter where bacterial contami- nation of the surface water is a health risk. Nanoparticles are stable on the foam and are not washed away

Prashant Jain; T. Pradeep

2005-01-01

369

Effects of silver nanoparticles and silver nitrate in the earthworm reproduction test.  

PubMed

The widespread use of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs), for example, in textiles and cleaning products, means that they are likely to reach the environment via biosolids or the effluent from wastewater treatment plants. The aim of the present study was to determine the ecotoxicity of Ag-NPs in the earthworm reproduction test using Eisenia andrei. In addition to the usual endpoints, the authors also investigated the uptake and accumulation of Ag by adult earthworms and the concentration of free Ag(+) in soil pore water. Silver nanoparticles and Ag nitrate showed similar toxicities in the earthworm reproduction test. The uptake of Ag from Ag-NPs in the earthworm was slightly higher than the uptake of Ag from Ag nitrate. Spiked soils showed a concentration-dependent effect on reproduction, but there was no concentration-dependent increase in the amount of Ag in earthworm tissues. The authors noted a concentration-dependent increase in the levels of free Ag(+) in the soil pore water regardless of the Ag source. The number of juveniles is a more suitable endpoint than biomass or mortality. The uptake of Ag does not appear to inhibit reproduction. Instead, inhibition seems to reflect Ag(+) released into the soil pore water, which affects cocoons and juveniles in the soil. Analysis of transformed Ag-NPs after purification in wastewater treatment plants would provide additional information. PMID:23059754

Schlich, Karsten; Klawonn, Thorsten; Terytze, Konstantin; Hund-Rinke, Kerstin

2013-01-01

370

Effect of Capping Agents in Tin Nanoparticles on Electrochemical Cycling  

E-print Network

that were prepared using three different capping agents, hydrobenzamide, citrate, and polyvinyl pyrrolidone, polyvinyl pyrrolidone PVP and cit- rate as capping agents were reported to play a key role in producing polymers such as poly ethylene oxide and poly vinyl alcohol failed.10 Many materials such as Si, Al, Sn, Sb

Cho, Jaephil

371

Assessment of growth of silver nanoparticles synthesized from an ethylene glycol-silver nitrate-polyvinylpyrrolidone solution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The growth of silver nanoparticles synthesized at 27±1 °C from an ethylene glycol-silver nitrate-polyvinylpyrrolidone solution has been assessed using a methodology that combines theoretical calculations based on the Mie Theory with experimental UV/VIS spectra and average particle size determinations from TEM micrographs. A plot of experimental maximum absorbance times bandwidth as a function of the corresponding average particle radius cube gives a curve with two linear portions of significantly different slopes, suggesting that formation of silver particles takes place during two distinct periods. These results and theoretical calculations seem to indicate that particle formation involves a long nucleation-growth period (about 13 h) during which the number of particles increases, followed by growth only, with a constant number of particles. The ratio of theoretical and experimental maximum absorbance indicates that even after 67 h of reaction, only 45% of the initial Ag(I) species has been transformed into silver nanoparticles.

Slistan-Grijalva, A.; Herrera-Urbina, R.; Rivas-Silva, J. F.; Ávalos-Borja, M.; Castillón-Barraza, F. F.; Posada-Amarillas, A.

2005-01-01

372

Triple helical polysaccharide-induced good dispersion of silver nanoparticles in water.  

PubMed

Silver nanoparticles were constructed by using triple helical polysaccharide (lentinan) dissolved in water as matrix for the first time. The structure, morphology, and size of the nanocomposites in the polysaccharide aqueous solutions were investigated with UV-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and dynamic laser light scattering (DLS). The results revealed that the silver nanoparticles were attached to the polysaccharide chains through the strong noncovalent interactions, leading to the good dispersion of silver nanoparticles with mean radius of 6 nm in water. The silver nanoparticles were stable in the lentinan aqueous solution for 9 months. However, with an addition of NaOH, the polysaccharide with the imperfect helical structure broken partially by NaOH could aggregate in the alkali aqueous solution. The aggregation of the lentinan-bonded silver nanoparticles increased with an increase in the NaOH concentration, whereas the size of the silver nanoparticles barely changed, further confirming that the Ag nanoparticles were stable in this system. The aggregation was related to the conformation transition of the polysaccharide from the triple helix to random coil in the solution. A new method to detect the aggregates and aggregation rate was established according to the intensity of the maximum absorption peaks of the polysaccharide labeled by Ag nanoparticles in the UV spectrum. PMID:21542604

Li, Sheng; Zhang, Yangyang; Xu, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Lina

2011-08-01

373

Stability, size and optical properties of colloidal silver nanoparticles prepared by electrical arc discharge in water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have fabricated and characterised colloidal silver nanoparticles by the electrical arc discharge method in DI water. Size and optical properties of the silver nanoparticles were studied versus different arc currents. Optical absorption indicates a plasmonic peak at 392 nm for 10 A which increases to 398 nm for 20 A arc current. This reveals that by raising the arc current the size of the nanoparticles increases. Optical absorption of silver nanoparticles after 3 weeks shows precipitation of them in a water medium. The effect of different surfactant and stabilizer concentrations such as cethyl trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP), sodium citrate, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), sodium di-2-ethylsulfosuccinate (AOT) and carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) on the stability of silver nanoparticles was investigated. The colloidal silver nanoparticles with 100 ?M concentration were stable for more than 3 months at 50 ?M CTAB and 6 months at 10 ?M sodium citrate concentration, respectively. SEM images of the sample prepared at 50 ?M CTAB concentration reveal uniform and fine nanoparticles. The mean size from TEM images is about 14 nm. TEM images of the sample prepared at 10 ?M sodium citrate concentration show a shell of citrate that covers the silver nanoparticles.

Ashkarran, A. A.; Iraji Zad, A.; Ahadian, M. M.; Hormozi Nezhad, M. R.

2009-10-01

374

Changes in Arabidopsis thaliana gene expression in response to silver nanoparticles and silver ions.  

PubMed

The release of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in the environment has raised concerns about their effects on living organisms, including plants. In this study, changes in gene expression in Arabidopsis thaliana exposed to polyvinylpyrrolidone-coated AgNPs and silver ions (Ag(+)) were analyzed using Affymetrix expression microarrays. Exposure to 5 mg/L AgNPs (20 nm) for 10 days resulted in upregulation of 286 genes and downregulation of 81 genes by reference to nonexposed plants. Exposure to 5 mg/L Ag(+) for 10 days resulted in upregulation of 84 genes and downregulation of 53 genes by reference to nonexposed plants. Many genes differentially expressed by AgNPs and Ag(+) were found to be involved in the response of plants to various stresses: upregulated genes were primarily associated with the response to metals and oxidative stress (e.g., vacuolar cation/proton exchanger, superoxide dismutase, cytochrome P450-dependent oxidase, and peroxidase), while downregulated genes were more associated with response to pathogens and hormonal stimuli [e.g., auxin-regulated gene involved in organ size (ARGOS), ethylene signaling pathway, and systemic acquired resistance (SAR) against fungi and bacteria]. A significant overlap was observed between genes differentially expressed in response to AgNPs and Ag(+) (13 and 21% of total up- and downregulated genes, respectively), suggesting that AgNP-induced stress originates partly from silver toxicity and partly from nanoparticle-specific effects. Three highly upregulated genes in the presence of AgNPs, but not Ag(+), belong to the thalianol biosynthetic pathway, which is thought to be involved in the plant defense system. Results from this study provide insights into the molecular mechanisms of the response of plants to AgNPs and Ag(+). PMID:23962165

Kaveh, Rashid; Li, Yue-Sheng; Ranjbar, Sibia; Tehrani, Rouzbeh; Brueck, Christopher L; Van Aken, Benoit

2013-09-17

375

A Label-Free Amperometric Immunoassay for Thrombomodulin Using Graphene\\/Silver-Silver Oxide Nanoparticles as a Immobilization Matrix  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple, sensitive and label-free electrochemical immunosensor has been developed for the measurement of serum thrombomodulin (TM), an endothelial glycoprotein which was associated with progression and metastasis of the tumor. At first, the graphene nanosheets, which were dispersed in Nafion solution, were used to coat the bare gold electrode. Then silver-silver oxide nanoparticles (Ag-Ag2O NPs) were immobilized on the graphene-modified

Yan-Chun Yang; Shi-Wu Dong; Tao Shen; Cong-Xiang Jian; Hui-Jun Chang; Ying Li; Feng-Tian He; Ji-Xiang Zhou

2012-01-01

376

Colorimetric detection of pesticides based on calixarene modified silver nanoparticles in water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Highly stable silver nanoparticles modified with p-sulfonatocalix[n]arene (n = 4, 8) were synthesized via a one-pot protocol in aqueous media and characterized by transmission electron microscopy, FT-IR and UV-vis spectroscopy. In comparison with p-sulfonatocalix[8]arene modified silver nanoparticles, p-sulfonatocalix[4]arene modified silver nanoparticles can be utilized as a novel colorimetric probe for optunal, allowing a rapid quantitative assay of optunal down to a concentration of 10-7 M, showing a great potential for application to real-time in situ detection of optunal. The possible mechanism is discussed.

Xiong, Dejun; Li, Haibing

2008-11-01

377

Spray-coated nanoscale conductive patterns based on in situ sintered silver nanoparticle inks  

PubMed Central

Nanoscale patterns with high conductivity based on silver nanoparticle inks were fabricated using spray coating method. Through optimizing the solution content and spray operation, accurate nanoscale patterns consisting of silver nanoparticles with a square resistance lower than 1 ? /cm2 were obtained. By incorporating in situ sintering to substitute the general post sintering process, the time consumption could be significantly reduced to one sixth, qualifying it for large-scale and cost-effective fabrication of printed electronics. To testify the application of spray-coated silver nanoparticle inks, an inverted polymer solar cell was also fabricated, which exhibited a power conversion efficiency of 2.76%. PMID:24666992

2014-01-01

378

Spray-coated nanoscale conductive patterns based on in situ sintered silver nanoparticle inks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanoscale patterns with high conductivity based on silver nanoparticle inks were fabricated using spray coating method. Through optimizing the solution content and spray operation, accurate nanoscale patterns consisting of silver nanoparticles with a square resistance lower than 1 ? /cm2 were obtained. By incorporating in situ sintering to substitute the general post sintering process, the time consumption could be significantly reduced to one sixth, qualifying it for large-scale and cost-effective fabrication of printed electronics. To testify the application of spray-coated silver nanoparticle inks, an inverted polymer solar cell was also fabricated, which exhibited a power conversion efficiency of 2.76%.

Zheng, Yifan; Li, Shuguang; Shi, Wei; Yu, Junsheng

2014-03-01

379

Spray-coated nanoscale conductive patterns based on in situ sintered silver nanoparticle inks.  

PubMed

Nanoscale patterns with high conductivity based on silver nanoparticle inks were fabricated using spray coating method. Through optimizing the solution content and spray operation, accurate nanoscale patterns consisting of silver nanoparticles with a square resistance lower than 1 ? /cm2 were obtained. By incorporating in situ sintering to substitute the general post sintering process, the time consumption could be significantly reduced to one sixth, qualifying it for large-scale and cost-effective fabrication of printed electronics. To testify the application of spray-coated silver nanoparticle inks, an inverted polymer solar cell was also fabricated, which exhibited a power conversion efficiency of 2.76%. PMID:24666992

Zheng, Yifan; Li, Shuguang; Shi, Wei; Yu, Junsheng

2014-01-01

380

Fabrication and characterization of silver nanoparticles using Delonix elata leaf broth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The synthesis of nanoparticles from plant sources has proved to be an effective and alternative method for the novel production of nanoparticles. This paper reports the bioreduction of silver nitrate into silver nanoparticle by the leaf extract of Delonix elata. The synthesized silver nanoparticles were characterized by UV-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy, Fourier infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) coupled with Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS), high resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM). In addition the size of the NPs was calculated by using Malvern Zetasizer and the stability by zeta potential. UV-vis spectra show the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) at 432 nm. This reveals the reduction of silver ions (Ag+) into silver (Ag°) and indicating the formation of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). SEM analysis revealed the spherical shape of the particles with sizes in the range of 35-45 nm and EDS spectrum confirmed the presence of silver along with other elements in the plant metabolite. The XRD analysis showed that the AgNPs are crystalline in nature and have face-centered cubic structure. FT-IR spectra show the existence of biomolecules responsible for the reduction of silver nitrate. The size of the AgNPs estimated from particle size distribution curve shows the 70 nm. The zeta potential of AgNPs was found to be -18 mV, indicating the dispersion and stability.

Sathiya, C. K.; Akilandeswari, S.

2014-07-01

381

Biosynthesis of Silver Nanoparticles from Desmodium triflorum: A Novel Approach Towards Weed Utilization  

PubMed Central

A single-step environmental friendly approach is employed to synthesize silver nanoparticles. The biomolecules found in plants induce the reduction of Ag+ ions from silver nitrate to silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). UV-visible spectrum of the aqueous medium containing silver ions demonstrated a peak at 425?nm corresponding to the plasmon absorbance of silver nanoparticles. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed the formation of well-dispersed silver nanoparticles in the range of 5–20?nm. X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectrum of the AgNPs exhibited 2? values corresponding to the silver nanocrystal. The process of reduction is extracellular and fast which may lead to the development of easy biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles. Plants during glycolysis produce a large amount of H+ ions along with NAD which acts as a strong redoxing agent; this seems to be responsible for the formation of AgNPs. Water-soluble antioxidative agents like ascorbic acids further seem to be responsible for the reduction of AgNPs. These AgNPs produced show good antimicrobial activity against common pathogens. PMID:21350660

Ahmad, Naheed; Sharma, Seema; Singh, V. N.; Shamsi, S. F.; Fatma, Anjum; Mehta, B. R.

2011-01-01

382

Biosynthesis of silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles using Pichia fermentans JA2 and their antimicrobial property  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of eco-friendly alternative to chemical synthesis of metal nanoparticles is of great challenge among researchers. The present study aimed to investigate the biological synthesis, characterization, antimicrobial study and synergistic effect of silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles against clinical pathogens using Pichia fermentans JA2. The extracellular biosynthesis of silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles was investigated using Pichia fermentans JA2 isolated from spoiled fruit pulp bought in Vellore local market. The crystalline and stable metallic nanoparticles were characterized evolving several analytical techniques including UV-visible spectrophotometer, X-ray diffraction pattern analysis and FE-scanning electron microscope with EDX-analysis. The biosynthesized metallic nanoparticles were tested for their antimicrobial property against medically important Gram positive, Gram negative and fungal pathogenic microorganisms. Furthermore, the biosynthesized nanoparticles were also evaluated for their increased antimicrobial activities with various commercially available antibiotics against clinical pathogens. The biosynthesized silver nanoparticles inhibited most of the Gram negative clinical pathogens, whereas zinc oxide nanoparticles were able to inhibit only Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The combined effect of standard antibiotic disc and biosynthesized metallic nanoparticles enhanced the inhibitory effect against clinical pathogens. The biological synthesis of silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles is a novel and cost-effective approach over harmful chemical synthesis techniques. The metallic nanoparticles synthesized using Pichia fermentans JA2 possess potent inhibitory effect that offers valuable contribution to pharmaceutical associations.

Chauhan, Ritika; Reddy, Arpita; Abraham, Jayanthi

2015-01-01

383

Synchrotron Speciation of Silver and Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles Aged in a Kaolin Suspension  

SciTech Connect

Assessments of the environmental fate and mobility of nanoparticles must consider the behavior of nanoparticles in relevant environmental systems that may result in speciation changes over time. Environmental conditions may act on nanoparticles to change their size, shape, and surface chemistry. Changing these basic characteristics of nanoparticles may result in a final reaction product that is significantly different than the initial nanomaterial. As such, basing long-term risk and toxicity on the initial properties of a nanomaterial may lead to erroneous conclusions if nanoparticles change upon release to the environment. The influence of aging on the speciation and chemical stability of silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles in kaolin suspensions was examined in batch reactors for up to 18 months. Silver nanoparticles remained unchanged in sodium nitrate suspensions; however, silver chloride was identified with the metallic silver nanoparticles in sodium chloride suspensions and may be attributed to an in situ silver chloride surface coating. Zinc oxide nanoparticles were rapidly converted via destabilization/dissolution mechanisms to Zn{sup 2+} inner-sphere sorption complexes within 1 day of reaction and these sorption complexes were maintained through the 12 month aging processes. Chemical and physical alteration of nanomaterials in the environment must be examined to understand fate, mobility, and toxicology.

Scheckel, Kirk G.; Luxton, Todd P.; El Badawy, Amro M.; Impellitteri, Christopher A.; Tolaymat, Thabet M. (EPA); (UCIN)

2010-07-23

384

Silver Nanoparticles Obtained by Laser Ablation Using Different Stabilizers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have synthesized silver nanoparticles by laser ablation in water using three stabilizers: hexadecyltrimethylammonium (CTAB) surfactant, polyamidoamine dendrimer second generation (PAMAM 2G) and polyamidoamine dendrimer fourth generation (PAMAM 4G) at different concentrations. We obtained spherical nanoparticles with narrow size distributions and average sizes ranging from 6 to 20 nm depending on the type of stabilizer and its concentration. For all cases the highest stabilizer concentration yielded the lowest average particle size; 15.5, 9.5, and 5.6 nm for CTAB, PAMAM 2G and PAMAM 4G respectively. We have also studied the stability of the nanoparticle colloids over a period of 30 days. Only the colloids of CTAB 10-3 M, all the concentrations of PAMAM 4G and pure water were stable after this time. This is explained in terms of steric hindrance of the stabilizer molecules and particle charge from Zeta potential measurements. All the results from transmission electron microscopy correlate well with those observed from the ultraviolet and visible spectra of each sample in terms of absorbance, peak width and peak maximum.

Olea-Mejía, Oscar; Pote-Orozco, Héctor; Camacho-López, Marco A.; Olea-Cardoso, Oscar; López-Castañares, Rafael; Vilchis-Néstor, Alfredo R.

2013-11-01

385

The Morphological Change of Silver Nanoparticles in Water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The solvent-induced morphological change of silver nanoparticles is studied with a combination of optical spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM). By using the local surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) spectroscopy arising from Ag nanoparticles, an in-situ investigation of the spectral changes is carried out before, during and after exposure of Ag island films to water. Combining with the morphological observations by AFM, we sort out the morphological and dielectric contributions to the water-induced LSPR changes. Our results demonstrate that a slight morphological change induced by water contact can result in an apparent blue shift of the LSPR spectral maximum. Furthermore, it is found that this structural change leads to a higher sensitivity of the Ag island films in response to the change in the external dielectric environment. This solvent-induced morphological change, and consequently the modification of the LSPR of the metal nanoparticles, may have significant impact in the applications of solvent-involved plasmon sensors, such as chemical/biological sensing and single-molecule spectroscopy.

Wang, Peng; Wang, Rong-Yao; Jin, Jing-Yang; Xu, Le; Shi, Qing-Fan

2012-01-01

386

Green synthesis, characterization and evaluation of biocompatibility of silver nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) by various plants and microorganisms has been reported, the potential of plants as biological materials for the synthesis of nanoparticles and their compatibility to biological systems is yet to be fully explored. In this study, we report a simple green method for the synthesis of Ag NPs using garlic clove extract as a reducing and stabilizing agent. In addition to green synthesis, biological response of Ag NPs in human lung epithelial A549 cells was also assessed. Ag NPs were rapidly synthesized using garlic clove extract and the formation of nanoparticles was observed within 30 min. The green synthesized Ag NPs were characterized using UV-vis spectrum, X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), field emission transmission electron microscopy (FETEM), X-ray energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDX) and dynamic light scattering (DLS). Characterization data demonstrated that the particles were crystalline in nature and spherical shaped with an average diameter of 12 nm. Measurements of cell viability, cell membrane integrity and intracellular production of reactive oxygen species have shown that the green synthesized Ag NPs were nontoxic to human lung epithelial A549 cells. This study demonstrated a simple, cost-effective and environmentally benign synthesis of Ag NPs with excellent biocompatibility to human lung epithelial A549 cells. This preliminary in vitro investigation needs to be followed up by future studies with various biological systems.

Ahamed, Maqusood; Majeed Khan, M. A.; Siddiqui, M. K. J.; AlSalhi, Mohamad S.; Alrokayan, Salman A.

2011-04-01

387

Synergistic action of cinnamaldehyde with silver nanoparticles against spore-forming bacteria: a case for judicious use of silver nanoparticles for antibacterial applications  

PubMed Central

Silver has long been advocated as an effective antimicrobial. However, toxicity issues with silver have led to limited use of silver in nanoform, especially for food preservation. With the aim of exploring combinatorial options that could increase the antibacterial potency of silver nanoparticles and reduce the effective dosage of silver, we evaluated the extent of synergy that a combination of silver nanoparticles and an essential oil representative (cinnamaldehyde) could offer. A battery of gram-positive and gram-negative bacterial strains was utilized for antibacterial assays, and extents of synergism were calculated from fractional inhibitory concentration indices. The activity of nanoparticles was greatly enhanced when utilized in the presence of cinnamaldehyde. We observed combinatorial effects that were strongly additive against all the bacterial strains tested, and genuine synergy was found against spore forming Bacillus cereus and Clostridium perfringens – bacterial strains associated with release of cytotoxins in contaminated food and known for their persistence. Bacterial kill curve analysis revealed a very fast bactericidal action when a combination of two agents was used. The electron and atomic force microscopy also revealed extensive damage to the bacterial cell envelop in the presence of both agents. We also performed hemolysis assays to investigate and approximate the extent of toxicity exhibited by the two agents, and observed no adverse effect at the concentrations required for synergy. This study shows that safe levels of silver in nanoform in combination with essential oil component cinnamaldehyde can be effectively used for controlling the spore-forming bacterial species. PMID:24376352

Ghosh, Indro Neil; Patil, Supriya Deepak; Sharma, Tarun Kumar; Srivastava, Santosh Kumar; Pathania, Ranjana; Navani, Naveen Kumar

2013-01-01

388

Biocidal effects of silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles on the bioluminescent bacteria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles in combination with alginate on bioluminescent Photobacterium leiognathi Sh1 bacteria was investigated. Silver nanoparticles were found to be more toxic than zinc oxide nanoparticles on bioluminescent bacteria. The nanoparticles and their ions released results in the same effect, however, it was absent in combination with alginate. The effective inhibiting concentration (EC50) for silver nanoparticles was found about 0.3 - 0.4 ?g mL-1, which was up to two times larger then for zinc oxide nanoparticles. The absence of sodium chloride in the tested media prevented the formation of colloidal particles of larger size and the effective inhibition concentrations of metal derivatives were lower than in the presence of sodium chloride.

Taran, M. V.; Starodub, N. F.; Katsev, A. M.; Guidotti, M.; Khranovskyy, V. D.; Babanin, A. A.; Melnychuk, M. D.

2013-11-01

389

Synthesis of silver nanoparticles by using tea leaf extract from Camellia Sinensis  

PubMed Central

The development of the biological synthesis of nanoparticles using microorganisms or plant extracts plays an important role in the field of nanotechnology as it is environmentally friendly and does not involve any harmful chemicals. In this study, the synthesis of silver nanoparticles using the leaves extract of Chinese tea from Camellia sinensis is reported. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized using UV-vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The XRD analysis shows that the synthesized silver nanoparticles are of face-centered cubic structure. Well-dispersed silver nanoparticles with an approximate size of 4 nm were observed in the TEM image. The application of the green synthesized nanoparticles can be used in many fields such as cosmetics, foods, and medicine. PMID:22904632

Loo, Yuet Ying; Chieng, Buong Woei; Nishibuchi, Mitsuaki; Radu, Son

2012-01-01

390

Integration of silver nanoparticle-impregnated polyelectrolyte multilayers into murine-splinted cutaneous wound beds.  

PubMed

Silver is a commonly used topical antimicrobial. However, technologies to immobilize silver at the wound surface are lacking, while currently available silver-containing wound dressings release excess silver that can be cytotoxic and impair wound healing. We have shown that precise concentrations of silver at lower levels can be immobilized into a wound bed using a polyelectrolyte multilayer attachment technology. These silver nanoparticle-impregnated polyelectrolyte multilayers are noncytotoxic yet bactericidal in vitro, but their effect on wound healing in vivo was previously unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect on wound healing of integrating silver nanoparticle/polyelectrolyte multilayers into the wound bed. A full-thickness, splinted, excisional murine wound healing model was employed in both phenotypically normal mice and spontaneously diabetic mice (healing impaired model). Gross image measurements showed an initial small lag in healing in the silver-treated wounds in diabetic mice, but no difference in time to complete wound closure in either normal or diabetic mice. Histological analysis showed modest differences between silver-treated and control groups on day 9, but no difference between groups at the time of wound closure. We conclude that silver nanoparticle/polyelectrolyte multilayers can be safely integrated into the wound beds of both normal and diabetic mice without delaying wound closure, and with transient histological effects. The results of this study suggest the feasibility of this technology for use as a platform to affect nanoscale wound engineering approaches to microbial prophylaxis or to augment wound healing. PMID:23511285

Guthrie, Kathleen M; Agarwal, Ankit; Teixeira, Leandro B C; Dubielzig, Richard R; Abbott, Nicholas L; Murphy, Christopher J; Singh, Harpreet; McAnulty, Jonathan F; Schurr, Michael J

2013-01-01

391

Investigation of antibacterial properties silver nanoparticles prepared via green method  

PubMed Central

Background This study aims to investigate the influence of different stirring times on antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles in polyethylene glycol (PEG) suspension. The silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) were prepared by green synthesis method using green agents, polyethylene glycol (PEG) under moderate temperature at different stirring times. Silver nitrate (AgNO3) was taken as the metal precursor while PEG was used as the solid support and polymeric stabilizer. The antibacterial activity of different sizes of nanosilver was investigated against Gram–positive [Staphylococcus aureus] and Gram–negative bacteria [Salmonella typhimurium SL1344] by the disk diffusion method using Müeller–Hinton Agar. Results Formation of Ag-NPs was determined by UV–vis spectroscopy where surface plasmon absorption maxima can be observed at 412–437 nm from the UV–vis spectrum. The synthesized nanoparticles were also characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The peaks in the XRD pattern confirmed that the Ag-NPs possessed a face-centered cubic and peaks of contaminated crystalline phases were unable to be located. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed that Ag-NPs synthesized were in spherical shape. The optimum stirring time to synthesize smallest particle size was 6 hours with mean diameter of 11.23 nm. Zeta potential results indicate that the stability of the Ag-NPs is increases at the 6 h stirring time of reaction. The Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrum suggested the complexation present between PEG and Ag-NPs. The Ag-NPs in PEG were effective against all bacteria tested. Higher antibacterial activity was observed for Ag-NPs with smaller size. These suggest that Ag-NPs can be employed as an effective bacteria inhibitor and can be applied in medical field. Conclusions Ag-NPs were successfully synthesized in PEG suspension under moderate temperature at different stirring times. The study clearly showed that the Ag-NPs with different stirring times exhibit inhibition towards the tested gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. PMID:22839208

2012-01-01

392

Photochemical and antimicrobial properties of silver nanoparticle-encapsulated chitosan functionalized with photoactive groups.  

PubMed

Chitosan was functionalized with 4-((E)-2-(3-hydroxynaphthalen-2-yl)diazen-1-yl)benzoic acid by the coupling of the hydroxyl functional groups of chitosan with carboxylic acid group of the dye by DCC coupling method. The silver nanoparticles were prepared by sol-gel method of nanoparticle synthesis. Silver nanoparticle-encapsulated functionalized chitosan was prepared by the phase transfer method. The products were characterized by FTIR, UV-Vis, fluorescence and NMR spectroscopic methods and by SEM and TEM analysis. The photochemical properties of silver nanoparticle-encapsulated chitosan functionalized with 4-((E)-2-(3-hydroxynaphthalen-2-yl)diazen-1-yl)benzoic acid was studied in detail. The light-fastening properties of the chromophoric system was enhanced when attached to chitosan, and it can be further improved by the encapsulation of silver nanoparticles. The antibacterial analysis of silver nanoparticle-encapsulated functionalized chitosan was carried out against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli and against fungal species such as Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus terreus. This study showed that silver nanoparticles-encapsulated functionalized chitosan can be used for antibacterial and antifungal applications. PMID:23910360

Mathew, Thomas V; Kuriakose, Sunny

2013-10-01

393

Synthesis, characterization and biocompatibility of ``green'' synthesized silver nanoparticles using tea polyphenols  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since ancient times, people have taken advantage of the antimicrobial effects of colloidal silver particles. Aside from the medical prospects, silver nanoparticles are found in a wide range of commercially available consumer products ranging from cosmetics to household cleansers. Current synthetic methods for creating silver nanoparticles typically call for potentially hazardous chemicals, extreme heat, and produce environmentally dangerous byproducts. Therefore, it is essential that novel ``green'' synthesis of nanoparticles becomes a reality, and it is imperative to fully analyze the potential toxic effects of these nanoparticles. In this study, we have shown that by reducing silver nitrate in solutions of tea extract or epicatechin of varying concentrations, spherical silver nanoparticles were formed that had controllable size distributions depending on the concentration of tea extract or epicatechin in the samples. Our ultra-resolution microscopy demonstrated that the nanoparticles were in fact interacting with the keratinocytes. Furthermore, evaluation of mitochondrial function (MTS) to assess cell viability and membrane integrity (LDH) in human keratinocytes showed that the silver nanoparticles were nontoxic. These results demonstrated that these nanoparicles are potentially biocompatible and warrant further evaluation in other biological systems.

Moulton, Michael C.; Braydich-Stolle, Laura K.; NadagoudaPresent Address: Pegasus Technical Services, 46 E. Hollister Street, Cincinnati, 45219, Ohio, Usa., Mallikarjuna N.; Kunzelman, Samantha; Hussain, Saber M.; Varma, Rajender S.

2010-05-01

394

Effect of ionic liquid impurities on the synthesis of silver nanoparticles.  

PubMed

Imidazolium-based ionic liquids have been widely utilized as versatile solvents for metal nanoparticle synthesis; however, reactions to synthesize silver nanoparticles that are performed identically in different commercially obtained lots of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (BMIM-BF(4)) give divergent results. This suggests that impurities in these nominally identical solvents play an important role in the resulting silver nanoparticle quality. To test the effect that impurities have on the quality of silver nanoparticles synthesized in BMIM-BF(4), silver nanoparticles were synthesized in carefully prepared and purified BMIM-BF(4) and compared against silver nanoparticles that were synthesized in the purified BMIM-BF(4) that had been spiked with trace amounts of water, chloride, and 1-methylimidazole. It was clearly demonstrated that trace amounts of these common ionic liquid impurities cause significant deviation in size and shape (creating polydisperse and irregularly shaped ensembles of both large and small particles), and also negatively impact the stabilization of the resulting silver nanoparticles. PMID:23092200

Lazarus, Laura L; Riche, Carson T; Malmstadt, Noah; Brutchey, Richard L

2012-11-13

395

Synthesis of silver nanoparticles from stem bark of Cochlospermum religiosum (L.) Alston: an important medicinal plant and evaluation of their antimicrobial efficacy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of different parts of plants for the synthesis of nanoparticles is considered as a green technology as it does not involve any harmful chemicals. Herein, we report on rapid biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (SNPs) from aqueous stem bark extract of Cochlospermum religiosum a medicinal plant. The reduced silver nanoparticles were characterized by using UV-Visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis, atomic force microscopy, and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR). The UV-Visible spectrum of the aqueous medium containing silver nanoparticles showed an absorption peak at around 445 nm, XRD showed that the particles are crystalline in nature, with a face-centered cubic structure and the SEM images showed that the spherical-shaped s