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Goats infected with caprinearthritis-encephalitisvirus (CAEV) show chronic arthritis and cachexia, which are progressive in nature. The immunopathogenic mechanisms responsible for these progressive clinical symptoms have not been fully elucidated. Various haematological and immunological parameters were evaluated in experimentally-infected goats showing typical signs of CAEV-induced disease. Infected goats showed recurrent lymphocytosis that may be due to constant presentation of
E. G. Mdurvwa; P. O. Ogunbiyi; H. S. Gakou; P. G. Reddy
Goats infected with caprinearthritisencephalitisvirus (CAEV) develop chronic arthritis sharing many features with human rheumatoid arthritis (RA). TNF is thought to be a key mediator contributing to the formation of the arthritic lesion in RA. We studied this cytokine in goats suffering from chronic arthritis. TNF? expressing cells were detected by in situ hybridization in synovial membranes of
Franziska Lechner; Hans-Rudolf Vogt; Heng Fong Seow; Uta von Bodungen; Giuseppe Bertoni; Andreas Zurbriggen; Ernst Peterhans
The effects of caprinearthritis-encephalitisvirus on lactational performance of goats were examined. The results of an ELISA for antibodies against caprinearthritis-encephalitisvirus were compared with milk production records. Mean production of milk, protein, fat, and lactose and somatic cell counts were compared for seropositive and seronegative goats of similar ages. The results from 1799 lactating goats from 66 herds suggested that milk production was similar for 1-yr-old goats that tested seropositive and those that tested seronegative. For 900 of those goats for which data permitted comparison, milk fat and protein were also similar. A comparison of 331 goats showed that lactose contents did not differ between 1- and 2-yr-old goats, but somatic cell counts were higher in 2-yr-old seropositive goats. PMID:9361211
Caprinearthritis-encephalitisvirus (CAEV) causes a persistent and slow progressive infection in goats, characterized by chronic proliferative sinovitis, arthritis and, less frequently, pneumonia. Infected goats could also be affected by interstitial mastitis. The aim of this study was to evaluate ...
Computed tomography was used to aid in the antemortem diagnosis of leukoencephalomyelitis in a goat infected by caprinearthritisencephalitisvirus (CAEV). Imaging results were corroborated by histologic examination. This report discusses various methods of imaging the nervous system and their potential for use in the antemortem diagnosis of CAEV neurologic changes. PMID:24155416
The lentivirus caprinearthritis-encephalitisvirus (CAEV) is a pathogen of goats. It is transmitted in milk and causes a persistent infection in goats, which often fail to produce neutralizing antibodies to the virus. Native CAEV particles are remarkably resistant to digestion with proteinase K and are neutralized extremely slowly by immune sera. Our studies showed that the virus particles are heavily sialylated. Studies with highly specific sialyltransferase enzymes identified penultimate carbohydrate linkages typical of O- and N-linked oligosaccharides on the virus and suggested that the virus may be more heavily sialylated on O-linked than on N-linked oligosaccharides. Removal of sialic acids from the virus by neuraminidase treatment did not reduce infectivity of the particles. However, desialylation rendered the virus more susceptible to proteolysis by proteinase K. Desialylation also enhanced the kinetics of neutralization of the virus by goat antibodies. These results suggest that the carbohydrates on the viral surface are important both in protecting viral proteins from digestion by proteases and in protecting the virus from rapid neutralization by antibodies. PMID:2835502
Using the yeast two-hybrid system, we screened a human placenta cDNA library and identified two proteins that interacted with the Tat protein of the caprinearthritisencephalitisvirus (CAEV): the EGF-like repeats 16 of the extracellular domain of the human Notch2 receptor and the epithelin\\/granulin growth factor precursor. This interaction was also confirmed in mammalian cells. Using in vitro mutagenesis
Nitza Shoham; Limor Cohen; Arnona Gazit; Abraham Yaniv
Caprinearthritisencephalitisvirus (CAEV) is a lentivirus closely related to visna virus and more distantly to other lentiviruses, such as human immunodeficiency virus. The genomes of visna virus and CAEV contain a tat gene encoding a protein able to weakly transactivate its own long terminal repeat, suggesting that transactivation may be a dispensable function for viral replication. Three different tat gene mutants of an infectious molecular clone of CAEV were used to study their replication after transfection or infection of primary goat synovial membrane cells and of blood-derived mononuclear cells or macrophages. Our results showed no difference between replication of the wild type and either the complete tat deletion mutant or the tat stop point mutant, whereas slower growth kinetics and lower levels of expression of the partial tat deletion mutant that of the wild type were obtained in these cells. Quantitative PCR and reverse transcription-PCR analyses of the different steps of a single replicative cycle revealed an identical pattern of retrotranscription, transcription, and viral production, whereas time course analysis demonstrated that the intracellular level of viral genomic RNA was affected by the partial tat deletion at later time points. We then compared the infectious properties of the wild-type and tat mutant viruses in vivo by direct inoculation of proviral DNAs into the joints of goats. All the animals seroconverted between 27 and 70 days postinoculation. Moreover, we were able to isolate tat mutant CAEV from blood-derived macrophages that was still able to infect synovial membrane cells in vitro. This study clearly demonstrates that the tat gene of CAEV is dispensable for viral replication in vitro and in vivo.
Harmache, A; Vitu, C; Russo, P; Bouyac, M; Hieblot, C; Peveri, P; Vigne, R; Suzan, M
Caprinearthritisencephalitis is a worldwide, multisystemic disease caused by a small ruminant lentivirus. Although the main route of transmission is oral, detection of proviral DNA of the caprinearthritisencephalitisvirus (CAEV) in caprine semen has been previously described. However, the presence of viral antigens in the male reproductive tract has apparently never been reported. The objective was to study lesions in the buck reproductive system and to detect, in these tissues, the presence of proviral DNA, viral RNA and CAEV antigens. Tissues from eight CAEV-infected bucks (one naturally and seven experimentally infected) were analyzed by histopathology, nested polymerase chain reaction, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, and immunohistochemistry. Interstitial pneumonia, synovitis, and lesions in the male reproductive tract were detected in some of the bucks. Proviral DNA was detected in the lungs and joints as well as in the reproductive systems of all animals, whereas viral RNA was detected only in the genital tract of the naturally infected buck. Viral antigens were immunostained in most of the organs of the male reproductive tract. This report was apparently the first to clearly demonstrate CAEV antigen expression in the male reproductive tract, which indicates the possibility of venereal transmission of CAEV. PMID:23973050
Turchetti, Andréia P; Paniago, Juliana J; da Costa, Luciana F; da Cruz, Juliano C M; Braz, Gissandra F; Gouveia, Aurora M G; Paixão, Tatiane A; Santos, Renato L; Heinemann, Marcos B
This long-term observational cohort study was carried out to evaluate the effect of caprinearthritis-encephalitisvirus (CAEV) infection on the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of milk production in dairy goats. For this purpose, a dairy herd comprising both CAEV-infected and uninfected female goats was observed for 12 consecutive years. Records on daily milk yield, somatic cell count (SCC), and contents of the major milk components (fat, protein and lactose) were collected every month. In total, 3,042 records (1,114 from CAEV-positive and 1,928 from CAEV-negative animals) from 177 female goats were used for statistical analysis. The multi-trait repeatability test-day animal model using the derivative-free multivariate analysis package with the average information-REML method was applied to eliminate the influence of factors other than CAEV infection on milk production in goats. The statistical significance of the differences between estimates for seropositive and seronegative goats was evaluated using Student's t-test. The effect of age of goats (parity) on their serological status was also estimated with the one-trait repeatability test-day model. The serological status of goats was linked to parity: the higher the parity, the greater the probability of CAEV infection. No significant differences between infected and uninfected goats with respect to daily milk yield and SCC were found. On the other hand, the milk of uninfected goats contained more total protein (3.40% vs. 3.35%), fat (3.69% vs. 3.54%), and lactose (4.30% vs. 4.25%) than the milk of infected goats. Even though these differences were highly significant, they were small when expressed numerically. PMID:22459809
Kaba, J; Strza?kowska, N; Jó?wik, A; Krzy?ewski, J; Bagnicka, E
A caprinearthritis-encephalitisvirus (CAEV)/maedi-visna virus (MVV) indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (iELISA) was validated with samples from U.S. sheep and by the use of radioimmunoprecipitation as the standard for comparison. The sensitivity and the specificity were 86.0% (±5.8%) and 95.9% (±2.9%), respectively. The iELISA format and phylogenetic differences based on the MVV gag sequence contribute to the reduced sensitivity.
Herrmann-Hoesing, Lynn M.; Broughton-Neiswanger, Liam E.; Gouine, Kimberly C.; White, Stephen N.; Mousel, Michele R.; Lewis, Gregory S.; Marshall, Katherine L.; Knowles, Donald P.
Caprinearthritis-encephalitis syndrome (CAE) is a viral disease of domestic goats characterized by chronic proliferative synovitis and periarthritis of adult goats while acute afebrile leukoencephalomyelitis is characteristic in goat kids. The causative agent, a Lentivirus, is transmitted from adult goats to kids via the colostrum or lateral transmission also occurs.
In spite of the large number of goats found in several developing tropical countries, milk production remains unsatisfactory. The occurrence of infectious diseases, such as leptospirosis, brucellosis and caprinearthritisencephalitis (CAE) may in part be responsible for sub-optimal production. In this study, 1000 serum samples were tested for leptospirosis, 953 for brucellosis and 562 for CAE. All tested flocks presented
Walter Lilenbaum; Guilherme Nunes de Souza; Paula Ristow; Madelayne Cortez Moreira; Suzana Fráguas; Verônica da Silva Cardoso; Walter Martin Roland Oelemann
Three consecutive years of monitoring 248 goats in the same flock, found that the first lactation milk yield was significantly higher in seronegative (578L) than in seropositive (447L) animals but this difference disappeared in the subsequent second to fourth lactations. No significant differences were found in the proportions of seronegative and seropositive does in the flock, the percentage of animals culled, the number of offspring, or in the number of cases of udder bacterial infection, irrespective of age. Removal of kids from their dams before suckling and the feeding of pasteurised colostrum resulted in reduced numbers of seropositive animals. Nevertheless, by approximately 24 months of age, 76.9% of these initially seronegative animals were seropositive, a factor that significantly contributed to flock seropositivity. This finding could be attributed to lateral virus transmission from seropositive to seronegative kids because of lack of segregation within the flock. PMID:19157929
Complex retrovirus genomes contain a variable number of accessory genes, among which is the vif gene. We investigated in vitro the role of the vif gene of caprinearthritisencephalitisvirus (CAEV) by studying the phenotype of five vif mutants after infection of primary goat synovial membrane (GSM) cells and blood-derived monocytes/macrophages. Any deletion introduced into the vif gene resulted in slow and low viral replication and production of virions with an infectious titer lower than that of wild-type viral particles. The wild-type phenotype could be restored by the trans expression of the vif gene in a complementation assay. Quantitative PCR and reverse transcription-PCR analyses were performed in order to determine which stage of the replicative cycle was impaired by the vif deletion. Our results demonstrated that CAEV Vif did not act at the level of reverse transcription or transcription but rather at the late stage of virus formation and/or release, as lower amounts of virus were produced after a single replicative cycle. The vif-deleted CAEV produced after 24 h of infection was still able to infect GSM cells, indicating that the vif gene is not essential for virus infectivity but is required for efficient virus production.
Harmache, A; Bouyac, M; Audoly, G; Hieblot, C; Peveri, P; Vigne, R; Suzan, M
The aim of this study was to determine, using immunofluorescence and in situ hybridization, whether CAEV is capable of infecting goat uterine epithelial cells in vivo. Five CAEV seropositive goats confirmed as infected using double nested polymerase chain reaction (dnPCR) on leucocytes and on vaginal secretions were used as CAEV positive goats. Five CAEV-free goats were used as controls. Samples from the uterine horn were prepared for dnPCR, in situ hybridization, and immunofluorescence. The results from dnPCR confirmed the presence of CAEV proviral DNA in the uterine horn samples of infected goats whereas no CAEV proviral DNA was detected in samples taken from the uninfected control goats. The in situ hybridization probe was complementary to part of the CAEV gag gene and confirmed the presence of CAEV nucleic acids in uterine samples. The positively staining cells were seen concentrated in the mucosa of the lamina propria of uterine sections. Finally, laser confocal analysis of double p28/cytokeratin immunolabelled transverse sections of CAEV infected goat uterus, demonstrated that the virus was localized in glandular and epithelial cells. This study clearly demonstrates that goat uterine epithelial cells are susceptible to CAEV infection in vivo. This finding could help to further our understanding of the epidemiology of CAEV, and in particular the possibility of vertical transmission.
A caprinearthritis-encephalitisvirus (CAEV)/maedi-visna virus (MVV) indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (iELISA) was validated with samples from U.S. sheep and by the use of radioimmunoprecipitation as the standard for comparison. The sensitivity and the specificity were 86.0% (+ or - 5.8%) and 95.9% (+ or - 2.9%), respectively. The iELISA format and phylogenetic differences based on the MVV gag sequence contribute to the reduced sensitivity. PMID:20016044
Herrmann-Hoesing, Lynn M; Broughton-Neiswanger, Liam E; Gouine, Kimberly C; White, Stephen N; Mousel, Michele R; Lewis, Gregory S; Marshall, Katherine L; Knowles, Donald P
Caprinearthritisencephalitisvirus (CAEV) is a lentivirus that infects both goats and sheep and is closely related to maedi-visna virus that infects sheep; collectively, these viruses are known as small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLV). Infection of goats and sheep with SRLV typically results in discrete inflammatory diseases which include arthritis, mastitis, pneumonia or encephalomyelitis. SRLV-infected animals concurrently demonstrating lentivirus-associated lesions in tissues of lung, mammary gland, joint synovium and the central nervous system are either very rare or have not been reported. Here we describe a novel CAEV promoter isolated from a sheep with multisystemic lentivirus-associated inflammatory disease including interstitial pneumonia, mastitis, polyarthritis and leukomyelitis. A single, novel SRLV promoter was cloned and sequenced from five different anatomical locations (brain stem, spinal cord, lung, mammary gland and carpal joint synovium), all of which demonstrated lesions characteristic of lentivirus associated inflammation. This SRLV promoter isolate was found to be closely related to CAEV promoters isolated from goats in northern California and other parts of the world. The promoter was denoted CAEV-ovine-MS (multisystemic disease); the stability of the transcription factor binding sites within the U3 promoter sequence are discussed. PMID:23955501
Adedeji, Adeyemi O; Barr, Bradd; Gomez-Lucia, Esperanza; Murphy, Brian
Caprinearthritisencephalitisvirus (CAEV) is a lentivirus that infects both goats and sheep and is closely related to maedi-visna virus that infects sheep; collectively, these viruses are known as small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLV). Infection of goats and sheep with SRLV typically results in discrete inflammatory diseases which include arthritis, mastitis, pneumonia or encephalomyelitis. SRLV-infected animals concurrently demonstrating lentivirus-associated lesions in tissues of lung, mammary gland, joint synovium and the central nervous system are either very rare or have not been reported. Here we describe a novel CAEV promoter isolated from a sheep with multisystemic lentivirus-associated inflammatory disease including interstitial pneumonia, mastitis, polyarthritis and leukomyelitis. A single, novel SRLV promoter was cloned and sequenced from five different anatomical locations (brain stem, spinal cord, lung, mammary gland and carpal joint synovium), all of which demonstrated lesions characteristic of lentivirus associated inflammation. This SRLV promoter isolate was found to be closely related to CAEV promoters isolated from goats in northern California and other parts of the world. The promoter was denoted CAEV-ovine-MS (multisystemic disease); the stability of the transcription factor binding sites within the U3 promoter sequence are discussed.
Adedeji, Adeyemi O.; Barr, Bradd; Gomez-Lucia, Esperanza; Murphy, Brian
A competitive-inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA) was evaluated for the detection of serum antibodies to the surface envelope (SU) of caprinearthritis-encephalitisvirus (CAEV) in goats. This assay utilized 96-well microtiter plates containing CAEV-63 SU captured by monoclonal antibody (MAb) F7-299 and measured the competitive displacement of horseradish peroxidase-conjugated MAb GPB 74A binding by undiluted goat sera (F. Özyörük, W. P. Cheevers, G. A. Hullinger, T. C. McGuire, M. Hutton, and D. P. Knowles, Clin. Diagn. Lab. Immunol. 8:44-51, 2001). Two hundred serum samples from goats in the United States were used to determine the sensitivity and specificity of cELISA based on the immunoprecipitation (IP) of [35S]methionine-labeled viral antigens as a standard of comparison. A positive cELISA was defined as >33.2% inhibition of MAb 74A binding based on 2 standard deviations above the mean percent inhibition of 140 IP-negative serum samples. At this cutoff value, there were 0 of 60 false-negative sera (100% sensitivity) and 5 of 140 false-positive sera (96.4% specificity). Additional studies utilized IP-monitored cELISA to establish a CAEV-free herd of 1,640 dairy goats.
Herrmann, Lynn M.; Cheevers, William P.; McGuire, Travis C.; Adams, D. Scott; Hutton, Melinda M.; Gavin, William G.; Knowles, Donald P.
Short synthetic peptides are important tools in biomedical research permitting to generate hapten specific polyclonal sera for analytical purposes or functional studies. In this paper we provide proof of principle that a peptide located in a highly conserved portion of the Gag protein of the caprinearthritisencephalitisvirus and carrying an immunodominant T helper cell epitope functions as an efficient carrier peptide, mediating a strong antibody response to a peptidic hapten encompassing a well-characterized B cell epitope of Env. The carrier and hapten peptides were collinearly synthesized permutating their molecular arrangement. While the antibody response to the hapten was similar for both constructs, the antibody response to a B cell epitope overlapping the T helper cell epitope of the Gag carrier peptide was considerably different. This permits a modular use of the carrier peptide to generate antibody directed exclusively to the hapten peptide or a strong humoral response to both carrier- and hapten-peptide. Finally, we have mapped the epitopes involved in this polarized antibody response and discussed the potential immunological implications. PMID:19118559
A competitive-inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA) for detection of antibodies to the surface envelope (SU) of caprinearthritis-encephalitisvirus (CAEV) was recently reported (L. M. Herrmann, W. P. Cheevers, T. C. McGuire, D. Scott Adams, M. M. Hutton, W. G. Gavin, and D. P. Knowles, Clin. Diagn. Lab. Immunol. 10:267-271, 2003). The cELISA utilizes CAEV-63 SU captured on microtiter plates using the monoclonal antibody (MAb) F7-299 and measures competitive displacement of binding of the anti-CAEV MAb GPB 74A by goat serum. The present study evaluated the CAEV cELISA for detection of antibodies to ovine progressive pneumonia virus (OPPV) in sheep. Three hundred thirty-two sera were randomly selected from 21,373 sheep sera collected throughout the United States to determine the sensitivity and specificity of cELISA and agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) based on immunoprecipitation (IP) of [35S]methionine-labeled OPPV antigens as a standard of comparison. A positive cELISA test was defined as >20.9 percent inhibition (% I) of MAb 74A binding based on two standard deviations above the mean % I of 191 IP-negative sheep sera. At this cutoff, there were 2 of 141 false-negative sera (98.6% sensitivity) and 6 of 191 false-positive sera (96.9% specificity). Sensitivity and specificity values for IP-monitored AGID were comparable to those for cELISA for 314 of 332 sera with unambiguous AGID results. Concordant results by cELISA and IP resolved 16 of the 18 sera that were indeterminate by AGID. Additional studies evaluated cELISA by using 539 sera from a single OPPV-positive flock. Based on IP of 36 of these sera, there was one false-negative by cELISA among 21 IP-positive sera (95.5% sensitivity) and 0 of 15 false-positives (100% specificity). We conclude that the CAEV cELISA can be applied to detection of OPPV antibodies in sheep with high sensitivity and specificity.
Herrmann, Lynn M.; Cheevers, William P.; Marshall, Katherine L.; McGuire, Travis C.; Hutton, Melinda M.; Lewis, Gregory S.; Knowles, Donald P.
Barriers to replication of viruses in potential host cells may occur at several levels. Lack of suitable and functional receptors on the host cell surface, thereby precluding entry of the virus, is a frequent reason for noninfectivity, as long as no alternative way of entry (e.g., pinocytosis, antibody-dependent adsorption) can be exploited by the virus. Other barriers can intervene at
LAILA MSELLI-LAKHAL; COLETTE FAVIER; KEVIN LEUNG; FRANCOIS GUIGUEN; DELPHINE GREZEL; PIERRE MIOSSEC; JEAN-FRANCOIS MORNEX; OPENDRA NARAYAN; GILLES QUERAT; YAHIA CHEBLOUNE
The importance of the virally encoded dUTPase for CAEV replication, invasiveness, pathogenesis, and genetic stability was investigated in goats infected by viruses with single point (DU-G) and deletion (DU-1) mutations of the dUTPase gene (DU gene). The DU gene was found to be dispensable for CAEV replication in vivo as judged by times taken to seroconvert, frequencies of viral isolation, and tissue distribution of viral RNAs. DU- reversion at week 34 in one of three goats infected with the single point mutant DU-G, however, suggested that the viral dUTPase confers some advantages for replication in vivo. Moreover, we show that dUTPase is necessary for the timely development of bilateral arthritic lesions of the carpus. Finally, dUTPase was shown to efficiently prevent accumulation of G-to-A transitions in the viral genome.
In purpose to protect goats against caprinearthritisencephalitisvirus (CAEV), the first group of kids (I) was inoculated with purified, inactivated and adjuvant-treated virions, the second group (II) with adjuvant and the third one (III) with culture medium. 2-4 months later, the three groups were challenged with virulent CAEV by intraarticular route. On the clinical level, vaccinated and challenged kids show more early and severe arthritis than other groups. On the virological level, isolation of lentivirus from white blood cells and different organs is more important in group I than groups II and III. Therefore, vaccinations with inactivated and adjuvant-treated virions do not protect against a virulent challenge; there is an enhancement of lesions. We note that the adjuvant elicits a mild non-specific protection against virulent challenge. PMID:8391411
The distribution of caprine leucocyte antigens (CLA) in goats from four different breeds (n=546) affected by caprinearthritis-encephalitisvirus (CAEV)-induced arthritis were determined and compared breed for breed with those of infected but clinically healthy controls (n=402). Differences in frequencies of some of the CLA specificities between the affected and control groups were found, but after correction of the ordinary
Ovine lentiviruses and caprinearthritis-encephalitisvirus (CAEV) are prototypic lentiviruses that replicate predominantly in macrophages of infected animals. In situ hybridization of pathologically affected tissues from diseased animals has shown that viral RNA exists in permissive macrophages as well as in non-macrophage cell types that do not support productive virus replication. These findings raise questions about the cellular tropism of
Dinesh K. Singh; Yahia Chebloune; Leila Mselli-Lakhal; Bradley M. Karr; Opendra Narayan
The aim of this study was to demonstrate that embryo transfer can be used to produce CAEV-free kids from CAEV-infected biological mothers when appropriate procedure is implemented.Twenty-eight goats that had tested positive for CAEV using PCR on vaginal secretions were used as embryo donors. Embryos with intact-ZP were selected and washed 10 times; they were then frozen and used for
M. Z. Ali Al Ahmad; Y. Chebloune; B. A. Bouzar; G. Baril; F. Bouvier; G. Chatagnon; B. Leboeuf; M. Pepin; J. M. Guibert; P. Russo; E. Manfredi; J. Martin; F. Fieni
The virion-associated dUTPase activities of caprinearthritis-encephalitisvirus (CAEV) and visna virus were determined by using an assay which measure the actual ability of the dUTPase to prevent the dUTP misincorporations into cDNA during reverse transcription. We showed that the CAEV molecular clone from the Cork isolate was dUTPase defective as a result of a single amino acid substitution. Using this point mutant and deletion mutants of CAEV as well as a deletion mutant of visna virus, we demonstrated that dUTPase-deficient viruses replicate similarly to wild-type viruses in dividing cells but show delayed replication in nondividing primary macrophages.
Stress granules (SGs) are cytoplasmic foci composed of stalled translation preinitiation complexes induced by environmental stress stimuli, including viral infection. Since viral propagation completely depends on the host translational machinery, many viruses have evolved to circumvent the induction of SGs or co-opt SG components. In this study, we found that expression of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) core protein inhibits SG formation. Caprin-1 was identified as a binding partner of the core protein by an affinity capture mass spectrometry analysis. Alanine scanning mutagenesis revealed that Lys97 and Arg98 in the ?-helix of the JEV core protein play a crucial role in the interaction with Caprin-1. In cells infected with a mutant JEV in which Lys97 and Arg98 were replaced with alanines in the core protein, the inhibition of SG formation was abrogated, and viral propagation was impaired. Furthermore, the mutant JEV exhibited attenuated virulence in mice. These results suggest that the JEV core protein circumvents translational shutoff by inhibiting SG formation through an interaction with Caprin-1 and facilitates viral propagation in vitro and in vivo.
Bovine viral diarrhea virus is a pestivirus in the family Flaviviridae that cause abortions and stillbirths in livestock and its traditional diagnosis is based on cell culture and virus neutralization test. In this study, for more sensitive, specific detection and determined the prevalence of virus in aborted Bovine, Ovine, Caprine, Buffalo and Camel fetuses the antigen capture ELISA and RT-PCR were recommended. From the total of 2173 aborted fetuses, 347 (15.96%) and 402 (18.49%) were positive for presence of Bovine viral diarrhea virus by antigen capture ELISA and RT-PCR respectively. Statistical analysis of data showed significant differences between ELISA and RT-PCR for detection of virus in aborted fetuses. These results indicate a high presence of this pathogen in Iran and that RT- PCR is considerably faster and more accurate than ELISA for identification of Bovine viral diarrhea virus. To our knowledge the Camels and Bovine are the most resistant and sensitive to Bovine viral diarrhea's abortions respectively and the prevalence of virus in Caprine is more than Ovine aborted fetuses. This study is the first prevalence report of Bovine viral diarrhea virus in aborted Bovine, Ovine, Caprine, Buffalo and Camel fetuses by evaluation of ELISA and RT-PCR in Iran.
Mucopolysaccharidosis IIID (MPS IIID) is a lysosomal storage disease associated with deficient activity of the enzyme N-acetylglucosamine 6-sulfatase (EC 18.104.22.168), a lysosomal hydrolase in the heparan sulfate glycosaminoglycan (HS-GAG) degradation\\u000a pathway. In caprine MPS IIID, enzyme replacement therapy reversed early postnatal systemic but not primary or secondary central\\u000a nervous system (CNS) substrate accumulations. The caprine MPS IIID large animal model
Margaret Z. Jones; Joseph Alroy; Erinn Downs-Kelly; Rebecca E. Lucas; Stacey A. Kraemer; Kevin T. Cavanagh; Barbara King; John J. Hopwood
Ovine and caprine milk are widely produced in semi-arid countries, and mainly utilised for milk consumption and the manufacture of a wide range of cheeses, fermented milk products (e.g. liquid, viscous, concentrated and dried) and to a lesser degree milk powder. The primary aim of this review is to provide a critical analysis of the main components of milk from
Objective. To explore the role that implanted mesenchymal stem cells may play in tissue repair or regeneration of the injured joint, by delivery of an autologous preparation of stem cells to caprine knee joints following induction of osteoarthritis (OA). Methods. Adult stem cells were isolated from caprine bone marrow, expanded in culture, and trans- duced to express green fluorescent protein.
J. Mary Murphy; David J. Fink; Ernst B. Hunziker; Frank P. Barry
BACKGROUND: Caprine herpesvirus 1 (CpHV-1) is responsible of systemic diseases in kids and genital diseases leading to abortions in goats. CpHV-1 is widespread and especially in Mediterranean countries as Greece, Italy and Spain. CpHV-1 is antigenically and genetically closely related to bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1). Taking into account the biological properties shared by these two viruses, we decided in the
Julien Thiry; Maria Tempesta; Michele Camero; Elvira Tarsitano; Benoît Muylkens; François Meurens; Etienne Thiry; Canio Buonavoglia
This paper offers an overview of important veterinary viral diseases of mammals stemming from aberrant immune response. Diseases reviewed comprise those due to lentiviruses of equine infectious anaemia, visna/maedi and caprinearthritisencephalitis and feline immunodeficiency. Diseases caused by viruses of feline infectious peritonitis, feline leukaemia, canine distemper and aquatic counterparts, Aleutian disease and malignant catarrhal fever. We also consider prospects of immunoprophylaxis for the diseases and briefly other control measures. It should be realised that the outlook for effective vaccines for many of the diseases is remote. This paper describes the current status of vaccine research and the difficulties encountered during their development. PMID:22261411
Background The United States control program for classical ovine scrapie is based in part on the finding that infection is typically spread through exposure to shed placentas from infected ewes. Transmission from goats to sheep is less well described. A suitable rodent model for examining the effect of caprine scrapie isolates in the ovine host will be useful in the ovine scrapie eradication effort. In this study, we describe the incubation time, brain lesion profile, glycoform pattern and PrPSc distribution patterns in a well characterized transgenic mouse line (Tg338) expressing the ovine VRQ prion allele, following inoculation with brain from scrapie infected goats. Results First passage incubation times of caprine tissue in Tg338 ovinized mice varied widely but second passage intervals were shorter and consistent. Vacuolation profiles, glycoform patterns and paraffin-embedded tissue blots from terminally ill second passage mice derived from sheep or goat inocula were similar. Proteinase K digestion products of murine tissue were slightly smaller than the original ruminant inocula, a finding consistent with passage of several ovine strains in previous reports. Conclusions These findings demonstrate that Tg338 mice propagate prions of caprine origin and provide a suitable baseline for examination of samples identified in the expanded US caprine scrapie surveillance program.
The unique phenomenon of cell proliferation and apoptosis is encountered in the ovarian follicles undergoing early stages of atresia. The aim of this study was to verify the morphological variations in these two physiologically distinct processes operating in antral follicles of caprine ovaries using histological and ultrastructural techniques. Histologically the degenerating granulosa cells were characterized by condensed cytoplasm, and nucleus fragmentation in hazy cytosol. The pyknotic nuclei of degenerating cells stained darkly with haematoxylin and giemsa while the cytoplasm was eosinophilic. Under electron microscopy, apoptosis was marked by asymmetrical shrinkage, vacuolization of cytoplasm, swollen and vacuolated mitochondria, increased irregularity and/or fragmentation of nucleus, chromatin condensation and finally, production of membrane enclosed nuclear fragments containing intracellular material, the apoptotic bodies. The parallel use of these two methods on caprine ovaries has enabled us to analyse the decline in the frequency of granulosa cells during follicular atresia due to apoptosis. PMID:19941563
A study was carried out to estimate the prevalence, larval burden and risk factors of ovine and caprine oestrosis from December\\u000a 2007 to May 2008 on 554 heads of randomly selected sheep and goat slaughtered at Ambo town, Western Shoa, Ethiopia. The results\\u000a show an overall prevalence of 59.9% with infection rate of 69.8% and 47.3% in sheep and goats
Adult stem cells must balance self-renewal and differentiation for tissue homeostasis. The Drosophila ovary has provided a wealth of information about the extrinsic niche signals and intrinsic molecular processes required to ensure appropriate germline stem cell renewal and differentiation. The factors controlling behavior of the more recently identified follicle stem cells of the ovary are less well-understood but equally important for fertility. Here we report that translational regulators play a critical role in controlling these cells. Specifically, the translational regulator Caprin (Capr) is required in the follicle stem cell lineage to ensure maintenance of this stem cell population and proper encapsulation of developing germ cells by follicle stem cell progeny. In addition, reduction of one copy of the gene fmr1, encoding the translational regulator Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein, exacerbates the Capr encapsulation phenotype, suggesting Capr and fmr1 are regulating a common process. Caprin was previously characterized in vertebrates as Cytoplasmic Activation/Proliferation-Associated Protein. Significantly, we find that loss of Caprin alters the dynamics of the cell cycle, and we present evidence that misregulation of CycB contributes to the disruption in behavior of follicle stem cell progeny. Our findings support the idea that translational regulators may provide a conserved mechanism for oversight of developmentally critical cell cycles such as those in stem cell populations.
Adult stem cells must balance self-renewal and differentiation for tissue homeostasis. The Drosophila ovary has provided a wealth of information about the extrinsic niche signals and intrinsic molecular processes required to ensure appropriate germline stem cell renewal and differentiation. The factors controlling behavior of the more recently identified follicle stem cells of the ovary are less well-understood but equally important for fertility. Here we report that translational regulators play a critical role in controlling these cells. Specifically, the translational regulator Caprin (Capr) is required in the follicle stem cell lineage to ensure maintenance of this stem cell population and proper encapsulation of developing germ cells by follicle stem cell progeny. In addition, reduction of one copy of the gene fmr1, encoding the translational regulator Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein, exacerbates the Capr encapsulation phenotype, suggesting Capr and fmr1 are regulating a common process. Caprin was previously characterized in vertebrates as Cytoplasmic Activation/Proliferation-Associated Protein. Significantly, we find that loss of Caprin alters the dynamics of the cell cycle, and we present evidence that misregulation of CycB contributes to the disruption in behavior of follicle stem cell progeny. Our findings support the idea that translational regulators may provide a conserved mechanism for oversight of developmentally critical cell cycles such as those in stem cell populations. PMID:22493746
We have used spoligotyping to characterize 18 Mycobacterium bovis strains isolated from cattle and 23 M. bovis strains isolated from goats. The spoligotypes revealed that caprine strains form a separate and well- differentiated group that we refer to hereafter in this abstract as the caprine genotype. To evaluate the importance of this genotype as a cause of tuberculosis in other
MONTSERRAT GUTIERREZ; SOFIA SAMPER; MARIA SOLEDAD JIMENEZ; JAN D. A. VAN EMBDEN; JUAN FRANCISCO GARCIA MARIN; CARLOS MARTIN
Primary proteolysis of ovine and caprine Na-caseinate at 30°C in phosphate buffer at pH 6.5 or 5.5 in the absence of NaCl and at pH 5.2 with 5% (w\\/v) NaCl by cardosins in aqueous extracts of Cynara cardunculus flowers was investigated using urea-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography. Caprine caseinate underwent more extensive degradation than ovine caseinate
The rheological properties of aging full fat (FF) and low fat (LF) caprine milk cheeses were characterized to determine the changes in the cheese matrix during storage. Six batches of high moisture, Cheddar-like cheese were manufactured from whole or skim caprine milk and were aged at 4 deg C for u...
We have used spoligotyping to characterize 18 Mycobacterium bovis strains isolated from cattle and 23 M. bovis strains isolated from goats. The spoligotypes revealed that caprine strains form a separate and well-differentiated group that we refer to hereafter in this abstract as the caprine genotype. To evaluate the importance of this genotype as a cause of tuberculosis in other animal species, including humans, we applied the spoligotyping method to 112 strains, including to all isolates identified as M. bovis by a Mycobacterial National Reference Laboratory (Majadahonda, Madrid) from 1994 to 1996. Eighty-three of these strains were identified in human isolates. In addition to being identified in three goat isolates and two sheep isolates, the caprine genotype was also found in three isolates causing human tuberculosis. Evidence to support the argument that there is a zoonotic risk of caprine tuberculosis was presented by the identification of the caprine genotype in an isolate from a veterinary worker with a recent history of contact with tuberculous goats.
Gutierrez, M; Samper, S; Jimenez, M S; van Embden, J D; Marin, J F; Martin, C
The use of nucleus transfer techniques to generate transgenic dairy goats capable of producing recombinant therapeutic proteins in milk could have a major impact on the pharmaceutical industry. However, transfection or gene targeting of nucleus transfer donor cells requires a long in vitro culture period and the selection of marker genes. In the current study, we evaluated the potential for using caprine mammary gland epithelial cells (CMGECs), isolated from udders of lactating F1 hybrid goats (Capra hircus) and cryopreserved at Passages 24 to 26, for nucleus transfer into enucleated in vivo-matured oocytes. Pronuclear-stage reconstructed embryos were transferred into the oviducts of 31 recipient goats. Twenty-three (74%), 21 (72%), and 14 (48%) recipients were confirmed pregnant by ultrasonography on Days 30, 60, and 90, respectively. Four recipients aborted between 35 and 137 d of gestation. Five recipients carried the pregnancies to term and delivered one goat kid each, one of which subsequently died due to respiratory difficulties. The remaining four goat kids were healthy and well. Single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis confirmed that all kids were clones of the donor cells. In conclusion, the CMGECs remained totipotent for nucleus transfer. PMID:19497616
Contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP), caused by Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae, is a serious OIE-listed disease affecting goats in the Middle East, north and east Africa and Asia. Mortality and morbidity rates can be as high as 60% and 90%, respectively, when the disease first enters a territory, invariably through carrier animals. Recent detections of CCPP in Pakistan and Tajikistan are probably the result of improved diagnosis as the disease has been suspected there for many years, while those in Thrace in 2003 and Mauritius in 2009 represent new outbreaks. CCPP was thought to be highly host specific until recent outbreaks in wildlife species including gazelles and gerenuks show that the causative mycoplasma has broader specificity. Diagnosis was hampered by the fastidiousness of the causative mycoplasma but molecular-based tests like PCR have greatly improved detection. Rapid latex agglutination tests that can be performed at the penside are also available for antibody detection. Clinically affected animals respond to a range of antibiotics although it is unlikely that this results in complete elimination of the mycoplasma. Vaccines consisting of saponized organisms have been shown to be protective but the quality and efficacy may be variable. PMID:21951488
A total of 150 bovine (60), ovine (42), and caprine (48) bulk milk samples were analyzed using a commercially available competitive ELISA kit. Overall, AFM1 was found in 46.7 % of the analyzed samples by an average concentration of 40.3 ± 22.2 ng/L. The incidence rates of AFM1 contamination in bovine, ovine, and caprine bulk milk samples were 66.7, 31.0, and 35.4 %, respectively. The concentration of AFM1 in 37.5 % of AFM1-positive bovine milk samples and 5.9 % of AFM1-positive caprine milk samples were higher than 50 ng/L. PMID:22526986
The objective of this work was to study the decrease of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity during heat treatment of ovine and caprine milk in comparison to that of bovine milk. For this purpose, different samples from the three milk kinds were subjected to heat treatment at 59°C under different time conditions and the residual ALP activity was determined using the
A.-N. Vamvakaki; E. Zoidou; G. Moatsou; M. Bokari; E. Anifantakis
The shedding of Coxiella burnetii in bovine, caprine, and ovine milk was measured using PCR, in 3 herds for each species, the bulk tank milk samples of which were positive at the time of their selection. Milk sam- ples of 95 cows, 120 goats, and 90 ewes were sampled over 16 wk, as was the bulk tank milk. The shedding
A. Rodolakis; M. Berri; C. Héchard; C. Caudron; A. Souriau; C. C. Bodier; B. Blanchard; P. Camuset; P. Devillechaise; J. C. Natorp
Ovine and caprine lentiviruses share the capacity to induce slowly progressive and inflammatory diseases of the central nervous system (leukoencephalitis or visna), lungs (progressive pneumonia or maedi), and joints (arthritis) in their natural hosts. Studies on their replication indicated that ovine lentiviruses and caprinearthritis-encephalitisvirus (CAEV) recently isolated in the United States establish persistent infection in ovine and caprine fibroblasts, whereas older prototype ovine lentiviruses such as Icelandic visna virus or American progressive pneumonia virus irreversibly lyse fibroblast cultures. Since all of the recent isolates were found to be persistent, Narayan et al. (J. Gen. Virol. 59:345-356, 1982) concluded that the highly lytic viruses were only tissue-culture-adapted strains. In the present report, we isolated new ovine lentiviruses from French sheep with naturally occurring progressive pneumonia which are either highly lytic (five isolates), as are the Icelandic strains of visna virus, or persistent (one isolate), as are CAEV or American persistent ovine lentiviruses. Protein and nucleic acid content analyses of these new highly lytic (type I) and persistent (type II) isolates indicated that type I and type II ovine lentiviruses were genetically distinct, type I and type II viruses being closely related to the Icelandic strains of visna virus and to CAEV, respectively. We conclude that (i) highly lytic ovine lentiviruses, such as the Icelandic prototype strains of visna virus and persistent lentiviruses more related to CAEV, are naturally present in the ovine species, and (ii) irreversible cell lysis induced by highly lytic viruses does not result from a tissue culture adaptation of field isolates that were originally persistent but is instead the consequence of a genetic content distinct from that of persistent viruses. Images
Proteomic analysis of bovine, caprine, buffalo, equine and camel milk highlighted significant interspecies differences. Camel milk was found to be devoid of ?-lactoglobulin, whereas ?-lactoglobulin was the major whey protein in bovine, buffalo, caprine, and equine milk. Five different isoforms of ?-casein were found in camel milk, analogous to the micro-heterogeneity observed for bovine ?-casein. Several spots observed in 2D-electrophoretograms of milk of all species could tentatively be identified as polypeptides arising from the enzymatic hydrolysis of caseins. The understanding gained from the proteomic comparison of these milks may be of relevance both in terms of identifying sources of hypoallergenic alternatives to bovine milk and detection of adulteration of milk samples and products. PMID:22365180
Hinz, Katharina; O'Connor, Paula M; Huppertz, Thom; Ross, R Paul; Kelly, Alan L
Purpose To investigate the feasibility of bypassing occluded segments of retinal venous main vessels in isolated, arterially perfused caprine eyes via the closed-sky vitrectomy approach using keratoprosthesis. Methods Isolated caprine eyes were used in this study. For each eye, the retinal vessel was perfused by Krebs solution via ophthalmic artery, and pars plana vitrectomy was performed using temporary keratoprosthesis. All retinal micro-vascular maneuvers were performed in a closed-sky eyeball. The main retinal vein was blocked by endodiathermy at the site of the vessel's first branching. Two openings, several millimeters apart, were created by vascular punctures in both the main vein and its branch vein wall straddling the induced occluded segment. Catheterization was achieved using a flexible polyimide tube, with each end inserted into the vessel wall opening. A sealed connection between the vessel and the tube was obtained by endodiathermy. Bypass of the occluded retinal vein segment was thus achieved, and the patency of this vascular bypass was confirmed by intravascular staining. Results Puncturing, catheterization, and endodiathermy were viable by closed-sky approach using keratoprosthesis. Bypassing of the occluded retinal main vein segment was accomplished with the combination of these maneuvers. Good results were obtained in 23 of 38 (60%) caprine eyes. Conclusions This study demonstrated that bypassing the occluded segment of retinal main vein can be successfully performed in a closed-sky eyeball model of isolated, arterially perfused caprine eye. This early work indicated that the more advanced retinal vascular bypass surgery in in vivo eye may be feasible in the future.
The potential angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)- inhibitory and antioxidant activities of peptides in wa- ter-soluble extracts, obtained from raw and sterilized ovine and caprine cheeselike systems coagulated with enzymes from the plant Cynara cardunculus, were as- sessed. Prior to the assay, the 3,000-Da permeate from 45-d-old cheeselike systems was fractionated by tan- dem chromatographic techniques. Several peaks were obtained in each
The structure of triacylglycerols in vegetable oil blendswasenzymaticallymodified,andtheblendswere incorporated into skim caprine milk to produce goat milk-based infant formula analogs, homologous to hu- man milk. A modified lipid containing palmitic, oleic, andlinoleicacids,resemblingthecompositionofhuman milk fat, was synthesized by enzymatic interesterifica- tion reactions between tripalmitin and a vegetable oil blendcontaininga2.5:1.1:0.8ratioofcoconut,safflower, and soybean oils. A commercial sn-1,3-specific lipase obtained from Rhyzomucor miehei, Lipozyme
Summary Caprine uterine epithelial (UE) cells were cultured on Matrigel-coated filters. Transmission electron microscopy revealed\\u000a polarized UE cells characterized by basally located nuclei, apical microvilli, convoluted lateral membranes, and junctional\\u000a complexes. Domain-specific secretion of prostaglandins and radiolabeled proteins provide further evidence of functional epithelial\\u000a cell polarity. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate factors controlling prostaglandin E2 (PGE) and prostaglandin F2? (PGF)
G. R. Newton; D. W. Weise; J. A. Bowen; S. Woldesenbet; R. C. Burghardt
Summary. ?We isolated a rotavirus in cell culture, named the GRV strain, from a stool specimen of a Korean goat with diarrhea, and\\u000a performed an in-depth characterization. At various passage levels in cell culture, the GRV strain retained its pathogenicity\\u000a for goat kids, thereby for the first time establishing that a caprine rotavirus can cause diarrhea in goat kids. The GRV
J.-B. Lee; S.-J. Youn; T. Nakagomi; S.-Y. Park; T.-J. Kim; C.-S. Song; H.-K. Jang; B.-S. Kim; O. Nakagomi
Casein variants occurring in milks from goats homozygous at the as1-Cn locus were separated and identified by an RP-HPLC\\/ESI-MS method. Preferential haplotypes arose as well as some particularities in posttranslational modifications. A new variant of caprine ß-Cn, named C, as well as the phosphorylations pattern of the protein were characterized by the combined use of peptide mass fingerprinting and sequencing
Carole Neveu; Daniel Mollé; Javier Moreno; Patrice Martin; Joëlle Léonil
The thermal inactivation of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in raw bovine and caprine milk was investigated in the temperature range 54 to 69°C. To assess the stabilizing effect of milk compounds on ALP, inactivation experiments were also carried out in 0.1m potassium phosphate buffer, pH 6.6. Each set of inactivation experiments was fitted simultaneously using kinetic models that were based on
Alina Wili?ska; Jolanta Bryjak; Viera Illeová; Milan Polakovi?
Six members of the malignant ca- tarrhal fever (MCF) virus group of ruminant rhadinoviruses have been identified to date. Four of these viruses are clearly associated with clinical disease: alcelaphine herpesvirus 1 (AlHV-1) carried by wildebeest (Connochaetes spp.); ovine herpesvirus 2 (OvHV-2), ubiqui- tous in domestic sheep; caprine herpesvirus 2 (CpHV-2), endemic in domestic goats; and the virus of unknown
Hong Li; Katherine Gailbreath; Louis C. Bender; Keith West; Janice Keller; Timothy B. Crawford
A presumptive histopathologic diagnosis of malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) was made in three cases of disease in Sika deer and white-tailed deer with various degrees of hair loss and skin lesions. Antibody against an epitope conserved among the MCF group viruses was detected in the serum of all dise...
The present work was carried out to study the ability of avian "Extract Egg" (EE) for reprogramming caprine fetal cells. The isolated caprine fetal cells were cultured in stem cell media supplemented with different percentages of either EE or FBS. The results indicated that the supplementation of 2-4% EE formed lesser but larger size stem cell like cell colonies as compared to 6% or 10% EE. The expression of pluripotent genes were comparatively higher in colonies developed in 2% or 4% as compared to 6% or 10% EE. Further, immunocytochemistry revealed that the colonies developed in all percentage of EE expressed pluripotent markers like Oct4, Nanog, TRA-1-60 and TRA-1-81. Our findings indicated that avian EE has the potentiality to reprogram caprine fetal cells into embryonic state which may help in generation of pluripotent stem cells without using viral vector. PMID:23830780
Apo and holo forms of lactoferrin (LF) from caprine and bovine species have been characterized and compared with regard to\\u000a the structural stability determined by thermal denaturation temperature values (T\\u000a m), at pH 2.08.0. The bovine lactoferrin (bLF) showed highest thermal stability with a T\\u000a m of 90 ± 1°C at pH 7.0 whereas caprine lactoferrin (cLF) showed a lower T\\u000a m
We isolated a rotavirus in cell culture, named the GRV strain, from a stool specimen of a Korean goat with diarrhea, and performed an in-depth characterization. At various passage levels in cell culture, the GRV strain retained its pathogenicity for goat kids, thereby for the first time establishing that a caprine rotavirus can cause diarrhea in goat kids. The GRV strain grew to a high titer and agglutinated group O human erythrocytes. The GRV VP7 protein was 96% identical with the RRV (simian rotavirus) and R2 (lapine rotavirus) VP7 proteins, and slightly less similar to the SA11 (simian rotavirus) and HCR3 (feline/canine-like human rotavirus) VP7 proteins. The GRV VP4 protein was 93% identical with the RRV VP4 (P) and 90% identical with the SA11 VP4 (P). However, phylogenetic analysis including more VP4 sequences from representative P strains unambiguously placed the GRV VP4 in the cluster of P VP4s. A high level of two-way cross neutralization with RRV substantiated that GRV was a G3P5 strain, thus identifying GRV as the first caprine rotavirus with such a phenotype. The GRV NSP4 sequence belonged to the AU-1 allele, as does the RRV NSP4 sequence. Genetic analysis by RNA-RNA hybridization revealed that the overall genomic RNA constellation of the GRV strain was unique among mammalian rotavirus genogroups and that it was almost equally related to, yet distant from, simian rotavirus RRV, feline/canine rotavirus FRV64 (or CU-1), feline/human rotavirus FRV-1 (or AU-1), and lapine rotavirus R2. The availability of the GRV strain will further expand our limited knowledge of caprine rotaviruses. PMID:12664291
Lee, J-B; Youn, S-J; Nakagomi, T; Park, S-Y; Kim, T-J; Song, C-S; Jang, H-K; Kim, B-S; Nakagomi, O
To clarify the occurrence of the caprine herpesvirus (BHV-6) infection in the goat population in the GDR, 175 sera, collected from the agricultural research station of Karl-Marx-Universität at Probstheida were tested for the presence of neutralizing antibodies against BHV-6. BHV-6 antibodies were present in 12% of the sera examined. The titer was low. Cross-neutralization of BHV-6 could not be determined with any other bovine herpesvirus. The goat sera tested were free of neutralizing antibodies against BHV-1 and BHV-3. The indirect immunofluorescence antibody test revealed cross-reactivity only between BHV-6 and BHV-1. PMID:2167050
Bovine and caprine milks have a similar overall gross composition, but vary considerably in the ratios of their casein components. These differences cause significant changes in the caseins ability to bind and stabilize calcium (Ca). It might be expected that these in vitro variations, which are th...
Despite the importance of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) in maintaining the ruminant physiology, the mechanism of SCFA absorption is still not fully studied. The goal of this study was to elucidate the possible involvement of monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1) in the mechanism of SCFA transport in the caprine rumen, and to delineate the precise cellular localization and the level of MCT1 protein along the entire caprine gastrointestinal tract. RT-PCR revealed the presence of mRNA encoding for MCT1 in all regions of the caprine gastrointestinal tract. Quantitative Western blot analysis showed that the level of MCT1 protein was in the order of rumen ? reticulum > omasum > caecum > proximal colon > distal colon > abomasum > small intestine. Immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence confocal analyses revealed widespread immunoreactive positivities for MCT1 in the caprine stomach and large intestine. Amongst the stratified squamous epithelial cells of the forestomach, MCT1 was predominantly expressed on the cell boundaries of the stratum basale and stratum spinosum. Double-immunofluorescence confocal laser-scanning microscopy confirmed the co-localization of MCT1 with its ancillary protein, CD147 in the caprine gastrointestinal tract. In vivo and in vitro functional studies, under the influence of the MCT1 inhibitors, p-chloromercuribenzoate (pCMB) and p-chloromercuribenzoic acid (pCMBA), demonstrated significant inhibitory effect on acetate and propionate transport in the rumen. This study provides evidence, for the first time in ruminants, that MCT1 has a direct role in the transepithelial transport and efflux of the SCFA across the stratum spinosum and stratum basale of the forestomach toward the blood side.
The purpose of this study was to introduce the principles of initial hospital assessment and treatment of injured patients, tailored to the facilities and resources available in Nigeria. A 3-day didactic and laboratory course was presented by four trauma surgeons. The didactic session stressed the initial assessment and treatment of injured patients. The caprine laboratory taught the performance of common resuscitation manoeuvres: cricothyroidotomy, tube thoracostomy, i.v. cut-down, diagnostic peritoneal lavage, etc. The mean pre-course test score was 49.3 per cent and the mean post-course test score was 69.5 per cent; 93.5 per cent of the 124 participants increased their test scores. This represents a significant increase in knowledge in Nigerian physicians. Academic medical centres are encouraged to make such courses available in developing countries. PMID:8763286
Tortella, B J; Swan, K G; Donahoo, J S; Tischler, C; Marangu, J A; Orjiako, A B; Sharples, C; Swan, B C; Hill, D W
Isolated caprine early-staged follicles were submitted to osmotic tolerance tests in the presence of sucrose, ethylene glycol (EG), or NaCl solutions and were exposed to and cryopreserved (by slow or rapid cooling) in MEM alone or MEM supplemented with sucrose, EG (1.0 or 4.0 M), or both. When follicles were exposed to 1.5 M NaCl, only 2% of the follicles were viable, whereas 87% of the follicles were viable after exposure to 4.0 M EG. Regarding exposure time, the highest percentage of viable follicles was obtained when follicles were exposed for 10 min to 1.0 M EG?+?0.5 M sucrose; exposure for 60 s to 4.0 M EG?+?0.5 M sucrose also maintained high percentage viability in follicles. Slow cooling in the presence of 1.0 M EG?+?0.5 M sucrose (75%) or rapid cooling in the presence of 4.0 M EG?+?0.5 M sucrose (71%) resulted in a significantly higher proportion of viable follicles than all other treatments (P?0.05). A 24-h culture of frozen-thawed follicles was used to assess survival; only slow-frozen follicles showed viability rates similar to control follicles (64% vs. 69% respectively; P?>?0.05). Interestingly, the percentage of viable rapid-cooled follicles (59%) was similar to that obtained after in vitro culture of conventional slow-cooled follicles but was significantly lower than that in controls. Thus, in addition to determining improved procedures for the exposure of follicles to EG and sucrose before and after freezing of caprine early-staged follicles, we report the development of rapid- and slow-cooling protocols. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00441-008-0613-9) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Santos, Regiane R.; van Haeften, Theo; Roelen, Bernard A. J.; Knijn, Hiemke M.; Colenbrander, Ben; van den Hurk, Rob
Helicobacter pylori infection in humans is one of the most common infections worldwide. However, the origin and transmission of this bacterium has not been clearly explained. One of the suggested theories is transmission via raw milk from animals to human beings. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence rate of H. pylori in bulk milk samples from dairy bovine, buffalo, camel, ovine, and caprine herds in Iran. In the present study, 447 bulk milk samples from 230 dairy bovine, buffalo, camel, ovine, and caprine herds were collected in four provinces and tested for H. pylori by cultural method and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the detection of the ureC (glmM) gene. The animals whose milk samples collected for this study were clinically healthy. Using the cultural method, three of 447 milk samples (0.67%), including two sheep (2.2%) and one buffalo (1.6%) milk samples, were found to be contaminated with H. pylori. H. pylori ureC gene was detected in 56 (12.5%) of milk samples, including 19 cow (14.1%), 11 sheep (12.2%), nine goat (8.7%), two camel (3.6%), and 15 buffalo (23.4%) milk samples. Using PCR method, there were significant differences (p<0.05) in the level of contamination with H. pylori between milk samples collected from different species. The present study is the first report of the isolation of H. pylori from raw sheep and buffalo milk in Iran and the first demonstration of H. pylori DNA in camel and buffalo milk. PMID:22458716
To compare the level of parasitism with gastrointestinal nematodes in sheep and goats, several studies have been conducted. They have generally shown that goats were more infected than sheep, as they exhibited higher worm burdens and egg excretion. This difference between two host species has been attributed not only to a difference in feeding behavior, but also to a lesser ability of goats to develop resistance to trichostrongylate infection (In kids and lambs the greatest damage is observed from weaning until 1 yr of age; mature mothers, before and after parturition and during suckling, are affected). In the last few decades, the most common tool (and frequently the only one) used for controlling internal parasites in livestock was the anthelmintic drugs. The application of anthelmintic treatments; must be accompanied by epidemic data and determinations supporting the appropriate timing and frequency of animal treatment. This view has not always been respected. In our country, because of a decrease in price, the anthelmintic drugs were used indiscriminately, causing the resistance we see today. This serious problem, added to the objective of producing organic foods without drug residuals, calls for better use of the antiparasitic drugs and for the developmentment of alternative methods that are ecologically viable and without risks for human health.Little information is available on the interactions between bacteria and intestinal nematodes of caprine origin. Some reports note ovicidal activity of different strains of Bacillus thuringiensis on the eggs of zooparasitic nematodes. Recent work found inhibitory actions of lactic bacteria on gastrointestinal nematodes (both of caprine origin). In the present chapter we describe the methods used for the determination of interactions between lactic acid bacteria and nematodes. PMID:15156032
Draksler, Diana; Monferran, María Cecilia; González, Silvia
Caprine uterine epithelial (UE) cells were cultured on Matrigel-coated filters. Transmission electron microscopy revealed polarized UE cells characterized by basally located nuclei, apical microvilli, convoluted lateral membranes, and junctional complexes. Domain-specific secretion of prostaglandins and radiolabeled proteins provide further evidence of functional epithelial cell polarity. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate factors controlling prostaglandin E2 (PGE) and prostaglandin F2alpha (PGF) secretion. In experiment one, steroid-treated (estradiol, progesterone, or estradiol + progesterone) polarized UE cells were treated with interferon tau (IFNtau) and/or oxytocin (OT). Steroid treatment did not influence PGE or PGF secretion. However, analysis of variance revealed an IFNtau by OT interaction (P < .01) for both PGE and PGF This interaction was caused by a reduction in PGE and PGF secretion by cultures receiving only IFNtau and the inability of IFNtau to block OT-induced release of PGE or PGF. In experiment 2, polarized UE cells were cultured in progesterone, with or without IFNtau, and sequentially challenged with estradiol and OT. Oxytocin stimulated the release of both PGE and PGF by polarized cUE cells (P < .01) and resulted in an increased accumulation of PGE (OT*domain; P < .01) in the basal compartment. Interferon tau did not influence PGE (P < .1) secretion. However, further analysis revealed that IFNtau reduced PGF secretion and was unable to block OT-induced PGF secretion (IFNtau*OT; P < .05) by polarized UE cells. Therefore, caprine UE cells form polarized monolayers and retain responsiveness to IFNtau and OT in vitro. PMID:9719418
Newton, G R; Weise, D W; Bowen, J A; Woldesenbet, S; Burghardt, R C
Several studies have been reported on the occurrence of sperm motility inhibiting factors in the male reproductive fluids of different mammalian species, but these proteins have not been adequately purified and characterized. A novel sperm motility inhibiting factor (MIF-II) has been purified from caprine epididymal plasma (EP) by Hydroxylapatite gel adsorption chromatography, DEAE-Cellulose ion-exchange chromatography and chromatofocusing. The MIF-II has been purified to apparent homogeneity and the molecular weight estimated by Sephacryl S-300 gel filtration is 160 kDa. MIF-II is a dimeric protein, made up of two subunits each having a molecular mass of 80 kDa as shown by SDS-PAGE. The isoelectric point of MIF-II is 5.1 as determined by chromatofocusing and isoelectric focusing. It is a heat labile protein and maximal active at the pH 6.9 to 7.5. The sperm motility inhibiting protein factor at 2 µg/ml (12.5 nM) level showed maximal motility-inhibiting activity. The observation that the epididymal plasma factor lowered the intracellular cAMP level of spermatozoa in a concentration-dependent manner suggests that it may block the motility of caprine cauda spermatozoa by interfering the cAMP dependent motility function. The results revealed that the purified protein factor has the potential of sperm motility inhibition and may serve as a vaginal contraceptive. The antibody raised against the MIF-II has the potential for enhancement of forward motility of cauda-spermatozoa. This antibody may thus be useful for solving some of the problems of male infertility due to low sperm motility.
Routine activation of nuclear transfer (NT) eggs involves the application of a single intracellular calcium [Ca2+]i rise, stimulated by an electrical pulse, as opposed to [Ca2+]i oscillations, which is the natural mode of sperm-induced activation at fertilization in all mammalian species tested to date. It has yet to be shown that caprine oocytes exhibit an increase in calcium at fertilization
Teru Jellerette; David Melican; Robin Butler; Scott Nims; Carol Ziomek; Rafael Fissore; William Gavin
The efficacy of peritoneal fluid from rabbit and goat for in vitro maturation, fertilization and initial culture of embryos from caprine oocytes was evaluated. Peritoneal fluid was collected from adult female goats (n=9) or rabbits (n=9). Good quality oocytes were subjected to in vitro maturation and fertilization in three different media viz. Tissue Culture Medium (TCM-199), goat Peritoneal Fluid (gPF)
Rakesh Kumar Malik; Inder Singh Lohan; Om Prakash Dhanda; Om Kanwar Hooda; Sajjan Singh
Low-back pain (LBP) is a common medical complaint and associated with high societal costs. Degeneration of the intervertebral disc (IVD) is assumed to be an important causal factor of LBP. IVDs are continuously mechanically loaded and both positive and negative effects have been attributed to different loading conditions. In order to study mechanical loading effects, degeneration-associated processes and/or potential regenerative therapies in IVDs, it is imperative to maintain the IVDs' structural integrity. While in vivo models provide comprehensive insight in IVD biology, an accompanying organ culture model can focus on a single factor, such as loading and may serve as a prescreening model to reduce life animal testing. In the current study we examined the feasibility of organ culture of caprine lumbar discs, with the hypothesis that a simulated-physiological load will optimally preserve IVD properties. Lumbar caprine IVDs (n?=?175) were cultured in a bioreactor up to 21 days either without load, low dynamic load (LDL), or with simulated-physiological load (SPL). IVD stiffness was calculated from measurements of IVD loading and displacement. IVD nucleus, inner- and outer annulus were assessed for cell viability, cell density and gene expression. The extracellular matrix (ECM) was analyzed for water, glycosaminoglycan and total collagen content. IVD biomechanical properties did not change significantly with loading conditions. With SPL, cell viability, cell density and gene expression were preserved up to 21 days. Both unloaded and LDL resulted in decreased cell viability, cell density and significant changes in gene expression, yet no differences in ECM content were observed in any group. In conclusion, simulated-physiological loading preserved the native properties of caprine IVDs during a 21-day culture period. The characterization of caprine IVD response to culture in the LDCS under SPL conditions paves the way for controlled analysis of degeneration- and regeneration-associated processes in the future.
Paul, Cornelis P. L.; Zuiderbaan, Hendrik A.; Zandieh Doulabi, Behrouz; van der Veen, Albert J.; van de Ven, Peter M.; Smit, Theo H.; Helder, Marco N.; van Royen, Barend J.; Mullender, Margriet G.
Low-back pain (LBP) is a common medical complaint and associated with high societal costs. Degeneration of the intervertebral disc (IVD) is assumed to be an important causal factor of LBP. IVDs are continuously mechanically loaded and both positive and negative effects have been attributed to different loading conditions.In order to study mechanical loading effects, degeneration-associated processes and/or potential regenerative therapies in IVDs, it is imperative to maintain the IVDs' structural integrity. While in vivo models provide comprehensive insight in IVD biology, an accompanying organ culture model can focus on a single factor, such as loading and may serve as a prescreening model to reduce life animal testing. In the current study we examined the feasibility of organ culture of caprine lumbar discs, with the hypothesis that a simulated-physiological load will optimally preserve IVD properties.Lumbar caprine IVDs (n = 175) were cultured in a bioreactor up to 21 days either without load, low dynamic load (LDL), or with simulated-physiological load (SPL). IVD stiffness was calculated from measurements of IVD loading and displacement. IVD nucleus, inner- and outer annulus were assessed for cell viability, cell density and gene expression. The extracellular matrix (ECM) was analyzed for water, glycosaminoglycan and total collagen content.IVD biomechanical properties did not change significantly with loading conditions. With SPL, cell viability, cell density and gene expression were preserved up to 21 days. Both unloaded and LDL resulted in decreased cell viability, cell density and significant changes in gene expression, yet no differences in ECM content were observed in any group.In conclusion, simulated-physiological loading preserved the native properties of caprine IVDs during a 21-day culture period. The characterization of caprine IVD response to culture in the LDCS under SPL conditions paves the way for controlled analysis of degeneration- and regeneration-associated processes in the future. PMID:22427972
Paul, Cornelis P L; Zuiderbaan, Hendrik A; Zandieh Doulabi, Behrouz; van der Veen, Albert J; van de Ven, Peter M; Smit, Theo H; Helder, Marco N; van Royen, Barend J; Mullender, Margriet G
The origins of herding practices in southern Africa remain controversial. The first appearance of domesticated caprines in the subcontinent is thought to be c. 2000 years BP; however, the origin of this cultural development is still widely debated. Recent genetic analyses support the long-standing hypothesis of herder migration from the north, while other researchers have argued for a cultural diffusion hypothesis where the spread of herding practices took place without necessarily implicating simultaneous and large population movements. Here we document the Later Stone Age (LSA) site of Leopard Cave (Erongo, Namibia), which contains confirmed caprine remains, from which we infer that domesticates were present in the southern African region as early as the end of the first millennium BC. These remains predate the first evidence of domesticates previously recorded for the subcontinent. This discovery sheds new light on the emergence of herding practices in southern Africa, and also on the possible southward routes used by caprines along the western Atlantic coast. PMID:22808138
The rates and extents of hydrolysis of alpha(S)- and beta-caseins from bovine, caprine, and ovine sodium caseinates produced by an enzymatic extract of the fruit of Opuntia ficus-indica, (L.) Miller were evaluated and compared with those produced by a commercial animal rennet. A mechanistic model based on a pseudo-first-order enzymatic reaction, in the presence of first-order deactivation of the enzyme, was postulated and successfully fitted to the experimental data. The animal rennet exhibited higher enzymatic efficiency than the fruit extract, irrespective of the source (i.e., bovine, caprine, or ovine) and the type (i.e., alpha(S)- or beta-casein) of substrate. The enzymatic efficiency (k(cat)/K(m)) for alpha(S)-casein ranged from 72 to 220 and from 43 to 65 L g(-1) h(-1), and for beta-casein from 242 to 742 and from 55 to 164 L g(-1) h(-1), for the animal rennet and the enzymatic extract of O. ficus-indica, respectively. Finally, it was observed that beta-casein from caprine and ovine caseinates was degraded by O. ficus-indica faster than its alpha(S) counterpart, but the reverse was observed for bovine caseinate. PMID:11485424
Pintado, A I; Macedo, A C; Teixeira, G; Pais, M S; Clemente, A; Malcata, F X
Background Despite the important role of goats for meat and milk production in Ethiopia, little information is available on the epidemiology of caprine tuberculosis (TB). Caprine TB is important as milk is usually consumed raw particularly by Ethiopian pastoralists. The objectives of the present study were to estimate the prevalence of TB in goats at an abattoir, to evaluate associated risk factors and to characterize the causative mycobacteria. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted on 1990 randomly selected male goats that were slaughtered at Luna Export Abattoir of central Ethiopia. Postmortem examination, mycobacterial culturing and molecular typing techniques like genus typing, deletion typing and spoligotyping were used. Result The overall prevalence of caprine TB-like lesions was 3.5%. The lesion prevalence increased significantly with increasing age. Mycobacteria were found by culture and seen as acid fast bacilli in 12% of the goats with TB-like lesions. Characterization of the eight isolates using multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) indicated that five of them belonged to the genus Mycobacterium. Four of the latter were confirmed to be members of the M. tuberculosis complex. Further characterization of the three M. tuberculosis isolates by spoligotyping identified them as type SIT53 and two new spoligotypes. Conclusion The isolation of M. tuberculosis from goats in this study indicates a potential risk of transmission of M. tuberculosis between humans and goats.
Fragile X syndrome is caused by the absence of the Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein (FMRP), an RNA-binding protein. FMRP is associated with messenger RiboNucleoParticles (mRNPs) present in polyribosomes and its absence in neurons leads to alteration in synaptic plasticity as a result of translation regulation defects. The molecular mechanisms by which FMRP plays a role in translation regulation remain elusive. Using immunoprecipitation approaches with monoclonal Ab7G1-1 and a new generation of chicken antibodies, we identified Caprin1 as a novel FMRP-cellular partner. In vivo and in vitro evidence show that Caprin1 interacts with FMRP at the level of the translation machinery as well as in trafficking neuronal granules. As an RNA-binding protein, Caprin1 has in common with FMRP at least two RNA targets that have been identified as CaMKII? and Map1b mRNAs. In view of the new concept that FMRP species bind to RNA regardless of known structural motifs, we propose that protein interactors might modulate FMRP functions.
El Fatimy, Rachid; Tremblay, Sandra; Dury, Alain Y.; Solomon, Samuel; De Koninck, Paul; Schrader, John W.; Khandjian, Edouard W.
Small ruminant lentiviruses include members that infect sheep (ovine lentivirus [OvLV]; also known as ovine progressive pneumonia virus/maedi-visna virus) and goats (caprinearthritisencephalitisvirus [CAEV]). Breed differences in seroprevalence and proviral concentration of OvLV had suggested a strong genetic component in susceptibility to infection by OvLV in sheep. A genetic marker test for susceptibility to OvLV has been developed recently based on the TMEM154 gene with validation data from over 2,800 sheep representing nine cohorts. While no single genotype has been shown to have complete resistance to OvLV, consistent association in thousands of sheep from multiple breeds and management conditions highlight a new strategy for intervention by selective breeding. This genetic marker-assisted selection (MAS) has the potential to be a useful addition to existing viral control measures. Further, the discovery of multiple additional genomic regions associated with susceptibility to or control of OvLV suggests that additional genetic marker tests may be developed to extend the reach of MAS in the future. This review will cover the strengths and limitations of existing data from host genetics as an intervention and outline additional questions for future genetic research in sheep, goats, small ruminant lentiviruses, and their host-pathogen interactions. PMID:23771240
Infection with Burkholderia pseudomallei causes the disease melioidosis, which often presents as a serious suppurative infection that is typically fatal without intensive treatment and is a significant emerging infectious disease in Southeast Asia. Despite intensive research there is still much that remains unknown about melioidosis pathogenesis. New animal models of melioidosis are needed to examine novel aspects of pathogenesis as well as for the evaluation of novel therapeutics. The objective of the work presented here was to develop a subacute to chronic caprine model of melioidosis and to characterize the progression of disease with respect to clinical presentation, hematology, clinical microbiology, thoracic radiography, and gross and microscopic pathology. Disease was produced in all animals following an intratracheal aerosol of 104 CFU delivered, with variable clinical manifestations indicative of subacute and chronic disease. Bronchointerstitial pneumonia was apparent microscopically by day 2 and radiographically and grossly apparent by day 7 post infection (PI). Early lesions of bronchopneumonia soon progressed to more severe bronchointerstitial pneumonia with pyogranuloma formation. Extrapulmonary dissemination appeared to be a function of pyogranuloma invasion of pulmonary vasculature, which peaked around day 7 PI. Histopathology indicated that leukocytoclastic vasculitis was the central step in dissemination of B. pseudomallei from the lungs as well as in the establishment of new lesions. While higher doses of organism in goats can produce acute fatal disease, the dose investigated and resulting disease had many similarities to human melioidosis and may warrant further development to provide a model for the study of both natural and bioterrorism associated disease.
Soffler, Carl; Bosco-Lauth, Angela M.; Aboellail, Tawfik A.; Marolf, Angela J.; Bowen, Richard A.
Bone infection remains a formidable challenge to the medical field. The goal of the current study is to evaluate antibacterial coatings in vitro and to develop a large animal model to assess coated bone implants. A novel coating consisting of titanium oxide and siloxane polymer doped with silver was created by metal-organic methods. The coating was tested in vitro using rapid screening techniques to determine compositions which inhibited Staphylococcus aureus growth, while not affecting osteoblast viability. The coating was then applied to intramedullary nails and evaluated in vivo in a caprine model. In this pilot study, a fracture was created in the tibia of the goat, and Staphylococcus aureus was inoculated directly into the bone canal. The fractures were fixed by either coated (treated) or non-coated intramedullary nails (control) for 5 weeks. Clinical observations as well as microbiology, mechanical, radiology, and histology testing were used to compare the animals. The treated goat was able to walk using all four limbs after 5 weeks, while the control was unwilling to bear weight on the fixed leg. These results suggest the antimicrobial potential of the hybrid coating and the feasibility of the goat model for antimicrobial coated intramedullary implant evaluation.
Tran, Nhiem; Tran, Phong A.; Jarrell, John D.; Engiles, Julie B.; Thomas, Nathan P.; Young, Matthew D.; Hayda, Roman A.; Born, Christopher T.
Bone infection remains a formidable challenge to the medical field. The goal of the current study is to evaluate antibacterial coatings in vitro and to develop a large animal model to assess coated bone implants. A novel coating consisting of titanium oxide and siloxane polymer doped with silver was created by metal-organic methods. The coating was tested in vitro using rapid screening techniques to determine compositions which inhibited Staphylococcus aureus growth, while not affecting osteoblast viability. The coating was then applied to intramedullary nails and evaluated in vivo in a caprine model. In this pilot study, a fracture was created in the tibia of the goat, and Staphylococcus aureus was inoculated directly into the bone canal. The fractures were fixed by either coated (treated) or non-coated intramedullary nails (control) for 5 weeks. Clinical observations as well as microbiology, mechanical, radiology, and histology testing were used to compare the animals. The treated goat was able to walk using all four limbs after 5 weeks, while the control was unwilling to bear weight on the fixed leg. These results suggest the antimicrobial potential of the hybrid coating and the feasibility of the goat model for antimicrobial coated intramedullary implant evaluation. PMID:23841085
Tran, Nhiem; Tran, Phong A; Jarrell, John D; Engiles, Julie B; Thomas, Nathan P; Young, Matthew D; Hayda, Roman A; Born, Christopher T
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of transplanted Wharton's jelly mesenchymal stem cells (WJMSCs) of caprine umbilical cord on cutaneous wound healing process in goat. After collection of caprine pregnant uterus of mixed breed goats from abattoir, the Wharton's jelly (WJ) of umbilical cord was harvested. The tissues were minced in ventilated flasks and explant culture method was used for separating mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). The isolated cells were immunostained for Actin protein, histochemically assayed for the presence of alkaline phosphatase activity, and analyzed for detection of matrix receptors (CD44) and hematopoetic lineage markers (CD34), using flow cytometery. After The isolated cells, 3×10(6) MSCs were stained with BrdU and prepared for transplantation to each wound. Four 3-cm linear full thickness skin incisions were made on both sides of thoracic vertebrate of four Raeini goats (two wounds on each side). The left wounds were implanted with MSCs in 0.6 ml of Phosphate buffer saline (PBS), and the right wounds considered as control group that received 0.6 ml of PBS. The samples were taken from the wounds 7 and 12 days after the wounding, and healing process was compared histologically between the two groups. Anti-BrdU staining showed that the transplanted cells were still alive in the wound bed during the study. The histopathological study revealed that re-epithelialization was complete at days 7 in treated wounds with WJMSCs, whereas in control wound the wounds still showed incomplete epithelialization 12 days after wounding. Also, microscopic evaluation showed less inflammation, thinner granulation tissue formation with minimum scar in the treated wounds in comparison with control wounds. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the beneficial effect of caprine WJMSCs in cutaneous wound healing in goat. PMID:21340694
DNA of 90 mycobactin-dependent strains of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis, isolated in 9 countries, was digested with restriction endonuclease PstI and hybridized with a DNA fragment containing insertion sequence IS900. Bovine strains (n = 73) were isolated from 61 animals in 17 herds, ovine strains (n = 15) from 13 animals in 3 herds and the set was completed by 1 caprine
I. Pavlík; L. Bej?ková; M. Pavlas; Z. Rozsypalová; S. Kosková
The main goal of the current work was to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) that might create or disrupt microRNA (miRNA) target sites in the caprine casein genes. The 3' untranslated regions of the goat alpha(S1)-, alpha(S2)-, beta-, and kappa-casein genes (CSN1S1, CSN1S2, CSN2, and CSN3, respectively) were resequenced in 25 individuals of the Murciano-Granadina, Cashmere, Canarian, Saanen, and Sahelian breeds. Five SNP were identified through this strategy: c.175C>T at CSN1S1; c.109T>C, c.139G>C, and c.160T>C at CSN1S2; and c.216C>T at CSN2. Analysis with the Patrocles Finder tool predicted that all of these SNP are located within regions complementary to the seed of diverse miRNA sequences. These in silico results suggest that polymorphism at miRNA target sites might have some effect on casein expression. We explored this issue by genotyping the c.175C>T SNP (CSN1S1) in 85 Murciano-Granadina goats with records for milk CSN1S1 concentrations. This substitution destroys a putative target site for miR-101, a miRNA known to be expressed in the bovine mammary gland. Although TT goats had higher levels (6.25 g/L) of CSN1S1 than their CT (6.05 g/L) and CC (6.04 g/L) counterparts, these differences were not significant. Experimental confirmation of the miRNA target sites predicted in the current work and performance of additional association analyses in other goat populations will be an essential step to find out if polymorphic miRNA target sites constitute an important source of variation in casein expression. PMID:20338454
Zidi, A; Amills, M; Tomás, A; Vidal, O; Ramírez, O; Carrizosa, J; Urrutia, B; Serradilla, J M; Clop, A
HESX1 plays a key role in the development of the forebrain and pituitary gland and produces potential effects on performance traits. The objective of this study was to detect and assess the associations of the possible polymorphisms of six loci within HESX1 gene with performance traits in Chinese 1,119 goats. Only one novel SNP (NM_001494116:g.307049A > G) locating on IVS1 + 348A > G was identified and detected by HaeIII forced-RFLP-PCR. The frequencies of allele "G" varied from 0.025 to 0.245 in analyzed populations with the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (P > 0.05). Genotypic and allelic frequencies were found to be significantly different in four breeds (chi(2) = 147.674, df = 6, P < 0.001; chi(2) = 157.250, df = 3, P < 0.001, respectively), implying that the distribution of genotypic and allelic frequencies of goat HESX1 gene was significantly associated with different goat utilities (cashmere, meat and dairy). Association analysis results revealed no significant effects of caprine HESX1 gene on body sizes in XNSN population (P > 0.05) and cashmere traits in IMWC population (P > 0.05). Significant statistical of HESX1 gene with body weight was found (*P < 0.05). The genotype AA showed significantly higher body weight than those of AG in 2-year-old age (*P < 0.05), while the AA genotype was senior to AG genotype in 4-year-old body weight trait (*P < 0.05). These suggestions indicated that the HESX1 gene has significant effect on goat body weight depending on ages, which is accordance with the function repressor of the HESX1. PMID:19629745
Brucella species are gram-negative bacteria which belong to alpha-Proteobacteria family. These organisms are zoonotic pathogens that induce abortion and sterility in domestic mammals and chronic infections in humans known as Malta fever. The virulence of Brucella is dependent upon its ability to enter and colonize the cells in which it multiplies. The genetic basis of this aspect is poorly understood. Signature-tagged mutagenesis (STM) was used to identify potential Brucella virulence factors. PCR amplification has been used in place of DNA hybridization to identify the STM-generated attenuated mutants. A library of 288 Brucella melitensis 16M tagged mini-Tn5 Km2 mutants, in 24 pools, was screened for its ability to colonize spleen, lymph nodes and liver of goats at three weeks post-i.v. infection. This comparative screening identified 7 mutants (approximately 5%) which were not recovered from the output pool in goats. Some genes were known virulence genes involved in biosynthesis of LPS (lpsA gene) or in intracellular survival (the virB operon). Other mutants included ones which had a disrupted gene homologous to flgF, a gene coding for the basal-body rod of the flagellar apparatus, and another with a disruption in a gene homologous to ppk which is involved in the biosynthesis of inorganic polyphosphate (PolyP) from ATP. Other genes identified encoded factors involved in DNA metabolism and oxidoreduction metabolism. Using STM and the caprine host for screening, potential virulence determinants in B. melitensis have been identified. PMID:17090391
Zygmunt, Michel S; Hagius, Sue D; Walker, Joel V; Elzer, Philip H
Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) are multipotent cells that can be derived from many different organs and tissues. While there are many ways to label and track cells each with strengths and weakness, the green fluorescent protein (GFP) is a reporter gene commonly employed. In the present study, caprine MSC were collected from bone marrow and cells were characterised with MSC specific markers. Passage 10 (P10) MSC cells were transfected using plasmid vector containing GFP as reporter gene with different concentrations of DNA and lipofectamine. Six different concentrations of DNA and lipofectamine as 1 microg DNA: 2 microL lipofectamine, 1 microg DNA: 2.5 microL lipofectamine, 1.2 microg DNA: 2.2 microL lipofectamine, 1.2 microg DNA: 2.5 microL lipofectamine, 1.5 microg DNA: 2.5 microL lipofectamine, 1.5 microg DNA: 3 microL lipofectamine were used. After 24 h and 48 h of transfection, caprine MSC were observed under florescent microscope. Highest transfection rate indicating green flourecscent MSC were found when the cells were transfected with 1.2 microg DNA: 2.2 microL lipofectamine and 1.5 microg DNA: 2.5 microL lipofectamine than other combinations. These cells have been propagated beyond 4th passage maintaining GFP expression. The results indicated that stable GFP positive MSC cells can be generated using the above protocol. These cells are being used for transplantation studies. PMID:23898548
Background Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) is a fatal herpesvirus infection, affecting various wild and domestic ruminants all over the world. Water buffaloes were reported to be particularly susceptible for the ovine herpesvirus-2 (OvHV-2) causing the sheep-associated form of MCF (SA-MCF). This report describes the first case of possibly caprine-associated malignant catarrhal fever symptoms in a domestic water buffalo in Switzerland. Case presentation The buffalo cow presented with persistent fever, dyspnoea, nasal bleeding and haematuria. Despite symptomatic therapy, the buffalo died and was submitted to post mortem examination. Major findings were an abomasal ulceration, a mild haemorrhagic cystitis and multifocal haemorrhages on the epicardium and on serosal and mucosal surfaces. Eyes and oral cavity were not affected. Histopathology revealed a mild to moderate lymphohistiocytic vasculitis limited to the brain and the urinary bladder. Although these findings are typical for MCF, OvHV-2 DNA was not detected in peripheral blood lymphocytes or in paraffin-embedded brain, using an OvHV-2 specific real time PCR. With the aid of a panherpesvirus PCR, a caprine herpesvirus-2 (CpHV-2) sequence could be amplified from both samples. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first report of malignant catarrhal fever in the subfamily Bovinae, where the presence of CpHV-2 could be demonstrated. The etiological context has yet to be evaluated.
An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detecting Listeria monocytogenes antibodies in bovine (n = 35), caprine (n = 27), and ovine (n = 30) milk samples was evaluated by comparison with bacteriological examination. Microtiter plates were coated with proteins obtained from culture supernatant, and antibodies were revealed with a monoclonal antibody able to react with the immunoglobulins belonging to the three animal species. The arithmetic mean optical density (OD) of milk samples infected with L. monocytogenes was above that of uninfected milk samples or milk samples infected with pathogens others than L. monocytogenes. With an OD threshold of 0.2 for goat and ewe milk samples, the sensitivity and specificity of the test were 100 and 88%, respectively. The choice of a different OD threshold (0.5) for cows allowed the discrimination of all of the infected cows and yielded no false positives, and both sensitivity and specificity were 100%.
Zoonotic events of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) from non-human primates to humans have generated the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), one of the most devastating infectious disease of the last century with more than 30 million people dead and about 40.3 million people currently infected worldwide. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1 and HIV-2), the two major viruses that cause AIDS in humans are retroviruses of the lentivirus genus. The genus includes arthritis-encephalitisvirus (CAEV) and Maedi-Visna virus (MVV), and a heterogeneous group of viruses known as small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLVs), affecting goat and sheep. Lentivirus genome integrates into the host DNA, causing persistent infection associated with a remarkable diversity during viral replication. Direct evidence of mixed infections with these two closely related SRLVs was found in both sheep and goats. The evidence of a genetic continuum with caprine and ovine field isolates demonstrates the absence of an efficient species barrier preventing cross-species transmission. In dual-infected animals, persistent infections with both CAEV and MVV have been described, and viral chimeras have been detected. This not only complicates animal trade between countries but favors the risk that highly pathogenic variants may emerge as has already been observed in the past in Iceland and, more recently, in outbreaks with virulent strains in Spain. SRLVs affecting wildlife have already been identified, demonstrating the existence of emergent viruses adapted to new hosts. Viruses adapted to wildlife ruminants may acquire novel biopathological properties which may endanger not only the new host species but also domestic ruminants and humans. SRLVs infecting sheep and goats follow a genomic evolution similar to that observed in HIV or in other lentiviruses. Lentivirus genetic diversity and host factors leading to the establishment of naturally occurring virulent versus avirulent infections, in addition to the emergence of new strains, challenge every aspect of SRLV control measures for providing efficient tools to prevent the transmission of diseases between wild ungulates and livestock.
Apo and holo forms of lactoferrin (LF) from caprine and bovine species have been characterized and compared with regard to the structural stability determined by thermal denaturation temperature values (T (m)), at pH 2.0-8.0. The bovine lactoferrin (bLF) showed highest thermal stability with a T (m) of 90 ± 1°C at pH 7.0 whereas caprine lactoferrin (cLF) showed a lower T (m) value 68 ± 1°C. The holo form was much more stable than the apo form for the bLF as compared to cLF. When pH was gradually reduced to 3.0, the T (m) values of both holo bLF and holo cLF were reduced showing T (m) values of 49 ± 1 and 40 ± 1°C, respectively. Both apo and holo forms of cLF and bLF were found to be most stable at pH 7.0. A significant loss in the iron content of both holo and apo forms of the cLF and bLF was observed when pH was decreased from 7.0 to 2.0. At the same time a gradual unfolding of the apo and holo forms of both cLF and bLF was shown by maximum exposure of hydrophobic regions at pH 3.0. This was supported with a loss in ?-helix structure together with an increase in the content of unordered (aperiodic) structure, while ? structure seemed unchanged at all pH values. Since LF is used today as fortifier in many products, like infant formulas and exerts many biological functions in human, the structural changes, iron binding and release affected by pH and thermal denaturation temperature are important factors to be clarified for more than the bovine species. PMID:20680664
Background The Ly-6 (Ly-6/uPAR) superfamily members share the Ly-6 domain defined by distinct disulfide bonding patterns between 8 or 10 cysteine residues. They comprise membrane- and secretory-type proteins. We recently reported the gene and protein characterization of the bovine secreted protein of Ly-6 domain 1 (SOLD1). Bovine SOLD1 is expressed in trophoblast mononucleate cells (TMCs) and is localized in the cotyledonary mesenchyme. Here, we compared the expression and functionality of SOLD1 among the ruminants. We examined mRNA expression by chorionic fibroblasts as a measure of one of the SOLD1 functions. Results Ovine and caprine SOLD1 mRNAs have 303 bp open reading frames and encode for deduced SOLD1 proteins with 100 amino acids, including a 22-aa-long signal peptide at the N-terminal. Both of the SOLD1 amino acid sequences have high similarities with the bovine sequence. Both SOLD1 mRNAs were also expressed in TMCs of cotyledons and intercotyledonary membranes. The mature SOLD1 proteins were localized in the mesenchymal villi of cotyledons after secretion. Bovine, ovine and caprine SOLD1 affected gene expression in mesenchymal fibroblasts in vitro; nucleoredoxin expression was upregulated and BCL2-like 13 was downregulated. Thus, we suggest that SOLD1 acts as a modulator of cell proliferation and apoptosis. Conclusion Expressing cells and protein localization of SOLD1 coincided among the three ruminants. SOLD1 participated in regulating nucleoredoxin and BCL2-like 13 expression in chorionic fibroblasts. SOLD1 is produced specifically in the cotyledons and intercotyledonary membranes in ruminants and appears to be involved in the construction of the ruminant placenta.
A TaqMan real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method was developed for specific detection of bovine, ovine and caprine processed animal protein (PAP) in industrial feedstuffs. The method uses species-specific primers and probes targeting short mitochondrial D-loop sequences, and a positive amplification control based on 18S rRNA gene. The applicability of the real-time PCR protocol was assessed through analysis of 126
A 5-kb long transcript encoding the stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) was identified by Northern-blot analysis of poly(A)+ mRNA from caprine lactating mammary gland. Complete sequencing of the SCD cDNA (5123 bp) revealed that the coding region (1080 nt) is followed by an unusually long (3.8 kb) 3?-UTR sequence, deriving from a single exon, in which a polymorphism, due to the deletion
4 Abstract: The effectiveness of an injected caprine serum fraction-immunomodulator (CSF-I2) as a n immunostimulant in male and female F-line and commercial turkey poults infected with fowl cholera (Pasteurella multocida) was examined in separate trials. In the first 2 of 3 controlled trials, the effects of an i.m. injection of CSF-I2 given 24 h prior to a P. multocida challenge,
E. D. Peebles; K. O. Willeford; R. W. Keirs; K. E. Nestor; Y. M. Saif; C. Wang; C. J. Matyi; J. W. Anderson; M. T. Kidd; R. Pulikanti
Fast atom bombardment, collisionally activated dissociation tandem mass spectrometry (FAB-CAD-MS\\/MS), combined withp-aminobenzoic acid ethyl ester (ABEE) derivatization, were used to confirm the sequence and linkage pattern of subnanomolar amounts of the previously characterized three major thyroid gland oligosaccharides accumulated in caprine ß-mannosidosis. Positive ion FAB-CAD-MS\\/MS of both the [M + H]+ and [M + Na]+ ions from the ABEE derivatized
Douglas A. Gage; Eileen Rathke; Catherine E. Costello; Margaret Z. Jones
Heparin can dissociate lipoprotein lipase from casein micelles, and addition of heparin enhances lipolysis in bovine but not in caprine milk. Heparin shortened the lag-time for binding of lipoprotein lipase to milk fat globules and for lipolysis. Heparin counteracted the inhibitory effects of skim milk on binding of lipase and on lipolysis. Heparin stimulated lipolysis in all bovine milk samples when added before cooling and in spontaneously lipolytic milk samples also when added after cooling. Heparin enhanced lipolysis of isolated milk fat globules. Hence, its effect is not solely due to dissociation of lipoprotein lipase from the casein micelles. Cooling of goat milk caused more marked changes in the distribution of lipase than cooling of bovine milk; the fraction of added /sup 125/I-labeled lipase that bound to cream increased from about 8 to 60%. In addition, caprine skim milk caused less inhibition of lipolysis than bovine skim milk. These observations provide an explanation for the high degree of cold storage lipolysis in goat milk. Heparin had only small effects on the distribution of lipoprotein lipase in caprine milk, which explains why heparin has so little effect on lipolysis in caprine milk. The distribution of /sup 35/S-labeled heparin in bovine milk was studied. In warm milk less than 10% bound to the cream fraction, but when milk was cooled, binding of heparin to cream increased to 45%. These results suggest that there exists in the skim fraction a relatively small amount of a heparin-binding protein, which on cooling of milk adsorbs to the milk fat, or suggests that cooling induces a conformational change in a membrane protein such that its affinity for heparin increases.
A 5' truncated caprine (ca) ?-casein-encoding gene (?Cas) was fused to the 3? end of a 3? truncated ca ?Cas. The ?Cas form comprised the 0.8-kb 3? end of intron 2, the remaining part of the transcription unit containing codons -2 to stop 172, and 0.43 kb of the 3' flanking region. The ?Cas form comprised a 3-kb 5? flanking
Caprin-1 is a ubiquitously expressed, well-conserved cytoplasmic phosphoprotein that is needed for normal progression through the G1-S phase of the cell cycle and occurs in postsynaptic granules in dendrites of neurons. We demonstrate that Caprin-1 colocalizes with RasGAP SH3 domain binding protein-1 (G3BP-1) in cytoplasmic RNA granules associated with microtubules and concentrated in the leading and trailing edge of migrating cells. Caprin-1 exhibits a highly conserved motif, F(M/I/L)Q(D/E)Sx(I/L)D that binds to the NTF-2-like domain of G3BP-1. The carboxy-terminal region of Caprin-1 selectively bound mRNA for c-Myc or cyclin D2, this binding being diminished by mutation of the three RGG motifs and abolished by deletion of the RGG-rich region. Overexpression of Caprin-1 induced phosphorylation of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2? (eIF-2?) through a mechanism that depended on its ability to bind mRNA, resulting in global inhibition of protein synthesis. However, cells lacking Caprin-1 exhibited no changes in global rates of protein synthesis, suggesting that physiologically, the effects of Caprin-1 on translation were limited to restricted subsets of mRNAs. Overexpression of Caprin-1 induced the formation of cytoplasmic stress granules (SG). Its ability to bind RNA was required to induce SG formation but not necessarily its ability to enter SG. The ability of Caprin-1 or G3BP-1 to induce SG formation or enter them did not depend on their association with each other. The Caprin-1/G3BP-1 complex is likely to regulate the transport and translation of mRNAs of proteins involved with synaptic plasticity in neurons and cellular proliferation and migration in multiple cell types.
Solomon, Samuel; Xu, Yaoxian; Wang, Bin; David, Muriel D.; Schubert, Peter; Kennedy, Derek; Schrader, John W.
Seven pairs of primers were designed to amplify 5' promoter region, six exons and partial introns and to detect the polymorphisms of POU1F1 gene in five goat breeds with different prolificacy. The results showed that six mutations were identified in caprine POU1F1 gene including C256T in exon 3, C53T and T123G in intron 3, and G682T (A228S), T723G and C837T in exon 6. The former four mutations were novel SNPs in goat POU1F1 gene. The 53 and 123 loci were in complete linkage disequilibrium in five caprine breeds. Regarding the 256 locus, the Jining Grey goat does with genotype CT had 0.66 kids more than those with genotype CC (P < 0.05), while does with genotype GT had 0.63 (P < 0.05) kids more than those with genotype GG at the 682 locus. The present study preliminarily showed an association between allele T at the 256 and 682 loci of POU1F1 gene and high litter size in Jining Grey goats. Totally 16 haplotypes and 50 genotypes were identified at the above six loci in POU1F1 gene of five goat breeds. Three common haplotypes (hap2, hap3 and hap4) were identified in five goat breeds joined. Four specific haplotypes (hap7, hap9, hap11 and hap13) were detected in Jining Grey goats. The predominant haplotype was hap1 (35.29% and 48.25%) in both Jining Grey and Guizhou White goats, while hap4 (50%) in Boer goats, and hap2 (42.86% and 38.75%) in both Wendeng Dairy and Liaoning Cashmere goats. The most frequent genotypes at six loci in the above five goat breeds were hap1/hap2 (14.38%) and hap1/hap4 (14.38%), hap1/hap2 (38.60%), hap4/hap4 (40.91%), hap2/hap4 (26.53%), hap2/hap5 (20.00%), respectively. The Jining Grey goat does with nine genotypes analyzed of POU1F1 gene showed no obvious difference in litter size. PMID:21769479
Feng, T; Chu, M X; Cao, G L; Tang, Q Q; Di, R; Fang, L; Li, N
Cultured myoblasts have been used extensively as an in vitro model in understanding the underlying mechanisms of myogenesis. Various protocols for establishing a pure myoblast culture have been reported which involve the use of special procedures like flow cytometry and density gradient centrifugation. In goat, only a few protocols for establishing a myogenic cell culture are available and these protocols use adult muscle tissues which often does not yield sufficient numbers of precursor cells with adequate proliferative capacity. Considering the disadvantages of adult myoblasts, we are proposing an alternate protocol using caprine fetus which does not require any special procedures. In the present study, more than 90-95% fetal-derived cell populations had the typical spindle to polyhedral shape of myoblast cell and stained positive for desmin, hence confirming their myogenic origin. These cells attained the maximum confluency as early as 3-4 d against 3 wk by adult myoblasts indicating a better growth potential. Further, quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed a higher expression (p?0.01) of myogenic regulatory factors (i.e., myogenic determination factor 1, myogenic factor 5, and myogenin) and myostatin (MSTN) in the fetal as compared to the adult myoblasts. Consequently, higher proliferation and differentiation ability along with higher abundance of myogenic markers and MSTN make the fetal myoblasts a better in vitro model. PMID:23739872
Contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP), one of the most serious and dramatic diseases of goats, is caused by Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae (M. capripneumoniae). This organism is very difficult to isolate and to correctly identify. In a previous report we described a method for the rapid detection and identification of M. capripneumoniae. This method is based on a PCR system by which a segment of the 16S rRNA gene from all mycoplasmas of the M. mycoides cluster can be amplified. The PCR product is then analyzed by restriction enzyme cleavage for the identification of M. capripneumoniae DNA. This system has now been further evaluated with respect to specificity and diagnostic efficacy for the identification and direct detection of the organism in clinical material. Identification by restriction enzyme analysis of amplified DNA from mycoplasmas of the M. mycoides cluster was verified for 55 strains, among which were 15 strains of M. capripneumoniae. The PCR was applied to clinical samples from the nose, ear, pharynx, pleural fluid, and lung tissue containing M. capripneumoniae or other mycoplasmas. As expected, mycoplasmas belonging to the M. mycoides cluster could be detected by the PCR. Restriction enzyme analysis of the PCR products could then be applied for the identification of M. capripneumoniae. Clinical samples and cultures containing M. capripneumoniae were dried on filter paper, to try an easier sample transport method, and were tested by PCR. M. capripneumoniae DNA could be detected in the dried specimens, but the sensitivity of the PCR test was reduced.
Bolske, G; Mattsson, J G; Bascunana, C R; Bergstrom, K; Wesonga, H; Johansson, K E
Gli3 is a zinc finger transcription factor which plays a critical role in regulating animal development, metabolism and energy partitioning and thus has the potential to influence economical important traits in farm animals. In this study, we screened the complete exons of the caprine Gli3 gene using PCR-SSCP methods in 430 individuals from three goat breeds to identify sequence variants that might be associated with growth traits. Six novel mutations (GU363952:g.739C>G, 749A>T, 1636C>A, 1982delT, 1983T>C, 2856T>C) were identified. Significant associations were observed between the mutations GU363952:g.739C>G and g.749A>T with body height, chest circumference and canon circumference. Individuals with genotype G4-CC/AA and G4-CG/AT were significantly higher than individuals with genotype G4-GG/TT in body height, chest circumference and canon circumference. The results of this study suggested that the Gli3-gene-specific SNP could be a useful marker for growth traits in future marker-assisted selection programs in goat. PMID:23096093
Jin, Q J; Chen, D X; Yang, L; Fang, X T; Zhang, C L; Lei, C Z; Chen, H
Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae (Mccp) is the causative agent of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP), a devastating disease of domestic goats. The exact distribution of CCPP is not known but it is present in Africa and the Middle East and represents a significant threat to many disease-free areas including Europe. Furthermore, CCPP has been recently identified in Tajikistan and China. A typing method with an improved resolution based on Multi-Locus Sequence Analysis (MLSA) has been developed to trace new epidemics and to elucidate whether the recently identified cases in continental Asia were due to recent importation of Mccp. The H2 locus, a polymorphic region already in use as a molecular marker for Mccp evolution, was complemented with seven new loci selected according to the analysis of polymorphisms observed among the genome sequences of three Mccp strains. A total of 25 strains, including the two new strains from Asia, were analysed by MLSA resulting in the discrimination of 15 sequence types based on 53 polymorphic positions. A distance tree inferred from the concatenated sequences of the eight selected loci revealed two evolutionary lineages comprising five groups, which showed good correlation with geographic origins. The presence of a distinct Asian cluster strongly indicates that CCPP was not recently imported to continental Asia. It is more likely that the disease has been endemic in the area for a long time, as supported by historical clinical descriptions. In conclusion, this MLSA strategy constitutes a highly discriminative tool for the molecular epidemiology of CCPP.
This study was conducted to determine the presence of Toxoplasma gondii in animal milk samples in Iran. From a total of 395 dairy herds in three provinces of Iran, 66 bovine, 58 ovine, 54 caprine, 33 buffalo, and 30 camel herds were studied, and from these parts of Iran, 200 bovine, 185 ovine, 180 caprine, 164 buffalo, and 160 camel milk samples were collected from various seasons. Samples were tested for Toxoplasma gondii by cell line culture, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. Only the results of cell line cultivation were confirmed by bioassay in cat. Results indicated that all herds were infected with Toxoplasma gondii. The culture method showed that 51 out of 889 milk samples (5.73%) were positive for Toxoplasma gondii, and all 51 positive culture results were positive with bioassay in cat. The Fars province had the highest prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii (6.84%). The ELISA test showed that 41 milk samples (4.61%) were positive for the presence of Toxoplasma gondii, while the PCR showed that 46 milk samples were positive for Toxoplasma gondii. The results showed higher sensitivity of PCR and higher specificity of ELISA. Caprine had the highest (10%) and camel had the lowest (3.12%) prevalence rate of parasite. The summer season had the highest (76.47%) but winter (3.92) had the lowest incidence of Toxoplasma gondii. This study is the first prevalence report of direct detection of Toxoplasma gondii in animal milk samples in Iran. PMID:23441913
Q fever is a widespread zoonosis caused by the obligate intracellular micro-organism Coxiella burnetii. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence rate of C. burnetii in bulk milk samples from dairy bovine, ovine, caprine, and camel herds in Isfahan province, Iran. In the present study, 567 bulk milk samples from 186 dairy bovine, ovine, caprine, and camel herds were tested for C. burnetii using a nested polymerase chain reaction assay. The animals whose milk samples collected for this study were clinically healthy. In total, 8 of 247 (3.2%) bovine milk samples were positive; the positive samples originated from 6 of 90 (6.7%) dairy herds. Eight of 140 (5.7%) ovine bulk milk samples from 42 sheep breeding farms and 5 of 110 (4.5%) caprine bulk milk samples from 32 goat breeding farms were positive for C. burnetii. One of 70 (1.4%) camel bulk milk samples from 22 camel breeding farms was also positive for C. burnetii. Although no extensive prevalence study was undertaken, the results of this study indicate that clinically healthy dairy animals are important sources of C. burnetii infection in Iran. To the authors' knowledge, this study is the first report of direct identification of C. burnetii using polymerase chain reaction in bulk milk samples from dairy ovine herds in Iran and the first report of direct identification of C. burnetii in bulk milk samples from dairy camel herds. Further intensive prevalence studies on Coxiella infection and on possible risks of dairy products will be needed to elucidate the epidemiology of Q fever in Iran. PMID:21091216
Rahimi, Ebrahim; Ameri, Mehrdad; Karim, Guity; Doosti, Abbas
The application of genetic breeding programmes to eradicate transmissible spongiform encephalopathies in goats is an important aim for reasons of animal welfare as well as human food safety and food security. Based on the positive impact of Prnp genetics on sheep scrapie in Europe in the past decade, we have established caprine Prnp gene variation in more than 1100 goats from the United Kingdom and studied the association of Prnp alleles with disease phenotypes in 150 scrapie-positive goats. This investigation confirms the association of the Met142 encoding Prnp allele with increased resistance to preclinical and clinical scrapie. It reveals a novel association of the Ser127 encoding allele with a reduced probability to develop clinical signs of scrapie in goats that are already positive for the accumulation of disease-specific prion protein in brain or periphery. A United Kingdom survey of Prnp genotypes in eight common breeds revealed eleven alleles in over thirty genotypes. The Met142 encoding allele had a high overall mean allele frequency of 22.6%, whereas the Ser127 encoding allele frequency was considerably lower with 6.4%. In contrast, a well known resistance associated allele encoding Lys222 was found to be rare (0.9%) in this survey. The analysis of Prnp genotypes in Mexican Criollas goats revealed nine alleles, including a novel Phe to Leu substitution in codon 201, confirming that high genetic variability of Prnp can be found in scrapie-free populations. Our study implies that it should be feasible to lower scrapie prevalence in goat herds in the United Kingdom by genetic selection.
Identification, characterization and deployment of virus resistant maize are complex tasks requiring multidisciplinary approaches. Insect transmission of viruses in nature and the potential presence of biologically distinct virus strains complicate screening for virus resistance. At least ten maize...
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a dynamic medium containing kit ligand (KL) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) on the in vitro culture of caprine preantral follicles for 16 days. Ovarian fragments were cultured in ?-MEM(+) containing or not containing KL (50 ng/ml) and/or FSH (50 ng/ml) added during the first (days 0-8) and/or second half (days 8-16) of the culture period. Noncultured (control) and cultured fragments were processed for histological and ultrastructural evaluation. After 1 day of culture, only the treatments performed with KL or FSH maintained a percentage of normal follicles similar to that of the control. After 16 days, all treatments using KL until day 8 (KL/KL, KL/FSH, and KL/FSH+KL) and only FSH during the entire culture period (FSH/FSH) showed higher rates of follicular survival compared to ?-MEM(+) alone. After 1 and 8 days, the treatments initially cultured with KL increased the percentage of follicular activation in comparison to ?-MEM(+) alone and other treatments. The highest follicular diameter after 16 days was observed in follicles cultured with KL until day 8 followed by FSH (KL/FSH). Furthermore, this treatment promoted, as early as after 1 day of culture, an increase in oocyte growth compared to ?-MEM(+) alone. Ultrastructural analysis confirmed the integrity of follicles cultured in KL/FSH after 16 days. In conclusion, a dynamic medium containing KL and FSH maintained follicular integrity and promoted follicular activation and growth during the long-term in vitro culture of caprine preantral follicles. PMID:21494023
Lima, I M T; Celestino, J J H; Faustino, L R; Magalhães-Padilha, D M; Rossetto, R; Brito, I R; Donato, M A M; Lopes, C A P; Campello, C C; Peixoto, C A; Figueiredo, J R; Rodrigues, A P R
The objectives of this study were to determine the main causes of mortality, with a special focus on caseous lymphadenits as a cause of death or wasting in caprine herds from Quebec. Goats (n = 152) from 13 herds were submitted for necropsy; the cause of mortality, and the presence, location, and cause of abscesses (if present) were recorded. Proportional mortalities were distributed as: Clostridium perfringens type D enterotoxemia (17.1%), pneumonia (13.8%), paratuberculosis (10.5%), listeriosis (6.6%), pregnancy toxemia (5.3%), caprinearthritis-encephalitis (4.6%), and caseous lymphadenitis (3.9%). Caseous lymphadenitis was diagnosed in 24.3% of the submitted goats, but was not a major cause of wasting or mortality. Abscesses were localized internally in 54.1% of the cases. Paratuberculosis was diagnosed in 29 goats (16 as cause of death) and was considered a major cause of wasting and/or mortality. PMID:24155449
The immunization of goats with a synthetic peptide encompassing the G5 antigenic site of the rabies virus surface glycoprotein induces a strong humoral immune response in the absence of a carrier protein. The immunized animals mounted high antibody titers and showed a strong avidity maturation of the B cell immune response to both the G5-peptide and purified surface glycoprotein G. This antibody weakly neutralized rabies virus carrying the G5 epitope but failed to neutralize escape mutants carrying a single point mutation in this epitope. A putative T helper cell epitope, functional in the context of different caprine MHC haplotypes, was identified by structure analysis of the G5-peptide. This striking dichotomy between high titers and antibody of high avidity to the glycoprotein G and poor neutralizing activity strongly suggests that antibody binding assays such as ELISA cannot always reliably predict the neutralizing activity of sera as measured in functional assays. PMID:18955098
The paired-like homeodomain transcription factor 2 (PITX2) gene plays a critical role in cell proliferation, differentiation, hematopoiesis and organogenesis. This gene regulates several genes' expressions in the Wnt/beta-catenin and POU1F1 pathways, thereby probably affecting milk performance. The goal of this study was to characterize the genetic variants of the PITX2 gene and test their associations with milk traits in dairy goats. Herein, four novel single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), AC_000163:g.18117T>C, g.18161C>G, g.18322C>A and g.18353T>C, within the caprine PITX2 gene, were found in two famous Chinese dairy goat breeds. These SNPs mapping at Cys28Arg, Pro42Pro, IVS1+79C>A and IVS1+110T>C, were genotyped by the MvaI, SmaI, MspI and RsaI aCRS-RFLP or PCR-RFLP methods, respectively. Accordingly, two main haplotypes (CGCT and CGCC) were identified among the specimens. Association testing revealed that the SmaI and RsaI polymorphisms were significantly associated with the milk fat content, milk lactose content and milk density (P<0.05 or P<0.01) in the Guanzhong (GZ) dairy goats, respectively. At the same time, the RsaI locus was also found to significantly link to the second lactation milk yield, milk fat content, milk lactose content, milk density and milk total solid content (P<0.05 or P<0.01) in the Xinong Saanen (XNSN) dairy goats, respectively. These results indicated that the caprine PITX2 gene had the significant effects on milk traits. Hence, the RsaI and SmaI loci could be regarded as two DNA markers for selecting superior milk performance in dairy goats. These preliminary findings not only would extend the spectrum of genetic variation of the goat PITX2 gene, but also would contribute to implementing marker-assisted selection (MAS) in breeding and genetics in dairy goats. PMID:24076438
The aim of this study was to analyse the SPRN genes of goats from several scrapie outbreaks in order to detect polymorphisms and to look for association with scrapie occurrence, by an unmatched case-control study. A region of the caprine SPRN gene encompassing the entire ORF and a fragment of the 3'UTR revealed a total of 11 mutations: 10 single-nucleotide polymorphisms and one indel polymorphism. Only two non-synonymous mutations occurring at very low incidence were identified. A significant association with scrapie positivity in the central nervous system was found for an indel polymorphism (602_606insCTCCC) in the 3'UTR. Bioinformatics analyses suggest that this indel may modulate scrapie susceptibility via a microRNA-mediated post-transcriptional mechanism. This is the first study to demonstrate an association between the SPRN gene and goat scrapie. The identified indel may serve as a genetic target other than PRNP to predict disease risk in future genetics-based scrapie-control approaches in goats. PMID:22492914
Latex microspheres (diameter, 8 ?m) were coated with anti-Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae polyclonal immunoglobulin G (IgG) antiserum (anti-F38 biotype). The coated microspheres, when used in a latex agglutination test (LAT), detected M. capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae antigen in the serum of goats with contagious caprine pleuropneumoniae (CCPP). Beads also agglutinated strongly in the presence of purified M. capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae capsular polysaccharide (CPS). Preabsorption of CPS-specific antibodies prior to coating of the beads removed agglutinating activity in the presence of M. capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae, strongly suggesting that CPS is the likely soluble antigen recognized by the test. In addition, the specificity of the LAT exactly mirrored that of an M. capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae CPS-specific monoclonal antibody (WM25): of the 8 other mycoplasma species tested, agglutination was observed only with bovine serogroup 7. The LAT detected all 11 strains of M. capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae examined in this study, with a sensitivity level of 2 ng of CPS, or the equivalent of 1.7 × 104 CFU, in a reaction volume of 0.03 ml of serum. With field sera from goats with CCPP, the results of the LAT exhibited a 67% correlation with the results of the currently used complement fixation test (CFT), with the main discrepancy in diagnosis resulting from the increased sensitivity of the LAT compared to that of CFT. This antigen-detection LAT should prove particularly useful in identifying animals in the earliest stages of CCPP and combines sensitivity and low cost with ease of application in the field, without the need for any specialist training or equipment.
Johne's disease (JD) is prevalent worldwide and has a significant impact on the global agricultural economy. In the present study, we evaluated the protective efficacy of a leuD (?leud) mutant and gained insight into differential immune responses after challenge with virulent M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis in a caprine colonization model. The immune response and protective efficacy were compared with those of the killed vaccine Mycopar. In vitro stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells with johnin purified protein derivative showed that Mycopar and ?leuD generated similar levels of gamma interferon (IFN-?) but significantly higher levels than unvaccinated and challenged phosphate-buffered saline controls. However, only with ?leuD was the IFN-? response maintained. Flow cytometric analysis showed that the increase in IFN-? correlated with proliferation and activation (increased expression of CD25) of CD4, CD8, and ??T cells, but this response was significantly higher in ?leuD-vaccinated animals at some time points after challenge. Both Mycopar and ?leuD vaccines upregulated Th1/proinflammatory and Th17 cytokines and downregulated Th2/anti-inflammatory and regulatory cytokines at similar levels at almost all time points. However, significantly higher levels of IFN-? (at weeks 26 and 30), interleukin-2 (IL-2; week 18), IL-1b (weeks 14 and 22), IL-17 (weeks 18 and 22), and IL-23 (week 18) and a significantly lower level of IL-10 (weeks 14 and 18) and transforming growth factor ? (week 18) were detected in the ?leuD-vaccinated group. Most importantly, ?leuD elicited an immune response that significantly limited colonization of tissues compared to Mycopar upon challenge with wild-type M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. In conclusion, the ?leuD mutant is a promising vaccine candidate for development of a live attenuated vaccine for JD in ruminants.
Faisal, Syed M.; Chen, Jenn-Wei; Yan, Falong; Chen, Tsai-Tzu; Useh, Nicodemus M.; Yan, Weiwei; Guo, Shanguang; Wang, Shih-Jon; Glaser, Amy L.; McDonough, Sean P.; Singh, Bhupinder; Davis, William C.; Akey, Bruce L.
This book examines the molecular biology, disease pathogenesis, epidemiology, and clinical features of hepadna and other viruses with hepatic tropism and outlines future directions and approaches for their management. The volume's six sections provide a review of the various features, mechanisms, and functions of these viruses, ranging from hepadna virus replication and regulation of gene expression to the structure and function of hepadna-virus gene products.
Camelpox virus (CMLV) causes a smallpox-like illness in a unique host, the camel. The disease is enzootic in almost all regions where camel husbandry is practiced, and is responsible for severe economic losses. Although it is genetically the closest known virus to variola virus, the etiologic agent of smallpox, CMLV remains poorly studied. It is characterized by a narrow host
Sophie Duraffour; Hermann Meyer; Graciela Andrei; Robert Snoeck
Six members of the malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) virus group of ruminant rhadinoviruses have been identified to date. Four of these viruses are clearly associated with clinical disease: alcelaphine herpesvirus 1 (AlHV-1) carried by wildebeest (Connochaetes spp.); ovine herpesvirus 2 (OvHV-2), ubiquitous in domestic sheep; caprine herpesvirus 2 (CpHV-2), endemic in domestic goats; and the virus of unknown origin found causing classic MCF in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus; MCFV-WTD). Using serology and polymerase chain reaction with (degenerate primers targeting a portion of the herpesviral DNA polymerase gene, evidence of three previously unrecognized rhadinoviruses in the MCF virus group was found in muskox (Ovibos moschatus), Nubian ibex (Capra nubiana), and gemsbok (South African oryx, Oryx gazella), respectively. Base on sequence alignment, the viral sequence in the muskox is most closely related to MCFV-WTD (81.5% sequence identity) and that in the Nubian ibex is closest to CpHV-2 (89.3% identity). The viral sequence in the gemsbok is most closely related to AlHV-1 (85.1% identity). No evidence of disease association with these viruses has been found. PMID:14733283
Li, Hong; Gailbreath, Katherine; Bender, Louis C; West, Keith; Keller, Janice; Crawford, Timothy B
This study examined the cervical muscle response to physiologic, high-rate (100 mm/s) tensile facet joint capsule (FJC) stretch. Six in-vivo caprine C5/6 FJC preparations were subjected to an incremental tensile loading paradigm. EMG activity was recorded from the right trapezius (TR) and multifidus (MF) muscle groups at the C5 and C6 levels; and from the sternomastoid (SM) and longus colli (LC) muscle groups bilaterally at the C5/6 level; during FJC stretch. Capsule load during the displacement applications was recorded via a miniature load cell, and 3D capsule strains (based on stereoimaging of an array of markers on the capsule surface) were reconstructed using finite element methods. EMG traces from each muscle were examined for onset of muscular activity. Capsule strains and loads at the time of EMG onset were recorded for each muscle, as was the time from the onset of FJC stretch to the onset of muscle activity. All muscles were responsive to physiologic high-rate FJC stretch. The deep muscles (MF and LC) were recruited at significantly smaller capsule loads and onset latencies than the superficial muscles (TR and SM). MF activation strain was significantly smaller than LC and TR activation strains. These data were also compared to previously published low-rate data. MF was the first muscle group to be recruited regardless of the activation criterion under consideration (i.e. strain, load, or latency) or the rate of FJC stretch. LC recruitment occurred significantly sooner under high-rate vs. low-rate FJC stretch. The results of this study provide further evidence of extensive ligamento-muscular reflex pathways between the FJC and the cervical musculature, which are responsive to both low-rate and high-rate FJC stretch. These data add to our knowledge of the dynamic response of paraspinal muscles relative to facet joint motion and provide a unique contribution to enhance the precision of computer-simulated impacts. PMID:22869317
Azar, Nadia R; Kallakuri, Srinivasu; Chen, Chaoyang; Cavanaugh, John M
Phytophthora sp. is a genus in the oomycetes, which are similar to filamentous fungi in morphology and habitat, but phylogenetically more closely related to brown algae and diatoms and fall in the kingdom Stramenopila. In the past few years, several viruses have been characterized in Phytophthora species, including four viruses from Phytophthora infestans, the late blight pathogen, and an endornavirus from an unnamed Phytophthora species from Douglas fir. Studies on Phytophthora viruses have revealed several interesting systems. Phytophthora infestans RNA virus 1 (PiRV-1) and PiRV-2 are likely the first members of two new virus families; studies on PiRV-3 support the establishment of a new virus genus that is not affiliated with established virus families; PiRV-4 is a member of Narnaviridae, most likely in the genus Narnavirus; and Phytophthora endornavirus 1 (PEV1) was the first nonplant endornavirus at the time of reporting. Viral capsids have not been found in any of the above-mentioned viruses. PiRV-1 demonstrated a unique genome organization that requires further examination, and PiRV-2 may have played a role in late blight resurgence in 1980s-1990s. PMID:23498912
Ganjam virus (GANV), a member of genus Nairovirus of family Bunyavirdae is of considerable veterinary importance in India. Though, predominantly tick borne, GANV was also isolated from mosquitoes, man and sheep. Neutralizing and complement fixing antibodies to GANV have been detected in animal and human sera collected from different parts of the country. Thirty three strains of GANV have been isolated from India, mainly from Haemaphysalis ticks. The virus replicated in certain vertebrate and mosquito cell lines and found pathogenic to laboratory animals. One natural infection and five laboratory-acquired infections in men were also reported. GANV is antigenically related to Nairobi sheep disease virus (NSDV) of Africa, which is highly pathogenic for sheep and goats causing 70-90 per cent mortality among the susceptible population. Recent molecular studies have demonstrated that GANV is an Asian variant of NSDV and both these viruses are related to the dreaded Crimean Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) group viruses. The versatility of the virus to replicate in different arthropod species, its ability to infect sheep, goat and man makes it an important zoonotic agent. PMID:20090098
... virus is a virus that can infect humans, birds, horses and mosquitoes. Infection from this virus is ... spread by mosquitoes. Mosquitoes become infected by biting birds that carry the virus. People can get West ...
A recombinant protein-based ELISA was evaluated for detecting antibodies to foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) serotype Asia 1. The recombinant protein (rP13C) was derived from the P1 precursor and 3C protease genes that were cloned into a single expression vector and expressed in insect cells. This protein elicited a low titer of FMDV neutralizing antibodies in pigs. Its utility as a diagnostic antigen was explored in a blocking ELISA using monoclonal antibodies. The rP13C ELISA yielded higher endpoint titers than the liquid phase blocking (LPB) ELISA and virus neutralization test performed on sera from goats challenged with FMDV post-vaccination. The rP13C ELISA correctly scored the FMD international reference weak positive serum. The relative sensitivity between the rP13C ELISA and LPB ELISA was equivalent for vaccinated sera. With this comparable sensitivity, the rP13C ELISA exhibited a specificity of 99.7% for domestic naive swine, bovine and caprine sera. This report demonstrates that an ELISA using recombinant proteins has the potential to replace the LPB ELISA using an inactivated FMDV antigen as a simple and robust serological tool for screening antibodies to FMDV serotype Asia 1. PMID:19442854
Human parainfluenza viruses (HPIV) were first discovered in the late 1950s. Over the last decade, considerable knowledge about their molecular structure and function has been accumulated. This has led to significant changes in both the nomenclature and taxonomic relationships of these viruses. HPIV is genetically and antigenically divided into types 1 to 4. Further major subtypes of HPIV-4 (A and B) and subgroups/genotypes of HPIV-1 and HPIV-3 have been described. HPIV-1 to HPIV-3 are major causes of lower respiratory infections in infants, young children, the immunocompromised, the chronically ill, and the elderly. Each subtype can cause somewhat unique clinical diseases in different hosts. HPIV are enveloped and of medium size (150 to 250 nm), and their RNA genome is in the negative sense. These viruses belong to the Paramyxoviridae family, one of the largest and most rapidly growing groups of viruses causing significant human and veterinary disease. HPIV are closely related to recently discovered megamyxoviruses (Hendra and Nipah viruses) and metapneumovirus.
Camelpox virus (CMLV) causes a smallpox-like illness in a unique host, the camel. The disease is enzootic in almost all regions where camel husbandry is practiced, and is responsible for severe economic losses. Although it is genetically the closest known virus to variola virus, the etiologic agent of smallpox, CMLV remains poorly studied. It is characterized by a narrow host range, the capacity to induce giant cells in culture and to counteract host immune defenses; however, the genetic bases associated with these features are not understood. Also, it still needs to be demonstrated whether CMLV strains of variable virulence circulate and how arthropod vectors might be involved in virus transmission. Current evidence indicates that, under certain circumstances, CMLV can be mildly pathogenic in humans. A reservoir host other than camels is unlikely to exist. We review here current knowledge of CMLV, including clinical and laboratory aspects of the disease. We also discuss prevention and therapy by use of vaccines and antiviral treatments, as well as the possibility of camelpox eradication. PMID:21945248
Duraffour, Sophie; Meyer, Hermann; Andrei, Graciela; Snoeck, Robert
An attenuated influenza virus of a first strain is described together with a method for preparing the attenuated influenza virus. The attenuated influenza virus of the first strain comprises a sufficient number of single strand RNA segments of negative po...
P. Palese T. Muster B. R. Murphy M. Enami M. Bergmann
It has been found that plant viruses and viroids can be inhibited by treating plants infected with or exposed to viruses or viroids with a virus-inhibiting amount of a maleic acid, maleic anhydride or fumaric acid copolymer.
... carriers of the virus by feeding on infected birds. Although other animals have been infected with the virusincluding horses, bats, squirrels, and domestic animalsbirds are the most common reservoir. Once the virus ...
There has been much recent algorithmic work on the problem of reconstructing the evolutionary history of biological species. Computer virus specialists are interested in finding the evolutionary history of computer viruses--a virus is often written using ...
L. A. Goldberg P. W. Goldberg C. A. Phillips G. B. Sorkin
Viruses are the largest reservoir of genetic material on the planet, yet little is known about the population dynamics of any virus within its natural environment. Over a 2-year period, we monitored the diversity of two archaeal viruses found in hot springs within Yellowstone National Park (YNP). Both temporal phylogeny and neutral biodiversity models reveal that virus diversity in these local environments is not being maintained by mutation but rather by high rates of immigration from a globally distributed metacommunity. These results indicate that geographically isolated hot springs are readily able to exchange viruses. The importance of virus movement is supported by the detection of virus particles in air samples collected over YNP hot springs and by their detection in metacommunity sequencing projects conducted in the Sargasso Sea. Rapid rates of virus movement are not expected to be unique to these archaeal viruses but rather a common feature among virus metacommunities. The finding that virus immigration rather than mutation can dominate community structure has significant implications for understanding virus circulation and the role that viruses play in ecology and evolution by providing a reservoir of mobile genetic material.
J. Snyder; B. Wiedenheft; M. Lavin; F. Roberto; J. Spuhler; A. Ortmann; T. Douglas; M. Young
Soon after the discovery that viruses cause human disease, started the idea of using viruses to treat cancer. After the initial indiscriminate use, crude preparations of each novel virus in the early twentieth century, a second wave of virotherapy blossomed in the 60s with purified and selected viruses. Responses were rare and short-lived. Immune rejection of the oncolytic viruses was identified as the major problem and virotherapy was abandoned. During the past two decades virotherapy has re-emerged with engineered viruses, with a trend towards using them as tumor-debulking immunostimulatory agents combined with radio or chemotherapy. Currently, oncolytic Reovirus, Herpes, and Vaccinia virus are in late phase clinical trials. Despite the renewed hope, efficacy will require improving systemic tumor targeting, overcoming stroma barriers for virus spread, and selectively stimulating immune responses against tumor antigens but not against the virus. Virotherapy history, viruses, considerations for clinical trials, and hurdles are briefly overviewed. PMID:23143950
The West Nile virus (WNV) belongs to the genus Flavivirus (family Flaviviridae) and was previously classified as a group B\\u000a arbovirus. These disease-causing pathogens are spread to humans by insects, usually mosquitoes. Other flaviviruses include\\u000a the Yellow fever virus, Japanese encephalitis virus, dengue virus, and the Saint Louis encephalitis virus (see sections on\\u000a flaviviruses in Chapters 19 and 23). The
Influenza viruses and pneumotropic animal viruses are characterized. The morphology, pathology and immunology of these viruses are discussed. A classification of species and types is given for the pneumotropic animal viruses. The epidemiology and mode of ...
Migration of neutrophils into mammary tissue provides the first immunological line of defense against bacteria that penetrate the physical barrier of the teat canal. Evasion of neutrophil defenses provides an opportunity for invading bacteria to become established. Depletion of neutrophils results in a dramatic increase in susceptibility to intramammary infection. Numerous cytoplasmic particles are shed from the apical surface of mammary secretory cells during milk secretion in goats. Only those counting methods that are specific for deoxyribonucleic acid can distinguish cell-like particles from somatic cells and thereby give reliable estimates of somatic cell numbers in goat milk. Unlike in milk from dairy cows, the somatic cell count in goat milk is influenced by the presence of nucleated cytoplasmic particles, stage of lactation, parity, and caprinearthritis-encephalitis. Investigations indicate that a dry period is necessary for optimal milk production in dairy cows but may not be necessary in goats. However, in many other respects regulation of bovine and caprine lactation seems to be quite similar. Studies have demonstrated additive galactopoietic effects of growth hormone and frequent milking in both species and a recently isolated chemical feedback inhibitor of lactation seems effective across both species. Increasing lactational performance has the potential for decreasing milk somatic cell counts in late lactation. PMID:9051480
Viruses exist wherever life is found. They are a major cause of mortality, a driver of global geochemical cycles and a reservoir of the greatest genetic diversity on Earth. In the oceans, viruses probably infect all living things, from bacteria to whales. They affect the form of available nutrients and the termination of algal blooms. Viruses can move between marine and terrestrial reservoirs, raising the spectre of emerging pathogens. Our understanding of the effect of viruses on global systems and processes continues to unfold, overthrowing the idea that viruses and virus-mediated processes are sidebars to global processes. PMID:16163346
Viruses exist wherever life is found. They are a major cause of mortality, a driver of global geochemical cycles and a reservoir of the greatest genetic diversity on Earth. In the oceans, viruses probably infect all living things, from bacteria to whales. They affect the form of available nutrients and the termination of algal blooms. Viruses can move between marine and terrestrial reservoirs, raising the spectre of emerging pathogens. Our understanding of the effect of viruses on global systems and processes continues to unfold, overthrowing the idea that viruses and virus-mediated processes are sidebars to global processes.
India is endemic for foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), and goats constitute the second largest susceptible population of domestic livestock. FMD surveillance and control strategies in the country largely ignore small ruminants, known to be critical in the epidemiology of the disease. Here, serological investigations were carried out to generate estimates of antibody prevalence in goats of Orissa state to both non-structural (NSP-Ab) and structural proteins (SP-Ab) of FMD. The apparent overall NSP-Ab and SP-Ab seroprevalences were 38% and 20.7%, respectively, which signifies a very high level of FMD virus circulation in the goat population despite the lack of clinical signs in this species. The apparent prevalence of NSP-Ab and SP-Ab was positively correlated in the sampling areas. Interestingly, the values found for NSP-Ab prevalence were almost consistently higher than those found for SP-Ab prevalence. This could have been attributable to either issues related to sensitivity and specificity of the test systems employed or differences in the post-infection kinetics of NSP- and SP-Ab. The pattern that emerged from SP-Ab analysis indicated goats being infected with all three prevalent serotypes (O, A and Asia 1) and reinforces the concept that non-vaccinated goats can be exploited as tracer animals for detecting serotypes involved in outbreaks. The results underscore the requirement to bring caprine species under comprehensive surveillance and vaccination campaigns to check silent amplification, excretion and transmission of the virus. PMID:20723161
Ranabijuli, S; Mohapatra, J K; Pandey, L K; Rout, M; Sanyal, A; Dash, B B; Sarangi, L N; Panda, H K; Pattnaik, B
The invention relates, in general, to chimeric dengue viruses. In particular, the invention relates to chimeric dengue viruses and vaccines comprising same. Further, the invention relates to segments of dengue viral DNA.
This book contains eight chapters. Some of the titles are: Initiation of viral DNA replication; Vaccinia: virus, vector, vaccine; The pre-S region of hepadnavirus envelope proteins; and Archaebacterial viruses.
Maramorosch, K. (Rutgers--the State Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (USA)); Murphy, F.A. (Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, GA (USA)); Shatkin, A.J. (Rutgers-UMDNJ, Piscataway, NJ (US))
The invention is related generally to the isolation and characterization of a new virus. More particularly, it is related to providing a biologically pure, isolated human B lymphotropic virus, molecular clones, nucleic acid, distinctive antigenic proteins...
This book contains papers on the following topics: Immunology and Epidemiology, Biology and Pathogenesis, Models of Pathogenesis and Treatment, Simian and Bovine Retroviruses, Human Papilloma Viruses, EBV and Herpesvirus, and Hepatitis B Virus.
Gallo, R.C.; Haseltine, W.; Klein, G.; Zur Hausen, H.
This book contains 14 selections. Some of the titles are: Immortalising gene(s) encoded by Epstein-Barr Virus; Adenovirus genes involved in transformation. What determines the oncogenic phenotype.; Oncogenesis by mouse mammary tumour virus; and Transforming ras genes.
Good introduction and synopsis of West Nile Virus. Briefly reporting on such topics as geographic distribution, symptoms and treatment, transmission and prevention. The article includes a list of references for further investigation into the West Nile Virus.
West Nile virus is a disease spread by mosquitoes. The condition ranges from mild to severe. ... West Nile virus was first identified in 1937 in Uganda in eastern Africa. It was first discovered in ...
West Nile virus (WNV) is an infectious disease that first appeared in the United States in 1999. Infected ... and usually go away on their own. If West Nile virus enters the brain, however, it can be ...
... West Nile virus has been found in animals, birds, and humans in all continental states in the ... picked up the virus after feeding on infected birds. Pets and other animals can also become infected ...
One of the few solid theoretical results in the study of computer viruses is Cohen's 1987 demonstration that there is no algorithm that can perfectly detect all possible viruses . This brief paper adds to the bad news, by pointing out that there are computer viruses which no algorithm can detect, even under a somewhat more liberal definition of detection.
An immunoscreening strategy was used to isolate a cDNA clone encoding the binding domain for the external glycoprotein gp51 of the bovine leukemia virus (BLV). Three recombinant phages demonstrating BLV binding activity and containing 2.3-kbp cDNA inserts with identical nucleotide sequences were isolated from a lambda gt11 cDNA library of bovine kidney cells (MDBK). One clone, BLVRcp1, hybridized with a 4.8-kb mRNA from cells of bovine origin and was also found to be conserved as a single-copy gene in murine, bovine, ovine, primate, canine, feline, and porcine DNAs. The same gene is amplified in caprine DNA isolated from a BLV-induced tumor. The longest open reading frame of BLVRcp1 encodes a protein fragment of 729 amino acids with a putative receptor structure. BLVRcp1 cDNA was cloned in the eucaryotic expression vector pXT-1 and transfected into murine NIH 3T3 and human HEp-2 cells. Cells expressing BLVRcp1 mRNA became susceptible to BLV infection. BLVRcp1 has no known physiological function and has no significant homology with sequences registered in the GenBank and EMBL data libraries (31 July 1992). Expression of deleted constructs of BLVRcp1 indicates that the BLV binding region is encoded at the 5' side of the receptor clone. Images
An immunoscreening strategy was used to isolate a cDNA clone encoding the binding domain for the external glycoprotein gp51 of the bovine leukemia virus (BLV). Three recombinant phages demonstrating BLV binding activity and containing 2.3-kbp cDNA inserts with identical nucleotide sequences were isolated from a lambda gt11 cDNA library of bovine kidney cells (MDBK). One clone, BLVRcp1, hybridized with a 4.8-kb mRNA from cells of bovine origin and was also found to be conserved as a single-copy gene in murine, bovine, ovine, primate, canine, feline, and porcine DNAs. The same gene is amplified in caprine DNA isolated from a BLV-induced tumor. The longest open reading frame of BLVRcp1 encodes a protein fragment of 729 amino acids with a putative receptor structure. BLVRcp1 cDNA was cloned in the eucaryotic expression vector pXT-1 and transfected into murine NIH 3T3 and human HEp-2 cells. Cells expressing BLVRcp1 mRNA became susceptible to BLV infection. BLVRcp1 has no known physiological function and has no significant homology with sequences registered in the GenBank and EMBL data libraries (31 July 1992). Expression of deleted constructs of BLVRcp1 indicates that the BLV binding region is encoded at the 5' side of the receptor clone. PMID:8380453
The destruction made by nuclear, biological and chemical weapons used by governments and terrorist groups in the near history is posing anxiety and fear for human being. Rumour about the possible use of these agents leads to the development of serious negative effects on populations. Since there are no vaccine and therapy for most viral agents and cost of production as biological weapons is low, interest rate is rising for viruses. In this review, general characteristics, diagnosis, therapy and protective measures for viral agents such as variola virus, hemorrhagic fever viruses, encephalitis viruses, Hantaviruses and Nipah viruses, those can be used as biological weapon, have been summarized. PMID:16358499
Bananas and other Musa spp. are affected by fi ve known, relatively well-characterized viruses: these are Banana bunchy top virus (BBTV) genus Nanavirus; Banana streak virus (BSV) genus Badnavirus, Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) genus Cucumovi- rus, Banana bract mosaic virus (BBrMV) genus Potyvirus, and Abaca mosaic virus (AbaMV) genus Potyvirus. Recently, new fi lamentous virus particles have been noted in
Archaeal viruses represent one of the least known territory of the viral universe and even less is known about their lipids. Based on the current knowledge, however, it seems that, as in other viruses, archaeal viral lipids are mostly incorporated into membranes that reside either as outer envelopes or membranes inside an icosahedral capsid. Mechanisms for the membrane acquisition seem to be similar to those of viruses infecting other host organisms. There are indications that also some proteins of archaeal viruses are lipid modified. Further studies on the characterization of lipids in archaeal viruses as well as on their role in virion assembly and infectivity require not only highly purified viral material but also, for example, constant evaluation of the adaptability of emerging technologies for their analysis. Biological membranes contain proteins and membranes of archaeal viruses are not an exception. Archaeal viruses as relatively simple systems can be used as excellent tools for studying the lipid protein interactions in archaeal membranes.
Viruses are compact biological nanoparticles whose elastic and dynamical properties are hardly known. Inelastic (Brillouin) light scattering was used to characterize these properties, from microcrystals of the Satellite Tobacco Mosaic Virus, a nearly spherical plant virus of 17-nm diameter. Longitudinal sound velocities in wet and dry Satellite Tobacco Mosaic Virus crystals were determined and compared to that of the well-known protein crystal, lysozyme. Localized vibrational modes of the viral particles (i.e., particle modes) were sought in the relevant frequency ranges, as derived assuming the viruses as full free nanospheres. Despite very favorable conditions, regarding virus concentration and expected low damping in dry microcrystals, no firm evidence of virus particle modes could be detected.
Stephanidis, B.; Adichtchev, S.; Gouet, P.; McPherson, A.; Mermet, A.
Acute bee paralysis virus (ABPV), Kashmir bee virus (KBV) and Israeli acute paralysis virus (IAPV) are part of a complex of closely related viruses from the Family Dicistroviridae. These viruses have a widespread prevalence in honey bee (Apis mellifera) colonies and a predominantly sub-clinical etiology that contrasts sharply with the extremely virulent pathology encountered at elevated titres, either artificially induced
Water samples collected from four perennially ice-covered Antarctic lakes during the austral summer of 1996-1997 contained high densities of extracellular viruses. Many of these viruses were found to be morphologically similar to double-stranded DNA viruses that are known to infect algae and protozoa. These constitute the first observations of viruses in perennially ice-covered polar lakes. The abundance of planktonic viruses and data suggesting substantial production potential (relative to bacteria] secondary and photosynthetic primary production) indicate that viral lysis may be a major factor in the regulation of microbial populations in these extreme environments. Furthermore, we suggest that Antarctic lakes may be a reservoir of previously undescribed viruses that possess novel biological and biochemical characteristics. PMID:11543124
There has been much recent algorithmic work on the problem of reconstructing the evolutionary history of biological species. Computer virus specialists are interested in finding the evolutionary history of computer viruses--a virus is often written using code fragments from one or more other viruses, which are its immediate ancestors. A phylogeny for a collection of computer viruses is a directed acyclic graph whose nodes are the viruses and whose edges map ancestors to descendants and satisfy the property that each code fragment is ``invented`` only once. To provide a simple explanation for the data, we consider the problem of constructing such a phylogeny with a minimal number of edges. In general, this optimization problem cannot be solved in quasi-polynomial time unless NQP=QP; we present positive and negative results for associated approximated problems. When tree solutions exist, they can be constructed and randomly sampled in polynomial time.
Goldberg, L.A. [Warwick Univ., Coventry (United Kingdom) Dept. of Computer Science; Goldberg, P.W. [Aston Univ., Birmingham (United Kingdom) Dept. of Applied Mathematics; Phillips, C.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sorkin, G.B. [International Business Machines Corp., Yorktown Heights, NY (United States). Thomas J. Watson Research Center
The technologies of recombinant gene expression have greatly enhanced the structural and functional analyses of genetic elements\\u000a and proteins. Vaccinia virus, a large double-stranded DNA virus and the prototypic and best characterized member of the poxvirus\\u000a family, has been an instrumental tool among these technologies and the recombinant vaccinia virus system has been widely employed\\u000a to express genes from eukaryotic,
This page contains lecture notes on the origins and evolution of viruses. The primary topics covered are the diversity of extant viruses, the probability of multiple origins, and host-virus co-evolution. There are links to definitions and further explanations by the author, as well as to articles or discussions in Scientific American, MicrobiologyBytes, and Viroblogy. This page originates from an undergraduate course, but most information would be accessible to high school students.
Most of the 25 viruses found in globe artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) and cardoon (Cynara cardunculus L.) were recorded from Europe and the Mediterranean basin, where they decrease both the productivity and the quality of the crop. Although, sometimes, these viruses are agents of diseases of different severity, most often their infections are symptomless. These conditions have contributed to spread virus-infected material since farmers multiply traditional artichoke types vegetatively with no effective selection of virus-free plants. This review reports the main properties of these viruses and the techniques used for their detection and identification. ELISA kits are commercially available for most of the viruses addressed in this review but have seldom been used for their detection in artichoke. Conversely, nucleic acid-based diagnostic reagents, some of which are commercially available, have successfully been employed to identify some viruses in artichoke sap. Control measures mainly use virus-free stocks for new plantations. A combined procedure of meristem-tip culture and thermotherapy proved useful for producing virus-free regenerants of the reflowering southern Italian cultivar Brindisino, which kept earliness and typical heads shape. PMID:22682171
Gallitelli, Donato; Mascia, Tiziana; Martelli, Giovanni P
This Web site contains the most recent West Nile virus data from the Centers for Disease Control. The main features include a 2003 Human Case Count and updated maps representing the spread of the virus. A downloadable document outlines the CDC's West Nile virus surveillance and control program, which involves weekly data collection for wild birds, sentinel chicken flocks, human cases, veterinary cases, and mosquito surveillance. The site also provides links to general information about the virus, from the ecology and virology of West Nile to epidemiological and laboratory issues.
The term papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) was coined by Jensen in 1949, to describe a papaya disease in Hawaii. Later work showed that diseases such as papaya mosaic and watermelon mosaic virus-1 were caused by PRSV. The primary host range of PRSV is papaya and cucurbits, with Chenopium amaranticolor ...
Papaya ringspot virus, a member of the family Potyviridae, is single stranded RNA plant virus with a monocistronic genome of about 10,326 nucleotides that is expressed via a large polyprotein subsequently cleaved into functional proteins. It causes severe damage on cucurbit crops such as squash and...
The availability of reliable models of computer virus propa- gation would prove useful in a number of ways, in order both to predict future threats, and to develop new containment measures. In this pa- per, we review the most popular models of virus propagation, analyzing the underlying assumptions of each of them, their strengths and their weaknesses. We also introduce
Infections with bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) result in significant economic losses for beef and dairy producers worldwide. BVDV is actually an umbrella term for two species of viruses, BVDV1 and BVDV2, within the Pestivirus genus of the Flavivirus family. While denoted as a bovine pathogen...
Recombination contributes to the generation of genetic diversity in human immunodeficiency viruses (HIV) but can only occur between viruses replicating within the same cell. Since individuals have not been found to be simultaneously coinfected with multiple divergent strains of HIV-1 or HIV-2, recombination events have been thought to be restricted to the rather closely related members of the quasispecies that
David L. Robertson; Beatrice H. Hahn; Paul M. Sharp
Deformed wing virus (DWV; Iflaviridae) is one of many viruses infecting honeybees and one of the most heavily investigated due to its close association with honeybee colony collapse induced by Varroadestructor. In the absence of V.destructor DWV infection does not result in visible symptoms or any apparent negative impact on host fitness. However, for reasons that are still not fully
This page is part of a web site that was created as a tutorial for an introductory virology class for college level microbiology students. It includes links to definitions of virus, virions, other virus-like-agents, and organisms, as well as the "definition of life".
DNA recombinant technology has radically changed hepatitis B virus (HBV) virology. The genetic organization, transcription and replication of the virus are basically understood, structures of integrated HBV sequences in hepatocellular carcinoma have been characterized, and new vaccines produced by recombinant DNA technique are being developed.
Genital warts are believed to be caused by human papilloma viruses and to be sexually transmitted. The viruses are classified by DNA types, which appear to cause different types of disease. The choice of treatment, and usually its success rate, vary according to the type of disease and its location.
More than 50% of the outbreaks of waterborne disease in the United States are due to the consumption of contaminated groundwater. An estimated 65% of the cases in these outbreaks are caused by enteric viruses. Little, however, is known about the persistence of viruses in groundwater. The purpose of this study was to determine whether measurable chemical and physical factors correlate with virus survival in groundwater. Groundwater samples were obtained from 11 sites throughout the United States. Water temperature was measured at the time of collection. Several physical and chemical characteristics, including pH, nitrates, turbidity, and hardness, were determined for each sample. Separate water samples were inoculated with each of three viruses (poliovirus 1, echovirus 1, and MS-2 coliphage) and incubated at the in situ groundwater temperature; selected samples were also incubated at other temperatures. Assays were performed at predetermined intervals over a 30-day period to determine the number of infective viruses remaining. Multiple regression analysis revealed that temperature was the only variable significantly correlated with the decay rates of all three viruses. No significant differences were found among the decay rates of the three viruses, an indication that MS-2 coliphage might be used as a model of animal virus survival in groundwater.
The current paradigm on the nature of viruses is based on early work of the phage group (the pro-phage concept) and molecular biologists working on tumour viruses (the proto-oncogene concept). It posits that viruses evolved from either prokaryotic or eukaryotic cellular genes that became infectious via their association with capsid genes. In this view, after their emergence viruses continued to
Schmallenberg virus (SBV), an orthobunyavirus of the Simbu serogroup, recently emerged in Europe and has been suggested to be a Shamonda/Sathuperi virus reassortant. Results of full-genome and serologic investigations indicate that SBV belongs to the species Sathuperi virus and is a possible ancestor of the reassortant Shamonda virus.
Goller, Katja V.; Hoper, Dirk; Schirrmeier, Horst; Mettenleiter, Thomas C.
Cells are equipped with mechanisms that allow them to rapidly detect and respond to viruses. These defense mechanisms rely partly on receptors that monitor the cytosol for the presence of atypical nucleic acids associated with virus infection. RIG-I-like receptors detect RNA molecules that are absent from the uninfected host. DNA receptors alert the cell to the abnormal presence of that nucleic acid in the cytosol. Signaling by RNA and DNA receptors results in the induction of restriction factors that prevent virus replication and establish cell-intrinsic antiviral immunity. In light of these formidable obstacles, viruses have evolved mechanisms of evasion, masking nucleic acid structures recognized by the host, sequestering themselves away from the cytosol or targeting host sensors, and signaling adaptors for deactivation or degradation. Here, we detail recent advances in the molecular understanding of cytosolic nucleic acid detection and its evasion by viruses. PMID:23706667
Goubau, Delphine; Deddouche, Safia; Reis E Sousa, Caetano
Recent studies on virus discovery have focused mainly on mammalian and avian viruses. Arbovirology with its long tradition of ecologically oriented investigation is now catching up, with important novel insights into the diversity of arthropod-associated viruses. Recent discoveries include taxonomically outlying viruses within the families Flaviviridae, Togaviridae, and Bunyaviridae, and even novel virus families within the order Nidovirales. However, the current focusing of studies on blood-feeding arthropods has restricted the range of arthropod hosts analyzed for viruses so far. Future investigations should include species from other arthropod taxa than Ixodita, Culicidae and Phlebotominae in order to shed light on the true diversity of arthropod viruses. PMID:23850098
|Viruses have evolved strategies for infecting all taxa, but most viruses are highly specific about their cellular host. In humans, viruses cause diverse diseases, from chronic but benign warts, to acute and deadly hemorrhagic fever. Viruses have entertaining names like Zucchini Yellow Mosaic, Semliki Forest, Coxsackie, and the original
What is hepatitis B virus? Hepatitis B virus is one of a number of hepatitis viruses that attack and damage the liver. Other types include hepatitis A, ... upper-right side of your abdomen. How is hepatitis B transmitted? Hepatitis B virus is passed from ...
Pregastric lipases from kid (KPGL) and goat (GPGL) were purified from the commercial extracts by different chromatographic\\u000a procedures. The total recovery of activity for both purification methods was ca. 10%, and the specific activities of KPGL and GPGL were 533 and 546 U\\/mg, respectively, at pH 6.5, 35°C for tributyrylglycerol\\u000a (TBG) as substrate in a casein\\/lecithin emulsion. The purification factors
Douglas T. Lai; Roger D. Stanley; Charmian J. OConnor
Listeriosis may occur as an economically important disease of ruminants in which the predominant clinical signs are either those of encephalitis, septicaemia or abortion. The encephalitic form is the most common in adult ruminants and is frequently fatal. Different serotypes of Listeria monocytogenes exist but the pathogenesis and epidemiology of infection are poorly understood. Listeriosis is of importance in temperate
Pathological conditions in lungs of slaughtered goats were studied. Sixty lungs were examined and tissue samples and swabs obtained for histopathology and bacterial isolation, respectively. The prevalence of lung diseases was 58.3% (n=35). Gross lesions were categorized into: (a) haemorrhage and congestion 25% (b) emphysema 21.7% (c) hepatization 3.3% and (d) granulomatous nodules about 1 mm diameter 8.3%. On histopathological
T. Ferdausi; M. G. Haider; K. J. Alam; M. A. Baki; M. M. Hossain
Oncolytic virotherapy is a promising form of gene therapy for cancer, employing nature's own agents to find and destroy malignant cells. The purpose of this review is to provide an introduction to this very topical field of research and to point out some of the current observations, insights and ideas circulating in the literature. We have strived to acknowledge as many different oncolytic viruses as possible to give a broader picture of targeting cancer using viruses. Some of the newest additions to the panel of oncolytic viruses include the avian adenovirus, foamy virus, myxoma virus, yaba-like disease virus, echovirus type 1, bovine herpesvirus 4, Saimiri virus, feline panleukopenia virus, Sendai virus and the non-human coronaviruses. Although promising, virotherapy still faces many obstacles that need to be addressed, including the emergence of virus-resistant tumor cells. PMID:17383089
Vähä-Koskela, Markus J V; Heikkilä, Jari E; Hinkkanen, Ari E
Students simulate the spread of a virus such as HIV through a population by âsharingâ (but not drinking) the water in a plastic cup with several classmates. Although invisible, the water in a few of the cups will already be tainted with the âvirusâ (sodium carbonate). After all the students have shared their liquids, the contents of the cups will be tested for the virus with phenolphthalein, a chemical that causes a striking color change in the presence of sodium carbonate. Students will then set about trying to determine which of their classmates were the ones originally infected with the virus.
Dengue, a major public health problem throughout subtropical and tropical regions, is an acute infectious disease characterized by biphasic fever, headache, pain in various parts of the body, prostration, rash, lymphadenopathy, and leukopenia. In more severe or complicated dengue, patients present with a severe febrile illness characterized by abnormalities of hemostasis and increased vascular permeability, which in some instances results in a hypovolemic shock. Four distinct serotypes of the dengue virus (dengue-1, dengue-2, dengue-3, and dengue-4) exist, with numerous virus strains found worldwide. Molecular cloning methods have led to a greater understanding of the structure of the RNA genome and definition of virus-specific structural and nonstructural proteins. Progress towards producing safe, effective dengue virus vaccines, a goal for over 45 years, has been made. Images
Linda Stannard of the University of Capetown, South Africa, has composed a page which, although it was intended to serve as an introductory manual for students of virology, can be appreciated by a wide audience. A section on the principles of virus architecture uses text and outstanding graphics to provide an introduction to why viruses look the way they do. Other parts of the site emphasize how virus shapes and structures are "seen" and recorded with sections on negative staining and electron microscopy of DNA- and RNA-containing viruses. This site's success relies on the use of well-chosen graphics and the inclusion of interesting factoids such as the following: "The head of a dress-maker's pin can provide seating accommodation for five hundred million rhinoviruses (cause of the common cold)!".
... Approval of new bulk manufacturing facility for production of Influenza Virus Vaccine. -. Key Resources. ... Key Links. Flu.gov. -. Contact FDA. ... More results from www.fda.gov/biologicsbloodvaccines/safetyavailability/vaccinesafety
... Baseball Injuries Jellyfish The Pink Locker Society What's West Nile Virus? KidsHealth > Kids > Illnesses & Injuries > Aches, Pains & Injuries > ... are most at risk for the infection. Continue West Nile Symptoms Most of the time, symptoms of West ...
The invention provides new methods for purifying and concentrating viruses. The inventors have discovered that high molecular weight proteoglycans present in retroviral stocks are co-concentrated with the retroviruses, and can inhibit retroviral transduct...
... often spreads very rapidly in crowded households and day care centers. The virus can live for a half ... The following increase the risk for RSV: Attending day care Being near tobacco smoke Having school-aged brothers ...
Those who wish for an antivirus program that is both versatile and reliable should definitely consider this latest iteration of the AVG Anti-Virus program. With this program, visitors can be assured that AVG will look for new virus definitions on a daily basis and that it will also create an effective rescue disk in case a dire situation emerges. This website features a number of archived versions of the AVG software for users to choose from.
West Nile virus (WNV) is a small RNA virus. It was first isolated in the blood of a febrile woman in the West Nile district\\u000a of Uganda in 1937. Although WNV has caused human disease in Africa and Europe since its identification, the first documented\\u000a human infections occurred in the United States in 1999. Wild birds are the reservoir for
The association between human enteric viruses and disease is well established. However, determining the presence of all of\\u000a the many types of viruses that are pathogenic to humans in food and water is not practical at this time. Because enteric bacteria\\u000a are usual inhabitants of the human intestinal tract, they have been used as indicators of fecal pollution and the
Oncogenic viruses of nonhuman primates were reviewed. Viruses of nonhuman primate origin oncogenic in other nonhuman primates includes Herpesvirus saimiri and ateles, simian sarcoma virus, Yaba poxvirus, and oral papilloma virus. SV-40 and simian adenovir...
Pyrosequencing data and phylogenetic analysis for the full genome of Ilesha virus, Ngari virus and Calovo virus are described clarifying their much discussed relationship within the species Bunyamwera virus of the genus Orthobunyavirus of the Bunyaviridae. PMID:23686694
Dilcher, Meik; Sall, Amadou A; Hufert, Frank T; Weidmann, Manfred
Over the past several years a wide variety of molecular assays for the detection of respiratory viruses has reached the market. The tests described herein range from kits containing primers and probes detecting specific groups of viruses, to self-contained systems requiring specialized instruments that extract nucleic acids and perform the polymerase chain reaction with little operator input. Some of the tests target just the viruses involved in large yearly epidemics such as influenza, or specific groups of viruses such as the adenoviruses or parainfluenza viruses; others can detect most of the known respiratory viruses and some bacterial agents. PMID:23931834
The coding sequences for the hepatitis B virus surface antigen, the herpes simplex virus glycoprotein D, and the influenza virus hemagglutinin were inserted into a single vaccinia virus genome. Rabbits inoculated intravenously or intradermally with this polyvalent vaccinia virus recombinant produced antibodies reactive to all three authentic foreign antigens. In addition, the feasibility of multiple rounds of vaccination with recombinant vaccinia virus was demonstrated.
Perkus, Marion E.; Piccini, Antonia; Lipinskas, Bernard R.; Paoletti, Enzo
Short-term cultures of bovine leukemic lymphocytes release virus particles with biochemical properties of RNA oncogenic viruses. These particles, tentatively called bovine leukemia virus (BLV), have a high molecular weight RNA-reverse transcriptase complex and a density of 1.155 g\\/ml in sucrose solutions. Molecular hybridizations between BLV [3H]cDNA and several viral RNAs show that BLV is not related to Mason-Pfizer monkey virus,
R. Kettmann; D. Portetelle; M. Mammerickx; Y. Cleuter; D. Dekegel; M. Galoux; J. Ghysdael; A. Burny; H. Chantrenne
Background: Pestiviruses are the veterinary viruses with genome homology to human hepatitis C virus (HCV). This group includes classical swine fever virus (CSFV), border disease virus of sheep (BDV) and bovine virus diarrhoea virus (BVDV). There are some similarities in the pathology of all three virus infections; in utero transmission to the foetus can cause early embryonic losses, severe congenital
SUMMARY Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) grown in mouse embryo cells pre-infected with murine sarcoma virus or in chicken cells pre-infected with avian myeloblastosis virus contains, in contrast to virus grown in corresponding control cells, a proportion of virus resistant to antiserum against VSV. Infectivity of this virus fraction can specifically be neutralized with antiserum against murine leukaemia virus (MLV) and
More than 500 million people worldwide are persistently infected with the hepatitis B virus (HBV) and\\/or hepatitis C virus (HCV) and are at risk of developing chronic liver disease, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Despite many common features in the pathogenesis of HBV- and HCV-related liver disease, these viruses markedly differ in their virological properties and in their immune escape and
Screening investigations in antiviral action of plant extracts have revealed that a component of Glycyrrhiza glabra roots, found to be glycyrrhizic acid, is active against viruses. We report here that this drug inhibits growth and cytopathology of several unrelated DNA and RNA viruses, while not affecting cell activity and ability to replicate. In addition, glycyrrhizic acid inactivates herpes simplex virus
Viruses occupy a unique position in biology. Although they possess some of the properties of living systems such as having a genome, they are actually nonliving infectious entities and should not be considered microorganisms. A clear distinction should be drawn between the terms virus, virion, and virus species. Species is the most fundamental taxonomic category used in all biological classification. In 1991, the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) decided that the category of virus species should be used in virus classification together with the categories of genus and family. More than 50 ICTV study groups were given the task of demarcating the 1,550 viral species that were recognized in the 7th ICTV report, which was published in 2000. We briefly describe the changes in virus classification that were introduced in that report. We also discuss recent proposals to introduce a nonlatinized binomial nomenclature for virus species. PMID:15078590
Contents: Fifty years' effort to control virus infections in the USSR; Thirtieth anniversary of the discovery of the causative agent of tick-borne encephalitis; Relationship between the effect of ionizing radiation on the course of virus infections and th...
Gene expression in the flavivirus Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) was studied by three different approaches. Virus-specific RNA in infected cells was radiolabeled in the presence of actinomycin D, and analyzed by sucrose gradient sedimentation and agaro...
Respiratory syncytial virus, the most common cause of bronchiolitis, is the leading cause of infant hospitalization in developed countries and accounts for substantial mortality and morbidity in developing countries. Children at increased risk of developing severe bronchiolitis are those <6 weeks of age, those born prematurely and those with an underlying cardiopulmonary disorder or immunodeficiency. Approximately 80% of cases occur in the first year of life. By two years of age, virtually all children have been infected by at least one strain of the virus. Classically, respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis manifests as cough, wheezing and respiratory distress. The mainstay of treatment is supportive care, consisting of adequate fluid intake, antipyretics to control fever and use of supplemental oxygen if necessary. Frequent and meticulous hand-washing is the best measure to prevent secondary spread. Treatment of respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis beyond supportive care should be individualized. Palivizumab has been shown to be effective in preventing severe respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis in high-risk children when given prophylactically. In the majority of cases, the disease is usually self-limited. The mortality rate is <1% and occurs predominantly in children at high risk for severe disease.
Leung, Alexander K. C.; Kellner, James D.; Davies, H. Dele
The laboratory diagnosis of influenza uses a wide range of techniques including rapid immunoassays, immunofluorescence techniques, virus culture methods, and increasingly sophisticated molecular assays. The potential utility of each of these methods has changed over the years, most dramatically perhaps with the emergence of the pandemic H1N1 2009 influenza virus. While rapid immunoassays had previously been widely used in clinics and emergency departments, their poor detection sensitivity for the 2009 subtype brought their application into question. Concerns were also raised about the detection sensitivities of antibody reagents used in immunofluorescence methods, and the safety of virus culture was initially questioned with regard to the newly emerged subtype. Early molecular detection techniques had been labor intensive, and required separate facilities in order to prevent contamination. Those techniques have largely been supplanted by more modern methods, most notably real-time reverse transcription PCR assays, which are currently the method of choice in many laboratories for the detection and subtyping of influenza viruses. Suspension and low-density array assays are also increasingly used, in an effort to detect larger numbers of viruses in a single assay, and microarrays have proven valuable for outbreak analysis and pathogen discovery. Each laboratory must assess the optimal methods for its situation and the best application of each technique, taking into account numerous factors including its budget, equipment, staff expertise, the patient population that it serves, the needs of its submitting clinicians, and its surveillance and public health responsibilities. PMID:22528153
Molluscum contagiosum virus is an important human skin pathogen: it can cause disfigurement and suffering in children, in adults it is less common and often sexually transmitted. Extensive and persistent skin infection with the virus can indicate underlying immunodeficiency. Traditional ablative therapies have not been compared directly with newer immune-modulating and specific antiviral therapies. Advances in research raise the prospect of new approaches to treatment informed by the biology of the virus; in human skin, the infection is localised in the epidermal layers, where it induces a typical, complex hyperproliferative lesion with an abundance of virus particles but a conspicuous absence of immune effectors. Functional studies of the viral genome have revealed effects on cellular pathways involved in the cell cycle, innate immunity, inflammation, and cell death. Extensive lesions caused by molluscum contagiosum can occur in patients with DOCK8 deficiency-a genetic disorder affecting migration of dendritic and specialised T cells in skin. Sudden disappearance of lesions is the consequence of a vigorous immune response in healthy people. Further study of the unique features of infection with molluscum contagiosum virus could give fundamental insight into the nature of skin immunity. PMID:23972567
Infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV) is a commercially important orthomyxovirus causing disease in farmed Atlantic salmon. The cumulative mortality in a net pen during an outbreak may vary from insignificant to more than 90%. The infection is spread by management activity such as well-boat traffic, but possibly also through contact with wild fish. In many of its aspects, including the structure of the virus particle and replication strategy, the ISAV is similar to the influenza viruses. Variations between ISAV and the influenza viruses can mostly be related to differences in the temperature at which replication occurs and the immune response of their respective host animals. ISAV shows both haemagglutinating and receptor-destroying activity. The variability of the ISAV haemagglutinin molecule is concentrated around a small domain close to the transmembrane region. The function of this variable region is unknown, but it may be related to a recent or ongoing crossing of a species barrier. Alignment studies based on genetic data indicate that the phylogenetic relationship to the influenza viruses is distant, and that ISAV therefore could possibly warrant a new genus within Orthomyxoviridae. PMID:12076262
Numerous virus families utilize endocytosis to infect host cells, mediating virus internalization as well as trafficking to the site of replication. Recent research has demonstrated that viruses employ the full endocytic capabilities of the cell. The endocytic pathways utilized include clathrin-mediated endocytosis, caveolae, macropinocytosis and novel non-clathrin, non-caveolae pathways. The tools to study endocytosis and, consequently, virus entry are becoming
In this paper, we analyse mathematical models for the interaction between virus replication and immune responses. We show\\u000a that the immune system can provide selection pressure for or against viral diversity. The paper provides new insights into\\u000a the relationship between virus load (=the abundance of virus in an infected individual) and antigenic diversity. Antigenic\\u000a variation can increase virus load during
Barbara Bittner; Sebastian Bonhoeffer; Martin A. Nowak
Measles virus offers an ideal platform from which to build a new generation of safe, effective oncolytic viruses. Occasional\\u000a so-called spontaneous tumor regressions have occurred during natural measles infections, but common tumors do not express\\u000a SLAM, the wild-type MV receptor, and are therefore not susceptible to the virus. Serendipitously, attenuated vaccine strains\\u000a of measles virus have adapted to use CD46,
Nipah virus, a novel paramyxovirus, closely related to Hendra virus emerged in northern part of Peninsular Malaysia in 1998. The virus caused an outbreak of severe febrile encephalitis in humans with a high mortality rate, whereas, in pigs, encephalitis and respiratory diseases but with a relatively low mortality rate. The outbreak subsequently spread to various regions of the country and
It is intuitive that the field of virology is a discipline integral to the medical sciences. The affiliation of virology with population and conservation biology may not be as apparent. However, viruses, and in particular, virus evolution, may both contribute to and be a significant tool to understand changes in host population structure. The impact of viruses is most notable
This report on computer viruses is based upon a thesis written for the Master of Science degree in Computer Science from the University of Tennessee in December 1989 by David R. Brown. This thesis is entitled An Analysis of Computer Virus Construction, Proliferation, and Control and is available through the University of Tennessee Library. This paper contains an overview of the computer virus arena that can help the reader to evaluate the threat that computer viruses pose. The extent of this threat can only be determined by evaluating many different factors. These factors include the relative ease with which a computer virus can be written, the motivation involved in writing a computer virus, the damage and overhead incurred by infected systems, and the legal implications of computer viruses, among others. Based upon the research, the development of a computer virus seems to require more persistence than technical expertise. This is a frightening proclamation to the computing community. The education of computer professionals to the dangers that viruses pose to the welfare of the computing industry as a whole is stressed as a means of inhibiting the current proliferation of computer virus programs. Recommendations are made to assist computer users in preventing infection by computer viruses. These recommendations support solid general computer security practices as a means of combating computer viruses.
Isoflavones and their related flavonoid compounds exert antiviral properties in vitro and in vivo against a wide range of viruses. Genistein is, by far, the most studied soy isoflavone in this regard, and it has been shown to inhibit the infectivity of enveloped or nonenveloped viruses, as well as single-stranded or double-stranded RNA or DNA viruses. At concentrations ranging from
Aline Andres; Sharon M. Donovan; Mark S. Kuhlenschmidt
Raspberry latent virus (RpLV) is a recently characterized virus reported from the Pacific Northwest, including Oregon and Washington in the United States and British Columbia in Canada. The virus appears to spread rapidly in the Fraser River Valley (northwest Washington and southwest British Columb...
A new virus, named Amapari virus, was isolated from forest rodents and their mites caught in Amapa, Brazil. Through August 1970, more than 350 isolations of MAPARI VIRUS HAVE BEEN MADE, FROM 204/1896 RODENTS OF ONLY 2 SPECIES I.E., Oryzomys capito goeldii...
Viruses that infect vertebrates (i.e. humans and higher animals) exhibit great diversity. They also create a variety of diseases that arise from interaction with their vertebrate hosts. This review presents the diversity of the biological and molecular properties of vertebrate viruses that aid their transmission and survival using the currently accepted taxonomic system. The Universal System of Virus Taxonomy has
Retroviruses are enveloped viruses that are generally assumed to bud at the plasma membrane of infected cells. Recently it has become apparent that some of these viruses use the endocytic pathway to coordinate their assembly and release. In addition, these and some other enveloped viruses exploit the machinery that generates the internal membranes of multivesicular bodies (MVB). These observations and
Annegret Pelchen-Matthews; Graça Raposo; Mark Marsh
Summary Viruses are obligate intracellular symbionts. Plant viruses are often discovered and studied as pathogenic parasites that cause diseases in agricultural plants. However, here it is shown that viruses can extend survival of their hosts under conditions of abiotic stress that could benefit hosts if they subsequently recover and reproduce. Various plant species were inoculated with four different
Ping Xu; Fang Chen; Jonathan P. Mannas; Tracy Feldman; Lloyd W. Sumner; Marilyn J. Roossinck
Deformed wing virus (DWV; Iflaviridae) is one of many viruses infecting honeybees and one of the most heavily investigated due to its close association with honeybee colony collapse induced by Varroadestructor. In the absence of V.destructor DWV infection does not result in visible symptoms or any apparent negative impact on host fitness. However, for reasons that are still not fully understood, the transmission of DWV by V.destructor to the developing pupae causes clinical symptoms, including pupal death and adult bees emerging with deformed wings, a bloated, shortened abdomen and discolouration. These bees are not viable and die soon after emergence. In this review we will summarize the historical and recent data on DWV and its relatives, covering the genetics, pathobiology, and transmission of this important viral honeybee pathogen, and discuss these within the wider theoretical concepts relating to the genetic variability and population structure of RNA viruses, the evolution of virulence and the development of disease symptoms. PMID:19909976
The finding that total viral abundance is higher than total prokaryotic abundance and that a significant fraction of the prokaryotic community is infected with phages in aquatic systems has stimulated research on the ecology of prokaryotic viruses and their role in ecosystems. This review treats the ecology of prokaryotic viruses ('phages') in marine, freshwater and soil systems from a 'virus point of view'. The abundance of viruses varies strongly in different environments and is related to bacterial abundance or activity suggesting that the majority of the viruses found in the environment are typically phages. Data on phage diversity are sparse but indicate that phages are extremely diverse in natural systems. Lytic phages are predators of prokaryotes, whereas lysogenic and chronic infections represent a parasitic interaction. Some forms of lysogeny might be described best as mutualism. The little existing ecological data on phage populations indicate a large variety of environmental niches and survival strategies. The host cell is the main resource for phages and the resource quality, i.e., the metabolic state of the host cell, is a critical factor in all steps of the phage life cycle. Virus-induced mortality of prokaryotes varies strongly on a temporal and spatial scale and shows that phages can be important predators of bacterioplankton. This mortality and the release of cell lysis products into the environment can strongly influence microbial food web processes and biogeochemical cycles. Phages can also affect host diversity, e.g., by 'killing the winner' and keeping in check competitively dominant species or populations. Moreover, they mediate gene transfer between prokaryotes, but this remains largely unknown in the environment. Genomics or proteomics are providing us now with powerful tools in phage ecology, but final testing will have to be performed in the environment. PMID:15109783
Since its emergence onto the gene therapy scene nearly 25 years ago, the replication-defective Herpes Simplex Virus Type-1 (HSV-1) amplicon has gained significance as a versatile gene transfer platform due to its extensive transgene capacity, widespread cellular tropism, minimal immunogenicity, and its amenability to genetic manipulation. Herein, we detail the recent advances made with respect to the design of the HSV amplicon, its numerous in vitro and in vivo applications, and the current impediments this virus-based gene transfer platform faces as it navigates a challenging path towards future clinical testing.
The rate of evolution of an RNA plant virus has never been estimated using temporally spaced sequence data, by contrast to the information available on an increasing range of animal viruses. Accordingly, the evolution rate of Rice yellow mottle virus (RYMV) was calculated from sequences of the coat protein gene of isolates collected from rice over a 40-year period in
D. Fargette; A. Pinel; M. Rakotomalala; E. Sangu; O. Traore ´; D. Sereme ´; F. Sorho; S. Issaka; E. Hebrard; Y. Sere; Z. Kanyeka; G. Konate
Varying components of the syndrome of human immunodeficiency virus nephropathy (HIVN) have been described, the most pertinent including proteinuria\\/nephrotic syndrome, progressive azotemia, normal blood pressure, enlarged and hyperechoic kidneys, rapid progression to end-stage renal disease (ESRD), and no response to treatment regimens. The diagnosis of HIVN requires identification of excessive proteinuria or albuminuria, determined by a total protein excretion on
Jose Strauss; Gaston Zilleruelo; Carolyn Abitbol; Brenda Montane; Victoriano Pardo
Berkeley Lab scientists have created a unique new tool for analyzing and comparing long sets of data, be it the genomes of mammals or viruses, or the works of Shakespeare. The results of the Shakespeare analysis surprised scholars with their accuracy
Wineberry latent virus (WLV) was discovered in a single symptomless plant of wineberry, Rubus phoenicolasius, which was growing in an experimental planting in Scotland. The plant originated in the United States, where wineberry is established in the wild in the Northeast. Experimentally, WLV can be ...
The salient features of the Yaba tumor are that a DNA virus, probably a member of the pox group, produces characteristic subcutaneous growths on the face and distal portions of the limbs in some, but not all, species of nonhuman primates and in man. Tumor...
Blueberry shock disease first observed in Washington state in 1987 and initially confused with blueberry scorch caused by Blueberry scorch virus (BlScV). However, shock affected plants produced a second flush of leaves after flowering and the plants appeared normal by late summer except for the lac...
SUMMARY Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved intracellular process by which bulk cytoplasm is enveloped inside a double-membraned vesicle and shuttled to lysosomes for degradation. Within the last 15 years, the genes necessary for the execution of autophagy have been identified and the number of tools for studying this process has grown. Autophagy is essential for tissue homeostasis and development and defective autophagy is associated with a number of diseases. As intracellular parasites, during the course of an infection, viruses encounter autophagy and interact with the proteins that execute this process. Autophagy and/or autophagy genes likely play both anti-viral and proviral roles in the life cycles and pathogenesis of many different virus families. With respect to anti-viral roles, the autophagy proteins function in targeting viral components or virions for lysosomal degradation in a process termed xenophagy, and they also play a role in the initiation of innate and adaptive immune system responses to viral infections. Consistent with this anti-viral role of host autophagy, some viruses encode virulence factors that interact with the host autophagy machinery and block the execution of autophagy. In contrast, other viruses appear to utilise components of the autophagic machinery to foster their own intracellular growth or non-lytic cellular egress. As the details of the role(s) of autophagy in viral pathogenesis become clearer, new anti-viral therapies could be developed to inhibit the beneficial and enhance the destructive aspects of autophagy on the viral life cycle.
Freshwater blue-green algae of the genera Lyngbya, Plectonema, and Phormidium are susceptible to a virus recently isolated from a waste-stabilization pond. Electron micrographs of a partially purified preparation show that the viral particle has an icosahedral structure about 66 mmu in diameter.
The purpose of the study was to determine whether measurable chemical and physical factors correlate with virus survival in groundwater. Groundwater samples were obtained from 11 sites throughout the United States. Water temperature was measured at the time of collection. Several...
Infectious salmon anaemia virus, ISA virus (genus Isavirus, family Orthomyxoviridae), emerged in Norwegian salmon culture in the mid-80s. The genome consists of eight segments coding for at least 10 proteins. ISA viruses show many of similarities to influenza A viruses but differ in many important aspects such as the number of hosts, the host population structure and the route of transmission. The only known hosts and reservoirs for ISA viruses are salmonids found in countries surrounding the North Atlantic. In this study, four different segments of the genome of about 100 ISA viruses have been sequenced in an attempt to understand the evolution of ISA viruses and how these viruses are maintained in and transmitted between populations of farmed Atlantic salmon. The four gene segments code for the nucleoprotein (NP), the putative acid polymerase (PA), the fusion protein (F) and the haemagglutinin-esterase (HE). Analysis of these four genes showed that the substitution rates of the internal proteins (NP and PA) are lower than those of the two surface proteins (F and HE). All four segments are evolving at a lower rate than similar genes in influenza A viruses. The ISA virus populations consist of avirulent viruses and pathogenic strains with variable virulence in Atlantic salmon. Recombination resulting in inserts close to the proteolytic-cleavage site of the precursor F0 protein and deletions in the stalk region of the HE protein seem to be responsible for the transition from avirulent ISA viruses to pathogenic strains. It is also shown that reassortment is a frequent event among the dominating ISA viruses in farmed Atlantic salmon. The pattern that is obtained after phylogenetic analysis of the four gene segments from ISA viruses suggests that the variation is limited to a few distinct clades and that no major changes have occurred in the ISA virus population in Norway since the first viruses were isolated. Calculation of the time of most recent common ancestor (TMRCA) suggests that the Norwegian ISA viruses separated from the European subtype found in North America between 1932 and 1959. The TMRCA data also suggest that the ISA viruses in Chile were transmitted from Norway in the period from 1995 to 2007, depending on which of the four genes were used in the analysis. PMID:22886279
Plarre, Heidrun; Nylund, Are; Karlsen, Marius; Brevik, Øyvind; Sæther, Per Anton; Vike, Siri
Acute respiratory illness (ARI) due to various viruses is not only the most common cause of upper respiratory infection in humans but is also a major cause of morbidity and mortality, leading to diseases such as bronchiolitis and pneumonia. Previous studies have shown that respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), human rhinovirus (HRV), human metapneumovirus (HMPV), human parainfluenza virus (HPIV), and human enterovirus infections may be associated with virus-induced asthma. For example, it has been suggested that HRV infection is detected in the acute exacerbation of asthma and infection is prolonged. Thus it is believed that the main etiological cause of asthma is ARI viruses. Furthermore, the number of asthma patients in most industrial countries has greatly increased, resulting in a morbidity rate of around 10-15% of the population. However, the relationships between viral infections, host immune response, and host factors in the pathophysiology of asthma remain unclear. To gain a better understanding of the epidemiology of virus-induced asthma, it is important to assess both the characteristics of the viruses and the host defense mechanisms. Molecular epidemiology enables us to understand the pathogenesis of microorganisms by identifying specific pathways, molecules, and genes that influence the risk of developing a disease. However, the epidemiology of various respiratory viruses associated with virus-induced asthma is not fully understood. Therefore, in this article, we review molecular epidemiological studies of RSV, HRV, HPIV, and HMPV infection associated with virus-induced asthma.
Random insertion mutagenesis has been used to construct infectious Sindbis virus structural protein chimeras containing a neutralization epitope from a heterologous virus, Rift Valley fever virus. Insertion sites, permissive for recovery of chimeric viruses with growth properties similar to the parental virus, were found in the virion E2 glycoprotein and the secreted E3 glycoprotein. For the E2 chimeras, the epitope
Steven D. London; Alan L. Schmaljohn; Joel M. Dalrymple; Charles M. Rice
Dengue virus type 2 and Yellow fever virus are arthropod-borne flaviviruses causing hemorrhagic fever in humans. Identification of virus receptors is important in understanding flavivirus pathogenesis. The aim of this work was to study the role of cellular heparan sulfate in the adsorption of infectious Yellow fever and Dengue type 2 viruses. Virus attachment was assessed by adsorbing virus to
Raphaële Germi; Jean-Marc Crance; Daniel Garin; Josette Guimet; Hugues Lortat-Jacob; Rob W. H. Ruigrok; Jean-Pierre Zarski; Emmanuel Drouet
Endocytosis of the Flaviviridae viruses, hepatitis C virus, GB virus C\\/hepatitis G virus, and bovine viral diarrheal virus (BVDV) was shown to be mediated by low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptors on cultured cells by several lines of evidence: by the demonstration that endocytosis of these virus correlated with LDL receptor activity, by complete inhibition of detectable endocytosis by anti-LDL receptor
Vincent Agnello; Gyorgy Abel; Mutasim Elfahal; Glenn B. Knight; Qing-Xiu Zhang
Whole genome amplification and sequencing of single microbial cells has significantly influenced genomics and microbial ecology by facilitating direct recovery of reference genome data. However, viral genomics continues to suffer due to difficulties related to the isolation and characterization of uncultivated viruses. We report here on a new approach called 'Single Virus Genomics', which enabled the isolation and complete genome sequencing of the first single virus particle. A mixed assemblage comprised of two known viruses; E. coli bacteriophages lambda and T4, were sorted using flow cytometric methods and subsequently immobilized in an agarose matrix. Genome amplification was then achieved in situ via multiple displacement amplification (MDA). The complete lambda phage genome was recovered with an average depth of coverage of approximately 437X. The isolation and genome sequencing of uncultivated viruses using Single Virus Genomics approaches will enable researchers to address questions about viral diversity, evolution, adaptation and ecology that were previously unattainable. PMID:21436882
Allen, Lisa Zeigler; Ishoey, Thomas; Novotny, Mark A; McLean, Jeffrey S; Lasken, Roger S; Williamson, Shannon J
Hepatitis B virus (HBV), a major cause of human liver disease worldwide, encodes three envelope proteins needed for the attachment and entry of the virus into susceptible host cells. A second virus, hepatitis delta virus, which is known to enhance liver disease in HBV infected patients, diverts the same HBV envelope proteins to achieve its own assembly and infection. In the lab, lentiviral vectors based on human immunodeficiency virus type 1 can be assembled using the HBV envelope proteins, and will similarly infect susceptible cells. This article provides a partial review and some personal reflections of how these three viruses infect and of how recipient cells become susceptible, along with some consideration of questions that remain to be answered.
The human herpes virus 8 (HHV8) or Kaposis sarcoma-associated herpes virus (KSHV) is present in all Kaposis sarcoma, and\\u000a the detection of the virus using polymerase chain reaction or in situ hybridization is a highly sensitive and specific diagnostic\\u000a test for the diagnosis of this neoplasm. HHV8 is furthermore invariably present in primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) and has\\u000a also been
The methods used by computer viruses to reproduce themselves in IBM PC-compatibles operating under MS-DOS are studied. The results can be of use for classification of viruses and the creation of anti-virus tools. Viruses are examined under the following headings: irritating viruses, viruses that damage files, viruses that damage the file system and viruses that injure the hardware
A new, reliable and secure virus assay method, named the competitive virus assay (CVA) method, has been established for the titration of bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDVs) that either show the exaltation of Newcastle disease virus (END) phenomenon or heterologous interference phenomenon (but not the END phenomenon). This method is based on the principle of (1) homologous interference between BVDVs, by using BVDV RK13/E(-) or BVDV RK13/E(+) strains as competitor virus, and (2) END phenomenon and heterologous interference, by using attenuated Newcastle disease virus (NDV) TCND strain as challenge virus. In titration of BVDV END(+) and BVDV END(-) viruses, no significant difference in estimated virus titer was observed between CVA and conventional methods. CVA method demonstrated comparable levels of sensitivity and accuracy as conventional END and interference methods, which require the use of a velogenic Miyadera strain of NDV and vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), both of which are agents of high-risk diseases. As such, the CVA method is a safer alternative, with increased bio-safety and bio-containment, through avoidance of virulent strains that are commonly employed with conventional methods. PMID:23219806
Killed and live influenza virus vaccines are effective in preventing and curbing the spread of disease, but new technologies such as reverse genetics could be used to improve them and to shorten the lengthy process of preparing vaccine seed viruses. By taking advantage of these new technologies, we could develop live vaccines that would be safe, cross-protective against variant strains, and require less virus per dose than conventional vaccines. Furthermore, pandemic vaccines against highly virulent strains such as the H5N1 virus can only be generated by reverse genetics techniques. Other technologic breakthroughs should result in effective adjuvants for use with killed and live vaccines, increasing the number of available doses. Finally, universal influenza virus vaccines seem to be within reach. These new strategies will be successful if they are supported by regulatory agencies and if a robust market for influenza virus vaccines against interpandemic and pandemic threats is made and sustained.
Viruses, the molecular nanomachines infecting hosts ranging from prokaryotes to eukaryotes, come in different sizes, shapes and symmetries. Questions such as what principles govern their structural organization, what factors guide their assembly, how these viruses integrate multifarious functions into one unique structure have enamored researchers for years. In the last five decades, following Caspar and Klug's elegant conceptualization of how viruses are constructed, high resolution structural studies using X-ray crystallography and more recently cryo-EM techniques have provided a wealth of information on structures of variety of viruses. These studies have significantly furthered our understanding of the principles that underlie structural organization in viruses. Such an understanding has practical impact in providing a rational basis for the design and development of antiviral strategies. In this chapter, we review principles underlying capsid formation in a variety of viruses, emphasizing the recent developments along with some historical perspective.
Viruses with large genomes encode numerous proteins that do not directly participate in virus biogenesis but rather modify key functional systems of infected cells. We report that a distinct group of giant viruses infecting unicellular eukaryotes that includes Organic Lake Phycodnaviruses and Phaeocystis globosa virus encode predicted proteorhodopsins that have not been previously detected in viruses. Search of metagenomic sequence data shows that putative viral proteorhodopsins are extremely abundant in marine environments. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that giant viruses acquired proteorhodopsins via horizontal gene transfer from proteorhodopsin-encoding protists although the actual donor(s) could not be presently identified. The pattern of conservation of the predicted functionally important amino acid residues suggests that viral proteorhodopsin homologs function as sensory rhodopsins. We hypothesize that viral rhodopsins modulate light-dependent signaling, in particular phototaxis, in infected protists. PMID:23036091
Viruses with large genomes encode numerous proteins that do not directly participate in virus biogenesis but rather modify key functional systems of infected cells. We report that a distinct group of giant viruses infecting unicellular eukaryotes that includes Organic Lake Phycodnaviruses and Phaeocystis globosa virus encode predicted proteorhodopsins that have not been previously detected in viruses. Search of metagenomic sequence data shows that putative viral proteorhodopsins are extremely abundant in marine environments. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that giant viruses acquired proteorhodopsins via horizontal gene transfer from proteorhodopsin-encoding protists although the actual donor(s) could not be presently identified. The pattern of conservation of the predicted functionally important amino acid residues suggests that viral proteorhodopsin homologs function as sensory rhodopsins. We hypothesize that viral rhodopsins modulate light-dependent signaling, in particular phototaxis, in infected protists. This article was reviewed by Igor B. Zhulin and Laksminarayan M. Iyer. For the full reviews, see the Reviewers reports section.
Influenza virus hemagglutinin was shown to be acid resistant if precipitates which form during acidification are first removed. Adsorption of virus to precipitates formed during acidification may cause a virus to be described incorrectly as acid sensitive.
Henderson, Marilyn; Wallis, Craig; Melnick, Joseph L.
... or visit us online at: www.OTISpregnancy.org . West Nile Virus Infection and Pregnancy This sheet talks about ... advice from your health care provider. What is West Nile Virus (WNV)? WNV is a virus that can ...
This book contains nine chapters. Some of the titles are: Molecular Biology of Wound Tumor Virus; The Application of Monoclonal Antibodies in the Study of Viruses; Prions: Novel Infectious Pathogens; and Monoclonal Antibodies Against Plant Viruses.
The encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) is a small non-enveloped single-strand RNA virus, the causative agent of not only myocarditis and encephalitis, but also neurological diseases, reproductive disorders and diabetes in many mammalian species. EMCV pathogenesis appears to be viral strain- and host-specific, and a better understanding of EMCV virulence factors is increasingly required. Indeed, EMCV is often used as a model for diabetes and viral myocarditis, and is also widely used in immunology as a double-stranded RNA stimulus in the study of Toll-like as well as cytosolic receptors. However, EMCV virulence and properties have often been neglected. Moreover, EMCV is able to infect humans albeit with a low morbidity. Progress on xenografts, such as pig heart transplantation in humans, has raised safety concerns that need to be explored. In this review we will highlight the biology of EMCV and all known and potential virulence factors.
Superantigens are microbial agents that have a strong effect on the immune response of the host. Their initial target is the T lymphocyte, but a whole cascade of immunological reactions ensues. It is thought that the microbe engages the immune system of the host to its own advantage, to facilitate persistent infection and/or transmission. In this review, we discuss in detail the structure and function of the superantigen encoded by the murine mammary tumor virus, a B-type retrovirus which is the causative agent of mammary carcinoma. We will also outline what has more recently become known about superantigen activity associated with two human herpesviruses, cytomegalovirus and Epstein-Barr virus. It is likely that we have only uncovered the tip of the iceberg in our discovery of microbial superantigens, and we predict a flood of new information on this topic shortly.
Dengue virus infection causes dengue fever (DF), dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF), and dengue shock syndrome (DSS), whose pathogeneses are not clearly understood. Current hypotheses of antibody-dependent enhancement, virus virulence, and IFN-?\\/TNF?-mediated immunopathogenesis are insufficient to explain clinical manifestations of DHF\\/DSS such as thrombocytopenia and hemoconcentration. Dengue virus infection induces transient immune aberrant activation of CD4\\/CD8 ratio inversion and cytokine overproduction,
Little is known about the viruses infecting most species. Even in groups as well-studied as Drosophila, only a handful of viruses have been well-characterized. A viral metagenomic approach was used to explore viral diversity in 83 wild-caught Drosophila innubila, a mushroom feeding member of the quinaria group. A single fly that was injected with, and died from, Drosophila C Virus
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a ubiquitous human herpesvirus. Infection with EBV is common, worldwide in distribution, and largely\\u000a subclinical in early childhood. EBV has been established as the causative agent of heterophile-positive mononucleosis, which\\u000a occurs most frequently in late adolescence or early adulthood. In addition, seroepidemologic data have suggested that EBV\\u000a also plays an etiological role in African Burkitts lymphoma
\\u000a Cowpox virus (CPXV) is distinguished from other orthopoxvirus (OPV) species by producing cytoplasmic A-type inclusion bodies and flattened\\u000a pocks with a hemorrhagic center on the chorioallantoic membrane. CPXV is endemic to Western Eurasia and naturally infects\\u000a a broad range of host species including domestic animals, and zoo animals, as well as humans. Infections in humans seem to\\u000a increase in importance
Oral health is an integral component of overall health and well-being in all patients. However, for an immunocompromised patient,\\u000a many common oral conditions may have a significant impact on quality of life. Intraoral pain, which is a common complaint\\u000a among patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), will compromise patients ability to maintain adequate and appropriate\\u000a oral intake. Furthermore, the polypharmacopeia
Variola major virus caused the human disease smallpox; interpretations of the historic record indicate that the initial introduction\\u000a of disease in a naïve population had profound effects on its demographics. Smallpox was declared eradicated by the World Health\\u000a Organization (WHO) in 1980. This chapter reviews epidemiological, clinical and pathophysiological observations of disease,\\u000a and review some of the more recent observations
Measles virus (MV) has two envelope glycoproteins, the hemagglutinin (H) and fusion protein, which are responsible for attachment\\u000a and membrane fusion, respectively. Signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM, also called CD150), a membrane glycoprotein\\u000a expressed on immune cells, acts as the principal cellular receptor for MV, accounting for its lymphotropism and immunosuppressive\\u000a nature. MV also infects polarized epithelial cells via an
Marek's disease virus (MDV) is a highly contagious virus that induces T-lymphoma in chicken. This viral infection still circulates in poultry flocks despite the use of vaccines. With the emergence of new virulent strains in the field over time, MDV remains a serious threat to the poultry industry. More than 40 yr after MDV identification as a herpesvirus, the visualization and purification of fully enveloped infectious particles remain a challenge for biologists. The various strategies used to detect such hidden particles by electron microscopy are reviewed herein. It is now generally accepted that the production of cell-free virions only occurs in the feather follicle epithelium and is associated with viral, cellular, or both molecular determinants expressed in this tissue. This tissue is considered the only source of efficient virus shedding into the environment and therefore the origin of successful transmission in birds. In other avian tissues or permissive cell cultures, MDV replication only leads to a very low number of intracellular enveloped virions. In the absence of detectable extracellular enveloped virions in cell culture, the nature of the transmitted infectious material and its mechanisms of spread from cell to cell remain to be deciphered. An attempt is made to bring together the current knowledge on MDV morphogenesis and spread, and new approaches that could help understand MDV morphogenesis are discussed. PMID:23901745
One of the potential effects of global climate change is the spread of disease to new areas, as the vectors of those diseases (e.g., mosquitoes, birds) expand into new locations in response to shifting climate conditions. Although the direct cause of West Nile Virus (WNV) in the United States is not known, the National Atlas of the US Geological Survey (reviewed in the June 26, 1998 Scout Report) has recently launched this new resource on WNV distribution. First documented in the US during the summer of 1999 and previously limited to Africa, Eastern Europe, West Asia, and the Middle East, the West Nile Virus is of danger to humans as it interferes with "normal central nervous system functioning" and can cause encephalitis. This site describes WNV Surveillance Activity for the year 2000 and offers a series of maps highlighting the US distribution of WNV cases found in humans, wild birds, chickens, mosquitoes, and veterinary clinics. A series of links point to further information on the virus.
In 1998, an outbreak of acute encephalitis with high mortality rates among pig handlers in Malaysia led to the discovery of a novel paramyxovirus named Nipah virus. A multidisciplinary investigation that included epidemiology, microbiology, molecular biology, and pathology was pivotal in the discovery of this new human infection. Clinical and autopsy findings were derived from a series of 32 fatal human cases of Nipah virus infection. Diagnosis was established in all cases by a combination of immunohistochemistry (IHC) and serology. Routine histological stains, IHC, and electron microscopy were used to examine autopsy tissues. The main histopathological findings included a systemic vasculitis with extensive thrombosis and parenchymal necrosis, particularly in the central nervous system. Endothelial cell damage, necrosis, and syncytial giant cell formation were seen in affected vessels. Characteristic viral inclusions were seen by light and electron microscopy. IHC analysis showed widespread presence of Nipah virus antigens in endothelial and smooth muscle cells of blood vessels. Abundant viral antigens were also seen in various parenchymal cells, particularly in neurons. Infection of endothelial cells and neurons as well as vasculitis and thrombosis seem to be critical to the pathogenesis of this new human disease.
Flexible filamentous viruses make up a large fraction of the known plant viruses, but in comparison with those of other viruses, very little is known about their structures. We have used fiber diffraction, cryo-electron microscopy, and scanning transmission electron microscopy to determine the symmetry of a potyvirus, soybean mosaic virus; to confirm the symmetry of a potexvirus, potato virus X; and to determine the low-resolution structures of both viruses. We conclude that these viruses and, by implication, most or all flexible filamentous plant viruses share a common coat protein fold and helical symmetry, with slightly less than 9 subunits per helical turn.
Kendall, Amy; McDonald, Michele; Bian, Wen; Bowles, Timothy; Baumgarten, Sarah C.; Shi, Jian; Stewart, Phoebe L.; Bullitt, Esther; Gore, David; Irving, Thomas C.; Havens, Wendy M.; Ghabrial, Said A.; Wall, Joseph S.; Stubbs, Gerald (IIT); (BU-M); (Vanderbilt); (Kentucky); (BNL)
While CIAC periodically issues bulletins about specific computer viruses, these bulletins do not cover all the computer viruses that affect desktop computers. The purpose of this document is to identify most of the known viruses for the MS-DOS and Macintosh platforms and give an overview of the effects of each virus. The authors also include information on some windows, Atari, and Amiga viruses. This document is revised periodically as new virus information becomes available. This document replaces all earlier versions of the CIAC Computer virus Information Update. The date on the front cover indicates date on which the information in this document was extracted from CIAC`s Virus database.
Flexible filamentous viruses make up a large fraction of the known plant viruses, but in comparison with those of other viruses, very little is known about their structures. We have used fiber diffraction, cryo-electron microscopy, and scanning transmission electron microscopy to determine the symmetry of a potyvirus, soybean mosaic virus; to confirm the symmetry of a potexvirus, potato virus X; and to determine the low-resolution structures of both viruses. We conclude that these viruses and, by implication, most or all flexible filamentous plant viruses share a common coat protein fold and helical symmetry, with slightly less than 9 subunits per helical turn.
Kendall, Amy; McDonald, Michele; Bian, Wen; Bowles, Timothy; Baumgarten, Sarah C.; Shi, Jian; Stewart, Phoebe L.; Bullitt, Esther; Gore, David; Irving, Thomas C.; Havens, Wendy M.; Ghabrial, Said A.; Wall, Joseph S.; Stubbs, Gerald
The molecular weight of Tipula iridescent virus, based on sedimentation and diffusion coefficients, was 5.51 × 108, with hydration of 0.57 g of water per g of virus. Deoxyribonucleic acid content, based on total inorganic phosphorus liberated, was 19 ± 0.2%. At 260 m?, the virus gave an uncorrected absorbance of 18.2 cm2/mg of virus and a light-scattering corrected absorbance of 9.8 cm2/mg of virus. Amino acid analyses of the virus protein revealed a remarkable similarity to Sericesthis iridescent virus. The possibility is discussed that the four iridescent insect viruses reported to date bear a strain relationship. Images
Here, we present the genome sequence, with analysis, of a poxvirus infecting Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus) (crocodilepox virus; CRV). The genome is 190,054 bp (62% G+C) and predicted to contain 173 genes encoding proteins of 53 to 1,941 amino acids. The central genomic region contains genes conserved and generally colinear with those of other chordopoxviruses (ChPVs). CRV is distinct, as the terminal 33-kbp (left) and 13-kbp (right) genomic regions are largely CRV specific, containing 48 unique genes which lack similarity to other poxvirus genes. Notably, CRV also contains 14 unique genes which disrupt ChPV gene colinearity within the central genomic region, including 7 genes encoding GyrB-like ATPase domains similar to those in cellular type IIA DNA topoisomerases, suggestive of novel ATP-dependent functions. The presence of 10 CRV proteins with similarity to components of cellular multisubunit E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase complexes, including 9 proteins containing F-box motifs and F-box-associated regions and a homologue of cellular anaphase-promoting complex subunit 11 (Apc11), suggests that modification of host ubiquitination pathways may be significant for CRV-host cell interaction. CRV encodes a novel complement of proteins potentially involved in DNA replication, including a NAD(+)-dependent DNA ligase and a protein with similarity to both vaccinia virus F16L and prokaryotic serine site-specific resolvase-invertases. CRV lacks genes encoding proteins for nucleotide metabolism. CRV shares notable genomic similarities with molluscum contagiosum virus, including genes found only in these two viruses. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that CRV is quite distinct from other ChPVs, representing a new genus within the subfamily Chordopoxvirinae, and it lacks recognizable homologues of most ChPV genes involved in virulence and host range, including those involving interferon response, intracellular signaling, and host immune response modulation. These data reveal the unique nature of CRV and suggest mechanisms of virus-reptile host interaction. PMID:16641289
Afonso, C L; Tulman, E R; Delhon, G; Lu, Z; Viljoen, G J; Wallace, D B; Kutish, G F; Rock, D L
A new detection format for multiplexed analysis based on the use of magnetic fluorescent composite nanoparticles was presented\\u000a in this paper. Two different antigens, Newcastle disease virus (NDV) antigen and Avian virus arthritis virus (AVAV) antigen,\\u000a were conjugated to two kinds of magnetic fluorescent composite nanoparticles of different luminescent colors, while red-emitting\\u000a CdTe QDs were attached to the antibody of
Guannan Wang; Ping Xie; Chengrui Xiao; Pingfan Yuan; Xingguang Su
Reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) is an avian oncornavirus that is structurally and antigenically unrelated to the leukosis-sarcoma group of viruses. All REV isolates are antigenically related to each other. However, using monoclonal antibodies, REV isolates can be classed into three different subty...
Viral fusion proteins mediate cell entry by undergoing a series of conformational changes that result in virion-target cell membrane fusion. Class I viral fusion proteins, such as those encoded by influenza virus and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), contain two prominent alpha helices. Peptides that mimic portions of these alpha helices inhibit structural rearrangements of the fusion proteins and prevent viral
Yancey M Hrobowski; Robert F Garry; Scott F Michael
Electron microscopy is a powerful tool to visualize viruses in diagnostic as well as in research settings for investigating viral structure and virus-cell interactions. Here, a simple but efficient method is described for demonstrating viruses by negative staining, and its limit is discussed. A prerequisite to obtain reliable information on virus-cell interactions is excellent preservation of cellular and viral ultrastructure. The crux is that during fixation and embedding, by applying conventional protocols about 50% of the lipids are lost, which results in loss of integrity of cell membranes. To achieve good preservation of cellular architectures, good contrast, and both high spatial and temporal resolution, methods for freezing, freeze-substitution, and freeze-etching are described and their applicability discussed mostly taking complicated built herpes viruses as examples. PMID:18617049
Transmission mechanisms of six honeybee viruses, including acute bee paralysis virus (ABPV), black queen cell virus (BQCV), chronic bee paralysis virus (CBPV), deformed wing virus (DWV), Kashmir bee virus (KBV), and sacbrood bee virus (SBV), in honey bee colonies were investigated by reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) methods. The virus status of individual queens was evaluated by examining the presence of viruses in the queens' feces and tissues, including hemolymph, gut, ovaries, spermatheca, head, and eviscerated body. Except for head tissue, all five tissues as well as queen feces were found to be positive for virus infections. When queens in bee colonies were identified as positive for BQCV, DWV, CBPV, KBV, and SBV, the same viruses were detected in their offspring, including eggs, larvae, and adult workers. On the other hand, when queens were found positive for only two viruses, BQCV and DWV, only these two viruses were detected in their offspring. The presence of viruses in the tissue of ovaries and the detection of the same viruses in queens' eggs and young larvae suggest vertical transmission of viruses from queens to offspring. To our knowledge, this is the first evidence of vertical transmission of viruses in honeybee colonies. PMID:16391097
Chen, Y P; Pettis, J S; Collins, A; Feldlaufer, M F
The Norwalk virus and related viruses (caliciviruses) have been identified as a common cause of waterborne disease. Moreover, there are many outbreaks of waterborne disease every year where the causative agent was never identified, and it is thought that many of these are due to ...
In large areas of the world there exist extremely high hazard viruses for which there are no vaccines for prophylaxis and no effective drugs for therapy. Examples of such viruses are Ebola, Argentine, Bolivian, Crimean-Congo, and Korean hemorrhagic fevers...
Influenza A virus causes seasonal epidemics, sporadic pandemics and is a significant global heath burden. Influenza virus is an enveloped virus that contains a segmented negative strand RNA genome. Assembly and budding of progeny influenza virions is a complex, multistep process that occurs in lipid raft domains on the apical membrane of infected cells. The viral proteins hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) are targeted to lipid rafts, causing the coalescence and enlargement of the raft domains. This clustering of HA and NA may cause a deformation of the membrane and the initiation of the virus budding event. M1 is then thought to bind to the cytoplasmic tails of HA and NA where it can then polymerize and form the interior structure of the emerging virion. M1, bound to the cytoplasmic tails of HA and NA, additionally serves as a docking site for the recruitment of the viral RNPs and may mediate the recruitment of M2 to the site of virus budding. M2 initially stabilizes the site of budding, possibly enabling the polymerization of the matrix protein and the formation of filamentous virions. Subsequently, M2 is able to alter membrane curvature at the neck of the budding virus, causing membrane scission and the release of the progeny virion. This review investigates the latest research on influenza virus budding in an attempt to provide a step-by-step analysis of the assembly and budding processes for influenza viruses.
We evaluated 49 swine industry workers and 79 nonexposed controls for antibodies to swine influenza viruses. Multivariate modeling showed that workers who seldom used gloves (odds ratio [OR] 30.3) or who smoked (OR 18.7) most frequently had evidence of previous H1N1 swine virus. These findings may be valuable in planning for pandemic influenza. PMID:16707061
Ramirez, Alejandro; Capuano, Ana W; Wellman, Debbie A; Lesher, Kelly A; Setterquist, Sharon F; Gray, Gregory C
The importance of virus transport in the subsurface is highlighted by implications to human health as well as drinking water regulations. The structure of virus particles is defined along with their colloidal physiochemical properties and a discussion of their more prominent sou...
Introduction: In March-April 2009, a novel pandemic H1N1 emerged in the human population in North America . The gene constellation of the emerging virus was demonstrated to be a combination of genes from swine influenza A viruses (SIV) of North American and Eurasian lineages that had never before...
West Nile virus (WNV) has spread rapidly across North America, resulting in human deaths and in the deaths of untold numbers of birds, mammals, and reptiles. The virus has reached Central America and the Caribbean and may spread to Hawaii and South America. Although tens of thousands of birds have died, and studies of some bird species show local declines,
Peter P. Marra; Sean Griffing; Carolee Caffrey; A. Marm Kilpatrick; Robert McLean; Christopher Brand; Emi Saito; Alan P. Dupuis; Laura Kramer; Robert Novak
Cassava plays a key role in the food security of sub-Saharan Africa, but as a vegetatively propagated crop, it is particularly vulnerable to the effects of virus diseases and these therefore represent a major threat to the livelihoods of millions of Africans. Nine viruses have been isolated from African cassava, but only cassava mosaic geminiviruses (CMGs) and Cassava brown streak
Abstract Cassava plays a key role in the food security of sub-Saharan Africa, but as a vegetatively propagated crop, it is particularly vulnerable to the effects of virus diseases and these therefore represent a major,threat to the livelihoods of millions of Africans. Nine viruses have been isolated from African cassava, but only cassava mosaic geminiviruses (CMGs) and Cassava brown streak
There are 219 virus species that are known to be able to infect humans. The first of these to be discovered was yellow fever virus in 1901, and three to four new species are still being found every year. Extrapolation of the discovery curve suggests that there is still a substantial pool of undiscovered human virus species, although an apparent slow-down in the rate of discovery of species from different families may indicate bounds to the potential range of diversity. More than two-thirds of human viruses can also infect non-human hosts, mainly mammals, and sometimes birds. Many specialist human viruses also have mammalian or avian origins. Indeed, a substantial proportion of mammalian viruses may be capable of crossing the species barrier into humans, although only around half of these are capable of being transmitted by humans and around half again of transmitting well enough to cause major outbreaks. A few possible predictors of species jumps can be identified, including the use of phylogenetically conserved cell receptors. It seems almost inevitable that new human viruses will continue to emerge, mainly from other mammals and birds, for the foreseeable future. For this reason, an effective global surveillance system for novel viruses is needed.
Distribution of Toscana virus (TOSV) is evolving with climate change, and pathogenicity may be higher in nonexposed populations outside areas of current prevalence (Mediterranean Basin). To characterize genetic diversity of TOSV, we determined the coding sequences of isolates from Spain and France. TOSV is more diverse than other well-studied phleboviruses (e.g.,Rift Valley fever virus).
Collao, Ximena; Palacios, Gustavo; Sanbonmatsu-Gamez, Sara; Perez-Ruiz, Mercedes; Negredo, Ana I.; Navarro-Mari, Jose-Maria; Grandadam, Marc; Aransay, Ana Maria; Lipkin, W. Ian; Tenorio, Antonio
BACKGROUND: An effective method for obtaining resistant transgenic plants is to induce RNA silencing by expressing virus-derived dsRNA in plants and this method has been successfully implemented for the generation of different plant lines resistant to many plant viruses. RESULTS: Inverted repeats of the partial Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) movement protein (MP) gene and the partial Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV)
Qiong Hu; Yanbing Niu; Kai Zhang; Yong Liu; Xueping Zhou
Influenza virus infections continue to cause substantial morbidity and mortality with a worldwide social and economic impact. The past five years have seen dramatic advances in our understanding of viral replication, evolution, and antigenic variation. Genetic analyses have clarified relationships between human and animal influenza virus strains, demonstrating the potential for the appearance of new pandemic reassortants as hemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes are exchanged in an intermediate host. Clinical trials of candidate live attenuated influenza virus vaccines have shown the cold-adapted reassortants to be a promising alternative to the currently available inactivated virus preparations. Modern molecular techniques have allowed serious consideration of new approaches to the development of antiviral agents and vaccines as the functions of the viral genes and proteins are further elucidated. The development of techniques whereby the genes of influenza viruses can be specifically altered to investigate those functions will undoubtedly accelerate the pace at which our knowledge expands.
Over the past two decades, marine virology has progressed from a curiosity to an intensely studied topic of critical importance to oceanography. At concentrations of approximately 10 million viruses per milliliter of surface seawater, viruses are the most abundant biological entities in the oceans. The majority of these viruses are phages (viruses that infect bacteria). Through lysing their bacterial hosts, marine phages control bacterial abundance, affect community composition, and impact global biogeochemical cycles. In addition, phages influence their hosts through selection for resistance, horizontal gene transfer, and manipulation of bacterial metabolism. Recent work has also demonstrated that marine phages are extremely diverse and can carry a variety of auxiliary metabolic genes encoding critical ecological functions. This review is structured as a scientific "truth or dare," revealing several well-established "truths" about marine viruses and presenting a few "dares" for the research community to undertake in future studies.
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-transformed autologous lymphoblasts were repeatedly inoculated into three squirrel monkeys. Each animal developed the heterophile antibodies of infectious mononucleosis and EBV-specific antibodies. After serologic responses had disappeared or markedly declined, the animals were challenged with either whole cells, cell filtrate, or cell ghosts. Animals challenged with living cells and cell ghosts developed agglutinin responses; the recipient of filtrate did not. The results suggest that EBV induces the appearance of the infectious mononucleosis heterophile antigen on the transformed cell membrane.
Immunohistochemistry and virus isolation were performed on 1,057 birds. Immunohistochemistry, virus isolation, or both found 325 birds to be West Nile virus positive. Of these, 271 were positive by both methods. These results indicate that virus isolation and immunohistochemistry are approximately equal in their ability to detect West Nile virus.
Ellis, Angela E.; Mead, Daniel G.; Allison, Andrew B.; Gibbs, Samantha E. J.; Gottdenker, Nicole L.; Stallknecht, David E.; Howerth, Elizabeth W.
The 1918 influenza A H1N1 virus caused the worst pandemic of influenza ever recorded. To better understand the pathogenesis and immunity to the 1918 pandemic virus, we generated recombinant influenza viruses possessing two to five genes of the 1918 influenza virus. Recombinant influenza viruses possessing the hemagglutinin (HA), neuraminidase (NA), matrix (M), nonstructural (NS), and nucleoprotein (NP) genes or any
Terrence M. Tumpey; Adolfo García-Sastre; Jeffery K. Taubenberger; Peter Palese; David E. Swayne; Christopher F. Basler
Influenza viruses are classified into three types: A, B, and C. The genomes of A- and B-type influenza viruses consist of eight RNA segments, whereas influenza C viruses only have seven RNAs. Both A and B influenza viruses contain two major surface glycoproteins: the hemagglutinin (HA) and the neuraminidase (NA). Influenza C viruses have only one major surface glycoprotein, HEF
Potential live vaccines against hepatitis B virus have been produced. The coding sequence for hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) has been inserted into the vaccinia virus genome under control of vaccinia virus early promoters. Cells infected with these vaccinia virus recombinants synthesize and excrete HBsAg and vaccinated rabbits rapidly produce antibodies to HBsAg.
Smith, Geoffrey L.; Mackett, Michael; Moss, Bernard
Tobacco streak virus (TSV) has a wide host range that exceeds 80 species (Fulton, 1948). Most of the efforts carried out previously comparing TSV isolates was based on immunological relations between them. The isolates of the virus from Fragaria and Rubus have been considered very closely related, ...
Acute bee paralysis virus (ABPV), Kashmir bee virus (KBV) and Israeli acute paralysis virus (IAPV) are part of a complex of closely related viruses from the Family Dicistroviridae. These viruses have a widespread prevalence in honey bee (Apis mellifera) colonies and a predominantly sub-clinical etiology that contrasts sharply with the extremely virulent pathology encountered at elevated titres, either artificially induced or encountered naturally. These viruses are frequently implicated in honey bee colony losses, especially when the colonies are infested with the parasitic mite Varroa destructor. Here we review the historical and recent literature of this virus complex, covering history and origins; the geographic, host and tissue distribution; pathology and transmission; genetics and variation; diagnostics, and discuss these within the context of the molecular and biological similarities and differences between the viruses. We also briefly discuss three recent developments relating specifically to IAPV, concerning its association with Colony Collapse Disorder, treatment of IAPV infection with siRNA and possible honey bee resistance to IAPV. PMID:19909972
de Miranda, Joachim R; Cordoni, Guido; Budge, Giles
DNA vaccines for Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV), tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), and Hantaan virus (HTNV), were tested in mice alone or in various combinations. The bunyavirus vaccines (RVFV, CCHFV, and HTNV) expressed Gn and Gc genes, and the flavivirus vaccine (TBEV) expressed the preM and E genes. All vaccines were delivered by gene
Kristin Spik; Amy Shurtleff; Anita K. McElroy; Mary C. Guttieri; Jay W. Hooper; Connie Schmaljohn
Cocultivation of cells derived from embryos of golden pheasants or Amherst pheasants with chicken embryo cells infected with Bryan strain of Rous sarcoma virus resulted in the detection of viruses which appear to be endogenous in these pheasant cells. The pheasant viruses (PV) were similar to avian leukosis-sarcoma viruses (ALSV) in their gross morphology, in the size of their RNA,
T. Hanafusa; H. Hanafusa; C. E. Metroka; W. S. Hayward; C. W. Rettenmier; R. C. Sawyer; R. M. Dougherty; H. S. Distefano
Today's anti-virus technology, based largely on analysis of existing viruses by human experts, is just barely able to keep pace with the more than three new computer viruses that are writ ten daily. In a few years, intelligent agents nav igating through highly connected networks are likely to form an extremely fertile medium for a new breed of viruses. At
Jeffrey O. Kephart; Gregory B. Sorkin; William C. Arnold; David M. Chess; Gerald Tesauro; Steve R. White
To determine geographic range for Ebola virus, we tested 276 bats in Bangladesh. Five (3.5%) bats were positive for antibodies against Ebola Zaire and Reston viruses; no virus was detected by PCR. These bats might be a reservoir for Ebola or Ebola-like viruses, and extend the range of filoviruses to mainland Asia.
Islam, Ariful; Yu, Meng; Anthony, Simon J.; Epstein, Jonathan H.; Khan, Shahneaz Ali; Khan, Salah Uddin; Crameri, Gary; Wang, Lin-Fa; Lipkin, W. Ian; Luby, Stephen P.; Daszak, Peter
Particles of complete polyoma virus are produced in competent Bacillus subtilis incubated with DNA isolated from purified, conventionally grown polyoma virus. The virus grown in B. subtilis is biologically identical to polyoma virus produced by animal cells. Quantitative parameters of the system have been established, and fluctuation tests indicate that viral replication occurs within the infected bacteria.
Summary Sufficient data have accumulated to permit the ICTV Study Group on the Nomenclature of Hepatitis Viruses to recognize human hepatitis B virus as a member of a unique group of viruses and to classify it, together with a number of related animal viruses, into a new family called the Hepadnaviridae. Over the past decade, the International Committee on Taxonomy
Ian D. Gust; Christopher J. Burrell; Anthony G. Coulepis; William S. Robinson; Arie J. Zuckerman
Puumala virus causes nephropathia epidemica, a rodent-borne zoonosis that is endemic to Europe. We sequenced the complete Puumala virus genome that was directly recovered from a person who died and compared it with those of viruses from local bank voles. The virus strain involved was neither a unique nor rare genetic variant.
Puumala virus causes nephropathia epidemica, a rodent-borne zoonosis that is endemic to Europe. We sequenced the complete Puumala virus genome that was directly recovered from a person who died and compared it with those of viruses from local bank voles. The virus strain involved was neither a unique nor rare genetic variant. PMID:23171600
An interference between the vaccinal virus and the virus of rabies has been demonstrated using the rabbit. The method of inoculation for the vaccinal virus as well as for the rabies virus was the intradermal method and this method allowed the demonstratio...
This review summarizes recent structural and molecular biology studies related to the morphogenesis of African swine fever virus (ASFV). ASFV possesses icosahedral morphology and is constituted by four concentric layers: the central nucleoid, the core shell, the inner envelope and the icosahedral capsid. The extracellular virus acquires an external envelope by budding through the plasma membrane. The genes coding for 19 of the 54 structural proteins of the ASFV particle are known and the localization within the virion of 18 of these components has been identified. ASFV morphogenesis occurs in specialized areas in the cytoplasm, named viral factories, which are proximal to the microtubule organization center near the nucleus. Investigations of the different steps of morphogenesis by immunocytochemical and electron microscopy techniques, as well as molecular biology and biochemical studies, have shed light on the formation of the different domains of the virus particle, including the recognition of endoplasmic reticulum membranes as the precursors of the virus inner envelope, the progressive formation of the capsid on the convex face of the inner envelope and the simultaneous assembly of the core shell on the concave side of the envelope, with the pivotal contribution of the virus polyproteins and their proteolytic processing by the virus protease for the development of this latter domain. The use of ASFV inducible recombinants as a tool for the study of the individual function of structural and nonstructural proteins has been determinant to understand their role in virus assembly and has provided new insights into the morphogenetic process. PMID:23059353
A decade of high-throughput screenings for intraviral and virus-host protein-protein interactions led to the accumulation of data and to the development of theories on laws governing interactome organization for many viruses. We present here a computational analysis of intraviral protein networks (EBV, FLUAV, HCV, HSV-1, KSHV, SARS-CoV, VACV, and VZV) and virus-host protein networks (DENV, EBV, FLUAV, HCV, and VACV) from up-to-date interaction data, using various mathematical approaches. If intraviral networks seem to behave similarly, they are clearly different from the human interactome. Viral proteins target highly central human proteins, which are precisely the Achilles' heel of the human interactome. The intrinsic structural disorder is a distinctive feature of viral hubs in virus-host interactomes. Overlaps between virus-host data sets identify a core of human proteins involved in the cellular response to viral infection and in the viral capacity to hijack the cell machinery for viral replication. Host proteins that are strongly targeted by a virus seem to be particularly attractive for other viruses. Such protein-protein interaction networks and their analysis represent a powerful resource from a therapeutic perspective.
Meyniel-Schicklin, Laurene; de Chassey, Benoit; Andre, Patrice; Lotteau, Vincent
The conditions under which Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis (VEE) virus attached to host cells markedly influenced the assay of virus by the fluorescent cell-counting technique. When virus inoculum was centrifuged onto McCoy cell monolayers, approximat...
Summary Morphology and morphogenesis of Soldado virus were studied in the brain of infected suckling mice. The results suggest this virus and other viruses of Hughes group may be classified as members of Bunyaviridae family.
Recombination occurs in many RNA viruses and can be of major evolutionary significance. However, rates of recombination vary dramatically among RNA viruses, which can range from clonal to highly recombinogenic. Here, we review the factors that might explain this variation in recombination frequency and show that there is little evidence that recombination is favoured by natural selection to create advantageous genotypes or purge deleterious mutations, as predicted if recombination functions as a form of sexual reproduction. Rather, recombination rates seemingly reflect larger-scale patterns of viral genome organization, such that recombination may be a mechanistic by-product of the evolutionary pressures acting on other aspects of virus biology.
A linear relationship exists between the logarithm of the quantity of epidemic influenza virus neutralized and the logarithm of the quantity of antiserum which is capable of achieving this result. This relationship is the same for the serum of a ferret convalescent from experimental influenza as for the serum of a rabbit immunized with the virus. By means of the linear relationship between virus and antiserum it is possible to determine a fixed, rather than a relative, value for the neutralizing capacity of a serum.
This paper presents a general overview on evolution of concealment methods in computer viruses and defensive techniques employed by anti-virus products. In order to stay far from the anti-virus scanners, computer viruses gradually improve their codes to make them invisible. On the other hand, anti-virus technologies continually follow the virus tricks and methodologies to overcome their threats. In this process,
Viruses were distinguished as a separate group of plant pathogens in the 1890s, as a consequence of pioneering studies in\\u000a Russia and the Netherlands (Bos, 2000). They have since received much attention from plant pathologists and more recently\\u000a from molecular biologists. Nevertheless, the information available on the distribution, prevalence, and importance of plant\\u000a viruses and the diseases they cause is
The ability of RNA viruses to efficiently reproduce in transformed cells was first recognized nearly 100 yr ago. However,\\u000a it wasnt until the late 1990s that a resurrection of the interest in the ability of certain viruses to preferentially replicate\\u000a in malignant cells and less so in normal cells occurred, the curiosity being to evaluate whether these agents could be
Most viral diseases, with the exception of those caused by human immunodeficiency virus, are self-limited illnesses that do not require specific antiviral therapy. The currently available antiviral drugs target 3 main groups of viruses: herpes, hepatitis, and influenza viruses. With the exception of the antisense molecule fomivirsen, all antiherpes drugs inhibit viral replication by serving as competitive substrates for viral DNA polymerase. Drugs for the treatment of influenza inhibit the ion channel M2 protein or the enzyme neuraminidase. Combination therapy with Interferon-? and ribavirin remains the backbone treatment for chronic hepatitis C; the addition of serine protease inhibitors improves the treatment outcome of patients infected with hepatitis C virus genotype 1. Chronic hepatitis B can be treated with interferon or a combination of nucleos(t)ide analogues. Notably, almost all the nucleos(t) ide analogues for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B possess antihuman immunodeficiency virus properties, and they inhibit replication of hepatitis B virus by serving as competitive substrates for its DNA polymerase. Some antiviral drugs possess multiple potential clinical applications, such as ribavirin for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C and respiratory syncytial virus and cidofovir for the treatment of cytomegalovirus and other DNA viruses. Drug resistance is an emerging threat to the clinical utility of antiviral drugs. The major mechanisms for drug resistance are mutations in the viral DNA polymerase gene or in genes that encode for the viral kinases required for the activation of certain drugs such as acyclovir and ganciclovir. Widespread antiviral resistance has limited the clinical utility of M2 inhibitors for the prevention and treatment of influenza infections. This article provides an overview of clinically available antiviral drugs for the primary care physician, with a special focus on pharmacology, clinical uses, and adverse effects.
The simultaneous detection is described of cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), potato virus Y (PVY) and tomato mosaic virus (ToMV) by flow cytometry. Extracts from leaves of healthy and CMV or PVY infected plants were incubated with latex particles, each with a diameter of 3 microm. Extracts from ToMV infected or uninfected plants, however, were incubated with particles, each with a diameter of 6 microm. Beads were washed and incubated in succession with primary and secondary antibodies, the latter labeled with phycoerythrin (PE) or fluorescein (FITC). CMV and PVY were distinguished on the basis of the fluorescence emitted by FITC and PE; ToMV was distinguished from CMV and PVY on the basis of the different diameter (6 microm) of the particles on which it was adsorbed. The three viruses were detected also by another approach. Latex particles with a diameter of 3, 6 and 10 microm were separately sensitized with antibodies specific for CMV, PVY and ToMV. An equal number of sensitized particles was mixed and incubated with the plant extracts containing the three viruses and then with anti-CMV, anti-PVY and anti-ToMV antibodies labeled with FITC. The study describes also a virus purification method based on the use of antibody coated latex particles. The method is simple technically and applicable to the purification of large as well as minute amounts of different viruses (CMV, PVY and ToMV). PMID:9504759
Iannelli, D; D'Apice, L; Cottone, C; Viscardi, M; Scala, F; Zoina, A; Del Sorbo, G; Spigno, P; Capparelli, R
Toscana virus (TOSV, Phlebovirus, family Bunyaviridae) infection is one of the most prevalent arboviruses in Spain. Within the objectives of a multidisciplinary network, a study on the epidemiology of TOSV was conducted in Granada, in southern Spain. The overall seroprevalence rate was 24.9%, significantly increasing with age. TOSV was detected in 3 of 103 sandfly pools by viral culture or reverse transcriptionpolymerase chain reaction from a region of the L gene. Nucleotide sequence homology was 99%100% in TOSV from vectors and patients and 80%81% compared to the Italian strain ISS Phl.3. Sequencing of the N gene of TOSV isolates from patients and vectors indicated 87%88% and 100% homology at the nucleotide and amino acid levels, respectively, compared to the Italian strain. These findings demonstrate the circulation of at least 2 different lineages of TOSV in the Mediterranean basin, the Italian lineage and the Spanish lineage.
Sanbonmatsu-Gamez, Sara; Perez-Ruiz, Mercedes; Collao, Ximena; Sanchez-Seco, Maria Paz; Morillas-Marquez, Francisco; de la Rosa-Fraile, Manuel; Navarro-Mari, Jose Maria; Tenorio, Antonio
Despite highly effective anti-retroviral therapy, HIV is thought to persist in patients within long-lived cellular reservoirs in the form of a transcriptionally inactive (latent) integrated provirus. Lentiviral latency has therefore come to the forefront of the discussion on the possibility of a cure for HIV infection in humans. Animal models of lentiviral latency provide an essential tool to study mechanisms of latency and therapeutic manipulation. Of the three animal models that have been described, the feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV)-infected cat is the most recent and least characterized. However, several aspects of this model make it attractive for latency research, and it may be complementary to other model systems. This article reviews what is known about FIV latency and chronic FIV infection and how it compares with that of other lentiviruses. It thereby offers a framework for the usefulness of this model in future research aimed at lentiviral eradication.
Despite highly effective anti-retroviral therapy, HIV is thought to persist in patients within long-lived cellular reservoirs in the form of a transcriptionally inactive (latent) integrated provirus. Lentiviral latency has therefore come to the forefront of the discussion on the possibility of a cure for HIV infection in humans. Animal models of lentiviral latency provide an essential tool to study mechanisms of latency and therapeutic manipulation. Of the three animal models that have been described, the feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV)-infected cat is the most recent and least characterized. However, several aspects of this model make it attractive for latency research, and it may be complementary to other model systems. This article reviews what is known about FIV latency and chronic FIV infection and how it compares with that of other lentiviruses. It thereby offers a framework for the usefulness of this model in future research aimed at lentiviral eradication. PMID:23829177
McDonnel, Samantha J; Sparger, Ellen E; Murphy, Brian G
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) endocrinopathy encompasses a broad spectrum of disorders. Almost all the endocrine organs are virtually affected by HIV infection. HIV can directly alter glandular function. More commonly secondary endocrine dysfunction occurs due to opportunistic infections and neoplasms in immunocompromised state. The complex interaction between HIV infection and endocrine system may be manifested as subtle biochemical and hormonal perturbation to overt glandular failure. Antiretroviral therapy as well as other essential medications often result in adverse endocrinal consequences. Apart from adrenal insufficiency, hypogonadism, diabetes and bone loss, AIDS wasting syndrome and HIV lipodystrophy need special reference. Endocrinal evaluation should proceed as in other patients with suspected endocrine dysfunction. Available treatment options have been shown to improve quality of life and long-term mortality in AIDS patients.
Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is a ubiquitous human alphaherpesvirus that causes varicella (chicken pox) and herpes zoster (shingles). Varicella is a common childhood illness, characterized by fever, viremia, and scattered vesicular lesions of the skin. As is characteristic of the alphaherpesviruses, VZV establishes latency in cells of the dorsal root ganglia. Herpes zoster, caused by VZV reactivation, is a localized, painful, vesicular rash involving one or adjacent dermatomes. The incidence of herpes zoster increases with age or immunosuppression. The VZV virion consists of a nucleocapsid surrounding a core that contains the linear, double-stranded DNA genome; a protein tegument separates the capsid from the lipid envelope, which incorporates the major viral glycoproteins. VZV is found in a worldwide geographic distribution but is more prevalent in temperate climates. Primary VZV infection elicits immunoglobulin G (IgG), IgM, and IgA antibodies, which bind to many classes of viral proteins. Virus-specific cellular immunity is critical for controlling viral replication in healthy and immunocompromised patients with primary or recurrent VZV infections. Rapid laboratory confirmation of the diagnosis of varicella or herpes zoster, which can be accomplished by detecting viral proteins or DNA, is important to determine the need for antiviral therapy. Acyclovir is licensed for treatment of varicella and herpes zoster, and acyclovir, valacyclovir, and famciclovir are approved for herpes zoster. Passive antibody prophylaxis with varicella-zoster immune globulin is indicated for susceptible high-risk patients exposed to varicella. A live attenuated varicella vaccine (Oka/Merck strain) is now recommended for routine childhood immunization.
Objective: Varicella zoster virus (VZV) is an under-recognized yet treatable cause of stroke. No animal model exists for stroke caused by VZV infection of cerebral arteries. Thus, we analyzed cerebral and temporal arteries from 3 patients with VZV vasculopathy to identify features that will help in diagnosis and lead to a better understanding of VZV-induced vascular remodeling. Methods: Normal and VZV-infected cerebral and temporal arteries were examined histologically and by immunohistochemistry using antibodies directed against VZV, endothelium, and smooth muscle actin and myosin. Results: All VZV-infected arteries contained 1) a disrupted internal elastic lamina; 2) a hyperplastic intima composed of cells expressing ?-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA) and smooth muscle myosin heavy chain (SM-myosin) but not endothelial cells expressing CD31; and 3) decreased medial smooth muscle cells. The location of VZV antigen, degree of neointimal thickening, and disruption of the media were related to the duration of disease. Conclusions: The presence of VZV primarily in the adventitia early in infection and in the media and intima later supports the notion that after reactivation from ganglia, VZV spreads transaxonally to the arterial adventitia followed by transmural spread of virus. Disruption of the internal elastic lamina, progressive intimal thickening with cells expressing ?-SMA and SM-MHC, and decreased smooth muscle cells in the media are characteristic features of VZV vasculopathy. Stroke in VZV vasculopathy may result from changes in arterial caliber and contractility produced in part by abnormal accumulation of smooth muscle cells and myofibroblasts in thickened neointima and disruption of the media.
... Complete List of Vaccines Licensed for Immunization and Distribution in the US. -. Japanese Encephalitis Virus Vaccine Inactivated. -. JE-Vax. -. -. -. ... More results from www.fda.gov/biologicsbloodvaccines/vaccines/approvedproducts
Human viruses usually gain access to soil systems through intentional or unintentional discharges of domestic wastewater. Intentional land treatment/disposal systems represent an attractive alternative to surface water discharges, providing both economic ...
Killed and live attenuated influenza virus vaccines are effective in preventing and curbing the spread of influenza epidemics when the strains present in the vaccines are closely matched with the predicted epidemic strains. These vaccines are primarily targeted to induce immunity to the variable major target antigen, hemagglutinin (HA) of influenza virus. However, current vaccines are not effective in preventing the emergence of new pandemic or highly virulent viruses. New approaches are being investigated to develop universal influenza virus vaccines as well as to apply more effective vaccine delivery methods. Conserved vaccine targets including the influenza M2 ion channel protein and HA stalk domains are being developed using recombinant technologies to improve the level of cross protection. In addition, recent studies provide evidence that vaccine supplements can provide avenues to further improve current vaccination.
Kang, Sang-Moo; Song, Jae-Min; Compans, Richard W.
The attenuated strain of rubella virus, was serially passed 14 times in AGMK cells and the markers of attenuation were verified. Rubella hemagglutinin and complement fixing antigen were produced in good titers in BHK-21 cells in sufficient quantities for ...
The illustrated handbook was compiled by international authorities on virus and viruslike diseases of small fruits. Crops covered are in the plant genera Fragaria (strawberry), Vaccinium (blueberry and cranberry), Ribes (currant and gooseberry), and Rubus...
Text Version... Measles is a common childhood disease, caused by measles virus (paramyxovirus), that may be associated with serious complications and/or ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/biologicsbloodvaccines/vaccines
ADVICE FOR PATIENTS Bronchiolitis and Respiratory Syncytial Virus B ronchiolitis is an infection that affects the lungs and breathing passages; the name bronchiolitis means inflammation of the small airways in the ...
This report discusses the continuing effort to enhance the sensitivity of type A influenza virus detection systems utilizing the monoclonal antibodies to M-protein. Combinations of purified monoclonal antibodies to M-protein used as capture antibodies for...
The chapter contains a description of the Winter wheat (Russian) mosaic disease symptoms, transmission and occurrence. Characteristics of the disease agent, Winter wheat (Russian) mosaic virus are outlined, as are control measures....
There is a subviral world, whose most prominent representatives are viroids. Despite being solely composed by a circular, highly structured RNA of ~250 to 400 nucleotides without protein-coding ability (all viruses code for one or more proteins), viroids can infect and incite specific diseases in higher plants. The RNA of human hepatitis delta virus (HDV), the smallest genome of an animal virus, displays striking similarities with viroids: It is circular, folds into a rodlike secondary structure, and replicates through a rolling-circle mechanism catalyzed by host enzymes and cis-acting ribozymes. However, HDV RNA is larger (~1700 nucleotides), encodes a protein in its antigenomic polarity (the ? antigen), and depends for transmission on hepatitis B virus. The presence of ribozymes in some viroids and in HDV RNA, along with their structural simplicity, makes them candidates for being molecular fossils of the RNA world that presumably preceded our extant world based on DNA and proteins. PMID:22932968
The recently characterized small RNAs provide a new paradigm for physiological studies. These molecules have been shown to be integral players in processes as diverse as development and innate immunity against bacteria and viruses in eukaryotes. Several of the well-characterized small RNAs including small interfering RNAs, microRNAs and PIWI-interacting RNAs are emerging as important players in mediating arthropod host-virus interactions. Understanding the role of small RNAs in arthropod host-virus molecular interactions will facilitate manipulation of these pathways for both management of arthropod pests of agricultural and medical importance, and for protection of beneficial arthropods such as honey bees and shrimp. This review highlights recent research on the role of small RNAs in arthropod host-virus interactions with reference to other host-pathogen systems. PMID:23932976
Vijayendran, Diveena; Airs, Paul M; Dolezal, Kelly; Bonning, Bryony C
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is an enterically transmitted virus usually presenting as an acute self-limiting disease. However,\\u000a mortality increases dramatically from around 1% to 20% in pregnant women. HEV has been the cause of very large outbreaks of\\u000a hepatitis in developing countries and is also responsible for a significant number of sporadic cases. It is clear that cases\\u000a occur outside
In a retrospective study of 42 cases with a histopathologic diagnosis of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) or similar panencephalitic processes, measles virus antigen was traced by means of indirect immunofluorescence (IF) and peroxidase-antiperoxidase (PAP) techniques on protease-pretreated histological sections from formol-fixed, paraffin-embedded brain biopsy or autopsy tissue, stored for up to 32 years. Measles virus antigen was detected in 28
Simian virus 40 (SV40) is a monkey virus that was administered to human populations by contaminated vaccines which were produced in SV40 naturally infected monkey cells. Recent molecular biology and epidemiological studies suggest that SV40 may be contagiously transmitted in humans by horizontal infection, independently from the earlier administration of SV40-contaminated vaccines. SV40 footprints in humans have been found associated
One-hundred and fourteen virus species are transmitted by whiteflies (family Aleyrodidae). Bemisia tabaci transmits 111 of these species while Trialeurodes vaporariorum and T. abutilonia transmit three species each. B. tabaci and T. vaporariorum are present in the EuropeanMediterranean region, though the former is restricted in its distribution. Of the whitefly-transmitted virus species, 90% belong to the Begomovirus genus, 6% to
The mechanism of the transient inhibition of polyoma virus synthesis by betapropiolactone-inactivated Sendai virus was studied. Polyoma virus early functions did not appear to be affected, although deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and structural protein synthesis were inhibited 60 and 35% respectively. The inhibition of macromolecular synthesis was not sufficient to account for the 90% inhibition of infectious progeny formation. Encapsidation of polyoma DNA into mature virions appears to be completely inhibited after superinfection by beta-propiolactone-inactivated Sendai virus. Ultraviolet irradiation of live or beta-propiolactone-inactivated Sendai virus preparations abolishes the interfering capacity, indicating that a functional Sendai virus ribonucleic acid molecule is the interfering component. PMID:4345489
The mechanism of the transient inhibition of polyoma virus synthesis by betapropiolactone-inactivated Sendai virus was studied. Polyoma virus early functions did not appear to be affected, although deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and structural protein synthesis were inhibited 60 and 35% respectively. The inhibition of macromolecular synthesis was not sufficient to account for the 90% inhibition of infectious progeny formation. Encapsidation of polyoma DNA into mature virions appears to be completely inhibited after superinfection by beta-propiolactone-inactivated Sendai virus. Ultraviolet irradiation of live or beta-propiolactone-inactivated Sendai virus preparations abolishes the interfering capacity, indicating that a functional Sendai virus ribonucleic acid molecule is the interfering component.
We have used a resonating mechanical cantilever to detect immunospecific binding of viruses, captured from liquid. As a model virus, we used a nonpathogenic insect baculovirus to test the ability to specifically bind and detect small numbers of virus particles. Arrays of surface micromachined, antibody-coated polycrystalline silicon nanomechanical cantilever beams were used to detect binding from various concentrations of baculoviruses in a buffer solution. Because of their small mass, the 0.5 ?m×6 ?m cantilevers have mass sensitivities on the order of 10-19 g/Hz, enabling the detection of an immobilized AcV1 antibody monolayer corresponding to a mass of about 3×10-15 g. With these devices, we can detect the mass of single-virus particles bound to the cantilever. Resonant frequency shift resulting from the adsorbed mass of the virus particles distinguished solutions of virus concentrations varying between 105 and 107 pfu/ml. Control experiments using buffer solutions without baculovirus showed small amounts (<50 attograms) of nonspecific adsorption to the antibody layer.
Briefly described, virus-like particles, methods of preparing virus-like particles, immunogenic compositions that include virus-like particles, and methods of liciting an immune response using immunogenic compositions that include virus-like particles are...
The conversion of simian virus 40 (SV40) component II deoxyribonucleic acid to component I has been used to assay polynucleotide ligase in extracts of tissue culture cells. All cell types examined, including chicken, hamster, mouse, monkey, and human cells, contained adenosine triphosphate-dependent ligase. After infection of mouse embryo, monkey kidney, and HeLa cells with polyoma virus, SV40, and vaccinia virus, respectively, the enzyme activity increased, but its cofactor requirement was unchanged. In vaccinia virus-infected cells, the increased activity was localized in the cytoplasm. Ligase induction occurred in the presence of cytosine arabinoside but was prevented by puromycin. Rifampicin blocked the production of infectious vaccinia particles but had little effect on the induction of ligase.
This review is a partially personal account of the discovery of virus structure and its implication for virus function. Although I have endeavored to cover all aspects of structural virology and to acknowledge relevant individuals, I know that I have favored taking examples from my own experience in telling this story. I am anxious to apologize to all those who I might have unintentionally offended by omitting their work. The first knowledge of virus structure was a result of Stanley's studies of tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) and the subsequent X-ray fiber diffraction analysis by Bernal and Fankuchen in the 1930s. At about the same time it became apparent that crystals of small RNA plant and animal viruses could diffract X-rays, demonstrating that viruses must have distinct and unique structures. More advances were made in the 1950s with the realization by Watson and Crick that viruses might have icosahedral symmetry. With the improvement of experimental and computational techniques in the 1970s, it became possible to determine the three-dimensional, near-atomic resolution structures of some small icosahedral plant and animal RNA viruses. It was a great surprise that the protecting capsids of the first virus structures to be determined had the same architecture. The capsid proteins of these viruses all had a 'jelly-roll' fold and, furthermore, the organization of the capsid protein in the virus were similar, suggesting a common ancestral virus from which many of today's viruses have evolved. By this time a more detailed structure of TMV had also been established, but both the architecture and capsid protein fold were quite different to that of the icosahedral viruses. The small icosahedral RNA virus structures were also informative of how and where cellular receptors, anti-viral compounds, and neutralizing antibodies bound to these viruses. However, larger lipid membrane enveloped viruses did not form sufficiently ordered crystals to obtain good X-ray diffraction. Starting in the 1990s, these enveloped viruses were studied by combining cryo-electron microscopy of the whole virus with X-ray crystallography of their protein components. These structures gave information on virus assembly, virus neutralization by antibodies, and virus fusion with and entry into the host cell. The same techniques were also employed in the study of complex bacteriophages that were too large to crystallize. Nevertheless, there still remained many pleomorphic, highly pathogenic viruses that lacked the icosahedral symmetry and homogeneity that had made the earlier structural investigations possible. Currently some of these viruses are starting to be studied by combining X-ray crystallography with cryo-electron tomography. PMID:23889891
...2013-07-01 false Coat Protein of Watermelon Mosaic Virus-2 and Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus; exemption from the requirement for a tolerance...174.514 Coat Protein of Watermelon Mosaic Virus-2 and Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus;...
The occurrence, prevalence, and distribution patterns of acute bee paralysis virus (ABPV), black queen cell virus (BQCV), chronic bee paralysis virus (CBPV), deformed wing virus (DWV), Kashmir bee virus (KBV), and sacbrood virus (SBV) were investigated in 90 Austrian honeybee colonies suffering from symptoms of depop- ulation, sudden collapse, paralysis, or dark coloring by employing reverse transcription-PCR. Infestation with parasites
Olga Berenyi; Tamas Bakonyi; Irmgard Derakhshifar; Hemma Koglberger; Norbert Nowotny
A large-scale model of virus transport in aquifers is derived using spectral perturbation analysis. The effects of spatial variability in aquifer hydraulic conductivity and virus transport (attachment, detachment, and inactivation) parameters on large-scale virus transport are evaluated. A stochastic mean model of virus transport is developed by linking a simple system of local-scale free-virus transport and attached-virus conservation equations from the current literature with a random-field representation of aquifer and virus transport properties. The resultant mean equations for free and attached viruses are found to differ considerably from the local-scale equations on which they are based and include effects such as a free-virus effective velocity that is a function of aquifer heterogeneity as well as virus transport parameters. Stochastic mean free-virus breakthrough curves are compared with local model output in order to observe the effects of spatial variability on mean one-dimensional virus transport in three-dimensionally heterogeneous porous media. Significant findings from this theoretical analysis include the following: (1) Stochastic model breakthrough occurs earlier than local model breakthrough, and this effect is most pronounced for the least conductive aquifers studied. (2) A high degree of aquifer heterogeneity can lead to virus breakthrough actually preceding that of a conservative tracer. (3) As the mean hydraulic conductivity is increased, the mean model shows less sensitivity to the variance of the natural-logarithm hydraulic conductivity and mean virus diameter. (4) Incorporation of a heterogeneous colloid filtration term results in higher predicted concentrations than a simple first-order adsorption term for a given mean attachment rate. (5) Incorporation of aquifer heterogeneity leads to a greater range of virus diameters for which significant breakthrough occurs. (6) The mean model is more sensitive to the inactivation rate of viruses associated with solid surfaces than to the inactivation rate of viruses in solution.
Campbell, Rehmann, L. L.; Welty, C.; Harvey, R. W.
The delivery of foreign epitopes by a replicating nonpathogenic avian infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) was explored. The aim of the study was to identify regions in the IBDV genome that are amenable to the introduction of a sequence encoding a foreign peptide. By using a cDNA-based reverse genetics system, insertions or substitutions of sequences encoding epitope tags (FLAG, c-Myc, or hepatitis C virus epitopes) were engineered in the open reading frames of a nonstructural protein (VP5) and the capsid protein (VP2). Attempts were also made to generate recombinant IBDV that displayed foreign epitopes in the exposed loops (P(BC) and P(HI)) of the VP2 trimer. We successfully recovered recombinant IBDVs expressing c-Myc and two different virus-neutralizing epitopes of human hepatitis C virus (HCV) envelope glycoprotein E in the VP5 region. Western blot analyses with anti-c-Myc and anti-HCV antibodies provided positive identification of both the c-Myc and HCV epitopes that were fused to the N terminus of VP5. Genetic analysis showed that the recombinants carrying the c-Myc/HCV epitopes maintained the foreign gene sequences and were stable after several passages in Vero and 293T cells. This is the first report describing efficient expression of foreign peptides from a replication-competent IBDV and demonstrates the potential of this virus as a vector. PMID:21106739
In the past two decades or so, a number of viruses have emerged in the global swine population. Some, such as porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), cause economically important diseases in pigs, whereas others such as porcine torque teno virus (TTV), now known as Torque teno sus virus (TTSuV), porcine bocavirus (PBoV) and related novel parvoviruses, porcine kobuvirus, porcine toroviruses (PToV) and porcine lymphotropic herpesviruses (PLHV), are mostly subclinical in swine herds. Although some emerging swine viruses such as swine hepatitis E virus (swine HEV), porcine endogenous retrovirus (PERV) and porcine sapovirus (porcine SaV) may have a limited clinical implication in swine health, they do pose a potential public health concern in humans due to zoonotic (swine HEV) or potential zoonotic (porcine SaV) and xenozoonotic (PERV, PLHV) risks. Other emerging viruses such as Nipah virus, Bungowannah virus and Menangle virus not only cause diseases in pigs but some also pose important zoonotic threat to humans. This article focuses on emerging and re-emerging swine viruses that have a limited or uncertain clinical and economic impact on pig health. The transmission, epidemiology and pathogenic potential of these viruses are discussed. In addition, the two economically important emerging viruses, PRRSV and PCV2, are also briefly discussed to identify important knowledge gaps. PMID:22225855
Until recently there was little interest or information on viruses and viruslike particles of eukaryotic algae. However, this situation is changing. In the past decade many large double-stranded DNA-containing viruses that infect two culturable, unicellular, eukaryotic green algae have been discovered. These viruses can be produced in large quantities, assayed by plaque formation, and analyzed by standard bacteriophage techniques. The viruses are structurally similar to animal iridoviruses, their genomes are similar to but larger (greater than 300 kbp) than that of poxviruses, and their infection process resembles that of bacteriophages. Some of the viruses have DNAs with low levels of methylated bases, whereas others have DNAs with high concentrations of 5-methylcytosine and N6-methyladenine. Virus-encoded DNA methyltransferases are associated with the methylation and are accompanied by virus-encoded DNA site-specific (restriction) endonucleases. Some of these enzymes have sequence specificities identical to those of known bacterial enzymes, and others have previously unrecognized specificities. A separate rod-shaped RNA-containing algal virus has structural and nucleotide sequence affinities to higher plant viruses. Quite recently, viruses have been associated with rapid changes in marine algal populations. In the next decade we envision the discovery of new algal viruses, clarification of their role in various ecosystems, discovery of commercially useful genes in these viruses, and exploitation of algal virus genetic elements in plant and algal biotechnology. Images
A new word, phylodynamics, was coined to emphasize the interconnection between phylogenetic properties, as observed for instance in a phylogenetic tree, and the epidemic dynamics of viruses, where selection, mediated by the host immune response, and transmission play a crucial role. The challenges faced when investigating the evolution of RNA viruses call for a virtuous loop of data collection, data analysis and modeling. This already resulted both in the collection of massive sequences databases and in the formulation of hypotheses on the main mechanisms driving qualitative differences observed in the (reconstructed) evolutionary patterns of different RNA viruses. Qualitatively, it has been observed that selection driven by the host immune response induces an uneven survival ability among co-existing strains. As a consequence, the imbalance level of the phylogenetic tree is manifestly more pronounced if compared to the case when the interaction with the host immune system does not play a central role in the evolutive dynamics. While many imbalance metrics have been introduced, reliable methods to discriminate in a quantitative way different level of imbalance are still lacking. In our work, we reconstruct and analyze the phylogenetic trees of six RNA viruses, with a special emphasis on the human Influenza A virus, due to its relevance for vaccine preparation as well as for the theoretical challenges it poses due to its peculiar evolutionary dynamics. We focus in particular on topological properties. We point out the limitation featured by standard imbalance metrics, and we introduce a new methodology with which we assign the correct imbalance level of the phylogenetic trees, in agreement with the phylodynamics of the viruses. Our thorough quantitative analysis allows for a deeper understanding of the evolutionary dynamics of the considered RNA viruses, which is crucial in order to provide a valuable framework for a quantitative assessment of theoretical predictions.
Alphavirus glycoproteins E2 and E1 form a heterodimer that is required for virus assembly. We have studied adaptive mutations in E2 of Sindbis virus (SIN) and E1 of Ross River virus (RR) that allow these two glycoproteins to interact more efficiently in a chimeric virus that has SIN E2 but RR E1. These mutations include K129E, K131E, and V237F in
KYONGMIN HWANG KIM; ELLEN G. STRAUSS; JAMES H. STRAUSS
Adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors have evolved over the past decade as a particularly useful gene -vector for in vivo applications. In contrast to oncoretro- and lentiviral vectors, this vector stays essentially episomal after gene transfer, making it safer because of the absence of insertional mutagenesis. AAV's non-pathogenicity is a further advantage. For decades, this vector could only be produced at a small scale for research purposes and, eventually, used at very small doses for clinical studies, because only transfection methods were available, which have limited scalability. However, since the development of scalable production methods, this bottleneck is resolved and, from a technical point of view, large quantities of AAV vectors can be produced, opening the possibility of using AAV vectors for whole body treatments in gene therapy trials. This chapter presents the basic principles of small- and large-scale production procedures as well as detailed procedure of small-scale production, purification, and analytical protocols for AAV vectors. In Chapter 10, the reader will find a large-scale production method based on the use of the insect cell/baculovirus system. PMID:21590399
Latent infections with periodic reactivation are a common outcome after acute infection with many viruses. The latency-associated transcript (LAT) gene is required for wild-type reactivation of herpes simplex virus (HSV). However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In rabbit trigeminal ganglia, extensive apoptosis occurred with LAT- virus but not with LAT+ viruses. In addition, a plasmid expressing LAT blocked apoptosis in
Guey-Chuen Perng; Clinton Jones; Janice Ciacci-Zanella; Melissa Stone; Gail Henderson; Ada Yukht; Susan M. Slanina; Florence M. Hofman; Homayon Ghiasi; Anthony B. Nesburn; Steven L. Wechsler
The use of polyacrylamide jells has facilitated the investigation of virus-specific proteins both in the form of virions and in cells infected by the virus. This method has made possible the separation of virus-specific proteins of the polio-virus and the...
Many enveloped viruses complete their replication cycle by forming vesicles that bud from the plasma membrane. Some viruses encode late (L) domain motifs that are able to hijack host proteins involved in the vacuolar protein sorting (VPS) pathway, a cellular budding process that gives rise to multivesicular bodies and that is topologically equivalent to virus budding. Although many enveloped viruses
Howard, C. J., Clarke, M. C. and Brownlie, J., 1989. Protection against respiratory infection with bovine virus diarrhoea virus by passively acquired antibody. Vet. Microbiol., 19: 195-203. Susceptibility to infection with bovine virus diarrhoea virus (BVDV) was compared for calves with varying amounts of specific antibody in their sera passively acquired from the ingestion of colostrum. Challenge consisted of intranasal
Recent reports suggest that several viruses, besides human immunodeficiency virus, induce apoptosis in infected cells. We report here that Sendai virus or Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), two potent inducers of interferon-?, caused cell death in a consistent number of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. A careful analysis of infected cells by different techniques, such as optical and electron
Franco Tropea; Leonarda Troiano; Daniela Monti; Elena Lovato; Walter Malorni; Gabriella Rainaldi; Paolo Mattana; Giuseppe Viscomi; Maria Cristina Ingletti; Marinella Portolani; Claudio Cermelli; Andrea Cossarizza; Claudio Franceschi
We have previously described isolation and preliminary identification of a virus related to Dugbe virus (DUGV), family Bunyaviridae, genus Nairovirus. Six isolates of the virus were obtained from pools of Amblyomma gemma and Rhipicephalus pulchellus ticks collected from hides of cattle in Nairobi, Kenya, in October 1999. We report results of further characterization of this virus, including growth kinetics in
Despite recent advances in the genetics of West Nile (WN) virus, relatively little is known about the molecular basis of virulence of this virus. In particular, although the genotype of the WN virus strain that was recently introduced into North America has been determined, there have been few experimental studies on the virulence phenotype of the virus. We compared genetic
David W. C. Beasley; Li Li; Miguel T. Suderman; Alan D. T. Barrett
Here, we report the sequencing and classification of Nyamanini virus (NYMV) and Midway virus (MIDWV), two antigenically related viruses that were first isolated in 1957 and 1966, respectively. Although these viruses have been cultured multiple times from cattle egrets, seabirds, and their ticks, efforts to classify them taxonomically using conventional serological and electron microscopic approaches have failed completely. We used
Kathie A. Mihindukulasuriya; Nang L. Nguyen; Guang Wu; Henry V. Huang; Vsevolod L. Popov; Robert B. Tesh; David Wang
Powassan (POW) virus is responsible for central nervous system infection in humans in North America and the eastern parts of Russia. Recently, a new flavivirus, deer tick (DT) virus, related to POW virus was isolated in the United States, but neither its pathogenic potential in human nor the taxonomic relationship with POW virus has been elucidated. In this study, we
G. KUNO; H. ARTSOB; N. KARABATSOS; K. R. TSUCHIYA; G. J. J. CHANG
A novel flavivirus, GB virus C (GBV-C)\\/hepatitis G virus (HGV), has been detected in chronic liver disease patients. It is known that the viral RNA can be detected in C 5% of American blood donors. However, the implications for liver disease and the sites of virus replication remain unknown. Possible sites of virus replication were studied by using cell lines
Many RNA viruses have genetically diverse populations known as quasispecies. Important biological char- acteristics may be related to the levels of diversity in the quasispecies (quasispecies cloud size), including adaptability and host range. Previous work using Tobacco mosaic virus and Cucumber mosaic virus indicated that evolutionarily related viruses have very different levels of diversity in a common host. The quasispecies
BACKGROUND: Plant viruses can be employed as versatile vectors for the production of vaccines by expressing immunogenic epitopes on the surface of chimeric viral particles. Although several viruses, including tobacco mosaic virus, potato virus X and cowpea mosaic virus, have been developed as vectors, we aimed to develop a new viral vaccine delivery system, a bamboo mosaic virus (BaMV), that
Prompted by Professor Lwoff's article ``Principles of Classification and Nomenclature of Viruses'' (Nature, 215, 13; 1967), Drs Gibbs and Harrison defend the idea of the cryptogram, and explain its advantage over a binomial system of nomenclature for viruses.
Repeated transmission of animal influenza viruses to humans has prompted investigation of the viral, host, and environmental factors responsible for transmission via aerosols or respiratory droplets. How do we determine out of thousands of influenza virus isolates collected in animal surveillance studies each year which viruses have the potential to become airborne, and hence pose a pandemic threat? Here, using knowledge from pandemic, zoonotic and epidemic viruses, we postulate that the minimal requirements for efficient transmission of an animal influenza virus between humans are: efficient virus attachment to (upper) respiratory tissues, replication to high titers in these tissues, and release and aerosolization of single virus particles. Investigating airborne transmission of influenza viruses is key to understand and predict influenza pandemics.
Sorrell, E.M.; Schrauwen, E.J.A.; Linster, M.; De Graaf, M.; Herfst, S.; Fouchier, R.A.M.
Transmission of influenza virus infection in mice can be correlated with demonstrable airborne virus in the vicinity of infector mice during the period of their infectiousness; the critical difference that distinguishes transmissible and non-transmissible...
Repeated transmission of animal influenza viruses to humans has prompted investigation of the viral, host, and environmental factors responsible for transmission via aerosols or respiratory droplets. How do we determine-out of thousands of influenza virus isolates collected in animal surveillance studies each year-which viruses have the potential to become 'airborne', and hence pose a pandemic threat? Here, using knowledge from pandemic, zoonotic and epidemic viruses, we postulate that the minimal requirements for efficient transmission of an animal influenza virus between humans are: efficient virus attachment to (upper) respiratory tissues, replication to high titers in these tissues, and release and aerosolization of single virus particles. Investigating 'airborne' transmission of influenza viruses is key to understand-and predict-influenza pandemics. PMID:22440921
Sorrell, E M; Schrauwen, E J A; Linster, M; De Graaf, M; Herfst, S; Fouchier, R A M
... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . West Nile Virus Share Compartir Add this to... Añadir en... ... Most people (70-80%) who become infected with West Nile virus do not develop any symptoms. Febrile illness ...
Strain 'T' of the Newcastle virus was adapted to guinea pigs and other mammals. Following the intracerebral inoculation, the adapted virus caused an infection, clinically expressed by signs of central nervous system disease (irritability, anorexia, locomo...
... Digg Google Bookmarks FAQ: West Nile Virus & Dead Birds How do birds get infected with West Nile ... dead bird sightings to local authorities. How do birds get infected with West Nile virus? West Nile ...
The bacterially expressed nucleocapsid (N) protein of porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus (PRRSV) was used as immunogen to generate a rabbit-derived polyclonal antibody. The immunoreactivity of the protein to the antibody was confirmed by Western blot analysis. Using PRRSV, transmissible gastroenteritis virus, porcine epidemic diarrhea virus, pseudorabies virus, and avian infectious bronchitis virus as coating antigens, a virus-based ELISA was established. The polyclonal antibody against PRRSV N protein used as a diagnostic agent was capable of differentiating PRRSV from the other viruses. PMID:21529294
The dsRNA viruses represent a large, diverse group of pathogens (affecting a very wide range of host species), several of which are of medical, veterinary or agricultural importance. Many of the icosahedral dsRNA viruses show striking structural and functional similarities that reflect the similar problems that they face replicating their dsRNA genomes while avoiding the dsRNA activated defence mechanisms of their host species. These similarities appear to indicate a common if distant ancestry that is not always evident simply by comparison of nucleotide or amino acid sequences. To facilitate the identification and comparisons of cognate proteins from different species, genera and families of dsRNA viruses, a series of tables were originally constructed for the 7th International Symposium of dsRNA viruses held in Aruba in 2000. These have now been updated and extended (for the 8th Symposium, held in Tuscany 2003) and are available from the dsRNA virus website at. PMID:15010213
The genomes of most virus species have overlapping genestwo or more proteins coded for by the same nucleotide sequence. Several explanations have been proposed for the evolution of this phenomenon, and we test these by comparing the amount of gene overlap in all known virus species. We conclude that gene overlap is unlikely to have evolved as a way of compressing the genome in response to the harmful effect of mutation because RNA viruses, despite having generally higher mutation rates, have less gene overlap on average than DNA viruses of comparable genome length. However, we do find a negative relationship between overlap proportion and genome length among viruses with icosahedral capsids, but not among those with other capsid types that we consider easier to enlarge in size. Our interpretation is that a physical constraint on genome length by the capsid has led to gene overlap evolving as a mechanism for producing more proteins from the same genome length. We consider that these patterns cannot be explained by other factors, namely the possible roles of overlap in transcription regulation, generating more divergent proteins and the relationship between gene length and genome length.
Chirico, Nicola; Vianelli, Alberto; Belshaw, Robert
Thirty soilborne viruses or virus-like agents are transmitted by five species of fungal vectors. Ten polyhedral viruses, of which nine are in the family Tombusviridae, are acquired in the in vitro manner and do not occur within the resting spores of their vectors, Olpidium brassicae and O. bornovanus. Fungal vectors for other viruses in the family should be sought even though tombusviruses are reputed to be soil transmitted without a vector. Eighteen rod-shaped viruses belonging to the furo- and bymovirus groups and to an unclassified group are acquired in the in vivo manner and survive within the resting spores of their vector, O. brassicae, Polymyxa graminis, P. betae, and Spongospora subterranea. The viral coat protein has an essential role in in vitro transmission. With in vivo transmission a site in the coat protein-read through protein (CP-RT) of beet necrotic yellow vein furovirus determines vector transmissibility as does a site in a similar 98-kDa polyprotein of barley mild mosaic bymovirus. The mechanisms by which virions move (or are moved) into and out of the protoplasm of zoospores or of thalli needs study. PMID:15012536
The ability to detect, isolate, and characterize an infectious agent is important for diagnosing and curing infectious diseases. Detecting new viral diseases is a challenge because the number of virus particles is often low and/or localized to a small subset of cells. Even if a new virus is detected, it is difficult to isolate it from clinical or environmental samples where multiple viruses are present each with very different properties. Isolation is crucial for whole genome sequencing because reconstructing a genome from fragments of many different genomes is practically impossible. We present a Droplet Microfluidics platform that can detect, isolate and sequence single viral genomes from complex samples containing mixtures of many viruses. We use metagenomic information about the sample of mixed viruses to select a short genomic sequence whose genome we are interested in characterizing. We then encapsulate single virions from the same sample in picoliter volume droplets and screen for successful PCR amplification of the sequence of interest. The selected drops are pooled and their contents sequenced to reconstruct the genome of interest. This method provides a general tool for detecting, isolating and sequencing genetic elements in clinical and environmental samples.
Rotem, Assaf; Cockrell, Shelley; Guo, Mira; Pipas, James; Weitz, David
Viral infections are frequently cited as a major environmental factor involved in subacute thyroiditis and autoimmune thyroid diseases This review examines the data related to the role of viruses in the development of thyroiditis. Our research has been focused on human data. We have reviewed virological data for each type of thyroiditis at different levels of evidence; epidemiological data, serological data or research on circulating viruses, direct evidence of thyroid tissue infection. Interpretation of epidemiological and serological data must be cautious as they don't prove that this pathogen is responsible for the disease. However, direct evidence of the presence of viruses or their components in the organ are available for retroviruses (HFV) and mumps in subacute thyroiditis, for retroviruses (HTLV-1, HFV, HIV and SV40) in Graves's disease and for HTLV-1, enterovirus, rubella, mumps virus, HSV, EBV and parvovirus in Hashimoto's thyroiditis. However, it remains to determine whether they are responsible for thyroid diseases or whether they are just innocent bystanders. Further studies are needed to clarify the relationship between viruses and thyroid diseases, in order to develop new strategies for prevention and/or treatment.
By means of the indirect fluorescent-antibody test, cross serological reactivity was demonstrated between lymphocytic choriomeningitis (LCM) virus and the viruses of the Tacaribe complex. Antisera to all members of the Tacaribe complex reacted with LCM virus; LCM antisera gave significant staining of Amapari virus, but minimal or inconsistent reactions with Tacaribe virus, and no reaction with two other viruses of the Tacaribe complex. A low level cross-reaction was observed in complement fixation tests of Machupo and Pichinde antisera against LCM antigen. Immunization with Tacaribe and Amapari viruses did not protect mice against challenge with LCM virus. Because of the identical appearance of the virions, the sharing of antigens, and the many biological similarities between LCM and the Tacaribe complex viruses, it is proposed that they be considered as constituting a new taxonomic group of viruses. PMID:4985595
By means of the indirect fluorescent-antibody test, cross serological reactivity was demonstrated between lymphocytic choriomeningitis (LCM) virus and the viruses of the Tacaribe complex. Antisera to all members of the Tacaribe complex reacted with LCM virus; LCM antisera gave significant staining of Amapari virus, but minimal or inconsistent reactions with Tacaribe virus, and no reaction with two other viruses of the Tacaribe complex. A low level cross-reaction was observed in complement fixation tests of Machupo and Pichinde antisera against LCM antigen. Immunization with Tacaribe and Amapari viruses did not protect mice against challenge with LCM virus. Because of the identical appearance of the virions, the sharing of antigens, and the many biological similarities between LCM and the Tacaribe complex viruses, it is proposed that they be considered as constituting a new taxonomic group of viruses.
The first congress on Viruses of Microbes took place at the Institut Pasteur in Paris, France, on 2125 June 2010. The advances in genomics and metagenomics reported at this meeting reveal striking and unexpected complexity of the virus world. Viruses, in particular viruses that infect prokaryotes and unicellular eukaryotes, are emerging as the most abundant class of biological entities on earth and a major evolutionary and geochemical force.
SUMMARY Reassortment is an important factor in the evolution of segmented genome viruses. For arthropod-borne viruses it is important to determine whether the vertebrate host acts as a site of reassortant virus formation since vertebrates often act as amplifying hosts. Mutants of Thogoto virus, a tick-borne orthomyxo-like virus, were shown to produce wild-type progeny in a dually infected permissive host
LINDA D. JONES; CLIVE R. DAVIES; BERNADETTE M. GREEN; PATRICIA A. NUTTALL
An overview is given on the development of technologies to allow reverse genetics of RNA viruses, i.e., the rescue of viruses\\u000a from cDNA, with emphasis on nonsegmented negative-strand RNA viruses ( Mononegavirales ), as exemplified for measles virus\\u000a (MV). Primarily, these technologies allowed site-directed mutagenesis, enabling important insights into a variety of aspects\\u000a of the biology of these viruses. Concomitantly,
Over the last 15 years, interest in plant virus evolution has re-emerged, as shown by the increasing number of papers published on this subject. In recent times, research in plant virus evolution has been viewed from a molecular, rather than populational, standpoint, and there is a need for work aimed at understanding the processes involved in plant virus evolution. However, accumulated
Fernando García-Arenal; Aurora Fraile; José M. Malpica
Summary The stability of cultured rinderpest virus, in maintenance medium containing 5% normal ox serum, was studied at 4°, 37°, and 56° C. The half-life at these temperatures was calculated and the results compared with figures available for other strains of rinderpest virus in cattle tissues and for measles virus in tissue culture fluids.
Measles virus (MV) and vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) are both members of the Mononegavirales but are only distantly related. We generated two genetically stable chimeric viruses. In MGV, the reading frames of the MV envelope glycoproteins H and F were substituted by a single reading frame encoding the VSV G glyco- protein; MG\\/FV is similar but encodes a G\\/F hybrid
PIUS SPIELHOFER; THOMAS BACHI; THOMAS FEHR; GUDRUN CHRISTIANSEN; ROBERTO CATTANEO; KARIN KAELIN; MARTIN A. BILLETER; HUSSEIN Y. NAIM
Salicylic acid is part of a signal transduction pathway that induces resistance to viruses, bacteria and fungi. In tobacco and Arabidopsis the defensive signal transduction pathway branches downstream of salicylic acid. One branch induces PR-1 proteins and resistance to bacteria and fungi, while the other triggers induction of resistance to RNA and DNA viruses. This virus-specific branch can be activated
Alex M. Murphy; Androulla Gilliland; Chui Eng Wong; Joanne West; Davinder P. Singh; John P. Carr
A single i.m. dose of formalin-inactivated murine mammary tumor virus greatly reduces viral expression and mammary tumorigenesis in Af (tumor incidence, 39%) and RIIIf (tumor incidence, 11%) mice, which carry only endogenous, gamete-transmitted virus. In C57BL mice, 1 mug of vaccine in Freund's complete adjuvant protects against later challenge with RIII virus. PMID:175938
Overview:<\\/strong>The aim of the studies described in this thesis was to obtain a thorough understanding of the main factors determining the spread of a potyvirus in a high plant density crop. The factors studied included the relationships between virus, host and vector, the spread of the virus around an initial virus source consisting of one or more infected plants, the
This book describes advances in the field of virus research. Topics covered include: Retroid virus genome replication; viral oncogenes, v-yes and kerbB, and their cellular counterparts; hepatitis A; and molecular studies of brome Mosaic virus using infectious transcripts from cloned cDNA.
This book presents topics in virus research and advances made in this field. Topics covered include: ambisense RNA genomes of arenaviruses and phleboviruses; the molecular basis of antigenic variation in influenza virus; epitope mapping of flavivirus glycoproteins; regulation of adenovirus mRNA formation; regulation of protein synthesis in virus infected animal cells; and antibody-dependent enhancement of vira infectivity.
Summary Classification of viruses is regulated by the International Committee on the Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). This organisation provides not only the rules to be applied but has to approve all new names for virus species, genera or higher taxa. Anybody may make a taxonomic proposal but most frequently they are generated by specialist study groups that exist for most
The dengue-2 vaccine virus (S-1) and its parent virus (PR-159) were compared for their ability to infect orally, to replicate in, and subsequently to be transmitted by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. The vaccine virus was markedly less efficient in its ability ...
Influenza A virus is a negative stranded RNA virus, composed of eight segmented RNA molecules, including polymerases (PB2, PB1, PA), haemaglutin (HA), nucleoprotein (NP), neuraminidase (NA), matrix protein (MP), and nonstructure gene (NS). The influenza A viruses are notorious for rapid mutations, frequent genomic reassortments, and possible recombinations. Among these evolutionary events, genetic reassortments refer to exchanges of internal fragments
Arctic/Arctic-like rabies virus group 2 spread into Bangladesh ?32 years ago. Because rabies is endemic to and a major public health problem in this country, we characterized this virus group. Its glycoprotein has 3 potential N-glycosylation sites that affect viral pathogenesis. Diversity of rabies virus might have public health implications in Bangladesh. PMID:23171512
The study of viral molecular genetics has produced a considerable body of research into the se- quences and phylogenetic relationships of human and an- imal viruses. A review of this literature suggests that humans have been afflicted by viruses throughout their evolutionary history, although the number and types have changed. Some viruses show evidence of long-standing inti- mate relationship and
RNA silencing or RNAi interference (RNAi) serves as an innate antiviral mechanism in plants, fungi and animals. Human viruses, like plant viruses, encode suppressor proteins or RNAs that block or modulate the RNAi pathway. This review summarizes the mechanisms by which pathogenic human viruses affect the RNAi pathway. Furthermore, some applications of the viral RNAi suppressor functions and the consequences
Maize chlorotic dwarf virus (MCDV) (genus Waikavirus; family Sequiviridae) is a picorna-like virus transmitted by the black-faced leafhopper, Graminella nigrifrons, in a semi-persistent manner using a virus-encoded helper protein. The MCDV genome contains one large open reading frame encoding a poly...
|This discussion of computer viruses explains how these viruses may be transmitted, describes their effects on data and/or computer application programs, and identifies three groups that propagate them. Ten major viruses are listed and described, and measures to deal with them are discussed. Nineteen antiviral programs are also listed and
Summary Feline panleukopenia virus was isolated from a peracute, fatal disease in a 3-month-old Burmese kitten by inoculation of a 1 per cent spleen suspension onto freshly seeded cultures of a feline embryo (FEmb) cell line. The virus was assayed by the detection of intranuclear inclusion bodies in stained coverslips of FEmb cells. The virus was not inactivated by ether,
We study computer virology from an abstract point of view. Viruses and worms are self-replicating programs, whose constructions are essen- tially based on Kleene's second recursion theorem. We show that we can classify viruses as solutions of fixed point equations which are obtained from dierent versions of Kleene's second recursion theorem. This lead us to consider four classes of viruses
Guillaume Bonfante; Matthieu Kaczmarek; Jean-yves Marion
Viruses have evolved to enter cells from all three domains of life Bacteria, Archaea and Eukaryotes. Of more than 3,600 known viruses, hundreds can infect human cells and most of those are associated with disease. To gain access to the cell interior, animal viruses attach to host-cell receptors. Advances in our understanding of how viral entry proteins interact with
Summary Several strains of rubella virus were able to establish a persistent or carrier-type infection in adult hamsters and suckling rabbits. No evidence of rubella virus persistence for prolonged periods was detected in suckling and adult ferrets or in adult rabbits, although serological studies suggested that these animals had been infected with rubella virus.
Ectromelia virus (EV) is an orthopoxvirus (OPV) that causes mousepox, a severe disease of laboratory mice. Mousepox is a useful model of OPV infection because EV is likely to be a natural mouse pathogen, unlike its close relatives vaccinia virus (VV) and variola virus. Several studies have highlighted the importance of mouse interferons (IFNs) in resistance to and recovery from
The communal nature of the Internet exposes organizations and home computer users to a multitude of worms, viruses, and other malicious software (malware) threats such as spyware and Trojan horses. Viruses are program fragments attached to normal programs or files that hijack the execution control of the host program to reproduce copies of the virus. Worms are automated self-replicating programs
The glassy-winged sharpshooter, GWSS, has been shown to be susceptible to insect virus infections. A new virus was isolated from field caught GWSS and partially sequenced. Sequence identity showed that this was a new sharpshooter virus separate from those already reported by Hunter et. al. 2004, and...
Many studies have shown that hepatitis B virus infection may also occur in hepatitis B surface antigen-negative patients. This occult infection has been identified both in patients with cryptogenic liver disease and in patients with hepatitis C virus-related chronic hepatitis, and much evidence suggests that it may be a risk factor of hepatocellular carcinoma development. However several aspects of this occult infection remain unclear such as its prevalence and the factor(s) involved in the lack of circulating hepatitis B surface antigen. Moreover, it is uncertain whether the occult hepatitis B virus infection may contribute to chronic liver damage, considering that it is usually associated with a suppressed viral replication. Evidence and hypotheses concerning this fascinating field of bio-medical research are reviewed. PMID:11215565
Raimondo, G; Balsano, C; Craxì, A; Farinati, F; Levrero, M; Mondelli, M; Pollicino, T; Squadrito, G; Tiribelli, C
Most viruses use the mRNA-cap dependent cellular translation machinery to translate their mRNAs into proteins. The addition of a cap structure at the 5' end of mRNA is therefore an essential step for the replication of many virus families. Additionally, the cap protects the viral RNA from degradation by cellular nucleases and prevents viral RNA recognition by innate immunity mechanisms. Viral RNAs acquire their cap structure either by using cellular capping enzymes, by stealing the cap of cellular mRNA in a process named "cap snatching", or using virus-encoded capping enzymes. Many viral enzymes involved in this process have recently been structurally and functionally characterized. These studies have revealed original cap synthesis mechanisms and pave the way towards the development of specific inhibitors bearing antiviral drug potential. PMID:22549871
HIV-infected patients may acquire new viral co-infections; they may also experience the reactivation or worsening of existing viral infections, including active, smoldering, or latent infections. HIV-infected patients may be predisposed to these viral infections due to immunodeficiency or to risk factors common to HIV and other viruses. A number of these affect the kidney, either by direct infection or by deposition of immune complexes. In this review we discuss the renal manifestations and treatment of hepatitis C virus, BK virus, adenovirus, cytomegalovirus, and parvovirus B19 in patients with HIV disease. We also discuss an approach to the identification of new viral renal pathogens, using a viral gene chip to identify viral DNA or RNA.
Waldman, Meryl; Marshall, Vickie; Whitby, Denise; Kopp, Jeffrey B.
The most common enteric viruses responsible for diarrhoea are rotavirus, enteric adenoviruses, caliciviruses including the Norwalk agent and astrovirus. These infections are usually mild to moderate in severity, self-limiting and of short duration and thus, specific antiviral therapy is not recommended. The standard management of these infections is restoration of fluid and electrolyte balance and then maintenance of hydration until the infection resolves. WHO oral rehydration therapy (ORT) was introduced about 30 years ago and has saved the lives of many infants and young children. During the last 10 years it has become evident that the efficacy of ORT can be increased by reducing the osmolality of the WHO oral rehydration solution (ORS) to produce a relatively hypotonic solution. Hypotonic ORS appears to be safe and effective in all forms of acute diarrhoea in childhood. Complex substrate ORS, which is also usually hypotonic, has been shown to have increased efficacy in cholera but not in other bacterial or viral diarrhoeas. Nevertheless, the scientific rationale for using rice or resistant starch as substrate in ORS is of physiological interest. Other treatments such as hyperimmune bovine colostrum, probiotics and antiviral agents are largely experimental and have not been introduced into routine clinical practice. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection of the gastrointestinal tract occurs mainly in the immunocompromised although it has been reported in immunocompetent individuals. CMV infects both the oesophagus and colon to produce oesophagitis, often with discrete ulcers, and colitis, respectively. Both conditions can be treated with ganciclovir or foscarnet. Failure to respond to monotherapy is an indication to use both agents concurrently. PMID:11444033
During lyssavirus surveillance, 1,221 bats of at least 30 species were collected from 25 locations in Kenya. One isolate of Lagos bat virus (LBV) was obtained from a dead Eidolon helvum fruit bat. The virus was most similar phylogenetically to LBV isolates from Senegal (1985) and from France (imported from Togo or Egypt; 1999), sharing with these viruses 100% nucleoprotein identity and 99.8 to 100% glycoprotein identity. This genome conservancy across space and time suggests that LBV is well adapted to its natural host species and that populations of reservoir hosts in eastern and western Africa have sufficient interactions to share pathogens. High virus concentrations, in addition to being detected in the brain, were detected in the salivary glands and tongue and in an oral swab, suggesting that LBV is transmitted in the saliva. In other extraneural organs, the virus was generally associated with innervations and ganglia. The presence of infectious virus in the reproductive tract and in a vaginal swab implies an alternative opportunity for transmission. The isolate was pathogenic for laboratory mice by the intracerebral and intramuscular routes. Serologic screening demonstrated the presence of LBV-neutralizing antibodies in E. helvum and Rousettus aegyptiacus fruit bats. In different colonies the seroprevalence ranged from 40 to 67% and 29 to 46% for E. helvum and R. aegyptiacus, respectively. Nested reverse transcription-PCR did not reveal the presence of viral RNA in oral swabs of bats in the absence of brain infection. Several large bat roosts were identified in areas of dense human populations, raising public health concerns for the potential of lyssavirus infection.
Kuzmin, Ivan V.; Niezgoda, Michael; Franka, Richard; Agwanda, Bernard; Markotter, Wanda; Beagley, Janet C.; Urazova, Olga Y.; Breiman, Robert F.; Rupprecht, Charles E.
Respiratory syncytial virus infection is the leading cause of lower respiratory tract infections in young children. Palivizumab, a respiratory syncytial virus-specific monoclonal antibody, reduces the hospitalization rate of high-risk children but it is very costly. This statement replaces three previous position statements from the Canadian Paediatric Society about this topic, and was updated primarily to discuss recent changes in the American Academy of Pediatrics guidelines in the Canadian context. It reviews the published literature and provides recommendations regarding palivizumab use in high-risk children.
Neonatal herpes simplex virus infections are uncommon, but because of the morbidity and mortality associated with the infection they are often considered in the differential diagnosis of ill neonates. The use of polymerase chain reaction for diagnosis of central nervous system infections and the development of safe and effective antiviral therapy has revolutionized the diagnosis and management of these infants. Initiation of long-term antiviral suppressive therapy in these infants has led to significant improvement in morbidity. This article summarizes the epidemiology of neonatal herpes simplex virus infections and discusses clinical presentation, diagnosis, management, and follow up of infants with neonatal herpes disease. PMID:23481105
Four influenza pandemics have struck the human population during the last 100 years causing substantial morbidity and mortality. The pandemics were caused by the introduction of a new virus into the human population from an avian or swine host or through the mixing of virus segments from an animal host with a human virus to create a new reassortant subtype virus. Understanding which changes have contributed to the adaptation of the virus to the human host is essential in assessing the pandemic potential of current and future animal viruses. Here, we develop a measure of the level of adaptation of a given virus strain to a particular host. We show that adaptation to the human host has been gradual with a timescale of decades and that none of the virus proteins have yet achieved full adaptation to the selective constraints. When the measure is applied to historical data, our results indicate that the 1918 influenza virus had undergone a period of preadaptation prior to the 1918 pandemic. Yet, ancestral reconstruction of the avian virus that founded the classical swine and 1918 human influenza lineages shows no evidence that this virus was exceptionally preadapted to humans. These results indicate that adaptation to humans occurred following the initial host shift from birds to mammals, including a significant amount prior to 1918. The 2009 pandemic virus seems to have undergone preadaptation to human-like selective constraints during its period of circulation in swine. Ancestral reconstruction along the human virus tree indicates that mutations that have increased the adaptation of the virus have occurred preferentially along the trunk of the tree. The method should be helpful in assessing the potential of current viruses to found future epidemics or pandemics. PMID:21109586
dos Reis, Mario; Tamuri, Asif U; Hay, Alan J; Goldstein, Richard A
Rabies is one of the oldest diseases known to man, but its successful control has remained elusive. Although effective vaccines of tissue culture origin against rabies do exist1, such preparations are expensive. Live vaccinia virus (VV) recombinants expressing influenza or hepatitis B antigens have recently been used to immunize against these diseases2-4. We have now used this approach to produce
M. P. Kieny; R. Lathe; R. Drillien; D. Spehner; S. Skory; D. Schmitt; T. Wiktor; H. Koprowski; J. P. Lecocq
Virus evolution has become a topic that involves population based selection. Both quasispecies based populations and reticulated mosaic exchange of populations of genetic elements are now well established. This has led us to the understanding that a cooperative consortia can be a crucial aspect of virus driven evolution. Thus viruses exist in groups that can cooperate. However, consortial based evolution (group selection) has long been dismissed by evolutionary biologist. Recently, biocommunication theory has concluded that the evolution and editing of any code or language requires a consortial based process in order to adhere to pragmatic (context) requirements for meaning (in conflict with survival of the fittest concepts). This has led to the idea that viruses are the natural editors of biological codes or language. In this chapter, I present the view that the persistence of virus information in their host provides a natural process of host code editing that is inherently consortial. Since persistence requires mechanisms to attain stability and preclude competition, it also provided mechanisms that promote group identity. Accordingly, I review the viral origins of addiction modules and how these affect both persistence and group identity. The concepts emerging from addiction module based group identity are then generalized and applied to social identity systems as well. I then examine the prokaryotes and the involvement of viral elements in the emergence of their group identity systems (biofilms). Here, integrating dsDNA agents prevailed. In the eukaryotes, however, a large shift in virus-host evolution occurred in which the role of dsDNA agents was diminished but the role of retroviruses and retroposons was greatly enhanced. These agents provided greatly expanded and network based regulatory complexity that was controlled by sensory inputs. From this perspective, the role of virus in the origin of the adaptive immune system is then outlined. I then consider human evolution from the perspective of the great HERV colonization. The origin of a large social brain able to support the learning of language is presented from this viral perspective. The role of addiction modules in the origin of extended social bonding of humans is outlined and applied to the emergence of language as a system of group identity. PMID:22399381
We describe the creative ways that virologists are leveraging experimental cross-species infections to study the interactions between viruses and hosts. While viruses are usually well adapted to their hosts, cross-species approaches involve pairing viruses with species that they dont naturally infect. These cross-species infections pit viruses against animals, cell lines, or even single genes from foreign species. We highlight examples where cross-species infections have yielded insights into mechanisms of host innate immunity, viral countermeasures, and the evolutionary interplay between viruses and hosts.
To date there is no known evidence of viruses within the rock record. Their small size and absence of a metabolism has led to the hypothesis that they lack unique biological signatures, and the potential to become preserved. Biosignature research relevant to early Earth has focused on prokaryotic communities; however, the most abundant member of modern ecosystems, viruses, have been ignored. In order to establish a baseline for research on virus biosignatures, we have initiated laboratory research on known lipid-containing viruses. PRD1 is a lipid-containing virus that infects and replicates in Salmonella typhimurium LT2. PRD1 is a 65 nm spherical virus with an internal lipid membrane, which is a few nanometers thick. When the PRD1 virus stock was mixed with a 400 ppm SiO2 (final concentration) solution and incubated for six months. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and lipid analysis using gas chromatography revealed that the virus lipids were still detectable despite complete removal of dissolved silica. Free fatty acids were also detected. Titers of infectious PRD1 viruses after six months in the presence of silica decreased 40 times more than without silica. Though virus biosignature research is in its incipient stages, the data suggest that virus lipid signatures are preserved under laboratory conditions and may offer the potential for contribution to the organic geochemical record.
A simple method with poliovirus as the model was developed for recovering human enteric viruses from aerosols. Filterite filters (pore size, 0.45 micron; Filterite Corp., Timonium, Md.) moistened with glycine buffer (pH 3.5) were used for adsorbing the aerosolized virus. No virus passed the filter, even with air flow rates of 100 liters/min. Virus recovery from the filter was achieved by rapid elution with 800 ml of glycine buffer, pH 10. The virus in the primary eluate was reconcentrated by adjusting the pH to 3.5, adding AlCl3 to 0.0005 M, collecting the virus on a 0.25-micron-pore Filerite disk (diameter, 25 mm) and and eluting with 6 ml of buffer, pH 10. With this method, virus could be detected regularly in aerosols produced by flushing when 3 X 10(8) PFU of poliovirus were present in the toilet bowl. Poliovirus-containing fecal material from two of four infants who had recently received oral polio vaccine also yielded virus in the aerosols when feces containing 2.4 X 10(7) to 4.5 X 10(7) PFU of virus had been added to the toilet bowl. Persons infected with a variety of natural enteric viruses are known to excrete this amount of virus in their daily stools. Images
1. Cross-neutralization tests with sera from swine recovered from infection with swine influenza indicated the serological identity of 7 strains of swine influenza virus obtained from different sources. 2. Cross-neutralization tests with sera from rabbits, immunized to swine influenza virus, exposed serological differences among the same 7 swine influenza virus strains. Two strains appeared to be serologically similar and were characterized by the ability to produce effective homologous virus-neutralizing sera which were, however, poor or ineffective against the heterologous virus strains. Two other strains were also serologically similar but produced antibodies effective not only against themselves, but against all heterologous strains as well. The remaining 3 strains were intermediate in their ability to produce heterologous virus-neutralizing antibodies. 3. The human influenza viruses included, especially strains WS and Oakham, were most effectively differentiated serologically from the swine influenza viruses by rabbit antisera. 4. The suggestion is advanced that swine antisera express the antigenic composition of the swine influenza viruses, while rabbit antisera reflect either their antigenic arrangement or the arrangement of the components responsible for their mouse pathogenicity. On this interpretation the 7 strains of swine influenza virus studied would be considered to have similar antigenic compositions but differing antigenic structures. 5. The serological differences among strains of the swine influenza virus, detectible by rabbit antisera, are probably of no practical significance so far as the natural disease, swine influenza, is concerned.
In a recent BMC Evolutionary Biology article, Huiquan Liu and colleagues report two new genomes of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) viruses from fungi and use these as a springboard to perform an extensive phylogenomic analysis of dsRNA viruses. The results support the old scenario of polyphyletic origin of dsRNA viruses from different groups of positive-strand RNA viruses and additionally reveal extensive horizontal gene transfer between diverse viruses consistent with the network-like rather than tree-like mode of viral evolution. Together with the unexpected discoveries of the first putative archaeal RNA virus and a RNA-DNA virus hybrid, this work shows that RNA viral genomics has major surprises to deliver. See research article: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/12/91
During infection, many viruses induce cellular remodeling, resulting in the formation of insoluble aggregates/inclusions, usually containing viral structural proteins. Identification of aggregates has become a useful diagnostic tool for certain viral infections. There is wide variety of viral aggregates, which differ by their location, size, content and putative function. The role of aggregation in the context of a specific virus is often poorly understood, especially in the case of plant viruses. The aggregates are utilized by viruses to house a large complex of proteins of both viral and host origin to promote virus replication, translation, intra- and intercellular transportation. Aggregated structures may protect viral functional complexes from the cellular degradation machinery. Alternatively, the activation of host defense mechanisms may involve sequestration of virus components in aggregates, followed by their neutralization as toxic for the host cell. The diversity of virus-induced aggregates in mammalian and plant cells is the subject of this review.
During infection, many viruses induce cellular remodeling, resulting in the formation of insoluble aggregates/inclusions, usually containing viral structural proteins. Identification of aggregates has become a useful diagnostic tool for certain viral infections. There is wide variety of viral aggregates, which differ by their location, size, content and putative function. The role of aggregation in the context of a specific virus is often poorly understood, especially in the case of plant viruses. The aggregates are utilized by viruses to house a large complex of proteins of both viral and host origin to promote virus replication, translation, intra- and intercellular transportation. Aggregated structures may protect viral functional complexes from the cellular degradation machinery. Alternatively, the activation of host defense mechanisms may involve sequestration of virus components in aggregates, followed by their neutralization as toxic for the host cell. The diversity of virus-induced aggregates in mammalian and plant cells is the subject of this review. PMID:23202461
In this study, we optimized procedures to enumerate viruses from marine sediments by epifluorescence microscopy using SYBR Green I as a stain. The highest virus yields from the bulk of the sediments were obtained by utilizing pyrophosphate and 3 min of sonication. The efficiency of extraction benthic viruses by pyrophosphate-ultrasound treatment was about 60% of the extractable virus particles. Samples treated with nucleases had increased virus counts, suggesting a masking effect of extracellular DNA. No significant differences were observed between virus counts obtained by epifluorescence microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Both formaldehyde and glutaraldehyde gave significant reductions of virus counts after only 24 h of sediment storage, but no further loss occurred after 7 days.
Danovaro, R.; Dell'Anno, A.; Trucco, A.; Serresi, M.; Vanucci, S.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been a key experimental organism for the study of infectious diseases, including dsRNA viruses, ssRNA viruses, and prions. Studies of the mechanisms of virus and prion replication, virus structure, and structure of the amyloid filaments that are the basis of yeast prions have been at the forefront of such studies in these classes of infectious entities. Yeast has been particularly useful in defining the interactions of the infectious elements with cellular components: chromosomally encoded proteins necessary for blocking the propagation of the viruses and prions, and proteins involved in the expression of viral components. Here, we emphasize the L-A dsRNA virus and its killer-toxin-encoding satellites, the 20S and 23S ssRNA naked viruses, and the several infectious proteins (prions) of yeast. PMID:23498901
We studied human neutrophils for uptake of vaccinia virus. Uptake was determined radiometrically and by electron microscopy. Vaccinia virus was labeled with /sup 14/C or /sup 3/H, incubated with neutrophils, and quantified in neutrophil pellets in a new radiometric phagocytosis assay. Better results were obtained from assays of (/sup 3/H)thymidine-labeled virus; uptake increased through 1 hr and then plateaued. Phagocytosis of 3H-labeled Staphylococcus aureus was normal. Uptake of virus was serum dependent. Hexose monophosphate shunt activity was measured by two methods. No /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ from (/sup 14/C)1-glucose accompanied uptake of vaccinia virus, in contrast to the respiratory burst accompanying bacterial phagocytosis. Electron microscopy showed intact to slightly digested intraphagolysosomal vaccinia virus. Pock reduction assay showed a decrease in viral content due to neutrophils until 6 hr of incubation, when a modest but significant increase was observed. Thus, neutrophil uptake of vaccinia virus is distinguished from bacterial phagocytosis.
Bats play important roles as pollen disseminators and pest predators. However, recent interest has focused on their role as natural reservoirs of pathogens associated with emerging infectious diseases. Prior to the outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), about 60 bat virus species had been reported. The number of identified bat viruses has dramatically increased since the initial SARS outbreak, and most are putative novel virus species or genotypes. Serious infectious diseases caused by previously identified bat viruses continue to emerge throughout in Asia, Australia, Africa and America. Intriguingly, bats infected by these different viruses seldom display clinical symptoms of illness. The pathogenesis and potential threat of bat-borne viruses to public health remains largely unknown. This review provides a brief overview of bat viruses associated with emerging human infectious diseases. PMID:23917838
The diagnosis of virus diseases of ornamental hibiscus or shoe flower, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis and H. hybrid, was conducted using tissue blot immunoassay techniques. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was used to amplify the viral coat protein (CP) gene from infected hibiscus and its nu...
In recent years human and animal cancers have increasingly been shown to have a viral component in their aetiology. Oncogenic viruses will continue to be discovered although with certain cancers there is also an important environmental component, and with others congenital cancers and cancers of early childhood an important genetic component. There is thus the probability that cancer
Powassan virus (POWV) is a rare tick-borne agent of encephalitis in North America. Historically, confirmed cases occurred mainly in the northeastern United States. Since 2008, confirmed cases in Minnesota and Wisconsin have increased. We report a fatal case of POWV encephalitis in Minnesota. POWV infection should be suspected in tick-exposed patients with viral encephalitis.
Powassan virus (POWV) is a rare tick-borne agent of encephalitis in North America. Historically, confirmed cases occurred mainly in the northeastern United States. Since 2008, confirmed cases in Minnesota and Wisconsin have increased. We report a fatal case of POWV encephalitis in Minnesota. POWV infection should be suspected in tick-exposed patients with viral encephalitis. PMID:23017222
(1) Amapari virus has been isolated from only two of the many species of rodents and other vertebrates studied at Serra do Navio, Amapa, Brazil. These are Oryzomys capito goeldii and Neacomys guianae. The isolation rate for each species over 4 years was c...
Fifty-second monthly installment of our "What A Year!" website project, introducing life science breakthroughs to middle and high school students and their teachers. Respiratory syncytial virus, RSV for short, is so common that almost every child in the United States under two years of age has been infected once, and that half of children under three have been infected at least twice.
Virus particles are probably the most precisely defined nanometre-sized objects that can be formed by protein self-assembly. Although their natural function is the storage and transport of genetic material, they have more recently been applied as scaffolds for mineralization and as containers for the encapsulation of inorganic compounds. The reproductive power of viruses has been used to develop versatile analytical methods, such as phage display, for the selection and identification of (bio)active compounds. To date, the combined use of self-assembly and reproduction has not been used for the construction of catalytic systems. Here we describe a self-assembled system based on a plant virus that has its coat protein genetically modified to provide it with a lipase enzyme. Using single-object and bulk catalytic studies, we prove that the virus-anchored lipase molecules are catalytically active. This anchored biocatalyst, unlike man-made supported catalysts, has the capability to reproduce itself in vivo, generating many independent catalytically active copies.
Carette, Noëlle; Engelkamp, Hans; Akpa, Eric; Pierre, Sebastien J.; Cameron, Neil R.; Christianen, Peter C. M.; Maan, Jan C.; Thies, Jens C.; Weberskirch, Ralf; Rowan, Alan E.; Nolte, Roeland J. M.; Michon, Thierry; van Hest, Jan C. M.
During viral infections, the complex and dynamic distributions of variants, termed viral quasispecies, play a key role in the adaptability of viruses to changing environments and the fate of the population as a whole. Mutant spectra are continuously and avoidably generated during RNA genome replication, and they are not just a by-product of error-prone replication, devoid of biological relevance. On
E. Domingo; V. Martín; C. Perales; A. Grande-Pérez; J. García-Arriaza; A. Arias
This peer-reviewed resource from BioScience is about West Nile virus in wildlife. West Nile virus (WNV) has spread rapidly across North America, resulting in human deaths and in the deaths of untold numbers of birds, mammals, and reptiles. The virus has reached Central America and the Caribbean and may spread to Hawaii and South America. Although tens of thousands of birds have died, and studies of some bird species show local declines, few regionwide declines can be attributed to WNV. Predicting future impacts of WNV on wildlife, and pinpointing what drives epidemics, will require substantial additional research into host susceptibility, reservoir competency, and linkages between climate, mosquitoes, and disease. Such work will entail a collaborative effort between scientists in governmental research groups, in surveillance and control programs, and in nongovernmental organizations. West Nile virus was not the first, and it will not be the last, exotic disease to be introduced to the New World. Its spread in North America highlights the need to strengthen animal monitoring programs and to integrate them with research on disease ecology.
PETER P. MARRA, SEAN GRIFFING, CAROLEE CAFFREY, A. MARM KILPATRICK, ROBERT McLEAN, CHRISTOPHER BRAND, EMI SAITO, ALAN P. DUPUIS, LAURA KRAMER, and ROBERT NOVAK (;)
In 1988, hepatitis B virus (HBV) was classified into four genotypes by a sequence divergence in the entire genome exceeding 8%, and designated by capital letters of the alphabet from A to D. There are seven genotypes of HBV (AG) at present, and an eighth is on the horizon. They have an uneven geographical distribution, and only a few of
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a Flavivirus with a positive-sense, single-stranded RNA genome of about 9,600 nucleotides. It is a major cause of liver disease, infecting almost 200 million people all over the world. Similarly to most RNA viruses, HCV displays very high levels of genetic diversity which have been used to differentiate six major genotypes and about 80 subtypes. Although the different genotypes and subtypes share basic biological and pathogenic features they differ in clinical outcomes, response to treatment and epidemiology. The first HCV recombinant strain, in which different genome segments derived from parentals of different genotypes, was described in St. Petersburg (Russia) in 2002. Since then, there have been only a few more than a dozen reports including descriptions of HCV recombinants at all levels: between genotypes, between subtypes of the same genotype and even between strains of the same subtype. Here, we review the literature considering the reasons underlying the difficulties for unequivocally establishing recombination in this virus along with the analytical methods necessary to do it. Finally, we analyze the potential consequences, especially in clinical practice, of HCV recombination in light of the coming new therapeutic approaches against this virus.
Gonzalez-Candelas, Fernando; Lopez-Labrador, F. Xavier; Bracho, Maria Alma
t was the summer of 2002 and the West Nile Virus (WNV) was making its inexorable journey across the United States. The equine population had already been devastated and there were reports of neurological disease and death in camelids, but no one really knew what the risk was to alpacas and llamas. The Alpaca Research Foundation (ARF) Board of Directors
Dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) is a complicated disease associated with viral and immune pathogenesis. There is still no effective vaccine to prevent the progression of DHF because of its undefined pathogenic mechanisms. The generation of autoimmunity in dengue virus (DEN) infection has been implicated in dengue pathogenesis. Based on our previous studies showing antibodies (Abs) against DEN nonstructural protein 1
The simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIVs) are a diverse group of viruses that naturally infect a wide range of African primates, including African green monkeys (AGMs) and sooty mangabey monkeys (SMs). Although natural infection is widespread in feral populations of AGMs and SMs, this infection generally does not result in immunodeficiency. However, experimental inoculation of Asian macaques results in an immunodeficiency syndrome remarkably similar to human AIDS. Thus, natural nonprogressive SIV infections appear to represent an evolutionary adaptation between these animals and their primate lentiviruses. Curiously, these animals maintain robust virus replication but have evolved strategies to avoid disease progression. Adaptations observed in these primates include phenotypic changes to CD4+ T cells, limited chronic immune activation, and altered mucosal immunity. It is probable that these animals have achieved a unique balance between T-cell renewal and proliferation and loss through activation-induced apoptosis, and virus-induced cell death. A clearer understanding of the mechanisms underlying the lack of disease progression in natural hosts for SIV infection should therefore yield insights into the pathogenesis of AIDS and may inform vaccine design.
Rabies viruses isolated from different animal species in various parts of the world were in the past considered to be antigenically closely related. Only when the antibodies produced in animals immunized with whole virions or viral components were assayed by the plaque reduction method, were some minor differences detected in the antigenic composition of various rabies strains (1). On the
In February 2008, a Mayaro fever virus (MAYV) outbreak occurred in a settlement in Santa Barbara municipality, northern Brazil. Patients had rash, fever, and severe arthralgia lasting up to 7 days. Immunoglobulin M against MAYV was detected by ELISA in 36 persons; 3 MAYV isolates sequenced were characterized as genotype D.
Azevedo, Raimunda S.S.; Silva, Eliana V.P.; Carvalho, Valeria L.; Rodrigues, Sueli G.; Neto, Joaquim P. Nunes; Monteiro, Hamilton A.O.; Peixoto, Victor S.; Chiang, Jannifer O.; Nunes, Marcio R.T.
Fresh human B-lymphoblasts established in culture following exposure of adult peripheral blood leukocytes to type C retro- viruses of the simian sarcoma virus\\/simian sarcoma-associ ated virus-gibbon ape leukemia virus group were analyzed in detail for the presence of the infecting virus. Viral expression ranged from production of low levels of intact virus in a few cultures to the presence of
P. D. Markham; F. W. Ruscelli; V. S. Kalyanaraman; L. Ceccherini-Nelli; N. R. Miller; M. S. Reitz; S. Z. Salahuddin; R. C. Gallo
Characterization of virus-specific immune responses to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) is important to understanding the early virus-host interactions that may determine the course of virus infection and disease. Using a comprehensive panel of serological assays, we have previously demonstrated a complex and lengthy maturation of virus-specific antibody responses elicited by attenuated strains of
KELLY STEFANO COLE; MICHAEL MURPHEY-CORB; OPENDRA NARAYAN; SANJAY V. JOAG; GEORGE M. SHAW; RONALD C. MONTELARO; Marion Merrell Dow
Replication of Semliki Forest virus, a typical alphavirus, takes place in the cytoplasm of many eukaryotic cells. The virus genome, the 42 S RNA, directs the synthesis of at least two RNA-dependent RNA polymerases. By the aid of these enzymes complementary 45 S RNA is synthesized; it serves as a template for the synthesis of positive RNA strands with sedimentation values of 45 S and 26 S. In BHK cells close to 200,000 molecules of each RNA species are produced per cell. Both 26 S and 42 S RNAs are associated with polysomes synthesizing viral structural proteins. The 26 S RNA is a duplication of the nucleotide sequences coding for the virion proteins. These are translated as a polyprotein with the capsid protein at the N-terminal end followed by the envelope proteins E2 and E1. Usually only small amounts of nonstructural proteins are synthesized at the exponential phase of virus growth, indicating that a translational control operates in Semliki Forest virus-infected cells. One of our temperature-sensitive mutants, ts-1, directs, however, the synthesis of two nonstructural proteins with MWs of 78,000 and 86,000 when grown at the nonpermissive temperature. The assembly of the viral nucleocapsid begins by association of the capsid protein with the 42 S RNA, which is still serving as a messenger. In this process a cytoplasmic structure sedimenting at about 65 S is presumably one of the capsid protein donors. The 140 S nucleocapsid buds through the host cell plasma membrane whereby the capsid protein interacts with the envelope proteins creating a specific viral envelope devoid of host proteins. Altogether 5,000 to 20,000 virus particles are released from each cell by the end of the growth cycle, representing about 10% of the 42 S RNA molecules synthesized during the infection. PMID:1107685
A pivotal step in the development of a consistent nomenclature for virus classification was the introduction of the virus species concept by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) in 1991. Yet, almost two decades later, many virologists still are unable to differentiate between virus species and actual viruses. Here we attempt to explain the origin of this confusion, clarify the difference between taxa and physical entities, and suggest simple measures that could be implemented by ICTV Study Groups to make virus taxonomy and nomenclature more accessible to laboratory virologists.
Cross-protection between Junin virus and five other Tacaribe complex viruses and the serological response of guinea pigs inoculated with Tacaribe virus are reported here. Previous infection with Tamiami or Pichinde viruses significantly delayed guinea pig deaths. A 58% survival rate was found among animals immunized with three doses of Amapari virus, while guinea pigs inoculated with one dose of Machupo or Tacaribe virus were fully protected against Junin virus. Neutralization tests performed in serum samples of guinea pigs immunized with five doses of Tacaribe virus showed that they developed monologous and heterologous neutralizing antibodies. PMID:178627
Plant viruses and virus-like pathogens are of considerable economic importance in potato production. The plant viruses and viroids are small, noncellular pathogens. In contrast, phytoplasmas are cellular organisms. In this chapter, information is presented on a number of virus and virus-like pat...
Maize resistance to viruses has been well-characterized at the genetic level, and loci responsible for resistance to potyviruses including Maize dwarf mosaic virus (MDMV), Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV), Sorghum mosaic virus (SrMV), and Johnsongrass mosaic virus (JGMV), have been mapped in several ge...
Summary Multiplication of swine influenza (SW) virus is inhibited by fowl plague virus (FPV) at the level of RNA synthesis when host cells are infected with both viruses at a high multiplicity of infection. Under these conditions reassortment between the two viruses cannot be detected. The inhibitory effect of FPV is highly reduced and recombinants between the two viruses could
The influenza A virus genome consists of eight negative-sense RNA segments. Here we review the currently available data on structure-function relationships in influenza virus RNAs. Various ideas and hypotheses about the roles of influenza virus RNA folding in the virus replication are also discussed in relation to other viruses. PMID:20923332
Gultyaev, Alexander P; Fouchier, Ron A M; Olsthoorn, René C L
The antiviral activity of a new series of thymidine analogs was determined against vaccinia virus (VV), cowpox virus (CV), herpes simplex virus, and varicella-zoster virus. Several compounds were identified that had good activity against each of the viruses, including a set of novel 5-substituted deoxyuridine analogs. To investigate the possibility that these drugs might be phosphorylated preferentially by the viral
Emma Harden; Kathy A. Keith; Mary P. Johnson; Alexis McBrayer; Ming Luo; Shihong Qiu; Debasish Chattopadhyay; Xuesen Fan; Paul Torrence; Earl Kern; Mark Prichard
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) can infect both B cells and epithelial cells. Infection of B cells enables the virus to persist within a host while infection of epithelial cells is suggested to amplify viral output. Data from a recent study have shown that the virus shedding in EBV positive individuals is relatively stable over short periods of time but varies significantly over long periods. The mechanisms underlying the regulation of virus shedding within a host are not fully understood. In this paper, we construct a model of ordinary differential equations to study the dynamics of virus shedding into the saliva of infected hosts. Infection of epithelial cells is further separated into infection by virus released from B cells and virus released from epithelial cells. We use the model to investigate whether the long-term variation and short-term stability of virus shedding can be generated by three possible factors: stochastic variations in the number of epithelial cells susceptible to virus released from infected B cells, to virus released from infected epithelial cells, or random variation in the probability that CD8+ T cells encounter and successfully kill infected cells. The results support all three factors to explain the long-term variation but only the first and third factors to explain the short-term stability of virus shedding into saliva. Our analysis also shows that clearance of virus shedding is possible only when there is no virus reactivation from B cells.
Transforming viruses can change a normal cell into a cancer cell during their normal life cycle. Persistent infections with these viruses have been recognized to cause some types of cancer. These viruses have been implicated in the modulation of various biological processes, such as proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. The study of infections caused by oncogenic viruses had helped in our understanding of several mechanisms that regulate cell growth, as well as the molecular alterations leading to cancer. Therefore, transforming viruses provide models of study that have enabled the advances in cancer research. Viruses with transforming abilities, include different members of the Human Papillomavirus (HPV) family, Hepatitis C virus (HCV), Human T-cell Leukemia virus (HTLV-1), Epstein Barr virus (EBV) and Kaposis Sarcoma Herpesvirus (KSHV). Apoptosis, or programmed cell death, is a tightly regulated process that plays an important role in development and homeostasis. Additionally, it functions as an antiviral defense mechanism. The deregulation of apoptosis has been implicated in the etiology of diverse diseases, including cancer. Oncogenic viruses employ different mechanisms to inhibit the apoptotic process, allowing the propagation of infected and damaged cells. During this process, some viral proteins are able to evade the immune system, while others can directly interact with the caspases involved in apoptotic signaling. In some instances, viral proteins can also promote apoptosis, which may be necessary for an accurate regulation of the initial stages of infection.
Transforming viruses can change a normal cell into a cancer cell during their normal life cycle. Persistent infections with these viruses have been recognized to cause some types of cancer. These viruses have been implicated in the modulation of various biological processes, such as proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. The study of infections caused by oncogenic viruses had helped in our understanding of several mechanisms that regulate cell growth, as well as the molecular alterations leading to cancer. Therefore, transforming viruses provide models of study that have enabled the advances in cancer research. Viruses with transforming abilities, include different members of the Human Papillomavirus (HPV) family, Hepatitis C virus (HCV), Human T-cell Leukemia virus (HTLV-1), Epstein Barr virus (EBV) and Kaposi's Sarcoma Herpesvirus (KSHV).Apoptosis, or programmed cell death, is a tightly regulated process that plays an important role in development and homeostasis. Additionally, it functions as an antiviral defense mechanism. The deregulation of apoptosis has been implicated in the etiology of diverse diseases, including cancer. Oncogenic viruses employ different mechanisms to inhibit the apoptotic process, allowing the propagation of infected and damaged cells. During this process, some viral proteins are able to evade the immune system, while others can directly interact with the caspases involved in apoptotic signaling. In some instances, viral proteins can also promote apoptosis, which may be necessary for an accurate regulation of the initial stages of infection. PMID:23741982
Fuentes-González, Alma Mariana; Contreras-Paredes, Adriana; Manzo-Merino, Joaquín; Lizano, Marcela
Cocultivation of cells derived from embryos of golden pheasants or Amherst pheasants with chicken embryo cells infected with Bryan strain of Rous sarcoma virus resulted in the detection of viruses which appear to be endogenous in these pheasant cells. The pheasant viruses (PV) were similar to avian leukosis-sarcoma viruses (ALSV) in their gross morphology, in the size of their RNA, in the presence of a virion-associated RNA-dependent DNA polymerase (DNA nucleotidyltransferase; deoxynucleoside triphosphate: DNA deoxynucleotidyltransferase; EC 22.214.171.124), and in their growth characteristics. PV also serves as a helper for the glycoprotein-defective Rous sarcoma virus. However, PV was shown to be different from both ALSV and reticuloendotheliosis virus in the following properties: (i) PV does not have ALSV group specific antigens; (ii) the protein composition of PV is different from those of the other two groups of viruses; (iii) PV fails to complement the defective polymerase of alpha type Rous sarcoma virus; and (iv) PV RNA shows no detectable homology with nucleic acids of the other two groups of viruses. Thus, PV appears to be a new class of RNA viruses which contain RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. PMID:57621
Hanafusa, T; Hanafusa, H; Metroka, C E; Hayward, W S; Rettenmier, C W; Sawyer, R C; Dougherty, R M; Distefano, H S
1. Swine influenza virus obtained from the lungs of infected ferrets or mice, when administered intramuscularly or subcutaneously, immunizes swine to swine influenza. 2. Ferrets, which have received subcutaneous injections of swine influenza virus obtained from the lungs of infected ferrets, are immune to intranasal infection with this virus. Similar injections with virus from the lungs of infected mice or swine do not immunize. 3. Mice can be immunized to intranasal infection with swine influenza virus by the subcutaneous injection of virus obtained from the lungs of infected mice, but not by similar injection with virus from the lungs of infected ferrets or swine. Repeated injections induce greater immunity than a single one. 4. Intraperitoneal inoculation of both mice and ferrets with swine influenza virus immunizes them to intranasal infection and it appears to make little or no difference whether the virus used as vaccine is obtained from the lungs of infected mice, ferrets, or swine. 5. Field experiments in which swine influenza followed the intramuscular administration of virus are cited as examples of the hazard involved in the use of this means of immunization in a densely crowded susceptible population.
Leeches, fed on swine infected with hog cholera, contained virus for as long as 87 days after their infective blood meals. In three instances, infected leeches apparently transmitted hog cholera virus to susceptible swine in the process of normal feeding. Myxoma virus persisted in leeches for as long as 154 days after the ingestion of a blood meal from rabbits with myxomatosis. Leeches fed consecutively, first on swine with hog cholera, and later on rabbits with myxomatosis, acquired both viruses. In such dually infected leeches, the hog cholera virus persisted for as long as 122 days and the myxoma virus for as long as 110 days, the longest periods tested. Leeches fed consecutively, first on rabbits with myxomatosis, and later on swine with hog cholera, acquired only the myxoma virus. Hog cholera virus could not be demonstrated in such dually fed leeches. Myxoma and hog cholera viruses appeared to be present in about equivalent amounts in the anterior and posterior thirds of the bodies of infected leeches. Myxoma and hog cholera viruses were present in the bloody gut contents of infected leeches but were not demonstrable in the body tissues of these leeches. It seems from the findings presented that leeches are not biological carriers of either myxoma or hog cholera virus but instead carry these two agents mechanically in their gastrointestinal tracts. In doing this, they appear to protect the viruses from various deleterious chemical and physical influences to which they would have been exposed in the open. It is speculated that leeches could play a role in nature in perpetuating the blood-borne viruses of certain diseases in which close association with bodies of fresh water is of epidemiological importance.
SUMMARY Bean leaves that had been doubly infected systemically with the legume strain of tobacco mosaic virus (CP-TMV) and bean golden mosaic virus (BGMV) were studied ultrastructurally. Virus particles and the cytopathological changes associated with each virus in single infections occurred within the same cell when plants were doubly infected, indicating that individual systemically infected host cells can multiply viruses
Summary Thin section electron microscopic examination of several viruses of the Bunyamwera serologic supergroup of arbo viruses confirmed their precise similarities in morphology and morphogenesis and their differences from viruses of other groups. Several viruses that are serologically unrelated to the supergroup were indistinguishable from Bunyamwera virus when observed in the same way. A separate taxonomic group or family, ultimately