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1

Study of a prevention programme for caprine arthritis-encephalitis  

E-print Network

Study of a prevention programme for caprine arthritis-encephalitis G Péretz F Bugnard D Calavas; A prevention programme for caprine viral arthritis-encephalitis was monitored in 363 goat herds between 1988 transmission. goat / caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus / prevention Résumé ― ?tude d'un programme de

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

2

Pathogenic mechanisms of caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus.  

PubMed

Goats infected with caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV) show chronic arthritis and cachexia, which are progressive in nature. The immunopathogenic mechanisms responsible for these progressive clinical symptoms have not been fully elucidated. Various haematological and immunological parameters were evaluated in experimentally-infected goats showing typical signs of CAEV-induced disease. Infected goats showed recurrent lymphocytosis that may be due to constant presentation of antigen by infected cells of a monocyte/macrophage lineage. The serum alkaline phosphatase and gamma-glutamyl transferase concentrations were elevated in infected goats, a characteristic of hepatic and bone disorders. All other serum chemistry parameters were similar between infected and control goats. Importantly, the serum tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) levels were higher in infected goats. The cachexia seen in infected goats may be at least partly due to altered metabolism as a result of prolonged elevation of serum TNF-alpha levels. Depressed natural killer cell activity was observed in infected goats and may contribute towards the establishment of a persistent infection with CAEV. PMID:7701786

Mdurvwa, E G; Ogunbiyi, P O; Gakou, H S; Reddy, P G

1994-01-01

3

Serological survey of caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus in 83 goat herds of Yucatan, Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey was conducted between June and September 2000 in order to detect antibodies against caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV) in 83 goat herds in the state of Yucatan, Mexico. A total of 1078 goats older than 4 months of age (mostly of Criollo breed) were sampled in the survey. An agarose gel immunodiffusion (AGID) test showed that three herds (3.6%)

J. F. J. Torres-Acosta; E. J. Gutierrez-Ruiz; V. Butler; A. Schmidt; J. Evans; J. Babington; K. Bearman; T. Fordham; T. Brownlie; S. Schroer; E. Cmara-G; J. Lightsey

2003-01-01

4

Presence of caprine arthritisencephalitis virus (CAEV) proviral DNA in genital tract tissues of superovulated dairy goat does  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transmission of caprine arthritisencephalitis virus (CAEV) is not completely understood and the vertical route of infection from the goat to the embryo or to the fetus needs to be investigated. This route of infection involves the presence of CAEV in the genital tract tissues. Prior studies have detected CAEV-infected cells in genital secretions and in flushing media recovered during embryo

F Fieni; J Rowe; K Van Hoosear; C Burucoa; S Oppenheim; G Anderson; J Murray; R BonDurant

2003-01-01

5

Phenotypic alteration of blood and milk leukocytes in goats infected with caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV) causes a persistent and slow progressive infection in goats, characterized by chronic proliferative sinovitis, arthritis and, less frequently, pneumonia. Infected goats could also be affected by interstitial mastitis. The aim of this study was to evaluate ...

6

North American and French caprine arthritis-encephalitis viruses emerge from ovine maedi-visna viruses.  

PubMed

The full extent of genetic diversity among small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLVs), i.e., caprine arthritis encephalitis viruses (CAEVs) and maedi-visna viruses (MVVs), remains unknown. This is due in part to the fact that few sequences of CAEV are available. To contribute to this knowledge, gag, pol, and env nucleotide sequences from an SRLV named CA680 originating from a goat from western France were determined. This analysis revealed that this virus is closely related to the Cork and 63 CAEV American isolates. Mismatched amino acids between the CA680 virus and prototype CAEVs ranged from 6.7, 0. 7, and 17.5% for gag, pol, and SU sequences, respectively. The differences between the CA680 virus and MVV prototypes ranged from 16.5, 12.5, and 32.3% for the protein sequences, respectively. A screening using a heteroduplex mobility assay (HMA) adapted to SRLVs revealed that 6 of 10 caprine virus field isolates were closely related to CA680, indicating that this latter isolate was a prototype of CAEVs common in the west of France. Phylogenetic trees drawn using CA, RT, or SU sequences of numerous SRLVs and rooted with EIAV sequences revealed that CA680 and CAEV prototypes, all infectious for goat, clustered in one group. From these HMA and phylogenetic analyses, it appears that U.S. and French caprine SRLVs form a clade that had emerged from a much more diverse group containing all SRLVs infectious for sheep. These ovine SRLVs form a more ancient group in which the EIAV is rooted. PMID:9356342

Valas, S; Benoit, C; Guionaud, C; Perrin, G; Mamoun, R Z

1997-10-27

7

Detection of antibodies to caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus using recombinant gag proteins.  

PubMed

The coding sequences of the core proteins p17 and p28 of caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV) were amplified using the polymerase chain reaction and cloned into the plasmid expression vector p-GEX-2T. Both p17 and p28 were expressed as fusion proteins with glutathione S-transferase. The recombinant proteins were affinity purified from induced bacterial lysates using glutathione-agarose beads. The purified proteins were used in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect antibodies against CAEV in goat sera and milk samples. Three different ELISA tests were developed based on p17, p28 or the combination of these two recombinant proteins (p17 + p28). A comparison was made to an ELISA based on purified whole virus particles and to agar immunodiffusion test (AGID). Sera with conflicting results in the different ELISA tests were examined by Western blotting. There was a high correlation between the ELISA tests based on p17 + p28 recombinant proteins and whole virus ELISA, with an estimated kappa value of 0.92. Only 72-75% of the sera that tested positive in these two ELISA tests were positive in AGID. Antibodies to CAEV were detected in significantly more animals when serum samples were tested compared to milk samples. Based on the time and materials required to prepare the reagents, the recombinant based ELISA test was less expensive than the whole virus ELISA. PMID:8129621

Rimstad, E; East, N; DeRock, E; Higgins, J; Pedersen, N C

1994-01-01

8

Delayed seroconversion following naturally acquired caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus infection in goats.  

PubMed

One hundred eight milking goats from a dairy that had been using a modified caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV) eradication program were tested for CAEV antibodies by serologic methods and for proviral CAEV DNA by use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technology. All goats were free of clinical symptoms of CAEV infection. Twenty-seven of the 108 goats were considered seropositive, on the basis of ELISA results. Proviral CAEV DNA was detected, using PCR techniques, in mononuclear leukocytes in blood samples obtained from 25 of the these 27 seropositive goats. Twenty of the 81 seronegative goats also had positive PCR test results. Ten of these goats seroconverted by 8 months later, and virus was readily isolated from mononuclear leukocytes in venous blood samples after the goats had seroconverted. Virus was also isolated from mononuclear leukocytes in blood samples collected from 4 of 11 goats that were seronegative, but had positive PCR test results. These results indicated that seroconversion can be delayed for many months following natural infection with CAEV. Delayed seroconversion appears to be a feature of CAEV infection, which may have direct implications for CAEV eradication programs and epidemiologic studies that rely on serologic methods to detect infected goats. PMID:8291763

Rimstad, E; East, N E; Torten, M; Higgins, J; DeRock, E; Pedersen, N C

1993-11-01

9

Fatal Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus-like infection in 4 Rocky Mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus).  

PubMed

Over a 3.5-year period, 4 Rocky Mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus), housed at a single facility, developed clinical disease attributed to infection by Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV). Ages ranged from 1 to 10 years. Three of the goats, a 1-year-old female, a 2-year-old male, and a 5-year-old male, had been fed raw domestic goat milk from a single source that was later found to have CAEV on the premises. The fourth animal, a 10-year-old male, had not ingested domestic goat milk but had been housed with the other 3 Rocky Mountain goats. All 4 animals had clinical signs of pneumonia prior to death. At necropsy, findings in lungs included marked diffuse interstitial pneumonia characterized histologically by severe lymphoplasmacytic infiltrates with massive alveolar proteinosis, interstitial fibrosis, and type II pneumocyte hyperplasia. One animal also developed left-sided hemiparesis, and locally extensive lymphoplasmacytic myeloencephalitis was present in the cranial cervical spinal cord. Two animals had joint effusions, as well as severe lymphoplasmacytic and ulcerative synovitis. Immunohistochemical staining of fixed sections of lung tissue from all 4 goats, as well as spinal cord in 1 affected animal, and synovium from 2 affected animals were positive for CAEV antigen. Serology testing for anti-CAEV antibodies was positive in the 2 goats tested. The cases suggest that Rocky Mountain goats are susceptible to naturally occurring CAEV infection, that CAEV from domestic goats can be transmitted to this species through infected milk and by horizontal transmission, and that viral infection can result in clinically severe multisystemic disease. PMID:22379056

Patton, Kristin M; Bildfell, Robert J; Anderson, Mark L; Cebra, Christopher K; Valentine, Beth A

2012-03-01

10

Computed tomography findings in a 5-year-old Australian Cashmere goat (Capra hircus) suffering leukoencephalomyelitis due to caprine arthritis encephalitis virus.  

PubMed

Computed tomography was used to aid in the antemortem diagnosis of leukoencephalomyelitis in a goat infected by caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV). Imaging results were corroborated by histologic examination. This report discusses various methods of imaging the nervous system and their potential for use in the antemortem diagnosis of CAEV neurologic changes. PMID:24155416

Devilbiss, Bethany; Neelis, Dana; Ochoa, Jennine; Ziegler, Jessie; Barrington, George; Allen, Andrew

2013-10-01

11

Computed tomography findings in a 5-year-old Australian Cashmere goat (Capra hircus) suffering leukoencephalomyelitis due to caprine arthritis encephalitis virus  

PubMed Central

Computed tomography was used to aid in the antemortem diagnosis of leukoencephalomyelitis in a goat infected by caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV). Imaging results were corroborated by histologic examination. This report discusses various methods of imaging the nervous system and their potential for use in the antemortem diagnosis of CAEV neurologic changes. PMID:24155416

DeVilbiss, Bethany; Neelis, Dana; Ochoa, Jennine; Ziegler, Jessie; Barrington, George; Allen, Andrew

2013-01-01

12

Activation of caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus expression during maturation of monocytes to macrophages.  

PubMed

Lentiviruses, which cause arthritis-encephalitis and maedi-visna in goats and sheep, respectively, cause persistent infections in these animals. The viruses replicate productively at low levels in macrophages in diseased organs such as the "maedi lung" and nonproductively in other cell types such as leukocytes in peripheral blood. Nonproductive infections become productive during in vitro cultivation of the cells. This study showed that monocytes were the only cells in the peripheral blood leukocytes of an infected animal in which virus was detected and that virus activation occurred only when these cells matured into macrophages. Only a minute fraction of cultured monocytes matured into macrophages, and viral infectivity was associated exclusively with this fraction. Antiglobulin-coated glass wool fragments were lethal for monocyte macrophages because of toxic phagocytosis, but had no effect on B or T lymphocytes. The simultaneous addition of the glass fragments and leukocytes to culture dishes resulted in no macrophage maturation and no virus production. The addition of the fragments to virus-producing macrophages caused the death of the cells and a decline in virus production. Virus production in less avidly phagocytic cells was unaffected by the glass. Thus, although macrophages may be permissive for virus replication, one mechanism for restricted virus expression in vivo may be physiological factors controlling the maturation of these cells. PMID:6862634

Narayan, O; Kennedy-Stoskopf, S; Sheffer, D; Griffin, D E; Clements, J E

1983-07-01

13

Effects of infection with caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus on milk production in goats.  

PubMed

A recently assembled commercial herd of Alpine goats was studied. Milk production criteria--305-day milk production (M), butter fat content (BF), and solids nonfat content (SNF)--and somatic cell counts (linear score) were monitored by Dairy Herd Improvement Association test records. Milk samples from all milking goats in the herd were obtained for bacteriologic culture for mastitis organisms on 2 occasions; the infection rate ascribed to major pathogens was 3%. In November 1985, serum specimens were obtained from 154 does in first lactation. Of these, 56 (36%) were seropositive for caprine arthritis-encephalitis (CAE) antibodies by agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID), 91 (59%) were seronegative, and serotest results for 7 (5%) were inconclusive. In December, 80 seronegative and 48 seropositive goats remained in the herd and had 305-day projections available. The median production values for seronegative goats (1,539.5 lb of M, 52 lb of BF, 46 lb of SNF) were higher than those for seropositive goats (1,446 lb of M, 45 lb of BF, 44.5 lb of SNF), but this difference was only significant (t test, P less than 0.05) for BF. Does were ranked by a formula that combined M, BF, and SNF, with a desired minimal daily herd average of 5 lb of M, 3% BF, and 3% SNF. A decision was made not to keep offspring from does of the lowest quartile before CAE test results were obtained. This group consisted of 13 of the 80 (16%) seronegative goats and 18 of the 48 (38%) seropositive goats. Thus, a positive CAE test result by AGID was associated (chi 2, P less than 0.01) with poor production.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2843492

Smith, M C; Cutlip, R

1988-07-01

14

Host Range of Small-Ruminant Lentivirus Cytopathic Variants Determined with a Selectable Caprine Arthritis- Encephalitis Virus Pseudotype System  

PubMed Central

The small-ruminant lentiviruses ovine maedi-visna virus (MVV) and caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV) cause encephalitis, progressive pneumonia, arthritis, and mastitis in sheep and goats. Icelandic MVV strains, which are lytic in tissue culture, have a wide species distribution of functional receptors, which includes human cells. In contrast, functional receptors for the nonlytic CAEV CO are absent from human cells. To determine if the wide species distribution of functional receptors is a common property of MVV strains or related to cytopathic phenotype, we tested the infectivity of viruses pseudotyped with the envelope glycoproteins of MVV K1514, CAEV CO, and lytic and nonlytic North American MVV strains to cells of different species. Replication-defective CAEV proviral constructs lacking the env, tat, and vif genes and carrying the neomycin phosphotransferase gene in the vif-tat region were developed for the infectivity assays. Cotransfection of human 293T cells with these proviral constructs and plasmids expressing CAEV, MVV, or vesicular stomatitis virus envelope glycoproteins produced infectious pseudotyped virus which induced resistance of infected cells to G418. Using these pseudotypes, we confirmed the wide species distribution of Icelandic MVV receptors and the narrow host range of CAEV. However, functional receptors for the two North American MVV strains tested, unlike the Icelandic MVV and similar to CAEV, were limited to cells of ruminant species, regardless of cytopathic phenotype. The results indicate a differential receptor recognition by MVV strains which is unrelated to cytopathic phenotype. PMID:11462010

Htzel, Isidro; Cheevers, William P.

2001-01-01

15

Presence of caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV) infected cells in flushing media following oviductal-stage embryo collection.  

PubMed

To improve the knowledge on the risk of transmission of the caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV) during embryo manipulations, we conducted a double-nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for CAEV proviral-DNA on flushing media recovered from the oviducts 48 h after the beginning of estrus and on blood from 89 donor does. Sixty-four does had negative blood and flushing media by PCR. Among the 25 CAEV infected goats (blood PCR positive), 11 were PCR flushing media positive (P < 0.01). Cell lysate from flushing media samples that were PCR positive were serially diluted 10 times at 1:100. Starting with the second 1:100 dilution all the cell lysate samples were PCR negative. The mean number of embryos recovered was not significantly different between goats with flushing media PCR positive and goats with flushing media PCR negative (6.0 +/- 5.4 versus 7.8 +/- 4.4, respectively; mean +/- S.D.) nor between goats with blood PCR positive and goats with blood PCR negative (7.0 +/- 5.0 versus 5.9 +/- 5.3; mean +/- S.D.). The presence of CAEV infected cells in oviductal flushing media from infected donor does was indicated for the first time during this study. The absence of flushing media PCR positive for goat blood PCR negative seemed to allow the use of the blood PCR test to confidently predict the absence of CAEV provirus in the oviductal fluid. PMID:11991395

Fieni, F; Rowe, J; Van Hoosear, K; Burucoa, C; Oppenheim, S; Anderson, G; Murray, J; BonDurant, R

2002-01-15

16

Presence of caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV) proviral DNA in genital tract tissues of superovulated dairy goat does.  

PubMed

Transmission of caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV) is not completely understood and the vertical route of infection from the goat to the embryo or to the fetus needs to be investigated. This route of infection involves the presence of CAEV in the genital tract tissues. Prior studies have detected CAEV-infected cells in genital secretions and in flushing media recovered during embryo collection from infected goats. To specify the origin of these cells, we conducted a double-nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test on embryo flushing media and on mammary gland, mammary lymph node, synovial membrane, pelvic lymph node, uterus and oviduct tissues from 25 CAEV-infected (blood PCR positive) embryo donor goats for the presence of CAEV proviral DNA. The presence of proviral DNA was found in 22 of 25 mammary gland samples, 14 of 25 uterus samples, and in 16 of 25 oviduct samples. Nineteen of 25 goats had at least one positive genital tract sample. Flushing media from 11 goats were PCR positive. All goats with positive-flushing media were oviduct positive. Of this group of does, except for 1 of the 11, infection of flushing media correlated with infection of almost all the other tissues examined. The frequency of positive tissues for flushing media-positive goats (61/66; 92%) was significantly higher than that for flushing media-negative goats (50/84; 60%) (P<0.01). This study demonstrated the presence of CAEV-infected cells in the goat genital tract. The presence of CAEV-infected cells in the uterus and oviducts suggests potential for vertical transmission of CAEV from doe to embryo or fetus. PMID:12559456

Fieni, F; Rowe, J; Van Hoosear, K; Burucoa, C; Oppenheim, S; Anderson, G; Murray, J; BonDurant, R

2003-04-01

17

Activation/proliferation and apoptosis of bystander goat lymphocytes induced by a macrophage-tropic chimeric caprine arthritis encephalitis virus expressing SIV Nef  

SciTech Connect

Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV) is the natural lentivirus of goats, well known for its tropism for macrophages and its inability to cause infection in lymphocytes. The viral genome lacks nef, tat, vpu and vpx coding sequences. To test the hypothesis that when nef is expressed by the viral genome, the virus became toxic for lymphocytes during replication in macrophages, we inserted the SIVsmm PBj14 nef coding sequences into the genome of CAEV thereby generating CAEV-nef. This recombinant virus is not infectious for lymphocytes but is fully replication competent in goat macrophages in which it constitutively expresses the SIV Nef. We found that goat lymphocytes cocultured with CAEV-nef-infected macrophages became activated, showing increased expression of the interleukin-2 receptor (IL-2R). Activation correlated with increased proliferation of the cells. Interestingly, a dual effect in terms of apoptosis regulation was observed in exposed goat lymphocytes. Nef was found first to induce a protection of lymphocytes from apoptosis during the first few days following exposure to infected macrophages, but later it induced increased apoptosis in the activated lymphocytes. This new recombinant virus provides a model to study the functions of Nef in the context of infection of macrophages, but in absence of infection of T lymphocytes and brings new insights into the biological effects of Nef on lymphocytes.

Bouzar, Baya Amel [Kansas University of Medical Center, MMD Laboratory of Viral Pathogenesis, 5000 Wahl Hall East, 3901 Rainbow Blvd. Kansas City, Kansas 66160 (United States); Rea, Angela [UMR 754 INRA, 'Virologie Cellulaire, Moleculaire et Maladies Emergentes', Universite Claude Bernard Lyon-1, Batiment B, 50 avenue Tony Garnier, 69007, Lyon (France); Hoc-Villet, Stephanie [UMR 754 INRA, 'Virologie Cellulaire, Moleculaire et Maladies Emergentes', Universite Claude Bernard Lyon-1, Batiment B, 50 avenue Tony Garnier, 69007, Lyon (France); Garnier, Celine [UMR 754 INRA, 'Virologie Cellulaire, Moleculaire et Maladies Emergentes', Universite Claude Bernard Lyon-1, Batiment B, 50 avenue Tony Garnier, 69007, Lyon (France); Guiguen, Francois [UMR 754 INRA, 'Virologie Cellulaire, Moleculaire et Maladies Emergentes', Universite Claude Bernard Lyon-1, Batiment B, 50 avenue Tony Garnier, 69007, Lyon (France); Jin Yuhuai [Kansas University of Medical Center, MMD Laboratory of Viral Pathogenesis, 5000 Wahl Hall East, 3901 Rainbow Blvd. Kansas City, Kansas 66160 (United States); Narayan, Opendra [Kansas University of Medical Center, MMD Laboratory of Viral Pathogenesis, 5000 Wahl Hall East, 3901 Rainbow Blvd. Kansas City, Kansas 66160 (United States); Chebloune, Yahia [UMR 754 INRA, 'Virologie Cellulaire, Moleculaire et Maladies Emergentes', Universite Claude Bernard Lyon-1, Batiment B, 50 avenue Tony Garnier, 69007, Lyon (France) and Kansas University of Medical Center, MMD Laboratory of Viral Pathogenesis, 5000 Wahl Hall East, 3901 Rainbow Blvd. Kansas City, Kansas 66160 (United States)]. E-mail: ychebloune@kumc.edu

2007-08-01

18

A polytropic caprine arthritis encephalitis virus promoter isolated from multiple tissues from a sheep with multisystemic lentivirus-associated inflammatory disease.  

PubMed

Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV) is a lentivirus that infects both goats and sheep and is closely related to maedi-visna virus that infects sheep; collectively, these viruses are known as small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLV). Infection of goats and sheep with SRLV typically results in discrete inflammatory diseases which include arthritis, mastitis, pneumonia or encephalomyelitis. SRLV-infected animals concurrently demonstrating lentivirus-associated lesions in tissues of lung, mammary gland, joint synovium and the central nervous system are either very rare or have not been reported. Here we describe a novel CAEV promoter isolated from a sheep with multisystemic lentivirus-associated inflammatory disease including interstitial pneumonia, mastitis, polyarthritis and leukomyelitis. A single, novel SRLV promoter was cloned and sequenced from five different anatomical locations (brain stem, spinal cord, lung, mammary gland and carpal joint synovium), all of which demonstrated lesions characteristic of lentivirus associated inflammation. This SRLV promoter isolate was found to be closely related to CAEV promoters isolated from goats in northern California and other parts of the world. The promoter was denoted CAEV-ovine-MS (multisystemic disease); the stability of the transcription factor binding sites within the U3 promoter sequence are discussed. PMID:23955501

Adedeji, Adeyemi O; Barr, Bradd; Gomez-Lucia, Esperanza; Murphy, Brian

2013-08-01

19

Cohort study of natural transmission and two methods for control of caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus infection in goats on a California dairy.  

PubMed

A prospective observational cohort study of 361 dairy goat kids was conducted to compare 2 methods of controlling caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus infection under commercial dairy conditions. To compare effectiveness of feeding kids pasteurized milk vs serologic testing and segregation in addition to pasteurized milk feeding, goats were monitored up to the age of 30 months by use of monthly agar gel immunodiffusion testing. Survival analysis methods were used to determine whether age at seroconversion differed between the 2 groups. Significantly lower rates of seroconversion were observed in the segregated group (P < 0.001), compared with the nonsegregated group. Of 193 goats in the pasteurized milk-only group, 146 (75.6%) seroconverted within the 30-month study period, whereas infection was detected in 39 (23.2%) of 168 goats in the test/segregated group. Nonsegregated goats were 3.37 times more likely to seroconvert by 24 months of age, and 70.3% of seroconversions by 24 months of age could be attributed to nonsegregation. For age-specific intervals beyond 180 days of age, 70 to 100% of seroconversions could be attributed to lack of segregation. Cohort life tables for age at seroconversion were reported for each group. Type of colostrum fed, sex, and weaning group (season) were not significantly associated with age at seroconversion. Saanen goats had lower age-specific risk of seroconversion in the nonsegregated group alone and overall. Non-Saanen goats wee 1.5 times more likely to seroconvert than were Saanen goats, when adjusted for a possible confounding effect of weaning group. Results indicate that pasteurized milk feeding and routine test and segregation would be a substantially more effective means of control of the disease in dairy goat herds than would pasteurized milk feeding alone. PMID:1335709

Rowe, J D; East, N E; Thurmond, M C; Franti, C E; Pedersen, N C

1992-12-01

20

[Caprine arthritis-encephalitis: trial of an adjuvant vaccine preparation. II. Study of the antibody response].  

PubMed

In an experiment of vaccination against caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV), the antibody response in three groups of young goats was followed by AGIDT, ELISA, seroneutralization, western blot. Goats of group I, inoculated with inactivated virus mixed with adjuvant, showed a few weeks after vaccination a high antibody response, clearly enhanced after infectious intraarticular challenge. These antibodies did not protect against arthritis, which appeared more severe in this group. In the other groups (group II, control adjuvant, with the weakest clinical expression, group III, control tissue culture medium), the levels of circulating antibodies appeared much lower. No neutralizing antibodies could be detected during the whole experiment. A western blot analysis revealed mainly in group I a high antibody response against gp 135 antigen. The important immune reaction might be involved in enhancement of viral infectivity in this group. PMID:8391412

Vitu, C; Russo, P; Vignoni, M

1993-04-01

21

[Caprine arthritis-encephalitis: trial of an adjuvant vaccine preparation. I. Clinical and virological study].  

PubMed

In purpose to protect goats against caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV), the first group of kids (I) was inoculated with purified, inactivated and adjuvant-treated virions, the second group (II) with adjuvant and the third one (III) with culture medium. 2-4 months later, the three groups were challenged with virulent CAEV by intraarticular route. On the clinical level, vaccinated and challenged kids show more early and severe arthritis than other groups. On the virological level, isolation of lentivirus from white blood cells and different organs is more important in group I than groups II and III. Therefore, vaccinations with inactivated and adjuvant-treated virions do not protect against a virulent challenge; there is an enhancement of lesions. We note that the adjuvant elicits a mild non-specific protection against virulent challenge. PMID:8391411

Russo, P; Vitu, C; Fontaine, J J; Vignoni, M

1993-04-01

22

The validation of housekeeping genes as a reference in quantitative Real Time PCR analysis: application in the milk somatic cells and frozen whole blood of goats infected with caprine arthritis encephalitis virus.  

PubMed

The validation of housekeeping genes (HKGs) for normalization of RNA expression in Real-Time PCR is crucial to obtain the most reliable results. There is limited information on reference genes used in the study of gene expression in milk somatic cells and the frozen whole blood of goats. Thus, the aim of this study was to propose the most stable housekeeping genes that can be used as a reference in Real-Time PCR analysis of milk somatic cells and whole blood of goats infected with caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV). Animals were divided into two groups: non-infected (N=13) and infected with CAEV (N=13). Biological material (milk somatic cells and whole blood) was collected 4 times during the lactation period (7, 30, 100 and 240days post-partum). The expression levels of candidate reference genes were analyzed using geNorm and NormFinder software. The stability of candidates for reference gene expression was analyzed for CAEV-free (control) and CAEV-infected groups, and also for both groups together (combined group). The stability of expression of ?-actin (ACTB), glyceraldehyde-3P-dehydrogenase (GAPDH), cyclophilin A (PPIA), RNA18S1, ubiquilin (UBQLN1) and ribosomal protein large subunit P0 (RPLP0) was determined in milk somatic cells, while ACTB, PPIA, RPLP0, succinate dehydrogenase complex subunit A (SDHA), zeta polypeptide (YWHAZ), battenin (CLN3), eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3K (EIF3K) and TATA box-binding protein (TBP) were measured in frozen whole blood of goats. PPIA and RPLP0 were considered as the most suitable internal controls as they were stably expressed in milk somatic cells regardless of disease status, according to NormFinder software. Furthermore, geNorm results indicated the expression of PPIA/RPLP0 genes as the best combination under these experimental conditions. The results of frozen whole blood analysis using NormFinder software revealed that the most stable reference gene in control, CAEV-infected and combined groups is YWHAZ, and - according to the geNorm results - the combined expression of PPM/YWHAZ genes is the best reference in the presented experiment. The usefulness in gene expression analysis of whole blood samples frozen immediately in liquid nitrogen and stored at -80C was also proved. PMID:25068405

Jarczak, Justyna; Kaba, Jaros?aw; Bagnicka, Emilia

2014-10-10

23

[Caprine enzootic arthritis-encephalitis in France: epidemiological and experimental studies].  

PubMed

In an epidemiological study on CAEV-induced caprine arthritis, the ELISA carried out on mixed sera appeared to be an efficient pointer to viral articular pathology in flocks; the breed and origin of goats, the selection of flocks with high milk production proved to be factors which favour viral arthritis, the serological diagnosis of which remains a flock diagnosis. In addition, in an experimental infection, only one type II caprine strain induced significant cases of arthritis; the disease could be reproduced more effectively by the intra-articular route than intravenously. Lastly, in a vaccination test followed by infectious CAEV challenge, two vaccinated goats showed more severe arthritis than did non vaccinated control goats. These observations emphasise the importance of the different viral strains, of the penetration route of the virus, of the repetition of infections and of the immune response in the induction of CAEV arthritis. PMID:2838219

Vitu, C; Russo, P

1988-01-01

24

Mutations increasing exposure of a receptor binding site epitope in the soluble and oligomeric forms of the caprine arthritis-encephalitis lentivirus envelope glycoprotein  

SciTech Connect

The caprine arthritis-encephalitis (CAEV) and ovine maedi-visna (MVV) viruses are resistant to antibody neutralization, a feature shared with all other lentiviruses. Whether the CAEV gp135 receptor binding site(s) (RBS) in the functional surface envelope glycoprotein (Env) is protected from antibody binding, allowing the virus to resist neutralization, is not known. Two CAEV gp135 regions were identified by extrapolating a gp135 structural model that could affect binding of antibodies to the RBS: the V1 region and a short sequence analogous in position to the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gp120 loop B postulated to be located between two major domains of CAEV gp135. Mutation of isoleucine-166 to alanine in the putative loop B of gp135 increased the affinity of soluble gp135 for the CAEV receptor(s) and goat monoclonal antibody (Mab) F7-299 which recognizes an epitope overlapping the gp135 RBS. The I166A mutation also stabilized or exposed the F7-299 epitope in anionic detergent buffers, indicating that the I166A mutation induces conformational changes and stabilizes the RBS of soluble gp135 and enhances Mab F7-299 binding. In contrast, the affinity of a V1 deletion mutant of gp135 for the receptor and Mab F7-299 and its structural stability did not differ from that of the wild-type gp135. However, both the I166A mutation and the V1 deletion of gp135 increased cell-to-cell fusion activity and binding of Mab F7-299 to the oligomeric Env. Therefore, the CAEV gp135 RBS is protected from antibody binding by mechanisms both dependent and independent of Env oligomerization which are disrupted by the V1 deletion and the I166A mutation, respectively. In addition, we found a correlation between side-chain {beta}-branching at amino acid position 166 and binding of Mab F7-299 to oligomeric Env and cell-to-cell fusion, suggesting local secondary structure constraints in the region around isoleucine-166 as one determinant of gp135 RBS exposure and antibody binding.

Hoetzel, Isidro [Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Pathology, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164-7040 (United States)]. E-mail: ihotzel@gene.com; Cheevers, William P. [Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Pathology, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164-7040 (United States)

2005-09-01

25

RESTRICTED REPLICATION OF LENTIVIRUSES Visna Viruses Induce a Unique Interferon During Interaction Between Lymphocytes and Infected Macrophages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lentiviruses are a subgroup of retroviruses that are so named because they cause diseases with long incubation periods, insidious onsets, and slowly progres- sive courses (1). The members of the virus group include visna virus of sheep, caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV) I of goats, equine infectious anemia virus of horses, and, tentatively, the retrovirus associated with acquired immune deficiency

OPENDRA NARAYAN; DARLENE SHEFFER; JANICE E. CLEMENTS; GIHAN TENNEKOON

26

Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type III shares sequence homology with a family of pathogenic lentiviruses.  

PubMed Central

The etiologic agent of the acquired immune deficiency syndrome, human T-cell lymphotropic virus type III (HTLV-III), has recently been shown to morphologically resemble and share sequence homology with visna virus, a pathogenic lentivirus. Molecular hybridization, heteroduplex mapping, and DNA sequence analyses were used to compare HTLV-III to other lentiviruses of domestic animals, including visna, caprine arthritis encephalitis, and equine infectious anemia viruses. Hybridization results showed that a substantial amount of sequence homology exists between each of these viruses and HTLV-III. In addition, a closer relationship was found between visna and caprine arthritis encephalitis viruses than for any of the other lentiviruses studied. These results, along with nucleotide and amino acid sequence comparisons, have been used in a comprehensive effort to derive a systematic relationship for lentiviruses and to provide further evidence for classifying HTLV-III with the Lentivirinae subfamily of retroviruses. This relationship predicts that similarities in biology and disease process can be expected between HTLV-III and other Lentivirinae members. Images PMID:2424014

Gonda, M A; Braun, M J; Clements, J E; Pyper, J M; Wong-Staal, F; Gallo, R C; Gilden, R V

1986-01-01

27

The use of phenothiazine dyes to inactivate bovine viral diarrhea virus in goat colostrum  

PubMed Central

Abstract The objectives of this study were to determine the optimal concentration of phenothiazine dye required to inactivate bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) in goat colostrum following 60 min of illumination and determine if immunoglobulin concentration is affected by this technique. In addition, the potential of continuous agitation of colostrum during illumination to affect viral kill was investigated. This experiment was designed to more closely approximate on-farm use than a previous pilot study performed by the same investigators. Bovine viral diarrhea virus was used as a model for caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus. Goat colostrum containing BVDV was illuminated for 60 min following the addition of either methylene blue (MB) or methylene violet (MV). Four different concentrations of each dye were evaluated. Illumination was performed in a small, portable chesttype freezer equipped on the inside with white fluorescent lights. Some samples were continuously rocked during illumination, while others remained stationary. Virus levels were determined before and after illumination. Immunoglobulin concentrations were determined for time 0 and 60 min. One ?M MB reduced virus to undetectable levels following 60 min of illumination. A concentration of 20 ?M MV was required to reduce virus levels to zero. Agitation of colostrum samples had no effect with either MB or MV on whether virus levels were reduced. High concentrations of MB and MV had no important effect on immunoglobulin concentrations. PMID:15188954

2004-01-01

28

Prevalence study of Bovine viral diarrhea virus by evaluation of antigen capture ELISA and RT-PCR assay in Bovine, Ovine, Caprine, Buffalo and Camel aborted fetuses in Iran  

PubMed Central

Bovine viral diarrhea virus is a pestivirus in the family Flaviviridae that cause abortions and stillbirths in livestock and its traditional diagnosis is based on cell culture and virus neutralization test. In this study, for more sensitive, specific detection and determined the prevalence of virus in aborted Bovine, Ovine, Caprine, Buffalo and Camel fetuses the antigen capture ELISA and RT-PCR were recommended. From the total of 2173 aborted fetuses, 347 (15.96%) and 402 (18.49%) were positive for presence of Bovine viral diarrhea virus by antigen capture ELISA and RT-PCR respectively. Statistical analysis of data showed significant differences between ELISA and RT-PCR for detection of virus in aborted fetuses. These results indicate a high presence of this pathogen in Iran and that RT- PCR is considerably faster and more accurate than ELISA for identification of Bovine viral diarrhea virus. To our knowledge the Camels and Bovine are the most resistant and sensitive to Bovine viral diarrhea's abortions respectively and the prevalence of virus in Caprine is more than Ovine aborted fetuses. This study is the first prevalence report of Bovine viral diarrhea virus in aborted Bovine, Ovine, Caprine, Buffalo and Camel fetuses by evaluation of ELISA and RT-PCR in Iran. PMID:22018096

2011-01-01

29

G3BP1, G3BP2 and CAPRIN1 Are Required for Translation of Interferon Stimulated mRNAs and Are Targeted by a Dengue Virus Non-coding RNA  

PubMed Central

Viral RNA-host protein interactions are critical for replication of flaviviruses, a genus of positive-strand RNA viruses comprising major vector-borne human pathogens including dengue viruses (DENV). We examined three conserved host RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) G3BP1, G3BP2 and CAPRIN1 in dengue virus (DENV-2) infection and found them to be novel regulators of the interferon (IFN) response against DENV-2. The three RBPs were required for the accumulation of the protein products of several interferon stimulated genes (ISGs), and for efficient translation of PKR and IFITM2 mRNAs. This identifies G3BP1, G3BP2 and CAPRIN1 as novel regulators of the antiviral state. Their antiviral activity was antagonized by the abundant DENV-2 non-coding subgenomic flaviviral RNA (sfRNA), which bound to G3BP1, G3BP2 and CAPRIN1, inhibited their activity and lead to profound inhibition of ISG mRNA translation. This work describes a new and unexpected level of regulation for interferon stimulated gene expression and presents the first mechanism of action for an sfRNA as a molecular sponge of anti-viral effectors in human cells. PMID:24992036

Bidet, Katell; Dadlani, Dhivya; Garcia-Blanco, Mariano A.

2014-01-01

30

CAEV REVIEW  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV) is a small ruminant lentivirus (SRLV) in a family of retroviruses also including maedi-visna virus (MVV) and ovine progressive pneumonia virus (OPPV). SRLV infections are life long in sheep and goats and are characterized by periods of latency, followed b...

31

Expanding possibilities for intervention against small ruminant lentiviruses through genetic marker-assisted selective breeding  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Small ruminant lentiviruses include members that infect sheep (ovine lentivirus [OvLV]; also known as ovine progressive pneumonia virus/maedi-visna virus) and goats (caprine arthritis encephalitis virus [CAEV]). Breed differences in seroprevalence and proviral concentration of OvLV had suggested a s...

32

9 CFR 113.47 - Detection of extraneous viruses by the fluorescent antibody technique.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...virus; (ii) Reovirus; and (iii) Rabies virus. (2) Bovine, caprine, and...virus. (7) Firms that do not have rabies virus on premises either for research...exempt from having to produce positive rabies virus control monolayers. Fixed...

2010-01-01

33

Immunogenetics of Small Ruminant Lentiviral Infections  

PubMed Central

The small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLV) include the caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV) and the Maedi-Visna virus (MVV). Both of these viruses limit production and can be a major source of economic loss to producers. Little is known about how the immune system recognizes and responds to SRLVs, but due to similarities with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), HIV research can shed light on the possible immune mechanisms that control or lead to disease progression. This review will focus on the host immune response to HIV-1 and SRLV, and will discuss the possibility of breeding for enhanced SRLV disease resistance. PMID:25153344

Stonos, Nancy; Wootton, Sarah K.; Karrow, Niel

2014-01-01

34

Stem cell therapy in a caprine model of osteoarthritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. To explore the role that implanted mesenchymal stem cells may play in tissue repair or regeneration of the injured joint, by delivery of an autologous preparation of stem cells to caprine knee joints following induction of osteoarthritis (OA). Methods. Adult stem cells were isolated from caprine bone marrow, expanded in culture, and trans- duced to express green fluorescent protein.

J. Mary Murphy; David J. Fink; Ernst B. Hunziker; Frank P. Barry

2003-01-01

35

Polyamine profile in ovine and caprine colostrum and milk.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to monitor the post-partum variation of polyamine content, in ovine and caprine milk, from indigenous Greek breeds. Twenty samples of ewe and 20 samples of goat colostrum and milk were collected at the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th and 15th day post-partum. Putrescine, spermidine and spermine were measured as dansylated derivatives by high-performance liquid chromatography. Putrescine was the least concentrated of these substances in both milk types. Spermidine was the prevailing polyamine in caprine samples, reaching levels up to 4.41 ?mol/l on the 3rd day post-partum. In ovine milk, the profile of the mean concentrations showed greater levels of spermine than spermidine, except for the 5th day post-partum. These data suggest that goat colostrum and ewe milk (15th day) could be considered as good natural sources for these bioactive growth factors, and may become useful raw materials for designing tailored dairy products for specific population groups. PMID:25465997

Galitsopoulou, Augustina; Michaelidou, Alexandra-Maria; Menexes, George; Alichanidis, Efstathios

2015-04-15

36

The effect of heat treatment and skimming on precipitate formation in caprine and bovine milks.  

PubMed

Caprine and bovine milks have a similar overall gross composition, but vary considerably in the ratios of their casein components. These differences in colloidal casein micelles could affect directly or indirectly the heat stability of caprine and bovine milks at their natural pH. In the present work, the differences in colloidal stability of caprine and bovine milk have been studied by analysing the effect of heat treatment and skimming on precipitation of proteins. Raw and heated milk samples (70C/5min, 80C/5min and 90C/5min) were centrifuged at 600, 2000, and 4500 g . The amount of precipitate formed after skimming was measured and the protein composition of both precipitates and supernatants analysed using the SDS-PAGE (sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis) and densitometry. In caprine milk, the heat treatment prior to skimming had a statistically significant effect on protein precipitation. Centrifugal force had a statistically significant effect on amount of precipitate for both milks, but the amount was 2 to 4 times higher for caprine milk. When defatting the milk for electrophoresis, a centrifugal force of 600 g appeared to be the most appropriate, in order to avoid protein loss and a possible error in the interpretation of results. Results of this study could also serve as the basis for further investigations on adjusting the skimming conditions for caprine milk in industrial dairy processing environment. PMID:25406911

Miloradovic, Zorana N; Kljajevic, Nemanja V; Jovanovic, Snezana T; Vucic, Tanja R; Macej, Ognjen D

2014-11-19

37

Caprine pancreatic islet xenotransplantation into diabetic immunosuppressed BALB/c mice  

PubMed Central

Background Type 1 diabetes mellitus is a devastating disease for which there is currently no cure, but only lifetime management. Islet xenotransplantation is a promising technique for the restoration of blood glucose control in patients with diabetes mellitus. The purpose of this study was to explore the potential use of caprine (goat) islet cells as xenogeneic grafts in the treatment for diabetes in a mouse model. Methods Caprine pancreases were harvested and transported to the laboratory under conditions optimized to prevent ischemia. Islets were isolated, purified, and tested for functionality. Caprine islets (2000 islet equivalent) were transplanted beneath the kidney capsules of diabetic BALB/c mice under thalidomide-induced immunosuppression. Blood glucose and insulin levels of grafted mice were evaluated by glucometer and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit, respectively. The functionality and quality of caprine pancreatic islet grafts were assessed by intraperitoneal glucose tolerance tests. Results The viability of purified islet cells exceeded 90%. Recipient mice exhibited normoglycemia (<11mm glucose) for 30days. In addition, weight gain negatively correlated with blood glucose level. The findings verified diabetes reversal in caprine islet recipient mice. A significant drop in non-fasting blood glucose level (from 23.35.4 to 8.040.44mm) and simultaneous increase in serum insulin level (from 0.010.001 to 0.560.17?g/l) and body weights (from 23.640.31 to 25.850.34g) were observed (P<0.05). Immunohistochemical analysis verified insulin production in the transplanted islets. Conclusions Purified caprine islets were demonstrated to successfully sustain viability and functionality for controlling blood glucose levels in an immunosuppressed mouse model of diabetes. These results suggest the use of caprine islets as an addition to the supply of xenogeneic islets for diabetes research. PMID:24645790

Hani, Homayoun; Allaudin, Zeenathul N; Mohd-Lila, Mohd-Azmi; Ibrahim, Tengku A Tengku; Othman, Abas M

2014-01-01

38

Effect of aging on the rheology of full fat and low fat Cheddar-like caprine cheese  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The rheological properties of aging full fat (FF) and low fat (LF) caprine milk cheeses were characterized to determine the changes in the cheese matrix during storage. Six batches of high moisture, Cheddar-like cheese were manufactured from whole or skim caprine milk and were aged at 4 deg C for u...

39

MicroRNA-Mediated Myostatin Silencing in Caprine Fetal Fibroblasts  

PubMed Central

Myostatin functions as a negative regulator of skeletal muscle growth by suppressing proliferation and differentiation of myoblasts. Dysfunction of the myostatin gene, either due to natural mutation or genetic manipulations such as knockout or knockdown, has been reported to increase muscle mass in mammalian species. RNA interference (RNAi) mediated by microRNAs (miRNAs) is a promising method for gene knockdown studies. In the present study, transient and stable silencing of the myostatin gene in caprine fetal fibroblasts (CFF) was evaluated using the two most effective constructs selected from four different miRNA expression constructs screened in 293FT cells. Using these two miRNA constructs, we achieved up to 84% silencing of myostatin mRNA in transiently transfected CFF cells and up to 31% silencing in stably transfected CFF cells. Moreover, off-target effects due to induction of interferon (IFN) response genes, such as interferon beta (IFN-?) and 2?-5?-oligoadenylate synthetase 2 (OAS2), were markedly fewer in stably transfected CFF cells than in transiently transfected cells. Stable expression of anti-myostatin miRNA with minimal induction of interferon shows great promise for increasing muscle mass in transgenic goats. PMID:25244645

Zhong, Bushuai; Zhang, Yanli; Yan, Yibo; Wang, Ziyu; Ying, Shijia; Huang, Mingrui; Wang, Feng

2014-01-01

40

Contagious caprine pleuropneumonia: new aspects of an old disease.  

PubMed

Contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP), caused by Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae, is a serious OIE-listed disease affecting goats in the Middle East, north and east Africa and Asia. Mortality and morbidity rates can be as high as 60% and 90%, respectively, when the disease first enters a territory, invariably through carrier animals. Recent detections of CCPP in Pakistan and Tajikistan are probably the result of improved diagnosis as the disease has been suspected there for many years, while those in Thrace in 2003 and Mauritius in 2009 represent new outbreaks. CCPP was thought to be highly host specific until recent outbreaks in wildlife species including gazelles and gerenuks show that the causative mycoplasma has broader specificity. Diagnosis was hampered by the fastidiousness of the causative mycoplasma but molecular-based tests like PCR have greatly improved detection. Rapid latex agglutination tests that can be performed at the penside are also available for antibody detection. Clinically affected animals respond to a range of antibiotics although it is unlikely that this results in complete elimination of the mycoplasma. Vaccines consisting of saponized organisms have been shown to be protective but the quality and efficacy may be variable. PMID:21951488

Nicholas, R; Churchward, C

2012-06-01

41

Cantharidin and norcantharidin inhibit caprine luteal cell steroidogenesis in vitro.  

PubMed

Cantharidin and its analog norcantharidin are active constituents of Mylabris, have been demonstrated to ailments for a variety of cancers. But several reports of cantharidin's natural or accidental toxicoses in field animals and humans showed a strong connection between cantharidin and its abortifacient and aphrodisiac properties. However, their exact cellular mechanisms in steroidogenesis remains poorly understood. Thus this study was aimed to explore the effects of cantharidin on luteal cell steroidogensis and to compare its effect with that of norcantharidin. For this purpose, luteal cells isolated from corpora lutea of native Taiwan goats were maintained in vitro and treated for 4 and 24 h with cantharidin and norcantharidin (0.1, 1.0, and 10 ?g ml(-1)) to assess their steroidogenic effects. Progesterone (P(4)) levels and steroidogenic enzyme expression were assessed by enzyme immunoassay and Western blot methods, respectively. In caprine luteal cells, cantharidin and norcantharidin repressed basal P(4) production, as well as that mediated by ovine luteinizing hormone (oLH), 8-bromo-cyclic AMP (8-Br-cAMP), 22R-hydroxycholesterol (22R-OHC) and pregnenolone (P(5)). They also inhibited the expression of steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR) protein, cytochrome P450 cholesterol side-chain cleavage (P450scc) enzyme, and 3?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3?-HSD) enzyme. Additionally, the greater inhibitory effect was detected using cantharidin, when it is compared with that of norcantharidin. Our results suggest that ingestion of cantharidin may decrease luteal steroidogenesis, and the decline in luteal P(4) levels may disrupt reproductive functions in humans as well as animals. PMID:20594813

Twu, Nae-Fang; Srinivasan, Ramanujam; Chou, Chung-Hsi; Wu, Leang-Shin; Chiu, Chih-Hsien

2012-01-01

42

Social Access Control Language (SocACL) Edward Caprin and Yan Zhang  

E-print Network

management in OSNs as an access control problem. We propose a fine-grained, formal Attribute-Based AccessSocial Access Control Language (SocACL) Edward Caprin and Yan Zhang School of Computing- agement in OSNs as an access control problem. We pro- pose a formal Attribute-Based Access Control (ABAC

Zhang, Yan

43

Lipid oxidation in algae oil-in-water emulsions stabilized by bovine and caprine caseins  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Caseins (alpha S1-, alpha S2-, and beta-casein) are phosphoproteins that are capable of binding transition metals and scavenging free radicals, these properties make them good candidates to be used as natural antioxidants in oil-in-water emulsions. Caprine casein exhibits variability in aS1-casein c...

44

Structural insights into the c1q domain of caprin-2 in canonical wnt signaling.  

PubMed

Previously, we have identified Caprin-2 as a new regulator in canonical Wnt signaling through a mechanism of facilitating LRP5/6 phosphorylation; moreover, we found that its C-terminal C1q-related domain (Cap2_CRD) is required for this process. Here, we determined the crystal structures of Cap2_CRD from human and zebrafish, which both associate as a homotrimer with calcium located at the symmetric center. Surprisingly, the calcium binding-deficient mutant exists as a more stable trimer than its wild-type counterpart. Further studies showed that this Caprin-2 mutant disabled in binding calcium maintains the activity of promoting LRP5/6 phosphorylation, whereas the mutations disrupting Cap2_CRD homotrimer did impair such activity. Together, our findings suggested that the C-terminal CRD domain of Caprin-2 forms a flexible homotrimer mediated by calcium and that such trimeric assembly is required for Caprin-2 to regulate canonical Wnt signaling. PMID:25331957

Miao, Haofei; Jia, Yingying; Xie, Sichun; Wang, Xin; Zhao, Jianfei; Chu, Youjun; Zhou, Zhilei; Shi, Zhubing; Song, Xiaomin; Li, Lin

2014-12-01

45

Screening of fluoroquinolone residues in caprine milk using a 5-kg luminescence photometer  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A terbium-sensitized luminescence (TSL) method was developed to screen presence of residues of four fluoroquinolones (FQ) registered in caprine milk in the European Union: enrofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, flumequine, and danofloxacin. After extraction in McIlvaine buffer and SPE cleanup, TSL was measure...

46

Determination of the molecular defect of caprine N-acetylglucosamine 6-sulfatase deficiency  

SciTech Connect

Caprine N-acetylglucosamine 6-sulfatase (G6S) deficiency is the only animal analog of Sanfilippo syndrome (type D). The goat with this mucopolysaccharidousis disorder (MPS III D) demonstrated delayed motor development and growth retardation but reached sexual maturity before dying suddenly at 19 mo. Histochemical and biochemical analysis of the liver showed glycosaminoglycan storage and there was GM{sub 3} ganglioside accumulation in the brain. Towards further development of this animal model for treatment strategies, we have cloned the caprine G6S gene, determined the nature of the gene defect in caprine MPS III D and compared the goat sequence to the human sequence. The human and caprine sequences show an overall sequence similarity of about 90% in the coding region. The 5{prime}-coding region is very GC-rich in both the human and caprine G6S. One striking difference between the human and caprine genes is the presence of a GCC repeat in the goat resulting in insertion of 6 prolines and a leucine in the signal peptide. This proline-rich stretch was confirmed by amplifying and sequencing the same cDNA segment from other goats. Additionally, this region was examined in bovine cDNA and found to contain 4 prolines and 2 leucines. The mRNA for G6S consists of two species of approximately 4.0 and 4.2 kb with a coding region of 1.6 kb. For mutation analysis a series of primers was designed to cover the entire G6S coding region. Amplicons from RT-PCR on normal and affected goat total RNA were produced and sequenced. A single base substitution, T for C, was found in the 5{prime} region of the coding sequence of the affected animals that creates a stop codon. This mutation introduces an Alu I restriction site. PCR primers designed to amplify a short segment of genomic DNA encompassing the mutation have been used to identify putative carriers and develop a caprine Sanfilippo III D carrier colony.

Leipprandt, J.R.; Jones, M.Z.; Cavanagh, K.T. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)] [and others

1994-09-01

47

Comparison of the principal proteins in bovine, caprine, buffalo, equine and camel milk.  

PubMed

Proteomic analysis of bovine, caprine, buffalo, equine and camel milk highlighted significant interspecies differences. Camel milk was found to be devoid of ?-lactoglobulin, whereas ?-lactoglobulin was the major whey protein in bovine, buffalo, caprine, and equine milk. Five different isoforms of ?-casein were found in camel milk, analogous to the micro-heterogeneity observed for bovine ?-casein. Several spots observed in 2D-electrophoretograms of milk of all species could tentatively be identified as polypeptides arising from the enzymatic hydrolysis of caseins. The understanding gained from the proteomic comparison of these milks may be of relevance both in terms of identifying sources of hypoallergenic alternatives to bovine milk and detection of adulteration of milk samples and products. PMID:22365180

Hinz, Katharina; O'Connor, Paula M; Huppertz, Thom; Ross, R Paul; Kelly, Alan L

2012-05-01

48

Evidence of Three New Members of Malignant Catarrhal Fever Virus Group in Muskox (Ovibos moschatus), Nubian ibex (Capra nubiana), and Gemsbok (Oryx gazella)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six members of the malignant ca- tarrhal fever (MCF) virus group of ruminant rhadinoviruses have been identified to date. Four of these viruses are clearly associated with clinical disease: alcelaphine herpesvirus 1 (AlHV-1) carried by wildebeest (Connochaetes spp.); ovine herpesvirus 2 (OvHV-2), ubiqui- tous in domestic sheep; caprine herpesvirus 2 (CpHV-2), endemic in domestic goats; and the virus of unknown

Hong Li; Katherine Gailbreath; Louis C. Bender; Keith West; Janice Keller; Timothy B. Crawford

2003-01-01

49

A primitive caprine from the Upper Vallesian of La Roma 2 (Alfambra, Teruel, Aragon, Spain)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe a new caprine form from the Upper Vallesian of La Roma 2 (Teruel Basin, Aragon). Aragoral mudejar Gen.n., sp.n. is close to the primitive forms of the Hippotraginae-Caprinae group. It differs from Norbertia hellenica by its more primitive dentition, the greater separation between the bases of the horn cores, the decreased thickness of the frontal bone and the relatively smaller size of the horn cores.

Alcal, Luis; Morales, Jorge

1997-06-01

50

Evolution de la frquence du cornage dans quatre races caprines franaises  

E-print Network

Evolution de la fréquence du cornage dans quatre races caprines françaises G. RICORDEAU F. SANCHEZ maximum en race Chamoisée (0,88 et 0,89 respectivement), minimum dans les races Saanen (0,77 et 0,78) et Poitevine (0,81 et 0,76), intermédiaire en race Croisée (0,82 et 0,83). Le pourcentage de produits nés de

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

51

Histological and ultrastructural features of caprine preantral follicles after in vitro culture in the presence or absence of indole-3-acetic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) on survival, activation, and growth of caprine preantral follicles using histological and ultrastructural criteria. Pieces of caprine ovarian cortex were cultured for 1 or 5 days in Minimum Essential Medium (MEM - control medium) supplemented with different concentrations of IAA (10, 20, 40, or 100

M. H. T. Matos; F. S. Martins; R. R. Santos; M. C. A. Luque; J. J. H. Celestino; S. N. Bo; J. R. Figueiredo

52

The Fetal Cleft palate: V. Elucidation of the Mechanism of Palatal Clefting in the Congenital Caprine Model  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Maternal ingestion of Nicotiana glauca from gestation days 32 through 41 results in a high incidence of cleft palate in Spanish goats. This caprine cleft palate model was used to evaluate the temporal sequence of palatal shelf fusion throughout the period of cleft induction with the poisonous plant...

53

Molecular dating of caprines using ancient DNA sequences of Myotragus balearicus, an extinct endemic Balearic mammal  

PubMed Central

Background Myotragus balearicus was an endemic bovid from the Balearic Islands (Western Mediterranean) that became extinct around 6,000-4,000 years ago. The Myotragus evolutionary lineage became isolated in the islands most probably at the end of the Messinian crisis, when the desiccation of the Mediterranean ended, in a geological date established at 5.35 Mya. Thus, the sequences of Myotragus could be very valuable for calibrating the mammalian mitochondrial DNA clock and, in particular, the tree of the Caprinae subfamily, to which Myotragus belongs. Results We have retrieved the complete mitochondrial cytochrome b gene (1,143 base pairs), plus fragments of the mitochondrial 12S gene and the nuclear 28S rDNA multi-copy gene from a well preserved Myotragus subfossil bone. The best resolved phylogenetic trees, obtained with the cytochrome b gene, placed Myotragus in a position basal to the Ovis group. Using the calibration provided by the isolation of Balearic Islands, we calculated that the initial radiation of caprines can be dated at 6.2 0.4 Mya. In addition, alpine and southern chamois, considered until recently the same species, split around 1.6 0.3 Mya, indicating that the two chamois species have been separated much longer than previously thought. Conclusion Since there are almost no extant endemic mammals in Mediterranean islands, the sequence of the extinct Balearic endemic Myotragus has been crucial for allowing us to use the Messinian crisis calibration point for dating the caprines phylogenetic tree. PMID:16332256

Lalueza-Fox, Carles; Castresana, Jose; Sampietro, Lourdes; Marqus-Bonet, Toms; Alcover, Josep Antoni; Bertranpetit, Jaume

2005-01-01

54

Effect of vitamin C on growth of caprine spermatogonial stem cells in vitro.  

PubMed

The genetic manipulation of spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) can be used for the production of transgenic animals in a wide range of species. However, this technology is limited by the absence of an ideal culture system in which SSCs can be maintained and proliferated, especially in domestic animals like the goat. The aim of this study therefore was to investigate whether the addition of vitamin C (Vc) in cell culture influences the growth of caprine SSCs. Various concentrations of Vc (0, 5, 10, 25, 40, and 50 ?g/mL(-1)) were added to SSC culture media, and their effect on morphology and alkaline phosphatase activity was studied. The number of caprine SSC colonies and area covered by them were measured at 10 days of culture. The expression of various germ cell and somatic cell markers such as VASA, integrins, Oct-4, GATA-4, ?-SMA, vimentin, and Thy-1 was studied to identify the proliferated cells using immunostaining analyses. Further, the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level was measured at the 3rd, 6th, and 9th day after culture, and expression of Bax, Bcl-2, and P53, factors involved in the regulation of apoptosis, were analyzed on the 7th day after culture using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The results showed that the SSCs formed compact colonies and had unclear borders in the different Vc-supplemented groups at 10 days, and there were no major morphologic differences between the groups. The number and area of colonies were both the highest in the 40 ?g/mL(-1) Vc group. Differential expression of markers for germ cells, undifferentiated spermatogonia, and testis somatic cells was observed. Cultured germ cell clumps were found to have alkaline phosphatase activity regardless of the Vc dose. The number of Thy-1- and Oct-4-positive cells was the most in the 40 ?g/mL(-1) Vc group. Moreover, the level of ROS was dependent on the Vc dose and culture time. The Vc dose 40 ?g/mL(-1) was found to be optimum with regard to decreasing ROS generation, and increasing the expression of the antiapoptotic gene Bcl-2 and decreasing the expression of the proapoptotic genes Bax and P53. In conclusion, the addition of 40 ?g/mL(-1) Vc can maintain a certain physiological level of ROS, trigger the expression of the antiapoptosis gene Bcl-2, suppress the proapoptotic gene P53 and Bax pathway, and further promote the proliferation of caprine SSCs in vitro. PMID:24368149

Wang, Juhua; Cao, Hongguo; Xue, Xiuheng; Fan, Caiyun; Fang, Fugui; Zhou, Jie; Zhang, Yunhai; Zhang, Xiaorong

2014-03-01

55

Fatal transmission of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia to an Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx).  

PubMed

Contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP) is an infectious respiratory disease mainly affecting domestic goats. As CCPP has never been documented in grazing antelopes (subfamily hippotraginae), they were not considered susceptible. Mycoplasma capricolum subspecies capripneumoniae (Mccp) was isolated from pleural liquid collected during the necropsy of a severely emaciated Arabian oryx with mild nasal discharge. The Mccp isolate was then genotyped using a multilocus sequence scheme; the sequence type was identical to the Mccp strain previously identified in a sand gazelle from a nearby enclosure. This case shows for the first time that members of the hippotraginae subfamily, here the Arabian oryx, can be affected by CCPP. In addition, genotyping shows that the oryx was most probably infected, at a distance, by sand gazelles. PMID:25069622

Chaber, A L; Lignereux, L; Al Qassimi, M; Saegerman, C; Manso-Silvn, L; Dupuy, V; Thiaucourt, F

2014-09-17

56

Expanding Possibilities for Intervention against Small Ruminant Lentiviruses through Genetic Marker-Assisted Selective Breeding  

PubMed Central

Small ruminant lentiviruses include members that infect sheep (ovine lentivirus [OvLV]; also known as ovine progressive pneumonia virus/maedi-visna virus) and goats (caprine arthritis encephalitis virus [CAEV]). Breed differences in seroprevalence and proviral concentration of OvLV had suggested a strong genetic component in susceptibility to infection by OvLV in sheep. A genetic marker test for susceptibility to OvLV has been developed recently based on the TMEM154 gene with validation data from over 2,800 sheep representing nine cohorts. While no single genotype has been shown to have complete resistance to OvLV, consistent association in thousands of sheep from multiple breeds and management conditions highlight a new strategy for intervention by selective breeding. This genetic marker-assisted selection (MAS) has the potential to be a useful addition to existing viral control measures. Further, the discovery of multiple additional genomic regions associated with susceptibility to or control of OvLV suggests that additional genetic marker tests may be developed to extend the reach of MAS in the future. This review will cover the strengths and limitations of existing data from host genetics as an intervention and outline additional questions for future genetic research in sheep, goats, small ruminant lentiviruses, and their host-pathogen interactions. PMID:23771240

White, Stephen N.; Knowles, Donald P.

2013-01-01

57

Purification and Characterization of a Sperm Motility Inhibiting Factor from Caprine Epididymal Plasma  

PubMed Central

Several studies have been reported on the occurrence of sperm motility inhibiting factors in the male reproductive fluids of different mammalian species, but these proteins have not been adequately purified and characterized. A novel sperm motility inhibiting factor (MIF-II) has been purified from caprine epididymal plasma (EP) by Hydroxylapatite gel adsorption chromatography, DEAE-Cellulose ion-exchange chromatography and chromatofocusing. The MIF-II has been purified to apparent homogeneity and the molecular weight estimated by Sephacryl S-300 gel filtration is 160 kDa. MIF-II is a dimeric protein, made up of two subunits each having a molecular mass of 80 kDa as shown by SDS-PAGE. The isoelectric point of MIF-II is 5.1 as determined by chromatofocusing and isoelectric focusing. It is a heat labile protein and maximal active at the pH 6.9 to 7.5. The sperm motility inhibiting protein factor at 2 g/ml (12.5 nM) level showed maximal motility-inhibiting activity. The observation that the epididymal plasma factor lowered the intracellular cAMP level of spermatozoa in a concentration-dependent manner suggests that it may block the motility of caprine cauda spermatozoa by interfering the cAMP dependent motility function. The results revealed that the purified protein factor has the potential of sperm motility inhibition and may serve as a vaginal contraceptive. The antibody raised against the MIF-II has the potential for enhancement of forward motility of cauda-spermatozoa. This antibody may thus be useful for solving some of the problems of male infertility due to low sperm motility. PMID:20706623

Das, Sujoy; Saha, Sudipta; Majumder, Gopal Chandra; Dungdung, Sandhya Rekha

2010-01-01

58

Detection of Helicobacter pylori in bovine, buffalo, camel, ovine, and caprine milk in Iran.  

PubMed

Helicobacter pylori infection in humans is one of the most common infections worldwide. However, the origin and transmission of this bacterium has not been clearly explained. One of the suggested theories is transmission via raw milk from animals to human beings. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence rate of H. pylori in bulk milk samples from dairy bovine, buffalo, camel, ovine, and caprine herds in Iran. In the present study, 447 bulk milk samples from 230 dairy bovine, buffalo, camel, ovine, and caprine herds were collected in four provinces and tested for H. pylori by cultural method and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the detection of the ureC (glmM) gene. The animals whose milk samples collected for this study were clinically healthy. Using the cultural method, three of 447 milk samples (0.67%), including two sheep (2.2%) and one buffalo (1.6%) milk samples, were found to be contaminated with H. pylori. H. pylori ureC gene was detected in 56 (12.5%) of milk samples, including 19 cow (14.1%), 11 sheep (12.2%), nine goat (8.7%), two camel (3.6%), and 15 buffalo (23.4%) milk samples. Using PCR method, there were significant differences (p<0.05) in the level of contamination with H. pylori between milk samples collected from different species. The present study is the first report of the isolation of H. pylori from raw sheep and buffalo milk in Iran and the first demonstration of H. pylori DNA in camel and buffalo milk. PMID:22458716

Rahimi, Ebrahim; Kheirabadi, Elahe Kazemi

2012-05-01

59

Changing Patterns of Acute Phase Proteins and Inflammatory Mediators in Experimental Caprine Coccidiosis  

PubMed Central

This experiment was conducted to assess the changing patterns and relative values of acute phase proteins and inflammatory cytokines in experimental caprine coccidiosis. Eighteen newborn kids were allocated to 3 equal groups. Two groups, A and B, were inoculated with a single dose of 1103 and1105 sporulated oocysts of Eimeria arloingi, respectively. The third group, C, received distilled water as the control. Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein of each kid in both groups before inoculation and at days 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, and 42 post-inoculation (PI), and the levels of haptoglobin (Hp), serum amyloid A (SAA), TNF-?, and IFN-? were measured. For histopathological examinations, 2 kids were selected from each group, euthanized, and necropsied on day 42 PI. Mean Hp concentrations in groups A and B (0.34 and 0.68 g/L) at day 7 PI were 3.2 and 6.3 times higher than the levels before inoculation. The mean SAA concentrations in groups A and B (25.6 and 83.5 g/ml) at day 7 PI were 4.2 and 13.7 times higher than the levels before inoculation. The magnitude and duration of the Hp and SAA responses correlated well with the inoculation doses and the severity of the clinical signs and diarrhea in kids. These results were consistent with the histopathological features, which showed advanced widespread lesions in group B. In both groups, significant correlations were observed for TNF-? and IFN-? with SAA and Hp, respectively. In conclusion, Hp and SAA can be useful non-specific diagnostic indicators in caprine coccidiosis. PMID:22072820

Khodakaram-Tafti, Azizollah; Razavi, Seyed Mostafa; Nazifi, Saeed

2011-01-01

60

Association analysis of polymorphisms in caprine KiSS1 gene with reproductive traits.  

PubMed

KiSS1 is considered to be a key mediator of molecular mechanism of reproduction (puberty and prolificacy) in mammals. Kisspeptins are a family of structurally related peptides, encoded by KiSS1 gene, with ability to regulate gonadotropin-releasing hormone and hence hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. The present study investigated the polymorphism of caprine KiSS1 gene in 9 Indian goat breeds differing in sexual precocity and prolificacy. Comparison of KiSS1 amplified sequences of indigenous goats resulted in identification of nine SNPs (intron (1) G296C, T455G, T505A, T693C, T950C and intron (2) T1125C, A2510G, C2540T, A2803G) of which four are novel. These loci were not segregating together (r(2)<0.33). Mutations existed in both, sexually precocious and late-maturing goat breeds as well as low and high prolificacy goat breeds. Three loci reported to be associated with goat litter size (G296C, G2510A and C2540T) were identified in Indian goats as well. Association between loci of KiSS1 gene and age of puberty as well as litter size was explored in Black Bengal (N=158), a sexually precocious and prolific goat breed of India by designing PCR-RFLP. None of the mutations were found to be associated with reproductive traits however, difference in litter size as well age of sexual maturity for different genotypes indicates that the study on additional data based on more number of breeds and animals would be interesting to perform. Considering the importance of the reproductive trait in small ruminants, the results extend the limited information on genetic variation of the caprine KiSS1, which might contribute toward molecular breeding to enhance productivity of goat. PMID:25308062

Maitra, A; Sharma, Rekha; Ahlawat, Sonika; Tantia, M S; Roy, Manoranjan; Prakash, Ved

2014-12-10

61

In vitro evaluation of the fermentation properties and potential prebiotic activity of caprine cheese whey oligosaccharides in batch culture systems.  

PubMed

The prebiotic effect of oligosaccharides recovered and purified from caprine whey, was evaluated by in vitro fermentation under anaerobic conditions using batch cultures at 37C with human faeces. Effects on key gut bacterial groups were monitored over 24 h by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), which was used to determine a quantitative prebiotic index score. Production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) as fermentation end products was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Growth of Bifidobacterium spp was significantly higher (P ? 0.05) with the purified oligosaccharides compared to the negative control. Lactic and propionic acids were the main SCFAs produced. Antimicrobial activity of the oligosaccharides was also tested, revealing no inhibition though a decrease in Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli growth. These findings indicate that naturally extracted oligosaccharides from caprine whey could be used as new and valuable source of prebiotics. PMID:22996438

Oliveira, Diana L; Costabile, Adele; Wilbey, R Andrew; Grandison, Alistair S; Duarte, Luis C; Roseiro, Luisa B

2012-01-01

62

Caprine besnoitiosis: an emerging threat and its relationship to some other infections of ungulates by Besnoitia species.  

PubMed

Caprine besnoitiosis, caused by the cyst-forming protozoal apicomplexan Besnoitia caprae appears to be endemic in Kenya, Nigeria and Iran, but has yet to be detected in other parts of the world. The infection causes an important parasitic disease of goats in affected developing countries. Bovine besnoitiosis, is a widespread disease of cattle in Africa, Asia (but not Iran) and southern Europe. Recent epidemiological data confirm that the incidence and geographical range of bovine besnoitiosis in Europe is increasing, which is why growing attention has been given to the condition during the past decade. This paper reviews pertinent information on the biology, epidemiology, pathology, clinical signs, diagnosis and control of caprine besnoitiosis, together with its similarities to, and differences from, bovine besnoitiosis. The serious economic consequences of besnoitiosis on goat breeding and local meat and hide industries is also considered. PMID:24975324

Oryan, A; Silver, I A; Sadoughifar, R

2014-08-01

63

Simulated-Physiological Loading Conditions Preserve Biological and Mechanical Properties of Caprine Lumbar Intervertebral Discs in Ex Vivo Culture  

PubMed Central

Low-back pain (LBP) is a common medical complaint and associated with high societal costs. Degeneration of the intervertebral disc (IVD) is assumed to be an important causal factor of LBP. IVDs are continuously mechanically loaded and both positive and negative effects have been attributed to different loading conditions. In order to study mechanical loading effects, degeneration-associated processes and/or potential regenerative therapies in IVDs, it is imperative to maintain the IVDs' structural integrity. While in vivo models provide comprehensive insight in IVD biology, an accompanying organ culture model can focus on a single factor, such as loading and may serve as a prescreening model to reduce life animal testing. In the current study we examined the feasibility of organ culture of caprine lumbar discs, with the hypothesis that a simulated-physiological load will optimally preserve IVD properties. Lumbar caprine IVDs (n?=?175) were cultured in a bioreactor up to 21 days either without load, low dynamic load (LDL), or with simulated-physiological load (SPL). IVD stiffness was calculated from measurements of IVD loading and displacement. IVD nucleus, inner- and outer annulus were assessed for cell viability, cell density and gene expression. The extracellular matrix (ECM) was analyzed for water, glycosaminoglycan and total collagen content. IVD biomechanical properties did not change significantly with loading conditions. With SPL, cell viability, cell density and gene expression were preserved up to 21 days. Both unloaded and LDL resulted in decreased cell viability, cell density and significant changes in gene expression, yet no differences in ECM content were observed in any group. In conclusion, simulated-physiological loading preserved the native properties of caprine IVDs during a 21-day culture period. The characterization of caprine IVD response to culture in the LDCS under SPL conditions paves the way for controlled analysis of degeneration- and regeneration-associated processes in the future. PMID:22427972

Paul, Cornelis P. L.; Zuiderbaan, Hendrik A.; Zandieh Doulabi, Behrouz; van der Veen, Albert J.; van de Ven, Peter M.; Smit, Theo H.; Helder, Marco N.; van Royen, Barend J.; Mullender, Margriet G.

2012-01-01

64

Properties of Kefir made in Scotland and Poland using Bovine, Caprine and Ovine Milk with Different Starter Cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Varieties of Kefir were made in Poland and Scotland from bovine, caprine and ovine milk, using Kefir grains and two direct-to-vat inoculation (DVI) starter cultures. The chemical composition (g\\/kg) of the Kefir ranged from 106149 for total solids, 2964 for crude protein, 3847 for carbohydrate, 711 for ash. The fat content was standardized to a mean value of 31 g\\/kg.

M. Wszolek; A. Y. Tamime; D. D. Muir; M. N. I. Barclay

2001-01-01

65

Effects of reducing fat content on the proteolytic and rheological properties of Cheddar-like caprine milk cheese  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

High-moisture Cheddar-like cheeses made from caprine milk containing 3.6, 2.0, 1.0, and 0.1-0.5% fat were manufactured and their proteolytic and rheological properties compared after 1, 3, and 6 mo of aging at 4 deg C. The full-fat (FF), reduced fat (RF), low-fat (LF), and non-fat (NF) cheeses conta...

66

Sequence diversity of the leukotoxin (lktA) gene in caprine and ovine strains of Mannheimia haemolytica.  

PubMed

Mannheimia haemolytica is the aetiological agent of pneumonic pasteurellosis in small ruminants. The primary virulence factor of the bacterium is a leukotoxin (LktA), which induces apoptosis in susceptible cells via mitochondrial targeting. It has been previously shown that certain lktA alleles are associated either with cattle or sheep. The objective of the present study was to investigate lktA sequence variation among ovine and caprine M haemolytica strains isolated from pneumonic lungs, revealing any potential adaptation for the caprine host, for which there is no available data. Furthermore, we investigated amino acid variation in the N-terminal part of the sequences and its effect on targeting mitochondria. Data analysis showed that the prevalent caprine genotype differed at a single non-synonymous site from a previously described uncommon bovine allele, whereas the ovine sequences represented new, distinct alleles. N-terminal sequence differences did not affect the mitochondrial targeting ability of the isolates; interestingly enough in one case, mitochondrial matrix targeting was indicated rather than membrane association, suggesting an alternative LktA trafficking pattern. PMID:23396525

Vougidou, C; Sandalakis, V; Psaroulaki, A; Petridou, E; Ekateriniadou, L

2013-04-20

67

Incidence of Listeria species in bovine, ovine, caprine, camel and water buffalo milk using cultural method and the PCR assay  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine the prevalence rate of Listeria species in bovine, ovine, caprine, camel and water buffalo milk in Iran. Methods From September 2010 to December 2011 a total of 260 bulk milk samples including 85 bovine, 37 camel, 34 water buffalo, 56 ovine and 48 caprine bulk milk samples were collected from commercial dairy herds, in Fars and Khuzestan provinces, Iran and were evaluated for the presence of Listeria species using cultural method and the PCR assay. Results Using cultural method, 19 samples (7.3%) were positive for Listeria spp. The highest prevalence of Listeria was found in raw water buffalo milk (11.8%), followed by raw bovine milk (10.6%), raw ovine milk (7.1%), and raw caprine milk (4.2%) samples. All 37 camel milk samples from 20 camel breeding farms were negative for Listeria spp. The overall prevalence of Listeria was 7.3%, in which Listeria innocua was the most recovered species (4.2%); the remaining isolates were Listeria monocytogenes (1.9%), Listeria ivanovii (0.08%) and Listeria seeligari (0.04%). The PCR assay could identify 8 Listeria-contaminated milk samples that were negative using the cultural method. Conclusions The results presented in this study indicate the potential risk of infection with Listeria in people consuming raw and unpasteurized milk.

Rahimi, Ebrahim; Momtaz, Hassan; Behzadnia, Asma; Baghbadorani, Zeinab Torki

2014-01-01

68

Designing, optimization and validation of tetra-primer ARMS PCR protocol for genotyping mutations in caprine Fec genes  

PubMed Central

New, quick, and inexpensive methods for genotyping novel caprine Fec gene polymorphisms through tetra-primer ARMS PCR were developed in the present investigation. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping needs to be attempted to establish association between the identified mutations and traits of economic importance. In the current study, we have successfully genotyped three new SNPs identified in caprine fecundity genes viz. T(-242)C (BMPR1B), G1189A (GDF9) and G735A (BMP15). Tetra-primer ARMS PCR protocol was optimized and validated for these SNPs with short turn-around time and costs. The optimized techniques were tested on 158 random samples of Black Bengal goat breed. Samples with known genotypes for the described genes, previously tested in duplicate using the sequencing methods, were employed for validation of the assay. Upon validation, complete concordance was observed between the tetra-primer ARMS PCR assays and the sequencing results. These results highlight the ability of tetra-primer ARMS PCR in genotyping of mutations in Fec genes. Any associated SNP could be used to accelerate the improvement of goat reproductive traits by identifying high prolific animals at an early stage of life. Our results provide direct evidence that tetra-primer ARMS-PCR is a rapid, reliable, and cost-effective method for SNP genotyping of mutations in caprine Fec genes. PMID:25606428

Ahlawat, Sonika; Sharma, Rekha; Maitra, A.; Roy, Manoranjan; Tantia, M.S.

2014-01-01

69

Small Ruminant Lentivirus-Induced Arthritis: Clinicopathologic Findings in Sheep Infected by a Highly Replicative SRLV B2 Genotype.  

PubMed

We describe the clinicopathologic features of an arthritis outbreak in sheep induced by small ruminant lentivirus (SRLV), linked to the presence of a new SRLV isolate phylogenetically assigned to caprine arthritis encephalitis virus-like subgroup B2. Thirteen SRLV seropositive Rasa Aragonesa adult ewes were selected from 5 SRLV highly infected flocks (mean seroprevalence, 90.7%) for presenting uni- or bilateral chronic arthritis in the carpal joint. A complete study was performed, including symptomatology, histopathology, immunocytochemistry, immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization, and microbiology. The carpus was the joint almost exclusively affected, with 10 sheep (76%) showing a moderate increase in carpal joint size (diameter range, 18-20 cm; normal range, 15-16 cm) without signs of locomotion problems and with 3 ewes (23%) showing severe inflammation with marked increase in diameter (21-24 cm), pain at palpation, and abnormal standing position. Grossly, chronic proliferative arthritis was observed in affected joints characterized by an increased thickness of the synovial capsule and synovial membrane proliferation. Microscopically, synovial membrane inflammation and proliferation and hyperplasia of synoviocytes were observed. More positive cases of SLRV infection were detected by immunocytochemistry of articular fluid than of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization also detected positive cells in the subsynovial connective tissue, lung, mediastinal lymph node, mammary gland, and mammary lymph node. All animals were negative for the presence of Mycoplasma or other bacteria in the articular space. The present outbreak likely represents an adaptation of a caprine virus to sheep. Our results underline the importance of the arthritis induced by SRLV in sheep, a clinical form that might be underestimated. PMID:24476938

Prez, M; Biescas, E; Reina, R; Glaria, I; Marn, B; Marquina, A; Salazar, E; lvarez, N; de Andrs, D; Fantova, E; Badiola, J J; Amorena, B; Lujn, L

2015-01-01

70

Advances in Diagnosis of Respiratory Diseases of Small Ruminants  

PubMed Central

Irrespective of aetiology, infectious respiratory diseases of sheep and goats contribute to 5.6 percent of the total diseases of small ruminants. These infectious respiratory disorders are divided into two groups: the diseases of upper respiratory tract, namely, nasal myiasis and enzootic nasal tumors, and diseases of lower respiratory tract, namely, peste des petits ruminants (PPR), parainfluenza, Pasteurellosis, Ovine progressive pneumonia, mycoplasmosis, caprine arthritis encephalitis virus, caseous lymphadenitis, verminous pneumonia, and many others. Depending upon aetiology, many of them are acute and fatal in nature. Early, rapid, and specific diagnosis of such diseases holds great importance to reduce the losses. The advanced enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) for the detection of antigen as well as antibodies directly from the samples and molecular diagnostic assays along with microsatellites comprehensively assist in diagnosis as well as treatment and epidemiological studies. The present review discusses the advancements made in the diagnosis of common infectious respiratory diseases of sheep and goats. It would update the knowledge and help in adapting and implementing appropriate, timely, and confirmatory diagnostic procedures. Moreover, it would assist in designing appropriate prevention protocols and devising suitable control strategies to overcome respiratory diseases and alleviate the economic losses. PMID:25028620

Chakraborty, Sandip; Kumar, Amit; Tiwari, Ruchi; Rahal, Anu; Malik, Yash; Dhama, Kuldeep; Pal, Amar; Prasad, Minakshi

2014-01-01

71

Epitope analysis of capsid and matrix proteins of North American ovine lentivirus field isolates.  

PubMed Central

Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) directed against two phenotypically distinct ovine lentivirus (OvLV) strains were generated by fusion of BALB/c SP2/0-Ag 14 myeloma cells with spleen cells from mice immunized with purified OvLV. Hybridomas were selected by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and analysis of reactivity on immunoblots. The majority (17 of 21) of the MAbs recognized the gag-encoded capsid protein, CA p27, of both strains. Four other MAbs recognized a smaller structural protein, presumably a matrix protein, MA p17. Three distinct epitopes on CA p27 and one on MA p17 were distinguished by the MAbs with competition ELISA. MAbs from each epitope group were able to recognize 17 North American field isolates of OvLV and the closely related caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV). Analysis of the data indicated that these epitopes were highly conserved among naturally occurring isolates. A representative MAb from each epitope group of anti-CA p27 MAbs reacted with four field strains of OvLV and CAEV on immunoblots. An anti-MA p17 MAb recognized the same OvLV strains on immunoblots but failed to recognize CAEV. MAbs which recognize conserved epitopes of gag-encoded lentivirus proteins (CA p27 and MA p17) are valuable tools. These MAbs can be used to develop sensitive diagnostic assays and to study the pathogenesis of lentivirus infections in sheep and goats. Images PMID:1715884

Marcom, K A; Pearson, L D; Chung, C S; Poulson, J M; DeMartini, J C

1991-01-01

72

Small Ruminant Lentiviruses (SRLVs) Break the Species Barrier to Acquire New Host Range  

PubMed Central

Zoonotic events of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) from non-human primates to humans have generated the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), one of the most devastating infectious disease of the last century with more than 30 million people dead and about 40.3 million people currently infected worldwide. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1 and HIV-2), the two major viruses that cause AIDS in humans are retroviruses of the lentivirus genus. The genus includes arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV) and Maedi-Visna virus (MVV), and a heterogeneous group of viruses known as small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLVs), affecting goat and sheep. Lentivirus genome integrates into the host DNA, causing persistent infection associated with a remarkable diversity during viral replication. Direct evidence of mixed infections with these two closely related SRLVs was found in both sheep and goats. The evidence of a genetic continuum with caprine and ovine field isolates demonstrates the absence of an efficient species barrier preventing cross-species transmission. In dual-infected animals, persistent infections with both CAEV and MVV have been described, and viral chimeras have been detected. This not only complicates animal trade between countries but favors the risk that highly pathogenic variants may emerge as has already been observed in the past in Iceland and, more recently, in outbreaks with virulent strains in Spain. SRLVs affecting wildlife have already been identified, demonstrating the existence of emergent viruses adapted to new hosts. Viruses adapted to wildlife ruminants may acquire novel biopathological properties which may endanger not only the new host species but also domestic ruminants and humans. SRLVs infecting sheep and goats follow a genomic evolution similar to that observed in HIV or in other lentiviruses. Lentivirus genetic diversity and host factors leading to the establishment of naturally occurring virulent versus avirulent infections, in addition to the emergence of new strains, challenge every aspect of SRLV control measures for providing efficient tools to prevent the transmission of diseases between wild ungulates and livestock. PMID:23881276

Minardi da Cruz, Juliano Cezar; Singh, Dinesh Kumar; Lamara, Ali; Chebloune, Yahia

2013-01-01

73

Effects of genetic variability of the caprine homeobox transcription factor HESX1 gene on performance traits.  

PubMed

HESX1 plays a key role in the development of the forebrain and pituitary gland and produces potential effects on performance traits. The objective of this study was to detect and assess the associations of the possible polymorphisms of six loci within HESX1 gene with performance traits in Chinese 1,119 goats. Only one novel SNP (NM_001494116:g.307049A > G) locating on IVS1 + 348A > G was identified and detected by HaeIII forced-RFLP-PCR. The frequencies of allele "G" varied from 0.025 to 0.245 in analyzed populations with the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (P > 0.05). Genotypic and allelic frequencies were found to be significantly different in four breeds (chi(2) = 147.674, df = 6, P < 0.001; chi(2) = 157.250, df = 3, P < 0.001, respectively), implying that the distribution of genotypic and allelic frequencies of goat HESX1 gene was significantly associated with different goat utilities (cashmere, meat and dairy). Association analysis results revealed no significant effects of caprine HESX1 gene on body sizes in XNSN population (P > 0.05) and cashmere traits in IMWC population (P > 0.05). Significant statistical of HESX1 gene with body weight was found (*P < 0.05). The genotype AA showed significantly higher body weight than those of AG in 2-year-old age (*P < 0.05), while the AA genotype was senior to AG genotype in 4-year-old body weight trait (*P < 0.05). These suggestions indicated that the HESX1 gene has significant effect on goat body weight depending on ages, which is accordance with the function repressor of the HESX1. PMID:19629745

Lan, Xianyong; Lai, Xinsheng; Li, Zhuanjian; Wang, Jing; Lei, Chuzhao; Chen, Hong

2010-01-01

74

Short communication: genetic variability in the predicted microRNA target sites of caprine casein genes.  

PubMed

The main goal of the current work was to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) that might create or disrupt microRNA (miRNA) target sites in the caprine casein genes. The 3' untranslated regions of the goat alpha(S1)-, alpha(S2)-, beta-, and kappa-casein genes (CSN1S1, CSN1S2, CSN2, and CSN3, respectively) were resequenced in 25 individuals of the Murciano-Granadina, Cashmere, Canarian, Saanen, and Sahelian breeds. Five SNP were identified through this strategy: c.175C>T at CSN1S1; c.109T>C, c.139G>C, and c.160T>C at CSN1S2; and c.216C>T at CSN2. Analysis with the Patrocles Finder tool predicted that all of these SNP are located within regions complementary to the seed of diverse miRNA sequences. These in silico results suggest that polymorphism at miRNA target sites might have some effect on casein expression. We explored this issue by genotyping the c.175C>T SNP (CSN1S1) in 85 Murciano-Granadina goats with records for milk CSN1S1 concentrations. This substitution destroys a putative target site for miR-101, a miRNA known to be expressed in the bovine mammary gland. Although TT goats had higher levels (6.25 g/L) of CSN1S1 than their CT (6.05 g/L) and CC (6.04 g/L) counterparts, these differences were not significant. Experimental confirmation of the miRNA target sites predicted in the current work and performance of additional association analyses in other goat populations will be an essential step to find out if polymorphic miRNA target sites constitute an important source of variation in casein expression. PMID:20338454

Zidi, A; Amills, M; Toms, A; Vidal, O; Ramrez, O; Carrizosa, J; Urrutia, B; Serradilla, J M; Clop, A

2010-04-01

75

Characterization by restriction endonuclease analysis and DNA hybridization using IS 900 of bovine, ovine, caprine and human dependent strains of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis isolated in various localities  

Microsoft Academic Search

DNA of 90 mycobactin-dependent strains of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis, isolated in 9 countries, was digested with restriction endonuclease PstI and hybridized with a DNA fragment containing insertion sequence IS900. Bovine strains (n = 73) were isolated from 61 animals in 17 herds, ovine strains (n = 15) from 13 animals in 3 herds and the set was completed by 1 caprine

I. Pavlk; L. Bej?kov; M. Pavlas; Z. Rozsypalov; S. Koskov

1995-01-01

76

A possible case of caprine-associated malignant catarrhal fever in a domestic water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) in Switzerland  

PubMed Central

Background Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) is a fatal herpesvirus infection, affecting various wild and domestic ruminants all over the world. Water buffaloes were reported to be particularly susceptible for the ovine herpesvirus-2 (OvHV-2) causing the sheep-associated form of MCF (SA-MCF). This report describes the first case of possibly caprine-associated malignant catarrhal fever symptoms in a domestic water buffalo in Switzerland. Case presentation The buffalo cow presented with persistent fever, dyspnoea, nasal bleeding and haematuria. Despite symptomatic therapy, the buffalo died and was submitted to post mortem examination. Major findings were an abomasal ulceration, a mild haemorrhagic cystitis and multifocal haemorrhages on the epicardium and on serosal and mucosal surfaces. Eyes and oral cavity were not affected. Histopathology revealed a mild to moderate lymphohistiocytic vasculitis limited to the brain and the urinary bladder. Although these findings are typical for MCF, OvHV-2 DNA was not detected in peripheral blood lymphocytes or in paraffin-embedded brain, using an OvHV-2 specific real time PCR. With the aid of a panherpesvirus PCR, a caprine herpesvirus-2 (CpHV-2) sequence could be amplified from both samples. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first report of malignant catarrhal fever in the subfamily Bovinae, where the presence of CpHV-2 could be demonstrated. The etiological context has yet to be evaluated. PMID:22132808

2011-01-01

77

The first caprine rotavirus detected in Argentina displays genomic features resembling virus strains infecting members of the Bovidae and Camelidae.  

PubMed

Rotavirus group A (RVA) is a major cause of diarrhea in humans and young animals including small ruminants. The purpose of this study was to identify RVA in dairy goat kids, and to characterize the complete genomic constellation and genetic relatedness with other RVA strains. Four out of twenty fecal samples from diarrheic and non-diarrheic goat kids were positive for RVA by ELISA. A representative sample was selected for further genome analyses. The RVA strain RVA/Goat-wt/ARG/0040/2011/G8P[1] displayed the following genomic constellation: G8-P[1]-I2-R5-C2-M2-A3-N2-T6-E12-H3, reminiscent to guanaco and other bovine-like RVA strains detected in Argentina. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that most of the genome segments had a rather close relatedness with RVA strains typically obtained from cattle, sheep, South American camelids and goats. Interestingly, strain 0040 possessed the R5 and E12 genotypes which have up to date only been found in different animal species from Argentina. Overall, these findings suggest that strain 0040 could represent a typical goat RVA genome constellation similar to those previously found in other animal species within the order Artiodactyla. PMID:24742949

Louge Uriarte, Enrique L; Badaracco, Alejandra; Matthijnssens, Jelle; Zeller, Mark; Heylen, Elizabeth; Manazza, Jorge; Mio, Samuel; Van Ranst, Marc; Oden, Anselmo; Parreo, Viviana

2014-06-25

78

Use of California Mastitis Test, N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminidase, and antitrypsin to diagnose caprine subclinical mastitis.  

PubMed

Analysis of 448 milk samples (11 herds) from caprine udder halves showed that microorganisms were isolated from 21.8% of the samples. California Mastitis Test (CMT) and N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminidase (NAGase) were superior to antitrypsin in detecting subclinical infections. Coagulase-negative staphylococci and micrococci were the main species isolated from halves showing no clinical disease. Coagulase-positive staphylococcal infections were associated with a significant increase of all inflammatory parameters. Significantly increased CMT and NAGase occurred when streptococci, other staphylococci or micrococci were present. Infection within one half was reflected as an increase in the inflammatory parameters in the milk of the infected half as well as a slight increase in the inflammation parameters in the adjoining half. PMID:3216054

Maisi, P; Riipinen, I

1988-08-01

79

A new African fossil caprin and a combined molecular and morphological Bayesian phylogenetic analysis of caprini (Mammalia: Bovidae).  

PubMed

Given that most species that have ever existed on Earth are extinct, no evolutionary history can ever be complete without the inclusion of fossil taxa. Bovids (antelopes and relatives) are one of the most diverse clades of large mammals alive today, with over a hundred living species and hundreds of documented fossil species. With the advent of molecular phylogenetics, major advances have been made in the phylogeny of this clade; however, there has been little attempt to integrate the fossil record into the developing phylogenetic picture. We here describe a new large fossil caprin species from ca. 1.9-Ma deposits from the Middle Awash, Ethiopia. To place the new species phylogenetically, we perform a Bayesian analysis of a combined molecular (cytochrome b) and morphological (osteological) character supermatrix. We include all living species of Caprini, the new fossil species, a fossil takin from the Pliocene of Ethiopia (Budorcas churcheri), and the insular subfossil Myotragus balearicus. The combined analysis demonstrates successful incorporation of both living and fossil species within a single phylogeny based on both molecular and morphological evidence. Analysis of the combined supermatrix produces superior resolution than with either the molecular or morphological data sets considered alone. Parsimony and Bayesian analyses of the data set are also compared and shown to produce similar results. The combined phylogenetic analysis indicates that the new fossil species is nested within Capra, making it one of the earliest representatives of this clade, with implications for molecular clock calibration. Geographical optimization indicates no less than four independent dispersals into Africa by caprins since the Pliocene. PMID:22816969

Bibi, F; Vrba, E; Fack, F

2012-09-01

80

Cloning and expression of SOLD1 in ovine and caprine placenta, and their expected roles during the development of placentomes  

PubMed Central

Background The Ly-6 (Ly-6/uPAR) superfamily members share the Ly-6 domain defined by distinct disulfide bonding patterns between 8 or 10 cysteine residues. They comprise membrane- and secretory-type proteins. We recently reported the gene and protein characterization of the bovine secreted protein of Ly-6 domain 1 (SOLD1). Bovine SOLD1 is expressed in trophoblast mononucleate cells (TMCs) and is localized in the cotyledonary mesenchyme. Here, we compared the expression and functionality of SOLD1 among the ruminants. We examined mRNA expression by chorionic fibroblasts as a measure of one of the SOLD1 functions. Results Ovine and caprine SOLD1 mRNAs have 303 bp open reading frames and encode for deduced SOLD1 proteins with 100 amino acids, including a 22-aa-long signal peptide at the N-terminal. Both of the SOLD1 amino acid sequences have high similarities with the bovine sequence. Both SOLD1 mRNAs were also expressed in TMCs of cotyledons and intercotyledonary membranes. The mature SOLD1 proteins were localized in the mesenchymal villi of cotyledons after secretion. Bovine, ovine and caprine SOLD1 affected gene expression in mesenchymal fibroblasts in vitro; nucleoredoxin expression was upregulated and BCL2-like 13 was downregulated. Thus, we suggest that SOLD1 acts as a modulator of cell proliferation and apoptosis. Conclusion Expressing cells and protein localization of SOLD1 coincided among the three ruminants. SOLD1 participated in regulating nucleoredoxin and BCL2-like 13 expression in chorionic fibroblasts. SOLD1 is produced specifically in the cotyledons and intercotyledonary membranes in ruminants and appears to be involved in the construction of the ruminant placenta. PMID:20089199

2010-01-01

81

Restriction fragment length polymorphism of the caprine beta-globin gene cluster associated with the Hb beta-globin variants in Norwegian dairy goats.  

PubMed

Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis was used to characterize the beta-globin cluster in Norwegian dairy goats. In 122 individuals, different RFLP patterns were detected after BglII and PstI digestion and hybridization with a caprine beta-globin probe. The location of the polymorphic BglII and PstI sites were determined. The different RFLPs were in linkage disequilibrium with each other and with the beta-globin locus as studied at the protein level. A preferential association between certain RFLP haplotypes and beta-globin variants was observed. Polymorphic DNA fragments in the epsilon-globin genes were detected after MspI digestion and hybridization with a caprine epsilon-probe, and eight different band patterns were observed. Correlation between different MspI haplotypes and the beta-globin variants was determined. PMID:1673827

Bergersen, O; Braend, M

1991-01-01

82

Strain and load thresholds for cervical muscle recruitment in response to quasi-static tensile stretch of the caprine C5C6 facet joint capsule  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to investigate the response of cervical muscles to physiologic tensile stretch of cervical facet joint capsule (FJC) at a quasi-static displacement rate of 0.5mm\\/s. In vivo caprine left C5C6 FJC preparations were subjected to an incremental tensile displacement paradigm. EMG activity was recorded during FJC stretch from the right trapezius (TR) and multifidus (MF)

Nadia R. Azar; Srinivasu Kallakuri; Chaoyang Chen; Ying Lu; John M. Cavanaugh

2009-01-01

83

Hydrolysis of bovine and caprine milk fat globules by lipoprotein lipase. Effects of heparin and skim milk on lipase distribution and on lipolysis  

SciTech Connect

Heparin can dissociate lipoprotein lipase from casein micelles, and addition of heparin enhances lipolysis in bovine but not in caprine milk. Heparin shortened the lag-time for binding of lipoprotein lipase to milk fat globules and for lipolysis. Heparin counteracted the inhibitory effects of skim milk on binding of lipase and on lipolysis. Heparin stimulated lipolysis in all bovine milk samples when added before cooling and in spontaneously lipolytic milk samples also when added after cooling. Heparin enhanced lipolysis of isolated milk fat globules. Hence, its effect is not solely due to dissociation of lipoprotein lipase from the casein micelles. Cooling of goat milk caused more marked changes in the distribution of lipase than cooling of bovine milk; the fraction of added /sup 125/I-labeled lipase that bound to cream increased from about 8 to 60%. In addition, caprine skim milk caused less inhibition of lipolysis than bovine skim milk. These observations provide an explanation for the high degree of cold storage lipolysis in goat milk. Heparin had only small effects on the distribution of lipoprotein lipase in caprine milk, which explains why heparin has so little effect on lipolysis in caprine milk. The distribution of /sup 35/S-labeled heparin in bovine milk was studied. In warm milk less than 10% bound to the cream fraction, but when milk was cooled, binding of heparin to cream increased to 45%. These results suggest that there exists in the skim fraction a relatively small amount of a heparin-binding protein, which on cooling of milk adsorbs to the milk fat, or suggests that cooling induces a conformational change in a membrane protein such that its affinity for heparin increases.

Sundheim, G.; Bengtsson-Olivecrona, G.

1987-12-01

84

Latency and reactivation of bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1) in goats and of caprine herpesvirus 1 (CapHV-1) in calves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary.?Bovine Herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1) and Caprine Herpesvirus 1 (CapHV-1) are related members of the herpesvirus family. Since their natural hosts are often kept in close contact with each\\u000a other, concern was raised that a reservoir might be established in the heterologous host in addition to the homologous host.\\u000a To investigate this possibility, cross-infection experiments with BHV-1 in goats and CapHV-1

M. Banks; M. Engels; C. Ros Bascuana; M. Ackermann

2001-01-01

85

Polymorphisms of caprine POU1F1 gene and their association with litter size in Jining Grey goats.  

PubMed

Seven pairs of primers were designed to amplify 5' promoter region, six exons and partial introns and to detect the polymorphisms of POU1F1 gene in five goat breeds with different prolificacy. The results showed that six mutations were identified in caprine POU1F1 gene including C256T in exon 3, C53T and T123G in intron 3, and G682T (A228S), T723G and C837T in exon 6. The former four mutations were novel SNPs in goat POU1F1 gene. The 53 and 123 loci were in complete linkage disequilibrium in five caprine breeds. Regarding the 256 locus, the Jining Grey goat does with genotype CT had 0.66 kids more than those with genotype CC (P<0.05), while does with genotype GT had 0.63 (P<0.05) kids more than those with genotype GG at the 682 locus. The present study preliminarily showed an association between allele T at the 256 and 682 loci of POU1F1 gene and high litter size in Jining Grey goats. Totally 16 haplotypes and 50 genotypes were identified at the above six loci in POU1F1 gene of five goat breeds. Three common haplotypes (hap2, hap3 and hap4) were identified in five goat breeds joined. Four specific haplotypes (hap7, hap9, hap11 and hap13) were detected in Jining Grey goats. The predominant haplotype was hap1 (35.29% and 48.25%) in both Jining Grey and Guizhou White goats, while hap4 (50%) in Boer goats, and hap2 (42.86% and 38.75%) in both Wendeng Dairy and Liaoning Cashmere goats. The most frequent genotypes at six loci in the above five goat breeds were hap1/hap2 (14.38%) and hap1/hap4 (14.38%), hap1/hap2 (38.60%), hap4/hap4 (40.91%), hap2/hap4 (26.53%), hap2/hap5 (20.00%), respectively. The Jining Grey goat does with nine genotypes analyzed of POU1F1 gene showed no obvious difference in litter size. PMID:21769479

Feng, T; Chu, M X; Cao, G L; Tang, Q Q; Di, R; Fang, L; Li, N

2012-04-01

86

In vitro expression profiling of myostatin, follistatin, decorin and muscle-specific transcription factors in adult caprine contractile myotubes.  

PubMed

Skeletal muscle is one of the several adult postmitotic tissues that retain the capacity to regenerate, which relies on a population of quiescent precursors, termed satellite cells. Proliferation and differentiation of myoblasts to form mature myotubes in vitro has been a valuable tool in the characterization of the cellular events during myogenesis, which is a multistep process starting with progenitor cell proliferation, followed by their exit from the cell cycle, differentiation, alignment, and fusion to form multinucleated myotubes. A typical feature during muscle differentiation is the variation in expression of various genes along with myogenic factors. In this experiment, mRNA level of myostatin, follistatin, decorin and three muscle-specific transcription factors in adult caprine contractile myotubes have been studied through quantitative real time PCR. We observed that the expression level of myostatin, decorin, Myf5 and myogenin transcripts were significantly higher in contractile myotubes compared to myoblast monolayer (P < 0.05), and follistatin level was similar in both types of cells, whereas MyoD transcript level was significantly high in monolayer culture which might be due heterogeneity of myoblast population. It is concluded that the information generated would provide the base line information as well as monitoring markers to undertake experiments aimed at modulating muscle growth. PMID:21416152

Tripathi, A K; Ramani, U V; Rank, D N; Joshi, C G

2011-08-01

87

In vitro susceptibilities of caprine Mycoplasma agalactiae field isolates to six antimicrobial agents using the E test methodology.  

PubMed

The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of enrofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, spectinomycin, tetracycline, spiramycin and erythromycin against 30 caprine Greek isolates of Mycoplasma agalactiae were determined using E test methodology. The E test strips were placed on Eaton's agar medium without antimicrobials and phenol red. MICs were then read by determining where the growth inhibition zone intersected with the MIC scale on the strip. An MIC value of 8?g/mL was considered as a guide to mycoplasma resistance. All isolates were sensitive to fluoroquinolones (MIC50, 0.19?g/mL; MIC90, 0.38?g/mL; highest MIC, 0.5?g/mL), spectinomycin (MIC50, 0.5?g/mL; MIC90, 1?g/mL; highest MIC, 1?g/mL), and spiramycin (MIC50, 1?g/mL; MIC90, 1.5?g/mL; highest MIC, 2?g/mL). Two strains exhibited resistance to tetracycline (MIC 32?g/mL) but these were not found to carry any of the tet(M), tet(O), and tet(S) resistance genes. Finally all isolates expressed resistance to erythromycin (MIC50, 128?g/mL; MIC90, >256?g/mL). PMID:25439442

Filioussis, George; Petridou, Evanthia; Giadinis, Nektarios D; Kritas, Spyridon K

2014-12-01

88

Caprine prion gene polymorphisms are associated with decreased incidence of classical scrapie in goat herds in the United Kingdom  

PubMed Central

The application of genetic breeding programmes to eradicate transmissible spongiform encephalopathies in goats is an important aim for reasons of animal welfare as well as human food safety and food security. Based on the positive impact of Prnp genetics on sheep scrapie in Europe in the past decade, we have established caprine Prnp gene variation in more than 1100 goats from the United Kingdom and studied the association of Prnp alleles with disease phenotypes in 150 scrapie-positive goats. This investigation confirms the association of the Met142 encoding Prnp allele with increased resistance to preclinical and clinical scrapie. It reveals a novel association of the Ser127 encoding allele with a reduced probability to develop clinical signs of scrapie in goats that are already positive for the accumulation of disease-specific prion protein in brain or periphery. A United Kingdom survey of Prnp genotypes in eight common breeds revealed eleven alleles in over thirty genotypes. The Met142 encoding allele had a high overall mean allele frequency of 22.6%, whereas the Ser127 encoding allele frequency was considerably lower with 6.4%. In contrast, a well known resistance associated allele encoding Lys222 was found to be rare (0.9%) in this survey. The analysis of Prnp genotypes in Mexican Criollas goats revealed nine alleles, including a novel Phe to Leu substitution in codon 201, confirming that high genetic variability of Prnp can be found in scrapie-free populations. Our study implies that it should be feasible to lower scrapie prevalence in goat herds in the United Kingdom by genetic selection. PMID:22040234

2011-01-01

89

An international collaborative study to determine the prevalence of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia by monoclonal antibody-based cELISA  

PubMed Central

Background Few serological tests are available for detecting antibodies against Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae, the causal agent of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP). The complement fixation test, the test prescribed for international trade purposes, uses a crude antigen that cross-reacts with all the other mycoplasma species of the mycoides cluster frequently infecting goat herds. The lack of a more specific test has been a real obstacle to the evaluation of the prevalence and economic impact of CCPP worldwide. A new competitive ELISA kit for CCPP, based on a previous blocking ELISA, was formatted at CIRAD and used to evaluate the prevalence of CCPP in some regions of Kenya, Ethiopia, Mauritius, Tajikistan and Pakistan in an international collaborative study. Results The strict specificity of the test was confirmed in CCPP-free goat herds exposed to other mycoplasma species of the mycoides cluster. Prevalence studies were performed across the enzootic range of the disease in Africa and Asia. Seroprevalence was estimated at 14.6% in the Afar region of Ethiopia, whereas all the herds presented for CCPP vaccination in Kenya tested positive (individual seroprevalence varied from 6 to 90% within each herd). In Mauritius, where CCPP emerged in 2009, nine of 62 herds tested positive. In Central Asia, where the disease was confirmed only recently, no positive animals were detected in the Wakhan District of Afghanistan or across the border in neighboring areas of Tajikistan, whereas seroprevalence varied between 2.7% and 44.2% in the other districts investigated and in northern Pakistan. The test was also used to monitor seroconversion in vaccinated animals. Conclusions This newly formatted CCPP cELISA kit has retained the high specificity of the original kit. It can therefore be used to evaluate the prevalence of CCPP in countries or regions without vaccination programs. It could also be used to monitor the efficacy of vaccination campaigns as high-quality vaccines induce high rates of seroconversion. PMID:24565080

2014-01-01

90

dFMRP and Caprin, translational regulators of synaptic plasticity, control the cell cycle at the Drosophila mid-blastula transition  

PubMed Central

The molecular mechanisms driving the conserved metazoan developmental shift referred to as the mid-blastula transition (MBT) remain mysterious. Typically, cleavage divisions give way to longer asynchronous cell cycles with the acquisition of a gap phase. In Drosophila, rapid synchronous nuclear divisions must pause at the MBT to allow the formation of a cellular blastoderm through a special form of cytokinesis termed cellularization. Drosophila Fragile X mental retardation protein (dFMRP; FMR1), a transcript-specific translational regulator, is required for cellularization. The role of FMRP has been most extensively studied in the nervous system because the loss of FMRP activity in neurons causes the misexpression of specific mRNAs required for synaptic plasticity, resulting in mental retardation and autism in humans. Here, we show that in the early embryo dFMRP associates specifically with Caprin, another transcript-specific translational regulator implicated in synaptic plasticity, and with eIF4G, a key regulator of translational initiation. dFMRP and Caprin collaborate to control the cell cycle at the MBT by directly mediating the normal repression of maternal Cyclin B mRNA and the activation of zygotic frhstart mRNA. These findings identify two new targets of dFMRP regulation and implicate conserved translational regulatory mechanisms in processes as diverse as learning, memory and early embryonic development. PMID:21068064

Papoulas, Ophelia; Monzo, Kathryn F.; Cantin, Greg T.; Ruse, Cristian; Yates, John R.; Ryu, Young Hee; Sisson, John C.

2010-01-01

91

Foodborne viruses  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Testing for human pathogenic viruses in foods represents a formidable task requiring the extraction, concentration, and assay of a host of viruses from a wide range of food matrices. The enteric viruses, particularly genogroup I and II (GI and GII) noroviruses and hepatitis A virus, are the princip...

92

Proportional mortality: A study of 152 goats submitted for necropsy from 13 goat herds in Quebec, with a special focus on caseous lymphadenitis  

PubMed Central

The objectives of this study were to determine the main causes of mortality, with a special focus on caseous lymphadenits as a cause of death or wasting in caprine herds from Quebec. Goats (n = 152) from 13 herds were submitted for necropsy; the cause of mortality, and the presence, location, and cause of abscesses (if present) were recorded. Proportional mortalities were distributed as: Clostridium perfringens type D enterotoxemia (17.1%), pneumonia (13.8%), paratuberculosis (10.5%), listeriosis (6.6%), pregnancy toxemia (5.3%), caprine arthritis-encephalitis (4.6%), and caseous lymphadenitis (3.9%). Caseous lymphadenitis was diagnosed in 24.3% of the submitted goats, but was not a major cause of wasting or mortality. Abscesses were localized internally in 54.1% of the cases. Paratuberculosis was diagnosed in 29 goats (16 as cause of death) and was considered a major cause of wasting and/or mortality. PMID:24155449

Debien, Elaine; Hlie, Pierre; Buczinski, Sbastien; Lebuf, Anne; Blanger, Denise; Drolet, Richard

2013-01-01

93

Employing in vitro analysis to test the potency of methylglyoxal in inducing the formation of amyloid-like aggregates of caprine brain cystatin.  

PubMed

Thiol protease inhibitors (cystatins) are implicated in various disease states from cancer to neurodegenerative conditions and immune responses. Cystatins have high amyloidogenic propensity and they are prone to form fibrillar aggregates leading to amyloidosis. Particularly challenging examples of such disorders occur in type 2 diabetes, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. The aim of the present study is to find an interaction between the compound methylglyoxal (MG) which is particularly elevated in type 2 diabetes with caprine brain cystatin (CBC). Results have shown that elevated concentration of MG forms amyloid aggregates of CBC. This was achieved by allowing slow growth in a solution containing moderate to high concentrations of MG. When analysed with microscopy, the protein aggregate present in the sample after incubation consisted of extended filaments with ordered structures. This fibrillar material possesses extensive ?-sheet structure as revealed by far-UV CD and IR spectroscopy. Furthermore, the fibrils exhibit increased Thioflavin T fluorescence. PMID:25331422

Bhat, Waseem Feeroze; Bhat, Sheraz Ahmad; Khaki, Peerzada Shariq Shaheen; Bano, Bilqees

2015-01-01

94

First isolation of Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capricolum, one of the causal agents of caprine contagious agalactia, on the island of Lanzarote (Spain).  

PubMed

During an unusually long period of bad weather, several outbreaks of caprine contagious agalactia (CCA) were reported in a number of flocks on the island of Lanzarote (Canary Islands, Spain). Clinical and subclinical mastitis in lactating goats and some cases of arthritis and pneumonia in kids were observed in the affected flocks. Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capricolum was isolated as the main causal agent of the outbreaks, associated with M. mycoides subsp. mycoides "large colony type" (Mmm LC) in two flocks. This is the first report of an isolation of M. capricolum subsp. capricolum on the island of Lanzarote. The finding is of epidemiological importance and could complicate plans to control the disease. The significance of this mycoplasma species in association with CCA must now be studied in detail. PMID:16324858

De la Fe, C; Gutirrez, A; Poveda, J B; Assuno, P; Ramrez, A S; Fabelo, F

2007-03-01

95

Hepadna viruses  

SciTech Connect

This book examines the molecular biology, disease pathogenesis, epidemiology, and clinical features of hepadna and other viruses with hepatic tropism and outlines future directions and approaches for their management. The volume's six sections provide a review of the various features, mechanisms, and functions of these viruses, ranging from hepadna virus replication and regulation of gene expression to the structure and function of hepadna-virus gene products.

Robinson, W.; Koike, K.; Will, H.

1987-01-01

96

ECHO virus  

MedlinePLUS

Enteric cytopathic human orphan (ECHO) viruses are a group of viruses that lead to gastrointestinal infection and skin rashes. ... Echovirus is one of several families of viruses that affect the ... are common. In the US, they are most common in the summer and ...

97

Virus World  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by the Institute for Molecular Virology at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, this Web site offers high quality virus images that may be used for seminar presentations or any other noncommercial use. Users can choose from American Society for Virology conference poster images, enhanced EM pictures, and images of virology-related book and journal covers. Images may be searched by virus name; the results page will provide links to summary information from the Protein Data Bank and to the Scripps Research Institute's Virus Particle Explorer. Movie animations and relevant links are provided for some of the virus images. Users can also access tutorials on virus structure and other topics.

2005-12-14

98

CHLORELLA VIRUSES  

PubMed Central

Chlorella viruses or chloroviruses are large, icosahedral, plaque?forming, double?stranded?DNAcontaining viruses that replicate in certain strains of the unicellular green alga Chlorella. DNA sequence analysis of the 330?kbp genome of Paramecium bursaria chlorella virus 1 (PBCV?1), the prototype of this virus family (Phycodnaviridae), predict ?366 protein?encoding genes and 11 tRNA genes. The predicted gene products of ?50% of these genes resemble proteins of known function, including many that are completely unexpected for a virus. In addition, the chlorella viruses have several features and encode many gene products that distinguish them from most viruses. These products include: (1) multiple DNA methyltransferases and DNA site?specific endonucleases, (2) the enzymes required to glycosylate their proteins and synthesize polysaccharides such as hyaluronan and chitin, (3) a virus?encoded K+ channel (called Kcv) located in the internal membrane of the virions, (4) a SET domain containing protein (referred to as vSET) that dimethylates Lys27 in histone 3, and (5) PBCV?1 has three types of introns; a self?splicing intron, a spliceosomal processed intron, and a small tRNA intron. Accumulating evidence indicates that the chlorella viruses have a very long evolutionary history. This review mainly deals with research on the virion structure, genome rearrangements, gene expression, cell wall degradation, polysaccharide synthesis, and evolution of PBCV?1 as well as other related viruses. PMID:16877063

Yamada, Takashi; Onimatsu, Hideki; Van Etten, James L.

2007-01-01

99

The effects of staged intra-articular injection of cultured autologous mesenchymal stromal cells on the repair of damaged cartilage: a pilot study in caprine model  

PubMed Central

Introduction Treatment of chondral injuries remains a major issue despite the many advances made in cartilage repair techniques. Although it has been postulated that the use of marrow stimulation in combination with cell-based therapy may provide superior outcome, this has yet to be demonstrated. A pilot study was thus conducted to determine if bone marrow derived mesenchymal stromal cells (BM-MSCs) have modulatory effects on the repair outcomes of bone marrow stimulation (BMS) techniques. Methods Two full-thickness chondral 5 mm diameter defects were created in tandem on the medial condyle of left stifle joints of 18 Boer caprine (N = 18). Goats were then divided equally into three groups. Simultaneously, bone marrow aspirates were taken from the iliac crests from the goats in Group 1 and were sent for BM-MSC isolation and expansion in vitro. Six weeks later, BMS surgery, which involves subchondral drilling at the defect sites, was performed. After two weeks, the knees in Group 1 were given autologous intra-articular BM-MSCs (N = 6). In Group 2, although BMS was performed there were no supplementations provided. In Group 3, no intervention was administered. The caprines were sacrificed after six months. Repairs were evaluated using macroscopic assessment through the International Cartilage Repair Society (ICRS) scoring, histologic grading by ODriscoll score, biochemical assays for glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and gene expressions for aggrecan, collagen II and Sox9. Results Histological and immunohistochemical analyses demonstrated hyaline-like cartilage regeneration in the transplanted sites particularly in Group 1. In contrast, tissues in Groups 2 and 3 demonstrated mainly fibrocartilage. The highest ICRS and ODriscoll scorings was also observed in Group 1, while the lowest score was seen in Group 3. Similarly, the total GAG/total protein as well as chondrogenic gene levels were expressed in the same order, that is highest in Group 1 while the lowest in Group three. Significant differences between these 3 groups were observed (P <0.05). Conclusions This study suggests that supplementing intra-articular injections of BM-MSCs following BMS knee surgery provides superior cartilage repair outcomes. PMID:24286235

2013-01-01

100

Genetic variants and effects on milk traits of the caprine paired-like homeodomain transcription factor 2 (PITX2) gene in dairy goats.  

PubMed

The paired-like homeodomain transcription factor 2 (PITX2) gene plays a critical role in cell proliferation, differentiation, hematopoiesis and organogenesis. This gene regulates several genes' expressions in the Wnt/beta-catenin and POU1F1 pathways, thereby probably affecting milk performance. The goal of this study was to characterize the genetic variants of the PITX2 gene and test their associations with milk traits in dairy goats. Herein, four novel single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), AC_000163:g.18117T>C, g.18161C>G, g.18322C>A and g.18353T>C, within the caprine PITX2 gene, were found in two famous Chinese dairy goat breeds. These SNPs mapping at Cys28Arg, Pro42Pro, IVS1+79C>A and IVS1+110T>C, were genotyped by the MvaI, SmaI, MspI and RsaI aCRS-RFLP or PCR-RFLP methods, respectively. Accordingly, two main haplotypes (CGCT and CGCC) were identified among the specimens. Association testing revealed that the SmaI and RsaI polymorphisms were significantly associated with the milk fat content, milk lactose content and milk density (P<0.05 or P<0.01) in the Guanzhong (GZ) dairy goats, respectively. At the same time, the RsaI locus was also found to significantly link to the second lactation milk yield, milk fat content, milk lactose content, milk density and milk total solid content (P<0.05 or P<0.01) in the Xinong Saanen (XNSN) dairy goats, respectively. These results indicated that the caprine PITX2 gene had the significant effects on milk traits. Hence, the RsaI and SmaI loci could be regarded as two DNA markers for selecting superior milk performance in dairy goats. These preliminary findings not only would extend the spectrum of genetic variation of the goat PITX2 gene, but also would contribute to implementing marker-assisted selection (MAS) in breeding and genetics in dairy goats. PMID:24076438

Zhao, Haiyu; Wu, Xianfeng; Cai, Hanfang; Pan, Chuanying; Lei, Chuzhao; Chen, Hong; Lan, Xianyong

2013-12-15

101

Obesity Virus  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Obesity has many causes, but there is growing evidence that common viruses may contribute to the condition in some people. Recently, Nikhil Dhurandhar and his colleagues at the Pennington Biomedical Research Center infected human stem cells with Ad-36, a common virus known to be associated with obesity in humans. They found that the cells they exposed to the virus accumulated a much higher amount of fat than uninfected cells.

Science Update (AAAS;)

2007-06-12

102

Virus Crystallography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Crystallography provides a means of visualizing intact virus particles as well as their isolated constituent proteins and enzymes (1-3) at near-atomic resolution, and is thus an extraordinarily powerful tool in the pursuit of a fuller understanding of the functioning of these simple biological systems. We have already expanded our knowledge of virus evolution, assembly, antigenic variation, and host-cell interactions; further studies will no doubt reveal much more. Although the rewards are enormous, an intact virus structure determination is not a trivial undertaking and entails a significant scaling up in terms of time and resources through all stages of data collection and processing compared to a traditional protein crystallographic structure determination. It is the methodology required for such studies that will be the focus of this chapter. The computational requirements were satisfied in the late 1970s, and when combined with the introduction of phase improvement techniques utilizing the virus symmetry (4,5), the application of crystallography to these massive macromolecular assemblies became feasible. This led to the determination of the first virus structure (the small RNA plant virus, tomato bushy stunt virus), by Harrison and coworkers in 1978 (6). The structures of two other plant viruses followed rapidly (7,8). In the 1980s, a major focus of attention was a family of animal RNA viruses; the Picornaviridae.

Fry, Elizabeth; Logan, Derek; Stuart, David

103

Staphylococcus aureus from 152 cases of bovine, ovine and caprine mastitis investigated by Multiple-locus variable number of tandem repeat analysis (MLVA).  

PubMed

Staphylococcus aureus is one of the main etiological agents of mastitis in ruminants. In the present retrospective study, we evaluated the potential interest of a previously described automated multiple loci Variable Number of Tandem Repeats (VNTR) Assay (MLVA) comprising 16 loci as a first line tool to investigate the population structure of S. aureus from mastitis. We determined the genetic diversity of S. aureus strains from cases of clinical and subclinical mastitis in dairy cattle (n?=?118, of which 16 were methicillin-resistant), sheep (n?=?18) and goats (n?=?16). The 152 strains could be subdivided into 115 MLVA genotypes (including 14 genotypes for the ovine strains and 15 genotypes for the caprine strains). This corresponds to a discriminatory index (D) value of 0.9936. Comparison with published MLVA data obtained using the same protocol applied to strains from diverse human and animal origins revealed a low number (8.5%) of human-related MLVA genotypes among the present collection. Eighteen percent of the S. aureus mastitis collection belonged to clonal complexes apparently not associated with other pathological conditions. Some of them displayed a relatively low level of diversity in agreement with a restricted ecological niche. These findings provide arguments suggesting that specific S. aureus lineages particularly adapted to ruminant mammary glands have emerged and that MLVA is a convenient tool to provide a broad overview of the population, owing to the availability via internet of databases compiling published MLVA genotypes. PMID:25315988

Bergonier, Dominique; Sobral, Daniel; Feler, Andrea T; Jacquet, Eric; Gilbert, Florence B; Schwarz, Stefan; Treilles, Michal; Bouloc, Philippe; Pourcel, Christine; Vergnaud, Gilles

2014-10-01

104

Evidence of three new members of malignant catarrhal fever virus group in muskox (Ovibos moschatus), Nubian ibex (Capra nubiana), and gemsbok (Oryx gazella).  

PubMed

Six members of the malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) virus group of ruminant rhadinoviruses have been identified to date. Four of these viruses are clearly associated with clinical disease: alcelaphine herpesvirus 1 (AlHV-1) carried by wildebeest (Connochaetes spp.); ovine herpesvirus 2 (OvHV-2), ubiquitous in domestic sheep; caprine herpesvirus 2 (CpHV-2), endemic in domestic goats; and the virus of unknown origin found causing classic MCF in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus; MCFV-WTD). Using serology and polymerase chain reaction with (degenerate primers targeting a portion of the herpesviral DNA polymerase gene, evidence of three previously unrecognized rhadinoviruses in the MCF virus group was found in muskox (Ovibos moschatus), Nubian ibex (Capra nubiana), and gemsbok (South African oryx, Oryx gazella), respectively. Base on sequence alignment, the viral sequence in the muskox is most closely related to MCFV-WTD (81.5% sequence identity) and that in the Nubian ibex is closest to CpHV-2 (89.3% identity). The viral sequence in the gemsbok is most closely related to AlHV-1 (85.1% identity). No evidence of disease association with these viruses has been found. PMID:14733283

Li, Hong; Gailbreath, Katherine; Bender, Louis C; West, Keith; Keller, Janice; Crawford, Timothy B

2003-10-01

105

Evidence of three new members of malignant catarrhal fever virus group in Muskox (Ovibos moschatus), Nubian ibex (Capra nubiana), and gemsbok (Oryx gazella)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Six members of the malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) virus group of ruminant rhadinoviruses have been identified to date. Four of these viruses are clearly associated with clinical disease: alcelaphine herpesvirus 1 (AlHV-1) carried by wildebeest (Connochaetes spp.); ovine herpesvirus 2 (OvHV-2), ubiquitous in domestic sheep; caprine herpesvirus 2 (CpHV-2), endemic in domestic goats; and the virus of unknown origin found causing classic MCF in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus; MCFV-WTD). Using serology and polymerase chain reaction with degenerate primers targeting a portion of the herpesviral DNA polymerase gene, evidence of three previously unrecognized rhadinoviruses in the MCF virus group was found in muskox (Ovibos moschatus), Nubian ibex (Capra nubiana), and gemsbok (South African oryx, Oryx gazella), respectively. Based on sequence alignment, the viral sequence in the muskox is most closely related to MCFV-WTD (81.5% sequence identity) and that in the Nubian ibex is closest to CpHV-2 (89.3% identity). The viral sequence in the gemsbok is most closely related to AlHV-1 (85.1% identity). No evidence of disease association with these viruses has been found. ?? Wildlife Disease Association 2003.

Li, H.; Gailbreath, K.; Bender, L.C.; West, K.; Keller, J.; Crawford, T.B.

2003-01-01

106

Hendra virus.  

PubMed

Hendra virus infection of horses occurred sporadically between 1994 and 2010 as a result of spill-over from the viral reservoir in Australian mainland flying-foxes, and occasional onward transmission to people also followed from exposure to affected horses. An unprecedented number of outbreaks were recorded in 2011 leading to heightened community concern. Release of an inactivated subunit vaccine for horses against Hendra virus represents the first commercially available product that is focused on mitigating the impact of a Biosafety Level 4 pathogen. Through preventing the development of acute Hendra virus disease in horses, vaccine use is also expected to reduce the risk of transmission of infection to people. PMID:25281398

Middleton, Deborah

2014-12-01

107

Computer viruses  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The worm, Trojan horse, bacterium, and virus are destructive programs that attack information stored in a computer's memory. Virus programs, which propagate by incorporating copies of themselves into other programs, are a growing menace in the late-1980s world of unprotected, networked workstations and personal computers. Limited immunity is offered by memory protection hardware, digitally authenticated object programs,and antibody programs that kill specific viruses. Additional immunity can be gained from the practice of digital hygiene, primarily the refusal to use software from untrusted sources. Full immunity requires attention in a social dimension, the accountability of programmers.

Denning, Peter J.

1988-01-01

108

West Nile Virus  

MedlinePLUS

... virus is a virus that can infect humans, birds, horses and mosquitoes. Infection from this virus is ... spread by mosquitoes. Mosquitoes become infected by biting birds that carry the virus. People can get West ...

109

Evaluation of a Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis leuD Mutant as a Vaccine Candidate against Challenge in a Caprine Model  

PubMed Central

Johne's disease (JD) is prevalent worldwide and has a significant impact on the global agricultural economy. In the present study, we evaluated the protective efficacy of a leuD (?leud) mutant and gained insight into differential immune responses after challenge with virulent M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis in a caprine colonization model. The immune response and protective efficacy were compared with those of the killed vaccine Mycopar. In vitro stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells with johnin purified protein derivative showed that Mycopar and ?leuD generated similar levels of gamma interferon (IFN-?) but significantly higher levels than unvaccinated and challenged phosphate-buffered saline controls. However, only with ?leuD was the IFN-? response maintained. Flow cytometric analysis showed that the increase in IFN-? correlated with proliferation and activation (increased expression of CD25) of CD4, CD8, and ??T cells, but this response was significantly higher in ?leuD-vaccinated animals at some time points after challenge. Both Mycopar and ?leuD vaccines upregulated Th1/proinflammatory and Th17 cytokines and downregulated Th2/anti-inflammatory and regulatory cytokines at similar levels at almost all time points. However, significantly higher levels of IFN-? (at weeks 26 and 30), interleukin-2 (IL-2; week 18), IL-1b (weeks 14 and 22), IL-17 (weeks 18 and 22), and IL-23 (week 18) and a significantly lower level of IL-10 (weeks 14 and 18) and transforming growth factor ? (week 18) were detected in the ?leuD-vaccinated group. Most importantly, ?leuD elicited an immune response that significantly limited colonization of tissues compared to Mycopar upon challenge with wild-type M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. In conclusion, the ?leuD mutant is a promising vaccine candidate for development of a live attenuated vaccine for JD in ruminants. PMID:23408524

Faisal, Syed M.; Chen, Jenn-Wei; Yan, Falong; Chen, Tsai-Tzu; Useh, Nicodemus M.; Yan, Weiwei; Guo, Shanguang; Wang, Shih-Jon; Glaser, Amy L.; McDonough, Sean P.; Singh, Bhupinder; Davis, William C.; Akey, Bruce L.

2013-01-01

110

High-level, stage- and mammary-tissue-specific expression of a caprine kappa-casein-encoding minigene driven by a beta-casein promoter in transgenic mice.  

PubMed

A 5' truncated caprine (ca) kappa-casein-encoding gene (kappa Cas) was fused to the 3' end of a 3' truncated ca beta Cas. The kappa Cas form comprised the 0.8-kb 3' end of intron 2, the remaining part of the transcription unit containing codons -2 to stop 172, and 0.43 kb of the 3' flanking region. The beta Cas form comprised a 3-kb 5' flanking region and the 5' end of the transcription unit terminating 69 bp downstream from exon 2 which encodes the 15-amino-acid (aa) signal peptide and the first 2 aa of mature beta Cas. The resulting hybrid gene driven by the beta Cas promoter was expressed in all eight lines of transgenic mice investigated, although at different levels. In two lines, the yield of recombinant (re-) kappa Cas was > or = 3 mg/ml of milk. The stage- and mammary tissue-specific expression was similar to that of endogenous beta Cas. The re-kappa Cas differed from its goat milk counterpart by the occurrence of four extra aa at the N-terminal end, indicating that the signal peptidase released the beta Cas signal peptide. According to sedimentation analyses of murine milk containing > or = 3 mg re-kappa Cas/ml, the latter essentially occurred in micelles. Preliminary comparative assays of the behavior of ca alpha s1Cas-kappa Cas and alpha s1Cas-re-kappa Cas mixtures upon incremental addition of Ca2+ showed that re-kappa Cas had the capacity to protect alpha s1Cas against Ca(2+)-induced precipitation in forming stable micelles.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8522192

Persuy, M A; Legrain, S; Printz, C; Stinnakre, M G; Lepourry, L; Brignon, G; Mercier, J C

1995-11-20

111

Computer Viruses. Technology Update.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document provides general information on computer viruses, how to help protect a computer network from them, measures to take if a computer becomes infected. Highlights include the origins of computer viruses; virus contraction; a description of some common virus types (File Virus, Boot Sector/Partition Table Viruses, Trojan Horses, and

Ponder, Tim, Comp.; Ropog, Marty, Comp.; Keating, Joseph, Comp.

112

Virus Information Database  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Symantec Corporation's AntiVirus Research Center has recently released a virus information database that includes over 10,000 computer viruses. The searchable and browseable database can include information about aliases for each virus, infection length, area of infection, likelihood of infection, region reported, characteristics, target platform and target date, in addition to a brief description of how the virus works. The site also provides a basic tutorial on viruses. Symantec, under the Norton name, produces several anti-virus products.

113

Virus and Spam Protection Virus Protection  

E-print Network

Virus and Spam Protection Virus Protection On November 14, 2002, we installed software that detects and protects our I-Mail from viruses. This software works in the following way: If someone sends a piece, for some reason, actually wants the quarantined file we will make this (virus infected) file available

California at Santa Barbara, University of

114

The Geometry of Viruses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented is an activity in which students make models of viruses, which allows them to visualize the shape of these microorganisms. Included are some background on viruses, the biology and geometry of viruses, directions for building viruses, a comparison of cells and viruses, and questions for students. (KR)

Case, Christine L.

1991-01-01

115

Risk factors for subclinical intramammary infection in dairy goats in two longitudinal field studies evaluated by Bayesian logistic regression.  

PubMed

Identification of risk factors for subclinical intramammary infections (IMI) in dairy goats should contribute to improved udder health. Intramammary infection may be diagnosed by bacteriological culture or by somatic cell count (SCC) of a milk sample. Both bacteriological culture and SCC are imperfect tests, particularly lacking sensitivity, which leads to misclassification and thus to biased estimates of odds ratios in risk factor studies. The objective of this study was to evaluate risk factors for the true (latent) IMI status of major pathogens in dairy goats. We used Bayesian logistic regression models that accounted for imperfect measurement of IMI by both culture and SCC. Udder half milk samples were collected from 530 Dutch and 438 California dairy goats in 10 herds on 3 occasions during lactation. Udder halves were classified as positive or negative for isolation of a major pathogen (mostly Staphylococcus aureus) on bacteriological culture and as positive or negative for SCC (cut-off of 2000 10(3)cells/mL). Potentially controllable risk factors (udder conformation, teat size, teat shape, teat placement, teat-end shape, teat-end callosity thickness, teat-end callosity roughness, caprine arthritis encephalitis-virus infection status, and kidding season), and uncontrollable risk factors (parity, lactation stage, milk yield, pregnancy status, and breed) were measured in the Dutch study, the Californian study or in both studies. Bayesian logistic regression models were constructed in which the true (but latent) infection status was linked to the joint test results, as functions of test sensitivity and specificity. The latent IMI status was the dependent variable in the logistic regression model with risk factors as independent variables and with random herd and goat effects. For the combined data from both studies, the culture-based estimate of apparent prevalence of major pathogens in udder halves was 2.6% (137/5220) and the estimate of the apparent prevalence of high SCC was 11.0% (581/5294). The model was able to estimate the performance characteristics of bacteriological culture and SCC together with the effect of risk factors on the true IMI status. Higher parity, late lactation and low milk yield were significantly related to higher odds of the latent IMI status. The only significant controllable risk factor was an udder base below the hocks. Lack of a perfect reference test is a common problem in veterinary epidemiology and may lead to biased estimates of odds ratios or other measures of association in risk factor studies. The approach described herein can be used to address these problems. PMID:23182030

Koop, Gerrit; Collar, Carol A; Toft, Nils; Nielen, Mirjam; van Werven, Tine; Bacon, Debora; Gardner, Ian A

2013-03-01

116

Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Disease  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Images of Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Disease.  Vesicular stomatitis viruses (VSV) are in the family Rhabdoviridae and the genus Vesiculovirus and are enveloped viruses with bullet-shaped capsids.

American Society For Microbiology;

2007-01-09

117

Chikungunya Virus (CHIKV)  

MedlinePLUS

... Caribbean Countries with reported local transmission of chikungunya virus (as of July 2014) The mosquitoes Aedes species mosquitoes transmit chikungunya virus These same types of mosquitoes transmit dengue virus ...

118

Computer Viruses: An Overview.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the early history and current proliferation of computer viruses that occur on Macintosh and DOS personal computers, mentions virus detection programs, and offers suggestions for how libraries can protect themselves and their users from damage by computer viruses. (LRW)

Marmion, Dan

1990-01-01

119

Measles virus.  

PubMed

Measles was an inevitable infection during the human development with substantial degree of morbidity and mortality. The severity of measles virus (MV) infection was largely contained by the development of a live attenuated vaccine that was introduced into the vaccination programs. However, all efforts to eradicate the disease failed and continued to annually result in significant deaths. The development of molecular biology techniques allowed the rescue of MV from cDNA that enabled important insights into a variety of aspects of the biology of the virus and its pathogenesis. Subsequently these technologies facilitated the development of novel vaccine candidates that induce immunity against measles and other pathogens. Based on the promising prospective, the use of MV as a recombinant vaccine and a therapeutic vector is addressed. PMID:25483511

Naim, Hussein Y

2015-01-01

120

Virus Movement Maintains Local Virus Population Diversity  

SciTech Connect

Viruses are the largest reservoir of genetic material on the planet, yet little is known about the population dynamics of any virus within its natural environment. Over a 2-year period, we monitored the diversity of two archaeal viruses found in hot springs within Yellowstone National Park (YNP). Both temporal phylogeny and neutral biodiversity models reveal that virus diversity in these local environments is not being maintained by mutation but rather by high rates of immigration from a globally distributed metacommunity. These results indicate that geographically isolated hot springs are readily able to exchange viruses. The importance of virus movement is supported by the detection of virus particles in air samples collected over YNP hot springs and by their detection in metacommunity sequencing projects conducted in the Sargasso Sea. Rapid rates of virus movement are not expected to be unique to these archaeal viruses but rather a common feature among virus metacommunities. The finding that virus immigration rather than mutation can dominate community structure has significant implications for understanding virus circulation and the role that viruses play in ecology and evolution by providing a reservoir of mobile genetic material.

J. Snyder; B. Wiedenheft; M. Lavin; F. Roberto; J. Spuhler; A. Ortmann; T. Douglas; M. Young

2007-11-01

121

Crystallization of viruses and virus proteins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Methods for crystallizing six isometric plant and insect viruses are presented. Procedures developed for modifying, purifying and crystallizing coat protein subunits isolated from a virus forming asymmetric, spheroidal particles, stabilized almost exclusively by protein-RNA interactions, are also discussed. The tertiary and quaternary structures of small RNA viruses are compared.

Sehnke, Paul C.; Harrington, Melissa; Hosur, M. V.; Li, Yunge; Usha, R.; Craig Tucker, R.; Bomu, Wu; Stauffacher, Cynthia V.; Johnson, John E.

1988-07-01

122

Virus entry by macropinocytosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

As obligatory intracellular parasites, viruses rely on host-cell functions for most aspects of their replication cycle. This is born out during entry, when most viruses that infect vertebrate and insect cells exploit the endocytic activities of the host cell to move into the cytoplasm. Viruses belonging to vaccinia, adeno, picorna and other virus families have been reported to take advantage

Jason Mercer; Ari Helenius

2009-01-01

123

The Tobacco Mosaic Virus.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains how the tobacco mosaic virus can be used to study virology. Presents facts about the virus, procedures to handle the virus in the laboratory, and four laboratory exercises involving the viruses' survival under inactivating conditions, dilution end point, filterability, and microscopy. (MDH)

Sulzinski, Michael A.

1992-01-01

124

West Nile Virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The West Nile virus (WNV) belongs to the genus Flavivirus (family Flaviviridae) and was previously classified as a group B\\u000a arbovirus. These disease-causing pathogens are spread to humans by insects, usually mosquitoes. Other flaviviruses include\\u000a the Yellow fever virus, Japanese encephalitis virus, dengue virus, and the Saint Louis encephalitis virus (see sections on\\u000a flaviviruses in Chapters 19 and 23). The

Vassil St. Georgiev

125

Virus-Vectored Influenza Virus Vaccines  

PubMed Central

Despite the availability of an inactivated vaccine that has been licensed for >50 years, the influenza virus continues to cause morbidity and mortality worldwide. Constant evolution of circulating influenza virus strains and the emergence of new strains diminishes the effectiveness of annual vaccines that rely on a match with circulating influenza strains. Thus, there is a continued need for new, efficacious vaccines conferring cross-clade protection to avoid the need for biannual reformulation of seasonal influenza vaccines. Recombinant virus-vectored vaccines are an appealing alternative to classical inactivated vaccines because virus vectors enable native expression of influenza antigens, even from virulent influenza viruses, while expressed in the context of the vector that can improve immunogenicity. In addition, a vectored vaccine often enables delivery of the vaccine to sites of inductive immunity such as the respiratory tract enabling protection from influenza virus infection. Moreover, the ability to readily manipulate virus vectors to produce novel influenza vaccines may provide the quickest path toward a universal vaccine protecting against all influenza viruses. This review will discuss experimental virus-vectored vaccines for use in humans, comparing them to licensed vaccines and the hurdles faced for licensure of these next-generation influenza virus vaccines. PMID:25105278

Tripp, Ralph A.; Tompkins, S. Mark

2014-01-01

126

Viruses Infecting Reptiles  

PubMed Central

A large number of viruses have been described in many different reptiles. These viruses include arboviruses that primarily infect mammals or birds as well as viruses that are specific for reptiles. Interest in arboviruses infecting reptiles has mainly focused on the role reptiles may play in the epidemiology of these viruses, especially over winter. Interest in reptile specific viruses has concentrated on both their importance for reptile medicine as well as virus taxonomy and evolution. The impact of many viral infections on reptile health is not known. Kochs postulates have only been fulfilled for a limited number of reptilian viruses. As diagnostic testing becomes more sensitive, multiple infections with various viruses and other infectious agents are also being detected. In most cases the interactions between these different agents are not known. This review provides an update on viruses described in reptiles, the animal species in which they have been detected, and what is known about their taxonomic positions. PMID:22163336

Marschang, Rachel E.

2011-01-01

127

Epstein-Barr Virus (Mononucleosis)  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... person becomes infected with a virus, their immune system defends their body against the virus. The immune system stops the ... person becomes infected with a virus, their immune system defends their body against the virus. This is why most people ...

128

MFR PAPER 1338 Viruses and Virus Diseases of  

E-print Network

MFR PAPER 1338 Viruses and Virus Diseases of Salmonid Fishes Phillip E. McAllister is with the Na (IPN) virus, infectious hematopoietic necrosis (IHN) virus, viral hemorrhagic septicemia (YHS) virus, and Herpesvirus salmonis- cause disease among salmonid fishes. In addition, a virus may be the cause

129

Evidence of transplacental transmission of bluetongue virus serotype 8 in goats.  

PubMed

During the incursion of bluetongue virus (BTV) serotype 8 in Europe, an increase in the number of abortions in ruminants was observed. Transplacental transmission of BTV-8 in cattle and sheep, with subsequent foetal infection, is a feature of this specific bluetongue serotype. In this study, BTV-8 ability to cross the placental barrier at the beginning of the second third of pregnancy and at the end of pregnancy was investigated in goats in two separate experiments. In the first experiment, nine goats were experimentally infected with BTV-8 at 61 days of pregnancy. Foetuses were collected 21 dpi. BTV-8 was evidenced by real time RT-PCR and by viral isolation using blood from the umbilical cord and the spleens of 3 out of the 13 foetuses. All dams were viraemic (viral isolation) at the moment of sampling of the foetuses. Significant macroscopic or histological lesions could not be observed in foetuses or in their infected dams (notably at the placenta level). In the second experiment, 10 goats were infected with BTV-8 at 135 days of pregnancy. Kids were born by caesarean section at the programmed day of birth (15 dpi). BTV-8 could not be detected by rt-RT-PCR in blood or spleen samples from the kids. This study showed for the first time that BTV-8 transplacental transmission can occur in goats that have been infected at 61 days of pregnancy, with infectious virus recovered from the caprine foetuses. The observed transmission rate was quite high (33%) at this stage of pregnancy. However, it was not possible to demonstrate the existence of BTV-8 transplacental transmission when infection occurred at the end of the goat pregnancy. PMID:23890676

Belbis, G; Brard, E; Cordonnier, N; Moulin, V; Desprat, A; Sailleau, C; Viarouge, C; Doceul, V; Zientara, S; Millemann, Y

2013-10-25

130

Tumorigenic DNA viruses  

SciTech Connect

The eighth volume of Advances in Viral Oncology focuses on the three major DNA virus groups with a postulated or proven tumorigenic potential: papillomaviruses, animal hepatitis viruses, and the Epstein-Bar virus. In the opening chapters, the contributors analyze the evidence that papillomaviruses and animal hepatitis viruses are involved in tumorigenesis and describe the mechanisms that trigger virus-host cell interactions. A detailed section on the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) - comprising more than half the book - examines the transcription and mRNA processing patterns of the virus genome; the mechanisms by which EBV infects lymphoid and epithelial cells; the immunological aspects of the virus; the actions of EBV in hosts with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome; and the involvement of EBV in the etiology of Burkitt's lymphoma.

Klein, G.

1989-01-01

131

SOLENOPSIS INVICTA VIRUSES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Unique Solenopsis invicta viruses (SINV) have been identified and their genome sequenced. Oligonucleotide primers have been developed using the isolated nucleic acid sequences of the SINV. The viruses are used as a biocontrol agent for control of fire ants....

132

Human Parainfluenza Viruses  

MedlinePLUS

... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Human Parainfluenza Viruses (HPIVs) Note: Javascript is disabled or ... visit this page: About CDC.gov . Share Compartir Human parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs) commonly cause respiratory illnesses in ...

133

Virus Assembly and Maturation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use two techniques to look at three-dimensional virus structure: electron cryomicroscopy (cryoEM) and X-ray crystallography. Figure 1 is a gallery of virus particles whose structures Timothy Baker, one of my former colleagues at Purdue University, used cryoEM to determine. It illustrates the variety of sizes of icosahedral virus particles. The largest virus particle on this slide is the Herpes simplex virus, around 1200 in diameter; the smallest we examined was around 250 in diameter. Viruses bear their genomic information either as positive-sense DNA and RNA, double-strand DNA, double-strand RNA, or negative-strand RNA. Viruses utilize the various structure and function "tactics" seen throughout cell biology to replicate at high levels. Many of the biological principles that we consider general were in fact discovered in the context of viruses ...

Johnson, John E.

2004-03-01

134

Computer Virus Protection  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A computer virus is a program--a piece of executable code--that has the unique ability to replicate. Like biological viruses, computer viruses can spread quickly and are often difficult to eradicate. They can attach themselves to just about any type of file, and are spread by replicating and being sent from one individual to another. Simply having

Rajala, Judith B.

2004-01-01

135

Ecology of prokaryotic viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The finding that total viral abundance is higher than total prokaryotic abundance and that a significant fraction of the prokaryotic community is infected with phages in aquatic systems has stimulated research on the ecology of prokaryotic viruses and their role in ecosystems. This review treats the ecology of prokaryotic viruses (`phages') in marine, freshwater and soil systems from a `virus

Markus G Weinbauer

2004-01-01

136

MAIZE FINE STREAK VIRUS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The report outlines the salient features of maize fine streak virus (MFSV) including a general description of the causal virus species, virion properties, genome description, the relationship of the virus to other taxa, biological properties of the disease and agronomic aspects of the disease. Maize...

137

Tobacco mosaic virus  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource demonstrates how the Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) provides an excellent model for teaching students about properties of a plant virus and the relationship between a virus and its host plant. Four activities geared toward grades 9-12 are described. Teaching tips, troubleshooting help and sources of materials information is also included.

Rosemary Ford (Washington College; )

2003-05-28

138

VIRUSES IN WASTEWATER  

EPA Science Inventory

Viruses of animals, plants, and bacteria abound in sewage and receiving waters. Their ecological impact has, for the most part, gone unheeded except as it relates to viruses from human sources. Viruses present at levels infective to man have been recovered from waters used for re...

139

Hanta virus (image)  

MedlinePLUS

Hanta virus is a distant cousin of Ebola virus, but is found worldwide. The virus is spread by human contact with rodent waste. Dangerous respiratory illness develops. Effective treatment is not yet available and over 50% of cases end in fatality.

140

METHODOLOGY Open Access Virus replicon particle based Chikungunya virus  

E-print Network

METHODOLOGY Open Access Virus replicon particle based Chikungunya virus neutralization assay using Mareike Kümmerer1* Abstract Background: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) has been responsible for large epidemic antibodies without the need of using infectious CHIKV. Keywords: Chikungunya virus, Virus replicon particles

Boyer, Edmond

141

Review article PRRSV, the virus  

E-print Network

Review article PRRSV, the virus Janneke J.M. MEULENBERG Department of Virology, Institute Abstract ­ Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a positive-strand RNA virusDNA clone Résumé ­ Syndrome dysgénésique et respiratoire porcin, le virus. Le virus du syndrome dys

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

142

RNA Viruses Infecting Pest Insects  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

RNA viruses are viruses whose genetic material is ribonucleic acid (RNA). RNA viruses may be double or single-stranded based on the type of RNA they contain. Single-stranded RNA viruses can be further grouped into negative sense or positive-sense viruses according to the polarity of their RNA. Fur...

143

[The great virus comeback].  

PubMed

Viruses have been considered for a long time as by-products of biological evolution. This view is changing now as a result of several recent discoveries. Viral ecologists have shown that viral particles are the most abundant biological entities on our planet, whereas metagenomic analyses have revealed an unexpected abundance and diversity of viral genes in the biosphere. Comparative genomics have highlighted the uniqueness of viral sequences, in contradiction with the traditional view of viruses as pickpockets of cellular genes. On the contrary, cellular genomes, especially eukaryotic ones, turned out to be full of genes derived from viruses or related elements (plasmids, transposons, retroelements and so on). The discovery of unusual viruses infecting archaea has shown that the viral world is much more diverse than previously thought, ruining the traditional dichotomy between bacteriophages and viruses. Finally, the discovery of giant viruses has blurred the traditional image of viruses as small entities. Furthermore, essential clues on virus history have been obtained in the last ten years. In particular, structural analyses of capsid proteins have uncovered deeply rooted homologies between viruses infecting different cellular domains, suggesting that viruses originated before the last universal common ancestor (LUCA). These studies have shown that several lineages of viruses originated independently, i.e., viruses are polyphyletic. From the time of LUCA, viruses have coevolved with their hosts, and viral lineages can be viewed as lianas wrapping around the trunk, branches and leaves of the tree of life. Although viruses are very diverse, with genomes encoding from one to more than one thousand proteins, they can all be simply defined as organisms producing virions. Virions themselves can be defined as infectious particles made of at least one protein associated with the viral nucleic acid, endowed with the capability to protect the viral genome and ensure its delivery to the infected cell. These definitions, which clearly distinguish viruses from plasmids, suggest that infectious RNA molecules that only encode an RNA replicase presently classified among viruses by the ICTV (International Committee for the Taxonomy of Viruses) into families of Endornaviridae and Hypoviridae are in fact RNA plasmids. Since a viral genome should encode for at least one structural protein, these definitions also imply that viruses originated after the emergence of the ribosome in an RNA-protein cellular world. Although virions are the hallmarks of viruses, viruses and virions should not be confused. The infection transforms the ribocell (cell encoding ribosomes and dividing by binary fission) into a virocell (cell producing virions) or ribovirocell (cell that produces virions but can still divide by binary fission). In the ribovirocell, two different organisms, defined by their distinct evolutionary histories, coexist in symbiosis in the same cell. The virocells or ribovirocells are the living forms of the virus, which can be in fine considered to be a living organism. In the virocell, the metabolism is reorganized for the production of virions, while the ability to capture and store free energy is retained, as in other cellular organisms. In the virocell, viral genomes replicate, recombine and evolve, leading to the emergence of new viral proteins and potentially novel functions. Some of these new functions can be later on transferred to the cell, explaining how viruses can play a major (often underestimated) role in the evolution of cellular organisms. The virocell concept thus helps to understand recent hypotheses suggesting that viruses played a critical role in major evolutionary transitions, such as the origin of DNA genomes or else the origin of the eukaryotic nucleus. Finally, it is more and more recognized that viruses are the major source of variation and selection in living organisms (both viruses and cells), the two pillars of darwinism. One can thus conclude that the continuous interaction between viruses and cells, all along

Forterre, Patrick

2013-01-01

144

Lifestyles of plant viruses.  

PubMed

The vast majority of well-characterized eukaryotic viruses are those that cause acute or chronic infections in humans and domestic plants and animals. However, asymptomatic persistent viruses have been described in animals, and are thought to be sources for emerging acute viruses. Although not previously described in these terms, there are also many viruses of plants that maintain a persistent lifestyle. They have been largely ignored because they do not generally cause disease. The persistent viruses in plants belong to the family Partitiviridae or the genus Endornavirus. These groups also have members that infect fungi. Phylogenetic analysis of the partitivirus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase genes suggests that these viruses have been transmitted between plants and fungi. Additional families of viruses traditionally thought to be fungal viruses are also found frequently in plants, and may represent a similar scenario of persistent lifestyles, and some acute or chronic viruses of crop plants may maintain a persistent lifestyle in wild plants. Persistent, chronic and acute lifestyles of plant viruses are contrasted from both a functional and evolutionary perspective, and the potential role of these lifestyles in host evolution is discussed. PMID:20478885

Roossinck, Marilyn J

2010-06-27

145

Lifestyles of plant viruses  

PubMed Central

The vast majority of well-characterized eukaryotic viruses are those that cause acute or chronic infections in humans and domestic plants and animals. However, asymptomatic persistent viruses have been described in animals, and are thought to be sources for emerging acute viruses. Although not previously described in these terms, there are also many viruses of plants that maintain a persistent lifestyle. They have been largely ignored because they do not generally cause disease. The persistent viruses in plants belong to the family Partitiviridae or the genus Endornavirus. These groups also have members that infect fungi. Phylogenetic analysis of the partitivirus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase genes suggests that these viruses have been transmitted between plants and fungi. Additional families of viruses traditionally thought to be fungal viruses are also found frequently in plants, and may represent a similar scenario of persistent lifestyles, and some acute or chronic viruses of crop plants may maintain a persistent lifestyle in wild plants. Persistent, chronic and acute lifestyles of plant viruses are contrasted from both a functional and evolutionary perspective, and the potential role of these lifestyles in host evolution is discussed. PMID:20478885

Roossinck, Marilyn J.

2010-01-01

146

Viruses of botrytis.  

PubMed

Botrytis cinerea (gray mold) is one of the most widespread and destructive fungal diseases of horticultural crops. Propagation and dispersal is usually by asexual conidia but the sexual stage (Botryotinia fuckeliana (de Bary) Whetzel) also occurs in nature. DsRNAs, indicative of virus infection, are common in B. cinerea, but only four viruses (Botrytis virus F (BVF), Botrytis virus X (BVX), Botrytis cinerea mitovirus 1 (BcMV1), and Botrytis porri RNA virus) have been sequenced. BVF and BVX are unusual mycoviruses being ssRNA flexous rods and have been designated the type species of the genera Mycoflexivirus and Botrexvirus (family Betaflexivirdae), respectively. The reported effects of viruses on Botrytis range from negligible to severe, with Botrytis cinerea mitovirus 1 causing hypovirulence. Little is currently known about the effects of viruses on Botrytis metabolism but recent complete sequencing of the B. cinerea genome now provides an opportunity to investigate the host-pathogen interactions at the molecular level. There is interest in the possible use of mycoviruses as biological controls for Botrytis because of the common problem of fungicide resistance. Unfortunately, hyphal anastomosis is the only known mechanism of horizontal virus transmission and the large number of vegetative incompatibility groups in Botrytis is a potential constraint on the spread of an introduced virus. Although some Botrytis viruses, such as BVF and BVX, are known to have international distribution, there is a distinct lack of epidemiological data and the means of spread are unknown. PMID:23498909

Pearson, Michael N; Bailey, Andrew M

2013-01-01

147

Manufacture of measles viruses.  

PubMed

Measles viruses have shown potent oncolytic activity as a therapeutic against a variety of human cancers in animal models and are currently being tested in clinical trials in patients. In contrast to using measles virus as a vaccine, oncolytic activity depends on high concentrations of infectious virus. For use in humans, the high-titer measles virus preparations must also be purified to remove significant levels of cellular proteins and nucleic acid resulting from the cytolytic products of measles virus replication and release. Pleomorphic measles virus must be treated as >1-?m particles that are extremely shear sensitive to maximize recoveries and retain infectivity. Therefore, to maximize the recovery of sterile, high titer infectious measles viruses, the entire production and purification process must be done using gentle conditions and aseptic processing. Here we describe a procedure applicable to the production of small (a few liters) to large (50-60 L) batches of measles virus amplified in Vero cells adapted to serum-free growth. Cell culture supernatant containing the measles virus is clarified by filtration to remove intact Vero cells and other debris, and then treated with Benzonase() in the presence of magnesium chloride to digest contaminating nucleic acid. The measles virus in the treated cell culture supernatant is then concentrated and purified using tangential flow filtration (TFF) and diafiltration. The concentrated and diafiltered measles virus is passed through a final clarifying filter prior to final vialing and storage at <-65C. An infectivity assay to quantify infectious measles virus concentration based on the TCID(50) method is also described. This procedure can be readily adapted to the production and purification of measles viruses using good manufacturing practices (GMP). PMID:21590404

Langfield, Kirsten K; Walker, Henry J; Gregory, Linda C; Federspiel, Mark J

2011-01-01

148

Water system virus detection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The performance of a waste water reclamation system is monitored by introducing a non-pathogenic marker virus, bacteriophage F2, into the waste-water prior to treatment and, thereafter, testing the reclaimed water for the presence of the marker virus. A test sample is first concentrated by absorbing any marker virus onto a cellulose acetate filter in the presence of a trivalent cation at low pH and then flushing the filter with a limited quantity of a glycine buffer solution to desorb any marker virus present on the filter. Photo-optical detection of indirect passive immune agglutination by polystyrene beads indicates the performance of the water reclamation system in removing the marker virus. A closed system provides for concentrating any marker virus, initiating and monitoring the passive immune agglutination reaction, and then flushing the system to prepare for another sample.

Fraser, A. S.; Wells, A. F.; Tenoso, H. J. (inventors)

1978-01-01

149

Viruses in Antarctic lakes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Water samples collected from four perennially ice-covered Antarctic lakes during the austral summer of 1996-1997 contained high densities of extracellular viruses. Many of these viruses were found to be morphologically similar to double-stranded DNA viruses that are known to infect algae and protozoa. These constitute the first observations of viruses in perennially ice-covered polar lakes. The abundance of planktonic viruses and data suggesting substantial production potential (relative to bacteria] secondary and photosynthetic primary production) indicate that viral lysis may be a major factor in the regulation of microbial populations in these extreme environments. Furthermore, we suggest that Antarctic lakes may be a reservoir of previously undescribed viruses that possess novel biological and biochemical characteristics.

Kepner, R. L. Jr; Wharton, R. A. Jr; Suttle, C. A.; Wharton RA, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

1998-01-01

150

DNA Virus Replication Compartments  

PubMed Central

Viruses employ a variety of strategies to usurp and control cellular activities through the orchestrated recruitment of macromolecules to specific cytoplasmic or nuclear compartments. Formation of such specialized virus-induced cellular microenvironments, which have been termed viroplasms, virus factories, or virus replication centers, complexes, or compartments, depends on molecular interactions between viral and cellular factors that participate in viral genome expression and replication and are in some cases associated with sites of virion assembly. These virus-induced compartments function not only to recruit and concentrate factors required for essential steps of the viral replication cycle but also to control the cellular mechanisms of antiviral defense. In this review, we summarize characteristic features of viral replication compartments from different virus families and discuss similarities in the viral and cellular activities that are associated with their assembly and the functions they facilitate for viral replication. PMID:24257611

Schmid, Melanie; Speiseder, Thomas; Dobner, Thomas

2014-01-01

151

Biological Nanomachines: Viruses  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Although nanotechnology is a new and emerging field, nanoscale structures are not new. Small molecules such as water, large molecules such as proteins, and larger, more complex objects such as viruses and nanotubes are naturally occurring and exist all around us. Viruses are particularly interesting nanoscale objects because of their precise geometrical shape, their self-assembling capability, and their fascinating ability to invade cells and alter their function. Nanoscale science researchers are studying virus properties with the aim of developing new treatments for human disease. The virus is also being studied as a model for how to make materials and engineer products at the nanoscsale through a process called "self-assembly." In this investigation, students create an icosahedral virus model and consider how virus structure and behavior could be mimicked in nanotechnology applications. This free selection includes the Table of Contents, Acknowledgments, a Dedication page, and an Introduction.

Taylor, Amy R.; Broadwell, Bethany P.; Jones, M. G.; Falvo, Michael R.

2007-01-01

152

The human oncogenic viruses  

SciTech Connect

This book contains eight selections. The titles are: Cytogenetics of the Leukemias and Lymphomas; Cytogenetics of Solid Tumors: Renal Cell Carcinoma, Malignant Melanoma, Retinoblastoma, and Wilms' Tumor; Elucidation of a Normal Function for a Human Proto-Oncogene; Detection of HSV-2 Genes and Gene Products in Cervical Neoplasia; Papillomaviruses in Anogennital Neoplasms; Human Epstein-Barr Virus and Cancer; Hepatitis B Virus and Hepatocellular Carcinoma; and Kaposi's Sarcoma: Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and Associated Viruses.

Luderer, A.A.; Weetall, H.H

1986-01-01

153

Water system virus detection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A monitoring system developed to test the capability of a water recovery system to reject the passage of viruses into the recovered water is described. A nonpathogenic marker virus, bacteriophage F2, is fed into the process stream before the recovery unit and the reclaimed water is assayed for its presence. Detection of the marker virus consists of two major components, concentration and isolation of the marker virus, and detection of the marker virus. The concentration system involves adsorption of virus to cellulose acetate filters in the presence of trivalent cations and low pH with subsequent desorption of the virus using volumes of high pH buffer. The detection of the virus is performed by a passive immune agglutination test utilizing specially prepared polystyrene particles. An engineering preliminary design was performed as a parallel effort to the laboratory development of the marker virus test system. Engineering schematics and drawings of a fully functional laboratory prototype capable of zero-G operation are presented. The instrument consists of reagent pump/metering system, reagent storage containers, a filter concentrator, an incubation/detector system, and an electronic readout and control system.

Fraser, A. S.; Wells, A. F.; Tenoso, H. J.

1975-01-01

154

Bluetongue serotype 2 and 9 modified live vaccine viruses as causative agents of abortion in livestock: a retrospective analysis in Italy.  

PubMed

The recent outbreak caused by Schmallenberg virus, which affected sheep, goats and cattle in Europe, highlighted the importance of having a robust surveillance plan capable of monitoring abortions and malformations in the livestock offspring. In this context, bluetongue viruses (BTVs) represented and represent one of the major threats to the European livestock industry. Aiming to improve the understanding on BTV cross placental transmission and serotype involvement, in this retrospective study foetal spleens and/or brains of 663 ovines, 429 bovines, 155 goats and 17 buffaloes were tested for the presence of BTV by virus isolation. BTV vaccine strains were isolated from 31 foetuses (2.4%; 95% CI: 1.7-3.4%): 24 (3.6%; 95% CI: 2.4-5.3%) from ovine foetal tissues; 6 (1.4%; 95% CI: 0.6-3.0%) from bovine foetal tissues and 1 (0.6%; 95% CI: 0.2-3.5%) from the spleen of a caprine foetus. All foetuses were from animals vaccinated with either BTV-2 or BTV-2, and BTV-9 modified live vaccines (MLVs) produced by Onderstepoort Biological Products (OBP), South Africa. Among the 31 isolated vaccine strains, serotype 9 (n=28) was more frequently isolated (P<0.05) than serotype 2 (n=3). In two cases infectious vaccine strains were found in the foetal tissues 2months after the vaccine administration. Other pathogens known to be causative agents of abortion in ruminants were not detected nor isolated. This study demonstrates, for the first time, that BTV-2 and BTV-9 vaccine strains are able to cross the placental barrier of sheep, cattle and goats. BTV-2 and BTV-9 vaccine strains are able to infect foetuses and cause abortions or malformations depending on the period of pregnancy at the time of vaccination. PMID:22937914

Savini, G; Lorusso, A; Paladini, C; Migliaccio, P; Di Gennaro, A; Di Provvido, A; Scacchia, M; Monaco, F

2014-02-01

155

Papaya ringspot virus (Potyviridae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Papaya ringspot virus, a member of the family Potyviridae, is single stranded RNA plant virus with a monocistronic genome of about 10,326 nucleotides that is expressed via a large polyprotein subsequently cleaved into functional proteins. It causes severe damage on cucurbit crops such as squash and...

156

Human Papilloma Virus Infections  

PubMed Central

Genital warts are believed to be caused by human papilloma viruses and to be sexually transmitted. The viruses are classified by DNA types, which appear to cause different types of disease. The choice of treatment, and usually its success rate, vary according to the type of disease and its location. PMID:21248973

Wright, V. Cecil

1989-01-01

157

Lettuce Necrotic Yellows Virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

A DESTRUCTIVE virus disease of lettuce, causing extensive crop losses sometimes as high as 100 per cent, was recognized in Victoria in 1954 as being distinct from the lettuce mosaic disease. Until 1959, however, all attempts to transmit the virus to lettuce with aphids which commonly infest lettuce, with thrips, leaf-hoppers and sap inoculation methods were unsuccessful. In that year

L. L. Stubbs; R. G. GROGAN

1963-01-01

158

Densonucleosis Virus Structural Proteins  

PubMed Central

The protein coats of two densonucleosis viruses (types 1 and 2) were examined by a variety of biophysical, biochemical, and serological techniques. The viruses were 24 nm in diameter, contained at least four polypeptides, were remarkably stable to extremes of pH and denaturing agents, and were serologically closely related. The two viruses could, however, be distinguished serologically and by differences in migration of their structural polypeptides. For each virus the top component (i.e., the protein coat minus DNA, found occurring naturally in infections) appeared to have a composition identical to that of the coat of the virus and was a more stable structure. Electrometric titration curves of the virus particles and top components demonstrated that the DNA phosphate in densonucleosis virus particles was neutralized by cations other than basic amino acid side chains of the protein coat. Circular dichroism studies showed that there was a conformational difference between the protein coats of top components and virus particles. Images PMID:16789202

Kelly, D. C.; Moore, N. F.; Spilling, C. R.; Barwise, A. H.; Walker, I. O.

1980-01-01

159

Positive reinforcement for viruses  

PubMed Central

Summary Virus-cell membrane fusion requires a critical transition from positive to negative membrane curvature. St. Vincent et al., in PNAS (St Vincent, et al., 2010), designed a class of antivirals that targets this transition. These Rigid Amphipathic Fusion Inhibitors are active against an array of enveloped viruses. PMID:21035726

Vigant, Frederic; Jung, Michael; Lee, Benhur

2010-01-01

160

Recombination in AIDS viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recombination contributes to the generation of genetic diversity in human immunodeficiency viruses (HIV) but can only occur between viruses replicating within the same cell. Since individuals have not been found to be simultaneously coinfected with multiple divergent strains of HIV-1 or HIV-2, recombination events have been thought to be restricted to the rather closely related members of the quasispecies that

David L. Robertson; Beatrice H. Hahn; Paul M. Sharp

1995-01-01

161

What is a Virus?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page is part of a web site that was created as a tutorial for an introductory virology class for college level microbiology students. It includes links to definitions of virus, virions, other virus-like-agents, and organisms, as well as the "definition of life".

Rybicki, Ed

2010-03-23

162

Cutthroat Trout Virus  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Electron micrograph of the cutthroat trout virus (CTV) showing the small, round virions of approximately 30 nanometers in diameter containing a single-stranded RNA genome. CTV, whose genome was first characterized by USGS researchers, is being used in research into the human virus Hepatitis E....

163

Virus separation using membranes.  

PubMed

Industrial manufacturing of cell culture-derived viruses or virus-like particles for gene therapy or vaccine production are complex multistep processes. In addition to the bioreactor, such processes require a multitude of downstream unit operations for product separation, concentration, or purification. Similarly, before a biopharmaceutical product can enter the market, removal or inactivation of potential viral contamination has to be demonstrated. Given the complexity of biological solutions and the high standards on composition and purity of biopharmaceuticals, downstream processing is the bottleneck in many biotechnological production trains. Membrane-based filtration can be an economically attractive and efficient technology for virus separation. Viral clearance, for instance, of up to seven orders of magnitude has been reported for state of the art polymeric membranes under best conditions.This chapter summarizes the fundamentals of virus ultrafiltration, diafiltration, or purification with adsorptive membranes. In lieu of an impractical universally applicable protocol for virus filtration, application of these principles is demonstrated with two examples. The chapter provides detailed methods for production, concentration, purification, and removal of a rod-shaped baculovirus (Autographa californica M nucleopolyhedrovirus, about 40 300 nm in size, a potential vector for gene therapy, and an industrially important protein expression system) or a spherical parvovirus (minute virus of mice, 22-26 nm in size, a model virus for virus clearance validation studies). PMID:24297430

Grein, Tanja A; Michalsky, Ronald; Czermak, Peter

2014-01-01

164

Grapevine Leafroll Associated Viruses  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This book chapter reviews recent advances in molecular characterization of grapevine leafroll associated viruses (GLRaV), and the development and application of molecular techniques for a timely and sensitive detection of nine viruses that are associated with the leafroll disease on grapevine. To d...

165

The hepatitis B virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

DNA recombinant technology has radically changed hepatitis B virus (HBV) virology. The genetic organization, transcription and replication of the virus are basically understood, structures of integrated HBV sequences in hepatocellular carcinoma have been characterized, and new vaccines produced by recombinant DNA technique are being developed.

Pierre Tiollais; Christine Pourcel; Anne Dejean

1985-01-01

166

PATHOLOGIE VGTALE Interactions entre virus ou entre virus et leurs  

E-print Network

PATHOLOGIE V?G?TALE SYNTH?SE Interactions entre virus ou entre virus et leurs satellites chez un 84140 Montfavet R?SUM? Deux ou plusieurs virus, apparentés ou non, peuvent se multiplier ensemble dans une même plante et également dans une même cellule. Les interactions entre virus qui en résultent

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

167

Whitepox virus isolated from hamsters inoculated with monkeypox virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

SINCE the eradication of smallpox in Equatorial Africa several `new' pox viruses have been isolated in our laboratory from materials collected by WHO field workers-monkeypox virus from an affected individual and the `whitepox' viruses from apparently healthy monkeys and rodents. Monkeypox virus is not widespread but occasionally infects man and has caused death: 33 such cases have occurred in Africa,

S. S. Marennikova; E. M. Shelukhina

1978-01-01

168

Nipah virus encephalitis.  

PubMed

Nipah virus was first discovered in 1999, after a severe outbreak of viral encephalitis among pig farm workers in Malaysia. The disease is thought to spread from Pteropus bats to pigs and then to humans following close contact. The reported mortality rate in this outbreak was 40%. The main necropsy finding in patients with Nipah virus encephalitis was disseminated microinfarction associated with vasculitis and direct neuronal involvement. Relapse of encephalitis was seen in 10% of those who survived the initial illness. Since that initial report, recurrent outbreaks of Nipah virus encephalitis have been seen in Bangladesh and West Bengal, India. These outbreaks occurred between January and May, with Pteropus giganteus as a reservoir of the virus. In Bangladesh, the virus probably spread directly from bats to humans-with human to human spread as another important mode of infection-and the mortality rate was 70%. PMID:18765105

Tan, Chong-Tin; Chua, Kaw-Bing

2008-07-01

169

Tobacco Mosaic Virus  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this four-part laboratory exercise, learners investigate properties of Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) including (1) symptoms induced by the virus in susceptible plants at the macroscopic and microscopic levels, (2) its stability at high temperatures, and (3) its small size. Learners first propagate tomato and pinto bean plants, and then inoculate their dried leaves with TMV. Learners observe the TMV-infected leaves as well as use a heat treatment to inactivate the virus. Learners also filter the infected sap with a bacteria-proof filter to investigate size. This lesson guide includes background information, tips for educators, and discussion questions with answers. Adult supervision is recommended. Note: The Tobacco mosaic virus is available from biological suppliers, but approval for shipping of the virus across state lines must be obtained from the USDA prior to shipment.

Rosemary Ford

2011-01-01

170

Influenza A virus reassortment.  

PubMed

Reassortment is the process by which influenza viruses swap gene segments. This genetic exchange is possible due to the segmented nature of the viral genome and occurs when two differing influenza viruses co-infect a cell. The viral diversity generated through reassortment is vast and plays an important role in the evolution of influenza viruses. Herein we review recent insights into the contribution of reassortment to the natural history and epidemiology of influenza A viruses, gained through population scale phylogenic analyses. We describe methods currently used to study reassortment in the laboratory, and we summarize recent progress made using these experimental approaches to further our understanding of influenza virus reassortment and the contexts in which it occurs. PMID:25007845

Steel, John; Lowen, Anice C

2014-01-01

171

Semliki Forest virus and Sindbis virus vectors.  

PubMed

Semliki Forest virus (SFV) and Sindbis virus (SIN) are two, positive-strand RNA viruses of the alphavirus genus. Vectors for both have been developed to express high levels of foreign genes in vitro and in vivo. Basic Protocol 1 describes the preparation of packaged SFV and SIN replicons by co-electroporation of helper and vector RNA into baby hamster kidney (BHK)-21 cells. Basic Protocol 2 describes the activation of packaged SFV replicons with a-chymotrypsin. Basic Protocol 3 provides a method for the infection of hippocampal slices. Basic Protocol 4 is a technique for the infection of primary cultures of dispersed neurons with infectious SFV and SIN replicons. The Alternate Protocol describes a method for the cotransfection of in vitro-transcribed vector and helper RNA into BHK-21 cells. Support Protocol 1 describes determining the titers of infectious SFV and SIN replicon stocks, and Support Protocol 2 for metabolic labeling of infected cells. PMID:18428324

Ehrengruber, Markus U; Lundstrom, Kenneth

2002-08-01

172

Isolation and characterization of a 2.3-kilobase-pair cDNA fragment encoding the binding domain of the bovine leukemia virus cell receptor.  

PubMed Central

An immunoscreening strategy was used to isolate a cDNA clone encoding the binding domain for the external glycoprotein gp51 of the bovine leukemia virus (BLV). Three recombinant phages demonstrating BLV binding activity and containing 2.3-kbp cDNA inserts with identical nucleotide sequences were isolated from a lambda gt11 cDNA library of bovine kidney cells (MDBK). One clone, BLVRcp1, hybridized with a 4.8-kb mRNA from cells of bovine origin and was also found to be conserved as a single-copy gene in murine, bovine, ovine, primate, canine, feline, and porcine DNAs. The same gene is amplified in caprine DNA isolated from a BLV-induced tumor. The longest open reading frame of BLVRcp1 encodes a protein fragment of 729 amino acids with a putative receptor structure. BLVRcp1 cDNA was cloned in the eucaryotic expression vector pXT-1 and transfected into murine NIH 3T3 and human HEp-2 cells. Cells expressing BLVRcp1 mRNA became susceptible to BLV infection. BLVRcp1 has no known physiological function and has no significant homology with sequences registered in the GenBank and EMBL data libraries (31 July 1992). Expression of deleted constructs of BLVRcp1 indicates that the BLV binding region is encoded at the 5' side of the receptor clone. Images PMID:8380453

Ban, J; Portetelle, D; Altaner, C; Horion, B; Milan, D; Krchnak, V; Burny, A; Kettmann, R

1993-01-01

173

Pacui Virus, Rio Preto da Eva Virus, and Tapirape Virus, Three Distinct Viruses within the Family Bunyaviridae  

PubMed Central

Nearly complete genome sequences for three ungrouped viruses, Pacui virus (BEAN27326), Rio Preto da Eva virus (BEAR540870), and Tapirape virus (BEAN767592) isolated in the Amazon region are reported here. All three genomic segments (small, medium and large RNA) were recovered and were similar to members of the genus Orthobunyavirus. PMID:25395627

Medeiros, Daniele Barbosa de Almeida; Rodrigues, Sueli Guerreiro; Martins, Livia Caricio; de Lima, Clayton Pereira Silva; de Oliveira, Layanna Freitas; de Vasconcelos, Janaina Mota; Da Silva, Daisy Elaine; Cardoso, Jedson Ferreira; da Silva, Sandro Patroca; Vianez-Jnior, Joo Ldio da Silva Gonalves; Vasconcelos, Pedro Fernando da Costa

2014-01-01

174

Realms of the Viruses Online  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Viruses have evolved strategies for infecting all taxa, but most viruses are highly specific about their cellular host. In humans, viruses cause diverse diseases, from chronic but benign warts, to acute and deadly hemorrhagic fever. Viruses have entertaining names like Zucchini Yellow Mosaic, Semliki Forest, Coxsackie, and the original terminator,

Liu, Dennis

2007-01-01

175

Computer Viruses: Pathology and Detection.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains how computer viruses were originally created, how a computer can become infected by a virus, how viruses operate, symptoms that indicate a computer is infected, how to detect and remove viruses, and how to prevent a reinfection. A sidebar lists eight antivirus resources. (four references) (LRW)

Maxwell, John R.; Lamon, William E.

1992-01-01

176

Viruses isolated from Panamanian sloths.  

PubMed

Seven virus strains were isolated in Vero cells from whole blood samples from 80 wild-caught sloths, Bradypus variegatus and Choloepus hoffmanni, from Central Panam. Four strains of at least two different serotypes are related to Changuinola virus; two of these were associated with prolonged or recrudescent viremias. One strain is an antigenic subtype of Punta Toro virus, and another, described here as Bradypus-4 virus, is a new, antigenically ungrouped virus. A second new virus from sloths, Utive virus, forms an antigenic complex within the Simbu serogroup with Utinga and Pintupo viruses. Tests on sequential plasma samples from radio-marked free-ranging sloths and from recently captured animals maintained in captivity showed that both species develop neutralizing antibodies following naturally acquired virus infections. Antibodies against the Changuinola and Simbu serogroup viruses are widespread in both sloth species and are especially prevalent in Choloepus, but are virtually absent in all other wild vertebrate species tested. PMID:6316795

Seymour, C; Peralta, P H; Montgomery, G G

1983-11-01

177

Ocular Tropism of Respiratory Viruses  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Respiratory viruses (including adenovirus, influenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus, coronavirus, and rhinovirus) cause a broad spectrum of disease in humans, ranging from mild influenza-like symptoms to acute respiratory failure. While species D adenoviruses and subtype H7 influenza viruses are known to possess an ocular tropism, documented human ocular disease has been reported following infection with all principal respiratory viruses. In this review, we describe the anatomical proximity and cellular receptor distribution between ocular and respiratory tissues. All major respiratory viruses and their association with human ocular disease are discussed. Research utilizing in vitro and in vivo models to study the ability of respiratory viruses to use the eye as a portal of entry as well as a primary site of virus replication is highlighted. Identification of shared receptor-binding preferences, host responses, and laboratory modeling protocols among these viruses provides a needed bridge between clinical and laboratory studies of virus tropism. PMID:23471620

Rota, Paul A.; Tumpey, Terrence M.

2013-01-01

178

Enteric hepatitis viruses  

PubMed Central

Hepatitis viruses are infectious agents that can infect liver and cause inflammation. The infection triggers immune response against infected cells that leads to the destruction of hepatic cells. This destruction has two consequences: leaking ALT and AST liver enzymes which increases during the course of disease and accumulation of bilirubin- a red pigmented compound released from dead red cells- which causes the yellow coloration of eyes and skin. These viruses transmit through diverse routes i.e. blood transfusion, sexual contacts and consuming water or food contaminated by feces. Enteric hepatitis viruses use the latter route for transmission; hence their outbreaks are more common in underdeveloped countries. There are currently two distinguished enteric hepatitis viruses, hepatitis A and hepatitis E. These viruses belong to different family of viruses and their epidemiological characteristics are different. These infections can be diagnosed by an ELISA for IgM antibody. A vaccine has been developed in last decade of twentieth century for hepatitis A virus, which is administered mostly in the developed world i.e. U.S and Japan. Treatment for these infections is mostly supportive; however, in the case of fulminant hepatitis the liver transplantation might be necessary. PMID:24834192

Tahaei, Seyed Mohammad Ebrahim; Zali, Mohammad Reza

2012-01-01

179

[Grapevine viruses in Tunisia].  

PubMed

Tunisian grapevine culture is affected by many viruses caused by some phytovirus belonging to nepovirus, closterovirus and trichovirus groups. The present work deal with the economically important viroses identified in tunisian grapevines. We present here the development methods to detect these viruses in propagating material. The important viruses biologically, biochemically, serologically and using molecular techniques, characterised are: GFLV, GLRaV3 and GVB. The genetic polymorphism analysis was also carried and tunisian isolates were compared to previously described ones in literature. PMID:14666749

Acheche, H; Fattouch, S; M'Hirsi, S; Marzouki, N; Marrakchi, M

1998-01-01

180

Viruses in reptiles  

PubMed Central

The etiology of reptilian viral diseases can be attributed to a wide range of viruses occurring across different genera and families. Thirty to forty years ago, studies of viruses in reptiles focused mainly on the zoonotic potential of arboviruses in reptiles and much effort went into surveys and challenge trials of a range of reptiles with eastern and western equine encephalitis as well as Japanese encephalitis viruses. In the past decade, outbreaks of infection with West Nile virus in human populations and in farmed alligators in the USA has seen the research emphasis placed on the issue of reptiles, particularly crocodiles and alligators, being susceptible to, and reservoirs for, this serious zoonotic disease. Although there are many recognised reptilian viruses, the evidence for those being primary pathogens is relatively limited. Transmission studies establishing pathogenicity and cofactors are likewise scarce, possibly due to the relatively low commercial importance of reptiles, difficulties with the availability of animals and permits for statistically sound experiments, difficulties with housing of reptiles in an experimental setting or the inability to propagate some viruses in cell culture to sufficient titres for transmission studies. Viruses as causes of direct loss of threatened species, such as the chelonid fibropapilloma associated herpesvirus and ranaviruses in farmed and wild tortoises and turtles, have re-focused attention back to the characterisation of the viruses as well as diagnosis and pathogenesis in the host itself. 1. Introduction 2. Methods for working with reptilian viruses 3. Reptilian viruses described by virus families 3.1. Herpesviridae 3.2. Iridoviridae 3.2.1 Ranavirus 3.2.2 Erythrocytic virus 3.2.3 Iridovirus 3.3. Poxviridae 3.4. Adenoviridae 3.5. Papillomaviridae 3.6. Parvoviridae 3.7. Reoviridae 3.8. Retroviridae and inclusion body disease of Boid snakes 3.9. Arboviruses 3.9.1. Flaviviridae 3.9.2. Togaviridae 3.10. Caliciviridae 3.11. Picornaviridae 3.12. Paramyxoviridae 4. Summary 5. Acknowledgements 6. Competing interests 7. References PMID:21933449

2011-01-01

181

Rapid Detection and Quantification of RNA of Ebola and Marburg Viruses, Lassa Virus, Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus, Rift Valley Fever Virus, Dengue Virus, and Yellow Fever Virus by Real-Time Reverse Transcription-PCR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Viral hemorrhagic fevers (VHFs) are acute infections with high case fatality rates. Important VHF agents are Ebola and Marburg viruses (MBGV\\/EBOV), Lassa virus (LASV), Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV), Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), dengue virus (DENV), and yellow fever virus (YFV). VHFs are clinically difficult to diagnose and to distinguish; a rapid and reliable laboratory diagnosis is required in

Christian Drosten; Stephan Gttig; Stefan Schilling; Marcel Asper; Marcus Panning; Herbert Schmitz; Stephan Gnther

2002-01-01

182

Simian hemorrhagic fever virus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This book chapter describes the taxonomic classification of Simian hemorrhagic fever virus (SHFV). Included are: host, genome, classification, morphology, physicochemical and physical properties, nucleic acid, proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, geographic range, phylogenetic properties, biological pro...

183

VIRUS instrument enclosures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Visible Integral-Field Replicable Unit Spectrograph (VIRUS) instrument will be installed at the Hobby-Eberly Telescope in the near future. The instrument will be housed in two enclosures that are mounted adjacent to the telescope, via the VIRUS Support Structure (VSS). We have designed the enclosures to support and protect the instrument, to enable servicing of the instrument, and to cool the instrument appropriately while not adversely affecting the dome environment. The system uses simple HVAC air handling techniques in conjunction with thermoelectric and standard glycol heat exchangers to provide efficient heat removal. The enclosures also provide power and data transfer to and from each VIRUS unit, liquid nitrogen cooling to the detectors, and environmental monitoring of the instrument and dome environments. In this paper, we describe the design and fabrication of the VIRUS enclosures and their subsystems.

Prochaska, T.; Allen, R.; Mondrik, N.; Rheault, J. P.; Sauseda, M.; Boster, E.; James, M.; Rodriguez-Patino, M.; Torres, G.; Ham, J.; Cook, E.; Baker, D.; DePoy, Darren L.; Marshall, Jennifer L.; Hill, G. J.; Perry, D.; Savage, R. D.; Good, J. M.; Vattiat, Brian L.

2014-08-01

184

Powassan (POW) Virus Basics  

MedlinePLUS

... in northern parts of North America and northeast Asia. Laboratory testing has found blacklegged ticks infected with POW virus in parts of north-central, east-central, and southeast Minnesota, areas highly endemic ...

185

The dengue viruses.  

PubMed Central

Dengue, a major public health problem throughout subtropical and tropical regions, is an acute infectious disease characterized by biphasic fever, headache, pain in various parts of the body, prostration, rash, lymphadenopathy, and leukopenia. In more severe or complicated dengue, patients present with a severe febrile illness characterized by abnormalities of hemostasis and increased vascular permeability, which in some instances results in a hypovolemic shock. Four distinct serotypes of the dengue virus (dengue-1, dengue-2, dengue-3, and dengue-4) exist, with numerous virus strains found worldwide. Molecular cloning methods have led to a greater understanding of the structure of the RNA genome and definition of virus-specific structural and nonstructural proteins. Progress towards producing safe, effective dengue virus vaccines, a goal for over 45 years, has been made. Images PMID:2224837

Henchal, E A; Putnak, J R

1990-01-01

186

Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV)  

MedlinePLUS

newsletter | contact Share | Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) A parent's guide to condition and treatment information A A A Though more common near the lips, grouped blisters (vesicles) can occur anywhere in herpes infections. Overview The first eruption of skin or ...

187

Chikungunya Virus (CHIKV)  

MedlinePLUS

... 7 days after being bitten by an infected mosquito The most common symptoms are fever and severe ... to prevent chikungunya virus infection or disease Reduce mosquito exposure o Use air conditioning or window/door ...

188

Virus Ultra Structure  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Linda Stannard of the University of Capetown, South Africa, has composed a page which, although it was intended to serve as an introductory manual for students of virology, can be appreciated by a wide audience. A section on the principles of virus architecture uses text and outstanding graphics to provide an introduction to why viruses look the way they do. Other parts of the site emphasize how virus shapes and structures are "seen" and recorded with sections on negative staining and electron microscopy of DNA- and RNA-containing viruses. This site's success relies on the use of well-chosen graphics and the inclusion of interesting factoids such as the following: "The head of a dress-maker's pin can provide seating accommodation for five hundred million rhinoviruses (cause of the common cold)!".

189

Virus Chapter: Iflaviridae  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The iflaviruses comprise viruses isolated from arthropod species of agricultural importance. All members of iflaviruses have a genome arrangement similar to the picornaviruses, ootyviruses, and secoviruses. However, phylogenetic analysis using the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase region showed that th...

190

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)  

MedlinePLUS

... RSV often spreads quickly in crowded households and day care centers. The virus can live for a half ... The following increase the risk for RSV: Attending day care Being near tobacco smoke Having school-aged brothers ...

191

Hepatitis G virus  

PubMed Central

A number of new hepatitis viruses (G, TT, SEN) were discovered late in the past century. We review the data available in the literature and our own findings suggesting that the new hepatitis G virus (HGV), disclosed in the late 1990s, has been rather well studied. Analysis of many studies dealing with HGV mainly suggests the lymphotropicity of this virus. HGV or GBV-C has been ascertained to influence course and prognosis in the HIV-infected patient. Until now, the frequent presence of GBV-C in coinfections, hematological diseases, and biliary pathology gives no grounds to determine it as an accidental tourist that is of no significance. The similarity in properties of GBV-C and hepatitis C virus (HCV) offers the possibility of using HGV, and its induced experimental infection, as a model to study hepatitis C and to develop a hepatitis C vaccine. PMID:18720531

Reshetnyak, Vasiliy Ivanovich; Karlovich, Tatiana Igorevna; Ilchenko, Ljudmila Urievna

2008-01-01

192

West nile virus encephalitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

West Nile virus (WNV) is a small RNA virus. It was first isolated in the blood of a febrile woman in the West Nile district\\u000a of Uganda in 1937. Although WNV has caused human disease in Africa and Europe since its identification, the first documented\\u000a human infections occurred in the United States in 1999. Wild birds are the reservoir for

James L. Dean; Brandon J. Palermo

2005-01-01

193

AVG Anti-Virus  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Those who wish for an antivirus program that is both versatile and reliable should definitely consider this latest iteration of the AVG Anti-Virus program. With this program, visitors can be assured that AVG will look for new virus definitions on a daily basis and that it will also create an effective rescue disk in case a dire situation emerges. This website features a number of archived versions of the AVG software for users to choose from.

2008-01-01

194

Proteins of Norwalk virus.  

PubMed Central

The proteins of the Norwalk virus were studied by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Highly purified specifically immunoprecipitated virions appeared to contain a single primary structural protein with a molecular weight of 59,000. In addition, a soluble Norwalk viral protein with a molecular weight of 30,000 was identified in fecal specimens containing Norwalk virus. The protein structure of the virion is similar to that of the Calciviridae family. Images PMID:6785451

Greenberg, H B; Valdesuso, J R; Kalica, A R; Wyatt, R G; McAuliffe, V J; Kapikian, A Z; Chanock, R M

1981-01-01

195

Origins of Viruses  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page is part of a site created as a supplement for an introduction to virology course for second year microbiology students. It includes discussions on the origins of viruses as well as how they might have evolved. There are several links to pertinent conceptial matter such as basics on the different types of viruses as well as a link to the course home page.

Rybicki, Ed; Town, University O.

196

Smaller Fleas: Viruses of Microorganisms  

PubMed Central

Life forms can be roughly differentiated into those that are microscopic versus those that are not as well as those that are multicellular and those that, instead, are unicellular. Cellular organisms seem generally able to host viruses, and this propensity carries over to those that are both microscopic and less than truly multicellular. These viruses of microorganisms, or VoMs, in fact exist as the world's most abundant somewhat autonomous genetic entities and include the viruses of domain Bacteria (bacteriophages), the viruses of domain Archaea (archaeal viruses), the viruses of protists, the viruses of microscopic fungi such as yeasts (mycoviruses), and even the viruses of other viruses (satellite viruses). In this paper we provide an introduction to the concept of viruses of microorganisms, a.k.a., viruses of microbes. We provide broad discussion particularly of VoM diversity. VoM diversity currently spans, in total, at least three-dozen virus families. This is roughly ten families per categorybacterial, archaeal, fungal, and protistwith some virus families infecting more than one of these microorganism major taxa. Such estimations, however, will vary with further discovery and taxon assignment and also are dependent upon what forms of life one includes among microorganisms. PMID:24278736

Hyman, Paul; Abedon, Stephen T.

2012-01-01

197

Cell Biology of Virus Entry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Part 1 of this lecture will discuss ways in which viruses bind to the surface of host cells. Simian Virus 40 which binds to specific cell surface glycolipids, and Human Papilloma Virus-16 which binds to sites on filoipodia, are examples of different binding mechanisms. Attachment of viruses to the plasma membrane activates cell signaling resulting in endocytosis of the viral particles.In the second lecture, the next steps in viral infection are described. Part 3 focuses on a single virus, the Vaccinia virus, as a model for cell binding, signaling and endocytosis.

Ari Helenius (Insitute of Biochemistry, ETH Zurich, Switzerland;)

2009-02-01

198

Properties of an encephalitogenic canine parainfluenza virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary An isolate of canine parainfluenza (CPI) virus from the cerebrospinal fluid of a dog with neurological dysfunction was characterizedin vitro in comparison to a prototype strain of CPI virus, D008. The virus, designated 78238 was found to be antigenically related to CPI virus (Manhatten strain) and simian virus 5 (SV5), but not to mumps virus (Enders strain). Ultrastructural observation

J. F. Evermann; S. Krakowka; A. J. McKeirnan; W. Baumgrtner

1981-01-01

199

Recombinant Vaccinia Virus: Immunization against Multiple Pathogens  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The coding sequences for the hepatitis B virus surface antigen, the herpes simplex virus glycoprotein D, and the influenza virus hemagglutinin were inserted into a single vaccinia virus genome. Rabbits inoculated intravenously or intradermally with this polyvalent vaccinia virus recombinant produced antibodies reactive to all three authentic foreign antigens. In addition, the feasibility of multiple rounds of vaccination with recombinant vaccinia virus was demonstrated.

Perkus, Marion E.; Piccini, Antonia; Lipinskas, Bernard R.; Paoletti, Enzo

1985-09-01

200

Glycyrrhizic acid inhibits virus growth and inactivates virus particles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Screening investigations in antiviral action of plant extracts have revealed that a component of Glycyrrhiza glabra roots, found to be glycyrrhizic acid, is active against viruses. We report here that this drug inhibits growth and cytopathology of several unrelated DNA and RNA viruses, while not affecting cell activity and ability to replicate. In addition, glycyrrhizic acid inactivates herpes simplex virus

Raffaello Pompei; Ornella Flore; Maria Antonietta Marccialis; Alessandra Pani; Bernardo Loddo

1979-01-01

201

Immunology of hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

More than 500 million people worldwide are persistently infected with the hepatitis B virus (HBV) and\\/or hepatitis C virus (HCV) and are at risk of developing chronic liver disease, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Despite many common features in the pathogenesis of HBV- and HCV-related liver disease, these viruses markedly differ in their virological properties and in their immune escape and

Michelina Nascimbeni; Barbara Rehermann

2005-01-01

202

Monkeypox Virus as a Source of Whitepox Viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Monkeypox virus cloning and isolation of the so-called white clones from white pocks which this virus forms on the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) were carried out. The isolated clones were stable and differed considerably from the parental strain. By their properties, they were identical to whitepox viruses formerly isolated from wildlife monkeys and rodents in Equatorial Africa. Besides stable white

Svetlana S. Marennikova; Emma M. Shelukhina; Nelly N. Maltseva; Gennadiy R. Matsevich

1979-01-01

203

About Human Parainfluenza Viruses (HPIVs)  

MedlinePLUS

... Diagnosis HPIV Seasons Resources & References About Human Parainfluenza Viruses (HPIVs) Share Compartir Overview Describes HPIVs, who is at risk, symptoms, how the viruses spread... Symptoms & Illnesses Lists symptoms and illnesses caused ...

204

Testing for Human Immunodeficiency Virus  

MedlinePLUS

... incisions made in the mothers abdomen and uterus. Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV): A virus that attacks certain cells of the bodys immune system and causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Immune System: ...

205

Engineered plant virus resistance.  

PubMed

Virus diseases are among the key limiting factors that cause significant yield loss and continuously threaten crop production. Resistant cultivars coupled with pesticide application are commonly used to circumvent these threats. One of the limitations of the reliance on resistant cultivars is the inevitable breakdown of resistance due to the multitude of variable virus populations. Similarly, chemical applications to control virus transmitting insect vectors are costly to the farmers, cause adverse health and environmental consequences, and often result in the emergence of resistant vector strains. Thus, exploiting strategies that provide durable and broad-spectrum resistance over diverse environments are of paramount importance. The development of plant gene transfer systems has allowed for the introgression of alien genes into plant genomes for novel disease control strategies, thus providing a mechanism for broadening the genetic resources available to plant breeders. Genetic engineering offers various options for introducing transgenic virus resistance into crop plants to provide a wide range of resistance to viral pathogens. This review examines the current strategies of developing virus resistant transgenic plants. PMID:25438782

Galvez, Leny C; Banerjee, Joydeep; Pinar, Hasan; Mitra, Amitava

2014-11-01

206

Dissecting virus entry via endocytosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous virus families utilize endocytosis to infect host cells, mediating virus internalization as well as trafficking to the site of replication. Recent research has demonstrated that viruses employ the full endocytic capabilities of the cell. The endocytic pathways utilized include clathrin-mediated endocytosis, caveolae, macropinocytosis and novel non-clathrin, non-caveolae pathways. The tools to study endocytosis and, consequently, virus entry are becoming

Sara B. Sieczkarski; Gary R. Whittaker

2002-01-01

207

Endosomes, exosomes and Trojan viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Retroviruses are enveloped viruses that are generally assumed to bud at the plasma membrane of infected cells. Recently it has become apparent that some of these viruses use the endocytic pathway to coordinate their assembly and release. In addition, these and some other enveloped viruses exploit the machinery that generates the internal membranes of multivesicular bodies (MVB). These observations and

Annegret Pelchen-Matthews; Graa Raposo; Mark Marsh

2004-01-01

208

Epstein-Barr virus test  

MedlinePLUS

Epstein-Barr virus test is a blood test to detect antibodies to the Epstein-Barr virus ( EBV ) antigens. See also: Monospot test ... specialist looks for antibodies to the Epstein-Barr virus. In the first stages of an illness, little ...

209

Protecting Your Computer from Viruses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A computer virus is defined as a software program capable of reproducing itself and usually capable of causing great harm to files or other programs on the same computer. The existence of computer viruses--or the necessity of avoiding viruses--is part of using a computer. With the advent of the Internet, the door was opened wide for these

Descy, Don E.

2006-01-01

210

RNA viruses in the sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Viruses are ubiquitous in the sea and appear to outnumber all other forms of marine life by at least an order of magnitude. Through selective infection, viruses influence nutrient cycling, community structure, and evolution in the ocean. Over the past 20 years we have learned a great deal about the diversity and ecology of the viruses that constitute the marine

Andrew S. Lang; Matthew L. Rise; Alexander I. Culley; Grieg F. Steward

2009-01-01

211

Reemergence of Dengue Virus Type  

E-print Network

Reemergence of Dengue Virus Type 4, French Antilles and French Guiana, 2004­2005 Philippe Dussart After 10 years of absence, dengue virus type 4 (DENV- 4) has recently reemerged in Martinique is a viral disease transmitted by mosquitoes. It is caused by any of the 4 viral serotypes of dengue virus

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

212

Computer Bytes, Viruses and Vaccines.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a history of computer viruses, explains various types of viruses and how they affect software or computer operating systems, and describes examples of specific viruses. Available vaccines are explained, and precautions for protecting programs and disks are given. (nine references) (LRW)

Palmore, Teddy B.

1989-01-01

213

Novel avian influenza virus vaccines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Current vaccines against avian influenza (AI) virus infections are primarily based on classical inactivated whole-virus preparations. Although administration of these vaccines can protect poultry from clinical disease, sterile immunity is not achieved under field conditions, allowing for undetected virus spread and evolution under immune cover. Therefore, there is an urgent need for a robust and reliable system of differentiation

W. Fuchs; A. Rmer-Oberdrfer; J. Veits; T. C. Mettenleiter

2009-01-01

214

The biology of influenza viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influenza viruses are characterized by segmented, negative-strand RNA genomes requiring an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase of viral origin for replication. The particular structure of the influenza virus genome and function of its viral proteins enable antigenic drift and antigenic shift. These processes result in viruses able to evade the long-term adaptive immune responses in many hosts.

Nicole M. Bouvier; Peter Palese

2008-01-01

215

Molecular evolution of influenza viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are two different mechanisms by which influenza viruses might evolve: (1) Because the RNA genome of influenza viruses is segmented, new strains can suddenly be produced by reassortment, as happens, for example, during antigenic shift, creating new pandemic strains. (2) New viruses evolve relatively slowly by stepwise mutation and selection, for example, during antigenic or genetic drift. Influenza A

Christoph Scholtissek

1995-01-01

216

Deformed wing virus.  

PubMed

Deformed wing virus (DWV; Iflaviridae) is one of many viruses infecting honeybees and one of the most heavily investigated due to its close association with honeybee colony collapse induced by Varroadestructor. In the absence of V.destructor DWV infection does not result in visible symptoms or any apparent negative impact on host fitness. However, for reasons that are still not fully understood, the transmission of DWV by V.destructor to the developing pupae causes clinical symptoms, including pupal death and adult bees emerging with deformed wings, a bloated, shortened abdomen and discolouration. These bees are not viable and die soon after emergence. In this review we will summarize the historical and recent data on DWV and its relatives, covering the genetics, pathobiology, and transmission of this important viral honeybee pathogen, and discuss these within the wider theoretical concepts relating to the genetic variability and population structure of RNA viruses, the evolution of virulence and the development of disease symptoms. PMID:19909976

de Miranda, Joachim R; Genersch, Elke

2010-01-01

217

Virus resistance in orchids.  

PubMed

Orchid plants, Phalaenopsis and Dendrobium in particular, are commercially valuable ornamental plants sold worldwide. Unfortunately, orchid plants are highly susceptible to viral infection by Cymbidium mosaic virus (CymMV) and Odotoglossum ringspot virus (ORSV), posing a major threat and serious economic loss to the orchid industry worldwide. A major challenge is to generate an effective method to overcome plant viral infection. With the development of optimized orchid transformation biotechnological techniques and the establishment of concepts of pathogen-derived resistance (PDR), the generation of plants resistant to viral infection has been achieved. The PDR concept involves introducing genes that is(are) derived from the virus into the host plant to induce RNA- or protein-mediated resistance. We here review the fundamental mechanism of the PDR concept, and illustrate its application in protecting against viral infection of orchid plants. PMID:25438783

Koh, Kah Wee; Lu, Hsiang-Chia; Chan, Ming-Tsair

2014-11-01

218

Viruses in water  

PubMed Central

Attention is drawn in this paper to the increasing problem of viral contamination of water and shellfish, particularly since growing demands for available water resources by a rising world population and expanding industry will make the recycling of wastewater almost inevitable in the future. The problem of eliminating viruses pathogenic for man from water is considered in the light of present water treatment procedures, which are often inadequate for that purpose. Man may be exposed to waterborne viruses through the consumption of contaminated water, shellfish, or crops, as a result of recreational activities involving water, or from aerosols following the spraying of crops with liquid wastes. Physical and chemical methods of eliminating viruses from water are discussed. PMID:310357

Melnick, Joseph L.; Gerba, Charles P.; Wallis, Craig

1978-01-01

219

Fragg Virus - Kinetic City  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Fragg Virus is a learning module centered learning the importance of systems; it is a part of the Kinetic City-Mission to Vearth site. In general this module is concerned with how different parts work within a system. The Fragg Virus module is equipped with a computer simulation mind game, creative writing exercises for independent study, and art-centered exercises, as well as lesson plans for hands on games and activities designed for a group. The focus of the activities is evolution and the features of an animal that helps the animal survive in its environment. Certain features explored are the giraffes neck, polar bears fir, and a birds beak.

American Association for the Advancement of Science (;)

2008-04-17

220

Viruses and viral proteins.  

PubMed

For more than 30 years X-ray crystallography has been by far the most powerful approach for determining the structures of viruses and viral proteins at atomic resolution. The information provided by these structures, which covers many important aspects of the viral life cycle such as cell-receptor recognition, viral entry, nucleic acid transfer and genome replication, has extensively enriched our vision of the virus world. Many of the structures available correspond to potential targets for antiviral drugs against important human pathogens. This article provides an overview of the current knowledge of different structural aspects of the above-mentioned processes. PMID:25485129

Verdaguer, Nuria; Ferrero, Diego; Murthy, Mathur R N

2014-11-01

221

Viruses and viral proteins  

PubMed Central

For more than 30 years X-ray crystallography has been by far the most powerful approach for determining the structures of viruses and viral proteins at atomic resolution. The information provided by these structures, which covers many important aspects of the viral life cycle such as cell-receptor recognition, viral entry, nucleic acid transfer and genome replication, has extensively enriched our vision of the virus world. Many of the structures available correspond to potential targets for antiviral drugs against important human pathogens. This article provides an overview of the current knowledge of different structural aspects of the above-mentioned processes. PMID:25485129

Verdaguer, Nuria; Ferrero, Diego; Murthy, Mathur R. N.

2014-01-01

222

Additional hosts of alfalfa mosaic virus, cucumber mosaic virus, and tobacco mosaic virus in New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

In New Zealand, alfalfa mosaic virus is recorded on three new field crop hosts, Cajanus cajan (L.) Huth, Coriandrum sativum L., and Wasabia japonica (Miquel) Matsum. Cucumber mosaic virus is recorded on the weeds Cirsium vulgare L. and Veronica persica Poiret and on the ornamental perennial Gentiana sp. Tobacco mosaic virus is recorded on sunflower Helianthus annuus L.

J. D. Fletcher

1989-01-01

223

The games plant viruses play.  

PubMed

Mixed virus infections in plants are common in nature. The outcome of such virus-virus interactions ranges from cooperation and coexistence (synergism) to mutual exclusion (antagonism). A priori, the outcome of mixed infections is hard to predict. To date, the analyses of plant virus mixed infections were limited to reports of emerging symptoms and/or to qualitative, at best quantitative, descriptions of the accumulation of both viruses. Here, we show that evolutionary game theory provides an adequate theoretical framework to analyze mixed viral infections and to predict the long-term evolution of the mixed populations. PMID:25062019

Elena, Santiago F; Bernet, Guillermo P; Carrasco, Jos L

2014-10-01

224

RNA viruses in the sea.  

PubMed

Viruses are ubiquitous in the sea and appear to outnumber all other forms of marine life by at least an order of magnitude. Through selective infection, viruses influence nutrient cycling, community structure, and evolution in the ocean. Over the past 20 years we have learned a great deal about the diversity and ecology of the viruses that constitute the marine virioplankton, but until recently the emphasis has been on DNA viruses. Along with expanding knowledge about RNA viruses that infect important marine animals, recent isolations of RNA viruses that infect single-celled eukaryotes and molecular analyses of the RNA virioplankton have revealed that marine RNA viruses are novel, widespread, and genetically diverse. Discoveries in marine RNA virology are broadening our understanding of the biology, ecology, and evolution of viruses, and the epidemiology of viral diseases, but there is still much that we need to learn about the ecology and diversity of RNA viruses before we can fully appreciate their contributions to the dynamics of marine ecosystems. As a step toward making sense of how RNA viruses contribute to the extraordinary viral diversity in the sea, we summarize in this review what is currently known about RNA viruses that infect marine organisms. PMID:19243445

Lang, Andrew S; Rise, Matthew L; Culley, Alexander I; Steward, Grieg F

2009-03-01

225

Bat Flight and Zoonotic Viruses  

PubMed Central

Bats are sources of high viral diversity and high-profile zoonotic viruses worldwide. Although apparently not pathogenic in their reservoir hosts, some viruses from bats severely affect other mammals, including humans. Examples include severe acute respiratory syndrome coronaviruses, Ebola and Marburg viruses, and Nipah and Hendra viruses. Factors underlying high viral diversity in bats are the subject of speculation. We hypothesize that flight, a factor common to all bats but to no other mammals, provides an intensive selective force for coexistence with viral parasites through a daily cycle that elevates metabolism and body temperature analogous to the febrile response in other mammals. On an evolutionary scale, this hostvirus interaction might have resulted in the large diversity of zoonotic viruses in bats, possibly through bat viruses adapting to be more tolerant of the fever response and less virulent to their natural hosts. PMID:24750692

Cryan, Paul M.; Cunningham, Andrew A.; Fooks, Anthony R.; Hayman, David T.S.; Luis, Angela D.; Peel, Alison J.; Plowright, Raina K.; Wood, James L.N.

2014-01-01

226

Bat flight and zoonotic viruses  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Bats are sources of high viral diversity and high-profile zoonotic viruses worldwide. Although apparently not pathogenic in their reservoir hosts, some viruses from bats severely affect other mammals, including humans. Examples include severe acute respiratory syndrome coronaviruses, Ebola and Marburg viruses, and Nipah and Hendra viruses. Factors underlying high viral diversity in bats are the subject of speculation. We hypothesize that flight, a factor common to all bats but to no other mammals, provides an intensive selective force for coexistence with viral parasites through a daily cycle that elevates metabolism and body temperature analogous to the febrile response in other mammals. On an evolutionary scale, this hostvirus interaction might have resulted in the large diversity of zoonotic viruses in bats, possibly through bat viruses adapting to be more tolerant of the fever response and less virulent to their natural hosts.

O'Shea, Thomas; Cryan, Paul M.; Cunningham, Andrew A.; Fooks, Anthony R.; Hayman, David T.S.; Luis, Angela D.; Peel, Alison J.; Plowright, Raina K.; Wood, James L.N.

2014-01-01

227

Virus membrane fusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Membrane fusion of enveloped viruses with cellular membranes is mediated by viral glycoproteins (GP). Interaction of GP with cellular receptors alone or coupled to exposure to the acidic environment of endosomes induces extensive conformational changes in the fusion protein which pull two membranes into close enough proximity to trigger bilayer fusion. The refolding process provides the energy for fusion and

Winfried Weissenhorn; Andreas Hinz; Yves Gaudin

2007-01-01

228

Turnip Yellow Mosaic Virus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The bumpy exterior of the turnip yellow mosaic virus (TYMV) protein coat, or capsid, was defined in detail by Dr. Alexander McPherson of the University of California, Irvin using proteins crystallized in space for analysis on Earth. TYMV is an icosahedral virus constructed from 180 copies of the same protein arranged into 12 clusters of five proteins (pentamers), and 20 clusters of six proteins (hexamers). The final TYMV structure led to the unexpected hypothesis that the virus releases its RNA by essentially chemical-mechanical means. Most viruses have fairly flat coats, but in TYNV, the fold in each protein, called the jellyroll, is clustered at the points where the protein pentamers and hexamers join. The jellyrolls are almost standing on end, producing a bumpy surface with knobs at all of the pentamers and hexamers. At the inside surface of the pentamers is a void that is not present at the hexamers. The coating had been seen in early stuties of TYMV, but McPherson's atomic structure shows much more detail. The inside surface is strikingly, and unexpectedly, different than the outside. While the pentamers contain a central void on the inside, the hexameric units contain peptides linked to each other, forming a ring or, more accurately, rings to fill the void. Credit: Dr. Alexander McPherson, University of California, Irvine

2000-01-01

229

Hepatitis C virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary HepCV is the major cause of NANB PT hepatitis and is also implicated as the cause in a large proportion of sporadic cases of NANBH. Chronic infection with HepCV has also been linked to the development of hepatocellular carcinoma. Chimpanzees and marmosets are the only animals found to be experimentally infectable and the virus has not been propagated in

P. G. W. Plagemann

1991-01-01

230

Human Viruses and Cancer  

PubMed Central

The first human tumor virus was discovered in the middle of the last century by Anthony Epstein, Bert Achong and Yvonne Barr in African pediatric patients with Burkitts lymphoma. To date, seven viruses -EBV, KSHV, high-risk HPV, MCPV, HBV, HCV and HTLV1- have been consistently linked to different types of human cancer, and infections are estimated to account for up to 20% of all cancer cases worldwide. Viral oncogenic mechanisms generally include: generation of genomic instability, increase in the rate of cell proliferation, resistance to apoptosis, alterations in DNA repair mechanisms and cell polarity changes, which often coexist with evasion mechanisms of the antiviral immune response. Viral agents also indirectly contribute to the development of cancer mainly through immunosuppression or chronic inflammation, but also through chronic antigenic stimulation. There is also evidence that viruses can modulate the malignant properties of an established tumor. In the present work, causation criteria for viruses and cancer will be described, as well as the viral agents that comply with these criteria in human tumors, their epidemiological and biological characteristics, the molecular mechanisms by which they induce cellular transformation and their associated cancers. PMID:25341666

Morales-Snchez, Abigail; Fuentes-Panan, Ezequiel M.

2014-01-01

231

BLUEBERRY SCORCH VIRUS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Blueberry scorch disease was first described in the state of Washington in the USA by Martin and Bristow in 1988 and it was later determined that Sheep Pen Hill disease, described previously in New Jersey, USA was also caused by Blueberry scorch virus (BlScV). BlScV has flexuous, rod-shaped particl...

232

From Shakespeare to Viruses  

SciTech Connect

Berkeley Lab scientists have created a unique new tool for analyzing and comparing long sets of data, be it the genomes of mammals or viruses, or the works of Shakespeare. The results of the Shakespeare analysis surprised scholars with their accuracy

Sung-Hou Kim

2009-02-09

233

Cold Facts about Viruses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides ways for students to demonstrate their understanding of scientific concepts and skills. Describes a mini-unit around the cold in which students can relate humans to viruses. Includes activities and a modified simulation that provides questions to guide students. Discusses ways that allows students to apply prior knowledge, take ownership

Pea, Celeste; Sterling, Donna R.

2002-01-01

234

From Shakespeare to Viruses  

SciTech Connect

Berkeley Lab scientists have created a unique new tool for analyzing and comparing long sets of data, be it the genomes of mammals or viruses, or the works of Shakespeare. The results of the Shakespeare analysis surprised scholars with their accuracy.

Kim, Sung-Hou

2009-01-01

235

Apple mosaic virus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Apple mosaic virus (ApMV), a member of the ilarvirus group, naturally infects Betula, Aesculus, Humulus, and several crop genera in the family Rosaceae (Malus, Prunus, Rosa and Rubus). ApMV was first reported in Rubus in several blackberry and raspberry cultivars in the United States and subsequentl...

236

Viruses of Haloarchaea  

PubMed Central

In hypersaline environments, haloarchaea (halophilic members of the Archaea) are the dominant organisms, and the viruses that infect them, haloarchaeoviruses are at least ten times more abundant. Since their discovery in 1974, described haloarchaeoviruses include head-tailed, pleomorphic, spherical and spindle-shaped morphologies, representing Myoviridae, Siphoviridae, Podoviridae, Pleolipoviridae, Sphaerolipoviridae and Fuselloviridae families. This review overviews current knowledge of haloarchaeoviruses, providing information about classification, morphotypes, macromolecules, life cycles, genetic manipulation and gene regulation, and host-virus responses. In so doing, the review incorporates knowledge from laboratory studies of isolated viruses, field-based studies of environmental samples, and both genomic and metagenomic analyses of haloarchaeoviruses. What emerges is that some haloarchaeoviruses possess unique morphological and life cycle properties, while others share features with other viruses (e.g., bacteriophages). Their interactions with hosts influence community structure and evolution of populations that exist in hypersaline environments as diverse as seawater evaporation ponds, to hot desert or Antarctic lakes. The discoveries of their wide-ranging and important roles in the ecology and evolution of hypersaline communities serves as a strong motivator for future investigations of both laboratory-model and environmental systems. PMID:25402735

Luk, Alison W. S.; Williams, Timothy J.; Erdmann, Susanne; Papke, R. Thane; Cavicchioli, Ricardo

2014-01-01

237

Tomato ringspot virus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Tomato ringspot virus (ToRSV) causes a nematode-vectored disease of highbush blueberry in New York, Oregon, Pennsylvania and Washington in the United States but has not been reported elsewhere in the world on this crop or on other Vaccinium spp. The occurrence and intensity of symptoms vary among b...

238

Antibodies, viruses and vaccines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neutralizing antibodies are crucial for vaccine-mediated protection against viral diseases. They probably act, in most cases, by blunting the infection, which is then resolved by cellular immunity. The protective effects of neutralizing antibodies can be achieved not only by neutralization of free virus particles, but also by several activities directed against infected cells. In certain instances, non-neutralizing antibodies contribute to

Dennis R. Burton

2002-01-01

239

From Shakespeare to Viruses  

ScienceCinema

Berkeley Lab scientists have created a unique new tool for analyzing and comparing long sets of data, be it the genomes of mammals or viruses, or the works of Shakespeare. The results of the Shakespeare analysis surprised scholars with their accuracy.

Kim, Sung-Hou

2013-05-29

240

Viruses of haloarchaea.  

PubMed

In hypersaline environments, haloarchaea (halophilic members of the Archaea) are the dominant organisms, and the viruses that infect them, haloarchaeoviruses are at least ten times more abundant. Since their discovery in 1974, described haloarchaeoviruses include head-tailed, pleomorphic, spherical and spindle-shaped morphologies, representing Myoviridae, Siphoviridae, Podoviridae, Pleolipoviridae, Sphaerolipoviridae and Fuselloviridae families. This review overviews current knowledge of haloarchaeoviruses, providing information about classification, morphotypes, macromolecules, life cycles, genetic manipulation and gene regulation, and host-virus responses. In so doing, the review incorporates knowledge from laboratory studies of isolated viruses, field-based studies of environmental samples, and both genomic and metagenomic analyses of haloarchaeoviruses. What emerges is that some haloarchaeoviruses possess unique morphological and life cycle properties, while others share features with other viruses (e.g., bacteriophages). Their interactions with hosts influence community structure and evolution of populations that exist in hypersaline environments as diverse as seawater evaporation ponds, to hot desert or Antarctic lakes. The discoveries of their wide-ranging and important roles in the ecology and evolution of hypersaline communities serves as a strong motivator for future investigations of both laboratory-model and environmental systems. PMID:25402735

Luk, Alison W S; Williams, Timothy J; Erdmann, Susanne; Papke, R Thane; Cavicchioli, Ricardo

2014-01-01

241

Giant viruses: conflicts in revisiting the virus concept.  

PubMed

The current paradigm on the nature of viruses is based on early work of the 'phage group' (the pro-phage concept) and molecular biologists working on tumour viruses (the proto-oncogene concept). It posits that viruses evolved from either prokaryotic or eukaryotic cellular genes that became infectious via their association with capsid genes. In this view, after their emergence viruses continued to evolve by stealing cellular genes (the escape model). This paradigm has been challenged recently by scientists who propose that viruses pre-dated modern cells. In particular, the discovery of Mimivirus has stimulated a lot of discussions on the nature of viruses. There are two major schools of thought, those who defend the escape model, suggesting that giant viruses are giant pickpockets (chimera), and those who emphasize their uniqueness and ancient origin. Comparative genomics of Mimivirus and related viruses (nucleo-cytoplasmic large DNA viruses) have produced a lot of data that have been interpreted according to the prejudices of the authors and thus failed until now to generate a consensus. I briefly review here the history of these debates and how they lead to new proposals, such as the definition of viruses as capsid-encoding organisms or else the recognition of their fundamentally cellular nature, the virocell concept. PMID:20551688

Forterre, Patrick

2010-01-01

242

Molecular epidemiology of respiratory viruses in virus-induced asthma  

PubMed Central

Acute respiratory illness (ARI) due to various viruses is not only the most common cause of upper respiratory infection in humans but is also a major cause of morbidity and mortality, leading to diseases such as bronchiolitis and pneumonia. Previous studies have shown that respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), human rhinovirus (HRV), human metapneumovirus (HMPV), human parainfluenza virus (HPIV), and human enterovirus infections may be associated with virus-induced asthma. For example, it has been suggested that HRV infection is detected in the acute exacerbation of asthma and infection is prolonged. Thus it is believed that the main etiological cause of asthma is ARI viruses. Furthermore, the number of asthma patients in most industrial countries has greatly increased, resulting in a morbidity rate of around 10-15% of the population. However, the relationships between viral infections, host immune response, and host factors in the pathophysiology of asthma remain unclear. To gain a better understanding of the epidemiology of virus-induced asthma, it is important to assess both the characteristics of the viruses and the host defense mechanisms. Molecular epidemiology enables us to understand the pathogenesis of microorganisms by identifying specific pathways, molecules, and genes that influence the risk of developing a disease. However, the epidemiology of various respiratory viruses associated with virus-induced asthma is not fully understood. Therefore, in this article, we review molecular epidemiological studies of RSV, HRV, HPIV, and HMPV infection associated with virus-induced asthma. PMID:24062735

Ishioka, Taisei; Noda, Masahiro; Kozawa, Kunihisa; Kimura, Hirokazu

2013-01-01

243

A vaccinia virus renaissance  

PubMed Central

In 1796, Edward Jenner introduced the concept of vaccination with cowpox virus, an Orthopoxvirus within the family Poxviridae that elicits cross protective immunity against related orthopoxviruses, including smallpox virus (variola virus). Over time, vaccinia virus (VACV) replaced cowpox virus as the smallpox vaccine, and vaccination efforts eventually led to the successful global eradication of smallpox in 1979. VACV has many characteristics that make it an excellent vaccine and that were crucial for the successful eradication of smallpox, including (1) its exceptional thermal stability (a very important but uncommon characteristic in live vaccines), (2) its ability to elicit strong humoral and cell-mediated immune responses, (3) the fact that it is easy to propagate, and (4) that it is not oncogenic, given that VACV replication occurs exclusively within the host cell cytoplasm and there is no evidence that the viral genome integrates into the host genome. Since the eradication of smallpox, VACV has experienced a renaissance of interest as a viral vector for the development of recombinant vaccines, immunotherapies, and oncolytic therapies, as well as the development of next-generation smallpox vaccines. This revival is mainly due to the successful use and extensive characterization of VACV as a vaccine during the smallpox eradication campaign, along with the ability to genetically manipulate its large dsDNA genome while retaining infectivity and immunogenicity, its wide mammalian host range, and its natural tropism for tumor cells that allows its use as an oncolytic vector. This review provides an overview of new uses of VACV that are currently being explored for the development of vaccines, immunotherapeutics, and oncolytic virotherapies. PMID:22777090

Verardi, Paulo H.; Titong, Allison; Hagen, Caitlin J.

2012-01-01

244

Viruses and neurodegeneration  

PubMed Central

Neurodegenerative diseases (NDs) are chronic degenerative diseases of the central nervous system (CNS), which affect 37 million people worldwide. As the lifespan increases, the NDs are the fourth leading cause of death in the developed countries and becoming increasingly prevalent in developing countries. Despite considerable research, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Although the large majority of studies do not show support for the involvement of pathogenic aetiology in classical NDs, a number of emerging studies show support for possible association of viruses with classical neurodegenerative diseases in humans. Space does not permit for extensive details to be discussed here on non-viral-induced neurodegenerative diseases in humans, as they are well described in literature. Viruses induce alterations and degenerations of neurons both directly and indirectly. Their ability to attack the host immune system, regions of nervous tissue implies that they can interfere with the same pathways involved in classical NDs in humans. Supporting this, many similarities between classical NDs and virus-mediated neurodegeneration (non-classical) have been shown at the anatomic, sub-cellular, genomic and proteomic levels suggesting that viruses can explain neurodegenerative disorders mechanistically. The main objective of this review is to provide readers a detailed snapshot of similarities viral and non-viral neurodegenerative diseases share, so that mechanistic pathways of neurodegeneration in human NDs can be clearly understood. Viruses can guide us to unveil these pathways in human NDs. This will further stimulate the birth of new concepts in the biological research, which is needed for gaining deeper insights into the treatment of human NDs and delineate mechanisms underlying neurodegeneration. PMID:23724961

2013-01-01

245

Marine Viruses: Truth or Dare Mya Breitbart  

E-print Network

Marine Viruses: Truth or Dare Mya Breitbart College of Marine Science, University of South Florida million viruses per milliliter of surface seawater, viruses are the most abundant biological entities in the oceans. The majority of these viruses are phages (viruses that infect bacteria). Through lysing

Saleska, Scott

246

Virus movement within grafted watermelon plants  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Watermelon production in Florida is impacted by several viruses including whitefly-transmitted Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV), Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus and Cucurbit leaf crumple virus, and aphid-transmitted Papaya ringspot virus type W (PRSV-W). While germplasm resistant to some...

247

How Hepatitis D Virus Can Hinder the Control of Hepatitis B Virus  

E-print Network

How Hepatitis D Virus Can Hinder the Control of Hepatitis B Virus Maria Xiridou1 *, Barbara Borkent) virus is a defective virus that relies on hepatitis B virus (HBV) for transmission; infection of the bond between the two viruses, control measures for HBV may have also affected the spread of hepatitis D

Hulshof, Joost

248

Hepatitis C Virus and other Flaviviridae Viruses Enter Cells via Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endocytosis of the Flaviviridae viruses, hepatitis C virus, GB virus C\\/hepatitis G virus, and bovine viral diarrheal virus (BVDV) was shown to be mediated by low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptors on cultured cells by several lines of evidence: by the demonstration that endocytosis of these virus correlated with LDL receptor activity, by complete inhibition of detectable endocytosis by anti-LDL receptor

Vincent Agnello; Gyorgy Abel; Mutasim Elfahal; Glenn B. Knight; Qing-Xiu Zhang

1999-01-01

249

Heparan Sulfate-Mediated Binding of Infectious Dengue Virus Type 2 and Yellow Fever Virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dengue virus type 2 and Yellow fever virus are arthropod-borne flaviviruses causing hemorrhagic fever in humans. Identification of virus receptors is important in understanding flavivirus pathogenesis. The aim of this work was to study the role of cellular heparan sulfate in the adsorption of infectious Yellow fever and Dengue type 2 viruses. Virus attachment was assessed by adsorbing virus to

Raphale Germi; Jean-Marc Crance; Daniel Garin; Josette Guimet; Hugues Lortat-Jacob; Rob W. H. Ruigrok; Jean-Pierre Zarski; Emmanuel Drouet

2002-01-01

250

Measles virus for cancer therapy  

PubMed Central

Measles virus offers an ideal platform from which to build a new generation of safe, effective oncolytic viruses. Occasional "spontaneous" tumor regressions have occurred during natural measles infections, but common tumors do not express SLAM, the wild-type MV receptor, and are therefore not susceptible to the virus. Serendipitously, attenuated vaccine strains of measles virus have adapted to use CD46, a regulator of complement activation that is expressed in higher abundance on human tumor cells than on their non transformed counterparts. For this reason, attenuated measles viruses are potent and selective oncolytic agents showing impressive antitumor activity in mouse xenograft models. The viruses can be engineered to enhance their tumor specificity, increase their antitumor potency and facilitate noninvasive in vivo monitoring of their spread. A major impediment to the successful deployment of oncolytic measles viruses as anticancer agents is the high prevalence of pre-existing anti measles immunity, which impedes bloodstream delivery and curtails intratumoral virus spread. It is hoped that these problems can be addressed by delivering the virus inside measles-infected cell carriers and/or by concomitant administration of immunosuppressive drugs. From a safety perspective, population immunity provides an excellent defense against measles spread from patient to carers and, in fifty years of human experience, reversion of attenuated measles to a wild type pathogenic phenotype has not been observed. Clinical trials testing oncolytic measles viruses as an experimental cancer therapy are currently underway. PMID:19203112

Russell, Stephen J.; Whye Peng, Kah

2014-01-01

251

Single Virus Genomics: A New Tool for Virus Discovery  

PubMed Central

Whole genome amplification and sequencing of single microbial cells has significantly influenced genomics and microbial ecology by facilitating direct recovery of reference genome data. However, viral genomics continues to suffer due to difficulties related to the isolation and characterization of uncultivated viruses. We report here on a new approach called Single Virus Genomics, which enabled the isolation and complete genome sequencing of the first single virus particle. A mixed assemblage comprised of two known viruses; E. coli bacteriophages lambda and T4, were sorted using flow cytometric methods and subsequently immobilized in an agarose matrix. Genome amplification was then achieved in situ via multiple displacement amplification (MDA). The complete lambda phage genome was recovered with an average depth of coverage of approximately 437X. The isolation and genome sequencing of uncultivated viruses using Single Virus Genomics approaches will enable researchers to address questions about viral diversity, evolution, adaptation and ecology that were previously unattainable. PMID:21436882

Allen, Lisa Zeigler; Ishoey, Thomas; Novotny, Mark A.; McLean, Jeffrey S.; Lasken, Roger S.; Williamson, Shannon J.

2011-01-01

252

Expression and genetics of caprine haemoglobins.  

PubMed

The expression of haemoglobin (Hb) has been studied in 260 Norwegian Dairy goats by the Immobiline technique at pH ranges 6.7-7.7, 6.9-7.6 and 6.9-7.5. The majority of goats exhibited two- or four-band patterns. In two-band types the average ratio between the anodal and cathodal band was 74:26. PAGE with 8M urea distinguished three phenotypes for the beta chains, proving that the Hb variation described is in the beta chain. Segregation data in 106 complete sire-dam-offspring families agreed with the existence of four beta globin alleles--A2, A4, A6 and A8. Twenty-seven animals had reversed ratios (R) of Hb bands. In two-band phenotypes the average ratio was 36:64. In 15 complete families where one of the parents had reversed ratio, eight offspring received the R type, indicating a simple genetic control. After urea PAGE the R animals all showed the same alpha chain phenotype which differed from that of goats having common ratios of bands. An additional polymorphism appeared in nine animals as three- and five-band patterns which is assumed to be the result of heterozygosity for II alpha and for II alpha and beta globin genes respectively. PMID:3662120

Braend, M; Nesse, L L; Efremov, G D

1987-01-01

253

Viruses from extreme thermal environments  

PubMed Central

Viruses of extreme thermophiles are of great interest because they serve as model systems for understanding the biochemistry and molecular biology required for life at high temperatures. In this work, we report the discovery, isolation, and preliminary characterization of viruses and virus-like particles from extreme thermal acidic environments (7092C, pH 1.04.5) found in Yellowstone National Park. Six unique particle morphologies were found in Sulfolobus enrichment cultures. Three of the particle morphologies are similar to viruses previously isolated from Sulfolobus species from Iceland and/or Japan. Sequence analysis of their viral genomes suggests that they are related to the Icelandic and Japanese isolates. In addition, three virus particle morphologies that had not been previously observed from thermal environments were found. These viruses appear to be completely novel in nature. PMID:11606757

Rice, George; Stedman, Kenneth; Snyder, Jamie; Wiedenheft, Blake; Willits, Debbie; Brumfield, Susan; McDermott, Timothy; Young, Mark J.

2001-01-01

254

Principles of Virus Structural Organization  

PubMed Central

Viruses, the molecular nanomachines infecting hosts ranging from prokaryotes to eukaryotes, come in different sizes, shapes and symmetries. Questions such as what principles govern their structural organization, what factors guide their assembly, how these viruses integrate multifarious functions into one unique structure have enamored researchers for years. In the last five decades, following Caspar and Klug's elegant conceptualization of how viruses are constructed, high resolution structural studies using X-ray crystallography and more recently cryo-EM techniques have provided a wealth of information on structures of variety of viruses. These studies have significantly furthered our understanding of the principles that underlie structural organization in viruses. Such an understanding has practical impact in providing a rational basis for the design and development of antiviral strategies. In this chapter, we review principles underlying capsid formation in a variety of viruses, emphasizing the recent developments along with some historical perspective. PMID:22297509

Prasad, B.V. Venkataram; Schmid, Michael F

2013-01-01

255

Screening for Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)  

MedlinePLUS

... FINAL | 1 Understanding Task Force Recommendations Screening for Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) The U.S. Preventive Services Task ... transmit the virus to her baby. Facts About Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infection Nearly 1.2 million ...

256

NATIONAL RESPIRATORY AND ENTERIC VIRUS SURVEILLANCE SYSTEM  

EPA Science Inventory

The National Respiratory and Enteric Virus Surveillance System is a lab based system which monitors temporal and geographic patterns associated with the detection of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), human parainfluenza viruses (HPIV), respiratory and enteric adenoviruses, and r...

257

Variant (Swine Origin) Influenza Viruses in Humans  

MedlinePLUS

... Submit Button Variant (Swine Origin) Influenza Viruses in Humans Language: English Español Share Compartir On this Page Background Reporting Additional Information Key Facts about Human Infections with Variant Viruses (Swine Origin Influenza Viruses ...

258

Antigenic determinants in influenza virus hemagglutinin.  

PubMed Central

Three antigenic determinants were revealed in H3 hemagglutinin of influenza A viruses isolated from 1968 to 1975. One of them was common for all viruses, and two others specified differences between the viruses possessing H3 hemagglutinin. PMID:89090

Rovnova, Z I; Kosyakov, P N; Berezina, O N; Isayeva, E I; Zhdanov, V M

1979-01-01

259

Introducing Virological Concepts Using an Insect Virus.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A technique is presented which utilizes wax moth larvae in a laboratory investigation of an insect virus. Describes how an insect virus can be used to introduce undergraduate biology students to laboratory work on viruses and several virological concepts. (SA)

Sheppard, Roger F.

1980-01-01

260

DETECTING UNDETECTABLE COMPUTER VIRUSES A Project Report  

E-print Network

DETECTING UNDETECTABLE COMPUTER VIRUSES A Project Report Presented to The Faculty of the Department Titled DETECTING UNDETECTABLE COMPUTER VIRUSES by Sujandharan Venkatachalam on patterns present in viruses and provides a relatively simple and efficient method for detecting known

Stamp, Mark

261

FAQ: West Nile Virus and Dead Birds  

MedlinePLUS

... Virus Share Compartir FAQ: West Nile Virus & Dead Birds How do birds get infected with West Nile ... dead bird sightings to local authorities. How do birds get infected with West Nile virus? West Nile ...

262

Mechanisms of virus assembly  

E-print Network

Viruses are nanoscale entities containing a nucleic acid genome encased in a protein shell called a capsid, and in some cases surrounded by a lipid bilayer membrane. This review summarizes the physics that govern the processes by which capsids assembles within their host cells and in vitro. We describe the thermodynamics and kinetics for assembly of protein subunits into icosahedral capsid shells, and how these are modified in cases where the capsid assembles around a nucleic acid or on a lipid bilayer. We present experimental and theoretical techniques that have been used to characterize capsid assembly, and we highlight aspects of virus assembly which are likely to receive significant attention in the near future.

Jason D Perlmutter; Michael F Hagan

2014-07-15

263

The encephalomyocarditis virus  

PubMed Central

The encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) is a small non-enveloped single-strand RNA virus, the causative agent of not only myocarditis and encephalitis, but also neurological diseases, reproductive disorders and diabetes in many mammalian species. EMCV pathogenesis appears to be viral strain- and host-specific, and a better understanding of EMCV virulence factors is increasingly required. Indeed, EMCV is often used as a model for diabetes and viral myocarditis, and is also widely used in immunology as a double-stranded RNA stimulus in the study of Toll-like as well as cytosolic receptors. However, EMCV virulence and properties have often been neglected. Moreover, EMCV is able to infect humans albeit with a low morbidity. Progress on xenografts, such as pig heart transplantation in humans, has raised safety concerns that need to be explored. In this review we will highlight the biology of EMCV and all known and potential virulence factors. PMID:22722247

Carocci, Margot; Bakkali-Kassimi, Labib

2012-01-01

264

Reverse Genetics with Animal Viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

New strategies to genetically manipulate the genomes of several important animal pathogens have been established in recent\\u000a years. This article focuses on the reverse genetics techniques, which enables genetic manipulation of the genomes of non-segmented\\u000a negative-sense RNA viruses. Recovery of a negative-sense RNA virus entirely from cDNA was first achieved for rabies virus\\u000a in 1994. Since then, reverse genetic systems

Teshome Mebatsion

265

Viruses manipulate the marine environment.  

PubMed

Marine viruses affect Bacteria, Archaea and eukaryotic organisms and are major components of the marine food web. Most studies have focused on their role as predators and parasites, but many of the interactions between marine viruses and their hosts are much more complicated. A series of recent studies has shown that viruses have the ability to manipulate the life histories and evolution of their hosts in remarkable ways, challenging our understanding of this almost invisible world. PMID:19444207

Rohwer, Forest; Thurber, Rebecca Vega

2009-05-14

266

Virus Interference. I. The Interferon  

Microsoft Academic Search

During a study of the interference produced by heat-inactivated influenza virus with the growth of live virus in fragments of chick chorio-allantoic membrane it was found that following incubation of heated virus with membrane a new factor was released. This factor, recognized by its ability to induce interference in fresh pieces of chorio-allantoic membrane, was called interferon. Following a lag

A. Isaacs; J. Lindenmann

1957-01-01

267

VIRUS instrument collimator assembly  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Visual Integral-Field Replicable Unit Spectrograph (VIRUS) instrument is a baseline array 150 identical fiber fed optical spectrographs designed to support observations for the Hobby-Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX). The collimator subassemblies of the instrument have been assembled in a production line and are now complete. Here we review the design choices and assembly practices used to produce a suite of identical low-cost spectrographs in a timely fashion using primarily unskilled labor.

Marshall, Jennifer L.; DePoy, Darren L.; Prochaska, Travis; Allen, Richard D.; Williams, Patrick; Rheault, Jean-Philippe; Li, Ting; Nagasawa, Daniel Q.; Akers, Christopher; Baker, David; Boster, Emily; Campbell, Caitlin; Cook, Erika; Elder, Alison; Gary, Alex; Glover, Joseph; James, Michael; Martin, Emily; Meador, Will; Mondrik, Nicholas; Rodriguez-Patino, Marisela; Villanueva, Steven; Hill, Gary J.; Tuttle, Sarah; Vattiat, Brian; Lee, Hanshin; Chonis, Taylor S.; Dalton, Gavin B.; Tacon, Mike

2014-07-01

268

Genus Orthopoxvirus: Cowpox virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Cowpox virus (CPXV) is distinguished from other orthopoxvirus (OPV) species by producing cytoplasmic A-type inclusion bodies and flattened\\u000a pocks with a hemorrhagic center on the chorioallantoic membrane. CPXV is endemic to Western Eurasia and naturally infects\\u000a a broad range of host species including domestic animals, and zoo animals, as well as humans. Infections in humans seem to\\u000a increase in importance

Sandra Essbauer; Hermann Meyer

269

Rubella virus perturbs autophagy.  

PubMed

Autophagy is a cellular catabolic process implicated in numerous physiological processes and pathological conditions, including infections. Viruses have evolved different strategies to modulate the autophagic process. Since the effects of rubella virus (RV) on autophagy have not yet been reported, we evaluated the autophagic activity in the Statens Seruminstitut Rabbit Cornea cell line infected with the To336 strain of RV. Our results showed that RV lowered the levels of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 B-II (LC3B-II) and the autophagy-related gene 12-autophagy-related gene 5 conjugate, inhibited the autophagic flux, suppressed the intracellular redistribution of LC3B, decreased both the average number and the size of autophagosomes per cell and impeded the formation of acidic vesicular organelles. Induction of autophagy by using rapamycin decreased both the viral yields and the apoptotic rates of infected cultures. Besides its cytoprotective effects, autophagy furnishes an important antiviral mechanism, inhibition of which may reorchestrate intracellular environment so as to better serve the unique requirements of RV replication. Together, our observations suggest that RV utilizes a totally different strategy to cope with autophagy than that evolved by other positive-stranded RNA viruses, and there is considerable heterogeneity among the members of the Togaviridae family in terms of their effects on the cellular autophagic cascade. PMID:24824868

Psztor, Kata; Orosz, Lszl; Seprnyi, Gyrgy; Megyeri, Klra

2014-10-01

270

Reemergence of chikungunya virus.  

PubMed

Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-transmitted alphavirus that causes acute fever and acute and chronic musculoskeletal pain in humans. Since 2004, CHIKV has caused millions of cases of disease in the Indian Ocean region and has emerged in new areas, including Europe, the Middle East, and the Pacific region. The mosquito vectors for this virus are globally distributed in tropical and temperate zones, providing the opportunity for CHIKV to continue to expand into new geographic regions. In October 2013, locally acquired cases of CHIKV infection were identified on the Caribbean island of Saint Martin, signaling the arrival of the virus in the Western Hemisphere. In just 9 months, CHIKV has spread to 22 countries in the Caribbean and Central and South America, resulting in hundreds of thousands of cases. CHIKV disease can be highly debilitating, and large epidemics have severe economic consequences. Thus, there is an urgent need for continued research into the epidemiology, pathogenesis, prevention, and treatment of these infections. PMID:25078691

Morrison, Thomas E

2014-10-01

271

Nonintegrating Foamy Virus Vectors?  

PubMed Central

Foamy viruses (FVs), or spumaviruses, are integrating retroviruses that have been developed as vectors. Here we generated nonintegrating foamy virus (NIFV) vectors by introducing point mutations into the highly conserved DD35E catalytic core motif of the foamy virus integrase sequence. NIFV vectors produced high-titer stocks, transduced dividing cells, and did not integrate. Cells infected with NIFV vectors contained episomal vector genomes that consisted of linear, 1-long-terminal-repeat (1-LTR), and 2-LTR circular DNAs. These episomes expressed transgenes, were stable, and became progressively diluted in the dividing cell population. 1-LTR circles but not 2-LTR circles were found in all vector stocks prior to infection. Residual integration of NIFV vectors occurred at a frequency 4 logs lower than that of integrase-proficient FV vectors. Cre recombinase expressed from a NIFV vector mediated excision of both an integrated, floxed FV vector and a gene-targeted neo expression cassette, demonstrating the utility of these episomal vectors. The broad host range and large packaging capacity of NIFV vectors should make them useful for a variety of applications requiring transient gene expression. PMID:20592072

Deyle, David R.; Li, Yi; Olson, Erik M.; Russell, David W.

2010-01-01

272

RECOVIR Software for Identifying Viruses  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Most single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) viruses mutate rapidly to generate a large number of strains with highly divergent capsid sequences. Determining the capsid residues or nucleotides that uniquely characterize these strains is critical in understanding the strain diversity of these viruses. RECOVIR (an acronym for "recognize viruses") software predicts the strains of some ssRNA viruses from their limited sequence data. Novel phylogenetic-tree-based databases of protein or nucleic acid residues that uniquely characterize these virus strains are created. Strains of input virus sequences (partial or complete) are predicted through residue-wise comparisons with the databases. RECOVIR uses unique characterizing residues to identify automatically strains of partial or complete capsid sequences of picorna and caliciviruses, two of the most highly diverse ssRNA virus families. Partition-wise comparisons of the database residues with the corresponding residues of more than 300 complete and partial sequences of these viruses resulted in correct strain identification for all of these sequences. This study shows the feasibility of creating databases of hitherto unknown residues uniquely characterizing the capsid sequences of two of the most highly divergent ssRNA virus families. These databases enable automated strain identification from partial or complete capsid sequences of these human and animal pathogens.

Chakravarty, Sugoto; Fox, George E.; Zhu, Dianhui

2013-01-01

273

Limits in virus filtration capability? Impact of virus quality and spike level on virus removal with xenotropic murine leukemia virus.  

PubMed

Virus filtration (VF) is a key step in an overall viral clearance process since it has been demonstrated to effectively clear a wide range of mammalian viruses with a log reduction value (LRV)?>?4. The potential to achieve higher LRV from virus retentive filters has historically been examined using bacteriophage surrogates, which commonly demonstrated a potential of?>?9 LRV when using high titer spikes (e.g. 10(10) PFU/mL). However, as the filter loading increases, one typically experiences significant decreases in performance and LRV. The 9 LRV value is markedly higher than the current expected range of 4-5 LRV when utilizing mammalian retroviruses on virus removal filters (Miesegaes et al., Dev Biol (Basel) 2010;133:3-101). Recent values have been reported in the literature (Stuckey et al., Biotech Progr 2014;30:79-85) of LRV in excess of 6 for PPV and XMuLV although this result appears to be atypical. LRV for VF with therapeutic proteins could be limited by several factors including process limits (flux decay, load matrix), virus spike level and the analytical methods used for virus detection (i.e. the Limits of Quantitation), as well as the virus spike quality. Research was conducted using the Xenotropic-Murine Leukemia Virus (XMuLV) for its direct relevance to the most commonly cited document, the International Conference of Harmonization (ICH) Q5A (International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use, Geneva, Switzerland, 1999) for viral safety evaluations. A unique aspect of this work is the independent evaluation of the impact of retrovirus quality and virus spike level on VF performance and LRV. The VF studies used XMuLV preparations purified by either ultracentrifugation (Ultra 1) or by chromatographic processes that yielded a more highly purified virus stock (Ultra 2). Two monoclonal antibodies (Mabs) with markedly different filtration characteristics and with similar levels of aggregate (<1.5%) were evaluated with the Ultra 1 and Ultra 2 virus preparations utilizing the Planova 20 N, a small virus removal filter. Impurities in the virus preparation ultimately limited filter loading as measured by determining the volumetric loading condition where 75% flux decay is observed versus initial conditions (V75 ). This observation occurred with both Mabs with the difference in virus purity more pronounced when very high spike levels were used (>5 vol/vol %). Significant differences were seen for the process performance over a number of lots of the less-pure Ultra 1 virus preparations. Experiments utilizing a developmental lot of the chromatographic purified XMuLV (Ultra 2 Development lot) that had elevated levels of host cell residuals (vs. the final Ultra 2 preparations) suggest that these contaminant residuals can impact virus filter fouling, even if the virus prep is essentially monodisperse. Process studies utilizing an Ultra 2 virus with substantially less host cell residuals and highly monodispersed virus particles demonstrated superior performance and an LRV in excess of 7.7 log10 . A model was constructed demonstrating the linear dependence of filtration flux versus filter loading which can be used to predict the V75 for a range of virus spike levels conditions using this highly purified virus. Fine tuning the virus spike level with this model can ultimately maximize the LRV for the virus filter step, essentially adding the LRV equivalent of another process step (i.e. protein A or CEX chromatography). 2014 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 2014. PMID:25395156

Roush, David J; Myrold, Adam; Burnham, Michael S; And, Joseph V; Hughes, Joseph V

2014-11-14

274

Computer virus information update CIAC-2301  

SciTech Connect

While CIAC periodically issues bulletins about specific computer viruses, these bulletins do not cover all the computer viruses that affect desktop computers. The purpose of this document is to identify most of the known viruses for the MS-DOS and Macintosh platforms and give an overview of the effects of each virus. The authors also include information on some windows, Atari, and Amiga viruses. This document is revised periodically as new virus information becomes available. This document replaces all earlier versions of the CIAC Computer virus Information Update. The date on the front cover indicates date on which the information in this document was extracted from CIAC`s Virus database.

Orvis, W.J.

1994-01-15

275

McAfee's Virus Information Library  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

McAfee, the well-known anti-virus software company, offers this free library, containing information on over 40,000 known PC viruses. Virus details include their source, how they infect your computer, and how to remove them. Users can search for viruses by keyword or browse by category. The site also lists new viruses, the year's top ten, and hoax viruses. Although in most cases the instructions for virus removal include the use of a McAfee product, the site is still an excellent source of virus information.

276

Structure of Flexible Filamentous Plant Viruses  

SciTech Connect

Flexible filamentous viruses make up a large fraction of the known plant viruses, but in comparison with those of other viruses, very little is known about their structures. We have used fiber diffraction, cryo-electron microscopy, and scanning transmission electron microscopy to determine the symmetry of a potyvirus, soybean mosaic virus; to confirm the symmetry of a potexvirus, potato virus X; and to determine the low-resolution structures of both viruses. We conclude that these viruses and, by implication, most or all flexible filamentous plant viruses share a common coat protein fold and helical symmetry, with slightly less than 9 subunits per helical turn.

Kendall, Amy; McDonald, Michele; Bian, Wen; Bowles, Timothy; Baumgarten, Sarah C.; Shi, Jian; Stewart, Phoebe L.; Bullitt, Esther; Gore, David; Irving, Thomas C.; Havens, Wendy M.; Ghabrial, Said A.; Wall, Joseph S.; Stubbs, Gerald (IIT); (BU-M); (Vanderbilt); (Kentucky); (BNL)

2008-10-23

277

Human viruses: discovery and emergence  

PubMed Central

There are 219 virus species that are known to be able to infect humans. The first of these to be discovered was yellow fever virus in 1901, and three to four new species are still being found every year. Extrapolation of the discovery curve suggests that there is still a substantial pool of undiscovered human virus species, although an apparent slow-down in the rate of discovery of species from different families may indicate bounds to the potential range of diversity. More than two-thirds of human viruses can also infect non-human hosts, mainly mammals, and sometimes birds. Many specialist human viruses also have mammalian or avian origins. Indeed, a substantial proportion of mammalian viruses may be capable of crossing the species barrier into humans, although only around half of these are capable of being transmitted by humans and around half again of transmitting well enough to cause major outbreaks. A few possible predictors of species jumps can be identified, including the use of phylogenetically conserved cell receptors. It seems almost inevitable that new human viruses will continue to emerge, mainly from other mammals and birds, for the foreseeable future. For this reason, an effective global surveillance system for novel viruses is needed. PMID:22966141

Woolhouse, Mark; Scott, Fiona; Hudson, Zoe; Howey, Richard; Chase-Topping, Margo

2012-01-01

278

INTERACTIONS OF VIRUS AND HOST  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is an ubiquitous pathogen of ruminants, found worldwide that is often associated with severe economic losses. Understanding these viruses, particularly at the cellular and molecular levels, is important to develop new vaccination and treatment strategies for produc...

279

Defining life: the virus viewpoint.  

PubMed

Are viruses alive? Until very recently, answering this question was often negative and viruses were not considered in discussions on the origin and definition of life. This situation is rapidly changing, following several discoveries that have modified our vision of viruses. It has been recognized that viruses have played (and still play) a major innovative role in the evolution of cellular organisms. New definitions of viruses have been proposed and their position in the universal tree of life is actively discussed. Viruses are no more confused with their virions, but can be viewed as complex living entities that transform the infected cell into a novel organism-the virus-producing virions. I suggest here to define life (an historical process) as the mode of existence of ribosome encoding organisms (cells) and capsid encoding organisms (viruses) and their ancestors. I propose to define an organism as an ensemble of integrated organs (molecular or cellular) producing individuals evolving through natural selection. The origin of life on our planet would correspond to the establishment of the first organism corresponding to this definition. PMID:20198436

Forterre, Patrick

2010-04-01

280

Lagos Bat Virus, South Africa  

PubMed Central

Three more isolates of Lagos bat virus were recently recovered from fruit bats in South Africa after an apparent absence of this virus for 13 years. The sporadic occurrence of cases is likely due to inadequate surveillance programs for lyssavirus infections among bat populations in Africa. PMID:16704795

Markotter, Wanda; Randles, Jenny; Rupprecht, Charles E.; Sabeta, Claude T.; Taylor, Peter J.; Wandeler, Alex I.

2006-01-01

281

Oropouche Virus Isolation, Southeast Brazil  

PubMed Central

An Oropouche virus strain was isolated from a novel host (Callithrix sp.) in Arinos, Minas Gerais State, southeastern Brazil. The virus was identified by complement fixation test and confirmed by reverse transcriptionpolymerase chain reaction. Phylogenetic analysis identified this strain as a genotype III isolate previously recognized only in Panama. PMID:16318707

Martins, Lvia Carcio; Rodrigues, Sueli Guerreiro; Chiang, Jannifer Oliveira; Azevedo, Raimunda do Socorro da Silva; Travassos da Rosa, Amelia P.A.; Vasconcelos, Pedro Fernando da Costa

2005-01-01

282

Virioplankton: viruses in aquatic ecosystems.  

PubMed

The discovery that viruses may be the most abundant organisms in natural waters, surpassing the number of bacteria by an order of magnitude, has inspired a resurgence of interest in viruses in the aquatic environment. Surprisingly little was known of the interaction of viruses and their hosts in nature. In the decade since the reports of extraordinarily large virus populations were published, enumeration of viruses in aquatic environments has demonstrated that the virioplankton are dynamic components of the plankton, changing dramatically in number with geographical location and season. The evidence to date suggests that virioplankton communities are composed principally of bacteriophages and, to a lesser extent, eukaryotic algal viruses. The influence of viral infection and lysis on bacterial and phytoplankton host communities was measurable after new methods were developed and prior knowledge of bacteriophage biology was incorporated into concepts of parasite and host community interactions. The new methods have yielded data showing that viral infection can have a significant impact on bacteria and unicellular algae populations and supporting the hypothesis that viruses play a significant role in microbial food webs. Besides predation limiting bacteria and phytoplankton populations, the specific nature of virus-host interaction raises the intriguing possibility that viral infection influences the structure and diversity of aquatic microbial communities. Novel applications of molecular genetic techniques have provided good evidence that viral infection can significantly influence the composition and diversity of aquatic microbial communities. PMID:10704475

Wommack, K E; Colwell, R R

2000-03-01

283

Swine Influenza Virus: Emerging Understandings  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Introduction: In March-April 2009, a novel pandemic H1N1 emerged in the human population in North America [1]. The gene constellation of the emerging virus was demonstrated to be a combination of genes from swine influenza A viruses (SIV) of North American and Eurasian lineages that had never before...

284

Respiratory viruses and cot death  

Microsoft Academic Search

Respiratory viruses and histological appearances of the lung were studied prospectively in an unselected series of 104 children who died between 1 week and 2 years of age. Thirty-one of the cases were cot deaths. Seven of these showed evidence of active virus infection in the lower respiratory tract. Similar evidence was found in two children who died from known

D J Scott; P S Gardner; J McQuillin; A N Stanton; M A Downham

1978-01-01

285

Virioplankton: Viruses in Aquatic Ecosystems  

PubMed Central

The discovery that viruses may be the most abundant organisms in natural waters, surpassing the number of bacteria by an order of magnitude, has inspired a resurgence of interest in viruses in the aquatic environment. Surprisingly little was known of the interaction of viruses and their hosts in nature. In the decade since the reports of extraordinarily large virus populations were published, enumeration of viruses in aquatic environments has demonstrated that the virioplankton are dynamic components of the plankton, changing dramatically in number with geographical location and season. The evidence to date suggests that virioplankton communities are composed principally of bacteriophages and, to a lesser extent, eukaryotic algal viruses. The influence of viral infection and lysis on bacterial and phytoplankton host communities was measurable after new methods were developed and prior knowledge of bacteriophage biology was incorporated into concepts of parasite and host community interactions. The new methods have yielded data showing that viral infection can have a significant impact on bacteria and unicellular algae populations and supporting the hypothesis that viruses play a significant role in microbial food webs. Besides predation limiting bacteria and phytoplankton populations, the specific nature of virus-host interaction raises the intriguing possibility that viral infection influences the structure and diversity of aquatic microbial communities. Novel applications of molecular genetic techniques have provided good evidence that viral infection can significantly influence the composition and diversity of aquatic microbial communities. PMID:10704475

Wommack, K. Eric; Colwell, Rita R.

2000-01-01

286

Herpes viruses hedge their bets.  

PubMed

Static latency is the hallmark of all herpes viruses. The varicella zoster virus, for instance, causes varicella (chickenpox), and after a latent phase of between 5 and 40 years, it can give rise to herpes zoster (shingles). This latency and the subsequent reactivation has intrigued and puzzled virologists. Although several factors have been suggested, it is unknown what triggers reactivation. However, latency can be explained with a simple evolutionary model. Here, we demonstrate that a simple, yet efficient, bet-hedging strategy might have evolved in a number of viruses, especially those belonging to the herpes virus family and most importantly in varicella zoster virus. We show that the evolution of latency can be explained by the population dynamics of infectious diseases in fluctuating host populations. PMID:12409612

Stumpf, Michael P H; Laidlaw, Zoe; Jansen, Vincent A A

2002-11-12

287

Do viruses require the cytoskeleton?  

PubMed Central

Background It is generally thought that viruses require the cytoskeleton during their replication cycle. However, recent experiments in our laboratory with rubella virus, a member of the family Togaviridae (genus rubivirus), revealed that replication proceeded in the presence of drugs that inhibit microtubules. This study was done to expand on this observation. Findings The replication of three diverse viruses, Sindbis virus (SINV; family Togaviridae family), vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV; family Rhabdoviridae), and Herpes simplex virus (family Herpesviridae), was quantified by the titer (plaque forming units/ml; pfu/ml) produced in cells treated with one of three anti-microtubule drugs (colchicine, noscapine, or paclitaxel) or the anti-actin filament drug, cytochalasin D. None of these drugs affected the replication these viruses. Specific steps in the SINV infection cycle were examined during drug treatment to determine if alterations in specific steps in the virus replication cycle in the absence of a functional cytoskeletal system could be detected, i.e. redistribution of viral proteins and replication complexes or increases/decreases in their abundance. These investigations revealed that the observable impacts were a colchicine-mediated fragmentation of the Golgi apparatus and concomitant intracellular redistribution of the virion structural proteins, along with a reduction in viral genome and sub-genome RNA levels, but not double-stranded RNA or protein levels. Conclusions The failure of poisons affecting the cytoskeleton to inhibit the replication of a diverse set of viruses strongly suggests that viruses do not require a functional cytoskeletal system for replication, either because they do not utilize it or are able to utilize alternate pathways when it is not available. PMID:23597412

2013-01-01

288

Expression of envelope glycoproteins of human immunodeficiency virus by an insect virus vector.  

PubMed Central

The envelope gene of human immunodeficiency virus was inserted into the genome of an insect virus vector (Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus). Upon infection of tissue culture cells, this recombinant virus produced immunoreactive polypeptides related to the envelope glycoproteins of human immunodeficiency virus. Serological survey indicates such polypeptides would be of value as antigens in diagnostics for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Images PMID:3312636

Hu, S I; Kosowski, S G; Schaaf, K F

1987-01-01

289

Complete Genome Sequence of Le Blanc Virus, a Third Caenorhabditis Nematode-Infecting Virus  

E-print Network

Complete Genome Sequence of Le Blanc Virus, a Third Caenorhabditis Nematode-Infecting Virus Carl J,a and Institute of Biology of the Ecole Normale Supérieure (IBENS), Paris, Franceb Orsay virus and Santeuil virus, the first known viruses capable of naturally infecting the nematodes Caenorhabditis elegans

Wang, David

290

Comportement de deux virus filamenteux (Carnation Vein Mottle Virus, Carnation Streak  

E-print Network

Comportement de deux virus filamenteux (Carnation Vein Mottle Virus, Carnation Streak Virus) dans Botanique et de Pathologie végétale, Villa Thuret, B.P. 78, 06602 Antibes Cedex. R?SUM? Virus filamenteux, Dosage, Spectrophotométrie, OEillet. L'évolution de la teneur en virus de la Marbrure des Nervures de l

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

291

Co-infections with Chikungunya Virus and Dengue Virus in Delhi, India  

PubMed Central

Aedes aegypti mosquitoes are common vectors for dengue virus and chikungunya virus. In areas where both viruses cocirculate, they can be transmitted together. During a dengue outbreak in Delhi in 2006, 17 of 69 serum samples were positive for chikungunya virus by reverse transcriptionPCR; 6 samples were positive for both viruses. PMID:19624923

Chahar, Harendra S.; Bharaj, Preeti; Dar, Lalit; Guleria, Randeep; Kabra, Sushil K.

2009-01-01

292

Infectious vaccinia virus recombinants that express hepatitis B virus surface antigen  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Potential live vaccines against hepatitis B virus have been produced. The coding sequence for hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) has been inserted into the vaccinia virus genome under control of vaccinia virus early promoters. Cells infected with these vaccinia virus recombinants synthesize and excrete HBsAg and vaccinated rabbits rapidly produce antibodies to HBsAg.

Smith, Geoffrey L.; Mackett, Michael; Moss, Bernard

1983-04-01

293

The Acute bee paralysis virus-Kashmir bee virus-Israeli acute paralysis virus complex.  

PubMed

Acute bee paralysis virus (ABPV), Kashmir bee virus (KBV) and Israeli acute paralysis virus (IAPV) are part of a complex of closely related viruses from the Family Dicistroviridae. These viruses have a widespread prevalence in honey bee (Apis mellifera) colonies and a predominantly sub-clinical etiology that contrasts sharply with the extremely virulent pathology encountered at elevated titres, either artificially induced or encountered naturally. These viruses are frequently implicated in honey bee colony losses, especially when the colonies are infested with the parasitic mite Varroa destructor. Here we review the historical and recent literature of this virus complex, covering history and origins; the geographic, host and tissue distribution; pathology and transmission; genetics and variation; diagnostics, and discuss these within the context of the molecular and biological similarities and differences between the viruses. We also briefly discuss three recent developments relating specifically to IAPV, concerning its association with Colony Collapse Disorder, treatment of IAPV infection with siRNA and possible honey bee resistance to IAPV. PMID:19909972

de Miranda, Joachim R; Cordoni, Guido; Budge, Giles

2010-01-01

294

Virus Evolution: Insights from an Experimental  

E-print Network

Virus Evolution: Insights from an Experimental Approach Santiago F. Elena and Rafael Sanju Viruses represent a serious problem faced by human and veterinary medicine and agronomy. New viruses indicates that the evolution of viruses is determined mainly by key features such as their small genomes

Elena, Santiago F.

295

Virus Versus Mankind Aviezri S. Fraenkel  

E-print Network

Virus Versus Mankind Aviezri S. Fraenkel Department of Computer Science and Applied Mathematics://www.wisdom.weizmann.ac.il/~fraenkel Humanity is but a passing episode in the eternal life of the virus Abstract. We define a two­player virus game played on a finite cyclic digraph G = (V; E). Each vertex is either occupied by a single virus

Fraenkel, Aviezri

296

Label-Free Chemiresistive Immunosensors for Viruses  

E-print Network

Label-Free Chemiresistive Immunosensors for Viruses D H A M M A N A N D J . S H I R A L E , M A N of viruses. Bacteriophages T7 and MS2 were used as safe models for viruses for demonstration. Ppy nanowires, and affordable detection of bioagents/pathogens. Introduction Detection of viruses is central to human health

Chen, Wilfred

297

Safe Computing: An Overview of Viruses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A computer virus is a program that replicates itself, in conjunction with an additional program that can harm a computer system. Common viruses include boot-sector, macro, companion, overwriting, and multipartite. Viruses can be fast, slow, stealthy, and polymorphic. Anti-virus products are described. (MLH)

Wodarz, Nan

2001-01-01

298

Hepatitis E Virus Infection  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is a worldwide disease. An improved understanding of the natural history of HEV infection has been achieved within the last decade. Several reservoirs and transmission modes have been identified. Hepatitis E is an underdiagnosed disease, in part due to the use of serological assays with low sensitivity. However, diagnostic tools, including nucleic acid-based tests, have been improved. The epidemiology and clinical features of hepatitis E differ between developing and developed countries. HEV infection is usually an acute self-limiting disease, but in developed countries it causes chronic infection with rapidly progressive cirrhosis in organ transplant recipients, patients with hematological malignancy requiring chemotherapy, and individuals with HIV. HEV also causes extrahepatic manifestations, including a number of neurological syndromes and renal injury. Acute infection usually requires no treatment, but chronic infection should be treated by reducing immunosuppression in transplant patients and/or the use of antiviral therapy. In this comprehensive review, we summarize the current knowledge about the virus itself, as well as the epidemiology, diagnostics, natural history, and management of HEV infection in developing and developed countries. PMID:24396139

Dalton, Harry R.; Abravanel, Florence; Izopet, Jacques

2014-01-01

299

Virus interactions with human signal transduction pathways  

PubMed Central

Viruses depend on their hosts at every stage of their life cycles and must therefore communicate with them via Protein-Protein Interactions (PPIs). To investigate the mechanisms of communication by different viruses, we overlay reported pairwise human-virus PPIs on human signalling pathways. Of 671 pathways obtained from NCI and Reactome databases, 355 are potentially targeted by at least one virus. The majority of pathways are linked to more than one virus. We find evidence supporting the hypothesis that viruses often interact with different proteins depending on the targeted pathway. Pathway analysis indicates overrepresentation of some pathways targeted by viruses. The merged network of the most statistically significant pathways shows several centrally located proteins, which are also hub proteins. Generally, hub proteins are targeted more frequently by viruses. Numerous proteins in virus-targeted pathways are known drug targets, suggesting that these might be exploited as potential new approaches to treatments against multiple viruses. PMID:21330695

Zhao, Zhongming; Xia, Junfeng; Tastan, Oznur; Singh, Irtisha; Kshirsagar, Meghana; Carbonell, Jaime; Klein-Seetharaman, Judith

2011-01-01

300

Transmitting Plant Viruses Using Whiteflies  

PubMed Central

Whiteflies, Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae, Bemisia tabaci, a complex of morphologically indistinquishable species5, are vectors of many plant viruses. Several genera of these whitefly-transmitted plant viruses (Begomovirus, Carlavirus, Crinivirus, Ipomovirus, Torradovirus) include several hundred species of emerging and economically significant pathogens of important food and fiber crops (reviewed by9,10,16). These viruses do not replicate in their vector but nevertheless are moved readily from plant to plant by the adult whitefly by various means (reviewed by2,6,7,9,10,11,17). For most of these viruses whitefly feeding is required for acquisition and inoculation, while for others only probing is required. Many of these viruses are unable or cannot be easily transmitted by other means. Therefore maintenance of virus cultures, biological and molecular characterization (identification of host range and symptoms)3,13, ecology2,12, require that the viruses be transmitted to experimental hosts using the whitefly vector. In addition the development of new approaches to management, such as evaluation of new chemicals14 or compounds15, new cultural approaches1,4,19, or the selection and development of resistant cultivars7,8,18, requires the use of whiteflies for virus transmission. The use of whitefly transmission of plant viruses for the selection and development of resistant cultivars in breeding programs is particularly challenging7. Effective selection and screening for resistance employs large numbers of plants and there is a need for 100% of the plants to be inoculated in order to find the few genotypes which possess resistance genes. These studies use very large numbers of viruliferous whiteflies, often several times per year. Whitefly maintenance described here can generate hundreds or thousands of adult whiteflies on plants each week, year round, without the contamination of other plant viruses. Plants free of both whiteflies and virus must be produced to introduce into the whitefly colony each week. Whitefly cultures must be kept free of whitefly pathogens, parasites, and parasitoids that can reduce whitefly populations and/or reduce the transmission efficiency of the virus. Colonies produced in the manner described can be quickly scaled to increase or decrease population numbers as needed, and can be adjusted to accommodate the feeding preferences of the whitefly based on the plant host of the virus. There are two basic types of whitefly colonies that can be maintained: a nonviruliferous and a viruliferous whitefly colony. The nonviruliferous colony is composed of whiteflies reared on virus-free plants and allows the weekly availability of whiteflies which can be used to transmit viruses from different cultures. The viruliferous whitefly colony, composed of whiteflies reared on virus-infected plants, allows weekly availability of whiteflies which have acquired the virus thus omitting one step in the virus transmission process. PMID:24300175

Polston, Jane E.; Capobianco, H.

2013-01-01

301

21 CFR 866.3240 - Equine encephalomyelitis virus serological reagents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Equine encephalomyelitis virus serological reagents. 866.3240...866.3240 Equine encephalomyelitis virus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Equine encephalomyelitis virus serological reagents are...

2010-04-01

302

21 CFR 866.3360 - Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus serological reagents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus serological reagents. 866.3360 Section...866.3360 Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus serological reagents are devices...

2010-04-01

303

21 CFR 866.3240 - Equine encephalomyelitis virus serological reagents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 false Equine encephalomyelitis virus serological reagents. 866.3240...866.3240 Equine encephalomyelitis virus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Equine encephalomyelitis virus serological reagents are...

2014-04-01

304

21 CFR 866.3360 - Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus serological reagents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus serological reagents. 866.3360 Section...866.3360 Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus serological reagents are devices...

2013-04-01

305

21 CFR 866.3240 - Equine encephalomyelitis virus serological reagents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Equine encephalomyelitis virus serological reagents. 866.3240...866.3240 Equine encephalomyelitis virus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Equine encephalomyelitis virus serological reagents are...

2011-04-01

306

21 CFR 866.3240 - Equine encephalomyelitis virus serological reagents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Equine encephalomyelitis virus serological reagents. 866.3240...866.3240 Equine encephalomyelitis virus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Equine encephalomyelitis virus serological reagents are...

2012-04-01

307

21 CFR 866.3240 - Equine encephalomyelitis virus serological reagents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Equine encephalomyelitis virus serological reagents. 866.3240...866.3240 Equine encephalomyelitis virus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Equine encephalomyelitis virus serological reagents are...

2013-04-01

308

21 CFR 866.3360 - Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus serological reagents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus serological reagents. 866.3360 Section...866.3360 Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus serological reagents are devices...

2011-04-01

309

21 CFR 866.3360 - Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus serological reagents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... false Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus serological reagents. 866.3360 Section...866.3360 Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus serological reagents are devices...

2014-04-01

310

21 CFR 866.3360 - Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus serological reagents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus serological reagents. 866.3360 Section...866.3360 Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus serological reagents are devices...

2012-04-01

311

9 CFR 113.215 - Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed Virus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.215 Section 113.215 Animals and...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS;...

2010-01-01

312

Polymerase Activity of Pichinde Virus  

PubMed Central

Pichinde virus, a member of the arenavirus group, was examined for polymerase activity. Purified virus was found to contain RNA-dependent RNA polymerase but not RNA-dependent DNA polymerase activity. Since RNase but neither DNase nor actinomycin D inhibited the endogenous polymerase reaction, RNA of the virus appeared to be used as the template. The divalent cations Mg2+ and Mn2+ were required for optimal reactivity. The RNA product was partially resistant to RNase and the resistant portion had a sedimentation coefficient of 22 to 26S in sucrose gradients. PMID:4132669

Carter, Michael F.; Biswal, Nilambar; Rawls, William E.

1974-01-01

313

Phylogenetic Relationship of the Complete Rauscher Murine Leukemia Virus Genome with Other Murine Leukemia Virus Genomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the complete nucleotide sequence of the genome of Rauscher murine leukemia virus (R-MuLV), the replication-competent helper virus present in the Rauscher virus complex, and its phylogenetic relationship with other murine leukemia virus genomes. An overall sequence identity of 97.6% was found between R-MuLV and the Friend helper virus (F-MuLV), and the two viruses were closely related on the

Anis H Khimani; Michael Lim; Thomas G Graf; Temple F Smith; Ruth M Ruprecht

1997-01-01

314

Rubella Virus Replication Complexes Are Virus-Modified Lysosomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Replication complexes are membrane-bound cytoplasmic vacuoles involved in rubella virus (RV) replication. These structures can be identified by their characteristic morphology at the electron microscopy (EM) level and by their association with double-stranded (ds) RNA in immunogold labeling EM studies. Although these virus-induced structures bear some resemblance to lysosomes, their exact nature and origin are unknown. In this study, the

Dianna Magliano; John A. Marshall; D. Scott Bowden; Nicholas Vardaxis; Jayesh Meanger; Jia-Yee Lee

1998-01-01

315

Grapevine fleck virus-like viruses in Vitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary.?Two sets of degenerate primers for the specific amplification of 572575?nt and 386?nt segments of the methyltransferase\\u000a and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase cistrons of members of the genera Tymovirus and Marafivirus and of the unassigned virus Grapevine fleck virus (GFkV) were designed on the basis of available sequences. These primers\\u000a were used for amplifying and subsequent cloning and sequencing part of

S. Sabanadzovic; N. Abou-Ghanem; M. A. Castellano; M. Digiaro; G. P. Martelli

2000-01-01

316

RATIOS OF VACCINIA VIRUS PARTICLES TO VIRUS INFECTIOUS UNITS  

PubMed Central

Total virus particle counts, infectivity titrations and the ratios between particles and infective units have been determined for vaccinia virus infected tissues. Growth curves of vaccinia in the chorioallantoic membrane are characterized by relatively low ratios from 1 to 4 days after inoculation and a marked rise in the ratio at more prolonged intervals. Ratio determinations of vaccinia virus passages in the egg, rabbit skin, and guinea pig skin have been made to study the phenomenon of adaptation in different hosts. The embryonated egg chorioallantoic membrane shows no variation in the ratio of particles to infectious units during passage and it is concluded that this host is completely susceptible to vaccinia. During adaptive passages on the skin of rabbits and guinea pigs relatively large amounts of non-infective virus appear as indicated by a rise in the particle-infectivity ratios. The extent of ratio increase appears related to the general resistance of the host to the virus. Finally, treatment of crude tissue extracts with sonic vibration is described as an aid in dispersing the virus particles for quantitative particle counts. PMID:14429524

Overman, John R.; Sharp, D. Gordon

1959-01-01

317

Human immunodeficiency virus endocrinopathy  

PubMed Central

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) endocrinopathy encompasses a broad spectrum of disorders. Almost all the endocrine organs are virtually affected by HIV infection. HIV can directly alter glandular function. More commonly secondary endocrine dysfunction occurs due to opportunistic infections and neoplasms in immunocompromised state. The complex interaction between HIV infection and endocrine system may be manifested as subtle biochemical and hormonal perturbation to overt glandular failure. Antiretroviral therapy as well as other essential medications often result in adverse endocrinal consequences. Apart from adrenal insufficiency, hypogonadism, diabetes and bone loss, AIDS wasting syndrome and HIV lipodystrophy need special reference. Endocrinal evaluation should proceed as in other patients with suspected endocrine dysfunction. Available treatment options have been shown to improve quality of life and long-term mortality in AIDS patients. PMID:22028995

Sinha, Uma; Sengupta, Nilanjan; Mukhopadhyay, Prasanta; Roy, Keshab Sinha

2011-01-01

318

Bronchiolitis and Respiratory Syncytial Virus  

MedlinePLUS

ADVICE FOR PATIENTS Bronchiolitis and Respiratory Syncytial Virus B ronchiolitis is an infection that affects the lungs and breathing passages; the name bronchiolitis means inflammation of the small airways in the ...

319

Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV): Symptoms  

MedlinePLUS

... enabling JavaScript. Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area Symptoms Most children ... that can be heard High fever Cough with green or yellow mucus back to top Last Updated ...

320

Foodborne viruses: an emerging problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several groups of viruses may infect persons after ingestion and then are shed via stool. Of these, the norovirus (NoV) and hepatitis A virus (HAV) are currently recognised as the most important human foodborne pathogens with regard to the number of outbreaks and people affected in the Western world.NoV and HAV are highly infectious and may lead to widespread outbreaks.

Marion Koopmans; Erwin Duizer

2004-01-01

321

Simian Varicella Virus: Molecular Virology  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Simian varicella virus (SVV) is a primate herpesvirus that is closely related to varicella-zoster virus (VZV), the causative\\u000a agent of varicella (chickenpox) and herpes zoster (shingles). Epizootics of simian varicella occur sporadically in facilities\\u000a housing Old World monkeys. This review summarizes the molecular properties of SVV. The SVV and VZV genomes are similar in\\u000a size, structure, and gene arrangement. The

Wayne L. Gray

322

Movement of Viruses between Biomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Viruses are abundant in all known ecosystems. In the present study, we tested the possibility that viruses from one biome can successfully propagate in another. Viral concentrates were prepared from different near-shore marine sites, lake water, marine sediments, and soil. The concentrates were added to microcosms containing dissolved organic matter as a food source (after filtration to allow 100-kDa particles

Emiko Sano; Suzanne Carlson; Linda Wegley; Forest Rohwer

2004-01-01

323

Stability of Hepatitis A Virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The stabilities of hepatitis A virus (HAV) and of poliovirus type 2 were compared under strictly controlled, identical conditions of pH value, temperature, and salt concentration. Although the resistance of the viruses proved to be the same from pH 3 to 11, the temperature at which 50% of poliovirus particles became disintegrated during heating at pH 7.0 for 10

Gnter Siegl; Manfred Weitz; Gertrud Kronauer

1984-01-01

324

Major tomato viruses in the Mediterranean basin.  

PubMed

Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) originated in South America and was brought to Europe by the Spaniards in the sixteenth century following their colonization of Mexico. From Europe, tomato was introduced to North America in the eighteenth century. Tomato plants show a wide climatic tolerance and are grown in both tropical and temperate regions around the world. The climatic conditions in the Mediterranean basin favor tomato cultivation, where it is traditionally produced as an open-field plant. However, viral diseases are responsible for heavy yield losses and are one of the reasons that tomato production has shifted to greenhouses. The major tomato viruses endemic to the Mediterranean basin are described in this chapter. These viruses include Tomato yellow leaf curl virus, Tomato torrado virus, Tomato spotted wilt virus, Tomato infectious chlorosis virus, Tomato chlorosis virus, Pepino mosaic virus, and a few minor viruses as well. PMID:22682165

Hanssen, Inge M; Lapidot, Moshe

2012-01-01

325

9 CFR 113.209 - Rabies Vaccine, Killed Virus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rabies Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.209 Section...REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines 113.209 Rabies Vaccine, Killed Virus. Rabies Vaccine (Killed Virus) shall be prepared...

2010-01-01

326

Viruses in Turing's Garden by Jean-Yves Marion  

E-print Network

Viruses in Turing's Garden by Jean-Yves Marion Cohen and his supervisor Adleman defined a virus as follows: "A virus is a program security community as a foundational definition. Thus, a virus is a self

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

327

Another Really, Really Big Virus  

PubMed Central

Viruses with genomes larger than 300 kb and up to 1.2 Mb, which encode hundreds of proteins, are being discovered and characterized with increasing frequency. Most, but not all, of these large viruses (often referred to as giruses) infect protists that live in aqueous environments. Bioinformatic analyses of metagenomes of aqueous samples indicate that large DNA viruses are quite common in nature and await discovery. One issue that is perhaps not appreciated by the virology community is that large viruses, even those classified in the same family, can differ significantly in morphology, lifestyle, and gene complement. This brief commentary, which will mention some of these unique properties, was stimulated by the characterization of the newest member of this club, virus CroV (Fischer, M.G.; Allen, M.J.; Wilson, W.H.; Suttle, C.A. Giant virus with a remarkable complement of genes infects marine zooplankton. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 2010, 107, 1950819513 [1]). CroV has a 730 kb genome (with ?544 protein-encoding genes) and infects the marine microzooplankton Cafeteria roenbergensis producing a lytic infection. PMID:21994725

Van Etten, James L.

2011-01-01

328

NOVA: Reviving the 1918 Virus  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video with accompanying interactive activity puts learners in the role of active decision-makers regarding the ethics of a recent experiment to revive the deadly 1918 influenza virus. In 2005, researchers sequenced the germ's genome and published the data on a public database. Other researchers used the genome to bring the long-vanished killer virus back to life. Was the experiment justified, or should dead viruses be left alone? After watching the 10-minute video, an interactive activity allows learners to explore arguments from both sides, then vote online. They will consider the following: 1) Does the knowledge gained outweigh the risks? 2) What if terrorists recreated the virus? 3) What if the virus accidentally leaked into the environment, like the SARS virus in 2004? 4) Should scientists publish genome sequences of potentially deadly organisms? Editor's Note: This resource will help students see that scientists must consider the implications of their work, and whether it is responsible to freely publish all findings. Allow 50 minutes.

2010-10-21

329

A DNA Virus of Drosophila  

PubMed Central

Little is known about the viruses infecting most species. Even in groups as well-studied as Drosophila, only a handful of viruses have been well-characterized. A viral metagenomic approach was used to explore viral diversity in 83 wild-caught Drosophila innubila, a mushroom feeding member of the quinaria group. A single fly that was injected with, and died from, Drosophila C Virus (DCV) was added to the sample as a control. Two-thirds of reads in the infected sample had DCV as the best BLAST hit, suggesting that the protocol developed is highly sensitive. In addition to the DCV hits, several sequences had Oryctes rhinoceros Nudivirus, a double-stranded DNA virus, as a best BLAST hit. The virus associated with these sequences was termed Drosophila innubila Nudivirus (DiNV). PCR screens of natural populations showed that DiNV was both common and widespread taxonomically and geographically. Electron microscopy confirms the presence of virions in fly fecal material similar in structure to other described Nudiviruses. In 2 species, D. innubila and D. falleni, the virus is associated with a severe (?8090%) loss of fecundity and significantly decreased lifespan. PMID:22053195

Unckless, Robert L.

2011-01-01

330

Functional Murine Leukemia Virus Vectors Pseudotyped with the Visna Virus Envelope Show Expanded Visna Virus Cell Tropism  

PubMed Central

Pseudotype virus vectors serve as a powerful tool for the study of virus receptor usage and entry. We describe the development of murine leukemia virus (MuLV) particles pseudotyped with the visna virus envelope glycoprotein and encoding a green fluorescent protein reporter as a tool to study the expression of the visna virus receptor. Functional MuLV/visna virus pseudotypes were obtained when the cytoplasmic tail of the visna virus envelope TM protein was truncated to 3, 7, or 11 amino acids in length. MuLV/visna virus particles were used to transduce a panel of cell types from various organisms, including sheep, goat, human, hamster, mouse, monkey, and quail. The majority of the cells examined were susceptible to MuLV/visna pseudotype viruses, supporting the notion that the visna virus cellular receptor is a widely expressed protein found in many species. Of 16 different cell types tested, only mouse embryo fibroblast NIH 3T3 cells, hamster ovary CHO cells, and the human promonocyte cell line U937 cells were not susceptible to transduction by the pseudotyped virus. The production of functional MuLV/visna virus pseudotypes has provided a sensitive, biologically relevant system to study visna virus cell entry and envelope-receptor interactions. PMID:11689628

Bruett, Linda; Clements, Janice E.

2001-01-01

331

Unusual Influenza A Viruses in Bats  

PubMed Central

Influenza A viruses infect a remarkably diverse number of hosts. Two completely new influenza A virus subtypes were recently discovered in bats, dramatically expanding the host range of the virus. These bat viruses are extremely divergent from all other known strains and likely have unique replication cycles. Phylogenetic analysis indicates long-term, isolated evolution in bats. This is supported by a high seroprevalence in sampled bat populations. As bats represent ~20% of all classified mammals, these findings suggests the presence of a massive cryptic reservoir of poorly characterized influenza A viruses. Here, we review the exciting progress made on understanding these newly discovered viruses, and discuss their zoonotic potential. PMID:25256392

Mehle, Andrew

2014-01-01

332

40 CFR 174.514 - Coat Protein of Watermelon Mosaic Virus-2 and Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus; exemption from the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Coat Protein of Watermelon Mosaic Virus-2 and Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus; exemption from the requirement for a tolerance...174.514 Coat Protein of Watermelon Mosaic Virus-2 and Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus;...

2012-07-01

333

40 CFR 174.514 - Coat Protein of Watermelon Mosaic Virus-2 and Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus; exemption from the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Coat Protein of Watermelon Mosaic Virus-2 and Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus; exemption from the requirement for a tolerance...174.514 Coat Protein of Watermelon Mosaic Virus-2 and Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus;...

2013-07-01

334

40 CFR 174.514 - Coat Protein of Watermelon Mosaic Virus-2 and Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus; exemption from the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Coat Protein of Watermelon Mosaic Virus-2 and Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus; exemption from the requirement for a tolerance...174.514 Coat Protein of Watermelon Mosaic Virus-2 and Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus;...

2010-07-01

335

40 CFR 174.514 - Coat Protein of Watermelon Mosaic Virus-2 and Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus; exemption from the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 false Coat Protein of Watermelon Mosaic Virus-2 and Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus; exemption from the requirement for a tolerance...174.514 Coat Protein of Watermelon Mosaic Virus-2 and Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus;...

2014-07-01

336

40 CFR 174.514 - Coat Protein of Watermelon Mosaic Virus-2 and Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus; exemption from the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Coat Protein of Watermelon Mosaic Virus-2 and Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus; exemption from the requirement for a tolerance...174.514 Coat Protein of Watermelon Mosaic Virus-2 and Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus;...

2011-07-01

337

Immunological Memory after Exposure to Variola Virus, Monkeypox Virus, and Vaccinia Virus  

PubMed Central

We compared cellular and humoral immunity to vaccinia virus (VV) in individuals exposed to 3 different orthopoxviruses: 154 individuals previously vaccinated with VV, 7 individuals with a history of monkeypox virus infection, and 8 individuals with a history of variola virus infection. Among individuals vaccinated >20 years prior, 9 (14%) of 66 individuals demonstrated VV-specific interferon (IFN)-? enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assay responses; 21 (50%) of 42 had lymphoproliferative (LP) responses, and 29 (97%) of 30 had VV-specific neutralizing antibodies. One year after monkeypox virus infection, 6 of 7 individuals had IFN-? ELISPOT responses, all had VV-specific LP responses, and 3 of 7 had VV-specific neutralizing antibodies. Of 8 individuals with a history of variola virus infection, 1 had a VV-specific IFN-? ELISPOT response, 4 had LP responses against whole VV, 7 had LP responses against heat-denatured vaccinia antigen, and 7 had VV-specific neutralizing antibodies. Survivors of variola virus infection demonstrated VV-specific CD4 memory cell responses and neutralizing antibodies >40 years after infection. PMID:17357051

Sivapalasingam, Sumathi; Kennedy, Jeffrey S.; Borkowsky, William; Valentine, Fred; Zhan, Ming-Xia; Pazoles, Pamela; Paolino, Anna; Ennis, Francis A.; Steigbigel, Neal H.

2007-01-01

338

Emerging and re-emerging swine viruses.  

PubMed

In the past two decades or so, a number of viruses have emerged in the global swine population. Some, such as porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), cause economically important diseases in pigs, whereas others such as porcine torque teno virus (TTV), now known as Torque teno sus virus (TTSuV), porcine bocavirus (PBoV) and related novel parvoviruses, porcine kobuvirus, porcine toroviruses (PToV) and porcine lymphotropic herpesviruses (PLHV), are mostly subclinical in swine herds. Although some emerging swine viruses such as swine hepatitis E virus (swine HEV), porcine endogenous retrovirus (PERV) and porcine sapovirus (porcine SaV) may have a limited clinical implication in swine health, they do pose a potential public health concern in humans due to zoonotic (swine HEV) or potential zoonotic (porcine SaV) and xenozoonotic (PERV, PLHV) risks. Other emerging viruses such as Nipah virus, Bungowannah virus and Menangle virus not only cause diseases in pigs but some also pose important zoonotic threat to humans. This article focuses on emerging and re-emerging swine viruses that have a limited or uncertain clinical and economic impact on pig health. The transmission, epidemiology and pathogenic potential of these viruses are discussed. In addition, the two economically important emerging viruses, PRRSV and PCV2, are also briefly discussed to identify important knowledge gaps. PMID:22225855

Meng, X J

2012-03-01

339

Viruses and viruslike particles of eukaryotic algae.  

PubMed Central

Until recently there was little interest or information on viruses and viruslike particles of eukaryotic algae. However, this situation is changing. In the past decade many large double-stranded DNA-containing viruses that infect two culturable, unicellular, eukaryotic green algae have been discovered. These viruses can be produced in large quantities, assayed by plaque formation, and analyzed by standard bacteriophage techniques. The viruses are structurally similar to animal iridoviruses, their genomes are similar to but larger (greater than 300 kbp) than that of poxviruses, and their infection process resembles that of bacteriophages. Some of the viruses have DNAs with low levels of methylated bases, whereas others have DNAs with high concentrations of 5-methylcytosine and N6-methyladenine. Virus-encoded DNA methyltransferases are associated with the methylation and are accompanied by virus-encoded DNA site-specific (restriction) endonucleases. Some of these enzymes have sequence specificities identical to those of known bacterial enzymes, and others have previously unrecognized specificities. A separate rod-shaped RNA-containing algal virus has structural and nucleotide sequence affinities to higher plant viruses. Quite recently, viruses have been associated with rapid changes in marine algal populations. In the next decade we envision the discovery of new algal viruses, clarification of their role in various ecosystems, discovery of commercially useful genes in these viruses, and exploitation of algal virus genetic elements in plant and algal biotechnology. Images PMID:1779928

Van Etten, J L; Lane, L C; Meints, R H

1991-01-01

340

Plasmodesmata: channels for viruses on the move.  

PubMed

The symplastic communication network established by plasmodesmata (PD) and connected phloem provides an essential pathway for spatiotemporal intercellular signaling in plant development but is also exploited by viruses for moving their genomes between cells in order to infect plants systemically. Virus movement depends on virus-encoded movement proteins (MPs) that target PD and therefore represent important keys to the cellular mechanisms underlying the intercellular trafficking of viruses and other macromolecules. Viruses and their MPs have evolved different mechanisms for intracellular transport and interaction with PD. Some viruses move from cell to cell by interacting with cellular mechanisms that control the size exclusion limit of PD whereas other viruses alter the PD architecture through assembly of specialized transport structures within the channel. Some viruses move between cells in the form of assembled virus particles whereas other viruses may interact with nucleic acid transport mechanisms to move their genomes in a non-encapsidated form. Moreover, whereas several viruses rely on the secretory pathway to target PD, other viruses interact with the cortical endoplasmic reticulum and associated cytoskeleton to spread infection. This chapter provides an introduction into viruses and their role in studying the diverse cellular mechanisms involved in intercellular PD-mediated macromolecular trafficking. PMID:25287194

Heinlein, Manfred

2015-01-01

341

Cytotoxic T-cell abundance and virus load in human immunode ciency virus type 1  

E-print Network

Cytotoxic T-cell abundance and virus load in human immunode ciency virus type 1 and human T-cell leukaemia virus type 1 Dominik Wodarz1 {, Sarah E. Hall2 {, Koichiro Usuku3,4 , Mitsuhiro Osame4 , Graham S OX3 9DU, UK The correlation between virus load and speci¢c cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) frequency

Nowak, Martin A.

342

Guidelines for Anti-Virus Protection Recommended processes to prevent virus problems  

E-print Network

Guidelines for Anti-Virus Protection COE­AVP­01 Recommended processes to prevent virus problems: · Always run either the current University site licensed anti-virus software, which is available from the University download site or through ECS, or other reputable anti-virus software. · Download and run

Demirel, Melik C.

343

Analysis of in vivo dynamics of influenza virus infection in mice using a GFP reporter virus  

E-print Network

Analysis of in vivo dynamics of influenza virus infection in mice using a GFP reporter virus Balaji for review December 30, 2009) Influenza A virus is being extensively studied because of its major impact on human and animal health. However, the dynamics of influenza virus infection and the cell types infected

344

Virus-host protein interactions in RNA viruses Pierre-Olivier Vidalain*, Frederic Tangy*  

E-print Network

Review Virus-host protein interactions in RNA viruses Pierre-Olivier Vidalain*, Fre´de´ric Tangy RNA viruses exhibit small-sized genomes that only encode a limited number of viral proteins, but still that aim at understanding general features of RNA virus infection networks at the protein level. ? 2010

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

345

Trafficking of Hepatitis C Virus Core Protein during Virus Particle Assembly  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) core protein is directed to the surface of lipid droplets (LD), a step that is essential for infectious virus production. However, the process by which core is recruited from LD into nascent virus particles is not well understood. To investigate the kinetics of core trafficking, we developed methods to image functional core protein in live, virus-producing

Natalie A. Counihan; Stephen M. Rawlinson; Brett D. Lindenbach

2011-01-01

346

RNA Viruses in Hymenopteran Pollinators: Evidence of Inter-Taxa Virus Transmission via Pollen and Potential  

E-print Network

RNA Viruses in Hymenopteran Pollinators: Evidence of Inter-Taxa Virus Transmission via Pollen in the agricultural community. Among honey bee pathogens, RNA viruses are emerging as a serious threat a possible wider environmental spread of these viruses with potential broader impact. It is therefore vital

dePamphilis, Claude

347

Viruses in freshwater ecosystems: an introduction to the exploration of viruses in new aquatic habitats  

E-print Network

Viruses in freshwater ecosystems: an introduction to the exploration of viruses in new aquatic SUMMARY 1. Viruses have become widely recognized as the most abundant biological entities and important focussed on marine viruses, especially in pelagic environments. 2. Here we introduce a special issue

Jacquet, Stéphan

348

Sexual transmission of hepatitis C virus and its relation with hepatitis B virus and HIV  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE--To determine the extent of transmission of hepatitis C virus in sexual partners of intravenous drug misusers and to examine the relation between the prevalences of HIV, hepatitis B virus, and hepatitis C virus infections in homosexual men and intravenous drug misusers and their sexual partners. DESIGN--Serum samples collected between 1984 and 1988 were tested for hepatitis B virus markers

J Tor; J M Llibre; M Carbonell; R Muga; A Ribera; V Soriano; B Clotet; M Sabri; M Foz

1990-01-01

349

Research Projects in Ly's & Liang's Labs How virus-host interactions affect Lassa and Influenza virus  

E-print Network

Guanarito (BSL4) Sabia (BSL4) Chapare (BSL4) Lujo (BSL4) Rift Valley Fever (BSL3) (BSL4) Yellow Fever (BSL and Influenza virus replication, virulence and pathogenesis? I fl iLassa fever virus Influenza virus #12;Lassa Virus Causes Lethal Hemorrhagic Fever · Severe multisystem syndrome · Damage to overall vascular system

Blanchette, Robert A.

350

Giant viruses in the oceans : the 4th Algal Virus Workshop  

E-print Network

Giant viruses in the oceans : the 4th Algal Virus Workshop Jean-Michel Claverie Structural viruses (such as record breaking Acanthamoeba polyphaga Mimivirus), with particle sizes of 0.2 to 0.6 µm mystery. They challenge the common vision of viruses, traditionally seen as highly streamlined genomes

Boyer, Edmond

351

Coping with Computer Viruses: General Discussion and Review of Symantec Anti-Virus for the Macintosh.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses computer viruses that attack the Macintosh and describes Symantec AntiVirus for Macintosh (SAM), a commercial program designed to detect and eliminate viruses; sample screen displays are included. SAM is recommended for use in library settings as well as two public domain virus protection programs. (four references) (MES)

Primich, Tracy

1992-01-01

352

Defective interfering RNAs and defective viruses associated with multipartite RNA viruses of plants  

E-print Network

Defective interfering RNAs and defective viruses associated with multipartite RNA viruses of plants Michael V. Graves*, Judit Pogany and Javier Romero Defective interfering (DI) RNAs and defective viruses have been described for a variety of multipartite RNA viruses of plants. At present, the DI RNAs

Graves, Michael V.

353

Structure of the hepatitis E virus-like particle suggests mechanisms for virus assembly  

E-print Network

Structure of the hepatitis E virus-like particle suggests mechanisms for virus assembly (received for review May 1, 2009) Hepatitis E virus (HEV), a small, non-enveloped RNA virus in the family Hepeviridae, is associated with endemic and epidemic acute viral hepatitis in developing countries. Our 3.5-?

Tao, Yizhi Jane

354

Full Genome Sequencing and Genetic Characterization of Eubenangee Viruses Identify Pata Virus as a Distinct Species within the Genus Orbivirus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eubenangee virus has previously been identified as the cause of Tammar sudden death syndrome (TSDS). Eubenangee virus (EUBV), Tilligery virus (TILV), Pata virus (PATAV) and Ngoupe virus (NGOV) are currently all classified within the Eubenangee virus species of the genus Orbivirus, family Reoviridae. Full genome sequencing confirmed that EUBV and TILV (both of which are from Australia) show high levels

Manjunatha N. Belaganahalli; Sushila Maan; Narender S. Maan; Kyriaki Nomikou; Ian Pritchard; Ross Lunt; Peter D. Kirkland; Houssam Attoui; Joe Brownlie; Peter P. C. Mertens

2012-01-01

355

Rare Virus Discovered in Common Tick  

MedlinePLUS

... features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Rare Virus Discovered in Common Tick Scientists not yet sure ... FRIDAY, Jan. 16, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- A rare virus has been found in ticks that are common ...

356

About Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV)  

MedlinePLUS

... Providers Laboratory Testing References & Resources About Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) Share Compartir On this Page Symptoms Transmission Diagnosis Prevention & Treatment Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), also known as human herpesvirus 4, is ...

357

NIAID's Role in Addressing West Nile Virus  

MedlinePLUS

... about to begin feeding on a human host. Credit: CDC West Nile virus (WNV) first emerged in ... Cause Transmission electron micrograph of West Nile virus. Credit: CDC West Nile fever is caused by a ...

358

Swine Influenza/Variant Influenza Viruses  

MedlinePLUS

... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Information on Swine Influenza/Variant Influenza Viruses Language: English Español ... pigs and variant influenza virus infections in humans. Swine Flu in Swine (pigs) Swine Flu in Swine ( ...

359

Recombination Promoted by DNA Viruses: Phage ? to Herpes Simplex Virus  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this review is to explore recombination strategies in DNA viruses. Homologous recombination is a universal genetic process that plays multiple roles in the biology of all organisms, including viruses. Recombination and DNA replication are interconnected, with recombination being essential for repairing DNA damage and supporting replication of the viral genome. Recombination also creates genetic diversity, and viral recombination mechanisms have important implications for understanding viral origins as well as the dynamic nature of viral-host interactions. Both bacteriophage ? and herpes simplex virus (HSV) display high rates of recombination, both utilizing their own proteins and commandeering cellular proteins to promote recombination reactions. We focus primarily on ? and HSV, as they have proven amenable to both genetic and biochemical analysis and have recently been shown to exhibit some surprising similarities that will guide future studies. PMID:25002096

Weller, Sandra K.; Sawitzke, James A.

2015-01-01

360

Autophagic machinery activated by dengue virus enhances virus replication  

SciTech Connect

Autophagy is a cellular response against stresses which include the infection of viruses and bacteria. We unravel that Dengue virus-2 (DV2) can trigger autophagic process in various infected cell lines demonstrated by GFP-LC3 dot formation and increased LC3-II formation. Autophagosome formation was also observed under the transmission electron microscope. DV2-induced autophagy further enhances the titers of extracellular and intracellular viruses indicating that autophagy can promote viral replication in the infected cells. Moreover, our data show that ATG5 protein is required to execute DV2-induced autophagy. All together, we are the first to demonstrate that DV can activate autophagic machinery that is favorable for viral replication.

Lee, Y.-R. [Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Lei, H.-Y. [Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Department of Microbiology and Immunology, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Liu, M.-T. [Tainan Hospital, Department of Health, Executive Yuan, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Wang, J.-R. [Department of Medical Laboratory Science and Biotechnology, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Chen, S.-H. [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Jiang-Shieh, Y.-F. [Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Lin, Y.-S. [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Yeh, T.-M. [Department of Medical Laboratory Science and Biotechnology, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Liu, C.-C. [Department of Pediatrics, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Liu, H.-S. [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: a713@mail.ncku.edu.tw

2008-05-10

361

Electrical detection of single viruses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report direct, real-time electrical detection of single virus particles with high selectivity by using nanowire field effect transistors. Measurements made with nanowire arrays modified with antibodies for influenza A showed discrete conductance changes characteristic of binding and unbinding in the presence of influenza A but not paramyxovirus or adenovirus. Simultaneous electrical and optical measurements using fluorescently labeled influenza A were used to demonstrate conclusively that the conductance changes correspond to binding/unbinding of single viruses at the surface of nanowire devices. pH-dependent studies further show that the detection mechanism is caused by a field effect, and that the nanowire devices can be used to determine rapidly isoelectric points and variations in receptor-virus binding kinetics for different conditions. Lastly, studies of nanowire devices modified with antibodies specific for either influenza or adenovirus show that multiple viruses can be selectively detected in parallel. The possibility of large-scale integration of these nanowire devices suggests potential for simultaneous detection of a large number of distinct viral threats at the single virus level.

Patolsky, Fernando; Zheng, Gengfeng; Hayden, Oliver; Lakadamyali, Melike; Zhuang, Xiaowei; Lieber, Charles M.

2004-09-01

362

Electrical detection of single viruses  

PubMed Central

We report direct, real-time electrical detection of single virus particles with high selectivity by using nanowire field effect transistors. Measurements made with nanowire arrays modified with antibodies for influenza A showed discrete conductance changes characteristic of binding and unbinding in the presence of influenza A but not paramyxovirus or adenovirus. Simultaneous electrical and optical measurements using fluorescently labeled influenza A were used to demonstrate conclusively that the conductance changes correspond to binding/unbinding of single viruses at the surface of nanowire devices. pH-dependent studies further show that the detection mechanism is caused by a field effect, and that the nanowire devices can be used to determine rapidly isoelectric points and variations in receptor-virus binding kinetics for different conditions. Lastly, studies of nanowire devices modified with antibodies specific for either influenza or adenovirus show that multiple viruses can be selectively detected in parallel. The possibility of large-scale integration of these nanowire devices suggests potential for simultaneous detection of a large number of distinct viral threats at the single virus level. PMID:15365183

Patolsky, Fernando; Zheng, Gengfeng; Hayden, Oliver; Lakadamyali, Melike; Zhuang, Xiaowei; Lieber, Charles M.

2004-01-01

363

Why genes overlap in viruses  

PubMed Central

The genomes of most virus species have overlapping genestwo or more proteins coded for by the same nucleotide sequence. Several explanations have been proposed for the evolution of this phenomenon, and we test these by comparing the amount of gene overlap in all known virus species. We conclude that gene overlap is unlikely to have evolved as a way of compressing the genome in response to the harmful effect of mutation because RNA viruses, despite having generally higher mutation rates, have less gene overlap on average than DNA viruses of comparable genome length. However, we do find a negative relationship between overlap proportion and genome length among viruses with icosahedral capsids, but not among those with other capsid types that we consider easier to enlarge in size. Our interpretation is that a physical constraint on genome length by the capsid has led to gene overlap evolving as a mechanism for producing more proteins from the same genome length. We consider that these patterns cannot be explained by other factors, namely the possible roles of overlap in transcription regulation, generating more divergent proteins and the relationship between gene length and genome length. PMID:20610432

Chirico, Nicola; Vianelli, Alberto; Belshaw, Robert

2010-01-01

364

Control of viruses infecting grapevine.  

PubMed

Grapevine is a high value vegetatively propagated fruit crop that suffers from numerous viruses, including some that seriously affect the profitability of vineyards. Nowadays, 64 viruses belonging to different genera and families have been reported in grapevines and new virus species will likely be described in the future. Three viral diseases namely leafroll, rugose wood, and infectious degeneration are of major economic importance worldwide. The viruses associated with these diseases are transmitted by mealybugs, scale and soft scale insects, or dagger nematodes. Here, we review control measures of the major grapevine viral diseases. More specifically, emphasis is laid on (i) approaches for the production of clean stocks and propagative material through effective sanitation, robust diagnosis, as well as local and regional certification efforts, (ii) the management of vectors of viruses using cultural, biological, and chemical methods, and (iii) the production of resistant grapevines mainly through the application of genetic engineering. The benefits and limitations of the different control measures are discussed with regard to accomplishments and future research directions. PMID:25591880

Maliogka, Varvara I; Martelli, Giovanni P; Fuchs, Marc; Katis, Nikolaos I

2015-01-01

365

Characteristics of Filoviridae: Marburg and Ebola Viruses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Filoviruses are enveloped, nonsegmented negative-stranded RNA viruses. The two species, Marburg and Ebola virus, are serologically, biochemically, and genetically distinct. Marburg virus was first isolated during an outbreak in Europe in 1967, and Ebola virus emerged in 1976 as the causative agent of two simultaneous outbreaks in southern Sudan and northern Zaire. Although the main route of infection is known to be person-to-person transmission by intimate contact, the natural reservoir for filoviruses still remains a mystery.

Beer, Brigitte; Kurth, Reinhard; Bukreyev, Alexander

366

Historical review: viruses, crystals and geodesic domes.  

PubMed

In the mid 1950s, Francis Crick and James Watson attempted to explain the structure of spherical viruses. They hypothesized that spherical viruses consist of 60 identical equivalently situated subunits. Such an arrangement has icosahedral symmetry. Subsequent biophysical and electron micrographic data suggested that many viruses had >60 subunits. Drawing inspiration from architecture, Donald Caspar and Aaron Klug discovered a solution to the problem - they proposed that spherical viruses were structured like miniature geodesic domes. PMID:12575996

Morgan, Gregory J

2003-02-01

367

Number of Virus Particles in Insects and Plants Infected with Wound Tumor Virus  

PubMed Central

A new procedure for counting virus particles was employed to measure the concentration of wound tumor virus in purified virus preparations, in plant tumors, and in the insect vector. Partially purified wound tumor virus was used to establish the quantitative features of the method. A 1-g amount of plant tumor tissue contained an average of 5 1010 virus particles and 1 g of insect tissue contained 2 1010 particles. Images PMID:5742043

Streissle, Gert; Bystricky, Vojtech; Granados, Robert R.; Strohmaier, Karl

1968-01-01

368

Cooperation between the Hemagglutinin of Avian Viruses and the Matrix Protein of Human Influenza A Viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

To analyze the compatibility of avian influenza A virus hemagglutinins (HAs) and human influenza A virus matrix (M) proteins M1 and M2, we doubly infected Madin-Darby canine kidney cells with amantadine (1-aminoadamantane hydrochloride)-resistant human viruses and amantadine-sensitive avian strains. By using antisera against the human virus HAs and amantadine, we selected reassortants containing the human virus M gene and the

Christoph Scholtissek; Jrgen Stech; Scott Krauss; Robert G. Webster

2002-01-01

369

Optimization of network protection against virus spread  

E-print Network

Optimization of network protection against virus spread Eric Gourdin Orange Labs, Issy Abstract--The effect of virus spreading in a telecommunication network, where a certain curing strategy in nature, to name a few: the spread of viruses and worms in the Internet, as well as social engineering

Van Mieghem, Piet

370

Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Primary Infection  

MedlinePLUS

newsletter | contact Share | Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Primary Infection Information for adults A A A When HIV is first contracted, there may be ... 16 weeks following exposure to HIV (the human immunodeficiency virus). Chronic infection with this virus can ...

371

Advanced Review Viruses and the cellular RNA  

E-print Network

Advanced Review Viruses and the cellular RNA decay machinery Marta Maria Gaglia and Britt A interactions between the eukaryotic RNA turnover machinery and a wide variety of viruses. Interestingly, in many cases viruses have evolved mechanisms not only to evade eradication by these pathways, but also

372

Ecological dynamics of emerging bat virus spillover.  

PubMed

Viruses that originate in bats may be the most notorious emerging zoonoses that spill over from wildlife into domestic animals and humans. Understanding how these infections filter through ecological systems to cause disease in humans is of profound importance to public health. Transmission of viruses from bats to humans requires a hierarchy of enabling conditions that connect the distribution of reservoir hosts, viral infection within these hosts, and exposure and susceptibility of recipient hosts. For many emerging bat viruses, spillover also requires viral shedding from bats, and survival of the virus in the environment. Focusing on Hendra virus, but also addressing Nipah virus, Ebola virus, Marburg virus and coronaviruses, we delineate this cross-species spillover dynamic from the within-host processes that drive virus excretion to land-use changes that increase interaction among species. We describe how land-use changes may affect co-occurrence and contact between bats and recipient hosts. Two hypotheses may explain temporal and spatial pulses of virus shedding in bat populations: episodic shedding from persistently infected bats or transient epidemics that occur as virus is transmitted among bat populations. Management of livestock also may affect the probability of exposure and disease. Interventions to decrease the probability of virus spillover can be implemented at multiple levels from targeting the reservoir host to managing recipient host exposure and susceptibility. PMID:25392474

Plowright, Raina K; Eby, Peggy; Hudson, Peter J; Smith, Ina L; Westcott, David; Bryden, Wayne L; Middleton, Deborah; Reid, Peter A; McFarlane, Rosemary A; Martin, Gerardo; Tabor, Gary M; Skerratt, Lee F; Anderson, Dale L; Crameri, Gary; Quammen, David; Jordan, David; Freeman, Paul; Wang, Lin-Fa; Epstein, Jonathan H; Marsh, Glenn A; Kung, Nina Y; McCallum, Hamish

2015-01-01

373

The greasy response to virus infections.  

PubMed

Virus replication requires lipid metabolism, but how lipids mediate virus infection remains obscure. In this issue, Amini-Bavil-Olyaee et al. (2013) reveal that IFITM proteins disturb cholesterol homeostasis to block virus entry. Previously, in Cell, Morita and colleagues (2013) showed the antiviral potency of the lipid mediator protectin D1. PMID:23601099

Tanner, Lukas Bahati; Lee, Benhur

2013-04-17

374

Variation and evolution of plant virus populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last 15years, interest in plant virus evolution has re-emerged, as shown by the increasing number of papers published on this subject. In recent times, research in plant virus evolution has been viewed from a molecular, rather than populational, standpoint, and there is a need for work aimed at understanding the processes involved in plant virus evolution. However, accumulated

Fernando Garca-Arenal; Aurora Fraile; Jos M. Malpica

2003-01-01

375

Ecological dynamics of emerging bat virus spillover  

PubMed Central

Viruses that originate in bats may be the most notorious emerging zoonoses that spill over from wildlife into domestic animals and humans. Understanding how these infections filter through ecological systems to cause disease in humans is of profound importance to public health. Transmission of viruses from bats to humans requires a hierarchy of enabling conditions that connect the distribution of reservoir hosts, viral infection within these hosts, and exposure and susceptibility of recipient hosts. For many emerging bat viruses, spillover also requires viral shedding from bats, and survival of the virus in the environment. Focusing on Hendra virus, but also addressing Nipah virus, Ebola virus, Marburg virus and coronaviruses, we delineate this cross-species spillover dynamic from the within-host processes that drive virus excretion to land-use changes that increase interaction among species. We describe how land-use changes may affect co-occurrence and contact between bats and recipient hosts. Two hypotheses may explain temporal and spatial pulses of virus shedding in bat populations: episodic shedding from persistently infected bats or transient epidemics that occur as virus is transmitted among bat populations. Management of livestock also may affect the probability of exposure and disease. Interventions to decrease the probability of virus spillover can be implemented at multiple levels from targeting the reservoir host to managing recipient host exposure and susceptibility. PMID:25392474

Plowright, Raina K.; Eby, Peggy; Hudson, Peter J.; Smith, Ina L.; Westcott, David; Bryden, Wayne L.; Middleton, Deborah; Reid, Peter A.; McFarlane, Rosemary A.; Martin, Gerardo; Tabor, Gary M.; Skerratt, Lee F.; Anderson, Dale L.; Crameri, Gary; Quammen, David; Jordan, David; Freeman, Paul; Wang, Lin-Fa; Epstein, Jonathan H.; Marsh, Glenn A.; Kung, Nina Y.; McCallum, Hamish

2015-01-01

376

MODEL OF VIRUS TRANSPORT IN UNSATURATED SOIL  

EPA Science Inventory

As a result of the recently-proposed mandatory ground-water disinfection requirements to inactivate viruses in potable water supplies, there has been increasing interest in virus fate and transport in the subsurface. everal models have been developed to predict the fate of viruse...

377

Citrus tristeza virus-host interactions  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) is a phloem-limited virus whose natural host range is restricted to citrus and related species. Although the virus has killed millions of trees, almost destroying whole industries, and continually limits production in many citrus growing areas, most isolates are mild or s...

378

Metamorphic Virus: Analysis and Evgenios Konstantinou  

E-print Network

Metamorphic Virus: Analysis and Detection Evgenios Konstantinou Supervisor: Dr. Stephen Wolthusen://www.rhul.ac.uk/mathematics/techreports #12;Abstract Metamorphic viruses transform their code as they propagate, thus evading detection, by altering their behavior. To achieve this, metamorphic viruses use several metamor- phic transformations

Dent, Alexander W.

379

METAMORPHIC VIRUSES WITH BUILT BUFFER OVERFLOW  

E-print Network

METAMORPHIC VIRUSES WITH BUILT BUFFER OVERFLOW The Faculty of the Department of Computer Science of the Requirements for the Degree METAMORPHIC VIRUSES WITH BUILT BUFFER OVERFLOW A Research Project Presented of the Requirements for the Degree Master of Computer Science by Ronak Shah Spring 2010 METAMORPHIC VIRUSES WITH BUILT

Stamp, Mark

380

Detecting Metamorphic Computer Viruses using Supercompilation  

E-print Network

Detecting Metamorphic Computer Viruses using Supercompilation Alexei Lisitsa and Matt Webster In this paper we present a novel approach to detection of metamorphic computer viruses by proving program. This is of relevance for detecting metamorphic computer viruses, which use a variety of semantics-preserving, syntax

Fisher, Michael

381

VideoLab:Virus Spreads Fourfold Faster  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Viruses are thought to infect cells cyclically: infect, replicate, release, repeat. However, the vaccinia virus can spread four times faster than this iterative process allows (first movie clip). To explain this incredible speed, Doceul et al. found that as soon as this virus infects a cell, it directs the cell to make two crucial surface proteins.

Virginie Doceul (Imperial College London, St Maryâs Campus;Department of Virology, Faculty of Medicine); Michael Hollinshead (Imperial College London, St Maryâs Campus;Department of Virology, Faculty of Medicine); Lonneke Van der Linden (Imperial College London, St Maryâs Campus;Department of Virology, Faculty of Medicine); Geoffrey L. Smith (Imperial College London, St Maryâs Campus;Department of Virology, Faculty of Medicine)

2010-02-12

382

killed-virus influenza vaccine Polio vaccine  

E-print Network

killed-virus influenza vaccine Polio vaccine FluMist Thomas Francis, Jr. National Institutes of Health live-virus influenza vaccine Hunein Maassab Jonas Salk Type-A virus trivalent cold that Maassab's innovative, trivalent, cold- adapted influenza vaccine, FluMist, which uses live but weakened

Shyy, Wei

383

Computer Viruses and Safe Educational Practices.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This discussion of computer viruses explains how these viruses may be transmitted, describes their effects on data and/or computer application programs, and identifies three groups that propagate them. Ten major viruses are listed and described, and measures to deal with them are discussed. Nineteen antiviral programs are also listed and

Azarmsa, Reza

1991-01-01

384

Practical Detection of Metamorphic Computer Viruses  

E-print Network

Practical Detection of Metamorphic Computer Viruses A Writing Project Presented to The Faculty play-time with me. #12;Abstract Metamorphic virus employs code obfuscation techniques to mutate itself model (HMM) can detect such viruses with high probability. HMM is a state machine where each state

Stamp, Mark

385

ANALYSIS AND DETECTION OF METAMORPHIC COMPUTER VIRUSES  

E-print Network

ANALYSIS AND DETECTION OF METAMORPHIC COMPUTER VIRUSES A Writing Project Presented to The Faculty of the project topic. Dr. Robert Chun suggested the comparison between our approach and commercial virus scanners want to thank Yue Wang for performing the virus scanning, and Peter Hey for repairing my hard disk

Stamp, Mark

386

Virus Diseases of Blackberry and Raspberries  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Two viruses have been associated with Blackberry yellow vein disease (BYVD). One of these viruses, Blackberry yellow vein associated virus (BYVaV) is a member of the genus Crinivirus and has been identified in blackberries exhibiting the BYVD in several states in the southeastern United States. If ...

387

Virus detection and quantification using electrical parameters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Here we identify and quantitate two similar viruses, human and feline immunodeficiency viruses (HIV and FIV), suspended in a liquid medium without labeling, using a semiconductor technique. The virus count was estimated by calculating the impurities inside a defined volume by observing the change in electrical parameters. Empirically, the virus count was similar to the absolute value of the ratio of the change of the virus suspension dopant concentration relative to the mock dopant over the change in virus suspension Debye volume relative to mock Debye volume. The virus type was identified by constructing a concentration-mobility relationship which is unique for each kind of virus, allowing for a fast (within minutes) and label-free virus quantification and identification. For validation, the HIV and FIV virus preparations were further quantified by a biochemical technique and the results obtained by both approaches corroborated well. We further demonstrate that the electrical technique could be applied to accurately measure and characterize silica nanoparticles that resemble the virus particles in size. Based on these results, we anticipate our present approach to be a starting point towards establishing the foundation for label-free electrical-based identification and quantification of an unlimited number of viruses and other nano-sized particles.

Ahmad, Mahmoud Al; Mustafa, Farah; Ali, Lizna M.; Rizvi, Tahir A.

2014-10-01

388

Packaging of actin into Ebola virus VLPs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The actin cytoskeleton has been implicated in playing an important role assembly and budding of several RNA virus families including retroviruses and paramyxoviruses. In this report, we sought to determine whether actin is incorporated into Ebola VLPs, and thus may play a role in assembly and\\/or budding of Ebola virus. Our results indicated that actin and Ebola virus VP40 strongly

Ziying Han; Ronald N Harty

2005-01-01

389

GENETIC VARIABILITY IN MAIZE CHLOROTIC DWARF VIRUS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Maize chlorotic dwarf virus (MCDV) (genus Waikavirus; family Sequiviridae) is a picorna-like virus transmitted by the black-faced leafhopper, Graminella nigrifrons, in a semi-persistent manner using a virus-encoded helper protein. The MCDV genome contains one large open reading frame encoding a poly...

390

Ultrastructure of lymphocystis disease virus (LDV) as compared to frog virus 3 (FV 3 ) and chilo iridescent virus (CIV): effects of enzymatic digestions and detergent degradations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Ultrastructure of fish lymphocystis disease virus (LDV), the largest of all known icosahedral viruses, has been studied under electron microscopy using enzymatic digestions and detergent degradations. LDV structure appeared roughly the same as those of frog virus 3 (FV3) and chilo iridescent virus (CIV), two other well known viruses of the familyIridoviridae, although the great flexibility of its capsid

J. Heppell; L. Berthiaume

1992-01-01

391

Redefining viruses: lessons from Mimivirus.  

PubMed

Viruses are the most abundant living entities and probably had a major role in the evolution of life, but are still defined using negative criteria. Here, we propose to divide biological entities into two groups of organisms: ribosome-encoding organisms, which include eukaryotic, archaeal and bacterial organisms, and capsid-encoding organisms, which include viruses. Other replicons (for example, plasmids and viroids) can be termed 'orphan replicons'. Based on this suggested classification system, we propose a new definition for a virus--a capsid-encoding organism that is composed of proteins and nucleic acids, self-assembles in a nucleocapsid and uses a ribosome-encoding organism for the completion of its life cycle. PMID:18311164

Raoult, Didier; Forterre, Patrick

2008-04-01

392

Lagos Bat Virus in Kenya?  

PubMed Central

During lyssavirus surveillance, 1,221 bats of at least 30 species were collected from 25 locations in Kenya. One isolate of Lagos bat virus (LBV) was obtained from a dead Eidolon helvum fruit bat. The virus was most similar phylogenetically to LBV isolates from Senegal (1985) and from France (imported from Togo or Egypt; 1999), sharing with these viruses 100% nucleoprotein identity and 99.8 to 100% glycoprotein identity. This genome conservancy across space and time suggests that LBV is well adapted to its natural host species and that populations of reservoir hosts in eastern and western Africa have sufficient interactions to share pathogens. High virus concentrations, in addition to being detected in the brain, were detected in the salivary glands and tongue and in an oral swab, suggesting that LBV is transmitted in the saliva. In other extraneural organs, the virus was generally associated with innervations and ganglia. The presence of infectious virus in the reproductive tract and in a vaginal swab implies an alternative opportunity for transmission. The isolate was pathogenic for laboratory mice by the intracerebral and intramuscular routes. Serologic screening demonstrated the presence of LBV-neutralizing antibodies in E. helvum and Rousettus aegyptiacus fruit bats. In different colonies the seroprevalence ranged from 40 to 67% and 29 to 46% for E. helvum and R. aegyptiacus, respectively. Nested reverse transcription-PCR did not reveal the presence of viral RNA in oral swabs of bats in the absence of brain infection. Several large bat roosts were identified in areas of dense human populations, raising public health concerns for the potential of lyssavirus infection. PMID:18305130

Kuzmin, Ivan V.; Niezgoda, Michael; Franka, Richard; Agwanda, Bernard; Markotter, Wanda; Beagley, Janet C.; Urazova, Olga Y.; Breiman, Robert F.; Rupprecht, Charles E.

2008-01-01

393

Dominant resistance against plant viruses  

PubMed Central

To establish a successful infection plant viruses have to overcome a defense system composed of several layers. This review will overview the various strategies plants employ to combat viral infections with main emphasis on the current status of single dominant resistance (R) genes identified against plant viruses and the corresponding avirulence (Avr) genes identified so far. The most common models to explain the mode of action of dominant R genes will be presented. Finally, in brief the hypersensitive response (HR) and extreme resistance (ER), and the functional and structural similarity of R genes to sensors of innate immunity in mammalian cell systems will be described. PMID:25018765

de Ronde, Dryas; Butterbach, Patrick; Kormelink, Richard

2014-01-01

394

Bovine viral diarrhea virus: characteristics of the virus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This paper reviews the history of research on bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) from their discovery in the 1940's to the design of current BVDV eradication programs. The physiochemical characteristics of BVDV are discussed and well as classification of BVDV into biotypes and genotypes. The trans...

395

Genome of Invertebrate Iridescent Virus Type 3 (Mosquito Iridescent Virus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Iridoviruses (IVs) are classified into five genera: Iridovirus and Chloriridovirus, whose members infect invertebrates, and Ranavirus, Lymphocystivirus, and Megalocytivirus, whose members infect vertebrates. Until now, Chloriridovirus was the only IV genus for which a representative and complete genomic sequence was not available. Here, we report the genome sequence and comparative analysis of a field isolate of Invertebrate iridescent virus type

Gustavo A. Delhon; Edan R. Tulman; Claudio L. Afonso; Zhiqiang Lu; James J. Becnel; Bettina A. Moser; Gerald F. Kutish; Daniel L. Rock

2006-01-01

396

Resistance to curly top viruses through virus induced gene silencing  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Curly top disease, caused by viruses of the genus Curtovirus, and transmitted by the beet leafhopper (Circulifer tenellus), has resulted in losses for western U.S. agriculture for over a century. No control methods have been developed that economically, effectively and reliably prevent losses in tom...

397

Expression of rabies virus glycoprotein from a recombinant vaccinia virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rabies is one of the oldest diseases known to man, but its successful control has remained elusive. Although effective vaccines of tissue culture origin against rabies do exist1, such preparations are expensive. Live vaccinia virus (VV) recombinants expressing influenza or hepatitis B antigens have recently been used to immunize against these diseases2-4. We have now used this approach to produce

M. P. Kieny; R. Lathe; R. Drillien; D. Spehner; S. Skory; D. Schmitt; T. Wiktor; H. Koprowski; J. P. Lecocq

1984-01-01

398

Divergent Roles of Autophagy in Virus Infection  

PubMed Central

Viruses have played an important role in human evolution and have evolved diverse strategies to co-exist with their hosts. As obligate intracellular pathogens, viruses exploit and manipulate different host cell processes, including cellular trafficking, metabolism and immunity-related functions, for their own survival. In this article, we review evidence for how autophagy, a highly conserved cellular degradative pathway, serves either as an antiviral defense mechanism or, alternatively, as a pro-viral process during virus infection. Furthermore, we highlight recent reports concerning the role of selective autophagy in virus infection and how viruses manipulate autophagy to evade lysosomal capture and degradation. PMID:24709646

Chiramel, Abhilash I.; Brady, Nathan R.; Bartenschlager, Ralf

2013-01-01

399

Halting viruses in scale-free networks  

E-print Network

The vanishing epidemic threshold for viruses spreading on scale-free networks indicate that traditional methods, aiming to decrease a virus' spreading rate cannot succeed in eradicating an epidemic. We demonstrate that policies that discriminate between the nodes, curing mostly the highly connected nodes, can restore a finite epidemic threshold and potentially eradicate a virus. We find that the more biased a policy is towards the hubs, the more chance it has to bring the epidemic threshold above the virus' spreading rate. Furthermore, such biased policies are more cost effective, requiring less cures to eradicate the virus.

Zoltan Dezso; Albert-Laszlo Barabasi

2002-03-24

400

Viruses - from pathogens to vaccine carriers.  

PubMed

Vaccination is mankind's greatest public health success story. By now vaccines to many of the viruses that once caused fatal childhood diseases are routinely used throughout the world. Traditional methods of vaccine development through inactivation or attenuation of viruses have failed for some of the most deadly human pathogens, necessitating new approaches. Genetic modification of viruses not only allows for their attenuation but also for incorporation of sequences from other viruses, turning one pathogen into a vaccine carrier for another. Recombinant viruses have pros and cons as vaccine carriers, as discussed below using vectors based on adenovirus, herpesvirus, flavivirus, and rhabdovirus as examples. PMID:22003377

Small, Juliana C; Ertl, Hildegund C J

2011-10-01

401

Repository of Eurasian influenza virus hemagglutinin and neuraminidase reverse genetics vectors and recombinant viruses  

PubMed Central

Reverse genetics can be used to produce recombinant influenza A viruses containing virtually every desired combination of hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes using the virus backbone of choice. Here, a repository of plasmids and recombinant viruses representing all contemporary Eurasian HA and NA subtypes, H1H16 and N1N9, was established. HA and NA genes were selected based on sequence analyses of influenza virus genes available from public databases. Prototype Eurasian HA and NA genes were cloned in bidirectional reverse genetics plasmids. Recombinant viruses based on the virus backbone of A/PR/8/34, and containing a variety of HA and NA genes were produced in 293T cells. Virus stocks were produced in MDCK cells and embryonated chicken eggs. These plasmids and viruses may be useful for numerous purposes, including influenza virus research projects, vaccination studies, and to serve as reference reagents in diagnostic settings. PMID:20600474

Keawcharoen, J.; Spronken, M.I.J; Vuong, O.; Bestebroer, T.M.; Munster, V.J.; Osterhaus, A.D.M.E; Rimmelzwaan, G.F; Fouchier, R.A.M.

2010-01-01

402

Tanay virus, a new species of virus isolated from mosquitoes in the Philippines.  

PubMed

In 2005, we isolated a new species of virus from mosquitoes in the Philippines. The virion was elliptical in shape and had a short single projection. The virus was named Tanay virus (TANAV) after the locality in which it was found. TANAV genomic RNA was a 9562 nt+poly-A positive strand, and polycistronic. The longest ORF contained putative RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP); however, conserved short motifs in the RdRP were permuted. TANAV was phylogenetically close to Negevirus, a recently proposed taxon of viruses isolated from haemophagic insects, and to some plant viruses, such as citrus leprosis virus C, hibiscus green spot virus and blueberry necrotic ring blotch virus. In this paper, we describe TANAV and the permuted structure of its RdRP, and discuss its phylogeny together with those of plant viruses and negevirus. PMID:24646751

Nabeshima, Takeshi; Inoue, Shingo; Okamoto, Kenta; Posadas-Herrera, Guillermo; Yu, Fuxun; Uchida, Leo; Ichinose, Akitoyo; Sakaguchi, Miako; Sunahara, Toshihiko; Buerano, Corazon C; Tadena, Florencio P; Orbita, Ildefonso B; Natividad, Filipinas F; Morita, Kouichi

2014-06-01

403

Psoralen inactivation of influenza and herpes simplex viruses and of virus-infected cells  

SciTech Connect

Psoralen compounds covalently bind to nucleic acids when irradiated with long-wavelength ultraviolet light. This treatment can destroy the infectivity of deoxyribonucleic acid and ribonucleic acid viruses. Two psoralen compounds, 4'-hydroxymethyltrioxsalen and 4'-aminomethyltrioxsalen, were used with long-wavelength ultraviolet light to inactivate cell-free herpes simplex and influenza viruses and to render virus-infected cells noninfectious. This method of inactivation was compared with germicidal (short-wavelength) ultraviolet light irradiation. The antigenicity of the treated, virus-infected, antigen-bearing cells was examined by immunofluorescence and radioimmunoassay and by measuring the capacity of the herpes simplex virus-infected cells to stimulate virus-specific lymphocyte proliferation. The infectivity of the virus-infected cells could be totally eliminated without altering their viral antigenicity. The use of psoralen plus long-wavelength ultraviolet light is well suited to the preparation of noninfectious virus antigens and virus antigen-bearing cells for immunological assays.

Redfield, D.C.; Richman, D.D.; Oxman, M.N.; Kronenberg, L.H.

1981-06-01

404

Systems analysis of West Nile virus infection.  

PubMed

Emerging and re-emerging mosquito-borne viruses continue to pose a significant threat to human health throughout the world. Over the past decade, West Nile virus (WNV), Dengue virus (DENV), and Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), have caused annual epidemics of virus-induced encephalitis, hemorrhagic fever\\shock syndromes, and arthritis, respectively. Currently, no specific antiviral therapies or vaccines exist for use in humans to combat or prevent these viral infections. Thus, there is a pressing need to define the virus-host interactions that govern immunity and infection outcome. Recent technological breakthroughs in 'omics' resources and high-throughput based assays are beginning to accelerate antiviral drug discovery and improve on current strategies for vaccine design. In this review, we highlight studies with WNV and discuss how traditional and systems biological approaches are being used to rapidly identify novel host targets for therapeutic intervention and develop a deeper conceptual understanding of the host response to virus infection. PMID:24851811

Suthar, Mehul S; Pulendran, Bali

2014-06-01

405

Evolution of Avian Tumor Viruses  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Virus-induced neoplastic diseases of poultry, namely Mareks disease (MD), induced by a herpesvirus, and the avian leukosis and reticuloendotheliosis induced by retroviruses, can cause significant economic losses from tumor mortality as well as poor performance. Successful control of MD is and has ...

406

Mayaro fever virus, Brazilian Amazon.  

PubMed

In February 2008, a Mayaro fever virus (MAYV) outbreak occurred in a settlement in Santa Barbara municipality, northern Brazil. Patients had rash, fever, and severe arthralgia lasting up to 7 days. Immunoglobulin M against MAYV was detected by ELISA in 36 persons; 3 MAYV isolates sequenced were characterized as genotype D. PMID:19891877

Azevedo, Raimunda S S; Silva, Eliana V P; Carvalho, Valria L; Rodrigues, Sueli G; Nunes-Neto, Joaquim P; Monteiro, Hamilton; Peixoto, Victor S; Chiang, Jannifer O; Nunes, Mrcio R T; Vasconcelos, Pedro F C

2009-11-01

407

Viruses Associated with Human Cancer  

PubMed Central

It is estimated that viral infections contribute to 1520% of all human cancers. As obligatory intracellular parasites, viruses encode proteins that reprogram host cellular signaling pathways that control proliferation, differentiation, cell death, genomic integrity, and recognition by the immune system. These cellular processes are governed by complex and redundant regulatory networks and are surveyed by sentinel mechanisms that ensure that aberrant cells are removed from the proliferative pool. Given that the genome size of a virus is highly restricted to ensure packaging within an infectious structure, viruses must target cellular regulatory nodes with limited redundancy and need to inactivate surveillance mechanisms that would normally recognize and extinguish such abnormal cells. In many cases, key proteins in these same regulatory networks are subject to mutation in non-virally associated diseases and cancers. Oncogenic viruses have thus served as important experimental models to identify and molecularly investigate such cellular networks. These include the discovery of oncogenes and tumor suppressors, identification of regulatory networks that are critical for maintenance of genomic integrity, and processes that govern immune surveillance. PMID:18201576

McLaughlin-Drubin, Margaret E.; Munger, Karl

2008-01-01

408

Iridescent virus type 22 DNA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Double stranded DNA extracted from iridescent virus type (IV22) was characterized by its buoyant density in CsCl, thermal denaturation profile and guanine plus cytosine content. The DNA was linear with a molecular weight of 130143 106 determined by reassociation kinetics, contour length measurements and restriction endonuclease analysis.

Jill A. Hibbin; D. C. Kelly

1981-01-01

409

New vaccines against influenza virus  

PubMed Central

Vaccination is one of the most effective and cost-benefit interventions that prevent the mortality and reduce morbidity from infectious pathogens. However, the licensed influenza vaccine induces strain-specific immunity and must be updated annually based on predicted strains that will circulate in the upcoming season. Influenza virus still causes significant health problems worldwide due to the low vaccine efficacy from unexpected outbreaks of next epidemic strains or the emergence of pandemic viruses. Current influenza vaccines are based on immunity to the hemagglutinin antigen that is highly variable among different influenza viruses circulating in humans and animals. Several scientific advances have been endeavored to develop universal vaccines that will induce broad protection. Universal vaccines have been focused on regions of viral proteins that are highly conserved across different virus subtypes. The strategies of universal vaccines include the matrix 2 protein, the hemagglutinin HA2 stalk domain, and T cell-based multivalent antigens. Supplemented and/or adjuvanted vaccination in combination with universal target antigenic vaccines would have much promise. This review summarizes encouraging scientific advances in the field with a focus on novel vaccine designs. PMID:24427759

Lee, Young-Tae; Kim, Ki-Hye; Ko, Eun-Ju; Lee, Yu-Na; Kim, Min-Chul; Kwon, Young-Man; Tang, Yinghua; Cho, Min-Kyoung; Lee, Youn-Jeong

2014-01-01

410

Turnip Yellow Mosaic Virus Structure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The bumpy exterior of the turnip yellow mosaic virus (TYMV) protein coat, or capsid, was defined in detail by Dr. Alexander McPherson of the University of California, Irvin using protein crystallized in space for analysis on Earth. TYMV is an icosahedral virus constructed from 180 copies of the same protein arranged into 12 clusters of five proteins (pentamers), and 20 clusters of six proteins (hexamers). The final TYMV structure led to the enexpected hypothesis that the virus release its RNA by essentially chemical-mechanical means. Most viruses have farly flat coats, but in TYMV, the fold in each protein, called the jellyroll, is clustered at the points where the protein pentamers and hexamers join. The jellyrolls are almost standing on end, producing a bumpy surface with knobs at all of the pentamers and hexamers. At the inside surface of the pentamers is a void that is not present at the hexamers. The coating had been seen in early studies of TYMV, but McPhereson's atomic structure shows much more detail. The inside surface is strikingly, and unexpectedly, different than the outside. While the pentamers contain a central viod on the inside, the hexameric units contain peptides liked to each other, forming a ring or, more accurately, rings to fill the voild. Credit: Dr. Alexander McPherson, University of California, Irvine.

2000-01-01

411

Antigenic variants of rabies virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rabies viruses isolated from different animal species in various parts of the world were in the past considered to be antigenically closely related. Only when the antibodies produced in animals immunized with whole virions or viral components were assayed by the plaque reduction method, were some minor differences detected in the antigenic composition of various rabies strains (1). On the

T. J. WIKTOR; H. KOPROWSKI

1980-01-01

412

Evaluating the protective efficacy of a trivalent vaccine containing Akabane virus, Aino virus and Chuzan virus against Schmallenberg virus infection  

PubMed Central

Schmallenberg virus (SBV), an arthropod borne pathogen, spread rapidly throughout the majority of Europe since 2011. It can cause a febrile disease, milk drop, diarrhea, and fetal malformation in ruminants. SBV, a member of the Simbu serogroup within the genus Orthobunyavirus, is closely related to Akabane virus (AKAV) and Aino virus (AINOV) among others. In the present study, 4 Holstein-Friesian calves were immunized twice four weeks apart with a multivalent, inactivated vaccine against AKAV and AINOV. Another 4 calves were kept as unvaccinated controls. All animals were clinically, serologically and virologically examined before and after challenge infection with SBV. AKAV- and AINOV-specific neutralizing antibodies were detected one week before challenge infection, while SBV-specific antibodies were detectable only thereafter. SBV genome was detected in all vaccinated animals and 3 out of 4 controls in serum samples taken after challenge infection. In conclusion, the investigated vaccine was not able to prevent an SBV-infection. Thus, vaccines for other related Simbu serogroup viruses can not substitute SBV-specific vaccines as an instrument for disease control. PMID:24313924

2013-01-01

413

Oncolytic Viruses as Anticancer Vaccines  

PubMed Central

Oncolytic virotherapy has shown impressive results in preclinical studies and first promising therapeutic outcomes in clinical trials as well. Since viruses are known for a long time as excellent vaccination agents, oncolytic viruses are now designed as novel anticancer agents combining the aspect of lysis-dependent cytoreductive activity with concomitant induction of antitumoral immune responses. Antitumoral immune activation by oncolytic virus infection of tumor tissue comprises both, immediate effects of innate immunity and also adaptive responses for long lasting antitumoral activity, which is regarded as the most prominent challenge in clinical oncology. To date, the complex effects of a viral tumor infection on the tumor microenvironment and the consequences for the tumor-infiltrating immune cell compartment are poorly understood. However, there is more and more evidence that a tumor infection by an oncolytic virus opens up a number of options for further immunomodulating interventions such as systemic chemotherapy, generic immunostimulating strategies, dendritic cell-based vaccines, and antigenic libraries to further support clinical efficacy of oncolytic virotherapy. PMID:25101244

Woller, Norman; Grlevik, Engin; Ureche, Cristina-Ileana; Schumacher, Anja; Khnel, Florian

2014-01-01

414

Who Let the Virus In?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Fifty-second monthly installment of our "What A Year!" website project, introducing life science breakthroughs to middle and high school students and their teachers. Respiratory syncytial virus, RSV for short, is so common that almost every child in the United States under two years of age has been infected once, and that half of children under three have been infected at least twice.

2011-11-01

415

Full Genome Characterization of the Culicoides-Borne Marsupial Orbiviruses: Wallal Virus, Mudjinbarry Virus and Warrego Viruses  

PubMed Central

Viruses belonging to the species Wallal virus and Warrego virus of the genus Orbivirus were identified as causative agents of blindness in marsupials in Australia during 1994/5. Recent comparisons of nucleotide (nt) and amino acid (aa) sequences have provided a basis for the grouping and classification of orbivirus isolates. However, full-genome sequence data are not available for representatives of all Orbivirus species. We report full-genome sequence data for three additional orbiviruses: Wallal virus (WALV); Mudjinabarry virus (MUDV) and Warrego virus (WARV). Comparisons of conserved polymerase (Pol), sub-core-shell T2 and core-surface T13 proteins show that these viruses group with other Culicoides borne orbiviruses, clustering with Eubenangee virus (EUBV), another orbivirus infecting marsupials. WARV shares <70% aa identity in all three conserved proteins (Pol, T2 and T13) with other orbiviruses, consistent with its classification within a distinct Orbivirus species. Although WALV and MUDV share <72.86%/67.93% aa/nt identity with other orbiviruses in Pol, T2 and T13, they share >99%/90% aa/nt identities with each other (consistent with membership of the same virus species - Wallal virus). However, WALV and MUDV share <68% aa identity in their larger outer capsid protein VP2(OC1), consistent with membership of different serotypes within the species - WALV-1 and WALV-2 respectively. PMID:25299687

Belaganahalli, Manjunatha N.; Maan, Sushila; Maan, Narender S.; Pritchard, Ian; Kirkland, Peter D.; Brownlie, Joe; Attoui, Houssam; Mertens, Peter P. C.

2014-01-01

416

Clarification and guidance on the proper usage of virus and virus species names  

PubMed Central

A pivotal step in the development of a consistent nomenclature for virus classification was the introduction of the virus species concept by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) in 1991. Yet, almost two decades later, many virologists still are unable to differentiate between virus species and actual viruses. Here we attempt to explain the origin of this confusion, clarify the difference between taxa and physical entities, and suggest simple measures that could be implemented by ICTV Study Groups to make virus taxonomy and nomenclature more accessible to laboratory virologists. PMID:20204430

Jahrling, Peter B.

2010-01-01

417

Review article Foot-and-mouth disease virus  

E-print Network

Review article Foot-and-mouth disease virus: a long known virus, but a current threat Francisco; accepted 12 September 2000) Abstract ­ Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) was the first animal virus of information on its structure, biology and vaccinology has been obtained. However, the disease that this virus

Boyer, Edmond

418

IFITMs restrict the replication of multiple pathogenic viruses.  

PubMed

The interferon-inducible transmembrane protein (IFITM) family inhibits a growing number of pathogenic viruses, among them influenza A virus, dengue virus, hepatitis C virus, and Ebola virus. This review covers recent developments in our understanding of the IFITM's molecular determinants, potential mechanisms of action, and impact on pathogenesis. PMID:24076421

Perreira, Jill M; Chin, Christopher R; Feeley, Eric M; Brass, Abraham L

2013-12-13

419

IFITMs restrict the replication of multiple pathogenic viruses  

PubMed Central

The IFITM family of proteins inhibit a growing number of pathogenic viruses, among them influenza A virus, dengue virus, hepatitis C virus, and Ebola virus. This review covers recent developments in our understanding of the IFITMs molecular determinants, potential mechanisms of action, and impact on pathogenesis. PMID:24076421

Perreira, Jill M.; Chin, Christopher R.; Feeley, Eric M.; Brass, Abraham L.

2014-01-01

420

Reemergence of Vaccinia Virus during Zoonotic Outbreak, Par State, Brazil  

PubMed Central

In 2010, vaccinia virus caused an outbreak of bovine vaccinia that affected dairy cattle and rural workers in Par State, Brazil. Genetic analyses identified the virus as distinct from BeAn58058 vaccinia virus (identified in 1960s) and from smallpox vaccine virus strains. These findings suggest spread of autochthonous group 1 vaccinia virus in this region. PMID:24274374

de Assis, Felipe L.; Vinhote, Wagner M.; Barbosa, Jos D.; de Oliveira, Cairo H.S.; de Oliveira, Carlos M.G.; Campos, Karinny F.; Silva, Natlia S.; Trindade, Giliane de Souza

2013-01-01

421

Studies on Beauregard sweetpotato clones naturally infected with viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The response of clonal sweetpotato naturally infected with viruses was investigated. Analyses included yield, canopy biomass, and root colour on twelve virus infected (V?+?) clones and corresponding virus-tested (V?) mericlones (clones derived from meristem-tip culture) of Beauregard sweetpotato. All V?+ clones tested positive for Sweet potato feathery mottle virus and some clones additionally tested positive for Sweet potato virus G

Heather W Carroll; Arthur Q Villordon; Christopher A Clark; Don R La Bonte; Mary W Hoy

2004-01-01

422

Approaches and strategies for the treatment of influenza virus infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Influenza A and B viruses belong to the Orthomyxoviridae family of viruses. These virus- es are responsible for severe morbidity and sig- nificant excess mortality each year. Infection with influenza viruses usually leads to respiratory involvement and can result in pneumonia and secondary bacterial infections. Vaccine approach- es to the prophy-laxis of influenza virus infec- tions have been problematic owing

Joseph M Colacino; Kirk A Staschke; W Graeme Laver

423

Detection of Multiple Potato Viruses in the Field Suggests Synergistic Interactions among Potato Viruses in Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Viral diseases have been a major limiting factor threating sustainable potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) production in Pakistan. Surveys were conducted to serologically quantify the incidence of RNA viruses infecting potato; Potato virus X (PVX), Potato virus Y (PVY), Potato virus S (PVS), Potato virus A (PVA), Potato virus M (PVM) and Potato leaf roll virus (PLRV) in two major potato cultivars (Desiree and Cardinal). The results suggest the prevalence of multiple viruses in all surveyed areas with PVY, PVS and PVX dominantly widespread with infection levels of up to 50% in some regions. Co-infections were detected with the highest incidence (15.5%) for PVX and PVS. Additionally the data showed a positive correlation between co-infecting viruses with significant increase in absorbance value (virus titre) for at least one of the virus in an infected plant and suggested a synergistic interaction. To test this hypothesis, glasshouse grown potato plants were challenged with multiple viruses and analyzed for systemic infections and symptomology studies. The results obtained conclude that multiple viral infections dramatically increase disease epidemics as compared to single infection and an effective resistance strategy in targeting multiple RNA viruses is required to save potato crop. PMID:25506305

Hameed, Amir; Iqbal, Zafar; Asad, Shaheen; Mansoor, Shahid

2014-01-01

424

Antigenic relationships among several simian varicella-like viruses and varicella-zoster virus.  

PubMed Central

Cross-neutralization and complement fixation tests demonstrated the immunological identity of the Delta herpesvirus, the 592S virus, the Liverpool vervet monkey virus, the herpesvirus of patas monkeys, and the Medical Lake macaque virus. These viruses were isolated from diverse outbreaks of varicella-like disease in simians and from various simian species. All of the simian viruses were shown to be related to human varicella-zoster (V-Z) virus, as evidenced by the fact that immunization of monkeys with each of the simian viruses elicited the production of both neutralizing and complement-fixing antibodies to V-Z virus. However, cross-complement fixation tests indicated that the simian viruses are not so closely related to V-Z virus as they are to one another. Varicella or zoster infections in humans produced neutralizing and complement-fixing antibody responses to each of the simian viruses; the responses were more marked in zoster infections than in varicella infections but, in most patients, antibody levels produced to the simian viruses were much lower than those to the homologous V-Z virus. PMID:192676

Felsenfeld, A D; Schmidt, N J

1977-01-01

425

Detection of Multiple Potato Viruses in the Field Suggests Synergistic Interactions among Potato Viruses in Pakistan.  

PubMed

Viral diseases have been a major limiting factor threating sustainable potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) production in Pakistan. Surveys were conducted to serologically quantify the incidence of RNA viruses infecting potato; Potato virus X (PVX), Potato virus Y (PVY), Potato virus S (PVS), Potato virus A (PVA), Potato virus M (PVM) and Potato leaf roll virus (PLRV) in two major potato cultivars (Desiree and Cardinal). The results suggest the prevalence of multiple viruses in all surveyed areas with PVY, PVS and PVX dominantly widespread with infection levels of up to 50% in some regions. Co-infections were detected with the highest incidence (15.5%) for PVX and PVS. Additionally the data showed a positive correlation between co-infecting viruses with significant increase in absorbance value (virus titre) for at least one of the virus in an infected plant and suggested a synergistic interaction. To test this hypothesis, glasshouse grown potato plants were challenged with multiple viruses and analyzed for systemic infections and symptomology studies. The results obtained conclude that multiple viral infections dramatically increase disease epidemics as compared to single infection and an effective resistance strategy in targeting multiple RNA viruses is required to save potato crop. PMID:25506305

Hameed, Amir; Iqbal, Zafar; Asad, Shaheen; Mansoor, Shahid

2014-12-01

426

The modulation of apoptosis by oncogenic viruses  

PubMed Central

Transforming viruses can change a normal cell into a cancer cell during their normal life cycle. Persistent infections with these viruses have been recognized to cause some types of cancer. These viruses have been implicated in the modulation of various biological processes, such as proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. The study of infections caused by oncogenic viruses had helped in our understanding of several mechanisms that regulate cell growth, as well as the molecular alterations leading to cancer. Therefore, transforming viruses provide models of study that have enabled the advances in cancer research. Viruses with transforming abilities, include different members of the Human Papillomavirus (HPV) family, Hepatitis C virus (HCV), Human T-cell Leukemia virus (HTLV-1), Epstein Barr virus (EBV) and Kaposis Sarcoma Herpesvirus (KSHV). Apoptosis, or programmed cell death, is a tightly regulated process that plays an important role in development and homeostasis. Additionally, it functions as an antiviral defense mechanism. The deregulation of apoptosis has been implicated in the etiology of diverse diseases, including cancer. Oncogenic viruses employ different mechanisms to inhibit the apoptotic process, allowing the propagation of infected and damaged cells. During this process, some viral proteins are able to evade the immune system, while others can directly interact with the caspases involved in apoptotic signaling. In some instances, viral proteins can also promote apoptosis, which may be necessary for an accurate regulation of the initial stages of infection. PMID:23741982

2013-01-01

427

Pharmacological Inhibition of Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV)  

PubMed Central

Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a member of the retroviridae family of viruses and causes an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in domestic and non-domestic cats worldwide. Genome organization of FIV and clinical characteristics of the disease caused by the virus are similar to those of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Both viruses infect T lymphocytes, monocytes and macrophages, and their replication cycle in infected cells is analogous. Due to marked similarity in genomic organization, virus structure, virus replication and disease pathogenesis of FIV and HIV, infection of cats with FIV is a useful tool to study and develop novel drugs and vaccines for HIV. Anti-retroviral drugs studied extensively in HIV infection have targeted different steps of the virus replication cycle: (1) inhibition of virus entry into susceptible cells at the level of attachment to host cell surface receptors and co-receptors; (2) inhibition of fusion of the virus membrane with the cell membrane; (3) blockade of reverse transcription of viral genomic RNA; (4) interruption of nuclear translocation and viral DNA integration into host genomes; (5) prevention of viral transcript processing and nuclear export; and (6) inhibition of virion assembly and maturation. Despite much success of anti-retroviral therapy slowing disease progression in people, similar therapy has not been thoroughly investigated in cats. In this article we review current pharmacological approaches and novel targets for anti-lentiviral therapy, and critically assess potentially suitable applications against FIV infection in cats. PMID:22754645

Mohammadi, Hakimeh; Bienzle, Dorothee

2012-01-01

428

Chemical Modification of Viruses and Virus-Like Particles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protein capsids derived from viruses may be modified by methods, generated, isolated, and purified on large scales with relative\\u000a ease. In recent years, methods for their chemical derivatization have been employed to broaden the properties and functions\\u000a accessible to investigators desiring monodisperse, atomic-resolution structures on the nanometer scale. Here we review the\\u000a reactions and methods used in these endeavors, including

E. Strable; M. G. Finn

429

Genome of invertebrate iridescent virus type 3 (mosquito iridescent virus).  

PubMed

Iridoviruses (IVs) are classified into five genera: Iridovirus and Chloriridovirus, whose members infect invertebrates, and Ranavirus, Lymphocystivirus, and Megalocytivirus, whose members infect vertebrates. Until now, Chloriridovirus was the only IV genus for which a representative and complete genomic sequence was not available. Here, we report the genome sequence and comparative analysis of a field isolate of Invertebrate iridescent virus type 3 (IIV-3), also known as mosquito iridescent virus, currently the sole member of the genus Chloriridovirus. Approximately 20% of the 190-kbp IIV-3 genome was repetitive DNA, with DNA repeats localized in 15 apparently noncoding regions. Of the 126 predicted IIV-3 genes, 27 had homologues in all currently sequenced IVs, suggesting a genetic core for the family Iridoviridae. Fifty-two IIV-3 genes, including those encoding DNA topoisomerase II, NAD-dependent DNA ligase, SF1 helicase, IAP, and BRO protein, are present in IIV-6 (Chilo iridescent virus, prototype species of the genus Iridovirus) but not in vertebrate IVs, likely reflecting distinct evolutionary histories for vertebrate and invertebrate IVs and potentially indicative of genes that function in aspects of virus-invertebrate host interactions. Thirty-three IIV-3 genes lack homologues in other IVs. Most of these encode proteins of unknown function but also encode IIV3-053L, a protein with similarity to DNA-dependent RNA polymerase subunit 7; IIV3-044L, a putative serine/threonine protein kinase; and IIV3-080R, a protein with similarity to poxvirus MutT-like proteins. The absence of genes present in other IVs, including IIV-6; the lack of obvious colinearity with any sequenced IV; the low levels of amino acid identity of predicted proteins to IV homologues; and phylogenetic analyses of conserved proteins indicate that IIV-3 is distantly related to other IV genera. PMID:16912294

Delhon, Gustavo; Tulman, Edan R; Afonso, Claudio L; Lu, Zhiqiang; Becnel, James J; Moser, Bettina A; Kutish, Gerald F; Rock, Daniel L

2006-09-01

430

Malsoor virus, a novel bat phlebovirus, is closely related to severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus and heartland virus.  

PubMed

During a survey in the year 2010, a novel phlebovirus was isolated from the Rousettus leschenaultii species of bats in western India. The virus was identified by electron microscopy from infected Vero E6 cells. Phylogenic analysis of the complete genome showed its close relation to severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) and Heartland viruses, which makes it imperative to further study its natural ecology and potential as a novel emerging zoonotic virus. PMID:24390329

Mourya, D T; Yadav, P D; Basu, A; Shete, A; Patil, D Y; Zawar, D; Majumdar, T D; Kokate, P; Sarkale, P; Raut, C G; Jadhav, S M

2014-03-01

431

Malsoor Virus, a Novel Bat Phlebovirus, Is Closely Related to Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome Virus and Heartland Virus  

PubMed Central

During a survey in the year 2010, a novel phlebovirus was isolated from the Rousettus leschenaultii species of bats in western India. The virus was identified by electron microscopy from infected Vero E6 cells. Phylogenic analysis of the complete genome showed its close relation to severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) and Heartland viruses, which makes it imperative to further study its natural ecology and potential as a novel emerging zoonotic virus. PMID:24390329

Yadav, P. D.; Basu, A.; Shete, A.; Patil, D. Y.; Zawar, D.; Majumdar, T. D.; Kokate, P.; Sarkale, P.; Raut, C. G.; Jadhav, S. M.

2014-01-01

432

A Pathogenic Threshold of Virus Load Defined in Simian Immunodeficiency Virus or Simian-Human Immunodeficiency VirusInfected Macaques  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine if a specific pathogenic threshold of plasma viral RNA could be defined irrespective of virus strain, RNA levels in the plasma of more than 50 infected rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) were measured. Animals were inoculated intravenously with either simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) or simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) strains of known pathogenic potential (SIV8980, SIVsmm-3, SIVmac32H\\/J5, SIVmac32H\\/1XC, reverse transcriptase-SHIV,

PETER TEN HAAFT; BABS VERSTREPEN; KLAUS UBERLA; BRIGITTE ROSENWIRTH; JONATHAN HEENEY

1998-01-01

433

Identification of Novel Viruses Using VirusHunter -- an Automated Data Analysis Pipeline  

PubMed Central

Quick and accurate identification of microbial pathogens is essential for both diagnosis and response to emerging infectious diseases. The advent of next-generation sequencing technology offers an unprecedented platform for rapid sequencing-based identification of novel viruses. We have developed a customized bioinformatics data analysis pipeline, VirusHunter, for the analysis of Roche/454 and other long read Next generation sequencing platform data. To illustrate the utility of VirusHunter, we performed Roche/454 GS FLX titanium sequencing on two unclassified virus isolates from the World Reference Center for Emerging Viruses and Arboviruses (WRCEVA). VirusHunter identified sequences derived from a novel bunyavirus and a novel reovirus in the two samples respectively. Further sequence analysis demonstrated that the viruses were novel members of the Phlebovirus and Orbivirus genera. Both Phlebovirus and Orbivirus genera include many economic important viruses or serious human pathogens. PMID:24167629

Zhao, Guoyan; Krishnamurthy, Siddharth; Cai, Zhengqiu; Popov, Vsevolod L.; Travassos da Rosa, Amelia P.; Guzman, Hilda; Cao, Song; Virgin, Herbert W.; Tesh, Robert B.; Wang, David

2013-01-01

434

9 CFR 113.215 - Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed Virus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...second dose shall be given according to the interval recommended on the label. (iv) Fourteen days or more after the last vaccination, blood samples shall be drawn and the individual serum samples inactivated and tested for bovine virus diarrhea virus...

2013-01-01

435

9 CFR 113.215 - Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed Virus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...second dose shall be given according to the interval recommended on the label. (iv) Fourteen days or more after the last vaccination, blood samples shall be drawn and the individual serum samples inactivated and tested for bovine virus diarrhea virus...

2011-01-01

436

9 CFR 113.215 - Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed Virus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...second dose shall be given according to the interval recommended on the label. (iv) Fourteen days or more after the last vaccination, blood samples shall be drawn and the individual serum samples inactivated and tested for bovine virus diarrhea virus...

2014-01-01

437

9 CFR 113.215 - Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed Virus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...second dose shall be given according to the interval recommended on the label. (iv) Fourteen days or more after the last vaccination, blood samples shall be drawn and the individual serum samples inactivated and tested for bovine virus diarrhea virus...

2012-01-01

438

Impact of anti-virus software on computer virus dynamical behavior  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The impact of anti-virus software on the spreading of computer virus is investigated via developing a mathematical model in this paper. Considering the anti-virus software may not be effective, as it may be an outdated version, and then the computers may be infected with a reduced incidence rate. According to the method of next generation matrix, the basic reproduction number is derived. By introducing appropriate Lyapunov function and the Routh stability criterion, acquiring the stability conditions of the virus-free equilibrium and virus equilibrium. The effect of anti-virus software and disconnecting rate on the spreading of virus are also analyzed. When combined with the numerical results, a set of suggestions are put forward for eradicating virus effectively.

Sun, Mei; Li, Dandan; Han, Dun; Jia, Changsheng

2014-11-01

439

Processing Strategies to Inactivate Enteric Viruses in Shellfish: Limitations of Surrogate Viruses and Molecular Methods  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Noroviruses, hepatitis A and E viruses, sapovirus, astrovirus, rotavirus, Aichi virus, enteric adenoviruses, poliovirus, and other enteroviruses enter shellfish through contaminated seawater or by contamination during handling and processing, resulting in outbreaks ranging from isolated to epidemic....

440

Powassan Virus: Persistence of Virus Activity During 1966  

PubMed Central

Powassan virus isolations were achieved from three of 60 pools of Ixodes cookei ticks removed from 286 groundhogs (Marmota monax) which were collected some 200 miles north of Toronto between May 5 and September 5, 1966. Virus yields per pool of one to 11 ticks ranged from 102.5 to 106.0 TCD50 for primary swine kidney tissue cultures, and positive pools were collected on June 24, July 15 and August 10. Powassan neutralizing antibodies were detected by mouse inoculation tests in 143 of 362 animals including 127 of 286 groundhogs, 14 of 45 red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus) and two of 31 other forest mammals. The monthly prevalence of antibody in the current season's groundhogs increased from 0 to 25% with the progression of summer, but in older animals the incidence remained between 38 and 62% throughout the season. These results substantiate earlier findings which pointed towards the maintenance of Powassan virus in nature by a cycle involving groundhogs and squirrels as reservoirs, with ticks as vectors, from which human infections occurred tangentially. PMID:6019677

McLean, Donald M.; Cobb, Cathron; Gooderham, Susan E.; Smart, Carol A.; Wilson, A. G.; Wilson, W. E.

1967-01-01

441

Human immunodeficiency virus, herpes virus infections, and pulmonary vascular disease  

PubMed Central

The following state-of-the-art seminar was delivered as part of the Aspen Lung Conference on Pulmonary Hypertension and Vascular Diseases held in Aspen, Colorado in June 2012. This paper will summarize the lecture and present results from a nonhuman primate model of infection with Simian (Human) Immunodeficiency Virus - nef chimeric virions as well as the idea that polymorphisms in the HIV-1 nef gene may be driving the immune response that results in exuberant inflammation and aberrant endothelial cell (EC) function. We will present data gathered from primary HIV nef isolates where we tested the biological consequences of these polymorphisms and how their presence in human populations may predict patients at risk for developing this disease. In this article, we also discuss how a dysregulated immune system, in conjunction with a viral infection, could contribute to pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Both autoimmune diseases and some viruses are associated with defects in the immune system, primarily in the function of regulatory T cells. These T-cell defects may be a common pathway in the formation of plexiform lesions. Regardless of the route by which viruses may lead to PAH, it is important to recognize their role in this rare disease. PMID:23662195

Flores, Sonia C.; Almodovar, Sharilyn

2013-01-01

442

Powassan virus: persistence of virus activity during 1966.  

PubMed

Powassan virus isolations were achieved from three of 60 pools of Ixodes cookei ticks removed from 286 groundhogs (Marmota monax) which were collected some 200 miles north of Toronto between May 5 and September 5, 1966. Virus yields per pool of one to 11 ticks ranged from 10(2.5) to 10(6.0) TCD(50) for primary swine kidney tissue cultures, and positive pools were collected on June 24, July 15 and August 10. Powassan neutralizing antibodies were detected by mouse inoculation tests in 143 of 362 animals including 127 of 286 groundhogs, 14 of 45 red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus) and two of 31 other forest mammals. The monthly prevalence of antibody in the current season's groundhogs increased from 0 to 25% with the progression of summer, but in older animals the incidence remained between 38 and 62% throughout the season. These results substantiate earlier findings which pointed towards the maintenance of Powassan virus in nature by a cycle involving groundhogs and squirrels as reservoirs, with ticks as vectors, from which human infections occurred tangentially. PMID:6019677

McLean, D M; Cobb, C; Gooderham, S E; Smart, C A; Wilson, A G; Wilson, W E

1967-03-18

443

Evolution and ecology of influenza A viruses.  

PubMed Central

In this review we examine the hypothesis that aquatic birds are the primordial source of all influenza viruses in other species and study the ecological features that permit the perpetuation of influenza viruses in aquatic avian species. Phylogenetic analysis of the nucleotide sequence of influenza A virus RNA segments coding for the spike proteins (HA, NA, and M2) and the internal proteins (PB2, PB1, PA, NP, M, and NS) from a wide range of hosts, geographical regions, and influenza A virus subtypes support the following conclusions. (i) Two partly overlapping reservoirs of influenza A viruses exist in migrating waterfowl and shorebirds throughout the world. These species harbor influenza viruses of all the known HA and NA subtypes. (ii) Influenza viruses have evolved into a number of host-specific lineages that are exemplified by the NP gene and include equine Prague/56, recent equine strains, classical swine and human strains, H13 gull strains, and all other avian strains. Other genes show similar patterns, but with extensive evidence of genetic reassortment. Geographical as well as host-specific lineages are evident. (iii) All of the influenza A viruses of mammalian sources originated from the avian gene pool, and it is possible that influenza B viruses also arose from the same source. (iv) The different virus lineages are predominantly host specific, but there are periodic exchanges of influenza virus genes or whole viruses between species, giving rise to pandemics of disease in humans, lower animals, and birds. (v) The influenza viruses currently circulating in humans and pigs in North America originated by transmission of all genes from the avian reservoir prior to the 1918 Spanish influenza pandemic; some of the genes have subsequently been replaced by others from the influenza gene pool in birds. (vi) The influenza virus gene pool in aquatic birds of the world is probably perpetuated by low-level transmission within that species throughout the year. (vii) There is evidence that most new human pandemic strains and variants have originated in southern China. (viii) There is speculation that pigs may serve as the intermediate host in genetic exchange between influenza viruses in avian and humans, but experimental evidence is lacking. (ix) Once the ecological properties of influenza viruses are understood, it may be possible to interdict the introduction of new influenza viruses into humans. Images PMID:1579108

Webster, R G; Bean, W J; Gorman, O T; Chambers, T M; Kawaoka, Y

1992-01-01

444

Full Genome Sequencing of Corriparta Virus, Identifies California Mosquito Pool Virus as a Member of the Corriparta virus Species  

PubMed Central

The species Corriparta virus (CORV), within the genus Orbivirus, family Reoviridae, currently contains six virus strains: corriparta virus MRM1 (CORV-MRM1); CS0109; V654; V370; Acado virus and Jacareacanga virus. However, lack of neutralization assays, or reference genome sequence data has prevented further analysis of their intra-serogroup/species relationships and identification of individual serotypes. We report whole-genome sequence data for CORV-MRM1, which was isolated in 1960 in Australia. Comparisons of the conserved, polymerase (VP1), sub-core-shell T2 and core-surface T13 proteins encoded by genome segments 1, 2 and 8 (Seg-1, Seg-2 and Seg-8) respectively, show that this virus groups with the other mosquito borne orbiviruses. However, highest levels of nt/aa sequence identity (75.9%/91.6% in Seg-2/T2: 77.6%/91.7% in Seg-8/T13, respectively) were detected between CORV-MRM1 and California mosquito pool virus (CMPV), an orbivirus isolated in the USA in 1974, showing that they belong to the same virus species. The data presented here identify CMPV as a member of the Corriparta virus species and will facilitate identification of additional CORV isolates, diagnostic assay design and epidemiological studies. PMID:24015178

Belaganahalli, Manjunatha N.; Maan, Sushila; Maan, Narender S.; Nomikou, Kyriaki; Guimera, Marc; Brownlie, Joe; Tesh, Robert; Attoui, Houssam; Mertens, Peter P. C.

2013-01-01

445

Filtration sizes of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and surrogate viruses used to test barrier materials.  

PubMed Central

Filters with well-defined holes were used to determine the effective diameters in buffer of human immunodeficiency virus type 1, herpes simplex virus type 1, and four bacteriophages (phi X174, T7, PRD1, and phi 6), which may serve as surrogate viruses for testing barrier materials. Bacteriophages phi 6 and PRD1 most closely model human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in filtration size. PMID:1610199

Lytle, C D; Tondreau, S C; Truscott, W; Budacz, A P; Kuester, R K; Venegas, L; Schmukler, R E; Cyr, W H

1992-01-01

446

Yellow fever vector live-virus vaccines: West Nile virus vaccine development  

Microsoft Academic Search

By combining molecular-biological techniques with our increased understanding of the effect of gene sequence modification on viral function, yellow fever 17D, a positive-strand RNA virus vaccine, has been manipulated to induce a protective immune response against viruses of the same family (e.g. Japanese encephalitis and dengue viruses). Triggered by the emergence of West Nile virus infections in the New World

Juan Arroyo; Charles A Miller; John Catalan; Thomas P Monath

2001-01-01

447

Chloroviruses: not your everyday plant virus.  

PubMed

Viruses infecting higher plants are among the smallest viruses known and typically have four to ten protein-encoding genes. By contrast, many viruses that infect algae (classified in the virus family Phycodnaviridae) are among the largest viruses found to date and have up to 600 protein-encoding genes. This brief review focuses on one group of plaque-forming phycodnaviruses that infect unicellular chlorella-like green algae. The prototype chlorovirus PBCV-1 has more than 400 protein-encoding genes and 11 tRNA genes. About 40% of the PBCV-1 encoded proteins resemble proteins of known function including many that are completely unexpected for a virus. In many respects, chlorovirus infection resembles bacterial infection by tailed bacteriophages. PMID:22100667

Van Etten, James L; Dunigan, David D

2012-01-01

448

Control of virus diseases of citrus.  

PubMed

Citrus is thought to have originated in Southeast Asia and horticulturally desirable clonal selections have been clonally cultivated for hundreds of years. While some citrus species have nucellar embryony, most cultivation of citrus has been by clonal propagation to ensure that propagated plants have the same traits as the parent selection. Clonal propagation also avoids juvenility, and the propagated plants produce fruit sooner. Because of the clonal propagation of citrus, citrus has accumulated a large number of viruses; many of these viruses are asymptomatic until a susceptible rootstock and/or scion is encountered. The viruses reported to occur in citrus will be summarized in this review. Methods of therapy to clean selected clones from viruses will be reviewed; the use of quarantine, clean stock, and certification programs for control of citrus viruses and other strategies to control insect spread citrus viruses, such as mild strain cross-protection and the use of pest management areas will be discussed. PMID:25591879

Lee, Richard F

2015-01-01

449

Virus-Based Chemical and Biological Sensing  

PubMed Central

Viruses have recently proven useful for the detection of target analytes such as explosives, proteins, bacteria, viruses, spores, and toxins with high selectivity and sensitivity. Bacteriophages (often shortened to phages), viruses that specifically infect bacteria, are currently the most studied viruses, mainly because target-specific nonlytic phages (and the peptides and proteins carried by them) can be identified by using the well-established phage display technique, and lytic phages can specifically break bacteria to release cell-specific marker molecules such as enzymes that can be assayed. In addition, phages have good chemical and thermal stability, and can be conjugated with nanomaterials and immobilized on a transducer surface in an analytical device. This Review focuses on progress made in the use of phages in chemical and biological sensors in combination with traditional analytical techniques. Recent progress in the use of virusnanomaterial composites and other viruses in sensing applications is also high-lighted. PMID:19662666

Mao, Chuanbin; Liu, Aihua; Cao, Binrui

2009-01-01

450

Sophos Anti-Virus for Windows, version 7 user manual  

E-print Network

Sophos Anti-Virus for Windows, version 7 user manual For Windows 2000 and later Document date: August 2008 #12;Contents 1 About Sophos Anti-Virus ........................................................................................................................3 2 Introduction to Sophos Anti-Virus

451

Original article Virus-like particles in the tracheal mite  

E-print Network

har- boured numerous 27 nm isometric virus-like particles. These virus-like particles were formed in relation to the honey bee tracheal mite resistance is discussed. honey bee / Acarapis woodi / virus

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

452

9 CFR 113.210 - Feline Calicivirus Vaccine, Killed Virus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Feline Calicivirus Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.210 Section 113.210 Animals...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS...VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines 113.210 Feline...

2010-01-01

453

9 CFR 113.208 - Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Killed Virus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.208 Section 113.208 Animals...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS...VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines 113.208 Avian...

2013-01-01

454

9 CFR 113.210 - Feline Calicivirus Vaccine, Killed Virus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Feline Calicivirus Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.210 Section 113.210 Animals...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS...VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines 113.210 Feline...

2012-01-01

455

48 CFR 2452.239-71 - Information Technology Virus Security.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 false Information Technology Virus Security. 2452.239-71 Section...2452.239-71 Information Technology Virus Security. As prescribed in 2439.107...following clause: Information Technology Virus Security (FEB 2006) (a) The...

2014-10-01

456

21 CFR 866.3400 - Parainfluenza virus serological reagents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 false Parainfluenza virus serological reagents. 866.3400 Section...Reagents 866.3400 Parainfluenza virus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Parainfluenza virus serological reagents are devices...

2013-04-01

457

9 CFR 113.34 - Detection of hemagglutinating viruses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Detection of hemagglutinating viruses. 113.34 Section 113.34 Animals...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS...113.34 Detection of hemagglutinating viruses. The test for detection of...

2011-01-01

458

21 CFR 866.3400 - Parainfluenza virus serological reagents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-04-01 false Parainfluenza virus serological reagents. 866.3400 Section...Reagents 866.3400 Parainfluenza virus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Parainfluenza virus serological reagents are devices...

2011-04-01

459

21 CFR 866.3305 - Herpes simplex virus serological assays.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Herpes simplex virus serological assays. 866.3305 Section...Reagents 866.3305 Herpes simplex virus serological assays. (a) Identification . Herpes simplex virus serological assays are devices...

2011-04-01

460

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Occurrence of adenovirus and other enteric viruses in  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Occurrence of adenovirus and other enteric viruses in limited-contact freshwater Introduction Recreational outbreaks caused by adenoviruses, coxsackie- viruses, echoviruses and noroviruses (CSOs) and stormwater are sources of viruses which could significantly impact recreational water quality

Illinois at Chicago, University of

461

9 CFR 113.208 - Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Killed Virus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.208 Section 113.208 Animals...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS...VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines 113.208 Avian...

2011-01-01

462

21 CFR 866.3400 - Parainfluenza virus serological reagents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-04-01 false Parainfluenza virus serological reagents. 866.3400 Section...Reagents 866.3400 Parainfluenza virus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Parainfluenza virus serological reagents are devices...

2014-04-01

463

48 CFR 2452.239-71 - Information Technology Virus Security.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Information Technology Virus Security. 2452.239-71 Section...2452.239-71 Information Technology Virus Security. As prescribed in 2439.107...following clause: Information Technology Virus Security (FEB 2006) (a) The...

2012-10-01

464

21 CFR 866.3305 - Herpes simplex virus serological assays.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Herpes simplex virus serological assays. 866.3305 Section...Reagents 866.3305 Herpes simplex virus serological assays. (a) Identification . Herpes simplex virus serological assays are devices...

2012-04-01

465

Detection of Metamorphic Computer Viruses Using Algebraic Specification  

E-print Network

Detection of Metamorphic Computer Viruses Using Algebraic Specification Matt Webster and Grant Malcolm Abstract This paper describes a new approach towards the detection of metamorphic computer viruses through the algebraic specification of an assembly language. Metamorphic computer viruses are computer

Malcolm, Grant

466

9 CFR 113.210 - Feline Calicivirus Vaccine, Killed Virus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... Feline Calicivirus Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.210 Section 113.210 Animals...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS...VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines 113.210 Feline...

2014-01-01

467

Virus transport in physically and geochemically heterogeneous subsurface porous media  

E-print Network

Virus transport in physically and geochemically heterogeneous subsurface porous media Subir for virus transport in physically and geochemically heterogeneous subsurface porous media is presented. The model involves solution of the advection­dispersion equation, which additionally considers virus

Ryan, Joe

468

21 CFR 866.3480 - Respiratory syncytial virus serological reagents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Respiratory syncytial virus serological reagents. 866.3480... 866.3480 Respiratory syncytial virus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Respiratory syncytial virus serological reagents are devices...

2012-04-01

469

9 CFR 113.206 - Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.206 Section 113.206 Animals...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS...VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines 113.206 Wart...

2011-01-01

470

9 CFR 113.211 - Feline Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Feline Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.211 Section 113.211 Animals...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS...VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines 113.211 Feline...

2011-01-01

471

21 CFR 866.3305 - Herpes simplex virus serological assays.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 false Herpes simplex virus serological assays. 866.3305 Section...Reagents 866.3305 Herpes simplex virus serological assays. (a) Identification. Herpes simplex virus serological assays are devices...

2014-04-01

472

9 CFR 113.211 - Feline Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Feline Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.211 Section 113.211 Animals...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS...VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines 113.211 Feline...

2014-01-01

473

48 CFR 2452.239-71 - Information Technology Virus Security.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 true Information Technology Virus Security. 2452.239-71 Section...2452.239-71 Information Technology Virus Security. As prescribed in 2439.107...following clause: Information Technology Virus Security (FEB 2006) (a) The...

2010-10-01

474

21 CFR 866.3380 - Mumps virus serological reagents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Mumps virus serological reagents. 866.3380 Section...Serological Reagents 866.3380 Mumps virus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Mumps virus serological reagents consist of...

2011-04-01

475

9 CFR 113.34 - Detection of hemagglutinating viruses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Detection of hemagglutinating viruses. 113.34 Section 113.34 Animals...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS...113.34 Detection of hemagglutinating viruses. The test for detection of...

2010-01-01

476

21 CFR 866.3480 - Respiratory syncytial virus serological reagents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Respiratory syncytial virus serological reagents. 866.3480... 866.3480 Respiratory syncytial virus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Respiratory syncytial virus serological reagents are devices...

2011-04-01

477

48 CFR 2452.239-71 - Information Technology Virus Security.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Information Technology Virus Security. 2452.239-71 Section...2452.239-71 Information Technology Virus Security. As prescribed in 2439.107...following clause: Information Technology Virus Security (FEB 2006) (a) The...

2013-10-01

478

9 CFR 113.34 - Detection of hemagglutinating viruses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... false Detection of hemagglutinating viruses. 113.34 Section 113.34 Animals...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS...113.34 Detection of hemagglutinating viruses. The test for detection of...

2014-01-01

479

9 CFR 113.210 - Feline Calicivirus Vaccine, Killed Virus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Feline Calicivirus Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.210 Section 113.210 Animals...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS...VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines 113.210 Feline...

2013-01-01

480

21 CFR 866.3510 - Rubella virus serological reagents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Rubella virus serological reagents. 866.3510 Section...Serological Reagents 866.3510 Rubella virus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Rubella virus serological reagents are devices...

2013-04-01

481

9 CFR 113.311 - Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine. 113.311 Section...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS...VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Live Virus Vaccines 113.311 Bovine...

2011-01-01

482

21 CFR 866.3400 - Parainfluenza virus serological reagents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-04-01 false Parainfluenza virus serological reagents. 866.3400 Section...Reagents 866.3400 Parainfluenza virus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Parainfluenza virus serological reagents are devices...

2010-04-01

483

9 CFR 113.211 - Feline Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Feline Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.211 Section 113.211 Animals...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS...VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines 113.211 Feline...

2013-01-01