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Sample records for caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus

  1. Isolation of caprine arthritis encephalitis virus from goats in Mexico.

    PubMed Central

    Daltabuit Test, M; de la Concha-Bermejillo, A; Espinosa, L E; Loza Rubio, E; Aguilar Setién, A

    1999-01-01

    A lentivirus was isolated from 2 goats in Mexico that were seropositive to caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV) by the agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) test. The lentivirus was identified as CAEV by the observation of giant multinucleated cells (syncytia) in goat synovial membrane (GSM) monolayers co-cultivated with blood mononuclear (BMN) cells from the seropositive goats, and by amplifying a DNA segment of the CAEV gag gene using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. Subsequently, cell supernatants from the GSM cells co-cultivated with BMN cells were used to infect 2 CAEV-seronegative goats. These goats seroconverted to CAEV as determined by the AGID test, and CAEV was re-isolated from these goats. One of the goats developed polyarthritis 8 mo after inoculation. Previous serological surveys indicate that infection with CAEV is prevalent among goats in Mexico. To our knowledge this is the first report of CAEV isolation in Mexico. Because of globalization of markets and increased trading among nations, the rapid identification and reporting of diseases such as CAEV are important to prevent the dissemination of these diseases. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. PMID:10480464

  2. Phenotypic alteration of blood and milk leukocytes in goats infected with caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV) causes a persistent and slow progressive infection in goats, characterized by chronic proliferative sinovitis, arthritis and, less frequently, pneumonia. Infected goats could also be affected by interstitial mastitis. The aim of this study was to evaluate ...

  3. Serological survey of caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus infection in Japan

    PubMed Central

    KONISHI, Misako; HAYAMA, Yoko; SHIRAFUJI, Hiroaki; KAMEYAMA, Ken-ichiro; MURAKAMI, Kenji; TSUTSUI, Toshiyuki; AKASHI, Hiroomi

    2015-01-01

    A serological survey of caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV) infection was conducted from September 2006 to February 2007 in Japan. A total of 857 serum samples were collected from 113 herds in 28 prefectures and were analyzed for the presence of CAEV antibodies using agar gel immunodiffusion test. The seroprevalence of CAEV infection at the herd and animal levels was 15.0% (17/113) and 10.0% (86/857), respectively. Large farms with more than 10 goats and with animals for dairy and breeding purposes had higher seroprevalence (P<0.05). The results of this study provide useful information to consider effective control programs against CAEV infection in Japan. PMID:26498401

  4. Control of caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus and Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis infection in a Norwegian goat herd.

    PubMed

    Nord, K; Holstad, G; Eik, L O; Grønstøl, H

    1998-01-01

    A control programme for caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV) and Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis (C. pseudotuberculosis) infection was established in a Norwegian goat herd comprising approximately 100 milking goats. The herd seroprevalences of antibodies against CAEV and C. pseudotuberculosis were 97% and 94%, respectively. Kids were removed from the infected flock at birth, avoiding any contact between dam and kid. The kids were kept completely segregated from the seropositive flock and fed cow's colostrum and milk. A seronegative flock was established, based on the removed kids and their offspring. Goasts belonging to the seronegative flock were allowed to kid naturally and to mother their kids. The seropositive flock was slaughtered during the second year of the control programme. After washing and disinfection, housing systems and nearby outdoor premises were left empty for 3 months. Of 230 goats examined for antibodies against CAEV with ELISA regularly during 3 years of the control program, altogether 6 were found to be seropositive, while for 10 the result was indeterminate. All 16 animals were immediately culled. During the third year of the control programme, all goats were examined and proved negative for antibodies against C. pseudotuberculosis by a haemolysis inhibition test. Clinical examination revealed no signs of CAE or caseous lymphadenitis. PMID:9592951

  5. Efficient replication of caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus in goat granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Lamara, A; Fieni, F; Mselli-Lakhal, L; Tainturier, D; Chebloune, Y

    2001-11-01

    Recent reports demonstrated the susceptibility of epithelial cells from different organs to caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV) both in vitro and in vivo. Since granulosa cells (GC) are of epithelial origin and currently used for in vitro oocyte maturation, we addressed the question whether these cells are susceptible or resistant to CAEV infection. GC were isolated from goats from certified CAEV-free herds. PCR analysis on GC DNA using CAEV specific primers confirmed the absence of CAEV infection and immunocytochemistry using specific K813 anti-cytokeratin monoclonal antibodies confirmed the epithelial nature of GC. These cells were then inoculated with CAEV using two strains: the CAEV-pBSCA molecular clone and the CAEV-3112 French field isolate. Cytopathic effects (CPE) were observed on cell culture monolayers inoculated with both CAEV strains. Expression of CAEV proteins was shown both by immunocytochemistry using anti-p24 gag specific antibodies and by immunoprecipitation using an hyperimmune serum. Supernatant of infected cells were shown to contain high titers (ranging 10(5) tissue culture infectious doses 50 per ml: TCID(50) per ml) of infectious cytopathic viruses when assayed onto the indicator goat synovial membrane (GSM) cells. Our findings demonstrate the large cell tropism of CAEV and suggest that GC could serve as a reservoir for the virus during the sub-clinical phase of infection. Furthermore, given the high seroprevalence of CAEV in the all industrialised countries and the large number of ovaries derived from unknown serological status animals used for in vitro goat embryo production, one can conclude that these feeder cell cultures might be a potential source of early transmission of CAEV to goat embryos. PMID:11551657

  6. Can caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV) be transmitted by in vitro fertilization with experimentally infected sperm?

    PubMed

    Fieni, F; Pellerin, J L; Roux, C; Poulin, N; Baril, G; Fatet, A; Valas, S; Chatagnon, G; Mermillod, P; Guignot, F

    2012-02-01

    For each of the five fertilization trials of the experiment, frozen semen was prepared for in vitro capacitation at a concentration of 1 × 10(7) spz/ml and divided into three groups. One group was used as a control, while the two others were inoculated with 100 μl/ml of either culture medium from non-infected cells (placebo group) or cell culture medium containing virus at a concentration of 10(5) TCID(50)/ml (infected group). A total of 789 oocytes were used for IVF. For each of the five trials a group of oocytes were used as a non-infected control and were found to be caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV) free. The other oocytes were divided in two equal batches. Oocytes in the first batch were in vitro fertilized with CAEV infected sperm (infected group) and the second batch were fertilized with CAEV non-infected sperm (placebo and control groups). After IVF, the zygotes of each group were washed 12 times. The CAEV genome was not detected (using RT-PCR) in the washing media of either the control or placebo groups from each trial. In contrast, the first three washing media from the infected group were consistently found to be positive for the CAEV genome (5/5), whereas subsequent washing media were CAEV-free (P < 0.05). Zygotes obtained using all semen groups tested negative for both the provirus and genome of CAEV. These results clearly show that the first four washes were sufficient to remove viral particles from CAEV infected fertilization media and that CAEV-free embryos can be produced by IVF using spermatozoa infected in vitro by CAEV. PMID:22015154

  7. A long term study of goats naturally infected with caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus.

    PubMed

    Hanson, J; Hydbring, E; Olsson, K

    1996-01-01

    The caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV) is a big problem in dairy goat industry. Little is known about its characteristics in naturally infected goat herds. The aims of this study were: 1) to study how antibody expression, measured by agar gel immunodiffusion test (AGIDT), varied over time in naturally infected, seropositive goats, 2) to observe clinical signs in seropositive adult goats and 3) to follow seroconversion and gamma globulin concentration in goat kids artificially reared on cow milk replacement product only, compared to kids reared on untreated goat milk. The antibody expression pattern to the viral proteins gp135 and p28 varied in the individual goat and intermittent negative reactions were seen in 19 adult animals followed for 30-91 weeks. Four seropositive goats developed clinical symptoms with difficulties to move. However, no correlation between clinical signs and antibody expression pattern was seen. During the first 27 weeks of age no kid in the milk replacement reared group (N = 4) seroconverted, but 5 of the 7 kids fed goat milk occasionally showed a positive antibody reaction. The gamma globulin concentration was significantly higher in the goat milk fed group until the kids had become more than 19 weeks old. The results show that a great variation of the antibody pattern in individual goats occurs, and therefore the AGIDT is only reliable as a herd screening test. Frequent sampling is necessary to get reliable information about spreading of the CAEV in a naturally infected goat herd. Removing kids from their dams immediately after birth combined with segregation and artificial rearing protected them from CAEV infection. However their gamma globulin concentration was initially low. PMID:8659344

  8. COMPETITIVE-INHIBITION ENZYME-LINKED IMMUNOSORBENT ASSAY FOR DETECTION OF SERUM ANTIBODIES TO CAPRINE ARTHRITIS-ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS: DIAGNOSTIC TOOL FOR SUCCESSFUL ERADICATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A competitive-inhibition enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA) was evaluated for detection of serum antibodies to the surface envelope (SU) of caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV) in goats. This assay utilized 96 well microtiter plates containing CAEV-63 SU captured by monoclonal antibo...

  9. Immunohistochemical identification of caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus in paraffin-embedded specimens from naturally infected goats.

    PubMed

    Storset, A K; Evensen, O; Rimstad, E

    1997-05-01

    The expression of caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus capsid protein was studied in seropositive naturally infected asymptomatic goals (10< seropositive naturally infected encephalitic kids (12) and goats (4), and noninfected control goats (3). Rabbit antiserum to recombinant viral capsid and matrix proteins were used in a biotin-streptavidin-alkaline phosphatase complex immunohistochemical method on sections of formalin- and ethanol-fixed tissue specimens. Macrophages in inflamed areas of the lung (8/12), in the brain (5/16), and in the spinal cord (4/16) from encephalitic animals harbored viral antigens, as revealed by immunohistochemistry and use of a capsid protein-specific antiserum. Altogether 12/16 encephalitic animals tested positive for viral antigen. Viral antigens were found in 5/10 seropositive asymptomatic goals in macrophages located in the lung (3), the udder (1), and the medulla of lymph nodes (4). None of the control animals tested positive for viral antigen. Ethanol fixation showed highest sensitivity, and the lowest antigen concentration that revealed a positive signal discernible from background was twofold higher in ethanol-fixed specimens than in formalin-fixed specimens. The evaluation was performed on artificial antigen substrates embedded with defined concentrations of recombinant viral capsid protein. Immunohistochemistry is a valuable supplement to the methods presently available for diagnosis in cases suspicious of caprine arthritis-encephalitis. PMID:9163873

  10. Host Range of Small-Ruminant Lentivirus Cytopathic Variants Determined with a Selectable Caprine Arthritis- Encephalitis Virus Pseudotype System

    PubMed Central

    Hötzel, Isidro; Cheevers, William P.

    2001-01-01

    The small-ruminant lentiviruses ovine maedi-visna virus (MVV) and caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV) cause encephalitis, progressive pneumonia, arthritis, and mastitis in sheep and goats. Icelandic MVV strains, which are lytic in tissue culture, have a wide species distribution of functional receptors, which includes human cells. In contrast, functional receptors for the nonlytic CAEV CO are absent from human cells. To determine if the wide species distribution of functional receptors is a common property of MVV strains or related to cytopathic phenotype, we tested the infectivity of viruses pseudotyped with the envelope glycoproteins of MVV K1514, CAEV CO, and lytic and nonlytic North American MVV strains to cells of different species. Replication-defective CAEV proviral constructs lacking the env, tat, and vif genes and carrying the neomycin phosphotransferase gene in the vif-tat region were developed for the infectivity assays. Cotransfection of human 293T cells with these proviral constructs and plasmids expressing CAEV, MVV, or vesicular stomatitis virus envelope glycoproteins produced infectious pseudotyped virus which induced resistance of infected cells to G418. Using these pseudotypes, we confirmed the wide species distribution of Icelandic MVV receptors and the narrow host range of CAEV. However, functional receptors for the two North American MVV strains tested, unlike the Icelandic MVV and similar to CAEV, were limited to cells of ruminant species, regardless of cytopathic phenotype. The results indicate a differential receptor recognition by MVV strains which is unrelated to cytopathic phenotype. PMID:11462010

  11. Maedi-visna virus and caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus: distinct species or quasispecies and its implications for laboratory diagnosis.

    PubMed Central

    Pasick, J

    1998-01-01

    The lentiviruses responsible for causing maedi-visna or ovine progressive pneumonia in sheep and caprine arthritis-encephalitis in goats have long been considered distinct, albeit related, viral species. Evidence, primarily in the form of nucleic acid sequence data, suggests this distinction may not be as absolute as once thought. These lentiviruses might better be viewed in the context of viral quasispecies whose individual members exhibit varying host range and pathogenic capabilities. Implications for diagnostic testing and control of these diseases are discussed. PMID:9798087

  12. Epithelial cells from goat oviduct are highly permissive for productive infection with caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV).

    PubMed

    Lamara, A; Fieni, F; Mselli-Lakhal, L; Tainturier, D; Chebloune, Y

    2002-07-01

    Caprine oviduct epithelial cells (COEC) are commonly used in in vitro goat embryo production protocols to stimulate early embryonic development. These feeder cells are usually collected from slaughterhouses from unknown serological status animals for caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV) infection which is frequent in many regions of the world. Tissues derived from this source may be contaminated with CAEV and the use of such material in in vitro fertilisation systems may contribute to transmission of this pathogen to the cultured embryos and dissemination via embryo transfer (ET). The aim of this study was to determine the permissiveness of COEC to CAEV replication in vitro. Cells were isolated from goats from certified CAEV-free herds and then were inoculated with two CAEV strains: the molecularly-cloned isolate of CAEV (CAEV-pBSCA) and the French field isolate (CAEV-3112). Cytopathic effects (CPE) were observed on cell culture monolayers inoculated with both CAEV strains. Expression of CAEV proteins was shown both by immunocytochemistry using anti-p24 gag specific antibodies and by immunoprecipitation using a hyperimmune serum. The CAEV proteins were correctly and properly processed by artificially-infected COEC and the titers of virus released into the supernatant reached 10(6) TCID(50)/ml 6 days post-inoculation. Although the macrophage lineage cells are the main centre of infection in the virus-positive animal, these findings suggest that epithelial cells may be important in the viral life cycle probably as a reservoir allowing the viral persistence, dissemination and pathogenesis. These results suggest also that the use in in vitro fertilisation systems of co-culture feeder cells that support efficient replication of CAEV to high titers could represent a serious risk for permanent transmission of virus to the cultured embryos and to the surrogate dam involved. PMID:12135791

  13. Evaluation of a Caprine Arthritis-Encephalitis Virus/Maedi-Visna Virus Indirect Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay in the Serological Diagnosis of Ovine Progressive Pneumonia Virus in U.S. Sheep

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Serological diagnostic testing of sheep and goats using enzyme immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) is the most common method of determining small ruminant lentivirus (SRLV) infection. A caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV)/maedi-visna virus (MVV) indirect (i) ELISA, which utilizes MVV EV1 capsid a...

  14. Early embryonic cells from in vivo-produced goat embryos transmit the caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV).

    PubMed

    Lamara, A; Fieni, F; Mselli-Lakhal, L; Chatagnon, G; Bruyas, J F; Tainturier, D; Battut, I; Fornazero, C; Chebloune, Y

    2002-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether cells of early goat embryos isolated from in vivo-fertilized goats interact with the caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV) in vitro and whether the embryonic zona pellucida (ZP) protects early embryo cells from CAEV infection. ZP-free and ZP-intact 8-16 cell embryos were inoculated for 2 h with CAEVat the 10(4) tissue culture infectious dose 50 (TCID50)/ml. Infected embryos were incubated for 72 h over feeder monolayer containing caprine oviduct epithelial cells (COECs) and CAEV indicator goat synovial membrane (GSM) cells. Noninoculated ZP-free and ZP-intact embryos were submitted to similar treatments and used as controls. Six days postinoculation, infectious virus assay of the wash fluids of inoculated early goat embryos showed typical CAEV-induced cytopathic effects (CPE) on indicator GSM monolayers, with fluids of the first two washes only. The mixed cell monolayer (COEC + GSM) used as feeder cells for CAEV inoculated ZP-free embryos showed CPE. In contrast, none of the feeder monolayers, used for culture of CAEV inoculated ZP-intact embryos or the noninoculated controls, developed any CPE. CAEV exposure apparently did not interfere with development of ZP-free embryos in vitro during the 72 h study period when compared with untreated controls (34.6 and 36% blastocysts, respectively, P > 0.05). From these results one can conclude that the transmission of infectious molecularly cloned CAEV-pBSCA (plasmid binding site CAEV) by embryonic cells from in vivo-produced embryos at the 8-16 cell stages is possible with ZP-free embryos. The absence of interactions between ZP-intact embryos and CAEV in vitro suggests that the ZP is an efficient protective embryo barrier. PMID:12240918

  15. Risk factors for transmission and methods for control of caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus infection.

    PubMed

    Rowe, J D; East, N E

    1997-03-01

    The major route of transmission of caprine-encephalitis virus (CAEV) is through the ingestion of CAEV-infected colostrum or milk. Less efficient routes of transmission are associated with prolonged contact with infected goats and are reviewed in this article. Prevention of CAEV is based on the removal of kids from their dam at birth, and feeding the kids heat-treated colostrum and pasteurized milk until weaning. Serologic testing and segregation or culling of seropositive goats is necessary to minimize horizontal transmission of CAEV. PMID:9071745

  16. Priming with tat-Deleted Caprine Arthritis Encephalitis Virus (CAEV) Proviral DNA or Live Virus Protects Goats from Challenge with Pathogenic CAEV

    PubMed Central

    Harmache, Abdallah; Vitu, Christian; Guiguen, François; Russo, Pierre; Bertoni, Giuseppe; Pepin, Michel; Vigne, Robert; Suzan, Marie

    1998-01-01

    We previously reported that infection of goats with caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV) tat− proviral DNA or virus results in persistent infection, since the animals seroconverted and direct virus isolation from cultures of blood-derived macrophages was positive. In this study we wanted to determine whether goats injected with CAEV tat− proviral DNA or virus were protected against challenge with the pathogenic homologous virus and to investigate whether CAEV tat− was still pathogenic. All animals injected with CAEV tat− became infected as indicated by seroconversion and virus isolation. Challenge at 8 or 9 months postinfection demonstrated protection in four of four animals injected with CAEV tat− but did not in three of three mock-inoculated challenged goats. Challenge virus was undetectable in the blood macrophages of protected animals during a period of 6 or 10 months postchallenge. In two of four protected animals, however, we were able to detect the challenge wild-type virus by reverse transcriptase PCR on RNA directly extracted from synovial membrane cells surrounding the inoculation site. This result suggests that protection was achieved without complete sterilizing immunity. Animals injected with CAEV tat− and mock challenged developed inflammatory lesions in the joints, although these lesions were not as severe as those in CAEV wild-type-injected goats. These results confirm the dispensable role of Tat in CAEV replication in vivo for the establishment of infection and pathogenesis and demonstrate in another lentivirus infection model the efficacy of live attenuated viruses to induce resistance to superinfection. PMID:9658128

  17. Activation/proliferation and apoptosis of bystander goat lymphocytes induced by a macrophage-tropic chimeric caprine arthritis encephalitis virus expressing SIV Nef

    SciTech Connect

    Bouzar, Baya Amel; Rea, Angela; Hoc-Villet, Stephanie; Garnier, Celine; Guiguen, Francois; Jin Yuhuai; Narayan, Opendra; Chebloune, Yahia . E-mail: ychebloune@kumc.edu

    2007-08-01

    Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV) is the natural lentivirus of goats, well known for its tropism for macrophages and its inability to cause infection in lymphocytes. The viral genome lacks nef, tat, vpu and vpx coding sequences. To test the hypothesis that when nef is expressed by the viral genome, the virus became toxic for lymphocytes during replication in macrophages, we inserted the SIVsmm PBj14 nef coding sequences into the genome of CAEV thereby generating CAEV-nef. This recombinant virus is not infectious for lymphocytes but is fully replication competent in goat macrophages in which it constitutively expresses the SIV Nef. We found that goat lymphocytes cocultured with CAEV-nef-infected macrophages became activated, showing increased expression of the interleukin-2 receptor (IL-2R). Activation correlated with increased proliferation of the cells. Interestingly, a dual effect in terms of apoptosis regulation was observed in exposed goat lymphocytes. Nef was found first to induce a protection of lymphocytes from apoptosis during the first few days following exposure to infected macrophages, but later it induced increased apoptosis in the activated lymphocytes. This new recombinant virus provides a model to study the functions of Nef in the context of infection of macrophages, but in absence of infection of T lymphocytes and brings new insights into the biological effects of Nef on lymphocytes.

  18. Antibody reactivity to the immunodominant epitopes of the caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus gp38 transmembrane protein associates with the development of arthritis.

    PubMed Central

    Bertoni, G; Zahno, M L; Zanoni, R; Vogt, H R; Peterhans, E; Ruff, G; Cheevers, W P; Sonigo, P; Pancino, G

    1994-01-01

    High titers of antibodies to caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV) envelope (Env) glycoproteins are found in infected goats developing a progressive arthritis. In order to identify linear B epitopes of the CAEV Env, which may be involved in the immunopathology of arthritis, we constructed a lambda gt11 Env expression library. By combining library screening with sera from naturally infected Swiss goats with an enzyme immunoassay with overlapping peptides (pepscan), four group-specific epitopes could be precisely defined in the transmembrane envelope proteins: TM1 to TM4, including a conserved structure (TM3) that corresponds to the immunodominant epitope of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and other lentiviruses. A panel of 190 CAEV naturally infected goat serum samples, obtained from animals with defined clinical status, was tested for reactivity to synthetic peptides corresponding to the TM epitopes in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Antibody reactivity to two epitopes was highly associated (TM3, P = 0.002, and TM4, P < 0.001) with the presence of clinically detectable arthritis. Such an association is absent for anti-Gag antibody. Antibodies to the immunodominant structures of the TM glycoprotein could thus have an important role in the immunopathogenic process leading to disease. Images PMID:7933096

  19. Is caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV) transmitted vertically to early embryo development stages (morulae or blastocyst) via in vitro infected frozen semen?

    PubMed

    Al Ahmad, M Z Ali; Chebloune, Y; Chatagnon, G; Pellerin, J L; Fieni, F

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine, in vivo, whether in vitro infected cryopreserved caprine sperm is capable of transmitting caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV) vertically to early embryo development stages via artificial insemination with in vitro infected semen. Sperm was collected from CAEV-free bucks by electroejaculation. Half of each ejaculate was inoculated with CAEV-pBSCA at a viral concentration of 10(4) TCID(50)/mL. The second half of each ejaculate was used as a negative control. The semen was then frozen. On Day 13 of superovulation treatment, 14 CAEV-free does were inseminated directly into the uterus under endoscopic control with thawed infected semen. Six CAEV-free does, used as a negative control, were inseminated intrauterine with thawed CAEV-free sperm, and eight CAEV-free does were mated with naturally infected bucks. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to detect CAEV proviral-DNA in the embryos at the D7 stage, in the embryo washing media, and in the uterine secretions of recipient does. At Day 7, all the harvested embryos were PCR-negative for CAEV proviral-DNA; however, CAEV proviral-DNA was detected in 8/14 uterine smears, and 9/14 flushing media taken from does inseminated with infected sperm, and in 1/8 uterine swabs taken from the does mated with infected bucks. The results of this study confirm that (i) artificial insemination with infected semen or mating with infected bucks may result in the transmission of CAEV to the does genital tack seven days after insemination, and (ii) irrespective of the medical status of the semen or the recipient doe, it is possible to obtain CAEV-free early embryos usable for embryo transfer. PMID:22341707

  20. [Caprine arthritis-encephalitis: trial of an adjuvant vaccine preparation. II. Study of the antibody response].

    PubMed

    Vitu, C; Russo, P; Vignoni, M

    1993-04-01

    In an experiment of vaccination against caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV), the antibody response in three groups of young goats was followed by AGIDT, ELISA, seroneutralization, western blot. Goats of group I, inoculated with inactivated virus mixed with adjuvant, showed a few weeks after vaccination a high antibody response, clearly enhanced after infectious intraarticular challenge. These antibodies did not protect against arthritis, which appeared more severe in this group. In the other groups (group II, control adjuvant, with the weakest clinical expression, group III, control tissue culture medium), the levels of circulating antibodies appeared much lower. No neutralizing antibodies could be detected during the whole experiment. A western blot analysis revealed mainly in group I a high antibody response against gp 135 antigen. The important immune reaction might be involved in enhancement of viral infectivity in this group. PMID:8391412

  1. [Caprine arthritis-encephalitis: trial of an adjuvant vaccine preparation. I. Clinical and virological study].

    PubMed

    Russo, P; Vitu, C; Fontaine, J J; Vignoni, M

    1993-04-01

    In purpose to protect goats against caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV), the first group of kids (I) was inoculated with purified, inactivated and adjuvant-treated virions, the second group (II) with adjuvant and the third one (III) with culture medium. 2-4 months later, the three groups were challenged with virulent CAEV by intraarticular route. On the clinical level, vaccinated and challenged kids show more early and severe arthritis than other groups. On the virological level, isolation of lentivirus from white blood cells and different organs is more important in group I than groups II and III. Therefore, vaccinations with inactivated and adjuvant-treated virions do not protect against a virulent challenge; there is an enhancement of lesions. We note that the adjuvant elicits a mild non-specific protection against virulent challenge. PMID:8391411

  2. A pathogenetic study of the early connective tissue lesions of viral caprine arthritis-encephalitis.

    PubMed Central

    Adams, D. S.; Crawford, T. B.; Klevjer-Anderson, P.

    1980-01-01

    Experiments were designed to correlate morphologic lesions with the presence of caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV). Twenty-one cesarean-derived goat kids were infected with 10(6) to 10(7) TCID50 of virus, killed sequentially, and examined for viral antigens by immunofluorescence, viral infectivity by isolation and titration, and morphologic changes by light microscopy. Fluorescent viral antigens were detected from 1 to 10 days postinoculation (DPI) and only in synovial cells. Virus was reisolated from several joints and from brain 0.5 to 79 DPI. Increases in synovial fluid cell counts were noted by 1 DPI, and morphologic changes in synovial membranes were present from 3 to 45 DPI. Joint lesions progressed from mild synovial cell hyperplasia and perivascular mononuclear cell infiltration to severe synovial cell hyperplasia and mononuclear cell infiltration with villous hypertrophy. Lesions elsewhere were mild, consisting only of perivascular mononuclear cell infiltrates. Eleven cesarean-derived control goats were negative for viral antigens, virus, and morphologic lesions. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 PMID:6990770

  3. The validation of housekeeping genes as a reference in quantitative Real Time PCR analysis: application in the milk somatic cells and frozen whole blood of goats infected with caprine arthritis encephalitis virus.

    PubMed

    Jarczak, Justyna; Kaba, Jarosław; Bagnicka, Emilia

    2014-10-10

    The validation of housekeeping genes (HKGs) for normalization of RNA expression in Real-Time PCR is crucial to obtain the most reliable results. There is limited information on reference genes used in the study of gene expression in milk somatic cells and the frozen whole blood of goats. Thus, the aim of this study was to propose the most stable housekeeping genes that can be used as a reference in Real-Time PCR analysis of milk somatic cells and whole blood of goats infected with caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV). Animals were divided into two groups: non-infected (N=13) and infected with CAEV (N=13). Biological material (milk somatic cells and whole blood) was collected 4 times during the lactation period (7, 30, 100 and 240days post-partum). The expression levels of candidate reference genes were analyzed using geNorm and NormFinder software. The stability of candidates for reference gene expression was analyzed for CAEV-free (control) and CAEV-infected groups, and also for both groups together (combined group). The stability of expression of β-actin (ACTB), glyceraldehyde-3P-dehydrogenase (GAPDH), cyclophilin A (PPIA), RNA18S1, ubiquilin (UBQLN1) and ribosomal protein large subunit P0 (RPLP0) was determined in milk somatic cells, while ACTB, PPIA, RPLP0, succinate dehydrogenase complex subunit A (SDHA), zeta polypeptide (YWHAZ), battenin (CLN3), eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3K (EIF3K) and TATA box-binding protein (TBP) were measured in frozen whole blood of goats. PPIA and RPLP0 were considered as the most suitable internal controls as they were stably expressed in milk somatic cells regardless of disease status, according to NormFinder software. Furthermore, geNorm results indicated the expression of PPIA/RPLP0 genes as the best combination under these experimental conditions. The results of frozen whole blood analysis using NormFinder software revealed that the most stable reference gene in control, CAEV-infected and combined groups is YWHAZ, and - according to the geNorm results - the combined expression of PPM/YWHAZ genes is the best reference in the presented experiment. The usefulness in gene expression analysis of whole blood samples frozen immediately in liquid nitrogen and stored at -80°C was also proved. PMID:25068405

  4. [Caprine enzootic arthritis-encephalitis in France: epidemiological and experimental studies].

    PubMed

    Vitu, C; Russo, P

    1988-01-01

    In an epidemiological study on CAEV-induced caprine arthritis, the ELISA carried out on mixed sera appeared to be an efficient pointer to viral articular pathology in flocks; the breed and origin of goats, the selection of flocks with high milk production proved to be factors which favour viral arthritis, the serological diagnosis of which remains a flock diagnosis. In addition, in an experimental infection, only one type II caprine strain induced significant cases of arthritis; the disease could be reproduced more effectively by the intra-articular route than intravenously. Lastly, in a vaccination test followed by infectious CAEV challenge, two vaccinated goats showed more severe arthritis than did non vaccinated control goats. These observations emphasise the importance of the different viral strains, of the penetration route of the virus, of the repetition of infections and of the immune response in the induction of CAEV arthritis. PMID:2838219

  5. Caprine arthritis encephalitis and caseous lymphadenitis in goats: use of bulk tank milk ELISAs for herd-level surveillance.

    PubMed

    Nagel-Alne, G E; Valle, P S; Krontveit, R; Sølverød, L S

    2015-02-14

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of two ELISA tests applied to bulk tank milk (BTM) as the first part of a two-step test scheme for the surveillance of caprine arthritis encephalitis (CAE) and caseous lymphadenitis (CLA) infections in goats. The herd-level BTM tests were assessed by comparing them to the test results of individual serological samples. The potential for refining the cut-off levels for BTM tests used as surveillance tools in a population recently cleared of infection was also investigated. Data was gathered on serum (nCAE =9702 and nCLA=13426) and corresponding BTM (nCAE=78 and nCLA=123) samples from dairy goat herds enrolled in the Norwegian disease control and eradication programme 'Healthier Goats'. The results showed that the sensitivity and specificity of the CAE ELISA BTM test with respect to detecting ≥2 per cent within-herd prevalence were 72.7 per cent and 86.6 per cent, respectively. For the CLA ELISA BTM the sensitivity and specificity were 41.4 per cent and 81.7 per cent, respectively, for the same goal of detection. The results suggest that BTM testing can be applied as a cost-effective first step for early detection of CAE and CLA infection. PMID:25344573

  6. Mutations increasing exposure of a receptor binding site epitope in the soluble and oligomeric forms of the caprine arthritis-encephalitis lentivirus envelope glycoprotein

    SciTech Connect

    Hoetzel, Isidro . E-mail: ihotzel@gene.com; Cheevers, William P.

    2005-09-01

    The caprine arthritis-encephalitis (CAEV) and ovine maedi-visna (MVV) viruses are resistant to antibody neutralization, a feature shared with all other lentiviruses. Whether the CAEV gp135 receptor binding site(s) (RBS) in the functional surface envelope glycoprotein (Env) is protected from antibody binding, allowing the virus to resist neutralization, is not known. Two CAEV gp135 regions were identified by extrapolating a gp135 structural model that could affect binding of antibodies to the RBS: the V1 region and a short sequence analogous in position to the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gp120 loop B postulated to be located between two major domains of CAEV gp135. Mutation of isoleucine-166 to alanine in the putative loop B of gp135 increased the affinity of soluble gp135 for the CAEV receptor(s) and goat monoclonal antibody (Mab) F7-299 which recognizes an epitope overlapping the gp135 RBS. The I166A mutation also stabilized or exposed the F7-299 epitope in anionic detergent buffers, indicating that the I166A mutation induces conformational changes and stabilizes the RBS of soluble gp135 and enhances Mab F7-299 binding. In contrast, the affinity of a V1 deletion mutant of gp135 for the receptor and Mab F7-299 and its structural stability did not differ from that of the wild-type gp135. However, both the I166A mutation and the V1 deletion of gp135 increased cell-to-cell fusion activity and binding of Mab F7-299 to the oligomeric Env. Therefore, the CAEV gp135 RBS is protected from antibody binding by mechanisms both dependent and independent of Env oligomerization which are disrupted by the V1 deletion and the I166A mutation, respectively. In addition, we found a correlation between side-chain {beta}-branching at amino acid position 166 and binding of Mab F7-299 to oligomeric Env and cell-to-cell fusion, suggesting local secondary structure constraints in the region around isoleucine-166 as one determinant of gp135 RBS exposure and antibody binding.

  7. Can bluetongue virus (BTV) be transmitted via caprine embryo transfer?

    PubMed

    Al Ahmad, M Z Ali; Pellerin, J L; Larrat, M; Chatagnon, G; Cécile, R; Sailleau, C; Zientara, S; Fieni, F

    2011-07-01

    The three objectives of this study were to investigate whether cells of early goat embryos isolated from in vivo fertilized goats interact with bluetongue virus (BTV) in vitro, whether the embryonic zona pellucida (ZP) protects early embryo cells from BTV infection, and whether the 10 wash cycles recommended by the International Embryo Transfer Society (IETS) for bovine embryos effectively decontaminates caprine embryos exposed to Bluetongue Virus (BTV) in vitro. Donor goats and bucks were individually screened and tested negative for the virus by RT-PCR detection of BTV RNA in circulating erythrocytes. ZP-free and ZP-intact 8-16 cell embryos were co-cultured for 36 h in an insert over a Vero cell monolayer infected with BTV. Embryos were washed 10 times in accordance with IETS recommendations for ruminant and porcine embryos, before being transferred to an insert on BTV indicator Vero cells for 6 h, to detect any cytopathic effects (CPE). They were then washed and cultured in B2 Ménézo for 24 h. Non-inoculated ZP-free and ZP-intact embryos were submitted to similar treatments and used as controls. The Vero cell monolayer used as feeder cells for BTV inoculated ZP-free and ZP-intact embryos showed cytopathic effects (CPE). BTV was found by RT-qPCR in the ten washes of exposed ZP-free and ZP-intact embryos. In the acellular medium, the early embryonic cells produced at least 10(2.5) TCID(50)/ml. BTV RNA was detected in ZP-free and ZP-intact embryos using RT-qPCR. All of these results clearly demonstrate that caprine early embryonic cells are susceptible to infection with BTV and that infection with this virus is productive. The washing procedure failed to remove BTV, which indicates that BTV could bind to the zona pellucida. PMID:21397938

  8. Characterisation of an Irish caprine lentivirus strain--SRLV phylogeny revisited.

    PubMed

    Rolland, Morgane; Mooney, Jean; Valas, Stephen; Perrin, Gérard; Mamoun, Robert Z

    2002-04-23

    Small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLV), i.e. caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV) (which infects goats) and maedi-visna virus (MVV) (which infects sheep) are two closely related lentiviruses but the relationship between goat and sheep lentiviruses has not been clearly established. To better understand their genetic relationship, we reinvestigated the phylogeny of SRLV using new sequences from an Irish and a Norwegian strain together with sequences available from databases. The phylogenetic analyses were carried out on the gag, pol and env fragments using four methods: neighbor-joining (NJ), Fitch and Margoliash (Fitch), Fitch and Wagner parsimony (Pars) and maximum likelihood (ML). The tree topologies were consistent whether derived from any of the four methods or any of the gene fragments, but the phylogenetic analyses in the pol and env regions were more informative than in the gag region. The Tamura-Nei model with variable rates across sites (described by a gamma distribution) provides a more accurate description of SRLV evolution than simple methods. The newly described Irish lentivirus strain, which was isolated from a goat, was closely related to the lentivirus that infects sheep: MVV. The novel Norwegian CAEV strain belonged to a cluster specific to the CAEV strains from Norway. Together, both data confirm the previously reported subdivision of the different SRLV strains into six clades. The caprine and ovine lentivirus sequences are interspersed in phylogenetic trees, supporting the existence of cross-species transmission. Nevertheless, the transmission of an ovine lentivirus to a goat could trigger the emergence of some goat-adapted phylums. Our new sequences confirm the complex situation in SRLV phylogeny but more sequences are needed to elucidate more precisely the relationship between SRLV. PMID:11955636

  9. Analysis on the complete genome of a novel caprine parainfluenza virus 3.

    PubMed

    Yang, Leilei; Li, Wenliang; Mao, Li; Hao, Fei; Wang, Zhongyu; Zhang, Wenwen; Deng, Jiawu; Jiang, Jieyuan

    2016-03-01

    Parainfluenza virus type 3 (PIV3) is one of the most important viral respiratory pathogens for humans and for many animals. One unique caprine PIV3 (CPIV3) strain named JS2013 was isolated in Chinese goat flocks with respiratory diseases in 2013. Now, the complete genome sequence of the strain JS2013 had been determined. A total of 15 overlapping DNA clones, covering the entire genome of the virus, were obtained by primer walking RT-PCR. The sequences of the 3' and 5' termini of the viral genome were amplified by 3' and 5' RACE. The viral genome was 15,618 nucleotides (nt) in length, which was consisted of six genes in the order 5'-leader-N-P/C/V-M-F-HN-L-tailer-3'. The junction sequences between two genes were highly conserved gene start and stop signal sequences, and trinucleotide intergenic regions (IGR) similar to those of other reported PIV3 strains. Phylogenetic analysis based on the complete genomes of JS2013 with other strains of genus Respirovirus demonstrated that the JS2013 obviously differed from HPIV1, Sendai virus, HPIV3 and other reported BPIV3 genotypes. Further analysis of HN genes of JS2013 along with two more CPIV3 strains isolated later indicated that CPIV3 strains formed a separate cluster. The results presented here suggested that CPIV3 is a new member of the genus Respirovirus. PMID:26631811

  10. NOVEL CAPRINE ADENO-ASSOCIATED VIRUS (AAV) CAPSID (AAV-GO.1) IS CLOSELY RELATED TO THE PRIMATE AAV-5 AND HAS UNIQUE TROPISM AND NEUTRALIZATION PROPERTIES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Preexisting humoral immunity to adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors may limit their clinical utility in gene delivery. We describe a novel caprine AAV (AAV-Go.1) capsid with unique biological properties. AAV-Go.1 capsid was cloned from goat-derived adenovirus preparations. Surprisingly, AAV-Go.1 ...

  11. Localization of a TNF-activated transcription site and interactions with the gamma activated site within the CAEV U3 70 base pair repeat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cytokines TNF' and IFN' have previously been shown to activate caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV) transcription. Increased viral titers correlate with increased lesion severity. Therefore, TNF' and IFN' may augment the caprine arthritis lesion by increasing viral titers. CAEV transcr...

  12. G3BP1, G3BP2 and CAPRIN1 Are Required for Translation of Interferon Stimulated mRNAs and Are Targeted by a Dengue Virus Non-coding RNA

    PubMed Central

    Bidet, Katell; Dadlani, Dhivya; Garcia-Blanco, Mariano A.

    2014-01-01

    Viral RNA-host protein interactions are critical for replication of flaviviruses, a genus of positive-strand RNA viruses comprising major vector-borne human pathogens including dengue viruses (DENV). We examined three conserved host RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) G3BP1, G3BP2 and CAPRIN1 in dengue virus (DENV-2) infection and found them to be novel regulators of the interferon (IFN) response against DENV-2. The three RBPs were required for the accumulation of the protein products of several interferon stimulated genes (ISGs), and for efficient translation of PKR and IFITM2 mRNAs. This identifies G3BP1, G3BP2 and CAPRIN1 as novel regulators of the antiviral state. Their antiviral activity was antagonized by the abundant DENV-2 non-coding subgenomic flaviviral RNA (sfRNA), which bound to G3BP1, G3BP2 and CAPRIN1, inhibited their activity and lead to profound inhibition of ISG mRNA translation. This work describes a new and unexpected level of regulation for interferon stimulated gene expression and presents the first mechanism of action for an sfRNA as a molecular sponge of anti-viral effectors in human cells. PMID:24992036

  13. Gag Protein Epitopes Recognized by CD4+ T-Helper Lymphocytes from Equine Infectious Anemia Virus-Infected Carrier Horses

    PubMed Central

    Lonning, S. M.; Zhang, W.; McGuire, T. C.

    1999-01-01

    Antigen-specific T-helper (Th) lymphocytes are critical for the development of antiviral humoral responses and the expansion of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL). Identification of relevant Th lymphocyte epitopes remains an important step in the development of an efficacious subunit peptide vaccine against equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV), a naturally occurring lentivirus of horses. This study describes Th lymphocyte reactivity in EIAV carrier horses to two proteins, p26 and p15, encoded by the relatively conserved EIAV gag gene. Using partially overlapping peptides, multideterminant and possibly promiscuous epitopes were identified within p26. One peptide was identified which reacted with peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from all five EIAV-infected horses, and three other peptides were identified which reacted with PBMC from four of five EIAV-infected horses. Four additional peptides containing both CTL and Th lymphocyte epitopes were also identified. Multiple epitopes were recognized in a region corresponding to the major homology region of the human immunodeficiency virus, a region with significant sequence similarity to other lentiviruses including simian immunodeficiency virus, puma lentivirus, feline immunodeficiency virus, Jembrana disease virus, visna virus, and caprine arthritis encephalitis virus. PBMC reactivity to p15 peptides from EIAV carrier horses also occurred. Multiple p15 peptides were shown to be reactive, but not all infected horses had Th lymphocytes recognizing p15 epitopes. The identification of peptides reactive with PBMC from outbred horses, some of which encoded both CTL and Th lymphocyte epitopes, should contribute to the design of synthetic peptide or recombinant vector vaccines for EIAV. PMID:10196322

  14. Expanding possibilities for intervention against small ruminant lentiviruses through genetic marker-assisted selective breeding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Small ruminant lentiviruses include members that infect sheep (ovine lentivirus [OvLV]; also known as ovine progressive pneumonia virus/maedi-visna virus) and goats (caprine arthritis encephalitis virus [CAEV]). Breed differences in seroprevalence and proviral concentration of OvLV had suggested a s...

  15. TNF¿ and GM-CSF-induced activation of the CAEV promoter is independent of AP-1

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus transcription is under the control of the viral promoter within the long terminal repeat. Previous studies with the closely related maedi visna lentivirus have indicated that viral transcription is dependent upon the AP-1 transcription factor. Other studies hav...

  16. An experimental study on the pathogenicity of the caprine herpesvirus type 1 (CHV-1).

    PubMed

    Papanastasopoulou, M; Koptopoulos, G; Lekkas, S; Papadopoulos, O; Ludwig, H

    1991-01-01

    The pathogenicity of caprine herpesvirus type-1 (CHV-1) in goat kids and lambs was studied. Two experiments were carried out. In the first, two Saanen goat kids and four lambs of a local breed were infected intravenously with the Swiss strain E/CH of the virus. Clinical reaction was severe in the kids, but it was very mild in the lambs. Virus was excreted from the kids in higher titres and longer than in lambs. Virus was also isolated from tissue specimens but only from a kid that died on post inoculation day 4 (PID 4). The gross- and histopathological lesions were more severe in kids. In the second experiment only lambs were used. They were dexamethasone treated and then virus inoculated. A very mild infection developed. The lambs did not shed the virus, neither the virus was isolated from their tissues collected at necropsy. Nevertheless histopathological lesions were seen. In both experiments the animals seroconverted on PID 10. PMID:1647931

  17. Immunogenetics of Small Ruminant Lentiviral Infections

    PubMed Central

    Stonos, Nancy; Wootton, Sarah K.; Karrow, Niel

    2014-01-01

    The small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLV) include the caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV) and the Maedi-Visna virus (MVV). Both of these viruses limit production and can be a major source of economic loss to producers. Little is known about how the immune system recognizes and responds to SRLVs, but due to similarities with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), HIV research can shed light on the possible immune mechanisms that control or lead to disease progression. This review will focus on the host immune response to HIV-1 and SRLV, and will discuss the possibility of breeding for enhanced SRLV disease resistance. PMID:25153344

  18. A preliminary study on the pathogenicity of a strain of caprine herpesvirus-1.

    PubMed

    Tempesta, M; Pratelli, A; Corrente, M; Buonavoglia, C

    1999-04-01

    The strain BA-1 of caprine herpesvirus-1 (CpHV-1), isolated from latently infected goats, was inoculated intranasally into three five-year-old goats. The animals developed fever and leukopenia. The signs began on post-inoculation day (PID) 4 and lasted 7 days. In one goat herpes-like lesions appeared on the vulvar area on PID 7. Virus was consistently recovered from the nasal and the vaginal swabbings obtained from the three goats. Virus was never recovered from the ocular and rectal swabbings nor from any buffy coat samples. However, the buffy coats were positive for viral DNA detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). All isolates from the experimental goats were identical in their restriction patterns to the original BA-1 and were similar to the reference E/CH strains of CpHV-1. PMID:10051183

  19. Critical role of the lipid rafts in caprine herpesvirus type 1 infection in vitro.

    PubMed

    Pratelli, Annamaria; Colao, Valeriana

    2016-01-01

    The fusion machinery for herpesvirus entry in the host cells involves the interactions of viral glycoproteins with cellular receptors, although additional viral and cellular domains are required. Extensive areas of the plasma membrane surface consist of lipid rafts organized into cholesterol-rich microdomains involved in signal transduction, protein sorting, membrane transport and in many processes of viruses infection. Because of the extraction of cholesterol leads to disorganization of lipid microdomains and to dissociation of proteins bound to the lipid rafts, we investigated the effect of cholesterol depletion by methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MβCD) on caprine herpesvirus 1 (CpHV.1) in three important phases of virus infection such as binding, entry and post-entry. MβCD treatment did not prejudice virus binding to cells, while a dose-dependent reduction of the virus yield was observed at the virus entry stage, and 30 mM MβCD reduced infectivity evidently. Treatment of MDBK after virus entry revealed a moderate inhibitory effect suggesting that cholesterol is mainly required during virus entry rather than during the post-entry stage. Alteration of the envelope lipid composition affected virus entry and a noticeable reduction in virus infectivity was detected in the presence of 15 mM MβCD. Considering that the recognition of a host cell receptor is a crucial step in the start-up phase of infection, these data are essential for the study of CpHV.1 pathogenesis. To date virus receptors for CpHV.1 have not yet been identified and further investigations are required to state that MβCD treatment affects the expression of the viral receptors. PMID:26475997

  20. In vitro inhibition of caprine herpesvirus 1 by acyclovir and mizoribine.

    PubMed

    Elia, G; Camero, M; Decaro, N; Lovero, A; Martella, V; Tempesta, M; Buonavoglia, C; Crescenzo, G

    2015-04-01

    Caprine herpesvirus 1 (CpHV-1) infection in goats induces genital vesicular-ulcerative lesions that strictly resemble the lesions induced by herpesvirus 2 in the human host. The immunosuppressive drug Mizoribine (MIZ) was found to increase the antiviral activity of Acyclovir (ACV) against herpesvirus infections, raising interesting perspectives on new combined therapeutic strategies. In this study the anti-CpHV-1 activity in vitro of ACV alone or in combination with MIZ was characterized. When applied alone at non-toxic concentrations, ACV had a slight effect on CpHV-1 replication while in combination with MIZ a dose-dependent inhibition of the virus yield was observed with an IC50 of ACV of 28.5 µM. These findings suggest that combined therapy of ACV and MIZ is potentially exploitable in the treatment of genital infection by herpesviruses. PMID:25660402

  1. Retroviral Infections in Sheep and Goats: Small Ruminant Lentiviruses and Host Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Larruskain, Amaia; Jugo, Begoña M.

    2013-01-01

    Small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLV) are members of the Retrovirus family comprising the closely related Visna/Maedi Virus (VMV) and the Caprine Arthritis-Encephalitis Virus (CAEV), which infect sheep and goats. Both infect cells of the monocyte/macrophage lineage and cause lifelong infections. Infection by VMV and CAEV can lead to Visna/Maedi (VM) and Caprine Arthritis-Encephalitis (CAE) respectively, slow progressive inflammatory diseases primarily affecting the lungs, nervous system, joints and mammary glands. VM and CAE are distributed worldwide and develop over a period of months or years, always leading to the death of the host, with the consequent economic and welfare implications. Currently, the control of VM and CAE relies on the control of transmission and culling of infected animals. However, there is evidence that host genetics play an important role in determining Susceptibility/Resistance to SRLV infection and disease progression, but little work has been performed in small ruminants. More research is necessary to understand the host-SRLV interaction. PMID:23965529

  2. Retroviral infections in sheep and goats: small ruminant lentiviruses and host interaction.

    PubMed

    Larruskain, Amaia; Jugo, Begoña M

    2013-08-01

    Small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLV) are members of the Retrovirus family comprising the closely related Visna/Maedi Virus (VMV) and the Caprine Arthritis-Encephalitis Virus (CAEV), which infect sheep and goats. Both infect cells of the monocyte/macrophage lineage and cause lifelong infections. Infection by VMV and CAEV can lead to Visna/Maedi (VM) and Caprine Arthritis-Encephalitis (CAE) respectively, slow progressive inflammatory diseases primarily affecting the lungs, nervous system, joints and mammary glands. VM and CAE are distributed worldwide and develop over a period of months or years, always leading to the death of the host, with the consequent economic and welfare implications. Currently, the control of VM and CAE relies on the control of transmission and culling of infected animals. However, there is evidence that host genetics play an important role in determining Susceptibility/Resistance to SRLV infection and disease progression, but little work has been performed in small ruminants. More research is necessary to understand the host-SRLV interaction. PMID:23965529

  3. Caprine plasma proteinase inhibitors--I. Partial characterization.

    PubMed

    Vankan, D M; Bell, K

    1993-01-01

    1. Using two-dimensional electrophoresis (IEF, pH 3.5-6.0 and PAGE, 11.5% T, pH 7.9) the caprine plasma proteinase inhibitors were classified into six distinct classes, designated PIA, PIB, PIC, PID, PIE and PIF. Differentiation of the six inhibitors was based on electrophoretic criteria, their abilities to inhibit bovine trypsin and chymotrypsin and their crossreactions with antisera to human alpha 1-antitrypsin and alpha 1-antichymotrypsin. 2. Polymorphic variants were identified for five of the protein systems (PIA, PIB, PIC, PID and PIE) and the electrophoretic data indicated that the variants were controlled by allelic genes. PIF proteins were poorly resolved and invariant. 3. Treatment of selected plasmas with neuraminidase demonstrated that the microheterogeneity observed in the PIA, PIB, PIC and PID proteins was attributable to sialic acid additions. 4. The inhibitory activities of all six caprine proteinase inhibitors were unaffected by chemical oxidation with chloramine-T. PMID:8448983

  4. Morphological changes of post-isolation of caprine pancreatic islet.

    PubMed

    Hani, Homayoun; Allaudin, Zeenathul Nazariah; Tengku Ibrahim, Tengku Azmi; Mohd-Lila, Mohd-Azmi; Sarsaifi, Kazhal; Camalxaman, Siti Nazrina; Othman, Abas Mazni

    2015-02-01

    Pancreatic islet transplantation is commonly used to treat diabetes. Cell isolation and purification methods can affect the structure and function of the isolated islet cells. Thus, the development of cell isolation techniques that preserve the structure and function of pancreatic islet cells is essential for enabling successful transplantation procedures. The impact of purification procedures on cell function can be assessed by performing ultrastructure and in vivo studies. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of caprine islets purification procedure on islet cell ultrastructure and functional integrity prior to and post-isolation/purification. The islets were isolated from caprine pancreas by using an optimized collagenase XI-S concentration, and the cells were subsequently purified using Euro-Ficoll density gradient. In vitro viability of islets was determined by fluorescein diacetate and propidium iodide staining. Static incubation was used to assess functionality and insulin production by islet cells in culture media when exposed to various levels of glucose. Pancreatic tissues were examined by using light microscopy, fluorescence microscopy, scanning, and transmission electron microscopy. In vivo viability and functionality of caprine islets were assessed by evaluating the transplanted islets in diabetic mice. Insulin assay of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion test showed that the insulin levels increased with increasing concentration of glucose. Thus, purified islets stimulated with high glucose concentration (25 mM) secreted higher levels of insulin (0.542 ± 0.346 μg/L) than the insulin levels (0.361 ± 0.219, 0.303 ± 0.234 μg/L) secreted by exposure to low glucose concentrations (1.67 mM). Furthermore, insulin levels of recipient mice were significantly higher (p < 0.001) than those prior to xenotransplantation. In addition, following islets transplantation, there was significant enhancement in blood glucose levels of diabetic recipient mice. Overall, although the purified caprine islets had minor deformations in the plasma membrane and changes in cell integrity of peripheral region, the alterations did not significantly alter the functionality and viability of the purified islets. PMID:25303943

  5. Improved Antigenic Methods for Differential Diagnosis of Bovine, Caprine, and Cervine Alphaherpesviruses Related to Bovine Herpesvirus 1

    PubMed Central

    Keuser, Véronique; Schynts, Frédéric; Detry, Bruno; Collard, Alfred; Robert, Béatrice; Vanderplasschen, Alain; Pastoret, Paul-Pierre; Thiry, Etienne

    2004-01-01

    The control of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis induced by bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1) requires sensitive and specific diagnostic assays. As BoHV-1 is antigenically and genetically related to four other alphaherpesviruses of ruminants—namely, BoHV-5, caprine herpesvirus 1 (CpHV-1), cervine herpesvirus 1 (CvHV-1) and CvHV-2—diagnostic tests able to discriminate BoHV-1 from these related viruses are needed to avoid misdiagnosis, especially because some of these viruses are able to cross the species barrier. In this study, murine monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) specific for BoHV-1, BoHV-5, CpHV-1, CvHV-1, and CvHV-2 were produced with the aim of setting up an immunofluorescence assay able to discriminate between these related herpesviruses. Produced MAbs were selected for their viral specificity by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and indirect immunofluorescence staining of virus-infected cells. Radioimmunoprecipitation characterization of the selected MAbs revealed that four of them are directed against glycoprotein C (gC) and one of them is directed against gD of these related viruses. The obtained results demonstrate that the antibodies produced allow an unambiguous discrimination of each of the four alphaherpesviruses related to BoHV-1. PMID:15004081

  6. RNA binding protein Caprin-2 is a pivotal regulator of the central osmotic defense response.

    PubMed

    Konopacka, Agnieszka; Greenwood, Mingkwan; Loh, Su-Yi; Paton, Julian; Murphy, David

    2015-01-01

    In response to an osmotic challenge, the synthesis of the antidiuretic hormone arginine vasopressin (AVP) increases in the hypothalamus, and this is accompanied by extension of the 3' poly(A) tail of the AVP mRNA, and the up-regulation of the expression of RNA binding protein Caprin-2. Here we show that Caprin-2 binds to AVP mRNAs, and that lentiviral mediated shRNA knockdown of Caprin-2 in the osmotically stimulated hypothalamus shortens the AVP mRNA poly(A) tail at the same time as reducing transcript abundance. In a recapitulated in vitro system, we confirm that Caprin-2 over-expression enhances AVP mRNA abundance and poly(A) tail length. Importantly, we show that Caprin-2 knockdown in the hypothalamus decreases urine output and fluid intake, and increases urine osmolality, urine sodium concentration, and plasma AVP levels. Thus Caprin-2 controls physiological mechanisms that are essential for the body's response to osmotic stress. PMID:26559902

  7. The effect of heat treatment and skimming on precipitate formation in caprine and bovine milks.

    PubMed

    Miloradovic, Zorana N; Kljajevic, Nemanja V; Jovanovic, Snezana T; Vucic, Tanja R; Macej, Ognjen D

    2015-02-01

    Caprine and bovine milks have a similar overall gross composition, but vary considerably in the ratios of their casein components. These differences in colloidal casein micelles could affect directly or indirectly the heat stability of caprine and bovine milks at their natural pH. In the present work, the differences in colloidal stability of caprine and bovine milk have been studied by analysing the effect of heat treatment and skimming on precipitation of proteins. Raw and heated milk samples (70 °C/5 min, 80°C/5 min and 90°C/5 min) were centrifuged at 600, 2000, and 4500  g . The amount of precipitate formed after skimming was measured and the protein composition of both precipitates and supernatants analysed using the SDS-PAGE (sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis) and densitometry. In caprine milk, the heat treatment prior to skimming had a statistically significant effect on protein precipitation. Centrifugal force had a statistically significant effect on amount of precipitate for both milks, but the amount was 2 to 4 times higher for caprine milk. When defatting the milk for electrophoresis, a centrifugal force of 600  g appeared to be the most appropriate, in order to avoid protein loss and a possible error in the interpretation of results. Results of this study could also serve as the basis for further investigations on adjusting the skimming conditions for caprine milk in industrial dairy processing environment. PMID:25406911

  8. RNA binding protein Caprin-2 is a pivotal regulator of the central osmotic defense response

    PubMed Central

    Konopacka, Agnieszka; Greenwood, Mingkwan; Loh, Su-Yi; Paton, Julian; Murphy, David

    2015-01-01

    In response to an osmotic challenge, the synthesis of the antidiuretic hormone arginine vasopressin (AVP) increases in the hypothalamus, and this is accompanied by extension of the 3′ poly(A) tail of the AVP mRNA, and the up-regulation of the expression of RNA binding protein Caprin-2. Here we show that Caprin-2 binds to AVP mRNAs, and that lentiviral mediated shRNA knockdown of Caprin-2 in the osmotically stimulated hypothalamus shortens the AVP mRNA poly(A) tail at the same time as reducing transcript abundance. In a recapitulated in vitro system, we confirm that Caprin-2 over-expression enhances AVP mRNA abundance and poly(A) tail length. Importantly, we show that Caprin-2 knockdown in the hypothalamus decreases urine output and fluid intake, and increases urine osmolality, urine sodium concentration, and plasma AVP levels. Thus Caprin-2 controls physiological mechanisms that are essential for the body's response to osmotic stress. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.09656.001 PMID:26559902

  9. Caprine plasma proteinase inhibitors--II. Genetic analysis.

    PubMed

    Vankan, D M; Bell, K

    1993-01-01

    1. Analysis of the inheritances of the variants of five caprine plasma proteinase inhibitor systems in families demonstrated a genetic control of codominant alleles at five loci. 2. The PIA, B, C, D and E proteins are controlled by four (PIA1,2,3,4), three (PIB1,4,0), three (PIC2,3,0), five (PID1,2,3,4,0) and two (PIE1,2) alleles respectively. Null alleles were postulated for the PIB, PIC and PID systems. 3. The frequencies of the alleles differed substantially between the Australian and Texan Angoras and Cashmere breeds of goats. 4. The combined exclusion probability for the five PI systems was as high as 0.82 in the Cashmere breed, indicating the potential of the proteinase inhibitor proteins for parentage control purposes. PMID:8448984

  10. Effect of aging on the rheology of full fat and low fat Cheddar-like caprine cheese

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The rheological properties of aging full fat (FF) and low fat (LF) caprine milk cheeses were characterized to determine the changes in the cheese matrix during storage. Six batches of high moisture, Cheddar-like cheese were manufactured from whole or skim caprine milk and were aged at 4 deg C for u...

  11. Chlamydia pecorum: fetal and placental lesions in sporadic caprine abortion.

    PubMed

    Giannitti, Federico; Anderson, Mark; Miller, Myrna; Rowe, Joan; Sverlow, Karen; Vasquez, Marce; Cantón, Germán

    2016-03-01

    Chlamydial abortion in small ruminants is usually associated with Chlamydia abortus infection. Although Chlamydia pecorum has been detected in aborted ruminants and epidemiological data suggests that C. pecorum is abortigenic in these species, published descriptions of lesions in fetuses are lacking. This work describes fetoplacental lesions in a caprine abortion with C. pecorum infection, and further supports the abortigenic role of C. pecorum in ruminants. A 16-month-old Boer goat aborted twin fetuses at ~130 days of gestation. Both fetuses (A and B) and the placenta of fetus A were submitted for postmortem examination and diagnostic workup. At autopsy, the fetuses had moderate anasarca, intermuscular edema in the hindquarters (A), and brachygnathia and palatoschisis (B). In the placenta, the cotyledons were covered by yellow fibrinosuppurative exudate that extended into the adjacent intercotyledonary areas. Histologically, there was severe suppurative and necrotizing placentitis with vasculitis (arteriolitis) and thrombosis, multifocal lymphohistiocytic and neutrophilic hepatitis (A), and fibrinosuppurative enteritis in both fetuses. Chlamydia antigen was detected in the placenta by the direct fluorescent antibody test and in fetal intestines by immunohistochemistry. Nested polymerase chain reaction of DNA extracted from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections of placenta and intestine amplified 400 bp of the Chlamydia 16S rRNA gene that was sequenced and found to be 99% identical to C. pecorum by BLAST analysis. Other known abortigenic infectious agents were ruled out by specific testing. It is concluded that C. pecorum infection is associated with fetoplacental lesions and sporadic abortion in goats. PMID:26965241

  12. Chondrogenic differentiation and lubricin expression of caprine infraspinatus tendon cells.

    PubMed

    Funakoshi, Tadanao; Spector, Myron

    2010-06-01

    Reparative strategies for the treatment of injuries to tendons, including those of the rotator cuff of the shoulder, need to address the formation of the cartilage which serves as the attachment apparatus to bone and which forms at regions undergoing compressive loading. Moreover, recent work indicates that cells employed for rotator cuff repair may need to synthesize a lubricating glycoprotein, lubricin, which has recently been found to play a role in tendon tribology. The objective of the present study was to investigate the chondrogenic differentiation and lubricin expression of caprine infraspinatus tendon cells in monolayer and three-dimensional culture, and to compare the behavior with bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). The results demonstrated that while tendon cells in various media, including chondrogenic medium, expressed lubricin, virtually none of the MSCs synthesized this important lubricating molecule. Also of interest was that the cartilage formation capacity of the tendon cells grown in pellet culture in chondrogenic medium was comparable with MSCs. These data inform the use of tendon cells for rotator cuff repair, including for fibrocartilaginous zones. PMID:20058273

  13. MicroRNA-Mediated Myostatin Silencing in Caprine Fetal Fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Bushuai; Zhang, Yanli; Yan, Yibo; Wang, Ziyu; Ying, Shijia; Huang, Mingrui; Wang, Feng

    2014-01-01

    Myostatin functions as a negative regulator of skeletal muscle growth by suppressing proliferation and differentiation of myoblasts. Dysfunction of the myostatin gene, either due to natural mutation or genetic manipulations such as knockout or knockdown, has been reported to increase muscle mass in mammalian species. RNA interference (RNAi) mediated by microRNAs (miRNAs) is a promising method for gene knockdown studies. In the present study, transient and stable silencing of the myostatin gene in caprine fetal fibroblasts (CFF) was evaluated using the two most effective constructs selected from four different miRNA expression constructs screened in 293FT cells. Using these two miRNA constructs, we achieved up to 84% silencing of myostatin mRNA in transiently transfected CFF cells and up to 31% silencing in stably transfected CFF cells. Moreover, off-target effects due to induction of interferon (IFN) response genes, such as interferon beta (IFN-β) and 2′-5′-oligoadenylate synthetase 2 (OAS2), were markedly fewer in stably transfected CFF cells than in transiently transfected cells. Stable expression of anti-myostatin miRNA with minimal induction of interferon shows great promise for increasing muscle mass in transgenic goats. PMID:25244645

  14. Genetic diversity of caprine Blastocystis from Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Tan, Tian Chye; Tan, Peng Chiang; Sharma, Reuben; Sugnaseelan, Sumita; Suresh, Kumar Govind

    2013-01-01

    Blastocystis sp. is a common intestinal parasite found in humans and animals. The possibility of zoonotic transmission to humans from livestock especially goats led us to investigate the genetic diversity of caprine Blastocystis sp. obtained from five different farms in Peninsular Malaysia. Moreover, there is a lack of information on the prevalence as well as genetic diversity of Blastocystis sp. in goat worldwide. Results showed that 73/236 (30.9%) of the goats were found to be positive for Blastocystis infection. The most predominant Blastocystis sp. subtype was ST1 (60.3%) followed by ST7 (41.1%), ST6 (41.1%), and ST3 (11.0%) when amplified by PCR using sequenced-tagged site (STS) primers. Four farms had goats infected only with ST1 whereas the fifth showed mixed infections with multiple STs. The proximity of the fifth farm to human dwellings, nearby domesticated animals and grass land as opposed to a sterile captive environment in the first four farms may account for the multiple STs seen in the fifth farm. Since ST1, ST3, ST6 and ST 7 were previously reported in human infection worldwide in particular Malaysia, the potential of the zoonotic transmission of blastocystosis should not be disregarded. The implications of different farm management systems on the distribution of Blastocystis sp. STs are discussed. PMID:22961236

  15. Cantharidin and norcantharidin inhibit caprine luteal cell steroidogenesis in vitro.

    PubMed

    Twu, Nae-Fang; Srinivasan, Ramanujam; Chou, Chung-Hsi; Wu, Leang-Shin; Chiu, Chih-Hsien

    2012-01-01

    Cantharidin and its analog norcantharidin are active constituents of Mylabris, have been demonstrated to ailments for a variety of cancers. But several reports of cantharidin's natural or accidental toxicoses in field animals and humans showed a strong connection between cantharidin and its abortifacient and aphrodisiac properties. However, their exact cellular mechanisms in steroidogenesis remains poorly understood. Thus this study was aimed to explore the effects of cantharidin on luteal cell steroidogensis and to compare its effect with that of norcantharidin. For this purpose, luteal cells isolated from corpora lutea of native Taiwan goats were maintained in vitro and treated for 4 and 24 h with cantharidin and norcantharidin (0.1, 1.0, and 10 ?g ml(-1)) to assess their steroidogenic effects. Progesterone (P(4)) levels and steroidogenic enzyme expression were assessed by enzyme immunoassay and Western blot methods, respectively. In caprine luteal cells, cantharidin and norcantharidin repressed basal P(4) production, as well as that mediated by ovine luteinizing hormone (oLH), 8-bromo-cyclic AMP (8-Br-cAMP), 22R-hydroxycholesterol (22R-OHC) and pregnenolone (P(5)). They also inhibited the expression of steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR) protein, cytochrome P450 cholesterol side-chain cleavage (P450scc) enzyme, and 3?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3?-HSD) enzyme. Additionally, the greater inhibitory effect was detected using cantharidin, when it is compared with that of norcantharidin. Our results suggest that ingestion of cantharidin may decrease luteal steroidogenesis, and the decline in luteal P(4) levels may disrupt reproductive functions in humans as well as animals. PMID:20594813

  16. Lipid oxidation in algae oil-in-water emulsions stabilized by bovine and caprine caseins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Caseins (alpha S1-, alpha S2-, and beta-casein) are phosphoproteins that are capable of binding transition metals and scavenging free radicals, these properties make them good candidates to be used as natural antioxidants in oil-in-water emulsions. Caprine casein exhibits variability in aS1-casein c...

  17. Screening of fluoroquinolone residues in caprine milk using a 5-kg luminescence photometer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A terbium-sensitized luminescence (TSL) method was developed to screen presence of residues of four fluoroquinolones (FQ) registered in caprine milk in the European Union: enrofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, flumequine, and danofloxacin. After extraction in McIlvaine buffer and SPE cleanup, TSL was measure...

  18. Determination of the molecular defect of caprine N-acetylglucosamine 6-sulfatase deficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Leipprandt, J.R.; Jones, M.Z.; Cavanagh, K.T.

    1994-09-01

    Caprine N-acetylglucosamine 6-sulfatase (G6S) deficiency is the only animal analog of Sanfilippo syndrome (type D). The goat with this mucopolysaccharidousis disorder (MPS III D) demonstrated delayed motor development and growth retardation but reached sexual maturity before dying suddenly at 19 mo. Histochemical and biochemical analysis of the liver showed glycosaminoglycan storage and there was GM{sub 3} ganglioside accumulation in the brain. Towards further development of this animal model for treatment strategies, we have cloned the caprine G6S gene, determined the nature of the gene defect in caprine MPS III D and compared the goat sequence to the human sequence. The human and caprine sequences show an overall sequence similarity of about 90% in the coding region. The 5{prime}-coding region is very GC-rich in both the human and caprine G6S. One striking difference between the human and caprine genes is the presence of a GCC repeat in the goat resulting in insertion of 6 prolines and a leucine in the signal peptide. This proline-rich stretch was confirmed by amplifying and sequencing the same cDNA segment from other goats. Additionally, this region was examined in bovine cDNA and found to contain 4 prolines and 2 leucines. The mRNA for G6S consists of two species of approximately 4.0 and 4.2 kb with a coding region of 1.6 kb. For mutation analysis a series of primers was designed to cover the entire G6S coding region. Amplicons from RT-PCR on normal and affected goat total RNA were produced and sequenced. A single base substitution, T for C, was found in the 5{prime} region of the coding sequence of the affected animals that creates a stop codon. This mutation introduces an Alu I restriction site. PCR primers designed to amplify a short segment of genomic DNA encompassing the mutation have been used to identify putative carriers and develop a caprine Sanfilippo III D carrier colony.

  19. Comparison of the principal proteins in bovine, caprine, buffalo, equine and camel milk.

    PubMed

    Hinz, Katharina; O'Connor, Paula M; Huppertz, Thom; Ross, R Paul; Kelly, Alan L

    2012-05-01

    Proteomic analysis of bovine, caprine, buffalo, equine and camel milk highlighted significant interspecies differences. Camel milk was found to be devoid of β-lactoglobulin, whereas β-lactoglobulin was the major whey protein in bovine, buffalo, caprine, and equine milk. Five different isoforms of κ-casein were found in camel milk, analogous to the micro-heterogeneity observed for bovine κ-casein. Several spots observed in 2D-electrophoretograms of milk of all species could tentatively be identified as polypeptides arising from the enzymatic hydrolysis of caseins. The understanding gained from the proteomic comparison of these milks may be of relevance both in terms of identifying sources of hypoallergenic alternatives to bovine milk and detection of adulteration of milk samples and products. PMID:22365180

  20. Caprine herpesvirus 1 (CpHV-1) vaginal infection of goats: clinical efficacy of fig latex.

    PubMed

    Camero, Michele; Marinaro, Mariarosaria; Losurdo, Michele; Larocca, Vittorio; Bodnar, Livia; Patruno, Giovanni; Buonavoglia, Canio; Tempesta, Maria

    2016-01-01

    The latex of Ficus carica Linn. (Moraceae) has been shown to interfere with the replication of caprine herpesvirus (CpHV)-1 in vitro. The present study was undertaken to determine the efficacy of vaginal administration of fig latex in goats experimentally infected with CpHV-1. The fig latex reduced the clinical signs of the herpetic disease although it slightly influenced the titres of CpHV-1 shed. Thus, the fig latex maintained a partial efficacy in vivo. PMID:25835328

  1. A primitive caprine from the Upper Vallesian of La Roma 2 (Alfambra, Teruel, Aragon, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alcalá, Luis; Morales, Jorge

    1997-06-01

    We describe a new caprine form from the Upper Vallesian of La Roma 2 (Teruel Basin, Aragon). Aragoral mudejar Gen.n., sp.n. is close to the primitive forms of the Hippotraginae-Caprinae group. It differs from Norbertia hellenica by its more primitive dentition, the greater separation between the bases of the horn cores, the decreased thickness of the frontal bone and the relatively smaller size of the horn cores.

  2. Comparison of vitrification and conventional freezing for cryopreservation of caprine embryos.

    PubMed

    Araújo-Lemos, Paula F B; Freitas Neto, Leopoldo M; Moura, Marcelo T; Melo, Janaína V; Lima, Paulo F; Oliveira, Marcos A L

    2015-08-01

    The experiment aimed to compare conventional freezing and different vitrification protocols for cryopreservation of caprine embryos at morphological, ultrastructural, and functional levels. Caprine embryos produced in vivo were allocated randomly to three groups: (1) conventional freezing with ethylene glycol (EG); (2) dimethyl sulfoxide + EG (DMSO/EG) vitrification; and (3) dimethylformamide + EG (DMF/EG) vitrification. All groups were scored for cell viability (propidium iodide staining and ultrastructural levels) and re-expansion rate after thawing or warming. Embryos subjected to DMSO/EG vitrification showed higher cell viability (73.33%), compared with DMF/EG vitrification and conventional freezing group embryos (40.00 and 66.66%, respectively). The ultrastructural study revealed that vitrified embryos had greater preservation of cellular structure than embryos from conventional freezing with EG. DMSO/EG vitrification resulted in higher rates of re-expansion in vitro (47.36%) than DMF/EG vitrification (31.58%), and conventional freezing (25.00%). In conclusion, caprine embryos produced in vivo are better cryopreserved after vitrification than conventional freezing, therefore we conclude that DMSO/EG vitrification is the most effective protocol for cryopreservation. PMID:24964134

  3. CAPRINE HERPESVIRUS 2 ASSOCIATED MALIGNANT CATARRHAL FEVER IN DEER

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A presumptive histopathologic diagnosis of malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) was made in three cases of disease in Sika deer and white-tailed deer with various degrees of hair loss and skin lesions. Antibody against an epitope conserved among the MCF group viruses was detected in the serum of all dise...

  4. Cross-linking of bovine and caprine caseins by microbial transglutaminase and their use as microencapsulating agents for n-3 fatty acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine and caprine caseins were cross-linked with microbial transglutaminase (mTG). The mTG-cross-linked bovine or caprine casein dispersion, mixed with 14.5% maltodextrin (DE = 40), was used to prepare emulsions with 10.5% algae oil. Oxidative stability of emulsions was evaluated by peroxide valu...

  5. Two Different Macaviruses, ovine herpesvirus-2 and caprine herpesvirus-2, Behave Differently in Water Buffaloes than in Cattle or in Their Respective Reservoir Species

    PubMed Central

    Stahel, Anina B. J.; Baggenstos, Rhea; Engels, Monika; Friess, Martina; Ackermann, Mathias

    2013-01-01

    The ongoing global spread of “exotic” farm animals, such as water buffaloes, which carry their native sets of viruses, may bear unknown risks for the animals, into whose ecological niches the former are introduced and vice versa. Here, we report on the occurrence of malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) on Swiss farms, where “exotic” water buffaloes were kept together with “native” animals, i.e. cattle, sheep, and goats. In the first farm with 56 water buffaloes, eight cases of MCF due to ovine herpesvirus-2 (OvHV-2) were noted, whereas additional ten water buffaloes were subclinically infected with either OvHV-2 or caprine herpesvirus-2 (CpHV-2). On the second farm, 13 water buffaloes were infected with CpHV-2 and two of those succumbed to MCF. In neither farm, any of the two viruses were detected in cattle, but the Macaviruses were present at high prevalence among their original host species, sheep and goats, respectively. On the third farm, sheep were kept well separated from water buffaloes and OvHV-2 was not transmitted to the buffaloes, despite of high prevalence of the virus among the sheep. Macavirus DNA was frequently detected in the nasal secretions of virus-positive animals and in one instance OvHV-2 was transmitted vertically to an unborn water buffalo calf. Thus, water buffaloes seem to be more susceptible than cattle to infection with either Macavirus; however, MCF did not develop as frequently. Therefore, water buffaloes seem to represent an interesting intermediate-type host for Macaviruses. Consequently, water buffaloes in their native, tropic environments may be vulnerable and endangered to viruses that originate from seemingly healthy, imported sheep and goats. PMID:24386255

  6. First Description of Infection of Caprine Herpesvirus 1 (CpHV-1) in Goats in Mainland France.

    PubMed

    Suavet, Florence; Champion, Jean-Luc; Bartolini, Luc; Bernou, Maryline; Alzieu, Jean-Pierre; Brugidou, Roland; Darnatigues, Séverine; Reynaud, Gaël; Perrin, Cécile; Adam, Gilbert; Thiéry, Richard; Duquesne, Véronique

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the epidemiological situation of the caprine herpesvirus 1 (CpHV-1) infection in nine districts in mainland France, mostly in the south, near Italy or Spain, where high seroprevalence has been observed. Two more central areas were also included in the study. The serosurvey was carried out in 9564 goats (275 herds) using bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1) glycoprotein B and E ELISAs. To confirm the presence of specific CpHV-1 antibodies, some of the samples were tested in neutralization assay. Results demonstrate, for the first time, CpHV-1 infection in goat herds on the French mainland. The analysis found cases of alphaherpesviruses infection in each district studied, with different levels of seroprevalence observed within each district (ranging from 0.2% to 31.56% at an individual level and from 9% to 46.2% for herd seroprevalence). Moreover, in the Alpes-Maritimes district, the seroprevalence seemed to be higher in older goats (79.45% of animals 6 years old or more) than in younger animals (40.99% of one-year-olds). This result suggests frequent virus re-excretion and circulation in herds. Results analysis also shows that the seroprevalence was higher when the herd size increased. In addition, the first French CpHV-1 strain was isolated from nasal swabs taken on an infected goat. The data reported herein demonstrate that CpHV-1 circulates in mainland France, which should henceforth be taken into consideration in cases of unexplained abortion in goats. PMID:26861403

  7. First Description of Infection of Caprine Herpesvirus 1 (CpHV-1) in Goats in Mainland France

    PubMed Central

    Suavet, Florence; Champion, Jean-Luc; Bartolini, Luc; Bernou, Maryline; Alzieu, Jean-Pierre; Brugidou, Roland; Darnatigues, Séverine; Reynaud, Gaël; Perrin, Cécile; Adam, Gilbert; Thiéry, Richard; Duquesne, Véronique

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the epidemiological situation of the caprine herpesvirus 1 (CpHV-1) infection in nine districts in mainland France, mostly in the south, near Italy or Spain, where high seroprevalence has been observed. Two more central areas were also included in the study. The serosurvey was carried out in 9564 goats (275 herds) using bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1) glycoprotein B and E ELISAs. To confirm the presence of specific CpHV-1 antibodies, some of the samples were tested in neutralization assay. Results demonstrate, for the first time, CpHV-1 infection in goat herds on the French mainland. The analysis found cases of alphaherpesviruses infection in each district studied, with different levels of seroprevalence observed within each district (ranging from 0.2% to 31.56% at an individual level and from 9% to 46.2% for herd seroprevalence). Moreover, in the Alpes-Maritimes district, the seroprevalence seemed to be higher in older goats (79.45% of animals 6 years old or more) than in younger animals (40.99% of one-year-olds). This result suggests frequent virus re-excretion and circulation in herds. Results analysis also shows that the seroprevalence was higher when the herd size increased. In addition, the first French CpHV-1 strain was isolated from nasal swabs taken on an infected goat. The data reported herein demonstrate that CpHV-1 circulates in mainland France, which should henceforth be taken into consideration in cases of unexplained abortion in goats. PMID:26861403

  8. Characterization of small ruminant lentivirus A4 subtype isolates and assessment of their pathogenic potential in naturally infected goats

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Small ruminant lentiviruses escaping efficient serological detection are still circulating in Swiss goats in spite of a long eradication campaign that essentially eliminated clinical cases of caprine arthritis encephalitis in the country. This strongly suggests that the circulating viruses are avirulent for goats. To test this hypothesis, we isolated circulating viruses from naturally infected animals and tested the in vitro and in vivo characteristics of these field isolates. Methods Viruses were isolated from primary macrophage cultures. The presence of lentiviruses in the culture supernatants was monitored by reverse transcriptase assay. Isolates were passaged in different cells and their cytopathogenic effects monitored by microscopy. Proviral load was quantified by real-time PCR using customized primer and probes. Statistical analysis comprised Analysis of Variance and Bonferroni Multiple Comparison Test. Results The isolated viruses belonged to the small ruminant lentiviruses A4 subtype that appears to be prominent in Switzerland. The 4 isolates replicated very efficiently in macrophages, displaying heterogeneous phenotypes, with two isolates showing a pronounced cytopathogenicity for these cells. By contrast, all 4 isolates had a poor replication capacity in goat and sheep fibroblasts. The proviral loads in the peripheral blood and, in particular, in the mammary gland were surprisingly high compared to previous observations. Nevertheless, these viruses appear to be of low virulence for goats except for the mammary gland were histopathological changes were observed. Conclusions Small ruminant lentiviruses continue to circulate in Switzerland despite a long and expensive caprine arthritis encephalitis virus eradication campaign. We isolated 4 of these lentiviruses and confirmed their phylogenetic association with the prominent A4 subtype. The pathological and histopathological analysis of the infected animals supported the hypothesis that these A4 viruses are of low pathogenicity for goats, with, however, a caveat about the potentially detrimental effects on the mammary gland. Moreover, the high proviral load detected indicates that the immune system of the animals cannot control the infection and this, combined with the phenotypic plasticity observed in vitro, strongly argues in favour of a continuous and precise monitoring of these SRLV to avoid the risk of jeopardizing a long eradication campaign. PMID:24708706

  9. Dynamic and Static Overloading Induce Early Degenerative Processes in Caprine Lumbar Intervertebral Discs

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Cornelis P. L.; Schoorl, Tom; Zuiderbaan, Hendrik A.; Zandieh Doulabi, Behrouz; van der Veen, Albert J.; van de Ven, Peter M.; Smit, Theo H.; van Royen, Barend J.; Helder, Marco N.; Mullender, Margriet G.

    2013-01-01

    Mechanical overloading of the spine is associated with low back pain and intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration. How excessive loading elicits degenerative changes in the IVD is poorly understood. Comprehensive knowledge of the interaction between mechanical loading, cell responses and changes in the extracellular matrix of the disc is needed in order to successfully intervene in this process. The purpose of the current study was to investigate whether dynamic and static overloading affect caprine lumbar discs differently and what mechanisms lead to mechanically induced IVD degeneration. Lumbar caprine IVDs (n = 175) were cultured 7, 14 and 21 days under simulated-physiological loading (control), high dynamic or high static loading. Axial deformation and stiffness were continuously measured. Cell viability, cell density, and gene expression were assessed in the nucleus, inner- and outer annulus. The extracellular matrix (ECM) was analyzed for water, glycosaminoglycan and collagen content. IVD height loss and changes in axial deformation were gradual with dynamic and acute with static overloading. Dynamic overloading caused cell death in all IVD regions, whereas static overloading mostly affected the outer annulus. IVDs expression of catabolic and inflammation-related genes was up-regulated directly, whereas loss of water and glycosaminoglycan were significant only after 21 days. Static and dynamic overloading both induced pathological changes to caprine lumbar IVDs within 21 days. The mechanism by which they inflict biomechanical, cellular, and extracellular changes to the nucleus and annulus differed. The described cascades provide leads for the development of new pharmacological and rehabilitative therapies to halt the progression of DDD. PMID:23638074

  10. Essential role of follicle stimulating hormone in the maintenance of caprine preantral follicle viability in vitro.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Matos MH; Lima-Verde IB; Luque MC; Maia JE Jr; Silva JR; Celestino JJ; Martins FS; Báo SN; Lucci CM; Figueiredo JR

    2007-05-01

    The aims of the present study were to investigate the effects of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) on survival, activation and growth of caprine primordial follicles using histological and ultrastructural studies. Pieces of caprine ovarian cortex were cultured for 1 or 7 days in minimum essential medium (MEM - control medium) supplemented with different concentrations of FSH (0, 10, 50 or 100 ng/ml). Small fragments from non-cultured ovarian tissue and from those cultured for 1 or 7 days in a specific medium were processed for classical histology and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Additionally, effects of FSH on oocyte and follicle diameter of cultured follicles were evaluated. The results showed that the lowest percentage of normal follicles was observed after 7 days of culture in control medium. After 1 day of culture, a higher percentage of growing follicles was observed in the medium supplemented with 50 ng/ml of FSH. In the presence of 10 and 50 ng/ml of FSH, an increase in diameter of both oocyte and follicle on day 7 of culture was observed. TEM showed ultrastructural integrity of follicles after 1 day of culture in MEM and after 7 days in MEM plus 50 ng/ml FSH, but did not confirm the integrity of those follicles cultured for 7 days in MEM. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that FSH at concentration of 50 ng/ml not only maintains the morphological integrity of 7 days cultured caprine preantral follicles, but also stimulate the activation of primordial follicles and the growth of activated follicles.

  11. Essential role of follicle stimulating hormone in the maintenance of caprine preantral follicle viability in vitro.

    PubMed

    Matos, M H T; Lima-Verde, I B; Luque, M C A; Maia, J E; Silva, J R V; Celestino, J J H; Martins, F S; Báo, S N; Lucci, C M; Figueiredo, J R

    2007-05-01

    The aims of the present study were to investigate the effects of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) on survival, activation and growth of caprine primordial follicles using histological and ultrastructural studies. Pieces of caprine ovarian cortex were cultured for 1 or 7 days in minimum essential medium (MEM - control medium) supplemented with different concentrations of FSH (0, 10, 50 or 100 ng/ml). Small fragments from non-cultured ovarian tissue and from those cultured for 1 or 7 days in a specific medium were processed for classical histology and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Additionally, effects of FSH on oocyte and follicle diameter of cultured follicles were evaluated. The results showed that the lowest percentage of normal follicles was observed after 7 days of culture in control medium. After 1 day of culture, a higher percentage of growing follicles was observed in the medium supplemented with 50 ng/ml of FSH. In the presence of 10 and 50 ng/ml of FSH, an increase in diameter of both oocyte and follicle on day 7 of culture was observed. TEM showed ultrastructural integrity of follicles after 1 day of culture in MEM and after 7 days in MEM plus 50 ng/ml FSH, but did not confirm the integrity of those follicles cultured for 7 days in MEM. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that FSH at concentration of 50 ng/ml not only maintains the morphological integrity of 7 days cultured caprine preantral follicles, but also stimulate the activation of primordial follicles and the growth of activated follicles. PMID:17462110

  12. Antibacterial peptides derived from caprine whey proteins, by digestion with human gastrointestinal juice.

    PubMed

    Almaas, Hilde; Eriksen, Ellen; Sekse, Camilla; Comi, Irene; Flengsrud, Ragnar; Holm, Halvor; Jensen, Einar; Jacobsen, Morten; Langsrud, Thor; Vegarud, Gerd E

    2011-09-01

    Peptides in caprine whey were identified after in vitro digestion with human gastrointestinal enzymes in order to determine their antibacterial effect. The digestion was performed in two continuing steps using human gastric juice (pH 2·5) and human duodenal juice (pH 8) at 37°C. After digestion the hydrolysate was fractionated and 106 peptides were identified. From these results, twenty-two peptides, located in the protein molecules, were synthesised and antibacterial activity examined. Strong activity of the hydrolysates was detected against Escherichia coli K12, Bacillus cereus RT INF01 and Listeria monocytogenes, less activity against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25 923 and no effect on Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG. The pure peptides showed less antibacterial effect than the hydrolysates. When comparing the peptide sequences from human gastrointestinal enzymes with previously identified peptides from non-human enzymes, only two peptides, β-lactoglobulin f(92-100) and β-casein f(191-205) matched. No peptides corresponded to the antibacterial caprine lactoferricin f(14-42) or lactoferrampin C f(268-284). Human gastrointestinal enzymes seem to be more complex and have different cleavage points in their protein chains compared with purified non-human enzymes. Multiple sequence alignment of nineteen peptides showed proline-rich sequences, neighbouring leucines, resulting in a consensus sequence LTPVPELK. In such a way proline and leucine may restrict further proteolytic processing. The present study showed that human gastrointestinal enzymes generated different peptides from caprine whey compared with non-human enzymes and a stronger antibacterial effect of the hydrolysates than the pure peptides was shown. Antimicrobial activity against pathogens but not against probiotics indicate a possible host-protective activity of whey. PMID:21554806

  13. INFLUENCE OF BOVINE AND CAPRINE CASEIN PHOSPHOPEPTIDES DIFFERING IN ALPHA S1-CASEIN CONTENT IN DETERMINING THE ABSORPTION OF CALCIUM FROM BOVINE AND CAPRINE CALCIUM-FORTIFIED MILKS IN RATS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine and caprine milks have a similar overall gross composition, but vary considerably in the ratios of their casein components. These differences cause significant changes in the casein’s ability to bind and stabilize calcium (Ca). It might be expected that these in vitro variations, which are th...

  14. A Caprine Herpesvirus 1 Vaccine Adjuvanted with MF59™ Protects against Vaginal Infection and Interferes with the Establishment of Latency in Goats

    PubMed Central

    Marinaro, Mariarosaria; Rezza, Giovanni; Del Giudice, Giuseppe; Colao, Valeriana; Tarsitano, Elvira; Camero, Michele; Losurdo, Michele; Buonavoglia, Canio; Tempesta, Maria

    2012-01-01

    The immunogenicity and the efficacy of a beta-propiolactone-inactivated caprine herpesvirus 1 (CpHV-1) vaccine adjuvanted with MF59™ were tested in goats. Following two subcutaneous immunizations, goats developed high titers of CpHV-1-specific serum and vaginal IgG and high serum virus neutralization (VN) titers. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) stimulated in vitro with inactivated CpHV-1 produced high levels of soluble IFN-gamma and exhibited high frequencies of IFN-gamma producing cells while soluble IL-4 was undetectable. On the other hand, control goats receiving the inactivated CpHV-1 vaccine without adjuvant produced only low serum antibody responses. A vaginal challenge with virulent CpHV-1 was performed in all vaccinated goats and in naïve goats to assess the efficacy of the two vaccines. Vaginal disease was not detected in goats vaccinated with inactivated CpHV-1 plus MF59™ and these animals had undetectable levels of infectious challenge virus in their vaginal washes. Goats vaccinated with inactivated CpHV-1 in the absence of adjuvant exhibited a less severe disease when compared to naïve goats but shed titers of challenge virus that were similar to those of naïve goats. Detection and quantitation of latent CpHV-1 DNA in sacral ganglia in challenged goats revealed that the inactivated CpHV-1 plus MF59™ vaccine was able to significantly reduce the latent viral load when compared either to the naïve goats or to the goats vaccinated with inactivated CpHV-1 in the absence of adjuvant. Thus, a vaccine composed of inactivated CpHV-1 plus MF59™ as adjuvant was strongly immunogenic and induced effective immunity against vaginal CpHV-1 infection in goats. PMID:22511971

  15. The Fetal Cleft palate: V. Elucidation of the Mechanism of Palatal Clefting in the Congenital Caprine Model

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maternal ingestion of Nicotiana glauca from gestation days 32 through 41 results in a high incidence of cleft palate in Spanish goats. This caprine cleft palate model was used to evaluate the temporal sequence of palatal shelf fusion throughout the period of cleft induction with the poisonous plant...

  16. G3BP-Caprin1-USP10 complexes mediate stress granule condensation and associate with 40S subunits.

    PubMed

    Kedersha, Nancy; Panas, Marc D; Achorn, Christopher A; Lyons, Shawn; Tisdale, Sarah; Hickman, Tyler; Thomas, Marshall; Lieberman, Judy; McInerney, Gerald M; Ivanov, Pavel; Anderson, Paul

    2016-03-28

    Mammalian stress granules (SGs) contain stalled translation preinitiation complexes that are assembled into discrete granules by specific RNA-binding proteins such as G3BP. We now show that cells lacking both G3BP1 and G3BP2 cannot form SGs in response to eukaryotic initiation factor 2α phosphorylation or eIF4A inhibition, but are still SG-competent when challenged with severe heat or osmotic stress. Rescue experiments using G3BP1 mutants show that phosphomimetic G3BP1-S149E fails to rescue SG formation, whereas G3BP1-F33W, a mutant unable to bind G3BP partner proteins Caprin1 or USP10, rescues SG formation. Caprin1/USP10 binding to G3BP is mutually exclusive: Caprin binding promotes, but USP10 binding inhibits, SG formation. G3BP interacts with 40S ribosomal subunits through its RGG motif, which is also required for G3BP-mediated SG formation. We propose that G3BP mediates the condensation of SGs by shifting between two different states that are controlled by the phosphorylation of S149 and by binding to Caprin1 or USP10. PMID:27022092

  17. A histopathologic and immunohistochemical review of archived UK caprine scrapie cases.

    PubMed

    Dustan, B H; Spencer, Y I; Casalone, C; Brownlie, J; Simmons, M M

    2008-07-01

    In 2005, a prion disease identified in a goat from France was reported to be consistent with disease from the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) agent. Subsequent retrospective examination of UK goat scrapie cases led to the identification of one potentially similar, but as yet unconfirmed, case from Scotland. These findings strengthened concerns that small ruminant populations exposed to the BSE agent have become infected. The lack of data relating specifically to scrapie in goats has been contributory to past assumptions that, in general, sheep and goats respond similarly to prion infections. In this study, brain material from 22 archived caprine scrapie cases from the UK was reviewed by histopathology and by immunohistochemical examination for accumulations of disease-specific prion protein (PrP(Sc)) to provide additional data on the lesions of caprine scrapie and to identify any BSE-like features. The vacuolar change observed in the goats was characteristic of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies in general. PrP(Sc) immunohistochemical morphologic forms described in scrapie and experimental BSE infections of sheep were demonstrable in the goats, but these were generally more extensive and variable in PrP(Sc) accumulation. None of the cases examined showed a PrP(Sc) immunohistochemical pattern indicative of BSE. PMID:18587090

  18. Serological study of small ruminant lentiviruses in sheep population of Khorasan-e-Razavi province in Iran.

    PubMed

    Norouzi, Behnaz; Taghavi Razavizadeh, Alireza; Azizzadeh, Mohammad; Mayameei, Ashraf; Najar Nezhad Mashhadi, Vahid

    2015-01-01

    Maedi-Visna (MV) virus and caprine arthritis encephalitis (CAE) virus known as small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLVs) cause chronic diseases in susceptible animals. The main reservoirs of these viral agents are sheep and goat. In sheep, MV virus causes a disease as the same name of the virus. This is the first seroprevalence survey of SRLVs in sheep population of Khorasan-e-Razavi province in Iran. Two hundred and twenty sheep from 30 flocks in 12 regions of the province were selected by random cluster sampling method. Serum samples were analyzed for the presence of antibodies against MV/CAE viruses. The seroprevalence in sheep was 34.5% (95.0% CI: 28.3 to 40.7%). Totally, the seroprevalence was in the range of 6.7 to 72.2 %. In 26 flocks of sheep (89.6%; 95.0%CI: 74.4 to 98.8%), at least one seropositive case was detected. The relationship between seropositivity and age, sex, flock size and breeds of sheep were statistically analyzed. In logistic regression model, only age was correlated with SRLV seroprevalence (p < 0.05). This study showed relatively high seroprevalence against SRLVs in sheep population in this area of the country. Due to difficulty in clinical diagnosis, chronic course of the disease, the absence of effective vaccine and treatment and huge economic loss, more epidemiological studies with regards to prevention and control of the disease are necessary. PMID:26893816

  19. Serological study of small ruminant lentiviruses in sheep population of Khorasan-e-Razavi province in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Norouzi, Behnaz; Taghavi Razavizadeh, Alireza; Azizzadeh, Mohammad; Mayameei, Ashraf; Najar Nezhad Mashhadi, Vahid

    2015-01-01

    Maedi-Visna (MV) virus and caprine arthritis encephalitis (CAE) virus known as small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLVs) cause chronic diseases in susceptible animals. The main reservoirs of these viral agents are sheep and goat. In sheep, MV virus causes a disease as the same name of the virus. This is the first seroprevalence survey of SRLVs in sheep population of Khorasan-e-Razavi province in Iran. Two hundred and twenty sheep from 30 flocks in 12 regions of the province were selected by random cluster sampling method. Serum samples were analyzed for the presence of antibodies against MV/CAE viruses. The seroprevalence in sheep was 34.5% (95.0% CI: 28.3 to 40.7%). Totally, the seroprevalence was in the range of 6.7 to 72.2 %. In 26 flocks of sheep (89.6%; 95.0%CI: 74.4 to 98.8%), at least one seropositive case was detected. The relationship between seropositivity and age, sex, flock size and breeds of sheep were statistically analyzed. In logistic regression model, only age was correlated with SRLV seroprevalence (p < 0.05). This study showed relatively high seroprevalence against SRLVs in sheep population in this area of the country. Due to difficulty in clinical diagnosis, chronic course of the disease, the absence of effective vaccine and treatment and huge economic loss, more epidemiological studies with regards to prevention and control of the disease are necessary. PMID:26893816

  20. Fatal transmission of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia to an Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx).

    PubMed

    Chaber, A L; Lignereux, L; Al Qassimi, M; Saegerman, C; Manso-Silván, L; Dupuy, V; Thiaucourt, F

    2014-09-17

    Contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP) is an infectious respiratory disease mainly affecting domestic goats. As CCPP has never been documented in grazing antelopes (subfamily hippotraginae), they were not considered susceptible. Mycoplasma capricolum subspecies capripneumoniae (Mccp) was isolated from pleural liquid collected during the necropsy of a severely emaciated Arabian oryx with mild nasal discharge. The Mccp isolate was then genotyped using a multilocus sequence scheme; the sequence type was identical to the Mccp strain previously identified in a sand gazelle from a nearby enclosure. This case shows for the first time that members of the hippotraginae subfamily, here the Arabian oryx, can be affected by CCPP. In addition, genotyping shows that the oryx was most probably infected, at a distance, by sand gazelles. PMID:25069622

  1. Occurrence of Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii infections in ovine and caprine abortions.

    PubMed

    Moreno, B; Collantes-Fernández, E; Villa, A; Navarro, A; Regidor-Cerrillo, J; Ortega-Mora, L M

    2012-06-01

    Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii are closely related cyst-forming apicomplexan parasites identified as important causes of reproductive failure in cattle and small ruminants, respectively. Protozoan abortion in small ruminants is traditionally associated with T. gondii, but the importance of N. caninum remains uncertain. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of N. caninum and T. gondii infections in abortion cases in small ruminants submitted for diagnosis. For this purpose, 74 ovine and 26 caprine aborted foetuses were recovered from different areas in Spain. Foetal histopathology was used to detect the presence of protozoal-associated lesions in brain. The presence of N. caninum and T. gondii was confirmed by PCR. Protozoal infection was detected in 17 out of 100 (17%) foetuses examined by at least one of the diagnostic techniques used. Lesions suggestive of protozoal infection were observed in 10.8% (8/74) and 15.4% (4/26) of the ovine and caprine abortions respectively. N. caninum and T. gondii infection was detected by PCR in 6.8% (5/74) and 5.4% (4/74) of sheep foetuses, respectively, of which five showed protozoal-associated lesions. N. caninum DNA was detected in 11.5% (3/26) of goat foetuses, of which two showed protozoal-associated lesions, whereas T. gondii DNA was detected in one goat foetus with no lesions. The simultaneous presence of N. caninum and T. gondii DNA was detected in one sheep foetus with severe lesions. This study demonstrates that N. caninum plays a significant role in abortion in small ruminants in the studied population. In addition, our results highlight the importance of differentiating between protozoa whenever characteristic lesions are observed. PMID:22260901

  2. Inhibitory Effect of Curcumin on the Contractility of Isolated Caprine Detrusor Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Manvizhi, S.; Kumar, A.; Shanthi, FX Margaret; Ernest, Kalpana

    2015-01-01

    Curcumin is a naturally occurring compound which has been used in traditional medicine in India for a long time. This study investigated the ability of curcumin to inhibit the contractility of isolated caprine (goat) detrusor muscle. The ability of three concentrations of curcumin (30, 100 and 300 µM) to inhibit the 100 µM acetylcholine-induced contractility of the isolated caprine urinary bladder detrusor muscle was investigated. The effect of raising the concentration of acetylcholine from 100, 200 and 400 µM to overcome the curcumin-induced inhibition of detrusor contractility and the effects of the reversal agents tetraethylammonium, a potassium channel blocker (100 µM), glibenclamide, an ATP-sensitive potassium channel blocker (10 µM), and propranolol, a beta adrenergic receptor blocker (1 µM), on the inhibitory effect of detrusor contractility was also studied. Curcumin caused a concentration-dependent inhibition of acetylcholine-induced contractility of the isolated detrusor muscle which was statistically significant at all three concentrations of curcumin used. This inhibition was partially overcome by raising the concentration of ACh to 200 and 400 µM. The inhibition was overcome by the concurrent administration of tetraethylammonium. Glibenclamide reversed the inhibitory effect of 100 µM curcumin, but not that of 300 µM curcumin. Propranolol reversed the inhibitory effect of 100 µM curcumin but not that of 300 µM curcumin. These results suggest that curcumin inhibited the contractions of the isolated detrusor muscle. The results further suggest that the inhibitory effect is mediated by various mechanisms: stimulation of beta adrenergic receptors; an anticholinergic effect; and the opening of ATP-sensitive potassium channels. PMID:26009657

  3. In Vitro Fermentation of caprine milk oligosaccharides by bifidobacteria isolated from breast-fed infants.

    PubMed

    Thum, Caroline; Roy, Nicole C; McNabb, Warren C; Otter, Don E; Cookson, Adrian L

    2015-11-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the catabolism and fermentation of caprine milk oligosaccharides (CMO) by selected bifidobacteria isolated from 4 breast-fed infants. Seventeen bifidobacterial isolates consisting of 3 different species (Bifidobacterium breve, Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum and Bifidobacterium bifidum) were investigated. A CMO-enriched fraction (CMOF) (50% oligosaccharides, 10% galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS), 20% lactose, 10% glucose and 10% galactose) from caprine cheese whey was added to a growth medium as a sole source of fermentable carbohydrate. The inclusion of the CMOF was associated with increased bifidobacterial growth for all strains compared to glucose, lactose, GOS, inulin, oligofructose, 3'-sialyl-lactose and 6'-sialyl-lactose. Only one B. bifidum strain (AGR2166) was able to utilize the sialyl-CMO, 3'-sialyl-lactose and 6'-sialyl-lactose, as carbohydrate sources. The inclusion of CMOF increased the production of acetic and lactic acid (P < 0.001) after 36 h of anaerobic fermentation at 37°C, when compared to other fermentable substrates. Two B. bifidum strains (AGR2166 and AGR2168) utilised CMO, contained in the CMOF, to a greater extent than B. breve or B. longum subsp longum isolates, and this increased CMO utilization was associated with enhanced sialidase activity. CMOF stimulated bifidobacterial growth when compared to other tested fermentable carbohydrates and also increased the consumption of mono- and disaccharides, such as galactose and lactose present in the CMOF. These findings indicate that the dietary consumption of CMO may stimulate the growth and metabolism of intestinal Bifidobacteria spp. including B. bifidum typically found in the large intestine of breast-fed infants. PMID:26587678

  4. Enzymatic interesterification of tripalmitin with vegetable oil blends for formulation of caprine milk infant formula analogs.

    PubMed

    Maduko, C O; Akoh, C C; Park, Y W

    2007-02-01

    The structure of triacylglycerols in vegetable oil blends was enzymatically modified, and the blends were incorporated into skim caprine milk to produce goat milk-based infant formula analogs, homologous to human milk. A modified lipid containing palmitic, oleic, and linoleic acids, resembling the composition of human milk fat, was synthesized by enzymatic interesterification reactions between tripalmitin and a vegetable oil blend containing a 2.5:1.1:0.8 ratio of coconut, safflower, and soybean oils. A commercial sn-1,3-specific lipase obtained from Rhyzomucor miehei, Lipozyme RM IM, was used as the biocatalyst. The effects of substrate molar ratio and reaction time on the incorporation of palmitic, oleic, and linoleic acids at the sn-2 position of the triacylglycerols were investigated. The fatty acid composition and sn-2 position of the experimental formulas were analyzed using gas chromatography. Results showed that the highest incorporation of palmitic acid was obtained at 12 h of incubation at 55 degrees C with a substrate molar ratio of 1:0.4 of tripalmitin to vegetable oil blend. However, the modified milk interesterified for 12 h at a 1:1 molar ratio had a greater resemblance to human milk compared with the other formulas. The level of oleic acid incorporation at the sn-2 position increased with the molar ratio of tripalmitin to vegetable oil blend. It was concluded that, unlike the original goat milk and other formulas, the formulated caprine milk with a molar ratio of 1:1 and a 12-h incubation was similar to the fatty acid composition of human milk. PMID:17235135

  5. Detection of Helicobacter pylori in bovine, buffalo, camel, ovine, and caprine milk in Iran.

    PubMed

    Rahimi, Ebrahim; Kheirabadi, Elahe Kazemi

    2012-05-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection in humans is one of the most common infections worldwide. However, the origin and transmission of this bacterium has not been clearly explained. One of the suggested theories is transmission via raw milk from animals to human beings. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence rate of H. pylori in bulk milk samples from dairy bovine, buffalo, camel, ovine, and caprine herds in Iran. In the present study, 447 bulk milk samples from 230 dairy bovine, buffalo, camel, ovine, and caprine herds were collected in four provinces and tested for H. pylori by cultural method and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the detection of the ureC (glmM) gene. The animals whose milk samples collected for this study were clinically healthy. Using the cultural method, three of 447 milk samples (0.67%), including two sheep (2.2%) and one buffalo (1.6%) milk samples, were found to be contaminated with H. pylori. H. pylori ureC gene was detected in 56 (12.5%) of milk samples, including 19 cow (14.1%), 11 sheep (12.2%), nine goat (8.7%), two camel (3.6%), and 15 buffalo (23.4%) milk samples. Using PCR method, there were significant differences (p<0.05) in the level of contamination with H. pylori between milk samples collected from different species. The present study is the first report of the isolation of H. pylori from raw sheep and buffalo milk in Iran and the first demonstration of H. pylori DNA in camel and buffalo milk. PMID:22458716

  6. Molecular dating of caprines using ancient DNA sequences of Myotragus balearicus, an extinct endemic Balearic mammal

    PubMed Central

    Lalueza-Fox, Carles; Castresana, Jose; Sampietro, Lourdes; Marquès-Bonet, Tomàs; Alcover, Josep Antoni; Bertranpetit, Jaume

    2005-01-01

    Background Myotragus balearicus was an endemic bovid from the Balearic Islands (Western Mediterranean) that became extinct around 6,000-4,000 years ago. The Myotragus evolutionary lineage became isolated in the islands most probably at the end of the Messinian crisis, when the desiccation of the Mediterranean ended, in a geological date established at 5.35 Mya. Thus, the sequences of Myotragus could be very valuable for calibrating the mammalian mitochondrial DNA clock and, in particular, the tree of the Caprinae subfamily, to which Myotragus belongs. Results We have retrieved the complete mitochondrial cytochrome b gene (1,143 base pairs), plus fragments of the mitochondrial 12S gene and the nuclear 28S rDNA multi-copy gene from a well preserved Myotragus subfossil bone. The best resolved phylogenetic trees, obtained with the cytochrome b gene, placed Myotragus in a position basal to the Ovis group. Using the calibration provided by the isolation of Balearic Islands, we calculated that the initial radiation of caprines can be dated at 6.2 ± 0.4 Mya. In addition, alpine and southern chamois, considered until recently the same species, split around 1.6 ± 0.3 Mya, indicating that the two chamois species have been separated much longer than previously thought. Conclusion Since there are almost no extant endemic mammals in Mediterranean islands, the sequence of the extinct Balearic endemic Myotragus has been crucial for allowing us to use the Messinian crisis calibration point for dating the caprines phylogenetic tree. PMID:16332256

  7. In Vitro Fermentation of caprine milk oligosaccharides by bifidobacteria isolated from breast-fed infants

    PubMed Central

    Thum, Caroline; Roy, Nicole C; McNabb, Warren C; Otter, Don E; Cookson, Adrian L

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the catabolism and fermentation of caprine milk oligosaccharides (CMO) by selected bifidobacteria isolated from 4 breast-fed infants. Seventeen bifidobacterial isolates consisting of 3 different species (Bifidobacterium breve, Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum and Bifidobacterium bifidum) were investigated. A CMO-enriched fraction (CMOF) (50% oligosaccharides, 10% galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS), 20% lactose, 10% glucose and 10% galactose) from caprine cheese whey was added to a growth medium as a sole source of fermentable carbohydrate. The inclusion of the CMOF was associated with increased bifidobacterial growth for all strains compared to glucose, lactose, GOS, inulin, oligofructose, 3'-sialyl-lactose and 6'-sialyl-lactose. Only one B. bifidum strain (AGR2166) was able to utilize the sialyl-CMO, 3'-sialyl-lactose and 6'-sialyl-lactose, as carbohydrate sources. The inclusion of CMOF increased the production of acetic and lactic acid (P < 0.001) after 36 h of anaerobic fermentation at 37°C, when compared to other fermentable substrates. Two B. bifidum strains (AGR2166 and AGR2168) utilised CMO, contained in the CMOF, to a greater extent than B. breve or B. longum subsp longum isolates, and this increased CMO utilization was associated with enhanced sialidase activity. CMOF stimulated bifidobacterial growth when compared to other tested fermentable carbohydrates and also increased the consumption of mono- and disaccharides, such as galactose and lactose present in the CMOF. These findings indicate that the dietary consumption of CMO may stimulate the growth and metabolism of intestinal Bifidobacteria spp. including B. bifidum typically found in the large intestine of breast-fed infants. PMID:26587678

  8. Mural folliculitis and alopecia caused by infection with goat-associated malignant catarrhal fever virus in two sika deer.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Timothy B; Li, Hong; Rosenburg, Stuart R; Norhausen, Robert W; Garner, Michael M

    2002-09-15

    Two sika deer from a zoo in Florida were examined because of chronic hair loss and skin lesions. No common causes of alopecia were identified in either deer. One deer was treated with prednisone, but the condition worsened when the dosage was decreased. Both deer were euthanatized after several months because of continued disease. The predominant histologic lesion in skin specimens was granulomatous mural folliculitis. Serologic testing and sequencing of fragments produced with a consensus polymerase chain reaction assay indicated that both deer were infected with caprine herpesvirus-2, a newly recognized member of the malignant catarrhal fever group of viruses. Disease in these deer was substantially different from that typically seen following infection with ovine herpesvirus-2, the sheep-associated malignant catarrhal fever virus. Findings in these deer establish the pathogenicity of caprine herpesvirus-2 in sika deer and illustrate the ability of this group of complex herpesviruses to cause a wide variety of clinical abnormalities in diverse species. PMID:12322924

  9. Caprine besnoitiosis: an emerging threat and its relationship to some other infections of ungulates by Besnoitia species.

    PubMed

    Oryan, A; Silver, I A; Sadoughifar, R

    2014-08-01

    Caprine besnoitiosis, caused by the cyst-forming protozoal apicomplexan Besnoitia caprae appears to be endemic in Kenya, Nigeria and Iran, but has yet to be detected in other parts of the world. The infection causes an important parasitic disease of goats in affected developing countries. Bovine besnoitiosis, is a widespread disease of cattle in Africa, Asia (but not Iran) and southern Europe. Recent epidemiological data confirm that the incidence and geographical range of bovine besnoitiosis in Europe is increasing, which is why growing attention has been given to the condition during the past decade. This paper reviews pertinent information on the biology, epidemiology, pathology, clinical signs, diagnosis and control of caprine besnoitiosis, together with its similarities to, and differences from, bovine besnoitiosis. The serious economic consequences of besnoitiosis on goat breeding and local meat and hide industries is also considered. PMID:24975324

  10. In vitro evaluation of the fermentation properties and potential prebiotic activity of caprine cheese whey oligosaccharides in batch culture systems.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Diana L; Costabile, Adele; Wilbey, R Andrew; Grandison, Alistair S; Duarte, Luis C; Roseiro, Luisa B

    2012-01-01

    The prebiotic effect of oligosaccharides recovered and purified from caprine whey, was evaluated by in vitro fermentation under anaerobic conditions using batch cultures at 37°C with human faeces. Effects on key gut bacterial groups were monitored over 24 h by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), which was used to determine a quantitative prebiotic index score. Production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) as fermentation end products was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Growth of Bifidobacterium spp was significantly higher (P ≥ 0.05) with the purified oligosaccharides compared to the negative control. Lactic and propionic acids were the main SCFAs produced. Antimicrobial activity of the oligosaccharides was also tested, revealing no inhibition though a decrease in Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli growth. These findings indicate that naturally extracted oligosaccharides from caprine whey could be used as new and valuable source of prebiotics. PMID:22996438

  11. Effects of reducing fat content on the proteolytic and rheological properties of Cheddar-like caprine milk cheese

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High-moisture Cheddar-like cheeses made from caprine milk containing 3.6, 2.0, 1.0, and 0.1-0.5% fat were manufactured and their proteolytic and rheological properties compared after 1, 3, and 6 mo of aging at 4 deg C. The full-fat (FF), reduced fat (RF), low-fat (LF), and non-fat (NF) cheeses conta...

  12. Abattoir-based study on the epidemiology of caprine tuberculosis in Ethiopia using conventional and molecular tools

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite the important role of goats for meat and milk production in Ethiopia, little information is available on the epidemiology of caprine tuberculosis (TB). Caprine TB is important as milk is usually consumed raw particularly by Ethiopian pastoralists. The objectives of the present study were to estimate the prevalence of TB in goats at an abattoir, to evaluate associated risk factors and to characterize the causative mycobacteria. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted on 1990 randomly selected male goats that were slaughtered at Luna Export Abattoir of central Ethiopia. Postmortem examination, mycobacterial culturing and molecular typing techniques like genus typing, deletion typing and spoligotyping were used. Result The overall prevalence of caprine TB-like lesions was 3.5%. The lesion prevalence increased significantly with increasing age. Mycobacteria were found by culture and seen as acid fast bacilli in 12% of the goats with TB-like lesions. Characterization of the eight isolates using multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) indicated that five of them belonged to the genus Mycobacterium. Four of the latter were confirmed to be members of the M. tuberculosis complex. Further characterization of the three M. tuberculosis isolates by spoligotyping identified them as type SIT53 and two new spoligotypes. Conclusion The isolation of M. tuberculosis from goats in this study indicates a potential risk of transmission of M. tuberculosis between humans and goats. PMID:23433481

  13. Targeting essential Eimeria ninakohlyakimovae sporozoite ligands for caprine host endothelial cell invasion with a phage display peptide library.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, A; Pérez, D; Muñoz, M C; Molina, J M; Taubert, A; Jacobs-Lorena, M; Vega-Rodríguez, J; López, A M; Hermosilla, C

    2015-11-01

    Eimeria ninakohlyakimovae is an important coccidian parasite of goats which causes severe diarrhoea in young animals. Specific molecules that mediate E. ninakohlyakimovae host interactions and molecular mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis are still unknown. Although strong circumstantial evidence indicates that E. ninakohlyakimovae sporozoite interactions with caprine endothelial host cells (ECs) are specific, hardly any information is available about the interacting molecules that confer host cell specificity. In this study, we describe a novel method to identify surface proteins of caprine umbilical vein endothelial cells (CUVEC) using a phage display library. After several panning rounds, we identified a number of peptides that specifically bind to the surface of CUVEC. Importantly, caprine endothelial cell peptide 2 (PCEC2) and PCEC5 selectively reduced the infection rate by E. ninakohlyakimovae sporozoites. These preliminary data give new insight for the molecular identification of ligands involved in the interaction between E. ninakohlyakimovae sporozoites and host ECs. Further studies using this phage approach might be useful to identify new potential target molecules for the development of anti-coccidial drugs or even new vaccine strategies. PMID:26341796

  14. “Of Sheep and Men”: Earliest Direct Evidence of Caprine Domestication in Southern Africa at Leopard Cave (Erongo, Namibia)

    PubMed Central

    Pleurdeau, David; Imalwa, Emma; Détroit, Florent; Lesur, Joséphine; Veldman, Anzel; Bahain, Jean-Jacques; Marais, Eugène

    2012-01-01

    The origins of herding practices in southern Africa remain controversial. The first appearance of domesticated caprines in the subcontinent is thought to be c. 2000 years BP; however, the origin of this cultural development is still widely debated. Recent genetic analyses support the long-standing hypothesis of herder migration from the north, while other researchers have argued for a cultural diffusion hypothesis where the spread of herding practices took place without necessarily implicating simultaneous and large population movements. Here we document the Later Stone Age (LSA) site of Leopard Cave (Erongo, Namibia), which contains confirmed caprine remains, from which we infer that domesticates were present in the southern African region as early as the end of the first millennium BC. These remains predate the first evidence of domesticates previously recorded for the subcontinent. This discovery sheds new light on the emergence of herding practices in southern Africa, and also on the possible southward routes used by caprines along the western Atlantic coast. PMID:22808138

  15. Quantification of minerals and trace elements in raw caprine milk using flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry and flame photometry.

    PubMed

    Singh, Mahavir; Yadav, Poonam; Garg, V K; Sharma, Anshu; Singh, Balvinder; Sharma, Himanshu

    2015-08-01

    This study reports minerals and trace elements quantification in raw caprine milk of Beetal breed, reared in Northern India and their feed, fodder & water using flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry and flame photometry. The mineral and trace elements' concentration in the milk was in the order: K > Ca > Na > Fe > Zn > Cu. The results showed that minerals concentration in caprine milk was lesserthan reference values. But trace elements concentration (Fe and Zn) was higher than reference values. Multivariate statistical techniques, viz., Pearsons' correlation, Cluster analysis (CA) and Principal component analysis (PCA) were applied to analyze the interdependences within studied variables in caprine milk. Significantly positive correlations were observed between Fe - Zn, Zn - K, Ca - Na and Ca - pH. The results of correlation matrix were further supported by Cluster analysis and Principal component analysis as primary cluster pairs were found for Ca - pH, Ca - Na and Fe - Zn in the raw milk. No correlation was found between mineral & trace elements content of the milk and feed. PMID:26243956

  16. Designing, optimization and validation of tetra-primer ARMS PCR protocol for genotyping mutations in caprine Fec genes

    PubMed Central

    Ahlawat, Sonika; Sharma, Rekha; Maitra, A.; Roy, Manoranjan; Tantia, M.S.

    2014-01-01

    New, quick, and inexpensive methods for genotyping novel caprine Fec gene polymorphisms through tetra-primer ARMS PCR were developed in the present investigation. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping needs to be attempted to establish association between the identified mutations and traits of economic importance. In the current study, we have successfully genotyped three new SNPs identified in caprine fecundity genes viz. T(-242)C (BMPR1B), G1189A (GDF9) and G735A (BMP15). Tetra-primer ARMS PCR protocol was optimized and validated for these SNPs with short turn-around time and costs. The optimized techniques were tested on 158 random samples of Black Bengal goat breed. Samples with known genotypes for the described genes, previously tested in duplicate using the sequencing methods, were employed for validation of the assay. Upon validation, complete concordance was observed between the tetra-primer ARMS PCR assays and the sequencing results. These results highlight the ability of tetra-primer ARMS PCR in genotyping of mutations in Fec genes. Any associated SNP could be used to accelerate the improvement of goat reproductive traits by identifying high prolific animals at an early stage of life. Our results provide direct evidence that tetra-primer ARMS-PCR is a rapid, reliable, and cost-effective method for SNP genotyping of mutations in caprine Fec genes. PMID:25606428

  17. Incidence of Listeria species in bovine, ovine, caprine, camel and water buffalo milk using cultural method and the PCR assay

    PubMed Central

    Rahimi, Ebrahim; Momtaz, Hassan; Behzadnia, Asma; Baghbadorani, Zeinab Torki

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the prevalence rate of Listeria species in bovine, ovine, caprine, camel and water buffalo milk in Iran. Methods From September 2010 to December 2011 a total of 260 bulk milk samples including 85 bovine, 37 camel, 34 water buffalo, 56 ovine and 48 caprine bulk milk samples were collected from commercial dairy herds, in Fars and Khuzestan provinces, Iran and were evaluated for the presence of Listeria species using cultural method and the PCR assay. Results Using cultural method, 19 samples (7.3%) were positive for Listeria spp. The highest prevalence of Listeria was found in raw water buffalo milk (11.8%), followed by raw bovine milk (10.6%), raw ovine milk (7.1%), and raw caprine milk (4.2%) samples. All 37 camel milk samples from 20 camel breeding farms were negative for Listeria spp. The overall prevalence of Listeria was 7.3%, in which Listeria innocua was the most recovered species (4.2%); the remaining isolates were Listeria monocytogenes (1.9%), Listeria ivanovii (0.08%) and Listeria seeligari (0.04%). The PCR assay could identify 8 Listeria-contaminated milk samples that were negative using the cultural method. Conclusions The results presented in this study indicate the potential risk of infection with Listeria in people consuming raw and unpasteurized milk.

  18. Fragile Mental Retardation Protein Interacts with the RNA-Binding Protein Caprin1 in Neuronal RiboNucleoProtein Complexes

    PubMed Central

    El Fatimy, Rachid; Tremblay, Sandra; Dury, Alain Y.; Solomon, Samuel; De Koninck, Paul; Schrader, John W.; Khandjian, Edouard W.

    2012-01-01

    Fragile X syndrome is caused by the absence of the Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein (FMRP), an RNA-binding protein. FMRP is associated with messenger RiboNucleoParticles (mRNPs) present in polyribosomes and its absence in neurons leads to alteration in synaptic plasticity as a result of translation regulation defects. The molecular mechanisms by which FMRP plays a role in translation regulation remain elusive. Using immunoprecipitation approaches with monoclonal Ab7G1-1 and a new generation of chicken antibodies, we identified Caprin1 as a novel FMRP-cellular partner. In vivo and in vitro evidence show that Caprin1 interacts with FMRP at the level of the translation machinery as well as in trafficking neuronal granules. As an RNA-binding protein, Caprin1 has in common with FMRP at least two RNA targets that have been identified as CaMKIIα and Map1b mRNAs. In view of the new concept that FMRP species bind to RNA regardless of known structural motifs, we propose that protein interactors might modulate FMRP functions. PMID:22737234

  19. Effect of Co-transfection of Anti-myostatin shRNA Constructs in Caprine Fetal Fibroblast Cells.

    PubMed

    Hati Boruah, Jyoti Lakshmi; Ranjan, Rakesh; Gogoi, Hamen; Pandey, Saurabh Kumar; Kumar, Dharmendra; Phukan, Amlan Jyoti; Bori, Joygeswar; Sarkhel, Bikash Chandra

    2016-01-01

    Knockdown of myostatin gene (MSTN), transforming growth factor-β superfamily, and a negative regulator of the skeletal muscle growth, by RNA interference (RNAi), has been reported to increase muscle mass in mammals. The current study was aimed to cotransfect two anti-MSTN short hairpin RNA (shRNA) constructs in caprine fetal fibroblast cells for transient silencing of MSTN gene. In the present investigation, approximately 89% MSTN silencing was achieved in transiently transfected caprine fetal fibroblast cells by cotransfection of two best out of four anti-MSTN shRNA constructs. Simultaneously, we also monitored the induction of IFN responsive genes (IFN), pro-apoptotic gene (caspase3) and anti-apoptotic gene (MCL-1) due to cotransfection of different anti-MSTN shRNA constructs. We observed induction of 0.66-19.12, 1.04-4.14, 0.50-3.43, and 0.42-1.98 for folds IFN-β, OAS1, caspase3, and MCL-1 genes, respectively (p < 0.05). This RNAi based cotransfection method could provide an alternative strategy of gene knockout and develop stable caprine fetal fibroblast cells. Furthermore, these stable cells can be used as a cell donor for the development of transgenic cloned embryos by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) technique. PMID:26690650

  20. Expanding Possibilities for Intervention against Small Ruminant Lentiviruses through Genetic Marker-Assisted Selective Breeding

    PubMed Central

    White, Stephen N.; Knowles, Donald P.

    2013-01-01

    Small ruminant lentiviruses include members that infect sheep (ovine lentivirus [OvLV]; also known as ovine progressive pneumonia virus/maedi-visna virus) and goats (caprine arthritis encephalitis virus [CAEV]). Breed differences in seroprevalence and proviral concentration of OvLV had suggested a strong genetic component in susceptibility to infection by OvLV in sheep. A genetic marker test for susceptibility to OvLV has been developed recently based on the TMEM154 gene with validation data from over 2,800 sheep representing nine cohorts. While no single genotype has been shown to have complete resistance to OvLV, consistent association in thousands of sheep from multiple breeds and management conditions highlight a new strategy for intervention by selective breeding. This genetic marker-assisted selection (MAS) has the potential to be a useful addition to existing viral control measures. Further, the discovery of multiple additional genomic regions associated with susceptibility to or control of OvLV suggests that additional genetic marker tests may be developed to extend the reach of MAS in the future. This review will cover the strengths and limitations of existing data from host genetics as an intervention and outline additional questions for future genetic research in sheep, goats, small ruminant lentiviruses, and their host-pathogen interactions. PMID:23771240

  1. Comparison of in vitro developmental competence of cloned caprine embryos using donor karyoplasts from adult bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells vs ear fibroblast cells.

    PubMed

    Kwong, P J; Nam, H Y; Wan Khadijah, W E; Kamarul, T; Abdullah, R B

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to produce cloned caprine embryos using either caprine bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) or ear fibroblast cells (EFCs) as donor karyoplasts. Caprine MSCs were isolated from male Boer goats of an average age of 1.5 years. To determine the pluripotency of MSCs, the cells were induced to differentiate into osteocytes, chondrocytes and adipocytes. Subsequently, MSCs were characterized through cell surface antigen profiles using specific markers, prior to their use as donor karyoplasts for nuclear transfer. No significant difference (p > 0.05) in fusion rates was observed between MSCs (87.7%) and EFCs (91.3%) used as donor karyoplasts. The cleavage rate of cloned embryos derived with MSCs (87.0%) was similar (p > 0.05) to those cloned using EFCs (84.4%). However, the in vitro development of MSCs-derived cloned embryos (25.3%) to the blastocyst stage was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than those derived with EFCs (20.6%). In conclusion, MSCs could be reprogrammed by caprine oocytes, and production of cloned caprine embryos with MSCs improved their in vitro developmental competence, but not in their fusion and cleavage rate as compared to cloning using somatic cells such as EFCs. PMID:24456113

  2. Identification and Profiling of microRNAs and Their Target Genes from Developing Caprine Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Xingtang; Zhao, Yulong; Chen, Xiaohui; Sun, Jiajie; Zhou, Yang; Wang, Jianjin; Wang, Yongan; Lan, Xianyong; Chen, Hong

    2014-01-01

    Goat is an important agricultural animal for meat production. Functional studies have demonstrated that microRNAs (miRNAs) regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level and play an important role in various biological processes. Although studies on miRNAs expression profiles have been performed in various animals, relatively limited information about goat muscle miRNAs has been reported. To investigate the miRNAs involved in regulating different periods of skeletal muscle development, we herein performed a comprehensive research for expression profiles of caprine miRNAs during two developmental stages of skeletal muscles: fetal stage and six month-old stage. As a result, 15,627,457 and 15,593,721 clean reads were obtained from the fetal goat library (FC) and the six month old goat library (SMC), respectively. 464 known miRNAs and 83 novel miRNA candidates were identified. Furthermore, by comparing the miRNA profile, 336 differentially expressed miRNAs were identified and then the potential targets of the differentially expressed miRNAs were predicted. To understand the regulatory network of miRNAs during muscle development, the mRNA expression profiles for the two development stages were characterized and 7322 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified. Then the potential targets of miRNAs were compared to the DEGs, the intersection of the two gene sets were screened out and called differentially expressed targets (DE-targets), which were involved in 231 pathways. Ten of the 231 pathways that have smallest P-value were shown as network figures. Based on the analysis of pathways and networks, we found that miR-424-5p and miR-29a might have important regulatory effect on muscle development, which needed to be further studied. This study provided the first global view of the miRNAs in caprine muscle tissues. Our results help elucidation of complex regulatory networks between miRNAs and mRNAs and for the study of muscle development. PMID:24818606

  3. Osmotic tolerance and freezability of isolated caprine early-staged follicles

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Regiane R.; van Haeften, Theo; Roelen, Bernard A. J.; Knijn, Hiemke M.; Colenbrander, Ben; van den Hurk, Rob

    2008-01-01

    Isolated caprine early-staged follicles were submitted to osmotic tolerance tests in the presence of sucrose, ethylene glycol (EG), or NaCl solutions and were exposed to and cryopreserved (by slow or rapid cooling) in MEM alone or MEM supplemented with sucrose, EG (1.0 or 4.0 M), or both. When follicles were exposed to 1.5 M NaCl, only 2% of the follicles were viable, whereas 87% of the follicles were viable after exposure to 4.0 M EG. Regarding exposure time, the highest percentage of viable follicles was obtained when follicles were exposed for 10 min to 1.0 M EG + 0.5 M sucrose; exposure for 60 s to 4.0 M EG + 0.5 M sucrose also maintained high percentage viability in follicles. Slow cooling in the presence of 1.0 M EG + 0.5 M sucrose (75%) or rapid cooling in the presence of 4.0 M EG + 0.5 M sucrose (71%) resulted in a significantly higher proportion of viable follicles than all other treatments (P < 0.05). A 24-h culture of frozen-thawed follicles was used to assess survival; only slow-frozen follicles showed viability rates similar to control follicles (64% vs. 69% respectively; P > 0.05). Interestingly, the percentage of viable rapid-cooled follicles (59%) was similar to that obtained after in vitro culture of conventional slow-cooled follicles but was significantly lower than that in controls. Thus, in addition to determining improved procedures for the exposure of follicles to EG and sucrose before and after freezing of caprine early-staged follicles, we report the development of rapid- and slow-cooling protocols. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00441-008-0613-9) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:18548282

  4. Complementary tools for the control and eradication of caprine and ovine brucellosis in the European Union.

    PubMed

    Crespo León, F; Sáez Llorente, J L; Reviriego Gordejo, F J; Rodríguez Ferri, E F; Durán Ferrer, M

    2012-12-01

    Caprine and ovine brucellosis is one of the most serious and complex animal health problems faced by Veterinary Services in countries where the disease is endemic. Various geographical factors and the nature of the disease itself influence its epidemiology, encouraging widespread distribution and, at the same time, impeding the ability of animal health programmes to prevent, control and eradicate it. Although strategies against brucellosis have traditionally been based on two specific tools (namely, vaccination of the at-risk population and testing and slaughter of animals which are suspected of or test positive for the disease), other complementary tools of a technical or administrative nature should also be considered. Experience in the European Union has shown that these tools are necessary to guarantee sustainable progress and success against this disease. However, these complementary tools have not always received sufficient attention during the strategic planning and subsequent implementation of animal health programmes, with consequent reductions in efficiency. The aim of this article is to review these complementary tools, in order to facilitate their adoption and use by official Veterinary Services, according to the resources available. PMID:23520752

  5. [Production of cloned goats by transfer of nuclei from transfected caprine mammary gland epithelial cells].

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yuguo; Ding, Guoliang; An, Liyou; Zhao, Junhui; Cao, Yujuan; Miao, Mingxing; Cheng, Yong

    2009-08-01

    In this study, we evaluated the development potential of caprine mammary gland epithelial cells (CMGECs) after transfection and nuclear transfer into enucleated, ovulated oocytes. We first isolated CMGECs from udders of lactating goats which were transfected with expression plasmid for human lacterrin and selected by G418. Then we chose sixteen neomycin resistant lines and induced them with prolactin for the expression of human lactoferrin checked by Western blotting. The donor cells, expressing human lactoferrin of 75 kD, were fused and activated with enucleated ovulated oocytes. Pronuclear-stage reconstructed embryos were transferred into the oviducts of 16 recipient goats. There were fourteen (87.5%), thirteen (81.3%), and ten (62.5%) pregnancies confirmed pregnant by ultrasound on Day 30, 60, and 90, respectively. Three recipients carried the pregnancies to term and delivered one goat each. Nested PCR-RFLP analysis confirmed that all of the kids were clones of the donor cells. These results demonstrated that CMGECs after transfection remain totipotent for nuclear transfer. PMID:19938449

  6. Virulence factors genes of Staphylococcus spp. isolated from caprine subclinical mastitis.

    PubMed

    Salaberry, Sandra Renata Sampaio; Saidenberg, André Becker Simões; Zuniga, Eveline; Melville, Priscilla Anne; Santos, Franklin Gerônimo Bispo; Guimarães, Ednaldo Carvalho; Gregori, Fábio; Benites, Nilson Roberti

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate genes involved in adhesion expression, biofilm formation, and enterotoxin production in isolates of Staphylococcus spp. from goats with subclinical mastitis and associate these results with the staphylococcal species. One hundred and twenty-four isolates were identified and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed to detect the following genes: cna, ebpS, eno, fib, fnbA, fnbB, bap, sea, seb, sec, sed and see. The most commonly Staphylococcus species included S. epidermidis, S. lugdunensis, S. chromogenes, S. capitis ss capitis and S. intermedius. With the exception of fnbB, the genes were detected in different frequencies of occurrence in 86.3% of the Staphylococcus spp. isolates. Eno (73.2%) and bap (94.8%) were more frequently detected in coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS); ebpS (76%), fib (90.9%) and fnbA (87%) were the most frequent genes in coagulase-positive staphylococci (CPS). Regarding enterotoxins, genes sed (28.2%) and see (24.2%) had a higher frequency of occurrence; sec gene was more frequently detected in CPS (58.8%). There was no association between the presence of the genes and the Staphylococcus species. Different virulence factors genes can be detected in caprine subclinical mastitis caused by CNS and CPS. The knowledge of the occurrence of these virulence factors is important for the development of effective control and prevention measures of subclinical mastitis caused by CNS and CPS in goats. PMID:26026835

  7. Swainsonine induces caprine luteal cells apoptosis via mitochondrial-mediated caspase-dependent pathway.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Huang, Yong; Zhao, Xiaomin; Zhang, Wenlong; Dong, Feng; Du, Qian; Tong, Dewen

    2014-10-01

    Swainsonine (SW) is an indolizidine alkaloid isolated from a number of poisonous plants. We have previously reported that SW inhibited luteal cell progesterone production by inducing caprine luteal cell apoptosis in vitro; however, the molecular mechanism of this phenomenon remains unclear. In this study, SW-treated luteal cells showed apoptosis characteristics, including nuclear fragmentation, DNA ladder formation, and phosphatidylserine externalization. Further studies showed that SW activated caspase-9 and caspase-3, which subsequently cleaved poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase. SW also increased in Bax/BcL-2 ratios, promoted Bax translocation from the cytosol to mitochondria, and triggered the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria into the cytoplasm. However, Fas and Fas ligand induction or caspase-8 activity did not appear any significant changes. Additional analysis also showed that pan-caspase inhibitor, caspase-9 inhibitor, or caspase-3 inhibitor almost completely protected the cells from SW-induced apoptosis, but not caspase-8 inhibitor. Overall, these data demonstrated that SW induced luteal cells apoptosis through a mitochondrial-mediated caspase-dependent pathway. PMID:24977789

  8. The effect of helminth infection on the microbial composition and structure of the caprine abomasal microbiome.

    PubMed

    Li, Robert W; Li, Weizhong; Sun, Jiajie; Yu, Peng; Baldwin, Ransom L; Urban, Joseph F

    2016-01-01

    Haemonchus contortus is arguably the most injurious helminth parasite for small ruminants. We characterized the impact of H. contortus infection on the caprine abomasal microbiome. Fourteen parasite naive goats were inoculated with 5,000 H. contortus infective larvae and followed for 50 days. Six age-matched naïve goats served as uninfected controls. Reduced bodyweight gain and a significant increase in the abosamal pH was observed in infected goats compared to uninfected controls. Infection also increased the bacterial load while reducing the abundance of the Archaea in the abomasum but did not appear to affect microbial diversity. Nevertheless, the infection altered the abundance of approximately 19% of the 432 species-level operational taxonomic units (OTU) detected per sample. A total of 30 taxa displayed a significantly different abundance between control and infected goats. Furthermore, the infection resulted in a distinct difference in the microbiome structure. As many as 8 KEGG pathways were predicted to be significantly affected by infection. In addition, H. contortus-induced changes in butyrate producing bacteria could regulate mucosal inflammation and tissue repair. Our results provided insight into physiological consequences of helminth infection in small ruminants and could facilitate the development of novel control strategies to improve animal and human health. PMID:26853110

  9. Paleogenomics in a Temperate Environment: Shotgun Sequencing from an Extinct Mediterranean Caprine

    PubMed Central

    Ramrez, Oscar; Gigli, Elena; Bover, Pere; Alcover, Josep Antoni; Bertranpetit, Jaume; Castresana, Jose; Lalueza-Fox, Carles

    2009-01-01

    Background Numerous endemic mammals, including dwarf elephants, goats, hippos and deers, evolved in isolation in the Mediterranean islands during the Pliocene and Pleistocene. Most of them subsequently became extinct during the Holocene. Recently developed high-throughput sequencing technologies could provide a unique tool for retrieving genomic data from these extinct species, making it possible to study their evolutionary history and the genetic bases underlying their particular, sometimes unique, adaptations. Methodology/Principals Findings A DNA extraction of a ?6,000 year-old bone sample from an extinct caprine (Myotragus balearicus) from the Balearic Islands in the Western Mediterranean, has been subjected to shotgun sequencing with the GS FLX 454 platform. Only 0.27% of the resulting sequences, identified from alignments with the cow genome and comprising 15,832 nucleotides, with an average length of 60 nucleotides, proved to be endogenous. Conclusions A phylogenetic tree generated with Myotragus sequences and those from other artiodactyls displays an identical topology to that generated from mitochondrial DNA data. Despite being in an unfavourable thermal environment, which explains the low yield of endogenous sequences, our study demonstrates that it is possible to obtain genomic data from extinct species from temperate regions. PMID:19461892

  10. Knockdown of the myostatin gene by RNA interference in caprine fibroblast cells.

    PubMed

    Jain, Hemlata; Singh, Sanjeev; Kadam, Megha; Sarkhel, B C

    2010-01-15

    Myostatin (MSTN), a member of transforming growth factor-beta superfamily is a negative regulator of the skeletal muscle growth. It suppresses the proliferation and differentiation of myoblast cells. Dysfunction of MSTN gene either by natural mutation or induced through genetic manipulation (knockout or knockdown) has been reported to increase the muscle mass in mammalian species. RNA interference (RNAi) is the most promising method for inhibition of gene expression that can be utilized for MSTN gene knockdown by developing short hairpin RNA (shRNA) construct against it. In the present investigation silencing of MSTN gene in caprine fibroblast cell line was evaluated using four different shRNA expressing constructs. Variation in the efficiency of silencing (22-92%) was obtained among different constructs. It was observed that sh1 and sh4 constructs downregulated the MSTN gene expression by reducing 92.4 and 80.5% (P<0.05) level of downregulation MSTN mRNA, respectively. On the contrary, the sh3 construct significantly upregulated the MSTN mRNA level (P<0.05). These two promising constructs (sh1 and sh4) need to be further tested for interferon (IFN) response before their use in long term stable expression of anti-MSTN shRNA in muscle cells to improve chevon production. PMID:19895860

  11. Short hairpin RNA-induced myostatin gene silencing in caprine myoblast cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Ajai K; Ramani, Umed V; Patel, Amrutlal K; Rank, Dharamshibhai N; Joshi, Chaitanya G

    2013-01-01

    Myostatin (MSTN) belongs to the transforming growth factor (TGF)-β superfamily and is a potent negative regulator of skeletal muscle development and growth. Dysfunction of MSTN gene either by natural mutation or induced through genetic manipulation (knockout or knockdown) has been reported to increase the remarkable muscle mass in mammalian species. RNA interference (RNAi) is the most promising method for inhibition of gene expression that can be utilized for MSTN gene knockdown by developing short hairpin RNA (shRNA) construct against it. We utilized three antisense RNA expressing vectors with six constructs to knockdown MSTN gene in in vitro caprine myoblast cell culture system. We observed that all six shRNA constructs were successful in MSTN silencing with efficiency ranging from 7 to 46 % by quantitative real-time PCR and up to 19 % by western blotting. The significant upregulation of interferon response gene OAS1 (5- to 11-fold) in cells transfected with shRNA constructs were indicative of induction of interferon response. This RNAi-based method of increasing muscle mass could provide an alternative strategy to gene knockout methods for improving the production traits and economic properties of livestock. PMID:23271624

  12. The effect of helminth infection on the microbial composition and structure of the caprine abomasal microbiome

    PubMed Central

    Li, Robert W.; Li, Weizhong; Sun, Jiajie; Yu, Peng; Baldwin, Ransom L.; Urban, Joseph F.

    2016-01-01

    Haemonchus contortus is arguably the most injurious helminth parasite for small ruminants. We characterized the impact of H. contortus infection on the caprine abomasal microbiome. Fourteen parasite naive goats were inoculated with 5,000 H. contortus infective larvae and followed for 50 days. Six age-matched naïve goats served as uninfected controls. Reduced bodyweight gain and a significant increase in the abosamal pH was observed in infected goats compared to uninfected controls. Infection also increased the bacterial load while reducing the abundance of the Archaea in the abomasum but did not appear to affect microbial diversity. Nevertheless, the infection altered the abundance of approximately 19% of the 432 species-level operational taxonomic units (OTU) detected per sample. A total of 30 taxa displayed a significantly different abundance between control and infected goats. Furthermore, the infection resulted in a distinct difference in the microbiome structure. As many as 8 KEGG pathways were predicted to be significantly affected by infection. In addition, H. contortus-induced changes in butyrate producing bacteria could regulate mucosal inflammation and tissue repair. Our results provided insight into physiological consequences of helminth infection in small ruminants and could facilitate the development of novel control strategies to improve animal and human health. PMID:26853110

  13. Evaluation of specificity of tuberculosis diagnostic assays in caprine flocks under different epidemiological situations.

    PubMed

    Bezos, Javier; Álvarez, Julio; Mínguez, Olga; Marqués, Sergio; Martín, Olegario; Vigo, Virginia; Pieltain, Carmen; Romero, Beatriz; Rodríguez, Sabrina; Casal, Carmen; Mateos, Ana; Domínguez, Lucas; de Juan, Lucía

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the specificity of the most widely used tuberculosis (TB) diagnostic tests, single intradermal tuberculin (SIT) and single comparative intradermal tuberculin (SCIT) tests and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) assay in 937 animals from eight TB-free caprine flocks under different epidemiological situations. Maximum specificity was found using SCIT test (99.4-100% depending on the interpretation criteria) while SIT test and IFN-γ assay showed a slightly lower overall specificity (97.6-99.2% and 96.4-98.4% respectively). Specificity of the SIT test in a Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis infected flock was significantly (P<0.05) lower if a severe interpretation criterion was applied. Similarly, specificity values of SIT test and particularly IFN-γ assay in a paratuberculosis (PTB)-vaccinated flock were lower than those observed in non-vaccinated flocks. Higher proportion of false positive reactors to TB tests (SIT and IFN-γ assay) were observed among animals positive in the PTB-ELISA in PTB vaccinated flock. These results demonstrate that TB diagnostic tests show an adequate specificity when performed in goats from TB-free flocks in most situations. However, certain factors such as C. pseudotuberculosis infection and paratuberculosis vaccination can have a negative impact in the most sensitive tests. PMID:22079129

  14. In Vivo Caprine Model for Osteomyelitis and Evaluation of Biofilm-Resistant Intramedullary Nails

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Nhiem; Tran, Phong A.; Jarrell, John D.; Engiles, Julie B.; Thomas, Nathan P.; Young, Matthew D.; Hayda, Roman A.; Born, Christopher T.

    2013-01-01

    Bone infection remains a formidable challenge to the medical field. The goal of the current study is to evaluate antibacterial coatings in vitro and to develop a large animal model to assess coated bone implants. A novel coating consisting of titanium oxide and siloxane polymer doped with silver was created by metal-organic methods. The coating was tested in vitro using rapid screening techniques to determine compositions which inhibited Staphylococcus aureus growth, while not affecting osteoblast viability. The coating was then applied to intramedullary nails and evaluated in vivo in a caprine model. In this pilot study, a fracture was created in the tibia of the goat, and Staphylococcus aureus was inoculated directly into the bone canal. The fractures were fixed by either coated (treated) or non-coated intramedullary nails (control) for 5 weeks. Clinical observations as well as microbiology, mechanical, radiology, and histology testing were used to compare the animals. The treated goat was able to walk using all four limbs after 5 weeks, while the control was unwilling to bear weight on the fixed leg. These results suggest the antimicrobial potential of the hybrid coating and the feasibility of the goat model for antimicrobial coated intramedullary implant evaluation. PMID:23841085

  15. Meeting Report: 2015 PDA Virus & TSE Safety Forum.

    PubMed

    Willkommen, Hannelore; Blümel, Johannes; Brorson, Kurt; Chen, Dayue; Chen, Qi; Gröner, Albrecht; Kreil, Thomas R; Ruffing, Michel; Ruiz, Sol; Scott, Dorothy; Silvester, Glenda

    2016-01-01

    The report provides a summary of the presentations at the Virus & TSE Safety Forum 2015 organized by the Parenteral Drug Association (PDA) and held in Cascais, Portugal, from 9 to 11 June, 2015. As with previous conferences of this series, the PDA Virus & TSE Safety Forum 2015 provided an excellent forum for the exchange of information and opinions between the industry, research organizations, and regulatory bodies. Regulatory updates on virus and TSE safety aspects illustrating current topics of discussion at regulatory agencies in Europe and the United States were provided; the conference covered emerging viruses and new virus detection systems that may be used for the investigation of human pathogenic viruses as well as the virus safety of cell substrates and of raw material of ovine/caprine or human origin. Progress of development and use of next-generation sequencing methods was shown by several examples. Virus clearance data illustrating the effectiveness of inactivation or removal methods were presented and data provided giving insight into the mechanism of action of these technologies. In the transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) part of the conference, the epidemiology of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease was reviewed and an overview about diagnostic tests provided; current thinking about the spread and propagation of prions was presented and the inactivation of prions by disinfection (equipment) and in production of bovine-derived reagents (heparin) shown. The current report provides an overview about the outcomes of the 2015 PDA Virus & TSE Safety Forum, a unique event in this field. PMID:27020643

  16. A meta-analysis of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP) in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Asmare, Kassahun; Abayneh, Takele; Mekuria, Solomon; Ayelet, Gelagay; Sibhat, Berhanu; Skjerve, Eystein; Szonyi, Barbara; Wieland, Barbara

    2016-06-01

    This systematic literature review was initiated due to lack of comprehensive information on the status and distribution of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP) in Ethiopia. The objectives of the review were thus to provide a pooled prevalence estimate of CCPP in the country and asses the level of in between study variance among the available reports. Manual and electronic search was conducted between 8th of January and 25th of June 2015. A total of twelve published articles and one MSc thesis was retrieved from19 initially identified studies. Twenty five animal level datasets were extracted at regional level considering some hypothesized predictors. The retrieved data were summarized in a meta-analytical approach. Accordingly, the pooled prevalence estimate of CCPP was 25.7% (95% CI:20.9,31.0). The inverse variance square (I(2)) that explains the variation in effect size attributed to reports true heterogeneity was 95.7%.The sub-group analysis was also computed for assumed predictors including, age, sex, type of study population, production systems and regional states. Among these predictors, study population type revealed statistically significant difference (P<0.05). Accordingly, the prevalence estimate for samples collected at abattoir was 39.2%, while that of samples collected at field level was 22.4%. In the final model, type of study population fitted the multivariable meta-regression model accounting for 22.87% of the explainable proportion of heterogeneity among the presumed predictors. Evidence on isolation and confirmation of Mycoplasma capricolum subspp. capripneumonie in the country was obtained from five regional states. In conclusion, it is recommended to further investigate facilities related with transportation and collection premises along with potential role of sheep in the epidemiology of CCPP. Finally, the review emphasizes the need for monitoring the ongoing CCPP control intervention and introduces amendments based on the findings. Besides more surveys are needed in some of the regions where no or few valid data was available. PMID:26943994

  17. Effects of volatile fatty acids on propionate metabolism and gluconeogenesis in caprine hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Aiello, R.J.; Armentano, L.E.

    1987-12-01

    Isolated caprine hepatocytes were incubated with fatty acids of various chain lengths. Short-chain fatty acids effects on rates of gluconeogenesis and oxidation from (2-/sup 14/C) propionate were determined. Additions of glucose (2.5 mM) had no effect on hepatic (2-/sup 14/C)-propionate metabolism in the presence and absence of amino acids. A complete mixture of amino acids increased label incorporation from (2-/sup 14/C) propionate into (/sup 14/C) glucose by 22%. Butyrate inhibited (2-/sup 14/C) propionate metabolism and increased the apparent Michaelis constant for (2-/sup 14/C) propionate incorporation into (/sup 14/C) glucose from 2.4 +/- 1.5 to 5.6 +/- .9 mM. Butyrate's effects on propionate were similar in the presence and absence of L-carnitine (1 mM). Isobutyrate, 2-methylbutyrate, and valerate (1.25 mM) had no effect on (/sup 14/C) glucose production but decreased /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ production to 57, 61, and 54% of the control (2-/sup 14/C) propionate (1.25 mM). This inhibition on /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ was not competitive. Isovalerate had no effect on either (2-/sup 14/C) propionate incorporation into glucose of CO/sub 2/. An increase in ratio of (/sup 14/C) glucose to /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ from (2-/sup 14/C)-propionate demonstrated that short-chain fatty acids other than butyrate do not inhibit gluconeogenesis from propionate. In addition, fatty acids that generate a net synthesis of intracellular oxaloacetate may partition propionate carbons toward gluconeogenic rather than oxidative pathways in goat hepatocytes.

  18. The effect of electrical field strength on activation and development of cloned caprine embryos.

    PubMed

    Shen, P C; Lee, S N; Wu, J S; Huang, J C; Chu, F H; Chang, C C; Kung, J C; Lin, H H; Chen, L R; Shiau, J W; Yen, N T; Cheng, W T K

    2006-05-01

    The activation procedure used in nuclear transfer (NT) is one of the critical factors affecting the efficiency of animal cloning. The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of two electrical field strengths (EFS) for activation on the developmental competence of caprine NT embryos reconstructed from ear skin fibroblasts of adult Alpine does. The NT embryos were obtained by transfer of the quiescent fibroblasts at the fourth passage into the enucleated metaphase II (M II) oocytes. Four to five hours after electrical fusion, the NT-embryos were activated by EFS either at 1.67 or at 2.33 kV/cm and immediately incubated in 6-DMAP (2 mM) for 4 h. The cleavage rate of the NT-embryos activated with 2.33 kV/cm was greater than that activated with 1.67 kV/cm after in vitro culture for 18 h (65.6% versus 19.6%, p < 0.001). No pregnancy was found in 14 recipient does after transferring 51 NT embryos at 1-2 cell stages activated with 1.67 kV/cm. In contrast, two of the seven recipients were pregnant and gave birth to three kids after transferring 61 NT embryos at 1-2 cell stages activated by 2.33 kV/cm. The birth weights of three cloned kids were within the normal range of Alpine goats. However, one kid died 1h after birth while the remaining two are still healthy. DNA analysis by polymerase chain reaction (single-strand conformation polymorphism, SSCP) confirmed that the three kids were genetically identical to the nuclear donor. PMID:16159700

  19. Caprine herpesvirus-1-specific IgG subclasses in naturally and experimentally infected goats.

    PubMed

    Marinaro, Mariarosaria; Bellacicco, Anna Lucia; Camero, Michele; Tarsitano, Elvira; Tempesta, Maria; Cassone, Antonio; Buonavoglia, Canio

    2009-09-18

    Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) were developed to detect caprine herpervirus-1 (CpHV-1)-specific IgG1 and IgG2 in sera from 43 naturally infected goats. The analysis of the IgG subclasses showed a dual pattern of distribution in seropositive goats with a major group of animals (36 out of 43) exhibiting significantly higher levels of IgG2 over IgG1 and a minor group (7 out of 43) possessing equal levels of IgG1 and IgG2. Four goats were experimentally infected with a virulent CpHV-1 Ba.1 strain by the intranasal or the intravaginal route and the kinetics of appearance of CpHV-1-specific IgG, IgG1 and IgG2 in the serum were studied. Two weeks following infection, both IgG1 and IgG2 levels increased although convalescent sera (i.e., collected 5-8 weeks post-infection) showed a clear prevalence of the IgG2 subclass. To determine the contribution of the different IgG subclasses to herpesvirus immunity, serum neutralization (SN) assays were performed in both naturally and experimentally infected goats. The kinetics of SN showed that neutralization activity was mainly associated to the IgG1 subclass and this was also confirmed in naturally infected goats. The results are discussed from the standpoint that the profile of the IgG subclasses is instrumental to study immune responses to CpHV-1 and that vaccination strategies may benefit from this information. PMID:19411146

  20. A comparative study of parthenogenetic activation and in vitro fertilization of in vitro matured caprine oocytes

    PubMed Central

    Kouamo, J; Kharche, S. D.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the parthenogenetic activation and in vitro fertilization (IVF) of in vitro matured caprine oocytes. A total of 881 cumulus-oocyte complexes (COC’s) were collected from 243 ovaries. Oocytes were matured in TCM-199 medium containing eCG (20 IU/ml), hCG (20 IUµg/ml), oestradiol-17β (1 µg/ml), BSA embryo tested (3 mg/ml) supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum at 38.5°C and 5% CO2 in an incubator under humidified air for 27 h. Based on cumulus expansion, the maturation rate was 86.86%. Morphological matured oocytes (n=749) were selected, denuded and randomly divided into two groups. Group 1 (n=223) in vitro matured oocytes activated with 5 µm calcium ionophore for 5 min and cultured in mCR2aa medium containing 5 mM DMAP for 4 h. After 4 h of DMAP treatment, the presumptive zygotes were washed and cultured in the embryo culture medium. Group 2 (n=526) in vitro matured oocytes processed for IVF in mTALP using fresh semen of a fertile pure bred adult Sirohi buck and in vitro culture in mCR2aa medium. Development of putative zygotes was observed every 24 h till day 9 post activation or fertilization under inverted phase contrast microscope. The cleavage rate, morula and blastocyst percentage in groups 1 and 2 were 67.36%, 23.07% and 9.23%, and 30.99%, 19.63% and 9.82%, respectively. The results indicated that the cleavage rate was comparatively higher following parthenogenetic activation with ionomycin/6-DMAP than IVF.

  1. Effect of different activators on development of activated in vitro matured caprine oocytes

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, J. R.; Agarwal, S.; Kharche, S. D.; Goel, A. K.; Jindal, S. K.; Agarwal, S. K.

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to compare the effectiveness of different activation treatments for activation of in vitro matured oocytes and their developmental potency in mCR2aa medium so as to obtain maximum number of embryos. A total of 1090 cumulus oocyte complexes (COC’s) were collected from 480 ovaries. In vitro matured oocytes were randomly divided into four groups. Group 1 in vitro matured oocytes (n=226) were exposed to 7% ethanol for 5 min followed by treatment with 2.0 mM DMAP for 4 h in mCR2aa medium. Group 2 in vitro matured oocytes (n=294) were exposed to 7% ethanol for 5 min followed by treatment with 10 µg/ml CHX for 4 h in mCR2aa medium. Group 3 in vitro matured oocytes (n=325) were exposed to 7% ethanol for 5 min followed by treatment with 2.0 mM DMAP and 10 µg/ml CHX for 4 h in mCR2aa medium. Group 4 in vitro matured oocytes (n=108) were cultured for 4 h without any chemical treatment in mCR2aa medium (control). The cleavage rate in groups 1, 2, 3 and 4 was 54.42%, 44.55%, 51.69% and 0.00%, respectively. The percentage of morula and blastocyst production in group 1, group 2 and group 3 was 26.01%, 29.77% and 29.76% and 2.43%, 1.52% and 1.78%, respectively. These results suggest that the activation of in vitro matured oocytes by 7% ethanol for 5 min followed by treatment with 2.0 mM DMAP for 4 h in mCR2aa is most favorable for parthenogenetic caprine embryos production.

  2. Microbiology and biochemistry of cheeses with Applation d'Origine Protege and manufactured in the Iberian Peninsula from ovine and caprine milks.

    PubMed

    Freitas, C; Malcata, F X

    2000-03-01

    To support legal protection with objective technical data and to promote enforcement of high quality standards a few European countries have created Applation d'Origine Proteges. This paper reviews and updates fundamental and applied aspects encompassing microbiological and biochemical characteristics of traditional cheeses with Applation d'Origine Protege manufactured in the Iberian Peninsula from ovine, caprine, or both milks. Ovine and caprine cheeses with Applation d'Origine Protege from Portugal and Spain can be divided into four distinct groups based on milk source and rennet type: 1) Azeito, Castelo Branco, Evora, Nisa, Serpa, Serra da Estrela, and La Serena cheeses are manufactured with raw ovine milk and coagulated via plant rennet; 2) Terrincho, Idiazbal, Manchego, Roncal, and Zamorano cheeses are manufactured with raw ovine milk and coagulated via animal rennet; 3) Cabra Transmontano and Majorero are manufactured with raw caprine milk and coagulated via animal rennet; and 4) Amarelo da Beira Baixa, Picante da Beira Baixa, and Rabaal are manufactured with mixtures of raw ovine and caprine milks and coagulated via animal rennet. PMID:10750117

  3. Small ruminant lentivirus-induced arthritis: clinicopathologic findings in sheep infected by a highly replicative SRLV B2 genotype.

    PubMed

    Pérez, M; Biescas, E; Reina, R; Glaria, I; Marín, B; Marquina, A; Salazar, E; Álvarez, N; de Andrés, D; Fantova, E; Badiola, J J; Amorena, B; Luján, L

    2015-01-01

    We describe the clinicopathologic features of an arthritis outbreak in sheep induced by small ruminant lentivirus (SRLV), linked to the presence of a new SRLV isolate phylogenetically assigned to caprine arthritis encephalitis virus-like subgroup B2. Thirteen SRLV seropositive Rasa Aragonesa adult ewes were selected from 5 SRLV highly infected flocks (mean seroprevalence, 90.7%) for presenting uni- or bilateral chronic arthritis in the carpal joint. A complete study was performed, including symptomatology, histopathology, immunocytochemistry, immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization, and microbiology. The carpus was the joint almost exclusively affected, with 10 sheep (76%) showing a moderate increase in carpal joint size (diameter range, 18-20 cm; normal range, 15-16 cm) without signs of locomotion problems and with 3 ewes (23%) showing severe inflammation with marked increase in diameter (21-24 cm), pain at palpation, and abnormal standing position. Grossly, chronic proliferative arthritis was observed in affected joints characterized by an increased thickness of the synovial capsule and synovial membrane proliferation. Microscopically, synovial membrane inflammation and proliferation and hyperplasia of synoviocytes were observed. More positive cases of SLRV infection were detected by immunocytochemistry of articular fluid than of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization also detected positive cells in the subsynovial connective tissue, lung, mediastinal lymph node, mammary gland, and mammary lymph node. All animals were negative for the presence of Mycoplasma or other bacteria in the articular space. The present outbreak likely represents an adaptation of a caprine virus to sheep. Our results underline the importance of the arthritis induced by SRLV in sheep, a clinical form that might be underestimated. PMID:24476938

  4. A possible case of caprine-associated malignant catarrhal fever in a domestic water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) in Switzerland

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) is a fatal herpesvirus infection, affecting various wild and domestic ruminants all over the world. Water buffaloes were reported to be particularly susceptible for the ovine herpesvirus-2 (OvHV-2) causing the sheep-associated form of MCF (SA-MCF). This report describes the first case of possibly caprine-associated malignant catarrhal fever symptoms in a domestic water buffalo in Switzerland. Case presentation The buffalo cow presented with persistent fever, dyspnoea, nasal bleeding and haematuria. Despite symptomatic therapy, the buffalo died and was submitted to post mortem examination. Major findings were an abomasal ulceration, a mild haemorrhagic cystitis and multifocal haemorrhages on the epicardium and on serosal and mucosal surfaces. Eyes and oral cavity were not affected. Histopathology revealed a mild to moderate lymphohistiocytic vasculitis limited to the brain and the urinary bladder. Although these findings are typical for MCF, OvHV-2 DNA was not detected in peripheral blood lymphocytes or in paraffin-embedded brain, using an OvHV-2 specific real time PCR. With the aid of a panherpesvirus PCR, a caprine herpesvirus-2 (CpHV-2) sequence could be amplified from both samples. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first report of malignant catarrhal fever in the subfamily Bovinae, where the presence of CpHV-2 could be demonstrated. The etiological context has yet to be evaluated. PMID:22132808

  5. Advances in Diagnosis of Respiratory Diseases of Small Ruminants

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Sandip; Kumar, Amit; Tiwari, Ruchi; Rahal, Anu; Malik, Yash; Dhama, Kuldeep; Pal, Amar; Prasad, Minakshi

    2014-01-01

    Irrespective of aetiology, infectious respiratory diseases of sheep and goats contribute to 5.6 percent of the total diseases of small ruminants. These infectious respiratory disorders are divided into two groups: the diseases of upper respiratory tract, namely, nasal myiasis and enzootic nasal tumors, and diseases of lower respiratory tract, namely, peste des petits ruminants (PPR), parainfluenza, Pasteurellosis, Ovine progressive pneumonia, mycoplasmosis, caprine arthritis encephalitis virus, caseous lymphadenitis, verminous pneumonia, and many others. Depending upon aetiology, many of them are acute and fatal in nature. Early, rapid, and specific diagnosis of such diseases holds great importance to reduce the losses. The advanced enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) for the detection of antigen as well as antibodies directly from the samples and molecular diagnostic assays along with microsatellites comprehensively assist in diagnosis as well as treatment and epidemiological studies. The present review discusses the advancements made in the diagnosis of common infectious respiratory diseases of sheep and goats. It would update the knowledge and help in adapting and implementing appropriate, timely, and confirmatory diagnostic procedures. Moreover, it would assist in designing appropriate prevention protocols and devising suitable control strategies to overcome respiratory diseases and alleviate the economic losses. PMID:25028620

  6. Small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLVs) break the species barrier to acquire new host range.

    PubMed

    Minardi da Cruz, Juliano Cezar; Singh, Dinesh Kumar; Lamara, Ali; Chebloune, Yahia

    2013-07-01

    Zoonotic events of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) from non-human primates to humans have generated the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), one of the most devastating infectious disease of the last century with more than 30 million people dead and about 40.3 million people currently infected worldwide. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1 and HIV-2), the two major viruses that cause AIDS in humans are retroviruses of the lentivirus genus. The genus includes arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV) and Maedi-Visna virus (MVV), and a heterogeneous group of viruses known as small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLVs), affecting goat and sheep. Lentivirus genome integrates into the host DNA, causing persistent infection associated with a remarkable diversity during viral replication. Direct evidence of mixed infections with these two closely related SRLVs was found in both sheep and goats. The evidence of a genetic continuum with caprine and ovine field isolates demonstrates the absence of an efficient species barrier preventing cross-species transmission. In dual-infected animals, persistent infections with both CAEV and MVV have been described, and viral chimeras have been detected. This not only complicates animal trade between countries but favors the risk that highly pathogenic variants may emerge as has already been observed in the past in Iceland and, more recently, in outbreaks with virulent strains in Spain. SRLVs affecting wildlife have already been identified, demonstrating the existence of emergent viruses adapted to new hosts. Viruses adapted to wildlife ruminants may acquire novel biopathological properties which may endanger not only the new host species but also domestic ruminants and humans. SRLVs infecting sheep and goats follow a genomic evolution similar to that observed in HIV or in other lentiviruses. Lentivirus genetic diversity and host factors leading to the establishment of naturally occurring virulent versus avirulent infections, in addition to the emergence of new strains, challenge every aspect of SRLV control measures for providing efficient tools to prevent the transmission of diseases between wild ungulates and livestock. PMID:23881276

  7. Small Ruminant Lentiviruses (SRLVs) Break the Species Barrier to Acquire New Host Range

    PubMed Central

    Minardi da Cruz, Juliano Cezar; Singh, Dinesh Kumar; Lamara, Ali; Chebloune, Yahia

    2013-01-01

    Zoonotic events of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) from non-human primates to humans have generated the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), one of the most devastating infectious disease of the last century with more than 30 million people dead and about 40.3 million people currently infected worldwide. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1 and HIV-2), the two major viruses that cause AIDS in humans are retroviruses of the lentivirus genus. The genus includes arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV) and Maedi-Visna virus (MVV), and a heterogeneous group of viruses known as small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLVs), affecting goat and sheep. Lentivirus genome integrates into the host DNA, causing persistent infection associated with a remarkable diversity during viral replication. Direct evidence of mixed infections with these two closely related SRLVs was found in both sheep and goats. The evidence of a genetic continuum with caprine and ovine field isolates demonstrates the absence of an efficient species barrier preventing cross-species transmission. In dual-infected animals, persistent infections with both CAEV and MVV have been described, and viral chimeras have been detected. This not only complicates animal trade between countries but favors the risk that highly pathogenic variants may emerge as has already been observed in the past in Iceland and, more recently, in outbreaks with virulent strains in Spain. SRLVs affecting wildlife have already been identified, demonstrating the existence of emergent viruses adapted to new hosts. Viruses adapted to wildlife ruminants may acquire novel biopathological properties which may endanger not only the new host species but also domestic ruminants and humans. SRLVs infecting sheep and goats follow a genomic evolution similar to that observed in HIV or in other lentiviruses. Lentivirus genetic diversity and host factors leading to the establishment of naturally occurring virulent versus avirulent infections, in addition to the emergence of new strains, challenge every aspect of SRLV control measures for providing efficient tools to prevent the transmission of diseases between wild ungulates and livestock. PMID:23881276

  8. The Chlamydia pneumoniae Inclusion Membrane Protein Cpn1027 Interacts with Host Cell Wnt Signaling Pathway Regulator Cytoplasmic Activation/Proliferation-Associated Protein 2 (Caprin2).

    PubMed

    Flores, Rhonda; Zhong, Guangming

    2015-01-01

    We previously identified hypothetical protein Cpn1027 as a novel inclusion membrane protein that is unique to Chlamydia pneumoniae. In the current study, using a yeast-two hybrid screen assay, we identified host cell cytoplasmic activation/proliferation-associated protein 2 (Caprin2) as an interacting partner of Cpn1027. The interaction was confirmed and mapped to the C-termini of both Cpn1027 and Caprin2 using co-immunoprecipitation and GST pull-down assays. A RFP-Caprin2 fusion protein was recruited to the chlamydial inclusion and so was the endogenous GSK3β, a critical component of the β-catenin destruction complex in the Wnt signaling pathway. Cpn1027 also co-precipitated GSK3β. Caprin2 is a key regulator of the Wnt signaling pathway by promoting the recruitment of the β-catenin destruction complex to the cytoplasmic membrane in the presence of Wnt signaling while GSK3β is required for priming β-catenin for degradation in the absence of Wnt signaling. The Cpn1027 interactions with Caprin2 and GSK3β may allow C. pneumoniae to actively sequester the β-catenin destruction complex so that β-catenin is maintained even in the absence of extracellular Wnt activation signals. The maintained β-catenin can trans-activate Wnt target genes including Bcl-2, which may contribute to the chlamydial antiapoptotic activity. We found that the C. pneumoniae-infected cells were more resistant to apoptosis induction and the anti-apoptotic activity was dependent on β-catenin. Thus, the current study suggests that the chlamydial inclusion protein Cpn1027 may be able to manipulate host Wnt signaling pathway for enhancing the chlamydial anti-apoptotic activity. PMID:25996495

  9. Serological diagnosis of bovine, caprine, and ovine mastitis caused by Listeria monocytogenes by using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    PubMed Central

    Bourry, A; Cochard, T; Poutrel, B

    1997-01-01

    An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detecting Listeria monocytogenes antibodies in bovine (n = 35), caprine (n = 27), and ovine (n = 30) milk samples was evaluated by comparison with bacteriological examination. Microtiter plates were coated with proteins obtained from culture supernatant, and antibodies were revealed with a monoclonal antibody able to react with the immunoglobulins belonging to the three animal species. The arithmetic mean optical density (OD) of milk samples infected with L. monocytogenes was above that of uninfected milk samples or milk samples infected with pathogens others than L. monocytogenes. With an OD threshold of 0.2 for goat and ewe milk samples, the sensitivity and specificity of the test were 100 and 88%, respectively. The choice of a different OD threshold (0.5) for cows allowed the discrimination of all of the infected cows and yielded no false positives, and both sensitivity and specificity were 100%. PMID:9163495

  10. Tissue-engineered cartilaginous constructs for the treatment of caprine cartilage defects, including distribution of laminin and type IV collagen.

    PubMed

    Jeng, Lily; Hsu, Hu-Ping; Spector, Myron

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this study was the immunohistochemical evaluation of (1) cartilage tissue-engineered constructs; and (2) the tissue filling cartilage defects in a goat model into which the constructs were implanted, particularly for the presence of the basement membrane molecules, laminin and type IV collagen. Basement membrane molecules are localized to the pericellular matrix in normal adult articular cartilage, but have not been examined in tissue-engineered constructs cultured in vitro or in tissue filling cartilage defects into which the constructs were implanted. Cartilaginous constructs were engineered in vitro using caprine chondrocyte-seeded type II collagen scaffolds. Autologous constructs were implanted into 4-mm-diameter defects created to the tidemark in the trochlear groove in the knee joints of skeletally mature goats. Eight weeks after implantation, the animals were sacrificed. Constructs underwent immunohistochemical and histomorphometric evaluation. Widespread staining for the two basement membrane molecules was observed throughout the extracellular matrix of in vitro and in vivo samples in a distribution unlike that previously reported for cartilage. At sacrifice, 70% of the defect site was filled with reparative tissue, which consisted largely of fibrous tissue and some fibrocartilage, with over 70% of the reparative tissue bonded to the adjacent host tissue. A novel finding of this study was the observation of laminin and type IV collagen in in vitro engineered cartilaginous constructs and in vivo cartilage repair samples from defects into which the constructs were implanted, as well as in normal caprine articular cartilage. Future work is needed to elucidate the role of basement membrane molecules during cartilage repair and regeneration. PMID:23672504

  11. Cloning and expression of SOLD1 in ovine and caprine placenta, and their expected roles during the development of placentomes

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The Ly-6 (Ly-6/uPAR) superfamily members share the Ly-6 domain defined by distinct disulfide bonding patterns between 8 or 10 cysteine residues. They comprise membrane- and secretory-type proteins. We recently reported the gene and protein characterization of the bovine secreted protein of Ly-6 domain 1 (SOLD1). Bovine SOLD1 is expressed in trophoblast mononucleate cells (TMCs) and is localized in the cotyledonary mesenchyme. Here, we compared the expression and functionality of SOLD1 among the ruminants. We examined mRNA expression by chorionic fibroblasts as a measure of one of the SOLD1 functions. Results Ovine and caprine SOLD1 mRNAs have 303 bp open reading frames and encode for deduced SOLD1 proteins with 100 amino acids, including a 22-aa-long signal peptide at the N-terminal. Both of the SOLD1 amino acid sequences have high similarities with the bovine sequence. Both SOLD1 mRNAs were also expressed in TMCs of cotyledons and intercotyledonary membranes. The mature SOLD1 proteins were localized in the mesenchymal villi of cotyledons after secretion. Bovine, ovine and caprine SOLD1 affected gene expression in mesenchymal fibroblasts in vitro; nucleoredoxin expression was upregulated and BCL2-like 13 was downregulated. Thus, we suggest that SOLD1 acts as a modulator of cell proliferation and apoptosis. Conclusion Expressing cells and protein localization of SOLD1 coincided among the three ruminants. SOLD1 participated in regulating nucleoredoxin and BCL2-like 13 expression in chorionic fibroblasts. SOLD1 is produced specifically in the cotyledons and intercotyledonary membranes in ruminants and appears to be involved in the construction of the ruminant placenta. PMID:20089199

  12. A new African fossil caprin and a combined molecular and morphological Bayesian phylogenetic analysis of caprini (Mammalia: Bovidae).

    PubMed

    Bibi, F; Vrba, E; Fack, F

    2012-09-01

    Given that most species that have ever existed on Earth are extinct, no evolutionary history can ever be complete without the inclusion of fossil taxa. Bovids (antelopes and relatives) are one of the most diverse clades of large mammals alive today, with over a hundred living species and hundreds of documented fossil species. With the advent of molecular phylogenetics, major advances have been made in the phylogeny of this clade; however, there has been little attempt to integrate the fossil record into the developing phylogenetic picture. We here describe a new large fossil caprin species from ca. 1.9-Ma deposits from the Middle Awash, Ethiopia. To place the new species phylogenetically, we perform a Bayesian analysis of a combined molecular (cytochrome b) and morphological (osteological) character supermatrix. We include all living species of Caprini, the new fossil species, a fossil takin from the Pliocene of Ethiopia (Budorcas churcheri), and the insular subfossil Myotragus balearicus. The combined analysis demonstrates successful incorporation of both living and fossil species within a single phylogeny based on both molecular and morphological evidence. Analysis of the combined supermatrix produces superior resolution than with either the molecular or morphological data sets considered alone. Parsimony and Bayesian analyses of the data set are also compared and shown to produce similar results. The combined phylogenetic analysis indicates that the new fossil species is nested within Capra, making it one of the earliest representatives of this clade, with implications for molecular clock calibration. Geographical optimization indicates no less than four independent dispersals into Africa by caprins since the Pliocene. PMID:22816969

  13. Factors regulating the bovine, caprine, rat and human ovarian aromatase promoters in a bovine granulosa cell model.

    PubMed

    Sahmi, Fatiha; Nicola, Edmir S; Zamberlam, Gustavo O; Gonalves, Paulo D B; Vanselow, Jens; Price, Christopher A

    2014-05-01

    The ovarian promoter of the primate and rodent genes encoding cytochrome P450 aromatase (CYP19A1) are robustly responsive to forskolin in luteinized cell models, whereas the ruminant ovarian promoter is minimally active. We explored this discrepancy by investigating the activity of the bovine ovarian promoter in two bovine granulosa cell models, luteinizing and non-luteinizing cells in vitro. In non-luteinizing cells, both FSH and IGF1 increased abundance of transcripts derived from the ovarian promoter. Comparison of the activity of promoters of several species in response to transcription factors (forskolin, NR5A2, FOXL2) in luteinizing cells demonstrated that a rat ovarian promoter-luciferase reporter was regulated mainly by forskolin (18-fold increase over basal expression) and addition of NR5A2 or FOXL2 had no further effect. Activity of a human promoter was significantly increased by NR5A2 plus forskolin (153-fold) compared with forskolin alone (71-fold over basal); addition of FOXL2 did not significantly increase promoter activity. Forskolin alone provoked minor activation of caprine and bovine promoter reporters (3-fold over basal), and addition of NR5A2 increased activity (7- to 11-fold). When forskolin, NR5A2 and FOXL2 treatments were combined, the activity of the caprine and bovine promoters increased to 20- and 34-fold, respectively. These data suggest that a major reason why CYP19A1 is not expressed in luteinized cells (and the corpus luteum) of ruminants may be the stimulatory effect of FOXL2, which does not appear to be the case in the human and rat. PMID:24556528

  14. Hydrolysis of bovine and caprine milk fat globules by lipoprotein lipase. Effects of heparin and skim milk on lipase distribution and on lipolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Sundheim, G.; Bengtsson-Olivecrona, G.

    1987-12-01

    Heparin can dissociate lipoprotein lipase from casein micelles, and addition of heparin enhances lipolysis in bovine but not in caprine milk. Heparin shortened the lag-time for binding of lipoprotein lipase to milk fat globules and for lipolysis. Heparin counteracted the inhibitory effects of skim milk on binding of lipase and on lipolysis. Heparin stimulated lipolysis in all bovine milk samples when added before cooling and in spontaneously lipolytic milk samples also when added after cooling. Heparin enhanced lipolysis of isolated milk fat globules. Hence, its effect is not solely due to dissociation of lipoprotein lipase from the casein micelles. Cooling of goat milk caused more marked changes in the distribution of lipase than cooling of bovine milk; the fraction of added /sup 125/I-labeled lipase that bound to cream increased from about 8 to 60%. In addition, caprine skim milk caused less inhibition of lipolysis than bovine skim milk. These observations provide an explanation for the high degree of cold storage lipolysis in goat milk. Heparin had only small effects on the distribution of lipoprotein lipase in caprine milk, which explains why heparin has so little effect on lipolysis in caprine milk. The distribution of /sup 35/S-labeled heparin in bovine milk was studied. In warm milk less than 10% bound to the cream fraction, but when milk was cooled, binding of heparin to cream increased to 45%. These results suggest that there exists in the skim fraction a relatively small amount of a heparin-binding protein, which on cooling of milk adsorbs to the milk fat, or suggests that cooling induces a conformational change in a membrane protein such that its affinity for heparin increases.

  15. Fragile X mental retardation protein interacts with the RNA-binding protein Caprin1 in neuronal RiboNucleoProtein complexes [corrected].

    PubMed

    El Fatimy, Rachid; Tremblay, Sandra; Dury, Alain Y; Solomon, Samuel; De Koninck, Paul; Schrader, John W; Khandjian, Edouard W

    2012-01-01

    Fragile X syndrome is caused by the absence of the Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein (FMRP), an RNA-binding protein. FMRP is associated with messenger RiboNucleoParticles (mRNPs) present in polyribosomes and its absence in neurons leads to alteration in synaptic plasticity as a result of translation regulation defects. The molecular mechanisms by which FMRP plays a role in translation regulation remain elusive. Using immunoprecipitation approaches with monoclonal Ab7G1-1 and a new generation of chicken antibodies, we identified Caprin1 as a novel FMRP-cellular partner. In vivo and in vitro evidence show that Caprin1 interacts with FMRP at the level of the translation machinery as well as in trafficking neuronal granules. As an RNA-binding protein, Caprin1 has in common with FMRP at least two RNA targets that have been identified as CaMKIIα and Map1b mRNAs. In view of the new concept that FMRP species bind to RNA regardless of known structural motifs, we propose that protein interactors might modulate FMRP functions. PMID:22737234

  16. Targeting a ribonucleoprotein complex containing the caprin-1 protein and the c-Myc mRNA suppresses tumor growth in mice: an identification of a novel oncotarget

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Ya-Qi; Yang, Cheng-Wei; Lee, Yue-Zhi; Yang, Ruey-Bing; Lee, Chih-Hao; Hsu, Hsing-Yu; Chang, Chien-Chung; Lee, Shiow-Ju

    2015-01-01

    Tylophorine compounds have been the focus of drug development for decades. Tylophorine derivatives exhibit anti-cancer activities but their cellular targets remain unknown. We used a biotinylated tylophorine derivative to probe for the interacting cellular target(s) of tylophorine. Tylophorine directly binds to caprin-1 and consequently enhances the recruitment of G3BP1, c-Myc mRNA, and cyclin D2 mRNA to form a ribonucleoprotein complex. Subsequently, this tylophorine targeted ribonucleoprotein complex is sequestered to the polysomal fractions and the protein expressions of the associated mRNA-transcripts are repressed. Caprin-1 depleted carcinoma cells become more resistant to tylophorine, associated with decreased formation of the ribonucleoprotein complex targeted by tylophorine. Consequently, tylophorine downregulates c-Myc and cyclins D1/D2, causing hypophosphorylation of Rb and suppression of both processing-body formation and the Warburg effect. Gene expression profiling and gain-of-c-Myc-function experiments also revealed that the downregulated c-Myc contributes to the anti-oncogenic effects of tylophorine compounds. Furthermore, the potent tylophorine derivative dibenzoquinoline-33b elicited a similar effect, as c-Myc protein levels were also decreased in xenograft tumors treated with dibenzoquinoline-33b. Thus, tylophorine compounds exert anti-cancer activity predominantly by targeting and sequestering the caprin-1 protein and c-Myc mRNA associated ribonucleoprotein complex. PMID:25669982

  17. Comprehensive behavioral analysis of RNG105 (Caprin1) heterozygous mice: Reduced social interaction and attenuated response to novelty

    PubMed Central

    Ohashi, Rie; Takao, Keizo; Miyakawa, Tsuyoshi; Shiina, Nobuyuki

    2016-01-01

    RNG105 (also known as Caprin1) is a major RNA-binding protein in neuronal RNA granules, and is responsible for mRNA transport to dendrites and neuronal network formation. A recent study reported that a heterozygous mutation in the Rng105 gene was found in an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) patient, but it remains unclear whether there is a causal relation between RNG105 deficiency and ASD. Here, we subjected Rng105+/− mice to a comprehensive behavioral test battery, and revealed the influence of RNG105 deficiency on mouse behavior. Rng105+/− mice exhibited a reduced sociality in a home cage and a weak preference for social novelty. Consistently, the Rng105+/− mice also showed a weak preference for novel objects and novel place patterns. Furthermore, although the Rng105+/− mice exhibited normal memory acquisition, they tended to have relative difficulty in reversal learning in the spatial reference tasks. These findings suggest that the RNG105 heterozygous knockout leads to a reduction in sociality, response to novelty and flexibility in learning, which are implicated in ASD-like behavior. PMID:26865403

  18. Diagnosis of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia by detection and identification of Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae by PCR and restriction enzyme analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Bölske, G; Mattsson, J G; Bascuñana, C R; Bergström, K; Wesonga, H; Johansson, K E

    1996-01-01

    Contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP), one of the most serious and dramatic diseases of goats, is caused by Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae (M. capripneumoniae). This organism is very difficult to isolate and to correctly identify. In a previous report we described a method for the rapid detection and identification of M. capripneumoniae. This method is based on a PCR system by which a segment of the 16S rRNA gene from all mycoplasmas of the M. mycoides cluster can be amplified. The PCR product is then analyzed by restriction enzyme cleavage for the identification of M. capripneumoniae DNA. This system has now been further evaluated with respect to specificity and diagnostic efficacy for the identification and direct detection of the organism in clinical material. Identification by restriction enzyme analysis of amplified DNA from mycoplasmas of the M. mycoides cluster was verified for 55 strains, among which were 15 strains of M. capripneumoniae. The PCR was applied to clinical samples from the nose, ear, pharynx, pleural fluid, and lung tissue containing M. capripneumoniae or other mycoplasmas. As expected, mycoplasmas belonging to the M. mycoides cluster could be detected by the PCR. Restriction enzyme analysis of the PCR products could then be applied for the identification of M. capripneumoniae. Clinical samples and cultures containing M. capripneumoniae were dried on filter paper, to try an easier sample transport method, and were tested by PCR. M. capripneumoniae DNA could be detected in the dried specimens, but the sensitivity of the PCR test was reduced. PMID:8815084

  19. Caprine herpesvirus-2 in association with naturally occurring malignant catarrhal fever in captive sika deer (Cervus nippon).

    PubMed

    Keel, M Kevin; Patterson, J Gage; Noon, Ted H; Bradley, Gregory A; Collins, James K

    2003-03-01

    Three female sika deer from a single captive herd were submitted for postmortem examination over a 139-day period. The first 2 deer submitted were reported to have lost body mass for 20 days to 1 month before euthanasia. One of these deer had diarrhea, the other had a crusting dermatitis on the nasal planum and inner aspects of both pinnae. The third hind did not have any signs of disease before it was found seizuring and was immediately euthanatized. Microscopically, all 3 animals had a lymphocytic vasculitis typical of malignant catarrhal fever (MCF), with the most severe lesions in the brain. All 3 deer were polymerase chain reaction (PCR) positive for caprine herpesvirus 2 (CpHV-2) and were negative for ovine herpesvirus 2 (OHV-2). Two healthy goats that were housed adjacent to the deer were also PCR positive for CpHV-2 and PCR negative for OHV-2. The CpHV-2, PCR amplicons from the hinds, and the 2 healthy goats had an identical single base polymorphism. A male sika deer that was housed with the hinds and a fawn from 1 of the hinds remained asymptomatic and were PCR negative for CpHV-2. This represents the first report of mortality with MCF-like lesions in association with CpHV-2. PMID:12661731

  20. Comprehensive behavioral analysis of RNG105 (Caprin1) heterozygous mice: Reduced social interaction and attenuated response to novelty.

    PubMed

    Ohashi, Rie; Takao, Keizo; Miyakawa, Tsuyoshi; Shiina, Nobuyuki

    2016-01-01

    RNG105 (also known as Caprin1) is a major RNA-binding protein in neuronal RNA granules, and is responsible for mRNA transport to dendrites and neuronal network formation. A recent study reported that a heterozygous mutation in the Rng105 gene was found in an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) patient, but it remains unclear whether there is a causal relation between RNG105 deficiency and ASD. Here, we subjected Rng105(+/-) mice to a comprehensive behavioral test battery, and revealed the influence of RNG105 deficiency on mouse behavior. Rng105(+/-) mice exhibited a reduced sociality in a home cage and a weak preference for social novelty. Consistently, the Rng105(+/-) mice also showed a weak preference for novel objects and novel place patterns. Furthermore, although the Rng105(+/-) mice exhibited normal memory acquisition, they tended to have relative difficulty in reversal learning in the spatial reference tasks. These findings suggest that the RNG105 heterozygous knockout leads to a reduction in sociality, response to novelty and flexibility in learning, which are implicated in ASD-like behavior. PMID:26865403

  1. Quantitative Evaluation of Myostatin Gene in Stably Transfected Caprine Fibroblast Cells by Anti-Myostatin shRNA.

    PubMed

    Jain, Sudhir Kumar; Jain, Hemlata; Kumar, Dharmendra; Bedekar, Megha Kadam; Pandey, Akhilesh Kumar; Sarkhel, Bikash Chandra

    2015-09-01

    Skeletal muscle is the major component of lean tissue that is used for consumption, and myostatin is a negative regulator of skeletal muscle growth. Downregulation of this gene therefore offers a strategy for developing superior animals with enhanced muscle growth. Knockdown of myostatin was achieved by RNA interference technology. The anti-myostatin shRNA were designed and stably transfected in caprine fibroblast cells. The reduced expression of target gene was achieved and measured in clonal fibroblast cells by real-time PCR. Two single-cell clones induced significant decrease of myostatin gene expression by 73.96 and 72.66 %, respectively (P < 0.05). To ensure the appropriate growth of transfected cell, seven media were tested. The best suited media was used for transfected fibroblast cell proliferation. The findings suggest that shRNA provides a novel potential tool for gene knockdown and these stably transfected cells can be used as the donor cells for animal cloning. PMID:26234434

  2. Prevalence of contagious caprine pleuro-pneumonia in pastoral flocks of goats in the Rift Valley region of Kenya.

    PubMed

    Kipronoh, Alexander Kipruto; Ombui, Jackson Nyarongi; Kiara, Henry Kimathi; Binepal, Yatinder Singh; Gitonga, Eric; Wesonga, Hezron Okwako

    2016-01-01

    A cross-sectional survey was conducted between the months of March 2014 and March 2015 to determine the prevalence of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia in goat populations in pastoral flocks in three sub-counties of the Rift Valley region. A total of 432 serum samples were collected from goats from 54 flocks and tested for the presence of antibodies against mycoplasma capricolum subspecies capripneumoniae (mccp) using monoclonal antibody-based competitive enzyme-linked immuno-sorbent assay. Sero-prevalence recorded for Turkana West was 63.9 %, Kajiado Central was 48.6 %, while Pokot East was 29.2 % which was statistically significant (χ2 = 34.997; P = 0.000) in the study sites. The results of this study confirmed that CCPP is widespread and endemic in the pastoral production systems studied in the Rift Valley region. The results confirmed that regions sharing international boundaries are at a higher risk of CCPP hence the need for a unified cross-border approach to disease control measures in the border areas. PMID:26516086

  3. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis detection in individual and bulk tank milk samples from bovine herds and caprine flocks.

    PubMed

    Favila-Humara, Lucía C; Chávez-Gris, Gilberto G; Carrillo-Casas, Erika M; Hernández-Castro, Rigoberto

    2010-04-01

    Paratuberculosis, or Johne's disease, is caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map), and it generates great economic losses for the dairy industry worldwide. In humans, Map has been associated with Crohn's disease. Mexico has unknown paratuberculosis prevalence, and yet, control programs have not been applied. This study aimed to determine the presence of Map in milk samples from seropositive goats and cows and bulk tank milk samples from herds previously designated Map-infected using indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Map DNA was detected in 100% of the bulk tank milk samples of 14 bovine herds and 3 caprine flocks using a modified insertion sequence 900 polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Additionally, Map DNA was detected in 100% of the individual milk samples from 10 cows and 8 goats. Further, based on the findings of the experimental insertion sequence 900 PCR assessment, evaluation of bulk tank and individual milk samples through a type-specific PCR was performed, which confirmed our previous findings and revealed that 56.25% cow and 63.63% goat milk had concurrent infections of the C, I, and S types. Out of 14 bulk tank milk samples, 10 had viable mycobacteria. Paratuberculosis was detected at a high frequency in cow and goat milk, which suggests that raw milk ingestion represents a potential risk of Map infection. PMID:19911881

  4. Impact of food intake on in vivo VOC concentrations in exhaled breath assessed in a caprine animal model.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Sina; Bergmann, Andreas; Steffens, Markus; Trefz, Phillip; Ziller, Mario; Miekisch, Wolfram; Schubert, Jochen S; Khler, Heike; Reinhold, Petra

    2015-12-01

    Physiological processes within the body may change emitted volatile organic compound (VOC) composition, and may therefore cause confounding biological background variability in breath gas analyses. To evaluate the effect of food intake on VOC concentration patterns in exhaled breath, this study assessed the variability of VOC concentrations due to food intake in a standardized caprine animal model. VOCs in (i) alveolar breath gas samples of nine clinically healthy goats and (ii) room air samples were collected and pre-concentrated before morning feeding and repeatedly after (+60?min, +150?min, +240?min) using needle trap microextraction (NTME). Analysis of VOCs was performed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Only VOCs with significantly higher concentrations in breath gas samples compared to room air samples were taken into consideration. Six VOCs that belonged to the chemical classes of hydrocarbons and alcohols were identified presenting significantly different concentrations before and after feeding. Selected hydrocarbons showed a concentration pattern that was characterized by an initial increase 60?min after food intake, and a subsequent gradual decrease. Results emphasize consideration of physiological effects on exhaled VOC concentrations due to food intake with respect to standardized protocols of sample collection and critical evaluation of results. PMID:26670078

  5. A novel non-integrative single-cycle chimeric HIV lentivector DNA vaccine.

    PubMed

    Moussa, Maha; Arrode-Brusés, Géraldine; Manoylov, Iliyan; Malogolovkin, Alexander; Mompelat, Dimitri; Ishimwe, Honorine; Smaoune, Amel; Ouzrout, Bilel; Gagnon, Jean; Chebloune, Yahia

    2015-05-01

    Novel HIV vaccine vectors and strategies are needed to control HIV/AIDS epidemic in humans and eradicate the infection. DNA vaccines alone failed to induce immune responses robust enough to control HIV-1. Development of lentivirus-based DNA vaccines deficient for integration and with a limited replication capacity is an innovative and promising approach. This type of vaccine mimics the early stages of virus infection/replication like the live-attenuated viruses but lacks the inconvenient integration and persistence associated with disease. We developed a novel lentivector DNA vaccine "CAL-SHIV-IN(-)" that undergoes a single round of replication in the absence of integration resulting in augmented expression of vaccine antigens in vivo. Vaccine gene expression is under control of the LTRs of a naturally attenuated lentivirus, Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV) the natural goat lentivirus. The safety of this vaccine prototype was increased by the removal of the integrase coding sequences from the pol gene. We examined the functional properties of this lentivector DNA in cell culture and the immunogenicity in mouse models. Viral proteins were expressed in transfected cells, assembled into viral particles that were able to transduce once target permissive cells. Unlike the parental replication-competent SHIV-KU2 that was detected in DNA samples from any of the serial passage infected cells, CAL-SHIV-IN(-) DNA was detected only in target cells of the first round of infection, hence demonstrating the single cycle replication of the vaccine. A single dose DNA immunization of humanized NOD/SCID/β2 mice showed a substantial increase of IFN-γ-ELISPOT in splenocytes compared to the former replication and integration defective Δ4SHIV-KU2 DNA vaccine. PMID:25825333

  6. Zika Virus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area Zika Virus Discovered in Uganda in 1947, Zika virus is ... as well as other severe fetal brain defects. Zika Virus Why NIAID Is Researching Zika Virus Research Approach ...

  7. Prevalence of Coxiella burnetii in bulk milk samples from dairy bovine, ovine, caprine, and camel herds in Iran as determined by polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Rahimi, Ebrahim; Ameri, Mehrdad; Karim, Guity; Doosti, Abbas

    2011-02-01

    Q fever is a widespread zoonosis caused by the obligate intracellular micro-organism Coxiella burnetii. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence rate of C. burnetii in bulk milk samples from dairy bovine, ovine, caprine, and camel herds in Isfahan province, Iran. In the present study, 567 bulk milk samples from 186 dairy bovine, ovine, caprine, and camel herds were tested for C. burnetii using a nested polymerase chain reaction assay. The animals whose milk samples collected for this study were clinically healthy. In total, 8 of 247 (3.2%) bovine milk samples were positive; the positive samples originated from 6 of 90 (6.7%) dairy herds. Eight of 140 (5.7%) ovine bulk milk samples from 42 sheep breeding farms and 5 of 110 (4.5%) caprine bulk milk samples from 32 goat breeding farms were positive for C. burnetii. One of 70 (1.4%) camel bulk milk samples from 22 camel breeding farms was also positive for C. burnetii. Although no extensive prevalence study was undertaken, the results of this study indicate that clinically healthy dairy animals are important sources of C. burnetii infection in Iran. To the authors' knowledge, this study is the first report of direct identification of C. burnetii using polymerase chain reaction in bulk milk samples from dairy ovine herds in Iran and the first report of direct identification of C. burnetii in bulk milk samples from dairy camel herds. Further intensive prevalence studies on Coxiella infection and on possible risks of dairy products will be needed to elucidate the epidemiology of Q fever in Iran. PMID:21091216

  8. Detection of Toxoplasma gondii in raw caprine, ovine, buffalo, bovine, and camel milk using cell cultivation, cat bioassay, capture ELISA, and PCR methods in Iran.

    PubMed

    Dehkordi, Farhad Safarpoor; Borujeni, Mohammad Reza Haghighi; Rahimi, Ebrahim; Abdizadeh, Rahman

    2013-02-01

    This study was conducted to determine the presence of Toxoplasma gondii in animal milk samples in Iran. From a total of 395 dairy herds in three provinces of Iran, 66 bovine, 58 ovine, 54 caprine, 33 buffalo, and 30 camel herds were studied, and from these parts of Iran, 200 bovine, 185 ovine, 180 caprine, 164 buffalo, and 160 camel milk samples were collected from various seasons. Samples were tested for Toxoplasma gondii by cell line culture, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. Only the results of cell line cultivation were confirmed by bioassay in cat. Results indicated that all herds were infected with Toxoplasma gondii. The culture method showed that 51 out of 889 milk samples (5.73%) were positive for Toxoplasma gondii, and all 51 positive culture results were positive with bioassay in cat. The Fars province had the highest prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii (6.84%). The ELISA test showed that 41 milk samples (4.61%) were positive for the presence of Toxoplasma gondii, while the PCR showed that 46 milk samples were positive for Toxoplasma gondii. The results showed higher sensitivity of PCR and higher specificity of ELISA. Caprine had the highest (10%) and camel had the lowest (3.12%) prevalence rate of parasite. The summer season had the highest (76.47%) but winter (3.92) had the lowest incidence of Toxoplasma gondii. This study is the first prevalence report of direct detection of Toxoplasma gondii in animal milk samples in Iran. PMID:23441913

  9. A multiple antigen ELISA to detect Neospora-specific antibodies in bovine sera, bovine foetal fluids, ovine and caprine sera.

    PubMed

    Osawa, T; Wastling, J; Maley, S; Buxton, D; Innes, E A

    1998-09-01

    Neospora caninum is a cyst-forming coccidian parasite recently identified as a cause of abortion in cattle. The epidemiology of neosporosis is poorly understood, partly because accurate diagnosis of infection is difficult. In this paper we describe the development of a multiple antigen-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect antibodies to N. caninum in sera from cattle, sheep and goats as well as from bovine foetal fluids. A water-soluble fraction (wsf) of sonicated NC-1 strain tachyzoites was used as the antigen in the ELISA. Minimum optical density (OD) values that were considered to be Neospora antibody-positive, that is, the cut-off OD values were determined separately for bovine maternal sera, bovine foetal fluids, ovine sera and caprine sera; they were 0.40, 0.17, 0.23 and 0.41 OD, respectively. The ELISA gave a high signal/noise ratio, giving good sensitivity and specificity, correlating well with the indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) currently used to diagnose Neospora infection in cattle, sheep and goats. In both the ELISA and immunoblot analysis using the same antigen, there was no significant cross-reactivity with sera from cattle, sheep or goats that had been infected with Toxoplasma gondii. The ELISA also showed no cross-reactivity in sera from cattle infected with Sarcocystis cruzi, Babesia divergens, B. bovis and B. bigemina. The wsf fraction of sonicated N. caninum tachyzoites used in this ELISA can be easily prepared and may be more sensitive than a single antigen ELISA, whilst still retaining good specificity. PMID:9777723

  10. Developmental expression of pluripotency determining factors in caprine embryos: novel pattern of NANOG protein localization in the nucleolus.

    PubMed

    He, Shuyang; Pant, Disha; Schiffmacher, Andrew; Bischoff, Steve; Melican, David; Gavin, William; Keefer, Carol

    2006-12-01

    Transcription factors, POU5F1/OCT4 and NANOG, whose expression is restricted to the inner cell mass (ICM) in mouse and human blastocysts, are used to characterize undifferentiated embryonic stem cells (ESC) in vitro. However, POU5F1 may not be a useful marker in domestic animals due to its expression in both ICM and trophectoderm (TE), while NANOG mRNA and protein expression have only been described fully in mice. In an effort to identify ESC markers for domestic animals, expression patterns of NANOG, POU5F1, and the cell surface markers (SSEA1, SSEA4, TRA-1-60, TRA-1-81) were examined in preimplantation goat embryos, a species that has proven to be a superior choice for the production of transgenic proteins in milk (biopharming). Our results indicate that while goat embryos express POU5F1, SSEA1, and SSEA4 proteins, their expression is not strictly restricted to the ICM. In a unique staining pattern, NANOG protein was localized to the nucleoplasm and nucleoli in ICM cells, but was localized strictly to nucleoli in TE. This pattern may reflect down-regulation of protein by sequestration/degradation utilizing a nucleolar mechanism known to operate in stem cells. Furthermore, NANOG mRNA in TE was also significantly down-regulated as compared with that in ICM. Taken together, this novel expression pattern of NANOG in goat preimplantation embryos suggests that NANOG could serve as marker of pluripotency in goats and may be useful in derivation and characterization of caprine ESC. This study is the first to characterize both NANOG mRNA and protein expression in any species other than the mouse. PMID:16894532

  11. An international collaborative study to determine the prevalence of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia by monoclonal antibody-based cELISA

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Few serological tests are available for detecting antibodies against Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae, the causal agent of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP). The complement fixation test, the test prescribed for international trade purposes, uses a crude antigen that cross-reacts with all the other mycoplasma species of the “mycoides cluster” frequently infecting goat herds. The lack of a more specific test has been a real obstacle to the evaluation of the prevalence and economic impact of CCPP worldwide. A new competitive ELISA kit for CCPP, based on a previous blocking ELISA, was formatted at CIRAD and used to evaluate the prevalence of CCPP in some regions of Kenya, Ethiopia, Mauritius, Tajikistan and Pakistan in an international collaborative study. Results The strict specificity of the test was confirmed in CCPP-free goat herds exposed to other mycoplasma species of the “mycoides cluster”. Prevalence studies were performed across the enzootic range of the disease in Africa and Asia. Seroprevalence was estimated at 14.6% in the Afar region of Ethiopia, whereas all the herds presented for CCPP vaccination in Kenya tested positive (individual seroprevalence varied from 6 to 90% within each herd). In Mauritius, where CCPP emerged in 2009, nine of 62 herds tested positive. In Central Asia, where the disease was confirmed only recently, no positive animals were detected in the Wakhan District of Afghanistan or across the border in neighboring areas of Tajikistan, whereas seroprevalence varied between 2.7% and 44.2% in the other districts investigated and in northern Pakistan. The test was also used to monitor seroconversion in vaccinated animals. Conclusions This newly formatted CCPP cELISA kit has retained the high specificity of the original kit. It can therefore be used to evaluate the prevalence of CCPP in countries or regions without vaccination programs. It could also be used to monitor the efficacy of vaccination campaigns as high-quality vaccines induce high rates of seroconversion. PMID:24565080

  12. Association of polymorphisms at the microRNA binding site of the caprine KITLG 3'-UTR with litter size.

    PubMed

    An, Xiaopeng; Song, Yuxuan; Bu, Shuhai; Ma, Haidong; Gao, Kexin; Hou, Jinxing; Wang, Shan; Lei, Zhang; Cao, Binyun

    2016-01-01

    This study identified three novel single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (c.1389C > T, c.1457A > C and c.1520G > A) in the caprine KITLG 3'-UTR through DNA sequencing. The three SNP loci were closely linked in Guanzhong dairy (GD) goats. Two alleles of the c.1457A > C SNP introduced two miRNA sites (chi-miR-204-5p and chi-miR-211). Individuals with combined genotype TT-CC-AA had a higher litter size compared with those with combined genotypes CC-AA-GG, TC-CC-GA and CC-AC-GG (P < 0.05). Luciferase assays showed that chi-miR-204-5p and chi-miR-211 suppressed luciferase expression in the presence of allele 1457A compared with negative control (NC) and allele 1457C (P < 0.05). Western blot revealed that KITLG significantly decreased in the granulosa cells (GCs) of genotype AA compared with that in the GCs of genotype CC and NC (P < 0.05). The KITLG mRNA levels of the CC-AA-GG carriers significantly decreased compared with those of the TT-CC-AA, TC-CC-GA and CC-AC-GG carriers. In addition, cell proliferation was reduced in haplotype C-A-G GCs compared with that in haplotype T-C-A GCs. These results suggest that SNPs c.1389C > T, c.1457A > C and c.1520G > A account for differences in the litter size of GD goats because chi-miR-204-5p and chi-miR-211 could change the expression levels of the KITLG gene and reduce GC proliferation. PMID:27168023

  13. Caprine prion gene polymorphisms are associated with decreased incidence of classical scrapie in goat herds in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Goldmann, Wilfred; Ryan, Kelly; Stewart, Paula; Parnham, David; Xicohtencatl, Rosa; Fernandez, Nora; Saunders, Ginny; Windl, Otto; González, Lorenzo; Bossers, Alex; Foster, James

    2011-01-01

    The application of genetic breeding programmes to eradicate transmissible spongiform encephalopathies in goats is an important aim for reasons of animal welfare as well as human food safety and food security. Based on the positive impact of Prnp genetics on sheep scrapie in Europe in the past decade, we have established caprine Prnp gene variation in more than 1100 goats from the United Kingdom and studied the association of Prnp alleles with disease phenotypes in 150 scrapie-positive goats. This investigation confirms the association of the Met142 encoding Prnp allele with increased resistance to preclinical and clinical scrapie. It reveals a novel association of the Ser127 encoding allele with a reduced probability to develop clinical signs of scrapie in goats that are already positive for the accumulation of disease-specific prion protein in brain or periphery. A United Kingdom survey of Prnp genotypes in eight common breeds revealed eleven alleles in over thirty genotypes. The Met142 encoding allele had a high overall mean allele frequency of 22.6%, whereas the Ser127 encoding allele frequency was considerably lower with 6.4%. In contrast, a well known resistance associated allele encoding Lys222 was found to be rare (0.9%) in this survey. The analysis of Prnp genotypes in Mexican Criollas goats revealed nine alleles, including a novel Phe to Leu substitution in codon 201, confirming that high genetic variability of Prnp can be found in scrapie-free populations. Our study implies that it should be feasible to lower scrapie prevalence in goat herds in the United Kingdom by genetic selection. PMID:22040234

  14. Effect of a Semi-Purified Oligosaccharide-Enriched Fraction from Caprine Milk on Barrier Integrity and Mucin Production of Co-Culture Models of the Small and Large Intestinal Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Barnett, Alicia M.; Roy, Nicole C.; McNabb, Warren C.; Cookson, Adrian L.

    2016-01-01

    Caprine milk contains the highest amount of oligosaccharides among domestic animals, which are structurally similar to human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs). This suggests caprine milk oligosaccharides may offer similar protective and developmental effects to that of HMOs. However, to date, studies using oligosaccharides from caprine milk have been limited. Thus, this study aimed to examine the impact of a caprine milk oligosaccharide-enriched fraction (CMOF) on barrier function of epithelial cell co-cultures of absorptive enterocytes (Caco-2 cells) and mucus-secreting goblet cells (HT29-MTX cells), that more closely simulate the cell proportions found in the small (90:10) and large intestine (75:25). Treatment of epithelial co-cultures with 0.4, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 mg/mL of CMOF was shown to have no effect on metabolic activity but did enhance cell epithelial barrier integrity as measured by trans-epithelial electrical resistance (TEER), in a dose-dependent manner. The CMOF at the maximum concentration tested (4.0 mg/mL) enhanced TEER, mucin gene expression and mucin protein abundance of epithelial co-cultures, all of which are essential components of intestinal barrier function. PMID:27164134

  15. Stress Granules Regulate Double-Stranded RNA-Dependent Protein Kinase Activation through a Complex Containing G3BP1 and Caprin1

    PubMed Central

    Reineke, Lucas C.; Kedersha, Nancy; Langereis, Martijn A.; van Kuppeveld, Frank J. M.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Stress granules (SGs) are dynamic cytoplasmic repositories containing translationally silenced mRNAs that assemble upon cellular stress. We recently reported that the SG nucleating protein G3BP1 promotes antiviral activity and is essential in double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR) recruitment to stress granules, thereby driving phosphorylation of the α subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (eIF2α). Here, we delineate the mechanism for SG-dependent PKR activation. We show that G3BP1 and inactive PKR directly interact with each other, dependent on both the NTF2-like and PXXP domains of G3BP1. The G3BP1-interacting protein Caprin1 also directly interacts with PKR, regulates efficient PKR activation at the stress granule, and is also integral for the release of active PKR into the cytoplasm to engage in substrate recognition. The G3BP1-Caprin1-PKR complex represents a new mode of PKR activation and is important for antiviral activity of G3BP1 and PKR during infection with mengovirus. Our data links stress responses and their resultant SGs with innate immune activation through PKR without a requirement for foreign double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) pattern recognition. PMID:25784705

  16. Zika Virus

    MedlinePlus

    ... The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Zika Virus Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... women About Zika Areas with Zika About Zika Virus Disease Zika virus disease is a caused by ...

  17. A study on seroprevalence of caprine brucellosis under three livestock production systems in southern and central Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Asmare, Kassahun; Megersa, Bekele; Denbarga, Yifat; Abebe, Girma; Taye, Anley; Bekele, Jemere; Bekele, Tesfaye; Gelaye, Esayas; Zewdu, Endrias; Agonafir, Abebe; Ayelet, Gelagay; Skjerve, Eystein

    2013-02-01

    Caprine brucellosis in Ethiopia is less commonly reported with limited information on the disease status in the country. The objective of this study was therefore to highlight the status of goat brucellosis in three distinctly different livestock production systems of southern and central Ethiopia. A total 3,315 goats of different age and sex, living with other animals in variable flock size, were sampled from 448 flocks raised in sedentary, pastoral and agro-pastoral production systems. Goats were bled aseptically and sera were collected for serial testing using Rose Bengal Plate Test as screening test and subsequently complement fixation test as confirmatory test. Questionnaire and laboratory data were analysed for descriptive, univariable and multivariable logistic regression analysis both at individual and flock level (STATA 11). The study revealed an overall animal level seroprevalence of 1.9 % (95 % CI 1.5, 2.4). In sedentary production system, the observed seroprevalence was 0.6 % (95 % CI 0.2, 0.9) while 1.9 % (95 % CI 1.1, 2.7) and 7.6 % (95 % CI 5.1, 10.1) were the proportion of seroreactors for agro-pastoral and pastoral production systems, respectively. The observed prevalence difference between the three production systems was statistically significant (P < 0.05). At the flock level analysis, 11.2 % (95 % CI 8.2, 14.1) of the flocks sampled had at least one seropositive goat among themselves. Like individual level analysis, the highest prevalence of 32.5 % (95 % CI 21.9, 43.0) was recorded for pastoral production system, followed by agro-pastoral, 13.0 % (95 % CI 7.0, 19.0) and sedentary production system, 3.6 % (95% CI 1.3, 6.0). Accordingly, the odds of Brucella seropositivity were higher (OR = 12.8) in pastoral followed by agro-pastoral (OR = 4.0) in relation to sedentary production system. Large numbers of seroreactors were observed in adult age living in larger flocks with other livestock species. However, no difference was noted between male and female goats. Finally, the need for nationwide survey and subsequent designing and implementation of appropriate control measure is suggested. PMID:22961233

  18. Foodborne viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Testing for human pathogenic viruses in foods represents a formidable task requiring the extraction, concentration, and assay of a host of viruses from a wide range of food matrices. The enteric viruses, particularly genogroup I and II (GI and GII) noroviruses and hepatitis A virus, are the princip...

  19. Inventing Viruses.

    PubMed

    Summers, William C

    2014-11-01

    In the nineteenth century, "virus" commonly meant an agent (usually unknown) that caused disease in inoculation experiments. By the 1890s, however, some disease-causing agents were found to pass through filters that retained the common bacteria. Such an agent was called "filterable virus," the best known being the virus that caused tobacco mosaic disease. By the 1920s there were many examples of filterable viruses, but no clear understanding of their nature. However, by the 1930s, the term "filterable virus" was being abandoned in favor of simply "virus," meaning an agent other than bacteria. Visualization of viruses by the electron microscope in the late 1930s finally settled their particulate nature. This article describes the ever-changing concept of "virus" and how virologists talked about viruses. These changes reflected their invention and reinvention of the concept of a virus as it was revised in light of new knowledge, new scientific values and interests, and new hegemonic technologies. PMID:26958713

  20. Proportional mortality: A study of 152 goats submitted for necropsy from 13 goat herds in Quebec, with a special focus on caseous lymphadenitis

    PubMed Central

    Debien, Elaine; Hélie, Pierre; Buczinski, Sébastien; Lebœuf, Anne; Bélanger, Denise; Drolet, Richard

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the main causes of mortality, with a special focus on caseous lymphadenits as a cause of death or wasting in caprine herds from Quebec. Goats (n = 152) from 13 herds were submitted for necropsy; the cause of mortality, and the presence, location, and cause of abscesses (if present) were recorded. Proportional mortalities were distributed as: Clostridium perfringens type D enterotoxemia (17.1%), pneumonia (13.8%), paratuberculosis (10.5%), listeriosis (6.6%), pregnancy toxemia (5.3%), caprine arthritis-encephalitis (4.6%), and caseous lymphadenitis (3.9%). Caseous lymphadenitis was diagnosed in 24.3% of the submitted goats, but was not a major cause of wasting or mortality. Abscesses were localized internally in 54.1% of the cases. Paratuberculosis was diagnosed in 29 goats (16 as cause of death) and was considered a major cause of wasting and/or mortality. PMID:24155449

  1. Proportional mortality: A study of 152 goats submitted for necropsy from 13 goat herds in Quebec, with a special focus on caseous lymphadenitis.

    PubMed

    Debien, Elaine; Hélie, Pierre; Buczinski, Sébastien; Lebœuf, Anne; Bélanger, Denise; Drolet, Richard

    2013-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the main causes of mortality, with a special focus on caseous lymphadenits as a cause of death or wasting in caprine herds from Quebec. Goats (n = 152) from 13 herds were submitted for necropsy; the cause of mortality, and the presence, location, and cause of abscesses (if present) were recorded. Proportional mortalities were distributed as: Clostridium perfringens type D enterotoxemia (17.1%), pneumonia (13.8%), paratuberculosis (10.5%), listeriosis (6.6%), pregnancy toxemia (5.3%), caprine arthritis-encephalitis (4.6%), and caseous lymphadenitis (3.9%). Caseous lymphadenitis was diagnosed in 24.3% of the submitted goats, but was not a major cause of wasting or mortality. Abscesses were localized internally in 54.1% of the cases. Paratuberculosis was diagnosed in 29 goats (16 as cause of death) and was considered a major cause of wasting and/or mortality. PMID:24155449

  2. Prevalence, serotypes and virulence genes of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli isolated from ovine and caprine milk and other dairy products in Spain.

    PubMed

    Rey, J; Sánchez, S; Blanco, J E; Hermoso de Mendoza, J; Hermoso de Mendoza, M; García, A; Gil, C; Tejero, N; Rubio, R; Alonso, J M

    2006-03-15

    The aim of this study was to determinate the prevalence, serotypes and virulence genes of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains isolated from different dairy products (DP) in Spain with the purpose of determining whether DP represent a potential source of STEC pathogenic for humans. A total of 502 DP were examined from 64 different ovine and caprine flocks and 6 dairy plants in Extremadura (Western Spain). Samples were collected monthly between March 2003 and June 2004 and included 360 unpasteurised milk obtained from the bulk tank, 103 fresh cheese curds and 39 cheeses. Samples obtained were examined for STEC using genotypic (PCR) methods. STEC strains were detected from 39 (10.8%) bulk tank, 4 (3.9%) fresh cheese curds and 2 (5%) cheese, whereas O157:H7 serotype were isolated from one (0.3%) bulk tank. A total of 9 STEC strains (O27:H18, O45:H38, O76:H19, O91:H28, O157:H7, ONT:H7, ONT:H9 and ONT:H21) were identified in this study. One of them, the serotype O27:H18, has not been reported previously as STEC. PCR showed that 3 strains carried stx1 genes, 5 possessed stx2 genes and 1 both stx1 and stx2. Whereas all STEC caprine isolates showed ehxA genes, only O157:H7 serotype showed eae virulence genes. The strain O157:H7 isolated possessed intimin type gamma1 and belonged to phage type 31. This study confirms that dairy product is an important reservoir of STEC pathogenic for humans. PMID:16260057

  3. Isolation of caliciviruses from skunks that are antigenically and genotypically related to San Miguel sea lion virus.

    PubMed

    Seal, B S; Lutze-Wallace, C; Kreutz, L C; Sapp, T; Dulac, G C; Neill, J D

    1995-06-01

    Caliciviruses were isolated from feces of skunks imported from the north central United States to Canada. Virus isolation was accomplished using adenovirus-transformed human kidney (293) cells, swine testes and Vero cells. Plaque size variants were presented, but there was no apparent difference in virus morphology by negative stain or immune electron microscopy. Pigs infected with skunk calicivirus had a slightly elevated body temperature at 3 days postinfection. Although the infected animals seroconverted, no overt clinical signs were observed. Purified infectious genomic skunk calicivirus RNA behaved exactly as San Miguel sea lion virus (SMSV) 1 and 4 genomic RNA in cell culture transfection studies. Of the cell types examined, only primary porcine kidney, 293 and Vero cells supported viral replication. No viral replication was detected in cells of bovine, equine, ovine, caprine or feline origin. The skunk caliciviruses contained a single capsid protein with a relative mobility similar to SMSV virus 1 and 4 capsid proteins. The capsid protein was positive by Western blot analysis with SMSV and vesicular exanthema of swine virus (VESV) antisera. Purified RNA from skunk calicivirus infected cells was subjected to reverse transcription followed by polymerase chain reaction. Nucleotide sequences were identified that had greater than 85% similarity to the 2C and RNA polymerase gene regions of SMSV 1 and 4 and VESV A48. Predicted amino acid sequences of these regions were greater than 95% similar and the partial coding sequence of the polymerase gene contained the YGDD sequence common to positive-strand RNA virus polymerases. PMID:7483817

  4. Zika Virus

    MedlinePlus

    ... through blood transfusions. There have been outbreaks of Zika virus in Africa, Southeast Asia, the Pacific Islands, parts ... not travel to areas where there is a Zika virus outbreak. If you do decide to travel, first ...

  5. The caprine abomasal microbiome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Parasitism is considered the number one health problem in small ruminants. The barber's pole worm Haemonchus contortus infection in goats elicits a strong host immune response. However, the effect of the parasitic infection on the structure and function of the gut microbiome remains largely unknown....

  6. ECHO virus

    MedlinePlus

    Enteric cytopathic human orphan (ECHO) viruses are a group of viruses that lead to gastrointestinal infection and skin rashes. ... Echovirus is one of several families of viruses that affect the ... are common. In the United States, they are most common in ...

  7. Genetic variants and effects on milk traits of the caprine paired-like homeodomain transcription factor 2 (PITX2) gene in dairy goats.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Haiyu; Wu, Xianfeng; Cai, Hanfang; Pan, Chuanying; Lei, Chuzhao; Chen, Hong; Lan, Xianyong

    2013-12-15

    The paired-like homeodomain transcription factor 2 (PITX2) gene plays a critical role in cell proliferation, differentiation, hematopoiesis and organogenesis. This gene regulates several genes' expressions in the Wnt/beta-catenin and POU1F1 pathways, thereby probably affecting milk performance. The goal of this study was to characterize the genetic variants of the PITX2 gene and test their associations with milk traits in dairy goats. Herein, four novel single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), AC_000163:g.18117T>C, g.18161C>G, g.18322C>A and g.18353T>C, within the caprine PITX2 gene, were found in two famous Chinese dairy goat breeds. These SNPs mapping at Cys28Arg, Pro42Pro, IVS1+79C>A and IVS1+110T>C, were genotyped by the MvaI, SmaI, MspI and RsaI aCRS-RFLP or PCR-RFLP methods, respectively. Accordingly, two main haplotypes (CGCT and CGCC) were identified among the specimens. Association testing revealed that the SmaI and RsaI polymorphisms were significantly associated with the milk fat content, milk lactose content and milk density (P<0.05 or P<0.01) in the Guanzhong (GZ) dairy goats, respectively. At the same time, the RsaI locus was also found to significantly link to the second lactation milk yield, milk fat content, milk lactose content, milk density and milk total solid content (P<0.05 or P<0.01) in the Xinong Saanen (XNSN) dairy goats, respectively. These results indicated that the caprine PITX2 gene had the significant effects on milk traits. Hence, the RsaI and SmaI loci could be regarded as two DNA markers for selecting superior milk performance in dairy goats. These preliminary findings not only would extend the spectrum of genetic variation of the goat PITX2 gene, but also would contribute to implementing marker-assisted selection (MAS) in breeding and genetics in dairy goats. PMID:24076438

  8. The effects of staged intra-articular injection of cultured autologous mesenchymal stromal cells on the repair of damaged cartilage: a pilot study in caprine model

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Treatment of chondral injuries remains a major issue despite the many advances made in cartilage repair techniques. Although it has been postulated that the use of marrow stimulation in combination with cell-based therapy may provide superior outcome, this has yet to be demonstrated. A pilot study was thus conducted to determine if bone marrow derived mesenchymal stromal cells (BM-MSCs) have modulatory effects on the repair outcomes of bone marrow stimulation (BMS) techniques. Methods Two full-thickness chondral 5 mm diameter defects were created in tandem on the medial condyle of left stifle joints of 18 Boer caprine (N = 18). Goats were then divided equally into three groups. Simultaneously, bone marrow aspirates were taken from the iliac crests from the goats in Group 1 and were sent for BM-MSC isolation and expansion in vitro. Six weeks later, BMS surgery, which involves subchondral drilling at the defect sites, was performed. After two weeks, the knees in Group 1 were given autologous intra-articular BM-MSCs (N = 6). In Group 2, although BMS was performed there were no supplementations provided. In Group 3, no intervention was administered. The caprines were sacrificed after six months. Repairs were evaluated using macroscopic assessment through the International Cartilage Repair Society (ICRS) scoring, histologic grading by ODriscoll score, biochemical assays for glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and gene expressions for aggrecan, collagen II and Sox9. Results Histological and immunohistochemical analyses demonstrated hyaline-like cartilage regeneration in the transplanted sites particularly in Group 1. In contrast, tissues in Groups 2 and 3 demonstrated mainly fibrocartilage. The highest ICRS and ODriscoll scorings was also observed in Group 1, while the lowest score was seen in Group 3. Similarly, the total GAG/total protein as well as chondrogenic gene levels were expressed in the same order, that is highest in Group 1 while the lowest in Group three. Significant differences between these 3 groups were observed (P <0.05). Conclusions This study suggests that supplementing intra-articular injections of BM-MSCs following BMS knee surgery provides superior cartilage repair outcomes. PMID:24286235

  9. Zika virus.

    PubMed

    2016-02-10

    Essential facts Zika virus disease is caused by a virus that is transmitted by the Aedes mosquito. While it generally causes a mild illness, there is increasing concern that it is harmful in pregnancy and can cause congenital abnormalities in infants born to women infected with the virus. There is no antiviral treatment or vaccine currently available. The best form of prevention is protection against mosquito bites. PMID:26860150

  10. Cell-free multi-layered collagen-based scaffolds demonstrate layer specific regeneration of functional osteochondral tissue in caprine joints.

    PubMed

    Levingstone, Tanya J; Ramesh, Ashwanth; Brady, Robert T; Brama, Pieter A J; Kearney, Clodagh; Gleeson, John P; O'Brien, Fergal J

    2016-05-01

    Developing repair strategies for osteochondral tissue presents complex challenges due to its interfacial nature and complex zonal structure, consisting of subchondral bone, intermediate calcified cartilage and the superficial cartilage regions. In this study, the long term ability of a multi-layered biomimetic collagen-based scaffold to repair osteochondral defects is investigated in a large animal model: namely critical sized lateral trochlear ridge (TR) and medial femoral condyle (MC) defects in the caprine stifle joint. The study thus presents the first data in a clinically applicable large animal model. Scaffold fixation and early integration was demonstrated at 2 weeks post implantation. Macroscopic analysis demonstrated improved healing in the multi-layered scaffold group compared to empty defects and a market approved synthetic polymer osteochondral scaffold groups at 6 and 12 months post implantation. Radiological analysis demonstrated superior subchondral bone formation in both defect sites in the multi-layered scaffold group as early as 3 months, with complete regeneration of subchondral bone by 12 months. Histological analysis confirmed the formation of well-structured subchondral trabecular bone and hyaline-like cartilage tissue in the multi-layered scaffold group by 12 months with restoration of the anatomical tidemark. Demonstration of improved healing following treatment with this natural polymer scaffold, through the recruitment of host cells with no requirement for pre-culture, shows the potential of this device for the treatment of patients presenting with osteochondal lesions. PMID:26901430

  11. Small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated knockdown of myostatin influences the expression of myogenic regulatory factors in caprine foetal myoblasts.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rohit; Singh, Satyendra Pal; Kumari, Priya; Mitra, Abhijit

    2014-02-01

    Myostatin (MSTN) acts as a negative regulator of skeletal muscle development. Naturally occurring inactivating mutations in the coding region and knockout as well as knockdown of MSTN result in an increase in the muscle mass. However, the effect of MSTN knockdown on the expression of myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs) has not been studied in farm animals including goats. In the present study, using different synthetic siRNAs (n = 3), we demonstrated as high as 69 (p < 0.01) and 89% downregulation of MSTN mRNA and protein in the primary caprine foetal myoblast cells. Further, we also examined the effect of MSTN knockdown on the transcripts of MRFs including MyoD, Myf5 and MYOG. The expression of Myf5 remained unaffected (p = 0.60); however, MSTN downregulation caused a significant (p < 0.05) decrease and increase of MYOG and MyoD expression, respectively. Assessment of OAS1 expression confirmed the absence of any siRNA-elicited interferon response. Our results demonstrate that the downregulation of MSTN expression was accompanied by differential expressions of MRFs without any adverse interferon response. This study also suggests the importance of siRNA-mediated knockdown of MSTN as a potential alternative to increase muscle mass and meat production. PMID:24254256

  12. CHLORELLA VIRUSES

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Takashi; Onimatsu, Hideki; Van Etten, James L.

    2007-01-01

    Chlorella viruses or chloroviruses are large, icosahedral, plaque‐forming, double‐stranded‐DNA—containing viruses that replicate in certain strains of the unicellular green alga Chlorella. DNA sequence analysis of the 330‐kbp genome of Paramecium bursaria chlorella virus 1 (PBCV‐1), the prototype of this virus family (Phycodnaviridae), predict ∼366 protein‐encoding genes and 11 tRNA genes. The predicted gene products of ∼50% of these genes resemble proteins of known function, including many that are completely unexpected for a virus. In addition, the chlorella viruses have several features and encode many gene products that distinguish them from most viruses. These products include: (1) multiple DNA methyltransferases and DNA site‐specific endonucleases, (2) the enzymes required to glycosylate their proteins and synthesize polysaccharides such as hyaluronan and chitin, (3) a virus‐encoded K+ channel (called Kcv) located in the internal membrane of the virions, (4) a SET domain containing protein (referred to as vSET) that dimethylates Lys27 in histone 3, and (5) PBCV‐1 has three types of introns; a self‐splicing intron, a spliceosomal processed intron, and a small tRNA intron. Accumulating evidence indicates that the chlorella viruses have a very long evolutionary history. This review mainly deals with research on the virion structure, genome rearrangements, gene expression, cell wall degradation, polysaccharide synthesis, and evolution of PBCV‐1 as well as other related viruses. PMID:16877063

  13. Virus Crystallography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fry, Elizabeth; Logan, Derek; Stuart, David

    Crystallography provides a means of visualizing intact virus particles as well as their isolated constituent proteins and enzymes (1-3) at near-atomic resolution, and is thus an extraordinarily powerful tool in the pursuit of a fuller understanding of the functioning of these simple biological systems. We have already expanded our knowledge of virus evolution, assembly, antigenic variation, and host-cell interactions; further studies will no doubt reveal much more. Although the rewards are enormous, an intact virus structure determination is not a trivial undertaking and entails a significant scaling up in terms of time and resources through all stages of data collection and processing compared to a traditional protein crystallographic structure determination. It is the methodology required for such studies that will be the focus of this chapter. The computational requirements were satisfied in the late 1970s, and when combined with the introduction of phase improvement techniques utilizing the virus symmetry (4,5), the application of crystallography to these massive macromolecular assemblies became feasible. This led to the determination of the first virus structure (the small RNA plant virus, tomato bushy stunt virus), by Harrison and coworkers in 1978 (6). The structures of two other plant viruses followed rapidly (7,8). In the 1980s, a major focus of attention was a family of animal RNA viruses; the Picornaviridae.

  14. Live Virus Smallpox Vaccine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Index SMALLPOX FACT SHEET The Live Virus Smallpox Vaccine The vaccinia virus is the "live virus" used ... cannot cause smallpox. What is a "live virus" vaccine? A "live virus" vaccine is a vaccine that ...

  15. Phytophthora viruses.

    PubMed

    Cai, Guohong; Hillman, Bradley I

    2013-01-01

    Phytophthora sp. is a genus in the oomycetes, which are similar to filamentous fungi in morphology and habitat, but phylogenetically more closely related to brown algae and diatoms and fall in the kingdom Stramenopila. In the past few years, several viruses have been characterized in Phytophthora species, including four viruses from Phytophthora infestans, the late blight pathogen, and an endornavirus from an unnamed Phytophthora species from Douglas fir. Studies on Phytophthora viruses have revealed several interesting systems. Phytophthora infestans RNA virus 1 (PiRV-1) and PiRV-2 are likely the first members of two new virus families; studies on PiRV-3 support the establishment of a new virus genus that is not affiliated with established virus families; PiRV-4 is a member of Narnaviridae, most likely in the genus Narnavirus; and Phytophthora endornavirus 1 (PEV1) was the first nonplant endornavirus at the time of reporting. Viral capsids have not been found in any of the above-mentioned viruses. PiRV-1 demonstrated a unique genome organization that requires further examination, and PiRV-2 may have played a role in late blight resurgence in 1980s-1990s. PMID:23498912

  16. Diseases Caused by Viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The symptoms, causal agents, epidemiology and management of important virus diseases in chickpea and lentil crops were reviewed in depth. The virus diseases include.Alflafa mosaic virus, Cucumber mosaiv virus, Faba bean necrotic yellows virus, Pea enation mosaic virus, Pea seed-borne mosaci virus,...

  17. Computer viruses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denning, Peter J.

    1988-01-01

    The worm, Trojan horse, bacterium, and virus are destructive programs that attack information stored in a computer's memory. Virus programs, which propagate by incorporating copies of themselves into other programs, are a growing menace in the late-1980s world of unprotected, networked workstations and personal computers. Limited immunity is offered by memory protection hardware, digitally authenticated object programs,and antibody programs that kill specific viruses. Additional immunity can be gained from the practice of digital hygiene, primarily the refusal to use software from untrusted sources. Full immunity requires attention in a social dimension, the accountability of programmers.

  18. Evidence of three new members of malignant catarrhal fever virus group in Muskox (Ovibos moschatus), Nubian ibex (Capra nubiana), and gemsbok (Oryx gazella)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Li, H.; Gailbreath, K.; Bender, L.C.; West, K.; Keller, J.; Crawford, T.B.

    2003-01-01

    Six members of the malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) virus group of ruminant rhadinoviruses have been identified to date. Four of these viruses are clearly associated with clinical disease: alcelaphine herpesvirus 1 (AlHV-1) carried by wildebeest (Connochaetes spp.); ovine herpesvirus 2 (OvHV-2), ubiquitous in domestic sheep; caprine herpesvirus 2 (CpHV-2), endemic in domestic goats; and the virus of unknown origin found causing classic MCF in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus; MCFV-WTD). Using serology and polymerase chain reaction with degenerate primers targeting a portion of the herpesviral DNA polymerase gene, evidence of three previously unrecognized rhadinoviruses in the MCF virus group was found in muskox (Ovibos moschatus), Nubian ibex (Capra nubiana), and gemsbok (South African oryx, Oryx gazella), respectively. Based on sequence alignment, the viral sequence in the muskox is most closely related to MCFV-WTD (81.5% sequence identity) and that in the Nubian ibex is closest to CpHV-2 (89.3% identity). The viral sequence in the gemsbok is most closely related to AlHV-1 (85.1% identity). No evidence of disease association with these viruses has been found. ?? Wildlife Disease Association 2003.

  19. Association of polymorphisms at the microRNA binding site of the caprine KITLG 3′-UTR with litter size

    PubMed Central

    An, Xiaopeng; Song, Yuxuan; Bu, Shuhai; Ma, Haidong; Gao, Kexin; Hou, Jinxing; Wang, Shan; Lei, Zhang; Cao, Binyun

    2016-01-01

    This study identified three novel single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (c.1389C > T, c.1457A > C and c.1520G > A) in the caprine KITLG 3′-UTR through DNA sequencing. The three SNP loci were closely linked in Guanzhong dairy (GD) goats. Two alleles of the c.1457A > C SNP introduced two miRNA sites (chi-miR-204-5p and chi-miR-211). Individuals with combined genotype TT-CC-AA had a higher litter size compared with those with combined genotypes CC-AA-GG, TC-CC-GA and CC-AC-GG (P < 0.05). Luciferase assays showed that chi-miR-204-5p and chi-miR-211 suppressed luciferase expression in the presence of allele 1457A compared with negative control (NC) and allele 1457C (P < 0.05). Western blot revealed that KITLG significantly decreased in the granulosa cells (GCs) of genotype AA compared with that in the GCs of genotype CC and NC (P < 0.05). The KITLG mRNA levels of the CC-AA-GG carriers significantly decreased compared with those of the TT-CC-AA, TC-CC-GA and CC-AC-GG carriers. In addition, cell proliferation was reduced in haplotype C-A-G GCs compared with that in haplotype T-C-A GCs. These results suggest that SNPs c.1389C > T, c.1457A > C and c.1520G > A account for differences in the litter size of GD goats because chi-miR-204-5p and chi-miR-211 could change the expression levels of the KITLG gene and reduce GC proliferation. PMID:27168023

  20. Identification and verification of differentially expressed genes in the caprine hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis that are associated with litter size.

    PubMed

    Feng, Tao; Cao, Gui-Ling; Chu, Ming-Xing; Di, Ran; Huang, Dong-Wei; Liu, Qiu-Yue; Pan, Zhang-Yuan; Jin, Mei; Zhang, Ying-Jie; Li, Ning

    2015-02-01

    Litter size is a favorable economic trait for the goat industry, but remains a complex trait controlled by multiple genes in multiple organs. Several genes have been identified that may affect embryo survival, follicular development, and the health of fetuses during pregnancy. Jining Grey goats demonstrate the largest litter size among goat breeds indigenous to China. In order to better understand the genetic basis of this trait, six suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) cDNA libraries were constructed using pooled mRNAs from hypothalamuses, pituitaries, and ovaries of sexually mature and adult polytocous Jining Grey goats, as testers, versus the pooled corresponding mRNAs of monotocous Liaoning Cashmere goats, as drivers. A total of 1,458 true-positive clones--including 955 known genes and 481 known and 22 unknown expressed sequence tags--were obtained from the SSH libraries by sequencing and alignment. The known genes were categorized into cellular processes and signaling information storage and processing, and metabolism. Three genes (FTH1, GH, and SAA) were selected to validate the SSH results by quantitative real-time PCR; all three were up-regulated in the corresponding tissues in the tester group indicating that these are candidate genes associated with the large litter size of Jining Grey goats. Several other identified genes may affect embryo survival, follicular development, and health during pregnancy. This study provides insights into the mechanistic basis by which the caprine hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis affects reproductive traits and provides a theoretical basis for goat production and breeding. PMID:25651825

  1. Evaluation of a Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis leuD Mutant as a Vaccine Candidate against Challenge in a Caprine Model

    PubMed Central

    Faisal, Syed M.; Chen, Jenn-Wei; Yan, Falong; Chen, Tsai-Tzu; Useh, Nicodemus M.; Yan, Weiwei; Guo, Shanguang; Wang, Shih-Jon; Glaser, Amy L.; McDonough, Sean P.; Singh, Bhupinder; Davis, William C.; Akey, Bruce L.

    2013-01-01

    Johne's disease (JD) is prevalent worldwide and has a significant impact on the global agricultural economy. In the present study, we evaluated the protective efficacy of a leuD (Δleud) mutant and gained insight into differential immune responses after challenge with virulent M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis in a caprine colonization model. The immune response and protective efficacy were compared with those of the killed vaccine Mycopar. In vitro stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells with johnin purified protein derivative showed that Mycopar and ΔleuD generated similar levels of gamma interferon (IFN-γ) but significantly higher levels than unvaccinated and challenged phosphate-buffered saline controls. However, only with ΔleuD was the IFN-γ response maintained. Flow cytometric analysis showed that the increase in IFN-γ correlated with proliferation and activation (increased expression of CD25) of CD4, CD8, and γδT cells, but this response was significantly higher in ΔleuD-vaccinated animals at some time points after challenge. Both Mycopar and ΔleuD vaccines upregulated Th1/proinflammatory and Th17 cytokines and downregulated Th2/anti-inflammatory and regulatory cytokines at similar levels at almost all time points. However, significantly higher levels of IFN-γ (at weeks 26 and 30), interleukin-2 (IL-2; week 18), IL-1b (weeks 14 and 22), IL-17 (weeks 18 and 22), and IL-23 (week 18) and a significantly lower level of IL-10 (weeks 14 and 18) and transforming growth factor β (week 18) were detected in the ΔleuD-vaccinated group. Most importantly, ΔleuD elicited an immune response that significantly limited colonization of tissues compared to Mycopar upon challenge with wild-type M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. In conclusion, the ΔleuD mutant is a promising vaccine candidate for development of a live attenuated vaccine for JD in ruminants. PMID:23408524

  2. Chikungunya Virus.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Jennan A

    2015-06-01

    A mosquito-borne viral disease that is creating increased concern globally is Chikungunya virus (CHIKV). Occupational and environmental health nurses should educate workers about this emerging viral infection. PMID:26135602

  3. West Nile Virus

    MedlinePlus

    ... virus is a virus that can infect humans, birds, horses and mosquitoes. Infection from this virus is ... spread by mosquitoes. Mosquitoes become infected by biting birds that carry the virus. People can get West ...

  4. Computer Viruses. Technology Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponder, Tim, Comp.; Ropog, Marty, Comp.; Keating, Joseph, Comp.

    This document provides general information on computer viruses, how to help protect a computer network from them, measures to take if a computer becomes infected. Highlights include the origins of computer viruses; virus contraction; a description of some common virus types (File Virus, Boot Sector/Partition Table Viruses, Trojan Horses, and…

  5. Foodborne viruses.

    PubMed

    Koopmans, Marion; von Bonsdorff, Carl Henrik; Vinjé, Jan; de Medici, Dario; Monroe, Steve

    2002-06-01

    Foodborne and waterborne viral infections are increasingly recognized as causes of illness in humans. This increase is partly explained by changes in food processing and consumption patterns that lead to the worldwide availability of high-risk food. As a result, vast outbreaks may occur due to contamination of food by a single foodhandler or at a single source. Although there are numerous fecal-orally transmitted viruses, most reports of foodborne transmission describe infections with Norwalk-like caliciviruses (NLV) and hepatitis A virus (HAV), suggesting that these viruses are associated with the greatest risk of foodborne transmission. NLV and HAV can be transmitted from person to person, or indirectly via food, water, or fomites contaminated with virus-containing feces or vomit. People can be infected without showing symptoms. The high frequency of secondary cases of NLV illness and - to a lesser extent - of hepatitis A following a foodborne outbreak results in amplification of the problem. The burden of illness is highest in the elderly, and therefore is likely to increase due to the aging population. For HAV, the burden of illness may increase following hygienic control measures, due to a decreasing population of naturally immune individuals and a concurrent increase in the population at risk. Recent advances in the research of NLV and HAV have led to the development of molecular methods which can be used for molecular tracing of virus strains. These methods can be and have been used for the detection of common source outbreaks. While traditionally certain foods have been implicated in virus outbreaks, it is clear that almost any food item can be involved, provided it has been handled by an infected person. There are no established methods for detection of viruses in foods other than shellfish. Little information is available on disinfection and preventive measures specifically for these viruses. Studies addressing this issue are hampered by the lack of culture systems. As currently available routine monitoring systems exclusively focus on bacterial pathogens, efforts should be made to combine epidemiological and virological information for a combined laboratory-based rapid detection system for foodborne viruses. With better surveillance, including typing information, outbreaks of foodborne infections could be reported faster to prevent further spread. PMID:12069883

  6. Parainfluenza Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Henrickson, Kelly J.

    2003-01-01

    Human parainfluenza viruses (HPIV) were first discovered in the late 1950s. Over the last decade, considerable knowledge about their molecular structure and function has been accumulated. This has led to significant changes in both the nomenclature and taxonomic relationships of these viruses. HPIV is genetically and antigenically divided into types 1 to 4. Further major subtypes of HPIV-4 (A and B) and subgroups/genotypes of HPIV-1 and HPIV-3 have been described. HPIV-1 to HPIV-3 are major causes of lower respiratory infections in infants, young children, the immunocompromised, the chronically ill, and the elderly. Each subtype can cause somewhat unique clinical diseases in different hosts. HPIV are enveloped and of medium size (150 to 250 nm), and their RNA genome is in the negative sense. These viruses belong to the Paramyxoviridae family, one of the largest and most rapidly growing groups of viruses causing significant human and veterinary disease. HPIV are closely related to recently discovered megamyxoviruses (Hendra and Nipah viruses) and metapneumovirus. PMID:12692097

  7. Muscular response to physiologic tensile stretch of the caprine c5/6 facet joint capsule: dynamic recruitment thresholds and latencies.

    PubMed

    Azar, Nadia R; Kallakuri, Srinivasu; Chen, Chaoyang; Cavanaugh, John M

    2011-11-01

    This study examined the cervical muscle response to physiologic, high-rate (100 mm/s) tensile facet joint capsule (FJC) stretch. Six in-vivo caprine C5/6 FJC preparations were subjected to an incremental tensile loading paradigm. EMG activity was recorded from the right trapezius (TR) and multifidus (MF) muscle groups at the C5 and C6 levels; and from the sternomastoid (SM) and longus colli (LC) muscle groups bilaterally at the C5/6 level; during FJC stretch. Capsule load during the displacement applications was recorded via a miniature load cell, and 3D capsule strains (based on stereoimaging of an array of markers on the capsule surface) were reconstructed using finite element methods. EMG traces from each muscle were examined for onset of muscular activity. Capsule strains and loads at the time of EMG onset were recorded for each muscle, as was the time from the onset of FJC stretch to the onset of muscle activity. All muscles were responsive to physiologic high-rate FJC stretch. The deep muscles (MF and LC) were recruited at significantly smaller capsule loads and onset latencies than the superficial muscles (TR and SM). MF activation strain was significantly smaller than LC and TR activation strains. These data were also compared to previously published low-rate data. MF was the first muscle group to be recruited regardless of the activation criterion under consideration (i.e. strain, load, or latency) or the rate of FJC stretch. LC recruitment occurred significantly sooner under high-rate vs. low-rate FJC stretch. The results of this study provide further evidence of extensive ligamento-muscular reflex pathways between the FJC and the cervical musculature, which are responsive to both low-rate and high-rate FJC stretch. These data add to our knowledge of the dynamic response of paraspinal muscles relative to facet joint motion and provide a unique contribution to enhance the precision of computer-simulated impacts. PMID:22869317

  8. Control and eradication of animal diseases in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Davidson, R M

    2002-01-01

    New Zealand is free from all the major epidemic (Office International des Epizooties List A) diseases of animals and other important diseases, such as rabies and the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. The once endemic conditions of sheep scab (Psoroptes ovis), bovine brucellosis (Brucella abortus), hydatids (Echinococcus granulosus) and Aujeszky's disease have been eradicated. Anthrax (Bacillus anthracis) is no longer considered endemic and Pullorum disease (Salmonella Pullorum) has effectively been eradicated from commercial poultry flocks. There are current control programmes for bovine tuberculosis (Mycobacterium bovis), enzootic bovine leucosis in dairy cattle, infectious bursal disease, ovine epididymitis (Brucella ovis), and caprine arthritis encephalitis. Historically, incursions by three important non-endemic diseases, contagious bovine pleuropneumonia, classical swine fever and scrapie, have been successfully eliminated. Any new occurrence of a serious exotic disease would be dealt with swiftly using powerful legislative authorities available for the purpose. PMID:16032229

  9. Hendra virus

    PubMed Central

    Middleton, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    Synopsis Hendra virus infection of horses occurred sporadically between 1994 and 2010 as a result of spill-over from the viral reservoir in Australian mainland flying-foxes, and occasional onward transmission to people also followed from exposure to affected horses. For reasons that are not well understood an unprecedented number of outbreaks were recorded in 2011, including the first recorded field infection of a dog, leading to heightened community concern. Increasingly, pressure mounted to instigate measures for control of flying-fox numbers, and equine health care workers started to leave the industry on account of risk and liability concerns. Release of an inactivated subunit vaccine for horses against Hendra virus represents the first commercially available product that is focused on mitigating the impact of a Biosafety Level 4 pathogen. Through preventing the development of acute Hendra virus disease in horses, vaccine use is also expected to reduce the risk of transmission of infection to people. This approach to emerging infectious disease management focuses on the role of horses as the proximal cause of human Hendra virus disease, and may assist in redirecting community concerns away from the flying-fox reservoirs, keystone species for the ongoing health of Australia’s native forests. PMID:25281398

  10. Heartland Virus

    MedlinePlus

    ... visit this page: About CDC.gov . Division of Vector-Borne Diseases (DVBD) NCEZID Share Compartir Heartland virus On this ... of Page Print page Contact Us: Division of Vector-Borne Diseases Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 3156 Rampart ...

  11. [Influenza virus].

    PubMed

    Juozapaitis, Mindaugas; Antoniukas, Linas

    2007-01-01

    Every year, especially during the cold season, many people catch an acute respiratory disease, namely flu. It is easy to catch this disease; therefore, it spreads very rapidly and often becomes an epidemic or a global pandemic. Airway inflammation and other body ailments, which form in a very short period, torment the patient several weeks. After that, the symptoms of the disease usually disappear as quickly as they emerged. The great epidemics of flu have rather unique characteristics; therefore, it is possible to identify descriptions of such epidemics in historic sources. Already in the 4th century bc, Hippocrates himself wrote about one of them. It is known now that flu epidemics emerge rather frequently, but there are no regular intervals between those events. The epidemics can differ in their consequences, but usually they cause an increased mortality of elderly people. The great flu epidemics of the last century took millions of human lives. In 1918-19, during "The Spanish" pandemic of flu, there were around 40-50 millions of deaths all over the world; "Pandemic of Asia" in 1957 took up to one million lives, etc. Influenza virus can cause various disorders of the respiratory system: from mild inflammations of upper airways to acute pneumonia that finally results in the patient's death. Scientist Richard E. Shope, who investigated swine flu in 1920, had a suspicion that the cause of this disease might be a virus. Already in 1933, scientists from the National Institute for Medical Research in London - Wilson Smith, Sir Christopher Andrewes, and Sir Patrick Laidlaw - for the first time isolated the virus, which caused human flu. Then scientific community started the exhaustive research of influenza virus, and the great interest in this virus and its unique features is still active even today. PMID:18182834

  12. Honeybee viruses in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Antúnez, Karina; D'Alessandro, Bruno; Corbella, Eduardo; Ramallo, Gustavo; Zunino, Pablo

    2006-09-01

    Mortality of honeybees is a serious problem that beekeepers have to face periodically in Uruguay and worldwide. The presence of RNA viruses, in addition to other pathogens may be one of its possible causes. In this work, we detected Chronic bee paralysis virus, Acute bee paralysis virus, Black queen cell virus, Sacbrood virus and Deformed wing virus in samples of Uruguayan honeybees with or without Varroa destructor and Nosema apis. The detection of viruses in different provinces, simultaneous co-infection of colonies by several viruses and the fact that 96% of the samples were infected with one or more virus, indicates they are widely spread in the region. PMID:16843485

  13. The Geometry of Viruses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Case, Christine L.

    1991-01-01

    Presented is an activity in which students make models of viruses, which allows them to visualize the shape of these microorganisms. Included are some background on viruses, the biology and geometry of viruses, directions for building viruses, a comparison of cells and viruses, and questions for students. (KR)

  14. Measles virus

    PubMed Central

    Naim, Hussein Y

    2014-01-01

    Measles was an inevitable infection during the human development with substantial degree of morbidity and mortality. The severity of measles virus (MV) infection was largely contained by the development of a live attenuated vaccine that was introduced into the vaccination programs. However, all efforts to eradicate the disease failed and continued to annually result in significant deaths. The development of molecular biology techniques allowed the rescue of MV from cDNA that enabled important insights into a variety of aspects of the biology of the virus and its pathogenesis. Subsequently these technologies facilitated the development of novel vaccine candidates that induce immunity against measles and other pathogens. Based on the promising prospective, the use of MV as a recombinant vaccine and a therapeutic vector is addressed. PMID:25483511

  15. Plant Virus Metagenomics: Advances in Virus Discovery.

    PubMed

    Roossinck, Marilyn J; Martin, Darren P; Roumagnac, Philippe

    2015-06-01

    In recent years plant viruses have been detected from many environments, including domestic and wild plants and interfaces between these systems-aquatic sources, feces of various animals, and insects. A variety of methods have been employed to study plant virus biodiversity, including enrichment for virus-like particles or virus-specific RNA or DNA, or the extraction of total nucleic acids, followed by next-generation deep sequencing and bioinformatic analyses. All of the methods have some shortcomings, but taken together these studies reveal our surprising lack of knowledge about plant viruses and point to the need for more comprehensive studies. In addition, many new viruses have been discovered, with most virus infections in wild plants appearing asymptomatic, suggesting that virus disease may be a byproduct of domestication. For plant pathologists these studies are providing useful tools to detect viruses, and perhaps to predict future problems that could threaten cultivated plants. PMID:26056847

  16. Zika Virus.

    PubMed

    Musso, Didier; Gubler, Duane J

    2016-07-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is an arthropod-borne virus (arbovirus) in the genus Flavivirus and the family Flaviviridae. ZIKV was first isolated from a nonhuman primate in 1947 and from mosquitoes in 1948 in Africa, and ZIKV infections in humans were sporadic for half a century before emerging in the Pacific and the Americas. ZIKV is usually transmitted by the bite of infected mosquitoes. The clinical presentation of Zika fever is nonspecific and can be misdiagnosed as other infectious diseases, especially those due to arboviruses such as dengue and chikungunya. ZIKV infection was associated with only mild illness prior to the large French Polynesian outbreak in 2013 and 2014, when severe neurological complications were reported, and the emergence in Brazil of a dramatic increase in severe congenital malformations (microcephaly) suspected to be associated with ZIKV. Laboratory diagnosis of Zika fever relies on virus isolation or detection of ZIKV-specific RNA. Serological diagnosis is complicated by cross-reactivity among members of the Flavivirus genus. The adaptation of ZIKV to an urban cycle involving humans and domestic mosquito vectors in tropical areas where dengue is endemic suggests that the incidence of ZIKV infections may be underestimated. There is a high potential for ZIKV emergence in urban centers in the tropics that are infested with competent mosquito vectors such as Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. PMID:27029595

  17. Computer Viruses: An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marmion, Dan

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the early history and current proliferation of computer viruses that occur on Macintosh and DOS personal computers, mentions virus detection programs, and offers suggestions for how libraries can protect themselves and their users from damage by computer viruses. (LRW)

  18. Hanta virus (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Hanta virus is a distant cousin of Ebola virus, but is found worldwide. The virus is spread by human contact with rodent waste. Dangerous respiratory illness develops. Effective treatment is not yet ...

  19. Virus Movement Maintains Local Virus Population Diversity

    SciTech Connect

    J. Snyder; B. Wiedenheft; M. Lavin; F. Roberto; J. Spuhler; A. Ortmann; T. Douglas; M. Young

    2007-11-01

    Viruses are the largest reservoir of genetic material on the planet, yet little is known about the population dynamics of any virus within its natural environment. Over a 2-year period, we monitored the diversity of two archaeal viruses found in hot springs within Yellowstone National Park (YNP). Both temporal phylogeny and neutral biodiversity models reveal that virus diversity in these local environments is not being maintained by mutation but rather by high rates of immigration from a globally distributed metacommunity. These results indicate that geographically isolated hot springs are readily able to exchange viruses. The importance of virus movement is supported by the detection of virus particles in air samples collected over YNP hot springs and by their detection in metacommunity sequencing projects conducted in the Sargasso Sea. Rapid rates of virus movement are not expected to be unique to these archaeal viruses but rather a common feature among virus metacommunities. The finding that virus immigration rather than mutation can dominate community structure has significant implications for understanding virus circulation and the role that viruses play in ecology and evolution by providing a reservoir of mobile genetic material.

  20. Viruses and Virus Diseases of Rubus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rubus species are propagated vegetatively and are subject to infection by viruses during development, propagation and fruit production stages. Reports of initial detection and symptoms of more than 30 viruses, virus-like diseases and phytoplasmas affecting Rubus spp. have been reviewed more than 20 ...

  1. The Tobacco Mosaic Virus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sulzinski, Michael A.

    1992-01-01

    Explains how the tobacco mosaic virus can be used to study virology. Presents facts about the virus, procedures to handle the virus in the laboratory, and four laboratory exercises involving the viruses' survival under inactivating conditions, dilution end point, filterability, and microscopy. (MDH)

  2. Viruses in cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Alemany, R

    2013-03-01

    Soon after the discovery that viruses cause human disease, started the idea of using viruses to treat cancer. After the initial indiscriminate use, crude preparations of each novel virus in the early twentieth century, a second wave of virotherapy blossomed in the 60s with purified and selected viruses. Responses were rare and short-lived. Immune rejection of the oncolytic viruses was identified as the major problem and virotherapy was abandoned. During the past two decades virotherapy has re-emerged with engineered viruses, with a trend towards using them as tumor-debulking immunostimulatory agents combined with radio or chemotherapy. Currently, oncolytic Reovirus, Herpes, and Vaccinia virus are in late phase clinical trials. Despite the renewed hope, efficacy will require improving systemic tumor targeting, overcoming stroma barriers for virus spread, and selectively stimulating immune responses against tumor antigens but not against the virus. Virotherapy history, viruses, considerations for clinical trials, and hurdles are briefly overviewed. PMID:23143950

  3. Virus-Vectored Influenza Virus Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Tripp, Ralph A.; Tompkins, S. Mark

    2014-01-01

    Despite the availability of an inactivated vaccine that has been licensed for >50 years, the influenza virus continues to cause morbidity and mortality worldwide. Constant evolution of circulating influenza virus strains and the emergence of new strains diminishes the effectiveness of annual vaccines that rely on a match with circulating influenza strains. Thus, there is a continued need for new, efficacious vaccines conferring cross-clade protection to avoid the need for biannual reformulation of seasonal influenza vaccines. Recombinant virus-vectored vaccines are an appealing alternative to classical inactivated vaccines because virus vectors enable native expression of influenza antigens, even from virulent influenza viruses, while expressed in the context of the vector that can improve immunogenicity. In addition, a vectored vaccine often enables delivery of the vaccine to sites of inductive immunity such as the respiratory tract enabling protection from influenza virus infection. Moreover, the ability to readily manipulate virus vectors to produce novel influenza vaccines may provide the quickest path toward a universal vaccine protecting against all influenza viruses. This review will discuss experimental virus-vectored vaccines for use in humans, comparing them to licensed vaccines and the hurdles faced for licensure of these next-generation influenza virus vaccines. PMID:25105278

  4. Viruses Infecting Reptiles

    PubMed Central

    Marschang, Rachel E.

    2011-01-01

    A large number of viruses have been described in many different reptiles. These viruses include arboviruses that primarily infect mammals or birds as well as viruses that are specific for reptiles. Interest in arboviruses infecting reptiles has mainly focused on the role reptiles may play in the epidemiology of these viruses, especially over winter. Interest in reptile specific viruses has concentrated on both their importance for reptile medicine as well as virus taxonomy and evolution. The impact of many viral infections on reptile health is not known. Koch’s postulates have only been fulfilled for a limited number of reptilian viruses. As diagnostic testing becomes more sensitive, multiple infections with various viruses and other infectious agents are also being detected. In most cases the interactions between these different agents are not known. This review provides an update on viruses described in reptiles, the animal species in which they have been detected, and what is known about their taxonomic positions. PMID:22163336

  5. Viruses in the sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suttle, Curtis A.

    2005-09-01

    Viruses exist wherever life is found. They are a major cause of mortality, a driver of global geochemical cycles and a reservoir of the greatest genetic diversity on Earth. In the oceans, viruses probably infect all living things, from bacteria to whales. They affect the form of available nutrients and the termination of algal blooms. Viruses can move between marine and terrestrial reservoirs, raising the spectre of emerging pathogens. Our understanding of the effect of viruses on global systems and processes continues to unfold, overthrowing the idea that viruses and virus-mediated processes are sidebars to global processes.

  6. West Nile Virus

    MedlinePlus

    ... West Nile virus has been found in animals, birds, and humans in all continental states in the ... picked up the virus after feeding on infected birds. Pets and other animals can also become infected ...

  7. Zika Virus Fact Sheet

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2014 Fact sheets Features Commentaries 2014 Multimedia Contacts Zika virus Fact sheet Updated 15 April 2016 Key facts ... last for 2-7 days. Potential complications of Zika virus disease During large outbreaks in French Polynesia and ...

  8. Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections

    MedlinePlus

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) causes mild, cold-like symptoms in adults and older healthy children. It can cause serious problems in ... tests can tell if your child has the virus. There is no specific treatment. You should give ...

  9. Viruses and human cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Gallo, R.C.; Haseltine, W.; Klein, G.; Zur Hausen, H.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains papers on the following topics: Immunology and Epidemiology, Biology and Pathogenesis, Models of Pathogenesis and Treatment, Simian and Bovine Retroviruses, Human Papilloma Viruses, EBV and Herpesvirus, and Hepatitis B Virus.

  10. Zika Virus Infection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Diseases Information Center (GARD) Print friendly version Zika virus infection Table of Contents Overview Tests & Diagnosis Treatment ... Other Names for this Disease Zika fever Zika virus disease About the GARD Information Center See Disclaimer ...

  11. West Nile Virus

    MedlinePlus

    West Nile virus (WNV) is an infectious disease that first appeared in the United States in 1999. Infected mosquitoes ... and usually go away on their own. If West Nile virus enters the brain, however, it can be life- ...

  12. Tumorigenic DNA viruses

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, G.

    1989-01-01

    The eighth volume of Advances in Viral Oncology focuses on the three major DNA virus groups with a postulated or proven tumorigenic potential: papillomaviruses, animal hepatitis viruses, and the Epstein-Bar virus. In the opening chapters, the contributors analyze the evidence that papillomaviruses and animal hepatitis viruses are involved in tumorigenesis and describe the mechanisms that trigger virus-host cell interactions. A detailed section on the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) - comprising more than half the book - examines the transcription and mRNA processing patterns of the virus genome; the mechanisms by which EBV infects lymphoid and epithelial cells; the immunological aspects of the virus; the actions of EBV in hosts with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome; and the involvement of EBV in the etiology of Burkitt's lymphoma.

  13. Virus Assembly and Maturation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, John E.

    2004-03-01

    We use two techniques to look at three-dimensional virus structure: electron cryomicroscopy (cryoEM) and X-ray crystallography. Figure 1 is a gallery of virus particles whose structures Timothy Baker, one of my former colleagues at Purdue University, used cryoEM to determine. It illustrates the variety of sizes of icosahedral virus particles. The largest virus particle on this slide is the Herpes simplex virus, around 1200 in diameter; the smallest we examined was around 250 in diameter. Viruses bear their genomic information either as positive-sense DNA and RNA, double-strand DNA, double-strand RNA, or negative-strand RNA. Viruses utilize the various structure and function "tactics" seen throughout cell biology to replicate at high levels. Many of the biological principles that we consider general were in fact discovered in the context of viruses ...

  14. Advances in virus research

    SciTech Connect

    Maramorosch, K. ); Murphy, F.A. ); Shatkin, A.J. )

    1988-01-01

    This book contains eight chapters. Some of the titles are: Initiation of viral DNA replication; Vaccinia: virus, vector, vaccine; The pre-S region of hepadnavirus envelope proteins; and Archaebacterial viruses.

  15. Human Parainfluenza Viruses

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Human Parainfluenza Viruses (HPIVs) Note: Javascript is disabled or ... CDC.gov . Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Human parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs) commonly cause respiratory illnesses in ...

  16. West Nile virus

    MedlinePlus

    ... believe West Nile virus is spread when a mosquito bites an infected bird and then bites a ... avoid getting West Nile virus infection after a mosquito bite. People in good health generally do not ...

  17. Nairobi sheep disease virus/Ganjam virus.

    PubMed

    M D, Baron; B, Holzer

    2015-08-01

    Nairobi sheep disease virus (NSDV) is a tick-borne virus which causes a severe disease in sheep and goats, and has been responsible for several outbreaks of disease in East Africa. The virus is also found in the Indian subcontinent, where it is known as Ganjam virus. The virus only spreads through the feeding of competent infected ticks, and is therefore limited in its geographic distribution by the distribution of those ticks, Rhipicephalus appendiculata in Africa and Haemaphysalis intermedia in India. Animals bred in endemic areas do not normally develop disease, and the impact is therefore primarily on animals being moved for trade or breeding purposes. The disease caused by NSDV has similarities to several other ruminant diseases, and laboratory diagnosis is necessary for confirmation. There are published methods for diagnosis based on polymerase chain reaction, for virus growth in cell culture and for other simple diagnostic tests, though none has been commercialised. There is no established vaccine against NSDV, although cell-culture attenuated strains have been developed which show promise and could be put into field trials if it were deemed necessary. The virus is closely related to Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus, and studies on NSDV may therefore be useful in understanding this important human pathogen. PMID:26647464

  18. Avian influenza virus and Newcastle disease virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) severely impact poultry egg production. Decreased egg yield and hatchability, as well as misshapen eggs, are often observed during infection with AIV and NDV, even with low-virulence strains or in vaccinated flocks. Data suggest that in...

  19. BOVINE VIRAL DIARRHEA VIRUSES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is an umbrella term for two species of viruses, BVDV1 and BVDV2, within the Pestivirus genus of the Flavivirus family. BVDV viruses are further subclassified as cytopathic and noncytopathic based on their activity in cultured epithelial cells. Noncytopathic BVDV p...

  20. MAIZE FINE STREAK VIRUS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The report outlines the salient features of maize fine streak virus (MFSV) including a general description of the causal virus species, virion properties, genome description, the relationship of the virus to other taxa, biological properties of the disease and agronomic aspects of the disease. Maize...

  1. Avian influenza virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza (AI) is caused by type A influenza virus, a member of the Orthomyxoviridae family. AI viruses are serologically categorized into 16 hemagglutinin (H1-H16) and 9 neuraminidase (N1-N9) subtypes. All subtypes have been identified in birds. Infections by AI viruses have been reported in ...

  2. Computer Virus Protection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rajala, Judith B.

    2004-01-01

    A computer virus is a program--a piece of executable code--that has the unique ability to replicate. Like biological viruses, computer viruses can spread quickly and are often difficult to eradicate. They can attach themselves to just about any type of file, and are spread by replicating and being sent from one individual to another. Simply having…

  3. Avian influenza virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) is type A influenza, which is adapted to an avian host. Although avian influenza has been isolated from numerous avian species, the primary natural hosts for the virus are dabbling ducks, shorebirds, and gulls. The virus can be found world-wide in these species and in o...

  4. Computer Virus Protection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rajala, Judith B.

    2004-01-01

    A computer virus is a program--a piece of executable code--that has the unique ability to replicate. Like biological viruses, computer viruses can spread quickly and are often difficult to eradicate. They can attach themselves to just about any type of file, and are spread by replicating and being sent from one individual to another. Simply having

  5. The taxonomy of viruses should include viruses.

    PubMed

    Calisher, Charles H

    2016-05-01

    Having lost sight of its goal, the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses has redoubled its efforts. That goal is to arrive at a consensus regarding virus classification, i.e., proper placement of viruses in a hierarchical taxonomic scheme; not an easy task given the wide variety of recognized viruses. Rather than suggesting a continuation of the bureaucratic machinations of the past, this opinion piece is a call for insertion of common sense in sorting out the avalanche of information already, and soon-to-be, accrued data. In this way information about viruses ideally would be taxonomically correct as well as useful to working virologists and journal editors, rather than being lost, minimized, or ignored. PMID:26914357

  6. Haloarchaeal virus morphotypes.

    PubMed

    Atanasova, Nina S; Bamford, Dennis H; Oksanen, Hanna M

    2015-11-01

    Hypersaline waters and salt crystals are known to contain high numbers of haloarchaeal cells and their viruses. Both culture-dependent and culture-independent studies indicate that these viruses represent a world-wide distributed reservoir of orphan genes and possibly novel virion morphotypes. To date, 90 viruses have been described for halophilic archaeal hosts, all belonging to the Halobacteriaceae family. This number is higher than that described for the members of any other archaeal family, but still very low compared to the viruses of bacteria and eukaryotes. The known haloarchaeal viruses represent icosahedral tailed, icosahedral internal membrane-containing, pleomorphic, and spindle-shaped virion morphotypes. This morphotype distribution is low, especially when compared to the astronomical number (>10(31)) of viruses on Earth. This strongly suggests that only certain protein folds are capable of making a functional virion. Viruses infecting cells belonging to any of the three domains of life are known to share similar major capsid protein folds which can be used to classify viruses into structure-based lineages. The latest observation supporting this proposal comes from the studies of icosahedral tailed haloarchaeal viruses which are the most abundant virus isolates from hypersaline environments. These viruses were shown to have the same major capsid protein fold (HK97-fold) with tailed bacteriophages belonging to the order Caudovirales and with eukaryotic herpes viruses. This proposes that these viruses have a common origin dating back to ancient times. Here we summarize the current knowledge of haloarchaeal viruses from the perspective of virus morphotypes. PMID:26151345

  7. Blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum)-Virus Diseases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    At least six viruses have been found in highbush blueberry plantings in the Pacific Northwest: Blueberry mosaic virus, Blueberry red ringspot virus, Blueberry scorch virus, Blueberry shock virus, Tobacco ringspot virus, and Tomato ringspot virus. Six other virus and virus-like diseases of highbush b...

  8. Equine influenza virus.

    PubMed

    Landolt, Gabriele A

    2014-12-01

    For decades the horse has been viewed as an isolated or "dead-end" host for influenza A viruses, with equine influenza virus being considered as relatively stable genetically. Although equine influenza viruses are genetically more stable than those of human lineage, they are by no means in evolutionary stasis. Moreover, recent transmission of equine-lineage influenza viruses to dogs also challenges the horse's status as a dead-end host. This article reviews recent developments in the epidemiology and evolution of equine influenza virus. In addition, the clinical presentation of equine influenza infection, diagnostic techniques, and vaccine recommendations are briefly summarized. PMID:25282321

  9. Multiple sclerosis and viruses.

    PubMed

    Brahic, Michel

    2010-07-01

    Discussing the problem of multiple sclerosis and viruses should not be limited to reviewing the epidemiological evidence in favor, or against, a particular candidate, such as Epstein-Barr virus or human herpes virus 6. In this text, I discuss the difficulty of going from association to causation in human epidemiology; the fact that viruses can trigger or prevent autoimmunity; the problem of our very limited knowledge of the viruses that we harbor as part of our metagenome; and the role of such viral flora in multifactorial diseases and also, possibly, in health. PMID:20582990

  10. [Viruses as biological weapons].

    PubMed

    Akali, Alper

    2005-07-01

    The destruction made by nuclear, biological and chemical weapons used by governments and terrorist groups in the near history is posing anxiety and fear for human being. Rumour about the possible use of these agents leads to the development of serious negative effects on populations. Since there are no vaccine and therapy for most viral agents and cost of production as biological weapons is low, interest rate is rising for viruses. In this review, general characteristics, diagnosis, therapy and protective measures for viral agents such as variola virus, hemorrhagic fever viruses, encephalitis viruses, Hantaviruses and Nipah viruses, those can be used as biological weapon, have been summarized. PMID:16358499

  11. Virus excretion in smallpox

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, J. K.; Mitra, A. C.; Mukherjee, M. K.; De, S. K.; Mazumdar, D. Guha

    1973-01-01

    Excretion of virus in the throat, urine, and conjunctiva of smallpox patients was studied daily for 2-3 weeks after the onset of fever. The virus titre in the throat and urine of haemorrhagic and confluent cases was higher than in discrete cases. The duration of virus excretion was also greater in confluent cases than in discrete cases. Conjunctival swabs from all 12 smallpox patients with conjunctivitis were positive for virus. The duration and titre of virus excretion in the throat, urine, and conjunctiva of patients were not related to their age or sex and did not depend on whether or not they had received a primary vaccination. PMID:4359678

  12. Serodiagnosis for Tumor Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Brian J.; Labo, Nazzarena; Miley, Wendell J.; Whitby, Denise

    2015-01-01

    The known human tumor viruses include the DNA viruses Epstein-Barr virus, Kaposi sarcoma herpesvirus, Merkel cell polyomavirus, human papillomavirus, and hepatitis B virus. RNA tumor viruses include Human T-cell lymphotrophic virus type-1 and hepatitis C virus. The serological identification of antigens/antibodies in plasma serum is a rapidly progressing field with utility for both scientists and clinicians. Serology is useful for conducting seroepidemiology studies and to inform on the pathogenesis and host immune response to a particular viral agent. Clinically, serology is useful for diagnosing current or past infection and for aiding in clinical management decisions. Serology is useful for screening blood donations for infectious agents and for monitoring the outcome of vaccination against these viruses. Serodiagnosis of human tumor viruses has improved in recent years with increased specificity and sensitivity of the assays, as well as reductions in cost and the ability to assess multiple antibody/antigens in single assays. Serodiagnosis of tumor viruses plays an important role in our understanding of the prevalence and transmission of these viruses and ultimately in the ability to develop treatments/preventions for these globally important diseases. PMID:25843726

  13. [The great virus comeback].

    PubMed

    Forterre, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Viruses have been considered for a long time as by-products of biological evolution. This view is changing now as a result of several recent discoveries. Viral ecologists have shown that viral particles are the most abundant biological entities on our planet, whereas metagenomic analyses have revealed an unexpected abundance and diversity of viral genes in the biosphere. Comparative genomics have highlighted the uniqueness of viral sequences, in contradiction with the traditional view of viruses as pickpockets of cellular genes. On the contrary, cellular genomes, especially eukaryotic ones, turned out to be full of genes derived from viruses or related elements (plasmids, transposons, retroelements and so on). The discovery of unusual viruses infecting archaea has shown that the viral world is much more diverse than previously thought, ruining the traditional dichotomy between bacteriophages and viruses. Finally, the discovery of giant viruses has blurred the traditional image of viruses as small entities. Furthermore, essential clues on virus history have been obtained in the last ten years. In particular, structural analyses of capsid proteins have uncovered deeply rooted homologies between viruses infecting different cellular domains, suggesting that viruses originated before the last universal common ancestor (LUCA). These studies have shown that several lineages of viruses originated independently, i.e., viruses are polyphyletic. From the time of LUCA, viruses have coevolved with their hosts, and viral lineages can be viewed as lianas wrapping around the trunk, branches and leaves of the tree of life. Although viruses are very diverse, with genomes encoding from one to more than one thousand proteins, they can all be simply defined as organisms producing virions. Virions themselves can be defined as infectious particles made of at least one protein associated with the viral nucleic acid, endowed with the capability to protect the viral genome and ensure its delivery to the infected cell. These definitions, which clearly distinguish viruses from plasmids, suggest that infectious RNA molecules that only encode an RNA replicase presently classified among viruses by the ICTV (International Committee for the Taxonomy of Viruses) into families of Endornaviridae and Hypoviridae are in fact RNA plasmids. Since a viral genome should encode for at least one structural protein, these definitions also imply that viruses originated after the emergence of the ribosome in an RNA-protein cellular world. Although virions are the hallmarks of viruses, viruses and virions should not be confused. The infection transforms the ribocell (cell encoding ribosomes and dividing by binary fission) into a virocell (cell producing virions) or ribovirocell (cell that produces virions but can still divide by binary fission). In the ribovirocell, two different organisms, defined by their distinct evolutionary histories, coexist in symbiosis in the same cell. The virocells or ribovirocells are the living forms of the virus, which can be in fine considered to be a living organism. In the virocell, the metabolism is reorganized for the production of virions, while the ability to capture and store free energy is retained, as in other cellular organisms. In the virocell, viral genomes replicate, recombine and evolve, leading to the emergence of new viral proteins and potentially novel functions. Some of these new functions can be later on transferred to the cell, explaining how viruses can play a major (often underestimated) role in the evolution of cellular organisms. The virocell concept thus helps to understand recent hypotheses suggesting that viruses played a critical role in major evolutionary transitions, such as the origin of DNA genomes or else the origin of the eukaryotic nucleus. Finally, it is more and more recognized that viruses are the major source of variation and selection in living organisms (both viruses and cells), the two pillars of darwinism. One can thus conclude that the continuous interaction between viruses and cells, all along the history of life, has been, and still is, a major engine of biological evolution. PMID:24330969

  14. Lifestyles of plant viruses

    PubMed Central

    Roossinck, Marilyn J.

    2010-01-01

    The vast majority of well-characterized eukaryotic viruses are those that cause acute or chronic infections in humans and domestic plants and animals. However, asymptomatic persistent viruses have been described in animals, and are thought to be sources for emerging acute viruses. Although not previously described in these terms, there are also many viruses of plants that maintain a persistent lifestyle. They have been largely ignored because they do not generally cause disease. The persistent viruses in plants belong to the family Partitiviridae or the genus Endornavirus. These groups also have members that infect fungi. Phylogenetic analysis of the partitivirus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase genes suggests that these viruses have been transmitted between plants and fungi. Additional families of viruses traditionally thought to be fungal viruses are also found frequently in plants, and may represent a similar scenario of persistent lifestyles, and some acute or chronic viruses of crop plants may maintain a persistent lifestyle in wild plants. Persistent, chronic and acute lifestyles of plant viruses are contrasted from both a functional and evolutionary perspective, and the potential role of these lifestyles in host evolution is discussed. PMID:20478885

  15. Other Viruses and Viruslike Agents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The diseases reported under 'Virus and Virus-like Agents' in the first volume of this compendium, with the exception of Cherry rasp leaf virus and Rubus chinese seed-borne virus, should be considered oddities since there are no known type isolates available for these reported viruses. Without a po...

  16. Cellular defense mechanisms in the udder and lactation of goats.

    PubMed

    Paape, M J; Capuco, A V

    1997-02-01

    Migration of neutrophils into mammary tissue provides the first immunological line of defense against bacteria that penetrate the physical barrier of the teat canal. Evasion of neutrophil defenses provides an opportunity for invading bacteria to become established. Depletion of neutrophils results in a dramatic increase in susceptibility to intramammary infection. Numerous cytoplasmic particles are shed from the apical surface of mammary secretory cells during milk secretion in goats. Only those counting methods that are specific for deoxyribonucleic acid can distinguish cell-like particles from somatic cells and thereby give reliable estimates of somatic cell numbers in goat milk. Unlike in milk from dairy cows, the somatic cell count in goat milk is influenced by the presence of nucleated cytoplasmic particles, stage of lactation, parity, and caprine arthritis-encephalitis. Investigations indicate that a dry period is necessary for optimal milk production in dairy cows but may not be necessary in goats. However, in many other respects regulation of bovine and caprine lactation seems to be quite similar. Studies have demonstrated additive galactopoietic effects of growth hormone and frequent milking in both species and a recently isolated chemical feedback inhibitor of lactation seems effective across both species. Increasing lactational performance has the potential for decreasing milk somatic cell counts in late lactation. PMID:9051480

  17. Bacterial viruses against viruses pathogenic for man?

    PubMed

    Miedzybrodzki, Ryszard; Fortuna, Wojciech; Weber-Dabrowska, Beata; Gorski, Andrzej

    2005-06-01

    In this review, we discuss possible models of bacteriophage-virus interactions. The first is based on the mechanism by which phages may interact indirectly with viruses. Its essence is that bacteriophage-derived nucleic acid may inhibit pathogenic virus infection. It seems that this phenomenon can be partly explained on the basis of interferon induction. We also discuss a study by Borecky's group (conducted over two decades ago) which provided some clinical data on the effectiveness of the application of native bacteriophage RNA in the treatment of viral infections. The second interaction model is based on the direct competition of bacteriophages and viruses for cellular receptors for viral cell-entry. The use of bacteriophages as inducers or displayers of antibodies with antiviral action is considered as the third model. In this part of the article, we also discuss other data and hypotheses on conceivable interactions between bacterial and animal viruses. As our current supply of antiviral drugs is quite limited, using natural agents such as bacteriophages as a weapon against pathogenic viruses could be an attractive and cost-efficient alternative, and further studies are urgently needed to test this possibility. PMID:15845250

  18. Water system virus detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fraser, A. S.; Wells, A. F.; Tenoso, H. J. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    The performance of a waste water reclamation system is monitored by introducing a non-pathogenic marker virus, bacteriophage F2, into the waste-water prior to treatment and, thereafter, testing the reclaimed water for the presence of the marker virus. A test sample is first concentrated by absorbing any marker virus onto a cellulose acetate filter in the presence of a trivalent cation at low pH and then flushing the filter with a limited quantity of a glycine buffer solution to desorb any marker virus present on the filter. Photo-optical detection of indirect passive immune agglutination by polystyrene beads indicates the performance of the water reclamation system in removing the marker virus. A closed system provides for concentrating any marker virus, initiating and monitoring the passive immune agglutination reaction, and then flushing the system to prepare for another sample.

  19. DNA Virus Replication Compartments

    PubMed Central

    Schmid, Melanie; Speiseder, Thomas; Dobner, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Viruses employ a variety of strategies to usurp and control cellular activities through the orchestrated recruitment of macromolecules to specific cytoplasmic or nuclear compartments. Formation of such specialized virus-induced cellular microenvironments, which have been termed viroplasms, virus factories, or virus replication centers, complexes, or compartments, depends on molecular interactions between viral and cellular factors that participate in viral genome expression and replication and are in some cases associated with sites of virion assembly. These virus-induced compartments function not only to recruit and concentrate factors required for essential steps of the viral replication cycle but also to control the cellular mechanisms of antiviral defense. In this review, we summarize characteristic features of viral replication compartments from different virus families and discuss similarities in the viral and cellular activities that are associated with their assembly and the functions they facilitate for viral replication. PMID:24257611

  20. Constructing computer virus phylogenies

    SciTech Connect

    Goldberg, L.A.; Goldberg, P.W.; Phillips, C.A.; Sorkin, G.B.

    1996-03-01

    There has been much recent algorithmic work on the problem of reconstructing the evolutionary history of biological species. Computer virus specialists are interested in finding the evolutionary history of computer viruses--a virus is often written using code fragments from one or more other viruses, which are its immediate ancestors. A phylogeny for a collection of computer viruses is a directed acyclic graph whose nodes are the viruses and whose edges map ancestors to descendants and satisfy the property that each code fragment is ``invented`` only once. To provide a simple explanation for the data, we consider the problem of constructing such a phylogeny with a minimal number of edges. In general, this optimization problem cannot be solved in quasi-polynomial time unless NQP=QP; we present positive and negative results for associated approximated problems. When tree solutions exist, they can be constructed and randomly sampled in polynomial time.

  1. Viruses in Antarctic lakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kepner, R. L. Jr; Wharton, R. A. Jr; Suttle, C. A.; Wharton RA, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    Water samples collected from four perennially ice-covered Antarctic lakes during the austral summer of 1996-1997 contained high densities of extracellular viruses. Many of these viruses were found to be morphologically similar to double-stranded DNA viruses that are known to infect algae and protozoa. These constitute the first observations of viruses in perennially ice-covered polar lakes. The abundance of planktonic viruses and data suggesting substantial production potential (relative to bacteria] secondary and photosynthetic primary production) indicate that viral lysis may be a major factor in the regulation of microbial populations in these extreme environments. Furthermore, we suggest that Antarctic lakes may be a reservoir of previously undescribed viruses that possess novel biological and biochemical characteristics.

  2. Vaccinia virus transcription.

    PubMed

    Broyles, Steven S

    2003-09-01

    Vaccinia virus replication takes place in the cytoplasm of the host cell. The nearly 200 kbp genome owes part of its complexity to encoding most of the proteins involved in genome and mRNA synthesis. The multisubunit vaccinia virus RNA polymerase requires a separate set of virus-encoded proteins for the transcription of the early, intermediate and late classes of genes. Cell fractionation studies have provided evidence for a role for host cell proteins in the initiation and termination of vaccinia virus intermediate and late gene transcription. Vaccinia virus resembles nuclear DNA viruses in the integration of viral and host proteins for viral mRNA synthesis, yet is markedly less reliant on host proteins than its nuclear counterparts. PMID:12917449

  3. Zika virus - an overview.

    PubMed

    Zanluca, Camila; Dos Santos, Claudia Nunes Duarte

    2016-05-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is currently one of the most important emerging viruses in the world. Recently, it has caused outbreaks and epidemics, and has been associated with severe clinical manifestations and congenital malformations. However to date, little is known about the pathogenicity of the virus and the consequences of ZIKV infection. In this paper, we provide an overview of the current knowledge on ZIKV. PMID:26993028

  4. The human oncogenic viruses

    SciTech Connect

    Luderer, A.A.; Weetall, H.H

    1986-01-01

    This book contains eight selections. The titles are: Cytogenetics of the Leukemias and Lymphomas; Cytogenetics of Solid Tumors: Renal Cell Carcinoma, Malignant Melanoma, Retinoblastoma, and Wilms' Tumor; Elucidation of a Normal Function for a Human Proto-Oncogene; Detection of HSV-2 Genes and Gene Products in Cervical Neoplasia; Papillomaviruses in Anogennital Neoplasms; Human Epstein-Barr Virus and Cancer; Hepatitis B Virus and Hepatocellular Carcinoma; and Kaposi's Sarcoma: Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and Associated Viruses.

  5. Testing for Human Immunodeficiency Virus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Physicians patient education Fact Sheet PFS005: Testing for Human Immunodeficiency Virus AUGUST 2015 • Reasons for Getting Tested • ... HIV Testing • For More Information • Glossary Testing for Human Immunodeficiency Virus Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the ...

  6. Water system virus detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fraser, A. S.; Wells, A. F.; Tenoso, H. J.

    1975-01-01

    A monitoring system developed to test the capability of a water recovery system to reject the passage of viruses into the recovered water is described. A nonpathogenic marker virus, bacteriophage F2, is fed into the process stream before the recovery unit and the reclaimed water is assayed for its presence. Detection of the marker virus consists of two major components, concentration and isolation of the marker virus, and detection of the marker virus. The concentration system involves adsorption of virus to cellulose acetate filters in the presence of trivalent cations and low pH with subsequent desorption of the virus using volumes of high pH buffer. The detection of the virus is performed by a passive immune agglutination test utilizing specially prepared polystyrene particles. An engineering preliminary design was performed as a parallel effort to the laboratory development of the marker virus test system. Engineering schematics and drawings of a fully functional laboratory prototype capable of zero-G operation are presented. The instrument consists of reagent pump/metering system, reagent storage containers, a filter concentrator, an incubation/detector system, and an electronic readout and control system.

  7. Cutthroat Trout Virus

    Electron micrograph of the cutthroat trout virus (CTV) showing the small, round virions of approximately 30 nanometers in diameter containing a single-stranded RNA genome. CTV, whose genome was first characterized by USGS researchers, is being used in research into the human virus Hepatitis E....

  8. INFLUENZA VIRUS IN POULTRY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) is normally found in wild birds, particularly in ducks and shorebirds, where it does not cause any perceptible clinical disease. However, poultry, including chickens and turkeys, are not normal hosts for avian influenza, but if the virus is introduced it can result in mi...

  9. Densonucleosis Virus Structural Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, D. C.; Moore, N. F.; Spilling, C. R.; Barwise, A. H.; Walker, I. O.

    1980-01-01

    The protein coats of two densonucleosis viruses (types 1 and 2) were examined by a variety of biophysical, biochemical, and serological techniques. The viruses were 24 nm in diameter, contained at least four polypeptides, were remarkably stable to extremes of pH and denaturing agents, and were serologically closely related. The two viruses could, however, be distinguished serologically and by differences in migration of their structural polypeptides. For each virus the “top component” (i.e., the protein coat minus DNA, found occurring naturally in infections) appeared to have a composition identical to that of the coat of the virus and was a more stable structure. Electrometric titration curves of the virus particles and top components demonstrated that the DNA phosphate in densonucleosis virus particles was neutralized by cations other than basic amino acid side chains of the protein coat. Circular dichroism studies showed that there was a conformational difference between the protein coats of top components and virus particles. Images PMID:16789202

  10. Papaya ringspot virus (Potyviridae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Papaya ringspot virus, a member of the family Potyviridae, is single stranded RNA plant virus with a monocistronic genome of about 10,326 nucleotides that is expressed via a large polyprotein subsequently cleaved into functional proteins. It causes severe damage on cucurbit crops such as squash and...

  11. HORDEUM MOSAIC VIRUS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A brief technical description of Hordeum mosaic virus (HoMV) is presented. Described are biological properties, genome organization, and phylogenetic relationships among HoMV and other potyvirus species. HoMV is designated as a definitive member of the genus Rymovirus within the plant virus family ...

  12. RYEGRASS MOSAIC VIRUS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A brief technical description of Ryegrass mosaic virus (RGMV) is presented. Described are biological properties, genome organization, and phylogenetic relationships among RGMV and other potyvirus species. RGMV is designated as a the type species of the genus Rymovirus within the plant virus family ...

  13. Papaya Ringspot Virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The term papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) was coined by Jensen in 1949, to describe a papaya disease in Hawaii. Later work showed that diseases such as papaya mosaic and watermelon mosaic virus-1 were caused by PRSV. The primary host range of PRSV is papaya and cucurbits, with Chenopium amaranticolor ...

  14. Influenza A virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Influenza A viruses are important veterinary and human health pathogens around the world. Avian influenza (AI) virus in poultry is unusual in that it can cause a range of disease symptoms from a subclinical infection to being highly virulent with 100% mortality. The difference between low pathogen...

  15. Barley Yellow Dwarf Virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Barley yellow dwarf (BYD) is the most widespread and economically important virus disease of cereals. The viruses causing BYD were initially grouped based on common biological properties, including persistent and often strain-specific transmission by aphids and induction of yellowing symptoms. The...

  16. Positive reinforcement for viruses

    PubMed Central

    Vigant, Frederic; Jung, Michael; Lee, Benhur

    2010-01-01

    Summary Virus-cell membrane fusion requires a critical transition from positive to negative membrane curvature. St. Vincent et al., in PNAS (St Vincent, et al., 2010), designed a class of antivirals that targets this transition. These Rigid Amphipathic Fusion Inhibitors are active against an array of enveloped viruses. PMID:21035726

  17. Rift Valley Fever Virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is a mosquito-transmitted virus or arbovirus that is endemic in sub-Saharan Africa. In the last decade, Rift Valley fever (RVF) outbreaks have resulted in loss of human and animal life, as well as had significant economic impact. The disease in livestock is primarily a...

  18. Equine Arteritis Virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    03. Nidovirales : 03.004. Arteriviridae : 03.004.0. {03.004.0. unknown} : 03.004.0.01. Arterivirus : 03.004.0.01.001. Equine arteritis virus will be published online. The article details the phenotypic and genotypic makeup of equine arteritis virus (EAV), and summarizes its biological properties....

  19. EPIDEMIOLOGY OF RETICULOENDOTHELIOSIS VIRUS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) is an avian retrovirus unrelated to the leukosis/sarcoma group of viruses. REV infects chickens, turkeys, ducks, geese, pheasants, quail, and probably many other avian species . The most common clinical diseases induced by REV are chronic lymphomas and an immunosupp...

  20. Newcastle disease virus (velogens)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is also known as avian paramyxovirus serotype-1 (APMV-1). While all NDV are referred to as APMV-1 and are of one serotype, only infections with virulent NDV (vNDV) cause Newcastle disease (ND). Newcastle disease virus strains are defined as virulent if they 1) have th...

  1. Bovine viral diarrhea viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infections with bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) result in significant economic losses for beef and dairy producers worldwide. BVDV is actually an umbrella term for two species of viruses, BVDV1 and BVDV2, within the Pestivirus genus of the Flavivirus family. While denoted as a bovine pathogen...

  2. Virus separation using membranes.

    PubMed

    Grein, Tanja A; Michalsky, Ronald; Czermak, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Industrial manufacturing of cell culture-derived viruses or virus-like particles for gene therapy or vaccine production are complex multistep processes. In addition to the bioreactor, such processes require a multitude of downstream unit operations for product separation, concentration, or purification. Similarly, before a biopharmaceutical product can enter the market, removal or inactivation of potential viral contamination has to be demonstrated. Given the complexity of biological solutions and the high standards on composition and purity of biopharmaceuticals, downstream processing is the bottleneck in many biotechnological production trains. Membrane-based filtration can be an economically attractive and efficient technology for virus separation. Viral clearance, for instance, of up to seven orders of magnitude has been reported for state of the art polymeric membranes under best conditions.This chapter summarizes the fundamentals of virus ultrafiltration, diafiltration, or purification with adsorptive membranes. In lieu of an impractical universally applicable protocol for virus filtration, application of these principles is demonstrated with two examples. The chapter provides detailed methods for production, concentration, purification, and removal of a rod-shaped baculovirus (Autographa californica M nucleopolyhedrovirus, about 40 × 300 nm in size, a potential vector for gene therapy, and an industrially important protein expression system) or a spherical parvovirus (minute virus of mice, 22-26 nm in size, a model virus for virus clearance validation studies). PMID:24297430

  3. Hepatitis B Virus Biology

    PubMed Central

    Seeger, Christoph; Mason, William S.

    2000-01-01

    Hepadnaviruses (hepatitis B viruses) cause transient and chronic infections of the liver. Transient infections run a course of several months, and chronic infections are often lifelong. Chronic infections can lead to liver failure with cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The replication strategy of these viruses has been described in great detail, but virus-host interactions leading to acute and chronic disease are still poorly understood. Studies on how the virus evades the immune response to cause prolonged transient infections with high-titer viremia and lifelong infections with an ongoing inflammation of the liver are still at an early stage, and the role of the virus in liver cancer is still elusive. The state of knowledge in this very active field is therefore reviewed with an emphasis on past accomplishments as well as goals for the future. PMID:10704474

  4. Virus expression vectors.

    PubMed

    Hefferon, Kathleen L

    2014-05-01

    For many years now, virus expression vectors have been explored as a mechanism for gene delivery, cancer therapy and vaccine development. More recently, the next generation of virus vectors have been generated that possess greater attributes such as tissue specificity and improved expression levels, while at the same time lack many of the shortcomings of their predecessors, such as issues regarding immunogenicity and safety. This review article describes several of the recent patents that have been issued in the field of virus expression vector development. Innovations in both plant and animal virus expression vectors are covered. The review concludes with a discussion of future prospects of virus expression vectors as tools in medical research. PMID:24998286

  5. Akabane virus infection.

    PubMed

    Kirkland, P D

    2015-08-01

    Akabane virus is a Culicoides-borne orthobunyavirus that is teratogenic to the fetus of cattle and small ruminant species. Depending upon the stage of gestation atwhich infection occurs, and the length of gestation of the mammalian host, a range of congenital defects may be observed. The developing central nervous system is usually the most severely affected, with hydranencephaly and arthrogryposis most frequently observed. Less commonly, some strains of Akabane virus can cause encephalitis in the neonate or, rarely, adult cattle. Akabane viruses are known to be widespread in temperate and tropical regions of Australia, Southeast Asia, the Middle East and some African countries. Disease is infrequently observed in regions where this virus is endemic and the presence of the virus remains unrecognised in the absence of serological surveillance. In some Asian countries, vaccines are used to minimise the occurrence of disease. PMID:26601444

  6. Virus excretion in smallpox

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, J. K.; Mitra, A. C.; Mukherjee, M. K.; De, S. K.

    1973-01-01

    Throat swabs of 34 of 328 family contacts of 52 smallpox cases, examined 4-8 days after the onset of the disease in the family, were positive for variola virus. The log titre of virus per swab ranged from 2 to 3.95. A higher proportion of unvaccinated than of vaccinated contacts excreted the virus. Only 4 of the virus-positive contacts developed clinical smallpox; this occurred 5-7 days after their swabs were examined. Excretion of virus in the throats of these contacts, a few of whom were in the incubation period of the disease, suggests the possibility that they could have spread the infection. This possibility, if kept in mind, may help in tracing the source of infection or in determining the incubation period in a few instances when difficulty is experienced. PMID:4359679

  7. Tembusu Virus in Ducks, China

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Zhenzhen; Zhang, Cun; Liu, Yuehuan; Ye, Weicheng; Han, Jingwen; Ma, Guoming; Zhang, Dongdong; Xu, Feng; Gao, Xuhui; Tang, Yi; Shi, Shaohua; Wan, Chunhe; Zhang, Chen; He, Bin; Yang, Mengjie; Lu, Xinhao; Huang, Yu; Diao, Youxiang; Ma, Xuejun

    2011-01-01

    In China in 2010, a disease outbreak in egg-laying ducks was associated with a flavivirus. The virus was isolated and partially sequenced. The isolate exhibited 87%–91% identity with strains of Tembusu virus, a mosquito-borne flavivirus of the Ntaya virus group. These findings demonstrate emergence of Tembusu virus in ducks. PMID:22000358

  8. Realms of the Viruses Online

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Dennis

    2007-01-01

    Viruses have evolved strategies for infecting all taxa, but most viruses are highly specific about their cellular host. In humans, viruses cause diverse diseases, from chronic but benign warts, to acute and deadly hemorrhagic fever. Viruses have entertaining names like Zucchini Yellow Mosaic, Semliki Forest, Coxsackie, and the original terminator,…

  9. A Virus in Turbo Pascal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teleky, Heidi Ann; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Addresses why the authors feel it is not inappropriate to teach about viruses in the how-to, hands-on fashion. Identifies the special features of Turbo Pascal that have to be used for the creation of an effective virus. Defines virus, derives its structure, and from this structure is derived the implemented virus. (PR)

  10. Computer Viruses: Pathology and Detection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, John R.; Lamon, William E.

    1992-01-01

    Explains how computer viruses were originally created, how a computer can become infected by a virus, how viruses operate, symptoms that indicate a computer is infected, how to detect and remove viruses, and how to prevent a reinfection. A sidebar lists eight antivirus resources. (four references) (LRW)

  11. Realms of the Viruses Online

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Dennis

    2007-01-01

    Viruses have evolved strategies for infecting all taxa, but most viruses are highly specific about their cellular host. In humans, viruses cause diverse diseases, from chronic but benign warts, to acute and deadly hemorrhagic fever. Viruses have entertaining names like Zucchini Yellow Mosaic, Semliki Forest, Coxsackie, and the original terminator,

  12. Ocular Tropism of Respiratory Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Rota, Paul A.; Tumpey, Terrence M.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Respiratory viruses (including adenovirus, influenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus, coronavirus, and rhinovirus) cause a broad spectrum of disease in humans, ranging from mild influenza-like symptoms to acute respiratory failure. While species D adenoviruses and subtype H7 influenza viruses are known to possess an ocular tropism, documented human ocular disease has been reported following infection with all principal respiratory viruses. In this review, we describe the anatomical proximity and cellular receptor distribution between ocular and respiratory tissues. All major respiratory viruses and their association with human ocular disease are discussed. Research utilizing in vitro and in vivo models to study the ability of respiratory viruses to use the eye as a portal of entry as well as a primary site of virus replication is highlighted. Identification of shared receptor-binding preferences, host responses, and laboratory modeling protocols among these viruses provides a needed bridge between clinical and laboratory studies of virus tropism. PMID:23471620

  13. Viruses in reptiles

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The etiology of reptilian viral diseases can be attributed to a wide range of viruses occurring across different genera and families. Thirty to forty years ago, studies of viruses in reptiles focused mainly on the zoonotic potential of arboviruses in reptiles and much effort went into surveys and challenge trials of a range of reptiles with eastern and western equine encephalitis as well as Japanese encephalitis viruses. In the past decade, outbreaks of infection with West Nile virus in human populations and in farmed alligators in the USA has seen the research emphasis placed on the issue of reptiles, particularly crocodiles and alligators, being susceptible to, and reservoirs for, this serious zoonotic disease. Although there are many recognised reptilian viruses, the evidence for those being primary pathogens is relatively limited. Transmission studies establishing pathogenicity and cofactors are likewise scarce, possibly due to the relatively low commercial importance of reptiles, difficulties with the availability of animals and permits for statistically sound experiments, difficulties with housing of reptiles in an experimental setting or the inability to propagate some viruses in cell culture to sufficient titres for transmission studies. Viruses as causes of direct loss of threatened species, such as the chelonid fibropapilloma associated herpesvirus and ranaviruses in farmed and wild tortoises and turtles, have re-focused attention back to the characterisation of the viruses as well as diagnosis and pathogenesis in the host itself. 1. Introduction 2. Methods for working with reptilian viruses 3. Reptilian viruses described by virus families 3.1. Herpesviridae 3.2. Iridoviridae 3.2.1 Ranavirus 3.2.2 Erythrocytic virus 3.2.3 Iridovirus 3.3. Poxviridae 3.4. Adenoviridae 3.5. Papillomaviridae 3.6. Parvoviridae 3.7. Reoviridae 3.8. Retroviridae and inclusion body disease of Boid snakes 3.9. Arboviruses 3.9.1. Flaviviridae 3.9.2. Togaviridae 3.10. Caliciviridae 3.11. Picornaviridae 3.12. Paramyxoviridae 4. Summary 5. Acknowledgements 6. Competing interests 7. References PMID:21933449

  14. West Nile virus.

    PubMed

    McVey, D S; Wilson, W C; Gay, C G

    2015-08-01

    This review covers the basic biology of the West Nile virus and the host-vector-pathogen interactions that result in significant disease in wild birds, horses and humans. The review describes the basic properties of the virus, cellular infection and the pathogenesis of the disease, and the ecology of virus maintenance, amplification and transmission. Disease epidemiology and risk estimation strategies that are currently in use are also examined, and host immune responses and vaccination practices described. The principles of vector control, exposure control and long-term risks caused by climatic and habitat factors are also included. PMID:26601446

  15. Hepatitis B virus (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Hepatitis B is also known as serum hepatitis and is spread through blood and sexual contact. It is ... population. This photograph is an electronmicroscopic image of hepatitis B virus particles. (Image courtesy of the Centers for ...

  16. Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV)

    MedlinePlus

    ... A Though more common near the lips, grouped blisters (vesicles) can occur anywhere in herpes infections. Overview ... which are also called cold sores or fever blisters. Either herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) ...

  17. The dengue viruses.

    PubMed Central

    Henchal, E A; Putnak, J R

    1990-01-01

    Dengue, a major public health problem throughout subtropical and tropical regions, is an acute infectious disease characterized by biphasic fever, headache, pain in various parts of the body, prostration, rash, lymphadenopathy, and leukopenia. In more severe or complicated dengue, patients present with a severe febrile illness characterized by abnormalities of hemostasis and increased vascular permeability, which in some instances results in a hypovolemic shock. Four distinct serotypes of the dengue virus (dengue-1, dengue-2, dengue-3, and dengue-4) exist, with numerous virus strains found worldwide. Molecular cloning methods have led to a greater understanding of the structure of the RNA genome and definition of virus-specific structural and nonstructural proteins. Progress towards producing safe, effective dengue virus vaccines, a goal for over 45 years, has been made. Images PMID:2224837

  18. Zika Virus Infection

    MedlinePlus

    ... provide technical support for pilot studies of new mosquito control technologies Llaman a incorporar al zika en la ... of Disease Still Unclear PAHO answers questions about mosquito control for Zika Virus Sesame Street Muppets Join PAHO ...

  19. Sexually transmitted viruses.

    PubMed Central

    Rapp, F.

    1989-01-01

    Human viruses known to be spread by sexual contact include herpes simplex viruses (HSV), papillomaviruses (HPV), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus, and cytomegalovirus. Infections with the first three (HSV, HPV, and HIV) have reached epidemic proportions and pose global health concerns. Most of what we know about these human pathogens has been learned only recently, owing to the advent of DNA technologies and advances in culture techniques. In fact, our awareness of one virally transmitted venereal disease, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, dates to the early 1980s. This paper touches on various aspects of the biology, pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, and, where applicable, oncogenicity of these agents, as well as current treatments and vaccine initiatives. PMID:2549736

  20. [Zika, a neurotropic virus?].

    PubMed

    Del Carpio-Orantes, Luis

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the neurotropism potential Zika virus is discussed, by comparison with viruses both RNA and DNA are neurotropic known, also it is said that compared with the new viruses that have affected the Americas, as the chikungunya, Zika has shown great affinity by brain tissue, manifested by a high incidence of acute neurological conditions, such as Guillain-Barré syndrome, among others, as well as the reported incidence of microcephaly that is abnormally high compared with the previous incidence, which, in a stillborn subject necropsied significant alterations demonstrated in brain tissue, identifying viral material and live virus in the fetoplacental complex, and demonstrating the impact both white matter and gray matter as well as basal ganglia, corpus callosum, ventricles and spinal cord, which could explain the microcephaly that concerns him. Although not a direct cause-effect relationship is demonstrated, however current evidence supports that relationship, hoping to be supported scientifically. PMID:27197113

  1. Hepatitis virus panel

    MedlinePlus

    Hepatitis A antibody test; Hepatitis B antibody test; Hepatitis C antibody test; Hepatitis D antibody test ... Blood (serology) tests are used to check for antibodies to each of the hepatitis viruses.

  2. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)

    MedlinePlus

    ... RSV often spreads quickly in crowded households and day care centers. The virus can live for a half ... The following increase the risk for RSV: Attending day care Being near tobacco smoke Having school-aged brothers ...

  3. Virus Chapter: Iflaviridae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The iflaviruses comprise viruses isolated from arthropod species of agricultural importance. All members of iflaviruses have a genome arrangement similar to the picornaviruses, ootyviruses, and secoviruses. However, phylogenetic analysis using the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase region showed that th...

  4. Impression materials and virus.

    PubMed

    Gerhardt, D E; Sydiskis, R J

    1991-05-01

    Results of this study indicate that impression materials vary in their ability to absorb and retain virus. Disinfection procedures specific for each material or groups of materials should be developed. PMID:2045601

  5. Simian hemorrhagic fever virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This book chapter describes the taxonomic classification of Simian hemorrhagic fever virus (SHFV). Included are: host, genome, classification, morphology, physicochemical and physical properties, nucleic acid, proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, geographic range, phylogenetic properties, biological pro...

  6. What's West Nile Virus?

    MedlinePlus

    ... is caused by a bite from an infected mosquito that's already carrying the virus, but it's important ... the risk of being bitten by an infected mosquito is greatest from July to early September. But ...

  7. Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) and Removal of Contaminated Waste Guidance for Handling Untreated Sewage FAQs: Interim Guidance ... in the U.S. Guidance for Cleaning, Disinfection, and Waste Disposal in Commercial Passenger Aircraft Diagnosis Treatment Sierra ...

  8. West Nile virus.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Grant L; Marfin, Anthony A; Lanciotti, Robert S; Gubler, Duane J

    2002-09-01

    West Nile (WN) virus is a mosquito-borne flavivirus and human, equine, and avian neuropathogen. The virus is indigenous to Africa, Asia, Europe, and Australia, and has recently caused large epidemics in Romania, Russia, and Israel. Birds are the natural reservoir (amplifying) hosts, and WN virus is maintained in nature in a mosquito-bird-mosquito transmission cycle primarily involving Culex sp mosquitoes. WN virus was recently introduced to North America, where it was first detected in 1999 during an epidemic of meningoencephalitis in New York City. During 1999-2002, the virus extended its range throughout much of the eastern parts of the USA, and its range within the western hemisphere is expected to continue to expand. During 1999-2001, 142 cases of neuroinvasive WN viral disease of the central nervous system (including 18 fatalities), and seven cases of uncomplicated WN fever were reported in the USA. Most human WN viral infections are subclinical but clinical infections can range in severity from uncomplicated WN fever to fatal meningoencephalitis; the incidence of severe neuroinvasive disease and death increase with age. Serology remains the mainstay of laboratory diagnosis. No WN virus-specific treatment or vaccine is available. Prevention depends on organised, sustained vector mosquito control, and public education. PMID:12206968

  9. Viruses and multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Virtanen, Jussi Oskari; Jacobson, Steve

    2012-08-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a heterogeneous disease that develops as an interplay between the immune system and environmental stimuli in genetically susceptible individuals. There is increasing evidence that viruses may play a role in MS pathogenesis acting as these environmental triggers. However, it is not known if any single virus is causal, or rather several viruses can act as triggers in disease development. Here, we review the association of different viruses to MS with an emphasis on two herpesviruses, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6). These two agents have generated the most impact during recent years as possible co-factors in MS disease development. The strongest argument for association of EBV with MS comes from the link between symptomatic infectious mononucleosis and MS and from seroepidemiological studies. In contrast to EBV, HHV-6 has been found significantly more often in MS plaques than in MS normal appearing white matter or non-MS brains and HHV-6 re-activation has been reported during MS clinical relapses. In this review we also suggest new strategies, including the development of new infectious animal models of MS and antiviral MS clinical trials, to elucidate roles of different viruses in the pathogenesis of this disease. Furthermore, we introduce the idea of using unbiased sequence-independent pathogen discovery methodologies, such as next generation sequencing, to study MS brain tissue or body fluids for detection of known viral sequences or potential novel viral agents. PMID:22583435

  10. Virus templated metallic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aljabali, Alaa A. A.; Barclay, J. Elaine; Lomonossoff, George P.; Evans, David J.

    2010-12-01

    Plant viruses are considered as nanobuilding blocks that can be used as synthons or templates for novel materials. Cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) particles have been shown to template the fabrication of metallic nanoparticles by an electroless deposition metallization process. Palladium ions were electrostatically bound to the virus capsid and, when reduced, acted as nucleation sites for the subsequent metal deposition from solution. The method, although simple, produced highly monodisperse metallic nanoparticles with a diameter of ca. <=35 nm. CPMV-templated particles were prepared with cobalt, nickel, iron, platinum, cobalt-platinum and nickel-iron.Plant viruses are considered as nanobuilding blocks that can be used as synthons or templates for novel materials. Cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) particles have been shown to template the fabrication of metallic nanoparticles by an electroless deposition metallization process. Palladium ions were electrostatically bound to the virus capsid and, when reduced, acted as nucleation sites for the subsequent metal deposition from solution. The method, although simple, produced highly monodisperse metallic nanoparticles with a diameter of ca. <=35 nm. CPMV-templated particles were prepared with cobalt, nickel, iron, platinum, cobalt-platinum and nickel-iron. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Additional experimental detail, agarose gel electrophoresis results, energy dispersive X-ray spectra, ζ-potential measurements, dynamic light scattering data, nanoparticle tracking analysis and an atomic force microscopy image of Ni-CPMV. See DOI: 10.1039/c0nr00525h

  11. Tick-borne viruses*

    PubMed Central

    Work, Telford H.

    1963-01-01

    More than 150 arthropod-borne viruses are now recognized, and over 50 of these are known to produce human infections and disease. Among these viruses are those of the tick-borne Russian spring-summer complex, which is etiologically involved in a wide variety of human diseases of varying severity. The eight antigenically different members of this complex so far known are Russian spring-summer encephalitis, louping-ill, Central European encephalitis, Omsk haemorrhagic fever, Kyasanur Forest disease, Langat, Negishi and Powassan viruses. In his review of the problems posed by these viruses and of research on them, the author points out that, while this complex is distributed around the globe in the temperate zone of the northern hemisphere, the only serious tick-borne virus disease known in the tropics is Kyasanur Forest disease. It is probable, however, that there are other, unrecognized tick-borne viruses in the tropical areas of Asia, Africa and America of importance to human health, and that these will be brought to light as virological studies of diseases of now obscure etiology are pursued. PMID:14043753

  12. Smaller Fleas: Viruses of Microorganisms

    PubMed Central

    Hyman, Paul; Abedon, Stephen T.

    2012-01-01

    Life forms can be roughly differentiated into those that are microscopic versus those that are not as well as those that are multicellular and those that, instead, are unicellular. Cellular organisms seem generally able to host viruses, and this propensity carries over to those that are both microscopic and less than truly multicellular. These viruses of microorganisms, or VoMs, in fact exist as the world's most abundant somewhat autonomous genetic entities and include the viruses of domain Bacteria (bacteriophages), the viruses of domain Archaea (archaeal viruses), the viruses of protists, the viruses of microscopic fungi such as yeasts (mycoviruses), and even the viruses of other viruses (satellite viruses). In this paper we provide an introduction to the concept of viruses of microorganisms, a.k.a., viruses of microbes. We provide broad discussion particularly of VoM diversity. VoM diversity currently spans, in total, at least three-dozen virus families. This is roughly ten families per category—bacterial, archaeal, fungal, and protist—with some virus families infecting more than one of these microorganism major taxa. Such estimations, however, will vary with further discovery and taxon assignment and also are dependent upon what forms of life one includes among microorganisms. PMID:24278736

  13. Influenza Type A Viruses and Subtypes

    MedlinePlus

    ... What's this? Submit Button Past Newsletters Influenza Type A Viruses Language: English Español Recommend on Facebook ... known influenza type A viruses. Subtypes of Influenza A Viruses Influenza A viruses are divided into subtypes ...

  14. Avian Influenza A Virus Infections in Humans

    MedlinePlus

    ... Past Newsletters Avian Influenza A Virus Infections in Humans Language: English Español Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... A Viruses Avian Influenza A Virus Infections in Humans Although avian influenza A viruses usually do not ...

  15. Equine arteritis virus.

    PubMed

    Glaser, A L; Chirnside, E D; Horzinek, M C; de Vries, A A

    1997-04-15

    Equine arteritis virus (EAV) is a small, enveloped, positive-stranded RNA virus, in the family Arteriviridae , W.H.ich can infect both horses and donkeys. While the majority of EAV infections are asymptomatic, acutely infected animals may develop a wide range of clinical signs, including pyrexia, limb and ventral edema, depression, rhinitis, and conjunctivitis. The virus may cause abortion and has caused mortality in neonates. After natural EAV infection, most horses develop a solid, long-term immunity to the disease. Marzz and geldings eliminate the virus within 60 days, but 30 to 60% of acutely infected stallions will become persistently infected. These persistently infected animals maintain EAV within the reproductive tract, shed virus continuously in the semen, and can transmit the virus venereally. Mares infected venereally may not have clinical signs, but they shed large amounts of virus in nasopharyngeal secretions and in urine, which may result in lateral spread of the infection by an aerosol route. The consequences of venereally acquired infection are minimal, with no known effects on conception rate, but mares infected at a late stages of gestation may abort. Identification of carrier stallions is crucial to control the dissemination of EAV. The stallions can be identified by serological screening using a virus neutralization (VN) test. If positive at a titer of >/= 1:4, the stallion should be tested for persistent infection by virus isolation from the sperm-rich fraction of the ejaculate, or by test mating Shedding stallions should not be used for breeding, or should be bred only to mares seropositive from a natural infection or from vaccination, the mares should be subsequently isolated from seronegative horses for three weeks after natural or artificial insemination. A live attenuated (ARVAC) and a formalin-inactivated (ARTERVAC) vaccine are available. Both vaccines induce virus-neutralizing antibodies, the presence of which correlates with protection from disease, abortion, and the development of a persistent infection. Serological investigations indicate that EAV has a worldwide distribution and that its prevalence is increasing. As a consequence, an increasing number of equine viral arteritis (EVA) outbreaks is being reported. This trend is likely to continue unless action is taken to slow or halt the transmission of this agent through semen. PMID:16728076

  16. [Zika virus infection during pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Picone, O; Vauloup-Fellous, C; D'Ortenzio, E; Huissoud, C; Carles, G; Benachi, A; Faye, A; Luton, D; Paty, M-C; Ayoubi, J-M; Yazdanpanah, Y; Mandelbrot, L; Matheron, S

    2016-05-01

    A Zika virus epidemic is currently ongoing in the Americas. This virus is linked to congenital infections with potential severe neurodevelopmental dysfunction. However, incidence of fetal infection and whether this virus is responsible of other fetal complications are still unknown. National and international public health authorities recommend caution and several prevention measures. Declaration of Zika virus infection is now mandatory in France. Given the available knowledge on Zika virus, we suggest here a review of the current recommendations for management of pregnancy in case of suspicious or infection by Zika virus in a pregnant woman. PMID:27079865

  17. Recombinant vaccinia virus/Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) virus protects mice from peripheral VEE virus challenge.

    PubMed Central

    Kinney, R M; Esposito, J J; Mathews, J H; Johnson, B J; Roehrig, J T; Barrett, A D; Trent, D W

    1988-01-01

    Mice immunized with recombinant vaccinia virus (VACC) expressing Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) virus capsid protein and glycoproteins E1 and E2 or with attenuated VEE TC-83 virus vaccine developed VEE-specific neutralizing antibody and survived intraperitoneal challenge with virulent VEE virus strains including Trinidad donkey (subtype 1AB), P676 (subtype 1C), 3880 (subtype 1D), and Everglades (subtype 2). However, unlike immunization with TC-83 virus, immunization with the recombinant VACC/VEE virus did not protect mice from intranasal challenge with VEE Trinidad donkey virus. These results suggest that recombinant VACC/VEE virus is a vaccine candidate for equines and humans at risk of mosquito-transmitted VEE disease but not for laboratory workers at risk of accidental exposure to aerosol infection with VEE virus. PMID:3184276

  18. Recombinant Vaccinia Virus: Immunization against Multiple Pathogens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perkus, Marion E.; Piccini, Antonia; Lipinskas, Bernard R.; Paoletti, Enzo

    1985-09-01

    The coding sequences for the hepatitis B virus surface antigen, the herpes simplex virus glycoprotein D, and the influenza virus hemagglutinin were inserted into a single vaccinia virus genome. Rabbits inoculated intravenously or intradermally with this polyvalent vaccinia virus recombinant produced antibodies reactive to all three authentic foreign antigens. In addition, the feasibility of multiple rounds of vaccination with recombinant vaccinia virus was demonstrated.

  19. Attenuation of Vaccinia Virus.

    PubMed

    Yakubitskiy, S N; Kolosova, I V; Maksyutov, R A; Shchelkunov, S N

    2015-01-01

    Since 1980, in the post-smallpox vaccination era the human population has become increasingly susceptible compared to a generation ago to not only the variola (smallpox) virus, but also other zoonotic orthopoxviruses. The need for safer vaccines against orthopoxviruses is even greater now. The Lister vaccine strain (LIVP) of vaccinia virus was used as a parental virus for generating a recombinant 1421ABJCN clone defective in five virulence genes encoding hemagglutinin (A56R), the IFN-γ-binding protein (B8R), thymidine kinase (J2R), the complement-binding protein (C3L), and the Bcl-2-like inhibitor of apoptosis (N1L). We found that disruption of these loci does not affect replication in mammalian cell cultures. The isogenic recombinant strain 1421ABJCN exhibits a reduced inflammatory response and attenuated neurovirulence relative to LIVP. Virus titers of 1421ABJCN were 3 lg lower versus the parent VACV LIVP when administered by the intracerebral route in new-born mice. In a subcutaneous mouse model, 1421ABJCN displayed levels of VACV-neutralizing antibodies comparable to those of LIVP and conferred protective immunity against lethal challenge by the ectromelia virus. The VACV mutant holds promise as a safe live vaccine strain for preventing smallpox and other orthopoxvirus infections. PMID:26798498

  20. Dengue virus pirates human platelets.

    PubMed

    Rondina, Matthew T; Weyrich, Andrew S

    2015-07-16

    In this issue of Blood, Simon and colleagues provide the first proof that dengue virus (DENV) raids platelets and steals their translational machinery to replicate and produce infectious virus. PMID:26185116

  1. Chlorella viruses isolated in China

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Y.; Burbank, D.E.; Van Etten, J.L. )

    1988-09-01

    Plaque-forming viruses of the unicellular, eukaryotic, exsymbiotic, Chlorella-like green algae strain NC64A, which are common in the United States, were also present in fresh water collected in the People's Republic of China. Seven of the Chinese viruses were examined in detail and compared with the Chlorella viruses previously isolated in the United States. Like the American viruses, the Chinese viruses were large polyhedra and sensitive to chloroform. They contained numerous structural proteins and large double-stranded DNA genomes of at least 300 kilobase pairs. Each of the DNAs from the Chinese viruses contained 5-methyldeoxycytosine, which varied from 12.6 to 46.7% of the deoxycytosine, and N{sup 6}-methyldeoxyadenosine, which varied from 2.2 to 28.3% of the deoxyadenosine. Four of the Chinese virus DNAs hybridized extensively with {sup 32}P-labeled DNA from the American virus PBCV-1, and three hybridized poorly.

  2. Production of virus resistant plants

    DOEpatents

    Dougherty, W.G.; Lindbo, J.A.

    1996-12-10

    A method of suppressing virus gene expression in plants using untranslatable plus sense RNA is disclosed. The method is useful for the production of plants that are resistant to virus infection. 9 figs.

  3. Herpes Simplex Virus (Cold Sores)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Text Size Email Print Share Herpes Simplex Virus (Cold Sores) Page Content Article Body Herpes simplex viruses ( ... or inside the mouth, they are commonly called cold sores or fever blisters. In most cases, these ...

  4. Special Issue: Honey Bee Viruses.

    PubMed

    Gisder, Sebastian; Genersch, Elke

    2015-10-01

    Pollination of flowering plants is an important ecosystem service provided by wild insect pollinators and managed honey bees. Hence, losses and declines of pollinating insect species threaten human food security and are of major concern not only for apiculture or agriculture but for human society in general. Honey bee colony losses and bumblebee declines have attracted intensive research interest over the last decade and although the problem is far from being solved we now know that viruses are among the key players of many of these bee losses and bumblebee declines. With this special issue on bee viruses we, therefore, aimed to collect high quality original papers reflecting the current state of bee virus research. To this end, we focused on newly discovered viruses (Lake Sinai viruses, bee macula-like virus), or a so far neglected virus species (Apis mellifera filamentous virus), and cutting edge technologies (mass spectrometry, RNAi approach) applied in the field. PMID:26702462

  5. Special Issue: Honey Bee Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Gisder, Sebastian; Genersch, Elke

    2015-01-01

    Pollination of flowering plants is an important ecosystem service provided by wild insect pollinators and managed honey bees. Hence, losses and declines of pollinating insect species threaten human food security and are of major concern not only for apiculture or agriculture but for human society in general. Honey bee colony losses and bumblebee declines have attracted intensive research interest over the last decade and although the problem is far from being solved we now know that viruses are among the key players of many of these bee losses and bumblebee declines. With this special issue on bee viruses we, therefore, aimed to collect high quality original papers reflecting the current state of bee virus research. To this end, we focused on newly discovered viruses (Lake Sinai viruses, bee macula-like virus), or a so far neglected virus species (Apis mellifera filamentous virus), and cutting edge technologies (mass spectrometry, RNAi approach) applied in the field. PMID:26702462

  6. Transcriptomic analysis of responses to cytopathic bovine viral diarrhea virus-1 (BVDV-1) infection in MDBK cells.

    PubMed

    Villalba, Melina; Fredericksen, Fernanda; Otth, Carola; Olavarría, Víctor

    2016-03-01

    The bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is responsible for significant economic losses in the dairy and cattle industry; however, little is known about the protective and pathological responses of hosts to infection. The present study determined the principal molecular markers implicated in viral infection through meta-transcriptomic analysis using MDBK cells infected for two hours with a field isolate of BVDV-1. While several immune regulator genes were induced, genes involved in cell signaling, metabolic processes, development, and integrity were down-regulated, suggesting an isolation of infected cells from cell-to-cell interactions and responses to external signals. Analysis through RT-qPCR confirmed the expression of more than one hundred markers. Interestingly, there was a significant up-regulation of two negative NF-κB regulators, IER3 and TNFAIP3, indicating a possible blocking of this signaling pathway mediated by BVDV-1 infection. Additionally, several genes involved in the metabolism of reactive oxygen species were down-regulated, suggesting increased oxidative stress. Notably, a number of genes involved in cellular growth and development were also regulated during infection, including MTHFD1L, TGIF1, and Brachyury. Moreover, there was an increased expression of the genes β-catenin, caprin-2, GSK3β, and MMP-7, all of which are crucial to the Wnt signaling pathway that is implicated in the embryonic development of a variety of organisms. This meta-transcriptomic analysis provides the first data towards understanding the infection mechanisms of cytopathic BVDV-1 and the putative molecular relationship between viral and host components. PMID:26919728

  7. [Diversification of influenza viruses].

    PubMed

    Marian, Constantin V; Mihăescu, Grigore

    2009-01-01

    The presence of flu in humankind history was cited by numerous sources (the oldest known source was written by Hyppocrates, in 412 BC), but the epidemic impact could be measured only starting with the XVIII-th century, after the pandemics from 1729 - 1733 (with estimates of about two million deaths). Nowadays, health scientists dispenses vaccines, containing the antigenes of the viruses responsible with the flu in the last winter mixed with other two major flu-types. The effect of the current flu vaccines extends over about six months from the moment of innoculation. The reason of that short effectiveness of the vaccines is given by ability of viruses to change themselves very quickly. There are two ways through which the virus can astonish the victim antibodies (humans or animals): the mutation (named antigenic drift) and the genetic recombination of the genomic segments from different strains (named antigenic shift). PMID:20422926

  8. Oncolytic viruses: finally delivering

    PubMed Central

    Seymour, Leonard W; Fisher, Kerry D

    2016-01-01

    Oncolytic viruses can be found at the confluence of virology, genetic engineering and pharmacology where versatile platforms for molecularly targeted anticancer agents can be designed and optimised. Oncolytic viruses offer several important advantages over traditional approaches, including the following. (1) Amplification of the active agent (infectious virus particles) within the tumour. This avoids unnecessary exposure to normal tissues experienced during delivery of traditional stoichiometric chemotherapy and maximises the therapeutic index. (2) The active cell-killing mechanisms, often independent of programmed death mechanisms, should decrease the emergence of acquired drug resistance. (3) Lytic death of cancer cells provides a pro-inflammatory microenvironment and the potential for induction of an anticancer vaccine response. (4) Tumour-selective expression and secretion of encoded anticancer biologics, providing a new realm of potent and cost-effective-targeted therapeutics. PMID:26766734

  9. Oncolytic viruses: finally delivering.

    PubMed

    Seymour, Leonard W; Fisher, Kerry D

    2016-02-16

    Oncolytic viruses can be found at the confluence of virology, genetic engineering and pharmacology where versatile platforms for molecularly targeted anticancer agents can be designed and optimised. Oncolytic viruses offer several important advantages over traditional approaches, including the following. (1) Amplification of the active agent (infectious virus particles) within the tumour. This avoids unnecessary exposure to normal tissues experienced during delivery of traditional stoichiometric chemotherapy and maximises the therapeutic index. (2) The active cell-killing mechanisms, often independent of programmed death mechanisms, should decrease the emergence of acquired drug resistance. (3) Lytic death of cancer cells provides a pro-inflammatory microenvironment and the potential for induction of an anticancer vaccine response. (4) Tumour-selective expression and secretion of encoded anticancer biologics, providing a new realm of potent and cost-effective-targeted therapeutics. PMID:26766734

  10. Avian influenza virus RNA extraction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The efficient extraction and purification of viral RNA is critical for down-stream molecular applications whether it is the sensitive and specific detection of virus in clinical samples, virus gene cloning and expression, or quantification of avian influenza (AI) virus by molecular methods from expe...

  11. Computer Bytes, Viruses and Vaccines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmore, Teddy B.

    1989-01-01

    Presents a history of computer viruses, explains various types of viruses and how they affect software or computer operating systems, and describes examples of specific viruses. Available vaccines are explained, and precautions for protecting programs and disks are given. (nine references) (LRW)

  12. Raspberry latent virus in Rubus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Raspberry latent virus (RpLV) is a recently characterized virus reported from the Pacific Northwest, including Oregon and Washington in the United States and British Columbia in Canada. The virus appears to spread rapidly in the Fraser River Valley (northwest Washington and southwest British Columb...

  13. Protecting Your Computer from Viruses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Descy, Don E.

    2006-01-01

    A computer virus is defined as a software program capable of reproducing itself and usually capable of causing great harm to files or other programs on the same computer. The existence of computer viruses--or the necessity of avoiding viruses--is part of using a computer. With the advent of the Internet, the door was opened wide for these…

  14. Pathobiology of avian influenza viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza virus causes serious disease in a wide variety of birds and mammals. Its natural hosts are wild aquatic birds, in which most infections are unapparent. Avian Influenza (AI) viruses are classified into 16 hemagglutinin (H1-16) and nine neuraminidase (N1-9) subtypes. Each virus has on...

  15. Virus infection improves drought tolerance.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ping; Chen, Fang; Mannas, Jonathan P; Feldman, Tracy; Sumner, Lloyd W; Roossinck, Marilyn J

    2008-01-01

    Viruses are obligate intracellular symbionts. Plant viruses are often discovered and studied as pathogenic parasites that cause diseases in agricultural plants. However, here it is shown that viruses can extend survival of their hosts under conditions of abiotic stress that could benefit hosts if they subsequently recover and reproduce. Various plant species were inoculated with four different RNA viruses, Brome mosaic virus (BMV), Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), Tobacco mosaic virus and Tobacco rattle virus. The inoculated plants were stressed by withholding water. The onset of drought symptoms in virus-infected plants was compared with that in the plants that were inoculated with buffer (mock-inoculated plants). Metabolite profiling analysis was conducted and compared between mock-inoculated and virus-infected plants before and after being subjected to drought stress. In all cases, virus infection delayed the appearance of drought symptoms. Beet plants infected with CMV also exhibited significantly improved tolerance to freezing. Metabolite profiling analysis showed an increase in several osmoprotectants and antioxidants in BMV-infected rice and CMV-infected beet plants before and after drought stress. These results indicate that virus infection improves plant tolerance to abiotic stress, which correlates with increased osmoprotectant and antioxidant levels in infected plants. PMID:18823313

  16. An introduction to computer viruses

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, D.R.

    1992-03-01

    This report on computer viruses is based upon a thesis written for the Master of Science degree in Computer Science from the University of Tennessee in December 1989 by David R. Brown. This thesis is entitled An Analysis of Computer Virus Construction, Proliferation, and Control and is available through the University of Tennessee Library. This paper contains an overview of the computer virus arena that can help the reader to evaluate the threat that computer viruses pose. The extent of this threat can only be determined by evaluating many different factors. These factors include the relative ease with which a computer virus can be written, the motivation involved in writing a computer virus, the damage and overhead incurred by infected systems, and the legal implications of computer viruses, among others. Based upon the research, the development of a computer virus seems to require more persistence than technical expertise. This is a frightening proclamation to the computing community. The education of computer professionals to the dangers that viruses pose to the welfare of the computing industry as a whole is stressed as a means of inhibiting the current proliferation of computer virus programs. Recommendations are made to assist computer users in preventing infection by computer viruses. These recommendations support solid general computer security practices as a means of combating computer viruses.

  17. The biology of influenza viruses.

    PubMed

    Bouvier, Nicole M; Palese, Peter

    2008-09-12

    The influenza viruses are characterized by segmented, negative-strand RNA genomes requiring an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase of viral origin for replication. The particular structure ofthe influenza virus genome and function of its viral proteins enable antigenic drift and antigenic shift. These processes result in viruses able to evade the long-term adaptive immune responses in many hosts. PMID:19230160

  18. Protecting Your Computer from Viruses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Descy, Don E.

    2006-01-01

    A computer virus is defined as a software program capable of reproducing itself and usually capable of causing great harm to files or other programs on the same computer. The existence of computer viruses--or the necessity of avoiding viruses--is part of using a computer. With the advent of the Internet, the door was opened wide for these

  19. Ipomoviruses: Squash vein yellowing virus, Cucumber vein yellowing virus, Cassava brown streak virus, and Ugandan cassava brown streak virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ipomoviruses including Squash vein yellowing virus, Cucumber vein yellowing virus and Cassava brown streak virus are currently causing significant economic impact on crop production in several regions of the world. Only recently have results of detailed characterization of their whitefly transmissi...

  20. Schmallenberg virus infection.

    PubMed

    Wernike, K; Elbers, A; Beer, M

    2015-08-01

    Since Schmallenberg virus, an orthobunyavirus of the Simbu serogroup, was identified near the German-Dutch border for the first time in late 2011 it has spread extremely quickly and caused a large epidemic in European livestock. The virus, which is transmitted by Culicoides biting midges, infects domestic and wild ruminants. Adult animals show only mild clinical symptoms or none at all, whereas an infection during a critical period of gestation can lead to abortion, stillbirth or the birth of severely malformed offspring. The impact of the disease is usually greater in sheep than in cattle. Vaccination could be an important aspect of disease control. PMID:26601441

  1. Zika Virus and Microcephaly.

    PubMed

    Rubin, Eric J; Greene, Michael F; Baden, Lindsey R

    2016-03-10

    Zika virus has been sweeping through South and Central America, with more than a million suspected cases during the past few months, along with a substantial increase in reporting of infants born with microcephaly.(1),(2) Thus far, the two outbreaks have largely been epidemiologically associated in time and geography. However, Mlakar and colleagues(3) now report in the Journal molecular genetic and electron-microscopic data from a case that helps to strengthen the biologic association. This group cared for a pregnant European woman in whom a syndrome compatible with Zika virus infection developed at 13 weeks of gestation while she was working ... PMID:26862812

  2. Viruses and viral proteins

    PubMed Central

    Verdaguer, Nuria; Ferrero, Diego; Murthy, Mathur R. N.

    2014-01-01

    For more than 30 years X-ray crystallography has been by far the most powerful approach for determining the structures of viruses and viral proteins at atomic resolution. The information provided by these structures, which covers many important aspects of the viral life cycle such as cell-receptor recognition, viral entry, nucleic acid transfer and genome replication, has extensively enriched our vision of the virus world. Many of the structures available correspond to potential targets for antiviral drugs against important human pathogens. This article provides an overview of the current knowledge of different structural aspects of the above-mentioned processes. PMID:25485129

  3. Zika virus outside Africa.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Edward B

    2009-09-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is a flavivirus related to yellow fever, dengue, West Nile, and Japanese encephalitis viruses. In 2007 ZIKV caused an outbreak of relatively mild disease characterized by rash, arthralgia, and conjunctivitis on Yap Island in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. This was the first time that ZIKV was detected outside of Africa and Asia. The history, transmission dynamics, virology, and clinical manifestations of ZIKV disease are discussed, along with the possibility for diagnostic confusion between ZIKV illness and dengue.The emergence of ZIKV outside of its previously known geographic range should prompt awareness of the potential for ZIKV to spread to other Pacific islands and the Americas. PMID:19788800

  4. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Prevention.

    PubMed

    Davis, Teaniese Latham; DiClemente, Ralph

    2016-04-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the virus that causes AIDS. Surveillance data from 2012 indicate an estimated 1.2 million people aged 13 years and older were living with HIV infection in the United States, and 12.8% do not know their status. There are approximately 50,000 new HIV infections annually. With no available cure for HIV, primary prevention to reduce incident cases of HIV is essential. Strategies to prevent HIV transmission include reducing sexual risk behavior and needle sharing. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has multiple resources available for primary and secondary prevention to reduce disease transmission and severity. PMID:26980130

  5. Zika Virus Outside Africa

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is a flavivirus related to yellow fever, dengue, West Nile, and Japanese encephalitis viruses. In 2007 ZIKV caused an outbreak of relatively mild disease characterized by rash, arthralgia, and conjunctivitis on Yap Island in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. This was the first time that ZIKV was detected outside of Africa and Asia. The history, transmission dynamics, virology, and clinical manifestations of ZIKV disease are discussed, along with the possibility for diagnostic confusion between ZIKV illness and dengue.The emergence of ZIKV outside of its previously known geographic range should prompt awareness of the potential for ZIKV to spread to other Pacific islands and the Americas. PMID:19788800

  6. Barley yellow dwarf viruses.

    PubMed

    Miller, W A; Rasochová, L

    1997-01-01

    Barley yellow dwarf viruses represent one of the most economically important and ubiquitous groups of plant viruses. This review focuses primarily on four research areas in which progress has been most rapid. These include (a) evidence supporting reclassification of BYDVs into two genera; (b) elucidation of gene function and novel mechanisms controlling gene expression; (c) initial forays into understanding the complex interactions between BYDV virions and their aphid vectors; and (d) replication of a BYDV satellite RNA. Economic losses, symptomatology, and means of control of BYD are also discussed. PMID:15012520

  7. Research on computer virus database management system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Guoquan

    2011-12-01

    The growing proliferation of computer viruses becomes the lethal threat and research focus of the security of network information. While new virus is emerging, the number of viruses is growing, virus classification increasing complex. Virus naming because of agencies' capture time differences can not be unified. Although each agency has its own virus database, the communication between each other lacks, or virus information is incomplete, or a small number of sample information. This paper introduces the current construction status of the virus database at home and abroad, analyzes how to standardize and complete description of virus characteristics, and then gives the information integrity, storage security and manageable computer virus database design scheme.

  8. Junín Virus Pathogenesis and Virus Replication

    PubMed Central

    Grant, Ashley; Seregin, Alexey; Huang, Cheng; Kolokoltsova, Olga; Brasier, Allan; Peters, Clarence; Paessler, Slobodan

    2012-01-01

    Junín virus, the etiological agent of Argentine hemorrhagic fever, causes significant morbidity and mortality. The virus is spread through the aerosolization of host rodent excreta and endemic to the humid pampas of Argentina. Recently, significant progress has been achieved with the development of new technologies (e.g. reverse genetics) that have expanded knowledge about the pathogenesis and viral replication of Junín virus. We will review the pathogenesis of Junín virus in various animal models and the role of innate and adaptive immunity during infection. We will highlight current research regarding the role of molecular biology of Junín virus in elucidating virus attenuation. We will also summarize current knowledge on Junín virus pathogenesis focusing on the recent development of vaccines and potential therapeutics. PMID:23202466

  9. Infectious virus-antibody complexes of sindbis virus.

    PubMed Central

    Symington, J; McCann, A K; Schlesinger, M J

    1977-01-01

    Infectious virus-antibody complexes were formed when Sindbis virus was reacted with antibodies raised against purified viral envelope glycoproteins E1 and E2 as well as against preparations of intact virus. Results from rate zonal centrifugation in sucrose gradients of the complex formed with anti-E1 sera showed this complex to be about the same size as virions. A test of virus neutralization, based on direct plaque assay, by antibodies raised in rabbits and mice given virus in complete Freund adjuvant indicated the presence of antibodies able to complex but not neutralize virus. Conditions were found in which most of the virus was complexed and protected fron neutralization, suggesting that these sera may contain a mixed population of antiviral antibodies with different specificities and different avidities. PMID:870428

  10. Virus species and virus identification: past and current controversies.

    PubMed

    Van Regenmortel, M H V

    2007-01-01

    The basic concepts used in virus classification are analyzed. A clear distinction is drawn between viruses that are real, concrete objects studied by virologists and virus species that are man-made taxonomic constructions that exist only in the mind. Classical views regarding the nature of biological species are reviewed and the concept of species used in virology is explained. The use of pair-wise sequence comparisons between the members of a virus family for delineating species and genera is reviewed. The difference between the process of virus identification using one or a few diagnostic properties and the process of creating virus taxa using a combination of many properties is emphasized. The names of virus species in current use are discussed as well as a binomial system that may be introduced in the future. PMID:16713373

  11. RNA-mediated virus resistance.

    PubMed

    Vazquez Rovere, Cecilia; del Vas, Mariana; Hopp, H Esteban

    2002-04-01

    Post-transcriptional gene silencing is an RNA degradation mechanism that can be induced by viruses. Recent evidence indicates that silencing may also be involved in virus synergism, tissue limitation of virus spread, non-host resistance, virus transmission through seeds and in more general mechanisms of defense such as that mediated by salicylic acid. The analysis of Arabidopsis mutants, and of viruses carrying silencing suppressors, has led to a greater understanding of post-transcriptional gene silencing pathways. Much still remains to be discovered, however, not least to allow the successful exploitation of gene silencing in conferring pathogen resistance to transgenic plants. PMID:11950571

  12. The games plant viruses play.

    PubMed

    Elena, Santiago F; Bernet, Guillermo P; Carrasco, José L

    2014-10-01

    Mixed virus infections in plants are common in nature. The outcome of such virus-virus interactions ranges from cooperation and coexistence (synergism) to mutual exclusion (antagonism). A priori, the outcome of mixed infections is hard to predict. To date, the analyses of plant virus mixed infections were limited to reports of emerging symptoms and/or to qualitative, at best quantitative, descriptions of the accumulation of both viruses. Here, we show that evolutionary game theory provides an adequate theoretical framework to analyze mixed viral infections and to predict the long-term evolution of the mixed populations. PMID:25062019

  13. Honey Bee Viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Viruses are significant threats to the health and well-being of the honey bee, Apis mellifera. To alleviate the threats posed by these invasive organisms, a better understanding of bee viral infections will be of crucial importance in developing effective and environmentally-benign disease control ...

  14. Human Viruses and Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Morales-Snchez, Abigail; Fuentes-Panan, Ezequiel M.

    2014-01-01

    The first human tumor virus was discovered in the middle of the last century by Anthony Epstein, Bert Achong and Yvonne Barr in African pediatric patients with Burkitts lymphoma. To date, seven viruses -EBV, KSHV, high-risk HPV, MCPV, HBV, HCV and HTLV1- have been consistently linked to different types of human cancer, and infections are estimated to account for up to 20% of all cancer cases worldwide. Viral oncogenic mechanisms generally include: generation of genomic instability, increase in the rate of cell proliferation, resistance to apoptosis, alterations in DNA repair mechanisms and cell polarity changes, which often coexist with evasion mechanisms of the antiviral immune response. Viral agents also indirectly contribute to the development of cancer mainly through immunosuppression or chronic inflammation, but also through chronic antigenic stimulation. There is also evidence that viruses can modulate the malignant properties of an established tumor. In the present work, causation criteria for viruses and cancer will be described, as well as the viral agents that comply with these criteria in human tumors, their epidemiological and biological characteristics, the molecular mechanisms by which they induce cellular transformation and their associated cancers. PMID:25341666

  15. From Shakespeare to Viruses

    ScienceCinema

    Kim, Sung-Hou

    2013-05-29

    Berkeley Lab scientists have created a unique new tool for analyzing and comparing long sets of data, be it the genomes of mammals or viruses, or the works of Shakespeare. The results of the Shakespeare analysis surprised scholars with their accuracy.

  16. Turnip Yellow Mosaic Virus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The bumpy exterior of the turnip yellow mosaic virus (TYMV) protein coat, or capsid, was defined in detail by Dr. Alexander McPherson of the University of California, Irvin using proteins crystallized in space for analysis on Earth. TYMV is an icosahedral virus constructed from 180 copies of the same protein arranged into 12 clusters of five proteins (pentamers), and 20 clusters of six proteins (hexamers). The final TYMV structure led to the unexpected hypothesis that the virus releases its RNA by essentially chemical-mechanical means. Most viruses have fairly flat coats, but in TYNV, the fold in each protein, called the jellyroll, is clustered at the points where the protein pentamers and hexamers join. The jellyrolls are almost standing on end, producing a bumpy surface with knobs at all of the pentamers and hexamers. At the inside surface of the pentamers is a void that is not present at the hexamers. The coating had been seen in early stuties of TYMV, but McPherson's atomic structure shows much more detail. The inside surface is strikingly, and unexpectedly, different than the outside. While the pentamers contain a central void on the inside, the hexameric units contain peptides linked to each other, forming a ring or, more accurately, rings to fill the void. Credit: Dr. Alexander McPherson, University of California, Irvine

  17. Virus Chapter: Dicistrovidae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Dicistroviridae family comprises viruses infecting both beneficial arthropods such as honey bees and shrimp and insect pests of medical and agricultural importance. During the last five years, advances in sequencing and phylogenetic analysis have led to the discovery and identification of sever...

  18. Newcastle disease virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Newcastle disease virus (NDV), a member of the Avulavirus genus in the Paramyxoviridae family, has a ribonucleic acid (RNA) genome that is negative sense, non-segmented, and single-stranded. The genome codes for six structural proteins: nucleocapsid, phosphoprotein, matrix, fusion, hemagglutinin-neu...

  19. From Shakespeare to Viruses

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Sung-Hou

    2009-01-01

    Berkeley Lab scientists have created a unique new tool for analyzing and comparing long sets of data, be it the genomes of mammals or viruses, or the works of Shakespeare. The results of the Shakespeare analysis surprised scholars with their accuracy.

  20. Cold Facts about Viruses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pea, Celeste; Sterling, Donna R.

    2002-01-01

    Provides ways for students to demonstrate their understanding of scientific concepts and skills. Describes a mini-unit around the cold in which students can relate humans to viruses. Includes activities and a modified simulation that provides questions to guide students. Discusses ways that allows students to apply prior knowledge, take ownership…

  1. From Shakespeare to Viruses

    SciTech Connect

    Sung-Hou Kim

    2009-02-09

    Berkeley Lab scientists have created a unique new tool for analyzing and comparing long sets of data, be it the genomes of mammals or viruses, or the works of Shakespeare. The results of the Shakespeare analysis surprised scholars with their accuracy

  2. Wineberry latent virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wineberry latent virus (WLV) was discovered in a single symptomless plant of wineberry, Rubus phoenicolasius, which was growing in an experimental planting in Scotland. The plant originated in the United States, where wineberry is established in the wild in the Northeast. Experimentally, WLV can be ...

  3. Varicella zoster virus latency

    PubMed Central

    Eshleman, Emily; Shahzad, Aamir; Cohrs, Randall J

    2011-01-01

    Primary infection by varicella zoster virus (VZV) typically results in childhood chickenpox, at which time latency is established in the neurons of the cranial nerve, dorsal root and autonomic ganglia along the entire neuraxis. During latency, the histone-associated virus genome assumes a circular episomal configuration from which transcription is epigenetically regulated. The lack of an animal model in which VZV latency and reactivation can be studied, along with the difficulty in obtaining high-titer cell-free virus, has limited much of our understanding of VZV latency to descriptive studies of ganglia removed at autopsy and analogy to HSV-1, the prototype alphaherpesvirus. However, the lack of miRNA, detectable latency-associated transcript and T-cell surveillance during VZV latency highlight basic differences between the two neurotropic herpesviruses. This article focuses on VZV latency: establishment, maintenance and reactivation. Comparisons are made with HSV-1, with specific attention to differences that make these viruses unique human pathogens. PMID:21695042

  4. Tomato ringspot virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tomato ringspot virus (ToRSV) causes a nematode-vectored disease of highbush blueberry in New York, Oregon, Pennsylvania and Washington in the United States but has not been reported elsewhere in the world on this crop or on other Vaccinium spp. The occurrence and intensity of symptoms vary among b...

  5. Viruses of Haloarchaea

    PubMed Central

    Luk, Alison W. S.; Williams, Timothy J.; Erdmann, Susanne; Papke, R. Thane; Cavicchioli, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    In hypersaline environments, haloarchaea (halophilic members of the Archaea) are the dominant organisms, and the viruses that infect them, haloarchaeoviruses are at least ten times more abundant. Since their discovery in 1974, described haloarchaeoviruses include head-tailed, pleomorphic, spherical and spindle-shaped morphologies, representing Myoviridae, Siphoviridae, Podoviridae, Pleolipoviridae, Sphaerolipoviridae and Fuselloviridae families. This review overviews current knowledge of haloarchaeoviruses, providing information about classification, morphotypes, macromolecules, life cycles, genetic manipulation and gene regulation, and host-virus responses. In so doing, the review incorporates knowledge from laboratory studies of isolated viruses, field-based studies of environmental samples, and both genomic and metagenomic analyses of haloarchaeoviruses. What emerges is that some haloarchaeoviruses possess unique morphological and life cycle properties, while others share features with other viruses (e.g., bacteriophages). Their interactions with hosts influence community structure and evolution of populations that exist in hypersaline environments as diverse as seawater evaporation ponds, to hot desert or Antarctic lakes. The discoveries of their wide-ranging and important roles in the ecology and evolution of hypersaline communities serves as a strong motivator for future investigations of both laboratory-model and environmental systems. PMID:25402735

  6. Virus-induced thyroiditis.

    PubMed

    Srinivasappa, J; Garzelli, C; Onodera, T; Ray, U; Notkins, A L

    1988-02-01

    Mice infected with reovirus type 1 developed a mild thyroiditis characterized by focal destruction of acinar tissue, infiltration of inflammatory cells, and autoantibodies to thyroglobulin and microsomal antigens. Thyroid involvement appears to be part of a more generalized virus-induced polyendocrine disease. PMID:2828004

  7. Using viruses as nanomedicines

    PubMed Central

    van Kan-Davelaar, H E; van Hest, J C M; Cornelissen, J J L M; Koay, M S T

    2014-01-01

    The field of nanomedicine involves the design and fabrication of novel nanocarriers for the intracellular delivery of therapeutic cargo or for use in molecular diagnostics. Although traditionally recognized for their ability to invade and infect host cells, viruses and bacteriophages have been engineered over the past decade as highly promising molecular platforms for the targeted delivery and treatment of many human diseases. Inherently biodegradable, the outer capsids of viruses are composed entirely of protein building blocks, which can be genetically or chemically engineered with molecular imaging reagents, targeting ligands and therapeutic molecules. While there are several examples of viruses as in vitro molecular cargo carriers, their potential for applications in nanomedicine has only recently emerged. Here we highlight recent developments towards the design and engineering of viruses for the treatment of cancer, bacterial infections and immune system-related diseases. Linked Articles This article is part of a themed section on Nanomedicine. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2014.171.issue-17 PMID:24571489

  8. VIRUS PERSISTENCE IN GROUNDWATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of the study was to determine whether measurable chemical and physical factors correlate with virus survival in groundwater. Groundwater samples were obtained from 11 sites throughout the United States. Water temperature was measured at the time of collection. Several...

  9. GENOME OF HORSEPOX VIRUS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Here we present the genomic sequence of horsepox virus (HSPV) isolate MNR-76, an orthopoxvirus (OPV) isolated in 1976 from diseased Mongolian horses. The 212 kbp genome contained 7.5 kbp inverted terminal repeats (ITR) and lacked extensive terminal tandem repetition. HSPV contained 236 ORFs with sim...

  10. Satellite RNAs and Satellite Viruses.

    PubMed

    Palukaitis, Peter

    2016-03-01

    Satellite RNAs and satellite viruses are extraviral components that can affect either the pathogenicity, the accumulation, or both of their associated viruses while themselves being dependent on the associated viruses as helper viruses for their infection. Most of these satellite RNAs are noncoding RNAs, and in many cases, have been shown to alter the interaction of their helper viruses with their hosts. In only a few cases have the functions of these satellite RNAs in such interactions been studied in detail. In particular, work on the satellite RNAs of Cucumber mosaic virus and Turnip crinkle virus have provided novel insights into RNAs functioning as noncoding RNAs. These effects are described and potential roles for satellite RNAs in the processes involved in symptom intensification or attenuation are discussed. In most cases, models describing these roles involve some aspect of RNA silencing or its suppression, either directly or indirectly involving the particular satellite RNA. PMID:26551994

  11. Bat flight and zoonotic viruses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Shea, Thomas; Cryan, Paul M.; Cunningham, Andrew A.; Fooks, Anthony R.; Hayman, David T.S.; Luis, Angela D.; Peel, Alison J.; Plowright, Raina K.; Wood, James L.N.

    2014-01-01

    Bats are sources of high viral diversity and high-profile zoonotic viruses worldwide. Although apparently not pathogenic in their reservoir hosts, some viruses from bats severely affect other mammals, including humans. Examples include severe acute respiratory syndrome coronaviruses, Ebola and Marburg viruses, and Nipah and Hendra viruses. Factors underlying high viral diversity in bats are the subject of speculation. We hypothesize that flight, a factor common to all bats but to no other mammals, provides an intensive selective force for coexistence with viral parasites through a daily cycle that elevates metabolism and body temperature analogous to the febrile response in other mammals. On an evolutionary scale, this host–virus interaction might have resulted in the large diversity of zoonotic viruses in bats, possibly through bat viruses adapting to be more tolerant of the fever response and less virulent to their natural hosts.

  12. Bat Flight and Zoonotic Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Cryan, Paul M.; Cunningham, Andrew A.; Fooks, Anthony R.; Hayman, David T.S.; Luis, Angela D.; Peel, Alison J.; Plowright, Raina K.; Wood, James L.N.

    2014-01-01

    Bats are sources of high viral diversity and high-profile zoonotic viruses worldwide. Although apparently not pathogenic in their reservoir hosts, some viruses from bats severely affect other mammals, including humans. Examples include severe acute respiratory syndrome coronaviruses, Ebola and Marburg viruses, and Nipah and Hendra viruses. Factors underlying high viral diversity in bats are the subject of speculation. We hypothesize that flight, a factor common to all bats but to no other mammals, provides an intensive selective force for coexistence with viral parasites through a daily cycle that elevates metabolism and body temperature analogous to the febrile response in other mammals. On an evolutionary scale, this host–virus interaction might have resulted in the large diversity of zoonotic viruses in bats, possibly through bat viruses adapting to be more tolerant of the fever response and less virulent to their natural hosts. PMID:24750692

  13. Plant virus replication and movement.

    PubMed

    Heinlein, Manfred

    2015-05-01

    Replication and intercellular spread of viruses depend on host mechanisms supporting the formation, transport and turnover of functional complexes between viral genomes, virus-encoded products and cellular factors. To enhance these processes, viruses assemble and replicate in membrane-associated complexes that may develop into "virus factories" or "viroplasms" in which viral components and host factors required for replication are concentrated. Many plant viruses replicate in association with the cortical ER-actin network that is continuous between cells through plasmodesmata. The replication complexes can be highly organized and supported by network interactions between the viral genome and the virus-encoded proteins. Intracellular PD targeting of replication complexes links the process of movement to replication and provides specificity for transport of the viral genome by the virus-encoded movement proteins. The formation and trafficking of replication complexes and also the development and anchorage of replication factories involves important roles of the cortical cytoskeleton and associated motor proteins. PMID:25746797

  14. Caprine leptospirosis: Hematobiochemical and urinalyses studies

    PubMed Central

    Vihol, Priti Dilipsinh; Patel, Jignesh M.; Patel, Jatin H.; Prasad, Mahesh C.; Kalyani, Irsadullakhan H.; Brahmkshtri, Balkrushna P.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The present study was designed to evaluate clinicopathological alterations in naturally occurring leptospirosis in goats of South Gujarat region, Gujarat. Materials and Methods: A total 459 blood/serum and 292 urine samples were collected from different districts of South Gujarat region, India. Blood/serum and urine samples were subjected to hematobiochemical analyses and urinalyses. The serum samples were screened for anti-leptospiral antibodies using the microscopic agglutination test (MAT). On the bases of presence or absence of anti-leptospiral antibodies in serum, seropositive and seronegative groups were made. The results were analyzed using standard statistical methods to know pathological changes in the disease. Results: In MAT, out of 459, 116 goats were seropositive, and 343 were seronegative. In hematobiochemical analyses, statistically significant (p<0.01) decrease in values of packed cell volume, hemoglobin (Hb) concentration, mean corpuscular Hb concentration and total protein and increased activity/level of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and total bilirubin between seropositive and seronegative goats were noted. Urinalyses did not reveal any specific changes. In the dark field microscopy, urine samples were found to be negative for leptospires. Conclusion: Hematobiochemical changes noted in seropositive goats were indicative of hepatic damage, and this knowledge would aid in the therapeutic management of the disease. PMID:27057122

  15. Viruses and neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases (NDs) are chronic degenerative diseases of the central nervous system (CNS), which affect 37 million people worldwide. As the lifespan increases, the NDs are the fourth leading cause of death in the developed countries and becoming increasingly prevalent in developing countries. Despite considerable research, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Although the large majority of studies do not show support for the involvement of pathogenic aetiology in classical NDs, a number of emerging studies show support for possible association of viruses with classical neurodegenerative diseases in humans. Space does not permit for extensive details to be discussed here on non-viral-induced neurodegenerative diseases in humans, as they are well described in literature. Viruses induce alterations and degenerations of neurons both directly and indirectly. Their ability to attack the host immune system, regions of nervous tissue implies that they can interfere with the same pathways involved in classical NDs in humans. Supporting this, many similarities between classical NDs and virus-mediated neurodegeneration (non-classical) have been shown at the anatomic, sub-cellular, genomic and proteomic levels suggesting that viruses can explain neurodegenerative disorders mechanistically. The main objective of this review is to provide readers a detailed snapshot of similarities viral and non-viral neurodegenerative diseases share, so that mechanistic pathways of neurodegeneration in human NDs can be clearly understood. Viruses can guide us to unveil these pathways in human NDs. This will further stimulate the birth of new concepts in the biological research, which is needed for gaining deeper insights into the treatment of human NDs and delineate mechanisms underlying neurodegeneration. PMID:23724961

  16. Viruses and bacteriophages.

    PubMed

    Kott, Y

    1981-04-01

    Many of the enteric viruses which are transmitted from person to person by the fecal-oral route are found in raw and treated wastewater, and because of their persistence under adverse conditions may also be found in slightly polluted waters. There is no routine examination procedure of water and wastewater for enteroviruses, mainly because of the cumbersome isolation techniques, high cost and the need for highly skilled laboratory personnel. Phages are specific to single species of bacteria, are known for many enteric bacteria, and are very often used for final identification of enteric pathogenic bacteria. Coliphages are prevalent in raw and treated sewage as well as in polluted water, where enteric viruses may also be found. Coliphages were often mentioned as possible viral indicators in polluted water. To be a perfect indicator, they should comply with minimum criteria as follows: (a) they should be present wherever human enteric viruses are present; (b) the coliphage numbers recovered should be equal to or larger than those of enteric viruses recovered; (c) the coliphages should be at least as resistant as enteric viruses to adverse environmental conditions; (d) isolation and quantification of the coliphage should be faster and less expensive than isolation of the enteroviruses. Comparative studies show that the coliphage to enterovirus ratio in wastewater is about 10(3):1. Levels of poliovirus 1 (attenuated) to coliphage f2 remained stable for a few months in oxidation pond effluents. f2 coliphage exhibited higher resistance to chlorination than poliovirus 1 (attenuated). When the two strains were kept in water of different quality, f2 survived longer. In addition, all coliphage counts were completed within 24 h. while those of enteroviruses required about a week. Results indicate very strongly that coliphages can be used as viral indicators and this is already the practice in a few European and other countries. PMID:6262909

  17. Virus movement within grafted watermelon plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Watermelon production in Florida is impacted by several viruses including whitefly-transmitted Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV), Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus and Cucurbit leaf crumple virus, and aphid-transmitted Papaya ringspot virus type W (PRSV-W). While germplasm resistant to some...

  18. Virus entry mediated by hepatitis B virus envelope proteins

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, John M

    2013-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV), a major cause of human liver disease worldwide, encodes three envelope proteins needed for the attachment and entry of the virus into susceptible host cells. A second virus, hepatitis delta virus, which is known to enhance liver disease in HBV infected patients, diverts the same HBV envelope proteins to achieve its own assembly and infection. In the lab, lentiviral vectors based on human immunodeficiency virus type 1 can be assembled using the HBV envelope proteins, and will similarly infect susceptible cells. This article provides a partial review and some personal reflections of how these three viruses infect and of how recipient cells become susceptible, along with some consideration of questions that remain to be answered. PMID:24187448

  19. 9 CFR 113.215 - Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.215 Section 113.215 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.215 Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed Virus. Bovine Virus...

  20. 9 CFR 113.215 - Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.215 Section 113.215 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.215 Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed Virus. Bovine Virus...

  1. 9 CFR 113.215 - Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.215 Section 113.215 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.215 Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed Virus. Bovine Virus...

  2. 9 CFR 113.215 - Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.215 Section 113.215 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.215 Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed Virus. Bovine Virus...

  3. Mechanisms of Virus Assembly

    PubMed Central

    Perlmutter, Jason D.; Hagan, Michael F.

    2015-01-01

    Viruses are nanoscale entities containing a nucleic acid genome encased in a protein shell called a capsid, and in some cases surrounded by a lipid bilayer membrane. This review summarizes the physics that govern the processes by which capsids assembles within their host cells and in vitro. We describe the thermodynamics and kinetics for assembly of protein subunits into icosahedral capsid shells, and how these are modified in cases where the capsid assembles around a nucleic acid or on a lipid bilayer. We present experimental and theoretical techniques that have been used to characterize capsid assembly, and we highlight aspects of virus assembly which are likely to receive significant attention in the near future. PMID:25532951

  4. The encephalomyocarditis virus

    PubMed Central

    Carocci, Margot; Bakkali-Kassimi, Labib

    2012-01-01

    The encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) is a small non-enveloped single-strand RNA virus, the causative agent of not only myocarditis and encephalitis, but also neurological diseases, reproductive disorders and diabetes in many mammalian species. EMCV pathogenesis appears to be viral strain- and host-specific, and a better understanding of EMCV virulence factors is increasingly required. Indeed, EMCV is often used as a model for diabetes and viral myocarditis, and is also widely used in immunology as a double-stranded RNA stimulus in the study of Toll-like as well as cytosolic receptors. However, EMCV virulence and properties have often been neglected. Moreover, EMCV is able to infect humans albeit with a low morbidity. Progress on xenografts, such as pig heart transplantation in humans, has raised safety concerns that need to be explored. In this review we will highlight the biology of EMCV and all known and potential virulence factors. PMID:22722247

  5. Resveratrol, sirtuins, and viruses.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tao; Li, Shugang; Zhang, Xuming; Pang, Xiaowu; Lin, Qinlu; Cao, Jianzhong

    2015-11-01

    Resveratrol is a natural phenolic product found in some plants in response to stress and has been linked to the many health benefits of red wine. Over the past several decades, a great deal of research has identified diverse biological roles associated with resveratrol, including anti-oxidant, anti-proliferation, anti-inflammation, anti-cancer, anti-fungal, and antiviral activities. Such biological activities of resveratrol are likely mediated through multiple cellular targets or pathways, such as sirtuins, a family of NAD(+)-dependent deacetylases. In this treatise, the literatures focusing on the roles of resveratrol and sirtuins in modulating infections by a broad-spectrum of viruses are reviewed, with an emphasis on its potential antiviral mechanisms. A working model about the effects of resveratrol on virus infection is proposed to stimulate further researches on this exciting topic. PMID:26479742

  6. [Innate immunity against viruses].

    PubMed

    Drutskaia, M S; Belousov, P V; Nedospasov, S A

    2011-01-01

    Viruses are obligate parasites which are able to infect cells of all living organisms. Multiple antiviral defense mechanisms have appeared early in evolution of the immune system. Higher vertebrates have the most complex antiviral immunity which is based on both innate and adoptive immune responses. However, majority of living organisms, including plants and invertebrates, rely exclusively on innate immune mechanisms for protection against viral infections. There are some striking similarities in several components of the innate immune recognition between mammals, plants and insects, rendering these signaling cascades as highly conserved in the evolution of the immune system. This review summarizes recent advances in the field of innate immune recognition of viruses, with particular interest on pattern-recognition receptors. PMID:21485493

  7. Mechanisms of Virus Assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perlmutter, Jason D.; Hagan, Michael F.

    2015-04-01

    Viruses are nanoscale entities containing a nucleic acid genome encased in a protein shell called a capsid and in some cases are surrounded by a lipid bilayer membrane. This review summarizes the physics that govern the processes by which capsids assemble within their host cells and in vitro. We describe the thermodynamics and kinetics for the assembly of protein subunits into icosahedral capsid shells and how these are modified in cases in which the capsid assembles around a nucleic acid or on a lipid bilayer. We present experimental and theoretical techniques used to characterize capsid assembly, and we highlight aspects of virus assembly that are likely to receive significant attention in the near future.

  8. Origin of hepatitis ? virus

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, John; Pelchat, Martin

    2010-01-01

    This article addresses some of the questions relating to how hepatitis ? virus (HDV), an agent so far unique in the animal world, might have arisen. HDV was discovered in patients infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV). It generally makes HBV infections more damaging to the liver. It is a subviral satellite agent that depends upon HBV envelope proteins for its assembly and ability to infect new cells. In other aspects of replication, HDV is both independent of and very different from HBV. In addition, the small single-stranded circular RNA genome of HDV, and its mechanism of replication, demonstrate an increasing number of similarities to the viroids a large family of helper-independent subviral agents that cause pathogenesis in plants. PMID:20210550

  9. Virus-encoded superantigens.

    PubMed Central

    Huber, B T; Hsu, P N; Sutkowski, N

    1996-01-01

    Superantigens are microbial agents that have a strong effect on the immune response of the host. Their initial target is the T lymphocyte, but a whole cascade of immunological reactions ensues. It is thought that the microbe engages the immune system of the host to its own advantage, to facilitate persistent infection and/or transmission. In this review, we discuss in detail the structure and function of the superantigen encoded by the murine mammary tumor virus, a B-type retrovirus which is the causative agent of mammary carcinoma. We will also outline what has more recently become known about superantigen activity associated with two human herpesviruses, cytomegalovirus and Epstein-Barr virus. It is likely that we have only uncovered the tip of the iceberg in our discovery of microbial superantigens, and we predict a flood of new information on this topic shortly. PMID:8840782

  10. Principles of Virus Structural Organization

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, B.V. Venkataram; Schmid, Michael F

    2013-01-01

    Viruses, the molecular nanomachines infecting hosts ranging from prokaryotes to eukaryotes, come in different sizes, shapes and symmetries. Questions such as what principles govern their structural organization, what factors guide their assembly, how these viruses integrate multifarious functions into one unique structure have enamored researchers for years. In the last five decades, following Caspar and Klug's elegant conceptualization of how viruses are constructed, high resolution structural studies using X-ray crystallography and more recently cryo-EM techniques have provided a wealth of information on structures of variety of viruses. These studies have significantly furthered our understanding of the principles that underlie structural organization in viruses. Such an understanding has practical impact in providing a rational basis for the design and development of antiviral strategies. In this chapter, we review principles underlying capsid formation in a variety of viruses, emphasizing the recent developments along with some historical perspective. PMID:22297509

  11. Viruses from extreme thermal environments

    PubMed Central

    Rice, George; Stedman, Kenneth; Snyder, Jamie; Wiedenheft, Blake; Willits, Debbie; Brumfield, Susan; McDermott, Timothy; Young, Mark J.

    2001-01-01

    Viruses of extreme thermophiles are of great interest because they serve as model systems for understanding the biochemistry and molecular biology required for life at high temperatures. In this work, we report the discovery, isolation, and preliminary characterization of viruses and virus-like particles from extreme thermal acidic environments (70–92°C, pH 1.0–4.5) found in Yellowstone National Park. Six unique particle morphologies were found in Sulfolobus enrichment cultures. Three of the particle morphologies are similar to viruses previously isolated from Sulfolobus species from Iceland and/or Japan. Sequence analysis of their viral genomes suggests that they are related to the Icelandic and Japanese isolates. In addition, three virus particle morphologies that had not been previously observed from thermal environments were found. These viruses appear to be completely novel in nature. PMID:11606757

  12. VIRUS instrument collimator assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Jennifer L.; DePoy, Darren L.; Prochaska, Travis; Allen, Richard D.; Williams, Patrick; Rheault, Jean-Philippe; Li, Ting; Nagasawa, Daniel Q.; Akers, Christopher; Baker, David; Boster, Emily; Campbell, Caitlin; Cook, Erika; Elder, Alison; Gary, Alex; Glover, Joseph; James, Michael; Martin, Emily; Meador, Will; Mondrik, Nicholas; Rodriguez-Patino, Marisela; Villanueva, Steven; Hill, Gary J.; Tuttle, Sarah; Vattiat, Brian; Lee, Hanshin; Chonis, Taylor S.; Dalton, Gavin B.; Tacon, Mike

    2014-07-01

    The Visual Integral-Field Replicable Unit Spectrograph (VIRUS) instrument is a baseline array 150 identical fiber fed optical spectrographs designed to support observations for the Hobby-Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX). The collimator subassemblies of the instrument have been assembled in a production line and are now complete. Here we review the design choices and assembly practices used to produce a suite of identical low-cost spectrographs in a timely fashion using primarily unskilled labor.

  13. Marek's disease virus morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Denesvre, Caroline

    2013-06-01

    Marek's disease virus (MDV) is a highly contagious virus that induces T-lymphoma in chicken. This viral infection still circulates in poultry flocks despite the use of vaccines. With the emergence of new virulent strains in the field over time, MDV remains a serious threat to the poultry industry. More than 40 yr after MDV identification as a herpesvirus, the visualization and purification of fully enveloped infectious particles remain a challenge for biologists. The various strategies used to detect such hidden particles by electron microscopy are reviewed herein. It is now generally accepted that the production of cell-free virions only occurs in the feather follicle epithelium and is associated with viral, cellular, or both molecular determinants expressed in this tissue. This tissue is considered the only source of efficient virus shedding into the environment and therefore the origin of successful transmission in birds. In other avian tissues or permissive cell cultures, MDV replication only leads to a very low number of intracellular enveloped virions. In the absence of detectable extracellular enveloped virions in cell culture, the nature of the transmitted infectious material and its mechanisms of spread from cell to cell remain to be deciphered. An attempt is made to bring together the current knowledge on MDV morphogenesis and spread, and new approaches that could help understand MDV morphogenesis are discussed. PMID:23901745

  14. Reemergence of Chikungunya Virus

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-transmitted alphavirus that causes acute fever and acute and chronic musculoskeletal pain in humans. Since 2004, CHIKV has caused millions of cases of disease in the Indian Ocean region and has emerged in new areas, including Europe, the Middle East, and the Pacific region. The mosquito vectors for this virus are globally distributed in tropical and temperate zones, providing the opportunity for CHIKV to continue to expand into new geographic regions. In October 2013, locally acquired cases of CHIKV infection were identified on the Caribbean island of Saint Martin, signaling the arrival of the virus in the Western Hemisphere. In just 9 months, CHIKV has spread to 22 countries in the Caribbean and Central and South America, resulting in hundreds of thousands of cases. CHIKV disease can be highly debilitating, and large epidemics have severe economic consequences. Thus, there is an urgent need for continued research into the epidemiology, pathogenesis, prevention, and treatment of these infections. PMID:25078691

  15. Reemergence of chikungunya virus.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Thomas E

    2014-10-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-transmitted alphavirus that causes acute fever and acute and chronic musculoskeletal pain in humans. Since 2004, CHIKV has caused millions of cases of disease in the Indian Ocean region and has emerged in new areas, including Europe, the Middle East, and the Pacific region. The mosquito vectors for this virus are globally distributed in tropical and temperate zones, providing the opportunity for CHIKV to continue to expand into new geographic regions. In October 2013, locally acquired cases of CHIKV infection were identified on the Caribbean island of Saint Martin, signaling the arrival of the virus in the Western Hemisphere. In just 9 months, CHIKV has spread to 22 countries in the Caribbean and Central and South America, resulting in hundreds of thousands of cases. CHIKV disease can be highly debilitating, and large epidemics have severe economic consequences. Thus, there is an urgent need for continued research into the epidemiology, pathogenesis, prevention, and treatment of these infections. PMID:25078691

  16. Viruses manipulate the marine environment.

    PubMed

    Rohwer, Forest; Thurber, Rebecca Vega

    2009-05-14

    Marine viruses affect Bacteria, Archaea and eukaryotic organisms and are major components of the marine food web. Most studies have focused on their role as predators and parasites, but many of the interactions between marine viruses and their hosts are much more complicated. A series of recent studies has shown that viruses have the ability to manipulate the life histories and evolution of their hosts in remarkable ways, challenging our understanding of this almost invisible world. PMID:19444207

  17. Beneficial effects of human viruses.

    PubMed Central

    Miller, G.; Fischer, D. K.

    1981-01-01

    In keeping with the theme of this Yale-China symposium, we discuss some unexpected dividends which have been derived from the basic study of five viruses to which man has been exposed. Inquiring into the behavior of these viruses for their own sake has not only produced an increase in basic understanding of biologic processes, but has provided concepts and techniques which will broaden our knowledge of the etiology, pathogenesis, and treatment of human diseases which are unrelated to viruses. PMID:6264697

  18. New Dengue Virus Vaccine Shows Promise

    MedlinePlus

    ... Promise Research may also aid in development of Zika virus vaccine, expert suggests To use the sharing features ... of other major health concerns such as the Zika virus. "The dengue virus is closely related to Zika ...

  19. Introducing Virological Concepts Using an Insect Virus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheppard, Roger F.

    1980-01-01

    A technique is presented which utilizes wax moth larvae in a laboratory investigation of an insect virus. Describes how an insect virus can be used to introduce undergraduate biology students to laboratory work on viruses and several virological concepts. (SA)

  20. NATIONAL RESPIRATORY AND ENTERIC VIRUS SURVEILLANCE SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Respiratory and Enteric Virus Surveillance System is a lab based system which monitors temporal and geographic patterns associated with the detection of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), human parainfluenza viruses (HPIV), respiratory and enteric adenoviruses, and r...

  1. Dengue virus growth, purification, and fluorescent labeling.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Summer; Chan, Kuan Rong; Tan, Hwee Cheng; Ooi, Eng Eong

    2014-01-01

    The early events of the dengue virus life cycle involve virus binding, internalization, trafficking, and fusion. Fluorescently labeled viruses can be used to visualize these early processes. As dengue virus has 180 identical copies of the envelope protein attached to the membrane surface and is surrounded by a lipid membrane, amine-reactive (Alexa Fluor) or lipophilic (DiD) dyes can be used for virus labeling. These dyes are highly photostable and are ideal for studies involving cellular uptake and endosomal transport. To improve virus labeling efficiency and minimize the nonspecific labeling of nonviral proteins, virus concentration and purification precede fluorescent labeling of dengue viruses. Besides using these viruses for single-particle tracking, DiD-labeled viruses can also be used to distinguish serotype-specific from cross-neutralizing antibodies. Here the details of virus concentration, purification, virus labeling, applications, and hints of troubleshooting are described. PMID:24696327

  2. Advances in virus research. Volume 29

    SciTech Connect

    Lauffer, M.A.; Maramorosch, K.

    1984-01-01

    This book contains nine chapters. Some of the titles are: Molecular Biology of Wound Tumor Virus; The Application of Monoclonal Antibodies in the Study of Viruses; Prions: Novel Infectious Pathogens; and Monoclonal Antibodies Against Plant Viruses.

  3. Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Primary Infection

    MedlinePlus

    ... rash and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Primary Infection Information for adults ... 1–6 weeks following exposure to HIV (the human immunodeficiency virus). Chronic infection with this virus can ...

  4. WHO: Zika Virus an International Health Threat

    MedlinePlus

    ... Monday declared the mosquito-borne Zika virus a global health threat, based on the suspicion that the virus ... Services, or federal policy. More Health News on: International Health Zika Virus Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health ...

  5. Are Viruses Important in Carcinogenesis?

    PubMed Central

    Rapp, Fred; Buss, Ellen R.

    1974-01-01

    The role of viruses in the etiology of animal cancers is fairly certain. Information derived under both natural and experimental conditions supports the concept that either DNA- or RNA-containing viruses can fulfill this function. The DNA-containing herpesviruses, especially the Epstein-Barr virus, are currently the primary objects of intense investigation concerning their role in human cancer. This article will focus on the properties of counterpart herpesviruses in lower animals as well as the human virus candidates with an assessment of the observations concerning their oncogenic potential. ImagesFig 1 PMID:4374889

  6. Review: influenza virus in pigs.

    PubMed

    Crisci, Elisa; Mussá, Tufária; Fraile, Lorenzo; Montoya, Maria

    2013-10-01

    Influenza virus disease still remains one of the major threats to human health, involving a wide range of animal species and pigs play an important role in influenza ecology. Pigs were labeled as "mixing vessels" since they are susceptible to infection with avian, human and swine influenza viruses and genetic reassortment between these viruses can occur. After the H1N1 influenza pandemic of 2009 with a swine origin virus, the most recent research in "influenzology" is directed at improving knowledge of porcine influenza virus infection. This tendency is probably due to the fact that domestic pigs are closely related to humans and represent an excellent animal model to study various microbial infectious diseases. In spite of the role of the pig in influenza virus ecology, swine immune responses against influenza viruses are not fully understood. Considering these premises, the aim of this review is to focus on the in vitro studies performed with porcine cells and influenza virus and on the immune responses of pigs against human, avian and swine influenza viruses in vivo. The increased acceptance of pigs as suitable and valuable models in the scientific community may stimulate the development of new tools to assess porcine immune responses, paving the way for their consideration as the future "gold standard" large-animal model in immunology. PMID:23523121

  7. Structural Proteomics of Dengue Virus

    PubMed Central

    Perera, Rushika; Kuhn, Richard J.

    2008-01-01

    Summary In this paper, we discuss recent advances in our knowledge of the dengue virus life cycle based on new structural data of the virus and its proteins. Specifically, we focus on the structure of the pre-membrane protein, prM and its role in virus assembly, the first full-length structure of a multi-domain dengue virus replication protein, NS3, and the recently solved structures of NS5 methyltransferase and polymerase domains. These structures provide a basis for describing function and predicting putative host interactions. PMID:18644250

  8. Nuclear entry of DNA viruses

    PubMed Central

    Fay, Nikta; Panté, Nelly

    2015-01-01

    DNA viruses undertake their replication within the cell nucleus, and therefore they must first deliver their genome into the nucleus of their host cells. Thus, trafficking across the nuclear envelope is at the basis of DNA virus infections. Nuclear transport of molecules with diameters up to 39 nm is a tightly regulated process that occurs through the nuclear pore complex (NPC). Due to the enormous diversity of virus size and structure, each virus has developed its own strategy for entering the nucleus of their host cells, with no two strategies alike. For example, baculoviruses target their DNA-containing capsid to the NPC and subsequently enter the nucleus intact, while the hepatitis B virus capsid crosses the NPC but disassembles at the nuclear side of the NPC. For other viruses such as herpes simplex virus and adenovirus, although both dock at the NPC, they have each developed a distinct mechanism for the subsequent delivery of their genome into the nucleus. Remarkably, other DNA viruses, such as parvoviruses and human papillomaviruses, access the nucleus through an NPC-independent mechanism. This review discusses our current understanding of the mechanisms used by DNA viruses to deliver their genome into the nucleus, and further presents the experimental evidence for such mechanisms. PMID:26029198

  9. RECOVIR Software for Identifying Viruses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chakravarty, Sugoto; Fox, George E.; Zhu, Dianhui

    2013-01-01

    Most single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) viruses mutate rapidly to generate a large number of strains with highly divergent capsid sequences. Determining the capsid residues or nucleotides that uniquely characterize these strains is critical in understanding the strain diversity of these viruses. RECOVIR (an acronym for "recognize viruses") software predicts the strains of some ssRNA viruses from their limited sequence data. Novel phylogenetic-tree-based databases of protein or nucleic acid residues that uniquely characterize these virus strains are created. Strains of input virus sequences (partial or complete) are predicted through residue-wise comparisons with the databases. RECOVIR uses unique characterizing residues to identify automatically strains of partial or complete capsid sequences of picorna and caliciviruses, two of the most highly diverse ssRNA virus families. Partition-wise comparisons of the database residues with the corresponding residues of more than 300 complete and partial sequences of these viruses resulted in correct strain identification for all of these sequences. This study shows the feasibility of creating databases of hitherto unknown residues uniquely characterizing the capsid sequences of two of the most highly divergent ssRNA virus families. These databases enable automated strain identification from partial or complete capsid sequences of these human and animal pathogens.

  10. Limits in virus filtration capability? Impact of virus quality and spike level on virus removal with xenotropic murine leukemia virus.

    PubMed

    Roush, David J; Myrold, Adam; Burnham, Michael S; And, Joseph V; Hughes, Joseph V

    2015-01-01

    Virus filtration (VF) is a key step in an overall viral clearance process since it has been demonstrated to effectively clear a wide range of mammalian viruses with a log reduction value (LRV) > 4. The potential to achieve higher LRV from virus retentive filters has historically been examined using bacteriophage surrogates, which commonly demonstrated a potential of > 9 LRV when using high titer spikes (e.g. 10(10) PFU/mL). However, as the filter loading increases, one typically experiences significant decreases in performance and LRV. The 9 LRV value is markedly higher than the current expected range of 4-5 LRV when utilizing mammalian retroviruses on virus removal filters (Miesegaes et al., Dev Biol (Basel) 2010;133:3-101). Recent values have been reported in the literature (Stuckey et al., Biotech Progr 2014;30:79-85) of LRV in excess of 6 for PPV and XMuLV although this result appears to be atypical. LRV for VF with therapeutic proteins could be limited by several factors including process limits (flux decay, load matrix), virus spike level and the analytical methods used for virus detection (i.e. the Limits of Quantitation), as well as the virus spike quality. Research was conducted using the Xenotropic-Murine Leukemia Virus (XMuLV) for its direct relevance to the most commonly cited document, the International Conference of Harmonization (ICH) Q5A (International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use, Geneva, Switzerland, 1999) for viral safety evaluations. A unique aspect of this work is the independent evaluation of the impact of retrovirus quality and virus spike level on VF performance and LRV. The VF studies used XMuLV preparations purified by either ultracentrifugation (Ultra 1) or by chromatographic processes that yielded a more highly purified virus stock (Ultra 2). Two monoclonal antibodies (Mabs) with markedly different filtration characteristics and with similar levels of aggregate (<1.5%) were evaluated with the Ultra 1 and Ultra 2 virus preparations utilizing the Planova 20 N, a small virus removal filter. Impurities in the virus preparation ultimately limited filter loading as measured by determining the volumetric loading condition where 75% flux decay is observed versus initial conditions (V75). This observation occurred with both Mabs with the difference in virus purity more pronounced when very high spike levels were used (>5 vol/vol %). Significant differences were seen for the process performance over a number of lots of the less-pure Ultra 1 virus preparations. Experiments utilizing a developmental lot of the chromatographic purified XMuLV (Ultra 2 Development lot) that had elevated levels of host cell residuals (vs. the final Ultra 2 preparations) suggest that these contaminant residuals can impact virus filter fouling, even if the virus prep is essentially monodisperse. Process studies utilizing an Ultra 2 virus with substantially less host cell residuals and highly monodispersed virus particles demonstrated superior performance and an LRV in excess of 7.7 log10 . A model was constructed demonstrating the linear dependence of filtration flux versus filter loading which can be used to predict the V75 for a range of virus spike levels conditions using this highly purified virus. Fine tuning the virus spike level with this model can ultimately maximize the LRV for the virus filter step, essentially adding the LRV equivalent of another process step (i.e. protein A or CEX chromatography). PMID:25395156

  11. Interferon production and virus replication in lymphoblastoid cells infected with different viruses.

    PubMed

    Heremans, H; de Ley, M; Volckaert-Vervliet, G; Billiau, A

    1980-01-01

    A semicontinuous infection system was used to test viral replication and interferon induction in lymphoblastoid cells: measles virus, Newcastle disease virus (NDV), Sendai virus, human parainfluenza virus (type II and III), Semliki forest virus (SFV) and Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV). With the exception of Sendai virus, all viruses replicated in the Namalva cell line. Only measles virus was able to induce high levels of interferon. Three other cell lines, NC37, Raji (TK+-variant) and Raji (TK--variant) were tested using measles virus as inducer. The interferon yields from these cells were inferior to those obtained from Namalva cells. PMID:6243928

  12. Structure of Flexible Filamentous Plant Viruses

    SciTech Connect

    Kendall, Amy; McDonald, Michele; Bian, Wen; Bowles, Timothy; Baumgarten, Sarah C.; Shi, Jian; Stewart, Phoebe L.; Bullitt, Esther; Gore, David; Irving, Thomas C.; Havens, Wendy M.; Ghabrial, Said A.; Wall, Joseph S.; Stubbs, Gerald

    2008-10-23

    Flexible filamentous viruses make up a large fraction of the known plant viruses, but in comparison with those of other viruses, very little is known about their structures. We have used fiber diffraction, cryo-electron microscopy, and scanning transmission electron microscopy to determine the symmetry of a potyvirus, soybean mosaic virus; to confirm the symmetry of a potexvirus, potato virus X; and to determine the low-resolution structures of both viruses. We conclude that these viruses and, by implication, most or all flexible filamentous plant viruses share a common coat protein fold and helical symmetry, with slightly less than 9 subunits per helical turn.

  13. Computer virus information update CIAC-2301

    SciTech Connect

    Orvis, W.J.

    1994-01-15

    While CIAC periodically issues bulletins about specific computer viruses, these bulletins do not cover all the computer viruses that affect desktop computers. The purpose of this document is to identify most of the known viruses for the MS-DOS and Macintosh platforms and give an overview of the effects of each virus. The authors also include information on some windows, Atari, and Amiga viruses. This document is revised periodically as new virus information becomes available. This document replaces all earlier versions of the CIAC Computer virus Information Update. The date on the front cover indicates date on which the information in this document was extracted from CIAC`s Virus database.

  14. Immunopathology of chronic lentivirus-induced arthritis.

    PubMed Central

    Wilkerson, M. J.; Davis, W. C.; Baszler, T. V.; Cheevers, W. P.

    1995-01-01

    This study evaluated histopathology and mononuclear cell phenotypes in synovial lesions of chronic arthritis induced by experimental infection of Saanen goats with caprine arthritis-encephalitis lentivirus. Histological examination of carpal joint synovium of three infected goats with clinical arthritis revealed progressive lesions consisting of membrane villus hypertrophy with extensive angiogenesis and mononuclear cell infiltration and degenerative changes of membrane villus necrosis associated with loss of vasculature and infiltrates. Changes in synovial tissue of five age-matched infected goats without clinical arthritis were limited to moderate synovial membrane hyperplasia also noted in an age-matched uninfected goat. Immunohistochemistry identified CD45R+ CD5- B lymphocytes as the principal component of most perivascular infiltrates in arthritic synovium. Other mononuclear cells included perivascular CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes and macrophages with a prominent accumulation of CD8+ T lymphocytes at the lining surface of inflamed villi. T lymphocytes and macrophages as well as synovial lining cells were activated with respect to MHC class II but not for interleukin-2 receptors. Inflamed villi also contained lymphoid aggregates comprised of B cell germinal centers and activated T-cell mantles. B cells expressing immunoglobulin occurred around follicles and throughout inflamed villi. These findings indicate that memory immune responses that favor expansion and maturation of B cells and immunoglobulin production contribute to the immunopathology of chronic arthritis. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:7778682

  15. Tomato chlorosis virus and Tomato infectious chlorosis virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This presentation will help consultants, growers, and other practitioners in the Southern and Western Regions of the US, as well as Mexico and the Caribbean identify and manage Tomato infectious chlorosis virus (TICV) and Tomato chlorosis virus (ToCV) in tomato. Information will directly benefit cr...

  16. Virus genomes and virus-host interactions in aquaculture animals.

    PubMed

    Zhang, QiYa; Gui, Jian-Fang

    2015-02-01

    Over the last 30 years, aquaculture has become the fastest growing form of agriculture production in the world, but its development has been hampered by a diverse range of pathogenic viruses. During the last decade, a large number of viruses from aquatic animals have been identified, and more than 100 viral genomes have been sequenced and genetically characterized. These advances are leading to better understanding about antiviral mechanisms and the types of interaction occurring between aquatic viruses and their hosts. Here, based on our research experience of more than 20 years, we review the wealth of genetic and genomic information from studies on a diverse range of aquatic viruses, including iridoviruses, herpesviruses, reoviruses, and rhabdoviruses, and outline some major advances in our understanding of virus-host interactions in animals used in aquaculture. PMID:25591452

  17. Swine Influenza Virus: Emerging Understandings

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction: In March-April 2009, a novel pandemic H1N1 emerged in the human population in North America [1]. The gene constellation of the emerging virus was demonstrated to be a combination of genes from swine influenza A viruses (SIV) of North American and Eurasian lineages that had never before...

  18. Groundnut Ringspot Virus in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tospoviruses in vegetable crops are difficult to manage due to a shortage of basic information about the viruses and their vectors. This is especially true for the recently detected Groundnut ringspot virus (GRSV). This publication presents all current knowledge of GRSV in Florida....

  19. Virioplankton: Viruses in Aquatic Ecosystems†

    PubMed Central

    Wommack, K. Eric; Colwell, Rita R.

    2000-01-01

    The discovery that viruses may be the most abundant organisms in natural waters, surpassing the number of bacteria by an order of magnitude, has inspired a resurgence of interest in viruses in the aquatic environment. Surprisingly little was known of the interaction of viruses and their hosts in nature. In the decade since the reports of extraordinarily large virus populations were published, enumeration of viruses in aquatic environments has demonstrated that the virioplankton are dynamic components of the plankton, changing dramatically in number with geographical location and season. The evidence to date suggests that virioplankton communities are composed principally of bacteriophages and, to a lesser extent, eukaryotic algal viruses. The influence of viral infection and lysis on bacterial and phytoplankton host communities was measurable after new methods were developed and prior knowledge of bacteriophage biology was incorporated into concepts of parasite and host community interactions. The new methods have yielded data showing that viral infection can have a significant impact on bacteria and unicellular algae populations and supporting the hypothesis that viruses play a significant role in microbial food webs. Besides predation limiting bacteria and phytoplankton populations, the specific nature of virus-host interaction raises the intriguing possibility that viral infection influences the structure and diversity of aquatic microbial communities. Novel applications of molecular genetic techniques have provided good evidence that viral infection can significantly influence the composition and diversity of aquatic microbial communities. PMID:10704475

  20. Zika Virus Infection and Microcephaly.

    PubMed

    Millichap, J Gordon

    2016-01-01

    A Task Force established by the Brazil Ministry of Health investigated the possible association of microcephaly with Zika virus infection during pregnancy and a registry for microcephaly cases among women suspected to have had Zika virus infection during pregnancy. PMID:27004142

  1. Soy isoflavones and virus infections

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Isoflavones and their related flavonoid compounds exert antiviral properties in vitro and in vivo against a wide range of viruses. Genistein is, by far, the most studied soy isoflavone in this regard, and it has been shown to inhibit the infectivity of enveloped or nonenveloped viruses, as well as s...

  2. Human viruses: discovery and emergence

    PubMed Central

    Woolhouse, Mark; Scott, Fiona; Hudson, Zoe; Howey, Richard; Chase-Topping, Margo

    2012-01-01

    There are 219 virus species that are known to be able to infect humans. The first of these to be discovered was yellow fever virus in 1901, and three to four new species are still being found every year. Extrapolation of the discovery curve suggests that there is still a substantial pool of undiscovered human virus species, although an apparent slow-down in the rate of discovery of species from different families may indicate bounds to the potential range of diversity. More than two-thirds of human viruses can also infect non-human hosts, mainly mammals, and sometimes birds. Many specialist human viruses also have mammalian or avian origins. Indeed, a substantial proportion of mammalian viruses may be capable of crossing the species barrier into humans, although only around half of these are capable of being transmitted by humans and around half again of transmitting well enough to cause major outbreaks. A few possible predictors of species jumps can be identified, including the use of phylogenetically conserved cell receptors. It seems almost inevitable that new human viruses will continue to emerge, mainly from other mammals and birds, for the foreseeable future. For this reason, an effective global surveillance system for novel viruses is needed. PMID:22966141

  3. Paper Models Illustrating Virus Symmetry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, D. A.

    1990-01-01

    Instructions are given for constructing two models, one to illustrate the general principles of symmetry in T=1, T=3, and T=4 viruses, and the other to illustrate the disposition of protein subunits in the T=3 plant viruses and the picornaviruses. (Author/CW)

  4. Tomato ringspot virus in Rubus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tomato ringspot virus (ToRSV) is the most widespread and important of the nematode-transmitted viruses affecting cultivated Rubus in North and South America but is not known to occur outside of the Western Hemisphere. A recent report from Turkey on ToRSV in blackberry in borders of stone fruit orcha...

  5. Tobacco ringspot virus in Rubus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tobacco ringspot virus (TRSV) has a broad host range among woody and perennial plants and has been reported from blackberry but not from red or black raspberry. The virus has been detected in blackberry in the southeastern United States with a single report from blackberry in British Columbia, Cana...

  6. Virus Detection and Field Management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are two primary pathogens of Oat – Crown Rust and the Luteoviruses Barley and Cereal Yellow Dwarf Virus (BYDV and CYDV). These viruses can only be transmitted by aphids, are limited to the vascular system in infected plants and can lead to severe stunting and a concomitant yield loss. In 200...

  7. INFECTIOUS DOSE OF NORWALK VIRUS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Norwalk virus and related viruses (caliciviruses) have been identified as a common cause of waterborne disease. Moreover, there are many outbreaks of waterborne disease every year where the causative agent was never identified, and it is thought that many of these are due to ...

  8. Genetic Diversity of Toscana Virus

    PubMed Central

    Collao, Ximena; Palacios, Gustavo; Sanbonmatsu-Gámez, Sara; Pérez-Ruiz, Mercedes; Negredo, Ana I.; Navarro-Marí, José-María; Grandadam, Marc; Aransay, Ana Maria; Lipkin, W. Ian; Tenorio, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    Distribution of Toscana virus (TOSV) is evolving with climate change, and pathogenicity may be higher in nonexposed populations outside areas of current prevalence (Mediterranean Basin). To characterize genetic diversity of TOSV, we determined the coding sequences of isolates from Spain and France. TOSV is more diverse than other well-studied phleboviruses (e.g.,Rift Valley fever virus). PMID:19331735

  9. Influenza Virus Assembly and Budding

    PubMed Central

    Rossman, Jeremy S.; Lamb, Robert A.

    2011-01-01

    Influenza A virus causes seasonal epidemics, sporadic pandemics and is a significant global heath burden. Influenza virus is an enveloped virus that contains a segmented negative strand RNA genome. Assembly and budding of progeny influenza virions is a complex, multistep process that occurs in lipid raft domains on the apical membrane of infected cells. The viral proteins hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) are targeted to lipid rafts, causing the coalescence and enlargement of the raft domains. This clustering of HA and NA may cause a deformation of the membrane and the initiation of the virus budding event. M1 is then thought to bind to the cytoplasmic tails of HA and NA where it can then polymerize and form the interior structure of the emerging virion. M1, bound to the cytoplasmic tails of HA and NA, additionally serves as a docking site for the recruitment of the viral RNPs and may mediate the recruitment of M2 to the site of virus budding. M2 initially stabilizes the site of budding, possibly enabling the polymerization of the matrix protein and the formation of filamentous virions. Subsequently, M2 is able to alter membrane curvature at the neck of the budding virus, causing membrane scission and the release of the progeny virion. This review investigates the latest research on influenza virus budding in an attempt to provide a step-by-step analysis of the assembly and budding processes for influenza viruses. PMID:21237476

  10. [Hepatitis E virus].

    PubMed

    Izopet, Jacques; Lhomme, Sébastien; Abravanel, Florence; Roque, Anne-Marie; Kamar, Nassim

    2015-03-01

    HEV is a small non-enveloped RNA virus that is associated to lipids in the blood of infected individuals. The genera Orthohepevirus recently proposed includes the zoonotic mammals strains. The other strains of the family Hepeviridae are not transmissible to humans. The diagnosis of HEV infection should be considered in any patient with serum ALT elevation. The diagnosis of HEV infection in immunocompetent patients relies on detecting IgM antibodies in the blood. The diagnosis of HEV infection in immunosuppressed patients relies on detecting IgM antibodies and HEV RNA in the blood. Ribavirin inhibits HEV replication via a mechanism of action that is still unknown. PMID:25650296

  11. Prevalence and transmission of honeybee viruses.

    PubMed

    Chen, Y P; Pettis, J S; Collins, A; Feldlaufer, M F

    2006-01-01

    Transmission mechanisms of six honeybee viruses, including acute bee paralysis virus (ABPV), black queen cell virus (BQCV), chronic bee paralysis virus (CBPV), deformed wing virus (DWV), Kashmir bee virus (KBV), and sacbrood bee virus (SBV), in honey bee colonies were investigated by reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) methods. The virus status of individual queens was evaluated by examining the presence of viruses in the queens' feces and tissues, including hemolymph, gut, ovaries, spermatheca, head, and eviscerated body. Except for head tissue, all five tissues as well as queen feces were found to be positive for virus infections. When queens in bee colonies were identified as positive for BQCV, DWV, CBPV, KBV, and SBV, the same viruses were detected in their offspring, including eggs, larvae, and adult workers. On the other hand, when queens were found positive for only two viruses, BQCV and DWV, only these two viruses were detected in their offspring. The presence of viruses in the tissue of ovaries and the detection of the same viruses in queens' eggs and young larvae suggest vertical transmission of viruses from queens to offspring. To our knowledge, this is the first evidence of vertical transmission of viruses in honeybee colonies. PMID:16391097

  12. Sunshine virus in Australian pythons.

    PubMed

    Hyndman, Timothy H; Shilton, Cathy M; Doneley, Robert J T; Nicholls, Philip K

    2012-12-28

    Sunshine virus is a recently discovered novel paramyxovirus that is associated with illness in snakes. It does not phylogenetically cluster within either of the two currently accepted paramyxoviral subfamilies. It is therefore only distantly related to the only other known genus of reptilian paramyxoviruses, Ferlavirus, which clusters within the Paramyxovirinae subfamily. Clinical and diagnostic aspects associated with Sunshine virus are as yet undescribed. The objective of this paper was to report the clinical presentation, virus isolation, PCR testing and pathology associated with Sunshine virus infection. Clinical records and samples from naturally occurring cases were obtained from two captive snake collections and the archives of a veterinary diagnostic laboratory. The clinical signs that are associated with Sunshine virus infection are localised to the neurorespiratory systems or are non-specific (e.g. lethargy, inappetence). Out of 15 snakes that were infected with Sunshine virus (detected in any organ by either virus isolation or PCR), the virus was isolated from four out of ten (4/10) sampled brains, 3/10 sampled lungs and 2/7 pooled samples of kidney and liver. In these same 15 snakes, PCR was able to successfully detect Sunshine virus in fresh-frozen brain (11/11), kidney (7/8), lung (8/11) and liver (5/8); and various formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues (7/8). During a natural outbreak of Sunshine virus in a collection of 32 snakes, the virus could be detected in five out of 39 combined oral-cloacal swabs that were collected from 23 of these snakes over a 105 day period. All snakes that were infected with Sunshine virus were negative for reovirus and ferlavirus by PCR. Snakes infected with Sunshine virus reliably exhibited hindbrain white matter spongiosis and gliosis with extension to the surrounding grey matter and neuronal necrosis evident in severe cases. Five out of eight infected snakes also exhibited mild bronchointerstitial pneumonia. Infection with Sunshine virus should be considered by veterinarians investigating disease outbreaks in snakes, particularly those that are associated with neurorespiratory disease. PMID:22883310

  13. Marine Viruses: Truth or Dare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breitbart, Mya

    2012-01-01

    Over the past two decades, marine virology has progressed from a curiosity to an intensely studied topic of critical importance to oceanography. At concentrations of approximately 10 million viruses per milliliter of surface seawater, viruses are the most abundant biological entities in the oceans. The majority of these viruses are phages (viruses that infect bacteria). Through lysing their bacterial hosts, marine phages control bacterial abundance, affect community composition, and impact global biogeochemical cycles. In addition, phages influence their hosts through selection for resistance, horizontal gene transfer, and manipulation of bacterial metabolism. Recent work has also demonstrated that marine phages are extremely diverse and can carry a variety of auxiliary metabolic genes encoding critical ecological functions. This review is structured as a scientific "truth or dare," revealing several well-established "truths" about marine viruses and presenting a few "dares" for the research community to undertake in future studies.

  14. Human polyomavirus JC virus genome.

    PubMed

    Frisque, R J; Bream, G L; Cannella, M T

    1984-08-01

    The complete DNA sequence of the human JC virus, which was found to consist of 5,130 nucleotide pairs, is presented. The amino acid sequence of six proteins could be deduced: the early, nonstructural proteins, large T and small t antigens; the late capsid proteins, VP1, VP2, and VP3; and the agnogene product encoded within the late leader sequence, called the agnoprotein in simian virus 40. The extent of homology between JC virus DNA and the genomes of simian virus 40 (69%) and BK virus (75%) confirmed the close evolutionary relationship of these three polyomaviruses. The sequences showing the greatest divergence in these viral DNAs occurred within the tandem repeats located to the late side of the replication origins. PMID:6086957

  15. New aspects of influenza viruses.

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, M W; Arden, N H; Maassab, H F

    1992-01-01

    Influenza virus infections continue to cause substantial morbidity and mortality with a worldwide social and economic impact. The past five years have seen dramatic advances in our understanding of viral replication, evolution, and antigenic variation. Genetic analyses have clarified relationships between human and animal influenza virus strains, demonstrating the potential for the appearance of new pandemic reassortants as hemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes are exchanged in an intermediate host. Clinical trials of candidate live attenuated influenza virus vaccines have shown the cold-adapted reassortants to be a promising alternative to the currently available inactivated virus preparations. Modern molecular techniques have allowed serious consideration of new approaches to the development of antiviral agents and vaccines as the functions of the viral genes and proteins are further elucidated. The development of techniques whereby the genes of influenza viruses can be specifically altered to investigate those functions will undoubtedly accelerate the pace at which our knowledge expands. PMID:1310439

  16. Nonlytic spread of naked viruses.

    PubMed

    Bird, Sara W; Kirkegaard, Karla

    2015-01-01

    How do viruses spread from cell to cell? Enveloped viruses acquire their surrounding membranes by budding: either through the plasma membrane or an internal membrane of infected cells. Thus, a newly budded enveloped virus finds itself either in the extracellular milieu or in a lumenal compartment from which it can exit the cell by conventional secretion. On the other hand, naked viruses such as poliovirus, nodavirus, adenovirus, and SV40 lack an external membrane. They are simply protein-nucleic acid complexes within the cytoplasm or nucleus of the infected cell, and thus would seem to have no other exit route than cell lysis. We have presented the first documentation of nonlytic spread of a naked virus, and showed the interconnections between this event and the process or components of the autophagy pathway. PMID:25680079

  17. Virus manipulation of cell cycle.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, R; Costa, H; Parkhouse, R M E

    2012-07-01

    Viruses depend on host cell resources for replication and access to those resources may be limited to a particular phase of the cell cycle. Thus manipulation of cell cycle is a commonly employed strategy of viruses for achieving a favorable cellular environment. For example, viruses capable of infecting nondividing cells induce S phase in order to activate the host DNA replication machinery and provide the nucleotide triphosphates necessary for viral DNA replication (Flemington in J Virol 75:4475-4481, 2001; Sullivan and Pipas in Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 66:179-202, 2002). Viruses have developed several strategies to subvert the cell cycle by association with cyclin and cyclin-dependent kinase complexes and molecules that regulate their activity. Viruses tend to act on cellular proteins involved in a network of interactions in a way that minimal protein-protein interactions lead to a major effect. The complex and interactive nature of intracellular signaling pathways controlling cell division affords many opportunities for virus manipulation strategies. Taking the maxim "Set a thief to catch a thief" as a counter strategy, however, provides us with the very same virus evasion strategies as "ready-made tools" for the development of novel antivirus therapeutics. The most obvious are attenuated virus vaccines with critical evasion genes deleted. Similarly, vaccines against viruses causing cancer are now being successfully developed. Finally, as viruses have been playing chess with our cell biology and immune responses for millions of years, the study of their evasion strategies will also undoubtedly reveal new control mechanisms and their corresponding cellular intracellular signaling pathways. PMID:21986922

  18. The Norwegian Healthier Goats program--modeling lactation curves using a multilevel cubic spline regression model.

    PubMed

    Nagel-Alne, G E; Krontveit, R; Bohlin, J; Valle, P S; Skjerve, E; Slverd, L S

    2014-07-01

    In 2001, the Norwegian Goat Health Service initiated the Healthier Goats program (HG), with the aim of eradicating caprine arthritis encephalitis, caseous lymphadenitis, and Johne's disease (caprine paratuberculosis) in Norwegian goat herds. The aim of the present study was to explore how control and eradication of the above-mentioned diseases by enrolling in HG affected milk yield by comparison with herds not enrolled in HG. Lactation curves were modeled using a multilevel cubic spline regression model where farm, goat, and lactation were included as random effect parameters. The data material contained 135,446 registrations of daily milk yield from 28,829 lactations in 43 herds. The multilevel cubic spline regression model was applied to 4 categories of data: enrolled early, control early, enrolled late, and control late. For enrolled herds, the early and late notations refer to the situation before and after enrolling in HG; for nonenrolled herds (controls), they refer to development over time, independent of HG. Total milk yield increased in the enrolled herds after eradication: the total milk yields in the fourth lactation were 634.2 and 873.3 kg in enrolled early and enrolled late herds, respectively, and 613.2 and 701.4 kg in the control early and control late herds, respectively. Day of peak yield differed between enrolled and control herds. The day of peak yield came on d 6 of lactation for the control early category for parities 2, 3, and 4, indicating an inability of the goats to further increase their milk yield from the initial level. For enrolled herds, on the other hand, peak yield came between d 49 and 56, indicating a gradual increase in milk yield after kidding. Our results indicate that enrollment in the HG disease eradication program improved the milk yield of dairy goats considerably, and that the multilevel cubic spline regression was a suitable model for exploring effects of disease control and eradication on milk yield. PMID:24819129

  19. The Acute bee paralysis virus-Kashmir bee virus-Israeli acute paralysis virus complex.

    PubMed

    de Miranda, Joachim R; Cordoni, Guido; Budge, Giles

    2010-01-01

    Acute bee paralysis virus (ABPV), Kashmir bee virus (KBV) and Israeli acute paralysis virus (IAPV) are part of a complex of closely related viruses from the Family Dicistroviridae. These viruses have a widespread prevalence in honey bee (Apis mellifera) colonies and a predominantly sub-clinical etiology that contrasts sharply with the extremely virulent pathology encountered at elevated titres, either artificially induced or encountered naturally. These viruses are frequently implicated in honey bee colony losses, especially when the colonies are infested with the parasitic mite Varroa destructor. Here we review the historical and recent literature of this virus complex, covering history and origins; the geographic, host and tissue distribution; pathology and transmission; genetics and variation; diagnostics, and discuss these within the context of the molecular and biological similarities and differences between the viruses. We also briefly discuss three recent developments relating specifically to IAPV, concerning its association with Colony Collapse Disorder, treatment of IAPV infection with siRNA and possible honey bee resistance to IAPV. PMID:19909972

  20. Hepatitis E Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Dalton, Harry R.; Abravanel, Florence; Izopet, Jacques

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is a worldwide disease. An improved understanding of the natural history of HEV infection has been achieved within the last decade. Several reservoirs and transmission modes have been identified. Hepatitis E is an underdiagnosed disease, in part due to the use of serological assays with low sensitivity. However, diagnostic tools, including nucleic acid-based tests, have been improved. The epidemiology and clinical features of hepatitis E differ between developing and developed countries. HEV infection is usually an acute self-limiting disease, but in developed countries it causes chronic infection with rapidly progressive cirrhosis in organ transplant recipients, patients with hematological malignancy requiring chemotherapy, and individuals with HIV. HEV also causes extrahepatic manifestations, including a number of neurological syndromes and renal injury. Acute infection usually requires no treatment, but chronic infection should be treated by reducing immunosuppression in transplant patients and/or the use of antiviral therapy. In this comprehensive review, we summarize the current knowledge about the virus itself, as well as the epidemiology, diagnostics, natural history, and management of HEV infection in developing and developed countries. PMID:24396139

  1. Dengue virus vaccine development.

    PubMed

    Yauch, Lauren E; Shresta, Sujan

    2014-01-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in tropical and subtropical regions, causing hundreds of millions of infections each year. Infections range from asymptomatic to a self-limited febrile illness, dengue fever (DF), to the life-threatening dengue hemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome (DHF/DSS). The expanding of the habitat of DENV-transmitting mosquitoes has resulted in dramatic increases in the number of cases over the past 50 years, and recent outbreaks have occurred in the United States. Developing a dengue vaccine is a global health priority. DENV vaccine development is challenging due to the existence of four serotypes of the virus (DENV1-4), which a vaccine must protect against. Additionally, the adaptive immune response to DENV may be both protective and pathogenic upon subsequent infection, and the precise features of protective versus pathogenic immune responses to DENV are unknown, complicating vaccine development. Numerous vaccine candidates, including live attenuated, inactivated, recombinant subunit, DNA, and viral vectored vaccines, are in various stages of clinical development, from preclinical to phase 3. This review will discuss the adaptive immune response to DENV, dengue vaccine challenges, animal models used to test dengue vaccine candidates, and historical and current dengue vaccine approaches. PMID:24373316

  2. Live-attenuated influenza A virus vaccines using a B virus backbone

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The currently FDA-licensed live attenuated influenza virus vaccine contains a trivalent mixture of types A (H1N1 and H3N2) and B vaccine viruses. The two A virus vaccines have the backbone of a cold-adapted influenza A virus and the B virus vaccine has the six backbone segments derived from a cold-...

  3. Comparison of Immunohistochemistry and Virus Isolation for Diagnosis of West Nile Virus

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, Angela E.; Mead, Daniel G.; Allison, Andrew B.; Gibbs, Samantha E. J.; Gottdenker, Nicole L.; Stallknecht, David E.; Howerth, Elizabeth W.

    2005-01-01

    Immunohistochemistry and virus isolation were performed on 1,057 birds. Immunohistochemistry, virus isolation, or both found 325 birds to be West Nile virus positive. Of these, 271 were positive by both methods. These results indicate that virus isolation and immunohistochemistry are approximately equal in their ability to detect West Nile virus. PMID:15956415

  4. A single vertebrate DNA virus protein disarms invertebrate immunity to RNA virus infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Virus-host interactions drive a remarkable diversity of immune responses and countermeasures. While investigating virus-invertebrate host interactions we found that two RNA viruses with broad host ranges, vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and Sindbis virus (SINV), were unable to infect certain Lepido...

  5. Co-infections with Chikungunya Virus and Dengue Virus in Delhi, India

    PubMed Central

    Chahar, Harendra S.; Bharaj, Preeti; Dar, Lalit; Guleria, Randeep; Kabra, Sushil K.

    2009-01-01

    Aedes aegypti mosquitoes are common vectors for dengue virus and chikungunya virus. In areas where both viruses cocirculate, they can be transmitted together. During a dengue outbreak in Delhi in 2006, 17 of 69 serum samples were positive for chikungunya virus by reverse transcriptionPCR; 6 samples were positive for both viruses. PMID:19624923

  6. Safe Computing: An Overview of Viruses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wodarz, Nan

    2001-01-01

    A computer virus is a program that replicates itself, in conjunction with an additional program that can harm a computer system. Common viruses include boot-sector, macro, companion, overwriting, and multipartite. Viruses can be fast, slow, stealthy, and polymorphic. Anti-virus products are described. (MLH)

  7. Getah Virus Infection among Racehorses, Japan, 2014.

    PubMed

    Nemoto, Manabu; Bannai, Hiroshi; Tsujimura, Koji; Kobayashi, Minoru; Kikuchi, Takuya; Yamanaka, Takashi; Kondo, Takashi

    2015-05-01

    An outbreak of Getah virus infection occurred among racehorses in Japan during September and October 2014. Of 49 febrile horses tested by reverse transcription PCR, 25 were positive for Getah virus. Viruses detected in 2014 were phylogenetically different from the virus isolated in Japan in 1978. PMID:25898181

  8. Transmitting plant viruses using whiteflies.

    PubMed

    Polston, Jane E; Capobianco, H

    2013-01-01

    Whiteflies, Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae, Bemisia tabaci, a complex of morphologically indistinquishable species(5), are vectors of many plant viruses. Several genera of these whitefly-transmitted plant viruses (Begomovirus, Carlavirus, Crinivirus, Ipomovirus, Torradovirus) include several hundred species of emerging and economically significant pathogens of important food and fiber crops (reviewed by(9,10,16)). These viruses do not replicate in their vector but nevertheless are moved readily from plant to plant by the adult whitefly by various means (reviewed by(2,6,7,9,10,11,17)). For most of these viruses whitefly feeding is required for acquisition and inoculation, while for others only probing is required. Many of these viruses are unable or cannot be easily transmitted by other means. Therefore maintenance of virus cultures, biological and molecular characterization (identification of host range and symptoms)(3,13), ecology(2,12), require that the viruses be transmitted to experimental hosts using the whitefly vector. In addition the development of new approaches to management, such as evaluation of new chemicals(14) or compounds(15), new cultural approaches(1,4,19), or the selection and development of resistant cultivars(7,8,18), requires the use of whiteflies for virus transmission. The use of whitefly transmission of plant viruses for the selection and development of resistant cultivars in breeding programs is particularly challenging(7). Effective selection and screening for resistance employs large numbers of plants and there is a need for 100% of the plants to be inoculated in order to find the few genotypes which possess resistance genes. These studies use very large numbers of viruliferous whiteflies, often several times per year. Whitefly maintenance described here can generate hundreds or thousands of adult whiteflies on plants each week, year round, without the contamination of other plant viruses. Plants free of both whiteflies and virus must be produced to introduce into the whitefly colony each week. Whitefly cultures must be kept free of whitefly pathogens, parasites, and parasitoids that can reduce whitefly populations and/or reduce the transmission efficiency of the virus. Colonies produced in the manner described can be quickly scaled to increase or decrease population numbers as needed, and can be adjusted to accommodate the feeding preferences of the whitefly based on the plant host of the virus. There are two basic types of whitefly colonies that can be maintained: a nonviruliferous and a viruliferous whitefly colony. The nonviruliferous colony is composed of whiteflies reared on virus-free plants and allows the weekly availability of whiteflies which can be used to transmit viruses from different cultures. The viruliferous whitefly colony, composed of whiteflies reared on virus-infected plants, allows weekly availability of whiteflies which have acquired the virus thus omitting one step in the virus transmission process. PMID:24300175

  9. Transmitting Plant Viruses Using Whiteflies

    PubMed Central

    Polston, Jane E.; Capobianco, H.

    2013-01-01

    Whiteflies, Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae, Bemisia tabaci, a complex of morphologically indistinquishable species5, are vectors of many plant viruses. Several genera of these whitefly-transmitted plant viruses (Begomovirus, Carlavirus, Crinivirus, Ipomovirus, Torradovirus) include several hundred species of emerging and economically significant pathogens of important food and fiber crops (reviewed by9,10,16). These viruses do not replicate in their vector but nevertheless are moved readily from plant to plant by the adult whitefly by various means (reviewed by2,6,7,9,10,11,17). For most of these viruses whitefly feeding is required for acquisition and inoculation, while for others only probing is required. Many of these viruses are unable or cannot be easily transmitted by other means. Therefore maintenance of virus cultures, biological and molecular characterization (identification of host range and symptoms)3,13, ecology2,12, require that the viruses be transmitted to experimental hosts using the whitefly vector. In addition the development of new approaches to management, such as evaluation of new chemicals14 or compounds15, new cultural approaches1,4,19, or the selection and development of resistant cultivars7,8,18, requires the use of whiteflies for virus transmission. The use of whitefly transmission of plant viruses for the selection and development of resistant cultivars in breeding programs is particularly challenging7. Effective selection and screening for resistance employs large numbers of plants and there is a need for 100% of the plants to be inoculated in order to find the few genotypes which possess resistance genes. These studies use very large numbers of viruliferous whiteflies, often several times per year. Whitefly maintenance described here can generate hundreds or thousands of adult whiteflies on plants each week, year round, without the contamination of other plant viruses. Plants free of both whiteflies and virus must be produced to introduce into the whitefly colony each week. Whitefly cultures must be kept free of whitefly pathogens, parasites, and parasitoids that can reduce whitefly populations and/or reduce the transmission efficiency of the virus. Colonies produced in the manner described can be quickly scaled to increase or decrease population numbers as needed, and can be adjusted to accommodate the feeding preferences of the whitefly based on the plant host of the virus. There are two basic types of whitefly colonies that can be maintained: a nonviruliferous and a viruliferous whitefly colony. The nonviruliferous colony is composed of whiteflies reared on virus-free plants and allows the weekly availability of whiteflies which can be used to transmit viruses from different cultures. The viruliferous whitefly colony, composed of whiteflies reared on virus-infected plants, allows weekly availability of whiteflies which have acquired the virus thus omitting one step in the virus transmission process. PMID:24300175

  10. Hepatitis viruses: changing patterns of human disease.

    PubMed Central

    Purcell, R H

    1994-01-01

    Viral hepatitis is a disease of antiquity, but evidence for more than one etiologic agent has been recognized only since the 1940s, when two viruses (hepatitis A virus and hepatitis B virus) were thought to account for all disease. In the past 20 years, three additional hepatitis agents (hepatitis C virus, hepatitis D virus, and hepatitis E virus) have been discovered, and there is evidence for at least one additional virus. Each of the five recognized hepatitis viruses belongs to a different virus family, and each has a unique epidemiology. The medical impact of these viruses on society has been strongly influenced by changes in human ecology. This has resulted in some cases in diminished disease and in others in increases in the incidence of disease. PMID:8146130

  11. Xenotropic Murine Leukemia Virus-related Virus (XMRV) Backgrounder

    Cancer.gov

    Researchers have not found evidence that XMRV causes any diseases in humans or in animals. The presence of an infectious agent, such as a virus, in diseased tissue does not mean that the agent causes the disease.

  12. Decreased egg production in turkeys experimentally infected with eastern equine encephalitis virus or Highlands J virus.

    PubMed

    Guy, J S; Barnes, H J; Ficken, M D; Smith, L G; Emory, W H; Wages, D P

    1994-01-01

    Turkey breeder hens were experimentally infected with strains of eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) virus or Highlands J (HJ) virus previously isolated from turkey hens experiencing decreased egg production. Depression and inappetance were observed on day 1 postexposure (PE) in hens inoculated with either EEE virus or HJ virus, and egg production fell in each virus-inoculated group from approximately 75% to less than 20% within 2-3 days PE. Egg production remained depressed (less than 20%) for 15 days in EEE-virus-inoculated hens and for 7 days in HJ-virus-inoculated hens. EEE virus and HJ virus were recovered from various tissues on days 1-5 PE, and virus was detected in eggs laid on days 2-5 PE. The findings of this study confirm that EEE virus and HJ virus are potential causes of decreased egg production in turkey breeder hens. PMID:7832710

  13. Antiviral Drugs for Viruses Other Than Human Immunodeficiency Virus

    PubMed Central

    Razonable, Raymund R.

    2011-01-01

    Most viral diseases, with the exception of those caused by human immunodeficiency virus, are self-limited illnesses that do not require specific antiviral therapy. The currently available antiviral drugs target 3 main groups of viruses: herpes, hepatitis, and influenza viruses. With the exception of the antisense molecule fomivirsen, all antiherpes drugs inhibit viral replication by serving as competitive substrates for viral DNA polymerase. Drugs for the treatment of influenza inhibit the ion channel M2 protein or the enzyme neuraminidase. Combination therapy with Interferon-? and ribavirin remains the backbone treatment for chronic hepatitis C; the addition of serine protease inhibitors improves the treatment outcome of patients infected with hepatitis C virus genotype 1. Chronic hepatitis B can be treated with interferon or a combination of nucleos(t)ide analogues. Notably, almost all the nucleos(t) ide analogues for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B possess antihuman immunodeficiency virus properties, and they inhibit replication of hepatitis B virus by serving as competitive substrates for its DNA polymerase. Some antiviral drugs possess multiple potential clinical applications, such as ribavirin for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C and respiratory syncytial virus and cidofovir for the treatment of cytomegalovirus and other DNA viruses. Drug resistance is an emerging threat to the clinical utility of antiviral drugs. The major mechanisms for drug resistance are mutations in the viral DNA polymerase gene or in genes that encode for the viral kinases required for the activation of certain drugs such as acyclovir and ganciclovir. Widespread antiviral resistance has limited the clinical utility of M2 inhibitors for the prevention and treatment of influenza infections. This article provides an overview of clinically available antiviral drugs for the primary care physician, with a special focus on pharmacology, clinical uses, and adverse effects. PMID:21964179

  14. Gene homology between orf virus and smallpox variola virus.

    PubMed

    Mercer, A A; Fraser, K M; Esposito, J J

    1996-01-01

    About 47% identity was observed between the deduced amino acid sequences of a protein encoded by a gene of the parapoxvirus orf virus (OV) strain NZ2 and a 6 kDa protein of unknown function reported to be produced by an open reading frame expressed early after infection by the orthopoxvirus Western Reserve vaccinia virus (VAC); the open reading frame is absent from VAC strain Copenhagen. Examination of sequences reported for variola virus (VAR) strains Bangladesh, India, Congo- 1970, Somalia- 1977 and Garcia- 1966 revealed each encoded a correlate 58 amino acid protein. The open reading frame was not reported in the original analyses of these sequences because a lower limit of 60 amino acids was used to identify potential encoded proteins. Inspection of partial reading frames reported for cowpox virus (CWV) and ectromelia virus (EMV) suggested that these viruses might also code for a correlate of the VAC WR protein. DNA sequencing of cloned fragments of CWV and EMV confirmed that both these orthopoxviruses encode closely related, full length variants of the VAC and VAR open reading frames. The OV homologue is coded in the OV strain NZ2 BamHI-E fragment E2L open reading frame, which we reported is transcribed early postinfection; moreover, analysis of an NZ2 variant showed E2L was absent, indicating that E2L, like the VAC cognate, is nonessential for virus replication in cell culture. The parapoxvirus and orthopoxvirus correlates have about 20% amino acid sequence resemblance to African swine fever virus DNA binding protein p10, suggesting an ancestral relation of genes. PMID:8972571

  15. Feline immunodeficiency virus latency

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Despite highly effective anti-retroviral therapy, HIV is thought to persist in patients within long-lived cellular reservoirs in the form of a transcriptionally inactive (latent) integrated provirus. Lentiviral latency has therefore come to the forefront of the discussion on the possibility of a cure for HIV infection in humans. Animal models of lentiviral latency provide an essential tool to study mechanisms of latency and therapeutic manipulation. Of the three animal models that have been described, the feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV)-infected cat is the most recent and least characterized. However, several aspects of this model make it attractive for latency research, and it may be complementary to other model systems. This article reviews what is known about FIV latency and chronic FIV infection and how it compares with that of other lentiviruses. It thereby offers a framework for the usefulness of this model in future research aimed at lentiviral eradication. PMID:23829177

  16. Feline immunodeficiency virus latency.

    PubMed

    McDonnel, Samantha J; Sparger, Ellen E; Murphy, Brian G

    2013-01-01

    Despite highly effective anti-retroviral therapy, HIV is thought to persist in patients within long-lived cellular reservoirs in the form of a transcriptionally inactive (latent) integrated provirus. Lentiviral latency has therefore come to the forefront of the discussion on the possibility of a cure for HIV infection in humans. Animal models of lentiviral latency provide an essential tool to study mechanisms of latency and therapeutic manipulation. Of the three animal models that have been described, the feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV)-infected cat is the most recent and least characterized. However, several aspects of this model make it attractive for latency research, and it may be complementary to other model systems. This article reviews what is known about FIV latency and chronic FIV infection and how it compares with that of other lentiviruses. It thereby offers a framework for the usefulness of this model in future research aimed at lentiviral eradication. PMID:23829177

  17. Human immunodeficiency virus endocrinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Uma; Sengupta, Nilanjan; Mukhopadhyay, Prasanta; Roy, Keshab Sinha

    2011-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) endocrinopathy encompasses a broad spectrum of disorders. Almost all the endocrine organs are virtually affected by HIV infection. HIV can directly alter glandular function. More commonly secondary endocrine dysfunction occurs due to opportunistic infections and neoplasms in immunocompromised state. The complex interaction between HIV infection and endocrine system may be manifested as subtle biochemical and hormonal perturbation to overt glandular failure. Antiretroviral therapy as well as other essential medications often result in adverse endocrinal consequences. Apart from adrenal insufficiency, hypogonadism, diabetes and bone loss, AIDS wasting syndrome and HIV lipodystrophy need special reference. Endocrinal evaluation should proceed as in other patients with suspected endocrine dysfunction. Available treatment options have been shown to improve quality of life and long-term mortality in AIDS patients. PMID:22028995

  18. Imaging luciferase-expressing viruses.

    PubMed

    Barry, Michael A; May, Shannon; Weaver, Eric A

    2012-01-01

    Optical imaging of luciferage gene expression has become a powerful tool to track cells and viruses in vivo in small animal models. Luciferase imaging has been used to study the location of infection by replication-defective and replication-competent viruses and to track changes in the distribution of viruses in mouse models. This approach has also been used in oncolytic studies as a noninvasive means to monitor the growth and killing of tumor cells modified with luciferase genes. In this chapter, we describe the techniques used for luciferase imaging as have been applied to track replication-defective and replication-competent adenoviruses in mouse and hamster models of oncolysis and virus pharmacology. Although these methods are simple, the process of obtaining accurate luciferase imaging data has many caveats that are discussed. PMID:21948470

  19. Rabies virus assembly and budding.

    PubMed

    Okumura, Atsushi; Harty, Ronald N

    2011-01-01

    Rabies virus (RABV) and other negative-strand RNA viruses are the causes of serious diseases in humans and animals worldwide. Assembly and budding are important late events in the replication cycles of these negative-strand RNA viruses that have received much attention in the past decade. Indeed, important insights into the molecular mechanisms by which rhabdoviral proteins usurp and/or interact with host proteins to promote efficient virion assembly and egress has greatly enhanced our understanding of the budding process. Assembly/budding of rhabdoviruses is driven largely by the matrix (M) protein. RABV M protein contains a late budding domain that mediates the recruitment of host proteins linked to the vacuolar protein sorting pathway of the cell to facilitate virus-cell separation. This chapter summarizes our current knowledge of the roles that both RABV M protein and interacting host proteins play during the budding process. PMID:21601040

  20. Zika virus: An international emergency?

    PubMed

    Palomo, Adolfo Martinez

    2016-05-01

    This Viewpoint discusses the World Health Organization's Declaration on 1 February 2016 that the epidemic infection caused by the Zika virus is a public health emergency of international concern - the basis of the decision and controversy surrounding it. PMID:26911655

  1. Peste des Petits Ruminants Virus.

    PubMed

    Baron, M D; Diallo, A; Lancelot, R; Libeau, G

    2016-01-01

    Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) causes a severe contagious disease of sheep and goats and has spread extensively through the developing world. Because of its disproportionately large impact on the livelihoods of low-income livestock keepers, and the availability of effective vaccines and good diagnostics, the virus is being targeted for global control and eventual eradication. In this review we examine the origin of the virus and its current distribution, and the factors that have led international organizations to conclude that it is eradicable. We also review recent progress in the molecular and cellular biology of the virus and consider areas where further research is required to support the efforts being made by national, regional, and international bodies to tackle this growing threat. PMID:27112279

  2. Viruses of eukaryotice green algae

    SciTech Connect

    Van Etten, J.L.

    1989-01-01

    The primary objective of our research was to develop the Chlorella-PBCV-1 virus system so that it can be used as a model system for studying gene expression in a photosynthetic eukaryote. We have made considerable progress and have learned much about PBCV-1 and its replication cycle. In addition, several significant discoveries were made in the last 3 to 4 years. These discoveries include: (i) the finding that morphologically similar, plaque forming, dsDNA containing viruses are common in nature and can be isolated readily from fresh water, (ii) the finding that all of these Chlorella viruses contain methylated bases which range in concentration from 0.1% to 47.5% m{sup 5}dC and 0 to 37% m{sup 6}dA and (iii) the discovery that infection with at least some of these viruses induces the appearance of DNA modification/restriction systems. 26 refs.

  3. About Human Parainfluenza Viruses (HPIVs)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Overview Laboratory Diagnosis HPIV Seasons Resources & References About Human Parainfluenza Viruses (HPIVs) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... 6348 Email CDC-INFO U.S. Department of Health & Human Services HHS/Open USA.gov Top

  4. Lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This book chapter describes the taxonomic classification of Lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus (LDV). Included are: host, genome, classification, morphology, physicochemical and physical properties, nucleic acid, proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, geographic range, phylogenetic properties, biologic...

  5. Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease): Diagnosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) and Removal of Contaminated Waste Guidance for Handling Untreated Sewage FAQs: Interim Guidance ... in the U.S. Guidance for Cleaning, Disinfection, and Waste Disposal in Commercial Passenger Aircraft Diagnosis Treatment Sierra ...

  6. Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease): Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) and Removal of Contaminated Waste Guidance for Handling Untreated Sewage FAQs: Interim Guidance ... in the U.S. Guidance for Cleaning, Disinfection, and Waste Disposal in Commercial Passenger Aircraft Diagnosis Treatment Sierra ...

  7. Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease): Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) and Removal of Contaminated Waste Guidance for Handling Untreated Sewage FAQs: Interim Guidance ... in the U.S. Guidance for Cleaning, Disinfection, and Waste Disposal in Commercial Passenger Aircraft Diagnosis Treatment Sierra ...

  8. Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease): Transmission

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) and Removal of Contaminated Waste Guidance for Handling Untreated Sewage FAQs: Interim Guidance ... in the U.S. Guidance for Cleaning, Disinfection, and Waste Disposal in Commercial Passenger Aircraft Diagnosis Treatment Sierra ...

  9. Taxonomy and nomenclature of viruses.

    PubMed

    Murant, A F

    1985-07-01

    In his article The species concept in plant virology Milne1 describes the CMI/AAB Descriptions of Plant Viruses2 as providing the 'creeping barrage' (for the 'anti-species' views of many plant virologists and others) in the seemingly unending trench warfare over virus taxonomy and nomenclature. As an editor since 1970 (with BD Harrison) of this continuing series, I am moved to fire a few additional shots in support of Milne's thesis. PMID:3940013

  10. A DNA Virus of Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Unckless, Robert L.

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about the viruses infecting most species. Even in groups as well-studied as Drosophila, only a handful of viruses have been well-characterized. A viral metagenomic approach was used to explore viral diversity in 83 wild-caught Drosophila innubila, a mushroom feeding member of the quinaria group. A single fly that was injected with, and died from, Drosophila C Virus (DCV) was added to the sample as a control. Two-thirds of reads in the infected sample had DCV as the best BLAST hit, suggesting that the protocol developed is highly sensitive. In addition to the DCV hits, several sequences had Oryctes rhinoceros Nudivirus, a double-stranded DNA virus, as a best BLAST hit. The virus associated with these sequences was termed Drosophila innubila Nudivirus (DiNV). PCR screens of natural populations showed that DiNV was both common and widespread taxonomically and geographically. Electron microscopy confirms the presence of virions in fly fecal material similar in structure to other described Nudiviruses. In 2 species, D. innubila and D. falleni, the virus is associated with a severe (∼80–90%) loss of fecundity and significantly decreased lifespan. PMID:22053195

  11. Virus detection using nanoelectromechanical devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilic, B.; Yang, Y.; Craighead, H. G.

    2004-09-01

    We have used a resonating mechanical cantilever to detect immunospecific binding of viruses, captured from liquid. As a model virus, we used a nonpathogenic insect baculovirus to test the ability to specifically bind and detect small numbers of virus particles. Arrays of surface micromachined, antibody-coated polycrystalline silicon nanomechanical cantilever beams were used to detect binding from various concentrations of baculoviruses in a buffer solution. Because of their small mass, the 0.5μm×6μm cantilevers have mass sensitivities on the order of 10-19g/Hz, enabling the detection of an immobilized AcV1 antibody monolayer corresponding to a mass of about 3×10-15g. With these devices, we can detect the mass of single-virus particles bound to the cantilever. Resonant frequency shift resulting from the adsorbed mass of the virus particles distinguished solutions of virus concentrations varying between 105 and 107pfu/ml. Control experiments using buffer solutions without baculovirus showed small amounts (<50attograms) of nonspecific adsorption to the antibody layer.

  12. Major tomato viruses in the Mediterranean basin.

    PubMed

    Hanssen, Inge M; Lapidot, Moshe

    2012-01-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) originated in South America and was brought to Europe by the Spaniards in the sixteenth century following their colonization of Mexico. From Europe, tomato was introduced to North America in the eighteenth century. Tomato plants show a wide climatic tolerance and are grown in both tropical and temperate regions around the world. The climatic conditions in the Mediterranean basin favor tomato cultivation, where it is traditionally produced as an open-field plant. However, viral diseases are responsible for heavy yield losses and are one of the reasons that tomato production has shifted to greenhouses. The major tomato viruses endemic to the Mediterranean basin are described in this chapter. These viruses include Tomato yellow leaf curl virus, Tomato torrado virus, Tomato spotted wilt virus, Tomato infectious chlorosis virus, Tomato chlorosis virus, Pepino mosaic virus, and a few minor viruses as well. PMID:22682165

  13. PC viruses: How do they do that

    SciTech Connect

    Pichnarczyk, K.

    1992-07-01

    The topic of PC Viruses has been an issue for a number of years now. They've been reported in every major newspaper, tabloids, television and radio. People from all fields get viruses: government, private sector businesses, home computers, schools, computer software suppliers. A definition is proposed to introduce the virus phenomenon. Virus authors come from a variety of communities. Motives and ideologies of authors are discussed, and examples of viruses are offered. Also mentioned is the growing number of viruses developed, isolated, and never distributed to the public at large, but kept within the antivirus research community. Virus examples are offered as well. Viruses are distributed not only through bulletin boards and shareware, but also from areas previously assumed to be safe, including the threat of receiving a virus through a standard in-house function, such as an in-house hardware maintenance shop. Three categories of viruses are presented: File Infecter viruses, Boot Sector Infecters, and the new category of Directory Entry Infecter virus. Also discussed are crossover viruses, that is, viruses which utilize a variety of techniques to ensure survival. An explanation of what is occurring within every stage of various viruses is given. Replication strategies common to all three types is noted, mainly the two different replication strategies of memory resident infecters and active selection infecters. A detailed definition, description and application of a stealth virus is presented. Detection strategies are discussed as each topic in this section is completed; a high level schemata of the operation of various virus detection programs ispresented. Since most eradication today is done using virus detection/eradication software, this paper attempts to reveal the techniques used by these packages.Included in the paper is the topic of manual eradication.

  14. PC viruses: How do they do that?

    SciTech Connect

    Pichnarczyk, K.

    1992-07-01

    The topic of PC Viruses has been an issue for a number of years now. They`ve been reported in every major newspaper, tabloids, television and radio. People from all fields get viruses: government, private sector businesses, home computers, schools, computer software suppliers. A definition is proposed to introduce the virus phenomenon. Virus authors come from a variety of communities. Motives and ideologies of authors are discussed, and examples of viruses are offered. Also mentioned is the growing number of viruses developed, isolated, and never distributed to the public at large, but kept within the antivirus research community. Virus examples are offered as well. Viruses are distributed not only through bulletin boards and shareware, but also from areas previously assumed to be safe, including the threat of receiving a virus through a standard in-house function, such as an in-house hardware maintenance shop. Three categories of viruses are presented: File Infecter viruses, Boot Sector Infecters, and the new category of Directory Entry Infecter virus. Also discussed are crossover viruses, that is, viruses which utilize a variety of techniques to ensure survival. An explanation of what is occurring within every stage of various viruses is given. Replication strategies common to all three types is noted, mainly the two different replication strategies of memory resident infecters and active selection infecters. A detailed definition, description and application of a stealth virus is presented. Detection strategies are discussed as each topic in this section is completed; a high level schemata of the operation of various virus detection programs ispresented. Since most eradication today is done using virus detection/eradication software, this paper attempts to reveal the techniques used by these packages.Included in the paper is the topic of manual eradication.

  15. Virus of Pekin ducks with structural and biological relatedness to human hepatitis B virus.

    PubMed Central

    Mason, W S; Seal, G; Summers, J

    1980-01-01

    A virus found in the sera of Pekin ducks appears to be a new member of the human hepatitis B-like family of viruses. This virus had a diameter of 40 nm and an appearance in the electron microscope similar to that of human hepatitis B virus. The DNA genome of the virus was circular and partially single stranded, and an endogenous DNA polymerase associated with the virus was capable of converting the genome to a double-stranded circle with a size of ca. 3,000 base pairs. An analysis for viral DNA in the organs of infected birds indicated preferential localization in the liver, implicating this organ as the site of virus replication. In all of these aspects, the virus bears a striking resemblance to human hepatitis B virus and appears to be a new member of this family, which also includes ground squirrel hepatitis virus and woodchuck hepatitis virus. Images PMID:7463557

  16. Araçatuba Virus: A Vaccinialike Virus Associated with Infection in Humans and Cattle

    PubMed Central

    de Souza Trindade, Giliane; Guimarães da Fonseca, Flávio; Marques, João Trindade; Nogueira, Maurício Lacerda; Mendes, Luiz Claudio Nogueira; Borges, Alexandre Secorun; Peiró, Juliana Regina; Pituco, Edviges Maristela; Bonjardim, Cláudio Antônio; Ferreira, Paulo César Peregrino

    2003-01-01

    We describe a vaccinialike virus, Araçatuba virus, associated with a cowpoxlike outbreak in a dairy herd and a related case of human infection. Diagnosis was based on virus growth characteristics, electron microscopy, and molecular biology techniques. Molecular characterization of the virus was done by using polymerase chain reaction amplification, cloning, and DNA sequencing of conserved orthopoxvirus genes such as the vaccinia growth factor (VGF), thymidine kinase (TK), and hemagglutinin. We used VGF-homologous and TK gene nucleotide sequences to construct a phylogenetic tree for comparison with other poxviruses. Gene sequences showed 99% homology with vaccinia virus genes and were clustered together with the isolated virus in the phylogenetic tree. Araçatuba virus is very similar to Cantagalo virus, showing the same signature deletion in the gene. Araçatuba virus could be a novel vaccinialike virus or could represent the spread of Cantagalo virus. PMID:12603984

  17. Emerging influenza viruses and the prospect of a universal influenza virus vaccine.

    PubMed

    Krammer, Florian

    2015-05-01

    Influenza viruses cause annual seasonal epidemics and pandemics at irregular intervals. Several cases of human infections with avian and swine influenza viruses have been detected recently, warranting enhanced surveillance and the development of more effective countermeasures to address the pandemic potential of these viruses. The most effective countermeasure against influenza virus infection is the use of prophylactic vaccines. However, vaccines that are currently in use for seasonal influenza viruses have to be re-formulated and re-administered in a cumbersome process every year due to the antigenic drift of the virus. Furthermore, current seasonal vaccines are ineffective against novel pandemic strains. This paper reviews zoonotic influenza viruses with pandemic potential and technological advances towards better vaccines that induce broad and long lasting protection from influenza virus infection. Recent efforts have focused on the development of broadly protective/universal influenza virus vaccines that can provide immunity against drifted seasonal influenza virus strains but also against potential pandemic viruses. PMID:25728134

  18. Quantitative nanoscale electrostatics of viruses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernando-Pérez, M.; Cartagena-Rivera, A. X.; Lošdorfer Božič, A.; Carrillo, P. J. P.; San Martín, C.; Mateu, M. G.; Raman, A.; Podgornik, R.; de Pablo, P. J.

    2015-10-01

    Electrostatics is one of the fundamental driving forces of the interaction between biomolecules in solution. In particular, the recognition events between viruses and host cells are dominated by both specific and non-specific interactions and the electric charge of viral particles determines the electrostatic force component of the latter. Here we probe the charge of individual viruses in liquid milieu by measuring the electrostatic force between a viral particle and the Atomic Force Microscope tip. The force spectroscopy data of co-adsorbed φ29 bacteriophage proheads and mature virions, adenovirus and minute virus of mice capsids is utilized for obtaining the corresponding density of charge for each virus. The systematic differences of the density of charge between the viral particles are consistent with the theoretical predictions obtained from X-ray structural data. Our results show that the density of charge is a distinguishing characteristic of each virus, depending crucially on the nature of the viral capsid and the presence/absence of the genetic material.Electrostatics is one of the fundamental driving forces of the interaction between biomolecules in solution. In particular, the recognition events between viruses and host cells are dominated by both specific and non-specific interactions and the electric charge of viral particles determines the electrostatic force component of the latter. Here we probe the charge of individual viruses in liquid milieu by measuring the electrostatic force between a viral particle and the Atomic Force Microscope tip. The force spectroscopy data of co-adsorbed φ29 bacteriophage proheads and mature virions, adenovirus and minute virus of mice capsids is utilized for obtaining the corresponding density of charge for each virus. The systematic differences of the density of charge between the viral particles are consistent with the theoretical predictions obtained from X-ray structural data. Our results show that the density of charge is a distinguishing characteristic of each virus, depending crucially on the nature of the viral capsid and the presence/absence of the genetic material. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr04274g

  19. Unusual Influenza A Viruses in Bats

    PubMed Central

    Mehle, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Influenza A viruses infect a remarkably diverse number of hosts. Two completely new influenza A virus subtypes were recently discovered in bats, dramatically expanding the host range of the virus. These bat viruses are extremely divergent from all other known strains and likely have unique replication cycles. Phylogenetic analysis indicates long-term, isolated evolution in bats. This is supported by a high seroprevalence in sampled bat populations. As bats represent ~20% of all classified mammals, these findings suggests the presence of a massive cryptic reservoir of poorly characterized influenza A viruses. Here, we review the exciting progress made on understanding these newly discovered viruses, and discuss their zoonotic potential. PMID:25256392

  20. Engineered resistance in potato against potato leafroll virus, potato virus A and potato virus Y.

    PubMed

    Chung, Bong Nam; Yoon, Ju-Yeon; Palukaitis, Peter

    2013-08-01

    Transgenic potato plants of Solanum tuberosum cultivar Vales Sovereign were generated that expressed fused, tandem, 200 bp segments derived from the capsid protein coding sequences of potato virus Y (PVY strain O) and potato leafroll virus (PLRV), as well as the cylindrical inclusion body coding sequences of potato virus A (PVA), as inverted repeat double-stranded RNAs, separated by an intron. The orientation of the expressed double-stranded RNAs was either sense-intron-antisense or antisense-intron-sense RNAs, and the double-stranded RNAs were processed into small RNAs. Four lines of such transgenic potato plants were assessed for resistance to infection by PVY-O, PLRV, or PVA, all transmitted by a natural vector, the green-peach aphid, Myzus persicae. Resistance was assessed by the absence of detectable virus accumulation in the foliage. All four transgenic potato lines tested showed 100% resistance to infection by either PVY-O or PVA, but variable resistance to infection by PLRV, ranging from 72 to 96% in different lines. This was regardless of the orientation of the viral inserts in the construct used to generate the transgenic plants and the gene copy number of the transgene. This demonstrates the potential for using tandem, fused viral segments and the inverted-repeat expression system to achieve multiple virus resistance to viruses transmitted by aphids in potato. PMID:23526159

  1. Replication strategies of rabies virus.

    PubMed

    Finke, Stefan; Conzelmann, Karl-Klaus

    2005-08-01

    Rabies virus (RV) is a prototype neurotropic virus that causes fatal disease in human and animals. RV infects hosts at the periphery, enters motoneurons or sensory nerves and moves to the central nervous system (CNS) via retrograde axonal transport. At later stages, there is also centrifugal spread to major exit portals, such as the salivary glands. Transmission to other hosts is facilitated by behavioral changes related to the CNS infection. Successful accomplishment of the RV infectious cycle depends on multiple functions of the virus, and of individual virus proteins, all together defining the typical pathogenicity and virulence, i.e. the biological fitness of this virus. In particular, it appears important for RV to sneak into the host without causing pronounced host responses and to preserve, at least for some time, the integrity of infected cells and of the neuronal network. The availability of reverse genetics systems that allow generation of engineered recombinant RV has provided tools for a more detailed analysis of viral functions relevant to the typical RV pathogenesis. Novel developments such as tracking of live fluorescent RV are further increasing the opportunities to decipher RV pathogenicity factors. In this review, we describe different aspects of the molecular biology of RV that are relevant to pathogenesis, with a particular emphasis on the accurate control of RV transcription, gene expression, and replication. In addition, the role of individual virus proteins in maintaining host cell integrity and supporting retrograde transport is discussed. The potential of recombinant RVs with single or multiple pathogenicity factors eliminated is being discussed in terms of vaccine and virus vector development. PMID:15885837

  2. Usutu virus in Africa.

    PubMed

    Nikolay, Birgit; Diallo, Mawlouth; Boye, Cheikh Saad Bouh; Sall, Amadou Alpha

    2011-11-01

    Usutu virus (USUV) was discovered in South Africa in 1959. Since then, it has been reported in several African countries including Senegal, Central African Republic, Nigeria, Uganda, Burkina Faso, Cote d'Ivoire, and Morocco. In 2001, USUV has been identified for the first time outside of Africa, namely in Europe, where it caused a significant mortality among blackbirds in Vienna, Austria. In 2009, the first two human cases of USUV infection in Europe have been reported in Italy, causing encephalitis in immunocompromised patients. The host range in Africa includes mainly Culex mosquitoes, birds, and also humans with one benign and one severe case. Given its role as a potential human pathogen and the similar appearance compared with other emerging arboviruses, it is essential to investigate the natural history and ecology of USUV in Africa. In this regard, we review the emergence of USUV in Africa, summarizing data about isolations, host range, and potential vectors, which should help to improve our understanding of the factors underlying the circulation of USUV in Europe and Africa. PMID:21767160

  3. HETEROLOGOUS IMMUNITY BETWEEN VIRUSES

    PubMed Central

    Welsh, Raymond M.; Che, Jenny; Brehm, Michael A.; Selin, Liisa K.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Immune memory responses to previously encountered pathogens can sometimes alter the immune response to and the course of infection of an unrelated pathogen by a process known as heterologous immunity. This response can lead to enhanced or diminished protective immunity and altered immunopathology. Here we discuss the nature of T-cell cross-reactivity and describe matrices of epitopes from different viruses eliciting cross-reactive CD8+ T-cell responses. We examine the parameters of heterologous immunity mediated by these cross-reactive T cells during viral infections in mice and humans. We show that heterologous immunity can disrupt T-cell memory pools, alter the complexity of the T-cell repertoire, change patterns of T-cell immunodominance, lead to the selection of viral epitope-escape variants, alter the pathogenesis of viral infections, and, by virtue of the private specificity of T-cell repertoires within individuals, contribute to dramatic variations in viral disease. We propose that heterologous immunity is an important factor in resistance to and variations of human viral infections and that issues of heterologous immunity should be considered in the design of vaccines. PMID:20536568

  4. Oncolytic virus therapies.

    PubMed

    Buonaguro, Franco Maria; Tornesello, Maria Lina; Izzo, Francesco; Buonaguro, Luigi

    2012-11-01

    Oncolytic virus (OV) therapy currently represents one of the most promising approaches to cancer treatment for their dual anticancer mechanisms: direct lysis of cancer cells (oncolytic feature) and activation of the immunosystem (cancer vaccine aspect). The latter demonstrates the advantage of a multi-target approach against multiple tumor-associated antigens. Since the 2005 SFDA (the Chinese FDA) approval for the clinical use of Oncorine™, the first human OV-based cancer treatment, more than 200 patents have been filed worldwide and several Phase I/II studies have been conducted. This patent review analyzes patents and clinical studies of the most promising OV products to highlight the pros and cons of this innovative anticancer approach, which is currently being tested in several cancers (i.e., hepatocellular carcinoma, melanoma and glioblastoma) by systemic as well as intratumoral injection. Clinical results, although effective only for a limited period of time, are encouraging. Combined treatments with radio or chemotherapeutic protocols are also in progress. PMID:24236929

  5. Ebola, the killer virus.

    PubMed

    Ghazanfar, Haider; Orooj, Fizza; Abdullah, Muhammad Ahmed; Ghazanfar, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Ebola virus disease (EVD) has mostly affected economically deprived countries as limited resources adversely affect a country's infrastructure and administration. Probing into the factors that led to the widespread outbreak, setting forth plans to counter EVD cases in developing countries, and devising definitive measures to limit the spread of the disease are essential steps that must be immediately taken. In this review we summarize the pathogenesis of EVD and the factors that led to its spread. We also highlight interventions employed by certain countries that have successfully limited the epidemic, and add a few preventive measures after studying the current data. According to the available data, barriers to prevent and control the disease in affected countries include irresolute and disorganized health systems, substandard sanitary conditions, poor personal hygiene practices, and false beliefs and stigma related to EVD. The public health sector along with the respective chief authorities in developing countries must devise strategies, keeping the available resources in mind, to deal with the outbreak before it occurs. As a first step, communities should be educated on EVD's symptoms, history, mode of transmission, and methods of protection, including the importance of personal hygiene practices, via seminars, newspapers, and other social media. A popular opinion leader (POL) giving this information would further help to remove the misconception about the nature of the disease and indirectly improve the quality of life of affected patients and their families. PMID:25866626

  6. Dengue viruses - an overview.

    PubMed

    Bäck, Anne Tuiskunen; Lundkvist, Ake

    2013-01-01

    Dengue viruses (DENVs) cause the most common arthropod-borne viral disease in man with 50-100 million infections per year. Because of the lack of a vaccine and antiviral drugs, the sole measure of control is limiting the Aedes mosquito vectors. DENV infection can be asymptomatic or a self-limited, acute febrile disease ranging in severity. The classical form of dengue fever (DF) is characterized by high fever, headache, stomach ache, rash, myalgia, and arthralgia. Severe dengue, dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF), and dengue shock syndrome (DSS) are accompanied by thrombocytopenia, vascular leakage, and hypotension. DSS, which can be fatal, is characterized by systemic shock. Despite intensive research, the underlying mechanisms causing severe dengue is still not well understood partly due to the lack of appropriate animal models of infection and disease. However, even though it is clear that both viral and host factors play important roles in the course of infection, a fundamental knowledge gap still remains to be filled regarding host cell tropism, crucial host immune response mechanisms, and viral markers for virulence. PMID:24003364

  7. Marek's disease virus latency.

    PubMed

    Morgan, R W; Xie, Q; Cantello, J L; Miles, A M; Bernberg, E L; Kent, J; Anderson, A

    2001-01-01

    MDV latency is defined as the persistence of the viral genome in the absence of production of infectious virus except during reactivation. A number of systems for studying MDV latency exist, and most involve the use of lymphoblastoid cells or tumors. It has been difficult to divorce latency and transformation. Understanding the relationship between these two states remains a major challenge for the MDV system. Based on their patterns of expression, the MDV LATs are apt to be important in the balance between latent and lytic infections. The LATs are a complex group of transcripts. The profile of gene expression that characterizes latency differs among all herpesviruses, and MDV is no exception. MDV LATs bear little resemblance to LATs of other alphaherpesviruses or to the LATs of other lymphotropic herpesviruses. LAT splicing patterns are complex and the relationships among various spliced species or between these species and the large 10-kb transcript are unknown. In addition, the existence of any protein gene products of significance is unknown at this time. More work is needed to further investigate the significance and function of these RNAs. Better technology to construct mutants in the MDV system is badly needed, since the analysis of mutants in the chicken is a powerful and unique advantage of the MDV system. PMID:11217424

  8. Stochastic analysis of virus transport in aquifers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Campbell, Rehmann L.L.; Welty, C.; Harvey, R.W.

    1999-01-01

    A large-scale model of virus transport in aquifers is derived using spectral perturbation analysis. The effects of spatial variability in aquifer hydraulic conductivity and virus transport (attachment, detachment, and inactivation) parameters on large-scale virus transport are evaluated. A stochastic mean model of virus transport is developed by linking a simple system of local-scale free-virus transport and attached-virus conservation equations from the current literature with a random-field representation of aquifer and virus transport properties. The resultant mean equations for free and attached viruses are found to differ considerably from the local-scale equations on which they are based and include effects such as a free-virus effective velocity that is a function of aquifer heterogeneity as well as virus transport parameters. Stochastic mean free-virus breakthrough curves are compared with local model output in order to observe the effects of spatial variability on mean one-dimensional virus transport in three-dimensionally heterogeneous porous media. Significant findings from this theoretical analysis include the following: (1) Stochastic model breakthrough occurs earlier than local model breakthrough, and this effect is most pronounced for the least conductive aquifers studied. (2) A high degree of aquifer heterogeneity can lead to virus breakthrough actually preceding that of a conservative tracer. (3) As the mean hydraulic conductivity is increased, the mean model shows less sensitivity to the variance of the natural-logarithm hydraulic conductivity and mean virus diameter. (4) Incorporation of a heterogeneous colloid filtration term results in higher predicted concentrations than a simple first-order adsorption term for a given mean attachment rate. (5) Incorporation of aquifer heterogeneity leads to a greater range of virus diameters for which significant breakthrough occurs. (6) The mean model is more sensitive to the inactivation rate of viruses associated with solid surfaces than to the inactivation rate of viruses in solution.

  9. Viruses and viruslike particles of eukaryotic algae.

    PubMed Central

    Van Etten, J L; Lane, L C; Meints, R H

    1991-01-01

    Until recently there was little interest or information on viruses and viruslike particles of eukaryotic algae. However, this situation is changing. In the past decade many large double-stranded DNA-containing viruses that infect two culturable, unicellular, eukaryotic green algae have been discovered. These viruses can be produced in large quantities, assayed by plaque formation, and analyzed by standard bacteriophage techniques. The viruses are structurally similar to animal iridoviruses, their genomes are similar to but larger (greater than 300 kbp) than that of poxviruses, and their infection process resembles that of bacteriophages. Some of the viruses have DNAs with low levels of methylated bases, whereas others have DNAs with high concentrations of 5-methylcytosine and N6-methyladenine. Virus-encoded DNA methyltransferases are associated with the methylation and are accompanied by virus-encoded DNA site-specific (restriction) endonucleases. Some of these enzymes have sequence specificities identical to those of known bacterial enzymes, and others have previously unrecognized specificities. A separate rod-shaped RNA-containing algal virus has structural and nucleotide sequence affinities to higher plant viruses. Quite recently, viruses have been associated with rapid changes in marine algal populations. In the next decade we envision the discovery of new algal viruses, clarification of their role in various ecosystems, discovery of commercially useful genes in these viruses, and exploitation of algal virus genetic elements in plant and algal biotechnology. Images PMID:1779928

  10. Autophagic machinery activated by dengue virus enhances virus replication

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Y.-R.; Lei, H.-Y.; Liu, M.-T.; Wang, J.-R.; Chen, S.-H.; Jiang-Shieh, Y.-F.; Lin, Y.-S.; Yeh, T.-M.; Liu, C.-C.; Liu, H.-S.

    2008-05-10

    Autophagy is a cellular response against stresses which include the infection of viruses and bacteria. We unravel that Dengue virus-2 (DV2) can trigger autophagic process in various infected cell lines demonstrated by GFP-LC3 dot formation and increased LC3-II formation. Autophagosome formation was also observed under the transmission electron microscope. DV2-induced autophagy further enhances the titers of extracellular and intracellular viruses indicating that autophagy can promote viral replication in the infected cells. Moreover, our data show that ATG5 protein is required to execute DV2-induced autophagy. All together, we are the first to demonstrate that DV can activate autophagic machinery that is favorable for viral replication.

  11. [Bats and Viruses: complex relationships].

    PubMed

    Rodhain, E

    2015-10-01

    With more than 1 200 species, bats and flying foxes (Order Chiroptera) constitute the most important and diverse order of Mammals after Rodents. Many species of bats are insectivorous while others are frugivorous and few of them are hematophagous. Some of these animals fly during the night, others are crepuscular or diurnal. Some fly long distances during seasonal migrations. Many species are colonial cave-dwelling, living in a rather small home range while others are relatively solitary. However, in spite of the importance of bats for terrestrial biotic communities and ecosystem ecology, the diversity in their biology and lifestyles remain poorly known and underappreciated. More than sixty viruses have been detected or isolated in bats; these animals are therefore involved in the natural cycles of many of them. This is the case, for instance, of rabies virus and other Lyssavirus (Family Rhabdoviridae), Nipah and Hendra viruses (Paramyxoviridae), Ebola and Marburg viruses (Filoviridae), SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV (Coronaviridae). For these zoonotic viruses, a number of bat species are considered as important reservoir hosts, efficient disseminators or even directly responsible of the transmission. Some of these bat-borne viruses cause highly pathogenic diseases while others are of potential significance for humans and domestic or wild animals; so, bats are an important risk in human and animal public health. Moreover, some groups of viruses developed through different phylogenetic mechanisms of coevolution between viruses and bats. The fact that most of these viral infections are asymptomatic in bats has been observed since a long time but the mechanisms of the viral persistence are not clearly understood. The various bioecology of the different bat populations allows exchange of virus between migrating and non-migrating conspecific species. For a better understanding of the role of bats in the circulation of these viral zoonoses, epidemiologists must pay attention to some of their biologic properties which are not fully documented, like their extreme longevity, their diet, the population size and the particular densities observed in species with crowded roosting behavior, the population structure and migrations, the hibernation permitting overwintering of viruses, their particular innate and acquired immune response, probably related at least partially to their ability to fly, allowing persistent virus infections and preventing immunopathological consequences, etc. It is also necessary to get a better knowledge of the interactions between bats and ecologic changes induced by man and to attentively follow bat populations and their viruses through surveillance networks involving human and veterinary physicians, specialists of wild fauna, ecologists, etc. in order to understand the mechanisms of disease emergence, to try to foresee and, perhaps, to prevent viral emergences beforehand. Finally, a more fundamental research about immune mechanisms developed in viral infections is essential to reveal the reasons why Chiroptera are so efficient reservoir hosts. Clearly, a great deal of additional work is needed to document the roles of bats in the natural history of viruses. PMID:26330152

  12. Coping with Computer Viruses: General Discussion and Review of Symantec Anti-Virus for the Macintosh.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Primich, Tracy

    1992-01-01

    Discusses computer viruses that attack the Macintosh and describes Symantec AntiVirus for Macintosh (SAM), a commercial program designed to detect and eliminate viruses; sample screen displays are included. SAM is recommended for use in library settings as well as two public domain virus protection programs. (four references) (MES)

  13. Strains of Citrus tristeza virus do not exclude superinfection by other strains of the virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Superinfection exclusion or homologous interference, a phenomenon in which a primary viral infection prevents a secondary infection with the same or closely-related virus, has been observed commonly for viruses in various systems, including viruses of bacteria, plants, and animals. With plant viruse...

  14. Circulative, “Nonpropagative” Virus Transmission: An orchestra of virus, insect and plant derived instruments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The many species of plant viruses within the Luteoviridae, Geminiviridae and Nanoviridae are all transmitted by phloem feeding insects in a circulative, nonpropagative manner. The precise route of virus movement through the vector can differ across and within virus families, but these viruses all sh...

  15. 9 CFR 113.215 - Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.215 Section 113.215 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines...

  16. Infectious particles derived from Semliki Forest virus vectors encoding murine leukemia virus envelopes.

    PubMed Central

    Lebedeva, I; Fujita, K; Nihrane, A; Silver, J

    1997-01-01

    Semliki Forest virus vectors encoding murine leukemia virus (MLV) envelope protein with a truncated cytoplasmic tail generate submicrometer, cell-associated, membranous particles that transmit replication-competent vector RNA specifically to cells bearing the MLV receptor. Such "minimal" viruses could have applications as retroviral vaccines or in the study of virus evolution. PMID:9261436

  17. Droplet Microfluidics for Virus Discovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rotem, Assaf; Cockrell, Shelley; Guo, Mira; Pipas, James; Weitz, David

    2012-02-01

    The ability to detect, isolate, and characterize an infectious agent is important for diagnosing and curing infectious diseases. Detecting new viral diseases is a challenge because the number of virus particles is often low and/or localized to a small subset of cells. Even if a new virus is detected, it is difficult to isolate it from clinical or environmental samples where multiple viruses are present each with very different properties. Isolation is crucial for whole genome sequencing because reconstructing a genome from fragments of many different genomes is practically impossible. We present a Droplet Microfluidics platform that can detect, isolate and sequence single viral genomes from complex samples containing mixtures of many viruses. We use metagenomic information about the sample of mixed viruses to select a short genomic sequence whose genome we are interested in characterizing. We then encapsulate single virions from the same sample in picoliter volume droplets and screen for successful PCR amplification of the sequence of interest. The selected drops are pooled and their contents sequenced to reconstruct the genome of interest. This method provides a general tool for detecting, isolating and sequencing genetic elements in clinical and environmental samples.

  18. Optical tweezers to study viruses.

    PubMed

    Arias-Gonzalez, J Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    A virus is a complex molecular machine that propagates by channeling its genetic information from cell to cell. Unlike macroscopic engines, it operates in a nanoscopic world under continuous thermal agitation. Viruses have developed efficient passive and active strategies to pack and release nucleic acids. Some aspects of the dynamic behavior of viruses and their substrates can be studied using structural and biochemical techniques. Recently, physical techniques have been applied to dynamic studies of viruses in which their intrinsic mechanical activity can be measured directly. Optical tweezers are a technology that can be used to measure the force, torque and strain produced by molecular motors, as a function of time and at the single-molecule level. Thanks to this technique, some bacteriophages are now known to be powerful nanomachines; they exert force in the piconewton range and their motors work in a highly coordinated fashion for packaging the viral nucleic acid genome. Nucleic acids, whose elasticity and condensation behavior are inherently coupled to the viral packaging mechanisms, are also amenable to examination with optical tweezers. In this chapter, we provide a comprehensive analysis of this laser-based tool, its combination with imaging methods and its application to the study of viruses and viral molecules. PMID:23737055

  19. Control of viruses infecting grapevine.

    PubMed

    Maliogka, Varvara I; Martelli, Giovanni P; Fuchs, Marc; Katis, Nikolaos I

    2015-01-01

    Grapevine is a high value vegetatively propagated fruit crop that suffers from numerous viruses, including some that seriously affect the profitability of vineyards. Nowadays, 64 viruses belonging to different genera and families have been reported in grapevines and new virus species will likely be described in the future. Three viral diseases namely leafroll, rugose wood, and infectious degeneration are of major economic importance worldwide. The viruses associated with these diseases are transmitted by mealybugs, scale and soft scale insects, or dagger nematodes. Here, we review control measures of the major grapevine viral diseases. More specifically, emphasis is laid on (i) approaches for the production of clean stocks and propagative material through effective sanitation, robust diagnosis, as well as local and regional certification efforts, (ii) the management of vectors of viruses using cultural, biological, and chemical methods, and (iii) the production of resistant grapevines mainly through the application of genetic engineering. The benefits and limitations of the different control measures are discussed with regard to accomplishments and future research directions. PMID:25591880

  20. Spiroplasmal viruses: group 1 characteristics.

    PubMed

    Liss, A; Cole, R M

    1982-01-01

    Virus-like particles of three morphologic groups have been detected by electron microscopy in 90% of spiroplasma strains. In this study, virus-like particles of group 1 (SpV1)--unenveloped rods 230-280 nm by 10-15 nm--were found in 575 of spiroplasmas. SpV1 occurred spontaneously in large numbers in cultures of strains B (corn stunt), G1 (tulip tree flower), BC3 (honeybee), and KC3 (honeybee), respectively; the viruses were isolated and assayed as plaque-forming units, with several of the same strains used as indicators. No virus plaqued on its strain of origin, and all except one (SpV1/BC3) plaqued best on strain BC3. Host range and yields of progeny virus differed. All isolates were identical in morphology, size, and buoyant densities; contained DNA; formed turbid 1.5 to 5.0-mm plaques; produced nonlytic infections and similar one-step growth curves; were inactivated by a single antiserum; had similar kinetics of adsorption and heat inactivation; and demonstrated similar patterns of resistance and sensitivity to a variety of physical and chemical agents, as well as an inability to infect resistant host mutants. SPV1 isolates from diverse host strains apparently share many physicochemical and biological properties, but are not identical in all biological respects. PMID:7123048

  1. Quantitative nanoscale electrostatics of viruses.

    PubMed

    Hernando-Prez, M; Cartagena-Rivera, A X; Lodorfer Boi?, A; Carrillo, P J P; San Martn, C; Mateu, M G; Raman, A; Podgornik, R; de Pablo, P J

    2015-11-01

    Electrostatics is one of the fundamental driving forces of the interaction between biomolecules in solution. In particular, the recognition events between viruses and host cells are dominated by both specific and non-specific interactions and the electric charge of viral particles determines the electrostatic force component of the latter. Here we probe the charge of individual viruses in liquid milieu by measuring the electrostatic force between a viral particle and the Atomic Force Microscope tip. The force spectroscopy data of co-adsorbed ?29 bacteriophage proheads and mature virions, adenovirus and minute virus of mice capsids is utilized for obtaining the corresponding density of charge for each virus. The systematic differences of the density of charge between the viral particles are consistent with the theoretical predictions obtained from X-ray structural data. Our results show that the density of charge is a distinguishing characteristic of each virus, depending crucially on the nature of the viral capsid and the presence/absence of the genetic material. PMID:26228582

  2. Designing herpes viruses as oncolytics

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Cole; Rabkin, Samuel D

    2015-01-01

    Oncolytic herpes simplex virus (oHSV) was one of the first genetically-engineered oncolytic viruses. Because HSV is a natural human pathogen that can cause serious disease, it is incumbent that it can be genetically-engineered or significantly attenuated for safety. Here, we present a detailed explanation of the functions of HSV-1 genes frequently mutated to endow oncolytic activity. These genes are nonessential for growth in tissue culture cells but are important for growth in postmitotic cells, interfering with intrinsic antiviral and innate immune responses or causing pathology, functions dispensable for replication in cancer cells. Understanding the function of these genes leads to informed creation of new oHSVs with better therapeutic efficacy. Virus infection and replication can also be directed to cancer cells through tumor-selective receptor binding and transcriptional- or post-transcriptional miRNA-targeting, respectively. In addition to the direct effects of oHSV on infected cancer cells and tumors, oHSV can be “armed” with transgenes that are: reporters, to track virus replication and spread; cytotoxic, to kill uninfected tumor cells; immune modulatory, to stimulate antitumor immunity; or tumor microenvironment altering, to enhance virus spread or to inhibit tumor growth. In addition to HSV-1, other alphaherpesviruses are also discussed for their oncolytic activity. PMID:26462293

  3. Electrical detection of single viruses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patolsky, Fernando; Zheng, Gengfeng; Hayden, Oliver; Lakadamyali, Melike; Zhuang, Xiaowei; Lieber, Charles M.

    2004-09-01

    We report direct, real-time electrical detection of single virus particles with high selectivity by using nanowire field effect transistors. Measurements made with nanowire arrays modified with antibodies for influenza A showed discrete conductance changes characteristic of binding and unbinding in the presence of influenza A but not paramyxovirus or adenovirus. Simultaneous electrical and optical measurements using fluorescently labeled influenza A were used to demonstrate conclusively that the conductance changes correspond to binding/unbinding of single viruses at the surface of nanowire devices. pH-dependent studies further show that the detection mechanism is caused by a field effect, and that the nanowire devices can be used to determine rapidly isoelectric points and variations in receptor-virus binding kinetics for different conditions. Lastly, studies of nanowire devices modified with antibodies specific for either influenza or adenovirus show that multiple viruses can be selectively detected in parallel. The possibility of large-scale integration of these nanowire devices suggests potential for simultaneous detection of a large number of distinct viral threats at the single virus level.

  4. Many Americans Misinformed about Zika Virus

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_158016.html Many Americans Misinformed About Zika Virus Harvard poll shows they don't know how ... when it comes to understanding the risks of Zika virus, a new Harvard poll has found. The mosquito- ...

  5. Swine influenza virus infections in humans.

    PubMed

    Dowdle, W R; Hattwick, M A

    1977-12-01

    Influenza in swine was first recognized as an epizootic disease in 1918. During that same year influenza virus in humans caused the worst pandemic on record. The virus of swine influenza was isolated in 1930. Swine influenza virus was first isolated from humans in 1974. Since then, including the cases at Fort Dix, there have been a total of nine viral isolations from humans in the United States. Serologic evidence of infections with swine influenza virus in humans has also been obtained. Evidence for transmission of swine influenza virus to humans before 1974 is minimal and circumstantial. Recent recognition of infections with swine influenza virus may be the result of better surveillance, increased numbers of susceptible humans, or increased viral infectivity for humans. Nevertheless, the apparent frequency of human infections and the declining levels of antibodies to swine influenza virus in the human population suggest that influenza viruses of swine may be a potential sources of epidemic disease for humans. PMID:342616

  6. Role of Lipids in Virus Replication

    PubMed Central

    Lorizate, Maier; Kräusslich, Hans-Georg

    2011-01-01

    Viruses intricately interact with and modulate cellular membranes at several stages of their replication, but much less is known about the role of viral lipids compared to proteins and nucleic acids. All animal viruses have to cross membranes for cell entry and exit, which occurs by membrane fusion (in enveloped viruses), by transient local disruption of membrane integrity, or by cell lysis. Furthermore, many viruses interact with cellular membrane compartments during their replication and often induce cytoplasmic membrane structures, in which genome replication and assembly occurs. Recent studies revealed details of membrane interaction, membrane bending, fission, and fusion for a number of viruses and unraveled the lipid composition of raft-dependent and -independent viruses. Alterations of membrane lipid composition can block viral release and entry, and certain lipids act as fusion inhibitors, suggesting a potential as antiviral drugs. Here, we review viral interactions with cellular membranes important for virus entry, cytoplasmic genome replication, and virus egress. PMID:21628428

  7. Physicochemical Properties of Tipula Iridescent Virus 1

    PubMed Central

    Kalmakoff, J.; Tremaine, J. H.

    1968-01-01

    The molecular weight of Tipula iridescent virus, based on sedimentation and diffusion coefficients, was 5.51 × 108, with hydration of 0.57 g of water per g of virus. Deoxyribonucleic acid content, based on total inorganic phosphorus liberated, was 19 ± 0.2%. At 260 mμ, the virus gave an uncorrected absorbance of 18.2 cm2/mg of virus and a light-scattering corrected absorbance of 9.8 cm2/mg of virus. Amino acid analyses of the virus protein revealed a remarkable similarity to Sericesthis iridescent virus. The possibility is discussed that the four iridescent insect viruses reported to date bear a strain relationship. Images PMID:16789085

  8. Influenza Virus Infection of Marine Mammals.

    PubMed

    Fereidouni, Sasan; Munoz, Olga; Von Dobschuetz, Sophie; De Nardi, Marco

    2016-03-01

    Interspecies transmission may play a key role in the evolution and ecology of influenza A viruses. The importance of marine mammals as hosts or carriers of potential zoonotic pathogens such as highly pathogenic H5 and H7 influenza viruses is not well understood. The fact that influenza viruses are some of the few zoonotic pathogens known to have caused infection in marine mammals, evidence for direct transmission of influenza A virus H7N7 subtype from seals to man, transmission of pandemic H1N1 influenza viruses to seals and also limited evidence for long-term persistence of influenza B viruses in seal populations without significant genetic change, makes monitoring of influenza viruses in marine mammal populations worth being performed. In addition, such monitoring studies could be a great tool to better understand the ecology of influenza viruses in nature. PMID:25231137

  9. Glycoprotein gene relocation in rabies virus.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xianfu; Rupprecht, Charles E

    2008-01-01

    Unlike vesicular stomatitis virus, rabies virus glycoprotein gene has not been successfully relocated closer to promoter-proximal regions by reverse genetics. Here we describe an efficient system for the Evelyn-Rokitnicki-Abelseth (ERA) rabies virus with the glycoprotein gene switched with the matrix protein gene, creating a reshuffled virus ERAgm (gene order N-P-G-M-L). With the aid of an autogene plasmid, the T7 RNA polymerase containing a nuclear location signal from the SV40 large T antigen facilitated virus recovery. The rearranged ERAgm rabies virus replicated as well as the parental ERA (gene order N-P-M-G-L) virus, reaching 10(9) ffu/ml in infected BSR cells. The altered glycoprotein gene position in viral genome presented an alternative way to study the pathogenicity of rabies virus. This also provides a potential novel method for rabies vaccine development. PMID:17850911

  10. Newly discovered insect RNA viruses in China.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Yang; Wang, ZhaoWei; Liu, YongXiang; Qi, Nan; Si, Jie; Xiang, Xue; Xia, XiaoLing; Hu, YuanYang; Zhou, Xi

    2013-08-01

    Insects are a group of arthropods and the largest group of animals on Earth, with over one million species described to date. Like other life forms, insects suffer from viruses that cause disease and death. Viruses that are pathogenic to beneficial insects cause dramatic economic losses on agriculture. In contrast, viruses that are pathogenic to insect pests can be exploited as attractive biological control agents. All of these factors have led to an explosion in the amount of research into insect viruses in recent years, generating impressive quantities of information on the molecular and cellular biology of these viruses. Due to the wide variety of insect viruses, a better understanding of these viruses will expand our overall knowledge of their virology. Here, we review studies of several newly discovered RNA insect viruses in China. PMID:23917843

  11. About Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search The CDC Epstein-Barr Virus and Infectious Mononucleosis Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... Mono Home About Epstein-Barr Virus About Infectious Mononucleosis For Healthcare Providers Laboratory Testing References & Resources About ...

  12. Child Paralysis Cases Spiked During Virus Outbreak

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_156356.html Child Paralysis Cases Spiked During Virus Outbreak: Study But definitive cause of polio-like ... during a national outbreak of enterovirus D68, a virus in the same family as polio, researchers report ...

  13. Researchers Uncover Different Variations of MERS Virus

    MedlinePlus

    ... 156284.html Researchers Uncover Different Variations of MERS Virus And, a second team reports progress on a ... About 35 percent of people who contracted the virus died, the researchers said. Arabian camels are the ...

  14. A "virus" disease of chinook salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ross, A.J.; Rucker, R.R.

    1960-01-01

    Epizootics among chinook salmon fingerlings at the Coleman National Fish Hatchery have occurred periodically since 1941. A virus or virus-like filterable agent has been demonstrated to be the causative agent of this disease.

  15. Scientists Try to Stop Another Deadly Virus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Try to Stop Another Deadly Virus Junin, an Ebola-like disease in Argentina, has a death rate ... companies that developed a similar treatment against the Ebola virus during the 2014-2015 outbreak. That drug, ...

  16. Plasmids, viruses and virus-like membrane vesicles from Thermococcales.

    PubMed

    Soler, Nicolas; Gaudin, Marie; Marguet, Evelyne; Forterre, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Several families of plasmids and viruses (PVs) have now been described in hyperthermophilic archaea of the order Thermococcales. One family of plasmids replicates by the rolling circle mechanism, whereas most other PVs probably replicate by the θ mode. PVs from Thermococcales encode novel families of DNA replication proteins that have only detectable homologues in other archaeal PVs. PVs from different families share a common gene pool and co-evolve with their hosts. Most Thermococcales also produce virus-like membrane vesicles similar to eukaryotic microparticles (ectosomes). Some membrane vesicles of Thermococcus nautilus harbour the plasmid pTN1, suggesting that vesicles can be involved in plasmid transfer between species. PMID:21265744

  17. [Antiviral effect of Haemanthus albiflos leaves extract on herpes virus, adenovirus, vesicular stomatitis virus, rotavirus and poliovirus].

    PubMed

    Husson, G P; Vilaginès, P; Sarrette, B; Vilaginès, R

    1991-01-01

    An hydro-alcoholic extract from Haemanthus albiflos leaves (Amaryllidaceae) was tested for its potential antiviral activity against two DNA viruses: herpes simplex virus type I, Adenovirus type 5 and three RNA viruses: poliovirus type I, vesicular stomatitis virus, simian Rotavirus SA 11. Positive results were obtained against herpes virus and all the RNA viruses tested. PMID:1651069

  18. Role of Lipids on Entry and Exit of Bluetongue Virus, a Complex Non-Enveloped Virus

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharya, Bishnupriya; Roy, Polly

    2010-01-01

    Non-enveloped viruses such as members of Picornaviridae and Reoviridae are assembled in the cytoplasm and are generally released by cell lysis. However, recent evidence suggests that some non-enveloped viruses exit from infected cells without lysis, indicating that these viruses may also utilize alternate means for egress. Moreover, it appears that complex, non-enveloped viruses such as bluetongue virus (BTV) and rotavirus interact with lipids during their entry process as well as with lipid rafts during the trafficking of newly synthesized progeny viruses. This review will discuss the role of lipids in the entry, maturation and release of non-enveloped viruses, focusing mainly on BTV. PMID:21994677

  19. Experimental infection of young turkeys with eastern equine encephalitis virus and highlands J virus.

    PubMed

    Guy, J S; Ficken, M D; Barnes, H J; Wages, D P; Smith, L G

    1993-01-01

    Depression, somnolence, and increased mortality were observed in 2-week-old turkeys inoculated intramuscularly with either eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) virus or Highlands J (HJ) virus. Mortality rates in EEE virus- and HJ virus-inoculated turkeys were 7/30 (23%) and 9/30 (27%), respectively; no sham-inoculated controls died. Both EEE virus- and HJ virus-inoculated turkeys developed viremia that lasted 2 days; peak mean titers were 5.5 and 3.2 log10 plaque-forming units per ml of blood, respectively. Pathologic changes in both EEE virus- and HJ virus-inoculated turkeys consisted primarily of multifocal necrosis in the heart, kidney, and pancreas, and lymphoid necrosis and depletion in the thymus, spleen, and bursa of Fabricius. The findings indicate that EEE virus and HJ virus are pathogenic for young turkeys. PMID:8395798

  20. Characteristics of Filoviridae: Marburg and Ebola Viruses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beer, Brigitte; Kurth, Reinhard; Bukreyev, Alexander

    Filoviruses are enveloped, nonsegmented negative-stranded RNA viruses. The two species, Marburg and Ebola virus, are serologically, biochemically, and genetically distinct. Marburg virus was first isolated during an outbreak in Europe in 1967, and Ebola virus emerged in 1976 as the causative agent of two simultaneous outbreaks in southern Sudan and northern Zaire. Although the main route of infection is known to be person-to-person transmission by intimate contact, the natural reservoir for filoviruses still remains a mystery.