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1

Variability and Immunogenicity of Caprine Arthritis-Encephalitis Virus Surface Glycoprotein  

Microsoft Academic Search

The complete surface glycoprotein (SU) nucleotide sequences of three French isolates of caprine arthritis- encephalitis virus (CAEV) were determined and compared with those of previously described isolates: three American isolates and one French isolate. Phylogenetic analyses revealed the existence of four distinct and roughly equidistant evolutionary CAEV subtypes. Four conserved and five variable domains were identified in the SU. The

S. Valas; C. Benoit; C. Baudry; G. Perrin; R. Z. Mamoun

2000-01-01

2

Characterization of a new 5' splice site within the caprine arthritis encephalitis virus genome: evidence for a novel auxiliary protein  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Lentiviral genomes encode multiple structural and regulatory proteins. Expression of the full complement of viral proteins is accomplished in part by alternative splicing of the genomic RNA. Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV) and maedi-visna virus (MVV) are two highly related small-ruminant lentiviruses (SRLVs) that infect goats and sheep. Their genome seems to be less complex than those of primate

Stephen Valas; Morgane Rolland; Cécile Perrin; Gérard Perrin; Robert Z Mamoun

2008-01-01

3

Preferential immune response to virion surface glycoproteins by caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus-infected goats.  

PubMed Central

Six months after inoculation with caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus, the serum and synovial fluid of virus-infected goats had antibodies to [35S]methionine-labeled viral proteins with apparent molecular weights of 125,000, 90,000, 28,000, and 15,000. The 125,000-, 90,000-, and 15,000-molecular-weight methionine-labeled proteins were identified as virion surface glycoproteins by lactoperoxidase iodination and galactose oxidase-boro[3H]hydride reduction labeling techniques. Radioimmunoassay antibody titers to purified p28, the most abundant viral structural protein, averaged 1:182 in synovial fluid and 1:67 in serum 6 months after inoculation. High dilutions of serum and synovial fluid reacted with gp90 and gp125 electroblotted onto nitrocellulose paper from polyacrylamide gels. Anti-gp90 activity was detected at dilutions with an immunoglobulin G content of 0.02 to 11 micrograms, whereas antibody to p28, when detectable on Western blots, was present in samples with an immunoglobulin G content of 0.1 to 2 mg, representing 100- to 1,000-fold-greater titers of antibody to the surface glycoprotein. Synovial fluids often contained more anti-gp90 antibody than did sera. Immunoprecipitation of lactoperoxidase-iodinated virus confirmed the presence of high antibody titers to the two virion surface glycoproteins. Because antiviral gp90 and gp125 antibody is abundant in the synovial fluid of infected goats, it probably contributes to the high immunoglobulin G1 concentrations seen at this site 6 months after caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus infection. Images

Johnson, G C; Barbet, A F; Klevjer-Anderson, P; McGuire, T C

1983-01-01

4

Detection of antibodies to caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus by protein G enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunoblotting.  

PubMed Central

Sera from goats suffering from caprine arthritis-encephalitis contained antibodies to virus proteins of 15, 17, 28, 40, and 130 kilodaltons in immunoblots of maedi-visna virus. We propose to use immunoblotting as a validation test for enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and demonstrate that the specificity of indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay can be improved by replacing second antibody by a protein G-avidin-biotin conjugate. Images

Zanoni, R; Krieg, A; Peterhans, E

1989-01-01

5

Early embryonic cells from in vivo-produced goat embryos transmit the caprine arthritis–encephalitis virus (CAEV)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to investigate whether cells of early goat embryos isolated from in vivo-fertilized goats interact with the caprine arthritis–encephalitis virus (CAEV) in vitro and whether the embryonic zona pellucida (ZP) protects early embryo cells from CAEV infection. ZP-free and ZP-intact 8–16 cell embryos were inoculated for 2h with CAEV at the 104 tissue culture infectious

A. Lamara; F. Fieni; L. Mselli-Lakhal; G. Chatagnon; J. F. Bruyas; D. Tainturier; I. Battut; C. Fornazero; Y. Chebloune

2002-01-01

6

Influence of chronic caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus infection on the population of peripheral blood leukocytes.  

PubMed

The influence of caprine arthritis-encephalitis (CAE) virus infection on the population of peripheral blood leukocytes in goats was evaluated. For this purpose two groups of adult dairy female goats were formed. The experimental group consisted of 17 goats, which had been naturally infected for many years. The control group comprised 29 non-infected goats, which originated from CAE-free herd. All goats were clinically healthy. Whole blood was collected and tested in hematological analyzer and light microscope to assess the total number of leukocytes and the percentage of four leukocyte populations--neutrophils, eosinophils, monocytes and lymphocytes. Then, flow cytometry with monoclonal antibodies against several surface antigens (namely CD14, CD2, B-B2, CD4, CD8h, TCR-N6, WC1-N2 and WC1-N3) was performed to assess the proportion of lymphocyte subpopulations. Statistically significant differences (alpha < or = 0.01) were observed only in the subpopulations of T lymphocytes--percentage of all subpopulations were significantly higher in the group of seropositive goats. No statistically significant differences were revealed with respect to the total number of blood leukocytes, the average percentage of blood leukocyte populations and proportions of both T and B lymphocytes. PMID:22439329

Kaba, J; Winnicka, A; Zaleska, M; Nowicki, M; Bagnicka, E

2011-01-01

7

Diversity of caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus promoters isolated from goat milk and passaged in vitro.  

PubMed

Transcriptional regulation in retroviruses resides in the U3 region of the proviral long terminal repeat (LTR). Transcription binding sites (TBS) in the U3 region of proviral sequences derived from the milk of 17 goats infected with caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV) were analysed by nested PCR and sequencing. U3 sequences shared a high degree of homology (86-99%) and were closely related to isolates previously ascribed to small ruminant lentivirus subtype B1. Multiple putative AP-1, AP-4, Ets-1, Stat-1 and TATA binding protein (TBP) sites were highly conserved (>85% of isolates), as were single AML(vis), GAS, IRF-1, NFAT and TAS sites. A 10 nucleotide insertion of undetermined relevance was identified in the U3 region of two isolates. To study the stability of TBS within the CAEV U3 region through in vitro passage, milk-derived isolates of CAEV from three infected dams were cultured in goat synovial membrane (GSM) cells; in one isolate the viral U3 region was completely stable during in vitro passage, in a second isolate the viral U3 region accumulated multiple deletions, single nucleotide polymorphisms and insertions, while a third isolate had an intermediate degree of promoter stability. Promoter mutations arising during in vitro passage did not affect most of the conserved putative TBS identified in CAEV. PMID:23183018

Gomez-Lucia, Esperanza; Rowe, Joan; Collar, Carol; Murphy, Brian

2013-06-01

8

Simple and Rapid Method for Production of Whole-Virus Antigen for Serodiagnosis of Caprine Arthritis-Encephalitis Virus by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polyethylene glycol (PEG) was used to produce whole-virus antigen derived from tissue culture cells infected with a Canadian strain of caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus. PEG antigen batches were obtained after pre- cipitation and concentration of infected tissue culture material with PEG 8000 and final treatment with sodium dodecyl sulfate. The optimum time of harvest of tissue culture extracted material to produce

CAROLE SIMARD; MOLLY TWINOMWE KIBENGE; PATRICIA SINGH; PHYLLIS DIXON

2001-01-01

9

Computed tomography findings in a 5-year-old Australian Cashmere goat (Capra hircus) suffering leukoencephalomyelitis due to caprine arthritis encephalitis virus  

PubMed Central

Computed tomography was used to aid in the antemortem diagnosis of leukoencephalomyelitis in a goat infected by caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV). Imaging results were corroborated by histologic examination. This report discusses various methods of imaging the nervous system and their potential for use in the antemortem diagnosis of CAEV neurologic changes.

DeVilbiss, Bethany; Neelis, Dana; Ochoa, Jennine; Ziegler, Jessie; Barrington, George; Allen, Andrew

2013-01-01

10

Computed tomography findings in a 5-year-old Australian Cashmere goat (Capra hircus) suffering leukoencephalomyelitis due to caprine arthritis encephalitis virus.  

PubMed

Computed tomography was used to aid in the antemortem diagnosis of leukoencephalomyelitis in a goat infected by caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV). Imaging results were corroborated by histologic examination. This report discusses various methods of imaging the nervous system and their potential for use in the antemortem diagnosis of CAEV neurologic changes. PMID:24155416

Devilbiss, Bethany; Neelis, Dana; Ochoa, Jennine; Ziegler, Jessie; Barrington, George; Allen, Andrew

2013-10-01

11

Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus dysregulates the expression of cytokines in macrophages.  

PubMed Central

Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV) is a lentivirus of goats that leads to chronic mononuclear infiltration of various tissues, in particular, the radiocarpal joints. Cells of the monocyte/macrophage lineage are the major host cells of CAEV in vivo. We have shown that infection of cultured goat macrophages with CAEV results in an alteration of cytokine expression in vitro. Constitutive expression of interleukin 8 (IL-8) and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) was increased in infected macrophages, whereas transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-beta1) mRNA was down-regulated. When macrophages were infected with a CAEV clone lacking the trans-acting nuclear regulatory gene tat, IL-8 and MCP-1 were also increased. No significant differences from cells infected with the wild-type clone were observed, suggesting that Tat is not required for the increased expression of IL-8 and MCP-1 in infected macrophages. Furthermore, infection with CAEV led to an altered pattern of cytokine expression in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), heat-killed Listeria monocytogenes plus gamma interferon, or fixed cells of Staphylococcus aureus Cowan I. In infected macrophages, tumor necrosis factor alpha, IL-1beta, IL-6, and IL-12 p40 mRNA expression was reduced in response to all stimuli tested whereas changes in expression of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor depended on the stimulating agent. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays demonstrated that, in contrast to effects of human immunodeficiency virus infection of macrophages, CAEV infection had no effect on the level of constitutive nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) activity or on the level of LPS-stimulated NF-kappaB activity, suggesting that NF-kappaB is not involved in altered regulation of cytokine expression in CAEV-infected cells. In contrast, activator protein 1 (AP-1) binding activity was decreased in infected macrophages. These data show that CAEV infection may result in a dysregulation of expression of cytokines in macrophages. This finding suggests that CAEV may modulate the accessory functions of infected macrophages and the antiviral immune response in vivo.

Lechner, F; Machado, J; Bertoni, G; Seow, H F; Dobbelaere, D A; Peterhans, E

1997-01-01

12

Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus detection in blood by loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay targeting the proviral gag region.  

PubMed

Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV), of the genus Lentivirus of the Retroviridae family, causes persistent disease, which is characterized by polyarthritis and mastitis in adult goats and progressive paresis (leukoencephalomyelitis) in kids. A loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay was developed for the detection of CAEV in blood samples. Species-specific primers amplifying the gag gene region in the provirus were used for the detection of CAEV. The LAMP assay result was obtained 30 min after incubation on a constant temperature at 63 °C in a heat block. Resulting amplicons were visualized by addition of SYBR green dye after the reaction and checked by agarose gel electrophoresis. The sensitivity of LAMP assay was evaluated by comparing the result with the nested polymerase chain reaction. Based on the experiments, the result of the assay indicated a rapid and sensitive test for the detection of CAEV. PMID:24630755

Balbin, Michelle M; Belotindos, Lawrence P; Abes, Nancy S; Mingala, Claro N

2014-05-01

13

Maedi-Visna Virus and Caprine Arthritis Encephalitis Virus Genomes Encode a Vpr-Like but No Tat Protein  

PubMed Central

A small open reading frame (ORF) in maedi-visna virus (MVV) and caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV) was initially named “tat” by analogy with a similarly placed ORF in the primate lentiviruses. The encoded “Tat” protein was ascribed the function of up regulation of the viral transcription from the long terminal repeat (LTR) promoter, but we have recently reported that MVV and CAEV Tat proteins lack trans-activation function activity under physiological conditions (S. Villet, C. Faure, B. Bouzar, G. Verdien, Y. Chebloune, and C. Legras, Virology 307:317-327, 2003). In the present work, we show that MVV Tat localizes to the nucleus of transfected cells, probably through the action of a nuclear localization signal in its C-terminal portion. We also show that, unlike the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) Tat protein, MVV Tat was not secreted into the medium by transfected human or caprine cells in the absence of cell lysis but that, like the primate accessory protein Vpr, MVV and CAEV Tat proteins were incorporated into viral particles. In addition, analysis of the primary protein structures showed that small-ruminant lentivirus (SRLV) Tat proteins are more similar to the HIV type 1 (HIV-1) Vpr protein than to HIV-1 Tat. We also demonstrate a functional similarity between the SRLV Tat proteins and the HIV-1 Vpr product in the induction of a specific G2 arrest of the cell cycle in MVV Tat-transfected cells, which increases the G2/G1 ratio 2.8-fold. Together, these data strongly suggest that the tat ORF in the SRLV genomes does not code for a regulatory transactivator of the LTR but, rather, for a Vpr-like accessory protein.

Villet, Stephanie; Bouzar, Baya Amel; Morin, Thierry; Verdier, Gerard; Legras, Catherine; Chebloune, Yahia

2003-01-01

14

Demonstration of Coinfection with and Recombination by Caprine Arthritis-Encephalitis Virus and Maedi-Visna Virus in Naturally Infected Goats?  

PubMed Central

Recombination of different strains and subtypes is a hallmark of lentivirus infections, particularly for human immunodeficiency virus, and contributes significantly to viral diversity and evolution both within individual hosts and within populations. Recombinant viruses are generated in individuals coinfected or superinfected with more than one lentiviral strain or subtype. This, however, has never been described in vivo for the prototype lentivirus maedi-visna virus of sheep and its closely related caprine counterpart, the caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus. Cross-species infections occur in animals living under natural conditions, which suggests that dual infections with small-ruminant lentiviruses (SRLVs) are possible. In this paper we describe the first documented case of coinfection and viral recombination in two naturally infected goats. DNA fragments encompassing a variable region of the envelope glycoprotein were obtained from these two animals by end-limiting dilution PCR of peripheral blood mononuclear cells or infected cocultures. Genetic analyses, including nucleotide sequencing and heteroduplex mobility assays, showed that these goats harbored two distinct populations of SRLVs. Phylogenetic analysis permitted us to assign these sequences to the maedi-visna virus group (SRLV group A) or the caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus group (SRLV group B). SimPlot analysis showed clear evidence of A/B recombination within the env gene segment of a virus detected in one of the two goats. This case provides conclusive evidence that coinfection by different strains of SRLVs of groups A and B can indeed occur and that these viruses actually recombine in vivo.

Pisoni, Giuliano; Bertoni, Giuseppe; Puricelli, Maria; Maccalli, Marina; Moroni, Paolo

2007-01-01

15

Lack of Functional Receptors Is the Only Barrier That Prevents Caprine Arthritis-Encephalitis Virus from Infecting Human Cells  

PubMed Central

Barriers to replication of viruses in potential host cells may occur at several levels. Lack of suitable and functional receptors on the host cell surface, thereby precluding entry of the virus, is a frequent reason for noninfectivity, as long as no alternative way of entry (e.g., pinocytosis, antibody-dependent adsorption) can be exploited by the virus. Other barriers can intervene at later stages of the virus life cycle, with restrictions on transcription of the viral genome, incorrect translation and posttranslational processing of viral proteins, inefficient viral assembly, and release or efficient early induction of apoptosis in the infected cell. The data we present here demonstrate that replication of caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV) is restricted in a variety of human cell lines and primary tissue cultures. This barrier was efficiently overcome by transfection of a novel infectious complete-proviral CAEV construct into the same cells. The successful infection of human cells with a vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) G-pseudotyped Env-defective CAEV confirmed that viral entry is the major obstacle to CAEV infection of human cells. The fully efficient productive infection obtained with the VSV-G-protein-pseudotyped infectious CAEV strengthened the evidence that lack of viral entry is the only practical barrier to CAEV replication in human cells. The virus thus produced retained its original host cell specificity and acquired no propensity to propagate further in human cultures.

Mselli-Lakhal, Laila; Favier, Colette; Leung, Kevin; Guiguen, Francois; Grezel, Delphine; Miossec, Pierre; Mornex, Jean-Francois; Narayan, Opendra; Querat, Gilles; Chebloune, Yahia

2000-01-01

16

Maedi-visna virus and caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus: distinct species or quasispecies and its implications for laboratory diagnosis.  

PubMed Central

The lentiviruses responsible for causing maedi-visna or ovine progressive pneumonia in sheep and caprine arthritis-encephalitis in goats have long been considered distinct, albeit related, viral species. Evidence, primarily in the form of nucleic acid sequence data, suggests this distinction may not be as absolute as once thought. These lentiviruses might better be viewed in the context of viral quasispecies whose individual members exhibit varying host range and pathogenic capabilities. Implications for diagnostic testing and control of these diseases are discussed.

Pasick, J

1998-01-01

17

Quantitative estimation of the impact of caprine arthritis encephalitis virus infection on milk production by dairy goats.  

PubMed

This retrospective study investigated milk production losses associated with serological evidence (serostatus) of caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV) infection over one lactation in 4543 Murciano-Granadina goats from 22 herds in Spain. The seroprevalence of infection was 18%, ranging from 0% to 2% in 11 herds, 7% to 60% in 10 herds and was 100% in one herd. Seropositive does had significantly shorter lactations, produced less milk and milk fat, lactose and dry extract and had higher somatic cell counts than their seronegative counterparts, although differences in milk production between seropositive and seronegative animals were noted between herds. Mixed regression models confirmed the association between CAEV seropositivity and reduced milk production. The adjusted, least squares mean (LSM) test-day milk yield was 10% less in seropositive compared to seronegative does and this difference varied according to lactation number. In contrast, differences in the LSM of milk fat, lactose and dry extract percentages between seropositive and seronegative goats were only between 0.1% and 0.2% and did not increase with lactation number. The findings of this study provide strong evidence that CAEV-infection can be a major cause of reduction in milk yield in goats and its control should be considered as part of dairy goat herd health schemes. PMID:23384438

Martínez-Navalón, Bernardo; Peris, Cristòfol; Gómez, Ernesto A; Peris, Bernat; Roche, María Luz; Caballero, Concepción; Goyena, Elena; Berriatua, Eduardo

2013-08-01

18

Distribution of caprine arthritis encephalitis virus provirus, RNA, and antigen in the reproductive tract of one naturally and seven experimentally infected bucks.  

PubMed

Caprine arthritis encephalitis is a worldwide, multisystemic disease caused by a small ruminant lentivirus. Although the main route of transmission is oral, detection of proviral DNA of the caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV) in caprine semen has been previously described. However, the presence of viral antigens in the male reproductive tract has apparently never been reported. The objective was to study lesions in the buck reproductive system and to detect, in these tissues, the presence of proviral DNA, viral RNA and CAEV antigens. Tissues from eight CAEV-infected bucks (one naturally and seven experimentally infected) were analyzed by histopathology, nested polymerase chain reaction, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, and immunohistochemistry. Interstitial pneumonia, synovitis, and lesions in the male reproductive tract were detected in some of the bucks. Proviral DNA was detected in the lungs and joints as well as in the reproductive systems of all animals, whereas viral RNA was detected only in the genital tract of the naturally infected buck. Viral antigens were immunostained in most of the organs of the male reproductive tract. This report was apparently the first to clearly demonstrate CAEV antigen expression in the male reproductive tract, which indicates the possibility of venereal transmission of CAEV. PMID:23973050

Turchetti, Andréia P; Paniago, Juliana J; da Costa, Luciana F; da Cruz, Juliano C M; Braz, Gissandra F; Gouveia, Aurora M G; Paixão, Tatiane A; Santos, Renato L; Heinemann, Marcos B

2013-11-01

19

Simple and Rapid Method for Production of Whole-Virus Antigen for Serodiagnosis of Caprine Arthritis-Encephalitis Virus by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay  

PubMed Central

Polyethylene glycol (PEG) was used to produce whole-virus antigen derived from tissue culture cells infected with a Canadian strain of caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus. PEG antigen batches were obtained after precipitation and concentration of infected tissue culture material with PEG 8000 and final treatment with sodium dodecyl sulfate. The optimum time of harvest of tissue culture extracted material to produce the maximum amount of viral proteins was determined in roller bottles, after cocultivation of infected and noninfected fetal lamb corneal cells. Samples from day 9 to day 25 postculture were collected and processed. By Western blotting, the optimum time of harvest was found to be day 25 following the coculture. Two large batches of PEG antigen were prepared at the optimum time of harvest. Both batches gave similar results when tested by Western blotting and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), using reference control sera from infected and noninfected goats. For further testing in ELISA, cutoff values and ratios were determined for PEG batch 1, using 200 known serum samples from goats free of the disease. The PEG antigen batch was compared with an in-house ELISA antigen in a kinetic mode, using 498 serum samples from field goats. The in-house ELISA antigen was produced following two rounds of ultracentrifugation and treatment with sodium dodecyl sulfate (R. A. Heckert, W. B. McNab, S. M. Richardson, and M. R. Briscoe, Can. J. Vet. Res. 56:237–241, 1992). The PEG antigen batch was found suitable for ELISA, with a relative specificity of 100% and a relative sensitivity of 99.4% compared to the in-house ELISA antigen. This method of antigen production for ELISA was found to be rapid, inexpensive, and reliable for the diagnosis of caprine-arthritis encephalitis, without requiring the use of sophisticated laboratory equipment.

Simard, Carole; Kibenge, Molly Twinomwe; Singh, Patricia; Dixon, Phyllis

2001-01-01

20

A polytropic caprine arthritis encephalitis virus promoter isolated from multiple tissues from a sheep with multisystemic lentivirus-associated inflammatory disease.  

PubMed

Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV) is a lentivirus that infects both goats and sheep and is closely related to maedi-visna virus that infects sheep; collectively, these viruses are known as small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLV). Infection of goats and sheep with SRLV typically results in discrete inflammatory diseases which include arthritis, mastitis, pneumonia or encephalomyelitis. SRLV-infected animals concurrently demonstrating lentivirus-associated lesions in tissues of lung, mammary gland, joint synovium and the central nervous system are either very rare or have not been reported. Here we describe a novel CAEV promoter isolated from a sheep with multisystemic lentivirus-associated inflammatory disease including interstitial pneumonia, mastitis, polyarthritis and leukomyelitis. A single, novel SRLV promoter was cloned and sequenced from five different anatomical locations (brain stem, spinal cord, lung, mammary gland and carpal joint synovium), all of which demonstrated lesions characteristic of lentivirus associated inflammation. This SRLV promoter isolate was found to be closely related to CAEV promoters isolated from goats in northern California and other parts of the world. The promoter was denoted CAEV-ovine-MS (multisystemic disease); the stability of the transcription factor binding sites within the U3 promoter sequence are discussed. PMID:23955501

Adedeji, Adeyemi O; Barr, Bradd; Gomez-Lucia, Esperanza; Murphy, Brian

2013-08-01

21

The connective tissue component of the caprine arthritis-encephalitis syndrome.  

PubMed Central

The gross and microscopic connective tissue lesions in 12 goats with caprine arthritis-encephalitis (CAE) are described, including those from which a virus (CAEV) was isolated. Lesions were most often associated with synovial-lined structures including joints, tendon sheaths, and bursae, and were typified by synovial cell proliferations, subsynovial mononuclear cell infiltration, the presence of fibrin, fibrinous concretions, necrosis, and mineralization. Extrasynovial lesions were located in kidneys, vessels, and brain. The inflammatory infiltrates in these organs were predominantly mononuclear. Amyloid was also found in liver, spleen, and kidney. Microbiologic techniques failed to demonstrate any bacteria, mycoplasma, or chlamydia in the lesions. Images Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4

Crawford, T. B.; Adams, D. S.; Sande, R. D.; Gorham, J. R.; Henson, J. B.

1980-01-01

22

Genetic structure of the pol-env region of the caprine arthritis-encephalitis lentivirus genome.  

PubMed

The nucleotide sequence of the pol-env intergenic region of two isolates of caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV) was determined. Two open reading frames (orfs) were identified, designated Q and S by homology with visna virus. CAEV orf S is a single exon encoding a deduced 87-amino acid gene product sharing 36 amino acid identities with the visna trans-acting transcriptional activator (Tat). Ten of these identities comprise a conserved CGCRLCNPGW sequence similar to a cysteine-rich domain essential for trans-activation by human immunodeficiency virus Tat. To determine if transcription promoted by the CAEV long terminal repeat (LTR) could be stimulated in CAEV-infected goat synovial membrane cells, a plasmid (pCAE-CAT) expressing bacterial chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) under control of the CAEV LTR was transfected into uninfected and infected cells. Sixfold enhancement of CAT activity was observed in infected cells using 100 ng of transfected plasmid. To determine if the pol-env region encodes a gene product which trans-activates the CAEV LTR, goat synovial membrane cells were cotransfected with pCAE-CAT and pRSV-1.9, a plasmid expressing the pol-env region under control of the Rous sarcoma virus LTR. Results indicated that the CAEV genome encodes a tat gene product attributable to orf S. PMID:1845832

Jackson, M K; Knowles, D P; Stem, T A; Harwood, W G; Robinson, M M; Cheevers, W P

1991-01-01

23

Glycosylation of Immunodominant Linear Epitopes in the Carboxy-Terminal Region of the Caprine Arthritis-Encephalitis Virus Surface Envelope Enhances Vaccine-Induced Type-Specific and Cross-Reactive Neutralizing Antibody Responses  

PubMed Central

This study evaluated type-specific and cross-reactive neutralizing antibodies induced by immunization with modified surface glycoproteins (SU) of the 63 isolate of caprine arthritis-encephalitis lentivirus (CAEV-63). Epitope mapping of sera from CAEV-infected goats localized immunodominant linear epitopes in the carboxy terminus of SU. Two modified SU (SU-M and SU-T) and wild-type CAEV-63 SU (SU-W) were produced in vaccinia virus and utilized to evaluate the effects of glycosylation or the deletion of immunodominant linear epitopes on neutralizing antibody responses induced by immunization. SU-M contained two N-linked glycosylation sites inserted into the target epitopes by R539S and E542N mutations. SU-T was truncated at 518A, upstream from the target epitopes, by introduction of termination codons at 519Y and 521Y. Six yearling Saanen goats were immunized subcutaneously with 30 ?g of SU-W, SU-M, or SU-T in Quil A adjuvant and boosted at 3, 7, and 16 weeks. SU antibody titers determined by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay demonstrated anamnestic responses after each boost. Wild-type and modified SU-induced type-specific CAEV-63 neutralizing antibodies and cross-reactive neutralizing antibodies against CAEV-Co, a virus isolate closely related to CAEV-63, and CAEV-1g5, an isolate geographically distinct from CAEV-63, were determined. Immunization with SU-T resulted in altered recognition of SU linear epitopes and a 2.8- to 4.6-fold decrease in neutralizing antibody titers against CAEV-63, CAEV-Co, and CAEV-1g5 compared to titers of SU-W-immunized goats. In contrast, immunization with SU-M resulted in reduced recognition of glycosylated epitopes and a 2.4- to 2.7-fold increase in neutralizing antibody titers compared to titers of SU-W-immunized goats. Thus, the glycosylation of linear immunodominant nonneutralization epitopes, but not epitope deletion, is an effective strategy to enhance neutralizing antibody responses by immunization.

Trujillo, J. D.; Kumpula-McWhirter, N. M.; Hotzel, K. J.; Gonzalez, M.; Cheevers, W. P.

2004-01-01

24

Immunomodulation of caprine lentiviral infection by interleukin-16.  

PubMed

Interleukin-16 (IL-16) is a proinflammatory cytokine produced by a variety of cells including lymphocytes, macrophages, mast cells, and eosinophils. We have shown in our previous studies increased expression of IL-16 mRNA and protein in caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV)-infected goats blood. In this study, we determined the immunomodulatory effects of IL-16 in vitro using cells derived from CAEV infected and uninfected goats. Human recombinant IL-16 (rhIL-16) significantly increased chemotaxis of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of both control and CAEV-infected goats. Pretreatment of PBMC with anti-goat CD4 monoclonal antibody inhibited IL-16-induced chemotaxis of PBMC of control and infected goats suggesting that IL-16 exerts its action in goats primarily by binding to CD4. The CAEV proviral DNA was less in caprine monocytes treated with rhIL-16 infected in vitro with CAEV. These data suggest inhibitory effect of IL-16 on viral integration. Flow cytometric studies indicated a trend toward IL-16-induced increased expression of lymphocyte activation markers. Combined with our previously reported data, these experiments suggest that increased IL-16 expression during CAEV infection may inhibit viral integration. PMID:19811834

Nimmanapalli, R; Sharmila, C; Reddy, P G

2010-12-01

25

Japanese Encephalitis Virus Core Protein Inhibits Stress Granule Formation through an Interaction with Caprin-1 and Facilitates Viral Propagation  

PubMed Central

Stress granules (SGs) are cytoplasmic foci composed of stalled translation preinitiation complexes induced by environmental stress stimuli, including viral infection. Since viral propagation completely depends on the host translational machinery, many viruses have evolved to circumvent the induction of SGs or co-opt SG components. In this study, we found that expression of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) core protein inhibits SG formation. Caprin-1 was identified as a binding partner of the core protein by an affinity capture mass spectrometry analysis. Alanine scanning mutagenesis revealed that Lys97 and Arg98 in the ?-helix of the JEV core protein play a crucial role in the interaction with Caprin-1. In cells infected with a mutant JEV in which Lys97 and Arg98 were replaced with alanines in the core protein, the inhibition of SG formation was abrogated, and viral propagation was impaired. Furthermore, the mutant JEV exhibited attenuated virulence in mice. These results suggest that the JEV core protein circumvents translational shutoff by inhibiting SG formation through an interaction with Caprin-1 and facilitates viral propagation in vitro and in vivo.

Katoh, Hiroshi; Okamoto, Toru; Fukuhara, Takasuke; Kambara, Hiroto; Morita, Eiji; Mori, Yoshio; Kamitani, Wataru

2013-01-01

26

G3BP1, G3BP2 and CAPRIN1 Are Required for Translation of Interferon Stimulated mRNAs and Are Targeted by a Dengue Virus Non-coding RNA  

PubMed Central

Viral RNA-host protein interactions are critical for replication of flaviviruses, a genus of positive-strand RNA viruses comprising major vector-borne human pathogens including dengue viruses (DENV). We examined three conserved host RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) G3BP1, G3BP2 and CAPRIN1 in dengue virus (DENV-2) infection and found them to be novel regulators of the interferon (IFN) response against DENV-2. The three RBPs were required for the accumulation of the protein products of several interferon stimulated genes (ISGs), and for efficient translation of PKR and IFITM2 mRNAs. This identifies G3BP1, G3BP2 and CAPRIN1 as novel regulators of the antiviral state. Their antiviral activity was antagonized by the abundant DENV-2 non-coding subgenomic flaviviral RNA (sfRNA), which bound to G3BP1, G3BP2 and CAPRIN1, inhibited their activity and lead to profound inhibition of ISG mRNA translation. This work describes a new and unexpected level of regulation for interferon stimulated gene expression and presents the first mechanism of action for an sfRNA as a molecular sponge of anti-viral effectors in human cells.

Bidet, Katell; Dadlani, Dhivya; Garcia-Blanco, Mariano A.

2014-01-01

27

G3BP1, G3BP2 and CAPRIN1 Are Required for Translation of Interferon Stimulated mRNAs and Are Targeted by a Dengue Virus Non-coding RNA.  

PubMed

Viral RNA-host protein interactions are critical for replication of flaviviruses, a genus of positive-strand RNA viruses comprising major vector-borne human pathogens including dengue viruses (DENV). We examined three conserved host RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) G3BP1, G3BP2 and CAPRIN1 in dengue virus (DENV-2) infection and found them to be novel regulators of the interferon (IFN) response against DENV-2. The three RBPs were required for the accumulation of the protein products of several interferon stimulated genes (ISGs), and for efficient translation of PKR and IFITM2 mRNAs. This identifies G3BP1, G3BP2 and CAPRIN1 as novel regulators of the antiviral state. Their antiviral activity was antagonized by the abundant DENV-2 non-coding subgenomic flaviviral RNA (sfRNA), which bound to G3BP1, G3BP2 and CAPRIN1, inhibited their activity and lead to profound inhibition of ISG mRNA translation. This work describes a new and unexpected level of regulation for interferon stimulated gene expression and presents the first mechanism of action for an sfRNA as a molecular sponge of anti-viral effectors in human cells. PMID:24992036

Bidet, Katell; Dadlani, Dhivya; Garcia-Blanco, Mariano A

2014-07-01

28

Defective RNA packaging is responsible for low transduction efficiency of CAEV-based vectors}  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary.  ?Replication defective retroviral vectors are regularly used for transfer and expression of exogenous genes into dividing\\u000a cells and in animals. Since lentiviruses are able to infect terminally differentiated and non-dividing cells, their use to\\u000a produce replication defective vectors may overcome this limitation. We developed two replication-defective lentiviral vectors\\u000a based on the genome of Caprine Arthritis Encephalitis Virus (CAEV). The first

L. Mselli-Lakhal; C. Favier; M. F. Da Silva Teixeira; K. Chettab; C. Legras; C. Ronfort; G. Verdier; J. F. Mornex; Y. Chebloune

1998-01-01

29

Clinical protection against caprine herpesvirus 1 genital infection by intranasal administration of a live attenuated glycoprotein E negative bovine herpesvirus 1 vaccine  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Caprine herpesvirus 1 (CpHV-1) is responsible of systemic diseases in kids and genital diseases leading to abortions in goats. CpHV-1 is widespread and especially in Mediterranean countries as Greece, Italy and Spain. CpHV-1 is antigenically and genetically closely related to bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1). Taking into account the biological properties shared by these two viruses, we decided in the

Julien Thiry; Maria Tempesta; Michele Camero; Elvira Tarsitano; Benoît Muylkens; François Meurens; Etienne Thiry; Canio Buonavoglia

2007-01-01

30

A mycoplasma from chronic caprine pleuropneumonia in Kenya  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new mycoplasma was isolated from cases of chronic caprine pleuropneumonia in Kenya. It belonged to the speciesMycoplasma mycoides being a member of Al-Aubaidi's Group 8. When inoculated into goats and sheep the organism caused pleuropneumonia and local subcutaneous lesions. The pleuropneumonia was not contagious. In contrast the organism was non-pathogenic in cattle.

K. J. MacOwan

1976-01-01

31

Retroviral Infections in Sheep and Goats: Small Ruminant Lentiviruses and Host Interaction  

PubMed Central

Small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLV) are members of the Retrovirus family comprising the closely related Visna/Maedi Virus (VMV) and the Caprine Arthritis-Encephalitis Virus (CAEV), which infect sheep and goats. Both infect cells of the monocyte/macrophage lineage and cause lifelong infections. Infection by VMV and CAEV can lead to Visna/Maedi (VM) and Caprine Arthritis-Encephalitis (CAE) respectively, slow progressive inflammatory diseases primarily affecting the lungs, nervous system, joints and mammary glands. VM and CAE are distributed worldwide and develop over a period of months or years, always leading to the death of the host, with the consequent economic and welfare implications. Currently, the control of VM and CAE relies on the control of transmission and culling of infected animals. However, there is evidence that host genetics play an important role in determining Susceptibility/Resistance to SRLV infection and disease progression, but little work has been performed in small ruminants. More research is necessary to understand the host-SRLV interaction.

Larruskain, Amaia; Jugo, Begona M.

2013-01-01

32

Caprin Controls Follicle Stem Cell Fate in the Drosophila Ovary  

PubMed Central

Adult stem cells must balance self-renewal and differentiation for tissue homeostasis. The Drosophila ovary has provided a wealth of information about the extrinsic niche signals and intrinsic molecular processes required to ensure appropriate germline stem cell renewal and differentiation. The factors controlling behavior of the more recently identified follicle stem cells of the ovary are less well-understood but equally important for fertility. Here we report that translational regulators play a critical role in controlling these cells. Specifically, the translational regulator Caprin (Capr) is required in the follicle stem cell lineage to ensure maintenance of this stem cell population and proper encapsulation of developing germ cells by follicle stem cell progeny. In addition, reduction of one copy of the gene fmr1, encoding the translational regulator Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein, exacerbates the Capr encapsulation phenotype, suggesting Capr and fmr1 are regulating a common process. Caprin was previously characterized in vertebrates as Cytoplasmic Activation/Proliferation-Associated Protein. Significantly, we find that loss of Caprin alters the dynamics of the cell cycle, and we present evidence that misregulation of CycB contributes to the disruption in behavior of follicle stem cell progeny. Our findings support the idea that translational regulators may provide a conserved mechanism for oversight of developmentally critical cell cycles such as those in stem cell populations.

Reich, John; Papoulas, Ophelia

2012-01-01

33

Identification by Spoligotyping of a Caprine Genotype in Mycobacterium bovis Strains Causing Human Tuberculosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have used spoligotyping to characterize 18 Mycobacterium bovis strains isolated from cattle and 23 M. bovis strains isolated from goats. The spoligotypes revealed that caprine strains form a separate and well- differentiated group that we refer to hereafter in this abstract as the caprine genotype. To evaluate the importance of this genotype as a cause of tuberculosis in other

MONTSERRAT GUTIERREZ; SOFIA SAMPER; MARIA SOLEDAD JIMENEZ; JAN D. A. VAN EMBDEN; JUAN FRANCISCO GARCIA MARIN; CARLOS MARTIN

1997-01-01

34

The analytic hierarchy process in decisionmaking for caprine health programmes.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to apply the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) to assist decision-making when planning animal health programmes, by assigning priorities to issues of concern to producers in Chile's main goat production region. This process allows a multi-criteria approach to problems, by analysing and ranking them in a hierarchical structure. Industry experts have highlighted the following animal health and disease control criteria: acceptance by breeders of disease control measures; impact of specific diseases on regional animal trade; the cost and efficacy of control measures; a decrease in flock production; and the impact of caprine diseases on human public health. Using these criteria in the AHP, the study found that the most important impacts were on human public health and on the animal trade. The disease priorities were tuberculosis, brucellosis and echinococcosis/hydatidosis, due mainlyto their zoonotic impact. The analytic hierarchy process proved useful when several criteria were involved in public health issues. PMID:23520742

Maino, M; Pérez, P; Oviedo, P; Sotomayor, G; Abalos, P

2012-12-01

35

Preliminary findings from an experimental study of caprine besnoitiosis in Kenya.  

PubMed

Inoculation of cystozoites obtained from natural, chronic cases of caprine besnoitiosis produced clinical disease in goats but not in rabbits, mice, guinea pigs, hamsters, rats or cattle. Histological examination of tissue sections from the experimental animals showed Besnoitia cysts only in goats. This, together with field observations that cattle reared together with goats having besnoitiosis do not contract the disease, suggests that the Besnoitia species that infects goats in Kenya is host-specific and is not Besnoitia besnoiti. We suggest that the name Besnoitia caprae be adopted for the caprine pathogen. PMID:8284897

Njenga, J M; Bwangamoi, O; Mutiga, E R; Kangethe, E K; Mugera, G M

1993-01-01

36

Genetic diversity of caprine Blastocystis from Peninsular Malaysia.  

PubMed

Blastocystis sp. is a common intestinal parasite found in humans and animals. The possibility of zoonotic transmission to humans from livestock especially goats led us to investigate the genetic diversity of caprine Blastocystis sp. obtained from five different farms in Peninsular Malaysia. Moreover, there is a lack of information on the prevalence as well as genetic diversity of Blastocystis sp. in goat worldwide. Results showed that 73/236 (30.9 %) of the goats were found to be positive for Blastocystis infection. The most predominant Blastocystis sp. subtype was ST1 (60.3 %) followed by ST7 (41.1 %), ST6 (41.1 %), and ST3 (11.0 %) when amplified by PCR using sequenced-tagged site (STS) primers. Four farms had goats infected only with ST1 whereas the fifth showed mixed infections with multiple STs. The proximity of the fifth farm to human dwellings, nearby domesticated animals and grass land as opposed to a sterile captive environment in the first four farms may account for the multiple STs seen in the fifth farm. Since ST1, ST3, ST6 and ST 7 were previously reported in human infection worldwide in particular Malaysia, the potential of the zoonotic transmission of blastocystosis should not be disregarded. The implications of different farm management systems on the distribution of Blastocystis sp. STs are discussed. PMID:22961236

Tan, Tian Chye; Tan, Peng Chiang; Sharma, Reuben; Sugnaseelan, Sumita; Suresh, Kumar Govind

2013-01-01

37

Isolation, culture and characterization of caprine mesenchymal stem cells derived from amniotic fluid.  

PubMed

Amniotic fluid (AF) represents heterologous cell types and a specific group of these cells show high growth rate and multipotent characteristics. The aim of the present study was to culture and fully characterize the putative stem cell population isolated from caprine mesenchymal stem cells. Plastic adherent fibroblastoid cell population could be successfully isolated from the caprine amniotic fluid. In vitro expanded caprine amniotic fluid derived mesenchymal stem cells (cAF-MSCs) showed high proliferation ratio with a doubling time of 33.1h and stained positive for alkaline phosphatase. Relative transcript abundance of CD-73, CD-90 and CD-105 surface markers were analyzed by SYBR green based real time PCR and their respective proteins were localized through immunocytochemistry, however cAF-MSCs were found negative for haematopoietic marker CD-34. When exposed to corresponding induction condition, cAF-MSCs differentiated into osteogenic, adipogenic and chondrogenic lineages which was confirmed through von Kossa, Oil Red O and Alcian blue staining respectively. Furthermore, these cells were found positive for undifferentiated embryonic stem cell markers like Oct-4, Nanog, Sox-2, SSEA-1 and SSEA-4 which accentuate their pluripotent property. In conclusion, caprine amniotic fluid represents a promising source of mesenchymal stem cells with high proliferative and differentiation potential and these cells offer their scope for multiple regenerative therapies. PMID:23017255

Pratheesh, M D; Gade, Nitin E; Katiyar, Amar Nath; Dubey, Pawan K; Sharma, Bhaskar; Saikumar, G; Amarpal; Sharma, G T

2013-04-01

38

Differentiation of F38 mycoplasmas causing contagious caprine pleuropneumonia with a growth-inhibiting monoclonal antibody.  

PubMed Central

Monoclonal antibody WM-25 inhibited the in vitro growth of 13 F38 isolates from goats with contagious caprine pleuropneumonia but not 7 heterologous mycoplasma isolates representing four different species. In contrast to results with polyclonal antisera, growth inhibition by monoclonal antibody WM-25 was specific for F38 mycoplasma isolates and constituted a reliable means of distinguishing F38 from other mycoplasmas.

Rurangirwa, F R; McGuire, T C; Musoke, A J; Kibor, A

1987-01-01

39

Copper: a biphasic regulator of caprine sperm forward progression.  

PubMed

Copper is essential for spermatogenesis and its presence has been demonstrated in male and female reproductive fluids in several mammalian species. However, little is known about the physiological significance of this trace element in the regulation of forward progression of mammalian sperm cells which is essential for sperm fertility potential in vivo. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the physiological role of the bivalent copper ion (Cu(2+)) on mammalian sperm forward motility using a chemically-defined medium and caprine cauda epididymal sperm model. Sperm forward motility was significantly enhanced by Cu(2+) in a dose-dependent manner; maximal activation (approx 20%) was noted at the 5?µM level of the metal. Above 10?µM Cu(2+) sperm motility decreased, showing that Cu(2+) exerts a biphasic regulation on sperm motility. These findings have been confirmed using a spectrophotometric motility assay, an objective method of motility analysis. At lower concentrations (up to 5?µM), copper enhanced sperm membrane lipid peroxidation as well as the level of intra-sperm cyclic adenosine mono phosphate (c-AMP), but at a higher level it caused marked inhibition of both of the biochemical parameters. The observed correlation of Cu(2+)-dependent biphasic modulation of sperm membrane lipid peroxidation and intrasperm c-AMP with sperm forward motility is consistent with the view that Cu(2+) regulation of sperm motility is mediated by membrane lipid peroxidation, which in turn modulates the level of intra-sperm c-AMP, a well-known activator of sperm motility. PMID:24156751

Roy, Debarun; Dey, Souvik; Majumder, Gopal Chandra; Bhattacharyya, Debdas

2014-02-01

40

Long-chain fatty acids differentially alter lipogenesis in bovine and caprine mammary slices.  

PubMed

Indirect comparisons from studies in vivo have suggested that caprine mammary tissue is less sensitive than bovine mammary tissue to the anti-lipogenic effect of long-chain fatty acids (LCFA), including specific rumen biohydrogenation (RBH) intermediates of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). Our objective was to investigate the effects on lipogenesis of 18-carbon LCFA differing in the degree of unsaturation and/or double bond conformation using cultured slices of bovine and caprine mammary tissues. Mammary tissues were collected from five multiparous Holstein × Normande cows and six multiparous Alpine goats in mid lactation. The expression of genes involved in milk component synthesis was measured in tissues collected at slaughter and after slice preparation: FASN, SCD1, CD36, SREBF1 and PPARG1 mRNA levels were higher in bovine than caprine samples, whereas the opposite was observed for CSN2 mRNA levels. Bovine and caprine mammary slices were incubated for 20 h in a medium with BSA (control), cis-9-18 : 1, 18 : 2n-6, 18 : 3n-3, cis-9, trans-11-CLA, or trans-10, cis-12-CLA (the latter at 3 increasing concentrations: C1 (0.11 mm), C2 (0.16 mm), C3 (0.37 mm)). Lipogenesis was estimated by measuring the incorporation of 14C-acetate into total lipid. Significant differences of individual LCFA (P < 0.05) were observed between species: bovine tissue showed a decrease in total lipogenesis with 18 : 2n-6, 18 : 3n-3, trans-10,cis-12-CLA (C2 and C3) while caprine tissue showed an increase after treatment with 18 : 3n-3, cis-9, trans-11-CLA or trans-10, cis-12-CLA (C3). These results were not related to the mRNA abundance of our set of genes in the mammary slices after incubation. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that caprine mammary slices reacted differently from bovine mammary slices to the anti-lipogenic activity of specific LCFA and suggests that regulation of lipogenesis via other genes and/or at protein level and enzyme activity may be involved. PMID:23244392

Bernard, Laurence; Torbati, Mohamad B Montazer; Graulet, Benoit; Leroux, Christine; Chilliard, Yves

2013-02-01

41

Enzymatic Interesterification of Tripalmitin with Vegetable Oil Blends for Formulation of Caprine Milk Infant Formula Analogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The structure of triacylglycerols in vegetable oil blendswasenzymaticallymodified,andtheblendswere incorporated into skim caprine milk to produce goat milk-based infant formula analogs, homologous to hu- man milk. A modified lipid containing palmitic, oleic, andlinoleicacids,resemblingthecompositionofhuman milk fat, was synthesized by enzymatic interesterifica- tion reactions between tripalmitin and a vegetable oil blendcontaininga2.5:1.1:0.8ratioofcoconut,safflower, and soybean oils. A commercial sn-1,3-specific lipase obtained from Rhyzomucor miehei, Lipozyme

C. O. Maduko; C. C. Akoh; Y. W. Park

2007-01-01

42

Effect of subclinical Eimeria species infections in tropical goats subsequently challenged with caprine Haemonchus contortus.  

PubMed

Fourteen goat kids of the local indigenous breed naturally infected with Eimeria species were divided into two equal groups. The first group was superinfected with 500,000 Eimeria species oocysts and the second group was treated with amprolium. Sixty days later both groups were infected with 5000 third-stage caprine Haemonchus contortus larvae. The goats experimentally superinfected with eimeria shed more H contortus eggs and gained weight more slowly. PMID:8197681

Rahman, W A

1994-03-01

43

Preservation of caprine preantral follicle viability after cryopreservation in sucrose and ethylene glycol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Caprine preantral follicles within ovarian fragments were cryopreserved in the absence or presence of 0.5 M sucrose with or without 1 M dimethyl sulfoxide and\\/or 1 M ethylene glycol (EG). After being thawed, they were washed in minimum essential medium with or without 0.3 M sucrose. Histological analysis of follicle integrity immediately after cryopreservation showed consistent beneficial effects of including sucrose in the three

R. R. Santos; T. Tharasanit; J. R. Figueiredo; T. van Haeften; R. van den Hurk

2006-01-01

44

Purification and Characterization of a Sperm Motility Inhibiting Factor from Caprine Epididymal Plasma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several studies have been reported on the occurrence of sperm motility inhibiting factors in the male reproductive fluids of different mammalian species, but these proteins have not been adequately purified and characterized. A novel sperm motility inhibiting factor (MIF-II) has been purified from caprine epididymal plasma (EP) by Hydroxylapatite gel adsorption chromatography, DEAE-Cellulose ion-exchange chromatography and chromatofocusing. The MIF-II has

Sujoy Das; Sudipta Saha; Gopal Chandra Majumder; Sandhya Rekha Dungdung; Maxim Antopolsky

2010-01-01

45

Dynamic and Static Overloading Induce Early Degenerative Processes in Caprine Lumbar Intervertebral Discs  

PubMed Central

Mechanical overloading of the spine is associated with low back pain and intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration. How excessive loading elicits degenerative changes in the IVD is poorly understood. Comprehensive knowledge of the interaction between mechanical loading, cell responses and changes in the extracellular matrix of the disc is needed in order to successfully intervene in this process. The purpose of the current study was to investigate whether dynamic and static overloading affect caprine lumbar discs differently and what mechanisms lead to mechanically induced IVD degeneration. Lumbar caprine IVDs (n?=?175) were cultured 7, 14 and 21 days under simulated-physiological loading (control), high dynamic or high static loading. Axial deformation and stiffness were continuously measured. Cell viability, cell density, and gene expression were assessed in the nucleus, inner- and outer annulus. The extracellular matrix (ECM) was analyzed for water, glycosaminoglycan and collagen content. IVD height loss and changes in axial deformation were gradual with dynamic and acute with static overloading. Dynamic overloading caused cell death in all IVD regions, whereas static overloading mostly affected the outer annulus. IVDs expression of catabolic and inflammation-related genes was up-regulated directly, whereas loss of water and glycosaminoglycan were significant only after 21 days. Static and dynamic overloading both induced pathological changes to caprine lumbar IVDs within 21 days. The mechanism by which they inflict biomechanical, cellular, and extracellular changes to the nucleus and annulus differed. The described cascades provide leads for the development of new pharmacological and rehabilitative therapies to halt the progression of DDD.

Paul, Cornelis P. L.; Schoorl, Tom; Zuiderbaan, Hendrik A.; Zandieh Doulabi, Behrouz; van der Veen, Albert J.; van de Ven, Peter M.; Smit, Theo H.; van Royen, Barend J.; Helder, Marco N.; Mullender, Margriet G.

2013-01-01

46

Molecular characterization and xenogenic application of Wharton's jelly derived caprine mesenchymal stem cells.  

PubMed

Aim of the present study was in vitro expansion and characterization of caprine wharton's jelly derived mesenchymal stem cells (cWJ-MSCs) to investigate their tissue healing potential in xenogenic animal model. Plastic adherent fibroblastoid cell populations with distinctive homogeneous morphology were isolated from caprine Wharton's jelly explants. These Wharton's jelly derived cells were found positive for the surface markers CD-73, STRO-1 and CD-105, whereas they were negative for hematopoetic stem cell marker CD-34. In vitro cultured cWJ-MSCs also showed differentiation properties into osteogenic, adipogenic and chondrogenic lineages as demonstrated by von Kossa, Oil Red-O and Alcian blue staining respectively, which was further confirmed and quantified by flow cytometric analysis. Furthermore, these well characterized cWJ-MSCs were evaluated for the wound-healing potential in full-thickness skin wounds in rabbit model for 28 days. Caprine WJ- MSCs treated skin wounds showed significantly (P?

Pratheesh, M D; Gade, Nitin E; Dubey, Pawan K; Nath, Amar; Sivanarayanan, T B; Madhu, D N; Sharma, Bhaskar; Amarpal; Saikumar, G; Sharma, G Taru

2014-06-01

47

Two Different Macaviruses, ovine herpesvirus-2 and caprine herpesvirus-2, behave differently in water buffaloes than in cattle or in their respective reservoir species.  

PubMed

The ongoing global spread of "exotic" farm animals, such as water buffaloes, which carry their native sets of viruses, may bear unknown risks for the animals, into whose ecological niches the former are introduced and vice versa. Here, we report on the occurrence of malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) on Swiss farms, where "exotic" water buffaloes were kept together with "native" animals, i.e. cattle, sheep, and goats. In the first farm with 56 water buffaloes, eight cases of MCF due to ovine herpesvirus-2 (OvHV-2) were noted, whereas additional ten water buffaloes were subclinically infected with either OvHV-2 or caprine herpesvirus-2 (CpHV-2). On the second farm, 13 water buffaloes were infected with CpHV-2 and two of those succumbed to MCF. In neither farm, any of the two viruses were detected in cattle, but the Macaviruses were present at high prevalence among their original host species, sheep and goats, respectively. On the third farm, sheep were kept well separated from water buffaloes and OvHV-2 was not transmitted to the buffaloes, despite of high prevalence of the virus among the sheep. Macavirus DNA was frequently detected in the nasal secretions of virus-positive animals and in one instance OvHV-2 was transmitted vertically to an unborn water buffalo calf. Thus, water buffaloes seem to be more susceptible than cattle to infection with either Macavirus; however, MCF did not develop as frequently. Therefore, water buffaloes seem to represent an interesting intermediate-type host for Macaviruses. Consequently, water buffaloes in their native, tropic environments may be vulnerable and endangered to viruses that originate from seemingly healthy, imported sheep and goats. PMID:24386255

Stahel, Anina B J; Baggenstos, Rhea; Engels, Monika; Friess, Martina; Ackermann, Mathias

2013-01-01

48

"Of Sheep and Men": Earliest Direct Evidence of Caprine Domestication in Southern Africa at Leopard Cave (Erongo, Namibia)  

PubMed Central

The origins of herding practices in southern Africa remain controversial. The first appearance of domesticated caprines in the subcontinent is thought to be c. 2000 years BP; however, the origin of this cultural development is still widely debated. Recent genetic analyses support the long-standing hypothesis of herder migration from the north, while other researchers have argued for a cultural diffusion hypothesis where the spread of herding practices took place without necessarily implicating simultaneous and large population movements. Here we document the Later Stone Age (LSA) site of Leopard Cave (Erongo, Namibia), which contains confirmed caprine remains, from which we infer that domesticates were present in the southern African region as early as the end of the first millennium BC. These remains predate the first evidence of domesticates previously recorded for the subcontinent. This discovery sheds new light on the emergence of herding practices in southern Africa, and also on the possible southward routes used by caprines along the western Atlantic coast.

Pleurdeau, David; Imalwa, Emma; Detroit, Florent; Lesur, Josephine; Veldman, Anzel; Bahain, Jean-Jacques; Marais, Eugene

2012-01-01

49

Reprogramming of fetal cells by avian EE for generation of pluripotent stem cell like cells in caprine.  

PubMed

The present work was carried out to study the ability of avian "Extract Egg" (EE) for reprogramming caprine fetal cells. The isolated caprine fetal cells were cultured in stem cell media supplemented with different percentages of either EE or FBS. The results indicated that the supplementation of 2-4% EE formed lesser but larger size stem cell like cell colonies as compared to 6% or 10% EE. The expression of pluripotent genes were comparatively higher in colonies developed in 2% or 4% as compared to 6% or 10% EE. Further, immunocytochemistry revealed that the colonies developed in all percentage of EE expressed pluripotent markers like Oct4, Nanog, TRA-1-60 and TRA-1-81. Our findings indicated that avian EE has the potentiality to reprogram caprine fetal cells into embryonic state which may help in generation of pluripotent stem cells without using viral vector. PMID:23830780

Bharadwaj, Parul; Kumar, Kuldeep; Singh, Renu; Puri, Gopal; Yasotha, T; Kumar, Manish; Bhure, Sanjeev; Das, B C; Sarkar, M; Bag, Sadhan

2013-10-01

50

Characterization of small ruminant lentivirus A4 subtype isolates and assessment of their pathogenic potential in naturally infected goats  

PubMed Central

Background Small ruminant lentiviruses escaping efficient serological detection are still circulating in Swiss goats in spite of a long eradication campaign that essentially eliminated clinical cases of caprine arthritis encephalitis in the country. This strongly suggests that the circulating viruses are avirulent for goats. To test this hypothesis, we isolated circulating viruses from naturally infected animals and tested the in vitro and in vivo characteristics of these field isolates. Methods Viruses were isolated from primary macrophage cultures. The presence of lentiviruses in the culture supernatants was monitored by reverse transcriptase assay. Isolates were passaged in different cells and their cytopathogenic effects monitored by microscopy. Proviral load was quantified by real-time PCR using customized primer and probes. Statistical analysis comprised Analysis of Variance and Bonferroni Multiple Comparison Test. Results The isolated viruses belonged to the small ruminant lentiviruses A4 subtype that appears to be prominent in Switzerland. The 4 isolates replicated very efficiently in macrophages, displaying heterogeneous phenotypes, with two isolates showing a pronounced cytopathogenicity for these cells. By contrast, all 4 isolates had a poor replication capacity in goat and sheep fibroblasts. The proviral loads in the peripheral blood and, in particular, in the mammary gland were surprisingly high compared to previous observations. Nevertheless, these viruses appear to be of low virulence for goats except for the mammary gland were histopathological changes were observed. Conclusions Small ruminant lentiviruses continue to circulate in Switzerland despite a long and expensive caprine arthritis encephalitis virus eradication campaign. We isolated 4 of these lentiviruses and confirmed their phylogenetic association with the prominent A4 subtype. The pathological and histopathological analysis of the infected animals supported the hypothesis that these A4 viruses are of low pathogenicity for goats, with, however, a caveat about the potentially detrimental effects on the mammary gland. Moreover, the high proviral load detected indicates that the immune system of the animals cannot control the infection and this, combined with the phenotypic plasticity observed in vitro, strongly argues in favour of a continuous and precise monitoring of these SRLV to avoid the risk of jeopardizing a long eradication campaign.

2014-01-01

51

Rapid Bovine and Caprine species Identification in Ruminant Feeds by Duplex Real-Time PCR Melting Curve Analysis Using EvaGreen Fluorescence Dye.  

PubMed

A duplex real-time PCR assay with melting curve analysis, using the EvaGreen fluorescence dye, was developed for rapid and reliable identification of bovine and caprine in ruminant feeds. The method merges the use of bovine (Bos taurus) and caprine (Capra hircus) specific primers that amplify small fragments (bovine 96 bp and caprine 142 bp) of the mitochondrial 16S rRNA and 12S rRNA genes, respectively. DNA was isolated from heat-treated meats (133 °C/3 bar for 20 min) mixtures of bovine and caprine and was used to optimize the assay. Gene products of caprine and bovine produced two distinct melting peaks simultaneously at 82 and 86.8 °C, respectively. Duplex analysis of the reference samples showed that the detection limit of the assay was 0.003 % for bovine and 0.005 % for caprine species. The aim of this study was to develop a duplex real-time PCR assay followed by a melt curve step for sensitive, rapid, specific, and cost-effective detection of bovine and caprine species based on the amplicon melting peak in ruminant feeds to prevent Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies. PMID:24770990

Safdar, M; Junejo, Y; Arman, K; Abas?yan?k, M F

2014-08-01

52

Comparison of Coxiella burnetii shedding in milk of dairy bovine, caprine, and ovine herds.  

PubMed

The shedding of Coxiella burnetii in bovine, caprine, and ovine milk was measured using PCR, in 3 herds for each species, the bulk tank milk samples of which were positive at the time of their selection. Milk samples of 95 cows, 120 goats, and 90 ewes were sampled over 16 wk, as was the bulk tank milk. The shedding of C. burnetii in vaginal mucus and feces was checked at the beginning of the experiment and 2 mo later. The clinical signs in the selected herds as well as the duration and the shedding routes differed among the 3 species. The cows were asymptomatic and shed C. burnetii almost exclusively in milk. In one of the caprine herds, abortions due to C. burnetii were reported. The goats excreted the bacteria mainly in milk. In contrast, the ewes, which came from flocks with abortions due to Q fever (C. burnetii infection), shed the bacteria mostly in feces and in vaginal mucus. This could explain why human outbreaks of Q fever are more often related to ovine flocks than to bovine herds. These excretions did not seem more frequent when the samples were taken close to parturition. The samples were taken from 0 to 421 d after parturition in bovine herds and from 5 to 119 d and 11 to 238 d after parturition in the caprine and ovine herds, respectively. The shedding in milk was sometimes intermittent, and several animals shed the bacteria but were negative by ELISA: 80% of the ewes were seronegative, underscoring the lack of sensitivity of the ELISA tests available for veterinary diagnosis. The detection of antibodies in milk seems more sensitive than it is in serum. PMID:18024725

Rodolakis, A; Berri, M; Héchard, C; Caudron, C; Souriau, A; Bodier, C C; Blanchard, B; Camuset, P; Devillechaise, P; Natorp, J C; Vadet, J P; Arricau-Bouvery, N

2007-12-01

53

Increasing glucose in KSOMaa basal medium on culture Day 2 improves in vitro development of cloned caprine blastocysts produced via intraspecies and interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to evaluate the efficiency of potassium simplex optimization medium with amino acids (KSOMaa) as a basal culture medium for caprine intraspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) and caprine-bovine interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer (iSCNT) embryos. The effect of increased glucose as an energy substrate for late stage development of cloned caprine embryos in vitro was also evaluated. Enucleated caprine and bovine in vitro matured oocytes at metaphase II were reconstructed with caprine ear skin fibroblast cells for the SCNT and iSCNT studies. The cloned caprine and parthenogenetic embryos were cultured in either KSOMaa with 0.2 mM glucose for 8 days (Treatment 1) or KSOMaa for 2 days followed by KSOMaa with additional glucose at a final concentration of 2.78 mM for the last 6 days (Treatment 2). There were no significant differences in the cleavage rates of SCNT (80.7%) and iSCNT (78.0%) embryos cultured in KSOMaa medium. Both Treatment 1 and Treatment 2 could support in vitro development of SCNT and iSCNT embryos to the blastocyst stage. However, the blastocyst development rate of SCNT embryos was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in Treatment 2 compared to Treatment 1. Increasing glucose for later stage embryo development (8-cell stage onwards) during in vitro culture (IVC) in Treatment 2 also improved both caprine SCNT and iSCNT embryo development to the hatched blastocyst stage. In conclusion, this study shows that cloned caprine embryos derived from SCNT and iSCNT could develop to the blastocyst stage in KSOMaa medium supplemented with additional glucose (2.78 mM, final concentration) and this medium also supported hatching of caprine cloned blastocysts. PMID:22704387

Kwong, P J; Abdullah, R B; Wan Khadijah, W E

2012-09-01

54

Purification and characterization of caprine kidney uricase, possessing novel kinetic and thermodynamic properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purified uricase from a caprine kidney, possessed K\\u000a \\u000a m\\u000a and V\\u000a max values of 1.1 mg ml?1 and 3512 IU  (mg protein)?1 for uric acid hydrolysis, respectively. The optimum temperature and pH for catalytic activity were 40 °C and 8.5, respectively.\\u000a The activation energy for formation of ES complex was 13.6 kJ  mol?1. Enthalpy (?H*), entropy of activation (?S*) and Gibbs free energy demand of

M. I. Rajoka; Khalil-ur-Rehman; Tehmina Tabish; M. A. Zia

2006-01-01

55

“Of Sheep and Men”: Earliest Direct Evidence of Caprine Domestication in Southern Africa at Leopard Cave (Erongo, Namibia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The origins of herding practices in southern Africa remain controversial. The first appearance of domesticated caprines in the subcontinent is thought to be c. 2000 years BP; however, the origin of this cultural development is still widely debated. Recent genetic analyses support the long-standing hypothesis of herder migration from the north, while other researchers have argued for a cultural diffusion

David Pleurdeau; Emma Imalwa; Florent Détroit; Joséphine Lesur; Anzel Veldman; Jean-Jacques Bahain; Eugène Marais

2012-01-01

56

A caprine herpesvirus 1 vaccine adjuvanted with MF59™ protects against vaginal infection and interferes with the establishment of latency in goats.  

PubMed

The immunogenicity and the efficacy of a beta-propiolactone-inactivated caprine herpesvirus 1 (CpHV-1) vaccine adjuvanted with MF59™ were tested in goats. Following two subcutaneous immunizations, goats developed high titers of CpHV-1-specific serum and vaginal IgG and high serum virus neutralization (VN) titers. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) stimulated in vitro with inactivated CpHV-1 produced high levels of soluble IFN-gamma and exhibited high frequencies of IFN-gamma producing cells while soluble IL-4 was undetectable. On the other hand, control goats receiving the inactivated CpHV-1 vaccine without adjuvant produced only low serum antibody responses. A vaginal challenge with virulent CpHV-1 was performed in all vaccinated goats and in naïve goats to assess the efficacy of the two vaccines. Vaginal disease was not detected in goats vaccinated with inactivated CpHV-1 plus MF59™ and these animals had undetectable levels of infectious challenge virus in their vaginal washes. Goats vaccinated with inactivated CpHV-1 in the absence of adjuvant exhibited a less severe disease when compared to naïve goats but shed titers of challenge virus that were similar to those of naïve goats. Detection and quantitation of latent CpHV-1 DNA in sacral ganglia in challenged goats revealed that the inactivated CpHV-1 plus MF59™ vaccine was able to significantly reduce the latent viral load when compared either to the naïve goats or to the goats vaccinated with inactivated CpHV-1 in the absence of adjuvant. Thus, a vaccine composed of inactivated CpHV-1 plus MF59™ as adjuvant was strongly immunogenic and induced effective immunity against vaginal CpHV-1 infection in goats. PMID:22511971

Marinaro, Mariarosaria; Rezza, Giovanni; Del Giudice, Giuseppe; Colao, Valeriana; Tarsitano, Elvira; Camero, Michele; Losurdo, Michele; Buonavoglia, Canio; Tempesta, Maria

2012-01-01

57

Gene expression profiles of novel caprine placental prolactin-related proteins similar to bovine placental prolactin-related proteins  

PubMed Central

Background This study reports the identification of a full-length cDNA sequence for two novel caprine prolactin-related proteins (cPRP1 and cPRP6), and their localization and quantitative expression in the placenta. Caprine PRPs are compared with known bovine PRPs. We examined their evolution and role in the ruminant placenta. Results Full-length cPRP1 and cPRP6 cDNA were cloned with a 717- and 720- nucleotide open-reading frame corresponding to proteins of 238 and 239 amino acids. The cPRP1 predicted amino acid sequence shares a 72% homology with bovine PRP1 (bPRP1). The cPRP6 predicted amino acid sequence shares a 74% homology with bovine PRP6 (bPRP6). The two cPRPs as well as bPRPs were detected only in the placentome by RT-PCR. Analysis by in situ hybridization revealed the presence of both cPRPs mRNA in the trophoblast binucleate cells. These mRNA were quantified by real-time RT-PCR analysis of the placentome at 30, 50, 90 and 140 days of pregnancy. Both new cPRP genes were able to translate a mature protein in a mammalian cell-expression system. Western blotting established the molecular sizes of 33 kDa for cPRP1 with FLAG-tag and 45 kDa for cPRP6 with FLAG-tag. The sequence properties and localized expression of cPRP1 and cPRP6 were similar to those of bovine. However, their expression profiles differed from those in bovine placenta. Although this study demonstrated possible roles of PRPs in caprine placenta, PRPs may regulate binucleate-cell functions like those in bovine, but their crucial roles are still unclear. Conclusion We have identified the novel PRPs in caprine placenta. Localization and quantitative expression of caprine PRPs were compared with bovine PRPs. The data indicate that PRP genes in caprine placenta have coordination functions for gestation, as they do in bovine. This is the first study of PRPs function in caprine placenta.

Ushizawa, Koichi; Takahashi, Toru; Hosoe, Misa; Kizaki, Keiichiro; Abe, Yasuyuki; Sasada, Hiroshi; Sato, Eimei; Hashizume, Kazuyoshi

2007-01-01

58

Characterization of human mucin (MUC15) and identification of ovine and caprine orthologs.  

PubMed

The glycoprotein MUC15 (mucin 15) was initially isolated from the bovine milk fat globule membrane. The present work demonstrates the existence of immunologically similar proteins ( approximately 130 kDa) in ovine, caprine, porcine, and buffalo milk samples. Purification and N-terminal amino acid sequencing confirmed the presence of ovine and caprine MUC15 orthologs in milk fat globule membranes. Expression of MUC15 in human milk was demonstrated by immunostaining ( approximately 150 kDa) as well as by mass spectrometry. Screening of a human multiple tissue expression array showed abundant MUC15 gene expression in placenta, salivary gland, thyroid gland, trachea, esophagus, kidney, testis, and the leukemia K-562 cell line. Furthermore, moderate expression was seen in the pancreas, adult and fetal lung, fetal kidney, lymph node, adult and fetal thymus, and parietal lobe. Structural motifs for interactions (epidermal growth factor receptor and Src homology 2 domains) are identified in the intracellular region. Implication of the mucin in signal transduction and the potential physiological function of MUC15 are discussed. PMID:19038922

Pallesen, L T; Pedersen, L R L; Petersen, T E; Knudsen, C R; Rasmussen, J T

2008-12-01

59

Establishment and evaluation of a stable steroidogenic caprine luteal cell line.  

PubMed

Many physiological, biological, pharmacologic, and toxicologic events and compounds affect the function of Saanen dairy goat luteal cells, resulting in implantation failure or early embryonic loss. Although primary luteal cell cultures have been used, their finite lifespan precludes assessment of long-term effects. In the present study, primary caprine luteal cells (CLCs) were immortalized through transfection of a plasmid containing the human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) gene. The expression of hTERT and telomerase activity were evaluated in transduced CLCs (hTERT-CLCs). In this study, these cells steadily expressed hTERT gene and exhibited higher telomerase activity at Passages 30 and 50. The hTERT-CLCs at Passages 30 and 50 expressed genes encoding key proteins, enzymes and receptors inherent to normal luteal cells, e.g., steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), cytochrome P450 cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc), 3?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3?-HSD), and LH-receptor (LH-R). In addition, immortalized caprine luteal cells produced detectable quantities of progesterone in response to 8-bromo-cAMP (8-Br-cAMP) or 22(R)-hydroxycholesterol (22R-HC) stimulation. Furthermore, this cell line appeared to proliferate more quickly than control cells, although no neoplastic transformation occurred either in vivo or in vitro. We concluded the immortalized CLCs by hTERT retained their original characteristics and may provide a useful model to study luteal cell functions. PMID:22578611

Li, Wei; Xu, Xingang; Huang, Yong; Li, Zhaocai; Yu, Gaoshui; Wang, Zhisheng; Ding, Li; Tong, Dewen

2012-07-15

60

Effects of transplanted mesenchymal stem cells isolated from Wharton’s jelly of caprine umbilical cord on cutaneous wound healing; histopathological evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of transplanted Wharton’s jelly mesenchymal stem cells (WJMSCs) of caprine\\u000a umbilical cord on cutaneous wound healing process in goat. After collection of caprine pregnant uterus of mixed breed goats\\u000a from abattoir, the Wharton’s jelly (WJ) of umbilical cord was harvested. The tissues were minced in ventilated flasks and\\u000a explant culture

Omid Azari; Homayoon Babaei; Amin Derakhshanfar; Seyed Noureddin Nematollahi-Mahani; Raheleh Poursahebi; Mojgan Moshrefi

2011-01-01

61

Clinical protection against caprine herpesvirus 1 genital infection by intranasal administration of a live attenuated glycoprotein E negative bovine herpesvirus 1 vaccine  

PubMed Central

Background Caprine herpesvirus 1 (CpHV-1) is responsible of systemic diseases in kids and genital diseases leading to abortions in goats. CpHV-1 is widespread and especially in Mediterranean countries as Greece, Italy and Spain. CpHV-1 is antigenically and genetically closely related to bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1). Taking into account the biological properties shared by these two viruses, we decided in the current study to assess the protection of a live attenuated glycoprotein E (gE) negative BoHV-1 vaccine against a genital CpHV-1 infection in goats. Results The vaccine was inoculated intranasally twice three weeks apart followed by a subsequent CpHV-1 intravaginal challenge which is the natural route of infection in three goats. To analyse the safety and the efficacy of this marker vaccine, two groups of three goats served as controls: one immunised with a virulent CpHV-1 and one uninoculated until the challenge. Goats were clinically monitored and all sampling procedures were carried out in a blind manner. The vaccine did not induce any undesirable local or systemic reaction and goats did not excrete gE-negative BoHV-1. After challenge, a significant reduction in disease severity was observed in immunised goats. Moreover, goats immunised with either gE-negative BoHV-1 or CpHV-1 exhibited a significant reduction in the length and the peak of viral excretion. Antibodies neutralising both BoHV-1 and CpHV-1 were raised in immunised goats. Conclusion Intranasal application of a live attenuated gE-negative BoHV-1 vaccine is able to afford a clinical protection and a reduction of virus excretion in goats challenged by a CpHV-1 genital infection.

Thiry, Julien; Tempesta, Maria; Camero, Michele; Tarsitano, Elvira; Muylkens, Benoit; Meurens, Francois; Thiry, Etienne; Buonavoglia, Canio

2007-01-01

62

Purification and Characterization of a Sperm Motility Inhibiting Factor from Caprine Epididymal Plasma  

PubMed Central

Several studies have been reported on the occurrence of sperm motility inhibiting factors in the male reproductive fluids of different mammalian species, but these proteins have not been adequately purified and characterized. A novel sperm motility inhibiting factor (MIF-II) has been purified from caprine epididymal plasma (EP) by Hydroxylapatite gel adsorption chromatography, DEAE-Cellulose ion-exchange chromatography and chromatofocusing. The MIF-II has been purified to apparent homogeneity and the molecular weight estimated by Sephacryl S-300 gel filtration is 160 kDa. MIF-II is a dimeric protein, made up of two subunits each having a molecular mass of 80 kDa as shown by SDS-PAGE. The isoelectric point of MIF-II is 5.1 as determined by chromatofocusing and isoelectric focusing. It is a heat labile protein and maximal active at the pH 6.9 to 7.5. The sperm motility inhibiting protein factor at 2 µg/ml (12.5 nM) level showed maximal motility-inhibiting activity. The observation that the epididymal plasma factor lowered the intracellular cAMP level of spermatozoa in a concentration-dependent manner suggests that it may block the motility of caprine cauda spermatozoa by interfering the cAMP dependent motility function. The results revealed that the purified protein factor has the potential of sperm motility inhibition and may serve as a vaginal contraceptive. The antibody raised against the MIF-II has the potential for enhancement of forward motility of cauda-spermatozoa. This antibody may thus be useful for solving some of the problems of male infertility due to low sperm motility.

Das, Sujoy; Saha, Sudipta; Majumder, Gopal Chandra; Dungdung, Sandhya Rekha

2010-01-01

63

Myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG) in myelin deficiency of caprine beta-mannosidosis.  

PubMed

Caprine beta-mannosidosis is an inherited lysosomal storage disorder due to a deficiency of beta-mannosidase which cleaves beta-linked mannose residues from the ends of N-asparagine linked oligosaccharides of glycoproteins. Histological and chemical examination has revealed a deficiency of compact myelin in the brains and spinal cords of affected goats. Since myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG) is glycosylated and its metabolism could be directly affected in this disease, we investigated the possibility of a differential treatment of MAG in caprine beta-mannosidosis in comparison to non-glycosylated myelin proteins. MAG, myelin basic protein (MBP), 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase (CNP), proteolipid protein (PLP) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) were quantified by western blot analysis in whole homogenates of spinal cords and hemispheres from affected goats at 1, 3 and 6 days of age and from normal controls. The yields of isolated myelin from the spinal cords of affected goats varied from 37 to 63% of normal and were 7% or less of normal from the hemispheres. In mutant spinal cords, the deficits of MAG, CNP and PLP measured in whole homogenates corresponded reasonably well with the decreased myelin yields, but the levels of MBP were consistently much closer to control levels than those of the other myelin proteins. A greater deficiency of PLP than MBP was also apparent in the myelin fractions purified from the affected spinal cords. In homogenates of mutant hemispheres, MAG, MBP, PLP and CNP were undetectable or at trace levels in comparison to controls.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7691380

Sasaki, M; Lovell, K L; Möller, J R

1993-08-20

64

Cloning, preparation and characterization of biologically active recombinant caprine placental lactogen.  

PubMed

Caprine placental lactogen (cPL) cDNA was cloned by reverse transcription (RT)-PCR from total RNA of goat placenta. The PCR product encoding for the mature protein was gel purified, ligated to pGEM-T and finally subcloned into a pET8c prokaryotic expression vector. E. coli cells (BL-21) transformed with this vector overexpressed large amounts of cPL upon induction with Isopropyl-1-thio-beta-D-galactopyranoside. The expressed protein, found in the inclusion bodies, was refolded and purified to homogeneity on Q-Sepharose and SP-Sepharose columns, yielding two electrophoretically pure fractions (cPL-Q and cPL-S), composed of over 98% of monomeric protein of the expected molecular mass of approximately 23 kDa. Binding of cPL to the extracellular domain (ECD) of prolactin receptors (PRLR) from rat (r), rabbit (rb), and bovine (b), growth hormone receptors (GHR) from human (h) and rabbit, and binding to rabbit mammary gland membranes revealed similar binding profiles for cPL-Q, cPL-S and ovine (o)PL. Caprine PL was capable of forming 1:2 complexes with hGHR-ECD, rbGHR-ECD, rPRLR-ECD and rbPRLR-ECD whereas with bPRLR-ECD only a 1:1 complex was detected. The biological activity of both cPL fractions resulting from proper renaturation was further evidenced by their ability to stimulate proliferation of Nb2 cells, FDC-P1 cells transfected with rabbit or human GHRs and by stimulation of beta-casein synthesis in rabbit and ovine mammary gland acini cultures. PMID:9834468

Sakal, E; Bignon, C; Chapnik-Cohen, N; Daniel, N; Paly, J; Belair, L; Djiane, J; Gertler, A

1998-12-01

65

Molecular characterisation of the caprine (Capra hircus) lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 alpha subunit-encoding cDNA  

PubMed Central

Background Lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1, CD11a/CD18, alpha L beta 2) is required for many cellular adhesive interactions during the immune response. Results The Capra hircus CD11a-encoding cDNA was sequenced and compared with its human, murine, rat, bovine and ovine counterparts. Despite some focal differences, it shares all the main characteristics of its known mammalian homologues. Conclusion Therefore, along with the caprine CD18-encoding cDNA, which has been available for a few months, the sequence data revealed here will allow the Capra hircus LFA-1 expression in vitro as a tool to explore the specificities of inflammation in the caprine species.

Fett, Thomas; Zecchinon, Laurent LM; Baise, Etienne A; Desmecht, Daniel JM

2005-01-01

66

Determination of molecular weights of caprine milk proteins by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Molecular weights (MW) of major proteins in milk of 3 Korean dairy goat breeds were determined by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry, after treatment of milk samples with the reduction buffer used in capillary electrophoresis. The MW of caprine milk proteins were compared with those of Holstein milk counterparts using commercial bovine milk protein standards. The MW of ?-lactalbumin, ?-lactoglobulin, and ?- and ?-casein standards were 14,197±3.4, 18,326±26.3, 23,591±13.0, and 23,967±12.8 m/z, respectively, whereas those of Holstein milk treated with the reduction buffer were 14,199±8.3, 18,397±25.9, 23,614±64.8, and 23,984±75.6 m/z, respectively. The respective MW of ?-lactalbumin in Saanen, Toggenberg, and Alpine milk were 14,194±27.2, 14,266±105.9, and 14,241±13.2 m/z, which were not different from those of the bovine milk. The respective MW of ?- lactoglobulin in corresponding caprine milk were 18,840±31.5, 18,856±26.3, and 18,857±21.3 m/z, which were higher than those in the bovine milk. The MW of ?-casein in corresponding caprine milk were 23,860±27.2, 23,886±12.3, and 23,901±8.4 m/z, which were lower than those in the bovine milk. The results indicated that matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry could be used for rapid determination of MW of Korean caprine milk proteins without protein separation steps. PMID:22192180

Ham, J-S; Han, G-S; Jeong, S-G; Seol, K-H; Jang, A-R; Oh, M-H; Kim, D-H; Park, Y W

2012-01-01

67

Simulated-Physiological Loading Conditions Preserve Biological and Mechanical Properties of Caprine Lumbar Intervertebral Discs in Ex Vivo Culture  

PubMed Central

Low-back pain (LBP) is a common medical complaint and associated with high societal costs. Degeneration of the intervertebral disc (IVD) is assumed to be an important causal factor of LBP. IVDs are continuously mechanically loaded and both positive and negative effects have been attributed to different loading conditions. In order to study mechanical loading effects, degeneration-associated processes and/or potential regenerative therapies in IVDs, it is imperative to maintain the IVDs' structural integrity. While in vivo models provide comprehensive insight in IVD biology, an accompanying organ culture model can focus on a single factor, such as loading and may serve as a prescreening model to reduce life animal testing. In the current study we examined the feasibility of organ culture of caprine lumbar discs, with the hypothesis that a simulated-physiological load will optimally preserve IVD properties. Lumbar caprine IVDs (n?=?175) were cultured in a bioreactor up to 21 days either without load, low dynamic load (LDL), or with simulated-physiological load (SPL). IVD stiffness was calculated from measurements of IVD loading and displacement. IVD nucleus, inner- and outer annulus were assessed for cell viability, cell density and gene expression. The extracellular matrix (ECM) was analyzed for water, glycosaminoglycan and total collagen content. IVD biomechanical properties did not change significantly with loading conditions. With SPL, cell viability, cell density and gene expression were preserved up to 21 days. Both unloaded and LDL resulted in decreased cell viability, cell density and significant changes in gene expression, yet no differences in ECM content were observed in any group. In conclusion, simulated-physiological loading preserved the native properties of caprine IVDs during a 21-day culture period. The characterization of caprine IVD response to culture in the LDCS under SPL conditions paves the way for controlled analysis of degeneration- and regeneration-associated processes in the future.

Paul, Cornelis P. L.; Zuiderbaan, Hendrik A.; Zandieh Doulabi, Behrouz; van der Veen, Albert J.; van de Ven, Peter M.; Smit, Theo H.; Helder, Marco N.; van Royen, Barend J.; Mullender, Margriet G.

2012-01-01

68

Properties of Kefir made in Scotland and Poland using Bovine, Caprine and Ovine Milk with Different Starter Cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Varieties of Kefir were made in Poland and Scotland from bovine, caprine and ovine milk, using Kefir grains and two direct-to-vat inoculation (DVI) starter cultures. The chemical composition (g\\/kg) of the Kefir ranged from 106–149 for total solids, 29–64 for crude protein, 38–47 for carbohydrate, 7–11 for ash. The fat content was standardized to a mean value of 31 g\\/kg.

M. Wszolek; A. Y. Tamime; D. D. Muir; M. N. I. Barclay

2001-01-01

69

Incidence of Listeria species in bovine, ovine, caprine, camel and water buffalo milk using cultural method and the PCR assay  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine the prevalence rate of Listeria species in bovine, ovine, caprine, camel and water buffalo milk in Iran. Methods From September 2010 to December 2011 a total of 260 bulk milk samples including 85 bovine, 37 camel, 34 water buffalo, 56 ovine and 48 caprine bulk milk samples were collected from commercial dairy herds, in Fars and Khuzestan provinces, Iran and were evaluated for the presence of Listeria species using cultural method and the PCR assay. Results Using cultural method, 19 samples (7.3%) were positive for Listeria spp. The highest prevalence of Listeria was found in raw water buffalo milk (11.8%), followed by raw bovine milk (10.6%), raw ovine milk (7.1%), and raw caprine milk (4.2%) samples. All 37 camel milk samples from 20 camel breeding farms were negative for Listeria spp. The overall prevalence of Listeria was 7.3%, in which Listeria innocua was the most recovered species (4.2%); the remaining isolates were Listeria monocytogenes (1.9%), Listeria ivanovii (0.08%) and Listeria seeligari (0.04%). The PCR assay could identify 8 Listeria-contaminated milk samples that were negative using the cultural method. Conclusions The results presented in this study indicate the potential risk of infection with Listeria in people consuming raw and unpasteurized milk.

Rahimi, Ebrahim; Momtaz, Hassan; Behzadnia, Asma; Baghbadorani, Zeinab Torki

2014-01-01

70

Expanding Possibilities for Intervention against Small Ruminant Lentiviruses through Genetic Marker-Assisted Selective Breeding  

PubMed Central

Small ruminant lentiviruses include members that infect sheep (ovine lentivirus [OvLV]; also known as ovine progressive pneumonia virus/maedi-visna virus) and goats (caprine arthritis encephalitis virus [CAEV]). Breed differences in seroprevalence and proviral concentration of OvLV had suggested a strong genetic component in susceptibility to infection by OvLV in sheep. A genetic marker test for susceptibility to OvLV has been developed recently based on the TMEM154 gene with validation data from over 2,800 sheep representing nine cohorts. While no single genotype has been shown to have complete resistance to OvLV, consistent association in thousands of sheep from multiple breeds and management conditions highlight a new strategy for intervention by selective breeding. This genetic marker-assisted selection (MAS) has the potential to be a useful addition to existing viral control measures. Further, the discovery of multiple additional genomic regions associated with susceptibility to or control of OvLV suggests that additional genetic marker tests may be developed to extend the reach of MAS in the future. This review will cover the strengths and limitations of existing data from host genetics as an intervention and outline additional questions for future genetic research in sheep, goats, small ruminant lentiviruses, and their host-pathogen interactions.

White, Stephen N.; Knowles, Donald P.

2013-01-01

71

Identification and Profiling of microRNAs and Their Target Genes from Developing Caprine Skeletal Muscle  

PubMed Central

Goat is an important agricultural animal for meat production. Functional studies have demonstrated that microRNAs (miRNAs) regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level and play an important role in various biological processes. Although studies on miRNAs expression profiles have been performed in various animals, relatively limited information about goat muscle miRNAs has been reported. To investigate the miRNAs involved in regulating different periods of skeletal muscle development, we herein performed a comprehensive research for expression profiles of caprine miRNAs during two developmental stages of skeletal muscles: fetal stage and six month-old stage. As a result, 15,627,457 and 15,593,721 clean reads were obtained from the fetal goat library (FC) and the six month old goat library (SMC), respectively. 464 known miRNAs and 83 novel miRNA candidates were identified. Furthermore, by comparing the miRNA profile, 336 differentially expressed miRNAs were identified and then the potential targets of the differentially expressed miRNAs were predicted. To understand the regulatory network of miRNAs during muscle development, the mRNA expression profiles for the two development stages were characterized and 7322 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified. Then the potential targets of miRNAs were compared to the DEGs, the intersection of the two gene sets were screened out and called differentially expressed targets (DE-targets), which were involved in 231 pathways. Ten of the 231 pathways that have smallest P-value were shown as network figures. Based on the analysis of pathways and networks, we found that miR-424-5p and miR-29a might have important regulatory effect on muscle development, which needed to be further studied. This study provided the first global view of the miRNAs in caprine muscle tissues. Our results help elucidation of complex regulatory networks between miRNAs and mRNAs and for the study of muscle development.

Fang, Xingtang; Zhao, Yulong; Chen, Xiaohui; Sun, Jiajie; Zhou, Yang; Wang, Jianjin; Wang, Yongan; Lan, Xianyong; Chen, Hong

2014-01-01

72

Identification and Profiling of microRNAs and Their Target Genes from Developing Caprine Skeletal Muscle.  

PubMed

Goat is an important agricultural animal for meat production. Functional studies have demonstrated that microRNAs (miRNAs) regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level and play an important role in various biological processes. Although studies on miRNAs expression profiles have been performed in various animals, relatively limited information about goat muscle miRNAs has been reported. To investigate the miRNAs involved in regulating different periods of skeletal muscle development, we herein performed a comprehensive research for expression profiles of caprine miRNAs during two developmental stages of skeletal muscles: fetal stage and six month-old stage. As a result, 15,627,457 and 15,593,721 clean reads were obtained from the fetal goat library (FC) and the six month old goat library (SMC), respectively. 464 known miRNAs and 83 novel miRNA candidates were identified. Furthermore, by comparing the miRNA profile, 336 differentially expressed miRNAs were identified and then the potential targets of the differentially expressed miRNAs were predicted. To understand the regulatory network of miRNAs during muscle development, the mRNA expression profiles for the two development stages were characterized and 7322 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified. Then the potential targets of miRNAs were compared to the DEGs, the intersection of the two gene sets were screened out and called differentially expressed targets (DE-targets), which were involved in 231 pathways. Ten of the 231 pathways that have smallest P-value were shown as network figures. Based on the analysis of pathways and networks, we found that miR-424-5p and miR-29a might have important regulatory effect on muscle development, which needed to be further studied. This study provided the first global view of the miRNAs in caprine muscle tissues. Our results help elucidation of complex regulatory networks between miRNAs and mRNAs and for the study of muscle development. PMID:24818606

Wang, Yanhong; Zhang, Chunlei; Fang, Xingtang; Zhao, Yulong; Chen, Xiaohui; Sun, Jiajie; Zhou, Yang; Wang, Jianjin; Wang, Yongan; Lan, Xianyong; Chen, Hong

2014-01-01

73

Interaction between melatonin and follicle-stimulating hormone promotes in vitro development of caprine preantral follicles.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of melatonin and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) on the in vitro culture of goat preantral follicles. Ovarian fragments were cultured for 7 d in ?-minimum essential medium (?-MEM(+)) containing melatonin (100, 250, 500, or 1,000 pM), FSH (50 ng/mL), or a combination of the 2 hormones and further analyzed by histology and transmission electron and fluorescent microscopy. The results showed that after 7 d of culture, tissues cultured in ?-MEM(+) alone or supplemented with FSH alone, melatonin (500 and 1,000 pM), or the combination of FSH and melatonin (1,000 pM) maintained percentages of normal preantral follicles similar to the fresh control. In contrast to the noncultured tissues, the percentage of developing follicles was increased under all culture conditions after 7 d (P < 0.05). The addition of 1,000 pM melatonin associated with FSH to the culture medium increased follicular and oocyte diameters compared with ?-MEM(+) alone after 7 d of culture (P < 0.05). Ultrastructural and fluorescent analyses confirmed the integrity of follicles cultured with 1,000 pM of melatonin plus FSH for 7 d. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that the interaction between melatonin and FSH maintains ultrastructural integrity and stimulates further growth of cultured caprine preantral follicles. PMID:22920266

Rocha, R M P; Lima, L F; Alves, A M C V; Celestino, J J H; Matos, M H T; Lima-Verde, I B; Bernuci, M P; Lopes, C A P; Báo, S N; Campello, C C; Rodrigues, A P R; Figueiredo, J R

2013-01-01

74

Transcriptomic dissection of myogenic differentiation signature in caprine by RNA-Seq.  

PubMed

Muscle growth and development from the embryonic to the adult stage of an organism consists of a series of exquisitely regulated and orchestrated changes in expression of genes leading to muscle maturation. In this study, we performed whole transcriptome profiling of adult caprine skeletal muscle derived myoblast and fused myotubes. Using Ion Torrent PGM sequencing platform, a total of 948,776 and 799,976 reads were generated in myoblasts and fused myotubes, respectively. The sequence reads were analyzed on CLC Genomics Workbench using Bos taurus RNA database to study the gene expression in both stages to study different genes responsible for muscle development and regeneration. The up and down-regulated genes were analyzed for gene ontology (GO) and KEGG pathways by Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery (DAVID) database. We found many genes exclusive to multinuclear fused myotubes and contractile nature of skeletal muscle, whereas up-regulated genes in myoblast stage were related to cell division and transcriptional regulation. Out of 27 genes selected for expression validation by RT-qPCR (reverse transcriptase-quantitative polymerase chain reaction), 19 genes showed the expression pattern comparable with CLC Genomics Workbench findings. Further, mRNA originated muscle specific microRNAs (miRNA-1 and miRNA-133b) were also observed in the fused myotubes along with other miRNAs with possible importance in muscle development. This study highlights important genes responsible for muscle development and differentiation in adult skeletal muscle system. PMID:24423602

Tripathi, Ajai K; Patel, Amrutlal K; Shah, Ravi K; Patel, Anand B; Shah, Tejas M; Bhatt, Vaibhav D; Joshi, Chaitanya G

2014-05-01

75

Development and Characterization of a Caprine Aerosol Infection Model of Melioidosis  

PubMed Central

Infection with Burkholderia pseudomallei causes the disease melioidosis, which often presents as a serious suppurative infection that is typically fatal without intensive treatment and is a significant emerging infectious disease in Southeast Asia. Despite intensive research there is still much that remains unknown about melioidosis pathogenesis. New animal models of melioidosis are needed to examine novel aspects of pathogenesis as well as for the evaluation of novel therapeutics. The objective of the work presented here was to develop a subacute to chronic caprine model of melioidosis and to characterize the progression of disease with respect to clinical presentation, hematology, clinical microbiology, thoracic radiography, and gross and microscopic pathology. Disease was produced in all animals following an intratracheal aerosol of 104 CFU delivered, with variable clinical manifestations indicative of subacute and chronic disease. Bronchointerstitial pneumonia was apparent microscopically by day 2 and radiographically and grossly apparent by day 7 post infection (PI). Early lesions of bronchopneumonia soon progressed to more severe bronchointerstitial pneumonia with pyogranuloma formation. Extrapulmonary dissemination appeared to be a function of pyogranuloma invasion of pulmonary vasculature, which peaked around day 7 PI. Histopathology indicated that leukocytoclastic vasculitis was the central step in dissemination of B. pseudomallei from the lungs as well as in the establishment of new lesions. While higher doses of organism in goats can produce acute fatal disease, the dose investigated and resulting disease had many similarities to human melioidosis and may warrant further development to provide a model for the study of both natural and bioterrorism associated disease.

Soffler, Carl; Bosco-Lauth, Angela M.; Aboellail, Tawfik A.; Marolf, Angela J.; Bowen, Richard A.

2012-01-01

76

Analysis of Major Caprine Milk Proteins by Reverse-Phase High-Performance Liquid Chromatography and Electrospray Ionization-Mass Spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Major proteins from caprine milk were separated by preparative gel permeation and cation-exchange fast protein liquid chromatography and were characterized by flow injection analysis by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. In addition, proteins from whole skim milk and whole casein were analyzed by coupling reverse-phase HPLC and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry by two different chromatographic meth- ods. These methods successfully resolved

A. J. Trujillo; I. Casals; B. Guamis

2000-01-01

77

Microbiology and biochemistry of cheeses with Appélation d'Origine Protegée and manufactured in the Iberian Peninsula from ovine and caprine milks.  

PubMed

To support legal protection with objective technical data and to promote enforcement of high quality standards a few European countries have created Appélation d'Origine Protegées. This paper reviews and updates fundamental and applied aspects encompassing microbiological and biochemical characteristics of traditional cheeses with Appélation d'Origine Protegée manufactured in the Iberian Peninsula from ovine, caprine, or both milks. Ovine and caprine cheeses with Appélation d'Origine Protegée from Portugal and Spain can be divided into four distinct groups based on milk source and rennet type: 1) Azeitão, Castelo Branco, Evora, Nisa, Serpa, Serra da Estrela, and La Serena cheeses are manufactured with raw ovine milk and coagulated via plant rennet; 2) Terrincho, Idiazábal, Manchego, Roncal, and Zamorano cheeses are manufactured with raw ovine milk and coagulated via animal rennet; 3) Cabra Transmontano and Majorero are manufactured with raw caprine milk and coagulated via animal rennet; and 4) Amarelo da Beira Baixa, Picante da Beira Baixa, and Rabaçal are manufactured with mixtures of raw ovine and caprine milks and coagulated via animal rennet. PMID:10750117

Freitas, C; Malcata, F X

2000-03-01

78

Short communication: genetic variability in the predicted microRNA target sites of caprine casein genes.  

PubMed

The main goal of the current work was to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) that might create or disrupt microRNA (miRNA) target sites in the caprine casein genes. The 3' untranslated regions of the goat alpha(S1)-, alpha(S2)-, beta-, and kappa-casein genes (CSN1S1, CSN1S2, CSN2, and CSN3, respectively) were resequenced in 25 individuals of the Murciano-Granadina, Cashmere, Canarian, Saanen, and Sahelian breeds. Five SNP were identified through this strategy: c.175C>T at CSN1S1; c.109T>C, c.139G>C, and c.160T>C at CSN1S2; and c.216C>T at CSN2. Analysis with the Patrocles Finder tool predicted that all of these SNP are located within regions complementary to the seed of diverse miRNA sequences. These in silico results suggest that polymorphism at miRNA target sites might have some effect on casein expression. We explored this issue by genotyping the c.175C>T SNP (CSN1S1) in 85 Murciano-Granadina goats with records for milk CSN1S1 concentrations. This substitution destroys a putative target site for miR-101, a miRNA known to be expressed in the bovine mammary gland. Although TT goats had higher levels (6.25 g/L) of CSN1S1 than their CT (6.05 g/L) and CC (6.04 g/L) counterparts, these differences were not significant. Experimental confirmation of the miRNA target sites predicted in the current work and performance of additional association analyses in other goat populations will be an essential step to find out if polymorphic miRNA target sites constitute an important source of variation in casein expression. PMID:20338454

Zidi, A; Amills, M; Tomás, A; Vidal, O; Ramírez, O; Carrizosa, J; Urrutia, B; Serradilla, J M; Clop, A

2010-04-01

79

Effects of genetic variability of the caprine homeobox transcription factor HESX1 gene on performance traits.  

PubMed

HESX1 plays a key role in the development of the forebrain and pituitary gland and produces potential effects on performance traits. The objective of this study was to detect and assess the associations of the possible polymorphisms of six loci within HESX1 gene with performance traits in Chinese 1,119 goats. Only one novel SNP (NM_001494116:g.307049A > G) locating on IVS1 + 348A > G was identified and detected by HaeIII forced-RFLP-PCR. The frequencies of allele "G" varied from 0.025 to 0.245 in analyzed populations with the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (P > 0.05). Genotypic and allelic frequencies were found to be significantly different in four breeds (chi(2) = 147.674, df = 6, P < 0.001; chi(2) = 157.250, df = 3, P < 0.001, respectively), implying that the distribution of genotypic and allelic frequencies of goat HESX1 gene was significantly associated with different goat utilities (cashmere, meat and dairy). Association analysis results revealed no significant effects of caprine HESX1 gene on body sizes in XNSN population (P > 0.05) and cashmere traits in IMWC population (P > 0.05). Significant statistical of HESX1 gene with body weight was found (*P < 0.05). The genotype AA showed significantly higher body weight than those of AG in 2-year-old age (*P < 0.05), while the AA genotype was senior to AG genotype in 4-year-old body weight trait (*P < 0.05). These suggestions indicated that the HESX1 gene has significant effect on goat body weight depending on ages, which is accordance with the function repressor of the HESX1. PMID:19629745

Lan, Xianyong; Lai, Xinsheng; Li, Zhuanjian; Wang, Jing; Lei, Chuzhao; Chen, Hong

2010-01-01

80

Widespread Distribution of Disinfectant Resistance Genes among Staphylococci of Bovine and Caprine Origin in Norway  

PubMed Central

We demonstrate here a widespread distribution of genes mediating efflux-based resistance to quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) in staphylococci from unpasteurized milk from 127 dairy cattle herds and 70 dairy goat herds. QAC resistance genes were identified in 21% of the cattle herds (qacA/B, smr, qacG, and qacJ) and in 10% of the goat herds (qacA/B and smr). Further examination of 42 QAC-resistant bovine and caprine isolates revealed the following genes: qacA/B (12 isolates) was present in four different species of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS), smr (27 isolates) was detected in eight different CoNS species and in Staphylococcus aureus on a previously reported plasmid (pNVH99), qacG (two isolates) was detected on two plasmids (pST94-like) in Staphylococcus cohnii and Staphylococcus warneri, and qacJ (two isolates) was found in Staphylococcus hominis and Staphylococcus delphini on a plasmid (pNVH01) previously found in equine staphylococci. Isolation of indistinguishable pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) CoNS types from tank milk and mammary quarter milk samples in a dairy cattle herd suggested that these QAC-resistant staphylococci were of intramammary origin. Indistinguishable or closely related PFGE types of bovine QAC-resistant CoNS were observed in different herds. One particular bovine S. warneri PFGE type was isolated repeatedly from samples collected during a 30-month period in a herd, showing long-term persistence. In conclusion, it seems that the widespread distribution of staphylococci carrying QAC resistance genes in Norwegian dairy cattle and goat herds is the result of both the intra- and interspecies spread of QAC resistance plasmids and the clonal spread of QAC-resistant strains.

Bjorland, Jostein; Steinum, Terje; Kvitle, Bj?rg; Waage, Steinar; Sunde, Marianne; Heir, Even

2005-01-01

81

Role of silent gene mutations in the expression of caprine growth hormone in Escherchia coli.  

PubMed

This report describes the strategy for overexpression of caprine growth hormone (cGH) gene of beetal goat in E. coli through introducing silent mutations in the 5'-end of the coding sequence. The silent mutations introduced were aimed at minimizing translation-inhibiting secondary structures in the mRNA. Free energies of the resultant mRNAs were calculated from the ribosomal binding site of mRNA to +24 base using the Mfold web server. The construct with native sequence did not show any expression, whereas introduction of the silent mutations had strong influence on the expression levels. Some constructs (pETcGH2-7) showed 12-30% expression of total cell proteins while some others (pETcGH8-16) showed 30 to 53% of total cell protein. Any variation in the amount of mRNA transcript for the various constructs, as determined by quantitative PCR, was not enough to suggest that the variable level of the gene expression was due to variation in the transcription levels. It appears that the expression levels are not always correlated with free-energy values of the secondary structures in the 5'-end region of the mRNA; instead some key silent nucleotide alterations at certain sites of 5'-end of the sequence reorganize the secondary structure in such a way that it has positive impact on translation without considerably altering the free-energy values. An empirical approach for determining the optimum 5'-end substitutions for hyperexpression of a recombinant protein thus seems necessary. PMID:17691816

Khan, M Altaf; Sadaf, Saima; Akhtar, M Waheed

2007-01-01

82

Production enhancement and refolding of caprine growth hormone expressed in Escherichia coli.  

PubMed

This study describes comparison between IPTG and lactose induction on expression of caprine growth hormone (cGH), enhancing cell densities of Escherichia coli cultures and refolding the recombinant cGH, produced as inclusion bodies, to biologically active state. 2-3 times higher cell densities were obtained in shake flask cultures when induction was done with lactose showing almost same level of expression as in case of IPTG induction. With lactose induction highest cell densities were achieved in TB (OD(600) 16.3) and M9NG (OD(600) 16.1) media, producing 885 and 892 mg cGH per liter of the culture, respectively. Lactose induction done at mid-exponential stage resulted in a higher cell density and thus higher product yield. cGH over-expressed as inclusion bodies was solubilized in 50 mM Tris-Cl buffer (pH 12.5) containing 2 M urea, followed by dilution and lowering the pH in a step-wise manner to obtain the final solution in 50mM Tris-Cl (pH 9.5). The cGH was purified by Q-Sepharose chromatography followed by gel filtration with a recovery yield of 39% on the basis of total cell proteins. The product thus obtained showed a single band by SDS-PAGE analysis. MALDI-TOF analysis showed a single peak with a mass of 21,851 dalton, which is very close to its calculated molecular weight. A bioassay based on proliferation of Nb2 rat lymphoma cells showed that the purified cGH was biologically active. PMID:19477280

Khan, Muhammad Altaf; Sadaf, Saima; Sajjad, Muhammad; Waheed Akhtar, M

2009-11-01

83

The use of monoclonal antibodies in the diagnosis of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP).  

PubMed

Contagious caprine pleuropneumonia is a severe disease affecting goats in Eastern Africa and the Middle East, caused by Mycoplasma sp. type F38. Its exact geographical distribution is however not exactly known due to the lack of specificity of the available serological tests and the difficulty in cultivating M. sp. F38. A panel of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) was produced, using crude or membrane proteins antigens from type F38 strains to immunize mice. The reactivity of the mAbs was tested by an immunobinding assay with crude mycoplasma antigens spotted on nitrocellulose filters. One hundred and twelve antigens, standardized at 0.5 mg protein/ml, were used. Mycoplasma strains were chosen among closely related species of the "mycoides cluster", M. capricolum, Group 7 of Leach, M. mycoides mycoides LC, M. mycoides mycoides SC, M. mycoides capri, as well as among species that are isolated from goat lungs, M. arginini, M. ovipneumoniae, M. putrefaciens, M. agalactiae. Out of 60 mAbs, 4 were chosen to build an identification test for mycoplasmas of the "mycoides cluster". Controls showed that accurate identification could be hampered by antigenic heterogeneity within the M. capricolum species. One mAb was used for the direct detection of M. sp. F38 antigen in pleural fluid from goats suspected of CCPP. The sensitivity of the test can be estimated at 0.5 micrograms protein/ml. Comparison with isolation results show a 74% agreement between the two methods. The same mAb was used to build a blocking ELISA. This serological test was strictly specific for CCPP. It detects antibodies in sera of naturally infected or artificially immunized animals while it remained negative with hyperimmune sera to related strains such as PG 50. Direct antigen detection and blocking ELISA are tools that may enable a better assessment of CCPP distribution. PMID:7975145

Thiaucourt, F; Bölske, G; Libeau, G; Le Goff, C; Lefèvre, P C

1994-08-01

84

Chemokines in health and disease.  

PubMed

Chemokines belong to a large family of structurally related proteins that play a pivotal role in immune system development and deployment. While a large number of chemokines (approximately 50) and their receptors (approximately 20) have been identified from humans or mice, only a few are known in domestic veterinary species. Recent data implicate CXCL8 (old name, IL-8), CXCL10 (old name, IP-10) (both CXC chemokines) and CCL2 (old name, MCP-1) (a CC chemokine) in veterinary infections, inflammatory diseases or reproduction. There is compelling evidence for neutrophil targeting chemokines such as CXCL8, in ovine bacterial mastitis, bovine pneumonic pasturellosis and equine chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Monocyte and lymphocyte targeting chemokines appear to play a role in caprine arthritis encephalitis (CCL2) and canine endotoxemia (CXCL10). Interestingly CCL2 is considered a missing link between hormonal and cellular control of luteolysis. On the other hand, canine cardiovascular conditions are associated with overexpression of CCL2 and CXCL8. Furthermore, a number of veterinary viral pathogens encode chemokine/chemokine receptor like molecules or chemokine binding proteins that may help viruses to evade the immune system. Here, we provide an overview of the chemokine system and critically evaluate the current literature implicating chemokines in veterinary pathophysiology. Furthermore, we highlight promising areas for further research and discuss how and why chemokine antagonists are viewed as next generation anti-inflammatory drugs for the 21st century. PMID:12007879

Gangur, Venu; Birmingham, Neil P; Thanesvorakul, Sirinart

2002-07-01

85

Advances in Diagnosis of Respiratory Diseases of Small Ruminants  

PubMed Central

Irrespective of aetiology, infectious respiratory diseases of sheep and goats contribute to 5.6 percent of the total diseases of small ruminants. These infectious respiratory disorders are divided into two groups: the diseases of upper respiratory tract, namely, nasal myiasis and enzootic nasal tumors, and diseases of lower respiratory tract, namely, peste des petits ruminants (PPR), parainfluenza, Pasteurellosis, Ovine progressive pneumonia, mycoplasmosis, caprine arthritis encephalitis virus, caseous lymphadenitis, verminous pneumonia, and many others. Depending upon aetiology, many of them are acute and fatal in nature. Early, rapid, and specific diagnosis of such diseases holds great importance to reduce the losses. The advanced enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) for the detection of antigen as well as antibodies directly from the samples and molecular diagnostic assays along with microsatellites comprehensively assist in diagnosis as well as treatment and epidemiological studies. The present review discusses the advancements made in the diagnosis of common infectious respiratory diseases of sheep and goats. It would update the knowledge and help in adapting and implementing appropriate, timely, and confirmatory diagnostic procedures. Moreover, it would assist in designing appropriate prevention protocols and devising suitable control strategies to overcome respiratory diseases and alleviate the economic losses.

Chakraborty, Sandip; Kumar, Amit; Tiwari, Ruchi; Rahal, Anu; Malik, Yash; Dhama, Kuldeep; Pal, Amar; Prasad, Minakshi

2014-01-01

86

Generation of transgenic mesenchymal stem cells expressing green fluorescent protein as reporter gene using no viral vector in caprine.  

PubMed

Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) are multipotent cells that can be derived from many different organs and tissues. While there are many ways to label and track cells each with strengths and weakness, the green fluorescent protein (GFP) is a reporter gene commonly employed. In the present study, caprine MSC were collected from bone marrow and cells were characterised with MSC specific markers. Passage 10 (P10) MSC cells were transfected using plasmid vector containing GFP as reporter gene with different concentrations of DNA and lipofectamine. Six different concentrations of DNA and lipofectamine as 1 microg DNA: 2 microL lipofectamine, 1 microg DNA: 2.5 microL lipofectamine, 1.2 microg DNA: 2.2 microL lipofectamine, 1.2 microg DNA: 2.5 microL lipofectamine, 1.5 microg DNA: 2.5 microL lipofectamine, 1.5 microg DNA: 3 microL lipofectamine were used. After 24 h and 48 h of transfection, caprine MSC were observed under florescent microscope. Highest transfection rate indicating green flourecscent MSC were found when the cells were transfected with 1.2 microg DNA: 2.2 microL lipofectamine and 1.5 microg DNA: 2.5 microL lipofectamine than other combinations. These cells have been propagated beyond 4th passage maintaining GFP expression. The results indicated that stable GFP positive MSC cells can be generated using the above protocol. These cells are being used for transplantation studies. PMID:23898548

Kumar, Manish; Yasotha, T; Singh, R K; Singh, Renu; Kumar, Kuldeep; Ranjan, R; Meshram, Chetan D; Das, B C; Bag, Sadhan

2013-07-01

87

Novel polymorphisms in the caprine PrP gene: a codon 142 mutation associated with scrapie incubation period.  

PubMed

Age at disease onset and rate of progression of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies in man, sheep and mice are modulated by the host genome, in particular by the PrP gene and its allelic forms. Analysis of the caprine PrP gene revealed several different alleles. Four PrP protein variants were found, three of which were goat specific with single amino acid changes at codons 142, 143 and 240. The fourth was identical to the most common sheep PrP protein variant (Ala136-Arg154-Gln171). The dimorphism at codon 142 (Ile --> Met) appeared to be associated with differing disease incubation periods in goats experimentally infected with isolates of bovine spongiform encephalopathy, sheep scrapie CH1641 or sheep-passaged ME7 scrapie. PMID:8922485

Goldmann, W; Martin, T; Foster, J; Hughes, S; Smith, G; Hughes, K; Dawson, M; Hunter, N

1996-11-01

88

Interaction between estradiol and follicle-stimulating hormone promotes in vitro survival and development of caprine preantral follicles.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of estradiol and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) on survival and growth of caprine preantral follicles. Pieces of ovarian tissue were cultured for 1 or 7 days in minimum essential medium (MEM) containing estradiol (1, 5, 10, 20 or 40 pg/ml), FSH (50 ng/ml), or a combination of the two hormones. Cultured and noncultured control ovarian tissues were processed for histological and ultrastructural studies. The results showed that after 7 days of culture, the treatments that yielded the highest percentage of normal follicles relative to MEM alone were those that combined FSH with estradiol at 1, 5 or 20 pg/ml. The addition of FSH to 1-day cultures containing 1 pg/ml estradiol or to 7-day cultures with 1 or 5 pg/ml estradiol increased the percentage of normal follicles compared to estradiol alone at the same concentrations. After 7 days of culture, all treatments generated higher percentages of developing follicles as compared to control and MEM alone. The addition of either FSH or 10 pg/ml of estradiol to the culture media or estradiol (1, 5, 10 or 20 pg/ml) and FSH in combination significantly increased follicular diameter as compared with MEM alone following 7 days of culture. Ultrastructural studies confirmed follicular integrity after 7 days of culture in the presence of 1 pg/ml estradiol plus FSH. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that the interaction between estradiol and FSH maintains ultrastructural integrity and stimulates activation and further growth of cultured caprine preantral follicles. PMID:19641292

Lima-Verde, I B; Matos, M H T; Saraiva, M V A; Bruno, J B; Tenório, S B; Martins, F S; Rossetto, R; Cunha, L D; Name, K P O; Báo, S N; Campello, C C; Figueiredo, J R

2010-01-01

89

The first caprine rotavirus detected in Argentina displays genomic features resembling virus strains infecting members of the Bovidae and Camelidae.  

PubMed

Rotavirus group A (RVA) is a major cause of diarrhea in humans and young animals including small ruminants. The purpose of this study was to identify RVA in dairy goat kids, and to characterize the complete genomic constellation and genetic relatedness with other RVA strains. Four out of twenty fecal samples from diarrheic and non-diarrheic goat kids were positive for RVA by ELISA. A representative sample was selected for further genome analyses. The RVA strain RVA/Goat-wt/ARG/0040/2011/G8P[1] displayed the following genomic constellation: G8-P[1]-I2-R5-C2-M2-A3-N2-T6-E12-H3, reminiscent to guanaco and other bovine-like RVA strains detected in Argentina. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that most of the genome segments had a rather close relatedness with RVA strains typically obtained from cattle, sheep, South American camelids and goats. Interestingly, strain 0040 possessed the R5 and E12 genotypes which have up to date only been found in different animal species from Argentina. Overall, these findings suggest that strain 0040 could represent a typical goat RVA genome constellation similar to those previously found in other animal species within the order Artiodactyla. PMID:24742949

Louge Uriarte, Enrique L; Badaracco, Alejandra; Matthijnssens, Jelle; Zeller, Mark; Heylen, Elizabeth; Manazza, Jorge; Miño, Samuel; Van Ranst, Marc; Odeón, Anselmo; Parreño, Viviana

2014-06-25

90

The prevalence of antibody of antibody to contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (Mycoplasma strain F38) in some wild herbivores and camels in Kenya.  

PubMed

Sera of 11 species of wild herbivores were tested for antibody to Mycoplasma strain F38 which causes contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP) in Kenya. Antibodies were found in buffalo (Syncerus caffer) (32%), impala (Aepyceros melampus) (10%) and camels (Camelus dromedarius) (49%) but not in bushbuck (Tragelaphus scriptus), eland (Taurotragus oryx), Grant's gazelle (Gazella granti), kongoni (Alcelaphus buselaphus cokei), oryx (Oryx beisa), Thomson's gazelle (Gazella thomsonii), waterbuck (Kobus defassa) and wildebeest (Connochaetus taurinus). PMID:691121

Paling, R W; Macowan, K J; Karstad, L

1978-07-01

91

Immunolocalization of melatonin and follicle-stimulating hormone receptors in caprine ovaries and their effects during in vitro development of isolated pre-antral follicles.  

PubMed

The expression of melatonin type 1 (MT1) and FSH (FSHR) receptors in caprine ovaries and the effects of these hormones on the in vitro development of isolated pre-antral follicles were evaluated. Follicles (?200 ?m) were cultured for 12 days in ?-MEM (control) or melatonin (100 or 1000 pg/ml) or sequential melatonin medium (100 pg/ml: from day 0 to day 6; 1000 pg/ml: from day 6 to day 12; experiment 1) and in control or sequential FSH (100 ng/ml from day 0 to day 6; 500 ng/ml from day 6 to day 12) or sequential melatonin or this latter plus sequential FSH (experiment 2). MT1 and FSHR expressions were observed in granulosa cells from secondary and antral follicles. The oocytes from primordial and primary follicles also express FSHR. Sequential melatonin increased the percentage of normal follicles and oocyte recovery compared with the control or melatonin (1000 pg/ml) at day 12. In experiment 2, all the treatments increased the normal follicles and growth compared with the control. In conclusion, this study demonstrated the presence of MT1 and FSHR in caprine ovaries. The addition of increased concentrations of melatonin (sequential medium) or FSH can be used to promote the in vitro development of caprine pre-antral follicles. PMID:23981138

Barros, V R P; Cavalcante, A Y P; Macedo, T J S; Barberino, R S; Lins, T L B; Gouveia, B B; Menezes, V G; Queiroz, M A A; Araújo, V R; Palheta, R C; Leite, M C P; Matos, M H T

2013-12-01

92

Polymorphisms of caprine POU1F1 gene and their association with litter size in Jining Grey goats.  

PubMed

Seven pairs of primers were designed to amplify 5' promoter region, six exons and partial introns and to detect the polymorphisms of POU1F1 gene in five goat breeds with different prolificacy. The results showed that six mutations were identified in caprine POU1F1 gene including C256T in exon 3, C53T and T123G in intron 3, and G682T (A228S), T723G and C837T in exon 6. The former four mutations were novel SNPs in goat POU1F1 gene. The 53 and 123 loci were in complete linkage disequilibrium in five caprine breeds. Regarding the 256 locus, the Jining Grey goat does with genotype CT had 0.66 kids more than those with genotype CC (P < 0.05), while does with genotype GT had 0.63 (P < 0.05) kids more than those with genotype GG at the 682 locus. The present study preliminarily showed an association between allele T at the 256 and 682 loci of POU1F1 gene and high litter size in Jining Grey goats. Totally 16 haplotypes and 50 genotypes were identified at the above six loci in POU1F1 gene of five goat breeds. Three common haplotypes (hap2, hap3 and hap4) were identified in five goat breeds joined. Four specific haplotypes (hap7, hap9, hap11 and hap13) were detected in Jining Grey goats. The predominant haplotype was hap1 (35.29% and 48.25%) in both Jining Grey and Guizhou White goats, while hap4 (50%) in Boer goats, and hap2 (42.86% and 38.75%) in both Wendeng Dairy and Liaoning Cashmere goats. The most frequent genotypes at six loci in the above five goat breeds were hap1/hap2 (14.38%) and hap1/hap4 (14.38%), hap1/hap2 (38.60%), hap4/hap4 (40.91%), hap2/hap4 (26.53%), hap2/hap5 (20.00%), respectively. The Jining Grey goat does with nine genotypes analyzed of POU1F1 gene showed no obvious difference in litter size. PMID:21769479

Feng, T; Chu, M X; Cao, G L; Tang, Q Q; Di, R; Fang, L; Li, N

2012-04-01

93

Multi-locus sequence analysis of mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae for the molecular epidemiology of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia  

PubMed Central

Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae (Mccp) is the causative agent of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP), a devastating disease of domestic goats. The exact distribution of CCPP is not known but it is present in Africa and the Middle East and represents a significant threat to many disease-free areas including Europe. Furthermore, CCPP has been recently identified in Tajikistan and China. A typing method with an improved resolution based on Multi-Locus Sequence Analysis (MLSA) has been developed to trace new epidemics and to elucidate whether the recently identified cases in continental Asia were due to recent importation of Mccp. The H2 locus, a polymorphic region already in use as a molecular marker for Mccp evolution, was complemented with seven new loci selected according to the analysis of polymorphisms observed among the genome sequences of three Mccp strains. A total of 25 strains, including the two new strains from Asia, were analysed by MLSA resulting in the discrimination of 15 sequence types based on 53 polymorphic positions. A distance tree inferred from the concatenated sequences of the eight selected loci revealed two evolutionary lineages comprising five groups, which showed good correlation with geographic origins. The presence of a distinct Asian cluster strongly indicates that CCPP was not recently imported to continental Asia. It is more likely that the disease has been endemic in the area for a long time, as supported by historical clinical descriptions. In conclusion, this MLSA strategy constitutes a highly discriminative tool for the molecular epidemiology of CCPP.

2011-01-01

94

Characteristics of an unusual mycoplasma isolated from a case of caprine mastitis and arthritis with possible systemic manifestations.  

PubMed

A mycoplasma designated strain GM790A was isolated from milk and internal organs of 2 lactating goats showing mastitis and arthritis. The isolate was not related serologically to any of the currently known ovine-caprine mycoplasmas, except an isolate designated Mycoplasma sp. G, first recorded from the external ear canal of clinically normal goats in Australia. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and restriction enzyme DNA studies of strain GM790A and Mycoplasma sp. G revealed similar but not identical patterns. The inoculation of strain GM790A into the teat canal of 2 lactating goats resulted in an abrupt diminution of lactation leading to mastitis and agalactia in about 3 days. A maximum of 1 x 10(7) colony-forming units (CFU) of the mycoplasma were shed per ml of mammary secretion. Milk production partially resumed at a low level 3 weeks postinoculation, the longest period tested, but the milk still contained 1 x 10(2) CFU of the agent. The results of this study indicate that strain GM790A possesses pathogenic potential for the goat and most probably represents a new species of the genus Mycoplasma. PMID:2039789

DaMassa, A J; Nascimento, E R; Khan, M I; Yamamoto, R; Brooks, D L

1991-01-01

95

The effects of graft width and graft laxity on the outcome of caprine anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.  

PubMed

We studied how initial graft size and initial graft laxity affected the biomechanics of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction at six months. Sixteen goats had bilateral reconstructions staged eight weeks apart. Autografts 4 and 7 mm wide were taken from the central patellar tendon (PT). Lax grafts were created by adding 4 mm slack to the graft before fixing. We reconstructed each joint using a combination of width and laxity treatments. Both factors were changed for the contralateral joint and all combinations appeared with equal frequency. At six months we measured the joint extension limit, anterior-posterior (AP) translation, and osteoarthritic changes. The grafts were then tested to failure to determine their mechanical properties. After six months the difference in initial treatments had disappeared: there was no difference in graft cross-section due to the different initial widths and there was no difference in joint AP translation due to the initial graft laxity. We did observe that wide grafts were associated with a block to extension, decreased joint AP translation, and increased articular cartilage damage and osteophyte formation. While AP translation was reduced, it was correlated with decreased extension, possibly indicating an increase in scar tissue formation rather than a more functional graft. Neither graft width nor graft laxity produced differences in any graft mechanical properties. This suggests that the use of larger grafts to prevent increased AP translation has undesirable complications. Ultimately, we conclude that neither of these surgical treatments strongly affects the biomechanical result of caprine ACL reconstruction. PMID:11918314

Cummings, J F; Grood, E S; Levy, M S; Korvick, D L; Wyatt, R; Noyes, F R

2002-03-01

96

Sperm status and DNA dose play key roles in sperm/ICSI-mediated gene transfer in caprine.  

PubMed

In relation to the growing recent interest in the establishment of sperm-mediated gene transfer (SMGT) technology as a convenient and effective method for the simple production of transgenic animals, in this study the possibility of using SMGT to produce transgenic caprine embryos was investigated for the first time. Buck sperm were directly incubated with different concentrations (0-500 ng) of pcDNA/his/Lac-Z plasmid and used for IVF or ICSI. Sperm used for ICSI were categorized into motile or live-immotile group before being injected into oocytes. In a separate experiment, dead sperm prepared by repeated freezing/thawing were used for DNA-incubation before ICSI. Sham injection was carried out by intracytoplasmic injection of approximately the same volume of media containing different doses of DNA using an ICSI needle. Transgene expression and transmission were detected by X-Gal staining and PCR analysis of developed embryos, respectively. A reasonable blastocyst rate was observed in all the groups. Only embryos in the sham group were negative for transgene transmission. Transgene expression was completely dependent on the delivery technique and status of sperm, and was only observed in the live-immotile and dead ICSI groups. The results of this study showed that the technique (IVF vs. ICSI vs. sham injection), sperm status (motile vs. live-immotile vs. dead) and to some extent DNA concentration affect embryo development, transgene transmission and expression. PMID:20737474

Shadanloo, Farshad; Najafi, Mohammad Hasan; Hosseini, Sayed Morteza; Hajian, Mehdi; Forouzanfar, Mohsen; Ghaedi, Kamran; Abedi, Parvaneh; Ostadhosseini, Somaye; Hosseini, Laleh; Eskandari-Nasab, Morad-Pasha; Esfahani, Mohammad Hossein Nasr

2010-10-01

97

Perspectives of a scrapie resistance breeding scheme targeting Q211, S146 and K222 caprine PRNP alleles in Greek goats  

PubMed Central

The present study investigates the potential use of the scrapie-protective Q211 S146 and K222 caprine PRNP alleles as targets for selective breeding in Greek goats. Genotyping data from a high number of healthy goats with special emphasis on bucks, revealed high frequencies of these alleles, while the estimated probabilities of disease occurrence in animals carrying these alleles were low, suggesting that they can be used for selection. Greek goats represent one of the largest populations in Europe. Thus, the considerations presented here are an example of the expected effect of such a scheme on scrapie occurrence and on stakeholders.

2014-01-01

98

Caprine prion gene polymorphisms are associated with decreased incidence of classical scrapie in goat herds in the United Kingdom  

PubMed Central

The application of genetic breeding programmes to eradicate transmissible spongiform encephalopathies in goats is an important aim for reasons of animal welfare as well as human food safety and food security. Based on the positive impact of Prnp genetics on sheep scrapie in Europe in the past decade, we have established caprine Prnp gene variation in more than 1100 goats from the United Kingdom and studied the association of Prnp alleles with disease phenotypes in 150 scrapie-positive goats. This investigation confirms the association of the Met142 encoding Prnp allele with increased resistance to preclinical and clinical scrapie. It reveals a novel association of the Ser127 encoding allele with a reduced probability to develop clinical signs of scrapie in goats that are already positive for the accumulation of disease-specific prion protein in brain or periphery. A United Kingdom survey of Prnp genotypes in eight common breeds revealed eleven alleles in over thirty genotypes. The Met142 encoding allele had a high overall mean allele frequency of 22.6%, whereas the Ser127 encoding allele frequency was considerably lower with 6.4%. In contrast, a well known resistance associated allele encoding Lys222 was found to be rare (0.9%) in this survey. The analysis of Prnp genotypes in Mexican Criollas goats revealed nine alleles, including a novel Phe to Leu substitution in codon 201, confirming that high genetic variability of Prnp can be found in scrapie-free populations. Our study implies that it should be feasible to lower scrapie prevalence in goat herds in the United Kingdom by genetic selection.

2011-01-01

99

Elucidation of the Involvement of p14, a Sperm Protein during Maturation, Capacitation and Acrosome Reaction of Caprine Spermatozoa  

PubMed Central

Mammalian sperm capacitation is an essential prerequisite to fertilization. Although progress is being made in understanding the physiology and biochemistry of capacitation, little has been yet explored about the potential role(s) of individual sperm cell protein during this process. Therefore elucidation of the role of different sperm proteins in the process of capacitation might be of great importance to understand the process of fertilization. The present work describes the partial characterization of a 14-kDa protein (p14) detected in goat spermatozoa using an antibody directed against the purified protein. Confocal microscopic analysis reveals that the protein is present in both the intracellular and extracellular regions of the acrosomal and postacrosomal portion of caudal sperm head. Though subcellular localization shows that p14 is mainly cytosolic, however it is also seen to be present in peripheral plasma membrane and soluble part of acrosome. Immuno-localization experiment shows change in the distribution pattern of this protein upon induction of capacitation in sperm cells. Increased immunolabeling in the anterior head region of live spermatozoa is also observed when these cells are incubated under capacitating conditions, whereas most sperm cells challenged with the calcium ionophore A23187 to acrosome react, lose their labeling almost completely. Intracellular distribution of p14 also changes significantly during acrosome reaction. Interestingly, on the other hand the antibody raised against this 14-kDa sperm protein enhances the forward motility of caprine sperm cells. Rose-Bengal staining method shows that this anti-p14 antibody also decreases the number of acrosome reacted cells if incubated with capacitated sperm cells before induction of acrosome reaction. All these results taken together clearly indicate that p14 is intimately involved and plays a critical role in the acrosomal membrane fusion event.

Nandi, Pinki; Ghosh, Swatilekha; Jana, Kuladip; Sen, Parimal C.

2012-01-01

100

An international collaborative study to determine the prevalence of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia by monoclonal antibody-based cELISA  

PubMed Central

Background Few serological tests are available for detecting antibodies against Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae, the causal agent of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP). The complement fixation test, the test prescribed for international trade purposes, uses a crude antigen that cross-reacts with all the other mycoplasma species of the “mycoides cluster” frequently infecting goat herds. The lack of a more specific test has been a real obstacle to the evaluation of the prevalence and economic impact of CCPP worldwide. A new competitive ELISA kit for CCPP, based on a previous blocking ELISA, was formatted at CIRAD and used to evaluate the prevalence of CCPP in some regions of Kenya, Ethiopia, Mauritius, Tajikistan and Pakistan in an international collaborative study. Results The strict specificity of the test was confirmed in CCPP-free goat herds exposed to other mycoplasma species of the “mycoides cluster”. Prevalence studies were performed across the enzootic range of the disease in Africa and Asia. Seroprevalence was estimated at 14.6% in the Afar region of Ethiopia, whereas all the herds presented for CCPP vaccination in Kenya tested positive (individual seroprevalence varied from 6 to 90% within each herd). In Mauritius, where CCPP emerged in 2009, nine of 62 herds tested positive. In Central Asia, where the disease was confirmed only recently, no positive animals were detected in the Wakhan District of Afghanistan or across the border in neighboring areas of Tajikistan, whereas seroprevalence varied between 2.7% and 44.2% in the other districts investigated and in northern Pakistan. The test was also used to monitor seroconversion in vaccinated animals. Conclusions This newly formatted CCPP cELISA kit has retained the high specificity of the original kit. It can therefore be used to evaluate the prevalence of CCPP in countries or regions without vaccination programs. It could also be used to monitor the efficacy of vaccination campaigns as high-quality vaccines induce high rates of seroconversion.

2014-01-01

101

The characterization of the physicochemical and sensory properties of full-fat, reduced-fat and low-fat bovine, caprine, and ovine Greek yogurt (Labneh)  

PubMed Central

Concentrated/Greek yogurt or Labneh is a semisolid food produced from yogurt by eliminating part of its water and water-soluble compounds. Today's world is geared toward the production of lower fat foods without compromising the texture and flavor of these products. The objective of this study was to characterize the physicochemical and sensory properties of bovine, caprine, and ovine Labneh with different fat levels. Bovine, caprine, and ovine milks were used to produce two batches of full-fat (?10%), reduced-fat (?5%), and low-fat (<1%) concentrated yogurt samples. Chemical analyses of fat, moisture, protein, ash, syneresis, acidity, pH, sodium, magnesium, and calcium contents were conducted. Instrumental texture analysis using the back extrusion method was applied. Quantitative descriptive sensory analysis was used to profile samples by 11 trained panelists and the acceptability of samples was assessed by 47 panelists. Type of milk significantly affected (P?

Atamian, Samson; Olabi, Ammar; Kebbe Baghdadi, Omar; Toufeili, Imad

2014-01-01

102

The effect of heparin, caffeine and calcium ionophore A23187 on in vitro induction of the acrosome reaction in frozen-thawed bovine and caprine spermatozoa.  

PubMed

The effect of heparin (5 IU), caffeine (5 mM) and calcium-ionophore A23187 (0.1 mM) on motility and in vitro induction of the acrosome reaction in glass wool filtered frozen-thawed bull and goat semen was studied. The motile spermatozoa fraction was obtained after glass wool filtration of frozen-thawed semen. The seminal plasma was removed from filtered semen by centrifugation, and the sperm pellet was resuspended in Sperm-TALP medium. Samples of treated and untreated control semen of both species were incubated at 37 degrees C. At 1, 15 and 30 min of incubation the proportions of progressively motile and acrosome-reacted spermatozoa were assessed. Trypan blue and Giemsa stain was used to differentiate live and dead spermatozoa having undergone acrosome reaction. Glass wool filtration enhanced the proportion of motile spermatozoa from 43% to 62% in the bovine and from 41% to 60% in the caprine. Whereas the effect of incubation with caffeine, heparin and calcium-ionophore on spermatozoan motility was negligible, the treatment of semen with calcium-ionophore resulted in a significantly improved percentage of live spermatozoa with true acrosome reaction at all stages of incubation, both in the bovine and the caprine. PMID:11003300

Pereira, R J; Tuli, R K; Wallenhorst, S; Holtz, W

2000-07-15

103

The characterization of the physicochemical and sensory properties of full-fat, reduced-fat and low-fat bovine, caprine, and ovine Greek yogurt (Labneh).  

PubMed

Concentrated/Greek yogurt or Labneh is a semisolid food produced from yogurt by eliminating part of its water and water-soluble compounds. Today's world is geared toward the production of lower fat foods without compromising the texture and flavor of these products. The objective of this study was to characterize the physicochemical and sensory properties of bovine, caprine, and ovine Labneh with different fat levels. Bovine, caprine, and ovine milks were used to produce two batches of full-fat (?10%), reduced-fat (?5%), and low-fat (<1%) concentrated yogurt samples. Chemical analyses of fat, moisture, protein, ash, syneresis, acidity, pH, sodium, magnesium, and calcium contents were conducted. Instrumental texture analysis using the back extrusion method was applied. Quantitative descriptive sensory analysis was used to profile samples by 11 trained panelists and the acceptability of samples was assessed by 47 panelists. Type of milk significantly affected (P?

Atamian, Samson; Olabi, Ammar; Kebbe Baghdadi, Omar; Toufeili, Imad

2014-03-01

104

An insight into a combination of ELISA strategies to diagnose small ruminant lentivirus infections.  

PubMed

A single broadly reactive standard ELISA is commonly applied to control small ruminant lentivirus (SRLV) spread, but type specific ELISA strategies are gaining interest in areas with highly prevalent and heterogeneous SRLV infections. Short (15-residue) synthetic peptides (n=60) were designed in this study using deduced amino acid sequence profiles of SRLV circulating in sheep from North Central Spain and SRLV described previously. The corresponding ELISAs and two standard ELISAs were employed to analyze sera from sheep flocks either controlled or infected with different SRLV genotypes. Two outbreaks, showing SRLV-induced arthritis (genotype B2) and encephalitis (genotype A), were represented among the infected flocks. The ELISA results revealed that none of the assays detected all the infected animals in the global population analyzed, the assay performance varying according to the genetic type of the strain circulating in the area and the test antigen. Five of the six highly reactive (57-62%) single peptide ELISAs were further assessed, revealing that the ELISA based on peptide 98M (type A ENV-SU5, consensus from the neurological outbreak) detected positives in the majority of the type-A specific sera tested (Se: 86%; Sp: 98%) and not in the arthritic type B outbreak. ENV-TM ELISAs based on peptides 126M1 (Se: 82%; Sp: 95%) and 126M2 0,65 0.77 (Se: 68%; Sp: 88%) detected preferentially caprine arthritis encephalitis (CAEV, type B) and visna/maedi (VMV, type A) virus infections respectively, which may help to perform a preliminary CAEV vs. VMV-like typing of the flock. The use of particular peptide ELISAs and standard tests individually or combined may be useful in the different areas under study, to determine disease progression, diagnose/type infection and prevent its spread. PMID:23375019

de Andrés, X; Ramírez, H; Bertolotti, L; San Román, B; Glaria, I; Crespo, H; Jáuregui, P; Minguijón, E; Juste, R; Leginagoikoa, I; Pérez, M; Luján, L; Badiola, J J; Polledo, L; García-Marín, J F; Riezu, J I; Borrás-Cuesta, F; de Andrés, D; Rosati, S; Reina, R; Amorena, B

2013-04-15

105

Proportional mortality: A study of 152 goats submitted for necropsy from 13 goat herds in Quebec, with a special focus on caseous lymphadenitis.  

PubMed

The objectives of this study were to determine the main causes of mortality, with a special focus on caseous lymphadenits as a cause of death or wasting in caprine herds from Quebec. Goats (n = 152) from 13 herds were submitted for necropsy; the cause of mortality, and the presence, location, and cause of abscesses (if present) were recorded. Proportional mortalities were distributed as: Clostridium perfringens type D enterotoxemia (17.1%), pneumonia (13.8%), paratuberculosis (10.5%), listeriosis (6.6%), pregnancy toxemia (5.3%), caprine arthritis-encephalitis (4.6%), and caseous lymphadenitis (3.9%). Caseous lymphadenitis was diagnosed in 24.3% of the submitted goats, but was not a major cause of wasting or mortality. Abscesses were localized internally in 54.1% of the cases. Paratuberculosis was diagnosed in 29 goats (16 as cause of death) and was considered a major cause of wasting and/or mortality. PMID:24155449

Debien, Elaine; Hélie, Pierre; Buczinski, Sébastien; Lebœuf, Anne; Bélanger, Denise; Drolet, Richard

2013-06-01

106

Characterization of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis of bovine, caprine, and ovine origin by gas-liquid chromatographic analysis of fatty acids in whole-cell extracts.  

PubMed

The cellular fatty acid composition of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis from bovine, ovine, and caprine origin (grown on Herrold's egg yolk medium) was determined by gas-liquid chromatography (GLC) and mass spectrometry and was compared with that of 19 other Mycobacterium spp. A species-specific fatty acid of M paratuberculosis was not demonstrable. Gas-liquid chromatographic analysis of cellular fatty acids was used to develop flow charts for the rapid identification of M paratuberculosis and other Mycobacterium spp. Two charts for distinguishing organisms were developed; one chart was based on GLC alone and the other based on GLC, growth rate, and chromogenicity. Seemingly, the GLC was reliable for detecting Mycobacterium spp rapidly. PMID:4051303

Chiodini, R J; Van Kruiningen, H J

1985-09-01

107

Effect of morphological integrity, period, and type of culture system on the in vitro development of isolated caprine preantral follicles.  

PubMed

The aims of this study were the following: (1) to define an optimal period for the IVC of isolated caprine preantral follicles, (2) to verify the relationship between follicular morphology (intact, extruded, and degenerate follicles) and estradiol production, and (3) to evaluate the effects of the bidimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) culture systems on the in vitro development of caprine preantral follicles. Three experiments were performed. In experiments 1 and 2, the isolated secondary follicles were cultured for 18, 24, and 30 days or 30, 36, and 42 days, respectively. In experiment 3, the optimal culture period from experiment 2 was used for 2D and 3D culture systems. After culture, the oocytes were submitted to IVM. The morphological integrity, antral cavity formation rates, follicular diameter, presence of healthy, grown oocytes (?110 ?m), rates of resumption of meiosis, and estradiol concentrations were evaluated. In experiment 1, the percentage of oocytes that resumed meiosis was higher in oocytes cultured for 30 days (48.84%) than in oocytes cultured for 18 and 24 days (15% and 20.93%, respectively). In experiment 2, the percentage of oocytes that resumed meiosis was significantly higher in oocytes cultured for 30 and 36 days (47.5% and 50%, respectively) than in oocytes cultured for 42 days (20%). The estradiol concentrations on Day 12 of culture were similar for normal and extruded follicles and higher than those observed in degenerate follicles at the end of the culture period. In conclusion, the 36-day culture period resulted in the highest rates of meiosis resumption. In addition, because the loss of follicular integrity affects the patterns of estradiol production, follicular integrity is a good predictor of follicular quality. PMID:24839921

Pessoa, A F C; Rocha, R M P; Brito, I R; Silva, G M; Chaves, R N; Magalhães-Padilha, D M; Campello, C C; Rodrigues, A P R; Nunes-Pinheiro, D C S; Figueiredo, J R

2014-07-15

108

Foamy Viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Foamy viruses share complex genome organization with lentiviruses and certain oncoviruses. The open reading frame 3’ of env encodes a transcriptional transactivator. Distinct responsive sequences were identified in the long terminal repeats (LTRs) of simian (SFV-1 and SFV-3) and human foamy viruses (HFV). Transactivation of heterologous LTRs was described including those of simian and human immunodeficiency viruses. Foamy viruses

D. Neumann-Haefelin; U. Fleps; R. Renne; M. Schweizer

1993-01-01

109

Oncolytic viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the cytotoxic effects of viruses are usually viewed in terms of pathogenicity, it is possible to harness this activity for therapeutic purposes. Viral genomes are highly versatile, and can be modified to direct their cytotoxicity towards cancer cells. These viruses are known as oncolytic viruses. How are viruses engineered to become tumour specific, and can they be used to

E. Antonio Chiocca

2002-01-01

110

Genetic variants and effects on milk traits of the caprine paired-like homeodomain transcription factor 2 (PITX2) gene in dairy goats.  

PubMed

The paired-like homeodomain transcription factor 2 (PITX2) gene plays a critical role in cell proliferation, differentiation, hematopoiesis and organogenesis. This gene regulates several genes' expressions in the Wnt/beta-catenin and POU1F1 pathways, thereby probably affecting milk performance. The goal of this study was to characterize the genetic variants of the PITX2 gene and test their associations with milk traits in dairy goats. Herein, four novel single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), AC_000163:g.18117T>C, g.18161C>G, g.18322C>A and g.18353T>C, within the caprine PITX2 gene, were found in two famous Chinese dairy goat breeds. These SNPs mapping at Cys28Arg, Pro42Pro, IVS1+79C>A and IVS1+110T>C, were genotyped by the MvaI, SmaI, MspI and RsaI aCRS-RFLP or PCR-RFLP methods, respectively. Accordingly, two main haplotypes (CGCT and CGCC) were identified among the specimens. Association testing revealed that the SmaI and RsaI polymorphisms were significantly associated with the milk fat content, milk lactose content and milk density (P<0.05 or P<0.01) in the Guanzhong (GZ) dairy goats, respectively. At the same time, the RsaI locus was also found to significantly link to the second lactation milk yield, milk fat content, milk lactose content, milk density and milk total solid content (P<0.05 or P<0.01) in the Xinong Saanen (XNSN) dairy goats, respectively. These results indicated that the caprine PITX2 gene had the significant effects on milk traits. Hence, the RsaI and SmaI loci could be regarded as two DNA markers for selecting superior milk performance in dairy goats. These preliminary findings not only would extend the spectrum of genetic variation of the goat PITX2 gene, but also would contribute to implementing marker-assisted selection (MAS) in breeding and genetics in dairy goats. PMID:24076438

Zhao, Haiyu; Wu, Xianfeng; Cai, Hanfang; Pan, Chuanying; Lei, Chuzhao; Chen, Hong; Lan, Xianyong

2013-12-15

111

The effects of staged intra-articular injection of cultured autologous mesenchymal stromal cells on the repair of damaged cartilage: a pilot study in caprine model  

PubMed Central

Introduction Treatment of chondral injuries remains a major issue despite the many advances made in cartilage repair techniques. Although it has been postulated that the use of marrow stimulation in combination with cell-based therapy may provide superior outcome, this has yet to be demonstrated. A pilot study was thus conducted to determine if bone marrow derived mesenchymal stromal cells (BM-MSCs) have modulatory effects on the repair outcomes of bone marrow stimulation (BMS) techniques. Methods Two full-thickness chondral 5 mm diameter defects were created in tandem on the medial condyle of left stifle joints of 18 Boer caprine (N = 18). Goats were then divided equally into three groups. Simultaneously, bone marrow aspirates were taken from the iliac crests from the goats in Group 1 and were sent for BM-MSC isolation and expansion in vitro. Six weeks later, BMS surgery, which involves subchondral drilling at the defect sites, was performed. After two weeks, the knees in Group 1 were given autologous intra-articular BM-MSCs (N = 6). In Group 2, although BMS was performed there were no supplementations provided. In Group 3, no intervention was administered. The caprines were sacrificed after six months. Repairs were evaluated using macroscopic assessment through the International Cartilage Repair Society (ICRS) scoring, histologic grading by O’Driscoll score, biochemical assays for glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and gene expressions for aggrecan, collagen II and Sox9. Results Histological and immunohistochemical analyses demonstrated hyaline-like cartilage regeneration in the transplanted sites particularly in Group 1. In contrast, tissues in Groups 2 and 3 demonstrated mainly fibrocartilage. The highest ICRS and O’Driscoll scorings was also observed in Group 1, while the lowest score was seen in Group 3. Similarly, the total GAG/total protein as well as chondrogenic gene levels were expressed in the same order, that is highest in Group 1 while the lowest in Group three. Significant differences between these 3 groups were observed (P <0.05). Conclusions This study suggests that supplementing intra-articular injections of BM-MSCs following BMS knee surgery provides superior cartilage repair outcomes.

2013-01-01

112

The RNA-binding proteins FMR1, rasputin and caprin act together with the UBA protein lingerer to restrict tissue growth in Drosophila melanogaster.  

PubMed

Appropriate expression of growth-regulatory genes is essential to ensure normal animal development and to prevent diseases like cancer. Gene regulation at the levels of transcription and translational initiation mediated by the Hippo and Insulin signaling pathways and by the TORC1 complex, respectively, has been well documented. Whether translational control mediated by RNA-binding proteins contributes to the regulation of cellular growth is less clear. Here, we identify Lingerer (Lig), an UBA domain-containing protein, as growth suppressor that associates with the RNA-binding proteins Fragile X mental retardation protein 1 (FMR1) and Caprin (Capr) and directly interacts with and regulates the RNA-binding protein Rasputin (Rin) in Drosophila melanogaster. lig mutant organs overgrow due to increased proliferation, and a reporter for the JAK/STAT signaling pathway is upregulated in a lig mutant situation. rin, Capr or FMR1 in combination as double mutants, but not the respective single mutants, display lig like phenotypes, implicating a redundant function of Rin, Capr and FMR1 in growth control in epithelial tissues. Thus, Lig regulates cell proliferation during development in concert with Rin, Capr and FMR1. PMID:23874212

Baumgartner, Roland; Stocker, Hugo; Hafen, Ernst

2013-01-01

113

Virus maturation.  

PubMed

The formation of infectious virus particles is a highly complex process involving a series of sophisticated molecular events. In most cases, the assembly of virus structural elements results in the formation of immature virus particles unable to initiate a productive infection. Accordingly, for most viruses the final stage of the assembly pathway entails a set of structural transitions and/or biochemical modifications that transform inert precursor particles into fully infectious agents. In this chapter, we review the most relevant maturation mechanisms involved in the generation of infectious virions for a wide variety of viruses. PMID:23737059

Delgui, Laura R; Rodríguez, José F

2013-01-01

114

Virus Maturation  

PubMed Central

We examined virus maturation of selected non-enveloped and enveloped ssRNA viruses; retroviruses; bacteriophages and herpes virus. Processes associated with maturation in the RNA viruses range from subtle (noda and picornaviruses) to dramatic (tetraviruses and togaviruses). The elaborate assembly and maturation pathway of HIV is discussed in contrast to the less sophisticated but highly efficient processes associated with togaviruses. Bacteriophage assembly and maturation are discussed in general terms with specific examples chosen for emphasis. Finally the herpes viruses are compared with bacteriophages. The data support divergent evolution of noda, picorna and tetraviruses from a common ancestor and divergent evolution of alpha and flaviviruses from a common ancestor. Likewise, bacteriophages and herpes viruses almost certainly share a common ancestor in their evolution. Comparing all the viruses, we conclude that maturation is a convergent process that is required to solve conflicting requirements in biological dynamics and function.

Veesler, David; Johnson, John E.

2013-01-01

115

CHLORELLA VIRUSES  

PubMed Central

Chlorella viruses or chloroviruses are large, icosahedral, plaque?forming, double?stranded?DNA—containing viruses that replicate in certain strains of the unicellular green alga Chlorella. DNA sequence analysis of the 330?kbp genome of Paramecium bursaria chlorella virus 1 (PBCV?1), the prototype of this virus family (Phycodnaviridae), predict ?366 protein?encoding genes and 11 tRNA genes. The predicted gene products of ?50% of these genes resemble proteins of known function, including many that are completely unexpected for a virus. In addition, the chlorella viruses have several features and encode many gene products that distinguish them from most viruses. These products include: (1) multiple DNA methyltransferases and DNA site?specific endonucleases, (2) the enzymes required to glycosylate their proteins and synthesize polysaccharides such as hyaluronan and chitin, (3) a virus?encoded K+ channel (called Kcv) located in the internal membrane of the virions, (4) a SET domain containing protein (referred to as vSET) that dimethylates Lys27 in histone 3, and (5) PBCV?1 has three types of introns; a self?splicing intron, a spliceosomal processed intron, and a small tRNA intron. Accumulating evidence indicates that the chlorella viruses have a very long evolutionary history. This review mainly deals with research on the virion structure, genome rearrangements, gene expression, cell wall degradation, polysaccharide synthesis, and evolution of PBCV?1 as well as other related viruses.

Yamada, Takashi; Onimatsu, Hideki; Van Etten, James L.

2007-01-01

116

Chlorella viruses.  

PubMed

Chlorella viruses or chloroviruses are large, icosahedral, plaque-forming, double-stranded-DNA-containing viruses that replicate in certain strains of the unicellular green alga Chlorella. DNA sequence analysis of the 330-kbp genome of Paramecium bursaria chlorella virus 1 (PBCV-1), the prototype of this virus family (Phycodnaviridae), predict approximately 366 protein-encoding genes and 11 tRNA genes. The predicted gene products of approximately 50% of these genes resemble proteins of known function, including many that are completely unexpected for a virus. In addition, the chlorella viruses have several features and encode many gene products that distinguish them from most viruses. These products include: (1) multiple DNA methyltransferases and DNA site-specific endonucleases, (2) the enzymes required to glycosylate their proteins and synthesize polysaccharides such as hyaluronan and chitin, (3) a virus-encoded K(+) channel (called Kcv) located in the internal membrane of the virions, (4) a SET domain containing protein (referred to as vSET) that dimethylates Lys27 in histone 3, and (5) PBCV-1 has three types of introns; a self-splicing intron, a spliceosomal processed intron, and a small tRNA intron. Accumulating evidence indicates that the chlorella viruses have a very long evolutionary history. This review mainly deals with research on the virion structure, genome rearrangements, gene expression, cell wall degradation, polysaccharide synthesis, and evolution of PBCV-1 as well as other related viruses. PMID:16877063

Yamada, Takashi; Onimatsu, Hideki; Van Etten, James L

2006-01-01

117

Implantation of silicon dioxide-based nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite and pure phase beta-tricalciumphosphate bone substitute granules in caprine muscle tissue does not induce new bone formation  

PubMed Central

Background Osteoinductive bone substitutes are defined by their ability to induce new bone formation even at heterotopic implantation sites. The present study was designed to analyze the potential osteoinductivity of two different bone substitute materials in caprine muscle tissue. Materials and methods One gram each of either a porous beta-tricalcium phosphate (?-TCP) or an hydroxyapatite/silicon dioxide (HA/SiO2)-based nanocrystalline bone substitute material was implanted in several muscle pouches of goats. The biomaterials were explanted at 29, 91 and 181 days after implantation. Conventional histology and special histochemical stains were performed to detect osteoblast precursor cells as well as mineralized and unmineralized bone matrix. Results Both materials underwent cellular degradation in which tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive osteoclast-like cells and TRAP-negative multinucleated giant cells were involved. The ß-TCP was completely resorbed within the observation period, whereas some granules of the HA-groups were still detectable after 180 days. Neither osteoblasts, osteoblast precursor cells nor extracellular bone matrix were found within the implantation bed of any of the analyzed biomaterials at any of the observed time points. Conclusions This study showed that ß-TCP underwent a faster degradation than the HA-based material. The lack of osteoinductivity for both materials might be due to their granular shape, as osteoinductivity in goat muscle has been mainly attributed to cylindrical or disc-shaped bone substitute materials. This hypothesis however requires further investigation to systematically analyze various materials with comparable characteristics in the same experimental setting.

2013-01-01

118

Phytophthora viruses.  

PubMed

Phytophthora sp. is a genus in the oomycetes, which are similar to filamentous fungi in morphology and habitat, but phylogenetically more closely related to brown algae and diatoms and fall in the kingdom Stramenopila. In the past few years, several viruses have been characterized in Phytophthora species, including four viruses from Phytophthora infestans, the late blight pathogen, and an endornavirus from an unnamed Phytophthora species from Douglas fir. Studies on Phytophthora viruses have revealed several interesting systems. Phytophthora infestans RNA virus 1 (PiRV-1) and PiRV-2 are likely the first members of two new virus families; studies on PiRV-3 support the establishment of a new virus genus that is not affiliated with established virus families; PiRV-4 is a member of Narnaviridae, most likely in the genus Narnavirus; and Phytophthora endornavirus 1 (PEV1) was the first nonplant endornavirus at the time of reporting. Viral capsids have not been found in any of the above-mentioned viruses. PiRV-1 demonstrated a unique genome organization that requires further examination, and PiRV-2 may have played a role in late blight resurgence in 1980s-1990s. PMID:23498912

Cai, Guohong; Hillman, Bradley I

2013-01-01

119

Emerging Viruses  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Emerging viruses are those "whose incidence in humans has increased in the past 2 decades or threatens to increase in the near future." This week's Topic in Depth focuses on sites related to viruses, particularly those that are considered "emerging."The first site (1) is an essay by Alison Jacobson of the University of Capetown that discusses some emerging and potentially emerging viruses, along with factors that contribute to the threat. From a US government interagency working group, the second report (2) focuses on the responses to infectious disease outbreaks, including drugs, vaccines, and government response. A World Health Organization site (3) highlights recent reports of infectious disease, archived by date and by disease. This ThinkQuest site (4) gives a basic introduction to viruses and how they cause infections. An online virology tutorial (5) by Ed Rybicki of the University of Cape Town serves as a lesson on the basics of virology for a more advanced student. The next two sites focus on the specifics of selected viruses. From the Institute for Molecular Virology (6) comes a resource on Marburg and Ebola viruses, and from the National Biological Information Infrastructure (7) is a site on West Nile Virus. The last resource (8) is a scholarly journal from the Centers for Disease Control that presents some of the latest scientific research on emerging diseases.

Lee, Amy.

2002-01-01

120

Computer viruses  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The worm, Trojan horse, bacterium, and virus are destructive programs that attack information stored in a computer's memory. Virus programs, which propagate by incorporating copies of themselves into other programs, are a growing menace in the late-1980s world of unprotected, networked workstations and personal computers. Limited immunity is offered by memory protection hardware, digitally authenticated object programs,and antibody programs that kill specific viruses. Additional immunity can be gained from the practice of digital hygiene, primarily the refusal to use software from untrusted sources. Full immunity requires attention in a social dimension, the accountability of programmers.

Denning, Peter J.

1988-01-01

121

Sero-prevalence and associated risk factors of peste des petits ruminants and contagious caprine pleuro-pneumonia in goats and sheep in the Southern Zone of Tanzania.  

PubMed

A retrospective Sero-prevalence analysis was conducted in 2012 in order to find out whether contagious caprine pleuro-pneumonia (CCPP) and peste des petits ruminants (PPR) had already been introduced in Mtwara and Lindi regions of Southern Tanzania by 2007 and 2009. A total of 477 randomly selected sera from a bank of 3500 small ruminant samples that were collected as part of Rift Valley Fever surveillance of 2007 in Mtwara and Lindi regions were used in this study. Seroconversion was also evaluated in the 504 sera that were collected in 2009 as part of disease outbreak investigations in Tandahimba and Newala districts of Mtwara region. Seroconversions to CCPP and PPR were tested using competitive ELISA. In addition, information on different variables available in the existing surveillance forms gathered during sampling was used in the analysis of risk factors associated with seropositivity to the two diseases. The overall seroprevalence of CCPP for the sera of 2007 and 2009 in goats was 52.1% (n=447) and 35.5% (n=434) respectively; while in sheep the seroprevalence was 36.7% (n=30) and 22.9% (n=70) respectively. Seroconversion to PPR in goats and sheep was 28.7% (n=434) and 35.7% (n=70) respectively based on the sera of 2009. However, no antibodies were detected in the 2007 sera. Mixed infections were detected in 7.4% (n=434) of the goat and 12.9% (n=70) of sheep samples. Significant risk factors associated with seropositivity to CCPP in 2007 included introduction of new animals in flocks (OR=3.94; 95% CI 1.86-8.36; p<0.001) and raising animals in government farms (OR=4.92; 95% CI 1.57-15.76; p=0.02); whereas, seropositivity to CCPP in 2009 increased with introduction of new animals in flocks (OR=18.82; 95% CI 8.06-43.96; p<0.001), raising animals in government farms (OR=4.04; 95% CI 2.69-6.42; p<0.001) and raising animals in Newala district (OR=2.35; 95% CI 1.53-3.62; p<0.001). On the other hand, predictors for seropositivity to PPR in 2009 were introduction of new animals in flocks (OR=2.83; 95% CI 1.73-4.62; p<0.001) and communal grazing of animals (OR=7.60; 95% CI 1.77-32.58; p=0.01). Therefore, these results show that CCPP was already circulating in goats in the southern zone by 2007 and that PPR was probably introduced thereafter. Their presence in this emerging animal keeping area in Tanzania calls for improved surveillance and control systems. PMID:25022914

Mbyuzi, Albano O; Komba, Erick V G; Kimera, Sharadhuli I; Kambarage, Dominic M

2014-09-01

122

Passatempo Virus, a Vaccinia Virus Strain, Brazil  

PubMed Central

Passatempo virus was isolated during a zoonotic outbreak. Biologic features and molecular characterization of hemagglutinin, thymidine kinase, and vaccinia growth factor genes suggested a vaccinia virus infection, which strengthens the idea of the reemergence and circulation of vaccinia virus in Brazil. Molecular polymorphisms indicated that Passatempo virus is a different isolate.

Leite, Juliana A.; Drumond, Betania P.; Trindade, Giliane S.; Lobato, Zelia I.P.; da Fonseca, Flavio G.; dos Santos, Joao R.; Madureira, Marieta C.; Guedes, Maria I.M.C.; Ferreira, Jaqueline M.S.; Bonjardim, Claudio A.; Ferreira, Paulo C.P.

2005-01-01

123

The Geometry of Viruses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented is an activity in which students make models of viruses, which allows them to visualize the shape of these microorganisms. Included are some background on viruses, the biology and geometry of viruses, directions for building viruses, a comparison of cells and viruses, and questions for students. (KR)

Case, Christine L.

1991-01-01

124

Constructing Computer Virus Phylogenies  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been much recent algorithmic work on the problem of reconstructing the evolutionary history of biological species. Computer virus specialists are interested in finding the evolutionary history of computer viruses—a virus is often written using code fragments from one or more other viruses, which are its immediate ancestors. A phylogeny for a collection of computer viruses is a directed

Leslie Ann Goldberg; Paul W. Goldberg; Cynthia A. Phillips; Gregory B. Sorkin

1998-01-01

125

Constructing computer virus phylogenies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

There has been much recent algorithmic work on the problem of reconstructing the evolutionary history of biological species. Computer virus specialists are interested in finding the evolutionary history of computer viruses--a virus is often written using ...

L. A. Goldberg P. W. Goldberg C. A. Phillips G. B. Sorkin

1996-01-01

126

Computer Viruses: An Overview.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the early history and current proliferation of computer viruses that occur on Macintosh and DOS personal computers, mentions virus detection programs, and offers suggestions for how libraries can protect themselves and their users from damage by computer viruses. (LRW)

Marmion, Dan

1990-01-01

127

Virus Movement Maintains Local Virus Population Diversity  

SciTech Connect

Viruses are the largest reservoir of genetic material on the planet, yet little is known about the population dynamics of any virus within its natural environment. Over a 2-year period, we monitored the diversity of two archaeal viruses found in hot springs within Yellowstone National Park (YNP). Both temporal phylogeny and neutral biodiversity models reveal that virus diversity in these local environments is not being maintained by mutation but rather by high rates of immigration from a globally distributed metacommunity. These results indicate that geographically isolated hot springs are readily able to exchange viruses. The importance of virus movement is supported by the detection of virus particles in air samples collected over YNP hot springs and by their detection in metacommunity sequencing projects conducted in the Sargasso Sea. Rapid rates of virus movement are not expected to be unique to these archaeal viruses but rather a common feature among virus metacommunities. The finding that virus immigration rather than mutation can dominate community structure has significant implications for understanding virus circulation and the role that viruses play in ecology and evolution by providing a reservoir of mobile genetic material.

J. Snyder; B. Wiedenheft; M. Lavin; F. Roberto; J. Spuhler; A. Ortmann; T. Douglas; M. Young

2007-11-01

128

Virus movement maintains local virus population diversity  

PubMed Central

Viruses are the largest reservoir of genetic material on the planet, yet little is known about the population dynamics of any virus within its natural environment. Over a 2-year period, we monitored the diversity of two archaeal viruses found in hot springs within Yellowstone National Park (YNP). Both temporal phylogeny and neutral biodiversity models reveal that virus diversity in these local environments is not being maintained by mutation but rather by high rates of immigration from a globally distributed metacommunity. These results indicate that geographically isolated hot springs are readily able to exchange viruses. The importance of virus movement is supported by the detection of virus particles in air samples collected over YNP hot springs and by their detection in metacommunity sequencing projects conducted in the Sargasso Sea. Rapid rates of virus movement are not expected to be unique to these archaeal viruses but rather a common feature among virus metacommunities. The finding that virus immigration rather than mutation can dominate community structure has significant implications for understanding virus circulation and the role that viruses play in ecology and evolution by providing a reservoir of mobile genetic material.

Snyder, Jamie C.; Wiedenheft, Blake; Lavin, Matthew; Roberto, Francisco F.; Spuhler, Josh; Ortmann, Alice C.; Douglas, Trevor; Young, Mark

2007-01-01

129

Salmonid viruses: Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Epizootics occurred among young trout in France, and the behavior and symptoms suggested infectious pancreatic necrosis (IPN) virus. Specimens preserved in glycerol were sent to the U.S.A. for virological examination. Virus was isolated from four of five lots, but neutralization with antiserum against ATCC VR299 strain IPN virus was incomplete. Electron microscopy, bioassay, histopathology, and serology were used to

Ken Wolf; M. C. Quimby

1971-01-01

130

The Tobacco Mosaic Virus.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains how the tobacco mosaic virus can be used to study virology. Presents facts about the virus, procedures to handle the virus in the laboratory, and four laboratory exercises involving the viruses' survival under inactivating conditions, dilution end point, filterability, and microscopy. (MDH)

Sulzinski, Michael A.

1992-01-01

131

Virus entry by macropinocytosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

As obligatory intracellular parasites, viruses rely on host-cell functions for most aspects of their replication cycle. This is born out during entry, when most viruses that infect vertebrate and insect cells exploit the endocytic activities of the host cell to move into the cytoplasm. Viruses belonging to vaccinia, adeno, picorna and other virus families have been reported to take advantage

Jason Mercer; Ari Helenius

2009-01-01

132

Evidence of transplacental transmission of bluetongue virus serotype 8 in goats.  

PubMed

During the incursion of bluetongue virus (BTV) serotype 8 in Europe, an increase in the number of abortions in ruminants was observed. Transplacental transmission of BTV-8 in cattle and sheep, with subsequent foetal infection, is a feature of this specific bluetongue serotype. In this study, BTV-8 ability to cross the placental barrier at the beginning of the second third of pregnancy and at the end of pregnancy was investigated in goats in two separate experiments. In the first experiment, nine goats were experimentally infected with BTV-8 at 61 days of pregnancy. Foetuses were collected 21 dpi. BTV-8 was evidenced by real time RT-PCR and by viral isolation using blood from the umbilical cord and the spleens of 3 out of the 13 foetuses. All dams were viraemic (viral isolation) at the moment of sampling of the foetuses. Significant macroscopic or histological lesions could not be observed in foetuses or in their infected dams (notably at the placenta level). In the second experiment, 10 goats were infected with BTV-8 at 135 days of pregnancy. Kids were born by caesarean section at the programmed day of birth (15 dpi). BTV-8 could not be detected by rt-RT-PCR in blood or spleen samples from the kids. This study showed for the first time that BTV-8 transplacental transmission can occur in goats that have been infected at 61 days of pregnancy, with infectious virus recovered from the caprine foetuses. The observed transmission rate was quite high (33%) at this stage of pregnancy. However, it was not possible to demonstrate the existence of BTV-8 transplacental transmission when infection occurred at the end of the goat pregnancy. PMID:23890676

Belbis, G; Bréard, E; Cordonnier, N; Moulin, V; Desprat, A; Sailleau, C; Viarouge, C; Doceul, V; Zientara, S; Millemann, Y

2013-10-25

133

Viruses in the sea.  

PubMed

Viruses exist wherever life is found. They are a major cause of mortality, a driver of global geochemical cycles and a reservoir of the greatest genetic diversity on Earth. In the oceans, viruses probably infect all living things, from bacteria to whales. They affect the form of available nutrients and the termination of algal blooms. Viruses can move between marine and terrestrial reservoirs, raising the spectre of emerging pathogens. Our understanding of the effect of viruses on global systems and processes continues to unfold, overthrowing the idea that viruses and virus-mediated processes are sidebars to global processes. PMID:16163346

Suttle, Curtis A

2005-09-15

134

Future directions: oncolytic viruses.  

PubMed

Oncolytic viruses offer a promising new modality for cancer treatment. The strategy of this therapy is to develop viruses capable of selectively infecting and replicating in malignant tumor cells. Oncolytic viruses can spread and destroy malignant tumors without deleterious effects in normal tissues. These viruses are genetically engineered based on both the biology of replicating viruses and the major genetic defects in human cancer cells, so that they can replicate in cancer cells but not in normal cells. The key to the development of such viruses is the identification of viral genes, the deletion or modification of which enables tumor-specific cell destruction. Several clinical trials have demonstrated the safety of oncolytic viruses as cancer therapy and have also shown some encouraging results. Much evidence suggests that oncolytic viral therapy works in synergy with standard cancer therapies. In this review, we will focus on the oncolytic viruses that may be beneficial to patients with lung cancer in the near future. PMID:14967074

You, Liang; He, Biao; Xu, Zhidong; McCormick, Frank; Jablons, David M

2004-01-01

135

Virus Assembly and Maturation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use two techniques to look at three-dimensional virus structure: electron cryomicroscopy (cryoEM) and X-ray crystallography. Figure 1 is a gallery of virus particles whose structures Timothy Baker, one of my former colleagues at Purdue University, used cryoEM to determine. It illustrates the variety of sizes of icosahedral virus particles. The largest virus particle on this slide is the Herpes simplex virus, around 1200Å in diameter; the smallest we examined was around 250Å in diameter. Viruses bear their genomic information either as positive-sense DNA and RNA, double-strand DNA, double-strand RNA, or negative-strand RNA. Viruses utilize the various structure and function "tactics" seen throughout cell biology to replicate at high levels. Many of the biological principles that we consider general were in fact discovered in the context of viruses ...

Johnson, John E.

2004-03-01

136

Live Virus Smallpox Vaccine  

MedlinePLUS

... for Clinicians Brucella Lab Info Surveillance & Investigation Cholera Ebola virus E. coli Food safety threats Glanders Lassa fever Marburg virus Melioidosis Plague Case Definitions and Report Forms Diagnosis & Evaluation Infection Control Lab Testing Surveillance & Investigation Publications & ...

137

Cytotoxicity of Virus.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Cytotoxic effects through virus capable of propagation such as those of the pox group inactivated by ultraviolet exposure, were produced under high virus-cell ratios in various cell cultures. In the inoculated culture systems, these effects do not propaga...

H. Mahnel

1968-01-01

138

Viruses and Breast Cancer  

PubMed Central

Viruses are the accepted cause of many important cancers including cancers of the cervix and anogenital area, the liver, some lymphomas, head and neck cancers and indirectly human immunodeficiency virus associated cancers. For over 50 years, there have been serious attempts to identify viruses which may have a role in breast cancer. Despite these efforts, the establishment of conclusive evidence for such a role has been elusive. However, the development of extremely sophisticated new experimental techniques has allowed the recent development of evidence that human papilloma virus, Epstein-Barr virus, mouse mammary tumor virus and bovine leukemia virus may each have a role in the causation of human breast cancers. This is potentially good news as effective vaccines are already available to prevent infections from carcinogenic strains of human papilloma virus, which causes cancer of the uterine cervix.

Lawson, James S.; Heng, Benjamin

2010-01-01

139

Viruses and human cancer  

SciTech Connect

This book contains papers on the following topics: Immunology and Epidemiology, Biology and Pathogenesis, Models of Pathogenesis and Treatment, Simian and Bovine Retroviruses, Human Papilloma Viruses, EBV and Herpesvirus, and Hepatitis B Virus.

Gallo, R.C.; Haseltine, W.; Klein, G.; Zur Hausen, H.

1987-01-01

140

[Viruses and mammary carcinogenesis].  

PubMed

Bittner virus has been extensively studied by recent electron microscopy and molecular biology techniques. The structure, the biochemical, physical and antigenic properties of the RNA tumor viruses - i.e. the mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) - are well known. Recent observations in human tissues of particles similar to animal viruses that are known to be oncogenic have raised the hypothesis of the role of viruses in human cancer. In mice, breast cancer can be caused by a virus - the Bittner virus or MMTV - that is usually transmitted from mother to offspring in the milk. The discovery of such virus particles in human milks and breast cancer tissues could provide data about a viral aetiology of human breast cancer. PMID:172551

Vokaer, A

1975-01-01

141

Advances in virus research  

SciTech Connect

This book contains eight chapters. Some of the titles are: Initiation of viral DNA replication; Vaccinia: virus, vector, vaccine; The pre-S region of hepadnavirus envelope proteins; and Archaebacterial viruses.

Maramorosch, K. (Rutgers--the State Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (USA)); Murphy, F.A. (Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, GA (USA)); Shatkin, A.J. (Rutgers-UMDNJ, Piscataway, NJ (US))

1988-01-01

142

[Mumps vaccine virus transmission].  

PubMed

In this work we report the mumps vaccine virus shedding based on the laboratory confirmed cases of the mumps virus (MuV) infection. The likely epidemiological sources of the transmitted mumps virus were children who were recently vaccinated with the mumps vaccine containing Leningrad-Zagreb or Leningrad-3 MuV. The etiology of the described cases of the horizontal transmission of both mumps vaccine viruses was confirmed by PCR with the sequential restriction analysis. PMID:24772647

Otrashevskaia, E V; Kulak, M V; Otrashevskaia, A V; Karpov, I A; Fisenko, E G; Ignat'ev, G M

2013-01-01

143

An Undetectable Computer Virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the few solid theoretical results in the study of computer viruses is Cohen's 1987 demonstration that there is no algorithm that can perfectly detect all possible viruses [1]. This brief paper adds to the bad news, by pointing out that there are computer viruses which no algorithm can detect, even under a somewhat more liberal definition of detection.

David M. Chess; Steve R. White

2000-01-01

144

VIRUSES IN WASTEWATER  

EPA Science Inventory

Viruses of animals, plants, and bacteria abound in sewage and receiving waters. Their ecological impact has, for the most part, gone unheeded except as it relates to viruses from human sources. Viruses present at levels infective to man have been recovered from waters used for re...

145

Constructing Computer Virus Phylogenies  

Microsoft Academic Search

. There has been much recent algorithmic work on the problemof reconstructing the evolutionary history of biological species. Computervirus specialists are interested in finding the evolutionary history of computerviruses --- a virus is often written using code fragments from one ormore other viruses, which are its immediate ancestors. A phylogeny fora collection of computer viruses is a directed acyclic graph

Leslie Ann Goldberg; Paul W. Goldberg; Cynthia A. Phillips; Gregory B. Sorkin

1996-01-01

146

Lipids of Archaeal Viruses  

PubMed Central

Archaeal viruses represent one of the least known territory of the viral universe and even less is known about their lipids. Based on the current knowledge, however, it seems that, as in other viruses, archaeal viral lipids are mostly incorporated into membranes that reside either as outer envelopes or membranes inside an icosahedral capsid. Mechanisms for the membrane acquisition seem to be similar to those of viruses infecting other host organisms. There are indications that also some proteins of archaeal viruses are lipid modified. Further studies on the characterization of lipids in archaeal viruses as well as on their role in virion assembly and infectivity require not only highly purified viral material but also, for example, constant evaluation of the adaptability of emerging technologies for their analysis. Biological membranes contain proteins and membranes of archaeal viruses are not an exception. Archaeal viruses as relatively simple systems can be used as excellent tools for studying the lipid protein interactions in archaeal membranes.

Roine, Elina; Bamford, Dennis H.

2012-01-01

147

Elastic Properties of Viruses  

PubMed Central

Viruses are compact biological nanoparticles whose elastic and dynamical properties are hardly known. Inelastic (Brillouin) light scattering was used to characterize these properties, from microcrystals of the Satellite Tobacco Mosaic Virus, a nearly spherical plant virus of 17-nm diameter. Longitudinal sound velocities in wet and dry Satellite Tobacco Mosaic Virus crystals were determined and compared to that of the well-known protein crystal, lysozyme. Localized vibrational modes of the viral particles (i.e., particle modes) were sought in the relevant frequency ranges, as derived assuming the viruses as full free nanospheres. Despite very favorable conditions, regarding virus concentration and expected low damping in dry microcrystals, no firm evidence of virus particle modes could be detected.

Stephanidis, B.; Adichtchev, S.; Gouet, P.; McPherson, A.; Mermet, A.

2007-01-01

148

Serological evidence of foot-and-mouth disease virus infection in randomly surveyed goat population of Orissa, India.  

PubMed

India is endemic for foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), and goats constitute the second largest susceptible population of domestic livestock. FMD surveillance and control strategies in the country largely ignore small ruminants, known to be critical in the epidemiology of the disease. Here, serological investigations were carried out to generate estimates of antibody prevalence in goats of Orissa state to both non-structural (NSP-Ab) and structural proteins (SP-Ab) of FMD. The apparent overall NSP-Ab and SP-Ab seroprevalences were 38% and 20.7%, respectively, which signifies a very high level of FMD virus circulation in the goat population despite the lack of clinical signs in this species. The apparent prevalence of NSP-Ab and SP-Ab was positively correlated in the sampling areas. Interestingly, the values found for NSP-Ab prevalence were almost consistently higher than those found for SP-Ab prevalence. This could have been attributable to either issues related to sensitivity and specificity of the test systems employed or differences in the post-infection kinetics of NSP- and SP-Ab. The pattern that emerged from SP-Ab analysis indicated goats being infected with all three prevalent serotypes (O, A and Asia 1) and reinforces the concept that non-vaccinated goats can be exploited as tracer animals for detecting serotypes involved in outbreaks. The results underscore the requirement to bring caprine species under comprehensive surveillance and vaccination campaigns to check silent amplification, excretion and transmission of the virus. PMID:20723161

Ranabijuli, S; Mohapatra, J K; Pandey, L K; Rout, M; Sanyal, A; Dash, B B; Sarangi, L N; Panda, H K; Pattnaik, B

2010-12-01

149

Abacá mosaic virus: A distinct strain of Sugarcane mosaic virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abacá mosaic virus (AbaMV) is related to members of the sugarcane mosaic virus subgroup of the genus Potyvirus. The ?2 kb 3? terminal region of the viral genome was sequenced and, in all areas analysed, found to be most similar to Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV) and distinct from Johnsongrass mosaic virus (JGMV), Maize dwarf mosaic virus (MDMV) and Sorghum mosaic

C. F. Gambley; J. E. Thomas; L. V. Magnaye; L. Herradura

2004-01-01

150

Internet computer virus protection policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organizations and individuals today need to have a comprehensive virus protection policy to face the growing threats of Internet computer viruses. The purpose of this paper is to introduce to the reader the threats that Internet computer viruses can cause and provide guidelines on how organizations or individuals can protect themselves against these viruses. Discusses the full set of virus

H. Joseph Wen

1998-01-01

151

Viruses of botrytis.  

PubMed

Botrytis cinerea (gray mold) is one of the most widespread and destructive fungal diseases of horticultural crops. Propagation and dispersal is usually by asexual conidia but the sexual stage (Botryotinia fuckeliana (de Bary) Whetzel) also occurs in nature. DsRNAs, indicative of virus infection, are common in B. cinerea, but only four viruses (Botrytis virus F (BVF), Botrytis virus X (BVX), Botrytis cinerea mitovirus 1 (BcMV1), and Botrytis porri RNA virus) have been sequenced. BVF and BVX are unusual mycoviruses being ssRNA flexous rods and have been designated the type species of the genera Mycoflexivirus and Botrexvirus (family Betaflexivirdae), respectively. The reported effects of viruses on Botrytis range from negligible to severe, with Botrytis cinerea mitovirus 1 causing hypovirulence. Little is currently known about the effects of viruses on Botrytis metabolism but recent complete sequencing of the B. cinerea genome now provides an opportunity to investigate the host-pathogen interactions at the molecular level. There is interest in the possible use of mycoviruses as biological controls for Botrytis because of the common problem of fungicide resistance. Unfortunately, hyphal anastomosis is the only known mechanism of horizontal virus transmission and the large number of vegetative incompatibility groups in Botrytis is a potential constraint on the spread of an introduced virus. Although some Botrytis viruses, such as BVF and BVX, are known to have international distribution, there is a distinct lack of epidemiological data and the means of spread are unknown. PMID:23498909

Pearson, Michael N; Bailey, Andrew M

2013-01-01

152

The Acute bee paralysis virus–Kashmir bee virus–Israeli acute paralysis virus complex  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acute bee paralysis virus (ABPV), Kashmir bee virus (KBV) and Israeli acute paralysis virus (IAPV) are part of a complex of closely related viruses from the Family Dicistroviridae. These viruses have a widespread prevalence in honey bee (Apis mellifera) colonies and a predominantly sub-clinical etiology that contrasts sharply with the extremely virulent pathology encountered at elevated titres, either artificially induced

Joachim R. de Miranda; Guido Cordoni; Giles Budge

2010-01-01

153

Viruses in Antarctic lakes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Water samples collected from four perennially ice-covered Antarctic lakes during the austral summer of 1996-1997 contained high densities of extracellular viruses. Many of these viruses were found to be morphologically similar to double-stranded DNA viruses that are known to infect algae and protozoa. These constitute the first observations of viruses in perennially ice-covered polar lakes. The abundance of planktonic viruses and data suggesting substantial production potential (relative to bacteria] secondary and photosynthetic primary production) indicate that viral lysis may be a major factor in the regulation of microbial populations in these extreme environments. Furthermore, we suggest that Antarctic lakes may be a reservoir of previously undescribed viruses that possess novel biological and biochemical characteristics.

Kepner, R. L. Jr; Wharton, R. A. Jr; Suttle, C. A.; Wharton RA, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

1998-01-01

154

Water system virus detection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The performance of a waste water reclamation system is monitored by introducing a non-pathogenic marker virus, bacteriophage F2, into the waste-water prior to treatment and, thereafter, testing the reclaimed water for the presence of the marker virus. A test sample is first concentrated by absorbing any marker virus onto a cellulose acetate filter in the presence of a trivalent cation at low pH and then flushing the filter with a limited quantity of a glycine buffer solution to desorb any marker virus present on the filter. Photo-optical detection of indirect passive immune agglutination by polystyrene beads indicates the performance of the water reclamation system in removing the marker virus. A closed system provides for concentrating any marker virus, initiating and monitoring the passive immune agglutination reaction, and then flushing the system to prepare for another sample.

Fraser, A. S.; Wells, A. F.; Tenoso, H. J. (inventors)

1978-01-01

155

DNA Virus Replication Compartments  

PubMed Central

Viruses employ a variety of strategies to usurp and control cellular activities through the orchestrated recruitment of macromolecules to specific cytoplasmic or nuclear compartments. Formation of such specialized virus-induced cellular microenvironments, which have been termed viroplasms, virus factories, or virus replication centers, complexes, or compartments, depends on molecular interactions between viral and cellular factors that participate in viral genome expression and replication and are in some cases associated with sites of virion assembly. These virus-induced compartments function not only to recruit and concentrate factors required for essential steps of the viral replication cycle but also to control the cellular mechanisms of antiviral defense. In this review, we summarize characteristic features of viral replication compartments from different virus families and discuss similarities in the viral and cellular activities that are associated with their assembly and the functions they facilitate for viral replication.

Schmid, Melanie; Speiseder, Thomas; Dobner, Thomas

2014-01-01

156

Viruses, masters at downsizing.  

PubMed

Viruses are the smallest fruits on the tree of life. Dwarfed by their bacterial and cellular hosts, viruses and their close relatives have long been considered the smallest microbes. The genome of a virus may contain no more than three thousand nucleotides, compared to the three billion base pairs in human genomes. (Lest we feel superior, though, the genomes of some other organisms are much larger than our own.). PMID:22704616

DiMaio, Daniel

2012-06-14

157

Rabies virus receptors  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is convincing in vitro evidence that the muscular form of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR), the neuronal cell adhesion molecule (NCAM),\\u000a and the p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR) bind rabies virus and\\/or facilitate rabies virus entry into cells. Other components\\u000a of the cell membrane, such as gangliosides, may also participate in the entry of rabies virus. However, little is known

Monique Lafon

2005-01-01

158

Viruses for tumor therapy.  

PubMed

Oncolytic virotherapy exploits live viruses with selective tropism for cancerous cells and tissues to treat cancer. As discussed here, the field has progressed considerably as a result of both the successes and failures of previous and on-going clinical trials for various cancers. These studies indicate that oncolytic viruses are remarkably safe and more efficacious when virus replication stimulates sustained antitumor immune responses. In the future, virotherapy should be combined with immunomodulatory reagents that target immune tolerance to established cancers. PMID:24629333

Bell, John; McFadden, Grant

2014-03-12

159

Avian Influenza A Virus Infections in Humans  

MedlinePLUS

... Google Bookmarks Avian Influenza A Virus Infections in Humans On this Page Avian Influenza A Virus Infections ... A Viruses Avian Influenza A Virus Infections in Humans Although avian influenza A viruses usually do not ...

160

Tracking a Virus  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students simulate the spread of a virus such as HIV through a population by "sharing" (but not drinking) the water in a plastic cup with several classmates. Although invisible, the water in a few of the cups has already be tainted with the "virus" (sodium carbonate). After all the students have shared their liquids, the contents of the cups are tested for the virus with phenolphthalein, a chemical that causes a striking color change in the presence of sodium carbonate. Students then set about trying to determine which of their classmates were the ones originally infected with the virus.

Engineering K-Phd Program

161

Water system virus detection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A monitoring system developed to test the capability of a water recovery system to reject the passage of viruses into the recovered water is described. A nonpathogenic marker virus, bacteriophage F2, is fed into the process stream before the recovery unit and the reclaimed water is assayed for its presence. Detection of the marker virus consists of two major components, concentration and isolation of the marker virus, and detection of the marker virus. The concentration system involves adsorption of virus to cellulose acetate filters in the presence of trivalent cations and low pH with subsequent desorption of the virus using volumes of high pH buffer. The detection of the virus is performed by a passive immune agglutination test utilizing specially prepared polystyrene particles. An engineering preliminary design was performed as a parallel effort to the laboratory development of the marker virus test system. Engineering schematics and drawings of a fully functional laboratory prototype capable of zero-G operation are presented. The instrument consists of reagent pump/metering system, reagent storage containers, a filter concentrator, an incubation/detector system, and an electronic readout and control system.

Fraser, A. S.; Wells, A. F.; Tenoso, H. J.

1975-01-01

162

Viruses in artichoke.  

PubMed

Most of the 25 viruses found in globe artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) and cardoon (Cynara cardunculus L.) were recorded from Europe and the Mediterranean basin, where they decrease both the productivity and the quality of the crop. Although, sometimes, these viruses are agents of diseases of different severity, most often their infections are symptomless. These conditions have contributed to spread virus-infected material since farmers multiply traditional artichoke types vegetatively with no effective selection of virus-free plants. This review reports the main properties of these viruses and the techniques used for their detection and identification. ELISA kits are commercially available for most of the viruses addressed in this review but have seldom been used for their detection in artichoke. Conversely, nucleic acid-based diagnostic reagents, some of which are commercially available, have successfully been employed to identify some viruses in artichoke sap. Control measures mainly use virus-free stocks for new plantations. A combined procedure of meristem-tip culture and thermotherapy proved useful for producing virus-free regenerants of the reflowering southern Italian cultivar Brindisino, which kept earliness and typical heads shape. PMID:22682171

Gallitelli, Donato; Mascia, Tiziana; Martelli, Giovanni P

2012-01-01

163

Virus separation using membranes.  

PubMed

Industrial manufacturing of cell culture-derived viruses or virus-like particles for gene therapy or vaccine production are complex multistep processes. In addition to the bioreactor, such processes require a multitude of downstream unit operations for product separation, concentration, or purification. Similarly, before a biopharmaceutical product can enter the market, removal or inactivation of potential viral contamination has to be demonstrated. Given the complexity of biological solutions and the high standards on composition and purity of biopharmaceuticals, downstream processing is the bottleneck in many biotechnological production trains. Membrane-based filtration can be an economically attractive and efficient technology for virus separation. Viral clearance, for instance, of up to seven orders of magnitude has been reported for state of the art polymeric membranes under best conditions.This chapter summarizes the fundamentals of virus ultrafiltration, diafiltration, or purification with adsorptive membranes. In lieu of an impractical universally applicable protocol for virus filtration, application of these principles is demonstrated with two examples. The chapter provides detailed methods for production, concentration, purification, and removal of a rod-shaped baculovirus (Autographa californica M nucleopolyhedrovirus, about 40 × 300 nm in size, a potential vector for gene therapy, and an industrially important protein expression system) or a spherical parvovirus (minute virus of mice, 22-26 nm in size, a model virus for virus clearance validation studies). PMID:24297430

Grein, Tanja A; Michalsky, Ronald; Czermak, Peter

2014-01-01

164

Studies on Arbor Viruses.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Brain antigens from Chikungunya, Semliki, St. Louis, West Nile, and Ntaya viruses as well as antigens from Sindbis virus prepared from the brain tissue of suckling mice and from culture fluid after inoculation of a trypsinized culture of chick embryo fibr...

V. D. Neustroev T. A. Salagova T. A. Rezepova K. S. Kulikov

1968-01-01

165

The hepatitis B virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

DNA recombinant technology has radically changed hepatitis B virus (HBV) virology. The genetic organization, transcription and replication of the virus are basically understood, structures of integrated HBV sequences in hepatocellular carcinoma have been characterized, and new vaccines produced by recombinant DNA technique are being developed.

Pierre Tiollais; Christine Pourcel; Anne Dejean

1985-01-01

166

Recombination in AIDS viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recombination contributes to the generation of genetic diversity in human immunodeficiency viruses (HIV) but can only occur between viruses replicating within the same cell. Since individuals have not been found to be simultaneously coinfected with multiple divergent strains of HIV-1 or HIV-2, recombination events have been thought to be restricted to the rather closely related members of the quasispecies that

David L. Robertson; Beatrice H. Hahn; Paul M. Sharp

1995-01-01

167

Deformed wing virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deformed wing virus (DWV; Iflaviridae) is one of many viruses infecting honeybees and one of the most heavily investigated due to its close association with honeybee colony collapse induced by Varroadestructor. In the absence of V.destructor DWV infection does not result in visible symptoms or any apparent negative impact on host fitness. However, for reasons that are still not fully

Joachim R. de Miranda; Elke Genersch

2010-01-01

168

Computer Virus Propagation Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

The availability of reliable models of computer virus propa- gation would prove useful in a number of ways, in order both to predict future threats, and to develop new containment measures. In this pa- per, we review the most popular models of virus propagation, analyzing the underlying assumptions of each of them, their strengths and their weaknesses. We also introduce

Giuseppe Serazzi; Stefano Zanero

2003-01-01

169

Introduction to computer viruses.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report on computer viruses is based upon a thesis written for the Master of Science degree in Computer Science from the University of Tennessee in December 1989 by David R. Brown. This thesis is entitled An Analysis of Computer Virus Construction, Pr...

D. R. Brown

1992-01-01

170

Schmallenberg Virus as Possible Ancestor of Shamonda Virus  

PubMed Central

Schmallenberg virus (SBV), an orthobunyavirus of the Simbu serogroup, recently emerged in Europe and has been suggested to be a Shamonda/Sathuperi virus reassortant. Results of full-genome and serologic investigations indicate that SBV belongs to the species Sathuperi virus and is a possible ancestor of the reassortant Shamonda virus.

Goller, Katja V.; Hoper, Dirk; Schirrmeier, Horst; Mettenleiter, Thomas C.

2012-01-01

171

Tobacco Mosaic Virus  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this four-part laboratory exercise, learners investigate properties of Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) including (1) symptoms induced by the virus in susceptible plants at the macroscopic and microscopic levels, (2) its stability at high temperatures, and (3) its small size. Learners first propagate tomato and pinto bean plants, and then inoculate their dried leaves with TMV. Learners observe the TMV-infected leaves as well as use a heat treatment to inactivate the virus. Learners also filter the infected sap with a bacteria-proof filter to investigate size. This lesson guide includes background information, tips for educators, and discussion questions with answers. Adult supervision is recommended. Note: The Tobacco mosaic virus is available from biological suppliers, but approval for shipping of the virus across state lines must be obtained from the USDA prior to shipment.

Ford, Rosemary; Evans, Tom

2011-01-01

172

Hepatitis B Virus Biology  

PubMed Central

Hepadnaviruses (hepatitis B viruses) cause transient and chronic infections of the liver. Transient infections run a course of several months, and chronic infections are often lifelong. Chronic infections can lead to liver failure with cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The replication strategy of these viruses has been described in great detail, but virus-host interactions leading to acute and chronic disease are still poorly understood. Studies on how the virus evades the immune response to cause prolonged transient infections with high-titer viremia and lifelong infections with an ongoing inflammation of the liver are still at an early stage, and the role of the virus in liver cancer is still elusive. The state of knowledge in this very active field is therefore reviewed with an emphasis on past accomplishments as well as goals for the future.

Seeger, Christoph; Mason, William S.

2000-01-01

173

Rapid Detection of Enveloped Viruses.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

M-protein of influenza virus is a type-specific antigen and the most invariant protein of the virus. A rapid virus detection system based on M-protein detection would detect all type A influenza viruses and be independent of antigenic shift and drift. To ...

D. J. Bucher

1988-01-01

174

Evolution of avian influenza viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although influenza viruses can infect a wide variety of birds and mammals, the natural host of the virus is wild waterfowl, shorebirds, and gulls. When other species of animals, including chickens, turkeys, swine, horses, and humans, are infected with influenza viruses, they are considered aberrant hosts. The distinction between the normal and aberrant host is important when describing virus evolution

David L. Suarez

2000-01-01

175

Virus-PEDOT Biocomposite Films  

PubMed Central

Virus-poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (virus-PEDOT) biocomposite films are prepared by electropolymerizing 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (EDOT) in aqueous electrolytes containing 12 mM LiClO4 and the bacteriophage M13. The concentration of virus in these solutions, [virus]soln, is varied from 3 nM to 15 nM. A quartz crystal microbalance is used to directly measure the total mass of the biocomposite film during its electrodeposition. In combination with a measurement of the electrodeposition charge, the mass of the virus incorporated into the film is calculated. These data show that concentration of the M13 within the electropolymerized film, [virus]film, increases linearly with [virus]soln. The incorporation of virus particles into the PEDOT film from solution is efficient, resulting in a concentration ratio: [virus]film:[virus]soln ?450. Virus incorporation into the PEDOT causes roughening of the film topography that is observed using scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The electrical conductivity of the virus-PEDOT film, measured perpendicular to the plane of the film using conductive tip AFM, decreases linearly with virus loading, from 270 ?S/cm for pure PE-DOT films to 50 ?S/cm for films containing 100 ?M virus. The presence on the virus surface of displayed affinity peptides did not significantly influence the efficiency of incorporation into virus-PEDOT biocomposite films.

Donavan, Keith C.; Arter, Jessica A.

2012-01-01

176

A Virus in Turbo Pascal.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Addresses why the authors feel it is not inappropriate to teach about viruses in the how-to, hands-on fashion. Identifies the special features of Turbo Pascal that have to be used for the creation of an effective virus. Defines virus, derives its structure, and from this structure is derived the implemented virus. (PR)

Teleky, Heidi Ann; And Others

1993-01-01

177

Computer Viruses: Pathology and Detection.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains how computer viruses were originally created, how a computer can become infected by a virus, how viruses operate, symptoms that indicate a computer is infected, how to detect and remove viruses, and how to prevent a reinfection. A sidebar lists eight antivirus resources. (four references) (LRW)

Maxwell, John R.; Lamon, William E.

1992-01-01

178

Ocular Tropism of Respiratory Viruses  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Respiratory viruses (including adenovirus, influenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus, coronavirus, and rhinovirus) cause a broad spectrum of disease in humans, ranging from mild influenza-like symptoms to acute respiratory failure. While species D adenoviruses and subtype H7 influenza viruses are known to possess an ocular tropism, documented human ocular disease has been reported following infection with all principal respiratory viruses. In this review, we describe the anatomical proximity and cellular receptor distribution between ocular and respiratory tissues. All major respiratory viruses and their association with human ocular disease are discussed. Research utilizing in vitro and in vivo models to study the ability of respiratory viruses to use the eye as a portal of entry as well as a primary site of virus replication is highlighted. Identification of shared receptor-binding preferences, host responses, and laboratory modeling protocols among these viruses provides a needed bridge between clinical and laboratory studies of virus tropism.

Rota, Paul A.; Tumpey, Terrence M.

2013-01-01

179

Enteric hepatitis viruses  

PubMed Central

Hepatitis viruses are infectious agents that can infect liver and cause inflammation. The infection triggers immune response against infected cells that leads to the destruction of hepatic cells. This destruction has two consequences: leaking ALT and AST liver enzymes which increases during the course of disease and accumulation of bilirubin- a red pigmented compound released from dead red cells- which causes the yellow coloration of eyes and skin. These viruses transmit through diverse routes i.e. blood transfusion, sexual contacts and consuming water or food contaminated by feces. Enteric hepatitis viruses use the latter route for transmission; hence their outbreaks are more common in underdeveloped countries. There are currently two distinguished enteric hepatitis viruses, hepatitis A and hepatitis E. These viruses belong to different family of viruses and their epidemiological characteristics are different. These infections can be diagnosed by an ELISA for IgM antibody. A vaccine has been developed in last decade of twentieth century for hepatitis A virus, which is administered mostly in the developed world i.e. U.S and Japan. Treatment for these infections is mostly supportive; however, in the case of fulminant hepatitis the liver transplantation might be necessary.

Tahaei, Seyed Mohammad Ebrahim; Zali, Mohammad Reza

2012-01-01

180

Cucumber mosaic virus.  

PubMed

Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) is an important virus because of its agricultural impact in the Mediterranean Basin and worldwide, and also as a model for understanding plant-virus interactions. This review focuses on those areas where most progress has been made over the past decade in our understanding of CMV. Clearly, a deep understanding of the role of the recently described CMV 2b gene in suppression of host RNA silencing and viral virulence is the most important discovery. These findings have had an impact well beyond the virus itself, as the 2b gene is an important tool in the studies of eukaryotic gene regulation. Protein 2b was shown to be involved in most of the steps of the virus cycle and to interfere with several basal host defenses. Progress has also been made concerning the mechanisms of virus replication and movement. However, only a few host proteins that interact with viral proteins have been identified, making this an area of research where major efforts are still needed. Another area where major advances have been made is CMV population genetics, where contrasting results were obtained. On the one hand, CMV was shown to be prone to recombination and to show high genetic diversity based on sequence data of different isolates. On the other hand, populations did not exhibit high genetic variability either within plants, or even in a field and the nearby wild plants. The situation was partially clarified with the finding that severe bottlenecks occur during both virus movement within a plant and transmission between plants. Finally, novel studies were undertaken to elucidate mechanisms leading to selection in virus population, according to the host or its environment, opening a new research area in plant-virus coevolution. PMID:22682176

Jacquemond, Mireille

2012-01-01

181

Polyoma BK Virus: An Oncogenic Virus?  

PubMed Central

We report a case of a 65-year-old gentleman with a history of end stage renal disease who underwent a successful cadaveric donor kidney transplant four years ago. He subsequently developed BK virus nephropathy related to chronic immunosuppressant therapy. Three years later, misfortune struck again, and he developed adenocarcinoma of the bladder.

Hassan, Syed; Alirhayim, Zaid; Ahmed, Syed; Amer, Syed

2013-01-01

182

Genome of Horsepox Virus  

PubMed Central

Here we present the genomic sequence of horsepox virus (HSPV) isolate MNR-76, an orthopoxvirus (OPV) isolated in 1976 from diseased Mongolian horses. The 212-kbp genome contained 7.5-kbp inverted terminal repeats and lacked extensive terminal tandem repetition. HSPV contained 236 open reading frames (ORFs) with similarity to those in other OPVs, with those in the central 100-kbp region most conserved relative to other OPVs. Phylogenetic analysis of the conserved region indicated that HSPV is closely related to sequenced isolates of vaccinia virus (VACV) and rabbitpox virus, clearly grouping together these VACV-like viruses. Fifty-four HSPV ORFs likely represented fragments of 25 orthologous OPV genes, including in the central region the only known fragmented form of an OPV ribonucleotide reductase large subunit gene. In terminal genomic regions, HSPV lacked full-length homologues of genes variably fragmented in other VACV-like viruses but was unique in fragmentation of the homologue of VACV strain Copenhagen B6R, a gene intact in other known VACV-like viruses. Notably, HSPV contained in terminal genomic regions 17 kbp of OPV-like sequence absent in known VACV-like viruses, including fragments of genes intact in other OPVs and approximately 1.4 kb of sequence present only in cowpox virus (CPXV). HSPV also contained seven full-length genes fragmented or missing in other VACV-like viruses, including intact homologues of the CPXV strain GRI-90 D2L/I4R CrmB and D13L CD30-like tumor necrosis factor receptors, D3L/I3R and C1L ankyrin repeat proteins, B19R kelch-like protein, D7L BTB/POZ domain protein, and B22R variola virus B22R-like protein. These results indicated that HSPV contains unique genomic features likely contributing to a unique virulence/host range phenotype. They also indicated that while closely related to known VACV-like viruses, HSPV contains additional, potentially ancestral sequences absent in other VACV-like viruses.

Tulman, E. R.; Delhon, G.; Afonso, C. L.; Lu, Z.; Zsak, L.; Sandybaev, N. T.; Kerembekova, U. Z.; Zaitsev, V. L.; Kutish, G. F.; Rock, D. L.

2006-01-01

183

[Enigmatic archaeal viruses].  

PubMed

Viruses infecting microorganisms of the third domain of life, Archaea, are still poorly characterized: to date, only about fifty of these viruses have been isolated. Their hosts are hyperthermophilic, acidothermophilic, and extreme halophilic or methanogenic archaea. Their morphotypes are highly diverse and their gene content is very specific. Some of these viruses have developed extraordinary mechanisms to open the cell wall thanks to the formation of exceptional pyramidal nanostructures. The still limited knowledge about the biology of archaeoviruses should develop rapidly in the coming years. PMID:24330970

Bize, Ariane; Sezonov, Guennadi; Prangishvili, David

2013-01-01

184

Virus templated metallic nanoparticles.  

PubMed

Plant viruses are considered as nanobuilding blocks that can be used as synthons or templates for novel materials. Cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) particles have been shown to template the fabrication of metallic nanoparticles by an electroless deposition metallization process. Palladium ions were electrostatically bound to the virus capsid and, when reduced, acted as nucleation sites for the subsequent metal deposition from solution. The method, although simple, produced highly monodisperse metallic nanoparticles with a diameter of ca. ?35 nm. CPMV-templated particles were prepared with cobalt, nickel, iron, platinum, cobalt-platinum and nickel-iron. PMID:20877898

Aljabali, Alaa A A; Barclay, J Elaine; Lomonossoff, George P; Evans, David J

2010-12-01

185

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)  

MedlinePLUS

... often spreads very rapidly in crowded households and day care centers. The virus can live for a half ... The following increase the risk for RSV: Attending day care Being near tobacco smoke Having school-aged brothers ...

186

Viruses causing gastroenteritis.  

PubMed

Acute gastroenteritis is one of the most common diseases in humans worldwide. Viruses are recognized as important causes of this disease, particularly in children. Since the Norwalk virus was identified as a cause of gastroenteritis, the number of viral agents associated with diarrheal disease in humans has steadily increased. Rotavirus is the most common cause of severe diarrhea in children under 5 years of age. Astrovirus, calicivirus and enteric adenovirus are also important etiologic agents of acute gastroenteritis. Other viruses, such as toroviruses, coronaviruses, picobirnaviruses and pestiviruses, are increasingly being identified as causative agents of diarrhea. In recent years, the availability of diagnostic tests, mainly immunoassays or molecular biology techniques, has increased our understanding of this group of viruses. The future development of a safe and highly effective vaccine against rotavirus could prevent, at least, cases of severe diarrhea and reduce mortality from this disease. PMID:12667234

Wilhelmi, I; Roman, E; Sánchez-Fauquier, A

2003-04-01

187

Hepatitis B virus (image)  

MedlinePLUS

Hepatitis B is also known as serum hepatitis and is spread through blood and sexual contact. It is ... population. This photograph is an electronmicroscopic image of hepatitis B virus particles. (Image courtesy of the Centers for ...

188

Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV)  

MedlinePLUS

... and between 12 and 15 months. What is hepatitis B? Hepatitis B is caused by the hepatitis B virus. It can lead to serious liver disease. Signs of hepatitis B infection include belly pain, joint pain, dark urine, ...

189

The influenza viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human epidemic influenza is caused by influenza type A and B viruses, which continually undergo antigenic change in their surface antigens, haemagglutinin (H) and neuraminidase (N). • Influenza epidemics are the consequence of small, ongoing antigenic changes known as \\

Alan W Hampson; John S Mackenzie

2006-01-01

190

Virus Ultra Structure  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Linda Stannard of the University of Capetown, South Africa, has composed a page which, although it was intended to serve as an introductory manual for students of virology, can be appreciated by a wide audience. A section on the principles of virus architecture uses text and outstanding graphics to provide an introduction to why viruses look the way they do. Other parts of the site emphasize how virus shapes and structures are "seen" and recorded with sections on negative staining and electron microscopy of DNA- and RNA-containing viruses. This site's success relies on the use of well-chosen graphics and the inclusion of interesting factoids such as the following: "The head of a dress-maker's pin can provide seating accommodation for five hundred million rhinoviruses (cause of the common cold)!".

191

Rapid Detection and Quantification of RNA of Ebola and Marburg Viruses, Lassa Virus, Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus, Rift Valley Fever Virus, Dengue Virus, and Yellow Fever Virus by Real-Time Reverse Transcription-PCR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Viral hemorrhagic fevers (VHFs) are acute infections with high case fatality rates. Important VHF agents are Ebola and Marburg viruses (MBGV\\/EBOV), Lassa virus (LASV), Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV), Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), dengue virus (DENV), and yellow fever virus (YFV). VHFs are clinically difficult to diagnose and to distinguish; a rapid and reliable laboratory diagnosis is required in

Christian Drosten; Stephan Göttig; Stefan Schilling; Marcel Asper; Marcus Panning; Herbert Schmitz; Stephan Günther

2002-01-01

192

Smaller Fleas: Viruses of Microorganisms  

PubMed Central

Life forms can be roughly differentiated into those that are microscopic versus those that are not as well as those that are multicellular and those that, instead, are unicellular. Cellular organisms seem generally able to host viruses, and this propensity carries over to those that are both microscopic and less than truly multicellular. These viruses of microorganisms, or VoMs, in fact exist as the world's most abundant somewhat autonomous genetic entities and include the viruses of domain Bacteria (bacteriophages), the viruses of domain Archaea (archaeal viruses), the viruses of protists, the viruses of microscopic fungi such as yeasts (mycoviruses), and even the viruses of other viruses (satellite viruses). In this paper we provide an introduction to the concept of viruses of microorganisms, a.k.a., viruses of microbes. We provide broad discussion particularly of VoM diversity. VoM diversity currently spans, in total, at least three-dozen virus families. This is roughly ten families per category—bacterial, archaeal, fungal, and protist—with some virus families infecting more than one of these microorganism major taxa. Such estimations, however, will vary with further discovery and taxon assignment and also are dependent upon what forms of life one includes among microorganisms.

Hyman, Paul; Abedon, Stephen T.

2012-01-01

193

Virus templated metallic nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plant viruses are considered as nanobuilding blocks that can be used as synthons or templates for novel materials. Cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) particles have been shown to template the fabrication of metallic nanoparticles by an electroless deposition metallization process. Palladium ions were electrostatically bound to the virus capsid and, when reduced, acted as nucleation sites for the subsequent metal deposition from solution. The method, although simple, produced highly monodisperse metallic nanoparticles with a diameter of ca. <=35 nm. CPMV-templated particles were prepared with cobalt, nickel, iron, platinum, cobalt-platinum and nickel-iron.Plant viruses are considered as nanobuilding blocks that can be used as synthons or templates for novel materials. Cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) particles have been shown to template the fabrication of metallic nanoparticles by an electroless deposition metallization process. Palladium ions were electrostatically bound to the virus capsid and, when reduced, acted as nucleation sites for the subsequent metal deposition from solution. The method, although simple, produced highly monodisperse metallic nanoparticles with a diameter of ca. <=35 nm. CPMV-templated particles were prepared with cobalt, nickel, iron, platinum, cobalt-platinum and nickel-iron. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Additional experimental detail, agarose gel electrophoresis results, energy dispersive X-ray spectra, ?-potential measurements, dynamic light scattering data, nanoparticle tracking analysis and an atomic force microscopy image of Ni-CPMV. See DOI: 10.1039/c0nr00525h

Aljabali, Alaa A. A.; Barclay, J. Elaine; Lomonossoff, George P.; Evans, David J.

2010-12-01

194

Oncogenic Viruses of Nonhuman Primates: A Review.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Oncogenic viruses of nonhuman primates were reviewed. Viruses of nonhuman primate origin oncogenic in other nonhuman primates includes Herpesvirus saimiri and ateles, simian sarcoma virus, Yaba poxvirus, and oral papilloma virus. SV-40 and simian adenovir...

C. P. Raflo

1975-01-01

195

Evolutionary history of Ebola virus.  

PubMed

SUMMARY Since Ebola virus was discovered in 1970s, the virus has persisted in Africa and sporadic fatal outbreaks in humans and non-human primates have been reported. However, the evolutionary history of Ebola virus remains unclear. In this study, 27 Ebola virus strains with complete glycoprotein genes, including five species (Zaire, Sudan, Reston, Tai Forest, Bundibugyo), were analysed. Here, we propose a hypothesis of the evolutionary history of Ebola virus which will be helpful to investigate the molecular evolution of these viruses. PMID:24040779

Li, Y H; Chen, S P

2014-06-01

196

[Diagnosis of caprine contagious pleuropneumonia: recent improvements].  

PubMed

Due to the difficulty in isolating Mycoplasma sp. type F38, two techniques for rapid detection are proposed in order to identify the presence of mycoplasmas of the mycoides group in samples of pleural fluid. A modification in the composition of isolation media promotes the growth of type F38 mycoplasmas and inhibits the growth of M. ovipneumoniae strains. PMID:1472732

Thiaucourt, F; Guérin, C; Mady, V; Lefèvre, P C

1992-09-01

197

Recombinant Vaccinia Virus: Immunization against Multiple Pathogens  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The coding sequences for the hepatitis B virus surface antigen, the herpes simplex virus glycoprotein D, and the influenza virus hemagglutinin were inserted into a single vaccinia virus genome. Rabbits inoculated intravenously or intradermally with this polyvalent vaccinia virus recombinant produced antibodies reactive to all three authentic foreign antigens. In addition, the feasibility of multiple rounds of vaccination with recombinant vaccinia virus was demonstrated.

Perkus, Marion E.; Piccini, Antonia; Lipinskas, Bernard R.; Paoletti, Enzo

1985-09-01

198

Multiple virus infections in the honey bee and genome divergence of honey bee viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using uniplex RT-PCR we screened honey bee colonies for the presence of several bee viruses, including black queen cell virus (BQCV), deformed wing virus (DWV), Kashmir bee virus (KBV), and sacbrood virus (SBV), and described the detection of mixed virus infections in bees from these colonies. We report for the first time that individual bees can harbor four viruses simultaneously.

Yanping Chen; Yan Zhao; John Hammond; Hei-ti Hsu; Jay Evans; Mark Feldlaufer

2004-01-01

199

Characterization of K virus and its comparison with polyoma virus.  

PubMed Central

The antigenic relationship between the two murine papovaviruses, K virus and polyoma virus, was examined by serological techniques to determine whether they shared any antigenic components. No cross-reactivity was found associated with the viral (V) antigens by the indirect immunofluorescence, neutralization, or hemagglutination-inhibition tests. The tumor (T) antigens expressed in transformed cells or cells productively infected by either K or polyoma virus did not cross-react by indirect immunofluorescence. An antigenic relationship was detected, however, among the late proteins of K virus, polyoma virus, simian virus 40, and the human papovavirus BKV, when tested with either hyperimmune sera prepared against polyoma virus and simian virus 40 or sera prepared against disrupted virions. The nucleic acids of K and polyoma viruses were compared by agarose gel electrophoresis and restriction endonuclease analysis. No nucleotide sequence homology between the genomes of these two viruses was detectable by DNA-DNA hybridization techniques under stringent conditions. The genome of K virus was found to be slightly smaller than that of polyoma virus, and the cleavage patterns of the viral DNAs with six restriction endonucleases were different. These findings indicate that there is little relationship between these two murine papovaviruses. Images

Bond, S B; Howley, P M; Takemoto, K K

1978-01-01

200

Immunology of hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

More than 500 million people worldwide are persistently infected with the hepatitis B virus (HBV) and\\/or hepatitis C virus (HCV) and are at risk of developing chronic liver disease, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Despite many common features in the pathogenesis of HBV- and HCV-related liver disease, these viruses markedly differ in their virological properties and in their immune escape and

Michelina Nascimbeni; Barbara Rehermann

2005-01-01

201

Production of virus resistant plants  

DOEpatents

A method of suppressing virus gene expression in plants using untranslatable plus sense RNA is disclosed. The method is useful for the production of plants that are resistant to virus infection. 9 figs.

Dougherty, W.G.; Lindbo, J.A.

1996-12-10

202

Chlorella viruses isolated in China  

SciTech Connect

Plaque-forming viruses of the unicellular, eukaryotic, exsymbiotic, Chlorella-like green algae strain NC64A, which are common in the United States, were also present in fresh water collected in the People's Republic of China. Seven of the Chinese viruses were examined in detail and compared with the Chlorella viruses previously isolated in the United States. Like the American viruses, the Chinese viruses were large polyhedra and sensitive to chloroform. They contained numerous structural proteins and large double-stranded DNA genomes of at least 300 kilobase pairs. Each of the DNAs from the Chinese viruses contained 5-methyldeoxycytosine, which varied from 12.6 to 46.7% of the deoxycytosine, and N{sup 6}-methyldeoxyadenosine, which varied from 2.2 to 28.3% of the deoxyadenosine. Four of the Chinese virus DNAs hybridized extensively with {sup 32}P-labeled DNA from the American virus PBCV-1, and three hybridized poorly.

Zhang, Y.; Burbank, D.E.; Van Etten, J.L. (Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln (USA))

1988-09-01

203

Viruses and Multiple Sclerosis  

PubMed Central

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic demyelinating disorder of unknown etiology, possibly caused by a virus or virus-triggered immunopathology. The virus might reactivate after years of latency and lyse oligodendrocytes, as in progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, or initiate immunopathological demyelination, as in animals infected with Theiler’s murine encephalomyelitis virus or coronaviruses. The argument for a viral cause of MS is supported by epidemiological analyses and studies of MS in identical twins, indicating that disease is acquired. However, the most important evidence is the presence of bands of oligoclonal IgG (OCBs) in MS brain and CSF that persist throughout the lifetime of the patient. OCBs are found almost exclusively in infectious CNS disorders, and antigenic targets of OCBs represent the agent that causes disease. Here, the authors review past attempts to identify an infectious agent in MS brain cells and discuss the promise of using recombinant antibodies generated from clonally expanded plasma cells in brain and CSF to identify disease-relevant antigens. They show how this strategy has been used successfully to analyze antigen specificity in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis, a chronic encephalitis caused by measles virus, and in neuromyelitis optica, a chronic autoimmune demyelinating disease produced by antibodies directed against the aquaporin-4 water channel.

Owens, Gregory P.; Gilden, Don; Burgoon, Mark P.; Yu, Xiaoli; Bennett, Jeffrey L.

2012-01-01

204

Viruses and multiple sclerosis.  

PubMed

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic demyelinating disorder of unknown etiology, possibly caused by a virus or virus-triggered immunopathology. The virus might reactivate after years of latency and lyse oligodendrocytes, as in progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, or initiate immunopathological demyelination, as in animals infected with Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus or coronaviruses. The argument for a viral cause of MS is supported by epidemiological analyses and studies of MS in identical twins, indicating that disease is acquired. However, the most important evidence is the presence of bands of oligoclonal IgG (OCBs) in MS brain and CSF that persist throughout the lifetime of the patient. OCBs are found almost exclusively in infectious CNS disorders, and antigenic targets of OCBs represent the agent that causes disease. Here, the authors review past attempts to identify an infectious agent in MS brain cells and discuss the promise of using recombinant antibodies generated from clonally expanded plasma cells in brain and CSF to identify disease-relevant antigens. They show how this strategy has been used successfully to analyze antigen specificity in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis, a chronic encephalitis caused by measles virus, and in neuromyelitis optica, a chronic autoimmune demyelinating disease produced by antibodies directed against the aquaporin-4 water channel. PMID:22130640

Owens, Gregory P; Gilden, Don; Burgoon, Mark P; Yu, Xiaoli; Bennett, Jeffrey L

2011-12-01

205

Nongenital herpes simplex virus.  

PubMed

Nongenital herpes simplex virus type 1 is a common infection usually transmitted during childhood via nonsexual contact. Most of these infections involve the oral mucosa or lips (herpes labialis). The diagnosis of an infection with herpes simplex virus type 1 is usually made by the appearance of the lesions (grouped vesicles or ulcers on an erythematous base) and patient history. However, if uncertain, the diagnosis of herpes labialis can be made by viral culture, polymerase chain reaction, serology, direct fluorescent antibody testing, or Tzanck test. Other nonoral herpes simplex virus type 1 infections include herpetic keratitis, herpetic whitlow, herpes gladiatorum, and herpetic sycosis of the beard area. The differential diagnosis of nongenital herpes simplex virus infection includes aphthous ulcers, acute paronychia, varicella-zoster virus infection, herpangina, herpes gestationis (pemphigoid gestationis), pemphigus vulgaris, and Behçet syndrome. Oral acyclovir suspension is an effective treatment for children with primary herpetic gingivostomatitis. Oral acyclovir, valacyclovir, and famciclovir are effective in treating acute recurrence of herpes labialis (cold sores). Recurrences of herpes labialis may be diminished with daily oral acyclovir or valacyclovir. Topical acyclovir, penciclovir, and docosanol are optional treatments for recurrent herpes labialis, but they are less effective than oral treatment. PMID:21121552

Usatine, Richard P; Tinitigan, Rochelle

2010-11-01

206

Virus Evolution and Population Dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is intuitive that the field of virology is a discipline integral to the medical sciences. The affiliation of virology with population and conservation biology may not be as apparent. However, viruses, and in particular, virus evolution, may both contribute to and be a significant tool to understand changes in host population structure. The impact of viruses is most notable

Mary Poss; Roman Biek; Allen Rodrigo

207

Rhabdomyolysis Associated with Parainfluenza Virus  

PubMed Central

Influenza virus is the most frequently reported viral cause of rhabdomyolysis. A 7-year-old child is presented with rhabdomyolysis associated with parainfluenza type 2 virus. Nine cases of rhabdomyolysis associated with parainfluenza virus have been reported. Complications may include electrolyte disturbances, acute renal failure, and compartment syndrome.

Kielbasa, Johanna M.; Chandrasekharan, Gopal M.; Holmes, Cynthia L.; Gomez, Michael R.

2013-01-01

208

Novel avian influenza virus vaccines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Current vaccines against avian influenza (AI) virus infections are primarily based on classical inactivated whole-virus preparations. Although administration of these vaccines can protect poultry from clinical disease, sterile immunity is not achieved under field conditions, allowing for undetected virus spread and evolution under immune cover. Therefore, there is an urgent need for a robust and reliable system of differentiation

W. Fuchs; A. Römer-Oberdörfer; J. Veits; T. C. Mettenleiter

2009-01-01

209

Virus Necrosis of Tobacco Veins.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Virus necrosis of tobacco veins (browning of tobacco veins) occurs all over Poland and causes major economic losses. Studies of a number of orders show that the necrosis of tobacco veins is caused by a virus, which belongs to the group of potato virus Y (...

J. Berbec

1964-01-01

210

An introduction to computer viruses  

SciTech Connect

This report on computer viruses is based upon a thesis written for the Master of Science degree in Computer Science from the University of Tennessee in December 1989 by David R. Brown. This thesis is entitled An Analysis of Computer Virus Construction, Proliferation, and Control and is available through the University of Tennessee Library. This paper contains an overview of the computer virus arena that can help the reader to evaluate the threat that computer viruses pose. The extent of this threat can only be determined by evaluating many different factors. These factors include the relative ease with which a computer virus can be written, the motivation involved in writing a computer virus, the damage and overhead incurred by infected systems, and the legal implications of computer viruses, among others. Based upon the research, the development of a computer virus seems to require more persistence than technical expertise. This is a frightening proclamation to the computing community. The education of computer professionals to the dangers that viruses pose to the welfare of the computing industry as a whole is stressed as a means of inhibiting the current proliferation of computer virus programs. Recommendations are made to assist computer users in preventing infection by computer viruses. These recommendations support solid general computer security practices as a means of combating computer viruses.

Brown, D.R.

1992-03-01

211

Deformed wing virus.  

PubMed

Deformed wing virus (DWV; Iflaviridae) is one of many viruses infecting honeybees and one of the most heavily investigated due to its close association with honeybee colony collapse induced by Varroadestructor. In the absence of V.destructor DWV infection does not result in visible symptoms or any apparent negative impact on host fitness. However, for reasons that are still not fully understood, the transmission of DWV by V.destructor to the developing pupae causes clinical symptoms, including pupal death and adult bees emerging with deformed wings, a bloated, shortened abdomen and discolouration. These bees are not viable and die soon after emergence. In this review we will summarize the historical and recent data on DWV and its relatives, covering the genetics, pathobiology, and transmission of this important viral honeybee pathogen, and discuss these within the wider theoretical concepts relating to the genetic variability and population structure of RNA viruses, the evolution of virulence and the development of disease symptoms. PMID:19909976

de Miranda, Joachim R; Genersch, Elke

2010-01-01

212

Neuroinvasion by Chandipura virus.  

PubMed

Chandipura virus (CHPV) is an arthropod borne rhabdovirus associated with acute encephalitis in children below the age of 15 years in the tropical states of India. Although the entry of the virus into the nervous system is among the crucial events in the pathogenesis of CHPV, the exact mechanism allowing CHPV to invade the central nervous system (CNS) is currently poorly understood. In the present review, based on the knowledge of host interactors previously predicted for CHPV, along with the support from experimental data available for other encephalitic viruses, the authors have speculated the various plausible modes by which CHPV could surpass the blood-brain barrier and invade the CNS to cause encephalitis whilst evading the host immune surveillance. Collectively, this review provides a conservative set of potential interactions that can be employed for future experimental validation with a view to better understand the neuropathogenesis of CHPV. PMID:24713200

Rajasekharan, Sreejith; Rana, Jyoti; Gulati, Sahil; Gupta, Vandana; Gupta, Sanjay

2014-07-01

213

Viruses in water  

PubMed Central

Attention is drawn in this paper to the increasing problem of viral contamination of water and shellfish, particularly since growing demands for available water resources by a rising world population and expanding industry will make the recycling of wastewater almost inevitable in the future. The problem of eliminating viruses pathogenic for man from water is considered in the light of present water treatment procedures, which are often inadequate for that purpose. Man may be exposed to waterborne viruses through the consumption of contaminated water, shellfish, or crops, as a result of recreational activities involving water, or from aerosols following the spraying of crops with liquid wastes. Physical and chemical methods of eliminating viruses from water are discussed.

Melnick, Joseph L.; Gerba, Charles P.; Wallis, Craig

1978-01-01

214

Bagaza virus and Israel turkey meningoencephalomyelitis virus are a single virus species.  

PubMed

Bagaza virus (BAGV) and Israel turkey meningoencephalomyelitis virus (ITV) are classified in the genus Flavivirus of the family Flaviviridae. Serologically, they are closely related, belonging to the Ntaya serocomplex. Nucleotide sequences available to date consist of several complete sequences of BAGV isolates, but only partial sequences of ITV isolates. Sequence comparisons of partial envelope (E) and NS5 regions reveal a close genetic relationship between these viruses. Despite this, BAGV and ITV are considered as separate virus species in the database of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. In this work, complete nucleotide sequences for five ITV isolates are provided, thereby permitting a phylogenetic comparison with other complete sequences of flaviviruses in the Ntaya serogroup. We conclude that BAGV and ITV are the same virus species and propose that both viruses be designated by a new unified name: Avian meningoencephalomyelitis virus. PMID:24457974

Fernández-Pinero, Jovita; Davidson, Irit; Elizalde, Maia; Perk, Shimon; Khinich, Yevgeny; Jiménez-Clavero, Miguel Angel

2014-04-01

215

West Nile virus.  

PubMed

West Nile virus infection has quickly become a feared cause of neurologic disability and death, particularly when it presents with encephalitis. Recent epidemics in endemic regions of Eurasia and Africa, as well as its recent spread to North America, have highlighted the need for all physicians to be aware of its clinical presentation and course. In particular, because of the increased susceptibility of West Nile virus infection during outdoor activities, as well as during travel to the Middle East and Southeastern Europe, military physicians should be informed about case recognition, management, and prevention to maintain the health of soldiers and their families. PMID:15132225

Brandt, Antonio L; Martyak, Nicholas; Westhoff, John; Kang, Christopher

2004-04-01

216

Autophagy by hepatitis B virus and for hepatitis B virus.  

PubMed

Autophagy is a catabolic process by which cells remove unwanted proteins and damaged organelles. It is important for maintaining cellular homeostasis and can also be used by cells to remove intracellular microbial pathogens. As such, some viruses such as herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) have evolved mechanisms to suppress autophagy for their survival. In contrast, other viruses such as poliovirus, hepatitis C virus (HCV) and dengue viruses have instead evolved mechanisms to use this pathway to enhance their replication. Recently, we demonstrated that hepatitis B virus (HBV), a DNA virus that infects hepatocytes, could enhance and use autophagy for its DNA replication. This enhancement of autophagy is mediated by its X protein, which binds to and activates phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase class 3 (PI3KC3), an enzyme important for the initiation of autophagy. The persistent activation of autophagy in hepatocytes by HBV during chronic infection may play an important role in HBV pathogenesis. PMID:20305390

Sir, Donna; Ann, David K; Ou, Jing-Hsiung James

2010-05-01

217

Bat Flight and Zoonotic Viruses  

PubMed Central

Bats are sources of high viral diversity and high-profile zoonotic viruses worldwide. Although apparently not pathogenic in their reservoir hosts, some viruses from bats severely affect other mammals, including humans. Examples include severe acute respiratory syndrome coronaviruses, Ebola and Marburg viruses, and Nipah and Hendra viruses. Factors underlying high viral diversity in bats are the subject of speculation. We hypothesize that flight, a factor common to all bats but to no other mammals, provides an intensive selective force for coexistence with viral parasites through a daily cycle that elevates metabolism and body temperature analogous to the febrile response in other mammals. On an evolutionary scale, this host–virus interaction might have resulted in the large diversity of zoonotic viruses in bats, possibly through bat viruses adapting to be more tolerant of the fever response and less virulent to their natural hosts.

Cryan, Paul M.; Cunningham, Andrew A.; Fooks, Anthony R.; Hayman, David T.S.; Luis, Angela D.; Peel, Alison J.; Plowright, Raina K.; Wood, James L.N.

2014-01-01

218

Bat flight and zoonotic viruses.  

PubMed

Bats are sources of high viral diversity and high-profile zoonotic viruses worldwide. Although apparently not pathogenic in their reservoir hosts, some viruses from bats severely affect other mammals, including humans. Examples include severe acute respiratory syndrome coronaviruses, Ebola and Marburg viruses, and Nipah and Hendra viruses. Factors underlying high viral diversity in bats are the subject of speculation. We hypothesize that flight, a factor common to all bats but to no other mammals, provides an intensive selective force for coexistence with viral parasites through a daily cycle that elevates metabolism and body temperature analogous to the febrile response in other mammals. On an evolutionary scale, this host-virus interaction might have resulted in the large diversity of zoonotic viruses in bats, possibly through bat viruses adapting to be more tolerant of the fever response and less virulent to their natural hosts. PMID:24750692

O'Shea, Thomas J; Cryan, Paul M; Cunningham, Andrew A; Fooks, Anthony R; Hayman, David T S; Luis, Angela D; Peel, Alison J; Plowright, Raina K; Wood, James L N

2014-05-01

219

Interaction of Venezuelan Equine Encephalomyelitis Virus with Neutralizing Antibody: II. The Persistent Virus Fraction.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The persistent virus fraction that results from the interaction of Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis (VEE) virus with antiviral serum is an infectious virus-antibody complex (sensitized virus) that can be neutralized by anti-IgG serum. The quantities of...

N. Hahon

1969-01-01

220

Biology of parainfluenza viruses.  

PubMed Central

Parainfluenza virus types 1 to 4 (PIV1 to PIV4) are important human pathogens that cause upper and lower respiratory tract infections, especially in infants and children. PIV1, PIV2, and PIV3 are second only to respiratory syncytial virus as a cause of croup in young children. Although some clinical symptoms are typical of PIVs, etiologic diagnosis always requires detection of infectious virus, viral components, or an antibody response. PIVs are typical paramyxoviruses, causing a syncytial cytopathic effect in cell cultures; virus growth can be confirmed either by hemadsorption or by using immunological reagents. Currently, PIV is most often diagnosed by demonstrating viral antigens in clinical specimens by rapid and highly sensitive immunoassays. More recently, PCR has been used for the detection of PIVs. Serological diagnosis is made by detecting a rising titer of immunoglobulin G or by demonstrating immunoglobulin M antibodies. PIVs infect species other than humans, and animal models are used to study the pathogenesis of PIV infections and to test candidate vaccines. Accumulating knowledge on the molecular structure and mechanisms of replication of PIVs has accelerated research on prevention and treatment. Several strategies for vaccine development, such as the use of live attenuated, inactivated, recombinant, and subunit vaccines, have been investigated, and it may become possible to prevent PIV infections in the near future.

Vainionpaa, R; Hyypia, T

1994-01-01

221

From Shakespeare to Viruses  

SciTech Connect

Berkeley Lab scientists have created a unique new tool for analyzing and comparing long sets of data, be it the genomes of mammals or viruses, or the works of Shakespeare. The results of the Shakespeare analysis surprised scholars with their accuracy

Sung-Hou Kim

2009-02-09

222

Yellow Fever Virus Infection  

PubMed Central

A sequential and quantitative survey of brain and liver of suckling mice for infective virus and complement-fixing antigen, after infection with yellow fever virus, showed that while there was progressive increase of infective virus content in both organs, only the brain showed a corresponding rise in CF antigen. Histopathological examination revealed that the liver was not significantly involved. The target organ was the brain, where the progressive pathological changes culminated in an acute encephalitis by the 3rd day of experiment. Organ destruction began with the molecular layer of the grey matter. But by the 4th day after infection the entire cerebral cortex was involved. At the initial stages the hippocampus was particularly affected. Tissue damage did not appear to be entirely due to the differential quantitative localization of infective virus. It was hypothesized that the CF antigen acting singly or in conjunction with some hypothetical proteins may be principally involved in the pathological outcome of the disease. ImagesFigs. 7-9Figs. 3-6

David-West, Tam. S.; Smith, J. A.

1971-01-01

223

Virus Inactivation Kinetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the session of the Research Group of the Standing Technical Committee of the European Commission for the Control of Foot-and-Mouth Disease in Gerzensee, Berne, Switzerland in September 2003 a review of methods for describing the effect of temperature and time upon virus survival in products was presented (Have, 2003). The Research Group recommended that \\

Soren Alexandersen

224

Cold Facts about Viruses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides ways for students to demonstrate their understanding of scientific concepts and skills. Describes a mini-unit around the cold in which students can relate humans to viruses. Includes activities and a modified simulation that provides questions to guide students. Discusses ways that allows students to apply prior knowledge, take ownership…

Pea, Celeste; Sterling, Donna R.

2002-01-01

225

Turnip Yellow Mosaic Virus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The bumpy exterior of the turnip yellow mosaic virus (TYMV) protein coat, or capsid, was defined in detail by Dr. Alexander McPherson of the University of California, Irvin using proteins crystallized in space for analysis on Earth. TYMV is an icosahedral virus constructed from 180 copies of the same protein arranged into 12 clusters of five proteins (pentamers), and 20 clusters of six proteins (hexamers). The final TYMV structure led to the unexpected hypothesis that the virus releases its RNA by essentially chemical-mechanical means. Most viruses have fairly flat coats, but in TYNV, the fold in each protein, called the jellyroll, is clustered at the points where the protein pentamers and hexamers join. The jellyrolls are almost standing on end, producing a bumpy surface with knobs at all of the pentamers and hexamers. At the inside surface of the pentamers is a void that is not present at the hexamers. The coating had been seen in early stuties of TYMV, but McPherson's atomic structure shows much more detail. The inside surface is strikingly, and unexpectedly, different than the outside. While the pentamers contain a central void on the inside, the hexameric units contain peptides linked to each other, forming a ring or, more accurately, rings to fill the void. Credit: Dr. Alexander McPherson, University of California, Irvine

2000-01-01

226

West Nile Virus, Guadeloupe  

PubMed Central

To determine whether West Nile virus (WNV) had reached the archipelago of Guadeloupe, a serologic study in horses and birds was conducted in 2002. Immunoglobulin (Ig) G, IgM, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and seroneutralization tests identified WNV infection in horses and chickens. Six months later, a high rate of seroconversion was observed in horses.

Quirin, Rene; Salas, Michel; Zientara, Stephan; Zeller, Herve; Labie, Jacques; Murri, Severine; Lefrancois, Thierry; Petitclerc, Martial

2004-01-01

227

Viruses and autophagy  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved intracellular process by which bulk cytoplasm is enveloped inside a double-membraned vesicle and shuttled to lysosomes for degradation. Within the last 15 years, the genes necessary for the execution of autophagy have been identified and the number of tools for studying this process has grown. Autophagy is essential for tissue homeostasis and development and defective autophagy is associated with a number of diseases. As intracellular parasites, during the course of an infection, viruses encounter autophagy and interact with the proteins that execute this process. Autophagy and/or autophagy genes likely play both anti-viral and proviral roles in the life cycles and pathogenesis of many different virus families. With respect to anti-viral roles, the autophagy proteins function in targeting viral components or virions for lysosomal degradation in a process termed xenophagy, and they also play a role in the initiation of innate and adaptive immune system responses to viral infections. Consistent with this anti-viral role of host autophagy, some viruses encode virulence factors that interact with the host autophagy machinery and block the execution of autophagy. In contrast, other viruses appear to utilise components of the autophagic machinery to foster their own intracellular growth or non-lytic cellular egress. As the details of the role(s) of autophagy in viral pathogenesis become clearer, new anti-viral therapies could be developed to inhibit the beneficial and enhance the destructive aspects of autophagy on the viral life cycle.

Kudchodkar, Sagar B.; Levine, Beth

2010-01-01

228

Viruses and bacteriophages.  

PubMed

Many of the enteric viruses which are transmitted from person to person by the fecal-oral route are found in raw and treated wastewater, and because of their persistence under adverse conditions may also be found in slightly polluted waters. There is no routine examination procedure of water and wastewater for enteroviruses, mainly because of the cumbersome isolation techniques, high cost and the need for highly skilled laboratory personnel. Phages are specific to single species of bacteria, are known for many enteric bacteria, and are very often used for final identification of enteric pathogenic bacteria. Coliphages are prevalent in raw and treated sewage as well as in polluted water, where enteric viruses may also be found. Coliphages were often mentioned as possible viral indicators in polluted water. To be a perfect indicator, they should comply with minimum criteria as follows: (a) they should be present wherever human enteric viruses are present; (b) the coliphage numbers recovered should be equal to or larger than those of enteric viruses recovered; (c) the coliphages should be at least as resistant as enteric viruses to adverse environmental conditions; (d) isolation and quantification of the coliphage should be faster and less expensive than isolation of the enteroviruses. Comparative studies show that the coliphage to enterovirus ratio in wastewater is about 10(3):1. Levels of poliovirus 1 (attenuated) to coliphage f2 remained stable for a few months in oxidation pond effluents. f2 coliphage exhibited higher resistance to chlorination than poliovirus 1 (attenuated). When the two strains were kept in water of different quality, f2 survived longer. In addition, all coliphage counts were completed within 24 h. while those of enteroviruses required about a week. Results indicate very strongly that coliphages can be used as viral indicators and this is already the practice in a few European and other countries. PMID:6262909

Kott, Y

1981-04-01

229

The Norwegian Healthier Goats program-Modeling lactation curves using a multilevel cubic spline regression model.  

PubMed

In 2001, the Norwegian Goat Health Service initiated the Healthier Goats program (HG), with the aim of eradicating caprine arthritis encephalitis, caseous lymphadenitis, and Johne's disease (caprine paratuberculosis) in Norwegian goat herds. The aim of the present study was to explore how control and eradication of the above-mentioned diseases by enrolling in HG affected milk yield by comparison with herds not enrolled in HG. Lactation curves were modeled using a multilevel cubic spline regression model where farm, goat, and lactation were included as random effect parameters. The data material contained 135,446 registrations of daily milk yield from 28,829 lactations in 43 herds. The multilevel cubic spline regression model was applied to 4 categories of data: enrolled early, control early, enrolled late, and control late. For enrolled herds, the early and late notations refer to the situation before and after enrolling in HG; for nonenrolled herds (controls), they refer to development over time, independent of HG. Total milk yield increased in the enrolled herds after eradication: the total milk yields in the fourth lactation were 634.2 and 873.3kg in enrolled early and enrolled late herds, respectively, and 613.2 and 701.4kg in the control early and control late herds, respectively. Day of peak yield differed between enrolled and control herds. The day of peak yield came on d 6 of lactation for the control early category for parities 2, 3, and 4, indicating an inability of the goats to further increase their milk yield from the initial level. For enrolled herds, on the other hand, peak yield came between d 49 and 56, indicating a gradual increase in milk yield after kidding. Our results indicate that enrollment in the HG disease eradication program improved the milk yield of dairy goats considerably, and that the multilevel cubic spline regression was a suitable model for exploring effects of disease control and eradication on milk yield. PMID:24819129

Nagel-Alne, G E; Krontveit, R; Bohlin, J; Valle, P S; Skjerve, E; Sølverød, L S

2014-07-01

230

Recombinant Vaccinia Virus: Immunization against Multiple Pathogens  

Microsoft Academic Search

The coding sequences for the hepatitis B virus surface antigen, the herpes simplex virus glycoprotein D, and the influenza virus hemagglutinin were inserted into a single vaccinia virus genome. Rabbits inoculated intravenously or intradermally with this polyvalent vaccinia virus recombinant produced antibodies reactive to all three authentic foreign antigens. In addition, the feasibility of multiple rounds of vaccination with recombinant

Marion E. Perkus; Antonia Piccini; Bernard R. Lipinskas; Enzo Paoletti

1985-01-01

231

Neural networks for computer virus recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed a neural network for generic detection of a particular class of computer viruses-the so called boot sector viruses that infect the boot sector of a floppy disk or a hard drive. This is an important and relatively tractable subproblem of generic virus detection. Only about 5% of all known viruses are boot sector viruses, yet they account

G. J. Tesauro; J. O. Kephart; G. B. Sorkin

1996-01-01

232

Measuring and modeling computer virus prevalence  

Microsoft Academic Search

To understand the current extent of the computer virus problem and predict its future course, the authors have conducted a statistical analysis of computer virus incidents in a large, stable sample population of PCs and developed new epidemiological models of computer virus spread. Only a small fraction of all known viruses have appeared in real incidents, partly because many viruses

Jeffrey O. Kephart; Steve R. White

1993-01-01

233

Virus entry mediated by hepatitis B virus envelope proteins  

PubMed Central

Hepatitis B virus (HBV), a major cause of human liver disease worldwide, encodes three envelope proteins needed for the attachment and entry of the virus into susceptible host cells. A second virus, hepatitis delta virus, which is known to enhance liver disease in HBV infected patients, diverts the same HBV envelope proteins to achieve its own assembly and infection. In the lab, lentiviral vectors based on human immunodeficiency virus type 1 can be assembled using the HBV envelope proteins, and will similarly infect susceptible cells. This article provides a partial review and some personal reflections of how these three viruses infect and of how recipient cells become susceptible, along with some consideration of questions that remain to be answered.

Taylor, John M

2013-01-01

234

Active virus filter for enrichment and manipulation of virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

We developed an active virus filter (AVF) that was able to virus enrichment and distribution for single virus manipulation by using the insulator based dielectrophoresis (iDEP). The design of constricted flow channel enabled the microfluidic chip to produce iDEP force. We utilized maskless photolithography to achieve the precise 3D gray-scale exposure for constricted flow channel. When we applied sinusoidal wave

T. Masuda; H. Maruyama; A. Honda; F. Arai

2011-01-01

235

Human herpes virus 8: a new virus discloses its face  

Microsoft Academic Search

The human herpes virus 8 (HHV8) or Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpes virus (KSHV) is present in all Kaposi’s sarcoma, and\\u000a the detection of the virus using polymerase chain reaction or in situ hybridization is a highly sensitive and specific diagnostic\\u000a test for the diagnosis of this neoplasm. HHV8 is furthermore invariably present in primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) and has\\u000a also been

Gieri Cathomas

2000-01-01

236

Viruses from extreme thermal environments  

PubMed Central

Viruses of extreme thermophiles are of great interest because they serve as model systems for understanding the biochemistry and molecular biology required for life at high temperatures. In this work, we report the discovery, isolation, and preliminary characterization of viruses and virus-like particles from extreme thermal acidic environments (70–92°C, pH 1.0–4.5) found in Yellowstone National Park. Six unique particle morphologies were found in Sulfolobus enrichment cultures. Three of the particle morphologies are similar to viruses previously isolated from Sulfolobus species from Iceland and/or Japan. Sequence analysis of their viral genomes suggests that they are related to the Icelandic and Japanese isolates. In addition, three virus particle morphologies that had not been previously observed from thermal environments were found. These viruses appear to be completely novel in nature.

Rice, George; Stedman, Kenneth; Snyder, Jamie; Wiedenheft, Blake; Willits, Debbie; Brumfield, Susan; McDermott, Timothy; Young, Mark J.

2001-01-01

237

Proteorhodopsin genes in giant viruses.  

PubMed

Viruses with large genomes encode numerous proteins that do not directly participate in virus biogenesis but rather modify key functional systems of infected cells. We report that a distinct group of giant viruses infecting unicellular eukaryotes that includes Organic Lake Phycodnaviruses and Phaeocystis globosa virus encode predicted proteorhodopsins that have not been previously detected in viruses. Search of metagenomic sequence data shows that putative viral proteorhodopsins are extremely abundant in marine environments. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that giant viruses acquired proteorhodopsins via horizontal gene transfer from proteorhodopsin-encoding protists although the actual donor(s) could not be presently identified. The pattern of conservation of the predicted functionally important amino acid residues suggests that viral proteorhodopsin homologs function as sensory rhodopsins. We hypothesize that viral rhodopsins modulate light-dependent signaling, in particular phototaxis, in infected protists. PMID:23036091

Yutin, Natalya; Koonin, Eugene V

2012-01-01

238

Introducing Virological Concepts Using an Insect Virus.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A technique is presented which utilizes wax moth larvae in a laboratory investigation of an insect virus. Describes how an insect virus can be used to introduce undergraduate biology students to laboratory work on viruses and several virological concepts. (SA)

Sheppard, Roger F.

1980-01-01

239

Studies of Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccines.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Studies of Respiratory Syncytial virus vaccines included both biological and physical aspects with the principle objective being a study of the banding of RS virus in the density gradient ultracentrifuge. Various studies on virus propagation both in the B...

R. N. Hull C. B. Reimer L. F. Ellis

1966-01-01

240

NATIONAL RESPIRATORY AND ENTERIC VIRUS SURVEILLANCE SYSTEM  

EPA Science Inventory

The National Respiratory and Enteric Virus Surveillance System is a lab based system which monitors temporal and geographic patterns associated with the detection of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), human parainfluenza viruses (HPIV), respiratory and enteric adenoviruses, and r...

241

Tobacco mosaic virus virulence and avirulence.  

PubMed Central

In celebration of a century of research on tobacco mosaic virus that initiated the science of virology, I review recent progress relative to earlier contributions concerning how viruses cause diseases of plants and how plants defend themselves from viruses.

Dawson, W O

1999-01-01

242

NIAID's Role in Addressing West Nile Virus  

MedlinePLUS

... repellants and other ways to prevent mosquito bites. World Reference Center for Emerging Viruses and Arboviruses (WRCEVA) ... virus when it replicates. NIAID also supports the World Reference Center for Emerging Viruses and Arboviruses (WRCEVA) , ...

243

Virus-Related Antigens Associated with Cancer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Virus-associated antigens and human breast cancer; Virus-associated antigens and experimental mammary cancer; Viral antigens associated with leukemias and lymphomas; Cell surface and other virus-induced antigens associated with leukemias and lym...

1977-01-01

244

Equine arteritis virus.  

PubMed

Equine arteritis virus (EAV) is the causative agent of equine viral arteritis (EVA), a respiratory and reproductive disease of equids. There has been significant recent progress in understanding the molecular biology of EAV and the pathogenesis of its infection in horses. In particular, the use of contemporary genomic techniques, along with the development and reverse genetic manipulation of infectious cDNA clones of several strains of EAV, has generated significant novel information regarding the basic molecular biology of the virus. Therefore, the objective of this review is to summarize current understanding of EAV virion architecture, replication, evolution, molecular epidemiology and genetic variation, pathogenesis including the influence of host genetics on disease susceptibility, host immune response, and potential vaccination and treatment strategies. PMID:23891306

Balasuriya, Udeni B R; Go, Yun Young; MacLachlan, N James

2013-11-29

245

West Nile Virus  

PubMed Central

Overview Since its isolation in Uganda in 1937, West Nile virus (WNV) has been responsible for thousands of cases of morbidity and mortality in birds, horses, and humans. Historically, epidemics were localized to Europe, Africa, the Middle East, and parts of Asia, and primarily caused a mild febrile illness in humans. However, in the late 1990’s, the virus became more virulent and expanded its geographical range to North America. In humans, the clinical presentation ranges from asymptomatic (approximately 80% of infections) to encephalitis/paralysis and death (less than 1% of infections). There is no FDA-licensed vaccine for human use, and the only recommended treatment is supportive care. Individuals that survive infection often have a long recovery period. This article will review the current literature summarizing the molecular virology, epidemiology, clinical manifestations, pathogenesis, diagnosis, treatment, immunology, and protective measures against WNV and WNV infections in humans.

Rossi, Shannan L.; Ross, Ted M.; Evans, Jared D.

2010-01-01

246

The encephalomyocarditis virus  

PubMed Central

The encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) is a small non-enveloped single-strand RNA virus, the causative agent of not only myocarditis and encephalitis, but also neurological diseases, reproductive disorders and diabetes in many mammalian species. EMCV pathogenesis appears to be viral strain- and host-specific, and a better understanding of EMCV virulence factors is increasingly required. Indeed, EMCV is often used as a model for diabetes and viral myocarditis, and is also widely used in immunology as a double-stranded RNA stimulus in the study of Toll-like as well as cytosolic receptors. However, EMCV virulence and properties have often been neglected. Moreover, EMCV is able to infect humans albeit with a low morbidity. Progress on xenografts, such as pig heart transplantation in humans, has raised safety concerns that need to be explored. In this review we will highlight the biology of EMCV and all known and potential virulence factors.

Carocci, Margot; Bakkali-Kassimi, Labib

2012-01-01

247

Hetdex: Virus Instrument  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Visible Integral-field-unit Replicable Unit Spectrograph (VIRUS) instrument is made up of 150+ individually compact and identical spectrographs, each fed by a fiber integral-field unit. The instrument provides integral field spectroscopy at wavelengths between 350nm and 550nm of over 33,600 spatial elements per observation, each 1.8 sq. arcsec on the sky, at R 700. The instrument will be fed by a new wide-field corrector (WFC) of the Hobby-Eberly Telescope (HET) with increased science field of view as large as 22arcmin diameter and telescope aperture of 10m. This will enable the HETDEX, a large area blind survey of Lyman-alpha emitting galaxies at redshift z < 3.5. The status of VIRUS instrument construction is summarized.

Lee, Hanshin; Hill, G. J.; DePoy, D. L.; Tuttle, S.; Marshall, J. L.; Vattiat, B. L.; Prochaska, T.; Chonis, T. S.; Allen, R.; HETDEX Collaboration

2012-01-01

248

Viruses from the Hypersaline Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Halophilic environments such as solar salterns and salt lakes are enriched in organisms belonging to the domain Archaea. The\\u000a number of virus-like particles has also been shown to be high. Although most of the described haloarchaeal viruses are head–tail\\u000a viruses, direct microscopic examination of environmental samples suggests more diversity. In this chapter, we shortly review\\u000a the existing knowledge of the

Elina Roine; Hanna M. Oksanen

249

Reverse Genetics with Animal Viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

New strategies to genetically manipulate the genomes of several important animal pathogens have been established in recent\\u000a years. This article focuses on the reverse genetics techniques, which enables genetic manipulation of the genomes of non-segmented\\u000a negative-sense RNA viruses. Recovery of a negative-sense RNA virus entirely from cDNA was first achieved for rabies virus\\u000a in 1994. Since then, reverse genetic systems

Teshome Mebatsion

250

Tracking the West Nile Virus  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How can viral sequences help us establish the origin of the virus that appeared in the US in 1999? Epidemiologists have adopted bioinformatics approaches using sequence data from strains of pathogens to track the movement of bacteria and viruses from continent to continent. * explore a data set of West Nile Virus sequences from all over the world that date from the mid-20th century to the present

Erica Suchmann (University of California - San Diego;Biology); Mark Gallo (Niagara University;Biology)

2006-05-20

251

Viruses in extreme environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tolerance limits of extremophiles in term of temperature, pH, salinity, desiccation, hydrostatic pressure, radiation,\\u000a anaerobiosis far exceed what can support non-extremophilic organisms. Like all other organisms, extremophiles serve as hosts\\u000a for viral replication. Many lines of evidence suggest that viruses could no more be regarded as simple infectious “fragments\\u000a of life” but on the contrary as one of the

Marc Le Romancer; Mélusine Gaillard; Claire Geslin; Daniel Prieur

252

Human Immunodeficiency Virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oral health is an integral component of overall health and well-being in all patients. However, for an immunocompromised patient,\\u000a many common oral conditions may have a significant impact on quality of life. Intraoral pain, which is a common complaint\\u000a among patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), will compromise patients’ ability to maintain adequate and appropriate\\u000a oral intake. Furthermore, the polypharmacopeia

Anita Patel; Michael Glick

253

Hepatitis delta virus.  

PubMed

Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) is a sub-viral agent that is dependent for its life cycle on hepatitis B virus (HBV). The help it obtains from HBV is limited to the sharing of envelope proteins. These proteins are needed to facilitate the assembly of the HDV genome into new virus particles, and in turn, to allow the attachment and entry of HDV into new host cells. In other respects, the replication of the small single-stranded circular RNA genome of HDV is independent of HBV. HDV genome replication produces two forms of a RNA-binding protein known as the long and small delta antigens (Ag). All other proteins needed for HDV genome replication, especially the RNA-directed RNA polymerase activity, are provided by the host cell. This mini-review article is a mixture of personal perspective and speculations about the future of HDV research. It starts with a brief overview of HDV and its replication, notes some of the major unresolved questions, and directs the interested reader to more detailed reviews. PMID:16364738

Taylor, John M

2006-01-01

254

STUDIES ON NEWCASTLE DISEASE VIRUS  

PubMed Central

1. It is likely that certain tailed and filamentous particles seen on electron microscope examination of partially purified saline suspensions of Newcastle virus are the individual virus particles because: (a) They have a highly characteristic shape not seen in other virus preparations. (b) They are present whenever the virus is present in high concentration. (c) Their size agrees with the size of the virus as calculated from light scattering and centrifuge data. (d) They are agglutinated by specific antisera. (e) Infection may be produced in the embryo by relatively few of these particles. 2. It is possible that these filamentous forms have been derived from spherical forms without loss of activity because: (a) Such filamentous forms are not found in the original allantoic fluid when this contains a comparable amount of virus. (b) Filamentous forms appeared in the original allantoic fluid when it was dialyzed against saline solution. (c) Filamentous forms were produced at certain hydrogen ion concentrations but not at others, in solutions maintaining the same infectivity for the embryo. (d) Spherical forms were obtained by suspending the partially purified virus in water instead of saline. In this the virus remained moderately stable. (e) These round forms could apparently be converted into tailed and filamentous forms by the addition of saline, again without loss of activity. (f) This "conversion" could be inhibited by partial inactivation of the water suspension of virus.

Bang, F. B.

1948-01-01

255

Structure of Flexible Filamentous Plant Viruses  

SciTech Connect

Flexible filamentous viruses make up a large fraction of the known plant viruses, but in comparison with those of other viruses, very little is known about their structures. We have used fiber diffraction, cryo-electron microscopy, and scanning transmission electron microscopy to determine the symmetry of a potyvirus, soybean mosaic virus; to confirm the symmetry of a potexvirus, potato virus X; and to determine the low-resolution structures of both viruses. We conclude that these viruses and, by implication, most or all flexible filamentous plant viruses share a common coat protein fold and helical symmetry, with slightly less than 9 subunits per helical turn.

Kendall, Amy; McDonald, Michele; Bian, Wen; Bowles, Timothy; Baumgarten, Sarah C.; Shi, Jian; Stewart, Phoebe L.; Bullitt, Esther; Gore, David; Irving, Thomas C.; Havens, Wendy M.; Ghabrial, Said A.; Wall, Joseph S.; Stubbs, Gerald (IIT); (BU-M); (Vanderbilt); (Kentucky); (BNL)

2008-10-23

256

Computer virus information update CIAC-2301  

SciTech Connect

While CIAC periodically issues bulletins about specific computer viruses, these bulletins do not cover all the computer viruses that affect desktop computers. The purpose of this document is to identify most of the known viruses for the MS-DOS and Macintosh platforms and give an overview of the effects of each virus. The authors also include information on some windows, Atari, and Amiga viruses. This document is revised periodically as new virus information becomes available. This document replaces all earlier versions of the CIAC Computer virus Information Update. The date on the front cover indicates date on which the information in this document was extracted from CIAC`s Virus database.

Orvis, W.J.

1994-01-15

257

Evolutionary relationship of alfalfa mosaic virus with cucumber mosaic virus and brome mosaic virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The amino acid sequences of the non-structural protein (molecular weight 35,000; 3a protein) from three plant viruses — cucumber\\u000a mosaic, brome mosaic and alfalfa mosaic have been systematically compared using the partial genomic sequences for these three\\u000a viruses already available. The 3a protein of cucumber mosaic virus has an amino acid sequence homology of 33.7% with the corresponding\\u000a protein of

H. S. Savithri; M. R. N. Murthy

1983-01-01

258

Cowpea mosaic virus: the plant virus-based biotechnology workhorse.  

PubMed

In the 50 years since it was first described, Cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) has become one of the most intensely studied plant viruses. Research in the past 15 to 20 years has shifted from studying the underlying genetics and structure of the virus to focusing on ways in which it can be exploited in biotechnology. This work led first to the use of virus particles to present peptides, then to the creation of a variety of replicating virus vectors and finally to the development of a highly efficient protein expression system that does not require viral replication. The circle has been completed by the use of the latter system to create empty particles for peptide presentation and other novel uses. The history of CPMV in biotechnology can be likened to an Ouroborus, an ancient symbol depicting a snake or dragon swallowing its own tail, thus forming a circle. PMID:20455698

Sainsbury, Frank; Cañizares, M Carmen; Lomonossoff, George P

2010-01-01

259

Hepatitis C Virus and Cardiomyopathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The importance of hepatitis C virus infection has been recently noted in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy or dilated cardiomyopathy. In a collaborative research project of the Committees for the Study of Idiopathic Cardiomyopathy, hepatitis C virus antibody was found in 74 of 697 patients (10.65) with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and in 42 of 663 patients (6.3%) with dilated cardiomyopathy; these prevalences

Akira Matsumori

2000-01-01

260

Influenza virus assembly and budding.  

PubMed

Influenza A virus causes seasonal epidemics, sporadic pandemics and is a significant global health burden. Influenza virus is an enveloped virus that contains a segmented negative strand RNA genome. Assembly and budding of progeny influenza virions is a complex, multi-step process that occurs in lipid raft domains on the apical membrane of infected cells. The viral proteins hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) are targeted to lipid rafts, causing the coalescence and enlargement of the raft domains. This clustering of HA and NA may cause a deformation of the membrane and the initiation of the virus budding event. M1 is then thought to bind to the cytoplasmic tails of HA and NA where it can then polymerize and form the interior structure of the emerging virion. M1, bound to the cytoplasmic tails of HA and NA, additionally serves as a docking site for the recruitment of the viral RNPs and may mediate the recruitment of M2 to the site of virus budding. M2 initially stabilizes the site of budding, possibly enabling the polymerization of the matrix protein and the formation of filamentous virions. Subsequently, M2 is able to alter membrane curvature at the neck of the budding virus, causing membrane scission and the release of the progeny virion. This review investigates the latest research on influenza virus budding in an attempt to provide a step-by-step analysis of the assembly and budding processes for influenza viruses. PMID:21237476

Rossman, Jeremy S; Lamb, Robert A

2011-03-15

261

Human viruses: discovery and emergence  

PubMed Central

There are 219 virus species that are known to be able to infect humans. The first of these to be discovered was yellow fever virus in 1901, and three to four new species are still being found every year. Extrapolation of the discovery curve suggests that there is still a substantial pool of undiscovered human virus species, although an apparent slow-down in the rate of discovery of species from different families may indicate bounds to the potential range of diversity. More than two-thirds of human viruses can also infect non-human hosts, mainly mammals, and sometimes birds. Many specialist human viruses also have mammalian or avian origins. Indeed, a substantial proportion of mammalian viruses may be capable of crossing the species barrier into humans, although only around half of these are capable of being transmitted by humans and around half again of transmitting well enough to cause major outbreaks. A few possible predictors of species jumps can be identified, including the use of phylogenetically conserved cell receptors. It seems almost inevitable that new human viruses will continue to emerge, mainly from other mammals and birds, for the foreseeable future. For this reason, an effective global surveillance system for novel viruses is needed.

Woolhouse, Mark; Scott, Fiona; Hudson, Zoe; Howey, Richard; Chase-Topping, Margo

2012-01-01

262

How Viruses Enter Animal Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Viruses replicate within living cells and use the cellular machinery for the synthesis of their genome and other components. To gain access, they have evolved a variety of elegant mechanisms to deliver their genes and accessory proteins into the host cell. Many animal viruses take advantage of endocytic pathways and rely on the cell to guide them through a complex

Alicia E. Smith; Ari Helenius

2004-01-01

263

Virioplankton: Viruses in Aquatic Ecosystems†  

PubMed Central

The discovery that viruses may be the most abundant organisms in natural waters, surpassing the number of bacteria by an order of magnitude, has inspired a resurgence of interest in viruses in the aquatic environment. Surprisingly little was known of the interaction of viruses and their hosts in nature. In the decade since the reports of extraordinarily large virus populations were published, enumeration of viruses in aquatic environments has demonstrated that the virioplankton are dynamic components of the plankton, changing dramatically in number with geographical location and season. The evidence to date suggests that virioplankton communities are composed principally of bacteriophages and, to a lesser extent, eukaryotic algal viruses. The influence of viral infection and lysis on bacterial and phytoplankton host communities was measurable after new methods were developed and prior knowledge of bacteriophage biology was incorporated into concepts of parasite and host community interactions. The new methods have yielded data showing that viral infection can have a significant impact on bacteria and unicellular algae populations and supporting the hypothesis that viruses play a significant role in microbial food webs. Besides predation limiting bacteria and phytoplankton populations, the specific nature of virus-host interaction raises the intriguing possibility that viral infection influences the structure and diversity of aquatic microbial communities. Novel applications of molecular genetic techniques have provided good evidence that viral infection can significantly influence the composition and diversity of aquatic microbial communities.

Wommack, K. Eric; Colwell, Rita R.

2000-01-01

264

Virus Removal by Chemical Coagulation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Using bacterial viruses (Bacteriophages T4 and MS2 against Escherichia coli) as models and aluminum as the coagulant metal ion, it was shown that removal of viruses from water by chemical coagulation and flocculation with aluminum sulfate consists of a pr...

R. S. Engelbrecht M. Chaudhuri

1969-01-01

265

Sunshine virus in Australian pythons.  

PubMed

Sunshine virus is a recently discovered novel paramyxovirus that is associated with illness in snakes. It does not phylogenetically cluster within either of the two currently accepted paramyxoviral subfamilies. It is therefore only distantly related to the only other known genus of reptilian paramyxoviruses, Ferlavirus, which clusters within the Paramyxovirinae subfamily. Clinical and diagnostic aspects associated with Sunshine virus are as yet undescribed. The objective of this paper was to report the clinical presentation, virus isolation, PCR testing and pathology associated with Sunshine virus infection. Clinical records and samples from naturally occurring cases were obtained from two captive snake collections and the archives of a veterinary diagnostic laboratory. The clinical signs that are associated with Sunshine virus infection are localised to the neurorespiratory systems or are non-specific (e.g. lethargy, inappetence). Out of 15 snakes that were infected with Sunshine virus (detected in any organ by either virus isolation or PCR), the virus was isolated from four out of ten (4/10) sampled brains, 3/10 sampled lungs and 2/7 pooled samples of kidney and liver. In these same 15 snakes, PCR was able to successfully detect Sunshine virus in fresh-frozen brain (11/11), kidney (7/8), lung (8/11) and liver (5/8); and various formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues (7/8). During a natural outbreak of Sunshine virus in a collection of 32 snakes, the virus could be detected in five out of 39 combined oral-cloacal swabs that were collected from 23 of these snakes over a 105 day period. All snakes that were infected with Sunshine virus were negative for reovirus and ferlavirus by PCR. Snakes infected with Sunshine virus reliably exhibited hindbrain white matter spongiosis and gliosis with extension to the surrounding grey matter and neuronal necrosis evident in severe cases. Five out of eight infected snakes also exhibited mild bronchointerstitial pneumonia. Infection with Sunshine virus should be considered by veterinarians investigating disease outbreaks in snakes, particularly those that are associated with neurorespiratory disease. PMID:22883310

Hyndman, Timothy H; Shilton, Cathy M; Doneley, Robert J T; Nicholls, Philip K

2012-12-28

266

Marine Viruses: Truth or Dare  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past two decades, marine virology has progressed from a curiosity to an intensely studied topic of critical importance to oceanography. At concentrations of approximately 10 million viruses per milliliter of surface seawater, viruses are the most abundant biological entities in the oceans. The majority of these viruses are phages (viruses that infect bacteria). Through lysing their bacterial hosts, marine phages control bacterial abundance, affect community composition, and impact global biogeochemical cycles. In addition, phages influence their hosts through selection for resistance, horizontal gene transfer, and manipulation of bacterial metabolism. Recent work has also demonstrated that marine phages are extremely diverse and can carry a variety of auxiliary metabolic genes encoding critical ecological functions. This review is structured as a scientific "truth or dare," revealing several well-established "truths" about marine viruses and presenting a few "dares" for the research community to undertake in future studies.

Breitbart, Mya

2012-01-01

267

Virus assembly, allostery, and antivirals  

PubMed Central

Assembly of virus capsids and surface proteins must be regulated to ensure that the resulting complex is an infectious virion. Here we examine assembly of virus capsids, focusing on hepatitis B virus and bacteriophage MS2, and formation of glycoproteins in the alphaviruses. These systems are structurally and biochemically well-characterized and are simplest-case paradigms of self-assembly. Published data suggest that capsid and glycoprotein assembly is subject to allosteric regulation, that is, regulation at the level of conformational change. The hypothesis that allostery is a common theme in viruses suggests that deregulation of capsid and glycoprotein assembly by small molecule effectors will be an attractive antiviral strategy, as has been demonstrated with hepatitis B virus.

Zlotnick, Adam; Mukhopadhyay, Suchetana

2010-01-01

268

Do viruses require the cytoskeleton?  

PubMed Central

Background It is generally thought that viruses require the cytoskeleton during their replication cycle. However, recent experiments in our laboratory with rubella virus, a member of the family Togaviridae (genus rubivirus), revealed that replication proceeded in the presence of drugs that inhibit microtubules. This study was done to expand on this observation. Findings The replication of three diverse viruses, Sindbis virus (SINV; family Togaviridae family), vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV; family Rhabdoviridae), and Herpes simplex virus (family Herpesviridae), was quantified by the titer (plaque forming units/ml; pfu/ml) produced in cells treated with one of three anti-microtubule drugs (colchicine, noscapine, or paclitaxel) or the anti-actin filament drug, cytochalasin D. None of these drugs affected the replication these viruses. Specific steps in the SINV infection cycle were examined during drug treatment to determine if alterations in specific steps in the virus replication cycle in the absence of a functional cytoskeletal system could be detected, i.e. redistribution of viral proteins and replication complexes or increases/decreases in their abundance. These investigations revealed that the observable impacts were a colchicine-mediated fragmentation of the Golgi apparatus and concomitant intracellular redistribution of the virion structural proteins, along with a reduction in viral genome and sub-genome RNA levels, but not double-stranded RNA or protein levels. Conclusions The failure of poisons affecting the cytoskeleton to inhibit the replication of a diverse set of viruses strongly suggests that viruses do not require a functional cytoskeletal system for replication, either because they do not utilize it or are able to utilize alternate pathways when it is not available.

2013-01-01

269

Infectious vaccinia virus recombinants that express hepatitis B virus surface antigen  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Potential live vaccines against hepatitis B virus have been produced. The coding sequence for hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) has been inserted into the vaccinia virus genome under control of vaccinia virus early promoters. Cells infected with these vaccinia virus recombinants synthesize and excrete HBsAg and vaccinated rabbits rapidly produce antibodies to HBsAg.

Smith, Geoffrey L.; Mackett, Michael; Moss, Bernard

1983-04-01

270

The Acute bee paralysis virus-Kashmir bee virus-Israeli acute paralysis virus complex.  

PubMed

Acute bee paralysis virus (ABPV), Kashmir bee virus (KBV) and Israeli acute paralysis virus (IAPV) are part of a complex of closely related viruses from the Family Dicistroviridae. These viruses have a widespread prevalence in honey bee (Apis mellifera) colonies and a predominantly sub-clinical etiology that contrasts sharply with the extremely virulent pathology encountered at elevated titres, either artificially induced or encountered naturally. These viruses are frequently implicated in honey bee colony losses, especially when the colonies are infested with the parasitic mite Varroa destructor. Here we review the historical and recent literature of this virus complex, covering history and origins; the geographic, host and tissue distribution; pathology and transmission; genetics and variation; diagnostics, and discuss these within the context of the molecular and biological similarities and differences between the viruses. We also briefly discuss three recent developments relating specifically to IAPV, concerning its association with Colony Collapse Disorder, treatment of IAPV infection with siRNA and possible honey bee resistance to IAPV. PMID:19909972

de Miranda, Joachim R; Cordoni, Guido; Budge, Giles

2010-01-01

271

Influenza: a virus of our times  

PubMed Central

Viruses are successful and omnipresent. Influenza A is a particularly important virus of humans. The article reviews the 2009 emergence of the pandemic influenza A virus, focusing on the potential origin of the virus and the distinctive clinical and epidemiological impact of the 2009 pandemic.

McCaughey, Conall

2010-01-01

272

Immunogenicity of combination DNA vaccines for Rift Valley fever virus, tick-borne encephalitis virus, Hantaan virus, and Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

DNA vaccines for Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV), tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), and Hantaan virus (HTNV), were tested in mice alone or in various combinations. The bunyavirus vaccines (RVFV, CCHFV, and HTNV) expressed Gn and Gc genes, and the flavivirus vaccine (TBEV) expressed the preM and E genes. All vaccines were delivered by gene

Kristin Spik; Amy Shurtleff; Anita K. McElroy; Mary C. Guttieri; Jay W. Hooper; Connie Schmaljohn

2006-01-01

273

Biologically Inspired Defenses Against Computer Viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today's anti-virus technology, based largely on analysis of existing viruses by human experts, is just barely able to keep pace with the more than three new computer viruses that are writ­ ten daily. In a few years, intelligent agents nav­ igating through highly connected networks are likely to form an extremely fertile medium for a new breed of viruses. At

Jeffrey O. Kephart; Gregory B. Sorkin; William C. Arnold; David M. Chess; Gerald Tesauro; Steve R. White

1995-01-01

274

Safe Computing: An Overview of Viruses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A computer virus is a program that replicates itself, in conjunction with an additional program that can harm a computer system. Common viruses include boot-sector, macro, companion, overwriting, and multipartite. Viruses can be fast, slow, stealthy, and polymorphic. Anti-virus products are described. (MLH)

Wodarz, Nan

2001-01-01

275

Smallpox vaccination and bioterrorism with pox viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bioterrorist attacks occupy a special place amongst the innumerable potential types of terrorist attack, with the intentional release of pox viruses being especially feared in this connection. Apart from the variola virus, the agent responsible for smallpox in humans, the monkeypox virus and numerous other animal pox viruses pose potential risks for humans and animals. This risk scenario also includes

Anton Mayr

2003-01-01

276

Hepatitis E virus infection.  

PubMed

Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is a worldwide disease. An improved understanding of the natural history of HEV infection has been achieved within the last decade. Several reservoirs and transmission modes have been identified. Hepatitis E is an underdiagnosed disease, in part due to the use of serological assays with low sensitivity. However, diagnostic tools, including nucleic acid-based tests, have been improved. The epidemiology and clinical features of hepatitis E differ between developing and developed countries. HEV infection is usually an acute self-limiting disease, but in developed countries it causes chronic infection with rapidly progressive cirrhosis in organ transplant recipients, patients with hematological malignancy requiring chemotherapy, and individuals with HIV. HEV also causes extrahepatic manifestations, including a number of neurological syndromes and renal injury. Acute infection usually requires no treatment, but chronic infection should be treated by reducing immunosuppression in transplant patients and/or the use of antiviral therapy. In this comprehensive review, we summarize the current knowledge about the virus itself, as well as the epidemiology, diagnostics, natural history, and management of HEV infection in developing and developed countries. PMID:24396139

Kamar, Nassim; Dalton, Harry R; Abravanel, Florence; Izopet, Jacques

2014-01-01

277

Hepatitis E virus.  

PubMed

Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is responsible for major outbreaks of acute hepatitis in developing countries where it was first described as a waterborne disease, transmitted by drinking water contaminated with feces. Attention was focused on HEV in developed countries and its associated diseases in recent years as a result of increasing reports of autochthonous infections. Hepatitis E is the zoonotic cause of these acute infections, and mainly in men over 50 years of age. The clinical manifestations and laboratory abnormalities of hepatitis E infections in immunocompetent patients cannot be distinguished from those caused by other hepatitis viruses. HEV is a major public health concern in immunocompromised patients because their infections can become chronic. The specific etiology of cases of hepatitis E infection can be diagnosed by serological testing and detecting viral RNA. Ribavirin is currently the reference treatment for HEV infections in immunocompromised patients. Several vaccines have proved safe and effective in clinical trials, but none have been approved for use in Europe yet. PMID:23608595

Abravanel, F; Lhomme, S; Dubois, M; Peron, J-M; Alric, L; Kamar, N; Izopet, J

2013-07-01

278

Virus interactions with human signal transduction pathways  

PubMed Central

Viruses depend on their hosts at every stage of their life cycles and must therefore communicate with them via Protein-Protein Interactions (PPIs). To investigate the mechanisms of communication by different viruses, we overlay reported pairwise human-virus PPIs on human signalling pathways. Of 671 pathways obtained from NCI and Reactome databases, 355 are potentially targeted by at least one virus. The majority of pathways are linked to more than one virus. We find evidence supporting the hypothesis that viruses often interact with different proteins depending on the targeted pathway. Pathway analysis indicates overrepresentation of some pathways targeted by viruses. The merged network of the most statistically significant pathways shows several centrally located proteins, which are also hub proteins. Generally, hub proteins are targeted more frequently by viruses. Numerous proteins in virus-targeted pathways are known drug targets, suggesting that these might be exploited as potential new approaches to treatments against multiple viruses.

Zhao, Zhongming; Xia, Junfeng; Tastan, Oznur; Singh, Irtisha; Kshirsagar, Meghana; Carbonell, Jaime; Klein-Seetharaman, Judith

2011-01-01

279

Transmitting Plant Viruses Using Whiteflies  

PubMed Central

Whiteflies, Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae, Bemisia tabaci, a complex of morphologically indistinquishable species5, are vectors of many plant viruses. Several genera of these whitefly-transmitted plant viruses (Begomovirus, Carlavirus, Crinivirus, Ipomovirus, Torradovirus) include several hundred species of emerging and economically significant pathogens of important food and fiber crops (reviewed by9,10,16). These viruses do not replicate in their vector but nevertheless are moved readily from plant to plant by the adult whitefly by various means (reviewed by2,6,7,9,10,11,17). For most of these viruses whitefly feeding is required for acquisition and inoculation, while for others only probing is required. Many of these viruses are unable or cannot be easily transmitted by other means. Therefore maintenance of virus cultures, biological and molecular characterization (identification of host range and symptoms)3,13, ecology2,12, require that the viruses be transmitted to experimental hosts using the whitefly vector. In addition the development of new approaches to management, such as evaluation of new chemicals14 or compounds15, new cultural approaches1,4,19, or the selection and development of resistant cultivars7,8,18, requires the use of whiteflies for virus transmission. The use of whitefly transmission of plant viruses for the selection and development of resistant cultivars in breeding programs is particularly challenging7. Effective selection and screening for resistance employs large numbers of plants and there is a need for 100% of the plants to be inoculated in order to find the few genotypes which possess resistance genes. These studies use very large numbers of viruliferous whiteflies, often several times per year. Whitefly maintenance described here can generate hundreds or thousands of adult whiteflies on plants each week, year round, without the contamination of other plant viruses. Plants free of both whiteflies and virus must be produced to introduce into the whitefly colony each week. Whitefly cultures must be kept free of whitefly pathogens, parasites, and parasitoids that can reduce whitefly populations and/or reduce the transmission efficiency of the virus. Colonies produced in the manner described can be quickly scaled to increase or decrease population numbers as needed, and can be adjusted to accommodate the feeding preferences of the whitefly based on the plant host of the virus. There are two basic types of whitefly colonies that can be maintained: a nonviruliferous and a viruliferous whitefly colony. The nonviruliferous colony is composed of whiteflies reared on virus-free plants and allows the weekly availability of whiteflies which can be used to transmit viruses from different cultures. The viruliferous whitefly colony, composed of whiteflies reared on virus-infected plants, allows weekly availability of whiteflies which have acquired the virus thus omitting one step in the virus transmission process.

Polston, Jane E.; Capobianco, H.

2013-01-01

280

Viruses and Interactomes in Translation*  

PubMed Central

A decade of high-throughput screenings for intraviral and virus-host protein-protein interactions led to the accumulation of data and to the development of theories on laws governing interactome organization for many viruses. We present here a computational analysis of intraviral protein networks (EBV, FLUAV, HCV, HSV-1, KSHV, SARS-CoV, VACV, and VZV) and virus-host protein networks (DENV, EBV, FLUAV, HCV, and VACV) from up-to-date interaction data, using various mathematical approaches. If intraviral networks seem to behave similarly, they are clearly different from the human interactome. Viral proteins target highly central human proteins, which are precisely the Achilles' heel of the human interactome. The intrinsic structural disorder is a distinctive feature of viral hubs in virus-host interactomes. Overlaps between virus-host data sets identify a core of human proteins involved in the cellular response to viral infection and in the viral capacity to hijack the cell machinery for viral replication. Host proteins that are strongly targeted by a virus seem to be particularly attractive for other viruses. Such protein-protein interaction networks and their analysis represent a powerful resource from a therapeutic perspective.

Meyniel-Schicklin, Laurene; de Chassey, Benoit; Andre, Patrice; Lotteau, Vincent

2012-01-01

281

21 CFR 866.3360 - Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus serological reagents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus serological reagents. 866.3360 Section...866.3360 Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus serological reagents are devices...

2013-04-01

282

Influenza Viruses in Animal Wildlife Populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Influenza viruses belong to the family Orthomyxoviridae. Genus Influenza A viruses are true zoonotic agents with many animal reservoirs, whereas genus Influenza B viruses are generally\\u000a considered to be a virus of humans. The genome of influenza A viruses consists of eight unique segments of single-stranded\\u000a RNA of negative polarity; they are typed according to their surface proteins, hemagglutinin (HA)

R. J. Webby; R. G. Webster; Jürgen A. Richt

283

Fish Viruses: A Double-Stranded RNA Icosahedral Virus from a North American Cyprinid.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A previously unreported virus disease of cultured golden shiners (Notemigonus crysoleucas) is described. The condition is called golden shiner virus (GSV) disease. The virus is icosahedral, measures approximately 70 nm, is ether and heat resistant, stable...

J. A. Plumb P. R. Bowser J. M. Grizzle A. J. Mitchell

1978-01-01

284

78 FR 29755 - Human Immunodeficiency Virus Patient-Focused Drug Development and Human Immunodeficiency Virus...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...FDA-2013-N-0473] Human Immunodeficiency Virus Patient-Focused Drug Development and Human Immunodeficiency Virus...for public comment on human immunodeficiency virus...Patient-Focused Drug Development and HIV Cure...

2013-05-21

285

78 FR 46969 - Human Immunodeficiency Virus Patient-Focused Drug Development and Human Immunodeficiency Virus...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...FDA-2013-N-0473] Human Immunodeficiency Virus Patient-Focused Drug Development and Human Immunodeficiency Virus...meeting entitled ``Human Immunodeficiency Virus...Patient-Focused Drug Development and HIV Cure...

2013-08-02

286

9 CFR 113.215 - Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed Virus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 2009-01-01 false Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.215 Section 113.215 Animals and...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS;...

2009-01-01

287

Virus infection and knee injury.  

PubMed Central

Serological evidence of virus infection was sought in 31 consecutive patients presenting with knee swelling and compared with age/sex-matched controls. In a normal age/sex-matched control group, 42% of patients had evidence of recent or past infection with Coxsackie B virus, emphasising the care required in the evaluation of the significance of Coxsackie B neutralization titres in individual patients. Of 12 patients presenting with knee swelling and a history of a twisting injury, eight had serological evidence of recent or past infection with Coxsackie B virus, and one had evidence of a current adenovirus infection.

Driscoll, P; Venner, R; Clements, G B

1987-01-01

288

Model for Vesicular Stomatitis Virus  

PubMed Central

Vesicular stomatitis virus contains single-stranded ribonucleic acid of molecular weight 3.6 × 106 and three major proteins with molecular weights of 75 × 103, 57 × 103, and 32.5 × 103. The proteins have been shown to be subunits of the surface projections, ribonucleoprotein, and matrix protein, respectively. From these values and from estimates of the proportions of the individual proteins, it has been calculated that the virus has approximately 500 surface projections, 1,100 protein units on the ribonucleoprotein strand, and 1,600 matrix protein units. Possible models of the virus are proposed in which the proteins are interrelated. Images

Cartwright, B.; Smale, C. J.; Brown, F.; Hull, R.

1972-01-01

289

Xenotropic Murine Leukemia Virus-related Virus (XMRV) Backgrounder  

Cancer.gov

Researchers have not found evidence that XMRV causes any diseases in humans or in animals. The presence of an infectious agent, such as a virus, in diseased tissue does not mean that the agent causes the disease.

290

Evolution of Computer Virus Concealment and AntiVirus Techniques: A Short Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a general overview on evolution of concealment methods in computer viruses and defensive techniques employed by anti-virus products. In order to stay far from the anti-virus scanners, computer viruses gradually improve their codes to make them invisible. On the other hand, anti-virus technologies continually follow the virus tricks and methodologies to overcome their threats. In this process,

Babak Bashari Rad; Maslin Masrom; Suhaimi Ibrahim

2011-01-01

291

Antiviral Drugs for Viruses Other Than Human Immunodeficiency Virus  

PubMed Central

Most viral diseases, with the exception of those caused by human immunodeficiency virus, are self-limited illnesses that do not require specific antiviral therapy. The currently available antiviral drugs target 3 main groups of viruses: herpes, hepatitis, and influenza viruses. With the exception of the antisense molecule fomivirsen, all antiherpes drugs inhibit viral replication by serving as competitive substrates for viral DNA polymerase. Drugs for the treatment of influenza inhibit the ion channel M2 protein or the enzyme neuraminidase. Combination therapy with Interferon-? and ribavirin remains the backbone treatment for chronic hepatitis C; the addition of serine protease inhibitors improves the treatment outcome of patients infected with hepatitis C virus genotype 1. Chronic hepatitis B can be treated with interferon or a combination of nucleos(t)ide analogues. Notably, almost all the nucleos(t) ide analogues for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B possess anti–human immunodeficiency virus properties, and they inhibit replication of hepatitis B virus by serving as competitive substrates for its DNA polymerase. Some antiviral drugs possess multiple potential clinical applications, such as ribavirin for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C and respiratory syncytial virus and cidofovir for the treatment of cytomegalovirus and other DNA viruses. Drug resistance is an emerging threat to the clinical utility of antiviral drugs. The major mechanisms for drug resistance are mutations in the viral DNA polymerase gene or in genes that encode for the viral kinases required for the activation of certain drugs such as acyclovir and ganciclovir. Widespread antiviral resistance has limited the clinical utility of M2 inhibitors for the prevention and treatment of influenza infections. This article provides an overview of clinically available antiviral drugs for the primary care physician, with a special focus on pharmacology, clinical uses, and adverse effects.

Razonable, Raymund R.

2011-01-01

292

Antiviral drugs for viruses other than human immunodeficiency virus.  

PubMed

Most viral diseases, with the exception of those caused by human immunodeficiency virus, are self-limited illnesses that do not require specific antiviral therapy. The currently available antiviral drugs target 3 main groups of viruses: herpes, hepatitis, and influenza viruses. With the exception of the antisense molecule fomivirsen, all antiherpes drugs inhibit viral replication by serving as competitive substrates for viral DNA polymerase. Drugs for the treatment of influenza inhibit the ion channel M(2) protein or the enzyme neuraminidase. Combination therapy with Interferon-? and ribavirin remains the backbone treatment for chronic hepatitis C; the addition of serine protease inhibitors improves the treatment outcome of patients infected with hepatitis C virus genotype 1. Chronic hepatitis B can be treated with interferon or a combination of nucleos(t)ide analogues. Notably, almost all the nucleos(t) ide analogues for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B possess anti-human immunodeficiency virus properties, and they inhibit replication of hepatitis B virus by serving as competitive substrates for its DNA polymerase. Some antiviral drugs possess multiple potential clinical applications, such as ribavirin for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C and respiratory syncytial virus and cidofovir for the treatment of cytomegalovirus and other DNA viruses. Drug resistance is an emerging threat to the clinical utility of antiviral drugs. The major mechanisms for drug resistance are mutations in the viral DNA polymerase gene or in genes that encode for the viral kinases required for the activation of certain drugs such as acyclovir and ganciclovir. Widespread antiviral resistance has limited the clinical utility of M(2) inhibitors for the prevention and treatment of influenza infections. This article provides an overview of clinically available antiviral drugs for the primary care physician, with a special focus on pharmacology, clinical uses, and adverse effects. PMID:21964179

Razonable, Raymund R

2011-10-01

293

Adeno-associated virus: from defective virus to effective vector  

PubMed Central

The initial discovery of adeno-associated virus (AAV) mixed with adenovirus particles was not a fortuitous one but rather an expression of AAV biology. Indeed, as it came to be known, in addition to the unavoidable host cell, AAV typically needs a so-called helper virus such as adenovirus to replicate. Since the AAV life cycle revolves around another unrelated virus it was dubbed a satellite virus. However, the structural simplicity plus the defective and non-pathogenic character of this satellite virus caused recombinant forms to acquire centre-stage prominence in the current constellation of vectors for human gene therapy. In the present review, issues related to the development of recombinant AAV (rAAV) vectors, from the general principle to production methods, tropism modifications and other emerging technologies are discussed. In addition, the accumulating knowledge regarding the mechanisms of rAAV genome transduction and persistence is reviewed. The topics on rAAV vectorology are supplemented with information on the parental virus biology with an emphasis on aspects that directly impact on vector design and performance such as genome replication, genetic structure, and host cell entry.

Goncalves, Manuel AFV

2005-01-01

294

Adeno-associated virus: from defective virus to effective vector.  

PubMed

The initial discovery of adeno-associated virus (AAV) mixed with adenovirus particles was not a fortuitous one but rather an expression of AAV biology. Indeed, as it came to be known, in addition to the unavoidable host cell, AAV typically needs a so-called helper virus such as adenovirus to replicate. Since the AAV life cycle revolves around another unrelated virus it was dubbed a satellite virus. However, the structural simplicity plus the defective and non-pathogenic character of this satellite virus caused recombinant forms to acquire centre-stage prominence in the current constellation of vectors for human gene therapy. In the present review, issues related to the development of recombinant AAV (rAAV) vectors, from the general principle to production methods, tropism modifications and other emerging technologies are discussed. In addition, the accumulating knowledge regarding the mechanisms of rAAV genome transduction and persistence is reviewed. The topics on rAAV vectorology are supplemented with information on the parental virus biology with an emphasis on aspects that directly impact on vector design and performance such as genome replication, genetic structure, and host cell entry. PMID:15877812

Gonçalves, Manuel A F V

2005-01-01

295

Human immunodeficiency virus endocrinopathy  

PubMed Central

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) endocrinopathy encompasses a broad spectrum of disorders. Almost all the endocrine organs are virtually affected by HIV infection. HIV can directly alter glandular function. More commonly secondary endocrine dysfunction occurs due to opportunistic infections and neoplasms in immunocompromised state. The complex interaction between HIV infection and endocrine system may be manifested as subtle biochemical and hormonal perturbation to overt glandular failure. Antiretroviral therapy as well as other essential medications often result in adverse endocrinal consequences. Apart from adrenal insufficiency, hypogonadism, diabetes and bone loss, AIDS wasting syndrome and HIV lipodystrophy need special reference. Endocrinal evaluation should proceed as in other patients with suspected endocrine dysfunction. Available treatment options have been shown to improve quality of life and long-term mortality in AIDS patients.

Sinha, Uma; Sengupta, Nilanjan; Mukhopadhyay, Prasanta; Roy, Keshab Sinha

2011-01-01

296

Hepatitis C virus kinetics.  

PubMed

The balance of virus production and clearance for untreated patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) results in a decline of viraemia when initiating active antiviral treatment. During the first phase of interferon-alpha therapy, after a delay of about 8-9 h, the kinetics of the viral load is characterized by a rapid dose-dependent decline. This early response can be observed for almost all patients treated with interferon-alpha. After about 24-48 h, the viral decline enters a second phase of relatively slow exponential decay during the following weeks of therapy. Non-responding patients, however, show constant viraemia or even a rebound during this second phase. The rate of the exponential decline of the viral load in responding patients in this second phase is less sensitive to the dose of interferon-alpha and varies considerably among patients. Furthermore, combination therapy with interferon-alpha plus ribavirin does not significantly improve the initial viral decay, although it may prevent more patients from rebounding. Mathematical modelling of viral dynamics reveals high turnover rates of pre-treatment viral production and clearance, and permits the estimation of in vivo half-lives of a few hours for free HCV virions and of 1-70 days for productively infected cells. Infected cell death rate, which determines the second phase decline slope, is predictive of response to treatment. Current models indicate that the early biphasic viral decline is explained if interferon-alpha partially blocks virion production from infected cells, yet they do not rule out additional antiviral or immunological effects. Therapeutic implications are the advisability of use of frequent (daily) and comparatively high initial doses. In conclusion, kinetic analysis of the viral decay during the first weeks of treatment permits the prediction of response at the end-of-therapy and might help to evaluate new drugs and to optimize therapy. PMID:10971860

Herrmann, E; Neumann, A U; Schmidt, J M; Zeuzem, S

2000-06-01

297

[An update on Lassa virus].  

PubMed

Lassa virus, the etiologic agent of Lassa hemorrhagic fever, infects 100,000 to 300,000 people every year in West Africa with an overall mortality rate ranging from 1 to 2%. It was discovered in 1969 and remains a significant public health risk in endemic areas. Because airborne transmission is possible and mortality can be high under certain conditions, Lassa virus has been classified as a category A bioterrorism agent. Early diagnosis is difficult due to insidious non-specific onset and to the great genetic divergence of the virus that makes RT-PCR assays unreliable. The lack of proper diagnostic tools promotes nosocomial infection and diminishes the efficacy of treatment. Recently, numerous advances have been made in the development of both diagnostic and vaccination techniques. The purpose of this review is to present an update on that research as well as the current epidemiology of Lassa virus. PMID:22393616

Leparc-Goffart, I; Emonet, S F

2011-12-01

298

Virus Transport through Solid Beds.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A theoretical model for predicting the breakthrough curve of viruses from solid beds is developed. This model includes the percolation of contaminated water through clean solid beds (saturation) and of uncontaminated water through contaminated beds (eluti...

S. Sundaram

1977-01-01

299

Novel vaccines against influenza viruses  

PubMed Central

Killed and live attenuated influenza virus vaccines are effective in preventing and curbing the spread of influenza epidemics when the strains present in the vaccines are closely matched with the predicted epidemic strains. These vaccines are primarily targeted to induce immunity to the variable major target antigen, hemagglutinin (HA) of influenza virus. However, current vaccines are not effective in preventing the emergence of new pandemic or highly virulent viruses. New approaches are being investigated to develop universal influenza virus vaccines as well as to apply more effective vaccine delivery methods. Conserved vaccine targets including the influenza M2 ion channel protein and HA stalk domains are being developed using recombinant technologies to improve the level of cross protection. In addition, recent studies provide evidence that vaccine supplements can provide avenues to further improve current vaccination.

Kang, Sang-Moo; Song, Jae-Min; Compans, Richard W.

2011-01-01

300

Viruses of eukaryotice green algae  

SciTech Connect

The primary objective of our research was to develop the Chlorella-PBCV-1 virus system so that it can be used as a model system for studying gene expression in a photosynthetic eukaryote. We have made considerable progress and have learned much about PBCV-1 and its replication cycle. In addition, several significant discoveries were made in the last 3 to 4 years. These discoveries include: (i) the finding that morphologically similar, plaque forming, dsDNA containing viruses are common in nature and can be isolated readily from fresh water, (ii) the finding that all of these Chlorella viruses contain methylated bases which range in concentration from 0.1% to 47.5% m{sup 5}dC and 0 to 37% m{sup 6}dA and (iii) the discovery that infection with at least some of these viruses induces the appearance of DNA modification/restriction systems. 26 refs.

Van Etten, J.L.

1989-01-01

301

Coronavirus avian infectious bronchitis virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), the coronavirus of the chicken (Gallus gallus), is one of the foremost causes of economic loss within the poultry industry, affecting the performance of both meat-type and egg-laying birds. The virus replicates not only in the epithelium of upper and lower respiratory tract tissues, but also in many tissues along the alimentary tract and elsewhere e.g.

Dave Cavanagh

2007-01-01

302

Movement of Viruses between Biomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Viruses are abundant in all known ecosystems. In the present study, we tested the possibility that viruses from one biome can successfully propagate in another. Viral concentrates were prepared from different near-shore marine sites, lake water, marine sediments, and soil. The concentrates were added to microcosms containing dissolved organic matter as a food source (after filtration to allow 100-kDa particles

Emiko Sano; Suzanne Carlson; Linda Wegley; Forest Rohwer

2004-01-01

303

Membrane Proteins in Plant Viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is clear that MPs play an essential role in the pathogenesis and movement within the plant of many plant viruses. However,\\u000a studies of the structure and function of such proteins are still in their infancy. Substantial progress may be expected in\\u000a the next few years, particularly in the area of cell-to-cell movement where viruses are proving useful tools to

Michael J. Adams; John F. Antoniw

304

Determinants of virulence of influenza A virus  

PubMed Central

Influenza A viruses cause yearly seasonal epidemics and occasional global pandemics in humans. In the last century, four human influenza A virus pandemics have occured. Ocasionally, influenza A viruses that circulate in other species, cross the species barrier and infect humans. Virus re-assortment (i.e. mixing of gene segments of multiple viruses) and the accumulation of mutations contribute to the emergence of new influenza A virus variants. Fortunately, most of these variants do not have the ability to spread among humans and subsequently cause a pandemic. In this review we focus on the threat of animal influenza A viruses which have shown the ability to infect humans. In addition, genetic factors which could alter the virulence of influenza A viruses are discussed. Identification and characterization of these factors may provide insights into genetic traits which change virulence and help us to understand which genetic determinants are of importance for the pandemic potential of animal influenza A viruses.

Schrauwen, Eefje J.A.; de Graaf, Miranda; Herfst, Sander; Rimmelzwaan, Guus F.; Osterhaus, Albert D.M.E.; Fouchier, Ron A.M.

2013-01-01

305

PC viruses: How do they do that  

SciTech Connect

The topic of PC Viruses has been an issue for a number of years now. They've been reported in every major newspaper, tabloids, television and radio. People from all fields get viruses: government, private sector businesses, home computers, schools, computer software suppliers. A definition is proposed to introduce the virus phenomenon. Virus authors come from a variety of communities. Motives and ideologies of authors are discussed, and examples of viruses are offered. Also mentioned is the growing number of viruses developed, isolated, and never distributed to the public at large, but kept within the antivirus research community. Virus examples are offered as well. Viruses are distributed not only through bulletin boards and shareware, but also from areas previously assumed to be safe, including the threat of receiving a virus through a standard in-house function, such as an in-house hardware maintenance shop. Three categories of viruses are presented: File Infecter viruses, Boot Sector Infecters, and the new category of Directory Entry Infecter virus. Also discussed are crossover viruses, that is, viruses which utilize a variety of techniques to ensure survival. An explanation of what is occurring within every stage of various viruses is given. Replication strategies common to all three types is noted, mainly the two different replication strategies of memory resident infecters and active selection infecters. A detailed definition, description and application of a stealth virus is presented. Detection strategies are discussed as each topic in this section is completed; a high level schemata of the operation of various virus detection programs ispresented. Since most eradication today is done using virus detection/eradication software, this paper attempts to reveal the techniques used by these packages.Included in the paper is the topic of manual eradication.

Pichnarczyk, K.

1992-07-01

306

PC viruses: How do they do that?  

SciTech Connect

The topic of PC Viruses has been an issue for a number of years now. They`ve been reported in every major newspaper, tabloids, television and radio. People from all fields get viruses: government, private sector businesses, home computers, schools, computer software suppliers. A definition is proposed to introduce the virus phenomenon. Virus authors come from a variety of communities. Motives and ideologies of authors are discussed, and examples of viruses are offered. Also mentioned is the growing number of viruses developed, isolated, and never distributed to the public at large, but kept within the antivirus research community. Virus examples are offered as well. Viruses are distributed not only through bulletin boards and shareware, but also from areas previously assumed to be safe, including the threat of receiving a virus through a standard in-house function, such as an in-house hardware maintenance shop. Three categories of viruses are presented: File Infecter viruses, Boot Sector Infecters, and the new category of Directory Entry Infecter virus. Also discussed are crossover viruses, that is, viruses which utilize a variety of techniques to ensure survival. An explanation of what is occurring within every stage of various viruses is given. Replication strategies common to all three types is noted, mainly the two different replication strategies of memory resident infecters and active selection infecters. A detailed definition, description and application of a stealth virus is presented. Detection strategies are discussed as each topic in this section is completed; a high level schemata of the operation of various virus detection programs ispresented. Since most eradication today is done using virus detection/eradication software, this paper attempts to reveal the techniques used by these packages.Included in the paper is the topic of manual eradication.

Pichnarczyk, K.

1992-07-01

307

Circulating avian influenza viruses closely related to the 1918 virus have pandemic potential.  

PubMed

Wild birds harbor a large gene pool of influenza A viruses that have the potential to cause influenza pandemics. Foreseeing and understanding this potential is important for effective surveillance. Our phylogenetic and geographic analyses revealed the global prevalence of avian influenza virus genes whose proteins differ only a few amino acids from the 1918 pandemic influenza virus, suggesting that 1918-like pandemic viruses may emerge in the future. To assess this risk, we generated and characterized a virus composed of avian influenza viral segments with high homology to the 1918 virus. This virus exhibited pathogenicity in mice and ferrets higher than that in an authentic avian influenza virus. Further, acquisition of seven amino acid substitutions in the viral polymerases and the hemagglutinin surface glycoprotein conferred respiratory droplet transmission to the 1918-like avian virus in ferrets, demonstrating that contemporary avian influenza viruses with 1918 virus-like proteins may have pandemic potential. PMID:24922572

Watanabe, Tokiko; Zhong, Gongxun; Russell, Colin A; Nakajima, Noriko; Hatta, Masato; Hanson, Anthony; McBride, Ryan; Burke, David F; Takahashi, Kenta; Fukuyama, Satoshi; Tomita, Yuriko; Maher, Eileen A; Watanabe, Shinji; Imai, Masaki; Neumann, Gabriele; Hasegawa, Hideki; Paulson, James C; Smith, Derek J; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro

2014-06-11

308

Foodborne viruses: an emerging problem.  

PubMed

Several groups of viruses may infect persons after ingestion and then are shed via stool. Of these, the norovirus (NoV) and hepatitis A virus (HAV) are currently recognised as the most important human foodborne pathogens with regard to the number of outbreaks and people affected in the Western world. NoV and HAV are highly infectious and may lead to widespread outbreaks. The clinical manifestation of NoV infection, however, is relatively mild. Asymptomatic infections are common and may contribute to the spread of the infection. Introduction of NoV in a community or population (a seeding event) may be followed by additional spread because of the highly infectious nature of NoV, resulting in a great number of secondary infections (50% of contacts). Hepatitis A is an increasing problem because of the decrease in immunity of populations in countries with high standards of hygiene. Molecular-based methods can detect viruses in shellfish but are not yet available for other foods. The applicability of the methods currently available for monitoring foods for viral contamination is unknown. No consistent correlation has been found between the presence of indicator microorganisms (i.e. bacteriophages, E. coli) and viruses. NoV and HAV are highly infectious and exhibit variable levels of resistance to heat and disinfection agents. However, they are both inactivated at 100 degrees C. No validated model virus or model system is available for studies of inactivation of NoV, although investigations could make use of structurally similar viruses (i.e. canine and feline caliciviruses). In the absence of a model virus or model system, food safety guidelines need to be based on studies that have been performed with the most resistant enteric RNA viruses (i.e. HAV, for which a model system does exist) and also with bacteriophages (for water). Most documented foodborne viral outbreaks can be traced to food that has been manually handled by an infected foodhandler, rather than to industrially processed foods. The viral contamination of food can occur anywhere in the process from farm to fork, but most foodborne viral infections can be traced back to infected persons who handle food that is not heated or otherwise treated afterwards. Therefore, emphasis should be on stringent personal hygiene during preparation. If viruses are present in food preprocessing, residual viral infectivity may be present after some industrial processes. Therefore, it is key that sufficient attention be given to good agriculture practice (GAP) and good manufacturing practice (GMP) to avoid introduction of viruses onto the raw material and into the food-manufacturing environment, and to HACCP to assure adequate management of (control over) viruses present during the manufacturing process. If viruses are present in foods after processing, they remain infectious in most circumstances and in most foods for several days or weeks, especially if kept cooled (at 4 degrees C). Therefore, emphasis should be on stringent personal hygiene during preparation. For the control of foodborne viral infections, it is necessary to: Heighten awareness about the presence and spread of these viruses by foodhandlers; Optimise and standardise methods for the detection of foodborne viruses; Develop laboratory-based surveillance to detect large, common-source outbreaks at an early stage; and Emphasise consideration of viruses in setting up food safety quality control and management systems (GHP, GMP, HACCP). PMID:14672828

Koopmans, Marion; Duizer, Erwin

2004-01-01

309

40 CFR 174.514 - Coat Protein of Watermelon Mosaic Virus-2 and Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus; exemption from the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Coat Protein of Watermelon Mosaic Virus-2 and Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus; exemption from the requirement for a tolerance...174.514 Coat Protein of Watermelon Mosaic Virus-2 and Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus;...

2013-07-01

310

Engineered resistance in potato against potato leafroll virus, potato virus A and potato virus Y.  

PubMed

Transgenic potato plants of Solanum tuberosum cultivar Vales Sovereign were generated that expressed fused, tandem, 200 bp segments derived from the capsid protein coding sequences of potato virus Y (PVY strain O) and potato leafroll virus (PLRV), as well as the cylindrical inclusion body coding sequences of potato virus A (PVA), as inverted repeat double-stranded RNAs, separated by an intron. The orientation of the expressed double-stranded RNAs was either sense-intron-antisense or antisense-intron-sense RNAs, and the double-stranded RNAs were processed into small RNAs. Four lines of such transgenic potato plants were assessed for resistance to infection by PVY-O, PLRV, or PVA, all transmitted by a natural vector, the green-peach aphid, Myzus persicae. Resistance was assessed by the absence of detectable virus accumulation in the foliage. All four transgenic potato lines tested showed 100% resistance to infection by either PVY-O or PVA, but variable resistance to infection by PLRV, ranging from 72 to 96% in different lines. This was regardless of the orientation of the viral inserts in the construct used to generate the transgenic plants and the gene copy number of the transgene. This demonstrates the potential for using tandem, fused viral segments and the inverted-repeat expression system to achieve multiple virus resistance to viruses transmitted by aphids in potato. PMID:23526159

Chung, Bong Nam; Yoon, Ju-Yeon; Palukaitis, Peter

2013-08-01

311

Immunological Memory after Exposure to Variola Virus, Monkeypox Virus, and Vaccinia Virus  

PubMed Central

We compared cellular and humoral immunity to vaccinia virus (VV) in individuals exposed to 3 different orthopoxviruses: 154 individuals previously vaccinated with VV, 7 individuals with a history of monkeypox virus infection, and 8 individuals with a history of variola virus infection. Among individuals vaccinated >20 years prior, 9 (14%) of 66 individuals demonstrated VV-specific interferon (IFN)-? enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assay responses; 21 (50%) of 42 had lymphoproliferative (LP) responses, and 29 (97%) of 30 had VV-specific neutralizing antibodies. One year after monkeypox virus infection, 6 of 7 individuals had IFN-? ELISPOT responses, all had VV-specific LP responses, and 3 of 7 had VV-specific neutralizing antibodies. Of 8 individuals with a history of variola virus infection, 1 had a VV-specific IFN-? ELISPOT response, 4 had LP responses against whole VV, 7 had LP responses against heat-denatured vaccinia antigen, and 7 had VV-specific neutralizing antibodies. Survivors of variola virus infection demonstrated VV-specific CD4 memory cell responses and neutralizing antibodies >40 years after infection.

Sivapalasingam, Sumathi; Kennedy, Jeffrey S.; Borkowsky, William; Valentine, Fred; Zhan, Ming-Xia; Pazoles, Pamela; Paolino, Anna; Ennis, Francis A.; Steigbigel, Neal H.

2007-01-01

312

Comparison of cowpox-like viruses isolated from European zoos  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Poxviruses isolated from captive carnivores in Russia (Moscow virus) and elephants in Germany (elephant virus) were very closely-related to cowpox virus. Immunological analysis with absorbed sera separated elephant virus but not cowpox and Moscow virus, whereas polypeptide analysis separated cowpox but not elephant and Moscow virus. A combination of biological tests separated all three. The epidemiological implications are briefly

D. Baxby; W. B. Shackleton; Jean Wheeler; A. Turner

1979-01-01

313

Performance of Virus Resistant Transgenic Yellow Summer Squash in Alabama  

Microsoft Academic Search

Production of summer squash in Alabama and the southeastern United States is generally limited to spring and early summer due to the abundance of aphid transmitted viruses during the late summer and fall. Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), Watermelon mosaic virus (WMV), Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV), and Papaya ring spot virus (PRSV) are the most common viruses affecting Cucurbits in

Edward J. Sikora; John F. Murphy; Jason Burkett

2006-01-01

314

Viruses and viruslike particles of eukaryotic algae.  

PubMed Central

Until recently there was little interest or information on viruses and viruslike particles of eukaryotic algae. However, this situation is changing. In the past decade many large double-stranded DNA-containing viruses that infect two culturable, unicellular, eukaryotic green algae have been discovered. These viruses can be produced in large quantities, assayed by plaque formation, and analyzed by standard bacteriophage techniques. The viruses are structurally similar to animal iridoviruses, their genomes are similar to but larger (greater than 300 kbp) than that of poxviruses, and their infection process resembles that of bacteriophages. Some of the viruses have DNAs with low levels of methylated bases, whereas others have DNAs with high concentrations of 5-methylcytosine and N6-methyladenine. Virus-encoded DNA methyltransferases are associated with the methylation and are accompanied by virus-encoded DNA site-specific (restriction) endonucleases. Some of these enzymes have sequence specificities identical to those of known bacterial enzymes, and others have previously unrecognized specificities. A separate rod-shaped RNA-containing algal virus has structural and nucleotide sequence affinities to higher plant viruses. Quite recently, viruses have been associated with rapid changes in marine algal populations. In the next decade we envision the discovery of new algal viruses, clarification of their role in various ecosystems, discovery of commercially useful genes in these viruses, and exploitation of algal virus genetic elements in plant and algal biotechnology. Images

Van Etten, J L; Lane, L C; Meints, R H

1991-01-01

315

Adaptive Mutations in Sindbis Virus E2 and Ross River Virus E1 That Allow Efficient Budding of Chimeric Viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alphavirus glycoproteins E2 and E1 form a heterodimer that is required for virus assembly. We have studied adaptive mutations in E2 of Sindbis virus (SIN) and E1 of Ross River virus (RR) that allow these two glycoproteins to interact more efficiently in a chimeric virus that has SIN E2 but RR E1. These mutations include K129E, K131E, and V237F in

KYONGMIN HWANG KIM; ELLEN G. STRAUSS; JAMES H. STRAUSS

2000-01-01

316

Recovery of Virus Samples from Various Surfaces with the Integrated Virus Detection System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Viruses are known to survive in environmental settings over various time periods. This study will show that certain viruses survive for a 24 h period, and certain viruses do not survive, depending on the substrate with which the viruses are in contact.

C. H. Wick P. E. McCubbin

2010-01-01

317

Avian-human reassortant influenza A viruses derived by mating avian and human influenza A viruses.  

PubMed

Reassortant influenza A viruses were produced by mating an avian virus (A/Mallard/NY/78, A/Mallard/Alberta/78, or A/Pintail/Alberta/79) with a wild-type human influenza A virus. From each mating a reassortant virus was obtained that contained the genes coding for the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase surface antigens of the human influenza A wild-type virus and the six other RNA segments ("internal genes") of the avian influenza A virus parent. The avian-human reassortant influenza viruses produced resembled their avian virus parent in that they produced plaques on MDCK monolayers at 42 C, a temperature restrictive for the human influenza viruses. In the trachea of squirrel monkeys, each avian-human reassortant influenza virus was as restricted in its replication as was its avian influenza virus parent. Thus, one or more of the six internal genes of each avian parent virus was responsible for restriction of the reassortant virus in monkeys. The A/Washington/80 X A/Mallard/NY/78 reassortant virus retained its phenotype of restricted replication in monkeys after five serial passages in vivo. It also failed to transmit to cagemates or induce resistance to wild-type virus challenge, and it did not initiate a systemic or enteric infection. These findings form the basis for evaluation of these attenuated avian-human reassortant influenza A viruses as live attenuated vaccines for humans. PMID:6501928

Murphy, B R; Buckler-White, A J; London, W T; Harper, J; Tierney, E L; Miller, N T; Reck, L J; Chanock, R M; Hinshaw, V S

1984-12-01

318

Genetic Diversity in RNA Virus Quasispecies Is Controlled by Host-Virus Interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many RNA viruses have genetically diverse populations known as quasispecies. Important biological char- acteristics may be related to the levels of diversity in the quasispecies (quasispecies cloud size), including adaptability and host range. Previous work using Tobacco mosaic virus and Cucumber mosaic virus indicated that evolutionarily related viruses have very different levels of diversity in a common host. The quasispecies

WILLIAM L. SCHNEIDER; MARILYN J. ROOSSINCK

2001-01-01

319

Mouse Neuroinvasive Phenotype of West Nile Virus Strains Varies Depending upon Virus Genotype  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite recent advances in the genetics of West Nile (WN) virus, relatively little is known about the molecular basis of virulence of this virus. In particular, although the genotype of the WN virus strain that was recently introduced into North America has been determined, there have been few experimental studies on the virulence phenotype of the virus. We compared genetic

David W. C. Beasley; Li Li; Miguel T. Suderman; Alan D. T. Barrett

2002-01-01

320

Coping with Computer Viruses: General Discussion and Review of Symantec Anti-Virus for the Macintosh.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses computer viruses that attack the Macintosh and describes Symantec AntiVirus for Macintosh (SAM), a commercial program designed to detect and eliminate viruses; sample screen displays are included. SAM is recommended for use in library settings as well as two public domain virus protection programs. (four references) (MES)

Primich, Tracy

1992-01-01

321

Dengue viruses - an overview  

PubMed Central

Dengue viruses (DENVs) cause the most common arthropod-borne viral disease in man with 50–100 million infections per year. Because of the lack of a vaccine and antiviral drugs, the sole measure of control is limiting the Aedes mosquito vectors. DENV infection can be asymptomatic or a self-limited, acute febrile disease ranging in severity. The classical form of dengue fever (DF) is characterized by high fever, headache, stomach ache, rash, myalgia, and arthralgia. Severe dengue, dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF), and dengue shock syndrome (DSS) are accompanied by thrombocytopenia, vascular leakage, and hypotension. DSS, which can be fatal, is characterized by systemic shock. Despite intensive research, the underlying mechanisms causing severe dengue is still not well understood partly due to the lack of appropriate animal models of infection and disease. However, even though it is clear that both viral and host factors play important roles in the course of infection, a fundamental knowledge gap still remains to be filled regarding host cell tropism, crucial host immune response mechanisms, and viral markers for virulence.

Back, Anne Tuiskunen; Lundkvist, Ake

2013-01-01

322

Hepatitis B virus morphogenesis  

PubMed Central

The hepatitis B virus (HBV) particle consists of an envelope containing three related surface proteins and probably lipid and an icosahedral nucleocapsid of approximately 30 nm diameter enclosing the viral DNA genome and DNA polymerase. The capsid is formed in the cytosol of the infected cell during packaging of an RNA pregenome replication complex by multiple copies of a 21-kDa C protein. The capsid gains the ability to bud during synthesis of the viral DNA genome by reverse transcription of the pregenome in the lumen of the particle. The three envelope proteins S, M, and L shape a complex transmembrane fold at the endoplasmic reticulum, and form disulfide-linked homo- and heterodimers. The transmembrane topology of a fraction of the large envelope protein L changes post-translationally, therefore, the N terminal domain of L (preS) finally appears on both sides of the membrane. During budding at an intracellular membrane, a short linear domain in the cytosolic preS region interacts with binding sites on the capsid surface. The virions are subsequently secreted into the blood. In addition, the surface proteins can bud in the absence of capsids and form subviral lipoprotein particles of 20 nm diameter which are also secreted.

Bruss, Volker

2007-01-01

323

Hepatitis B virus replication  

PubMed Central

Hepadnaviruses, including human hepatitis B virus (HBV), replicate through reverse transcription of an RNA intermediate, the pregenomic RNA (pgRNA). Despite this kinship to retroviruses, there are fundamental differences beyond the fact that hepadnavirions contain DNA instead of RNA. Most peculiar is the initiation of reverse transcription: it occurs by protein-priming, is strictly committed to using an RNA hairpin on the pgRNA, ?, as template, and depends on cellular chaperones; moreover, proper replication can apparently occur only in the specialized environment of intact nucleocapsids. This complexity has hampered an in-depth mechanistic understanding. The recent successful reconstitution in the test tube of active replication initiation complexes from purified components, for duck HBV (DHBV), now allows for the analysis of the biochemistry of hepadnaviral replication at the molecular level. Here we review the current state of knowledge at all steps of the hepadnaviral genome replication cycle, with emphasis on new insights that turned up by the use of such cell-free systems. At this time, they can, unfortunately, not be complemented by three-dimensional structural information on the involved components. However, at least for the ? RNA element such information is emerging, raising expectations that combining biophysics with biochemistry and genetics will soon provide a powerful integrated approach for solving the many outstanding questions. The ultimate, though most challenging goal, will be to visualize the hepadnaviral reverse transcriptase in the act of synthesizing DNA, which will also have strong implications for drug development.

Beck, Juergen; Nassal, Michael

2007-01-01

324

Induction of protective immunity in swine by recombinant bamboo mosaic virus expressing foot-and-mouth disease virus epitopes  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Plant viruses can be employed as versatile vectors for the production of vaccines by expressing immunogenic epitopes on the surface of chimeric viral particles. Although several viruses, including tobacco mosaic virus, potato virus X and cowpea mosaic virus, have been developed as vectors, we aimed to develop a new viral vaccine delivery system, a bamboo mosaic virus (BaMV), that

Chung-Da Yang; Jia-Teh Liao; Chen-Yen Lai; Ming-Hwa Jong; Chi-Ming Liang; Yeou-Liang Lin; Na-Sheng Lin; Yau-Heiu Hsu; Shu-Mei Liang

2007-01-01

325

Autophagic machinery activated by dengue virus enhances virus replication  

SciTech Connect

Autophagy is a cellular response against stresses which include the infection of viruses and bacteria. We unravel that Dengue virus-2 (DV2) can trigger autophagic process in various infected cell lines demonstrated by GFP-LC3 dot formation and increased LC3-II formation. Autophagosome formation was also observed under the transmission electron microscope. DV2-induced autophagy further enhances the titers of extracellular and intracellular viruses indicating that autophagy can promote viral replication in the infected cells. Moreover, our data show that ATG5 protein is required to execute DV2-induced autophagy. All together, we are the first to demonstrate that DV can activate autophagic machinery that is favorable for viral replication.

Lee, Y.-R. [Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Lei, H.-Y. [Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Department of Microbiology and Immunology, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Liu, M.-T. [Tainan Hospital, Department of Health, Executive Yuan, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Wang, J.-R. [Department of Medical Laboratory Science and Biotechnology, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Chen, S.-H. [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Jiang-Shieh, Y.-F. [Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Lin, Y.-S. [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Yeh, T.-M. [Department of Medical Laboratory Science and Biotechnology, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Liu, C.-C. [Department of Pediatrics, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Liu, H.-S. [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: a713@mail.ncku.edu.tw

2008-05-10

326

West Nile Virus in the Workplace  

MedlinePLUS

... 2003]. West Nile Virus Infection Among Turkey Breeder Farm Workers --- Wisconsin, 2002. MMWR 52(42): 1017-1019. ... and Health Topics Industries & Occupations Hazards & Exposures Diseases & Injuries West Nile Virus Questions and Answers Safety & Prevention ...

327

Towards a Vaccine Against Ebola Virus.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Ebola virus infection causes hemorrhagic fever with high mortality rates in humans and nonhuman primates. Currently, there are no vaccines or therapies approved for human use. Outbreaks of Ebola virus have been infrequent, largely confined to remote locat...

T. W. Geisbert P. B. Jahrling

2003-01-01

328

Cultivation of Hepatitis Virus in Tissue Culture.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A major step in the cultivation of hepatitis virus and the eventual development of a viral vaccine revolves about the development of appropriate substrates. Hepatitis virus is known to grow rapidly and successfully in liver in vivo. If appropriate tissue ...

G. L. Gitnick

1973-01-01

329

Pathogenesis of Sendai Virus Infection in Mice.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Mice experimentally exposed to Sendai virus (Myxovirus parainfluenza type I) by aerosol developed virus titers in both nasal washings and lungs that peaked at 5 or 6 days after exposure and disappeared by 12 days after exposure. Hemagglutination-inhibitio...

J. M. Reddecliff L. H. Appell P. J. Gerone R. M. Kovatch

1970-01-01

330

Heat Shock Response and Virus Replication.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The present invention discloses a method of inhibiting heat shock protein-dependent virus replication in cells and in animals. The present invention also discloses a method of identifying compounds which inhibit heat shock protein-dependent virus replicat...

P. Moseley M. Cotten B. Hjelle A. Panganiban P. C. Angeletti

2005-01-01

331

Host Parasite Relationships of Chimpanzee Viruses.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Throat and fecal specimens collected in four sampling from chimpanzees resulted in recovery of 79 viruses from 53 of 187 chimpanzees. Fecal specimens collected from chimpanzees recently imported from Africa resulted in recovery of one or more viruses from...

F. Coulston K. F. Soike

1969-01-01

332

Disappearance of Chikungunya Virus from Bangkok.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Although infections with Chikungunya virus were common in Bangkok during the 1960's and early 1970's, disease surveillance during the period 1979-1982 indicated that infections with this virus had virtually ceased.

D. S. Burke A. Nisalak S. Nimmannitya

1985-01-01

333

West Nile Virus: Symptoms and Treatment  

MedlinePLUS

... Education Public Service Videos West Nile Virus in Spanish Preguntas frecuentes: Preguntas generales sobre el virus del Nilo Occidental en Español (Spanish) Síntomas y tratamiento en Español (Spanish) Prevención y ...

334

West Nile Virus: Prevention and Control  

MedlinePLUS

... Education Public Service Videos West Nile Virus in Spanish Preguntas frecuentes: Preguntas generales sobre el virus del Nilo Occidental en Español (Spanish) Síntomas y tratamiento en Español (Spanish) Prevención y ...

335

FAQ: General Questions about West Nile Virus  

MedlinePLUS

... Education Public Service Videos West Nile Virus in Spanish Preguntas frecuentes: Preguntas generales sobre el virus del Nilo Occidental en Español (Spanish) Síntomas y tratamiento en Español (Spanish) Prevención y ...

336

Electrical detection of single viruses  

PubMed Central

We report direct, real-time electrical detection of single virus particles with high selectivity by using nanowire field effect transistors. Measurements made with nanowire arrays modified with antibodies for influenza A showed discrete conductance changes characteristic of binding and unbinding in the presence of influenza A but not paramyxovirus or adenovirus. Simultaneous electrical and optical measurements using fluorescently labeled influenza A were used to demonstrate conclusively that the conductance changes correspond to binding/unbinding of single viruses at the surface of nanowire devices. pH-dependent studies further show that the detection mechanism is caused by a field effect, and that the nanowire devices can be used to determine rapidly isoelectric points and variations in receptor-virus binding kinetics for different conditions. Lastly, studies of nanowire devices modified with antibodies specific for either influenza or adenovirus show that multiple viruses can be selectively detected in parallel. The possibility of large-scale integration of these nanowire devices suggests potential for simultaneous detection of a large number of distinct viral threats at the single virus level.

Patolsky, Fernando; Zheng, Gengfeng; Hayden, Oliver; Lakadamyali, Melike; Zhuang, Xiaowei; Lieber, Charles M.

2004-01-01

337

Droplet Microfluidics for Virus Discovery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ability to detect, isolate, and characterize an infectious agent is important for diagnosing and curing infectious diseases. Detecting new viral diseases is a challenge because the number of virus particles is often low and/or localized to a small subset of cells. Even if a new virus is detected, it is difficult to isolate it from clinical or environmental samples where multiple viruses are present each with very different properties. Isolation is crucial for whole genome sequencing because reconstructing a genome from fragments of many different genomes is practically impossible. We present a Droplet Microfluidics platform that can detect, isolate and sequence single viral genomes from complex samples containing mixtures of many viruses. We use metagenomic information about the sample of mixed viruses to select a short genomic sequence whose genome we are interested in characterizing. We then encapsulate single virions from the same sample in picoliter volume droplets and screen for successful PCR amplification of the sequence of interest. The selected drops are pooled and their contents sequenced to reconstruct the genome of interest. This method provides a general tool for detecting, isolating and sequencing genetic elements in clinical and environmental samples.

Rotem, Assaf; Cockrell, Shelley; Guo, Mira; Pipas, James; Weitz, David

2012-02-01

338

Viruses and thyroiditis: an update  

PubMed Central

Viral infections are frequently cited as a major environmental factor involved in subacute thyroiditis and autoimmune thyroid diseases This review examines the data related to the role of viruses in the development of thyroiditis. Our research has been focused on human data. We have reviewed virological data for each type of thyroiditis at different levels of evidence; epidemiological data, serological data or research on circulating viruses, direct evidence of thyroid tissue infection. Interpretation of epidemiological and serological data must be cautious as they don't prove that this pathogen is responsible for the disease. However, direct evidence of the presence of viruses or their components in the organ are available for retroviruses (HFV) and mumps in subacute thyroiditis, for retroviruses (HTLV-1, HFV, HIV and SV40) in Graves's disease and for HTLV-1, enterovirus, rubella, mumps virus, HSV, EBV and parvovirus in Hashimoto's thyroiditis. However, it remains to determine whether they are responsible for thyroid diseases or whether they are just innocent bystanders. Further studies are needed to clarify the relationship between viruses and thyroid diseases, in order to develop new strategies for prevention and/or treatment.

Desailloud, Rachel; Hober, Didier

2009-01-01

339

Fate of Sendai Virus Ribonucleoprotein in Virus-infected Cells  

PubMed Central

The cytoplasmic extracts of Ehrlich ascites tumor cells infected with 32PO4 and 3H-leucine-labeled Sendai virus have been examined during the course of infection with respect to sedimentation behavior and buoyant densities of input virus radioactivity. It was found that 32P and 3H radioactivities were coincident, and, at 30 min after infection, the bulk of radioactivity was recovered in the polysome region of a sucrose gradient in the position of Sendai virus ribonucleoprotein (210S). The heterogeneity of radioactivity profiles appeared at 1 hr after infection and increased during 6 hr of incubation. The buoyant densities of input virus components were determined by banding in CsCl gradient. Here again the bulk of coincident 32P and 3H radioactivity at 30 min after infection banded at the same density as Sendai virus ribonucleoprotein (1.31 g/cm3.) This component disappeared at 3 hr after infection, and 32P and 3H radioactivities were now found in components banded at densities 1.38, 1.41, 1.45, 1.49, and 1.55 g/cm3. The results presented are consistent with the idea that virus ribonucleoprotein is retained in the cytoplasm of infected cells during at least 6 hr of incubation, being partly deproteinized in the course of infection. The nature of components which banded at ? = 1.41, 1.45, 1.49, and 1.55 as complexes of partly deproteinized ribonucleoprotein with ribosomes will be described in a separate paper.

Bukrinskaya, A. G.; Zhdanov, V. M.; Vorkunova, G. K.

1969-01-01

340

Herpes simplex virus growth, preparation, and assay.  

PubMed

In order to study the biology of herpes simplex virus or to use it as a vector in gene therapy, it is necessary to grow the virus and to prepare virus stocks. Many different protocols are available from different research groups working with herpes simplex virus type 1 or 2 (HSV-1 or HSV-2). This chapter describes the procedures used in our laboratory. PMID:24671674

Marconi, Peggy; Manservigi, Roberto

2014-01-01

341

Recent advances in oncolytic virus design  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cytolytic properties of viruses can be used to treat cancer. Replication of certain viruses is favoured in cancer cells,\\u000a whereas others can be modified to obtain tumour specificity. This approach has evolved to become a new discipline called virotherapy.\\u000a In addition, these replication-competent (oncolytic) viruses can be adapted as vectors for cancer gene therapy. The “armed”\\u000a viruses show a

Rubén Hernández-Alcoceba

2011-01-01

342

Virus meningo-encephalitis in Slovenia  

PubMed Central

An organism was isolated from the blood of a patient clinically diagnosed as suffering from virus meningo-encephalitis; the organism causes illness and death in white mice. The antigen prepared from the brains of mice infected with this organism fixes complement with sera from typical cases of virus meningo-encephalitis. From its biological and serological characteristics, the isolated organism appears to belong to the group of neurotropic viruses and to be the causative agent of virus meningo-encephalitis in Slovenia.

Vesenjak-Zmijanac, J.; Bedjanic, M.; Rus, S.; Kmet, J.

1955-01-01

343

Epidemiology of influenza virus in Korean poultry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epidemiological information on currently circulating influenza viruses in poultry in Korea has not been available. We performed the surveillance of avian influenza viruses in the live poultry markets where chickens, ducks, geese, and doves are sold. H9N2, H3N2, and H6N1 influenza viruses were isolated from poultry in the Korean live bird markets. H9N2 influenza viruses were mainly isolated from chickens;

Sang Heui Seo; Hyun Soo Kim

2004-01-01

344

Characteristics of Filoviridae: Marburg and Ebola Viruses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Filoviruses are enveloped, nonsegmented negative-stranded RNA viruses. The two species, Marburg and Ebola virus, are serologically, biochemically, and genetically distinct. Marburg virus was first isolated during an outbreak in Europe in 1967, and Ebola virus emerged in 1976 as the causative agent of two simultaneous outbreaks in southern Sudan and northern Zaire. Although the main route of infection is known to be person-to-person transmission by intimate contact, the natural reservoir for filoviruses still remains a mystery.

Beer, Brigitte; Kurth, Reinhard; Bukreyev, Alexander

345

Neutralizing antibodies to different proteins of African swine fever virus inhibit both virus attachment and internalization.  

PubMed Central

African swine fever virus induces in convalescent pigs antibodies that neutralized the virus before and after binding to susceptible cells, inhibiting both virus attachment and internalization. A further analysis of the neutralization mechanisms mediated by the different viral proteins showed that antibodies to proteins p72 and p54 are involved in the inhibition of a first step of the replication cycle related to virus attachment, while antibodies to protein p30 are implicated in the inhibition of virus internalization.

Gomez-Puertas, P; Rodriguez, F; Oviedo, J M; Ramiro-Ibanez, F; Ruiz-Gonzalvo, F; Alonso, C; Escribano, J M

1996-01-01

346

ULTRAFILTRATION OF THE VIRUS OF POLIOMYELITIS  

PubMed Central

From the ultrafiltration analysis the size of the virus of human poliomyelitis has been estimated to be somewhere between 12 and 17 mµ. Technical difficulties encountered and the low concentration of the virus make it seem possible that the virus is even smaller.

Theiler, Max; Bauer, Johannes H.

1934-01-01

347

MODEL OF VIRUS TRANSPORT IN UNSATURATED SOIL  

EPA Science Inventory

As a result of the recently-proposed mandatory ground-water disinfection requirements to inactivate viruses in potable water supplies, there has been increasing interest in virus fate and transport in the subsurface. everal models have been developed to predict the fate of viruse...

348

Replication-selective viruses for cancer therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advances in our understanding of the molecular basis of cancer and the availability of technology to genetically engineer viruses have led to the development of replication-competent viruses to treat cancer. In theory, replication-selective viruses offer several appealing properties as biological agents for cancer therapy: they kill tumor cells selectively, and their replication leads to amplification of their oncolytic potential. Most

Carola Biederer; Stefan Ries; Christian H. Brandts; Frank McCormick

2002-01-01

349

Hot crenarchaeal viruses reveal deep evolutionary connections  

Microsoft Academic Search

The discovery of archaeal viruses provides insights into the fundamental biochemistry and evolution of the Archaea. Recent studies have identified a wide diversity of archaeal viruses within the hot springs of Yellowstone National Park and other high-temperature environments worldwide. These viruses are often morphologically unique and code for genes with little similarity to other known genes in the biosphere, a

Alice C. Ortmann; Blake Wiedenheft; Trevor Douglas; Mark Young

2006-01-01

350

Email Virus Propagation Modeling and Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Email viruses constitute one of the major Internet security problems. In this paper we present an email virus model that accounts for the behaviors of email users, such as email checking frequency and the probability of opening an email attachment. Email viruses spread over a logical network defined by email address books. The topology of email network plays an important

Cliff C. Zou; Don Towsley; Weibo Gong

2003-01-01

351

Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Primary Infection  

MedlinePLUS

newsletter | contact Share | Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Primary Infection Information for adults A A A When HIV is first contracted, there may be ... 1–6 weeks following exposure to HIV (the human immunodeficiency virus). Chronic infection with this virus can ...

352

Interferon-Inducing Characteristics of Mm Virus.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Interferon induction by MM virus in mice and in L cells was studied. In mice the virus readily induced interferon. The time of appearance was dose-dependent. A large virus dose induced interferon by 4 hr, whereas a small dose resulted in interferon produc...

D. J. Giron F. F. Pindak J. P. Schmidt P. T. Allen

1970-01-01

353

Current best practice against computer viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summarizes research on viruses and defenses. The author examines the state-of-the-art in virus defense today and describes how normal computing activities can proceed without undue risk of substantial viral harm. He then describes a set of redundant integrity protection mechanisms used in defending against computer viruses in untrusted computing environments. They include applications of coding theory, cryptography, operating system modifications,

Fred Cohen

1991-01-01

354

Open Problems in Computer Virus Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over a decade of work on the computer virus problem has resulted in a number of useful scientific and technological achievements. The study of biological epidemiology has been extended to help us understand when and why computer viruses spread. Techniques have been developed to help us estimate the safety and effectiveness of anti-virus technology before it is deployed. Technology for

Steve R. White

1998-01-01

355

Immunity to avian influenza A viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary While the basic principles of immunity to the influenza A viruses are probably similar for all vertebrates, detailed understanding is based largely on experiments in laboratory mice. Elements of the innate response limit early virus replication, although high pathogenicity strains can trigger effusive cytokine\\/chemokine production and lethal shock. Virus clearance is normally mediated via CD8+ effector T cells but,

P. C. Doherty; L. E. Brown; A. Kelso; P. G. Thomas

2009-01-01

356

The greasy response to virus infections  

PubMed Central

Previews Virus replication requires lipid metabolism, but how lipids mediate virus infection remains obscure. In this issue, Amini-Bavil-Olyaee et al. (2013) reveal that IFITM proteins disturb cholesterol homeostasis to block virus entry. Previously in Cell, Morita and colleagues (2013) showed the antiviral potency of the lipid mediator protectin D1.

Tanner, Lukas Bahati; Lee, Benhur

2013-01-01

357

Human influenza virus recognition of sialyloligosaccharides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sialic acids are essential components of cell-surface receptors utilized by influenza viruses. To evaluate the recognition of asialic sugar parts of the receptor, three representative strains of human influenza A and B viruses were tested for their binding of a panel of sialyloligosaccharides. The highest affinity binding carbohydrate determinants recognized by the viruses in a context of different core structures

A. S. Gambaryan; V. E. Piskarev; I. A. Yamskov; A. M. Sakharov; A. B. Tuzikov; N. V. Bovin; N. E. Nifant'ev; M. N. Matrosovich

1995-01-01

358

Photoinactivation of Vaccinia Virus with Rose Bengal  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Photoinactivation of vaccinia virus was complete but slower with rose bengal than with methylene blue as the sensitizing dye. Photoinactivation was inhibited and changes in dye absorption spectra occurred when protein but not when nucleic acid was added to rose bengal + virus mixtures, with methylene blue+virus mixtures nucleic aid but not protein was inhibitory. Photo- inactivation with methylene

G. S. Turner; C. Kaplan

1968-01-01

359

Virus entry: molecular mechanisms and biomedical applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Viruses have evolved to enter cells from all three domains of life — Bacteria, Archaea and Eukaryotes. Of more than 3,600 known viruses, hundreds can infect human cells and most of those are associated with disease. To gain access to the cell interior, animal viruses attach to host-cell receptors. Advances in our understanding of how viral entry proteins interact with

Dimiter S. Dimitrov

2004-01-01

360

Computer virus information update CIAC-2301.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

While CIAC periodically issues bulletins about specific computer viruses, these bulletins do not cover all the computer viruses that affect desktop computers. The purpose of this document is to identify most of the known viruses for the MS-DOS and Macinto...

W. J. Orvis

1994-01-01

361

Testing thermal resistance of viruses.  

PubMed

Representative viral strains recommended for virucidal testing of biocides in human medicine were used for testing viral resistance to dry heat using the new Keredusy hot instrument. The results demonstrate that poliovirus type 1 could be inactivated by treatment at 75 degrees C for 1 h. For inactivation of adenovirus type 5, 2 h at 85 degrees C was needed. The infectivity of polyomavirus SV40 could only be influenced significantly by a temperature of 95 degrees C over a period of 1 h, whereas vaccinia virus and bovine viral diarrhea virus needed a time interval of 2 h at 95 degrees C. The infectivity of bovine parvovirus could not be influenced significantly by exposure to 95 degrees C for 2 h. In conclusion, human viruses and their surrogates for testing biocides may have a considerable thermal resistance that makes them difficult to be inactivated only by dry heat. PMID:19039515

Sauerbrei, Andreas; Wutzler, P

2009-01-01

362

Searching for virus phylotypes  

PubMed Central

Motivation: Large phylogenies are being built today to study virus evolution, trace the origin of epidemics, establish the mode of transmission and survey the appearance of drug resistance. However, no tool is available to quickly inspect these phylogenies and combine them with extrinsic traits (e.g. geographic location, risk group, presence of a given resistance mutation), seeking to extract strain groups of specific interest or requiring surveillance. Results: We propose a new method for obtaining such groups, which we call phylotypes, from a phylogeny having taxa (strains) annotated with extrinsic traits. Phylotypes are subsets of taxa with close phylogenetic relationships and common trait values. The method combines ancestral trait reconstruction using parsimony, with combinatorial and numerical criteria measuring tree shape characteristics and the diversity and separation of the potential phylotypes. A shuffling procedure is used to assess the statistical significance of phylotypes. All algorithms have linear time complexity. This results in low computing times, typically a few minutes for the larger data sets with a number of shuffling steps. Two HIV-1 data sets are analyzed, one of which is large, containing >3000 strains of HIV-1 subtype C collected worldwide, where the method shows its ability to recover known clusters and transmission routes, and to detect new ones. Availability: This method and companion tools are implemented in an interactive Web interface (www.phylotype.org), which provides a wide choice of graphical views and output formats, and allows for exploratory analyses of large data sets. Contact: francois.chevenet@ird.fr, gascuel@lirmm.fr Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

Chevenet, Francois; Jung, Matthieu; Peeters, Martine; de Oliveira, Tulio; Gascuel, Olivier

2013-01-01

363

Lagos Bat Virus in Kenya?  

PubMed Central

During lyssavirus surveillance, 1,221 bats of at least 30 species were collected from 25 locations in Kenya. One isolate of Lagos bat virus (LBV) was obtained from a dead Eidolon helvum fruit bat. The virus was most similar phylogenetically to LBV isolates from Senegal (1985) and from France (imported from Togo or Egypt; 1999), sharing with these viruses 100% nucleoprotein identity and 99.8 to 100% glycoprotein identity. This genome conservancy across space and time suggests that LBV is well adapted to its natural host species and that populations of reservoir hosts in eastern and western Africa have sufficient interactions to share pathogens. High virus concentrations, in addition to being detected in the brain, were detected in the salivary glands and tongue and in an oral swab, suggesting that LBV is transmitted in the saliva. In other extraneural organs, the virus was generally associated with innervations and ganglia. The presence of infectious virus in the reproductive tract and in a vaginal swab implies an alternative opportunity for transmission. The isolate was pathogenic for laboratory mice by the intracerebral and intramuscular routes. Serologic screening demonstrated the presence of LBV-neutralizing antibodies in E. helvum and Rousettus aegyptiacus fruit bats. In different colonies the seroprevalence ranged from 40 to 67% and 29 to 46% for E. helvum and R. aegyptiacus, respectively. Nested reverse transcription-PCR did not reveal the presence of viral RNA in oral swabs of bats in the absence of brain infection. Several large bat roosts were identified in areas of dense human populations, raising public health concerns for the potential of lyssavirus infection.

Kuzmin, Ivan V.; Niezgoda, Michael; Franka, Richard; Agwanda, Bernard; Markotter, Wanda; Beagley, Janet C.; Urazova, Olga Y.; Breiman, Robert F.; Rupprecht, Charles E.

2008-01-01

364

[Bovine diarrhea virus: an update].  

PubMed

Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV) is a pathogen of cattle, member of the family Flaviviridae, genus pestivirus, which also includes Classical Swine Fever Virus (CSFV, or hog cholera virus), and Border Disease Virus of sheep (BDV). It causes important economical losses associated mainly with reproductive failure. Pestiviruses are small enveloped viruses, with a diameter of about 40 nm. The nucleocapsid is probably icosahedral . The genome consists of a single stranded positive RNA, encoding approximately 430 kD of proteic product. Genetic expression consists of the synthesis of a polyprotein which is co- and post-translationally processed. According to its behavior "in vitro" two biotypes can be distinguished: non cytopathic (ncp) and cytopathic (cp), most probably derived from the ncp through mutations and/or recombination. BVDV is able to cross the placenta and infect the fetus, causing a variety of problems, from fetal death to the birth of a persistently infected (P) calf, according to the fetal age at the time of infection. PI animals are immunotolerant to the virus and shed it in all secretions. Only the ncp biotype has been isolated from PI animals. The superinfection of a PI animal with a cp strain causes mucosal disease, always fatal. Outbreaks of a severe, sometimes hemorrhagic disease, caused by ncp BVDV, have occurred in Canada and USA since 1993. Genomic and serological differences between the "traditional" strains and the viruses isolated from these outbreaks led to the division of BVDV in subtypes I and II, both including cp and ncp strains. Analyses of the non coding 5'-UTR zone of the genome of pestiviruses from different species (bovine, ovine, porcine) suggest that there are at least 3 genotypes within the genus. A new classification of these viruses, based on genomic sequence instead of species of origin, has been proposed. Genomic heterogeneity exists in the BVDV genome, which presents 3 hypervariable zones, 2 of them in the major neutralizing protein. In Argentina prevalence of BVDV antibodies in cattle population is 70%, and the prevalence of persistent infections is around 1%. PMID:9229725

Kobrak, A; Weber, E L

1997-01-01

365

Dominant resistance against plant viruses  

PubMed Central

To establish a successful infection plant viruses have to overcome a defense system composed of several layers. This review will overview the various strategies plants employ to combat viral infections with main emphasis on the current status of single dominant resistance (R) genes identified against plant viruses and the corresponding avirulence (Avr) genes identified so far. The most common models to explain the mode of action of dominant R genes will be presented. Finally, in brief the hypersensitive response (HR) and extreme resistance (ER), and the functional and structural similarity of R genes to sensors of innate immunity in mammalian cell systems will be described.

de Ronde, Dryas; Butterbach, Patrick; Kormelink, Richard

2014-01-01

366

Proteins and Glycoproteins of Paramyxoviruses: a Comparison of Simian Virus 5, Newcastle Disease Virus, and Sendai Virus  

PubMed Central

The polypeptides of three paramyxoviruses (simian virus 5, Newcastle disease virus, and Sendai virus) were separated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Glycoproteins were identified by the use of radioactive glucosamine as a carbohydrate precursor. The protein patterns reveal similarities among the three viruses. Each virus contains at least five or six proteins, two of which are glycoproteins. Four of the proteins found in each virus share common features with corresponding proteins in the other two viruses, including similar molecular weights. These four proteins are the nucleocapsid protein (molecular weight 56,000 to 61,000), a larger glycoprotein (molecular weight 65,000 to 74,000), a smaller glycoprotein (molecular weight 53,000 to 56,000), and a major protein which is the smallest protein in each virion (molecular weight 38,000 to 41,000).

Mountcastle, Walter E.; Compans, Richard W.; Choppin, Purnell W.

1971-01-01

367

Detection of reticuloendotheliosis virus in live virus vaccines of poultry.  

PubMed

In vitro and in vivo assays have been used for the detection of reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) in live virus vaccines of poultry. The presence of REV is confirmed by the demonstration of viral antigen or provirus in chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEFs) or in specific-pathogen-free chickens inoculated with vaccine. Using REV polyclonal or monoclonal antibodies, CEFs inoculated with vaccines can be examined for REV by immunofluorescence or immunoperoxidase staining methods. Cell lysates from such inoculated CEFs can also be used for detection of REV major group-specific antigen (p30) by an enzyme-linked immunoassay. Detection of proviral DNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays that amplifies the 291 base pairs product of REV LTR has been shown to be a sensitive and specific method for detection of various strains of REV in infected CEFs and in the blood of SPF chickens inoculated with contaminated fowlpox virus (FPV) vaccines. Recently, using PCR tests that amplify REV envelope and REV 3' LTR sequences provided a more accurate assessment of the insertion of REV provirus in FPV than PCR assays that amplify the REV 5' LTR. This paper reviews the most common methods used for testing live virus vaccines of poultry for contamination with REV. PMID:17058506

Fadly, A; Garcia, M C

2006-01-01

368

Expression of rabies virus glycoprotein from a recombinant vaccinia virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rabies is one of the oldest diseases known to man, but its successful control has remained elusive. Although effective vaccines of tissue culture origin against rabies do exist1, such preparations are expensive. Live vaccinia virus (VV) recombinants expressing influenza or hepatitis B antigens have recently been used to immunize against these diseases2-4. We have now used this approach to produce

M. P. Kieny; R. Lathe; R. Drillien; D. Spehner; S. Skory; D. Schmitt; T. Wiktor; H. Koprowski; J. P. Lecocq

1984-01-01

369

Alterations to influenza virus hemagglutinin cytoplasmic tail modulate virus infectivity.  

PubMed Central

The influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA) contains a cytoplasmic domain that consists of 10 to 11 amino acids, of which five residues have sequence identity for 10 of 13 HA subtypes. To investigate properties of these conserved residues, oligonucleotide-directed mutagenesis was performed, using an HA cDNA of influenza virus A/Udorn/72 (H3N2) to substitute the conserved cysteine residues with other residues, to delete the three C-terminal conserved residues, or to remove the entire cytoplasmic domain. The altered HAs were expressed in eukaryotic cells, and the rates of intracellular transport were examined. It was found that substitution of either conserved cysteine residue within the cytoplasmic domain did not affect the rate of intracellular transport, whereas deletion of residues within the C-terminal domain resulted in delayed cell surface expression. All the altered HAs were biologically active in hemadsorption and fusion assays. To investigate whether the wild-type HA and HAs with altered cytoplasmic tails could complement the influenza virus temperature-sensitive transport-defective HA mutant A/WSN/33 ts61S, the HA cDNAs were expressed by using a transient expression system and released virus was assayed by plaque analysis. The wild-type HA expression resulted in a release of approximately 10(3) PFU of virus per ml. Antibody neutralization of complemented virus indicated that the infectivity was due to incorporation of wild-type H3 HA into ts61S virions. Sucrose density gradient analysis of released virions showed that each of the HA cytoplasmic domain mutants was incorporated into virus particles. Virions containing HAs with substitution of the cysteine residues in the cytoplasmic domain were found to be infectious. However, no infectivity could be detected from virions containing HAs that had deletions in their cytoplasmic domains. Possible roles of the HA cytoplasmic domain in forming protein-protein interactions in virions and their involvement in the initiation of the infection process in cells are discussed. Images

Simpson, D A; Lamb, R A

1992-01-01

370

Persistence of virus lipid signatures upon silicification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To date there is no known evidence of viruses within the rock record. Their small size and absence of a metabolism has led to the hypothesis that they lack unique biological signatures, and the potential to become preserved. Biosignature research relevant to early Earth has focused on prokaryotic communities; however, the most abundant member of modern ecosystems, viruses, have been ignored. In order to establish a baseline for research on virus biosignatures, we have initiated laboratory research on known lipid-containing viruses. PRD1 is a lipid-containing virus that infects and replicates in Salmonella typhimurium LT2. PRD1 is a 65 nm spherical virus with an internal lipid membrane, which is a few nanometers thick. When the PRD1 virus stock was mixed with a 400 ppm SiO2 (final concentration) solution and incubated for six months. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and lipid analysis using gas chromatography revealed that the virus lipids were still detectable despite complete removal of dissolved silica. Free fatty acids were also detected. Titers of infectious PRD1 viruses after six months in the presence of silica decreased 40 times more than without silica. Though virus biosignature research is in its incipient stages, the data suggest that virus lipid signatures are preserved under laboratory conditions and may offer the potential for contribution to the organic geochemical record.

Kyle, J.; Jahnke, L. L.; Stedman, K. M.

2011-12-01

371

Human viruses in sediments, sludges, and soils*  

PubMed Central

Recent studies have provided a greater understanding of the movement of viruses in the environment by their attachment to solids. These studies have focused on solids-associated viruses present in wastewater discharged into the ocean and on viruses in sludge and wastewater that may be retained in soil following their land disposal. Such ocean or land disposal of wastewater and sludge may result in a discharge of one or more of 120 human enteric virus pathogens including those causing poliomyelitis, viral hepatitis A and acute gastroenteritis. Solids-associated viruses in effluents discharged into coastal waters accumulate in bottom sediments, which may contain 10 to 10 000 more virus per unit volume than the overlying seawater. Solids-associated viruses resuspended by water turbulence may be transported from polluted to distant non-polluted recreational or shellfish-growing water. Transmission of viruses causing hepatitis or gastroenteritis may result from contact by bathers or swimmers with these viruses in recreational waters, or from ingestion of raw or improperly cooked shellfish in which the solids-associated virus had been bioaccumulated. The land disposal of sludge and wastewater has a potential of causing infections in farm workers, contamination of crops, pollution of raw potable water sources or infiltration of ground water. Viruses retained on soils can be released by rain water and may contaminate ground water through lateral and vertical movements.

Rao, V. Chalapati; Metcalf, Theodore G.; Melnick, Joseph L.

1986-01-01

372

Psoralen inactivation of influenza and herpes simplex viruses and of virus-infected cells  

SciTech Connect

Psoralen compounds covalently bind to nucleic acids when irradiated with long-wavelength ultraviolet light. This treatment can destroy the infectivity of deoxyribonucleic acid and ribonucleic acid viruses. Two psoralen compounds, 4'-hydroxymethyltrioxsalen and 4'-aminomethyltrioxsalen, were used with long-wavelength ultraviolet light to inactivate cell-free herpes simplex and influenza viruses and to render virus-infected cells noninfectious. This method of inactivation was compared with germicidal (short-wavelength) ultraviolet light irradiation. The antigenicity of the treated, virus-infected, antigen-bearing cells was examined by immunofluorescence and radioimmunoassay and by measuring the capacity of the herpes simplex virus-infected cells to stimulate virus-specific lymphocyte proliferation. The infectivity of the virus-infected cells could be totally eliminated without altering their viral antigenicity. The use of psoralen plus long-wavelength ultraviolet light is well suited to the preparation of noninfectious virus antigens and virus antigen-bearing cells for immunological assays.

Redfield, D.C.; Richman, D.D.; Oxman, M.N.; Kronenberg, L.H.

1981-06-01

373

Tanay virus, a new species of virus isolated from mosquitoes in the Philippines.  

PubMed

In 2005, we isolated a new species of virus from mosquitoes in the Philippines. The virion was elliptical in shape and had a short single projection. The virus was named Tanay virus (TANAV) after the locality in which it was found. TANAV genomic RNA was a 9562 nt+poly-A positive strand, and polycistronic. The longest ORF contained putative RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP); however, conserved short motifs in the RdRP were permuted. TANAV was phylogenetically close to Negevirus, a recently proposed taxon of viruses isolated from haemophagic insects, and to some plant viruses, such as citrus leprosis virus C, hibiscus green spot virus and blueberry necrotic ring blotch virus. In this paper, we describe TANAV and the permuted structure of its RdRP, and discuss its phylogeny together with those of plant viruses and negevirus. PMID:24646751

Nabeshima, Takeshi; Inoue, Shingo; Okamoto, Kenta; Posadas-Herrera, Guillermo; Yu, Fuxun; Uchida, Leo; Ichinose, Akitoyo; Sakaguchi, Miako; Sunahara, Toshihiko; Buerano, Corazon C; Tadena, Florencio P; Orbita, Ildefonso B; Natividad, Filipinas F; Morita, Kouichi

2014-06-01

374

Repository of Eurasian influenza virus hemagglutinin and neuraminidase reverse genetics vectors and recombinant viruses  

PubMed Central

Reverse genetics can be used to produce recombinant influenza A viruses containing virtually every desired combination of hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes using the virus backbone of choice. Here, a repository of plasmids and recombinant viruses representing all contemporary Eurasian HA and NA subtypes, H1–H16 and N1–N9, was established. HA and NA genes were selected based on sequence analyses of influenza virus genes available from public databases. Prototype Eurasian HA and NA genes were cloned in bidirectional reverse genetics plasmids. Recombinant viruses based on the virus backbone of A/PR/8/34, and containing a variety of HA and NA genes were produced in 293T cells. Virus stocks were produced in MDCK cells and embryonated chicken eggs. These plasmids and viruses may be useful for numerous purposes, including influenza virus research projects, vaccination studies, and to serve as reference reagents in diagnostic settings.

Keawcharoen, J.; Spronken, M.I.J; Vuong, O.; Bestebroer, T.M.; Munster, V.J.; Osterhaus, A.D.M.E; Rimmelzwaan, G.F; Fouchier, R.A.M.

2010-01-01

375

A recombinant influenza virus vaccine expressing the F protein of respiratory syncytial virus.  

PubMed

Infections with influenza and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) rank high among the most common human respiratory diseases worldwide. Previously, we developed a replication-incompetent influenza virus by replacing the coding sequence of the PB2 gene, which encodes one of the viral RNA polymerase subunits, with that of a reporter gene. Here, we generated a PB2-knockout recombinant influenza virus expressing the F protein of RSV (PB2-RSVF virus) and tested its potential as a bivalent vaccine. In mice intranasally immunized with the PB2-RSVF virus, we detected high levels of antibodies against influenza virus, but not RSV. PB2-RSVF virus-immunized mice were protected from a lethal challenge with influenza virus but experienced severe body weight loss when challenged with RSV, indicating that PB2-RSVF vaccination enhanced RSV-associated disease. These results highlight one of the difficulties of developing an effective bivalent vaccine against influenza virus and RSV infections. PMID:24292020

Fonseca, Wendy; Ozawa, Makoto; Hatta, Masato; Orozco, Esther; Martínez, Máximo B; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro

2014-05-01

376

Wild bird surveillance for avian influenza virus.  

PubMed

Avian influenza (AI) viruses have been isolated from a wide-diversity of free-living avian species representing several taxonomic orders. Isolations are most frequently reported from aquatic birds in the Orders Anseriformes and Charadriiformes, which are believed to be the primordial reservoirs for all AI viruses. Since first recognized in the late 1800s, AI viruses have been an important agent of disease in poultry and, occasionally, of non-gallinaceous birds and mammals. However, recent infections of humans with AI viruses, including highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus and low pathogenicity H7N9 AI virus in China during 2013, have increased the awareness of their potential to impact agricultural, wildlife, and public health. This chapter is intended to give general concepts and guidelines for planning and implementing surveillance programs for AI virus in wild birds. PMID:24899421

Brown, Justin D; Poulson, Rebecca; Stallknecht, David E

2014-01-01

377

Virus hybrids as nanomaterials for biotechnology.  

PubMed

The current review describes advances in the field of bionanotechnology in which viruses are used to fabricate nanomaterials. Viruses are introduced as protein cages, scaffolds, and templates for the production of biohybrid nanostructured materials where organic and inorganic molecules are incorporated in a precise and a controlled fashion. Genetic engineering enables the insertion or replacement of selected amino acids on virus capsids for uses from bioconjugation to crystal growth. The variety of nanomaterials generated in rod-like and spherical viruses is highlighted for tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), M13 bacteriophage, cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV), and cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV). Functional biohybrid nanomaterials find applications in biosensing, memory devices, nanocircuits, light-harvesting systems, and nanobatteries. PMID:20688511

Soto, Carissa M; Ratna, Banahalli R

2010-08-01

378

Virus-Induced Aggregates in Infected Cells  

PubMed Central

During infection, many viruses induce cellular remodeling, resulting in the formation of insoluble aggregates/inclusions, usually containing viral structural proteins. Identification of aggregates has become a useful diagnostic tool for certain viral infections. There is wide variety of viral aggregates, which differ by their location, size, content and putative function. The role of aggregation in the context of a specific virus is often poorly understood, especially in the case of plant viruses. The aggregates are utilized by viruses to house a large complex of proteins of both viral and host origin to promote virus replication, translation, intra- and intercellular transportation. Aggregated structures may protect viral functional complexes from the cellular degradation machinery. Alternatively, the activation of host defense mechanisms may involve sequestration of virus components in aggregates, followed by their neutralization as toxic for the host cell. The diversity of virus-induced aggregates in mammalian and plant cells is the subject of this review.

Moshe, Adi; Gorovits, Rena

2012-01-01

379

Comparative inactivation of viruses by chlorine.  

PubMed

The kinetics of inactivation of six enteric viruses plus simian virus 40 and Kilham rat virus by free available chlorine was studied under carefully controlled laboratory conditions. It was found that the different virus types demonstrated a wide range of susceptibility to chlorine disinfection. The rate of inactivation was greater at pH 6 than at pH 10; however, the relative susceptibilities of the different viruses were affected differently by a change in pH, suggesting that the pH influenced both the species of chlorine present and the susceptibility of the different viruses to chlorine. The presence of potassium chloride also affected the susceptibility of viruses to chlorine. PMID:6258473

Engelbrecht, R S; Weber, M J; Salter, B L; Schmidt, C A

1980-08-01

380

Comparative inactivation of viruses by chlorine.  

PubMed Central

The kinetics of inactivation of six enteric viruses plus simian virus 40 and Kilham rat virus by free available chlorine was studied under carefully controlled laboratory conditions. It was found that the different virus types demonstrated a wide range of susceptibility to chlorine disinfection. The rate of inactivation was greater at pH 6 than at pH 10; however, the relative susceptibilities of the different viruses were affected differently by a change in pH, suggesting that the pH influenced both the species of chlorine present and the susceptibility of the different viruses to chlorine. The presence of potassium chloride also affected the susceptibility of viruses to chlorine.

Engelbrecht, R S; Weber, M J; Salter, B L; Schmidt, C A

1980-01-01

381

Virulence Markers of Dengue Viruses.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Illnesses in humans caused by the four serotypes of dengue virus vary from mild forms i. e. pyrexia of unknown origin (PUO) and dengue fever (DF) to severe forms i.e. dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome (DHF/DSS). One of the factors that co...

J. L. Hardy S. C. Kliks

1990-01-01

382

Reflections on viruses and cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years human and animal cancers have increasingly been shown to have a viral component in their aetiology. Oncogenic viruses will continue to be discovered although with certain cancers there is also an important environmental component, and with others — congenital cancers and cancers of early childhood — an important genetic component. There is thus the probability that ‘cancer’

C. Darcel

1994-01-01

383

Virus-induced autoimmune disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The braking of tolerance or unresponsiveness to self-antigens, involving the activation of autoreactive lymphocytes, is a critical event leading to autoimmune diseases. The precise mechanisms by which this can occur are mostly unknown. Viruses have been implicated in this process, among other etiological factors, such as genetic predisposition and cytokine activity. Several ways have been proposed by which a viral

Matthias G von Herrath; Michael BA Oldstone

1996-01-01

384

Borna disease virus and schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of a new serological assay method to detect antibodies in human sera recognizing Borna disease virus (BDV) proteins and a clinical pilot study are presented. Psychiatric patients from a schizophrenia research clinic in Baltimore, Maryland, were examined for antibodies to BDV antigen with traditional indirect immunofluorescence assays (IFA) that used both single and double labeling techniques and also

Royce W. Waltrip; Robert W. Buchanan; Ann Summerfelt; Alan Breier; William T. Carpenter; Nancy L. Bryant; Steven A. Rubin; Kathryn M. Carbone

1995-01-01

385

Evaluating the protective efficacy of a trivalent vaccine containing Akabane virus, Aino virus and Chuzan virus against Schmallenberg virus infection  

PubMed Central

Schmallenberg virus (SBV), an arthropod borne pathogen, spread rapidly throughout the majority of Europe since 2011. It can cause a febrile disease, milk drop, diarrhea, and fetal malformation in ruminants. SBV, a member of the Simbu serogroup within the genus Orthobunyavirus, is closely related to Akabane virus (AKAV) and Aino virus (AINOV) among others. In the present study, 4 Holstein-Friesian calves were immunized twice four weeks apart with a multivalent, inactivated vaccine against AKAV and AINOV. Another 4 calves were kept as unvaccinated controls. All animals were clinically, serologically and virologically examined before and after challenge infection with SBV. AKAV- and AINOV-specific neutralizing antibodies were detected one week before challenge infection, while SBV-specific antibodies were detectable only thereafter. SBV genome was detected in all vaccinated animals and 3 out of 4 controls in serum samples taken after challenge infection. In conclusion, the investigated vaccine was not able to prevent an SBV-infection. Thus, vaccines for other related Simbu serogroup viruses can not substitute SBV-specific vaccines as an instrument for disease control.

2013-01-01

386

Herpes Simplex Virus: Dry Mass.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Dry mass of herpes simplex virus particles was measured by quantitative electron microscopy after isolation by surface spreading and critical-point drying of infected cells. The core weighed about 2 x 10 to the minus 16th power gram, the empty naked capsi...

F. Lampert G. F. Bahr A. S. Rabson

1969-01-01

387

Recombination in Hepatitis C Virus  

PubMed Central

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a Flavivirus with a positive-sense, single-stranded RNA genome of about 9,600 nucleotides. It is a major cause of liver disease, infecting almost 200 million people all over the world. Similarly to most RNA viruses, HCV displays very high levels of genetic diversity which have been used to differentiate six major genotypes and about 80 subtypes. Although the different genotypes and subtypes share basic biological and pathogenic features they differ in clinical outcomes, response to treatment and epidemiology. The first HCV recombinant strain, in which different genome segments derived from parentals of different genotypes, was described in St. Petersburg (Russia) in 2002. Since then, there have been only a few more than a dozen reports including descriptions of HCV recombinants at all levels: between genotypes, between subtypes of the same genotype and even between strains of the same subtype. Here, we review the literature considering the reasons underlying the difficulties for unequivocally establishing recombination in this virus along with the analytical methods necessary to do it. Finally, we analyze the potential consequences, especially in clinical practice, of HCV recombination in light of the coming new therapeutic approaches against this virus.

Gonzalez-Candelas, Fernando; Lopez-Labrador, F. Xavier; Bracho, Maria Alma

2011-01-01

388

HTLV III Virus Isolation Studies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A systematic viral isolation study has been performed on peripheral blood lymphocytes obtained from Air Force personnel positive for antibodies to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) as assessed by HIV-ELISA and/or immunoblot assays. The co-culture t...

T. C. Chanh

1989-01-01

389

Mayaro Fever Virus, Brazilian Amazon  

PubMed Central

In February 2008, a Mayaro fever virus (MAYV) outbreak occurred in a settlement in Santa Barbara municipality, northern Brazil. Patients had rash, fever, and severe arthralgia lasting up to 7 days. Immunoglobulin M against MAYV was detected by ELISA in 36 persons; 3 MAYV isolates sequenced were characterized as genotype D.

Azevedo, Raimunda S.S.; Silva, Eliana V.P.; Carvalho, Valeria L.; Rodrigues, Sueli G.; Neto, Joaquim P. Nunes; Monteiro, Hamilton A.O.; Peixoto, Victor S.; Chiang, Jannifer O.; Nunes, Marcio R.T.

2009-01-01

390

Viruses Associated with Human Cancer  

PubMed Central

It is estimated that viral infections contribute to 15–20% of all human cancers. As obligatory intracellular parasites, viruses encode proteins that reprogram host cellular signaling pathways that control proliferation, differentiation, cell death, genomic integrity, and recognition by the immune system. These cellular processes are governed by complex and redundant regulatory networks and are surveyed by sentinel mechanisms that ensure that aberrant cells are removed from the proliferative pool. Given that the genome size of a virus is highly restricted to ensure packaging within an infectious structure, viruses must target cellular regulatory nodes with limited redundancy and need to inactivate surveillance mechanisms that would normally recognize and extinguish such abnormal cells. In many cases, key proteins in these same regulatory networks are subject to mutation in non-virally associated diseases and cancers. Oncogenic viruses have thus served as important experimental models to identify and molecularly investigate such cellular networks. These include the discovery of oncogenes and tumor suppressors, identification of regulatory networks that are critical for maintenance of genomic integrity, and processes that govern immune surveillance.

McLaughlin-Drubin, Margaret E.; Munger, Karl

2008-01-01

391

Satellite Tobacco Mosaic Virus (STMV)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The structure of the Satellite Tobacco Mosaic Virus (STMV)--one of the smallest viruses known--has been successfully deduced using STMV crystals grown aboard the Space Shuttle in 1992 and 1994. The STMV crystals were up to 30 times the volume of any seen in the laboratory. At the same time they gave the best resolution data ever obtained on any virus crystal. STMV is a small icosahedral plant virus, consisting of a protein shell made up of 60 identical protein subunits of molecular weight 17,500. Particularly noteworthy is the fact that, in contrast to the crystal grown on Earth, the crystals grown under microgravity conditions were viusally perfect, with no striations or clumping of crystals. Furthermore, the X-ray diffraction data obtained from the space-grown crystals was of a much higher quality than the best data available at that time from ground-based crystals. This computer model shows the external coating or capsid. STMV is used because it is a simple protein to work with; studies are unrelated to tobacco. Credit: Dr. Alex McPherson, Univeristy of California at Irvin.

2000-01-01

392

Turnip Yellow Mosaic Virus Structure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The bumpy exterior of the turnip yellow mosaic virus (TYMV) protein coat, or capsid, was defined in detail by Dr. Alexander McPherson of the University of California, Irvin using protein crystallized in space for analysis on Earth. TYMV is an icosahedral virus constructed from 180 copies of the same protein arranged into 12 clusters of five proteins (pentamers), and 20 clusters of six proteins (hexamers). The final TYMV structure led to the enexpected hypothesis that the virus release its RNA by essentially chemical-mechanical means. Most viruses have farly flat coats, but in TYMV, the fold in each protein, called the jellyroll, is clustered at the points where the protein pentamers and hexamers join. The jellyrolls are almost standing on end, producing a bumpy surface with knobs at all of the pentamers and hexamers. At the inside surface of the pentamers is a void that is not present at the hexamers. The coating had been seen in early studies of TYMV, but McPhereson's atomic structure shows much more detail. The inside surface is strikingly, and unexpectedly, different than the outside. While the pentamers contain a central viod on the inside, the hexameric units contain peptides liked to each other, forming a ring or, more accurately, rings to fill the voild. Credit: Dr. Alexander McPherson, University of California, Irvine.

2000-01-01

393

Characterization of Reemerging Chikungunya Virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

An unprecedented epidemic of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection recently started in countries of the Indian Ocean area, causing an acute and painful syndrome with strong fever, asthenia, skin rash, polyarthritis, and lethal cases of encephalitis. The basis for chikungunya disease and the tropism of CHIKV remain unknown. Here, we describe the replication characteristics of recent clinical CHIKV strains. Human epithelial

Marion Sourisseau; Clémentine Schilte; Nicoletta Casartelli; Céline Trouillet; Florence Guivel-Benhassine; Dominika Rudnicka; Nathalie Sol-Foulon; Karin Le Roux; Marie-Christine Prevost; Hafida Fsihi; Marie-Pascale Frenkiel; Fabien Blanchet; Philippe V. Afonso; Pierre-Emmanuel Ceccaldi; Simona Ozden; Antoine Gessain; Isabelle Schuffenecker; Bruno Verhasselt; Alessia Zamborlini; Ali Saïb; Felix A. Rey; Fernando Arenzana-Seisdedos; Philippe Desprès; Alain Michault; Matthew L. Albert; Olivier Schwartz

2007-01-01

394

A virus-based biocatalyst  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Virus particles are probably the most precisely defined nanometre-sized objects that can be formed by protein self-assembly. Although their natural function is the storage and transport of genetic material, they have more recently been applied as scaffolds for mineralization and as containers for the encapsulation of inorganic compounds. The reproductive power of viruses has been used to develop versatile analytical methods, such as phage display, for the selection and identification of (bio)active compounds. To date, the combined use of self-assembly and reproduction has not been used for the construction of catalytic systems. Here we describe a self-assembled system based on a plant virus that has its coat protein genetically modified to provide it with a lipase enzyme. Using single-object and bulk catalytic studies, we prove that the virus-anchored lipase molecules are catalytically active. This anchored biocatalyst, unlike man-made supported catalysts, has the capability to reproduce itself in vivo, generating many independent catalytically active copies.

Carette, Noëlle; Engelkamp, Hans; Akpa, Eric; Pierre, Sebastien J.; Cameron, Neil R.; Christianen, Peter C. M.; Maan, Jan C.; Thies, Jens C.; Weberskirch, Ralf; Rowan, Alan E.; Nolte, Roeland J. M.; Michon, Thierry; van Hest, Jan C. M.

2007-04-01

395

Powassan Virus Encephalitis, Minnesota, USA  

PubMed Central

Powassan virus (POWV) is a rare tick-borne agent of encephalitis in North America. Historically, confirmed cases occurred mainly in the northeastern United States. Since 2008, confirmed cases in Minnesota and Wisconsin have increased. We report a fatal case of POWV encephalitis in Minnesota. POWV infection should be suspected in tick-exposed patients with viral encephalitis.

Sonnesyn, Steven

2012-01-01

396

Ecological Studies on Amapari Virus.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

(1) Amapari virus has been isolated from only two of the many species of rodents and other vertebrates studied at Serra do Navio, Amapa, Brazil. These are Oryzomys capito goeldii and Neacomys guianae. The isolation rate for each species over 4 years was c...

F. P. Pinheiro J. P. Woodall

1969-01-01

397

Antigenic variants of rabies virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rabies viruses isolated from different animal species in various parts of the world were in the past considered to be antigenically closely related. Only when the antibodies produced in animals immunized with whole virions or viral components were assayed by the plaque reduction method, were some minor differences detected in the antigenic composition of various rabies strains (1). On the

T. J. WIKTOR; H. KOPROWSKI

1980-01-01

398

Viruses: are they living entities?  

PubMed

The essence (living or nonliving entities) of viruses has today become an aporia, i.e. a difficulty inherent in reasoning because they shared four fundamental characteristics with livings (multiplication, genetic information, mutation and evolution) without having the capacity to have an independent life. For much time, however, they were considered minuscule pathogenetic micro-organisms in observance of Koch and Pasteur's 'germ theory' albeit no microbiologist could show their existence except their filterability and pathogenetic action. Only some voices based on experimental results raised against this dogmatic view, in particular those of Beijerinck, Baur and Mrowka, without dipping effectively into the dominant theory. The discovery relative to their nucleoprotein nature made between 1934 and 1936 (Schlesinger as for the phage, and Bawden and co-operators as for Tobacco mosaic virus; TMV), together with the first demonstrations of their structures thanks to electron microscopy (from 1939 onwards) started on casting a new light on their true identity, which could be more clearly identified when, from 1955 onwards, phage and TMV proved to be decisive factors to understand the strategies of replication of the genetic material. Following the new knowledge, the theoretical view relative to viruses changed rather radically and the current view looks on these pathogenetic agents as nonliving aggregates of macromolecules provided with biological properties. There is, however, a current of thought, made explicitly by Lwoff that places viruses as compromise between living and non living and, perhaps, as primitive forms of life which have had great importance for the evolution of cellular life. At any rate, viruses are peculiar entities whose importance cannot be unacknowledged. PMID:22220354

Pennazio, Sergio

2011-01-01

399

Clinical and biological differences between recurrent herpes simplex virus and varicella-zoster virus infections  

SciTech Connect

The major features that distinguish recurrent herpes simplex virus infections from zoster are illustrated in this article by two case histories. The clinical and epidemiologic features that characterize recurrent herpes simplex virus and varicella-zoster virus infections are reviewed. It is noted that herpesvirus infections are more common and severe in patients with cellular immune deficiency. Each virus evokes both humoral and cellular immune response in the course of primary infection. DNA hybridization studies with RNA probes labelled with sulfur-35 indicate that herpes simplex viruses persist within neurons, and that varicella-zoster virus is found in the satellite cells that encircle the neurons.

Straus, S.E. (National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Bethesda, MD (USA))

1989-12-01

400

Clarification and guidance on the proper usage of virus and virus species names  

PubMed Central

A pivotal step in the development of a consistent nomenclature for virus classification was the introduction of the virus species concept by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) in 1991. Yet, almost two decades later, many virologists still are unable to differentiate between virus species and actual viruses. Here we attempt to explain the origin of this confusion, clarify the difference between taxa and physical entities, and suggest simple measures that could be implemented by ICTV Study Groups to make virus taxonomy and nomenclature more accessible to laboratory virologists.

Jahrling, Peter B.

2010-01-01

401

Reemergence of Vaccinia Virus during Zoonotic Outbreak, Par? State, Brazil  

PubMed Central

In 2010, vaccinia virus caused an outbreak of bovine vaccinia that affected dairy cattle and rural workers in Pará State, Brazil. Genetic analyses identified the virus as distinct from BeAn58058 vaccinia virus (identified in 1960s) and from smallpox vaccine virus strains. These findings suggest spread of autochthonous group 1 vaccinia virus in this region.

de Assis, Felipe L.; Vinhote, Wagner M.; Barbosa, Jose D.; de Oliveira, Cairo H.S.; de Oliveira, Carlos M.G.; Campos, Karinny F.; Silva, Natalia S.; Trindade, Giliane de Souza

2013-01-01

402

Japanese Encephalitis Virus Genotype Replacement, Taiwan, 2009-2010  

PubMed Central

Genotype I of Japanese encephalitis virus first appeared in Taiwan in 2008. Phylogenetic analysis of 37 viruses from pig farms in 2009–2010 classified these viruses into 2 unique subclusters of genotype I viruses and suggested multiple introductions and swift replacement of genotype III by genotype I virus in Taiwan.

Chen, Yi-Ying; Fan, Yi-Chin; Tu, Wu-Chun; Chang, Rey-Yi; Shih, Chen-Chang; Lu, In-Houng; Chien, Maw-Shien; Lee, Wei-Cheng; Chen, Ter-Hsin; Chang, Gwong-Jen

2011-01-01

403

Reemergence of vaccinia virus during Zoonotic outbreak, Pará State, Brazil.  

PubMed

In 2010, vaccinia virus caused an outbreak of bovine vaccinia that affected dairy cattle and rural workers in Pará State, Brazil. Genetic analyses identified the virus as distinct from BeAn58058 vaccinia virus (identified in 1960s) and from smallpox vaccine virus strains. These findings suggest spread of autochthonous group 1 vaccinia virus in this region. PMID:24274374

de Assis, Felipe L; Vinhote, Wagner M; Barbosa, José D; de Oliveira, Cairo H S; de Oliveira, Carlos M G; Campos, Karinny F; Silva, Natália S; Trindade, Giliane de Souza

2013-12-01

404

Determinants of the Host Range of Feline Leukaemia Viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Feline leukaemia viruses of subgroups B and C multiply in human and canine cells, while subgroup A viruses do not. This host range restriction is determined by the virus envelope and operates at the level of virus entry into the cell. Subgroup A virus genomes are expressed and replicated when they are introduced within B subgroup envelopes into human

O. Jarrett; HELEN M. LAIRD; D. Hay

1973-01-01

405

A Dynamic Immunity-Based Model for Computer Virus Detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Internet provides a fertile medium for new breeds of computer viruses. Many people who have access to a wealth of information via Internet are attacked by more computer viruses than they can effectively process. We present a dynamic computer virus detection model that can detect known viruses and previously unknown viruses to prevent information systems from damage. This model is

Yu Zhang; Tao Li; Renchao Qin

2008-01-01

406

HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS (HIV) DISEASE HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS AND HEPATITIS C VIRUS CO-INFECTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major cause of liver disease and hepatocellular carci- noma worldwide, as well as the leading cause of liver transplantations in the United States. As a result of similar modes of transmission, approximately 30% of HIV-infected individuals are co-infected with HCV. Among intravenous drug users, almost 90% of people infected with HIVare also infected

Stacey R. VLAHAKIS

407

Oncogenicity of avian leukosis viruses of different subgroups and of mutants of sarcoma viruses.  

PubMed Central

Leukosis viruses of seven subgroups were tested for oncogenicity in chickens susceptible to virus infection and to development of lymphoid leukosis (LL) tumors. All subgroup A viruses and the subgroup B virus tested produced a high incidence of LL and other related neoplasms. Viruses of subgroup C and RAV-61 of subgroup F produced a low level of LL. The RAV-50 of subgroup D produced osteopetrosis. In these tests, the viruses of subgroup E and G and one virus of subgroup F were not pathogenic, possibly because infection was not established in the chickens, the chickens were not susceptible to tumor development by these viruses, or the viruses lacked oncogenicity. All temperature-sensitive mutants of Rous sarcoma virus produced sarcomas, but the level varied. One nontransforming mutant produced sarcomas, and the other three tested produced LL. All three mutants that cause cells to grow as colonies in agar produced a high incidence of sarcomas. Thus, sarcoma viruses, by back-mutation, may lose the ability to transform cells in vitro, to make cells grow in agar colonies, or to induce sarcomas in vivo, yet they retain the ability to produce LL. Conversely, it was previously shown that leukosis viruses may be changed into viruses that transform cells in vitro and produce sarcomas in vivo by suitable passage in chicks.

Purchase, H G; Okazaki, W; Vogt, P K; Hanafusa, H; Burmester, B R; Crittenden, L B

1977-01-01

408

West Nile virus: North American experience  

USGS Publications Warehouse

West Nile virus, a mosquito-vectored flavivirus of the Japanese encephalitis serogroup, was first detected in North America following an epizootic in the New York City area in 1999. In the intervening 11 years since the arrival of the virus in North America, it has crossed the contiguous USA, entered the Canadian provinces bordering the USA, and has been reported in the Caribbean islands, Mexico, Central America and, more recently, South America. West Nile virus has been reported in over 300 species of birds in the USA and has caused the deaths of thousands of birds, local population declines of some avian species, the clinical illness and deaths of thousands of domestic horses, and the clinical disease in over 30 000 Americans and the deaths of over 1000. Prior to the emergence of West Nile virus in North America, St. Louis encephalitis virus and Dengue virus were the only other known mosquito-transmitted flaviviruses in North America capable of causing human disease. This review will discuss the North American experience with mosquito-borne flavivirus prior to the arrival of West Nile virus, the entry and spread of West Nile virus in North America, effects on wild bird populations, genetic changes in the virus, and the current state of West Nile virus transmission.

Hofmeister, Erik K.

2011-01-01

409

The modulation of apoptosis by oncogenic viruses  

PubMed Central

Transforming viruses can change a normal cell into a cancer cell during their normal life cycle. Persistent infections with these viruses have been recognized to cause some types of cancer. These viruses have been implicated in the modulation of various biological processes, such as proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. The study of infections caused by oncogenic viruses had helped in our understanding of several mechanisms that regulate cell growth, as well as the molecular alterations leading to cancer. Therefore, transforming viruses provide models of study that have enabled the advances in cancer research. Viruses with transforming abilities, include different members of the Human Papillomavirus (HPV) family, Hepatitis C virus (HCV), Human T-cell Leukemia virus (HTLV-1), Epstein Barr virus (EBV) and Kaposi’s Sarcoma Herpesvirus (KSHV). Apoptosis, or programmed cell death, is a tightly regulated process that plays an important role in development and homeostasis. Additionally, it functions as an antiviral defense mechanism. The deregulation of apoptosis has been implicated in the etiology of diverse diseases, including cancer. Oncogenic viruses employ different mechanisms to inhibit the apoptotic process, allowing the propagation of infected and damaged cells. During this process, some viral proteins are able to evade the immune system, while others can directly interact with the caspases involved in apoptotic signaling. In some instances, viral proteins can also promote apoptosis, which may be necessary for an accurate regulation of the initial stages of infection.

2013-01-01

410

Recombination in Eukaryotic Single Stranded DNA Viruses  

PubMed Central

Although single stranded (ss) DNA viruses that infect humans and their domesticated animals do not generally cause major diseases, the arthropod borne ssDNA viruses of plants do, and as a result seriously constrain food production in most temperate regions of the world. Besides the well known plant and animal-infecting ssDNA viruses, it has recently become apparent through metagenomic surveys of ssDNA molecules that there also exist large numbers of other diverse ssDNA viruses within almost all terrestrial and aquatic environments. The host ranges of these viruses probably span the tree of life and they are likely to be important components of global ecosystems. Various lines of evidence suggest that a pivotal evolutionary process during the generation of this global ssDNA virus diversity has probably been genetic recombination. High rates of homologous recombination, non-homologous recombination and genome component reassortment are known to occur within and between various different ssDNA virus species and we look here at the various roles that these different types of recombination may play, both in the day-to-day biology, and in the longer term evolution, of these viruses. We specifically focus on the ecological, biochemical and selective factors underlying patterns of genetic exchange detectable amongst the ssDNA viruses and discuss how these should all be considered when assessing the adaptive value of recombination during ssDNA virus evolution.

Martin, Darren P.; Biagini, Philippe; Lefeuvre, Pierre; Golden, Michael; Roumagnac, Philippe; Varsani, Arvind

2011-01-01

411

LCM virus infection of cells in vitro*  

PubMed Central

Most mammalian cells cultivated in vitro can be infected with lymphocytic choriomeningitis (LCM) virus. In addition to infectious virus, the cells produce antigenic material that fixes complement in the presence of antibody and is precipitated by antiserum. Intracellular antigen can also be demonstrated by the immunofluorescence procedure. When infected cells are viewed with the electron microscope, viral structures are seen either budding from or in association with the cell membranes. Immunoelectron microscopy, immunofluorescence, and cytotoxicity tests reveal virus-specific antigens on the surface of intact cells. Virus multiplication may be succeeded by cytolysis. Two LCM virus-specific antigens (or antigenic groups) can at present be distinguished. One corresponds to the infectious virus; the other is the complement-fixing “soluble” antigen. This extractable complement-fixing activity is produced by infected cells and is also a structural component of the infectious virus. It is not represented on the surface of either the virion or the infected cell. The cytolytic potential of LCM virus varies and is dependent on its previous passage history. Cytolytic and “attenuated” variants are able to initiate persistent infection of Mus musculus. Together with infectious virus, particles are produced that temporarily protect cells against standard virus. They appear to be by-products of virus multiplication, not in the sense of deletion mutants but of virus structures insufficiently equipped for their own active or passive replication, though capable of interfering with infectious virus. No evidence has been found for the generation of “defective interfering” particles, though their presence has not yet been excluded. ImagesFig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8

Lehmann-Grube, F.; Popescu, M.; Schaefer, H.; Gschwender, H. H.

1975-01-01

412

An Automatic Unpacking Method for Computer Virus Effective in the Virus Filter Based on Paul Graham's Bayesian Theorem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, the appearance frequency of computer virus variants has increased. Updates to virus information using the normal pattern matching method are increasingly unable to keep up with the speed at which viruses occur, since it takes time to extract the characteristic patterns for each virus. Therefore, a rapid, automatic virus detection algorithm using static code analysis is necessary. However, recent

Dengfeng Zhang; Naoshi Nakaya; Yuuji Koui; Hitoaki Yoshida

2009-01-01

413

Improved method for counting virus and virus like particles.  

PubMed

An improved method for counting virus and virus like particles by electron microscopy (EM) was developed. The procedure involves the determination of the absolute concentration of pure or semi-pure particles once deposited evenly on EM grids using either centrifugation or antibody capture techniques. The counting of particles was done with a Microfiche unit which enlarged approximately 50 x the image of particles on a developed negative film which had been taken at a relatively low magnification (2500 x) by EM. Initially, latex particles of a known concentration were counted using this approach, to prove the accuracy of the technique. The latex particles were deposited evenly on an EM grid using centrifugation (Modified Beckmen EM-90 Airfuge technique). Subsequently, recombinant Bluetongue virus (BTV) core-like particles (CLPs) captured by a Monoclonal antibody using a novel sample loading method were counted by the Microfiche unit method and by a direct EM method. Comparison of the simplified counting method developed with a conventional method, showed good agreement. The method is simple, accurate, rapid, and reproducible when used with either pure particles or with particles from crude cell culture extracts. PMID:9002073

Zheng, Y Z; Webb, R; Greenfield, P F; Reid, S

1996-12-01

414

Human immunodeficiency virus, herpes virus infections, and pulmonary vascular disease  

PubMed Central

The following state-of-the-art seminar was delivered as part of the Aspen Lung Conference on Pulmonary Hypertension and Vascular Diseases held in Aspen, Colorado in June 2012. This paper will summarize the lecture and present results from a nonhuman primate model of infection with Simian (Human) Immunodeficiency Virus - nef chimeric virions as well as the idea that polymorphisms in the HIV-1 nef gene may be driving the immune response that results in exuberant inflammation and aberrant endothelial cell (EC) function. We will present data gathered from primary HIV nef isolates where we tested the biological consequences of these polymorphisms and how their presence in human populations may predict patients at risk for developing this disease. In this article, we also discuss how a dysregulated immune system, in conjunction with a viral infection, could contribute to pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Both autoimmune diseases and some viruses are associated with defects in the immune system, primarily in the function of regulatory T cells. These T-cell defects may be a common pathway in the formation of plexiform lesions. Regardless of the route by which viruses may lead to PAH, it is important to recognize their role in this rare disease.

Flores, Sonia C.; Almodovar, Sharilyn

2013-01-01

415

Occurrence and prevalence of seven bee viruses in Apis mellifera and Apis cerana apiaries in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Populations of Apis mellifera and Apis cerana in China were surveyed for seven bee viruses: acute bee paralysis virus (ABPV), black queen cell virus (BQCV), chronic bee paralysis virus (CBPV), deformed wing virus (DWV), Kashmir bee virus (KBV), sacbrood virus (SBV), and Isreal acute paralysis virus (IAPV). No KBV was detected from any samples of the two species. In A.

Hongxia Ai; Xun Yan; Richou Han

416

Pseudotyping of vesicular stomatitis virus with the envelope glycoproteins of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses.  

PubMed

Pseudotype viruses are useful for studying the envelope proteins of harmful viruses. This work describes the pseudotyping of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) with the envelope glycoproteins of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses. VSV lacking the homotypic glycoprotein (G) gene (VSV?G) was used to express haemagglutinin (HA), neuraminidase (NA) or the combination of both. Propagation-competent pseudotype viruses were only obtained when HA and NA were expressed from the same vector genome. Pseudotype viruses containing HA from different H5 clades were neutralized specifically by immune sera directed against the corresponding clade. Fast and sensitive reading of test results was achieved by vector-mediated expression of GFP. Pseudotype viruses expressing a mutant VSV matrix protein showed restricted spread in IFN-competent cells. This pseudotype system will facilitate the detection of neutralizing antibodies against virulent influenza viruses, circumventing the need for high-level biosafety containment. PMID:24814925

Zimmer, Gert; Locher, Samira; Berger Rentsch, Marianne; Halbherr, Stefan J

2014-08-01

417

Impact of anti-virus software on computer virus dynamical behavior  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The impact of anti-virus software on the spreading of computer virus is investigated via developing a mathematical model in this paper. Considering the anti-virus software may not be effective, as it may be an outdated version, and then the computers may be infected with a reduced incidence rate. According to the method of next generation matrix, the basic reproduction number is derived. By introducing appropriate Lyapunov function and the Routh stability criterion, acquiring the stability conditions of the virus-free equilibrium and virus equilibrium. The effect of anti-virus software and disconnecting rate on the spreading of virus are also analyzed. When combined with the numerical results, a set of suggestions are put forward for eradicating virus effectively.

Sun, Mei; Li, Dandan; Han, Dun; Jia, Changsheng

2014-05-01

418

Identification of Novel Viruses Using VirusHunter -- an Automated Data Analysis Pipeline  

PubMed Central

Quick and accurate identification of microbial pathogens is essential for both diagnosis and response to emerging infectious diseases. The advent of next-generation sequencing technology offers an unprecedented platform for rapid sequencing-based identification of novel viruses. We have developed a customized bioinformatics data analysis pipeline, VirusHunter, for the analysis of Roche/454 and other long read Next generation sequencing platform data. To illustrate the utility of VirusHunter, we performed Roche/454 GS FLX titanium sequencing on two unclassified virus isolates from the World Reference Center for Emerging Viruses and Arboviruses (WRCEVA). VirusHunter identified sequences derived from a novel bunyavirus and a novel reovirus in the two samples respectively. Further sequence analysis demonstrated that the viruses were novel members of the Phlebovirus and Orbivirus genera. Both Phlebovirus and Orbivirus genera include many economic important viruses or serious human pathogens.

Zhao, Guoyan; Krishnamurthy, Siddharth; Cai, Zhengqiu; Popov, Vsevolod L.; Travassos da Rosa, Amelia P.; Guzman, Hilda; Cao, Song; Virgin, Herbert W.; Tesh, Robert B.; Wang, David

2013-01-01

419

Evolution and ecology of influenza A viruses.  

PubMed Central

In this review we examine the hypothesis that aquatic birds are the primordial source of all influenza viruses in other species and study the ecological features that permit the perpetuation of influenza viruses in aquatic avian species. Phylogenetic analysis of the nucleotide sequence of influenza A virus RNA segments coding for the spike proteins (HA, NA, and M2) and the internal proteins (PB2, PB1, PA, NP, M, and NS) from a wide range of hosts, geographical regions, and influenza A virus subtypes support the following conclusions. (i) Two partly overlapping reservoirs of influenza A viruses exist in migrating waterfowl and shorebirds throughout the world. These species harbor influenza viruses of all the known HA and NA subtypes. (ii) Influenza viruses have evolved into a number of host-specific lineages that are exemplified by the NP gene and include equine Prague/56, recent equine strains, classical swine and human strains, H13 gull strains, and all other avian strains. Other genes show similar patterns, but with extensive evidence of genetic reassortment. Geographical as well as host-specific lineages are evident. (iii) All of the influenza A viruses of mammalian sources originated from the avian gene pool, and it is possible that influenza B viruses also arose from the same source. (iv) The different virus lineages are predominantly host specific, but there are periodic exchanges of influenza virus genes or whole viruses between species, giving rise to pandemics of disease in humans, lower animals, and birds. (v) The influenza viruses currently circulating in humans and pigs in North America originated by transmission of all genes from the avian reservoir prior to the 1918 Spanish influenza pandemic; some of the genes have subsequently been replaced by others from the influenza gene pool in birds. (vi) The influenza virus gene pool in aquatic birds of the world is probably perpetuated by low-level transmission within that species throughout the year. (vii) There is evidence that most new human pandemic strains and variants have originated in southern China. (viii) There is speculation that pigs may serve as the intermediate host in genetic exchange between influenza viruses in avian and humans, but experimental evidence is lacking. (ix) Once the ecological properties of influenza viruses are understood, it may be possible to interdict the introduction of new influenza viruses into humans. Images

Webster, R G; Bean, W J; Gorman, O T; Chambers, T M; Kawaoka, Y

1992-01-01

420

Full Genome Sequencing of Corriparta Virus, Identifies California Mosquito Pool Virus as a Member of the Corriparta virus Species  

PubMed Central

The species Corriparta virus (CORV), within the genus Orbivirus, family Reoviridae, currently contains six virus strains: corriparta virus MRM1 (CORV-MRM1); CS0109; V654; V370; Acado virus and Jacareacanga virus. However, lack of neutralization assays, or reference genome sequence data has prevented further analysis of their intra-serogroup/species relationships and identification of individual serotypes. We report whole-genome sequence data for CORV-MRM1, which was isolated in 1960 in Australia. Comparisons of the conserved, polymerase (VP1), sub-core-shell ‘T2’ and core-surface ‘T13’ proteins encoded by genome segments 1, 2 and 8 (Seg-1, Seg-2 and Seg-8) respectively, show that this virus groups with the other mosquito borne orbiviruses. However, highest levels of nt/aa sequence identity (75.9%/91.6% in Seg-2/T2: 77.6%/91.7% in Seg-8/T13, respectively) were detected between CORV-MRM1 and California mosquito pool virus (CMPV), an orbivirus isolated in the USA in 1974, showing that they belong to the same virus species. The data presented here identify CMPV as a member of the Corriparta virus species and will facilitate identification of additional CORV isolates, diagnostic assay design and epidemiological studies.

Belaganahalli, Manjunatha N.; Maan, Sushila; Maan, Narender S.; Nomikou, Kyriaki; Guimera, Marc; Brownlie, Joe; Tesh, Robert; Attoui, Houssam; Mertens, Peter P. C.

2013-01-01

421

Structure of Immature West Nile Virus?  

PubMed Central

The structure of immature West Nile virus particles, propagated in the presence of ammonium chloride to block virus maturation in the low-pH environment of the trans-Golgi network, was determined by cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM). The structure of these particles was similar to that of immature West Nile virus particles found as a minor component of mature virus samples (naturally occurring immature particles [NOIPs]). The structures of mature infectious flaviviruses are radically different from those of the immature particles. The similarity of the ammonium chloride-treated particles and NOIPs suggests either that the NOIPs have not undergone any conformational change during maturation or that the conformational change is reversible. Comparison with the cryo-EM reconstruction of immature dengue virus established the locations of the N-linked glycosylation sites of these viruses, verifying the interpretation of the reconstructions of the immature flaviviruses.

Zhang, Ying; Kaufmann, Barbel; Chipman, Paul R.; Kuhn, Richard J.; Rossmann, Michael G.

2007-01-01

422

Water quality indicators: bacteria, coliphages, enteric viruses.  

PubMed

Water quality through the presence of pathogenic enteric microorganisms may affect human health. Coliform bacteria, Escherichia coli and coliphages are normally used as indicators of water quality. However, the presence of above-mentioned indicators do not always suggest the presence of human enteric viruses. It is important to study human enteric viruses in water. Human enteric viruses can tolerate fluctuating environmental conditions and survive in the environment for long periods of time becoming causal agents of diarrhoeal diseases. Therefore, the potential of human pathogenic viruses as significant indicators of water quality is emerging. Human Adenoviruses and other viruses have been proposed as suitable indices for the effective identification of such organisms of human origin contaminating water systems. This article reports on the recent developments in the management of water quality specifically focusing on human enteric viruses as indicators. PMID:23438312

Lin, Johnson; Ganesh, Atheesha

2013-12-01

423

Securing anti-virus software with virtualization  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

The subject disclosure relates to systems and methods that secure anti-virus software through virtualization. Anti-virus systems can be maintained separate from user applications and operating system through virtualization. The user applications and operating system run in a guest virtual machine while anti-virus systems are isolated in a secure virtual machine. The virtual machines are partially interdependent such that the anti-virus systems can monitor user applications and operating systems while the anti-virus systems remain free from possible malicious attack originating from a user environment. Further, the anti-virus system is secured against zero-day attacks so that detection and recovery may occur post zero-day.

2012-11-06

424

Development of VIRUS alignment and assembly fixtures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Visible Integral-Field Replicable Unit Spectrograph (VIRUS) Instrument is a set of 150+ optical spectrographs to support observations for the Hobby-Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX). We plan to use a production line assembly process to construct the large number of VIRUS units. This allows each sub-assembly of a VIRUS unit to be interchangeable amongst all other VIRUS units. A production line manufacturing procedure will enable various sub-assemblies to be built and tested in parallel. Examples of alignment and assembly fixtures required for the VIRUS manufacturing process include a camera mirror alignment system, a collimator structure assembly device, a collimator mirror mounting tool, and a grating alignment system. In this paper we describe the design of these fixtures and their importance in the VIRUS assembly process.

Collins, Amanda D.; Vattiat, Brian; Marshall, J. L.; Hill, Gary J.; Depoy, D. L.; Lee, Hanshin; Allen, Richard D.; Prochaska, Travis; Villanueva, Steven, Jr.

2010-07-01

425

Virus Infections in the Nervous System  

PubMed Central

Virus infections usually begin in peripheral tissues and can invade the mammalian nervous system (NS), spreading into the peripheral (PNS) and more rarely the central nervous systems (CNS). The CNS is protected from most virus infections by effective immune responses and multi-layer barriers. However, some viruses enter the NS with high efficiency via the bloodstream or by directly infecting nerves that innervate peripheral tissues, resulting in debilitating direct and immune-mediated pathology. Most viruses in the NS are opportunistic or accidental pathogens, but a few, most notably the alpha herpesviruses and rabies virus, have evolved to enter the NS efficiently and exploit neuronal cell biology. Remarkably, the alpha herpesviruses can establish quiescent infections in the PNS, with rare but often fatal CNS pathology. Here we review how viruses gain access to and spread in the well-protected CNS, with particular emphasis on alpha herpesviruses, which establish and maintain persistent NS infections.

Koyuncu, Orkide O.; Hogue, Ian B.; Enquist, Lynn W.

2013-01-01

426

Study of virus by Raman spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Problem of viruses is very actual for nowadays. Some viruses, which are responsible for human of all tumors, are about 15 %. Main purposes this study, early detection virus in live cell without labeling and in the real time by Raman spectroscopy. Micro Raman spectroscopy (mRs) is a technique that uses a Raman spectrometer to measure the spectra of microscopic samples. According to the Raman spectroscopy, it becomes possible to study the metabolites of a live cultured cell without labeling. We used mRs to detect the virus via HEK 293 cell line-infected adenovirus. We obtained raman specters of lives cells with viruses in 24 hours and 7 days after the infection. As the result, there is some biochemical changing after the treatment of cell with virus. One of biochemical alteration is at 1081 cm-1. For the clarification result, we use confocal fluorescent microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM).

Moor, K.; Kitamura, H.; Hashimoto, K.; Sawa, M.; Andriana, B. B.; Ohtani, K.; Yagura, T.; Sato, H.

2013-02-01

427

Virus-Based Chemical and Biological Sensing  

PubMed Central

Viruses have recently proven useful for the detection of target analytes such as explosives, proteins, bacteria, viruses, spores, and toxins with high selectivity and sensitivity. Bacteriophages (often shortened to phages), viruses that specifically infect bacteria, are currently the most studied viruses, mainly because target-specific nonlytic phages (and the peptides and proteins carried by them) can be identified by using the well-established phage display technique, and lytic phages can specifically break bacteria to release cell-specific marker molecules such as enzymes that can be assayed. In addition, phages have good chemical and thermal stability, and can be conjugated with nanomaterials and immobilized on a transducer surface in an analytical device. This Review focuses on progress made in the use of phages in chemical and biological sensors in combination with traditional analytical techniques. Recent progress in the use of virus—nanomaterial composites and other viruses in sensing applications is also high-lighted.

Mao, Chuanbin; Liu, Aihua; Cao, Binrui

2009-01-01

428

Impacts of West Nile Virus on wildlife  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The recent epidemic of West Nile virus in the United States proved to be unexpectedly active and was the largest epidemic of the virus ever recorded. Much remains to be discovered about the ecology and epidemiology of West Nile virus in the United States, including which species are important in maintaining the virus in nature, why some species are more susceptible to lethal infection, and what environmental factors are important in predicting future epidemics. These factors will likely vary regionally, depending on local ecological characteristics. Until scientists better understand the virus and factors influencing its activity, predicting its effects for future seasons is impossible. However, experts are certain about one thing: West Nile virus is here to stay.

Saito, E. K.; Wild, M. A.

2004-01-01

429

Satellite RNAs and Satellite Viruses of Plants  

PubMed Central

The view that satellite RNAs (satRNAs) and satellite viruses are purely molecular parasites of their cognate helper viruses has changed. The molecular mechanisms underlying the synergistic and/or antagonistic interactions among satRNAs/satellite viruses, helper viruses, and host plants are beginning to be comprehended. This review aims to summarize the recent achievements in basic and practical research, with special emphasis on the involvement of RNA silencing mechanisms in the pathogenicity, population dynamics, and, possibly, the origin(s) of these subviral agents. With further research following current trends, the comprehensive understanding of satRNAs and satellite viruses could lead to new insights into the trilateral interactions among host plants, viruses, and satellites.

Hu, Chung-Chi; Hsu, Yau-Heiu; Lin, Na-Sheng

2009-01-01

430

Human influenza virus recognition of sialyloligosaccharides.  

PubMed

Sialic acids are essential components of cell-surface receptors utilized by influenza viruses. To evaluate the recognition of asialic sugar parts of the receptor, three representative strains of human influenza A and B viruses were tested for their binding of a panel of sialyloligosaccharides. The highest affinity binding carbohydrate determinants recognized by the viruses in a context of different core structures were Neu5Ac alpha 2-3Gal for the type B virus, Neu5Ac alpha 2-6 Gal for the H3 subtype virus, and Neu5Ac alpha 2-6Gal beta 1-4GlcNAc for the H1 subtype virus. Penultimate to these determinants parts of the sialyloligosaccharides studied either contributed less significantly to the binding affinity, or interfered with the binding. PMID:7789517

Gambaryan, A S; Piskarev, V E; Yamskov, I A; Sakharov, A M; Tuzikov, A B; Bovin, N V; Nifant'ev, N E; Matrosovich, M N

1995-06-01

431

Comparison of Structural Polypeptides from Vesicular Stomatitis Virus (Indiana and New Jersey Serotypes) and Cocal Virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The molecular size of the structural proteins of the Indiana and New Jersey serotypes of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and of Cocal virus have been com- pared by co-electrophoresis in SDS-polyacrylamide gel. Virus polypeptides (VP) II, III and V of the Indiana serotype have different electrophoretic mobilities fi'om the corresponding components of the New Jersey serotype. Cocal virus differs

W. H. Wunner; C. R. Pringle

1972-01-01

432

Yellow fever vector live-virus vaccines: West Nile virus vaccine development  

Microsoft Academic Search

By combining molecular-biological techniques with our increased understanding of the effect of gene sequence modification on viral function, yellow fever 17D, a positive-strand RNA virus vaccine, has been manipulated to induce a protective immune response against viruses of the same family (e.g. Japanese encephalitis and dengue viruses). Triggered by the emergence of West Nile virus infections in the New World

Juan Arroyo; Charles A Miller; John Catalan; Thomas P Monath

2001-01-01

433

21 CFR 866.3330 - Influenza virus serological reagents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Influenza virus serological reagents. 866...Serological Reagents § 866.3330 Influenza virus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Influenza virus serological reagents are...

2010-04-01

434

21 CFR 866.3305 - Herpes simplex virus serological assays.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Herpes simplex virus serological assays. 866...Serological Reagents § 866.3305 Herpes simplex virus serological assays. (a) Identification . Herpes simplex virus serological assays...

2009-04-01

435

21 CFR 866.3305 - Herpes simplex virus serological assays.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Herpes simplex virus serological assays. 866...Serological Reagents § 866.3305 Herpes simplex virus serological assays. (a) Identification . Herpes simplex virus serological assays...

2010-04-01

436

Epidemiological Investigation of Hart Park and Turlock Viruses in California.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Turlock (TUR) and Hart Park (HP) viruses were repeatedly isolated from the mosquito Culex tarsails in California. Both viruses were found to replicate in Cx. tarsalis following parenteral inoculation. Once infected, Cx. tarsalis could transmit HP virus to...

T. G. Kziazek

1984-01-01

437

Serologic and Infectivity Studies of Canine Sv-5 Virus (35012).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The recovery of parainfluenza SV-5 viruses from laboratory and military dogs with respiratory disease was previously reported. The virus was first isolated from rhesus monkey kidney cell cultures and subsequently from man. SV-5 virus appears to infect man...

E. C. Lazar L. J. Swango L. N. Binn

1970-01-01

438

CDC Reports More Cases of Heartland Virus Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... 639-3286 CDC Reports More Cases of Heartland Virus Disease New virus infects six more people and found in second ... six new cases of people sick with Heartland virus: five in Missouri and one in Tennessee. The ...

439

Some aspects of plaque formation by human influenza viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Infective influenza virus seems to be essential for plaque production in chick embryo fibroblasts (CEF). With some virus strains, the amounts of virus produced by infected monolayers under an agarose overlay are very small.

C. P. de Sousa; G. Belyavin

1970-01-01