Sample records for caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus

  1. Pathogenic mechanisms of caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. G. Mdurvwa; P. O. Ogunbiyi; H. S. Gakou; P. G. Reddy

    1994-01-01

    Goats infected with caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV) show chronic arthritis and cachexia, which are progressive in nature. The immunopathogenic mechanisms responsible for these progressive clinical symptoms have not been fully elucidated. Various haematological and immunological parameters were evaluated in experimentally-infected goats showing typical signs of CAEV-induced disease. Infected goats showed recurrent lymphocytosis that may be due to constant presentation of

  2. Isolation of caprine arthritis encephalitis virus from goats in Mexico.

    PubMed Central

    Daltabuit Test, M; de la Concha-Bermejillo, A; Espinosa, L E; Loza Rubio, E; Aguilar Setién, A

    1999-01-01

    A lentivirus was isolated from 2 goats in Mexico that were seropositive to caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV) by the agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) test. The lentivirus was identified as CAEV by the observation of giant multinucleated cells (syncytia) in goat synovial membrane (GSM) monolayers co-cultivated with blood mononuclear (BMN) cells from the seropositive goats, and by amplifying a DNA segment of the CAEV gag gene using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. Subsequently, cell supernatants from the GSM cells co-cultivated with BMN cells were used to infect 2 CAEV-seronegative goats. These goats seroconverted to CAEV as determined by the AGID test, and CAEV was re-isolated from these goats. One of the goats developed polyarthritis 8 mo after inoculation. Previous serological surveys indicate that infection with CAEV is prevalent among goats in Mexico. To our knowledge this is the first report of CAEV isolation in Mexico. Because of globalization of markets and increased trading among nations, the rapid identification and reporting of diseases such as CAEV are important to prevent the dissemination of these diseases. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. PMID:10480464

  3. Molecular characterization of the gag gene of caprine arthritis encephalitis virus from goats in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Padiernos, Ryan Bismark C; Balbin, Michelle M; Parayao, Arman M; Mingala, Claro N

    2015-04-01

    Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV) causes caprine arthritis encephalitis syndrome, which is an emerging disease of goats in the Philippines. DNA sequence analysis showed homology of 86-93 % between Philippine CAEV and available CAEV sequences in GenBank. CAEV was detected using nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and new sets of primers were designed in order to amplify the gag gene, which is a highly conserved region of the viral genome. In addition, the Philippine CAEV isolate clustered in group B with the prototype caprine lentivirus. Based on amino acid sequence alignments, it is possible that the Philippine CAEV isolate is a new strain of CAEV, but it is also possible that it was already present in the country even before the start of goat importation. Molecular characterization of the CAEV gag gene is important for the development of a detection kit specific for the local strain of CAEV and the establishment of small ruminant lentivirus eradication programs in the Philippines. This study is the first report to describe the molecular characteristics of CAEV circulating in the Philippines. PMID:25655265

  4. Simple and Rapid Method for Production of Whole-Virus Antigen for Serodiagnosis of Caprine Arthritis-Encephalitis Virus by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay

    Microsoft Academic Search

    CAROLE SIMARD; MOLLY TWINOMWE KIBENGE; PATRICIA SINGH; PHYLLIS DIXON

    2001-01-01

    Polyethylene glycol (PEG) was used to produce whole-virus antigen derived from tissue culture cells infected with a Canadian strain of caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus. PEG antigen batches were obtained after pre- cipitation and concentration of infected tissue culture material with PEG 8000 and final treatment with sodium dodecyl sulfate. The optimum time of harvest of tissue culture extracted material to produce

  5. Fatal Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus-like infection in 4 Rocky Mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus).

    PubMed

    Patton, Kristin M; Bildfell, Robert J; Anderson, Mark L; Cebra, Christopher K; Valentine, Beth A

    2012-03-01

    Over a 3.5-year period, 4 Rocky Mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus), housed at a single facility, developed clinical disease attributed to infection by Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV). Ages ranged from 1 to 10 years. Three of the goats, a 1-year-old female, a 2-year-old male, and a 5-year-old male, had been fed raw domestic goat milk from a single source that was later found to have CAEV on the premises. The fourth animal, a 10-year-old male, had not ingested domestic goat milk but had been housed with the other 3 Rocky Mountain goats. All 4 animals had clinical signs of pneumonia prior to death. At necropsy, findings in lungs included marked diffuse interstitial pneumonia characterized histologically by severe lymphoplasmacytic infiltrates with massive alveolar proteinosis, interstitial fibrosis, and type II pneumocyte hyperplasia. One animal also developed left-sided hemiparesis, and locally extensive lymphoplasmacytic myeloencephalitis was present in the cranial cervical spinal cord. Two animals had joint effusions, as well as severe lymphoplasmacytic and ulcerative synovitis. Immunohistochemical staining of fixed sections of lung tissue from all 4 goats, as well as spinal cord in 1 affected animal, and synovium from 2 affected animals were positive for CAEV antigen. Serology testing for anti-CAEV antibodies was positive in the 2 goats tested. The cases suggest that Rocky Mountain goats are susceptible to naturally occurring CAEV infection, that CAEV from domestic goats can be transmitted to this species through infected milk and by horizontal transmission, and that viral infection can result in clinically severe multisystemic disease. PMID:22379056

  6. Computed tomography findings in a 5-year-old Australian Cashmere goat (Capra hircus) suffering leukoencephalomyelitis due to caprine arthritis encephalitis virus

    PubMed Central

    DeVilbiss, Bethany; Neelis, Dana; Ochoa, Jennine; Ziegler, Jessie; Barrington, George; Allen, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Computed tomography was used to aid in the antemortem diagnosis of leukoencephalomyelitis in a goat infected by caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV). Imaging results were corroborated by histologic examination. This report discusses various methods of imaging the nervous system and their potential for use in the antemortem diagnosis of CAEV neurologic changes. PMID:24155416

  7. Computed tomography findings in a 5-year-old Australian Cashmere goat (Capra hircus) suffering leukoencephalomyelitis due to caprine arthritis encephalitis virus.

    PubMed

    Devilbiss, Bethany; Neelis, Dana; Ochoa, Jennine; Ziegler, Jessie; Barrington, George; Allen, Andrew

    2013-10-01

    Computed tomography was used to aid in the antemortem diagnosis of leukoencephalomyelitis in a goat infected by caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV). Imaging results were corroborated by histologic examination. This report discusses various methods of imaging the nervous system and their potential for use in the antemortem diagnosis of CAEV neurologic changes. PMID:24155416

  8. Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus detection in blood by loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay targeting the proviral gag region.

    PubMed

    Balbin, Michelle M; Belotindos, Lawrence P; Abes, Nancy S; Mingala, Claro N

    2014-05-01

    Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV), of the genus Lentivirus of the Retroviridae family, causes persistent disease, which is characterized by polyarthritis and mastitis in adult goats and progressive paresis (leukoencephalomyelitis) in kids. A loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay was developed for the detection of CAEV in blood samples. Species-specific primers amplifying the gag gene region in the provirus were used for the detection of CAEV. The LAMP assay result was obtained 30 min after incubation on a constant temperature at 63 °C in a heat block. Resulting amplicons were visualized by addition of SYBR green dye after the reaction and checked by agarose gel electrophoresis. The sensitivity of LAMP assay was evaluated by comparing the result with the nested polymerase chain reaction. Based on the experiments, the result of the assay indicated a rapid and sensitive test for the detection of CAEV. PMID:24630755

  9. Characterization of the immunodominant cross-reacting epitope of visna maedi virus and caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus capsid antigen.

    PubMed

    Rosati, S; Mannelli, A; Merlo, T; Ponti, N

    1999-06-01

    Maedi visna (MV) and caprine arthritis-encephalitis (CAE) are two retroviral infections distributed world wide. Antigenic cross reactions between the viruses have been demonstrated in gag and env encoded structural proteins. Antigens from ovine lentiviruses are easier to produce in cell culture systems and therefore have been used in the development of diagnostic tests for both infections. Antigenically relevant epitopes have been characterised in the transmembrane protein, but little information is available on the immunodominant and cross reacting epitopes in the major capsid antigen (p25). In this study four different recombinant subunits of ovine lentivirus p25 were tested against sera from infected goats and a detailed characterisation of the immunodominant subunit was carried out. Highest ELISA absorbances were obtained with a 29 amino acid subunit located in the N'-terminal half of p25. Through the analysis of overlapping peptides spanning this region we identified a 17 amino acid sequence that can be used in the development of a highly standardized synthetic peptide-based assay. PMID:10475088

  10. Quantitative estimation of the impact of caprine arthritis encephalitis virus infection on milk production by dairy goats.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Navalón, Bernardo; Peris, Cristòfol; Gómez, Ernesto A; Peris, Bernat; Roche, María Luz; Caballero, Concepción; Goyena, Elena; Berriatua, Eduardo

    2013-08-01

    This retrospective study investigated milk production losses associated with serological evidence (serostatus) of caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV) infection over one lactation in 4543 Murciano-Granadina goats from 22 herds in Spain. The seroprevalence of infection was 18%, ranging from 0% to 2% in 11 herds, 7% to 60% in 10 herds and was 100% in one herd. Seropositive does had significantly shorter lactations, produced less milk and milk fat, lactose and dry extract and had higher somatic cell counts than their seronegative counterparts, although differences in milk production between seropositive and seronegative animals were noted between herds. Mixed regression models confirmed the association between CAEV seropositivity and reduced milk production. The adjusted, least squares mean (LSM) test-day milk yield was 10% less in seropositive compared to seronegative does and this difference varied according to lactation number. In contrast, differences in the LSM of milk fat, lactose and dry extract percentages between seropositive and seronegative goats were only between 0.1% and 0.2% and did not increase with lactation number. The findings of this study provide strong evidence that CAEV-infection can be a major cause of reduction in milk yield in goats and its control should be considered as part of dairy goat herd health schemes. PMID:23384438

  11. Risk factors for transmission and methods for control of caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus infection.

    PubMed

    Rowe, J D; East, N E

    1997-03-01

    The major route of transmission of caprine-encephalitis virus (CAEV) is through the ingestion of CAEV-infected colostrum or milk. Less efficient routes of transmission are associated with prolonged contact with infected goats and are reviewed in this article. Prevention of CAEV is based on the removal of kids from their dam at birth, and feeding the kids heat-treated colostrum and pasteurized milk until weaning. Serologic testing and segregation or culling of seropositive goats is necessary to minimize horizontal transmission of CAEV. PMID:9071745

  12. Activation/proliferation and apoptosis of bystander goat lymphocytes induced by a macrophage-tropic chimeric caprine arthritis encephalitis virus expressing SIV Nef

    SciTech Connect

    Bouzar, Baya Amel [Kansas University of Medical Center, MMD Laboratory of Viral Pathogenesis, 5000 Wahl Hall East, 3901 Rainbow Blvd. Kansas City, Kansas 66160 (United States); Rea, Angela [UMR 754 INRA, 'Virologie Cellulaire, Moleculaire et Maladies Emergentes', Universite Claude Bernard Lyon-1, Batiment B, 50 avenue Tony Garnier, 69007, Lyon (France); Hoc-Villet, Stephanie [UMR 754 INRA, 'Virologie Cellulaire, Moleculaire et Maladies Emergentes', Universite Claude Bernard Lyon-1, Batiment B, 50 avenue Tony Garnier, 69007, Lyon (France); Garnier, Celine [UMR 754 INRA, 'Virologie Cellulaire, Moleculaire et Maladies Emergentes', Universite Claude Bernard Lyon-1, Batiment B, 50 avenue Tony Garnier, 69007, Lyon (France); Guiguen, Francois [UMR 754 INRA, 'Virologie Cellulaire, Moleculaire et Maladies Emergentes', Universite Claude Bernard Lyon-1, Batiment B, 50 avenue Tony Garnier, 69007, Lyon (France); Jin Yuhuai [Kansas University of Medical Center, MMD Laboratory of Viral Pathogenesis, 5000 Wahl Hall East, 3901 Rainbow Blvd. Kansas City, Kansas 66160 (United States); Narayan, Opendra [Kansas University of Medical Center, MMD Laboratory of Viral Pathogenesis, 5000 Wahl Hall East, 3901 Rainbow Blvd. Kansas City, Kansas 66160 (United States); Chebloune, Yahia [UMR 754 INRA, 'Virologie Cellulaire, Moleculaire et Maladies Emergentes', Universite Claude Bernard Lyon-1, Batiment B, 50 avenue Tony Garnier, 69007, Lyon (France) and Kansas University of Medical Center, MMD Laboratory of Viral Pathogenesis, 5000 Wahl Hall East, 3901 Rainbow Blvd. Kansas City, Kansas 66160 (United States)]. E-mail: ychebloune@kumc.edu

    2007-08-01

    Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV) is the natural lentivirus of goats, well known for its tropism for macrophages and its inability to cause infection in lymphocytes. The viral genome lacks nef, tat, vpu and vpx coding sequences. To test the hypothesis that when nef is expressed by the viral genome, the virus became toxic for lymphocytes during replication in macrophages, we inserted the SIVsmm PBj14 nef coding sequences into the genome of CAEV thereby generating CAEV-nef. This recombinant virus is not infectious for lymphocytes but is fully replication competent in goat macrophages in which it constitutively expresses the SIV Nef. We found that goat lymphocytes cocultured with CAEV-nef-infected macrophages became activated, showing increased expression of the interleukin-2 receptor (IL-2R). Activation correlated with increased proliferation of the cells. Interestingly, a dual effect in terms of apoptosis regulation was observed in exposed goat lymphocytes. Nef was found first to induce a protection of lymphocytes from apoptosis during the first few days following exposure to infected macrophages, but later it induced increased apoptosis in the activated lymphocytes. This new recombinant virus provides a model to study the functions of Nef in the context of infection of macrophages, but in absence of infection of T lymphocytes and brings new insights into the biological effects of Nef on lymphocytes.

  13. A polytropic caprine arthritis encephalitis virus promoter isolated from multiple tissues from a sheep with multisystemic lentivirus-associated inflammatory disease.

    PubMed

    Adedeji, Adeyemi O; Barr, Bradd; Gomez-Lucia, Esperanza; Murphy, Brian

    2013-08-01

    Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV) is a lentivirus that infects both goats and sheep and is closely related to maedi-visna virus that infects sheep; collectively, these viruses are known as small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLV). Infection of goats and sheep with SRLV typically results in discrete inflammatory diseases which include arthritis, mastitis, pneumonia or encephalomyelitis. SRLV-infected animals concurrently demonstrating lentivirus-associated lesions in tissues of lung, mammary gland, joint synovium and the central nervous system are either very rare or have not been reported. Here we describe a novel CAEV promoter isolated from a sheep with multisystemic lentivirus-associated inflammatory disease including interstitial pneumonia, mastitis, polyarthritis and leukomyelitis. A single, novel SRLV promoter was cloned and sequenced from five different anatomical locations (brain stem, spinal cord, lung, mammary gland and carpal joint synovium), all of which demonstrated lesions characteristic of lentivirus associated inflammation. This SRLV promoter isolate was found to be closely related to CAEV promoters isolated from goats in northern California and other parts of the world. The promoter was denoted CAEV-ovine-MS (multisystemic disease); the stability of the transcription factor binding sites within the U3 promoter sequence are discussed. PMID:23955501

  14. PCR associated with agar gel immunodiffusion assay improve caprine arthritis-encephalitis (CAEV) control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. R. Modolo; A. V. M. Stachissini; C. R. Padovani; J ARAUJOJUNIOR; R. S. Castro; A. P. Ravazzolo; B. L. S. Leite

    2009-01-01

    Caprine arthritis-encephalitis (CAE) is a multi-systemic viral syndrome in goats caused by small ruminant lentivirus (CAEV). The control measures prescribed for CAEV control are based on the identification of infected animals through a suitable serological test. The aim of this work was to improve the CAE control measures through the association of indirect (agar gel immunodiffusion—AGID) and direct (PCR) assays

  15. Monoclonal Antibodies to Conformational Epitopes of the Surface Glycoprotein of Caprine Arthritis-Encephalitis Virus: Potential Application to Competitive-Inhibition Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay for Detecting Antibodies in Goat Sera

    PubMed Central

    Özyörük, Fuat; Cheevers, William P.; Hullinger, Gordon A.; McGuire, Travis C.; Hutton, Melinda; Knowles, Donald P.

    2001-01-01

    Four immunoglobulin G1 monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) to the gp135 surface envelope glycoprotein (SU) of the 79–63 isolate of caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV), referred to as CAEV-63, were characterized and evaluated for their ability to compete with antibody from CAEV-infected goats. Three murine MAbs (MAbs GPB16A, 29A, and 74A) and one caprine MAb (MAb F7-299) were examined. All MAbs reacted in nitrocellulose dot blots with native CAEV-63 SU purified by MAb F7-299 affinity chromatography, whereas none reacted with denatured and reduced SU. All MAbs reacted in Western blots with purified CAEV-63 SU or the SU component of whole-virus lysate following denaturation in the absence of reducing agent, indicating that intramolecular disulfide bonding was essential for epitope integrity. Peptide-N-glycosidase F digestion of SU abolished the reactivities of MAbs 74A and F7-299, whereas treatment of SU with N-acetylneuraminate glycohydrolase (sialidase A) under nonreducing conditions enhanced the reactivities of all MAbs as well as polyclonal goat sera. MAbs 29A and F7-299 were cross-reactive with the SU of an independent strain of CAEV (CAEV-Co). By enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), the reactivities of horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-conjugated MAbs 16A and 29A with homologous CAEV-63 SU were <10% of that of HRP-conjugated MAb 74A. The reactivity of HRP-conjugated MAb 74A was blocked by sera from goats immunized with CAEV-63 SU or infected with CAEV-63. The reactivity of MAb 74A was also blocked by sera from goats infected with a CAEV-Co molecular clone, although MAb 74A did not react with CAEV-Co SU in Western blots. Thus, goats infected with either CAEV-63 or CAEV-Co make antibodies that inhibit binding of MAb 74A to CAEV-63 SU. A competitive-inhibition ELISA based on displacement of MAb 74A reactivity has potential applicability for the serologic diagnosis of CAEV infection. PMID:11139194

  16. The validation of housekeeping genes as a reference in quantitative Real Time PCR analysis: application in the milk somatic cells and frozen whole blood of goats infected with caprine arthritis encephalitis virus.

    PubMed

    Jarczak, Justyna; Kaba, Jaros?aw; Bagnicka, Emilia

    2014-10-10

    The validation of housekeeping genes (HKGs) for normalization of RNA expression in Real-Time PCR is crucial to obtain the most reliable results. There is limited information on reference genes used in the study of gene expression in milk somatic cells and the frozen whole blood of goats. Thus, the aim of this study was to propose the most stable housekeeping genes that can be used as a reference in Real-Time PCR analysis of milk somatic cells and whole blood of goats infected with caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV). Animals were divided into two groups: non-infected (N=13) and infected with CAEV (N=13). Biological material (milk somatic cells and whole blood) was collected 4 times during the lactation period (7, 30, 100 and 240days post-partum). The expression levels of candidate reference genes were analyzed using geNorm and NormFinder software. The stability of candidates for reference gene expression was analyzed for CAEV-free (control) and CAEV-infected groups, and also for both groups together (combined group). The stability of expression of ?-actin (ACTB), glyceraldehyde-3P-dehydrogenase (GAPDH), cyclophilin A (PPIA), RNA18S1, ubiquilin (UBQLN1) and ribosomal protein large subunit P0 (RPLP0) was determined in milk somatic cells, while ACTB, PPIA, RPLP0, succinate dehydrogenase complex subunit A (SDHA), zeta polypeptide (YWHAZ), battenin (CLN3), eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3K (EIF3K) and TATA box-binding protein (TBP) were measured in frozen whole blood of goats. PPIA and RPLP0 were considered as the most suitable internal controls as they were stably expressed in milk somatic cells regardless of disease status, according to NormFinder software. Furthermore, geNorm results indicated the expression of PPIA/RPLP0 genes as the best combination under these experimental conditions. The results of frozen whole blood analysis using NormFinder software revealed that the most stable reference gene in control, CAEV-infected and combined groups is YWHAZ, and - according to the geNorm results - the combined expression of PPM/YWHAZ genes is the best reference in the presented experiment. The usefulness in gene expression analysis of whole blood samples frozen immediately in liquid nitrogen and stored at -80°C was also proved. PMID:25068405

  17. Caprine arthritis encephalitis and caseous lymphadenitis in goats: use of bulk tank milk ELISAs for herd-level surveillance.

    PubMed

    Nagel-Alne, G E; Valle, P S; Krontveit, R; Sølverød, L S

    2015-02-14

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of two ELISA tests applied to bulk tank milk (BTM) as the first part of a two-step test scheme for the surveillance of caprine arthritis encephalitis (CAE) and caseous lymphadenitis (CLA) infections in goats. The herd-level BTM tests were assessed by comparing them to the test results of individual serological samples. The potential for refining the cut-off levels for BTM tests used as surveillance tools in a population recently cleared of infection was also investigated. Data was gathered on serum (nCAE =9702 and nCLA=13426) and corresponding BTM (nCAE=78 and nCLA=123) samples from dairy goat herds enrolled in the Norwegian disease control and eradication programme 'Healthier Goats'. The results showed that the sensitivity and specificity of the CAE ELISA BTM test with respect to detecting ?2 per cent within-herd prevalence were 72.7 per cent and 86.6 per cent, respectively. For the CLA ELISA BTM the sensitivity and specificity were 41.4 per cent and 81.7 per cent, respectively, for the same goal of detection. The results suggest that BTM testing can be applied as a cost-effective first step for early detection of CAE and CLA infection. PMID:25344573

  18. Study of a prevention programme for caprine arthritis-encephalitis

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    colostrum (cow colostrum or goat colostrum heated to 56°C for 1 h) were contaminated compared with 45% of those that had been given raw colostrum. The segregation between the animals submitted to prevention de 49,5% à 25% après2 années d'application. 19% des chevrettes qui ont bu du colostrum de

  19. Expanding possibilities for intervention against small ruminant lentiviruses through genetic marker-assisted selective breeding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Small ruminant lentiviruses include members that infect sheep (ovine lentivirus [OvLV]; also known as ovine progressive pneumonia virus/maedi-visna virus) and goats (caprine arthritis encephalitis virus [CAEV]). Breed differences in seroprevalence and proviral concentration of OvLV had suggested a s...

  20. Phylogenetic analysis of small ruminant lentiviruses from Northern Brazil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aryana Lushese Vasconcelos Lima Feitosa; Maria Fátima da Silva Teixeira; Raymundo Rizaldo Pinheiro; Rodrigo Maranguape Silva da Cunha; João Paulo Matos Santos Lima; Alice Andrioli; Tânia Valeska Medeiros Dantas; Valeska Shelda Pessoa de Melo; Diana Célia Sousa Nunes Pinheiro

    2010-01-01

    Caprine Arthritis Encephalitis virus (CAEV) and Visna\\/maedi virus (VISNA), are considered to be genetically distinct but antigenically related pathogens of goats and sheep. In this study, one flock of 250 goats was screened using Agar-gel Immunodiffusion (AGID), and the level of seroprevalence observed was 11 animals (4.4%) of positive tested serum. Four goats positive to AGID were analyzed using a

  1. Treatment of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia.

    PubMed

    Rurangirwa, F R; Masiga, W N; Muriu, D N; Muthomi, E; Mulira, G; Kagumba, M; Nandokha, E

    1981-08-01

    A combination of dihydrostreptomycin sulphate (250 mg/ml) and penicillin G procaine (200,000 iu/ml) was used to treat contagious caprine pleuropneumonia caused by F38 strain of mycoplasma. A single dose of either 20, 30, 40 or 50 mg/kg body weight of the dihydrostreptomycin sulphate led to the recovery of the treated goats. The recovered goats did not transmit CCPP to susceptible goats housed with them for 2 months. The goats which recovered were found to be solidly immune to an in-contact challenge in which all the control goats died of CCPP. The treated and recovered goats were found not to be carriers of the organism. PMID:6170140

  2. Detection of Caprine Herpesvirus 1 in Sacral Ganglia of Latently Infected Goats by PCR

    PubMed Central

    Tempesta, Maria; Pratelli, Annamaria; Greco, Grazia; Martella, Vito; Buonavoglia, Canio

    1999-01-01

    A study of the latency of caprine herpesvirus 1 (CpHV.1) was carried out with four latently infected goats. Three goats were treated with dexamethasone and euthanized after 4 and 6 days. PCR and virus isolation allowed us to detect CpHV.1 only in the third and fourth sacral ganglia of the two animals euthanized 6 days after the start of treatment. PMID:10203533

  3. Characterization of a caprine herpesvirus.

    PubMed

    Berrios, P E; McKercher, D G

    1975-12-01

    A virus, which was isolated from kids (Capra hircus) affected with a relatively severe generalized infection, was found to contain DNA and to have a buoyant density of 1.2820 g/cm3. The virus was sensitive to the action of lipid solvents and trypsin and was rapidly inactivated at pH 3.0 and at temperatures of 50 and 56 C. The virion, an icosahedron consisting of a nucleoid surrounded by a double membrane, measured approximately 135 nm in diameter. On the basis of its chemical and physical properties, the virus is considered a herpesvirus. PMID:933

  4. Ultra-high resolution crystal structure of recombinant caprine ?-lactoglobulin.

    PubMed

    Crowther, Jennifer M; Lassé, Moritz; Suzuki, Hironori; Kessans, Sarah A; Loo, Trevor S; Norris, Gillian E; Hodgkinson, Alison J; Jameson, Geoffrey B; Dobson, Renwick C J

    2014-11-01

    ?-Lactoglobulin (?lg) is the most abundant whey protein in the milks of ruminant animals. While bovine ?lg has been subjected to a vast array of studies, little is known about the caprine ortholog. We present an ultra-high resolution crystal structure of caprine ?lg complemented by analytical ultracentrifugation and small-angle X-ray scattering data. In both solution and crystalline states caprine ?lg is dimeric (K(D)<5 ?M); however, our data suggest a flexible quaternary arrangement of subunits within the dimer. These structural findings will provide insight into relationships among structural, processing, nutritional and immunological characteristics that distinguish cow's and goat's milk. PMID:25241165

  5. Caprine enteritis associated with Yersinia pseudotuberculosis infection.

    PubMed

    Seimiya, Yukio M; Sasaki, Koji; Satoh, Chihiro; Takahashi, Maki; Yaegashi, Gakuji; Iwane, Hideaki

    2005-09-01

    Yersiniosis was prevalent among a caprine herd during the late autumn of 2003 in Iwate Prefecture, Japan. The disease affected 29 of about 100 lactating goats, but not dried or nonparous goats, mature male goats or kids. Four animals died within an epidemic period of 20 days. Affected animals developed decreased milk production with subsequent watery diarrhea, neutrophilia with increased band forms and multiple microabscesses characteristic of yersiniosis in the intestinal mucosa from the jejunum to caecum as well as in the mesenteric lymph nodes. Y. pseudotuberculosis serotype III was isolated from intestinal contents and mesenteric lymph nodes. The organism was also cultured from clinically normal dried animals. The outbreak might have been precipitated by multiple stress factors, such as lactation, cold weather, Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis infection resulting in abscess formation and tapeworm and coccidium parasitisms. PMID:16210800

  6. The apicomplexan parasite Eimeria arloingi induces caprine neutrophil extracellular traps.

    PubMed

    Silva, Liliana M R; Caro, Tamara Muñoz; Gerstberger, Rüdiger; Vila-Viçosa, Maria J M; Cortes, Helder C E; Hermosilla, Carlos; Taubert, Anja

    2014-08-01

    As a novel effector mechanism polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) release neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), which represent protein-labeled DNA matrices capable of extracellular trapping and killing of invasive pathogens. Here, we demonstrate for the first time NET formation performed by caprine PMN exposed to different stages (sporozoites and oocysts) of the goat apicomplexan protozoan parasite Eimeria arloingi. Scanning electron microscopy as well as fluorescence microscopy of sporozoites- and oocysts-PMN co-cultures revealed a fine network of DNA fibrils partially covering the parasites. Immunofluorescence analyses confirmed the co-localization of histones (H3), neutrophil elastase (NE), and myeloperoxidase (MPO) in extracellular traps released from caprine PMN. In addition, the enzymatic activity of NE was found significantly enhanced in sporozoite-exposed caprine PMN. The treatment of caprine NET structures with deoxyribonuclease (DNase) and the NADPH oxidase inhibitor diphenylene iodondium (DPI) significantly reduced NETosis confirming the classical characteristics of NETs. Caprine NETs efficiently trapped vital sporozoites of E. arloingi since 72% of these stages were immobilized-but not killed-in NET structures. As a consequence, early infection rates were significantly reduced when PMN-pre-exposed sporozoites were allowed to infect adequate host cells. These findings suggest that NETs may play an important role in the early innate host response to E. arloingi infection in goats. PMID:24849865

  7. Caprine pleuropneumonia in Beetal goats [corrected].

    PubMed

    Hussain, Riaz; Auon, Muhammad; Khan, Ahrar; Khan, Muhammad Zargham; Mahmood, Fazal; Ur-Rehman, Sajjad

    2012-03-01

    Seroprevalence, clinical findings, and lesions of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP) in Beetal goats were recorded during an outbreak. The overall seroprevalence of CCPP was 32.50%. Confirmation of Mycoplasma mycoides in serum was carried out using counter immunoelectrophoresis (CIE) technique. The highest CIE-positive cases were recorded in the older goats (51.72%) as compared to young ones. Nasal swabs collected from 39 goats showing respiratory signs were found positive for M. mycoides. The most consistent clinical findings were mild to severe cough, purulent nasal secretion, emaciation, dyspnea, increased respiration rate, and pyrexia. Mortality due to CCPP was 9.17%. Consolidation of lungs exhibited the highest frequency (100%), followed by alveolar exudation (90.90%) and pleural adhesion (72.72%). Among the microscopic lesions, septal peribronchiolar fibrosis exhibited the highest frequency (81.81%), followed by fibrinous pleuritis (63.63%) and peribronchiolar cuffing of mononuclear cells (54.54%) in lungs. From these results, it was concluded that CCPP under subtropical conditions has high prevalence in Beetal goats and leads to significant mortality. PMID:21735340

  8. Diagnosis and control of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia.

    PubMed

    Thiaucourt, F; Bölske, G; Leneguersh, B; Smith, D; Wesonga, H

    1996-12-01

    The diagnosis of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP) has often been considered difficult. This is because of the confusion that can arise with other mycoplasmoses of small ruminants. Symptoms and lesions can be similar and the isolation of M. capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae (MccF38) requires skilled technicians. Once MccF38 strains are isolated, their identification should not be difficult. New techniques, such as polymerase chain reaction, now offer the possibility of identifying MccF38 directly from dried samples. However, the isolation of MccF38 strains is always required for an official declaration of infection. Until now, the official serological test has been the complement fixation test; the main drawbacks being lack of sensitivity and specificity and also the short persistence of antibodies detected by this technique. The specific competition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay has now been developed and should enable wide serological enquiries to determine the real prevalence of the disease. Antibiotic treatments are effective but may not prevent persistence in latent carriers. An inactivated vaccine with saponin as an adjuvant has been produced in Kenya, which protects goats for approximately one year. PMID:9190021

  9. Glycoprotein C Gene of Caprine Herpesvirus Type 1 Contains Short Sequence Repeats (SSR)

    PubMed Central

    Tarsitano, Elvira; Camero, Michele; Lucia Bellacicco, Anna; Decaro, Nicola; Martella, Vito; Buonavoglia, Canio; Tempesta, Maria

    2010-01-01

    Caprine herpesvirus 1 (CpHV-1) is responsible for vaginal and respiratory disease in goats. Infection by vaginal route is usually restricted to the genital tract whereas by nasal route the virus can spread throughout the body. In order to evaluate genomic diversity, nucleotide sequences of glycoprotein C (gC) of 13 (n.8 vaginal, n.5 nasal) CpHV-1 strains were analyzed. Amino acid (aa) sequences showed a variable number of short sequence repeats (SSR). Nucleotide and amino acid sequences of amplified products showed to contain a variable number of short sequence repeats among the examined strains. These results indicated that CpHV-1 isolates had genetic diversity in the gC gene regarding the number of SSR: 4 SSR of 60 bp in one strain, 2 SSR of 30 bp in seven strains and 1 SSR of 15 bp in three strains. Two strains had no SSR. PMID:20700396

  10. Isolation of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from caprine mastitis cases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zeki Aras; Ibrahim Aydin; Kursat Kav

    There is no report on isolation of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains from mastitis infection in goats. This study reports two MRSA strains that were isolated from caprine mastitis. A total of 42 Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) strains collected from caprine mastitis cases between 2008 and 2009 were examined. Two (4.8%) out of 42 S. aureus strains were identified as

  11. DISTINCTION PHNOTYPIQUE DES CAPRINS HOMO-ET HTROZYGOTES SANS CORNES (1)

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    NOTE DISTINCTION PHÉNOTYPIQUE DES CAPRINS HOMO- ET HÉTÉROZYGOTES SANS CORNES (1) G. RICORDEAU J 48 - Moissac RÉSUMÉ Chez les caprins d'origine alpine portant le gène dominant P d'absence de cornes, même les animaux sans cornes présentent deux protubérances osseuses. Chez les PP, les protubérances

  12. Caprine herpesvirus-1 abortion storm in a goat herd in Quebec

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Numerous abortions were reported on a Quebec goat farm, and caprine herpesvirus-1 (CapHV-1) was confirmed by PCR in several tissues from 3 aborted fetuses. This is the first report of CapHV-1 in Canada. Practitioners and diagnosticians must consider this disease when making a differential diagnosis for caprine abortion. PMID:15072197

  13. Vaccination against contagious caprine pleuropneumonia caused by F38.

    PubMed

    Rurangirwa, F R; McGuire, T C; Chema, S; Kibor, A

    1987-06-01

    Only F38 isolates of mycoplasma cause classical contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP). Therefore, research has focused on the development of a vaccine that will prevent serious epidemics of the disease in goats. Goats immunized with two doses of a lyophilized preparation of isolated F38 organisms administered 4 weeks apart were completely immune to experimentally induced CCPP. The minimum immunizing dose was 0.15 mg, and this dose was still effective after storage for 14 months at 4 C and 22 C. The duration of immunity induced by a single dose of lyophilized F38 was at least 12 months. PMID:3312103

  14. In vitro antiviral activity of Ficus carica latex against caprine herpesvirus-1.

    PubMed

    Camero, Michele; Marinaro, Mariarosaria; Lovero, Angela; Elia, Gabriella; Losurdo, Michele; Buonavoglia, Canio; Tempesta, Maria

    2014-01-01

    The latex of Ficus carica Linn. (Moraceae) has been shown to possess antiviral properties against some human viruses. To determine the ability of F. carica latex (F-latex) to interfere with the infection of caprine herpesvirus-1 (CpHV-1) in vitro, F-latex was resuspended in culture media containing 1% ethanol and was tested for potential antiviral effects against CpHV-1. Titration of CpHV-1 in the presence or in the absence of F-latex was performed on monolayers of Madin Darby Bovine Kidney (MDBK) cells. Simultaneous addition of F-latex and CpHV-1 to monolayers of MDBK cells resulted in a significant reduction of CpHV-1 titres 3 days post-infection and this effect was comparable to that induced by acyclovir. The study suggests that the F-latex is able to interfere with the replication of CpHV-1 in vitro on MDBK cells and future studies will determine the mechanisms responsible for the observed antiviral activity. PMID:24853920

  15. Dynamics of the enzymatic antioxidants during experimental caprine coccidiosis.

    PubMed

    Rakhshandehroo, E; Razavi, S M; Nazifi, S; Farzaneh, M; Mobarraei, N

    2013-04-01

    Caprine coccidiosis, caused by coccidian parasites from genus Eimeria, is considered as one of the most common and significant diseases in goats worldwide. The aim of this experiment was to investigate the responses of the enzymatic antioxidant systems during experimental coccidiosis. For this purpose, 20 newborn kids were selected. Ten were infected with sporulated oocysts of the most pathogenic species of Eimeria, and the remainder served as the control. Blood samples were taken at 0 (before inoculation), 3, 7, 14, 21, 28, and 35 days post-infection (dpi), and antioxidant-oxidant-related parameters were measured. Our data showed that the activities of the main erythrocyte antioxidant enzymes revealed significant declines at 7 dpi. These decreases were more evident at 14 to 21 dpi and then gradually enhanced to the normal values until 35 dpi; however, total antioxidant capacity revealed a remarkable decrease at 7 dpi and remained on the same level toward the end of the study. By contrast, serum levels of malondialdehyde (a biomarker of lipid peroxidation) and total homocysteine significantly increased at 21 and 14, 21, and 28 dpi, respectively. These observations suggest that caprine coccidiosis can impair the major antioxidant systems leading to remarkable oxidative damages during the infection. Furthermore, oxidative injuries could have a considerable linkage to the pathogenesis of Eimeria parasites. PMID:23329014

  16. Role of PRNP S127 allele in experimental goat infection with classical caprine scrapie

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Classical scrapie is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy that affects domestic goats and sheep. Experimental inoculation studies in sheep confirmed that classical caprine scrapie can readily transmit to sheep. Therefore, even if current scrapie eradication measures are successful in sheep, goa...

  17. Bacterial expression and preliminary crystallographic studies of a 149-residue fragment of human Caprin-1.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yuhong; Zhu, Jiang; Huang, Xiaolan; Du, Zhihua

    2015-03-01

    Caprin-1 is an RNA-binding protein which plays critical roles in several important biological processes, including cellular proliferation, the interferon-mediated antiviral innate immune response, the maintenance of synaptic plasticity and the formation of RNA stress granules. Caprin-1 has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several human diseases, including osteosarcoma, breast cancer, viral infections, hearing loss and neurodegenerative disorders. Despite the emerging biological and physiopathological significance of Caprin-1, no structural information is available for this protein. Moreover, Caprin-1 does not have sequence similarity to any other protein with a known structure. It is therefore expected that structural studies will play a particularly crucial role in revealing the functional mechanisms of Caprin-1. Here, a protein fragment of human Caprin-1 consisting of residues 112-260 was expressed, purified and crystallized. Native and Se-SAD data sets were collected to resolutions to 2.05 and 2.65?Å, respectively, in different space groups. PMID:25760709

  18. Preliminary field test of lyophilised contagious caprine pleuropneumonia vaccine.

    PubMed

    Rurangirwa, F R; McGuire, T C; Mbai, L; Ndung'u, L; Wambugu, A

    1991-03-01

    Fifty goats were immunised in the field against contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP) using a single dose (0.15 mg) of lyophilised, saponin killed Mycoplasma strain F38. Two months after vaccination, these goats together with 50 unimmunised control goats were challenged by contact with goats experimentally infected with CCPP. Twelve vaccinates and 14 controls died of diarrhoea due to salmonella infection during the first two weeks after challenge. The remaining immunised goats (38) with the exception of two goats which had elevated temperatures were protected from CCPP. Of the remaining 36 control goats, 30 contracted CCPP at a mean of 39 (+/- 14.3 SD) days after challenge and 27 of them died. These results show that the lyophilised killed F38 vaccine conferred 100 per cent protection against mortality and 95 per cent protection against clinical disease caused by Mycoplasma species strain F38. PMID:2034906

  19. Caprine pancreatic islet xenotransplantation into diabetic immunosuppressed BALB/c mice

    PubMed Central

    Hani, Homayoun; Allaudin, Zeenathul N; Mohd-Lila, Mohd-Azmi; Ibrahim, Tengku A Tengku; Othman, Abas M

    2014-01-01

    Background Type 1 diabetes mellitus is a devastating disease for which there is currently no cure, but only lifetime management. Islet xenotransplantation is a promising technique for the restoration of blood glucose control in patients with diabetes mellitus. The purpose of this study was to explore the potential use of caprine (goat) islet cells as xenogeneic grafts in the treatment for diabetes in a mouse model. Methods Caprine pancreases were harvested and transported to the laboratory under conditions optimized to prevent ischemia. Islets were isolated, purified, and tested for functionality. Caprine islets (2000 islet equivalent) were transplanted beneath the kidney capsules of diabetic BALB/c mice under thalidomide-induced immunosuppression. Blood glucose and insulin levels of grafted mice were evaluated by glucometer and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit, respectively. The functionality and quality of caprine pancreatic islet grafts were assessed by intraperitoneal glucose tolerance tests. Results The viability of purified islet cells exceeded 90%. Recipient mice exhibited normoglycemia (<11 mm glucose) for 30 days. In addition, weight gain negatively correlated with blood glucose level. The findings verified diabetes reversal in caprine islet recipient mice. A significant drop in non-fasting blood glucose level (from 23.3 ± 5.4 to 8.04 ± 0.44 mm) and simultaneous increase in serum insulin level (from 0.01 ± 0.001 to 0.56 ± 0.17 ?g/l) and body weights (from 23.64 ± 0.31 to 25.85 ± 0.34 g) were observed (P < 0.05). Immunohistochemical analysis verified insulin production in the transplanted islets. Conclusions Purified caprine islets were demonstrated to successfully sustain viability and functionality for controlling blood glucose levels in an immunosuppressed mouse model of diabetes. These results suggest the use of caprine islets as an addition to the supply of xenogeneic islets for diabetes research. PMID:24645790

  20. Caprine Toll-like receptor 8 gene sequence characterization reveals close relationships among ruminant species.

    PubMed

    Goyal, S; Dubey, P K; Kumari, N; Niranjan, S K; Kathiravan, P; Mishra, B P; Mahajan, R; Kataria, R S

    2014-02-01

    TLR8 mediates antiviral immunity by recognizing ssRNA viruses and triggers potent antiviral and antitumor immune responses. In this study, approximately 3.5 Kb nucleotide sequence data of caprine TLR8 gene were generated from one sample each of twelve different Indian goat breeds belonging to different geographical regions. Cloning and characterization of cDNA synthesized from RNA purified from goat spleen revealed TLR8 ORF to be of 3102 nucleotides long coding for 1033 amino acids similar to other ruminant species, that is sheep, buffalo and cattle. The sequence analysis at nucleotide level revealed goat TLR8 to be closer to buffalo sharing 99.6% homology, followed by cattle and sheep. Simple Modular Architecture Research Tool (SMART) used for the structural analysis of goat TLR8 showed the presence of 16 leucine-rich repeats (LRRs) along with single Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) domain. TIR domain when compared with other livestock species was found to be conserved in ruminant species goat, sheep, cattle and buffalo. The phylogenetic analysis also revealed grouping of all ruminant species together, goat being closer to buffalo followed by cattle and sheep. Total 4 polymorphic sites were observed in TLR8 gene of one specimen goat representing each of 12 different breeds studied, all of which were synonymous and present within the coding region. Of these 4 SNPs, two were in ectodomains, one in TIR domain and one was found to be present in transmembrane domain. PCR-RFLP genotyping of two of the SNPs indicated variations in allele frequencies among different goat breeds. The expression profiling in 13 tissues of goat showed maximum expression of TLR8 gene in kidney followed by spleen, lung and lymph node. Overall, our results indicate conservation of TLR8 gene among the ruminant species and low variation within Indian goat breeds. PMID:23829591

  1. Detection of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia in East Turkey.

    PubMed

    Cetinkaya, B; Kalin, R; Karahan, M; Atil, E; Manso-Silván, L; Thiaucourt, F

    2009-12-01

    A study was implemented to investigate the presence of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP) in East Turkey. This study was based on clinical surveillance in the field, surveillance at regional slaughterhouses and regular submission of suspected lesions to regional laboratories. The results showed that the agent of CCPP, Mycoplasma capricolum subspecies capripneumoniae (Mccp), could be detected by culture and specific polymerase chain reaction from 37.5% (12/32) of lung samples taken from goats of ten different herds. This agent was also isolated from two of 13 sheep samples (one from the lung and the other from a nasal swab). Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae was isolated in pure culture and characterised at a finer molecular level. The East Turkish isolate was found to be closely related to another strain of Turkish origin, as well as to Mccp strains isolated in Tunisia. The isolation of Mccp from sheep lung lesions brings the strict host-specificity of this pathogen into question. It may also indicate that Mccp presents a risk for wildlife in the region. Such results, the authors believe, demonstrate that adequate risk assessments should be undertaken in Turkey and neighbouring countries. PMID:20462161

  2. Contagious caprine pleuropneumonia: new aspects of an old disease.

    PubMed

    Nicholas, R; Churchward, C

    2012-06-01

    Contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP), caused by Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae, is a serious OIE-listed disease affecting goats in the Middle East, north and east Africa and Asia. Mortality and morbidity rates can be as high as 60% and 90%, respectively, when the disease first enters a territory, invariably through carrier animals. Recent detections of CCPP in Pakistan and Tajikistan are probably the result of improved diagnosis as the disease has been suspected there for many years, while those in Thrace in 2003 and Mauritius in 2009 represent new outbreaks. CCPP was thought to be highly host specific until recent outbreaks in wildlife species including gazelles and gerenuks show that the causative mycoplasma has broader specificity. Diagnosis was hampered by the fastidiousness of the causative mycoplasma but molecular-based tests like PCR have greatly improved detection. Rapid latex agglutination tests that can be performed at the penside are also available for antibody detection. Clinically affected animals respond to a range of antibiotics although it is unlikely that this results in complete elimination of the mycoplasma. Vaccines consisting of saponized organisms have been shown to be protective but the quality and efficacy may be variable. PMID:21951488

  3. MicroRNA-mediated myostatin silencing in caprine fetal fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Bushuai; Zhang, Yanli; Yan, Yibo; Wang, Ziyu; Ying, Shijia; Huang, Mingrui; Wang, Feng

    2014-01-01

    Myostatin functions as a negative regulator of skeletal muscle growth by suppressing proliferation and differentiation of myoblasts. Dysfunction of the myostatin gene, either due to natural mutation or genetic manipulations such as knockout or knockdown, has been reported to increase muscle mass in mammalian species. RNA interference (RNAi) mediated by microRNAs (miRNAs) is a promising method for gene knockdown studies. In the present study, transient and stable silencing of the myostatin gene in caprine fetal fibroblasts (CFF) was evaluated using the two most effective constructs selected from four different miRNA expression constructs screened in 293FT cells. Using these two miRNA constructs, we achieved up to 84% silencing of myostatin mRNA in transiently transfected CFF cells and up to 31% silencing in stably transfected CFF cells. Moreover, off-target effects due to induction of interferon (IFN) response genes, such as interferon beta (IFN-?) and 2'-5'-oligoadenylate synthetase 2 (OAS2), were markedly fewer in stably transfected CFF cells than in transiently transfected cells. Stable expression of anti-myostatin miRNA with minimal induction of interferon shows great promise for increasing muscle mass in transgenic goats. PMID:25244645

  4. The nerve supply to the major organs and tissues of the caprine head 

    E-print Network

    Tatum, Michael Edward

    1969-01-01

    THE NERVE SUPPIJF TO THE MAJOR ORGANS AND TISSUES OF 1'i E CAPRINE HEAD A Thesis by M ICHA EL EDWARD TATUM Submitted to the Graduate Co11ege of the Texas A I: M University in partial fulf illment, of the requirements for the d gr e of MASTER... OF SCIENCE May 1959 Majov Subjort: Veterinary Anatomy THE NERVE SUPPLY TO THE MAJOR ORGANS AND TISSUES OF THE CAPRINE HEAD A Thesis by MICHAEL EDWARD TATUM Approved as to style and content by: airman of Commit (Member) {Head q' ' Depar tment Qiien...

  5. Fisiological responses of the caprines from different genetic groups in the semi-arid of Paraíba

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bonifácio Benicio de Souza; Expedito Danusio de Souza; Rosangela Maria Nunes da Silva; Marcílio Fontes Cezar; José Romulo; Soares dos Santos; Gustavo de Assis Silva

    This experiment was realized in Pendencia s experimental station of EMEPA-PB in Soledade- PB city. It aimed to avaliate the fisiological and hematological parameters of caprines from diferent genetic groups in the semi-arid conditions. Thirty males weithing about 25,17 kg were used, being six animals from each genetic group: ½ Boer + ½ SRD (BO), ½ Anglo-Nubiana + ½ SRD

  6. The role of Mycoplasma strain F38 in contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCCP) in Kenya.

    PubMed

    MacOwan, K J; Minette, J E

    1977-11-01

    The results of a serological and cultural study of experimental and field cases of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia were consistent with an aetiological role for mycoplasma strain F38. This mycoplasma was isolated from 57 acute cases in 46 outbreaks of CCPP and from 87 experimental contact cases. Clinical data from experimental contact cases were assessed for comparison with field cases. PMID:595269

  7. Functional Properties of Whey Protein Concentrates from Caprine and Ovine Specialty Cheese Wheys

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. L. Casper; W. L. Wendorff; D. L. Thomas

    1999-01-01

    Whey protein concentrates were prepared from two caprine and one ovine specialty cheese wheys by ultrafiltration-diafiltration and freeze-drying pro- cesses. The whey protein concentrates were compared with a bovine whey protein concentrate prepared by the same method for differences in composition and functional properties (foam overrun, foam stability, gelation, and emulsifying capability). Ovine whey protein concentrate showed significantly better foam

  8. AN ENZYME-LINKED IMMUNOSORBENT ASSAY (ELISA) FOR THE DETECTION OF CHLAMYDIALANTIBODIES IN CAPRINE SERA

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    AN ENZYME-LINKED IMMUNOSORBENT ASSAY (ELISA) FOR THE DETECTION OF CHLAMYDIALANTIBODIES IN CAPRINE Pathologie de la Reproduction, 37380 Monnaie, France. Résumé ÉVALUATION D'UN TEST IMMUNOENZYMATIQUE (ELISA immunoenzymatique (ELISA) rapide et simple a été é&dquo;a!ué pour le diagnostic sérologique de la Chlamydiose

  9. Lipid oxidation in algae oil-in-water emulsions stabilized by bovine and caprine caseins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Caseins (alpha S1-, alpha S2-, and beta-casein) are phosphoproteins that are capable of binding transition metals and scavenging free radicals, these properties make them good candidates to be used as natural antioxidants in oil-in-water emulsions. Caprine casein exhibits variability in aS1-casein c...

  10. Effect of partial or total substitution of bovine for caprine milk on the compositional, volatile, non-volatile and sensory characteristics of semi-hard cheeses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. J. Sheehan; A. D. Patel; M. A. Drake; P. L. H. McSweeney

    2009-01-01

    Semi-hard cheeses were manufactured from caprine milk and bovine milk mixed in ratios of 100:0; 75:25; 50:50; 25:75; 0:100 (caprine:bovine) and ripened at 12 °C for 150 d. Substitution of up to 75% bovine for caprine milks had no significant effect on levels of cheese protein, moisture-in-non-fat substances, salt, pH, whiteness, total or individual free amino acids and substitution of up to

  11. Comparison of the principal proteins in bovine, caprine, buffalo, equine and camel milk.

    PubMed

    Hinz, Katharina; O'Connor, Paula M; Huppertz, Thom; Ross, R Paul; Kelly, Alan L

    2012-05-01

    Proteomic analysis of bovine, caprine, buffalo, equine and camel milk highlighted significant interspecies differences. Camel milk was found to be devoid of ?-lactoglobulin, whereas ?-lactoglobulin was the major whey protein in bovine, buffalo, caprine, and equine milk. Five different isoforms of ?-casein were found in camel milk, analogous to the micro-heterogeneity observed for bovine ?-casein. Several spots observed in 2D-electrophoretograms of milk of all species could tentatively be identified as polypeptides arising from the enzymatic hydrolysis of caseins. The understanding gained from the proteomic comparison of these milks may be of relevance both in terms of identifying sources of hypoallergenic alternatives to bovine milk and detection of adulteration of milk samples and products. PMID:22365180

  12. A study on contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP) in goats at an export oriented abattoir, Debrezeit, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Eshetu, L; Yigezu, L; Asfaw, Y

    2007-08-01

    300 goat serum samples from an export-oriented abattoir were tested for contagious caprine pleuropneumonia antibodies by the complement fixation test. The disease prevalence was 31% with no significant differences (P > 0.05) between the regions "Borena", "Bale", "Afar" and "Jinka" or the age of the goats (P > 0.05). Gross pathology and histopathology of the lung primary lesions were indicative of pleuropneumonia caused by Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae. PMID:17966273

  13. A primitive caprine from the Upper Vallesian of La Roma 2 (Alfambra, Teruel, Aragon, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alcalá, Luis; Morales, Jorge

    1997-06-01

    We describe a new caprine form from the Upper Vallesian of La Roma 2 (Teruel Basin, Aragon). Aragoral mudejar Gen.n., sp.n. is close to the primitive forms of the Hippotraginae-Caprinae group. It differs from Norbertia hellenica by its more primitive dentition, the greater separation between the bases of the horn cores, the decreased thickness of the frontal bone and the relatively smaller size of the horn cores.

  14. Fertilization and development of Caprine oocytes matured over granulosa cell monolayers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alok Teotia; G. Taru Sharma; A. C Majumdar

    2001-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the two oocyte maturation systems, i.e. a granulosa cell (GC) monolayer from small (<4mm) or large (>4mm) follicles and a granulosa co-culture for their effects on in vitro maturation (IVM), fertilization and developmental competence of caprine oocytes. A total of 1945 oocytes were used for studies on maturation, fertilization and embryo

  15. Seroprevalence and risk factors of caprine toxoplasmosis in Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. C. A. V. Carneiro; M. Carneiro; A. M. G. Gouveia; A. S. Guimarães; A. P. R. Marques; L. S. Vilas-Boas; R. W. A. Vitor

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this work was to carry out a study on caprine toxoplasmosis in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. To determine the prevalence of toxoplasmosis in goats in Minas Gerais, 767 sera from goats were tested by ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) and IFAT (indirect fluorescence antibody test). The prevalence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii was 43.0% and 46.0%

  16. Molecular characterization and xenogenic application of Wharton's jelly derived caprine mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Pratheesh, M D; Gade, Nitin E; Dubey, Pawan K; Nath, Amar; Sivanarayanan, T B; Madhu, D N; Sharma, Bhaskar; Amarpal; Saikumar, G; Sharma, G Taru

    2014-06-01

    Aim of the present study was in vitro expansion and characterization of caprine wharton's jelly derived mesenchymal stem cells (cWJ-MSCs) to investigate their tissue healing potential in xenogenic animal model. Plastic adherent fibroblastoid cell populations with distinctive homogeneous morphology were isolated from caprine Wharton's jelly explants. These Wharton's jelly derived cells were found positive for the surface markers CD-73, STRO-1 and CD-105, whereas they were negative for hematopoetic stem cell marker CD-34. In vitro cultured cWJ-MSCs also showed differentiation properties into osteogenic, adipogenic and chondrogenic lineages as demonstrated by von Kossa, Oil Red-O and Alcian blue staining respectively, which was further confirmed and quantified by flow cytometric analysis. Furthermore, these well characterized cWJ-MSCs were evaluated for the wound-healing potential in full-thickness skin wounds in rabbit model for 28 days. Caprine WJ- MSCs treated skin wounds showed significantly (P?

  17. Comparison of vitrification and conventional freezing for cryopreservation of caprine embryos.

    PubMed

    Araújo-Lemos, Paula F B; Freitas Neto, Leopoldo M; Moura, Marcelo T; Melo, Janaína V; Lima, Paulo F; Oliveira, Marcos A L

    2015-08-01

    The experiment aimed to compare conventional freezing and different vitrification protocols for cryopreservation of caprine embryos at morphological, ultrastructural, and functional levels. Caprine embryos produced in vivo were allocated randomly to three groups: (1) conventional freezing with ethylene glycol (EG); (2) dimethyl sulfoxide + EG (DMSO/EG) vitrification; and (3) dimethylformamide + EG (DMF/EG) vitrification. All groups were scored for cell viability (propidium iodide staining and ultrastructural levels) and re-expansion rate after thawing or warming. Embryos subjected to DMSO/EG vitrification showed higher cell viability (73.33%), compared with DMF/EG vitrification and conventional freezing group embryos (40.00 and 66.66%, respectively). The ultrastructural study revealed that vitrified embryos had greater preservation of cellular structure than embryos from conventional freezing with EG. DMSO/EG vitrification resulted in higher rates of re-expansion in vitro (47.36%) than DMF/EG vitrification (31.58%), and conventional freezing (25.00%). In conclusion, caprine embryos produced in vivo are better cryopreserved after vitrification than conventional freezing, therefore we conclude that DMSO/EG vitrification is the most effective protocol for cryopreservation. PMID:24964134

  18. CAPRINE HERPESVIRUS 2 ASSOCIATED MALIGNANT CATARRHAL FEVER IN DEER

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A presumptive histopathologic diagnosis of malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) was made in three cases of disease in Sika deer and white-tailed deer with various degrees of hair loss and skin lesions. Antibody against an epitope conserved among the MCF group viruses was detected in the serum of all dise...

  19. Comparative biochemical evolution during ripening of bovine, ovine and caprine cheeses manufactured with extracts of flowers of Cynara cardunculus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria J. Sousa; F. Xavier Malcata

    1997-01-01

    Changes in the main physicochemical and biochemical characteristics of bovine, ovine and caprine milk cheeses manufactured\\u000a with aqueous extracts of flowers of Cynara cardunculus were studied throughout ripening (0?–?68 days). At the end of ripening the pH in the centre was (mean ± ISD) 5.05±0.07, 5.15±0.21\\u000a and 4.91±0.07 for bovine, ovine and caprine milk cheeses, respectively; whereas the pH at

  20. Courte note Dtection du virus de l'arthrite encphalite caprine

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    contaminations liées à l'inges- tion de colostrum contaminé, la voie orale étant considérée comme la voie de contamination que le colostrum [5]. En dépit de différents travaux réalisés en vue de préciser d'autres voies de

  1. INFLUENCE OF BOVINE AND CAPRINE CASEIN PHOSPHOPEPTIDES DIFFERING IN ALPHA S1-CASEIN CONTENT IN DETERMINING THE ABSORPTION OF CALCIUM FROM BOVINE AND CAPRINE CALCIUM-FORTIFIED MILKS IN RATS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine and caprine milks have a similar overall gross composition, but vary considerably in the ratios of their casein components. These differences cause significant changes in the casein’s ability to bind and stabilize calcium (Ca). It might be expected that these in vitro variations, which are th...

  2. ABSORPTION AND HALF-LIFE OF BOVINE, CAPRINE AND OVINE IgG1 IN THE NEWBORN LAMB.

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ont été nourris au biberon avec un colostrum bovin identique pendant les 32 premières heures de la vie, alors que six agneaux à terme et sept prématurés ont reçu le même colostrum, un colostrum caprin, puis un colostrum ovin, respecti- vement 2 h, 8 h et 16 h post-partum. Dans le premier groupe, les taux

  3. Nucleotide sequencing, cloning, and expression of Capra hircus Heme Oxygenase-1 in caprine islets to promote insulin secretion in vitro.

    PubMed

    Vakhshiteh, Faezeh; Allaudin, Zeenathul Nazariah; Lila, Mohd Azmi B Mohd; Abbasiliasi, Sahar; Ajdari, Zahra

    2015-01-01

    Transplantation of islets of Langerhans that have been isolated from whole pancreas is an attractive alternative for the reversal of Type 1 diabetes. However, in vitro culture of isolated pancreatic islets has been reported to cause a decrease in glucose response over time. Hence, the improvement in islet culture conditions is an important goal in islet transplantation. Heme Oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is a stress protein that has been described as an inducible protein with the capacity of preventing apoptosis and cytoprotection via radical scavenging. Therefore, this study was aimed to assess the influence of endogenous HO-1 gene transfer on insulin secretion of caprine islets. The full-length cDNA sequence of Capra hircus HO-1 was determined using specific designed primers and rapid amplification of cDNA ends of pancreatic tissue. The HO-1 cDNA was then cloned into the prokaryotic expression vectors and transfected into caprine islets using lipid carriers. Efficiency of lipid carriers to transfect caprine islets was determined by flow cytometry. Insulin secretion assay was carried out by ovine insulin ELISA. The finding demonstrated that endogenous HO-1 gene transfer could improve caprine islet function in in vitro culture. Consequently, strategies using HO-1 gene transfer to islets might lead to better outcome in islet transplantation. PMID:25218408

  4. Butter making from caprine creams: effect of washing treatment on phospholipids and milk fat globule membrane proteins distribution.

    PubMed

    Lamothe, Sophie; Robitaille, Gilles; St-Gelais, Daniel; Britten, Michel

    2008-11-01

    A washing treatment was applied to caprine cream before churning in order to improve phospholipids and MFGM protein purification from buttermilk and butter serum. Cream obtained from a first separation was diluted with water and separated a second time using pilot plant equipment. Regular and washed creams were churned to produce buttermilk and butter, from which butter serum was extracted. The washing treatment allowed a significant decrease of the casein content. As a result, the phospholipids-to-protein ratios in washed buttermilk and butter serum were markedly increased by 2.1 and 1.7-folds respectively, which represents an advantage for the production of phospholipids concentrates. However, when compared with bovine cream, lower phospholipids-to-protein ratios were observed when the washing treatment was applied to caprine cream. A higher concentration of MFGM protein and a lower retention of phospholipids during washing treatment are responsible for the lower phospholipids-to-protein ratios in buttermilk and butter serum obtained from caprine cream. The phospholipids distribution in the butter making process was similar to the one obtained from bovine regular and washed cream. Phospholipids were preferentially concentrated in the butter serum rather than the buttermilk fraction. This simple approach permitted the production of caprine and bovine butter sera extracts containing up to 180 and 240 g phospholipids/kg sera, respectively, on a dry basis. PMID:18620616

  5. The Fetal Cleft palate: V. Elucidation of the Mechanism of Palatal Clefting in the Congenital Caprine Model

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maternal ingestion of Nicotiana glauca from gestation days 32 through 41 results in a high incidence of cleft palate in Spanish goats. This caprine cleft palate model was used to evaluate the temporal sequence of palatal shelf fusion throughout the period of cleft induction with the poisonous plant...

  6. Molecular dating of caprines using ancient DNA sequences of Myotragus balearicus, an extinct endemic Balearic mammal

    PubMed Central

    Lalueza-Fox, Carles; Castresana, Jose; Sampietro, Lourdes; Marquès-Bonet, Tomàs; Alcover, Josep Antoni; Bertranpetit, Jaume

    2005-01-01

    Background Myotragus balearicus was an endemic bovid from the Balearic Islands (Western Mediterranean) that became extinct around 6,000-4,000 years ago. The Myotragus evolutionary lineage became isolated in the islands most probably at the end of the Messinian crisis, when the desiccation of the Mediterranean ended, in a geological date established at 5.35 Mya. Thus, the sequences of Myotragus could be very valuable for calibrating the mammalian mitochondrial DNA clock and, in particular, the tree of the Caprinae subfamily, to which Myotragus belongs. Results We have retrieved the complete mitochondrial cytochrome b gene (1,143 base pairs), plus fragments of the mitochondrial 12S gene and the nuclear 28S rDNA multi-copy gene from a well preserved Myotragus subfossil bone. The best resolved phylogenetic trees, obtained with the cytochrome b gene, placed Myotragus in a position basal to the Ovis group. Using the calibration provided by the isolation of Balearic Islands, we calculated that the initial radiation of caprines can be dated at 6.2 ± 0.4 Mya. In addition, alpine and southern chamois, considered until recently the same species, split around 1.6 ± 0.3 Mya, indicating that the two chamois species have been separated much longer than previously thought. Conclusion Since there are almost no extant endemic mammals in Mediterranean islands, the sequence of the extinct Balearic endemic Myotragus has been crucial for allowing us to use the Messinian crisis calibration point for dating the caprines phylogenetic tree. PMID:16332256

  7. Clinical protection against caprine herpesvirus 1 genital infection by intranasal administration of a live attenuated glycoprotein E negative bovine herpesvirus 1 vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Thiry, Julien; Tempesta, Maria; Camero, Michele; Tarsitano, Elvira; Muylkens, Benoît; Meurens, François; Thiry, Etienne; Buonavoglia, Canio

    2007-01-01

    Background Caprine herpesvirus 1 (CpHV-1) is responsible of systemic diseases in kids and genital diseases leading to abortions in goats. CpHV-1 is widespread and especially in Mediterranean countries as Greece, Italy and Spain. CpHV-1 is antigenically and genetically closely related to bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1). Taking into account the biological properties shared by these two viruses, we decided in the current study to assess the protection of a live attenuated glycoprotein E (gE) negative BoHV-1 vaccine against a genital CpHV-1 infection in goats. Results The vaccine was inoculated intranasally twice three weeks apart followed by a subsequent CpHV-1 intravaginal challenge which is the natural route of infection in three goats. To analyse the safety and the efficacy of this marker vaccine, two groups of three goats served as controls: one immunised with a virulent CpHV-1 and one uninoculated until the challenge. Goats were clinically monitored and all sampling procedures were carried out in a blind manner. The vaccine did not induce any undesirable local or systemic reaction and goats did not excrete gE-negative BoHV-1. After challenge, a significant reduction in disease severity was observed in immunised goats. Moreover, goats immunised with either gE-negative BoHV-1 or CpHV-1 exhibited a significant reduction in the length and the peak of viral excretion. Antibodies neutralising both BoHV-1 and CpHV-1 were raised in immunised goats. Conclusion Intranasal application of a live attenuated gE-negative BoHV-1 vaccine is able to afford a clinical protection and a reduction of virus excretion in goats challenged by a CpHV-1 genital infection. PMID:18053233

  8. Contagious caprine pleuropneumonia and other pulmonary mycoplasmoses of sheep and goats.

    PubMed

    Thiaucourt, F; Bölske, G

    1996-12-01

    Contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP) is now a well-defined disease that is caused by Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae. CCPP is infectious, contagious and fulfils the classic Koch postulates that characterise such types of disease. The distribution of the disease is not exactly known, but reports of mycoplasma isolation and official declarations to the Office International des Epizooties (OIE) enable a probable distribution map to be obtained. There are many other mycoplasmas that can infect goat and sheep lungs and induce pleuropneumonia. However, pleuropneumonia is often restricted to young animals and the prominent symptom is mastitis in lactating does. Other symptoms may also occur, contributing to a syndrome that has been tentatively described in this paper as 'MAKePS syndrome' for mastitis, arthritis, keratitis, pneumonia and septicaemia. PMID:9190020

  9. Immunisation of goats against contagious caprine pleuropneumonia using sonicated antigens of F-38 strain of mycoplasma.

    PubMed

    Rurangirwa, F R; Masiga, W N; Muthomi, E K

    1984-03-01

    Three groups of 15 goats each were immunised against contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP) using sonicated antigens of the F-38 strain of mycoplasma incorporated in incomplete Freund's adjuvant (IFA), emulsified in aluminium hydroxide and phosphate buffered saline respectively. Three months after immunisation, five goats from each group were challenged by the in-contact method. The goats immunised with the antigen incorporated in IFA were all solidly immune to the challenge whereas only two of five of the goats in the other two groups were protected. When the remaining 10 animals from each group were challenged six months after immunisation, those immunised with the antigen in IFA were still solidly immune while only two goats from each of the other two groups were protected. These results show that effective immunity against CCPP caused by the F-38 strain can be induced by vaccination with sonicated F-38 antigens emulsified in IFA. PMID:6718817

  10. Fatal transmission of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia to an Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx).

    PubMed

    Chaber, A L; Lignereux, L; Al Qassimi, M; Saegerman, C; Manso-Silván, L; Dupuy, V; Thiaucourt, F

    2014-09-17

    Contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP) is an infectious respiratory disease mainly affecting domestic goats. As CCPP has never been documented in grazing antelopes (subfamily hippotraginae), they were not considered susceptible. Mycoplasma capricolum subspecies capripneumoniae (Mccp) was isolated from pleural liquid collected during the necropsy of a severely emaciated Arabian oryx with mild nasal discharge. The Mccp isolate was then genotyped using a multilocus sequence scheme; the sequence type was identical to the Mccp strain previously identified in a sand gazelle from a nearby enclosure. This case shows for the first time that members of the hippotraginae subfamily, here the Arabian oryx, can be affected by CCPP. In addition, genotyping shows that the oryx was most probably infected, at a distance, by sand gazelles. PMID:25069622

  11. Changing Patterns of Acute Phase Proteins and Inflammatory Mediators in Experimental Caprine Coccidiosis

    PubMed Central

    Khodakaram-Tafti, Azizollah; Razavi, Seyed Mostafa; Nazifi, Saeed

    2011-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to assess the changing patterns and relative values of acute phase proteins and inflammatory cytokines in experimental caprine coccidiosis. Eighteen newborn kids were allocated to 3 equal groups. Two groups, A and B, were inoculated with a single dose of 1×103 and1×105 sporulated oocysts of Eimeria arloingi, respectively. The third group, C, received distilled water as the control. Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein of each kid in both groups before inoculation and at days 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, and 42 post-inoculation (PI), and the levels of haptoglobin (Hp), serum amyloid A (SAA), TNF-?, and IFN-? were measured. For histopathological examinations, 2 kids were selected from each group, euthanized, and necropsied on day 42 PI. Mean Hp concentrations in groups A and B (0.34 and 0.68 g/L) at day 7 PI were 3.2 and 6.3 times higher than the levels before inoculation. The mean SAA concentrations in groups A and B (25.6 and 83.5 µg/ml) at day 7 PI were 4.2 and 13.7 times higher than the levels before inoculation. The magnitude and duration of the Hp and SAA responses correlated well with the inoculation doses and the severity of the clinical signs and diarrhea in kids. These results were consistent with the histopathological features, which showed advanced widespread lesions in group B. In both groups, significant correlations were observed for TNF-? and IFN-? with SAA and Hp, respectively. In conclusion, Hp and SAA can be useful non-specific diagnostic indicators in caprine coccidiosis. PMID:22072820

  12. Purification and Characterization of a Sperm Motility Inhibiting Factor from Caprine Epididymal Plasma

    PubMed Central

    Das, Sujoy; Saha, Sudipta; Majumder, Gopal Chandra; Dungdung, Sandhya Rekha

    2010-01-01

    Several studies have been reported on the occurrence of sperm motility inhibiting factors in the male reproductive fluids of different mammalian species, but these proteins have not been adequately purified and characterized. A novel sperm motility inhibiting factor (MIF-II) has been purified from caprine epididymal plasma (EP) by Hydroxylapatite gel adsorption chromatography, DEAE-Cellulose ion-exchange chromatography and chromatofocusing. The MIF-II has been purified to apparent homogeneity and the molecular weight estimated by Sephacryl S-300 gel filtration is 160 kDa. MIF-II is a dimeric protein, made up of two subunits each having a molecular mass of 80 kDa as shown by SDS-PAGE. The isoelectric point of MIF-II is 5.1 as determined by chromatofocusing and isoelectric focusing. It is a heat labile protein and maximal active at the pH 6.9 to 7.5. The sperm motility inhibiting protein factor at 2 µg/ml (12.5 nM) level showed maximal motility-inhibiting activity. The observation that the epididymal plasma factor lowered the intracellular cAMP level of spermatozoa in a concentration-dependent manner suggests that it may block the motility of caprine cauda spermatozoa by interfering the cAMP dependent motility function. The results revealed that the purified protein factor has the potential of sperm motility inhibition and may serve as a vaginal contraceptive. The antibody raised against the MIF-II has the potential for enhancement of forward motility of cauda-spermatozoa. This antibody may thus be useful for solving some of the problems of male infertility due to low sperm motility. PMID:20706623

  13. Occurrence of Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii infections in ovine and caprine abortions.

    PubMed

    Moreno, B; Collantes-Fernández, E; Villa, A; Navarro, A; Regidor-Cerrillo, J; Ortega-Mora, L M

    2012-06-01

    Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii are closely related cyst-forming apicomplexan parasites identified as important causes of reproductive failure in cattle and small ruminants, respectively. Protozoan abortion in small ruminants is traditionally associated with T. gondii, but the importance of N. caninum remains uncertain. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of N. caninum and T. gondii infections in abortion cases in small ruminants submitted for diagnosis. For this purpose, 74 ovine and 26 caprine aborted foetuses were recovered from different areas in Spain. Foetal histopathology was used to detect the presence of protozoal-associated lesions in brain. The presence of N. caninum and T. gondii was confirmed by PCR. Protozoal infection was detected in 17 out of 100 (17%) foetuses examined by at least one of the diagnostic techniques used. Lesions suggestive of protozoal infection were observed in 10.8% (8/74) and 15.4% (4/26) of the ovine and caprine abortions respectively. N. caninum and T. gondii infection was detected by PCR in 6.8% (5/74) and 5.4% (4/74) of sheep foetuses, respectively, of which five showed protozoal-associated lesions. N. caninum DNA was detected in 11.5% (3/26) of goat foetuses, of which two showed protozoal-associated lesions, whereas T. gondii DNA was detected in one goat foetus with no lesions. The simultaneous presence of N. caninum and T. gondii DNA was detected in one sheep foetus with severe lesions. This study demonstrates that N. caninum plays a significant role in abortion in small ruminants in the studied population. In addition, our results highlight the importance of differentiating between protozoa whenever characteristic lesions are observed. PMID:22260901

  14. Purification and characterization of a sperm motility inhibiting factor from caprine epididymal plasma.

    PubMed

    Das, Sujoy; Saha, Sudipta; Majumder, Gopal Chandra; Dungdung, Sandhya Rekha

    2010-01-01

    Several studies have been reported on the occurrence of sperm motility inhibiting factors in the male reproductive fluids of different mammalian species, but these proteins have not been adequately purified and characterized. A novel sperm motility inhibiting factor (MIF-II) has been purified from caprine epididymal plasma (EP) by Hydroxylapatite gel adsorption chromatography, DEAE-Cellulose ion-exchange chromatography and chromatofocusing. The MIF-II has been purified to apparent homogeneity and the molecular weight estimated by Sephacryl S-300 gel filtration is 160 kDa. MIF-II is a dimeric protein, made up of two subunits each having a molecular mass of 80 kDa as shown by SDS-PAGE. The isoelectric point of MIF-II is 5.1 as determined by chromatofocusing and isoelectric focusing. It is a heat labile protein and maximal active at the pH 6.9 to 7.5. The sperm motility inhibiting protein factor at 2 microg/ml (12.5 nM) level showed maximal motility-inhibiting activity. The observation that the epididymal plasma factor lowered the intracellular cAMP level of spermatozoa in a concentration-dependent manner suggests that it may block the motility of caprine cauda spermatozoa by interfering the cAMP dependent motility function. The results revealed that the purified protein factor has the potential of sperm motility inhibition and may serve as a vaginal contraceptive. The antibody raised against the MIF-II has the potential for enhancement of forward motility of cauda-spermatozoa. This antibody may thus be useful for solving some of the problems of male infertility due to low sperm motility. PMID:20706623

  15. Use of retinoids during oocyte maturation diminishes apoptosis in caprine embryos.

    PubMed

    Conceição, Juliana C Z; Moura, Marcelo T; Ferreira-Silva, José C; Ramos-Deus, Pamela; Silva, Priscila G C; Cantanhêde, Ludymila F; Chaves, Ricardo M; Lima, Paulo F; Oliveira, Marcos A L

    2015-06-01

    Exposure of caprine oocytes and embryos to retinoids enhances embryonic development, but the mechanisms governing this phenomenon have not been characterised. The aim of the present study was to evaluate if the incidence of apoptosis is affected by the addition of retinyl acetate (RAc) and 9-cis-retinoic acid (RA) during in vitro maturation (IVM) of caprine oocytes. Embryonic development was recorded on days 3 and 8 post-fertilisation, and apoptosis was measured by caspase activity and DNA fragmentation (TUNEL assay). Control zygotes had lower capacity to cleave and reach the blastocyst stage (24.45 ± 2.32 and 5.32 ± 0.81, respectively) than those of RAc- (29.96 ± 1.62 and 7.94 ± 0.93, respectively) and RA-treated groups (30.12 ± 1.51 and 7.36 ± 1.02, respectively). Oocytes and blastocysts positive for TUNEL assay were more frequent, respectively, in the controls (8.20 ± 0.78, 8.70 ± 1.05) than in RAc (5.60 ± 0.52, 4.80 ± 0.51) and RA (6.40 ± 0.69, 5.40 ± 0.69). Caspase activity did not differ between control oocytes (7.20 ± 0.91), RAc (6.60 ± 0.68) and RA (7.30 ± 0.67), but it was reduced in RAc- (5.05 ± 0.62) and RA-treated blastocysts (5.75 ± 0.22) compared to controls (8.35 ± 0.71). These results indicate that the addition of retinoids during IVM increases the developmental potential of goat embryos with a concomitant reduction in apoptosis rates. PMID:26051262

  16. Changing patterns of acute phase proteins and inflammatory mediators in experimental caprine coccidiosis.

    PubMed

    Hashemnia, Mohammad; Khodakaram-Tafti, Azizollah; Razavi, Seyed Mostafa; Nazifi, Saeed

    2011-09-01

    This experiment was conducted to assess the changing patterns and relative values of acute phase proteins and inflammatory cytokines in experimental caprine coccidiosis. Eighteen newborn kids were allocated to 3 equal groups. Two groups, A and B, were inoculated with a single dose of 1×10(3) and1×10(5) sporulated oocysts of Eimeria arloingi, respectively. The third group, C, received distilled water as the control. Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein of each kid in both groups before inoculation and at days 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, and 42 post-inoculation (PI), and the levels of haptoglobin (Hp), serum amyloid A (SAA), TNF-?, and IFN-? were measured. For histopathological examinations, 2 kids were selected from each group, euthanized, and necropsied on day 42 PI. Mean Hp concentrations in groups A and B (0.34 and 0.68 g/L) at day 7 PI were 3.2 and 6.3 times higher than the levels before inoculation. The mean SAA concentrations in groups A and B (25.6 and 83.5 µg/ml) at day 7 PI were 4.2 and 13.7 times higher than the levels before inoculation. The magnitude and duration of the Hp and SAA responses correlated well with the inoculation doses and the severity of the clinical signs and diarrhea in kids. These results were consistent with the histopathological features, which showed advanced widespread lesions in group B. In both groups, significant correlations were observed for TNF-? and IFN-? with SAA and Hp, respectively. In conclusion, Hp and SAA can be useful non-specific diagnostic indicators in caprine coccidiosis. PMID:22072820

  17. Molecular characterisation of the caprine (Capra hircus) lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 alpha subunit-encoding cDNA

    PubMed Central

    Fett, Thomas; Zecchinon, Laurent LM; Baise, Etienne A; Desmecht, Daniel JM

    2005-01-01

    Background Lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1, CD11a/CD18, alpha L beta 2) is required for many cellular adhesive interactions during the immune response. Results The Capra hircus CD11a-encoding cDNA was sequenced and compared with its human, murine, rat, bovine and ovine counterparts. Despite some focal differences, it shares all the main characteristics of its known mammalian homologues. Conclusion Therefore, along with the caprine CD18-encoding cDNA, which has been available for a few months, the sequence data revealed here will allow the Capra hircus LFA-1 expression in vitro as a tool to explore the specificities of inflammation in the caprine species. PMID:16216116

  18. Caprine besnoitiosis: an emerging threat and its relationship to some other infections of ungulates by Besnoitia species.

    PubMed

    Oryan, A; Silver, I A; Sadoughifar, R

    2014-08-01

    Caprine besnoitiosis, caused by the cyst-forming protozoal apicomplexan Besnoitia caprae appears to be endemic in Kenya, Nigeria and Iran, but has yet to be detected in other parts of the world. The infection causes an important parasitic disease of goats in affected developing countries. Bovine besnoitiosis, is a widespread disease of cattle in Africa, Asia (but not Iran) and southern Europe. Recent epidemiological data confirm that the incidence and geographical range of bovine besnoitiosis in Europe is increasing, which is why growing attention has been given to the condition during the past decade. This paper reviews pertinent information on the biology, epidemiology, pathology, clinical signs, diagnosis and control of caprine besnoitiosis, together with its similarities to, and differences from, bovine besnoitiosis. The serious economic consequences of besnoitiosis on goat breeding and local meat and hide industries is also considered. PMID:24975324

  19. Properties of Kefir made in Scotland and Poland using Bovine, Caprine and Ovine Milk with Different Starter Cultures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Wszolek; A. Y. Tamime; D. D. Muir; M. N. I. Barclay

    2001-01-01

    Varieties of Kefir were made in Poland and Scotland from bovine, caprine and ovine milk, using Kefir grains and two direct-to-vat inoculation (DVI) starter cultures. The chemical composition (g\\/kg) of the Kefir ranged from 106–149 for total solids, 29–64 for crude protein, 38–47 for carbohydrate, 7–11 for ash. The fat content was standardized to a mean value of 31 g\\/kg.

  20. Abattoir-based study on the epidemiology of caprine tuberculosis in Ethiopia using conventional and molecular tools

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite the important role of goats for meat and milk production in Ethiopia, little information is available on the epidemiology of caprine tuberculosis (TB). Caprine TB is important as milk is usually consumed raw particularly by Ethiopian pastoralists. The objectives of the present study were to estimate the prevalence of TB in goats at an abattoir, to evaluate associated risk factors and to characterize the causative mycobacteria. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted on 1990 randomly selected male goats that were slaughtered at Luna Export Abattoir of central Ethiopia. Postmortem examination, mycobacterial culturing and molecular typing techniques like genus typing, deletion typing and spoligotyping were used. Result The overall prevalence of caprine TB-like lesions was 3.5%. The lesion prevalence increased significantly with increasing age. Mycobacteria were found by culture and seen as acid fast bacilli in 12% of the goats with TB-like lesions. Characterization of the eight isolates using multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) indicated that five of them belonged to the genus Mycobacterium. Four of the latter were confirmed to be members of the M. tuberculosis complex. Further characterization of the three M. tuberculosis isolates by spoligotyping identified them as type SIT53 and two new spoligotypes. Conclusion The isolation of M. tuberculosis from goats in this study indicates a potential risk of transmission of M. tuberculosis between humans and goats. PMID:23433481

  1. “Of Sheep and Men”: Earliest Direct Evidence of Caprine Domestication in Southern Africa at Leopard Cave (Erongo, Namibia)

    PubMed Central

    Pleurdeau, David; Imalwa, Emma; Détroit, Florent; Lesur, Joséphine; Veldman, Anzel; Bahain, Jean-Jacques; Marais, Eugène

    2012-01-01

    The origins of herding practices in southern Africa remain controversial. The first appearance of domesticated caprines in the subcontinent is thought to be c. 2000 years BP; however, the origin of this cultural development is still widely debated. Recent genetic analyses support the long-standing hypothesis of herder migration from the north, while other researchers have argued for a cultural diffusion hypothesis where the spread of herding practices took place without necessarily implicating simultaneous and large population movements. Here we document the Later Stone Age (LSA) site of Leopard Cave (Erongo, Namibia), which contains confirmed caprine remains, from which we infer that domesticates were present in the southern African region as early as the end of the first millennium BC. These remains predate the first evidence of domesticates previously recorded for the subcontinent. This discovery sheds new light on the emergence of herding practices in southern Africa, and also on the possible southward routes used by caprines along the western Atlantic coast. PMID:22808138

  2. Small Ruminant Lentiviruses (SRLVs) Break the Species Barrier to Acquire New Host Range

    PubMed Central

    Minardi da Cruz, Juliano Cezar; Singh, Dinesh Kumar; Lamara, Ali; Chebloune, Yahia

    2013-01-01

    Zoonotic events of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) from non-human primates to humans have generated the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), one of the most devastating infectious disease of the last century with more than 30 million people dead and about 40.3 million people currently infected worldwide. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1 and HIV-2), the two major viruses that cause AIDS in humans are retroviruses of the lentivirus genus. The genus includes arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV) and Maedi-Visna virus (MVV), and a heterogeneous group of viruses known as small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLVs), affecting goat and sheep. Lentivirus genome integrates into the host DNA, causing persistent infection associated with a remarkable diversity during viral replication. Direct evidence of mixed infections with these two closely related SRLVs was found in both sheep and goats. The evidence of a genetic continuum with caprine and ovine field isolates demonstrates the absence of an efficient species barrier preventing cross-species transmission. In dual-infected animals, persistent infections with both CAEV and MVV have been described, and viral chimeras have been detected. This not only complicates animal trade between countries but favors the risk that highly pathogenic variants may emerge as has already been observed in the past in Iceland and, more recently, in outbreaks with virulent strains in Spain. SRLVs affecting wildlife have already been identified, demonstrating the existence of emergent viruses adapted to new hosts. Viruses adapted to wildlife ruminants may acquire novel biopathological properties which may endanger not only the new host species but also domestic ruminants and humans. SRLVs infecting sheep and goats follow a genomic evolution similar to that observed in HIV or in other lentiviruses. Lentivirus genetic diversity and host factors leading to the establishment of naturally occurring virulent versus avirulent infections, in addition to the emergence of new strains, challenge every aspect of SRLV control measures for providing efficient tools to prevent the transmission of diseases between wild ungulates and livestock. PMID:23881276

  3. Small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLVs) break the species barrier to acquire new host range.

    PubMed

    Minardi da Cruz, Juliano Cezar; Singh, Dinesh Kumar; Lamara, Ali; Chebloune, Yahia

    2013-07-01

    Zoonotic events of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) from non-human primates to humans have generated the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), one of the most devastating infectious disease of the last century with more than 30 million people dead and about 40.3 million people currently infected worldwide. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1 and HIV-2), the two major viruses that cause AIDS in humans are retroviruses of the lentivirus genus. The genus includes arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV) and Maedi-Visna virus (MVV), and a heterogeneous group of viruses known as small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLVs), affecting goat and sheep. Lentivirus genome integrates into the host DNA, causing persistent infection associated with a remarkable diversity during viral replication. Direct evidence of mixed infections with these two closely related SRLVs was found in both sheep and goats. The evidence of a genetic continuum with caprine and ovine field isolates demonstrates the absence of an efficient species barrier preventing cross-species transmission. In dual-infected animals, persistent infections with both CAEV and MVV have been described, and viral chimeras have been detected. This not only complicates animal trade between countries but favors the risk that highly pathogenic variants may emerge as has already been observed in the past in Iceland and, more recently, in outbreaks with virulent strains in Spain. SRLVs affecting wildlife have already been identified, demonstrating the existence of emergent viruses adapted to new hosts. Viruses adapted to wildlife ruminants may acquire novel biopathological properties which may endanger not only the new host species but also domestic ruminants and humans. SRLVs infecting sheep and goats follow a genomic evolution similar to that observed in HIV or in other lentiviruses. Lentivirus genetic diversity and host factors leading to the establishment of naturally occurring virulent versus avirulent infections, in addition to the emergence of new strains, challenge every aspect of SRLV control measures for providing efficient tools to prevent the transmission of diseases between wild ungulates and livestock. PMID:23881276

  4. Advances in Diagnosis of Respiratory Diseases of Small Ruminants

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Sandip; Kumar, Amit; Tiwari, Ruchi; Rahal, Anu; Malik, Yash; Dhama, Kuldeep; Pal, Amar; Prasad, Minakshi

    2014-01-01

    Irrespective of aetiology, infectious respiratory diseases of sheep and goats contribute to 5.6 percent of the total diseases of small ruminants. These infectious respiratory disorders are divided into two groups: the diseases of upper respiratory tract, namely, nasal myiasis and enzootic nasal tumors, and diseases of lower respiratory tract, namely, peste des petits ruminants (PPR), parainfluenza, Pasteurellosis, Ovine progressive pneumonia, mycoplasmosis, caprine arthritis encephalitis virus, caseous lymphadenitis, verminous pneumonia, and many others. Depending upon aetiology, many of them are acute and fatal in nature. Early, rapid, and specific diagnosis of such diseases holds great importance to reduce the losses. The advanced enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) for the detection of antigen as well as antibodies directly from the samples and molecular diagnostic assays along with microsatellites comprehensively assist in diagnosis as well as treatment and epidemiological studies. The present review discusses the advancements made in the diagnosis of common infectious respiratory diseases of sheep and goats. It would update the knowledge and help in adapting and implementing appropriate, timely, and confirmatory diagnostic procedures. Moreover, it would assist in designing appropriate prevention protocols and devising suitable control strategies to overcome respiratory diseases and alleviate the economic losses. PMID:25028620

  5. Advances in diagnosis of respiratory diseases of small ruminants.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Sandip; Kumar, Amit; Tiwari, Ruchi; Rahal, Anu; Malik, Yash; Dhama, Kuldeep; Pal, Amar; Prasad, Minakshi

    2014-01-01

    Irrespective of aetiology, infectious respiratory diseases of sheep and goats contribute to 5.6 percent of the total diseases of small ruminants. These infectious respiratory disorders are divided into two groups: the diseases of upper respiratory tract, namely, nasal myiasis and enzootic nasal tumors, and diseases of lower respiratory tract, namely, peste des petits ruminants (PPR), parainfluenza, Pasteurellosis, Ovine progressive pneumonia, mycoplasmosis, caprine arthritis encephalitis virus, caseous lymphadenitis, verminous pneumonia, and many others. Depending upon aetiology, many of them are acute and fatal in nature. Early, rapid, and specific diagnosis of such diseases holds great importance to reduce the losses. The advanced enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) for the detection of antigen as well as antibodies directly from the samples and molecular diagnostic assays along with microsatellites comprehensively assist in diagnosis as well as treatment and epidemiological studies. The present review discusses the advancements made in the diagnosis of common infectious respiratory diseases of sheep and goats. It would update the knowledge and help in adapting and implementing appropriate, timely, and confirmatory diagnostic procedures. Moreover, it would assist in designing appropriate prevention protocols and devising suitable control strategies to overcome respiratory diseases and alleviate the economic losses. PMID:25028620

  6. Fertilization and development of Caprine oocytes matured over granulosa cell monolayers.

    PubMed

    Teotia, A; Sharma, G T.; Majumdar, A C.

    2001-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the two oocyte maturation systems, i.e. a granulosa cell (GC) monolayer from small (<4mm) or large (>4mm) follicles and a granulosa co-culture for their effects on in vitro maturation (IVM), fertilization and developmental competence of caprine oocytes. A total of 1945 oocytes were used for studies on maturation, fertilization and embryo development. Monolayers were primed with maturation medium, 18-24h before the onset of maturation. Nuclear studies of 263 fertilized oocytes, 18h post-fertilization, revealed that the rate of sperm penetration was not affected by any of the maturation culture systems. Penetration rate was 66.30% versus 69.59% for the control and GC monolayers. On the other hand, progression of fertilization, i.e. sperm head decondensation (32.70% versus 9.78%) and pronucleus formation (8.76% versus 2.17%) were significantly (P<0.05) enhanced in the oocytes matured over GC monolayers, compared to those with GC co-culture respectively. Cleavage rate was significantly (P<0.05) higher in the oocytes matured and cultured over GC monolayers (27.59%) compared to those in oocytes matured and cultured with the GC co-culture (19.28%). Proportionately more embryos derived from oocytes matured and cultured with the GC co-culture blocked (16.53 and 25.92%) at early developmental stages (2-cell and 4-cell, respectively), compared to those derived from oocytes matured and cultured over GC monolayers (7.61% versus 10.56%; 2-cell versus 4-cell). It was concluded that GC monolayers better support cytoplasmic maturation of growing caprine oocytes, which is evident by a better maturation rate, active fertilization, an improved cleavage rate and subsequently a higher rate of morula formation. Granulosa cells from small and large follicles can be used for IVM and IVC with approximately the same efficiency after conditioning them with maturation medium and embryo development medium 18-24h before the onset of culture. PMID:11295399

  7. [Reclassification of the four China isolated strains of the pathogen for contagious caprine pleuropneumonia].

    PubMed

    Li, Yuan; Zhang, Jian-Hua; Hu, Shou-Ping; Wang, Liang; Xin, Jiu-Qing

    2007-10-01

    Contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP) is caused by Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae (Mccp). The aims of this study were to identify 4 Chinese isolated strains employing molecular methods and to determine the appropriate subspecies classification of these strains. Three genome fragments (A, B and C) from each strain were amplified and then transformed into plasmids. The inserted fragments were sequenced and analyzed by comparison with six members of the Mycoplasma mycoides cluster. Cleavage of the PCR products of the 4 strains with PstI yielded three fragments 548, 420 and 128bp in length, just like strain F38. The other M. mycoides cluster members had only 2 fragments of 428 and 128bp. Homology analysis of fragment B indicated that the 4 strains exhibited 99.5% homology with Mccp reference strain F38, 98.9% with M. capricolum subsp. Capricolum (Mcc) strain California Kid, and only 95.4% with Mmc strain ZZ. In fragment C, the 4 strains had 67.4% - 67.6% homology with Mmc PG3, 95.1% -98.6% with Mcc strains 8601-50 and California Kid, 99.6% - 99.8% with Mccp strains 97097ET, Gabes and F38. The analysis revealed that 4 pathogeny strains, 87001, 87002, 367, 1653, isolated from China are more closely related to Mccp than to Mcc. Therefore the pathogeny of CCPP in China should be reclassified as Mccp. PMID:18062246

  8. Contagious caprine pleuropneumonia outbreak in captive wild ungulates at Al Wabra Wildlife Preservation, State of Qatar.

    PubMed

    Arif, Abdi; Schulz, Julia; Thiaucourt, François; Taha, Abid; Hammer, Sven

    2007-03-01

    Contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP) caused by Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae is a highly contagious and serious respiratory disease of domestic goats, characterized by coughing, severe respiratory distress, and high mortality rates. The lesions at necropsy are mainly a fibrinous pleuropneumonia with increased straw-colored pleural fluid. An outbreak of CCPP in wild goat (Capra aegagrus), Nubian ibex (Capra ibex nubiana), Laristan mouflon (Ovis orientalis laristanica), and gerenuk (Litocranius walleri) occurred at Al Wabra Wildlife Preservation in the State of Qatar. The disease was suspected because of the clinical symptoms and the necropsy findings and was confirmed by the isolation and identification of the causative organism. This new finding indicates that CCPP should be considered a potential threat to wildlife and the conservation of endangered ruminant species, especially in the Middle East, where it is enzootic because of its presence in chronic carriers. Susceptible imported animals should be quarantined and vaccinated. The preferred samples for diagnosis are the pleural fluid, which contains high numbers of Mycoplasma, and sections of hepatized lung, preferably at the interface of normal and diseased tissues. Samples must be shipped to diagnostic laboratories rapidly, and appropriate cool conditions must be maintained during shipping. PMID:17469281

  9. Late lesions of experimental contagious caprine pleuropneumonia caused by Mycoplasma capricolum ssp. capripneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Wesonga, H O; Lindberg, R; Litamoi, J K; Bölske, G

    1998-03-01

    A clinical, bacteriological, serological and patho-anatomical study was carried out on 12 goats surviving the acute stage of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP), experimentally produced with Mycoplasma capricolum ssp. capripneumoniae (M. capripneumoniae), with the major aims of investigating the chronic stage of the disease and elucidating the possibility of a carrier state beyond the acute fulminant phase. The goats were killed 9, 16, 82 or 126 days after the onset of acute clinical signs. On day 9, clinical signs included low grade fever and persistent coughing. Thereafter, only intermittent coughing was recorded. Serum titres of complement-fixing antibodies to M. capripneumoniae were high at the period of fever but dropped thereafter. Post-mortem examination showed acute fibrinous pleuropneumonia on days 9 and 16, and chronic pleuropneumonia on days 82 and 126, including sequester formations in goats killed on day 126. Mycoplasma capripneumoniae was isolated on days 9 and 16 but not on later occasions. The study showed that goats recovered from acute CCPP may have lesions for a long time thereafter but provide no evidence of a carrier state among long-term survivors. PMID:9557132

  10. Effect of danofloxacin (Advocin A180) on goats affected with contagious caprine pleuropneumonia.

    PubMed

    Ozdemir, U; Loria, G R; Godinho, K S; Samson, R; Rowan, T G; Churchward, C; Ayling, R D; Nicholas, R A J

    2006-01-01

    The efficacy of danofloxacin (Advocin A180) was evaluated for the treatment of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP) caused by Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae. Ten healthy Angora goats, confirmed free of CCPP, were exposed to clinically affected animals from a natural outbreak in Thrace, Turkey. After 14 days exposure, 8 goats showed pyrexia ( > or = 41 degrees C). Shortly after, the Angora goats were divided randomly into two groups. Five of these were injected with danofloxacin (6 mg/kg subcutaneously), which was repeated after 48 h; the five remaining animals received saline. Goats were monitored clinically and blood samples were collected for serology. Animals with severe disease were withdrawn from the trial. Goats completing the study were euthanized at day 42. Lung tissue and bronchial fluid were collected for mycoplasma isolation. All danofloxacin-treated goats showed resolution of clinical disease by the end of the trial. Two saline-treated goats failed to complete the study owing to CCPP. Danofloxacin-treated goats showed fewer lung lesions and had significantly lower combined clinical scores than saline controls (p < 0.001). Danofloxacin was found to be highly effective in the treatment of CCPP in goats. PMID:17265768

  11. Correlation between some hematological parameters, acute phase proteins and serum immunoglobulins in experimental caprine besnoitiosis.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, A; Namazi, F; Oryan, A; Nazifi, S

    2015-06-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate correlation between some hematological parameters, acute phase proteins and immunoglobulins in the experimentally infected goats with Besnoitia caprae from the time of infection till 360 days post infection (DPI). Six male goats, approximately 12-16 months old, were inoculated subcutaneously with approximately 1.3 × 10(8) bradyzoites of B. caprae and blood samples were collected at weekly intervals from the jugular vein of the goats. Total leukocyte count and differential leukocyte counts were determined. Acute phase proteins (APPs) including serum amyloid A (SAA), haptoglobin (Hp), fibrinogen and ceruloplasmin were undertaken at weekly intervals. We evaluated an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) (using a somatic antigen of bradyzoite) to detect anti-B. caprae antibodies in caprine sera. Cysts were present in the skin biopsies of the distal parts of the leg of the infected goats from 28 DPI. From 30 to 360 DPI, results showed that the APPs concentrations including SAA, Hp, fibrinogen and ceruloplasmin were enhanced in the serum of infected goats. However, there were some variation in hematological parameters; the differences were not significant with those of the normal values. Some variations were seen in the levels of specific antibodies against this parasite and they had correlation with some hematological parameters and acute-phase proteins. PMID:26063991

  12. Development and Characterization of a Caprine Aerosol Infection Model of Melioidosis

    PubMed Central

    Soffler, Carl; Bosco-Lauth, Angela M.; Aboellail, Tawfik A.; Marolf, Angela J.; Bowen, Richard A.

    2012-01-01

    Infection with Burkholderia pseudomallei causes the disease melioidosis, which often presents as a serious suppurative infection that is typically fatal without intensive treatment and is a significant emerging infectious disease in Southeast Asia. Despite intensive research there is still much that remains unknown about melioidosis pathogenesis. New animal models of melioidosis are needed to examine novel aspects of pathogenesis as well as for the evaluation of novel therapeutics. The objective of the work presented here was to develop a subacute to chronic caprine model of melioidosis and to characterize the progression of disease with respect to clinical presentation, hematology, clinical microbiology, thoracic radiography, and gross and microscopic pathology. Disease was produced in all animals following an intratracheal aerosol of 104 CFU delivered, with variable clinical manifestations indicative of subacute and chronic disease. Bronchointerstitial pneumonia was apparent microscopically by day 2 and radiographically and grossly apparent by day 7 post infection (PI). Early lesions of bronchopneumonia soon progressed to more severe bronchointerstitial pneumonia with pyogranuloma formation. Extrapulmonary dissemination appeared to be a function of pyogranuloma invasion of pulmonary vasculature, which peaked around day 7 PI. Histopathology indicated that leukocytoclastic vasculitis was the central step in dissemination of B. pseudomallei from the lungs as well as in the establishment of new lesions. While higher doses of organism in goats can produce acute fatal disease, the dose investigated and resulting disease had many similarities to human melioidosis and may warrant further development to provide a model for the study of both natural and bioterrorism associated disease. PMID:22916225

  13. In Vivo Caprine Model for Osteomyelitis and Evaluation of Biofilm-Resistant Intramedullary Nails

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Nhiem; Tran, Phong A.; Jarrell, John D.; Engiles, Julie B.; Thomas, Nathan P.; Young, Matthew D.; Hayda, Roman A.; Born, Christopher T.

    2013-01-01

    Bone infection remains a formidable challenge to the medical field. The goal of the current study is to evaluate antibacterial coatings in vitro and to develop a large animal model to assess coated bone implants. A novel coating consisting of titanium oxide and siloxane polymer doped with silver was created by metal-organic methods. The coating was tested in vitro using rapid screening techniques to determine compositions which inhibited Staphylococcus aureus growth, while not affecting osteoblast viability. The coating was then applied to intramedullary nails and evaluated in vivo in a caprine model. In this pilot study, a fracture was created in the tibia of the goat, and Staphylococcus aureus was inoculated directly into the bone canal. The fractures were fixed by either coated (treated) or non-coated intramedullary nails (control) for 5 weeks. Clinical observations as well as microbiology, mechanical, radiology, and histology testing were used to compare the animals. The treated goat was able to walk using all four limbs after 5 weeks, while the control was unwilling to bear weight on the fixed leg. These results suggest the antimicrobial potential of the hybrid coating and the feasibility of the goat model for antimicrobial coated intramedullary implant evaluation. PMID:23841085

  14. Short hairpin RNA-induced myostatin gene silencing in caprine myoblast cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Ajai K; Ramani, Umed V; Patel, Amrutlal K; Rank, Dharamshibhai N; Joshi, Chaitanya G

    2013-01-01

    Myostatin (MSTN) belongs to the transforming growth factor (TGF)-? superfamily and is a potent negative regulator of skeletal muscle development and growth. Dysfunction of MSTN gene either by natural mutation or induced through genetic manipulation (knockout or knockdown) has been reported to increase the remarkable muscle mass in mammalian species. RNA interference (RNAi) is the most promising method for inhibition of gene expression that can be utilized for MSTN gene knockdown by developing short hairpin RNA (shRNA) construct against it. We utilized three antisense RNA expressing vectors with six constructs to knockdown MSTN gene in in vitro caprine myoblast cell culture system. We observed that all six shRNA constructs were successful in MSTN silencing with efficiency ranging from 7 to 46 % by quantitative real-time PCR and up to 19 % by western blotting. The significant upregulation of interferon response gene OAS1 (5- to 11-fold) in cells transfected with shRNA constructs were indicative of induction of interferon response. This RNAi-based method of increasing muscle mass could provide an alternative strategy to gene knockout methods for improving the production traits and economic properties of livestock. PMID:23271624

  15. Virulence factors genes of Staphylococcus spp. isolated from caprine subclinical mastitis.

    PubMed

    Salaberry, Sandra Renata Sampaio; Saidenberg, André Becker Simões; Zuniga, Eveline; Melville, Priscilla Anne; Santos, Franklin Gerônimo Bispo; Guimarães, Ednaldo Carvalho; Gregori, Fábio; Benites, Nilson Roberti

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate genes involved in adhesion expression, biofilm formation, and enterotoxin production in isolates of Staphylococcus spp. from goats with subclinical mastitis and associate these results with the staphylococcal species. One hundred and twenty-four isolates were identified and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed to detect the following genes: cna, ebpS, eno, fib, fnbA, fnbB, bap, sea, seb, sec, sed and see. The most commonly Staphylococcus species included S. epidermidis, S. lugdunensis, S. chromogenes, S. capitis ss capitis and S. intermedius. With the exception of fnbB, the genes were detected in different frequencies of occurrence in 86.3% of the Staphylococcus spp. isolates. Eno (73.2%) and bap (94.8%) were more frequently detected in coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS); ebpS (76%), fib (90.9%) and fnbA (87%) were the most frequent genes in coagulase-positive staphylococci (CPS). Regarding enterotoxins, genes sed (28.2%) and see (24.2%) had a higher frequency of occurrence; sec gene was more frequently detected in CPS (58.8%). There was no association between the presence of the genes and the Staphylococcus species. Different virulence factors genes can be detected in caprine subclinical mastitis caused by CNS and CPS. The knowledge of the occurrence of these virulence factors is important for the development of effective control and prevention measures of subclinical mastitis caused by CNS and CPS in goats. PMID:26026835

  16. A specific PCR for the identification of Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae, the causative agent of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP).

    PubMed

    Woubit, S; Lorenzon, S; Peyraud, A; Manso-Silván, L; Thiaucourt, F

    2004-11-30

    Contagious caprine pleuropneumonia is a severe infectious disease of goats in Africa and the Middle East. It is caused by a fastidious mycoplasma, Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae, a member of the "M. mycoides cluster". Members of this cluster share genomic and antigenic features, which result in common biochemical and serological properties, complicating species identification. Two species of this cluster, M. mycoides subsp. capri and M. mycoides subsp. mycoides large colony biotype, are very often isolated from clinical cases resembling contagious caprine pleuropneumonia. Furthermore, in the laboratory, M. capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae can be easily confused with the closely related capricolum subspecies. Considering these constraints and the scarcity of available methods for identification, a specific polymerase chain reaction was developed. A DNA fragment of 7109 bp containing genes coding for the arginine deiminase pathway (ADI) was chosen as target sequence for the selection of a specific primer pair. The full ADI operon from M. capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae strain GL100 was sequenced. Polymorphism within this locus was analyzed by comparison with the sequence from the closely related IPX strain (M. capricolum subsp. capricolum). It varied from 0.6% to 3.5%. The highest divergence was found in a region coding for arcD. Therefore, this gene was chosen as target for the specific amplification of a 316 bp-long DNA fragment. The specificity of this PCR was validated on 14 M. capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae strains and 27 heterologous strains belonging to the "M. mycoides cluster" and M. putrefaciens. This new PCR will be a valuable tool for the surveillance of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia. PMID:15530747

  17. Widespread Distribution of Disinfectant Resistance Genes among Staphylococci of Bovine and Caprine Origin in Norway

    PubMed Central

    Bjorland, Jostein; Steinum, Terje; Kvitle, Bjørg; Waage, Steinar; Sunde, Marianne; Heir, Even

    2005-01-01

    We demonstrate here a widespread distribution of genes mediating efflux-based resistance to quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) in staphylococci from unpasteurized milk from 127 dairy cattle herds and 70 dairy goat herds. QAC resistance genes were identified in 21% of the cattle herds (qacA/B, smr, qacG, and qacJ) and in 10% of the goat herds (qacA/B and smr). Further examination of 42 QAC-resistant bovine and caprine isolates revealed the following genes: qacA/B (12 isolates) was present in four different species of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS), smr (27 isolates) was detected in eight different CoNS species and in Staphylococcus aureus on a previously reported plasmid (pNVH99), qacG (two isolates) was detected on two plasmids (pST94-like) in Staphylococcus cohnii and Staphylococcus warneri, and qacJ (two isolates) was found in Staphylococcus hominis and Staphylococcus delphini on a plasmid (pNVH01) previously found in equine staphylococci. Isolation of indistinguishable pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) CoNS types from tank milk and mammary quarter milk samples in a dairy cattle herd suggested that these QAC-resistant staphylococci were of intramammary origin. Indistinguishable or closely related PFGE types of bovine QAC-resistant CoNS were observed in different herds. One particular bovine S. warneri PFGE type was isolated repeatedly from samples collected during a 30-month period in a herd, showing long-term persistence. In conclusion, it seems that the widespread distribution of staphylococci carrying QAC resistance genes in Norwegian dairy cattle and goat herds is the result of both the intra- and interspecies spread of QAC resistance plasmids and the clonal spread of QAC-resistant strains. PMID:16145078

  18. The use of monoclonal antibodies in the diagnosis of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP).

    PubMed

    Thiaucourt, F; Bölske, G; Libeau, G; Le Goff, C; Lefèvre, P C

    1994-08-01

    Contagious caprine pleuropneumonia is a severe disease affecting goats in Eastern Africa and the Middle East, caused by Mycoplasma sp. type F38. Its exact geographical distribution is however not exactly known due to the lack of specificity of the available serological tests and the difficulty in cultivating M. sp. F38. A panel of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) was produced, using crude or membrane proteins antigens from type F38 strains to immunize mice. The reactivity of the mAbs was tested by an immunobinding assay with crude mycoplasma antigens spotted on nitrocellulose filters. One hundred and twelve antigens, standardized at 0.5 mg protein/ml, were used. Mycoplasma strains were chosen among closely related species of the "mycoides cluster", M. capricolum, Group 7 of Leach, M. mycoides mycoides LC, M. mycoides mycoides SC, M. mycoides capri, as well as among species that are isolated from goat lungs, M. arginini, M. ovipneumoniae, M. putrefaciens, M. agalactiae. Out of 60 mAbs, 4 were chosen to build an identification test for mycoplasmas of the "mycoides cluster". Controls showed that accurate identification could be hampered by antigenic heterogeneity within the M. capricolum species. One mAb was used for the direct detection of M. sp. F38 antigen in pleural fluid from goats suspected of CCPP. The sensitivity of the test can be estimated at 0.5 micrograms protein/ml. Comparison with isolation results show a 74% agreement between the two methods. The same mAb was used to build a blocking ELISA. This serological test was strictly specific for CCPP. It detects antibodies in sera of naturally infected or artificially immunized animals while it remained negative with hyperimmune sera to related strains such as PG 50. Direct antigen detection and blocking ELISA are tools that may enable a better assessment of CCPP distribution. PMID:7975145

  19. Prevalence and species distribution of caprine trypanosomosis in Sinazongwe and Kalomo districts of Zambia.

    PubMed

    Nyimba, P H; Komba, E V G; Sugimoto, C; Namangala, B

    2015-06-15

    African animal trypanosomosis is one of the key livestock diseases hindering full exploitation of livestock production potential covering 37 countries across sub-Saharan Africa. Many studies have been carried out to investigate the prevalence of the disease in cattle and humans in many tropical African countries but very little attention has been directed towards generating the disease prevalence rates in goats. The current study was conducted between December 2013 and January 2014 to establish the prevalence of caprine trypanosomosis in Sinazongwe and Kalomo districts, southern Zambia. It involved 422 goats which were first examined by palpation for possible enlargement of superficial lymph nodes. Blood samples were then collected from the goats and subjected to laboratory diagnosis using the microscope and Loop Mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP). None of the examined goats displayed enlargement of superficial lymph nodes. On microscopy only one goat was found to be positive. The results of investigation using the LAMP method showed that 100 goats were infected with trypanosomes giving an overall prevalence rate of 23.7%. The prevalence of infection in Sinazongwe was 22.4% (n=183) while in Kalomo it was 24.7% (n=239); and the difference between the two districts was statistically significant at 95% CL (x(2)=4.4, df=1, p<0.05). Trypanosoma brucei, Trypanasoma vivax and Trypanasoma congolense were detected in 82.0%, 31.0% and 23.0% of the infected goats, respectively. Mixed infections were detected among 33.0% of the positive samples. The high prevalence rate of trypanosomes detected in the study area confirms the earlier reports that trypanosomosis is re-emerging in the areas previously aerial sprayed by Government. The detection of trypanosomes in naturally infected goats outlines the important role goats play in the epidemiology of African animal trypanosomosis. PMID:25913456

  20. Expression, purification and characterization of recombinant caprine N-acetylglucosamine-6-sulphatase.

    PubMed Central

    Litjens, T; Bielicki, J; Anson, D S; Friderici, K; Jones, M Z; Hopwood, J J

    1997-01-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis type IIID or Sanfilippo D syndrome is a lysosomal storage disorder caused by the deficiency of N-acetylglucosamine-6-sulphatase (Glc6S). In addition to human patients, a Nubian goat with this disorder has been described and the caprine Glc6S (cGlc6S) cDNA cloned. In this study, the full-length cGlc6S cDNA was inserted into the expression vector, pEFNeo, which placed the cGlc6S cDNA under the transcriptional control of the human polypeptide chain elongation factor promoter. The pEFNeo expression vector also contains the human growth hormone polyadenylation signal and the genes encoding resistance to ampicillin and G418. The cGlc6S expression construct was electroporated into Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-K1) cells, and stably transfected clones were isolated. One clone, CHOrcGlc6S.17, which secreted the highest Glc6S activity into the culture medium, was selected and cultured in cell factories. The secreted recombinant cGlc6S (rcGlc6S) precursor was purified to homogeneity from conditioned medium by a two-column procedure which consisted of a Cu2+-chelating Sepharose column followed by TSK G3000SW gel filtration. The native molecular mass of rcFlc6S was estimated to be 102 kDa and the subunit size was 94 kDa. The kinetic properties of cGlc6S were similar to those of human Glc6S isolated from liver. rcGlc6S was endocytosed by fibroblasts from patients with mucopolysaccharidosis type IIID via the mannose 6-phosphate receptor-mediated pathway resulting in correction of the storage phenotype of these cells. PMID:9355739

  1. Molecular phylogeny and diagnosis of species of the family Protostrongylidae from caprine hosts in Uzbekistan.

    PubMed

    Kuchboev, Abdurakhim E; Krücken, Jürgen; Ruziev, Bakhtiyor H; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Georg

    2015-04-01

    Protostrongylids are important pulmonary parasites of ungulates, particularly caprines. Their complex life cycles involve terrestrian gastropods as intermediate hosts. Morphological discrimination of larvae in feces and snails is impossible to the species level, and molecular data are missing for many species. To improve diagnosis and epidemiology of protostrongylids, this study describes internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS-2) sequences for five protostrongylid and one metastrongylid species from Uzbekistan. Morphological and molecular analyses identified Protostrongylus rufescens, Protostrongylus hobmaieri, Protostrongylus sp., Spiculocaulus leuckarti, and Cystocaulus ocreatus. Sequence differences between ITS-2 were sufficient to allow species identification, e.g., in the Protostrongylinae intraspecific and interspecific genetic distances ranged between 0-0.01 and 0.05 and 0.16, respectively. There was one exception in the Elaphostrongylidae with identical ITS-2 sequences in Elaphostrongylus cervi and Elaphostrongylus rangiferi questioning their status as valid species. Maximum likelihood analysis sequences largely supported the currently assumed phylogenetic relationships among Protostrongylidae as predicted using morphological characters. The monophyly of the subfamilies Varestrongylinae, Elaphostrongylinae, and Protostrongylinae was corroborated with support values in Shimodaira-Hasegawa or Bayesian modifications of the approximate likelihood ratio test (aLRT) ?97%, but support for Muellerinae was weak (8 and 52%, respectively) since Muellerius capillaris differs significantly from the other Muellerinae. On the genus level, paraphyly of the genus Protostrongylus was confirmed since the members of the genera Spiculocaulus and Orthostrongylus were located within the Protostrongylus cluster (aLRT ?99%). Maximum likelihood unequivocally assigned every unique sequence to the correct species confirming suitability of ITS-2 regions for diagnosis protostrongylids except of E. cervi and E. rangiferi. PMID:25595657

  2. First isolation of Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capricolum, one of the causal agents of caprine contagious agalactia, on the island of Lanzarote (Spain)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. De la Fe; A. Gutiérrez; J. B. Poveda; P. Assunção; A. S. Ramírez; F. Fabelo

    2007-01-01

    During an unusually long period of bad weather, several outbreaks of caprine contagious agalactia (CCA) were reported in a number of flocks on the island of Lanzarote (Canary Islands, Spain). Clinical and subclinical mastitis in lactating goats and some cases of arthritis and pneumonia in kids were observed in the affected flocks. Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capricolum was isolated as the

  3. Lipopolysaccharide and Concanavalin A Differentially Induce the Expression of Immune Response Genes in Caprine Monocyte Derived Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Walia, Vishakh; Kumar, Rohit; Mitra, Abhijit

    2015-10-01

    Monocyte derived macrophages (MDMs), as an in vitro model in pathogen challenge studies, are generally induced with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and concanavalin A (ConA) to assay cellular immunity. General immune responses to LPS and ConA have been studied in a wide range of species, but similar studies are limited to goats. In the present study, caprine MDMs were induced with LPS and ConA and the expression profile of immune response (IR) genes, namely, Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha (TNFA), Interferon Gamma (IFNG), Interleukin 2 (IL2), Granulocyte Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor (GMCSF), Interleukin 10 (IL10), Transforming Growth Factor Beta (TGFB), Natural Resistance-Associated Macrophage Protein-1 (NRAMP1), inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS2), and caspase1 (CASP1) were studied to compare the potential of LPS and ConA in initiating immune responses in goat macrophages. Real Time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) analysis revealed that both LPS and ConA caused an upregulation (p < 0.05) of GMCSF, TGFB1, IL10, and IFNG and down-regulation of NRAMP1. TNFA and IL2, and NOS2 were upregulated (p < 0.05) by ConA and LPS, respectively. Whereas, the expression of CASP1 remain unaltered. Comparatively, the effect of ConA was more pronounced (p < 0.05) in regulating the expression of IR genes suggesting its suitability for studying the general immune responses in caprine MDM. PMID:26158463

  4. Factors regulating the bovine, caprine, rat and human ovarian aromatase promoters in a bovine granulosa cell model.

    PubMed

    Sahmi, Fatiha; Nicola, Edmir S; Zamberlam, Gustavo O; Gonçalves, Paulo D B; Vanselow, Jens; Price, Christopher A

    2014-05-01

    The ovarian promoter of the primate and rodent genes encoding cytochrome P450 aromatase (CYP19A1) are robustly responsive to forskolin in luteinized cell models, whereas the ruminant ovarian promoter is minimally active. We explored this discrepancy by investigating the activity of the bovine ovarian promoter in two bovine granulosa cell models, luteinizing and non-luteinizing cells in vitro. In non-luteinizing cells, both FSH and IGF1 increased abundance of transcripts derived from the ovarian promoter. Comparison of the activity of promoters of several species in response to transcription factors (forskolin, NR5A2, FOXL2) in luteinizing cells demonstrated that a rat ovarian promoter-luciferase reporter was regulated mainly by forskolin (18-fold increase over basal expression) and addition of NR5A2 or FOXL2 had no further effect. Activity of a human promoter was significantly increased by NR5A2 plus forskolin (153-fold) compared with forskolin alone (71-fold over basal); addition of FOXL2 did not significantly increase promoter activity. Forskolin alone provoked minor activation of caprine and bovine promoter reporters (3-fold over basal), and addition of NR5A2 increased activity (7- to 11-fold). When forskolin, NR5A2 and FOXL2 treatments were combined, the activity of the caprine and bovine promoters increased to 20- and 34-fold, respectively. These data suggest that a major reason why CYP19A1 is not expressed in luteinized cells (and the corpus luteum) of ruminants may be the stimulatory effect of FOXL2, which does not appear to be the case in the human and rat. PMID:24556528

  5. The prevalence of antibody of antibody to contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (Mycoplasma strain F38) in some wild herbivores and camels in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Paling, R W; Macowan, K J; Karstad, L

    1978-07-01

    Sera of 11 species of wild herbivores were tested for antibody to Mycoplasma strain F38 which causes contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP) in Kenya. Antibodies were found in buffalo (Syncerus caffer) (32%), impala (Aepyceros melampus) (10%) and camels (Camelus dromedarius) (49%) but not in bushbuck (Tragelaphus scriptus), eland (Taurotragus oryx), Grant's gazelle (Gazella granti), kongoni (Alcelaphus buselaphus cokei), oryx (Oryx beisa), Thomson's gazelle (Gazella thomsonii), waterbuck (Kobus defassa) and wildebeest (Connochaetus taurinus). PMID:691121

  6. Small-Ruminant Lentivirus Enhances PrPSc Accumulation in Cultured Sheep Microglial Cells ?

    PubMed Central

    Stanton, James B.; Knowles, Donald P.; O'Rourke, Katherine I.; Herrmann-Hoesing, Lynn M.; Mathison, Bruce A.; Baszler, Timothy V.

    2008-01-01

    Sheep scrapie is the prototypical transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (prion disease), which has a fundamental pathogenesis involving conversion of normal cellular prion protein (PrPC [C superscript stands for cellular]) to disease-associated prion protein (PrPSc [Sc superscript stands for sheep scrapie]). Sheep microglial cell cultures, derived from a prnp 136VV/171QQ near-term fetal brain, were developed to study sheep scrapie in the natural host and to investigate potential cofactors in the prion conversion process. Two culture systems, a primary cell culture and a cell line transformed with the large T antigen of simian virus 40, were developed, and both were identified as microglial in origin as indicated by expression of several microglial phenotype markers. Following exposure to PrPSc, sheep microglial cells demonstrated relatively low levels (transformed cell line) to high levels (primary cell line) of PrPSc accumulation over time. The accumulated PrPSc demonstrated protease resistance, an inferred beta-sheet conformation (as determined by a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay), specific inhibition by anti-PrP antibodies, and was transmissible in a dose-dependent manner. Primary microglia coinfected with a small-ruminant lentivirus (caprine arthritis encephalitis virus-Cork strain) and PrPSc demonstrated an approximately twofold increase in PrPSc accumulation compared to that of primary microglia infected with PrPSc alone. The results demonstrate the in vitro utility of PrPSc-permissive sheep microglial cells in investigating the biology of natural prion diseases and show that small-ruminant lentiviruses enhance prion conversion in cultured sheep microglia. PMID:18684809

  7. Two Mutations in the Caprine MTHFR 3'UTR Regulated by MicroRNAs Are Associated with Milk Production Traits

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yuxuan; Gao, Teyang; Lei, Yingnan; Cao, Binyun

    2015-01-01

    Background 5,10-Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) plays a central role in folate metabolism by irreversibly converting 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate to 5-methylenetetrahydrofolate, a predominant circulating form of folate. Folate is reportedly important for milk protein synthesis, and MTHFR may be a key regulatory point of folate metabolism for milk protein synthesis in mammary epithelial cells. Prior to this study, polymorphisms of the MTHFR gene were not associated with milk production traits from a breeding perspective. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at microRNA (miRNA) binding sites (miR-SNPs) can affect gene expression. This study aimed to identify the effects of miR-SNPs (g.2244A>G and g.2264A>G) in the caprine MTHFR 3' UTR on the milk production traits of dairy goats. Results Guanzhong dairy (GD, n = 325) goats were used to detect SNPs in the caprine MTHFR 3' UTR by DNA sequencing. Two novel SNPs (g.2244A>G and g.2264A>G) were identified in the said region. The homozygous haplotype A-G of the SNPs g.2244A>G and g.2264A>G was significantly associated with milk yield and milk protein levels in GD goats (P < 0.05). Functional assays indicated that the MTHFR 2244 A ? G substitution could increase the binding activity of hsa-miR-1266 with the MTHFR 3' UTR. The MTHFR 2264 A ? G substitution could decrease the binding activity of hsa-miR-616 with the MTHFR 3' UTR. In addition, we observed a significant increase in the MTHFR mRNA levels of homozygous haplotype A-G carriers relative to those of homozygous haplotype G-A carriers. These results indicated that both SNPs altered the MTHFR mRNA levels. These altered levels of MTHFR mRNA may account for the association of SNPs with milk production traits. Conclusions This study is the first to report that the g.2244A>G and g.2264A>G polymorphisms were associated with milk production traits in GD goats. Further investigations should explore the underlying miRNA-mediated mechanisms that are modified by the g.2244A>G and g.2264A>G SNPs. The current study evaluated these SNPs as potential genetic markers in goats, with potential applications in breeding programs. PMID:26186555

  8. Foodborne viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Testing for human pathogenic viruses in foods represents a formidable task requiring the extraction, concentration, and assay of a host of viruses from a wide range of food matrices. The enteric viruses, particularly genogroup I and II (GI and GII) noroviruses and hepatitis A virus, are the princip...

  9. Multi-locus sequence analysis of Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae for the molecular epidemiology of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia.

    PubMed

    Manso-Silván, Lucía; Dupuy, Virginie; Chu, Yuefeng; Thiaucourt, François

    2011-01-01

    Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae (Mccp) is the causative agent of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP), a devastating disease of domestic goats. The exact distribution of CCPP is not known but it is present in Africa and the Middle East and represents a significant threat to many disease-free areas including Europe. Furthermore, CCPP has been recently identified in Tajikistan and China. A typing method with an improved resolution based on Multi-Locus Sequence Analysis (MLSA) has been developed to trace new epidemics and to elucidate whether the recently identified cases in continental Asia were due to recent importation of Mccp. The H2 locus, a polymorphic region already in use as a molecular marker for Mccp evolution, was complemented with seven new loci selected according to the analysis of polymorphisms observed among the genome sequences of three Mccp strains. A total of 25 strains, including the two new strains from Asia, were analysed by MLSA resulting in the discrimination of 15 sequence types based on 53 polymorphic positions. A distance tree inferred from the concatenated sequences of the eight selected loci revealed two evolutionary lineages comprising five groups, which showed good correlation with geographic origins. The presence of a distinct Asian cluster strongly indicates that CCPP was not recently imported to continental Asia. It is more likely that the disease has been endemic in the area for a long time, as supported by historical clinical descriptions. In conclusion, this MLSA strategy constitutes a highly discriminative tool for the molecular epidemiology of CCPP. PMID:21756321

  10. Diagnosis of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia by detection and identification of Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae by PCR and restriction enzyme analysis.

    PubMed

    Bölske, G; Mattsson, J G; Bascuñana, C R; Bergström, K; Wesonga, H; Johansson, K E

    1996-04-01

    Contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP), one of the most serious and dramatic diseases of goats, is caused by Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae (M. capripneumoniae). This organism is very difficult to isolate and to correctly identify. In a previous report we described a method for the rapid detection and identification of M. capripneumoniae. This method is based on a PCR system by which a segment of the 16S rRNA gene from all mycoplasmas of the M. mycoides cluster can be amplified. The PCR product is then analyzed by restriction enzyme cleavage for the identification of M. capripneumoniae DNA. This system has now been further evaluated with respect to specificity and diagnostic efficacy for the identification and direct detection of the organism in clinical material. Identification by restriction enzyme analysis of amplified DNA from mycoplasmas of the M. mycoides cluster was verified for 55 strains, among which were 15 strains of M. capripneumoniae. The PCR was applied to clinical samples from the nose, ear, pharynx, pleural fluid, and lung tissue containing M. capripneumoniae or other mycoplasmas. As expected, mycoplasmas belonging to the M. mycoides cluster could be detected by the PCR. Restriction enzyme analysis of the PCR products could then be applied for the identification of M. capripneumoniae. Clinical samples and cultures containing M. capripneumoniae were dried on filter paper, to try an easier sample transport method, and were tested by PCR. M. capripneumoniae DNA could be detected in the dried specimens, but the sensitivity of the PCR test was reduced. PMID:8815084

  11. Participatory investigation of Contagious Caprine Pleuropneumonia (CCPP) in goats in the Hammer and Benna-Tsemay districts of southern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Mekuria, S; Zerihun, A; Gebre-Egziabher, B; Tibbo, M

    2008-12-01

    The study was conducted in two selected districts of Southern Omo zones of Ethiopia, namely Hammer and Benna-Tsemay, during November 2004 and May 2005 to determine the status of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP). Participatory disease investigation was conducted in the goat flocks owned by pastoralists of the districts. Participatory methods such as proportionate piling and matrix scoring of diseases were used to characterise major diseases of goats. Clinical and post-mortem examinations and isolation of the causative agent of CCPP were done. Serological tests were conducted using CFT. CCPP (locally termed Sompo) ranked as the first important disease of goats in the study area. Local perception of causes and signs of CCPP were described. Matrix scoring between groups revealed that disease signs and causes showed weak, moderate and good agreement by Kendall's coefficient concordance (W = 0.21-0.99). The overall sero-prevalence of CCPP was 15.5%. The causative agent was isolated from sick animals in the lab. The characteristic clinical signs, gross lesions, bacteriological isolation of the causative agent supported by participatory epidemiological disease investigation revealed that CCPP is a major disease of goats in the study districts. Participatory epidemiology using indigenous knowledge could efficiently be used to generate sufficient information with minimum cost, local materials and within reasonably short period of time, assisting the designing of feasible disease control programme in developing countries. PMID:18975122

  12. Seroprevalence of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia in Kefta Humera, Alamata (Tigray) and Aba-'ala (Afar), Northern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Hadush, Birhanu; Eshetu, Lisanework; Mengistu, Wubishet; Hailesilassie, Mekonnen

    2009-06-01

    A cross sectional study was conducted to determine the sero-prevalence of contagious caprine pleuroneumonia in three districts of Tigray and Afar regions of Ethiopia namely; Kefta Humera, Alamata and Aba-'alla. Proportions and chi-square test statistics were used to analyze the data. From a total of 863 goats and 137 sheep tested, 282 (32.68%) and 25 (18.25%) were positive for antibodies of Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae respectively using complement fixation test (CFT). The seroprevalence of CCPP in goats among the three districts was statistically significant (x(2) = 76.00, p < 0.001). In this study there was no statistical significant variation in the seroprevalence of CCPP in both sexes (x(2) = 3.619, p = 0.0571) and age (x(2) = 0.990, p = 0.095) groups. The finding of high seroprevalence of CCPP in sheep (18.25%) could indicate that sheep are potential carriers of Mccp. PMID:18989743

  13. Analysis of the polymorphisms in the caprine Gli3 gene and their associations with production traits in goats.

    PubMed

    Jin, Q J; Chen, D X; Yang, L; Fang, X T; Zhang, C L; Lei, C Z; Chen, H

    2013-02-01

    Gli3 is a zinc finger transcription factor which plays a critical role in regulating animal development, metabolism and energy partitioning and thus has the potential to influence economical important traits in farm animals. In this study, we screened the complete exons of the caprine Gli3 gene using PCR-SSCP methods in 430 individuals from three goat breeds to identify sequence variants that might be associated with growth traits. Six novel mutations (GU363952:g.739C>G, 749A>T, 1636C>A, 1982delT, 1983T>C, 2856T>C) were identified. Significant associations were observed between the mutations GU363952:g.739C>G and g.749A>T with body height, chest circumference and canon circumference. Individuals with genotype G4-CC/AA and G4-CG/AT were significantly higher than individuals with genotype G4-GG/TT in body height, chest circumference and canon circumference. The results of this study suggested that the Gli3-gene-specific SNP could be a useful marker for growth traits in future marker-assisted selection programs in goat. PMID:23096093

  14. Computer viruses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. R. Subramanya; N. Lakshminarasimhan

    2001-01-01

    Computer viruses have been around since the mid 1980s. Over 40,000 different viruses have been cataloged so far and the number of viruses is increasing dramatically. The damage they cause is estimated to be several billions of U.S. dollars per year. Most often, the origin of the virus is difficult to trace. Various kinds of anti-virus software have been developed

  15. Proportional mortality: A study of 152 goats submitted for necropsy from 13 goat herds in Quebec, with a special focus on caseous lymphadenitis.

    PubMed

    Debien, Elaine; Hélie, Pierre; Buczinski, Sébastien; Lebœuf, Anne; Bélanger, Denise; Drolet, Richard

    2013-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the main causes of mortality, with a special focus on caseous lymphadenits as a cause of death or wasting in caprine herds from Quebec. Goats (n = 152) from 13 herds were submitted for necropsy; the cause of mortality, and the presence, location, and cause of abscesses (if present) were recorded. Proportional mortalities were distributed as: Clostridium perfringens type D enterotoxemia (17.1%), pneumonia (13.8%), paratuberculosis (10.5%), listeriosis (6.6%), pregnancy toxemia (5.3%), caprine arthritis-encephalitis (4.6%), and caseous lymphadenitis (3.9%). Caseous lymphadenitis was diagnosed in 24.3% of the submitted goats, but was not a major cause of wasting or mortality. Abscesses were localized internally in 54.1% of the cases. Paratuberculosis was diagnosed in 29 goats (16 as cause of death) and was considered a major cause of wasting and/or mortality. PMID:24155449

  16. Proportional mortality: A study of 152 goats submitted for necropsy from 13 goat herds in Quebec, with a special focus on caseous lymphadenitis

    PubMed Central

    Debien, Elaine; Hélie, Pierre; Buczinski, Sébastien; Lebœuf, Anne; Bélanger, Denise; Drolet, Richard

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the main causes of mortality, with a special focus on caseous lymphadenits as a cause of death or wasting in caprine herds from Quebec. Goats (n = 152) from 13 herds were submitted for necropsy; the cause of mortality, and the presence, location, and cause of abscesses (if present) were recorded. Proportional mortalities were distributed as: Clostridium perfringens type D enterotoxemia (17.1%), pneumonia (13.8%), paratuberculosis (10.5%), listeriosis (6.6%), pregnancy toxemia (5.3%), caprine arthritis-encephalitis (4.6%), and caseous lymphadenitis (3.9%). Caseous lymphadenitis was diagnosed in 24.3% of the submitted goats, but was not a major cause of wasting or mortality. Abscesses were localized internally in 54.1% of the cases. Paratuberculosis was diagnosed in 29 goats (16 as cause of death) and was considered a major cause of wasting and/or mortality. PMID:24155449

  17. Caprine prion gene polymorphisms are associated with decreased incidence of classical scrapie in goat herds in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Goldmann, Wilfred; Ryan, Kelly; Stewart, Paula; Parnham, David; Xicohtencatl, Rosa; Fernandez, Nora; Saunders, Ginny; Windl, Otto; González, Lorenzo; Bossers, Alex; Foster, James

    2011-01-01

    The application of genetic breeding programmes to eradicate transmissible spongiform encephalopathies in goats is an important aim for reasons of animal welfare as well as human food safety and food security. Based on the positive impact of Prnp genetics on sheep scrapie in Europe in the past decade, we have established caprine Prnp gene variation in more than 1100 goats from the United Kingdom and studied the association of Prnp alleles with disease phenotypes in 150 scrapie-positive goats. This investigation confirms the association of the Met142 encoding Prnp allele with increased resistance to preclinical and clinical scrapie. It reveals a novel association of the Ser127 encoding allele with a reduced probability to develop clinical signs of scrapie in goats that are already positive for the accumulation of disease-specific prion protein in brain or periphery. A United Kingdom survey of Prnp genotypes in eight common breeds revealed eleven alleles in over thirty genotypes. The Met142 encoding allele had a high overall mean allele frequency of 22.6%, whereas the Ser127 encoding allele frequency was considerably lower with 6.4%. In contrast, a well known resistance associated allele encoding Lys222 was found to be rare (0.9%) in this survey. The analysis of Prnp genotypes in Mexican Criollas goats revealed nine alleles, including a novel Phe to Leu substitution in codon 201, confirming that high genetic variability of Prnp can be found in scrapie-free populations. Our study implies that it should be feasible to lower scrapie prevalence in goat herds in the United Kingdom by genetic selection. PMID:22040234

  18. Oncolytic Viruses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Nemunaitis

    1999-01-01

    Viruses capable of inducing lysis of malignant cells through theirreplication process are known as ``oncolytic'' viruses. Clinicaltrials in oncology have been performed with oncolytic viruses fornearly fifty years. Both systemic and intratumoral routes ofadministration have been explored. Toxicity has generally beenlimited to injection site pain, transient fever and tumor necrosis.Responses with early crude materials were usually short induration; however, recent

  19. Stress Granules Regulate Double-Stranded RNA-Dependent Protein Kinase Activation through a Complex Containing G3BP1 and Caprin1

    PubMed Central

    Reineke, Lucas C.; Kedersha, Nancy; Langereis, Martijn A.; van Kuppeveld, Frank J. M.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Stress granules (SGs) are dynamic cytoplasmic repositories containing translationally silenced mRNAs that assemble upon cellular stress. We recently reported that the SG nucleating protein G3BP1 promotes antiviral activity and is essential in double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR) recruitment to stress granules, thereby driving phosphorylation of the ? subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (eIF2?). Here, we delineate the mechanism for SG-dependent PKR activation. We show that G3BP1 and inactive PKR directly interact with each other, dependent on both the NTF2-like and PXXP domains of G3BP1. The G3BP1-interacting protein Caprin1 also directly interacts with PKR, regulates efficient PKR activation at the stress granule, and is also integral for the release of active PKR into the cytoplasm to engage in substrate recognition. The G3BP1-Caprin1-PKR complex represents a new mode of PKR activation and is important for antiviral activity of G3BP1 and PKR during infection with mengovirus. Our data links stress responses and their resultant SGs with innate immune activation through PKR without a requirement for foreign double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) pattern recognition. PMID:25784705

  20. Virus Maturation

    PubMed Central

    Veesler, David; Johnson, John E.

    2013-01-01

    We examined virus maturation of selected non-enveloped and enveloped ssRNA viruses; retroviruses; bacteriophages and herpes virus. Processes associated with maturation in the RNA viruses range from subtle (noda and picornaviruses) to dramatic (tetraviruses and togaviruses). The elaborate assembly and maturation pathway of HIV is discussed in contrast to the less sophisticated but highly efficient processes associated with togaviruses. Bacteriophage assembly and maturation are discussed in general terms with specific examples chosen for emphasis. Finally the herpes viruses are compared with bacteriophages. The data support divergent evolution of noda, picorna and tetraviruses from a common ancestor and divergent evolution of alpha and flaviviruses from a common ancestor. Likewise, bacteriophages and herpes viruses almost certainly share a common ancestor in their evolution. Comparing all the viruses, we conclude that maturation is a convergent process that is required to solve conflicting requirements in biological dynamics and function. PMID:22404678

  1. Obesity Virus

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Science Update (AAAS; )

    2007-06-12

    Obesity has many causes, but there is growing evidence that common viruses may contribute to the condition in some people. Recently, Nikhil Dhurandhar and his colleagues at the Pennington Biomedical Research Center infected human stem cells with Ad-36, a common virus known to be associated with obesity in humans. They found that the cells they exposed to the virus accumulated a much higher amount of fat than uninfected cells.

  2. First isolation of Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capricolum, one of the causal agents of caprine contagious agalactia, on the island of Lanzarote (Spain).

    PubMed

    De la Fe, C; Gutiérrez, A; Poveda, J B; Assunção, P; Ramírez, A S; Fabelo, F

    2007-03-01

    During an unusually long period of bad weather, several outbreaks of caprine contagious agalactia (CCA) were reported in a number of flocks on the island of Lanzarote (Canary Islands, Spain). Clinical and subclinical mastitis in lactating goats and some cases of arthritis and pneumonia in kids were observed in the affected flocks. Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capricolum was isolated as the main causal agent of the outbreaks, associated with M. mycoides subsp. mycoides "large colony type" (Mmm LC) in two flocks. This is the first report of an isolation of M. capricolum subsp. capricolum on the island of Lanzarote. The finding is of epidemiological importance and could complicate plans to control the disease. The significance of this mycoplasma species in association with CCA must now be studied in detail. PMID:16324858

  3. Phytophthora viruses.

    PubMed

    Cai, Guohong; Hillman, Bradley I

    2013-01-01

    Phytophthora sp. is a genus in the oomycetes, which are similar to filamentous fungi in morphology and habitat, but phylogenetically more closely related to brown algae and diatoms and fall in the kingdom Stramenopila. In the past few years, several viruses have been characterized in Phytophthora species, including four viruses from Phytophthora infestans, the late blight pathogen, and an endornavirus from an unnamed Phytophthora species from Douglas fir. Studies on Phytophthora viruses have revealed several interesting systems. Phytophthora infestans RNA virus 1 (PiRV-1) and PiRV-2 are likely the first members of two new virus families; studies on PiRV-3 support the establishment of a new virus genus that is not affiliated with established virus families; PiRV-4 is a member of Narnaviridae, most likely in the genus Narnavirus; and Phytophthora endornavirus 1 (PEV1) was the first nonplant endornavirus at the time of reporting. Viral capsids have not been found in any of the above-mentioned viruses. PiRV-1 demonstrated a unique genome organization that requires further examination, and PiRV-2 may have played a role in late blight resurgence in 1980s-1990s. PMID:23498912

  4. Diseases Caused by Viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The symptoms, causal agents, epidemiology and management of important virus diseases in chickpea and lentil crops were reviewed in depth. The virus diseases include.Alflafa mosaic virus, Cucumber mosaiv virus, Faba bean necrotic yellows virus, Pea enation mosaic virus, Pea seed-borne mosaci virus,...

  5. Emerging Viruses

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Lee, Amy.

    Emerging viruses are those "whose incidence in humans has increased in the past 2 decades or threatens to increase in the near future." This week's Topic in Depth focuses on sites related to viruses, particularly those that are considered "emerging."The first site (1) is an essay by Alison Jacobson of the University of Capetown that discusses some emerging and potentially emerging viruses, along with factors that contribute to the threat. From a US government interagency working group, the second report (2) focuses on the responses to infectious disease outbreaks, including drugs, vaccines, and government response. A World Health Organization site (3) highlights recent reports of infectious disease, archived by date and by disease. This ThinkQuest site (4) gives a basic introduction to viruses and how they cause infections. An online virology tutorial (5) by Ed Rybicki of the University of Cape Town serves as a lesson on the basics of virology for a more advanced student. The next two sites focus on the specifics of selected viruses. From the Institute for Molecular Virology (6) comes a resource on Marburg and Ebola viruses, and from the National Biological Information Infrastructure (7) is a site on West Nile Virus. The last resource (8) is a scholarly journal from the Centers for Disease Control that presents some of the latest scientific research on emerging diseases.

  6. HIV virus

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Carl Henderson (National Institutes of Health; )

    2005-12-09

    HIV is a virus that can be transmitted through fluids exchanged in sexual activity. HIV eventually causes AIDS. AIDS patients have compromised immune systems and they eventually die from diseases that healthy humans would normally fight off very easily.

  7. Calf w/ Virus 

    E-print Network

    Unknown

    2011-08-17

    ). One of the best animal models of MS is the demyelination induced by Theiler's virus. The early events that occur during Theiler's virus infection are crucial in the effective clearance of virus from the CNS. Failure to clear virus results...

  8. Ebola Virus Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    Ebola virus disease Fact sheet N°103 Updated April 2015 Key facts Ebola virus disease (EVD), formerly ... live Ebola virus in vaginal secretions. Symptoms of Ebola virus disease The incubation period, that is, the ...

  9. Evidence of three new members of malignant catarrhal fever virus group in Muskox (Ovibos moschatus), Nubian ibex (Capra nubiana), and gemsbok (Oryx gazella)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Li, H.; Gailbreath, K.; Bender, L.C.; West, K.; Keller, J.; Crawford, T.B.

    2003-01-01

    Six members of the malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) virus group of ruminant rhadinoviruses have been identified to date. Four of these viruses are clearly associated with clinical disease: alcelaphine herpesvirus 1 (AlHV-1) carried by wildebeest (Connochaetes spp.); ovine herpesvirus 2 (OvHV-2), ubiquitous in domestic sheep; caprine herpesvirus 2 (CpHV-2), endemic in domestic goats; and the virus of unknown origin found causing classic MCF in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus; MCFV-WTD). Using serology and polymerase chain reaction with degenerate primers targeting a portion of the herpesviral DNA polymerase gene, evidence of three previously unrecognized rhadinoviruses in the MCF virus group was found in muskox (Ovibos moschatus), Nubian ibex (Capra nubiana), and gemsbok (South African oryx, Oryx gazella), respectively. Based on sequence alignment, the viral sequence in the muskox is most closely related to MCFV-WTD (81.5% sequence identity) and that in the Nubian ibex is closest to CpHV-2 (89.3% identity). The viral sequence in the gemsbok is most closely related to AlHV-1 (85.1% identity). No evidence of disease association with these viruses has been found. ?? Wildlife Disease Association 2003.

  10. Genetic variants and effects on milk traits of the caprine paired-like homeodomain transcription factor 2 (PITX2) gene in dairy goats.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Haiyu; Wu, Xianfeng; Cai, Hanfang; Pan, Chuanying; Lei, Chuzhao; Chen, Hong; Lan, Xianyong

    2013-12-15

    The paired-like homeodomain transcription factor 2 (PITX2) gene plays a critical role in cell proliferation, differentiation, hematopoiesis and organogenesis. This gene regulates several genes' expressions in the Wnt/beta-catenin and POU1F1 pathways, thereby probably affecting milk performance. The goal of this study was to characterize the genetic variants of the PITX2 gene and test their associations with milk traits in dairy goats. Herein, four novel single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), AC_000163:g.18117T>C, g.18161C>G, g.18322C>A and g.18353T>C, within the caprine PITX2 gene, were found in two famous Chinese dairy goat breeds. These SNPs mapping at Cys28Arg, Pro42Pro, IVS1+79C>A and IVS1+110T>C, were genotyped by the MvaI, SmaI, MspI and RsaI aCRS-RFLP or PCR-RFLP methods, respectively. Accordingly, two main haplotypes (CGCT and CGCC) were identified among the specimens. Association testing revealed that the SmaI and RsaI polymorphisms were significantly associated with the milk fat content, milk lactose content and milk density (P<0.05 or P<0.01) in the Guanzhong (GZ) dairy goats, respectively. At the same time, the RsaI locus was also found to significantly link to the second lactation milk yield, milk fat content, milk lactose content, milk density and milk total solid content (P<0.05 or P<0.01) in the Xinong Saanen (XNSN) dairy goats, respectively. These results indicated that the caprine PITX2 gene had the significant effects on milk traits. Hence, the RsaI and SmaI loci could be regarded as two DNA markers for selecting superior milk performance in dairy goats. These preliminary findings not only would extend the spectrum of genetic variation of the goat PITX2 gene, but also would contribute to implementing marker-assisted selection (MAS) in breeding and genetics in dairy goats. PMID:24076438

  11. Computer viruses

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, F.B.

    1986-01-01

    This thesis investigates a recently discovered vulnerability in computer systems which opens the possibility that a single individual with an average user's knowledge could cause widespread damage to information residing in computer networks. This vulnerability is due to a transitive integrity corrupting mechanism called a computer virus which causes corrupted information to spread from program to program. Experiments have shown that a virus can spread at an alarmingly rapid rate from user to user, from system to system, and from network to network, even when the best-availability security techniques are properly used. Formal definitions of self-replication, evolution, viruses, and protection mechanisms are used to prove that any system that allows sharing, general functionality, and transitivity of information flow cannot completely prevent viral attack. Computational aspects of viruses are examined, and several undecidable problems are shown. It is demonstrated that a virus may evolve so as to generate any computable sequence. Protection mechanisms are explored, and the design of computer networks that prevent both illicit modification and dissemination of information are given. Administration and protection of information networks based on partial orderings are examined, and probably correct automated administrative assistance is introduced.

  12. Experimental contagious caprine pleuropneumonia: a long term study on the course of infection and pathology in a flock of goats infected with Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Wesonga, H O; Bölske, G; Thiaucourt, F; Wanjohi, C; Lindberg, R

    2004-01-01

    Contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP) is a major threat to goat farming in parts of Africa and Asia. It classically causes acute high morbidity and mortality early in infection, but little is known of its long term epizootiology and course. In this study, 10 goats were inoculated with Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae (M. capripneumoniae) and then mixed with 15 goats for contact transmission. The disease course was monitored in each goat for 56-105 days, whereafter the goats were killed and necropsied. Varying features signifying infection occurred in altogether 17 goats (7 inoculated, 10 in-contact). Clinical signs were severe in 8 goats but no fatalities occurred. Only 6 goats had serum antibody titres against M. capripneumoniae in ELISA. Fourteen goats (5 inoculated, 9 in-contact) had chronic pleuropulmonary lesions compatible with CCPP at necropsy and 7 of those showed M. capripneumoniae antigen in the lung by immunohistochemistry. Neither cultivation nor PCR tests were positive for the agent in any goat. The results indicate that the clinical course of CCPP in a flock may be comparatively mild, M. capripneumoniae-associated lung lesions may be present at a late stage of infection, and chronic infection may occur without a significant serological response. PMID:15663077

  13. Experimental Contagious Caprine Pleuropneumonia: A Long Term Study on the Course of Infection and Pathology in a Flock of Goats Infected with Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Wesonga, HO; Bölske, G; Thiaucourt, F; Wanjohi, C; Lindberg, R

    2004-01-01

    Contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP) is a major threat to goat farming in parts of Africa and Asia. It classically causes acute high morbidity and mortality early in infection, but little is known of its long term epizootiology and course. In this study, 10 goats were inoculated with Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae (M. capripneumoniae) and then mixed with 15 goats for contact transmission. The disease course was monitored in each goat for 56–105 days, whereafter the goats were killed and necropsied. Varying features signifying infection occurred in altogether 17 goats (7 inoculated, 10 in-contact). Clinical signs were severe in 8 goats but no fatalities occurred. Only 6 goats had serum antibody titres against M. capripneumoniae in ELISA. Fourteen goats (5 inoculated, 9 in-contact) had chronic pleuropulmonary lesions compatible with CCPP at necropsy and 7 of those showed M. capripneumoniae antigen in the lung by immunohistochemistry. Neither cultivation nor PCR tests were positive for the agent in any goat. The results indicate that the clinical course of CCPP in a flock may be comparatively mild, M. capripneumoniae-associated lung lesions may be present at a late stage of infection, and chronic infection may occur without a significant serological response. PMID:15663077

  14. Computer Viruses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robyn P. Weems

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents a description of the major characteristics of disk and network borne viruses for the convenience of library and archival systems administrators. It includes a brief history of the use of destructive software by computer hackers, noting some of the early and more recent forms of attack, and suggests that computer languages newly developed for use with the

  15. Computer viruses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frederick B. Cohen

    1986-01-01

    This thesis investigates a recently discovered vulnerability in computer systems which opens the possibility that a single individual with an average user's knowledge could cause widespread damage to information residing in computer networks. This vulnerability is due to a transitive integrity corrupting mechanism called a computer virus which causes corrupted information to spread from program to program. Experiments have shown

  16. Computer viruses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. E. Pelaez; John Bowles

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the main categories of malicious programs known as Trojan horses, viruses, bacteria, worms, and logic bombs. The focus is on their general behavior and the properties seen in their implementations rather than the ultimate effects or their intended destructive behavior. Possible preventive measures are also discussed

  17. Exploring computer viruses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Davis

    1988-01-01

    The author presents some thoughts on viruses and explores the anatomy of a sample computer virus. He details, using C language programs, some of the fundamental parts associated with viruses and how these viruses can be detected. It is concluded that the final decision for virus control rests with risk management. It is suggested that, at the very least, contingency

  18. METHODOLOGY Open Access Virus replicon particle based Chikungunya virus

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    METHODOLOGY Open Access Virus replicon particle based Chikungunya virus neutralization assay using Mareike Kümmerer1* Abstract Background: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) has been responsible for large epidemic antibodies without the need of using infectious CHIKV. Keywords: Chikungunya virus, Virus replicon particles

  19. Plant Virus Metagenomics: Advances in Virus Discovery.

    PubMed

    Roossinck, Marilyn J; Martin, Darren P; Roumagnac, Philippe

    2015-06-01

    In recent years plant viruses have been detected from many environments, including domestic and wild plants and interfaces between these systems-aquatic sources, feces of various animals, and insects. A variety of methods have been employed to study plant virus biodiversity, including enrichment for virus-like particles or virus-specific RNA or DNA, or the extraction of total nucleic acids, followed by next-generation deep sequencing and bioinformatic analyses. All of the methods have some shortcomings, but taken together these studies reveal our surprising lack of knowledge about plant viruses and point to the need for more comprehensive studies. In addition, many new viruses have been discovered, with most virus infections in wild plants appearing asymptomatic, suggesting that virus disease may be a byproduct of domestication. For plant pathologists these studies are providing useful tools to detect viruses, and perhaps to predict future problems that could threaten cultivated plants. PMID:26056847

  20. Routes of transmission and consequences of small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLVs) infection and eradication schemes.

    PubMed

    Peterhans, Ernst; Greenland, Tim; Badiola, Juan; Harkiss, Gordon; Bertoni, Giuseppe; Amorena, Beatriz; Eliaszewicz, Muriel; Juste, Ramon A; Krassnig, Renate; Lafont, Jean-Pierre; Lenihan, Patrick; Pétursson, Gudmundur; Pritchard, Geoff; Thorley, John; Vitu, Christian; Mornex, Jean-François; Pépin, Michel

    2004-01-01

    Small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLV = maedi-visna in sheep and caprine arthritis encephalitis in goats) are distributed throughout most countries of the world, particularly Europe. Laboratories from 16 European countries established collaborations within the framework of a COST (CO-operation in the field of Scientific and Technical Research) action sponsored by the European Union in order to (i) better organize their research programmes on SRLVs and (ii) to coordinate efforts to combat these two diseases. After five years, a consensus conference--the first one in the veterinary medicine field--concluded the work of this network of laboratories by reviewing the present position and discussing three important questions in the field of SRLVs: routes of transmission, consequences of infection and potential role of eradication programmes at either a European or local level, according to the situation in each country or region. This paper brings together existing information regarding these questions and identifies areas for future research. PMID:15210075

  1. Dengue Virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Greg Smith

    \\u000a Dengue Virus (DENV) diagnosis can be performed by isolation of DENV from blood or autopsy samples; demonstration of a four-fold\\u000a or greater rise in reciprocal IgG or IgM antibody titres to one or more DENV in paired serum samples (acute and convascent);\\u000a use of the newer rapid diagnostic test kit (also differentiates between primary and secondary dengue infections – these

  2. Virus Movement Maintains Local Virus Population Diversity

    SciTech Connect

    J. Snyder; B. Wiedenheft; M. Lavin; F. Roberto; J. Spuhler; A. Ortmann; T. Douglas; M. Young

    2007-11-01

    Viruses are the largest reservoir of genetic material on the planet, yet little is known about the population dynamics of any virus within its natural environment. Over a 2-year period, we monitored the diversity of two archaeal viruses found in hot springs within Yellowstone National Park (YNP). Both temporal phylogeny and neutral biodiversity models reveal that virus diversity in these local environments is not being maintained by mutation but rather by high rates of immigration from a globally distributed metacommunity. These results indicate that geographically isolated hot springs are readily able to exchange viruses. The importance of virus movement is supported by the detection of virus particles in air samples collected over YNP hot springs and by their detection in metacommunity sequencing projects conducted in the Sargasso Sea. Rapid rates of virus movement are not expected to be unique to these archaeal viruses but rather a common feature among virus metacommunities. The finding that virus immigration rather than mutation can dominate community structure has significant implications for understanding virus circulation and the role that viruses play in ecology and evolution by providing a reservoir of mobile genetic material.

  3. Rapid detection of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia using a Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae capsular polysaccharide-specific antigen detection latex agglutination test.

    PubMed

    March, J B; Gammack, C; Nicholas, R

    2000-11-01

    Latex microspheres (diameter, 8 microm) were coated with anti-Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae polyclonal immunoglobulin G (IgG) antiserum (anti-F38 biotype). The coated microspheres, when used in a latex agglutination test (LAT), detected M. capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae antigen in the serum of goats with contagious caprine pleuropneumoniae (CCPP). Beads also agglutinated strongly in the presence of purified M. capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae capsular polysaccharide (CPS). Preabsorption of CPS-specific antibodies prior to coating of the beads removed agglutinating activity in the presence of M. capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae, strongly suggesting that CPS is the likely soluble antigen recognized by the test. In addition, the specificity of the LAT exactly mirrored that of an M. capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae CPS-specific monoclonal antibody (WM25): of the 8 other mycoplasma species tested, agglutination was observed only with bovine serogroup 7. The LAT detected all 11 strains of M. capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae examined in this study, with a sensitivity level of 2 ng of CPS, or the equivalent of 1.7 x 10(4) CFU, in a reaction volume of 0.03 ml of serum. With field sera from goats with CCPP, the results of the LAT exhibited a 67% correlation with the results of the currently used complement fixation test (CFT), with the main discrepancy in diagnosis resulting from the increased sensitivity of the LAT compared to that of CFT. This antigen-detection LAT should prove particularly useful in identifying animals in the earliest stages of CCPP and combines sensitivity and low cost with ease of application in the field, without the need for any specialist training or equipment. PMID:11060083

  4. Rapid Detection of Contagious Caprine Pleuropneumonia Using a Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae Capsular Polysaccharide-Specific Antigen Detection Latex Agglutination Test

    PubMed Central

    March, J. B.; Gammack, C.; Nicholas, R.

    2000-01-01

    Latex microspheres (diameter, 8 ?m) were coated with anti-Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae polyclonal immunoglobulin G (IgG) antiserum (anti-F38 biotype). The coated microspheres, when used in a latex agglutination test (LAT), detected M. capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae antigen in the serum of goats with contagious caprine pleuropneumoniae (CCPP). Beads also agglutinated strongly in the presence of purified M. capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae capsular polysaccharide (CPS). Preabsorption of CPS-specific antibodies prior to coating of the beads removed agglutinating activity in the presence of M. capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae, strongly suggesting that CPS is the likely soluble antigen recognized by the test. In addition, the specificity of the LAT exactly mirrored that of an M. capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae CPS-specific monoclonal antibody (WM25): of the 8 other mycoplasma species tested, agglutination was observed only with bovine serogroup 7. The LAT detected all 11 strains of M. capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae examined in this study, with a sensitivity level of 2 ng of CPS, or the equivalent of 1.7 × 104 CFU, in a reaction volume of 0.03 ml of serum. With field sera from goats with CCPP, the results of the LAT exhibited a 67% correlation with the results of the currently used complement fixation test (CFT), with the main discrepancy in diagnosis resulting from the increased sensitivity of the LAT compared to that of CFT. This antigen-detection LAT should prove particularly useful in identifying animals in the earliest stages of CCPP and combines sensitivity and low cost with ease of application in the field, without the need for any specialist training or equipment. PMID:11060083

  5. Cross-sectional study on Contagious Caprine Pleuro Pneumonia in selected districts of sedentary and pastoral production systems in Southern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Mekuria, Solomon; Asmare, Kassahun

    2010-01-01

    A study to estimate the seroprevalence of Contagious Caprine Pluropneumonia (CCPP) in southern Ethiopia was conducted from November 2005 to June 2006. Two districts from sedentary (Arbaminch and Boreda) and pastoral (Hammar and Bena-Tsemay) production systems were included in the study. Sera samples were collected from 913 goats (234 from sedentary and 679 from pastoral) to check for CCPP serostatus. The animals were sampled from 155 flocks (44 pastoral and 111 sedentary). Five clinically suspected CCPP cases were also sacrificed and attempt was made to isolate Mycoplasma capricolum capripneumoniae (MccP) from lung tissue, nasal swab and plural exudates. Sera samples were tested for the presence of CCPP antibodies using CFT. The overall seroprevalence recorded in the study was 18.61%. The corresponding seroprevalences for sedentary and pastoral production systems were 27.78% and 15.46% respectively. Regarding districts, the prevalence in Hammar was 15.63% while that of Bena-Tsemay 15.29%. In Arbaminch and Boreda the percent of seroreactors were 23.01 and 32.23% respectively. Out of 44 pastoral and 111 sedentary flocks, 50.45% of pastoral and 65.91% of sedentary flocks had at least one seroreactor goat per flock respectively. Both in the univariable and multivariable logistic regression analysis, seropositivity was found to have strong association with sedentary production system (P < 0.05, OR = 2.24) and adult age (P < 0.05, OR = 1.77). In microbiological study, two broth cultures from thoracic fluid and two broth cultures from lung tissue samples were found to be positive for Mycoplasma capricolum capripneumoniae (MccP). In conclusion, both the serological study and bacteriological isolation confirmed the disease CCPP being an important disease that demands serious attention in both production systems. PMID:19551484

  6. First report on the molecular prevalence of Mycoplasma capricolum subspecies capripneumoniae (Mccp) in goats the cause of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP) in Balochistan province of Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Awan, Mohammad Arif; Abbas, Ferhat; Yasinzai, Masoom; Nicholas, Robin A J; Babar, Shakeel; Ayling, Roger D; Attique, Mohammad Adnan; Ahmed, Zafar; Wadood, Abdul; Khan, Faisal Ameer

    2010-10-01

    Contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP) caused by Mycoplasma capricolum subspecies capripneumoniae (Mccp) is a disease of goats which causes high morbidity and mortality and is reported in many countries of the world. There are probably no reports on the molecular prevalence of Mccp, Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capricolum (Mcc) and Mycoplasma putrefaciens (Mp) in Balochistan and any other part of Pakistan. Thirty goats (n = 30) with marked respiratory symptoms were selected and procured from forty goat flocks in Pishin district of Balochistan in 2008. The genomic deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) from the lung samples (n = 30) of the slaughtered goats was purified and subjected to polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays for the presence of Mycoplasma mycoides cluster members and Mp. The PCR-RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism) was also used to further confirm the Mccp. Of the thirty lung samples 17 (56.67%) were positive for the molecular prevalence of Mcc, Mccp and Mp. In total the molecular prevalence was observed as 17.65% for Mccp (n = 3), 70.59% for Mcc (n = 12) and 11.76% for Mp (n = 2). The RFLP profile has also validated the PCR results of Mccp by yielding two bands of 190 and 126 bp. The results of PCR-RFLP coupled with the presence of fibrinous pleuropneumonia and pleurisy during postmortem of goats (n = 3) strongly indicated the prevalence of CCPP in this part of world. Moreover the prevalence of Mcc and Mp is also alarming in the study area. We report for the very first time the molecular prevalence of Mcc, Mccp, and Mp in the lung tissues of goats in the Pishin district of Balochistan, Pakistan. PMID:20091126

  7. Identification and verification of differentially expressed genes in the caprine hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis that are associated with litter size.

    PubMed

    Feng, Tao; Cao, Gui-Ling; Chu, Ming-Xing; Di, Ran; Huang, Dong-Wei; Liu, Qiu-Yue; Pan, Zhang-Yuan; Jin, Mei; Zhang, Ying-Jie; Li, Ning

    2015-02-01

    Litter size is a favorable economic trait for the goat industry, but remains a complex trait controlled by multiple genes in multiple organs. Several genes have been identified that may affect embryo survival, follicular development, and the health of fetuses during pregnancy. Jining Grey goats demonstrate the largest litter size among goat breeds indigenous to China. In order to better understand the genetic basis of this trait, six suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) cDNA libraries were constructed using pooled mRNAs from hypothalamuses, pituitaries, and ovaries of sexually mature and adult polytocous Jining Grey goats, as testers, versus the pooled corresponding mRNAs of monotocous Liaoning Cashmere goats, as drivers. A total of 1,458 true-positive clones--including 955 known genes and 481 known and 22 unknown expressed sequence tags--were obtained from the SSH libraries by sequencing and alignment. The known genes were categorized into cellular processes and signaling information storage and processing, and metabolism. Three genes (FTH1, GH, and SAA) were selected to validate the SSH results by quantitative real-time PCR; all three were up-regulated in the corresponding tissues in the tester group indicating that these are candidate genes associated with the large litter size of Jining Grey goats. Several other identified genes may affect embryo survival, follicular development, and health during pregnancy. This study provides insights into the mechanistic basis by which the caprine hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis affects reproductive traits and provides a theoretical basis for goat production and breeding. PMID:25651825

  8. Viruses and Virus Diseases of Rubus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rubus species are propagated vegetatively and are subject to infection by viruses during development, propagation and fruit production stages. Reports of initial detection and symptoms of more than 30 viruses, virus-like diseases and phytoplasmas affecting Rubus spp. have been reviewed more than 20 ...

  9. Genetic evolution of Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae strains and molecular epidemiology of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia by sequencing of locus H2.

    PubMed

    Lorenzon, S; Wesonga, H; Ygesu, Laikemariam; Tekleghiorgis, Tesfaalem; Maikano, Y; Angaya, M; Hendrikx, P; Thiaucourt, F

    2002-03-01

    Contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP) is a major threat to goat farming in developing countries. Its exact distribution is not well known, despite the fact that new diagnostic tools such as PCR and competitive ELISA are now available. The authors developed a study of the molecular epidemiology of the disease, based on the amplification of a 2400 bp long fragment containing two duplicated gene coding for a putative membrane protein. The sequence of this fragment, obtained on 19 Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae (Mccp) strains from various geographical locations, gave 11 polymorphic positions. The three mutations found on gene H2prim were silent and did not appear to induce any amino acid modifications in the putative translated protein. The second gene may be a pseudogene not translated in vivo, as it bore a deletion of the ATG codon found in the other members of the "Mycoplasma mycoides cluster" and as the six mutations evidenced in the Mccp strains would induce modifications in the translated amino acids. In addition, an Mccp strain isolated in the United Arab Emirates showed a deletion of the whole pseudogene, a further indication that this gene is not compulsory for mycoplasma growth. Four lineages were defined, based on the nucleotide sequence. These correlated relatively well with the geographical origin of the strains: North, Central or East Africa. The strain of Turkish origin had a sequence similar to that found in North African strains, while strains isolated in Oman had sequences similar to those of North or East African strains. The latter is possibly due to the regular import of goats of various origins. Similar molecular epidemiology tools have been developed by sequencing the two operons of the 16S rRNA gene or by AFLP. All these various techniques give complementary results. One (16S rRNA) offers the likelihood of a finer identification of strains circulating in a region, another (H2) of determining the geographical origin of the strains. These tools can make a very useful contribution to understanding the epidemiology of CCPP. PMID:11844618

  10. The nature of measles virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. G. Atherton; K. S. K. Lain

    1965-01-01

    Summary Observations of the effect of halogen derivatives of deoxyuridine, known to affect the synthesis of deoxyviruses (DNA-containing viruses) show that measles virus replication is unaffected. This suggests that measles virus is a ribovirus (RNA-containing virus).

  11. Molecular evolution of primate immunodeficiency viruses and hepatitis delta virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julia Samuilovna Krushkal

    1996-01-01

    Primate immunodeficiency viruses, or lentiviruses (HIV-1, HIV-2, and SIV), and hepatitis delta virus (HDV) are RNA viruses characterized by rapid evolution. Infection by primate immunodeficiency viruses usually results in the development of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in humans and AIDS-like illnesses in Asian macaques. Similarly, hepatitis delta virus infection causes hepatitis and liver cancer in humans. These viruses are heterogeneous

  12. The detection of antibodies against foot-and-mouth disease virus in sheep milk.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, R M

    1997-12-01

    The liquid-phase blocking ELISA (LPBE) and a specific isotype assay (SIA) modified for caprine/ovine IgG1 and IgG2 were used to detect antibodies against foot-and-mouth disease virus isolate O(1) Manisa in sheep milk samples. The majority of samples from animals vaccinated 14-23 weeks previously were indistinguishable from naive sheep when tested in the LPBE but 97% were positive using the SIA. All milk samples taken at 7 days after parturition from immunised animals were positive by LPBE. Thereafter, this proportion declined, although occasional reactors were detected at every stage up to 83 days. However, when mean titres were calculated for every sampling point after lambing, results were only positive for the first 18 days in this test. By contrast, the SIA was able to detect almost all (i.e. 97%) the vaccinated animals up to 83 days post parturition. Milk samples from convalescent animals all gave positive results in the assays. Sicilo-Sarde sheep gave higher titres on average than the Commisane breed at comparable stages after lambing. Both tests could be used for surveillance purposes following an outbreak of FMD to identify flocks of sheep which had been infected, but the SIA would be required to show the presence of vaccinated animals unless they were sampled soon after parturition. PMID:9504750

  13. Viruses and cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Rigby, P.W.J.; Wilkie, N.M.

    1985-01-01

    This book contains 14 selections. Some of the titles are: Immortalising gene(s) encoded by Epstein-Barr Virus; Adenovirus genes involved in transformation. What determines the oncogenic phenotype.; Oncogenesis by mouse mammary tumour virus; and Transforming ras genes.

  14. BOVINE VIRAL DIARRHEA VIRUSES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is an umbrella term for two species of viruses, BVDV1 and BVDV2, within the Pestivirus genus of the Flavivirus family. BVDV viruses are further subclassified as cytopathic and noncytopathic based on their activity in cultured epithelial cells. Noncytopathic BVDV p...

  15. Ecology of prokaryotic viruses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Markus G Weinbauer

    2004-01-01

    The finding that total viral abundance is higher than total prokaryotic abundance and that a significant fraction of the prokaryotic community is infected with phages in aquatic systems has stimulated research on the ecology of prokaryotic viruses and their role in ecosystems. This review treats the ecology of prokaryotic viruses (`phages') in marine, freshwater and soil systems from a `virus

  16. MAIZE FINE STREAK VIRUS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The report outlines the salient features of maize fine streak virus (MFSV) including a general description of the causal virus species, virion properties, genome description, the relationship of the virus to other taxa, biological properties of the disease and agronomic aspects of the disease. Maize...

  17. Chikungunya Virus, Cameroon, 2006

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christophe N. Peyrefi; Dominique Rousset; Boris A. M. Pastorino; Regis Pouillot; Maël Bessaud; Fabienne Tock; Helene Mansaray; Olivier L. Merle; Aurelie M. Pascual; Christophe Paupy; Aurelia Vessiere; Patrice Imbert; Jean-Paul Durand; Hugues J. Tolou; Marc Grandadam

    2007-01-01

    We report the isolation of chikungunya virus from a pa- tient during an outbreak of a denguelike syndrome in Cam- eroon in 2006. The virus was phylogenetically grouped in the Democratic Republic of the Congo cluster, indicating a continuous circulation of a genetically similar chikungunya virus population during 6 years in Central Africa.

  18. VIRUSES IN WASTEWATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Viruses of animals, plants, and bacteria abound in sewage and receiving waters. Their ecological impact has, for the most part, gone unheeded except as it relates to viruses from human sources. Viruses present at levels infective to man have been recovered from waters used for re...

  19. Encephalitis Virus, Kyrgyzstan

    E-print Network

    Baker, Robert J.

    Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus, Kyrgyzstan Benjamin J. Briggs, Barry Atkinson, Donna M. Czechowski-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) is an emerging pathogen in Europe and Asia. We investigated TBEV in Kyrgyzstan reported. Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) is a flavivirus in the family Flaviviridae. The TBEV

  20. Prevalence and Transmission of Honeybee Viruses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. P. Chen; J. S. Pettis; A. Collins; M. F. Feldlaufer

    2006-01-01

    Transmission mechanisms of six honeybee viruses, including acute bee paralysis virus (ABPV), black queen cell virus (BQCV), chronic bee paralysis virus (CBPV), deformed wing virus (DWV), Kashmir bee virus (KBV), and sacbrood bee virus (SBV), in honey bee colonies were investigated by reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) methods. The virus status of individual queens was evaluated by examining the presence of viruses

  1. Viruses of asparagus.

    PubMed

    Tomassoli, Laura; Tiberini, Antonio; Vetten, Heinrich-Josef

    2012-01-01

    The current knowledge on viruses infecting asparagus (Asparagus officinalis) is reviewed. Over half a century, nine virus species belonging to the genera Ilarvirus, Cucumovirus, Nepovirus, Tobamovirus, Potexvirus, and Potyvirus have been found in this crop. The potyvirus Asparagus virus 1 (AV1) and the ilarvirus Asparagus virus 2 (AV2) are widespread and negatively affect the economic life of asparagus crops reducing yield and increasing the susceptibility to biotic and abiotic stress. The main properties and epidemiology of AV1 and AV2 as well as diagnostic techniques for their detection and identification are described. Minor viruses and control are briefly outlined. PMID:22682173

  2. Sero-prevalence and associated risk factors of peste des petits ruminants and contagious caprine pleuro-pneumonia in goats and sheep in the Southern Zone of Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Mbyuzi, Albano O; Komba, Erick V G; Kimera, Sharadhuli I; Kambarage, Dominic M

    2014-09-01

    A retrospective Sero-prevalence analysis was conducted in 2012 in order to find out whether contagious caprine pleuro-pneumonia (CCPP) and peste des petits ruminants (PPR) had already been introduced in Mtwara and Lindi regions of Southern Tanzania by 2007 and 2009. A total of 477 randomly selected sera from a bank of 3500 small ruminant samples that were collected as part of Rift Valley Fever surveillance of 2007 in Mtwara and Lindi regions were used in this study. Seroconversion was also evaluated in the 504 sera that were collected in 2009 as part of disease outbreak investigations in Tandahimba and Newala districts of Mtwara region. Seroconversions to CCPP and PPR were tested using competitive ELISA. In addition, information on different variables available in the existing surveillance forms gathered during sampling was used in the analysis of risk factors associated with seropositivity to the two diseases. The overall seroprevalence of CCPP for the sera of 2007 and 2009 in goats was 52.1% (n=447) and 35.5% (n=434) respectively; while in sheep the seroprevalence was 36.7% (n=30) and 22.9% (n=70) respectively. Seroconversion to PPR in goats and sheep was 28.7% (n=434) and 35.7% (n=70) respectively based on the sera of 2009. However, no antibodies were detected in the 2007 sera. Mixed infections were detected in 7.4% (n=434) of the goat and 12.9% (n=70) of sheep samples. Significant risk factors associated with seropositivity to CCPP in 2007 included introduction of new animals in flocks (OR=3.94; 95% CI 1.86-8.36; p<0.001) and raising animals in government farms (OR=4.92; 95% CI 1.57-15.76; p=0.02); whereas, seropositivity to CCPP in 2009 increased with introduction of new animals in flocks (OR=18.82; 95% CI 8.06-43.96; p<0.001), raising animals in government farms (OR=4.04; 95% CI 2.69-6.42; p<0.001) and raising animals in Newala district (OR=2.35; 95% CI 1.53-3.62; p<0.001). On the other hand, predictors for seropositivity to PPR in 2009 were introduction of new animals in flocks (OR=2.83; 95% CI 1.73-4.62; p<0.001) and communal grazing of animals (OR=7.60; 95% CI 1.77-32.58; p=0.01). Therefore, these results show that CCPP was already circulating in goats in the southern zone by 2007 and that PPR was probably introduced thereafter. Their presence in this emerging animal keeping area in Tanzania calls for improved surveillance and control systems. PMID:25022914

  3. Serodiagnosis for tumor viruses.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Brian J; Labo, Nazzarena; Miley, Wendell J; Whitby, Denise

    2015-04-01

    The known human tumor viruses include the DNA viruses Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), Kaposi sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV), Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV), human papillomavirus (HPV), and hepatitis B virus (BV). RNA tumor viruses include human T-cell lymphotrophic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) and hepatitis C virus (HCV). The serological identification of antigens/antibodies in serum is a rapidly progressing field with utility for both scientists and clinicians. Serology is useful for conducting seroepidemiology studies and to inform on the pathogenesis and host immune response to a particular viral agent. Clinically, serology is useful for diagnosing current or past infection and for aiding in clinical management decisions. Serology is useful for screening blood donations for infectious agents and for monitoring the outcome of vaccination against these viruses. Serodiagnosis of human tumor viruses has improved in recent years with increased specificity and sensitivity of the assays, as well as reductions in cost and the ability to assess multiple antibody/antigens in single assays. Serodiagnosis of tumor viruses plays an important role in our understanding of the prevalence and transmission of these viruses and ultimately in the ability to develop treatments/preventions for these globally important diseases. PMID:25843726

  4. Lipids of Archaeal Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Roine, Elina; Bamford, Dennis H.

    2012-01-01

    Archaeal viruses represent one of the least known territory of the viral universe and even less is known about their lipids. Based on the current knowledge, however, it seems that, as in other viruses, archaeal viral lipids are mostly incorporated into membranes that reside either as outer envelopes or membranes inside an icosahedral capsid. Mechanisms for the membrane acquisition seem to be similar to those of viruses infecting other host organisms. There are indications that also some proteins of archaeal viruses are lipid modified. Further studies on the characterization of lipids in archaeal viruses as well as on their role in virion assembly and infectivity require not only highly purified viral material but also, for example, constant evaluation of the adaptability of emerging technologies for their analysis. Biological membranes contain proteins and membranes of archaeal viruses are not an exception. Archaeal viruses as relatively simple systems can be used as excellent tools for studying the lipid protein interactions in archaeal membranes. PMID:23049284

  5. VIRUS AND VIRUS-LIKE DISEASES OF CITRUS IN EPIRUS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Barbarossa; G. Loconsole; C. Vovlas

    2007-01-01

    SUMMARY In 2005 a survey was conducted in the main citrus- growing areas of Epirus. Commercial groves and nurs- eries were inspected for symptoms of virus and virus- like diseases and a total of 123 samples were collected. Molecular hybridisation was used to test for Citrus tris- teza virus (CTV), Citrus psorosis virus (CPsV), Citrus in- fectious variegation virus (CVV),

  6. Evidence of transplacental transmission of bluetongue virus serotype 8 in goats.

    PubMed

    Belbis, G; Bréard, E; Cordonnier, N; Moulin, V; Desprat, A; Sailleau, C; Viarouge, C; Doceul, V; Zientara, S; Millemann, Y

    2013-10-25

    During the incursion of bluetongue virus (BTV) serotype 8 in Europe, an increase in the number of abortions in ruminants was observed. Transplacental transmission of BTV-8 in cattle and sheep, with subsequent foetal infection, is a feature of this specific bluetongue serotype. In this study, BTV-8 ability to cross the placental barrier at the beginning of the second third of pregnancy and at the end of pregnancy was investigated in goats in two separate experiments. In the first experiment, nine goats were experimentally infected with BTV-8 at 61 days of pregnancy. Foetuses were collected 21 dpi. BTV-8 was evidenced by real time RT-PCR and by viral isolation using blood from the umbilical cord and the spleens of 3 out of the 13 foetuses. All dams were viraemic (viral isolation) at the moment of sampling of the foetuses. Significant macroscopic or histological lesions could not be observed in foetuses or in their infected dams (notably at the placenta level). In the second experiment, 10 goats were infected with BTV-8 at 135 days of pregnancy. Kids were born by caesarean section at the programmed day of birth (15 dpi). BTV-8 could not be detected by rt-RT-PCR in blood or spleen samples from the kids. This study showed for the first time that BTV-8 transplacental transmission can occur in goats that have been infected at 61 days of pregnancy, with infectious virus recovered from the caprine foetuses. The observed transmission rate was quite high (33%) at this stage of pregnancy. However, it was not possible to demonstrate the existence of BTV-8 transplacental transmission when infection occurred at the end of the goat pregnancy. PMID:23890676

  7. Other Viruses and Viruslike Agents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The diseases reported under 'Virus and Virus-like Agents' in the first volume of this compendium, with the exception of Cherry rasp leaf virus and Rubus chinese seed-borne virus, should be considered oddities since there are no known type isolates available for these reported viruses. Without a po...

  8. RNA Viruses Infecting Pest Insects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    RNA viruses are viruses whose genetic material is ribonucleic acid (RNA). RNA viruses may be double or single-stranded based on the type of RNA they contain. Single-stranded RNA viruses can be further grouped into negative sense or positive-sense viruses according to the polarity of their RNA. Fur...

  9. Postmortem Stability of Ebola Virus

    PubMed Central

    Prescott, Joseph; Bushmaker, Trenton; Fischer, Robert; Miazgowicz, Kerri; Judson, Seth

    2015-01-01

    The ongoing Ebola virus outbreak in West Africa has highlighted questions regarding stability of the virus and detection of RNA from corpses. We used Ebola virus–infected macaques to model humans who died of Ebola virus disease. Viable virus was isolated <7 days posteuthanasia; viral RNA was detectable for 10 weeks. PMID:25897646

  10. Viruses in Antarctic lakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kepner, R. L. Jr; Wharton, R. A. Jr; Suttle, C. A.; Wharton RA, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    Water samples collected from four perennially ice-covered Antarctic lakes during the austral summer of 1996-1997 contained high densities of extracellular viruses. Many of these viruses were found to be morphologically similar to double-stranded DNA viruses that are known to infect algae and protozoa. These constitute the first observations of viruses in perennially ice-covered polar lakes. The abundance of planktonic viruses and data suggesting substantial production potential (relative to bacteria] secondary and photosynthetic primary production) indicate that viral lysis may be a major factor in the regulation of microbial populations in these extreme environments. Furthermore, we suggest that Antarctic lakes may be a reservoir of previously undescribed viruses that possess novel biological and biochemical characteristics.

  11. Cell transformation by viruses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph L. Melnick; Janet S. Butel; Satvir S. Tevethia; Nilambar Biswal; Matilda Benyesh-Melnick

    1971-01-01

    Summary  This paper describes some current work pertaining to transformation of cells by oncogenic viruses.\\u000a \\u000a Part I includes: (1) the effect of a deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) tumor virus (SV40) on the antigenic characteristics of transformed\\u000a cells; (2) in vitro and in vivo methods of detecting virus-specific surface antigens; (3) the role that the host cell may\\u000a play in the expression of

  12. Virus entry paradigms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manjula Kalia; Shahid Jameel

    Viruses, despite being relatively simple in structure and composition, have evolved to exploit complex cellular processes\\u000a for their replication in the host cell. After binding to their specific receptor on the cell surface, viruses (or viral genomes)\\u000a have to enter cells to initiate a productive infection. Though the entry processes of many enveloped viruses is well understood,\\u000a that of most

  13. Wheat Streak Mosaic Virus 

    E-print Network

    Morgan, Gaylon

    2005-01-26

    . Infected wheat plants normally are stunted, with leaves mottled and streaked in green-yellow, parallel and discontinuous patterns (Fig. 1). This disease?s negative impact varies from year to year depending on its severity and distribution...; in the Southern Great Plains states, crop losses due to WSMV exceed $30 million in some years but are in- significant in others. High Plains Virus High Plains Virus (HPV), occasionally called High Plains Disease, is a relatively new virus identified...

  14. Water system virus detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fraser, A. S.; Wells, A. F.; Tenoso, H. J.

    1975-01-01

    A monitoring system developed to test the capability of a water recovery system to reject the passage of viruses into the recovered water is described. A nonpathogenic marker virus, bacteriophage F2, is fed into the process stream before the recovery unit and the reclaimed water is assayed for its presence. Detection of the marker virus consists of two major components, concentration and isolation of the marker virus, and detection of the marker virus. The concentration system involves adsorption of virus to cellulose acetate filters in the presence of trivalent cations and low pH with subsequent desorption of the virus using volumes of high pH buffer. The detection of the virus is performed by a passive immune agglutination test utilizing specially prepared polystyrene particles. An engineering preliminary design was performed as a parallel effort to the laboratory development of the marker virus test system. Engineering schematics and drawings of a fully functional laboratory prototype capable of zero-G operation are presented. The instrument consists of reagent pump/metering system, reagent storage containers, a filter concentrator, an incubation/detector system, and an electronic readout and control system.

  15. CDC: West Nile Virus

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This Web site contains the most recent West Nile virus data from the Centers for Disease Control. The main features include a 2003 Human Case Count and updated maps representing the spread of the virus. A downloadable document outlines the CDC's West Nile virus surveillance and control program, which involves weekly data collection for wild birds, sentinel chicken flocks, human cases, veterinary cases, and mosquito surveillance. The site also provides links to general information about the virus, from the ecology and virology of West Nile to epidemiological and laboratory issues.

  16. Newcastle disease virus (velogens)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is also known as avian paramyxovirus serotype-1 (APMV-1). While all NDV are referred to as APMV-1 and are of one serotype, only infections with virulent NDV (vNDV) cause Newcastle disease (ND). Newcastle disease virus strains are defined as virulent if they 1) have th...

  17. Lettuce Necrotic Yellows Virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. L. Stubbs; R. G. GROGAN

    1963-01-01

    A DESTRUCTIVE virus disease of lettuce, causing extensive crop losses sometimes as high as 100 per cent, was recognized in Victoria in 1954 as being distinct from the lettuce mosaic disease. Until 1959, however, all attempts to transmit the virus to lettuce with aphids which commonly infest lettuce, with thrips, leaf-hoppers and sap inoculation methods were unsuccessful. In that year

  18. Papaya ringspot virus (Potyviridae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Papaya ringspot virus, a member of the family Potyviridae, is single stranded RNA plant virus with a monocistronic genome of about 10,326 nucleotides that is expressed via a large polyprotein subsequently cleaved into functional proteins. It causes severe damage on cucurbit crops such as squash and...

  19. Papaya Ringspot Virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The term papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) was coined by Jensen in 1949, to describe a papaya disease in Hawaii. Later work showed that diseases such as papaya mosaic and watermelon mosaic virus-1 were caused by PRSV. The primary host range of PRSV is papaya and cucurbits, with Chenopium amaranticolor ...

  20. Human Papilloma Virus Infections

    PubMed Central

    Wright, V. Cecil

    1989-01-01

    Genital warts are believed to be caused by human papilloma viruses and to be sexually transmitted. The viruses are classified by DNA types, which appear to cause different types of disease. The choice of treatment, and usually its success rate, vary according to the type of disease and its location. PMID:21248973

  1. DETECTING VIRUSES IN WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    This article, which reviews the subject of detecting viruses in water, encompasses two topics. he first topic consists of methods used for concentrating viruses from large volumes of water into smaller, more manageable volumes. he second topic consists of assay methods used for e...

  2. Towards synthetic viruses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guy Zuber; Emmanuel Dauty; Marc Nothisen; Pascale Belguise; Jean-Paul Behr

    2001-01-01

    Gene delivery is too complex to be performed with a single carrier molecule. Synthetic multicomponent vectors are being designed that mimic key properties of viruses. Some solutions, such as diverting cell-anchoring molecules or the endogenous nuclear import machinery from their normal function, are directly copied from bacteria and viruses. Some other solutions are original ones: monomolecular genome condensation via detergent

  3. Biological versus computer viruses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel GUINIER

    1989-01-01

    To understand biological viruses, some notions of the fundamental knowledge of the structure of DNA, the genetic code, the biosynthesis of proteins, the transcription, replication and transfer processes,... are presented so as to give an idea as to how the genetic information is decrypted by biological mechanisms and consequently, how viruses work.A computer \\

  4. Virus separation using membranes.

    PubMed

    Grein, Tanja A; Michalsky, Ronald; Czermak, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Industrial manufacturing of cell culture-derived viruses or virus-like particles for gene therapy or vaccine production are complex multistep processes. In addition to the bioreactor, such processes require a multitude of downstream unit operations for product separation, concentration, or purification. Similarly, before a biopharmaceutical product can enter the market, removal or inactivation of potential viral contamination has to be demonstrated. Given the complexity of biological solutions and the high standards on composition and purity of biopharmaceuticals, downstream processing is the bottleneck in many biotechnological production trains. Membrane-based filtration can be an economically attractive and efficient technology for virus separation. Viral clearance, for instance, of up to seven orders of magnitude has been reported for state of the art polymeric membranes under best conditions.This chapter summarizes the fundamentals of virus ultrafiltration, diafiltration, or purification with adsorptive membranes. In lieu of an impractical universally applicable protocol for virus filtration, application of these principles is demonstrated with two examples. The chapter provides detailed methods for production, concentration, purification, and removal of a rod-shaped baculovirus (Autographa californica M nucleopolyhedrovirus, about 40 × 300 nm in size, a potential vector for gene therapy, and an industrially important protein expression system) or a spherical parvovirus (minute virus of mice, 22-26 nm in size, a model virus for virus clearance validation studies). PMID:24297430

  5. Equine Arteritis Virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    03. Nidovirales : 03.004. Arteriviridae : 03.004.0. {03.004.0. unknown} : 03.004.0.01. Arterivirus : 03.004.0.01.001. Equine arteritis virus will be published online. The article details the phenotypic and genotypic makeup of equine arteritis virus (EAV), and summarizes its biological properties....

  6. Rift Valley Fever Virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is a mosquito-transmitted virus or arbovirus that is endemic in sub-Saharan Africa. In the last decade, Rift Valley fever (RVF) outbreaks have resulted in loss of human and animal life, as well as had significant economic impact. The disease in livestock is primarily a...

  7. Cutthroat Trout Virus

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Electron micrograph of the cutthroat trout virus (CTV) showing the small, round virions of approximately 30 nanometers in diameter containing a single-stranded RNA genome. CTV, whose genome was first characterized by USGS researchers, is being used in research into the human virus Hepatitis E....

  8. Characterization and identification of two virus diseases of spinach in South Texas 

    E-print Network

    Adams, Edward Blair

    1979-01-01

    mosaic virus Beet western yellows virus Beet yellows virus Broad bean wilt virus Carnation ring spot virus Clover yellow mosaic virus Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus Cucumber mosaic virus Lettuce mosaic virus Radish mosaic virus Raspberry...

  9. Replication of Sendai Virus

    PubMed Central

    Blair, Carol D.; Robinson, William S.

    1970-01-01

    Chick embryo fibroblast cultures infected with Sendai virus were incubated with 3H-uridine in the presence of actinomycin D beginning at 18 hr after infection. The 35 and 18S virus-specific ribonucleic acid (RNA) components were found in a ribonuclease-sensitive form in the cell and appeared to be associated with polyribosomes. Newly synthesized 57S viral RNA was rapidly coated with protein to form intracellular viral nucleocapsid, and no 57S RNA was found “free” (ribonucleasesensitive) in the 2,000 × g supernatant fraction of disrupted cells. The nucleocapsid from detergent-disrupted Sendai virus and that from disrupted cells were indistinguishable in ultrastructure and buoyant density, and neither was found to be infectious or have hemagglutinating activity. Kinetic studies of nucleocapsid and virus formation indicated a relative block in conversion of viral nucleocapsid to complete enveloped virus in these cells, resulting in accumulation of large amounts of nucleocapsid in the cell cytoplasm. Images PMID:4315961

  10. Is The Virus Problem Getting Worse?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jan Hruska

    2001-01-01

    The number of known viruses exceeded 50?000 in August 2000. The vast majority of those (74%) are parasitic viruses (attacking executables), second most populous are macro viruses (19%) and 7% are boot sector viruses. In May 2000, 88% of infections reported to Sophos were due to macro viruses, 9% were parasitic viruses and only 3% were boot sector viruses. Note

  11. Understanding virus filtration membrane performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Ranil Wickramasinghe; Emily D. Stump; David L. Grzenia; Scott M. Husson; John Pellegrino

    2010-01-01

    Virus filtration membranes are used to obtain virus clearance during the purification of biopharmaceutical products. These direct flow (also referred to as dead end or normal flow) filtration membranes are designed to reject virus particles and yield >98% product recovery for proteins less than 170kDa. Virus filtration feed streams generally have high purity and high product concentrations. Decrease in permeate

  12. Realms of the Viruses Online

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Dennis

    2007-01-01

    Viruses have evolved strategies for infecting all taxa, but most viruses are highly specific about their cellular host. In humans, viruses cause diverse diseases, from chronic but benign warts, to acute and deadly hemorrhagic fever. Viruses have entertaining names like Zucchini Yellow Mosaic, Semliki Forest, Coxsackie, and the original terminator,…

  13. Citrus Virus Symptoms in Sardinia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Bruno

    1964-01-01

    SARDINIA was believed to be a virus-free citrus region until Boselli1 first noted a disorder showing symptoms commonly referred to as the psorosis virus complex. Following this, the main citrus areas of the Island have been surveyed with the view of recognizing and recording virus or virus-like manifestations.

  14. Virus-PEDOT Biocomposite Films

    PubMed Central

    Donavan, Keith C.; Arter, Jessica A.

    2012-01-01

    Virus-poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (virus-PEDOT) biocomposite films are prepared by electropolymerizing 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (EDOT) in aqueous electrolytes containing 12 mM LiClO4 and the bacteriophage M13. The concentration of virus in these solutions, [virus]soln, is varied from 3 nM to 15 nM. A quartz crystal microbalance is used to directly measure the total mass of the biocomposite film during its electrodeposition. In combination with a measurement of the electrodeposition charge, the mass of the virus incorporated into the film is calculated. These data show that concentration of the M13 within the electropolymerized film, [virus]film, increases linearly with [virus]soln. The incorporation of virus particles into the PEDOT film from solution is efficient, resulting in a concentration ratio: [virus]film:[virus]soln ?450. Virus incorporation into the PEDOT causes roughening of the film topography that is observed using scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The electrical conductivity of the virus-PEDOT film, measured perpendicular to the plane of the film using conductive tip AFM, decreases linearly with virus loading, from 270 ?S/cm for pure PE-DOT films to 50 ?S/cm for films containing 100 ?M virus. The presence on the virus surface of displayed affinity peptides did not significantly influence the efficiency of incorporation into virus-PEDOT biocomposite films. PMID:22856875

  15. Viruses isolated from Panamanian sloths.

    PubMed

    Seymour, C; Peralta, P H; Montgomery, G G

    1983-11-01

    Seven virus strains were isolated in Vero cells from whole blood samples from 80 wild-caught sloths, Bradypus variegatus and Choloepus hoffmanni, from Central Panamá. Four strains of at least two different serotypes are related to Changuinola virus; two of these were associated with prolonged or recrudescent viremias. One strain is an antigenic subtype of Punta Toro virus, and another, described here as Bradypus-4 virus, is a new, antigenically ungrouped virus. A second new virus from sloths, Utive virus, forms an antigenic complex within the Simbu serogroup with Utinga and Pintupo viruses. Tests on sequential plasma samples from radio-marked free-ranging sloths and from recently captured animals maintained in captivity showed that both species develop neutralizing antibodies following naturally acquired virus infections. Antibodies against the Changuinola and Simbu serogroup viruses are widespread in both sloth species and are especially prevalent in Choloepus, but are virtually absent in all other wild vertebrate species tested. PMID:6316795

  16. Towards synthetic viruses.

    PubMed

    Zuber, G; Dauty, E; Nothisen, M; Belguise, P; Behr, J P

    2001-11-19

    Gene delivery is too complex to be performed with a single carrier molecule. Synthetic multicomponent vectors are being designed that mimic key properties of viruses. Some solutions, such as diverting cell-anchoring molecules or the endogenous nuclear import machinery from their normal function, are directly copied from bacteria and viruses. Some other solutions are original ones: monomolecular genome condensation via detergent dimerization or endosome disruption by the proton sponge effect are not exploited by natural cell invaders. All these components, however, still have to be assembled into a unique supramolecular system, an 'artificial virus'. PMID:11718949

  17. [Grapevine viruses in Tunisia].

    PubMed

    Acheche, H; Fattouch, S; M'Hirsi, S; Marzouki, N; Marrakchi, M

    1998-01-01

    Tunisian grapevine culture is affected by many viruses caused by some phytovirus belonging to nepovirus, closterovirus and trichovirus groups. The present work deal with the economically important viroses identified in tunisian grapevines. We present here the development methods to detect these viruses in propagating material. The important viruses biologically, biochemically, serologically and using molecular techniques, characterised are: GFLV, GLRaV3 and GVB. The genetic polymorphism analysis was also carried and tunisian isolates were compared to previously described ones in literature. PMID:14666749

  18. Rapid Detection and Quantification of RNA of Ebola and Marburg Viruses, Lassa Virus, Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus, Rift Valley Fever Virus, Dengue Virus, and Yellow Fever Virus by Real-Time Reverse Transcription-PCR

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christian Drosten; Stephan Göttig; Stefan Schilling; Marcel Asper; Marcus Panning; Herbert Schmitz; Stephan Günther

    2002-01-01

    Viral hemorrhagic fevers (VHFs) are acute infections with high case fatality rates. Important VHF agents are Ebola and Marburg viruses (MBGV\\/EBOV), Lassa virus (LASV), Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV), Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), dengue virus (DENV), and yellow fever virus (YFV). VHFs are clinically difficult to diagnose and to distinguish; a rapid and reliable laboratory diagnosis is required in

  19. Virus Chapter: Iflaviridae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The iflaviruses comprise viruses isolated from arthropod species of agricultural importance. All members of iflaviruses have a genome arrangement similar to the picornaviruses, ootyviruses, and secoviruses. However, phylogenetic analysis using the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase region showed that th...

  20. What's West Nile Virus?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... discovered all the way back in 1937 in Africa, the West Nile virus probably didn't make ... Foundation, iStock, Getty Images, Corbis, Veer, Science Photo Library, Science Source Images, Shutterstock, and Clipart.com

  1. The dengue viruses.

    PubMed Central

    Henchal, E A; Putnak, J R

    1990-01-01

    Dengue, a major public health problem throughout subtropical and tropical regions, is an acute infectious disease characterized by biphasic fever, headache, pain in various parts of the body, prostration, rash, lymphadenopathy, and leukopenia. In more severe or complicated dengue, patients present with a severe febrile illness characterized by abnormalities of hemostasis and increased vascular permeability, which in some instances results in a hypovolemic shock. Four distinct serotypes of the dengue virus (dengue-1, dengue-2, dengue-3, and dengue-4) exist, with numerous virus strains found worldwide. Molecular cloning methods have led to a greater understanding of the structure of the RNA genome and definition of virus-specific structural and nonstructural proteins. Progress towards producing safe, effective dengue virus vaccines, a goal for over 45 years, has been made. Images PMID:2224837

  2. Avoiding Computer Viruses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, Joyce; And Others

    1989-01-01

    The threat of computer sabotage is a real concern to business teachers and others responsible for academic computer facilities. Teachers can minimize the possibility. Eight suggestions for avoiding computer viruses are given. (JOW)

  3. Sexually transmitted viruses.

    PubMed Central

    Rapp, F.

    1989-01-01

    Human viruses known to be spread by sexual contact include herpes simplex viruses (HSV), papillomaviruses (HPV), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus, and cytomegalovirus. Infections with the first three (HSV, HPV, and HIV) have reached epidemic proportions and pose global health concerns. Most of what we know about these human pathogens has been learned only recently, owing to the advent of DNA technologies and advances in culture techniques. In fact, our awareness of one virally transmitted venereal disease, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, dates to the early 1980s. This paper touches on various aspects of the biology, pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, and, where applicable, oncogenicity of these agents, as well as current treatments and vaccine initiatives. PMID:2549736

  4. VIRUS instrument enclosures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prochaska, T.; Allen, R.; Mondrik, N.; Rheault, J. P.; Sauseda, M.; Boster, E.; James, M.; Rodriguez-Patino, M.; Torres, G.; Ham, J.; Cook, E.; Baker, D.; DePoy, Darren L.; Marshall, Jennifer L.; Hill, G. J.; Perry, D.; Savage, R. D.; Good, J. M.; Vattiat, Brian L.

    2014-08-01

    The Visible Integral-Field Replicable Unit Spectrograph (VIRUS) instrument will be installed at the Hobby-Eberly Telescope† in the near future. The instrument will be housed in two enclosures that are mounted adjacent to the telescope, via the VIRUS Support Structure (VSS). We have designed the enclosures to support and protect the instrument, to enable servicing of the instrument, and to cool the instrument appropriately while not adversely affecting the dome environment. The system uses simple HVAC air handling techniques in conjunction with thermoelectric and standard glycol heat exchangers to provide efficient heat removal. The enclosures also provide power and data transfer to and from each VIRUS unit, liquid nitrogen cooling to the detectors, and environmental monitoring of the instrument and dome environments. In this paper, we describe the design and fabrication of the VIRUS enclosures and their subsystems.

  5. Powassan (POW) Virus Basics

    MedlinePLUS

    ... attachment time needed to transmit the virus. When spending time in wooded or brushy habitat in north ... and woods, and doing thorough tick checks after spending time in the woods. These precautions are most ...

  6. West Nile Virus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... for Parents for Kids for Teens Teens Home Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Q&A School & Jobs Drugs & Alcohol Staying Safe Recipes En Español ... Image West Nile Virus KidsHealth > Teens > Infections > Bacterial & ...

  7. Wheat Streak Mosaic Virus

    E-print Network

    Morgan, Gaylon

    2005-01-26

    Virus First discovered in Nebraska in 1922, wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) remains a threat today across most of the U.S. Central Plains. WSMV affects spring wheat, barley, corn, triticale, rye and numerous other annual and perennial grasses... have tre- mendous reproductive capability, enabling large populations to build. The mite is most active during warm weather, with temperatures of 75-80 degrees F optimum for reproduction. Mites require a living grass host to survive the summer; sum...

  8. Dengue Virus Diagnostics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Evgeni Eltzov; Danit Atias; Levi Gheber; Robert S. Marks

    \\u000a Dengue fever (DF) is an emerging arborviral disease caused by infection with dengue virus (DENV) which has emerged as the\\u000a most important vector-borne viral disease in tropical areas and it continues to expand geographically. The four serotypes\\u000a of DENV that cause human disease are transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. Expansion in geographic distribution of both viruses\\u000a and mosquito vectors, has led

  9. Origins of Viruses

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ed Rybicki

    This page is part of a site created as a supplement for an introduction to virology course for second year microbiology students. It includes discussions on the origins of viruses as well as how they might have evolved. There are several links to pertinent conceptial matter such as basics on the different types of viruses as well as a link to the course home page.

  10. Hepatitis B virus infection.

    PubMed

    Trépo, Christian; Chan, Henry L Y; Lok, Anna

    2014-12-01

    Hepatitis B virus infection is a major public health problem worldwide; roughly 30% of the world's population show serological evidence of current or past infection. Hepatitis B virus is a partly double-stranded DNA virus with several serological markers: HBsAg and anti-HBs, HBeAg and anti-HBe, and anti-HBc IgM and IgG. It is transmitted through contact with infected blood and semen. A safe and effective vaccine has been available since 1981, and, although variable, the implementation of universal vaccination in infants has resulted in a sharp decline in prevalence. Hepatitis B virus is not cytopathic; both liver damage and viral control--and therefore clinical outcome--depend on the complex interplay between virus replication and host immune response. Overall, as much as 40% of men and 15% of women with perinatally acquired hepatitis B virus infection will die of liver cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma. In addition to decreasing hepatic inflammation, long-term antiviral treatment can reverse cirrhosis and reduce hepatocellular carcinoma. Development of new therapies that can improve HBsAg clearance and virological cure is warranted. PMID:24954675

  11. Tick-borne viruses*

    PubMed Central

    Work, Telford H.

    1963-01-01

    More than 150 arthropod-borne viruses are now recognized, and over 50 of these are known to produce human infections and disease. Among these viruses are those of the tick-borne Russian spring-summer complex, which is etiologically involved in a wide variety of human diseases of varying severity. The eight antigenically different members of this complex so far known are Russian spring-summer encephalitis, louping-ill, Central European encephalitis, Omsk haemorrhagic fever, Kyasanur Forest disease, Langat, Negishi and Powassan viruses. In his review of the problems posed by these viruses and of research on them, the author points out that, while this complex is distributed around the globe in the temperate zone of the northern hemisphere, the only serious tick-borne virus disease known in the tropics is Kyasanur Forest disease. It is probable, however, that there are other, unrecognized tick-borne viruses in the tropical areas of Asia, Africa and America of importance to human health, and that these will be brought to light as virological studies of diseases of now obscure etiology are pursued. PMID:14043753

  12. Multiple virus infections in the honey bee and genome divergence of honey bee viruses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yanping Chen; Yan Zhao; John Hammond; Hei-ti Hsu; Jay Evans; Mark Feldlaufer

    2004-01-01

    Using uniplex RT-PCR we screened honey bee colonies for the presence of several bee viruses, including black queen cell virus (BQCV), deformed wing virus (DWV), Kashmir bee virus (KBV), and sacbrood virus (SBV), and described the detection of mixed virus infections in bees from these colonies. We report for the first time that individual bees can harbor four viruses simultaneously.

  13. Immunology of hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus infection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michelina Nascimbeni; Barbara Rehermann

    2005-01-01

    More than 500 million people worldwide are persistently infected with the hepatitis B virus (HBV) and\\/or hepatitis C virus (HCV) and are at risk of developing chronic liver disease, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Despite many common features in the pathogenesis of HBV- and HCV-related liver disease, these viruses markedly differ in their virological properties and in their immune escape and

  14. Glycyrrhizic acid inhibits virus growth and inactivates virus particles.

    PubMed

    Pompei, R; Flore, O; Marccialis, M A; Pani, A; Loddo, B

    1979-10-25

    Screening investigations in antiviral action of plant extracts have revealed that a component of Glycyrrhiza glabra roots, found to be glycyrrhizie acid, is active against viruses. We report here that this drug inhibits growth and cytopathology of several unrelated DNA and RNA viruses, while not affecting cell activity and ability to replicate. In addition, glycyrrhizic acid inactivates herpes simplex virus particles irreversibly. PMID:233133

  15. Chicken anemia virus.

    PubMed

    Schat, K A

    2009-01-01

    Chicken anemia virus (CAV), the only member of the genus Gyrovirus of the Circoviridae, is a ubiquitous pathogen of chickens and has a worldwide distribution. CAV shares some similarities with Torque teno virus (TTV) and Torque teno mini virus (TTMV) such as coding for a protein inducing apoptosis and a protein with a dual-specificity phosphatase. In contrast to TTV, the genome of CAV is highly conserved. Another important difference is that CAV can be isolated in cell culture. CAV produces a single polycistronic messenger RNA (mRNA), which is translated into three proteins. The promoter-enhancer region has four direct repeats resembling estrogen response elements. Transcription is enhanced by estrogen and repressed by at least two other transcription factors, one of which is COUP-TF1. A remarkable feature of CAV is that the virus can remain latent in gonadal tissues in the presence or absence of virus-neutralizing antibodies. In contrast to TTV, CAV can cause clinical disease and subclinical immunosuppression especially affecting CD8+ T lymphocytes. Clinical disease is associated with infection in newly hatched chicks lacking maternal antibodies or older chickens with a compromised humoral immune response. PMID:19230563

  16. Research on computer virus database management system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Guoquan

    2011-12-01

    The growing proliferation of computer viruses becomes the lethal threat and research focus of the security of network information. While new virus is emerging, the number of viruses is growing, virus classification increasing complex. Virus naming because of agencies' capture time differences can not be unified. Although each agency has its own virus database, the communication between each other lacks, or virus information is incomplete, or a small number of sample information. This paper introduces the current construction status of the virus database at home and abroad, analyzes how to standardize and complete description of virus characteristics, and then gives the information integrity, storage security and manageable computer virus database design scheme.

  17. Mosquitoborne Viruses, Czech Republic, 2002

    PubMed Central

    Zeman, Petr; Halouzka, Ji?í; Ju?icová, Zina; Š?oví?ková, Eva; Bálková, Helena; Šikutová, Silvie; Rudolf, Ivo

    2005-01-01

    Specimens from residents (n = 497) of an area affected by the 2002 flood were examined serologically for mosquitoborne viruses. Antibodies were detected against Tahyna (16%), Sindbis (1%), and Batai (0.2%) viruses, but not West Nile virus. An examination of paired serum samples showed 1 Tahyna bunyavirus (California group) infection. PMID:15705333

  18. CAN CRYPTOGRAPHY PREVENT COMPUTER VIRUSES?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John F Morar; David M Chess

    2000-01-01

    The relationship between cryptography and virus prevention is anything but simple. Since the beginning of the computer virus problem, people have proposed solutions involving some form of cryptography; but cryptography plays only a minor role in the solutions we actually use today. Encryption can also make virus prevention more difficult, by providing viral hiding places inside the objects that it

  19. An introduction to computer viruses

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, D.R.

    1992-03-01

    This report on computer viruses is based upon a thesis written for the Master of Science degree in Computer Science from the University of Tennessee in December 1989 by David R. Brown. This thesis is entitled An Analysis of Computer Virus Construction, Proliferation, and Control and is available through the University of Tennessee Library. This paper contains an overview of the computer virus arena that can help the reader to evaluate the threat that computer viruses pose. The extent of this threat can only be determined by evaluating many different factors. These factors include the relative ease with which a computer virus can be written, the motivation involved in writing a computer virus, the damage and overhead incurred by infected systems, and the legal implications of computer viruses, among others. Based upon the research, the development of a computer virus seems to require more persistence than technical expertise. This is a frightening proclamation to the computing community. The education of computer professionals to the dangers that viruses pose to the welfare of the computing industry as a whole is stressed as a means of inhibiting the current proliferation of computer virus programs. Recommendations are made to assist computer users in preventing infection by computer viruses. These recommendations support solid general computer security practices as a means of combating computer viruses.

  20. Viruses and viral proteins

    PubMed Central

    Verdaguer, Nuria; Ferrero, Diego; Murthy, Mathur R. N.

    2014-01-01

    For more than 30 years X-ray crystallography has been by far the most powerful approach for determining the structures of viruses and viral proteins at atomic resolution. The information provided by these structures, which covers many important aspects of the viral life cycle such as cell-receptor recognition, viral entry, nucleic acid transfer and genome replication, has extensively enriched our vision of the virus world. Many of the structures available correspond to potential targets for antiviral drugs against important human pathogens. This article provides an overview of the current knowledge of different structural aspects of the above-mentioned processes. PMID:25485129

  1. Soilborne viruses: advances in virus movement, virus induced gene silencing, and engineered resistance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeanmarie Verchot-Lubicz

    2003-01-01

    Until recently soilborne plant viruses were considered important only because they are causative agents for agricultural diseases. In recent years, soilborne plant viruses have played a significant role in advancing research into mechanisms of plasmodesmata transport, gene silencing, and engineered resistance to plant pathogens. Three different mechanisms by which viruses move through plasmodesmata have been identified using dianthoviruses, nepoviruses, and

  2. Bat flight and zoonotic viruses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Shea, Thomas; Cryan, Paul M.; Cunningham, Andrew A.; Fooks, Anthony R.; Hayman, David T.S.; Luis, Angela D.; Peel, Alison J.; Plowright, Raina K.; Wood, James L.N.

    2014-01-01

    Bats are sources of high viral diversity and high-profile zoonotic viruses worldwide. Although apparently not pathogenic in their reservoir hosts, some viruses from bats severely affect other mammals, including humans. Examples include severe acute respiratory syndrome coronaviruses, Ebola and Marburg viruses, and Nipah and Hendra viruses. Factors underlying high viral diversity in bats are the subject of speculation. We hypothesize that flight, a factor common to all bats but to no other mammals, provides an intensive selective force for coexistence with viral parasites through a daily cycle that elevates metabolism and body temperature analogous to the febrile response in other mammals. On an evolutionary scale, this host–virus interaction might have resulted in the large diversity of zoonotic viruses in bats, possibly through bat viruses adapting to be more tolerant of the fever response and less virulent to their natural hosts.

  3. Toscana Virus in Spain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sara Sanbonmatsu-Gámez; Mercedes Pérez-Ruiz; Ximena Collao; María Paz Sánchez-Seco; Francisco Morillas-Márquez; Manuel de la Rosa-Fraile; José María Navarro-Marí; Antonio Tenorio

    2005-01-01

    Toscana virus (TOSV, Phlebovirus, family Bunya- viridae) infection is one of the most prevalent arboviruses in Spain. Within the objectives of a multidisciplinary network, a study on the epidemiology of TOSV was conducted in Granada, in southern Spain. The overall seroprevalence rate was 24.9%, significantly increasing with age. TOSV was detected in 3 of 103 sandfly pools by viral culture

  4. From Shakespeare to Viruses

    ScienceCinema

    Sung-Hou Kim

    2010-01-08

    Berkeley Lab scientists have created a unique new tool for analyzing and comparing long sets of data, be it the genomes of mammals or viruses, or the works of Shakespeare. The results of the Shakespeare analysis surprised scholars with their accuracy

  5. Virus Chapter: Dicistrovidae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Dicistroviridae family comprises viruses infecting both beneficial arthropods such as honey bees and shrimp and insect pests of medical and agricultural importance. During the last five years, advances in sequencing and phylogenetic analysis have led to the discovery and identification of sever...

  6. Cache Valley virus.

    PubMed

    Edwards, J F

    1994-11-01

    Cache Valley Virus (CVV) is a causative agent of a mosquito-borne disease syndrome of sheep and, possibly, of all ruminants, characterized by embryonic and fetal death, stillbirths, and multiple congenital malformations. CVV is endemic in Canada, Mexico, and the United States. Several related Bunyaviruses also may play a role in syndromes of congenital malformations and embryonic losses in North America. PMID:7728634

  7. Human Viruses and Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Morales-Sánchez, Abigail; Fuentes-Pananá, Ezequiel M.

    2014-01-01

    The first human tumor virus was discovered in the middle of the last century by Anthony Epstein, Bert Achong and Yvonne Barr in African pediatric patients with Burkitt’s lymphoma. To date, seven viruses -EBV, KSHV, high-risk HPV, MCPV, HBV, HCV and HTLV1- have been consistently linked to different types of human cancer, and infections are estimated to account for up to 20% of all cancer cases worldwide. Viral oncogenic mechanisms generally include: generation of genomic instability, increase in the rate of cell proliferation, resistance to apoptosis, alterations in DNA repair mechanisms and cell polarity changes, which often coexist with evasion mechanisms of the antiviral immune response. Viral agents also indirectly contribute to the development of cancer mainly through immunosuppression or chronic inflammation, but also through chronic antigenic stimulation. There is also evidence that viruses can modulate the malignant properties of an established tumor. In the present work, causation criteria for viruses and cancer will be described, as well as the viral agents that comply with these criteria in human tumors, their epidemiological and biological characteristics, the molecular mechanisms by which they induce cellular transformation and their associated cancers. PMID:25341666

  8. Viruses and autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Kudchodkar, Sagar B.; Levine, Beth

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved intracellular process by which bulk cytoplasm is enveloped inside a double-membraned vesicle and shuttled to lysosomes for degradation. Within the last 15 years, the genes necessary for the execution of autophagy have been identified and the number of tools for studying this process has grown. Autophagy is essential for tissue homeostasis and development and defective autophagy is associated with a number of diseases. As intracellular parasites, during the course of an infection, viruses encounter autophagy and interact with the proteins that execute this process. Autophagy and/or autophagy genes likely play both anti-viral and proviral roles in the life cycles and pathogenesis of many different virus families. With respect to anti-viral roles, the autophagy proteins function in targeting viral components or virions for lysosomal degradation in a process termed xenophagy, and they also play a role in the initiation of innate and adaptive immune system responses to viral infections. Consistent with this anti-viral role of host autophagy, some viruses encode virulence factors that interact with the host autophagy machinery and block the execution of autophagy. In contrast, other viruses appear to utilise components of the autophagic machinery to foster their own intracellular growth or non-lytic cellular egress. As the details of the role(s) of autophagy in viral pathogenesis become clearer, new anti-viral therapies could be developed to inhibit the beneficial and enhance the destructive aspects of autophagy on the viral life cycle. PMID:19750559

  9. VIRUS PERSISTENCE IN GROUNDWATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of the study was to determine whether measurable chemical and physical factors correlate with virus survival in groundwater. Groundwater samples were obtained from 11 sites throughout the United States. Water temperature was measured at the time of collection. Several...

  10. Molecular epidemiology of respiratory viruses in virus-induced asthma

    PubMed Central

    Ishioka, Taisei; Noda, Masahiro; Kozawa, Kunihisa; Kimura, Hirokazu

    2013-01-01

    Acute respiratory illness (ARI) due to various viruses is not only the most common cause of upper respiratory infection in humans but is also a major cause of morbidity and mortality, leading to diseases such as bronchiolitis and pneumonia. Previous studies have shown that respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), human rhinovirus (HRV), human metapneumovirus (HMPV), human parainfluenza virus (HPIV), and human enterovirus infections may be associated with virus-induced asthma. For example, it has been suggested that HRV infection is detected in the acute exacerbation of asthma and infection is prolonged. Thus it is believed that the main etiological cause of asthma is ARI viruses. Furthermore, the number of asthma patients in most industrial countries has greatly increased, resulting in a morbidity rate of around 10-15% of the population. However, the relationships between viral infections, host immune response, and host factors in the pathophysiology of asthma remain unclear. To gain a better understanding of the epidemiology of virus-induced asthma, it is important to assess both the characteristics of the viruses and the host defense mechanisms. Molecular epidemiology enables us to understand the pathogenesis of microorganisms by identifying specific pathways, molecules, and genes that influence the risk of developing a disease. However, the epidemiology of various respiratory viruses associated with virus-induced asthma is not fully understood. Therefore, in this article, we review molecular epidemiological studies of RSV, HRV, HPIV, and HMPV infection associated with virus-induced asthma. PMID:24062735

  11. Polyadenylic acid in Visna virus RNA.

    PubMed

    Gillespie, D; Takemoto, K; Robert, M; Gallo, R C

    1973-03-30

    Visna virus 70S RNA contains long stretches of polyadenylic acid [poly(A)]. The homogeneity in length of poly(4) regions is observed in 70S RNA from visna virus and all RNA tumor viruses tested, and not with other types of RNA. By this criterion visna virus resembles RNA tumor viruses. PMID:4631425

  12. GB virus-C infection in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hans L Tillmann; Michael P Manns

    2001-01-01

    Hepatitis virus infections are frequent in patients suffering from HIV infection due to similar transmission routes of these viruses. In addition, hepatitis virus infections lead to impaired survival in HIV positive patients. The recently discovered flavivirus GB virus C (alias Hepatitis G Virus) was initially believed to be another hepatitis virus. While there is still some minor discussion whether GB

  13. Heparan Sulfate-Mediated Binding of Infectious Dengue Virus Type 2 and Yellow Fever Virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Raphaële Germi; Jean-Marc Crance; Daniel Garin; Josette Guimet; Hugues Lortat-Jacob; Rob W. H. Ruigrok; Jean-Pierre Zarski; Emmanuel Drouet

    2002-01-01

    Dengue virus type 2 and Yellow fever virus are arthropod-borne flaviviruses causing hemorrhagic fever in humans. Identification of virus receptors is important in understanding flavivirus pathogenesis. The aim of this work was to study the role of cellular heparan sulfate in the adsorption of infectious Yellow fever and Dengue type 2 viruses. Virus attachment was assessed by adsorbing virus to

  14. Detection of sweet potato viruses in Yunnan and genetic diversity analysis of the common viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two hundred seventy-nine samples with virus-like symptoms collected from 16 regions in Yunnan Province were tested by RT-PCR/PCR using virus-specific primers for 8 sweet potato viruses. Six viruses, Sweet potato chlorotic fleck virus (SPCFV), Sweet Potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV), Sweet potato ...

  15. Virus diseases of Solanum laciniatum Ait. in New Zealand

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. D. Thomson

    1976-01-01

    Cucumber mosaic virus, potato virus Y, potato virus X, tobacco mosaic virus, and tomato spotted wilt virus were identified in Solatium laciniatum Ait. Cucumber mosaic virus induced the most severe symptoms, including mottle and narrowing of the leaf lamina. Infection of crops with cucumber mosaic virus varied from 0–70% (mean of seven crops 25%), and potato virus Y from 0–48%

  16. PREVALENCE AND TRANSMISSION ROUTES OF HONEY BEE VIRUSES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transmission mechanisms of six viruses including acute bee paralysis virus (ABPV), black queen cell virus (BQCV), chronic bee paralysis virus (CBPV), deformed wing virus (DWV), Kashmir bee virus (KBV), and sacbrood bee virus (SBV) in honey bee colonies were investigated by RT-PCR methods. The virus...

  17. Bacterial Agents BSL Actinetobacter calceticus 2

    E-print Network

    Ford, James

    /3 Rochalimaea quintana 2 Rochalimaea vinsonii 2 Spotted Fever Group - other 2/3 Viral Agents BSL Adenoviruses 2) 2 Cache Valley Virus 2 Canine Hepatitis Virus 2 Canine Distemper Virus 2 Caprine Arthritis 2 Fever Agents* 2 Hepatitis A Virus, Hepatitis E Virus 2 Hepatitis B Virus, Hepatitis C Virus, Hepatitis D

  18. Phage Displayed Peptides to Avian H5N1 Virus Distinguished the Virus from Other Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Chengfeng; Ren, Xiaofeng

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to identify potential ligands and develop a novel diagnostic test to highly pathogenic avian influenza A virus (HPAI), subtype H5N1 viruses using phage display technology. The H5N1 viruses were used as an immobilized target in a biopanning process using a 12-mer phage display random peptide library. After five rounds of panning, three phages expressing peptides HAWDPIPARDPF, AAWHLIVALAPN or ATSHLHVRLPSK had a specific binding activity to H5N1 viruses were isolated. Putative binding motifs to H5N1 viruses were identified by DNA sequencing. In terms of the minimum quantity of viruses, the phage-based ELISA was better than antiserum-based ELISA and a manual, semi-quantitative endpoint RT-PCR for detecting H5N1 viruses. More importantly, the selected phages bearing the specific peptides to H5N1 viruses were capable of differentiating this virus from other avian viruses in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. PMID:21887228

  19. Frequently Asked Questions on Ebola Virus Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Response Network Biorisk Reduction Frequently asked questions on Ebola virus disease May 2015 FAQs from August 2014 ... based on recent evidence. For more information on Ebola virus disease Fact sheet on Ebola virus disease ...

  20. Virus-encoded superantigens.

    PubMed Central

    Huber, B T; Hsu, P N; Sutkowski, N

    1996-01-01

    Superantigens are microbial agents that have a strong effect on the immune response of the host. Their initial target is the T lymphocyte, but a whole cascade of immunological reactions ensues. It is thought that the microbe engages the immune system of the host to its own advantage, to facilitate persistent infection and/or transmission. In this review, we discuss in detail the structure and function of the superantigen encoded by the murine mammary tumor virus, a B-type retrovirus which is the causative agent of mammary carcinoma. We will also outline what has more recently become known about superantigen activity associated with two human herpesviruses, cytomegalovirus and Epstein-Barr virus. It is likely that we have only uncovered the tip of the iceberg in our discovery of microbial superantigens, and we predict a flood of new information on this topic shortly. PMID:8840782

  1. Mechanisms of Virus Assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perlmutter, Jason D.; Hagan, Michael F.

    2015-04-01

    Viruses are nanoscale entities containing a nucleic acid genome encased in a protein shell called a capsid and in some cases are surrounded by a lipid bilayer membrane. This review summarizes the physics that govern the processes by which capsids assemble within their host cells and in vitro. We describe the thermodynamics and kinetics for the assembly of protein subunits into icosahedral capsid shells and how these are modified in cases in which the capsid assembles around a nucleic acid or on a lipid bilayer. We present experimental and theoretical techniques used to characterize capsid assembly, and we highlight aspects of virus assembly that are likely to receive significant attention in the near future.

  2. Canine respiratory viruses.

    PubMed

    Buonavoglia, Canio; Martella, Vito

    2007-01-01

    Acute contagious respiratory disease (kennel cough) is commonly described in dogs worldwide. The disease appears to be multifactorial and a number of viral and bacterial pathogens have been reported as potential aetiological agents, including canine parainfluenza virus, canine adenovirus and Bordetella bronchiseptica, as well as mycoplasmas, Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus, canine herpesvirus and reovirus-1,-2 and -3. Enhancement of pathogenicity by multiple infections can result in more severe clinical forms. In addition, acute respiratory diseases associated with infection by influenza A virus, and group I and II coronaviruses, have been described recently in dogs. Host species shifts and tropism changes are likely responsible for the onset of these new pathogens. The importance of the viral agents in the kennel cough complex is discussed. PMID:17296161

  3. The encephalomyocarditis virus

    PubMed Central

    Carocci, Margot; Bakkali-Kassimi, Labib

    2012-01-01

    The encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) is a small non-enveloped single-strand RNA virus, the causative agent of not only myocarditis and encephalitis, but also neurological diseases, reproductive disorders and diabetes in many mammalian species. EMCV pathogenesis appears to be viral strain- and host-specific, and a better understanding of EMCV virulence factors is increasingly required. Indeed, EMCV is often used as a model for diabetes and viral myocarditis, and is also widely used in immunology as a double-stranded RNA stimulus in the study of Toll-like as well as cytosolic receptors. However, EMCV virulence and properties have often been neglected. Moreover, EMCV is able to infect humans albeit with a low morbidity. Progress on xenografts, such as pig heart transplantation in humans, has raised safety concerns that need to be explored. In this review we will highlight the biology of EMCV and all known and potential virulence factors. PMID:22722247

  4. Measles Virus Receptors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Yanagi; M. Takeda; S. Ohno; T. Hashiguchi

    Measles virus (MV) has two envelope glycoproteins, the hemagglutinin (H) and fusion protein, which are responsible for attachment\\u000a and membrane fusion, respectively. Signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM, also called CD150), a membrane glycoprotein\\u000a expressed on immune cells, acts as the principal cellular receptor for MV, accounting for its lymphotropism and immunosuppressive\\u000a nature. MV also infects polarized epithelial cells via an

  5. Chikungunya Virus Infection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fabrice Simon; Emilie Javelle; Manuela Oliver; Isabelle Leparc-Goffart; Catherine Marimoutou

    2011-01-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an alphavirus transmitted by mosquitoes, mostly Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. After half a century of focal outbreaks of acute febrile polyarthralgia in Africa and Asia, the disease unexpectedly spread\\u000a in the past decade with large outbreaks in Africa and around the Indian Ocean and rare autochthonous transmission in temperate\\u000a areas. This emergence brought new insights

  6. Molecular studies of avian leukosis virus 

    E-print Network

    Mozisek, Blayne Myron

    2007-04-25

    leukosis virus (ALV), Rous sarcoma virus (RSV), mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV), and murine leukemia virus (MLV). These viruses were the subject of intense study due to their propensity to form neoplastic disease in their host organisms. Investigations... into the mechanisms by which these viruses were able to cause tumors eventually led to the discovery and development of the oncogene theory of tumorigenesis: the elucidation of oncogenes within their viral genomes or their interaction with host oncogenes following...

  7. Nuclear entry of DNA viruses

    PubMed Central

    Fay, Nikta; Panté, Nelly

    2015-01-01

    DNA viruses undertake their replication within the cell nucleus, and therefore they must first deliver their genome into the nucleus of their host cells. Thus, trafficking across the nuclear envelope is at the basis of DNA virus infections. Nuclear transport of molecules with diameters up to 39 nm is a tightly regulated process that occurs through the nuclear pore complex (NPC). Due to the enormous diversity of virus size and structure, each virus has developed its own strategy for entering the nucleus of their host cells, with no two strategies alike. For example, baculoviruses target their DNA-containing capsid to the NPC and subsequently enter the nucleus intact, while the hepatitis B virus capsid crosses the NPC but disassembles at the nuclear side of the NPC. For other viruses such as herpes simplex virus and adenovirus, although both dock at the NPC, they have each developed a distinct mechanism for the subsequent delivery of their genome into the nucleus. Remarkably, other DNA viruses, such as parvoviruses and human papillomaviruses, access the nucleus through an NPC-independent mechanism. This review discusses our current understanding of the mechanisms used by DNA viruses to deliver their genome into the nucleus, and further presents the experimental evidence for such mechanisms.

  8. Nuclear entry of DNA viruses.

    PubMed

    Fay, Nikta; Panté, Nelly

    2015-01-01

    DNA viruses undertake their replication within the cell nucleus, and therefore they must first deliver their genome into the nucleus of their host cells. Thus, trafficking across the nuclear envelope is at the basis of DNA virus infections. Nuclear transport of molecules with diameters up to 39 nm is a tightly regulated process that occurs through the nuclear pore complex (NPC). Due to the enormous diversity of virus size and structure, each virus has developed its own strategy for entering the nucleus of their host cells, with no two strategies alike. For example, baculoviruses target their DNA-containing capsid to the NPC and subsequently enter the nucleus intact, while the hepatitis B virus capsid crosses the NPC but disassembles at the nuclear side of the NPC. For other viruses such as herpes simplex virus and adenovirus, although both dock at the NPC, they have each developed a distinct mechanism for the subsequent delivery of their genome into the nucleus. Remarkably, other DNA viruses, such as parvoviruses and human papillomaviruses, access the nucleus through an NPC-independent mechanism. This review discusses our current understanding of the mechanisms used by DNA viruses to deliver their genome into the nucleus, and further presents the experimental evidence for such mechanisms. PMID:26029198

  9. Limits in virus filtration capability? Impact of virus quality and spike level on virus removal with xenotropic murine leukemia virus.

    PubMed

    Roush, David J; Myrold, Adam; Burnham, Michael S; And, Joseph V; Hughes, Joseph V

    2015-01-01

    Virus filtration (VF) is a key step in an overall viral clearance process since it has been demonstrated to effectively clear a wide range of mammalian viruses with a log reduction value (LRV)?>?4. The potential to achieve higher LRV from virus retentive filters has historically been examined using bacteriophage surrogates, which commonly demonstrated a potential of?>?9 LRV when using high titer spikes (e.g. 10(10) PFU/mL). However, as the filter loading increases, one typically experiences significant decreases in performance and LRV. The 9 LRV value is markedly higher than the current expected range of 4-5 LRV when utilizing mammalian retroviruses on virus removal filters (Miesegaes et al., Dev Biol (Basel) 2010;133:3-101). Recent values have been reported in the literature (Stuckey et al., Biotech Progr 2014;30:79-85) of LRV in excess of 6 for PPV and XMuLV although this result appears to be atypical. LRV for VF with therapeutic proteins could be limited by several factors including process limits (flux decay, load matrix), virus spike level and the analytical methods used for virus detection (i.e. the Limits of Quantitation), as well as the virus spike quality. Research was conducted using the Xenotropic-Murine Leukemia Virus (XMuLV) for its direct relevance to the most commonly cited document, the International Conference of Harmonization (ICH) Q5A (International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use, Geneva, Switzerland, 1999) for viral safety evaluations. A unique aspect of this work is the independent evaluation of the impact of retrovirus quality and virus spike level on VF performance and LRV. The VF studies used XMuLV preparations purified by either ultracentrifugation (Ultra 1) or by chromatographic processes that yielded a more highly purified virus stock (Ultra 2). Two monoclonal antibodies (Mabs) with markedly different filtration characteristics and with similar levels of aggregate (<1.5%) were evaluated with the Ultra 1 and Ultra 2 virus preparations utilizing the Planova 20 N, a small virus removal filter. Impurities in the virus preparation ultimately limited filter loading as measured by determining the volumetric loading condition where 75% flux decay is observed versus initial conditions (V75). This observation occurred with both Mabs with the difference in virus purity more pronounced when very high spike levels were used (>5 vol/vol %). Significant differences were seen for the process performance over a number of lots of the less-pure Ultra 1 virus preparations. Experiments utilizing a developmental lot of the chromatographic purified XMuLV (Ultra 2 Development lot) that had elevated levels of host cell residuals (vs. the final Ultra 2 preparations) suggest that these contaminant residuals can impact virus filter fouling, even if the virus prep is essentially monodisperse. Process studies utilizing an Ultra 2 virus with substantially less host cell residuals and highly monodispersed virus particles demonstrated superior performance and an LRV in excess of 7.7 log10 . A model was constructed demonstrating the linear dependence of filtration flux versus filter loading which can be used to predict the V75 for a range of virus spike levels conditions using this highly purified virus. Fine tuning the virus spike level with this model can ultimately maximize the LRV for the virus filter step, essentially adding the LRV equivalent of another process step (i.e. protein A or CEX chromatography). PMID:25395156

  10. Computer virus information update CIAC-2301

    SciTech Connect

    Orvis, W.J.

    1994-01-15

    While CIAC periodically issues bulletins about specific computer viruses, these bulletins do not cover all the computer viruses that affect desktop computers. The purpose of this document is to identify most of the known viruses for the MS-DOS and Macintosh platforms and give an overview of the effects of each virus. The authors also include information on some windows, Atari, and Amiga viruses. This document is revised periodically as new virus information becomes available. This document replaces all earlier versions of the CIAC Computer virus Information Update. The date on the front cover indicates date on which the information in this document was extracted from CIAC`s Virus database.

  11. Tomato chlorosis virus and Tomato infectious chlorosis virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This presentation will help consultants, growers, and other practitioners in the Southern and Western Regions of the US, as well as Mexico and the Caribbean identify and manage Tomato infectious chlorosis virus (TICV) and Tomato chlorosis virus (ToCV) in tomato. Information will directly benefit cr...

  12. Lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus: an ideal persistent virus?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter G. W. Plagemann; Raymond R. R. Rowland; Chen Even; Kay S. Faaberg

    1995-01-01

    LDV contradicts all commonly held views about mechanisms of virus persistence, namely that persistence is primarily associated with noncytopathic viruses, or the selection of immune escape variants or other mutants, or a decrease in expression of certain viral proteins by infected cells, or replication in “immune-privileged sites”, or a general suppression of the host immune system, etc. [1, 2, 5,

  13. Bovine virus diarrhoea virus - strategic decisions for diagnosis and control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joe Brownlie; Ian Thompson; Andrew Curwen

    2000-01-01

    IN the 15 years since the last In Practice article on bovine virus diarrhoea virus (BVDV) (Brownlie 1985), there has been an explosion in the understanding of the molecular mechanisms of viral replication and mutation, especially those related to biotypic variation. Hand in hand has come a greater understanding of the importance of BVDV as a primary pathogen of cattle,

  14. Group 2 Vaccinia Virus, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Assis, Felipe Lopes; Borges, Iara Apolinario; Ferreira, Paulo César Peregrino; Bonjardim, Cláudio Antônio; Trindade, Giliane de Souza; Lobato, Zélia Inês Portela; Guedes, Maria Isabel Maldonado; Mesquita, Vaz; Kroon, Erna Geessien

    2012-01-01

    In 2011, vaccinia virus caused an outbreak of bovine vaccinia, affecting dairy cattle and dairy workers in Brazil. Genetic and phenotypic analyses identified this isolate as distinct from others recently identified, thereby reinforcing the hypothesis that different vaccinia virus strains co-circulate in Brazil. PMID:23171598

  15. INTERACTIONS OF VIRUS AND HOST

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is an ubiquitous pathogen of ruminants, found worldwide that is often associated with severe economic losses. Understanding these viruses, particularly at the cellular and molecular levels, is important to develop new vaccination and treatment strategies for produc...

  16. West Nile Virus and Wildlife

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter P. Marra; Sean Griffing; Carolee Caffrey; A. Marm Kilpatrick; Robert McLean; Christopher Brand; Emi Saito; Alan P. Dupuis; Laura Kramer; Robert Novak

    2004-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) has spread rapidly across North America, resulting in human deaths and in the deaths of untold numbers of birds, mammals, and reptiles. The virus has reached Central America and the Caribbean and may spread to Hawaii and South America. Although tens of thousands of birds have died, and studies of some bird species show local declines,

  17. Hepatitis C Virus and Cardiomyopathy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Akira Matsumori

    2000-01-01

    The importance of hepatitis C virus infection has been recently noted in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy or dilated cardiomyopathy. In a collaborative research project of the Committees for the Study of Idiopathic Cardiomyopathy, hepatitis C virus antibody was found in 74 of 697 patients (10.65) with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and in 42 of 663 patients (6.3%) with dilated cardiomyopathy; these prevalences

  18. Human viruses: discovery and emergence

    PubMed Central

    Woolhouse, Mark; Scott, Fiona; Hudson, Zoe; Howey, Richard; Chase-Topping, Margo

    2012-01-01

    There are 219 virus species that are known to be able to infect humans. The first of these to be discovered was yellow fever virus in 1901, and three to four new species are still being found every year. Extrapolation of the discovery curve suggests that there is still a substantial pool of undiscovered human virus species, although an apparent slow-down in the rate of discovery of species from different families may indicate bounds to the potential range of diversity. More than two-thirds of human viruses can also infect non-human hosts, mainly mammals, and sometimes birds. Many specialist human viruses also have mammalian or avian origins. Indeed, a substantial proportion of mammalian viruses may be capable of crossing the species barrier into humans, although only around half of these are capable of being transmitted by humans and around half again of transmitting well enough to cause major outbreaks. A few possible predictors of species jumps can be identified, including the use of phylogenetically conserved cell receptors. It seems almost inevitable that new human viruses will continue to emerge, mainly from other mammals and birds, for the foreseeable future. For this reason, an effective global surveillance system for novel viruses is needed. PMID:22966141

  19. TOTAL CULTURABLE VIRUS QUANTAL ASSAY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter describes a quantal method for assaying culturable human enteric viruses from water matrices. The assay differs from the plaque assay described in Chapter 10 (December 1987 Revision) in that it is based upon the direct microscopic viewing of cells for virus-induced ...

  20. Swine Influenza Virus: Emerging Understandings

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction: In March-April 2009, a novel pandemic H1N1 emerged in the human population in North America [1]. The gene constellation of the emerging virus was demonstrated to be a combination of genes from swine influenza A viruses (SIV) of North American and Eurasian lineages that had never before...

  1. Dynamic models for computer viruses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jose R. C. Piqueira; Adolfo A. De Vasconcelos; Carlos E. C. J. Gabriel; Vanessa O. Araujo

    2008-01-01

    Computer viruses are an important risk to computational systems endangering either corporations of all sizes or personal computers used for domestic applications. Here, classical epidemiological models for disease propagation are adapted to computer networks and, by using simple systems identification techniques a model called SAIC (Susceptible, Antidotal, Infectious, Contaminated) is developed. Real data about computer viruses are used to validate

  2. Computer viruses: a quantitative analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Coulthard; T. A. Vuori

    2002-01-01

    This paper provides interesting insights for anti-virus research, as it reflects a period of rapid uptake in the application of the Internet and the use of e-mail for business purposes. The purpose of the research is to provide independent justification of the growing prevalence of computer virus incidents over the past five years, and identify patterns in the frequency and

  3. Mathematical models on computer viruses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bimal Kumar Mishra; Dinesh Saini

    2007-01-01

    An attempt has been made to develop mathematical models on computer viruses infecting the system under different conditions. Mathematical model 1 discusses the situation to find the probability that at any time t how many software components are infected by virus, assuming the recovery rate and proportion of un-infected population receiving infection per unit time does not change with time.

  4. Computer Viruses as Artificial Life

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eugene H. Spafford

    1994-01-01

    There has been considerable interest in computer viruses since they first appeared in 1981, and especially in the past few years as they have reached epidemic numbers in many per- sonal computer environments. Viruses have been written about as a security problem, as a social problem, and as a possible means of performing useful tasks in a distributed computing environment.

  5. Oropouche Virus Isolation, Southeast Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Lívia Carício; Rodrigues, Sueli Guerreiro; Chiang, Jannifer Oliveira; Azevedo, Raimunda do Socorro da Silva; Travassos da Rosa, Amelia P.A.; Vasconcelos, Pedro Fernando da Costa

    2005-01-01

    An Oropouche virus strain was isolated from a novel host (Callithrix sp.) in Arinos, Minas Gerais State, southeastern Brazil. The virus was identified by complement fixation test and confirmed by reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction. Phylogenetic analysis identified this strain as a genotype III isolate previously recognized only in Panama. PMID:16318707

  6. Defining Life: The Virus Viewpoint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forterre, Patrick

    2010-04-01

    Are viruses alive? Until very recently, answering this question was often negative and viruses were not considered in discussions on the origin and definition of life. This situation is rapidly changing, following several discoveries that have modified our vision of viruses. It has been recognized that viruses have played (and still play) a major innovative role in the evolution of cellular organisms. New definitions of viruses have been proposed and their position in the universal tree of life is actively discussed. Viruses are no more confused with their virions, but can be viewed as complex living entities that transform the infected cell into a novel organism—the virus—producing virions. I suggest here to define life (an historical process) as the mode of existence of ribosome encoding organisms (cells) and capsid encoding organisms (viruses) and their ancestors. I propose to define an organism as an ensemble of integrated organs (molecular or cellular) producing individuals evolving through natural selection. The origin of life on our planet would correspond to the establishment of the first organism corresponding to this definition.

  7. Pathogenic pseudorabies virus, China, 2012.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiuling; Zhou, Zhi; Hu, Dongmei; Zhang, Qian; Han, Tao; Li, Xiaoxia; Gu, Xiaoxue; Yuan, Lin; Zhang, Shuo; Wang, Baoyue; Qu, Ping; Liu, Jinhua; Zhai, Xinyan; Tian, Kegong

    2014-01-01

    In 2012, an unprecedented large-scale outbreak of disease in pigs in China caused great economic losses to the swine industry. Isolates from pseudorabies virus epidemics in swine herds were characterized. Evidence confirmed that the pathogenic pseudorabies virus was the etiologic agent of this epidemic. PMID:24377462

  8. Pathogenic Pseudorabies Virus, China, 2012

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xiuling; Zhou, Zhi; Hu, Dongmei; Zhang, Qian; Han, Tao; Li, Xiaoxia; Gu, Xiaoxue; Yuan, Lin; Zhang, Shuo; Wang, Baoyue; Qu, Ping; Liu, Jinhua; Zhai, Xinyan

    2014-01-01

    In 2012, an unprecedented large-scale outbreak of disease in pigs in China caused great economic losses to the swine industry. Isolates from pseudorabies virus epidemics in swine herds were characterized. Evidence confirmed that the pathogenic pseudorabies virus was the etiologic agent of this epidemic. PMID:24377462

  9. How Viruses Enter Animal Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alicia E. Smith; Ari Helenius

    2004-01-01

    Viruses replicate within living cells and use the cellular machinery for the synthesis of their genome and other components. To gain access, they have evolved a variety of elegant mechanisms to deliver their genes and accessory proteins into the host cell. Many animal viruses take advantage of endocytic pathways and rely on the cell to guide them through a complex

  10. Marine Viruses: Truth or Dare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breitbart, Mya

    2012-01-01

    Over the past two decades, marine virology has progressed from a curiosity to an intensely studied topic of critical importance to oceanography. At concentrations of approximately 10 million viruses per milliliter of surface seawater, viruses are the most abundant biological entities in the oceans. The majority of these viruses are phages (viruses that infect bacteria). Through lysing their bacterial hosts, marine phages control bacterial abundance, affect community composition, and impact global biogeochemical cycles. In addition, phages influence their hosts through selection for resistance, horizontal gene transfer, and manipulation of bacterial metabolism. Recent work has also demonstrated that marine phages are extremely diverse and can carry a variety of auxiliary metabolic genes encoding critical ecological functions. This review is structured as a scientific "truth or dare," revealing several well-established "truths" about marine viruses and presenting a few "dares" for the research community to undertake in future studies.

  11. Vaccinia virus in postvaccinal encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Gurvich, E B; Vilesova, I S

    1983-03-01

    Results of virological examination of 239 samples taken from 84 children with neurological complications after smallpox vaccination are described. In postvaccinal encephalitis, vaccinia virus was isolated from blood, cerebrospinal fluid and pharyngeal secretions of 23 out of 40 children (57.5%) as well as from autopsy specimens sampled between 10-35 days after vaccination. During the acute period of disease, virus was detected in 17 out of 31 (54.2%) cerebrospinal fluid specimens. In 3 postvaccinal encephalitis cases the virus was present in brain and in a case of encephalomyelitis--in the spinal cord. These results confirmed the participation of vaccinia virus in the pathogenesis of postvaccinal encephalitis. The pathogenicity of vaccinia virus may be manifested only under a changed reactivity of the vaccinated host. PMID:6135334

  12. Co-infections with Chikungunya Virus and Dengue Virus in Delhi, India

    PubMed Central

    Chahar, Harendra S.; Bharaj, Preeti; Dar, Lalit; Guleria, Randeep; Kabra, Sushil K.

    2009-01-01

    Aedes aegypti mosquitoes are common vectors for dengue virus and chikungunya virus. In areas where both viruses cocirculate, they can be transmitted together. During a dengue outbreak in Delhi in 2006, 17 of 69 serum samples were positive for chikungunya virus by reverse transcription–PCR; 6 samples were positive for both viruses. PMID:19624923

  13. Genome Sequence of Bivens Arm Virus, a Tibrovirus Belonging to the Species Tibrogargan virus (Mononegavirales: Rhabdoviridae)

    PubMed Central

    Hensley, Lisa E.

    2015-01-01

    The new rhabdoviral genus Tibrovirus currently has two members, Coastal Plains virus and Tibrogargan virus. Here, we report the coding-complete genome sequence of a putative member of this genus, Bivens Arm virus. A genomic comparison reveals Bivens Arm virus to be closely related to, but distinct from, Tibrogargan virus. PMID:25792044

  14. IInoculate your computer with Symantec AntiVirus, for free! Welchia virus? Blaster

    E-print Network

    IInoculate your computer with Symantec AntiVirus, for free! Welchia virus? Blaster virus? PC all students, faculty and staff can get a free copy. Computer viruses on campus are no laughing matter. Last Symantec AntiVirus managed version from the "Computing Essentials 2004" CD or download it from http

  15. Infectious vaccinia virus recombinants that express hepatitis B virus surface antigen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Geoffrey L.; Mackett, Michael; Moss, Bernard

    1983-04-01

    Potential live vaccines against hepatitis B virus have been produced. The coding sequence for hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) has been inserted into the vaccinia virus genome under control of vaccinia virus early promoters. Cells infected with these vaccinia virus recombinants synthesize and excrete HBsAg and vaccinated rabbits rapidly produce antibodies to HBsAg.

  16. A single vertebrate DNA virus protein disarms invertebrate immunity to RNA virus infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Virus-host interactions drive a remarkable diversity of immune responses and countermeasures. While investigating virus-invertebrate host interactions we found that two RNA viruses with broad host ranges, vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and Sindbis virus (SINV), were unable to infect certain Lepido...

  17. Immunogenicity of combination DNA vaccines for Rift Valley fever virus, tick-borne encephalitis virus, Hantaan virus, and Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kristin Spik; Amy Shurtleff; Anita K. McElroy; Mary C. Guttieri; Jay W. Hooper; Connie Schmaljohn

    2006-01-01

    DNA vaccines for Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV), tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), and Hantaan virus (HTNV), were tested in mice alone or in various combinations. The bunyavirus vaccines (RVFV, CCHFV, and HTNV) expressed Gn and Gc genes, and the flavivirus vaccine (TBEV) expressed the preM and E genes. All vaccines were delivered by gene

  18. Biologically Inspired Defenses Against Computer Viruses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey O. Kephart; Gregory B. Sorkin; William C. Arnold; David M. Chess; Gerald Tesauro; Steve R. White

    1995-01-01

    Today's anti-virus technology, based largely on analysis of existing viruses by human experts, is just barely able to keep pace with the more than three new computer viruses that are writ­ ten daily. In a few years, intelligent agents nav­ igating through highly connected networks are likely to form an extremely fertile medium for a new breed of viruses. At

  19. Modeling Computer Viruses MSc Thesis (Afstudeerscriptie)

    E-print Network

    Amsterdam, University of

    Modeling Computer Viruses MSc Thesis (Afstudeerscriptie) written by Luite Menno Pieter van Zelst About half a year ago, Alban Ponse, my thesis supervisor, suggested that the topic of `computer viruses indus- try and the creators of computer viruses. After all, the anti-virus industry stands to lose a lot

  20. Hepatitis E Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Dalton, Harry R.; Abravanel, Florence; Izopet, Jacques

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is a worldwide disease. An improved understanding of the natural history of HEV infection has been achieved within the last decade. Several reservoirs and transmission modes have been identified. Hepatitis E is an underdiagnosed disease, in part due to the use of serological assays with low sensitivity. However, diagnostic tools, including nucleic acid-based tests, have been improved. The epidemiology and clinical features of hepatitis E differ between developing and developed countries. HEV infection is usually an acute self-limiting disease, but in developed countries it causes chronic infection with rapidly progressive cirrhosis in organ transplant recipients, patients with hematological malignancy requiring chemotherapy, and individuals with HIV. HEV also causes extrahepatic manifestations, including a number of neurological syndromes and renal injury. Acute infection usually requires no treatment, but chronic infection should be treated by reducing immunosuppression in transplant patients and/or the use of antiviral therapy. In this comprehensive review, we summarize the current knowledge about the virus itself, as well as the epidemiology, diagnostics, natural history, and management of HEV infection in developing and developed countries. PMID:24396139

  1. Virus interactions with human signal transduction pathways.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhongming; Xia, Junfeng; Tastan, Oznur; Singh, Irtisha; Kshirsagar, Meghana; Carbonell, Jaime; Klein-Seetharaman, Judith

    2011-01-01

    Viruses depend on their hosts at every stage of their life cycles and must therefore communicate with them via Protein-Protein Interactions (PPIs). To investigate the mechanisms of communication by different viruses, we overlay reported pairwise human-virus PPIs on human signalling pathways. Of 671 pathways obtained from NCI and Reactome databases, 355 are potentially targeted by at least one virus. The majority of pathways are linked to more than one virus. We find evidence supporting the hypothesis that viruses often interact with different proteins depending on the targeted pathway. Pathway analysis indicates overrepresentation of some pathways targeted by viruses. The merged network of the most statistically significant pathways shows several centrally located proteins, which are also hub proteins. Generally, hub proteins are targeted more frequently by viruses. Numerous proteins in virus-targeted pathways are known drug targets, suggesting that these might be exploited as potential new approaches to treatments against multiple viruses. PMID:21330695

  2. Modelling the evolution of the influenza virus

    E-print Network

    Burke, David

    2008-06-27

    CamGrid: High Throughput Computing in Science dfb21@cam.ac.uk Dr David Burke Antigenic Cartography Group Department of Zoology University of Cambridge 25th June 2008 Modelling the evolution of the influenza virus Antigenic variation of viruses... Antigenically Stable Pathogens Antigenically Variable Pathogens Smallpox Measles Tuberculosis Mumps Tetanus Influenza Virus Malaria HIV Dengue The Influenza Virus Annually, 'flu infects 7-14% of the population (400-800 million people globally ) Virus...

  3. SARS and West Nile Virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark B. Loeb

    Clinical presentation of SARS is nonspecific; the important clinical findings in West Nile virus infection are those associated\\u000a with neurological complications.\\u000a \\u000a Rapid and accurate diagnosis of SARS and West Nile virus infection remains an important clinical challenge.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Older adults are at higher risk of complications, including death from SARS and West Nile virus.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a At present, there is no effective therapy

  4. Respiratory Viruses Other than Influenza Virus: Impact and Therapeutic Advances

    PubMed Central

    Nichols, W. Garrett; Peck Campbell, Angela J.; Boeckh, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Summary: Though several antivirals have been developed and marketed to treat influenza virus infections, the development of antiviral agents with clinical activity against other respiratory viruses has been more problematic. Here we review the epidemiology of respiratory viral infections in immunocompetent and immunocompromised hosts, examine the evidence surrounding the currently available antivirals for respiratory viral infections other than influenza, highlight those that are in the pipeline, and discuss the hurdles for development of such agents. PMID:18400797

  5. Gene homology between orf virus and smallpox variola virus.

    PubMed

    Mercer, A A; Fraser, K M; Esposito, J J

    1996-01-01

    About 47% identity was observed between the deduced amino acid sequences of a protein encoded by a gene of the parapoxvirus orf virus (OV) strain NZ2 and a 6 kDa protein of unknown function reported to be produced by an open reading frame expressed early after infection by the orthopoxvirus Western Reserve vaccinia virus (VAC); the open reading frame is absent from VAC strain Copenhagen. Examination of sequences reported for variola virus (VAR) strains Bangladesh, India, Congo- 1970, Somalia- 1977 and Garcia- 1966 revealed each encoded a correlate 58 amino acid protein. The open reading frame was not reported in the original analyses of these sequences because a lower limit of 60 amino acids was used to identify potential encoded proteins. Inspection of partial reading frames reported for cowpox virus (CWV) and ectromelia virus (EMV) suggested that these viruses might also code for a correlate of the VAC WR protein. DNA sequencing of cloned fragments of CWV and EMV confirmed that both these orthopoxviruses encode closely related, full length variants of the VAC and VAR open reading frames. The OV homologue is coded in the OV strain NZ2 BamHI-E fragment E2L open reading frame, which we reported is transcribed early postinfection; moreover, analysis of an NZ2 variant showed E2L was absent, indicating that E2L, like the VAC cognate, is nonessential for virus replication in cell culture. The parapoxvirus and orthopoxvirus correlates have about 20% amino acid sequence resemblance to African swine fever virus DNA binding protein p10, suggesting an ancestral relation of genes. PMID:8972571

  6. Oncolytic virus therapy using genetically engineered herpes simplex viruses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tomoki Todo

    2002-01-01

    An increasing number of oncolytic virus vectors has been developed lately for cancer therapy. Herpes simplex virus type 1\\u000a (HSV-1) vectors are particularly useful, because they can be genetically engineered to replicate and spread highly selectively\\u000a in tumor cells and can also express multiple foreign transgenes. These vectors can manifest cytopathic effect in a wide variety\\u000a of tumor types without

  7. Rice Yellow Mottle Virus, an RNA Plant Virus, Evolves as Rapidly as Most RNA Animal Viruses? †

    PubMed Central

    Fargette, D.; Pinel, A.; Rakotomalala, M.; Sangu, E.; Traoré, O.; Sérémé, D.; Sorho, F.; Issaka, S.; Hébrard, E.; Séré, Y.; Kanyeka, Z.; Konaté, G.

    2008-01-01

    The rate of evolution of an RNA plant virus has never been estimated using temporally spaced sequence data, by contrast to the information available on an increasing range of animal viruses. Accordingly, the evolution rate of Rice yellow mottle virus (RYMV) was calculated from sequences of the coat protein gene of isolates collected from rice over a 40-year period in different parts of Africa. The evolution rate of RYMV was estimated by pairwise distance linear regression on five phylogeographically defined groups comprising a total of 135 isolates. It was further assessed from 253 isolates collected all over Africa by Bayesian coalescent methods under strict and relaxed molecular clock models and under constant size and skyline population genetic models. Consistent estimates of the evolution rate between 4 × 10?4 and 8 × 10?4 nucleotides (nt)/site/year were obtained whatever method and model were applied. The synonymous evolution rate was between 8 × 10?4 and 11 × 10?4 nt/site/year. The overall and synonymous evolution rates of RYMV were within the range of the rates of 50 RNA animal viruses, below the average but above the distribution median. Experimentally, in host change studies, substitutions accumulated at an even higher rate. The results show that an RNA plant virus such as RYMV evolves as rapidly as most RNA animal viruses. Knowledge of the molecular clock of plant viruses provides methods for testing a wide range of biological hypotheses. PMID:18199644

  8. Adeno-associated virus: from defective virus to effective vector

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Manuel AFV

    2005-01-01

    The initial discovery of adeno-associated virus (AAV) mixed with adenovirus particles was not a fortuitous one but rather an expression of AAV biology. Indeed, as it came to be known, in addition to the unavoidable host cell, AAV typically needs a so-called helper virus such as adenovirus to replicate. Since the AAV life cycle revolves around another unrelated virus it was dubbed a satellite virus. However, the structural simplicity plus the defective and non-pathogenic character of this satellite virus caused recombinant forms to acquire centre-stage prominence in the current constellation of vectors for human gene therapy. In the present review, issues related to the development of recombinant AAV (rAAV) vectors, from the general principle to production methods, tropism modifications and other emerging technologies are discussed. In addition, the accumulating knowledge regarding the mechanisms of rAAV genome transduction and persistence is reviewed. The topics on rAAV vectorology are supplemented with information on the parental virus biology with an emphasis on aspects that directly impact on vector design and performance such as genome replication, genetic structure, and host cell entry. PMID:15877812

  9. Role of murine leukemia virus nucleocapsid protein in virus assembly.

    PubMed

    Muriaux, Delphine; Costes, Sylvain; Nagashima, Kunio; Mirro, Jane; Cho, Ed; Lockett, Stephen; Rein, Alan

    2004-11-01

    The retroviral nucleocapsid protein (NC) originates by cleavage of the Gag polyprotein. It is highly basic and contains one or two zinc fingers. Mutations in either the basic residues or the zinc fingers can affect several events of the virus life cycle. They frequently prevent the specific packaging of the viral RNA, affect reverse transcription, and impair virion assembly. In this work, we explore the role of NC in murine leukemia virus (MLV) particle assembly and release. A panel of NC mutants, including mutants of the zinc finger and of a basic region, as well as truncations of the NC domain of Gag, were studied. Several of these mutations dramatically reduce the release of virus particles. A mutant completely lacking the NC domain is apparently incapable of assembling into particles, although its Gag protein is still targeted to the plasma membrane. By electron microscopy on thin sections of virus-producing cells, we observed that some NC mutants exhibit various stages of budding defects at the plasma membrane and have aberrant particle morphology; electron micrographs of cells expressing some of these mutants are strikingly similar to those of cells expressing "late-domain" mutants. However, the defects of NC mutants with respect to virus release and infectivity could be complemented by an MLV lacking the p12 domain. Therefore, the functions of NC in virus budding and infectivity are completely distinct from viral late-domain function. PMID:15507624

  10. Role of Murine Leukemia Virus Nucleocapsid Protein in Virus Assembly

    PubMed Central

    Muriaux, Delphine; Costes, Sylvain; Nagashima, Kunio; Mirro, Jane; Cho, Ed; Lockett, Stephen; Rein, Alan

    2004-01-01

    The retroviral nucleocapsid protein (NC) originates by cleavage of the Gag polyprotein. It is highly basic and contains one or two zinc fingers. Mutations in either the basic residues or the zinc fingers can affect several events of the virus life cycle. They frequently prevent the specific packaging of the viral RNA, affect reverse transcription, and impair virion assembly. In this work, we explore the role of NC in murine leukemia virus (MLV) particle assembly and release. A panel of NC mutants, including mutants of the zinc finger and of a basic region, as well as truncations of the NC domain of Gag, were studied. Several of these mutations dramatically reduce the release of virus particles. A mutant completely lacking the NC domain is apparently incapable of assembling into particles, although its Gag protein is still targeted to the plasma membrane. By electron microscopy on thin sections of virus-producing cells, we observed that some NC mutants exhibit various stages of budding defects at the plasma membrane and have aberrant particle morphology; electron micrographs of cells expressing some of these mutants are strikingly similar to those of cells expressing “late-domain” mutants. However, the defects of NC mutants with respect to virus release and infectivity could be complemented by an MLV lacking the p12 domain. Therefore, the functions of NC in virus budding and infectivity are completely distinct from viral late-domain function. PMID:15507624

  11. Human immunodeficiency virus endocrinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Uma; Sengupta, Nilanjan; Mukhopadhyay, Prasanta; Roy, Keshab Sinha

    2011-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) endocrinopathy encompasses a broad spectrum of disorders. Almost all the endocrine organs are virtually affected by HIV infection. HIV can directly alter glandular function. More commonly secondary endocrine dysfunction occurs due to opportunistic infections and neoplasms in immunocompromised state. The complex interaction between HIV infection and endocrine system may be manifested as subtle biochemical and hormonal perturbation to overt glandular failure. Antiretroviral therapy as well as other essential medications often result in adverse endocrinal consequences. Apart from adrenal insufficiency, hypogonadism, diabetes and bone loss, AIDS wasting syndrome and HIV lipodystrophy need special reference. Endocrinal evaluation should proceed as in other patients with suspected endocrine dysfunction. Available treatment options have been shown to improve quality of life and long-term mortality in AIDS patients. PMID:22028995

  12. Ebola virus disease.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Kathleen J

    2015-01-01

    Ebola is an unfamiliar disease with a high mortality rate. Until recently, it occurred only in rural tropical regions and most health care providers had only read about it in epidemiology classes. With globalization, international travel, and foreign medical missions, it is possible that a patient with Ebola exposure and/or symptoms may present in any emergency department. All health care providers must be familiar with identifying the signs and symptoms of Ebola and capable of initiating an appropriate response. This article presents an overview of Ebola virus disease for health care providers, covering pathophysiology, identification, treatment, and general considerations for hospitals and providers to consider when developing policies and procedures. PMID:25929221

  13. Lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This book chapter describes the taxonomic classification of Lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus (LDV). Included are: host, genome, classification, morphology, physicochemical and physical properties, nucleic acid, proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, geographic range, phylogenetic properties, biologic...

  14. Arthropod viruses and small RNAs.

    PubMed

    Vijayendran, Diveena; Airs, Paul M; Dolezal, Kelly; Bonning, Bryony C

    2013-10-01

    The recently characterized small RNAs provide a new paradigm for physiological studies. These molecules have been shown to be integral players in processes as diverse as development and innate immunity against bacteria and viruses in eukaryotes. Several of the well-characterized small RNAs including small interfering RNAs, microRNAs and PIWI-interacting RNAs are emerging as important players in mediating arthropod host-virus interactions. Understanding the role of small RNAs in arthropod host-virus molecular interactions will facilitate manipulation of these pathways for both management of arthropod pests of agricultural and medical importance, and for protection of beneficial arthropods such as honey bees and shrimp. This review highlights recent research on the role of small RNAs in arthropod host-virus interactions with reference to other host-pathogen systems. PMID:23932976

  15. Mapping overlapping functional elements embedded within the protein-coding regions of RNA viruses

    E-print Network

    Firth, Andrew E.

    2014-10-17

    with the potential to cause acute fatal disease in healthy adult humans are RNA viruses. Such viruses include influenza A virus (IAV), Ebola virus, ra- bies virus, SARS virus, MERS virus, Japanese encephali- tis virus, yellow fever virus, dengue virus, eastern equine...

  16. The Norwegian Healthier Goats program--modeling lactation curves using a multilevel cubic spline regression model.

    PubMed

    Nagel-Alne, G E; Krontveit, R; Bohlin, J; Valle, P S; Skjerve, E; Sølverød, L S

    2014-07-01

    In 2001, the Norwegian Goat Health Service initiated the Healthier Goats program (HG), with the aim of eradicating caprine arthritis encephalitis, caseous lymphadenitis, and Johne's disease (caprine paratuberculosis) in Norwegian goat herds. The aim of the present study was to explore how control and eradication of the above-mentioned diseases by enrolling in HG affected milk yield by comparison with herds not enrolled in HG. Lactation curves were modeled using a multilevel cubic spline regression model where farm, goat, and lactation were included as random effect parameters. The data material contained 135,446 registrations of daily milk yield from 28,829 lactations in 43 herds. The multilevel cubic spline regression model was applied to 4 categories of data: enrolled early, control early, enrolled late, and control late. For enrolled herds, the early and late notations refer to the situation before and after enrolling in HG; for nonenrolled herds (controls), they refer to development over time, independent of HG. Total milk yield increased in the enrolled herds after eradication: the total milk yields in the fourth lactation were 634.2 and 873.3 kg in enrolled early and enrolled late herds, respectively, and 613.2 and 701.4 kg in the control early and control late herds, respectively. Day of peak yield differed between enrolled and control herds. The day of peak yield came on d 6 of lactation for the control early category for parities 2, 3, and 4, indicating an inability of the goats to further increase their milk yield from the initial level. For enrolled herds, on the other hand, peak yield came between d 49 and 56, indicating a gradual increase in milk yield after kidding. Our results indicate that enrollment in the HG disease eradication program improved the milk yield of dairy goats considerably, and that the multilevel cubic spline regression was a suitable model for exploring effects of disease control and eradication on milk yield. PMID:24819129

  17. Cellular Sequences in Stealth Viruses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. John Martin

    1998-01-01

    Cloned DNA obtained from the culture of an African green monkey simian cytomegalovirus-derived stealth virus contains multiple discrete regions of significant sequence homology (p values ranging from 4 × 10–3to 1 × 10–20) to portions of known human cellular genes. The stealth virus was cultured from a patient with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). Earlier studies had revealed considerable sequence heterogeneity

  18. Coronavirus avian infectious bronchitis virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dave Cavanagh

    2007-01-01

    Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), the coronavirus of the chicken (Gallus gallus), is one of the foremost causes of economic loss within the poultry industry, affecting the performance of both meat-type and egg-laying birds. The virus replicates not only in the epithelium of upper and lower respiratory tract tissues, but also in many tissues along the alimentary tract and elsewhere e.g.

  19. Simian virus 40 in humans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fernanda Martini; Alfredo Corallini; Veronica Balatti; Silvia Sabbioni; Cecilia Pancaldi; Mauro Tognon

    2007-01-01

    Simian virus 40 (SV40) is a monkey virus that was administered to human populations by contaminated vaccines which were produced in SV40 naturally infected monkey cells. Recent molecular biology and epidemiological studies suggest that SV40 may be contagiously transmitted in humans by horizontal infection, independently from the earlier administration of SV40-contaminated vaccines. SV40 footprints in humans have been found associated

  20. Foodborne viruses: an emerging problem

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marion Koopmans; Erwin Duizer

    2004-01-01

    Several groups of viruses may infect persons after ingestion and then are shed via stool. Of these, the norovirus (NoV) and hepatitis A virus (HAV) are currently recognised as the most important human foodborne pathogens with regard to the number of outbreaks and people affected in the Western world.NoV and HAV are highly infectious and may lead to widespread outbreaks.

  1. Human Enteric Viruses in Groundwater

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. H. Park; E. J. Kim; T. H. Yun; J. H. Lee; C. K. Kim; Y. H. Seo; S. A. Oh; S. S. Choi; S. J. Cho; M. S. Kim; G. Y. Han; M. Y. Kim; H. S. Jeong; D. S. Cheon; H. S. Kim

    2010-01-01

    Waterborne outbreaks of enteric viruses are a major public health concern. The present study has been carried out to assess\\u000a the presence of enteric viruses responsible for human acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in groundwater intended for drinking and\\u000a produce washing. In total, 62 samples from groundwater for drinking and produce washing collected from Dec 2007 to Dec 2008\\u000a in Seoul were

  2. Lily symptomless virus in tulip

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. F. L. M. Derks; C. J. Asjes

    1975-01-01

    Lily symptomless virus (LSV) was transmitted mechanically to only two out of 53 plant species (18 families) tested, i.e.Lilium formosanum and tulip ‘Rose Copland’ (Liliaceae). The aphid speciesMacrosiphum euphorbiae, Myzus persicae, andAphis gossypii transmitted LSV in a non-persistent manner fromLilium Mid-century hybrid ‘Enchantment’ to tulip ‘Rose Copland’.M. euphorbiae transmitted the virus more efficiently thanM. persicae andA. gossypii. The yield of

  3. Another Really, Really Big Virus

    PubMed Central

    Van Etten, James L.

    2011-01-01

    Viruses with genomes larger than 300 kb and up to 1.2 Mb, which encode hundreds of proteins, are being discovered and characterized with increasing frequency. Most, but not all, of these large viruses (often referred to as giruses) infect protists that live in aqueous environments. Bioinformatic analyses of metagenomes of aqueous samples indicate that large DNA viruses are quite common in nature and await discovery. One issue that is perhaps not appreciated by the virology community is that large viruses, even those classified in the same family, can differ significantly in morphology, lifestyle, and gene complement. This brief commentary, which will mention some of these unique properties, was stimulated by the characterization of the newest member of this club, virus CroV (Fischer, M.G.; Allen, M.J.; Wilson, W.H.; Suttle, C.A. Giant virus with a remarkable complement of genes infects marine zooplankton. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 2010, 107, 19508–19513 [1]). CroV has a 730 kb genome (with ?544 protein-encoding genes) and infects the marine microzooplankton Cafeteria roenbergensis producing a lytic infection. PMID:21994725

  4. A DNA Virus of Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Unckless, Robert L.

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about the viruses infecting most species. Even in groups as well-studied as Drosophila, only a handful of viruses have been well-characterized. A viral metagenomic approach was used to explore viral diversity in 83 wild-caught Drosophila innubila, a mushroom feeding member of the quinaria group. A single fly that was injected with, and died from, Drosophila C Virus (DCV) was added to the sample as a control. Two-thirds of reads in the infected sample had DCV as the best BLAST hit, suggesting that the protocol developed is highly sensitive. In addition to the DCV hits, several sequences had Oryctes rhinoceros Nudivirus, a double-stranded DNA virus, as a best BLAST hit. The virus associated with these sequences was termed Drosophila innubila Nudivirus (DiNV). PCR screens of natural populations showed that DiNV was both common and widespread taxonomically and geographically. Electron microscopy confirms the presence of virions in fly fecal material similar in structure to other described Nudiviruses. In 2 species, D. innubila and D. falleni, the virus is associated with a severe (?80–90%) loss of fecundity and significantly decreased lifespan. PMID:22053195

  5. ENZYMATIC VARIANTS OF INFLUENZA VIRUS

    PubMed Central

    Padgett, Billie L.; Walker, Duard L.

    1958-01-01

    The rate of elution of the variant virus from chicken RBC is progressively decreased as the temperature of incubation is increased above 25°C. The activity of the parent virus, on the other hand, is increased as the temperature is increased up to 40°C. The major cause of the decreased activity of the variant at temperatures above 2S°C. is an inhibition of the variant enzyme rather than its inactivation. The activity of the variant enzyme is stimulated in the presence of strontium, calcium, and barium ions. Manganese has only a slight effect, and magnesium has no stimulatory effect on the elution of the variant virus. Elution of the variant at 37°C. is progressively inhibited at pH values above 7, while the parent virus is still active at pH 8. In the absence of calcium the variant enzyme, hemagglutinin, and infectivity are more heat labile than those of the parent virus. The addition of calcium increases the heat stability of all three properties of the variant, and in the presence of calcium the infectivity of the variant is as stable as that of the parent virus. PMID:13587849

  6. PC viruses: How do they do that

    SciTech Connect

    Pichnarczyk, K.

    1992-07-01

    The topic of PC Viruses has been an issue for a number of years now. They've been reported in every major newspaper, tabloids, television and radio. People from all fields get viruses: government, private sector businesses, home computers, schools, computer software suppliers. A definition is proposed to introduce the virus phenomenon. Virus authors come from a variety of communities. Motives and ideologies of authors are discussed, and examples of viruses are offered. Also mentioned is the growing number of viruses developed, isolated, and never distributed to the public at large, but kept within the antivirus research community. Virus examples are offered as well. Viruses are distributed not only through bulletin boards and shareware, but also from areas previously assumed to be safe, including the threat of receiving a virus through a standard in-house function, such as an in-house hardware maintenance shop. Three categories of viruses are presented: File Infecter viruses, Boot Sector Infecters, and the new category of Directory Entry Infecter virus. Also discussed are crossover viruses, that is, viruses which utilize a variety of techniques to ensure survival. An explanation of what is occurring within every stage of various viruses is given. Replication strategies common to all three types is noted, mainly the two different replication strategies of memory resident infecters and active selection infecters. A detailed definition, description and application of a stealth virus is presented. Detection strategies are discussed as each topic in this section is completed; a high level schemata of the operation of various virus detection programs ispresented. Since most eradication today is done using virus detection/eradication software, this paper attempts to reveal the techniques used by these packages.Included in the paper is the topic of manual eradication.

  7. PC viruses: How do they do that?

    SciTech Connect

    Pichnarczyk, K.

    1992-07-01

    The topic of PC Viruses has been an issue for a number of years now. They`ve been reported in every major newspaper, tabloids, television and radio. People from all fields get viruses: government, private sector businesses, home computers, schools, computer software suppliers. A definition is proposed to introduce the virus phenomenon. Virus authors come from a variety of communities. Motives and ideologies of authors are discussed, and examples of viruses are offered. Also mentioned is the growing number of viruses developed, isolated, and never distributed to the public at large, but kept within the antivirus research community. Virus examples are offered as well. Viruses are distributed not only through bulletin boards and shareware, but also from areas previously assumed to be safe, including the threat of receiving a virus through a standard in-house function, such as an in-house hardware maintenance shop. Three categories of viruses are presented: File Infecter viruses, Boot Sector Infecters, and the new category of Directory Entry Infecter virus. Also discussed are crossover viruses, that is, viruses which utilize a variety of techniques to ensure survival. An explanation of what is occurring within every stage of various viruses is given. Replication strategies common to all three types is noted, mainly the two different replication strategies of memory resident infecters and active selection infecters. A detailed definition, description and application of a stealth virus is presented. Detection strategies are discussed as each topic in this section is completed; a high level schemata of the operation of various virus detection programs ispresented. Since most eradication today is done using virus detection/eradication software, this paper attempts to reveal the techniques used by these packages.Included in the paper is the topic of manual eradication.

  8. Genomic sequencing of deer tick virus and phylogeny of powassan-related viruses of North America.

    PubMed

    Kuno, G; Artsob, H; Karabatsos, N; Tsuchiya, K R; Chang, G J

    2001-11-01

    Powassan (POW) virus is responsible for central nervous system infection in humans in North America and the eastern parts of Russia. Recently, a new flavivirus, deer tick (DT) virus, related to POW virus was isolated in the United States, but neither its pathogenic potential in human nor the taxonomic relationship with POW virus has been elucidated. In this study, we obtained the near-full-length genomic sequence of the DT virus and complete sequences of 3 genomic regions of 15 strains of POW-related virus strains. The phylogeny revealed 2 lineages, one of which had the prototype POW virus and the other DT virus. Both lineages can cause central nervous system infection in humans. By use of the combination of molecular definition of virus species within the genus Flavivirus and serological distinction in a 2-way cross-neutralization test, the lineage of DT virus is classified as a distinct genotype of POW virus. PMID:11716135

  9. Foodborne viruses: an emerging problem.

    PubMed

    Koopmans, Marion; Duizer, Erwin

    2004-01-01

    Several groups of viruses may infect persons after ingestion and then are shed via stool. Of these, the norovirus (NoV) and hepatitis A virus (HAV) are currently recognised as the most important human foodborne pathogens with regard to the number of outbreaks and people affected in the Western world. NoV and HAV are highly infectious and may lead to widespread outbreaks. The clinical manifestation of NoV infection, however, is relatively mild. Asymptomatic infections are common and may contribute to the spread of the infection. Introduction of NoV in a community or population (a seeding event) may be followed by additional spread because of the highly infectious nature of NoV, resulting in a great number of secondary infections (50% of contacts). Hepatitis A is an increasing problem because of the decrease in immunity of populations in countries with high standards of hygiene. Molecular-based methods can detect viruses in shellfish but are not yet available for other foods. The applicability of the methods currently available for monitoring foods for viral contamination is unknown. No consistent correlation has been found between the presence of indicator microorganisms (i.e. bacteriophages, E. coli) and viruses. NoV and HAV are highly infectious and exhibit variable levels of resistance to heat and disinfection agents. However, they are both inactivated at 100 degrees C. No validated model virus or model system is available for studies of inactivation of NoV, although investigations could make use of structurally similar viruses (i.e. canine and feline caliciviruses). In the absence of a model virus or model system, food safety guidelines need to be based on studies that have been performed with the most resistant enteric RNA viruses (i.e. HAV, for which a model system does exist) and also with bacteriophages (for water). Most documented foodborne viral outbreaks can be traced to food that has been manually handled by an infected foodhandler, rather than to industrially processed foods. The viral contamination of food can occur anywhere in the process from farm to fork, but most foodborne viral infections can be traced back to infected persons who handle food that is not heated or otherwise treated afterwards. Therefore, emphasis should be on stringent personal hygiene during preparation. If viruses are present in food preprocessing, residual viral infectivity may be present after some industrial processes. Therefore, it is key that sufficient attention be given to good agriculture practice (GAP) and good manufacturing practice (GMP) to avoid introduction of viruses onto the raw material and into the food-manufacturing environment, and to HACCP to assure adequate management of (control over) viruses present during the manufacturing process. If viruses are present in foods after processing, they remain infectious in most circumstances and in most foods for several days or weeks, especially if kept cooled (at 4 degrees C). Therefore, emphasis should be on stringent personal hygiene during preparation. For the control of foodborne viral infections, it is necessary to: Heighten awareness about the presence and spread of these viruses by foodhandlers; Optimise and standardise methods for the detection of foodborne viruses; Develop laboratory-based surveillance to detect large, common-source outbreaks at an early stage; and Emphasise consideration of viruses in setting up food safety quality control and management systems (GHP, GMP, HACCP). PMID:14672828

  10. Comparison of cowpox-like viruses isolated from European zoos

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Baxby; W. B. Shackleton; Jean Wheeler; A. Turner

    1979-01-01

    Summary Poxviruses isolated from captive carnivores in Russia (Moscow virus) and elephants in Germany (elephant virus) were very closely-related to cowpox virus. Immunological analysis with absorbed sera separated elephant virus but not cowpox and Moscow virus, whereas polypeptide analysis separated cowpox but not elephant and Moscow virus. A combination of biological tests separated all three. The epidemiological implications are briefly

  11. Stochastic analysis of virus transport in aquifers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Campbell, Rehmann L.L.; Welty, C.; Harvey, R.W.

    1999-01-01

    A large-scale model of virus transport in aquifers is derived using spectral perturbation analysis. The effects of spatial variability in aquifer hydraulic conductivity and virus transport (attachment, detachment, and inactivation) parameters on large-scale virus transport are evaluated. A stochastic mean model of virus transport is developed by linking a simple system of local-scale free-virus transport and attached-virus conservation equations from the current literature with a random-field representation of aquifer and virus transport properties. The resultant mean equations for free and attached viruses are found to differ considerably from the local-scale equations on which they are based and include effects such as a free-virus effective velocity that is a function of aquifer heterogeneity as well as virus transport parameters. Stochastic mean free-virus breakthrough curves are compared with local model output in order to observe the effects of spatial variability on mean one-dimensional virus transport in three-dimensionally heterogeneous porous media. Significant findings from this theoretical analysis include the following: (1) Stochastic model breakthrough occurs earlier than local model breakthrough, and this effect is most pronounced for the least conductive aquifers studied. (2) A high degree of aquifer heterogeneity can lead to virus breakthrough actually preceding that of a conservative tracer. (3) As the mean hydraulic conductivity is increased, the mean model shows less sensitivity to the variance of the natural-logarithm hydraulic conductivity and mean virus diameter. (4) Incorporation of a heterogeneous colloid filtration term results in higher predicted concentrations than a simple first-order adsorption term for a given mean attachment rate. (5) Incorporation of aquifer heterogeneity leads to a greater range of virus diameters for which significant breakthrough occurs. (6) The mean model is more sensitive to the inactivation rate of viruses associated with solid surfaces than to the inactivation rate of viruses in solution.

  12. Emerging and re-emerging swine viruses.

    PubMed

    Meng, X J

    2012-03-01

    In the past two decades or so, a number of viruses have emerged in the global swine population. Some, such as porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), cause economically important diseases in pigs, whereas others such as porcine torque teno virus (TTV), now known as Torque teno sus virus (TTSuV), porcine bocavirus (PBoV) and related novel parvoviruses, porcine kobuvirus, porcine toroviruses (PToV) and porcine lymphotropic herpesviruses (PLHV), are mostly subclinical in swine herds. Although some emerging swine viruses such as swine hepatitis E virus (swine HEV), porcine endogenous retrovirus (PERV) and porcine sapovirus (porcine SaV) may have a limited clinical implication in swine health, they do pose a potential public health concern in humans due to zoonotic (swine HEV) or potential zoonotic (porcine SaV) and xenozoonotic (PERV, PLHV) risks. Other emerging viruses such as Nipah virus, Bungowannah virus and Menangle virus not only cause diseases in pigs but some also pose important zoonotic threat to humans. This article focuses on emerging and re-emerging swine viruses that have a limited or uncertain clinical and economic impact on pig health. The transmission, epidemiology and pathogenic potential of these viruses are discussed. In addition, the two economically important emerging viruses, PRRSV and PCV2, are also briefly discussed to identify important knowledge gaps. PMID:22225855

  13. Plasmodesmata: channels for viruses on the move.

    PubMed

    Heinlein, Manfred

    2015-01-01

    The symplastic communication network established by plasmodesmata (PD) and connected phloem provides an essential pathway for spatiotemporal intercellular signaling in plant development but is also exploited by viruses for moving their genomes between cells in order to infect plants systemically. Virus movement depends on virus-encoded movement proteins (MPs) that target PD and therefore represent important keys to the cellular mechanisms underlying the intercellular trafficking of viruses and other macromolecules. Viruses and their MPs have evolved different mechanisms for intracellular transport and interaction with PD. Some viruses move from cell to cell by interacting with cellular mechanisms that control the size exclusion limit of PD whereas other viruses alter the PD architecture through assembly of specialized transport structures within the channel. Some viruses move between cells in the form of assembled virus particles whereas other viruses may interact with nucleic acid transport mechanisms to move their genomes in a non-encapsidated form. Moreover, whereas several viruses rely on the secretory pathway to target PD, other viruses interact with the cortical endoplasmic reticulum and associated cytoskeleton to spread infection. This chapter provides an introduction into viruses and their role in studying the diverse cellular mechanisms involved in intercellular PD-mediated macromolecular trafficking. PMID:25287194

  14. Phylogenetic Properties of RNA Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Pompei, Simone; Loreto, Vittorio; Tria, Francesca

    2012-01-01

    A new word, phylodynamics, was coined to emphasize the interconnection between phylogenetic properties, as observed for instance in a phylogenetic tree, and the epidemic dynamics of viruses, where selection, mediated by the host immune response, and transmission play a crucial role. The challenges faced when investigating the evolution of RNA viruses call for a virtuous loop of data collection, data analysis and modeling. This already resulted both in the collection of massive sequences databases and in the formulation of hypotheses on the main mechanisms driving qualitative differences observed in the (reconstructed) evolutionary patterns of different RNA viruses. Qualitatively, it has been observed that selection driven by the host immune response induces an uneven survival ability among co-existing strains. As a consequence, the imbalance level of the phylogenetic tree is manifestly more pronounced if compared to the case when the interaction with the host immune system does not play a central role in the evolutive dynamics. While many imbalance metrics have been introduced, reliable methods to discriminate in a quantitative way different level of imbalance are still lacking. In our work, we reconstruct and analyze the phylogenetic trees of six RNA viruses, with a special emphasis on the human Influenza A virus, due to its relevance for vaccine preparation as well as for the theoretical challenges it poses due to its peculiar evolutionary dynamics. We focus in particular on topological properties. We point out the limitation featured by standard imbalance metrics, and we introduce a new methodology with which we assign the correct imbalance level of the phylogenetic trees, in agreement with the phylodynamics of the viruses. Our thorough quantitative analysis allows for a deeper understanding of the evolutionary dynamics of the considered RNA viruses, which is crucial in order to provide a valuable framework for a quantitative assessment of theoretical predictions. PMID:23028645

  15. Virus Population Dynamics and Acquired Virus Resistance in Natural Microbial Communities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anders F. Andersson; Jillian F. Banfield

    2008-01-01

    Viruses shape microbial community structure and function by altering the fitness of their hosts and by promoting genetic exchange. The complexity of most natural ecosystems has precluded detailed studies of virus-host interactions. We reconstructed virus and host bacterial and archaeal genome sequences from community genomic data from two natural acidophilic biofilms. Viruses were matched to their hosts by analyzing spacer

  16. Nyamanini and Midway Viruses Define a Novel Taxon of RNA Viruses in the Order Mononegavirales

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kathie A. Mihindukulasuriya; Nang L. Nguyen; Guang Wu; Henry V. Huang; Vsevolod L. Popov; Robert B. Tesh; David Wang

    2009-01-01

    Here, we report the sequencing and classification of Nyamanini virus (NYMV) and Midway virus (MIDWV), two antigenically related viruses that were first isolated in 1957 and 1966, respectively. Although these viruses have been cultured multiple times from cattle egrets, seabirds, and their ticks, efforts to classify them taxonomically using conventional serological and electron microscopic approaches have failed completely. We used

  17. Differential diagnosis and genetic analysis of the antigenically related swine vesicular disease virus and Coxsackie viruses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Otfried Marquardt; Volker F. Ohlinger

    1995-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies directed against an isolate of swine vesicular disease virus (SVDV), characterized by virus neutralization tests and competition assays, were used to compare SVDV isolates and isolates of the antigenically related Coxsackie viruses by ELISA. Four SVDV-specific reaction patterns and one specific for Coxsackie viruses were observed. This provided a method for distinguishing between these enteroviruses. In addition, RT-PCRs

  18. A comparative electrophoretic examination of swine vesicular disease virus and Coxsackie B5 virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1977-01-01

    Summary Purified suspensions of Coxsackie B5 virus and swine vesicular disease virus (SVDV) were prepared by harvesting and purifying cell pack virus. Crossed immunoelectrophoresis was carried out with purified N and H antigen fractions (full and empty particles). Relative migration velocity (RMV) was calculated for the N antigen fraction of 3 SVD viruses (UKG72, HK71 and Italy66) and 2 Coxsackie

  19. A Fusion-Inhibiting Peptide against Rift Valley Fever Virus Inhibits Multiple, Diverse Viruses

    E-print Network

    A Fusion-Inhibiting Peptide against Rift Valley Fever Virus Inhibits Multiple, Diverse Viruses (Class I, II, and III) based on the protein sequence and structure. For Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV KW, Taylor SL, et al. (2013) A Fusion-Inhibiting Peptide against Rift Valley Fever Virus Inhibits

  20. Functional Features of Hepatitis C Virus Glycoproteins for Pseudotype Virus Entry into Mammalian Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Keith Meyer; Arnab Basu; Ranjit Ray

    2000-01-01

    We have previously reported the generation of pseudotype virus from chimeric gene constructs encoding the ectodomain of the E1 or E2 glycoprotein of hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1a appended to the trans membrane domain and cytoplasmic tail of the vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) G protein. Sera derived from chimpanzees immunized with homologous HCV glycoproteins neutralized pseudotype virus infectivity (L.

  1. Research Projects in Ly's & Liang's Labs How virus-host interactions affect Lassa and Influenza virus

    E-print Network

    Blanchette, Robert A.

    Guanarito (BSL4) Sabia (BSL4) Chapare (BSL4) Lujo (BSL4) Rift Valley Fever (BSL3) (BSL4) Yellow Fever (BSL and Influenza virus replication, virulence and pathogenesis? I fl iLassa fever virus Influenza virus #12;Lassa Virus Causes Lethal Hemorrhagic Fever · Severe multisystem syndrome · Damage to overall vascular system

  2. Structure of the hepatitis E virus-like particle suggests mechanisms for virus assembly

    E-print Network

    Tao, Yizhi Jane

    Structure of the hepatitis E virus-like particle suggests mechanisms for virus assembly (received for review May 1, 2009) Hepatitis E virus (HEV), a small, non-enveloped RNA virus in the family Hepeviridae, is associated with endemic and epidemic acute viral hepatitis in developing countries. Our 3.5-Å

  3. GENOMIC SEQUENCING OF DEER TICK VIRUS AND PHYLOGENY OF POWASSAN-RELATED VIRUSES OF NORTH AMERICA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. KUNO; H. ARTSOB; N. KARABATSOS; K. R. TSUCHIYA; G. J. J. CHANG

    2001-01-01

    Powassan (POW) virus is responsible for central nervous system infection in humans in North America and the eastern parts of Russia. Recently, a new flavivirus, deer tick (DT) virus, related to POW virus was isolated in the United States, but neither its pathogenic potential in human nor the taxonomic relationship with POW virus has been elucidated. In this study, we

  4. Full Genome Sequencing and Genetic Characterization of Eubenangee Viruses Identify Pata Virus as a Distinct Species within the Genus Orbivirus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manjunatha N. Belaganahalli; Sushila Maan; Narender S. Maan; Kyriaki Nomikou; Ian Pritchard; Ross Lunt; Peter D. Kirkland; Houssam Attoui; Joe Brownlie; Peter P. C. Mertens

    2012-01-01

    Eubenangee virus has previously been identified as the cause of Tammar sudden death syndrome (TSDS). Eubenangee virus (EUBV), Tilligery virus (TILV), Pata virus (PATAV) and Ngoupe virus (NGOV) are currently all classified within the Eubenangee virus species of the genus Orbivirus, family Reoviridae. Full genome sequencing confirmed that EUBV and TILV (both of which are from Australia) show high levels

  5. Nucleocytoplasmic Shuttling of Influenza A Virus Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jing; Yu, Meng; Zheng, Weinan; Liu, Wenjun

    2015-01-01

    Influenza viruses transcribe and replicate their genomes in the nuclei of infected host cells. The viral ribonucleoprotein (vRNP) complex of influenza virus is the essential genetic unit of the virus. The viral proteins play important roles in multiple processes, including virus structural maintenance, mediating nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of the vRNP complex, virus particle assembly, and budding. Nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of viral proteins occurs throughout the entire virus life cycle. This review mainly focuses on matrix protein (M1), nucleoprotein (NP), nonstructural protein (NS1), and nuclear export protein (NEP), summarizing the mechanisms of their nucleocytoplasmic shuttling and the regulation of virus replication through their phosphorylation to further understand the regulation of nucleocytoplasmic shuttling in host adaptation of the viruses. PMID:26008706

  6. Testing for the Hepatitis C Virus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... C Virus" /> Consumer Summary – Sept. 13, 2013 Testing for the Hepatitis C Virus Formats View PDF ( ... longer for bleeding to stop Understanding Hepatitis C Testing How do I know if I have the ...

  7. The Origins of the AIDS Virus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Essex, Max; Kanki, Phyllis J.

    1988-01-01

    States that the virus is not unique since it has been discovered in other primates as well as in man. Relates studies of viruses that indicate some have evolved disease-free coexistence with their animal hosts. (RT)

  8. Recombination Promoted by DNA Viruses: Phage ? to Herpes Simplex Virus

    PubMed Central

    Weller, Sandra K.; Sawitzke, James A.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to explore recombination strategies in DNA viruses. Homologous recombination is a universal genetic process that plays multiple roles in the biology of all organisms, including viruses. Recombination and DNA replication are interconnected, with recombination being essential for repairing DNA damage and supporting replication of the viral genome. Recombination also creates genetic diversity, and viral recombination mechanisms have important implications for understanding viral origins as well as the dynamic nature of viral-host interactions. Both bacteriophage ? and herpes simplex virus (HSV) display high rates of recombination, both utilizing their own proteins and commandeering cellular proteins to promote recombination reactions. We focus primarily on ? and HSV, as they have proven amenable to both genetic and biochemical analysis and have recently been shown to exhibit some surprising similarities that will guide future studies. PMID:25002096

  9. Autophagic machinery activated by dengue virus enhances virus replication

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Y.-R. [Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Lei, H.-Y. [Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Department of Microbiology and Immunology, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Liu, M.-T. [Tainan Hospital, Department of Health, Executive Yuan, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Wang, J.-R. [Department of Medical Laboratory Science and Biotechnology, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Chen, S.-H. [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Jiang-Shieh, Y.-F. [Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Lin, Y.-S. [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Yeh, T.-M. [Department of Medical Laboratory Science and Biotechnology, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Liu, C.-C. [Department of Pediatrics, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Liu, H.-S. [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: a713@mail.ncku.edu.tw

    2008-05-10

    Autophagy is a cellular response against stresses which include the infection of viruses and bacteria. We unravel that Dengue virus-2 (DV2) can trigger autophagic process in various infected cell lines demonstrated by GFP-LC3 dot formation and increased LC3-II formation. Autophagosome formation was also observed under the transmission electron microscope. DV2-induced autophagy further enhances the titers of extracellular and intracellular viruses indicating that autophagy can promote viral replication in the infected cells. Moreover, our data show that ATG5 protein is required to execute DV2-induced autophagy. All together, we are the first to demonstrate that DV can activate autophagic machinery that is favorable for viral replication.

  10. Evolution of Computer Virus Concealment and Anti-Virus Techniques: A Short Survey

    E-print Network

    Rad, Babak Bashari; Ibrahim, Suhaimi

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a general overview on evolution of concealment methods in computer viruses and defensive techniques employed by anti-virus products. In order to stay far from the anti-virus scanners, computer viruses gradually improve their codes to make them invisible. On the other hand, anti-virus technologies continually follow the virus tricks and methodologies to overcome their threats. In this process, anti-virus experts design and develop new methodologies to make them stronger, more and more, every day. The purpose of this paper is to review these methodologies and outline their strengths and weaknesses to encourage those are interested in more investigation on these areas.

  11. A Mediterranean arbovirus: The Toscana virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marcello Valassina; Maria Grazia Cusi; Pier Egisto Valensin

    2003-01-01

    Toscana virus (Bunyaviridae family, Phlebovirus genus) is a sandfly fever virus responsible for human neurological infections.\\u000a Sandfly viruses are transmitted by insect vectors (Phlebotomus species) and the infection is present in climatic areas that\\u000a allow the life cycle of the vector. The arthropode-borne Toscana virus is the etiologic agent of meningitis, meningoencephalitis,\\u000a and encephalitis. The frequency of this neuropathic infection

  12. SURVEY OF GRAPEVINE VIRUSES IN CHILE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Fiore; S. Prodan; J. Montealegre; E. Aballay; A. M. Pino; A. Zamorano

    SUMMARY Grapevines from six Chilean regions were surveyed for virus diseases and tested for the presence of the most important viruses. ELISA testing of 2535 samples and confirmatory RT-PCR of some ELISA-negative samples from symptomatic and symptomless vines gave the fol- lowing infection rates: 6.36% for Grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV); 4.67% for Grapevine leafroll associated virus 1 (GLRaV-1); 16.05% for

  13. Metamorphic Viruses Detection Using Artificial Immune System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Essam Al Daoud

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces a new artificial immune system for metamorphic viruses detection, the suggested system uses components and techniques found in the biological immune system such as multilayer, self, nonself , skin,skeleton, B-cell and receptors. In this study; metamorphic viruses are generated by two tools: Next Generation Virus Creation Kit (NGVCK0.30) and Virus Creation Lab for Windows 32 (VCL32). The

  14. Recent advances in oncolytic virus design

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rubén Hernández-Alcoceba

    2011-01-01

    The cytolytic properties of viruses can be used to treat cancer. Replication of certain viruses is favoured in cancer cells,\\u000a whereas others can be modified to obtain tumour specificity. This approach has evolved to become a new discipline called virotherapy.\\u000a In addition, these replication-competent (oncolytic) viruses can be adapted as vectors for cancer gene therapy. The “armed”\\u000a viruses show a

  15. Virus-membrane interactions: spectroscopic studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. P. Datema

    1987-01-01

    In this thesis some new aspects of the infection process of nonenveloped viruses are reported. The interaction of a rod-shaped (TMV) and three spherical (CCMV, BMV, SBMV) plant viruses, of the filamentous bacteriophage M13, and of their coat proteins with membranes have been investigated. A comparison is made between the infection mechanisms of these non-enveloped viruses.1 EFFECT OF PLANT VIRUSES

  16. Characteristics of Filoviridae: Marburg and Ebola Viruses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beer, Brigitte; Kurth, Reinhard; Bukreyev, Alexander

    Filoviruses are enveloped, nonsegmented negative-stranded RNA viruses. The two species, Marburg and Ebola virus, are serologically, biochemically, and genetically distinct. Marburg virus was first isolated during an outbreak in Europe in 1967, and Ebola virus emerged in 1976 as the causative agent of two simultaneous outbreaks in southern Sudan and northern Zaire. Although the main route of infection is known to be person-to-person transmission by intimate contact, the natural reservoir for filoviruses still remains a mystery.

  17. Fatal Case of Deer Tick Virus Encephalitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Norma P. Tavakoli; Heng Wang; Michelle Dupuis; Rene Hull; Gregory D. Ebel; Emily J. Gilmore; Phyllis L. Faust

    2010-01-01

    Summary Deer tick virus is related to Powassan virus, a tickborne encephalitis virus. A 62-year- old man presented with a meningoencephalitis syndrome and eventually died. Analy- ses of tissue samples obtained during surgery and at autopsy revealed a widespread necrotizing meningoencephalitis. Nucleic acid was extracted from formalin-fixed tissue, and the presence of deer tick virus was verified on a flavivirus-specific

  18. Cooperation between the Hemagglutinin of Avian Viruses and the Matrix Protein of Human Influenza A Viruses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christoph Scholtissek; Jürgen Stech; Scott Krauss; Robert G. Webster

    2002-01-01

    To analyze the compatibility of avian influenza A virus hemagglutinins (HAs) and human influenza A virus matrix (M) proteins M1 and M2, we doubly infected Madin-Darby canine kidney cells with amantadine (1-aminoadamantane hydrochloride)-resistant human viruses and amantadine-sensitive avian strains. By using antisera against the human virus HAs and amantadine, we selected reassortants containing the human virus M gene and the

  19. Class II virus membrane fusion proteins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Margaret Kielian

    2006-01-01

    Enveloped animal viruses fuse their membrane with a host cell membrane, thus delivering the virus genetic material into the cytoplasm and initiating infection. This critical membrane fusion reaction is mediated by a virus transmembrane protein known as the fusion protein, which inserts its hydrophobic fusion peptide into the cell membrane and refolds to drive the fusion reaction. This review describes

  20. Citrus tristeza virus-host interactions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) is a phloem-limited virus whose natural host range is restricted to citrus and related species. Although the virus has killed millions of trees, almost destroying whole industries, and continually limits production in many citrus growing areas, most isolates are mild or s...

  1. Immunotherapy for chronic hepatitis B virus infections

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xian-Jie Yu; Gui-Qiang Wang

    2007-01-01

    The immune system functions to control and clear virus infections. Viral persistence has been closely associated with dysfunctional specific immunity, especially cellular immunity. Current antiviral therapies have been disappointing. Immunotherapies with strategies to boost or restore the virus-specific immune response of patients with chronic hepatitis B virus infection have been proposed for curing persistent i n f e c t

  2. killed-virus influenza vaccine Polio vaccine

    E-print Network

    Shyy, Wei

    killed-virus influenza vaccine Polio vaccine FluMist Thomas Francis, Jr. National Institutes of Health live-virus influenza vaccine Hunein Maassab Jonas Salk Type-A virus trivalent cold that Maassab's innovative, trivalent, cold- adapted influenza vaccine, FluMist, which uses live but weakened

  3. Inhibition of Interferons by Ectromelia Virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vincent P. Smith; Antonio Alcami

    2002-01-01

    Ectromelia virus (EV) is an orthopoxvirus (OPV) that causes mousepox, a severe disease of laboratory mice. Mousepox is a useful model of OPV infection because EV is likely to be a natural mouse pathogen, unlike its close relatives vaccinia virus (VV) and variola virus. Several studies have highlighted the importance of mouse interferons (IFNs) in resistance to and recovery from

  4. Report on potato virus diseases in 1939

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. P. Dykstra

    1940-01-01

    This report gives a review of some of the papers on potato virus diseases published during 1939 and the latter part of I938. Not all these papers were read, and in some cases only the abstracts found in the Review of Applied Mycology were used. Dennis (8) conducted studies to determine the properties of Solanum virus 4 (= virus B)

  5. Review article Pathobiology of bovine leukemia virus

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Review article Pathobiology of bovine leukemia virus I Schwartz D Lévy URA-INRA d-Alfort cedex, France (Received 16 March 1994; accepted 25 July 1994) Summary ― Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is a retrovirus similar to the human T-cell leukemia virus (HTLV). Most BLV infected animals (70

  6. ENTOMOPATHOGENIC VIRUS FROM GLASSY-WINGED SHARPSHOOTER

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The glassy-winged sharpshooter, GWSS, has been shown to be susceptible to insect virus infections. A new virus was isolated from field caught GWSS and partially sequenced. Sequence identity showed that this was a new sharpshooter virus separate from those already reported by Hunter et. al. 2004, and...

  7. GENETIC VARIABILITY IN MAIZE CHLOROTIC DWARF VIRUS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maize chlorotic dwarf virus (MCDV) (genus Waikavirus; family Sequiviridae) is a picorna-like virus transmitted by the black-faced leafhopper, Graminella nigrifrons, in a semi-persistent manner using a virus-encoded helper protein. The MCDV genome contains one large open reading frame encoding a poly...

  8. Ubiquitous Reassortments in influenza a viruses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiu-feng Wan; Mufit Ozden; Guohui Lin

    2008-01-01

    Influenza A virus is a negative stranded RNA virus, composed of eight segmented RNA molecules, including polymerases (PB2, PB1, PA), haemaglutin (HA), nucleoprotein (NP), neuraminidase (NA), matrix protein (MP), and nonstructure gene (NS). The influenza A viruses are notorious for rapid mutations, frequent genomic reassortments, and possible recombinations. Among these evolutionary events, genetic reassortments refer to exchanges of internal fragments

  9. Taxonomic Classification of Hepatitis A Virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ian D. Gust; Anthony G. Coulepis; Stephen M. Feinstone; Stephen A. Locarnini; Yasuo Moritsugu; Raphael Najera; Gunter Siegl

    1983-01-01

    Summary Sufficient data have accumulated to permit the ICTV Ad Hoc Study Group on the Taxonomy of Hepatitis Viruses to recognize hepatitis A virus as a picornavirus. Within the family Picornaviridae, hepatitis A virus closely resembles members of the genus Enterovirus.Copyright © 1983 S. Karger AG, Basel

  10. Email Virus Propagation Modeling and Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cliff C. Zou; Don Towsley; Weibo Gong

    2003-01-01

    Email viruses constitute one of the major Internet security problems. In this paper we present an email virus model that accounts for the behaviors of email users, such as email checking frequency and the probability of opening an email attachment. Email viruses spread over a logical network defined by email address books. The topology of email network plays an important

  11. A modified epidemiological model for computer viruses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    José Roberto C. Piqueira; Vanessa O. Araujo

    2009-01-01

    Since the computer viruses pose a serious problem to individual and corporative computer systems, a lot of effort has been dedicated to study how to avoid their deleterious actions, trying to create anti-virus programs acting as vaccines in personal computers or in strategic network nodes. Another way to combat viruses propagation is to establish preventive policies based on the whole

  12. A history of computer viruses - Introduction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Harold Joseph Highland

    1997-01-01

    The following series of articles are taken from Harold's Computer Virus Handbook, published by Elsevier Advanced Technology in 1990. Viruses have moved on a long way since then, but the extracts published here provide a useful background in virus development, and contain much information that is still relevant today. It is also interesting to note that Harold introduces the Macro

  13. Current best practice against computer viruses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fred Cohen

    1991-01-01

    Summarizes research on viruses and defenses. The author examines the state-of-the-art in virus defense today and describes how normal computing activities can proceed without undue risk of substantial viral harm. He then describes a set of redundant integrity protection mechanisms used in defending against computer viruses in untrusted computing environments. They include applications of coding theory, cryptography, operating system modifications,

  14. An Abstract Theory of Computer Viruses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leonard M. Adleman

    1988-01-01

    In recent years the detection of computer viruses has become common place. It appears that for the most part these viruses\\u000a have been ‘benign’ or only mildly destructive. However, whether or not computer viruses have the potential to cause major\\u000a and prolonged disruptions of computing environments is an open question.

  15. Pairwise Alignment of Metamorphic Computer Viruses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Scott McGhee

    2007-01-01

    Computer viruses and other forms of malware pose a threat to virtually any software system (with only a few exceptions). A computer virus is a piece of software which takes advantage of known weaknesses in a software system, and usually has the ability to deliver a malicious payload. A common technique that virus writers use to avoid detection is to

  16. On the time complexity of computer viruses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhi-hong Zuo; Qing-xin Zhu; Ming-tian Zhou

    2005-01-01

    Computer viruses can disable computer systems not only by destroying data or modifying a system's configuration, but also by consuming most of the computing resources such as CPU time and storage. The latter effects are related to the computational complexity of computer viruses. In this correspondence, we investigate some issues concerning the time complexity of computer viruses, and prove some

  17. Semester Thesis Virus Inoculation on Social Graphs -

    E-print Network

    Schmid, Stefan

    led to a huge number of computer-viruses, acting in many different manners and aiming at diverse. A contaminated computer hence serves as a source for the virus to infect every other directly linked computer of the virus, every computer that eventually is infected has also to face a drawback in terms of e.g. lost data

  18. Virus detection and quantification using electrical parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Mahmoud Al; Mustafa, Farah; Ali, Lizna M.; Rizvi, Tahir A.

    2014-10-01

    Here we identify and quantitate two similar viruses, human and feline immunodeficiency viruses (HIV and FIV), suspended in a liquid medium without labeling, using a semiconductor technique. The virus count was estimated by calculating the impurities inside a defined volume by observing the change in electrical parameters. Empirically, the virus count was similar to the absolute value of the ratio of the change of the virus suspension dopant concentration relative to the mock dopant over the change in virus suspension Debye volume relative to mock Debye volume. The virus type was identified by constructing a concentration-mobility relationship which is unique for each kind of virus, allowing for a fast (within minutes) and label-free virus quantification and identification. For validation, the HIV and FIV virus preparations were further quantified by a biochemical technique and the results obtained by both approaches corroborated well. We further demonstrate that the electrical technique could be applied to accurately measure and characterize silica nanoparticles that resemble the virus particles in size. Based on these results, we anticipate our present approach to be a starting point towards establishing the foundation for label-free electrical-based identification and quantification of an unlimited number of viruses and other nano-sized particles.

  19. Open Problems in Computer Virus Research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steve R. White

    1998-01-01

    Over a decade of work on the computer virus problem has resulted in a number of useful scientific and technological achievements. The study of biological epidemiology has been extended to help us understand when and why computer viruses spread. Techniques have been developed to help us estimate the safety and effectiveness of anti-virus technology before it is deployed. Technology for

  20. Assembly and budding of influenza virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Debi P. Nayak; Eric Ka-Wai Hui; Subrata Barman

    2004-01-01

    Influenza viruses are causative agents of an acute febrile respiratory disease called influenza (commonly known as “flu”) and belong to the Orthomyxoviridae family. These viruses possess segmented, negative stranded RNA genomes (vRNA) and are enveloped, usually spherical and bud from the plasma membrane (more specifically, the apical plasma membrane of polarized epithelial cells). Complete virus particles, therefore, are not found

  1. VIRUS TRANSPORT EXPERIMENTS IN A SANDY AQUIFER

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The occurrence of human enteric viruses in ground water has been well documented in the literature. Bacteriophages, such as MS-2 and PRD1, have properties similar to pathogenic human viruses, suggesting that bacteriophages can be used as proxies for virus transport. The objective of this study is to...

  2. G to A hypermutation of TT virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masataka Tsuge; Chiemi Noguchi; Rie Akiyama; Miyuki Matsushita; Kana Kunihiro; Sachi Tanaka; Hiromi Abe; Fukiko Mitsui; Shosuke Kitamura; Tsuyoshi Hatakeyama; Takashi Kimura; Daiki Miki; Nobuhiko Hiraga; Michio Imamura; Shoichi Takahashi; C. Nelson Hayses; Kazuaki Chayama

    2010-01-01

    APOBEC3 proteins function as part of innate antiviral immunity and induce G to A hypermutation in retroviruses and hepatitis B virus (HBV) genomes. Whether APOBEC3 proteins affect viruses that replicate without a reverse transcription step is unknown. TT virus (TTV), known to present in serum of healthy individuals and HBV carriers, has a single-stranded circular DNA genome and replicates without

  3. Emerging intracellular receptors for hemorrhagic fever viruses.

    PubMed

    Jae, Lucas T; Brummelkamp, Thijn R

    2015-07-01

    Ebola virus and Lassa virus belong to different virus families that can cause viral hemorrhagic fever, a life-threatening disease in humans with limited treatment options. To infect a target cell, Ebola and Lassa viruses engage receptors at the cell surface and are subsequently shuttled into the endosomal compartment. Upon arrival in late endosomes/lysosomes, the viruses trigger membrane fusion to release their genome into the cytoplasm. Although contact sites at the cell surface were recognized for Ebola virus and Lassa virus, it was postulated that Ebola virus requires a critical receptor inside the cell. Recent screens for host factors identified such internal receptors for both viruses: Niemann-Pick disease type C1 protein (NPC1) for Ebola virus and lysosome-associated membrane protein 1 (LAMP1) for Lassa virus. A cellular trigger is needed to permit binding of the viral envelope protein to these intracellular receptors. This 'receptor switch' represents a previously unnoticed step in virus entry with implications for host-pathogen interactions and viral tropism. PMID:26004032

  4. Phylogeny of North American Powassan virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gregory D. Ebel; Andrew Spielman; Sam R. Telford

    2001-01-01

    To determine whether Powassan virus (POW) and deer tick virus (DTV) constitute distinct flaviviral populations transmitted by ixodid ticks in North America, we analysed diverse nucleotide sequences from 16 strains of these viruses. Two distinct genetic lineages are evident, which may be defined by geographical and host associations. The nucleotide and amino acid sequences of lineage one (comprising New York

  5. VideoLab:Virus Spreads Fourfold Faster

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Virginie Doceul (Imperial College London, St Maryâ??s Campus; Department of Virology, Faculty of Medicine)

    2010-02-12

    Viruses are thought to infect cells cyclically: infect, replicate, release, repeat. However, the vaccinia virus can spread four times faster than this iterative process allows (first movie clip). To explain this incredible speed, Doceul et al. found that as soon as this virus infects a cell, it directs the cell to make two crucial surface proteins.

  6. HIV-1 Pathogenesis: The Virus

    PubMed Central

    Swanstrom, Ronald; Coffin, John

    2012-01-01

    Transmission of HIV-1 results in the establishment of a new infection, typically starting from a single virus particle. That virion replicates to generate viremia and persistent infection in all of the lymphoid tissue in the body. HIV-1 preferentially infects T cells with high levels of CD4 and those subsets of T cells that express CCR5, particularly memory T cells. Most of the replicating virus is in the lymphoid tissue, yet most of samples studied are from blood. For the most part the tissue and blood viruses represent a well-mixed population. With the onset of immunodeficiency, the virus evolves to infect new cell types. The tropism switch involves switching from using CCR5 to CXCR4 and corresponds to an expansion of infected cells to include naïve CD4+ T cells. Similarly, the virus evolves the ability to enter cells with low levels of CD4 on the surface and this potentiates the ability to infect macrophages, although the scope of sites where infection of macrophages occurs and the link to pathogenesis is only partly known and is clear only for infection of the central nervous system. A model linking viral evolution to these two pathways has been proposed. Finally, other disease states related to immunodeficiency may be the result of viral infection of additional tissues, although the evidence for a direct role for the virus is less strong. Advancing immunodeficiency creates an environment in which viral evolution results in viral variants that can target new cell types to generate yet another class of opportunistic infections (i.e., HIV-1 with altered tropism). PMID:23143844

  7. Dominant resistance against plant viruses

    PubMed Central

    de Ronde, Dryas; Butterbach, Patrick; Kormelink, Richard

    2014-01-01

    To establish a successful infection plant viruses have to overcome a defense system composed of several layers. This review will overview the various strategies plants employ to combat viral infections with main emphasis on the current status of single dominant resistance (R) genes identified against plant viruses and the corresponding avirulence (Avr) genes identified so far. The most common models to explain the mode of action of dominant R genes will be presented. Finally, in brief the hypersensitive response (HR) and extreme resistance (ER), and the functional and structural similarity of R genes to sensors of innate immunity in mammalian cell systems will be described. PMID:25018765

  8. Bovine viral diarrhea virus: characteristics of the virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper reviews the history of research on bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) from their discovery in the 1940's to the design of current BVDV eradication programs. The physiochemical characteristics of BVDV are discussed and well as classification of BVDV into biotypes and genotypes. The trans...

  9. Halting viruses in scale-free networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dezs?, Zoltán; Barabási, Albert-László

    2002-05-01

    The vanishing epidemic threshold for viruses spreading on scale-free networks indicate that traditional methods, aiming to decrease a virus' spreading rate cannot succeed in eradicating an epidemic. We demonstrate that policies that discriminate between the nodes, curing mostly the highly connected nodes, can restore a finite epidemic threshold and potentially eradicate a virus. We find that the more biased a policy is towards the hubs, the more chance it has to bring the epidemic threshold above the virus' spreading rate. Furthermore, such biased policies are more cost effective, requiring less cures to eradicate the virus.

  10. Divergent Roles of Autophagy in Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Chiramel, Abhilash I.; Brady, Nathan R.; Bartenschlager, Ralf

    2013-01-01

    Viruses have played an important role in human evolution and have evolved diverse strategies to co-exist with their hosts. As obligate intracellular pathogens, viruses exploit and manipulate different host cell processes, including cellular trafficking, metabolism and immunity-related functions, for their own survival. In this article, we review evidence for how autophagy, a highly conserved cellular degradative pathway, serves either as an antiviral defense mechanism or, alternatively, as a pro-viral process during virus infection. Furthermore, we highlight recent reports concerning the role of selective autophagy in virus infection and how viruses manipulate autophagy to evade lysosomal capture and degradation. PMID:24709646

  11. Comparative analysis of chrysanthemum transcriptome in response to three RNA viruses: Cucumber mosaic virus, Tomato spotted wilt virus and Potato virus X.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hoseong; Jo, Yeonhwa; Lian, Sen; Jo, Kyoung-Min; Chu, Hyosub; Yoon, Ju-Yeon; Choi, Seung-Kook; Kim, Kook-Hyung; Cho, Won Kyong

    2015-06-01

    The chrysanthemum is one of popular flowers in the world and a host for several viruses. So far, molecular interaction studies between the chrysanthemum and viruses are limited. In this study, we carried out a transcriptome analysis of chrysanthemum in response to three different viruses including Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) and Potato virus X (PVX). A chrysanthemum 135K microarray derived from expressed sequence tags was successfully applied for the expression profiles of the chrysanthemum at early stage of virus infection. Finally, we identified a total of 125, 70 and 124 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) for CMV, TSWV and PVX, respectively. Many DEGs were virus specific; however, 33 DEGs were commonly regulated by three viruses. Gene ontology (GO) enrichment analysis identified a total of 132 GO terms, and of them, six GO terms related stress response and MCM complex were commonly identified for three viruses. Several genes functioning in stress response such as chitin response and ethylene mediated signaling pathway were up-regulated indicating their involvement in establishment of host immune system. In particular, TSWV infection significantly down-regulated genes related to DNA metabolic process including DNA replication, chromatin organization, histone modification and cytokinesis, and they are mostly targeted to nucleosome and MCM complex. Taken together, our comparative transcriptome analysis revealed several genes related to hormone mediated viral stress response and DNA modification. The identified chrysanthemums genes could be good candidates for further functional study associated with resistant to various plant viruses. PMID:25904110

  12. Top 10 plant viruses in molecular plant pathology.

    PubMed

    Scholthof, Karen-Beth G; Adkins, Scott; Czosnek, Henryk; Palukaitis, Peter; Jacquot, Emmanuel; Hohn, Thomas; Hohn, Barbara; Saunders, Keith; Candresse, Thierry; Ahlquist, Paul; Hemenway, Cynthia; Foster, Gary D

    2011-12-01

    Many scientists, if not all, feel that their particular plant virus should appear in any list of the most important plant viruses. However, to our knowledge, no such list exists. The aim of this review was to survey all plant virologists with an association with Molecular Plant Pathology and ask them to nominate which plant viruses they would place in a 'Top 10' based on scientific/economic importance. The survey generated more than 250 votes from the international community, and allowed the generation of a Top 10 plant virus list for Molecular Plant Pathology. The Top 10 list includes, in rank order, (1) Tobacco mosaic virus, (2) Tomato spotted wilt virus, (3) Tomato yellow leaf curl virus, (4) Cucumber mosaic virus, (5) Potato virus Y, (6) Cauliflower mosaic virus, (7) African cassava mosaic virus, (8) Plum pox virus, (9) Brome mosaic virus and (10) Potato virus X, with honourable mentions for viruses just missing out on the Top 10, including Citrus tristeza virus, Barley yellow dwarf virus, Potato leafroll virus and Tomato bushy stunt virus. This review article presents a short review on each virus of the Top 10 list and its importance, with the intent of initiating discussion and debate amongst the plant virology community, as well as laying down a benchmark, as it will be interesting to see in future years how perceptions change and which viruses enter and leave the Top 10. PMID:22017770

  13. Viruses and prions of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Wickner, Reed B.; Fujimura, Tsutomu; Esteban, Rosa

    2014-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been a key experimental organism for the study of infectious diseases, including dsRNA viruses, ssRNA viruses and prions. Studies of the mechanisms of virus and prion replication, virus structure and structure of the amyloid filaments that are the basis of yeast prions have been at the forefront of such studies in these classes of infectious entities. Yeast has been particularly useful in defining the interactions of the infectious elements with cellular components: chromosomally encoded proteins necessary for or blocking the propagation of the viruses and prions, and proteins involved in expression of viral components. Here we emphasize the L-A dsRNA virus and its killer-toxin-encoding satellites, the 20S and 23S ssRNA naked viruses, and the several infectious proteins (prions) of yeast. PMID:23498901

  14. Systems analysis of West Nile virus infection.

    PubMed

    Suthar, Mehul S; Pulendran, Bali

    2014-06-01

    Emerging and re-emerging mosquito-borne viruses continue to pose a significant threat to human health throughout the world. Over the past decade, West Nile virus (WNV), Dengue virus (DENV), and Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), have caused annual epidemics of virus-induced encephalitis, hemorrhagic fever\\shock syndromes, and arthritis, respectively. Currently, no specific antiviral therapies or vaccines exist for use in humans to combat or prevent these viral infections. Thus, there is a pressing need to define the virus-host interactions that govern immunity and infection outcome. Recent technological breakthroughs in 'omics' resources and high-throughput based assays are beginning to accelerate antiviral drug discovery and improve on current strategies for vaccine design. In this review, we highlight studies with WNV and discuss how traditional and systems biological approaches are being used to rapidly identify novel host targets for therapeutic intervention and develop a deeper conceptual understanding of the host response to virus infection. PMID:24851811

  15. West Nile virus in the Americas.

    PubMed

    Pollock, Christal G

    2008-06-01

    West Nile virus causes sporadic disease in the Eastern hemisphere that is often asymptomatic or mild, whereas in the Western hemisphere, West Nile virus has been associated with illness and profound mortality in many avian species. West Nile virus might have been transported to North America by an infected mosquito or the virus could have entered within a vertebrate host like a bird. Although the most important method of West Nile virus transmission is by Culex species mosquitoes, additional modes of transmission have been identified. West Nile virus has been isolated from almost 300 species of Western birds. The long-term effects on common species such as corvids, sparrows, grackles, finches, hawks, and robins are still being debated. However the potential effect of West Nile virus on small populations or species with limited geographic distribution, such as Hawaiian avifauna, could be much more catastrophic. PMID:18689077

  16. Virus-Induced Aggregates in Infected Cells

    PubMed Central

    Moshe, Adi; Gorovits, Rena

    2012-01-01

    During infection, many viruses induce cellular remodeling, resulting in the formation of insoluble aggregates/inclusions, usually containing viral structural proteins. Identification of aggregates has become a useful diagnostic tool for certain viral infections. There is wide variety of viral aggregates, which differ by their location, size, content and putative function. The role of aggregation in the context of a specific virus is often poorly understood, especially in the case of plant viruses. The aggregates are utilized by viruses to house a large complex of proteins of both viral and host origin to promote virus replication, translation, intra- and intercellular transportation. Aggregated structures may protect viral functional complexes from the cellular degradation machinery. Alternatively, the activation of host defense mechanisms may involve sequestration of virus components in aggregates, followed by their neutralization as toxic for the host cell. The diversity of virus-induced aggregates in mammalian and plant cells is the subject of this review. PMID:23202461

  17. Systems analysis of West Nile virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Suthar, Mehul S.; Pulendran, Bali

    2014-01-01

    Emerging and re-emerging mosquito-borne viruses continue to pose a significant threat to human health throughout the world. Over the past decade, West Nile virus (WNV), Dengue virus (DENV), and Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), have caused annual epidemics of virus-induced encephalitis, hemorrhagic fever\\shock syndromes, and arthritis, respectively. Currently, no specific antiviral therapies or vaccines exist for use in humans to combat or prevent these viral infections. Thus, there is a pressing need to define the virus-host interactions that govern immunity and infection outcome. Recent technological breakthroughs in ‘omics’ resources and high-throughput based assays are beginning to accelerate antiviral drug discovery and improve on current strategies for vaccine design. In this review, we highlight studies with WNV and discuss how traditional and systems based approaches are being used to rapidly identify novel host targets for therapeutic intervention and develop a deeper conceptual understanding of the host response to virus infection. PMID:24851811

  18. Xenotransplantation and Hepatitis E virus.

    PubMed

    Denner, Joachim

    2015-05-01

    Xenotransplantation using pig cells, tissues and organs may be associated with the transmission of porcine microorganisms to the human recipient. Some of these microorganisms may induce a zoonosis, that is an infectious disease induced by microorganisms transmitted from another species. With exception of the porcine endogenous retroviruses (PERVs), which are integrated in the genome of all pigs, the transmission of all other microorganisms can be prevented by specified or designated pathogen-free (spf or dpf, respectively) production of the animals. However, it is becoming clear in the last years that the hepatitis E virus (HEV) is one of the viruses which are difficult to eliminate. It is important to note that there are differences between HEV of genotypes (gt) 1 and gt2 on one hand and HEV of gt3 and gt4 on the other. HEV gt1 and gt2 are human viruses, and they induce hepatitis and in the worst case fatal infections in pregnant women. In contrast, HEV gt3 and gt4 are viruses of pigs, and they may infect humans, induce commonly only mild diseases, if any, and are harmless for pregnant women. The goal of this review was to evaluate the risk posed by HEV gt3 and gt4 for xenotransplantation and to indicate ways of their elimination from pigs in order to prevent transmission to the human recipient. PMID:25676629

  19. A virus-based biocatalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carette, Noëlle; Engelkamp, Hans; Akpa, Eric; Pierre, Sebastien J.; Cameron, Neil R.; Christianen, Peter C. M.; Maan, Jan C.; Thies, Jens C.; Weberskirch, Ralf; Rowan, Alan E.; Nolte, Roeland J. M.; Michon, Thierry; van Hest, Jan C. M.

    2007-04-01

    Virus particles are probably the most precisely defined nanometre-sized objects that can be formed by protein self-assembly. Although their natural function is the storage and transport of genetic material, they have more recently been applied as scaffolds for mineralization and as containers for the encapsulation of inorganic compounds. The reproductive power of viruses has been used to develop versatile analytical methods, such as phage display, for the selection and identification of (bio)active compounds. To date, the combined use of self-assembly and reproduction has not been used for the construction of catalytic systems. Here we describe a self-assembled system based on a plant virus that has its coat protein genetically modified to provide it with a lipase enzyme. Using single-object and bulk catalytic studies, we prove that the virus-anchored lipase molecules are catalytically active. This anchored biocatalyst, unlike man-made supported catalysts, has the capability to reproduce itself in vivo, generating many independent catalytically active copies.

  20. Who Let the Virus In?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2011-11-01

    Fifty-second monthly installment of our "What A Year!" website project, introducing life science breakthroughs to middle and high school students and their teachers. Respiratory syncytial virus, RSV for short, is so common that almost every child in the United States under two years of age has been infected once, and that half of children under three have been infected at least twice.

  1. West Nile Virus Problem Space

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ethel Stanley (Beloit College; )

    2005-12-13

    As an emerging disease in the public eye, WNV continues to generate scientific interest as well. Researchers are exploring questions about its origin, evolution, transmission by multiple vectors and host tissues, replication in multiple hosts, viremic period, viral loads, seroconversion and antibody production, detection, vaccine potential, etc. Central to these investigations are the use of molecular data including nucleic acid sequences and the use of bioinformatics. There are multiple ways this data can be used in courses. Other instructors have used West Nile Virus to: * Help students become familiar with Biology Workbench, including the use of Nucleic Acid Tools such as ClustalW and SixFrame as well as Alignment Tools such as DrawGram, BoxShade, and MView, etc. * Locate and download sequence data on line using Biology WorkBench, NCBI, and more. Edit the sequences for comparing sequence data obtained from multiple sources and/or for making shorter labels. * Learn more about the West Nile Virus, including structure of the virus, transmission cycle, replication cycle, viremia, blood titers and the disease in reservoir and incidental hosts, vectors for virus, natural history in the US and around the world, and testing for WNV.

  2. Characterization of Reemerging Chikungunya Virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marion Sourisseau; Clémentine Schilte; Nicoletta Casartelli; Céline Trouillet; Florence Guivel-Benhassine; Dominika Rudnicka; Nathalie Sol-Foulon; Karin Le Roux; Marie-Christine Prevost; Hafida Fsihi; Marie-Pascale Frenkiel; Fabien Blanchet; Philippe V. Afonso; Pierre-Emmanuel Ceccaldi; Simona Ozden; Antoine Gessain; Isabelle Schuffenecker; Bruno Verhasselt; Alessia Zamborlini; Ali Saïb; Felix A. Rey; Fernando Arenzana-Seisdedos; Philippe Desprès; Alain Michault; Matthew L. Albert; Olivier Schwartz

    2007-01-01

    An unprecedented epidemic of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection recently started in countries of the Indian Ocean area, causing an acute and painful syndrome with strong fever, asthenia, skin rash, polyarthritis, and lethal cases of encephalitis. The basis for chikungunya disease and the tropism of CHIKV remain unknown. Here, we describe the replication characteristics of recent clinical CHIKV strains. Human epithelial

  3. Oncolytic Viruses as Anticancer Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Woller, Norman; Gürlevik, Engin; Ureche, Cristina-Ileana; Schumacher, Anja; Kühnel, Florian

    2014-01-01

    Oncolytic virotherapy has shown impressive results in preclinical studies and first promising therapeutic outcomes in clinical trials as well. Since viruses are known for a long time as excellent vaccination agents, oncolytic viruses are now designed as novel anticancer agents combining the aspect of lysis-dependent cytoreductive activity with concomitant induction of antitumoral immune responses. Antitumoral immune activation by oncolytic virus infection of tumor tissue comprises both, immediate effects of innate immunity and also adaptive responses for long lasting antitumoral activity, which is regarded as the most prominent challenge in clinical oncology. To date, the complex effects of a viral tumor infection on the tumor microenvironment and the consequences for the tumor-infiltrating immune cell compartment are poorly understood. However, there is more and more evidence that a tumor infection by an oncolytic virus opens up a number of options for further immunomodulating interventions such as systemic chemotherapy, generic immunostimulating strategies, dendritic cell-based vaccines, and antigenic libraries to further support clinical efficacy of oncolytic virotherapy. PMID:25101244

  4. New vaccines against influenza virus

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Young-Tae; Kim, Ki-Hye; Ko, Eun-Ju; Lee, Yu-Na; Kim, Min-Chul; Kwon, Young-Man; Tang, Yinghua; Cho, Min-Kyoung; Lee, Youn-Jeong

    2014-01-01

    Vaccination is one of the most effective and cost-benefit interventions that prevent the mortality and reduce morbidity from infectious pathogens. However, the licensed influenza vaccine induces strain-specific immunity and must be updated annually based on predicted strains that will circulate in the upcoming season. Influenza virus still causes significant health problems worldwide due to the low vaccine efficacy from unexpected outbreaks of next epidemic strains or the emergence of pandemic viruses. Current influenza vaccines are based on immunity to the hemagglutinin antigen that is highly variable among different influenza viruses circulating in humans and animals. Several scientific advances have been endeavored to develop universal vaccines that will induce broad protection. Universal vaccines have been focused on regions of viral proteins that are highly conserved across different virus subtypes. The strategies of universal vaccines include the matrix 2 protein, the hemagglutinin HA2 stalk domain, and T cell-based multivalent antigens. Supplemented and/or adjuvanted vaccination in combination with universal target antigenic vaccines would have much promise. This review summarizes encouraging scientific advances in the field with a focus on novel vaccine designs. PMID:24427759

  5. Schmallenberg Virus Recurrence, Germany, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Wernike, Kerstin; Hoffmann, Bernd; Conraths, Franz J.

    2015-01-01

    Schmallenberg virus (SBV) emerged in Germany in 2011, spread rapidly across Europe, and almost disappeared in 2013. However, since late summer 2014, new cases have occurred in adult cattle. Full-genome analysis revealed some amino acid substitution differences from the first SBV sample. Viremia developed in experimentally infected sheep and cattle for 4–6 days. PMID:26079975

  6. Powassan virus encephalitis, Minnesota, USA.

    PubMed

    Birge, Justin; Sonnesyn, Steven

    2012-10-01

    Powassan virus (POWV) is a rare tick-borne agent of encephalitis in North America. Historically, confirmed cases occurred mainly in the northeastern United States. Since 2008, confirmed cases in Minnesota and Wisconsin have increased. We report a fatal case of POWV encephalitis in Minnesota. POWV infection should be suspected in tick-exposed patients with viral encephalitis. PMID:23017222

  7. Powassan Virus Encephalitis, Minnesota, USA

    PubMed Central

    Sonnesyn, Steven

    2012-01-01

    Powassan virus (POWV) is a rare tick-borne agent of encephalitis in North America. Historically, confirmed cases occurred mainly in the northeastern United States. Since 2008, confirmed cases in Minnesota and Wisconsin have increased. We report a fatal case of POWV encephalitis in Minnesota. POWV infection should be suspected in tick-exposed patients with viral encephalitis. PMID:23017222

  8. Molecular Characteristic-Based Epidemiology of Hepatitis B, C, and E Viruses and GB Virus C\\/Hepatitis G Virus in Myanmar

    Microsoft Academic Search

    KAZUHIKO NAKAI; KHIN MAUNG WIN; SAN SAN OO; YASUYUKI ARAKAWA; KENJI ABE

    2001-01-01

    We carried out a molecular characteristic-based epidemiological survey of various hepatitis viruses, includ- ing hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatitis E virus (HEV), and GB virus C (GBV-C)\\/hepatitis G virus (HGV), in Myanmar. The study population of 403 subjects consisted of 213 healthy individuals residing in the city of Yangon, Myanmar, and the surrounding suburbs and 190

  9. Clarification and guidance on the proper usage of virus and virus species names

    PubMed Central

    Jahrling, Peter B.

    2010-01-01

    A pivotal step in the development of a consistent nomenclature for virus classification was the introduction of the virus species concept by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) in 1991. Yet, almost two decades later, many virologists still are unable to differentiate between virus species and actual viruses. Here we attempt to explain the origin of this confusion, clarify the difference between taxa and physical entities, and suggest simple measures that could be implemented by ICTV Study Groups to make virus taxonomy and nomenclature more accessible to laboratory virologists. PMID:20204430

  10. Pathogenic Interactions Between Sorghum Yellow Banding Virus and Other Viruses Infecting Sorghum. 

    E-print Network

    Theu, M.P.K.J; Toler, R.W.

    1992-01-01

    Between Sorghum Yellow Banding Virus and Other Viruses Infecting Sorghum M.P.K.J. Theu and R. W. Toler1 Abstract A pathogenic interaction between sorghum yel low banding virus (SYBV) and maize dwarf mosaic (MDMV-A) virus was proved. Inoculation... of MDMV A 3 days before inoculation with SYBV resulted in a more severe disease and the resultant disease symp toms were different from those caused by either virus alone. Both viruses were serologically detected in a treatment in which MDMV...

  11. What contemporary viruses tell us about evolution: a personal view.

    PubMed

    Moelling, Karin

    2013-09-01

    Recent advances in information about viruses have revealed novel and surprising properties such as viral sequences in the genomes of various organisms, unexpected amounts of viruses and phages in the biosphere, and the existence of giant viruses mimicking bacteria. Viruses helped in building genomes and are driving evolution. Viruses and bacteria belong to the human body and our environment as a well-balanced ecosystem. Only in unbalanced situations do viruses cause infectious diseases or cancer. In this article, I speculate about the role of viruses during evolution based on knowledge of contemporary viruses. Are viruses our oldest ancestors? PMID:23568292

  12. Electronic Parameters of Mesoporous Silicon Upon Adsorption of Plant Viruses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuriy Vashpanov; Jung-Young Son; Kae-Dal Kwack; Seung-Jung Shin

    2008-01-01

    Changes in the electronic parameters of mesoporous silicon upon adsorption of nematodetransmitted polyhedral (NEPO) viruses of plant [tomato ringspot virus (TORSV), grapevine virus A (GVA), and grapevine fan leaf virus (GFLV)] measured at room temperature are investigated. The adsorption of these viruses affected essentially on the electronic characteristic of the porous material. The measurement of the electronic characteristics of porous

  13. SURVEY FOR VIRUSES OF GRAPEVINE IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grapevines in Washington and Oregon were surveyed for the prevalence of key grapevine viruses. Samples collected from 1522 vines in Washington were tested for Rupestris stem pitting associated virus (RSPaV), Grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV), Arabis mosaic virus (ArMV), Tomato ringspot virus (ToRSV), ...

  14. Flow cytometry assay for intracellular rabies virus detection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Juliano Bordignon; Silvia Cordoba Pires Ferreira; Graciane Maria Medeiros Caporale; Maria Luiza Carrieri; Ivanete Kotait; Hermênio Cavalcante Lima; Carlos Roberto Zanetti

    2002-01-01

    Following previous studies reporting microbiological diagnosis by flow cytometry, the possibility of using this method was examined to monitor infection of susceptible cell lines by a fixed rabies virus strain (Pasteur Virus strain—PV) or a wild rabies virus strain (WRS). Suspensions of BHK-21 and C6 cells were infected with viruses and a time course of virus infection was established. Sequentially,

  15. Genetic mechanisms of Maize dwarf mosaic virus resistance in maize

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maize resistance to viruses has been well-characterized at the genetic level, and loci responsible for resistance to potyviruses including Maize dwarf mosaic virus (MDMV), Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV), Sorghum mosaic virus (SrMV), and Johnsongrass mosaic virus (JGMV), have been mapped in several ge...

  16. A Dynamic Immunity-Based Model for Computer Virus Detection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yu Zhang; Tao Li; Renchao Qin

    2008-01-01

    Internet provides a fertile medium for new breeds of computer viruses. Many people who have access to a wealth of information via Internet are attacked by more computer viruses than they can effectively process. We present a dynamic computer virus detection model that can detect known viruses and previously unknown viruses to prevent information systems from damage. This model is

  17. Canine distemper virus in Lake Baikal seals (Phoca sibirica)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. V. Mamaev; I. K. G. Visser; S. I. Belikov; N. N. Denikina; T. C. Harder; L. Goatley; B. Rima; B. Edginton; A. D. M. E. Osterhaus; T. Barrett

    1996-01-01

    The virus epizootic which resulted in significant mortality in Siberian seals (Phoca sibirica) in Lake Baikal during 1987\\/88 was caused by canine distemper virus. Sequence analysis of the virus glycoprotein genes revealed that it was most closely related to recent European field isolates of canine distemper virus. This paper presents evidence that the same virus continued to circulate in seals

  18. Determinants of the Host Range of Feline Leukaemia Viruses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. Jarrett; HELEN M. LAIRD; D. Hay

    1973-01-01

    SUMMARY Feline leukaemia viruses of subgroups B and C multiply in human and canine cells, while subgroup A viruses do not. This host range restriction is determined by the virus envelope and operates at the level of virus entry into the cell. Subgroup A virus genomes are expressed and replicated when they are introduced within B subgroup envelopes into human

  19. Managing diseases caused by viruses, viroids, and phytoplasmas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant viruses and virus-like pathogens are of considerable economic importance in potato production. The plant viruses and viroids are small, noncellular pathogens. In contrast, phytoplasmas are cellular organisms. In this chapter, information is presented on a number of virus and virus-like pat...

  20. Intrahost Dynamics of Influenza Virus Reassortment

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Hui; Steel, John

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The segmented nature of the influenza virus genome allows reassortment between coinfecting viruses. This process of genetic exchange vastly increases the diversity of circulating influenza viruses. The importance of reassortment to public health is clear from its role in the emergence of a number of epidemiologically important viruses, including novel pandemic and epidemic strains. To gauge its impact on within-host genomic variation, we tracked reassortment in coinfected guinea pigs over time and given matched or discordant doses of coinfecting viruses. To ensure unbiased detection of reassortants, we used parental viruses of equivalent fitness that differ only by noncoding nucleotide changes. These viruses were based on the isolate A/Panama/2007/1999 (H3N2). At a dose of 2 × 102 PFU, one parental virus was absent from each guinea pig throughout the time course, indicating the presence of a bottleneck. With an intermediate dose of 2 × 103 PFU, genomic diversity present in nasal lavage samples increased from 1 to 3 days postinfection (dpi) and then declined by 6 dpi. With a high dose of 2 × 106 PFU, however, reassortment levels were high (avg. 59%) at 1 dpi and remained stable. Even late in the course of infection, parental viruses were not eclipsed by reassortants, suggesting that a uniformly high multiplicity of infection was not achieved in vivo. Inoculation with ?10-fold discordant doses did not reduce reassortment relative to equivalent inputs but markedly changed the spectrum of genotypes produced. Our data reveal the potential for reassortment to contribute to intrahost diversity in mixed influenza virus infection. IMPORTANCE Influenza virus reassortment is prevalent in nature and is a major contributor to the diversity of influenza viruses circulating in avian, swine, human and other host species. This diversity, in turn, increases the potential for influenza viruses to evade selective pressures or adapt to new host environments. As examples, reassortment was key to the emergence of the 1957, 1968, and 2009 pandemics; the unusually severe influenza epidemics of 2003, 1951, and 1947; and the rise in adamantane resistance among currently circulating human H3N2 viruses. We reveal here the diversity of viral genotypes generated over time in a host coinfected with two influenza viruses. We found that intrahost diversity driven by reassortment is dynamic and dependent on the amount of each virus initiating infection. Our results demonstrate the readiness with which reassortant influenza viruses arise, offering new insight into this important mechanism of influenza virus evolution. PMID:24741099

  1. Detection of Multiple Potato Viruses in the Field Suggests Synergistic Interactions among Potato Viruses in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Hameed, Amir; Iqbal, Zafar; Asad, Shaheen; Mansoor, Shahid

    2014-01-01

    Viral diseases have been a major limiting factor threating sustainable potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) production in Pakistan. Surveys were conducted to serologically quantify the incidence of RNA viruses infecting potato; Potato virus X (PVX), Potato virus Y (PVY), Potato virus S (PVS), Potato virus A (PVA), Potato virus M (PVM) and Potato leaf roll virus (PLRV) in two major potato cultivars (Desiree and Cardinal). The results suggest the prevalence of multiple viruses in all surveyed areas with PVY, PVS and PVX dominantly widespread with infection levels of up to 50% in some regions. Co-infections were detected with the highest incidence (15.5%) for PVX and PVS. Additionally the data showed a positive correlation between co-infecting viruses with significant increase in absorbance value (virus titre) for at least one of the virus in an infected plant and suggested a synergistic interaction. To test this hypothesis, glasshouse grown potato plants were challenged with multiple viruses and analyzed for systemic infections and symptomology studies. The results obtained conclude that multiple viral infections dramatically increase disease epidemics as compared to single infection and an effective resistance strategy in targeting multiple RNA viruses is required to save potato crop. PMID:25506305

  2. Pharmacological Inhibition of Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV)

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi, Hakimeh; Bienzle, Dorothee

    2012-01-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a member of the retroviridae family of viruses and causes an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in domestic and non-domestic cats worldwide. Genome organization of FIV and clinical characteristics of the disease caused by the virus are similar to those of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Both viruses infect T lymphocytes, monocytes and macrophages, and their replication cycle in infected cells is analogous. Due to marked similarity in genomic organization, virus structure, virus replication and disease pathogenesis of FIV and HIV, infection of cats with FIV is a useful tool to study and develop novel drugs and vaccines for HIV. Anti-retroviral drugs studied extensively in HIV infection have targeted different steps of the virus replication cycle: (1) inhibition of virus entry into susceptible cells at the level of attachment to host cell surface receptors and co-receptors; (2) inhibition of fusion of the virus membrane with the cell membrane; (3) blockade of reverse transcription of viral genomic RNA; (4) interruption of nuclear translocation and viral DNA integration into host genomes; (5) prevention of viral transcript processing and nuclear export; and (6) inhibition of virion assembly and maturation. Despite much success of anti-retroviral therapy slowing disease progression in people, similar therapy has not been thoroughly investigated in cats. In this article we review current pharmacological approaches and novel targets for anti-lentiviral therapy, and critically assess potentially suitable applications against FIV infection in cats. PMID:22754645

  3. Sumoylation of Influenza A Virus Nucleoprotein Is Essential for Intracellular Trafficking and Virus Growth

    PubMed Central

    Han, Qinglin; Chang, Chong; Li, Li; Klenk, Christoph; Cheng, Jinke; Chen, Yixin; Xia, Ningshao; Shu, Yuelong; Chen, Ze; Gabriel, Gülsah

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Viruses take advantage of host posttranslational modifications for their own benefit. It was recently reported that influenza A virus proteins interact extensively with the host sumoylation system. Thereby, several viral proteins, including NS1 and M1, are sumoylated to facilitate viral replication. However, to what extent sumoylation is exploited by influenza A virus is not fully understood. In this study, we found that influenza A virus nucleoprotein (NP) is a bona fide target of sumoylation in both NP-transfected cells and virus-infected cells. We further found that NP is sumoylated at the two most N-terminal residues, lysines 4 and 7, and that sumoylation at lysine 7 of NP is highly conserved across different influenza A virus subtypes and strains, including the recently emerged human H7N9 virus. While NP stability and polymerase activity are little affected by sumoylation, the NP sumoylation-defective WSN-NPK4,7R virus exhibited early cytoplasmic localization of NP. The growth of the WSN-NPK4,7R virus was highly attenuated compared to that of the wild-type WSN virus, and the lysine residue at position 7 is indispensable for the virus's survival, as illustrated by the rapid emergence of revertant viruses. Thus, sumoylation of influenza A virus NP is essential for intracellular trafficking of NP and for virus growth, illustrating sumoylation as a crucial strategy extensively exploited by influenza A virus for survival in its host. IMPORTANCE Host posttranslational modifications are heavily targeted by viruses for their own benefit. We and others previously reported that influenza A virus interacts extensively with the host sumoylation system. However, the functional outcomes of viral sumoylation are not fully understood. Here we found that influenza A virus nucleoprotein (NP), an essential component for virus replication, is a new target of SUMO. This is the first study to find that NP from different influenza A viruses, including recently emerged H7N9, is sumoylated at conserved lysine 7. Our data further illustrated that sumoylation of influenza A virus NP is essential for intracellular trafficking of NP and virus growth, indicating that influenza A virus relies deeply on sumoylation to survive in host cells. Strategies to downregulate viral sumoylation could thus be a potential antiviral treatment. PMID:24920808

  4. Comparison of Swine Vesicular Disease Virus and Coxsackie B5 Virus by Serological and RNA Hybridization Methods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Brown; T. F. Wild; L. W. Rowe; B. O. Underwood; T. J. R. Harris

    1976-01-01

    SUMMARY The relatedness of swine vesicular disease virus (SVDV) and Coxsackie B5 virus has been studied by virus neutralization and immunodiffusion tests and by hybridization of the virus RNAs. Clearly defined differences between the two viruses were found by the three methods. Isolates of SVDV from several countries were very closely related but could be differentiated. Recent isolates of Coxsackie

  5. Molecular Epidemiology of Hepatitis Viruses and Genotypic Distribution of Hepatitis B and C Viruses in Harbin, China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xin Ding; Hongxi Gu; Zhao-Hua Zhong; Xu Zilong; Huy Thien-Tuan Tran; Yohko Iwaki; Tian-Cheng Li; Tetsutaro Sata; Kenji Abe

    2003-01-01

    SUMMARY: We carried out a molecular-based epidemiological survey of hepatitis viruses, including hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and hepatitis E virus (HEV), in Harbin, China. The study population of 358 subjects consisted of 132 healthy blood donors and 226 liver disease patients residing in Harbin City and surrounding suburbs. The infection rate of each virus among healthy

  6. Chemical Modification of Viruses and Virus-Like Particles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Strable; M. G. Finn

    Protein capsids derived from viruses may be modified by methods, generated, isolated, and purified on large scales with relative\\u000a ease. In recent years, methods for their chemical derivatization have been employed to broaden the properties and functions\\u000a accessible to investigators desiring monodisperse, atomic-resolution structures on the nanometer scale. Here we review the\\u000a reactions and methods used in these endeavors, including

  7. Malsoor Virus, a Novel Bat Phlebovirus, Is Closely Related to Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome Virus and Heartland Virus

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, P. D.; Basu, A.; Shete, A.; Patil, D. Y.; Zawar, D.; Majumdar, T. D.; Kokate, P.; Sarkale, P.; Raut, C. G.; Jadhav, S. M.

    2014-01-01

    During a survey in the year 2010, a novel phlebovirus was isolated from the Rousettus leschenaultii species of bats in western India. The virus was identified by electron microscopy from infected Vero E6 cells. Phylogenic analysis of the complete genome showed its close relation to severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) and Heartland viruses, which makes it imperative to further study its natural ecology and potential as a novel emerging zoonotic virus. PMID:24390329

  8. Host range and some properties of Physalis mosaic virus, a new virus of the turnip yellow mosaic virus group

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Peters; A. F. L. M. Derks

    1974-01-01

    An apparently undescribed virus was isolated fromPhysalis subglabrata in Illinois, USA, and its properties were studied. The virus was namedPhysalis mosaic virus (PMV). It was readily transmitted by sap inoculation to 23 out of 34 Solanaceae tested, toChenopodium foetidum andSonchus oleraceus but not to 28 other non-solanaceous species inoculated. Purified preparations of PMV contained isometric particles of 27 nm in

  9. Malsoor virus, a novel bat phlebovirus, is closely related to severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus and heartland virus.

    PubMed

    Mourya, D T; Yadav, P D; Basu, A; Shete, A; Patil, D Y; Zawar, D; Majumdar, T D; Kokate, P; Sarkale, P; Raut, C G; Jadhav, S M

    2014-03-01

    During a survey in the year 2010, a novel phlebovirus was isolated from the Rousettus leschenaultii species of bats in western India. The virus was identified by electron microscopy from infected Vero E6 cells. Phylogenic analysis of the complete genome showed its close relation to severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) and Heartland viruses, which makes it imperative to further study its natural ecology and potential as a novel emerging zoonotic virus. PMID:24390329

  10. Powassan virus: persistence of virus activity during 1966.

    PubMed

    McLean, D M; Cobb, C; Gooderham, S E; Smart, C A; Wilson, A G; Wilson, W E

    1967-03-18

    Powassan virus isolations were achieved from three of 60 pools of Ixodes cookei ticks removed from 286 groundhogs (Marmota monax) which were collected some 200 miles north of Toronto between May 5 and September 5, 1966. Virus yields per pool of one to 11 ticks ranged from 10(2.5) to 10(6.0) TCD(50) for primary swine kidney tissue cultures, and positive pools were collected on June 24, July 15 and August 10. Powassan neutralizing antibodies were detected by mouse inoculation tests in 143 of 362 animals including 127 of 286 groundhogs, 14 of 45 red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus) and two of 31 other forest mammals. The monthly prevalence of antibody in the current season's groundhogs increased from 0 to 25% with the progression of summer, but in older animals the incidence remained between 38 and 62% throughout the season. These results substantiate earlier findings which pointed towards the maintenance of Powassan virus in nature by a cycle involving groundhogs and squirrels as reservoirs, with ticks as vectors, from which human infections occurred tangentially. PMID:6019677

  11. Powassan Virus: Persistence of Virus Activity During 1966

    PubMed Central

    McLean, Donald M.; Cobb, Cathron; Gooderham, Susan E.; Smart, Carol A.; Wilson, A. G.; Wilson, W. E.

    1967-01-01

    Powassan virus isolations were achieved from three of 60 pools of Ixodes cookei ticks removed from 286 groundhogs (Marmota monax) which were collected some 200 miles north of Toronto between May 5 and September 5, 1966. Virus yields per pool of one to 11 ticks ranged from 102.5 to 106.0 TCD50 for primary swine kidney tissue cultures, and positive pools were collected on June 24, July 15 and August 10. Powassan neutralizing antibodies were detected by mouse inoculation tests in 143 of 362 animals including 127 of 286 groundhogs, 14 of 45 red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus) and two of 31 other forest mammals. The monthly prevalence of antibody in the current season's groundhogs increased from 0 to 25% with the progression of summer, but in older animals the incidence remained between 38 and 62% throughout the season. These results substantiate earlier findings which pointed towards the maintenance of Powassan virus in nature by a cycle involving groundhogs and squirrels as reservoirs, with ticks as vectors, from which human infections occurred tangentially. PMID:6019677

  12. Kunjin Virus Replicon Vectors for Human Immunodeficiency Virus Vaccine Development†

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, Tracey J.; Anraku, Itaru; Linedale, Richard; Harrich, David; Mackenzie, Jason; Suhrbier, Andreas; Khromykh, Alexander A.

    2003-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated the ability of the vaccine vectors based on replicon RNA of the Australian flavivirus Kunjin (KUN) to induce protective antiviral and anticancer CD8+ T-cell responses using murine polyepitope as a model immunogen (I. Anraku, T. J. Harvey, R. Linedale, J. Gardner, D. Harrich, A. Suhrbier, and A. A. Khromykh, J. Virol. 76:3791-3799, 2002). Here we showed that immunization of BALB/c mice with KUN replicons encoding HIV-1 Gag antigen resulted in induction of both Gag-specific antibody and protective Gag-specific CD8+ T-cell responses. Two immunizations with KUNgag replicons in the form of virus-like particles (VLPs) induced anti-Gag antibodies with titers of ?1:10,000. Immunization with KUNgag replicons delivered as plasmid DNA, naked RNA, or VLPs induced potent Gag-specific CD8+ T-cell responses, with one immunization of KUNgag VLPs inducing 4.5-fold-more CD8+ T cells than the number induced after immunization with recombinant vaccinia virus carrying the gag gene (rVVgag). Two immunizations with KUNgag VLPs also provided significant protection against challenge with rVVgag. Importantly, KUN replicon VLP vaccinations induced long-lasting immune responses with CD8+ T cells able to secrete gamma interferon and to mediate protection 6 to 10 months after immunization. These results illustrate the potential value of the KUN replicon vectors for human immunodeficiency virus vaccine design. PMID:12829819

  13. Identification of Novel Viruses Using VirusHunter -- an Automated Data Analysis Pipeline

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Guoyan; Krishnamurthy, Siddharth; Cai, Zhengqiu; Popov, Vsevolod L.; Travassos da Rosa, Amelia P.; Guzman, Hilda; Cao, Song; Virgin, Herbert W.; Tesh, Robert B.; Wang, David

    2013-01-01

    Quick and accurate identification of microbial pathogens is essential for both diagnosis and response to emerging infectious diseases. The advent of next-generation sequencing technology offers an unprecedented platform for rapid sequencing-based identification of novel viruses. We have developed a customized bioinformatics data analysis pipeline, VirusHunter, for the analysis of Roche/454 and other long read Next generation sequencing platform data. To illustrate the utility of VirusHunter, we performed Roche/454 GS FLX titanium sequencing on two unclassified virus isolates from the World Reference Center for Emerging Viruses and Arboviruses (WRCEVA). VirusHunter identified sequences derived from a novel bunyavirus and a novel reovirus in the two samples respectively. Further sequence analysis demonstrated that the viruses were novel members of the Phlebovirus and Orbivirus genera. Both Phlebovirus and Orbivirus genera include many economic important viruses or serious human pathogens. PMID:24167629

  14. Virus population dynamics and acquired virus resistance in natural microbial communities.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Anders F; Banfield, Jillian F

    2008-05-23

    Viruses shape microbial community structure and function by altering the fitness of their hosts and by promoting genetic exchange. The complexity of most natural ecosystems has precluded detailed studies of virus-host interactions. We reconstructed virus and host bacterial and archaeal genome sequences from community genomic data from two natural acidophilic biofilms. Viruses were matched to their hosts by analyzing spacer sequences that occur among clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs) that are a hallmark of virus resistance. Virus population genomic analyses provided evidence that extensive recombination shuffles sequence motifs sufficiently to evade CRISPR spacers. Only the most recently acquired spacers match coexisting viruses, which suggests that community stability is achieved by rapid but compensatory shifts in host resistance levels and virus population structure. PMID:18497291

  15. Virus vector gene inserts are stabilized in the presence of satellite panicum mosaic virus coat protein 

    E-print Network

    Everett, Anthany Laurence

    2009-05-15

    The coat protein of satellite panicum mosaic virus (SPMV) was used to stabilize viral vector gene inserts in planta. A Potato virus X (PVX) vector carrying the SPMV capsid protein (CP) gene was successfully stabilized through three serial passages...

  16. The role of feline syncytium forming virus in feline immunodeficiency virus-mediated acquired immunodeficiency 

    E-print Network

    Zenger, Elizabeth

    1991-01-01

    THE ROLE OF FELINE SYNCYTIUM FORMING VIRUS IN FELINE IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS-MEDIATED ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY A Thesis by ELIZABETH ZENGER Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas ARM University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1991 Major Subject: Veterinary Medicine and Surgery THE ROLE OF FELINE SYNCYTIUM FORMING VIRUS IN FELINE IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS-MEDIATED ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY A Thesis by ELIZABETH ZENGER...

  17. Human and Animal Viruses in Food (Including Taxonomy of Enteric Viruses)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gail E. Greening

    1.0. INTRODUCTION In recent years, there has been an increase in the incidence of food-borne diseases worldwide, with viruses now recognized as a major cause of these illnesses. The viruses implicated in food-borne disease are the enteric viruses, which are found in the human gut, excreted in human feces, and transmitted by the fecal-oral route. Many different viruses are found

  18. Molecular Detection of Cucumber Mosaic Virus and Other RNA Viruses Based on New Techniques

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jishuang Chen

    \\u000a Plant diseases caused by viruses and related pathogenic agents bring about substantial losses in agricultural and horticultural\\u000a crops. And the study of plant viruses has contributed quite a lot to the agricultural progress and basic understanding of\\u000a plant development as a molecular standard. For example, based on a virus’s diagnosis, the omission of plant viruses from potato\\u000a and many vegetative

  19. Virus Neutralising Antibodies Against 22 Bovine Viral Diarrhoea Virus Isolates in Vaccinated Calves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Hamers; E. Di valentin; C. Lecomte; M. Lambot; E. Joris; B. Genicot; P. Pastoret

    2002-01-01

    Seven of nine colostrum deprived calves, free from bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV), were vaccinated with a commercially available vaccine containing two inactivated strains of BVDV, an inactivated strain of bovine herpesvirus-1 and modified-live strains of bovine respiratory syncytial virus and para-influenza-3 virus. The two other calves were kept as controls. The virus neutralising (VN) antibodies induced by vaccination were

  20. Systemic vaccination with inactivated bovine virus diarrhoea virus protects against respiratory challenge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. J. Howard; M. C. Clarke; P. Sopp; J. Brownlie

    1994-01-01

    Inactivated bovine virus diarrhoea virus, strain 11249nc, inoculated subcutaneously three times with Quil-A into calves protected against intranasal challenge with the same strain. Virus was isolated from nasopharyngeal swabs taken 4 to 8 days post challenge and blood taken 4 to 6 days post challenge from control calves but not from vaccinated calves. A second strain of virus, Kyl203nc, was

  1. Yellow fever vector live-virus vaccines: West Nile virus vaccine development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Juan Arroyo; Charles A Miller; John Catalan; Thomas P Monath

    2001-01-01

    By combining molecular-biological techniques with our increased understanding of the effect of gene sequence modification on viral function, yellow fever 17D, a positive-strand RNA virus vaccine, has been manipulated to induce a protective immune response against viruses of the same family (e.g. Japanese encephalitis and dengue viruses). Triggered by the emergence of West Nile virus infections in the New World

  2. Satsuma Dwarf and Related Viruses Belong to a New Lineage of Plant Picorna-like Viruses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexander V. Karasev; Sang Sub Han; Toru Iwanami

    2001-01-01

    Satsuma dwarf virus (SDV) and two closely related viruses, Citrus mosaic (CiMV), and Naval orange infectious mottling (NIMV), seriously affect citrus varieties grown in Japan and East Asia. All three viruses have icosahedral particles built of two proteins encapsidating two single-stranded genomic RNAs. The natural mode of transmission of these SDV-like viruses is unknown, and they were previously placed among

  3. Satellite RNAs and Satellite Viruses of Plants

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Chung-Chi; Hsu, Yau-Heiu; Lin, Na-Sheng

    2009-01-01

    The view that satellite RNAs (satRNAs) and satellite viruses are purely molecular parasites of their cognate helper viruses has changed. The molecular mechanisms underlying the synergistic and/or antagonistic interactions among satRNAs/satellite viruses, helper viruses, and host plants are beginning to be comprehended. This review aims to summarize the recent achievements in basic and practical research, with special emphasis on the involvement of RNA silencing mechanisms in the pathogenicity, population dynamics, and, possibly, the origin(s) of these subviral agents. With further research following current trends, the comprehensive understanding of satRNAs and satellite viruses could lead to new insights into the trilateral interactions among host plants, viruses, and satellites. PMID:21994595

  4. Determination of Time Dependent Virus Inactivation Rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chrysikopoulos, C. V.; Vogler, E. T.

    2003-12-01

    A methodology is developed for estimating temporally variable virus inactivation rate coefficients from experimental virus inactivation data. The methodology consists of a technique for slope estimation of normalized virus inactivation data in conjunction with a resampling parameter estimation procedure. The slope estimation technique is based on a relatively flexible geostatistical method known as universal kriging. Drift coefficients are obtained by nonlinear fitting of bootstrap samples and the corresponding confidence intervals are obtained by bootstrap percentiles. The proposed methodology yields more accurate time dependent virus inactivation rate coefficients than those estimated by fitting virus inactivation data to a first-order inactivation model. The methodology is successfully applied to a set of poliovirus batch inactivation data. Furthermore, the importance of accurate inactivation rate coefficient determination on virus transport in water saturated porous media is demonstrated with model simulations.

  5. Fatal case of deer tick virus encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Tavakoli, Norma P; Wang, Heng; Dupuis, Michelle; Hull, Rene; Ebel, Gregory D; Gilmore, Emily J; Faust, Phyllis L

    2009-05-14

    Deer tick virus is related to Powassan virus, a tickborne encephalitis virus. A 62-year-old man presented with a meningoencephalitis syndrome and eventually died. Analyses of tissue samples obtained during surgery and at autopsy revealed a widespread necrotizing meningoencephalitis. Nucleic acid was extracted from formalin-fixed tissue, and the presence of deer tick virus was verified on a flavivirus-specific polymerase-chain-reaction (PCR) assay, followed by sequence confirmation. Immunohistochemical analysis with antisera specific for deer tick virus identified numerous immunoreactive neurons, with prominent involvement of large neurons in the brain stem, cerebellum, basal ganglia, thalamus, and spinal cord. This case demonstrates that deer tick virus can be a cause of fatal encephalitis. PMID:19439744

  6. 21 CFR 866.3330 - Influenza virus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Influenza virus serological reagents. 866...Serological Reagents § 866.3330 Influenza virus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Influenza virus serological reagents are...

  7. 21 CFR 866.3330 - Influenza virus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Influenza virus serological reagents. 866...Serological Reagents § 866.3330 Influenza virus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Influenza virus serological reagents are...

  8. 21 CFR 866.3330 - Influenza virus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Influenza virus serological reagents. 866...Serological Reagents § 866.3330 Influenza virus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Influenza virus serological reagents are...

  9. 21 CFR 866.3330 - Influenza virus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Influenza virus serological reagents. 866...Serological Reagents § 866.3330 Influenza virus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Influenza virus serological reagents are...

  10. Virus Mutation Explains Poor Performance of Last Season's Flu Shot

    MedlinePLUS

    ... html Virus Mutation Explains Poor Performance of Last Season's Flu Shot: Study Strain of H3N2 virus that ... the virus that circulated during the last flu season. The findings were published June 25 in the ...

  11. 21 CFR 866.3305 - Herpes simplex virus serological assays.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Herpes simplex virus serological assays. 866... Serological Reagents § 866.3305 Herpes simplex virus serological assays. (a) Identification . Herpes simplex virus serological assays...

  12. 21 CFR 866.3305 - Herpes simplex virus serological assays.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Herpes simplex virus serological assays. 866... Serological Reagents § 866.3305 Herpes simplex virus serological assays. (a) Identification . Herpes simplex virus serological assays...

  13. Foot-and-mouth disease virus L peptidase

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), equine rhinitis A virus (ERAV) and bovine rhinitis B virus (BRBV) comprise the genus Aphthovirus of the Picornaviridae family. Seven genera within this family, Aphthoviruses, Cardioviruses, Erboviruses (ERBV), Kobuviruses, Senecaviruses, Sapeloviruses, and Tescho...

  14. Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccine Development

    PubMed Central

    Murata, Yoshihiko

    2009-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a clinically significant cause of respiratory tract disease, especially among high-risk infants and immunocompromised and elderly adults. Despite the burden of disease, there is no licensed prophylactic RSV vaccine. The initial efforts to develop an RSV vaccine involved formalin-inactivated virus preparations that unexpectedly caused vaccine-enhanced disease in clinical trials in RSV-naïve children. Over the last four decades, cautious and deliberate progress has been made towards RSV vaccine development using a variety of experimental approaches (Table 1), including live attenuated strains, vector-based, and viral protein subunit/DNA-based candidates. The scientific rationale, preclinical testing, and clinical development of each of these approaches are reviewed. PMID:19892231

  15. Seasonal Inactivated Influenza Virus Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Couch, Robert B.

    2008-01-01

    Inactivated influenza virus vaccines are the primary modality used for prevention of influenza. A system of annual identification of new strains causing illnesses, selections for vaccines, chick embryo growth, inactivation, processing, packaging, distribution and usage has been in place for decades. Current vaccines contain 15 µg of the HA of an A/H1N1, A/H3N2 and B strain and are given parenterally to induce serum anti-HA antibody for prevention of subsequent infection and illness from natural influenza. Reactogenicity is low and protection among healthy older children and adults is good; protection levels are generally lower in young children and the elderly. Needs include ensuring antigenic matches of vaccine and epidemic viruses each season, enhancing immunization rates, and providing new and improved vaccines and immunization approaches for the varied populations and circumstances globally. PMID:18602728

  16. [Characterization of Marburg virus morphology].

    PubMed

    Song, Jing-Dong; Qu, Jian-Guo; Hong, Tao

    2014-05-01

    Ebola virus (EBOV) and Marburg virus (MARV) belong to the family Filoviridae. Filoviruses cause severe filovirus hemorrhagic fever (FHF) in humans, with high case fatality rates, and represent potential agents for bioterrorism and biological weapons. It is necessary to keep surveillance of filoviruses, even though there is no report of their isolation and patients in China so far. To characterize MARV morphology, the Lake Victoria marburgvirus--Leiden was stained negatively and observed under a transmission electron microscope which is one of important detection methods for filoviruses in emergencies and bioterrorism. MARV showed pleomorphism, with filamentous, rod-shaped, cobra-like, spherical, and branch-shaped particles of uniform diameter but different lengths. Pleomorphism of negatively stained MARV is summarized in this article, so as to provide useful information for possible electron microscopic identification of filoviruses in China. PMID:25118385

  17. Respiratory syncytial virus vaccine development

    PubMed Central

    Hurwitz, Julia L

    2011-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of lower respiratory tract viral disease in infants and young children. Presently, there are no explicit recommendations for RSV treatment apart from supportive care. The virus is therefore responsible for an estimated 160,000 deaths per year worldwide. Despite half a century of dedicated research, there remains no licensed vaccine product. Herein are described past and current efforts to harness innate and adaptive immune potentials to combat RSV. A plethora of candidate vaccine products and strategies are reviewed. The development of a successful RSV vaccine may ultimately stem from attention to historical lessons, in concert with an integral partnering of immunology and virology research fields. PMID:21988307

  18. Eradicating Computer Viruses on Networks

    E-print Network

    Huang, Jinyu

    2012-01-01

    Spread of computer viruses can be modeled as the SIS (susceptible-infected-susceptible) epidemic propagation. We show that in order to ensure the random immunization or the targeted immunization effectively prevent computer viruses propagation on homogeneous networks, we should install antivirus programs in every computer node and frequently update those programs. This may produce large work and cost to install and update antivirus programs. Then we propose a new policy called "network monitors" to tackle this problem. In this policy, we only install and update antivirus programs for small number of computer nodes, namely the "network monitors". Further, the "network monitors" can monitor their neighboring nodes' behavior. This mechanism incur relative small cost to install and update antivirus programs.We also indicate that the policy of the "network monitors" is efficient to protect the network's safety. Numerical simulations confirm our analysis.

  19. West Nile Virus Maps - 2002

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The US Geological Survey Center for Integration of Natural Disaster Information has provided these maps of reported occurrences of West Nile Virus (WNV). "The West Nile Virus Surveillance System is intended to monitor the geographic and temporal spread of WNV over the contiguous United States." Maps include 2002 surveillance data for birds, humans, mosquitoes, sentinel chicken flocks, and data submitted by veterinarians. Maps from previous years are available, including comprehensive maps through 2000, and maps of 2001 data. It is unclear whether the 2002 maps are based on 2002 data alone, or include all data through June of 2002. Brief background on WNV and surveillance activities help make this site appealing to a broader audience.

  20. Influenza virus and neurological diseases.

    PubMed

    Hayase, Y; Tobita, K

    1997-08-01

    Influenza viruses rarely cause acute encephalopathy. Post-influenzal encephalitis, which occurs a few weeks after recovery from influenza is thought to be an autoimmune process associated with demyelination and vasculopathy. It has been suggested that Economo lethargic encephalitis followed by postencephalitic Parkinsonism was associated with the influenza A epidemic of 1918 (Spanish flu). The incidence of Reye's syndrome has markedly decreased due to the avoidance of salicylates in the treatment of influenza or varicella. One inactivated flu vaccine is thought to have caused Guillain Barre syndrome due to molecular mimicry between viral protein and myelin, which triggered autoimmune responses. The persistence of influenza virus genes in neural cells as one of the causes of chronic degenerative diseases of the central nervous system by inducing apoptosis of the host cells is yet to be proven. PMID:9316161

  1. Replication of avian influenza viruses in humans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. S. Beare; R. G. Webster

    1991-01-01

    Summary Volunteers inoculated with avian influenza viruses belonging to subtypes currently circulating in humans (H1N1 and H3N2) were largely refractory to infection. However 11 out of 40 volunteers inoculated with the avian subtypes, H4N8, H6N1, and H10N7, shed virus and had mild clinical symptoms: they did not produce a detectable antibody response. This was presumably because virus multiplication was limited

  2. Inactivation of Viruses by Benzalkonium Chloride

    PubMed Central

    Armstrong, J. A.; Froelich, E. J.

    1964-01-01

    Benzalkonium chloride (as Roccal or Zephiran) was found to inactivate influenza, measles, canine distemper, rabies, fowl laryngotracheitis, vaccinia, Semliki Forest, feline pneumonitis, meningopneumonitis, and herpes simplex viruses after 10 min of exposure at 30 C or at room temperature. Poliovirus and encephalomyocarditis virus were not inactivated under the same conditions. It was concluded that all viruses tested were sensitive except members of the picorna group. The literature was reviewed. PMID:4288740

  3. Biomedical Nanotechnology Using Virus-Based Nanoparticles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Destito; A. Schneemann; M. Manchester

    A great challenge in biomedicine is the ability to target therapeutics to specific locations in the body in order to increase\\u000a therapeutic benefit and minimize adverse effects. Virus-based nanotechnology takes advantage of the natural circulatory and\\u000a targeting properties of viruses, in order to design therapeutics and vaccines that specifically target tissues of interest\\u000a in vivo. Cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) and

  4. Newly discovered viruses of flying foxes.

    PubMed

    Halpin, K; Young, P L; Field, H; Mackenzie, J S

    1999-08-16

    Flying foxes have been the focus of research into three newly described viruses from the order Mononegavirales, namely Hendra virus (HeV), Menangle virus and Australian Bat Lyssavirus (ABL). Early investigations indicate that flying foxes are the reservoir host for these viruses. In 1994, two outbreaks of a new zoonotic disease affecting horses and humans occurred in Queensland. The virus which was found to be responsible was called equine morbillivirus (EMV) and has since been renamed HeV. Investigation into the reservoir of HeV has produced evidence that antibodies capable of neutralising HeV have only been detected in flying foxes. Over 20% of flying foxes in eastern Australia have been identified as being seropositive. Additionally six species of flying foxes in Papua New Guinea have tested positive for antibodies to HeV. In 1996 a virus from the family Paramyxoviridae was isolated from the uterine fluid of a female flying fox. Sequencing of 10000 of the 18000 base pairs (bp) has shown that the sequence is identical to the HeV sequence. As part of investigations into HeV, a virus was isolated from a juvenile flying fox which presented with neurological signs in 1996. This virus was characterised as belonging to the family Rhabdoviridae, and was named ABL. Since then four flying fox species and one insectivorous species have tested positive for ABL. The third virus to be detected in flying foxes is Menangle virus, belonging to the family Paramyxoviridae. This virus was responsible for a zoonotic disease affecting pigs and humans in New South Wales in 1997. Antibodies capable of neutralising Menangle virus, were detected in flying foxes. PMID:10501164

  5. Dose-Response Model for Lassa Virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sushil B. Tamrakar; Charles N. Haas

    2008-01-01

    This article develops dose-response models for Lassa fever virus using data sets found in the open literature. Dose-response data were drawn from two studies in which guinea pigs were given subcutaneous and aerosol exposure to Lassa virus. In one study, six groups of inbred guinea pigs were inoculated subcutaneously with doses of Lassa virus and five groups of out-bred guinea

  6. Influenza virus propagation in embryonated chicken eggs.

    PubMed

    Brauer, Rena; Chen, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Influenza infection is associated with about 36,000 deaths and more than 200,000 hospitalizations every year in the United States. The continuous emergence of new influenza virus strains due to mutation and re-assortment complicates the control of the virus and necessitates the permanent development of novel drugs and vaccines. The laboratory-based study of influenza requires a reliable and cost-effective method for the propagation of the virus. Here, a comprehensive protocol is provided for influenza A virus propagation in fertile chicken eggs, which consistently yields high titer viral stocks. In brief, serum pathogen-free (SPF) fertilized chicken eggs are incubated at 37 °C and 55-60% humidity for 10-11 days. Over this period, embryo development can be easily monitored using an egg candler. Virus inoculation is carried out by injection of virus stock into the allantoic cavity using a needle. After 2 days of incubation at 37 °C, the eggs are chilled for at least 4 hr at 4 °C. The eggshell above the air sac and the chorioallantoic membrane are then carefully opened, and the allantoic fluid containing the virus is harvested. The fluid is cleared from debris by centrifugation, aliquoted and transferred to -80 °C for long-term storage. The large amount (5-10 ml of virus-containing fluid per egg) and high virus titer which is usually achieved with this protocol has made the usage of eggs for virus preparation our favorable method, in particular for in vitro studies which require large quantities of virus in which high dosages of the same virus stock are needed. PMID:25867050

  7. RNA Virus Reverse Genetics and Vaccine Design

    PubMed Central

    Stobart, Christopher C.; Moore, Martin L.

    2014-01-01

    RNA viruses are capable of rapid spread and severe or potentially lethal disease in both animals and humans. The development of reverse genetics systems for manipulation and study of RNA virus genomes has provided platforms for designing and optimizing viral mutants for vaccine development. Here, we review the impact of RNA virus reverse genetics systems on past and current efforts to design effective and safe viral therapeutics and vaccines. PMID:24967693

  8. Detecting Unknown Computer Viruses - A New Approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Akira Mori

    2003-01-01

    \\u000a We give an overview of the tools to detect computer viruses without relying on “pattern files” that contain “signatures” of\\u000a previously captured viruses. The system combines static code analysis with code simulation to identify malicious behaviors\\u000a commonly found in computer viruses such as mass mailing, file infection, and registry overwrite. These prohibited behaviors\\u000a are defined separately as security policies at

  9. Nucleotide sequence of cassava latent virus DNA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Stanley; Michael R. Gay

    1983-01-01

    Only two groups of plant viruses, the caulimoviruses1,2 and the geminiviruses3, are known to contain a genome of DNA. Unlike that of the caulimoviruses, the genome of the geminivinises is composed of single-stranded, covalently-closed circles of DNA. There is evidence that the geminiviruses, specifically bean golden mosaic virus4 and tomato golden mosaic virus5, have a genome composed of two similar-sized

  10. Tubule-Guided Movement of Plant Viruses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christophe Ritzenthaler; Christina Hofmann

    Plant viruses move from cell to cell through plasmodesmata, which are complex gatable pores in the\\u000a cell wall. While plasmodesmata normally allow the diffusion of only small molecules, they can be biochemically\\u000a or structurally modified by virus-encoded movement proteins to enable the passage of either infectious ribonucleoprotein\\u000a complexes or entire virus particles. In the latter case, the movement protein forms

  11. NK Cells and Virus-Related Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Rabinarayan; Welsh, Raymond M.; Szomolanyi-Tsuda, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells become activated during viral infections and can play roles in such infections by attacking virus-infected cells or by regulating adaptive immune responses. Experimental models suggest that NK cells may also have the capacity to restrain virus-induced cancers. Here, we discuss the seven viruses linked to human cancers and the evidence of NK cell involvement in these systems. PMID:24941377

  12. Transgenic gene silencing strategies for virus control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. G. Dietzgen; N. Mitter

    2006-01-01

    Co-suppression of transgenes and their homologous viral sequences by RNA silencing is a powerful strategy for achieving high-level\\u000a virus resistance in plants. This review provides a brief overview of RNA silencing mechanisms in plants and discusses important\\u000a transgene construct design features underpinning successful RNA silencing-mediated transgenic virus control. Application of\\u000a those strategies to protect horticultural and field crops from virus

  13. Virus Transmission—Getting Out and In

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stéphane Blanc

    Logically, most plant viruses being vector-transmitted, the majority of viral transport mechanisms\\u000a associated to the transmission step have been approached through the study of virus-vector relationships.\\u000a However, in the case of non-vector vertical transmission through the seeds, some viruses have evolved specific\\u000a patterns to colonize either the gametes or the embryo, thereby connecting viral transport within the plant\\u000a to that

  14. Maize rayado fino virus capsid proteins assemble into virus-like particles in Escherichia coli

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maize rayado fino virus (MRFV; genus Marafivirus; family Tymoviridae) is a small spherical plant virus that contains two components: empty shells and complete virus particles (encapsidating the 6.3 kb genomic RNA). Virions are approximately 30 nm in diameter and composed of two serologically related...

  15. Incorporation of High Levels of Chimeric Human Immunodeficiency Virus Envelope Glycoproteins into Virus-Like Particles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bao-Zhong Wang; Weimin Liu; Sang-Moo Kang; Munir Alam; Chunzi Huang; Ling Ye; Yuliang Sun; Yingying Li; Denise L. Kothe; Peter Pushko; Terje Dokland; Barton F. Haynes; Gale Smith; Beatrice H. Hahn; Richard W. Compans

    2007-01-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) envelope (Env) protein is incorporated into HIV virions or virus-like particles (VLPs) at very low levels compared to the glycoproteins of most other enveloped viruses. To test factors that influence HIV Env particle incorporation, we generated a series of chimeric gene constructs in which the coding sequences for the signal peptide (SP), transmembrane (TM), and

  16. Cell Type Mediated Resistance of Vesicular Stomatitis Virus and Sendai Virus to Ribavirin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nirav R. Shah; Amanda Sunderland; Valery Z. Grdzelishvili; Ron A. M. Fouchier

    2010-01-01

    Ribavirin (RBV) is a synthetic nucleoside analog with broad spectrum antiviral activity. Although RBV is approved for the treatment of hepatitis C virus, respiratory syncytial virus, and Lassa fever virus infections, its mechanism of action and therapeutic efficacy remains highly controversial. Recent reports show that the development of cell-based resistance after continuous RBV treatment via decreased RBV uptake can greatly

  17. Multiplex Real Time PCR For Detection of Wheat Streak Mosaic Virus and Triticum Mosaic Virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) and Triticum mosaic virus (TRIMV) are widespread throughout the southwestern Great Plains states. Using conventional diagnostics such as Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays (ELISA), these two viruses are commonly found together in infected wheat samples. Methods for m...

  18. New perspectives on virus detection in shellfish: hemocytes as a source of concentrated virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    USDA ARS research indicates that circulating phagocytic cells (hemocytes) within oysters retain virus particles. We find that persistence of hepatitis A virus (HAV) within oyster hemocytes correlates with the presence of virus within whole oysters. Since bivalve shellfish have no self-nonself immun...

  19. Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Like Particles Produced by a Vaccinia Virus Expression Vector

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Velissarios Karacostas; Kunio Nagashima; Matthew A. Gonda; Bernard Moss

    1989-01-01

    Infectious retrovirus particles consist of a core structure containing RNA and gag-pol polypeptides surrounded by a lipid membrane studded with env proteins. A recombinant vaccinia virus was designed to express the entire gag-pol precursor protein of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1. Synthesis and processing of gag proteins occurred in mammalian cells infected with this live recombinant virus, and reverse

  20. Vesicular Stomatitis Virus–Based Vaccines against Lassa and Ebola Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Marzi, Andrea; Feldmann, Friederike; Geisbert, Thomas W.; Feldmann, Heinz

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrated that previous vaccination with a vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV)–based Lassa virus vaccine does not alter protective efficacy of subsequent vaccination with a VSV-based Ebola virus vaccine. These findings demonstrate the utility of VSV-based vaccines against divergent viral pathogens, even when preexisting immunity to the vaccine vector is present. PMID:25625358

  1. 72 FR 4467 - Viruses, Serums, Toxins, and Analogous Products; Detection of Avian Lymphoid Leukosis Virus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2007-01-31

    We are proposing to amend the Virus-Serum-Toxin Act regulations concerning testing for avian lymphoid leukosis in veterinary biologics to specify that the test is for the detection of extraneous replicating avian leukosis virus; require such testing to be conducted using a procedure that will detect extraneous replicating avian leukosis virus and that is acceptable to the Animal and Plant Health......

  2. Targeting CTCF to Control Virus Gene Expression: A Common Theme amongst Diverse DNA Viruses.

    PubMed

    Pentland, Ieisha; Parish, Joanna L

    2015-01-01

    All viruses target host cell factors for successful life cycle completion. Transcriptional control of DNA viruses by host cell factors is important in the temporal and spatial regulation of virus gene expression. Many of these factors are recruited to enhance virus gene expression and thereby increase virus production, but host cell factors can also restrict virus gene expression and productivity of infection. CCCTC binding factor (CTCF) is a host cell DNA binding protein important for the regulation of genomic chromatin boundaries, transcriptional control and enhancer element usage. CTCF also functions in RNA polymerase II regulation and in doing so can influence co-transcriptional splicing events. Several DNA viruses, including Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and human papillomavirus (HPV) utilize CTCF to control virus gene expression and many studies have highlighted a role for CTCF in the persistence of these diverse oncogenic viruses. CTCF can both enhance and repress virus gene expression and in some cases CTCF increases the complexity of alternatively spliced transcripts. This review article will discuss the function of CTCF in the life cycle of DNA viruses in the context of known host cell CTCF functions. PMID:26154016

  3. Salivary gland hypertrophy viruses (SGHVs): a novel group of insect pathogenic viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salivary gland hypertrophy viruses (SGHVs) are a unique, unclassified group of entomopathogenic, double-stranded DNA viruses that have been reported from three genera of Diptera. These viruses replicate in nuclei of salivary gland cells in adult flies, inducing gland enlargement with little obvious ...

  4. A comparative study of O'nyong nyong virus with Chikungunya virus and plaque variants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. C. Chanas; Z. Hubalek; B. K. Johnson; D. I. H. Simpson

    1979-01-01

    Summary Two plaque variants of Chikungunya (CHIK) virus were serologically compared with O'nyong nyong (ONN) virus in order to elucidate the reported one way antigenic relationships between the two viruses. Three different hypotheses are examined and evidence is shown to support one of them.

  5. Marburg virus-like particles protect guinea pigs from lethal Marburg virus infection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kelly L Warfield; Dana L Swenson; Diane L Negley; Alan L Schmaljohn; M. Javad Aman; Sina Bavari

    2004-01-01

    Ongoing outbreaks of filoviruses in Africa and concerns about their use in bioterrorism attacks have led to intense efforts to find safe and effective vaccines to prevent the high mortality associated with these viruses. We previously reported the generation of virus-like particles (VLPs) for the filoviruses, Marburg (MARV) and Ebola (EBOV) virus, and that vaccinating mice with Ebola VLPs (eVLPs)

  6. Origin of giant viruses from smaller DNA viruses not from a fourth domain of cellular life.

    PubMed

    Yutin, Natalya; Wolf, Yuri I; Koonin, Eugene V

    2014-10-01

    The numerous and diverse eukaryotic viruses with large double-stranded DNA genomes that at least partially reproduce in the cytoplasm of infected cells apparently evolved from a single virus ancestor. This major group of viruses is known as Nucleocytoplasmic Large DNA Viruses (NCLDV) or the proposed order Megavirales. Among the "Megavirales", there are three groups of giant viruses with genomes exceeding 500kb, namely Mimiviruses, Pithoviruses, and Pandoraviruses that hold the current record of viral genome size, about 2.5Mb. Phylogenetic analysis of conserved, ancestral NLCDV genes clearly shows that these three groups of giant viruses have three distinct origins within the "Megavirales". The Mimiviruses constitute a distinct family that is distantly related to Phycodnaviridae, Pandoraviruses originate from a common ancestor with Coccolithoviruses within the Phycodnaviridae family, and Pithoviruses are related to Iridoviridae and Marseilleviridae. Maximum likelihood reconstruction of gene gain and loss events during the evolution of the "Megavirales" indicates that each group of giant viruses evolved from viruses with substantially smaller and simpler gene repertoires. Initial phylogenetic analysis of universal genes, such as translation system components, encoded by some giant viruses, in particular Mimiviruses, has led to the hypothesis that giant viruses descend from a fourth, probably extinct domain of cellular life. The results of our comprehensive phylogenomic analysis of giant viruses refute the fourth domain hypothesis and instead indicate that the universal genes have been independently acquired by different giant viruses from their eukaryotic hosts. PMID:25042053

  7. Emergence of Groundnut ringspot virus and Tomato chlorotic spot virus in U.S. vegetable production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Host and geographic ranges, genetic diversity and thrips transmission of Groundnut ringspot virus and Tomato chlorotic spot virus isolates from the U.S. were characterized. This report provides an overview of these viruses for growers, extension workers, crop consultants and research and regulatory...

  8. Subterranean clover red leaf virus and bean yellow mosaic virus in alsike clover

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. W. Ashby

    1976-01-01

    Subterranean clover red leaf virus (SCRLV) and bean yellow mosaic virus (BYMV) were isolated from alsike clover (Trifolium hybridum L.) grown in experimental plots on the Canterbury Plains. SCRLV caused reddening of older leaves, and BYMV caused yellowing and streaking of the leaves of infected plants. Some plants were infected by both viruses. A survey in the mid-altitude zone (50D-1000

  9. Treatment of ebola virus disease.

    PubMed

    Kilgore, Paul E; Grabenstein, John D; Salim, Abdulbaset M; Rybak, Michael

    2015-01-01

    In March 2014, the largest Ebola outbreak in history exploded across West Africa. As of November 14, 2014, the World Health Organization has reported a total of 21,296 Ebola virus disease (EVD) cases, including 13,427 laboratory-confirmed EVD cases reported from the three most affected countries (Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone). As the outbreak of EVD has spread, clinical disease severity and national EVD case-fatality rates have remained high (21.2-60.8%). Prior to 2013, several EVD outbreaks were controlled by using routine public health interventions; however, the widespread nature of the current EVD outbreak as well as cultural practices in the affected countries have challenged even the most active case identification efforts. In addition, although treatment centers provide supportive care, no effective therapeutic agents are available for EVD-endemic countries. The ongoing EVD outbreak has stimulated investigation of several different therapeutic strategies that target specific viral structures and mechanisms of Ebola viruses. Six to eight putative pharmacotherapies or immunologically based treatments have demonstrated promising results in animal studies. In addition, agents composed of small interfering RNAs targeting specific proteins of Ebola viruses, traditional hyperimmune globulin isolated from Ebola animal models, monoclonal antibodies, and morpholino oligomers (small molecules used to block viral gene expression). A number of EVD therapeutic agents are now entering accelerated human trials in EVD-endemic countries. The goal of therapeutic agent development includes postexposure prevention and EVD cure. As knowledge of Ebola virus virology and pathogenesis grows, it is likely that new therapeutic tools will be developed. Deployment of novel Ebola therapies will require unprecedented cooperation as well as investment to ensure that therapeutic tools become available to populations at greatest risk for EVD and its complications. In this article, we review several agents and strategies that are now under active development. PMID:25630412

  10. West Nile Virus Neuroinvasive Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roberta L. DeBiasi

    2011-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV), first recognized in North America in 1999, was responsible for the largest arboviral epidemic of human\\u000a encephalitis in history and continues to be the most frequent cause of epidemic meningoencephalitis in North America. WNV\\u000a neuroinvasive disease (WNND) occurs in fewer than 1% of infected individuals, with presentations including aseptic meningitis,\\u000a encephalitis, and poliomyelitis. Between 1999 and

  11. Giant virus in the sea

    PubMed Central

    Claverie, Jean-Michel

    2013-01-01

    The viral nature of the first “giant virus,” Mimivirus, was realized in 2003, 10 y after its initial isolation from the water of a cooling tower in Bradford, UK. Soon after its genome was sequenced, the mining of the Global Ocean Sampling environmental sequence database revealed that the closest relatives of Mimivirus, only known to infect Acanthamoeba, were to be found in the sea. These predicted marine Mimivirus relatives remained elusive until 2010, with the first genomic characterization of a virus infecting a heterotrophic unicellular eukaryote, the microflagellate grazer Cafeteria roenbergensis. The genome analysis of a virus (PgV) infecting the common unicellular algae Phaeocystis globosa now shows that it is a bona fide member of the Mimivirus family (i.e., the Megaviridae), extending the realm of these giant viruses to abundant blooming phytoplankton species. Despite its smaller genome size (460 kb encoding 434 proteins), PgV exhibits the most intriguing feature of the previously characterized Megaviridae: an associated virophage. However, the 19-kb virophage genome, devoid of a capsid gene, is packaged in the PgV particle and propagated as a “viral plasmid,” the first ever described. The PgV genome also exhibits the duplication of “core genes,” normally present as single copies and a putative new type of mobile element. In a DNA polymerase phylogeny including representatives of the three cellular domains, PgV and the other Megaviridae cluster into their own clade deeply branching between domains Archaea and Eukarya domains, thus exhibiting the topology of a fourth domain in the Tree of Life. PMID:24563700

  12. Metamorphic Viruses with Built-In Buffer Overflow

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ronak Shah

    2010-01-01

    Metamorphic computer viruses change their structure—and thereby their signature—each time they infect a system. Metamorphic viruses are potentially one of the most dangerous types of computer viruses because they are difficult to detect using signature-based methods. Most anti-virus software today is based on signature detection techniques. In this project, we create and analyze a metamorphic virus toolkit which creates viruses

  13. Reversible Inactivation and Desiccation Tolerance of Silicified Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Laidler, James R.; Shugart, Jessica A.; Cady, Sherry L.; Bahjat, Keith S.

    2013-01-01

    Long-distance host-independent virus dispersal is poorly understood, especially for viruses found in isolated ecosystems. To demonstrate a possible dispersal mechanism, we show that bacteriophage T4, archaeal virus Sulfolobus spindle-shaped virus Kamchatka, and vaccinia virus are reversibly inactivated by mineralization in silica under conditions similar to volcanic hot springs. In contrast, bacteriophage PRD1 is not silicified. Moreover, silicification provides viruses with remarkable desiccation resistance, which could allow extensive aerial dispersal. PMID:24109222

  14. Reversible inactivation and desiccation tolerance of silicified viruses.

    PubMed

    Laidler, James R; Shugart, Jessica A; Cady, Sherry L; Bahjat, Keith S; Stedman, Kenneth M

    2013-12-01

    Long-distance host-independent virus dispersal is poorly understood, especially for viruses found in isolated ecosystems. To demonstrate a possible dispersal mechanism, we show that bacteriophage T4, archaeal virus Sulfolobus spindle-shaped virus Kamchatka, and vaccinia virus are reversibly inactivated by mineralization in silica under conditions similar to volcanic hot springs. In contrast, bacteriophage PRD1 is not silicified. Moreover, silicification provides viruses with remarkable desiccation resistance, which could allow extensive aerial dispersal. PMID:24109222

  15. Electronic Parameters of Mesoporous Silicon Upon Adsorption of Plant Viruses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vashpanov, Yuriy; Son, Jung-Young; Kwack, Kae-Dal; Shin, Seung-Jung

    2008-06-01

    Changes in the electronic parameters of mesoporous silicon upon adsorption of nematodetransmitted polyhedral (NEPO) viruses of plant [tomato ringspot virus (TORSV), grapevine virus A (GVA), and grapevine fan leaf virus (GFLV)] measured at room temperature are investigated. The adsorption of these viruses affected essentially on the electronic characteristic of the porous material. The measurement of the electronic characteristics of porous silicon can be applied to the creation of detectors for the presence of viruses in a given environment.

  16. Quantitation of Grapevine leafroll associated virus-1 and -3, Grapevine virus A, Grapevine fanleaf virus and Grapevine fleck virus in field-collected Vitis vinifera L. ‘Nebbiolo’ by real-time reverse transcription-PCR

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Davide Pacifico; Piero Caciagli; Sabrina Palmano; Franco Mannini; Cristina Marzachì

    2011-01-01

    TaqMan one-step real-time qRT-PCR assays were developed for the quantitation of Grapevine leafroll associated virus-1 and -3 (GLRaV-1 and -3), Grapevine virus A (GVA), Grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV) and Grapevine fleck virus (GFkV) in Vitis vinifera L. Virus load in the progenies of three ‘Nebbiolo’ clones planted in two experimental vineyards in Piemonte (northwestern Italy), and carrying the viruses in

  17. Infectious laryngotracheitis virus in chickens

    PubMed Central

    Ou, Shan-Chia; Giambrone, Joseph J

    2012-01-01

    Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is an important respiratory disease of chickens and annually causes significant economic losses in the poultry industry world-wide. ILT virus (ILTV) belongs to alphaherpesvirinae and the Gallid herpesvirus 1 species. The transmission of ILTV is via respiratory and ocular routes. Clinical and post-mortem signs of ILT can be separated into two forms according to its virulence. The characteristic of the severe form is bloody mucus in the trachea with high mortality. The mild form causes nasal discharge, conjunctivitis, and reduced weight gain and egg production. Conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR), nested PCR, real-time PCR, and loop-mediated isothermal amplification were developed to detect ILTV samples from natural or experimentally infected birds. The PCR combined with restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) can separate ILTVs into several genetic groups. These groups can separate vaccine from wild type field viruses. Vaccination is a common method to prevent ILT. However, field isolates and vaccine viruses can establish latent infected carriers. According to PCR-RFLP results, virulent field ILTVs can be derived from modified-live vaccines. Therefore, modified-live vaccine reversion provides a source for ILT outbreaks on chicken farms. Two recently licensed commercial recombinant ILT vaccines are also in use. Other recombinant and gene-deficient vaccine candidates are in the developmental stages. They offer additional hope for the control of this disease. However, in ILT endemic regions, improved biosecurity and management practices are critical for improved ILT control. PMID:24175219

  18. Infectious laryngotracheitis virus in chickens.

    PubMed

    Ou, Shan-Chia; Giambrone, Joseph J

    2012-10-12

    Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is an important respiratory disease of chickens and annually causes significant economic losses in the poultry industry world-wide. ILT virus (ILTV) belongs to alphaherpesvirinae and the Gallid herpesvirus 1 species. The transmission of ILTV is via respiratory and ocular routes. Clinical and post-mortem signs of ILT can be separated into two forms according to its virulence. The characteristic of the severe form is bloody mucus in the trachea with high mortality. The mild form causes nasal discharge, conjunctivitis, and reduced weight gain and egg production. Conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR), nested PCR, real-time PCR, and loop-mediated isothermal amplification were developed to detect ILTV samples from natural or experimentally infected birds. The PCR combined with restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) can separate ILTVs into several genetic groups. These groups can separate vaccine from wild type field viruses. Vaccination is a common method to prevent ILT. However, field isolates and vaccine viruses can establish latent infected carriers. According to PCR-RFLP results, virulent field ILTVs can be derived from modified-live vaccines. Therefore, modified-live vaccine reversion provides a source for ILT outbreaks on chicken farms. Two recently licensed commercial recombinant ILT vaccines are also in use. Other recombinant and gene-deficient vaccine candidates are in the developmental stages. They offer additional hope for the control of this disease. However, in ILT endemic regions, improved biosecurity and management practices are critical for improved ILT control. PMID:24175219

  19. Structural studies of Hantaan virus.

    PubMed

    Battisti, Anthony J; Chu, Yong-Kyu; Chipman, Paul R; Kaufmann, Bärbel; Jonsson, Colleen B; Rossmann, Michael G

    2011-01-01

    Hantaan virus is the prototypic member of the Hantavirus genus within the family Bunyaviridae and is a causative agent of the potentially fatal hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome. The Bunyaviridae are a family of negative-sense RNA viruses with three-part segmented genomes. Virions are enveloped and decorated with spikes derived from a pair of glycoproteins (Gn and Gc). Here, we present cryo-electron tomography and single-particle cryo-electron microscopy studies of Hantaan virus virions. We have determined the structure of the tetrameric Gn-Gc spike complex to a resolution of 2.5 nm and show that spikes are ordered in lattices on the virion surface. Large cytoplasmic extensions associated with each Gn-Gc spike also form a lattice on the inner surface of the viral membrane. Rod-shaped ribonucleoprotein complexes are arranged into nearly parallel pairs and triplets within virions. Our results differ from the T=12 icosahedral organization found for some bunyaviruses. However, a comparison of our results with the previous tomographic studies of the nonpathogenic Tula hantavirus indicates a common structural organization for hantaviruses. PMID:21068243

  20. West Nile Virus Drug Discovery

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Siew Pheng; Shi, Pei-Yong

    2013-01-01

    The outbreak of West Nile virus (WNV) in 1999 in the USA, and its continued spread throughout the Americas, parts of Europe, the Middle East and Africa, underscored the need for WNV antiviral development. Here, we review the current status of WNV drug discovery. A number of approaches have been used to search for inhibitors of WNV, including viral infection-based screening, enzyme-based screening, structure-based virtual screening, structure-based rationale design, and antibody-based therapy. These efforts have yielded inhibitors of viral or cellular factors that are critical for viral replication. For small molecule inhibitors, no promising preclinical candidate has been developed; most of the inhibitors could not even be advanced to the stage of hit-to-lead optimization due to their poor drug-like properties. However, several inhibitors developed for related members of the family Flaviviridae, such as dengue virus and hepatitis C virus, exhibited cross-inhibition of WNV, suggesting the possibility to re-purpose these antivirals for WNV treatment. Most promisingly, therapeutic antibodies have shown excellent efficacy in mouse model; one of such antibodies has been advanced into clinical trial. The knowledge accumulated during the past fifteen years has provided better rationale for the ongoing WNV and other flavivirus antiviral development. PMID:24300672

  1. Inhibition of enveloped viruses infectivity by curcumin.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tzu-Yen; Chen, Da-Yuan; Wen, Hsiao-Wei; Ou, Jun-Lin; Chiou, Shyan-Song; Chen, Jo-Mei; Wong, Min-Liang; Hsu, Wei-Li

    2013-01-01

    Curcumin, a natural compound and ingredient in curry, has antiinflammatory, antioxidant, and anticarcinogenic properties. Previously, we reported that curcumin abrogated influenza virus infectivity by inhibiting hemagglutination (HA) activity. This study demonstrates a novel mechanism by which curcumin inhibits the infectivity of enveloped viruses. In all analyzed enveloped viruses, including the influenza virus, curcumin inhibited plaque formation. In contrast, the nonenveloped enterovirus 71 remained unaffected by curcumin treatment. We evaluated the effects of curcumin on the membrane structure using fluorescent dye (sulforhodamine B; SRB)-containing liposomes that mimic the viral envelope. Curcumin treatment induced the leakage of SRB from these liposomes and the addition of the influenza virus reduced the leakage, indicating that curcumin disrupts the integrity of the membranes of viral envelopes and of liposomes. When testing liposomes of various diameters, we detected higher levels of SRB leakage from the smaller-sized liposomes than from the larger liposomes. Interestingly, the curcumin concentration required to reduce plaque formation was lower for the influenza virus (approximately 100 nm in diameter) than for the pseudorabies virus (approximately 180 nm) and the vaccinia virus (roughly 335 × 200 × 200 nm). These data provide insights on the molecular antiviral mechanisms of curcumin and its potential use as an antiviral agent for enveloped viruses. PMID:23658730

  2. Structural and Functional Studies of Archaeal Viruses*

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, C. Martin; Menon, Smita; Eilers, Brian J.; Bothner, Brian; Khayat, Reza; Douglas, Trevor; Young, Mark J.

    2009-01-01

    Viruses populate virtually every ecosystem on the planet, including the extreme acidic, thermal, and saline environments where archaeal organisms can dominate. For example, recent studies have identified crenarchaeal viruses in the hot springs of Yellowstone National Park and other high temperature environments worldwide. These viruses are often morphologically and genetically unique, with genomes that show little similarity to genes of known function, complicating efforts to understand their viral life cycles. Here, we review progress in understanding these fascinating viruses at the molecular level and the evolutionary insights coming from these studies. PMID:19158076

  3. Viruses: Making Friends with Old Foes

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Trevor Douglas (Montana State University; Center for Bio-Inspired Nanomaterials)

    2006-05-12

    Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required: The study of viruses has traditionally focused on their roles as infectious agents and as tools for understanding cell biology. Viruses are now finding a new expanded role as nanoplatforms with applications in materials science and medicine. Viruses form highly symmetrical monodisperse architectures and are ideal templates for engineering multifunctionality, including multivalent display of surface ligands and encapsulation of inorganic and organic materials. These developments assure that viruses will find applications as versatile nanoscale materials.

  4. Flexible filamentous virus structure from fiber diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Stubbs, Gerald; Kendall, Amy; McDonald, Michele; Bian, Wen; Bowles, Timothy; Baumgarten, Sarah; McCullough, Ian; Shi, Jian; Stewart, Phoebe; Bullitt, Esther; Gore, David; Ghabrial, Said (IIT); (BU-M); (Vanderbilt); (Kentucky)

    2008-10-24

    Fiber diffraction data have been obtained from Narcissus mosaic virus, a potexvirus from the family Flexiviridae, and soybean mosaic virus (SMV), a potyvirus from the family Potyviridae. Analysis of the data in conjunction with cryo-electron microscopy data allowed us to determine the symmetry of the viruses and to make reconstructions of SMV at 19 {angstrom} resolution and of another potexvirus, papaya mosaic virus, at 18 {angstrom} resolution. These data include the first well-ordered data ever obtained for the potyviruses and the best-ordered data from the potexviruses, and offer the promise of eventual high resolution structure determinations.

  5. Neutralizing Antibody Response to Hepatitis C Virus

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yong; Keck, Zhen-Yong; Foung, Steven K. H.

    2011-01-01

    A critical first step in a “rational vaccine design” approach for hepatitis C virus (HCV) is to identify the most relevant mechanisms of immune protection. Emerging evidence provides support for a protective role of virus neutralizing antibodies, and the ability of the B cell response to modify the course of acute HCV infection. This has been made possible by the development of in vitro cell culture models, based on HCV retroviral pseudotype particles expressing E1E2 and infectious cell culture-derived HCV virions, and small animal models that are robust tools in studies of antibody-mediated virus neutralization. This review is focused on the immunogenic determinants on the E2 glycoprotein mediating virus neutralization and the pathways in which the virus is able to escape from immune containment. Encouraging findings from recent studies provide support for the existence of broadly neutralization antibodies that are not associated with virus escape. The identification of conserved epitopes mediating virus neutralization that are not associated with virus escape will facilitate the design of a vaccine immunogen capable of eliciting broadly neutralizing antibodies against this highly diverse virus. PMID:22163337

  6. [Rift Valley fever virus: evolution in progress].

    PubMed

    Tolou, H; Plumet, S; Leparc-Goffart, I; Couissinier-Paris, P

    2009-06-01

    Several viruses now circulating in tropical zones around the globe are potential threats for ever-increasing human populations even in temperate zones that have long remained unaffected. The mechanisms underlying transport and transmission, which can be enhanced by human activity, can be even stronger in zones where factors needed to support development of these viruses, i.e., hosts, reservoirs and vectors, are already present. This possibility has been illustrated by dengue virus, and now by the rapid spread of the Chikungunya virus on Reunion Island in 2005 and then in Italy in 2007. The spreading of Chikungunya virus despite its mild reputation had a major unexpected impact. It showed that the evolution of the virus, whether a cause or consequence of observed events, could be determinant. The risk of extension of more pathogenic viruses due to similar mechanisms must be considered as a possibility. In this regard the Rift Valley fever virus, that already involves a large area and has a major reservoir, is one of the viruses that deserves close surveillance. PMID:19702138

  7. Control of sweet potato virus diseases.

    PubMed

    Loebenstein, Gad

    2015-01-01

    Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) is ranked seventh in global food crop production and is the third most important root crop after potato and cassava. Sweet potatoes are vegetative propagated from vines, root slips (sprouts), or tubers. Therefore, virus diseases can be a major constrain, reducing yields markedly, often more than 50%. The main viruses worldwide are Sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV) and Sweet potato chlorotic stunt virus (SPCSV). Effects on yields by SPFMV or SPCSV alone are minor, or but in complex infection by the two or other viruses yield losses of 50%. The orthodox way of controlling viruses in vegetative propagated crops is by supplying the growers with virus-tested planting material. High-yielding plants are tested for freedom of viruses by PCR, serology, and grafting to sweet potato virus indicator plants. After this, meristem tips are taken from those plants that reacted negative. The meristems were grown into plants which were kept under insect-proof conditions and away from other sweet potato material for distribution to farmers after another cycle of reproduction. PMID:25591876

  8. The nucleolar interface of RNA viruses.

    PubMed

    Rawlinson, Stephen M; Moseley, Gregory W

    2015-08-01

    In recent years, understanding of the nucleolus has undergone a renaissance. Once considered primarily as the sites of ribosome biogenesis, nucleoli are now understood to be highly dynamic, multifunctional structures that participate in a plethora of cellular functions including regulation of the cell cycle, signal recognition particle assembly, apoptosis and stress responses. Although the molecular/mechanistic details of many of these functions remain only partially resolved, it is becoming increasingly apparent that nucleoli are also common targets of almost all types of viruses, potentially allowing viruses to manipulate cellular responses and the intracellular environment to facilitate replication and propagation. Importantly, a number of recent studies have moved beyond early descriptive observations to identify key roles for nucleolar interactions in the viral life cycle and pathogenesis. While it is perhaps unsurprising that many viruses that replicate within the nucleus also form interactions with nucleoli, the roles of nucleoli in the biology of cytoplasmic viruses is less intuitive. Nevertheless, a number of positive-stranded RNA viruses that replicate exclusively in the cytoplasm are known to express proteins that enter the nucleus and target nucleoli, and recent data have indicated similar processes in several cytoplasmic negative-sense RNA viruses. Here, we review this emerging aspect of the virus-host interface with a focus on examples where virus-nucleolus interactions have been linked to specific functional outcomes/mechanistic processes in infection and on the nucleolar interfaces formed by viruses that replicate exclusively in the cytoplasm. PMID:26041433

  9. Viruses as Modulators of Mitochondrial Functions

    PubMed Central

    Anand, Sanjeev K.; Tikoo, Suresh K.

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondria are multifunctional organelles with diverse roles including energy production and distribution, apoptosis, eliciting host immune response, and causing diseases and aging. Mitochondria-mediated immune responses might be an evolutionary adaptation by which mitochondria might have prevented the entry of invading microorganisms thus establishing them as an integral part of the cell. This makes them a target for all the invading pathogens including viruses. Viruses either induce or inhibit various mitochondrial processes in a highly specific manner so that they can replicate and produce progeny. Some viruses encode the Bcl2 homologues to counter the proapoptotic functions of the cellular and mitochondrial proteins. Others modulate the permeability transition pore and either prevent or induce the release of the apoptotic proteins from the mitochondria. Viruses like Herpes simplex virus 1 deplete the host mitochondrial DNA and some, like human immunodeficiency virus, hijack the host mitochondrial proteins to function fully inside the host cell. All these processes involve the participation of cellular proteins, mitochondrial proteins, and virus specific proteins. This review will summarize the strategies employed by viruses to utilize cellular mitochondria for successful multiplication and production of progeny virus. PMID:24260034

  10. RNA Viruses: ROS-Mediated Cell Death

    PubMed Central

    Reshi, Mohammad Latif; Su, Yi-Che; Hong, Jiann-Ruey

    2014-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are well known for being both beneficial and deleterious. The main thrust of this review is to investigate the role of ROS in ribonucleic acid (RNA) virus pathogenesis. Much evidences has accumulated over the past decade, suggesting that patients infected with RNA viruses are under chronic oxidative stress. Changes to the body's antioxidant defense system, in relation to SOD, ascorbic acid, selenium, carotenoids, and glutathione, have been reported in various tissues of RNA-virus infected patients. This review focuses on RNA viruses and retroviruses, giving particular attention to the human influenza virus, Hepatitis c virus (HCV), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and the aquatic Betanodavirus. Oxidative stress via RNA virus infections can contribute to several aspects of viral disease pathogenesis including apoptosis, loss of immune function, viral replication, inflammatory response, and loss of body weight. We focus on how ROS production is correlated with host cell death. Moreover, ROS may play an important role as a signal molecule in the regulation of viral replication and organelle function, potentially providing new insights in the prevention and treatment of RNA viruses and retrovirus infections. PMID:24899897

  11. Infectivity of rabies virus-exposed macrophages.

    PubMed

    Nazé, Florence; Suin, Vanessa; Lamoral, Sophie; Francart, Aurélie; Brochier, Bernard; Roels, Stefan; Mast, Jan; Kalai, Michael; Van Gucht, Steven

    2013-02-01

    Rabies virus distributes widely in infected mice, including lymphoid tissues and spleen macrophages. The infection characteristics in murine macrophages and the infectivity of virus-exposed macrophages were examined upon inoculation in mice. In vitro, Mf4/4 spleen macrophages supported mild virus production (10(4)-fold less than neuroblastoma), with formation of typical virions. Bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMM) were most efficient to capture virus, but new virus production was not detected. Virus-induced cell death was significantly stronger in BMM, which might have eliminated BMM with productive infection. Still, viral RNA remained detectable in the remaining BMM for at least 4 weeks. Injection of in vitro-infected Mf4/4 in the nose or brain proved efficient to propagate infection in mice, even when cells were pre-incubated with neutralizing antibodies. Surprisingly, injection of ex-vivo-infected BMM in the brain also led to lethal infection in 8 out of 12 mice. Injection of infected Mf4/4 in the muscle mostly favoured a protective antibody response. Despite that macrophages are less fit to support virus production, they can still act as a source of infectious virus upon transfer in mice. This may be relevant for screening donor organs/cells, for which RT-PCR should be preferred over the traditional antigen or virus isolation assays. PMID:23159243

  12. Isolation of influenza viruses in MDCK 33016PF cells and clearance of contaminating respiratory viruses.

    PubMed

    Roth, Bernhard; Mohr, Hannah; Enders, Martin; Garten, Wolfgang; Gregersen, Jens-Peter

    2012-01-11

    This paper summarizes results obtained by multiplex PCR screening of human clinical samples for respiratory viruses and corresponding data obtained after passaging of virus-positive samples in MDCK 33016PF cells. Using the ResPlexII v2.0 (Qiagen) multiplex PCR, 393 positive results were obtained in 468 clinical samples collected during an influenza season in Germany. The overall distribution of positive results was influenza A 42.0%, influenza B 38.7%, adenovirus 1.5%, bocavirus 0.5%, coronavirus 3.3%, enterovirus 5.6%, metapneumovirus 1.0%, parainfluenza virus 0.8%, rhinovirus 4.1%, and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) 2.5%. Double infections of influenza virus together with another virus were found for adenovirus B and E, bocavirus, coronavirus, enterovirus and for rhinovirus. These other viruses were rapidly lost upon passages in MDCK 33016PF cells and under conditions as applied to influenza virus passaging. Clinical samples, in which no influenza virus but other viruses were found, were also subject to passages in MDCK 33016PF cells. Using lower inoculum dilutions than those normally applied for preparations containing influenza virus (total dilution of the original sample of ?10(4)), the positive results for the different viruses turned negative already after 2 or 3 passages in MDCK 33016PF cells. These results demonstrate that, under practical conditions as applied to grow influenza viruses, contaminating viruses can be effectively removed by passages in MDCK cells. In combination with their superior isolation efficiency, MDCK cells appear highly suitable to be used as an alternative to embryonated eggs to isolate and propagate influenza vaccine candidate viruses. PMID:22119922

  13. Upolu virus and Aransas Bay virus, Two Presumptive Bunyaviruses, Are Novel Members of the Family Orthomyxoviridae

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhary, Rashmi; Travassos da Rosa, Amelia; Hutchison, Stephen K.; Popov, Vsevolod; Street, Craig; Tesh, Robert B.; Lipkin, W. Ian

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Emerging and zoonotic pathogens pose continuing threats to human health and ongoing challenges to diagnostics. As nucleic acid tests are playing increasingly prominent roles in diagnostics, the genetic characterization of molecularly uncharacterized agents is expected to significantly enhance detection and surveillance capabilities. We report the identification of two previously unrecognized members of the family Orthomyxoviridae, which includes the influenza viruses and the tick-transmitted Thogoto and Dhori viruses. We provide morphological, serologic, and genetic evidence that Upolu virus (UPOV) from Australia and Aransas Bay virus (ABV) from North America, both previously considered potential bunyaviruses based on electron microscopy and physicochemical features, are orthomyxoviruses instead. Their genomes show up to 68% nucleotide sequence identity to Thogoto virus (segment 2; ?74% at the amino acid level) and a more distant relationship to Dhori virus, the two prototype viruses of the recognized species of the genus Thogotovirus. Despite sequence similarity, the coding potentials of UPOV and ABV differed from that of Thogoto virus, instead being like that of Dhori virus. Our findings suggest that the tick-transmitted viruses UPOV and ABV represent geographically distinct viruses in the genus Thogotovirus of the family Orthomyxoviridae that do not fit in the two currently recognized species of this genus. IMPORTANCE Upolu virus (UPOV) and Aransas Bay virus (ABV) are shown to be orthomyxoviruses instead of bunyaviruses, as previously thought. Genetic characterization and adequate classification of agents are paramount in this molecular age to devise appropriate surveillance and diagnostics. Although more closely related to Thogoto virus by sequence, UPOV and ABV differ in their coding potentials by lacking a proposed pathogenicity factor. In this respect, they are similar to Dhori virus, which, despite the lack of a pathogenicity factor, can cause disease. These findings enable further studies into the evolution and pathogenicity of orthomyxoviruses. PMID:24574415

  14. Characterization of uncultivable bat influenza virus using a replicative synthetic virus.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Bin; Ma, Jingjiao; Liu, Qinfang; Bawa, Bhupinder; Wang, Wei; Shabman, Reed S; Duff, Michael; Lee, Jinhwa; Lang, Yuekun; Cao, Nan; Nagy, Abdou; Lin, Xudong; Stockwell, Timothy B; Richt, Juergen A; Wentworth, David E; Ma, Wenjun

    2014-10-01

    Bats harbor many viruses, which are periodically transmitted to humans resulting in outbreaks of disease (e.g., Ebola, SARS-CoV). Recently, influenza virus-like sequences were identified in bats; however, the viruses could not be cultured. This discovery aroused great interest in understanding the evolutionary history and pandemic potential of bat-influenza. Using synthetic genomics, we were unable to rescue the wild type bat virus, but could rescue a modified bat-influenza virus that had the HA and NA coding regions replaced with those of A/PR/8/1934 (H1N1). This modified bat-influenza virus replicated efficiently in vitro and in mice, resulting in severe disease. Additional studies using a bat-influenza virus that had the HA and NA of A/swine/Texas/4199-2/1998 (H3N2) showed that the PR8 HA and NA contributed to the pathogenicity in mice. Unlike other influenza viruses, engineering truncations hypothesized to reduce interferon antagonism into the NS1 protein didn't attenuate bat-influenza. In contrast, substitution of a putative virulence mutation from the bat-influenza PB2 significantly attenuated the virus in mice and introduction of a putative virulence mutation increased its pathogenicity. Mini-genome replication studies and virus reassortment experiments demonstrated that bat-influenza has very limited genetic and protein compatibility with Type A or Type B influenza viruses, yet it readily reassorts with another divergent bat-influenza virus, suggesting that the bat-influenza lineage may represent a new Genus/Species within the Orthomyxoviridae family. Collectively, our data indicate that the bat-influenza viruses recently identified are authentic viruses that pose little, if any, pandemic threat to humans; however, they provide new insights into the evolution and basic biology of influenza viruses. PMID:25275541

  15. Pathogenic Interactions Between Sorghum Yellow Banding Virus and Other Viruses Infecting Sorghum.

    E-print Network

    Theu, M.P.K.J; Toler, R.W.

    1992-01-01

    Between Sorghum Yellow Banding Virus and Other Viruses Infecting Sorghum M.P.K.J. Theu and R. W. Toler1 Abstract A pathogenic interaction between sorghum yel low banding virus (SYBV) and maize dwarf mosaic (MDMV-A) virus was proved. Inoculation..., MDMV-A was the only virus that was serologically detected. SYBV infected root tissue revealed the presence of SYBV particles in the mitochondria and not in the nucleus. Maize dwarf mosaic strain 0 also produced a patho genic synergistic interaction...

  16. Detection of Vaccinia Virus DNA, but not Infectious Virus, in the Blood of Smallpox Vaccine Recipients

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Jeffrey I.; Hohman, Patricia; Preuss, Jeanne C.; Li, Li; Fischer, Steven H.; Fedorko, Daniel P.

    2007-01-01

    The authors of a recent study suggested that the duration of deferral for blood donations by smallpox vaccinees should be extended, based on detection of vaccinia virus DNA in 5 blood samples by PCR and the potential for viremia. We found that 4 of 202 blood specimens (from 3 of 27 smallpox vaccinees) were positive for vaccinia virus DNA by PCR; none were positive for virus by culture. Throat swabs were negative by PCR and culture. Thus, while some blood specimens contained vaccinia virus DNA, infectious virus was not detected. Current guidelines for deferral of blood donation in vaccinees seem appropriate. PMID:17493714

  17. Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) resistance in transgenic citrus based on virus challenge of protoplasts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. Olivares-Fuster; G. H. Fleming; M. R. Albiach-Marti; S. Gowda; W. O. Dawson; J. W. Crosser

    2003-01-01

    Summary  A strategy for the sereening of candidate virus-derived sequences to provide RNA-mediated citrus tristeza virus (CTV) resistance\\u000a and early selection of virus-resistant citrus is presented. The system is based on the polyethylene glycol-(PEG) mediated\\u000a cotransformation of protoplasts using virus-derived sequences and green fluorescent protein as a single selectable marker,\\u000a followed by an in vitro assay of virus inoculation into transgenic

  18. Characterization of the Early Steps of Hepatitis C Virus Infection by Using Luciferase Reporter Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Koutsoudakis, George; Kaul, Artur; Steinmann, Eike; Kallis, Stephanie; Lohmann, Volker; Pietschmann, Thomas; Bartenschlager, Ralf

    2006-01-01

    The lack of an efficient system to produce hepatitis C virus (HCV) particles has impeded the analysis of the HCV life cycle. Recently, we along with others demonstrated that transfection of Huh7 hepatoma cells with a novel HCV isolate (JFH1) yields infectious viruses. To facilitate studies of HCV replication, we generated JFH1-based bicistronic luciferase reporter virus genomes. We found that RNA replication of the reporter construct was only slightly attenuated and that virus titers produced were only three- to fivefold lower compared to the parental virus, making these reporter viruses an ideal tool for quantitative analyses of HCV infections. To expand the scope of the system, we created two chimeric JFH1 luciferase reporter viruses with structural proteins from the Con1 (genotype 1b) and J6CF (genotype 2a) strains. Using these and the authentic JFH1 reporter viruses, we analyzed the early steps of the HCV life cycle. Our data show that the mode of virus entry is conserved between these isolates and involves CD81 as a key receptor for pH-dependent virus entry. Competition studies and time course experiments suggest that interactions of HCV with cell surface-resident glycosaminoglycans aid in efficient infection of Huh7 cells and that CD81 acts during a postattachment step. The reporter viruses described here should be instrumental for investigating the viral life cycle and for the development of HCV inhibitors. PMID:16699011

  19. Animal Viruses Probe dataset (AVPDS) for microarray-based diagnosis and identification of viruses.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Brijesh S; Pokhriyal, Mayank; Vasishtha, Dinesh P; Sharma, Bhaskar

    2014-03-01

    AVPDS (Animal Viruses Probe dataset) is a dataset of virus-specific and conserve oligonucleotides for identification and diagnosis of viruses infecting animals. The current dataset contain 20,619 virus specific probes for 833 viruses and their subtypes and 3,988 conserved probes for 146 viral genera. Dataset of virus specific probe has been divided into two fields namely virus name and probe sequence. Similarly conserved probes for virus genera table have genus, and subgroup within genus name and probe sequence. The subgroup within genus is artificially divided subgroups with no taxonomic significance and contains probes which identifies viruses in that specific subgroup of the genus. Using this dataset we have successfully diagnosed the first case of Newcastle disease virus in sheep and reported a mixed infection of Bovine viral diarrhea and Bovine herpesvirus in cattle. These dataset also contains probes which cross reacts across species experimentally though computationally they meet specifications. These probes have been marked. We hope that this dataset will be useful in microarray-based detection of viruses. The dataset can be accessed through the link https://dl.dropboxusercontent.com/u/94060831/avpds/HOME.html. PMID:24129840

  20. Virus Enrichment for Single Virus Infection by Using 3D Insulator Based Dielectrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Masuda, Taisuke; Maruyama, Hisataka; Honda, Ayae; Arai, Fumihito

    2014-01-01

    We developed an active virus filter (AVF) that enables virus enrichment for single virus infection, by using insulator-based dielectrophoresis (iDEP). A 3D-constricted flow channel design enabled the production of an iDEP force in the microfluidic chip. iDEP using a chip with multiple active virus filters (AVFs) was more accurate and faster than using a chip with a single AVF, and improved the efficiency of virus trapping. We utilized maskless photolithography to achieve the precise 3D gray-scale exposure required for fabrication of constricted flow channel. Influenza virus (A PR/8) was enriched by a negative DEP force when sinusoidal wave was applied to the electrodes within an amplitude range of 20 Vp-p and a frequency of 10 MHz. AVF-mediated virus enrichment can be repeated simply by turning the current ON or OFF. Furthermore, the negative AVF can inhibit virus adhesion onto the glass substrate. We then trapped and transported one of the enriched viruses by using optical tweezers. This microfluidic chip facilitated the effective transport of a single virus from AVFs towards the cell-containing chamber without crossing an electrode. We successfully transported the virus to the cell chamber (v?=?10 µm/s) and brought it infected with a selected single H292 cell. PMID:24918921