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1

Phage display identifies two Caprine Arthritis Encephalitis Virus env epitopes.  

PubMed

Using phage display and IgG of a goat infected with Caprine Arthritis Encephalitis Virus (CAEV) we obtained families of 7 mer constrained peptides with consensus motifs LxSDPF/Y and SWN/KHWSY and mapped the epitopes mimicked by them at the Env 6-LISDPY-11 and 67-WNTYHW-72 sites of the mature gp135 amino acid sequence. The first epitope fell into the N-terminal immunogenic aa1-EDYTLISDPYGFS- aa14 site identified previously with a synthetic peptide approach; the second epitope has not been described previously. The first epitope is mostly conserved across CAEV isolates whereas the second newly described epitope is extremely conserved in Small Ruminant Lentiviruses env sequences. As being immunodominant, the epitopes are candidate targets for mimotope-mediated diagnosis and/or neutralization. PMID:21781322

Gazarian, Karlen; Setién, Alvaro Aguilar; Gazarian, Tatiana; Pierle, Sebastian Aguilar

2011-01-01

2

Phage display identifies two Caprine Arthritis Encephalitis Virus env epitopes  

PubMed Central

Using phage display and IgG of a goat infected with Caprine Arthritis Encephalitis Virus (CAEV) we obtained families of 7 mer constrained peptides with consensus motifs LxSDPF/Y and SWN/KHWSY and mapped the epitopes mimicked by them at the Env 6-LISDPY-11 and 67-WNTYHW-72 sites of the mature gp135 amino acid sequence. The first epitope fell into the N-terminal immunogenic aa1-EDYTLISDPYGFS- aa14 site identified previously with a synthetic peptide approach; the second epitope has not been described previously. The first epitope is mostly conserved across CAEV isolates whereas the second newly described epitope is extremely conserved in Small Ruminant Lentiviruses env sequences. As being immunodominant, the epitopes are candidate targets for mimotope-mediated diagnosis and/or neutralization. PMID:21781322

2011-01-01

3

Affinity (tropism) of caprine arthritis encephalitis virus for brain cells.  

PubMed

One of the constraints in unraveling the mysteries blurring the advancement of research in the quest to totally put HIV problems under control is getting the appropriate animal model that would truly simulate human cases. This problem is more apparent in studies involving the central nervous system. Consequently, a viable animal model to generate information for the production of drugs and vaccines for the prevention and or control of lentiviral induced dementia in affected host animals is pertinent and vital. In this study, explant cultures prepared from the brain of new-born goat-kid were infected with CaprineArthritis Encephalitis (CAE) virus- a retrovirus affecting goats. The specific brain cell types infected by the (CAE) virus were determined using reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM techniques). TEM showed that in 85 - 90% cases, microglia were the cells specifically infected by the virus. Amplification of the genomic sequence of the envelope and the gag genes by RT-PCR confirmed the presence of CAEV proviral DNA in the brain cells of affected animals. No productive infection of the astrocytes was observed. The results of this study showed a lot of similarities in the tropism of CAE virus infection of goat brain cells to that of HIV infection in humans thus suggesting the potential usefulness of the caprine model for the study of HIV neuropathology. The goat model system as a non-primate model therefore could be more adaptable as a simple animal model than primate models with their complexity of anthropological, environmental and safety problems. PMID:22416649

Adebayo, I A; Olaleye, O D; Awoniyi, T A M

2010-12-01

4

Isolation of caprine arthritis encephalitis virus from goats in Mexico.  

PubMed Central

A lentivirus was isolated from 2 goats in Mexico that were seropositive to caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV) by the agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) test. The lentivirus was identified as CAEV by the observation of giant multinucleated cells (syncytia) in goat synovial membrane (GSM) monolayers co-cultivated with blood mononuclear (BMN) cells from the seropositive goats, and by amplifying a DNA segment of the CAEV gag gene using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. Subsequently, cell supernatants from the GSM cells co-cultivated with BMN cells were used to infect 2 CAEV-seronegative goats. These goats seroconverted to CAEV as determined by the AGID test, and CAEV was re-isolated from these goats. One of the goats developed polyarthritis 8 mo after inoculation. Previous serological surveys indicate that infection with CAEV is prevalent among goats in Mexico. To our knowledge this is the first report of CAEV isolation in Mexico. Because of globalization of markets and increased trading among nations, the rapid identification and reporting of diseases such as CAEV are important to prevent the dissemination of these diseases. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. PMID:10480464

Daltabuit Test, M; de la Concha-Bermejillo, A; Espinosa, L E; Loza Rubio, E; Aguilar Setien, A

1999-01-01

5

Sequence comparison on gag gene of caprine arthritis encephalitis virus from Korea.  

PubMed

Caprine arthritis encephalitis (CAE) is a lentiviral infection in goats characterized by arthritis. Although CAE has been identified in most goat-rearing countries around the world, Korea had been considered to be free from this disease. Here, we determine the partial sequence on the gag gene of caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV) suspect from Korea using nested PCR. Genetic analysis of our isolate showed 93.5 and 90.9% sequence homology with the standard strain CAEV Cork and lentivirus strain, respectively. Our results show that the virus is closely related to other CAEV isolates, and therefore, suggest that the causative agent was CAEV. This is the first outbreak of CAE to be ever reported in a local farm in South Korea. PMID:20379771

Park, Jung-Eun; Son, So-Yun; Shin, Hyun-Jin

2010-08-01

6

Seroprevalence of caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus in goats in the Cariri region, Paraiba state, Brazil.  

PubMed

The seroprevalence of caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV) in the Cariri Region of Paraíba State, Brazil, was determined in 60 goat herds using the agar gel immunodiffusion test. The overall seroprevalence was 8.2%, with seropositivity in 21/60 (35%) herds and 13/15 (86.6%) municipalities. Bucks had a significantly higher frequency of infection (28.3%) than does (5.9%), and bucks that originated in other states had a significantly higher frequency of infection (76.5%) than those from Paraíba State (9.3%). PMID:18675568

Bandeira, Dimas Assis; de Castro, Roberto Soares; Azevedo, Edísio Oliveira; de Souza Seixas Melo, Luiza; de Melo, Cristiano Barros

2009-06-01

7

Isolation and characterization of caprine arthritis encephalitis virus in goats from Poland.  

PubMed

The caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV) was isolated from monocyte-derived macrophages (M/M), but not from PBMC of seropositive goats by co-cultivation with goat synovial membrane cells. Out of eight M/M co-cultures, CAEV was evidenced by the syncytia formation and presence of proviral DNA in two and four cultures, respectively. Two virus isolates from co-cultures showing cytopathic effects were further confirmed as CAEV by western blotting, PCR, and sequence analysis. The nucleotide sequence of gag gene showed 92.0% and 90.3% homology to the prototype CAEV-Co strain. Supernatants harvested from these cultures induced syncytia when cultured with uninfected cells and the resultant titer was 10(3.5) and 10(2.5) TCID50 per ml. New CAEV isolates are suitable candidates for further analysis of their genetic and biological properties. PMID:19645347

Kaba, J; Rola, M; Materniak, M; Ku?mak, J; Nowicki, M

2009-01-01

8

Caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus induces apoptosis in infected cells in vitro through the intrinsic pathway.  

PubMed

Caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV) is a lentivirus that causes natural inflammatory disease in goats, with chronic lesions in several different organs. CAEV infection of in vitro cultured cells is accompanied by apoptosis, but the involvement of the intrinsic and extrinsic pathways has not previously been elucidated. We have studied the activation of caspases-3, -8 and -9 by fluorescent assays in various goat cells infected in vitro by CAEV, and the effects of transfected dominant negative variants of theses caspases, to show that CAEV-associated apoptosis depends on activation of caspases-3 and -9, but not -8. A simultaneous disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential indicates an involvement of mitochondrial pathway. PMID:18358512

Rea-Boutrois, Angela; Pontini, Guillemette; Greenland, Tim; Mehlen, Patrick; Chebloune, Yahia; Verdier, Gérard; Legras-Lachuer, Catherine

2008-06-01

9

Diverse host-virus interactions following caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus infection in sheep and goats.  

PubMed

Interspecies transmissions substantially contribute to the epidemiology of small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLVs), including caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV) and visna-maëdi virus. However, comprehensive studies of host-virus interactions during SRLV adaptation to the new host are lacking. In this study, virological and serological features were analysed over a 6 month period in five sheep and three goats experimentally infected with a CAEV strain. Provirus load at the early stage of infection was significantly higher in sheep than in goats. A broad antibody reactivity against the matrix and capsid proteins was detected in goats, whereas the response to these antigens was mostly type-specific in sheep. The humoral response to the major immunodominant domain of the surface unit glycoprotein was type-specific, regardless of the host species. These species-specific immune responses were then confirmed in naturally infected sheep and goats using sera from mixed flocks in which interspecies transmissions were reported. Taken together, these results provide evidence that SRLV infections evolve in a host-dependent manner, with distinct host-virus interactions in sheep and goats, and highlight the need to consider both SRLV genotypes in diagnosis, particularly in sheep. PMID:23197577

Rachid, Antoine; Croisé, Benoit; Russo, Pierre; Vignoni, Michel; Lacerenza, Daniela; Rosati, Sergio; Kuzmak, Jacek; Valas, Stephen

2013-03-01

10

Tissue tropism and promoter sequence variation in caprine arthritis encephalitis virus infected goats.  

PubMed

Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus is a lentivirus that infects goats and is closely related to maedi-visna virus of sheep. Infection with CAEV results in multiple discrete disease manifestations in goats which can include chronic arthritis, mastitis, pneumonia or encephalomyelitis. Presently, no satisfactory mechanistic rationale for viral tropism has been put forward. We propose that specific sequences in the lentiviral promoter (U3 region of the viral long terminal repeat) are associated with viral tissue tropism and subsequent disease expression. A total of 41 distinct CAE viral promoter regions were amplified, sequenced and phylogenetically compared from the tissues of 24 CAEV-infected goats demonstrating a variety of disease manifestations. Phylogenetically, we identified no tendency for clustering of these promoter sequences into tissue-specific groups. These results therefore do not provide evidence for the study hypothesis. However, multiple motifs within the U3 promoter region were highly conserved both within the entire collection of sequences and within tissue-specific groups. PMID:20466024

Murphy, B; McElliott, V; Vapniarsky, N; Oliver, A; Rowe, J

2010-08-01

11

Influence of chronic caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus infection on the population of peripheral blood leukocytes.  

PubMed

The influence of caprine arthritis-encephalitis (CAE) virus infection on the population of peripheral blood leukocytes in goats was evaluated. For this purpose two groups of adult dairy female goats were formed. The experimental group consisted of 17 goats, which had been naturally infected for many years. The control group comprised 29 non-infected goats, which originated from CAE-free herd. All goats were clinically healthy. Whole blood was collected and tested in hematological analyzer and light microscope to assess the total number of leukocytes and the percentage of four leukocyte populations--neutrophils, eosinophils, monocytes and lymphocytes. Then, flow cytometry with monoclonal antibodies against several surface antigens (namely CD14, CD2, B-B2, CD4, CD8h, TCR-N6, WC1-N2 and WC1-N3) was performed to assess the proportion of lymphocyte subpopulations. Statistically significant differences (alpha < or = 0.01) were observed only in the subpopulations of T lymphocytes--percentage of all subpopulations were significantly higher in the group of seropositive goats. No statistically significant differences were revealed with respect to the total number of blood leukocytes, the average percentage of blood leukocyte populations and proportions of both T and B lymphocytes. PMID:22439329

Kaba, J; Winnicka, A; Zaleska, M; Nowicki, M; Bagnicka, E

2011-01-01

12

Influence of caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus infection on the activity of peripheral blood lymphocytes.  

PubMed

Non-specific lymphocyte transformation assay using phytohemagglutinin (PHA) as a mitogen was applied to evaluate influence of caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV) infection on activity of peripheral blood lymphocytes. Animals were selected for the CAEV-infected and CAEV-non-infected groups according to the results of two serological surveys carried out at one year interval, with the use of an ELISA test. In goats which were not infected with CAEV, lymphocytes stimulation index (SI) revealed a high diversity of the results with an mean value equal to 5.86 (minimum = 0.45, maximum = 40.00, SD = 8.40). SI values for infected goats reached the average of 1.10 (minimum = 0.46, maximum = 1.85, SD = 0.26). The difference between the average lymphocyte stimulation indices was statistically highly significant in both groups (p = 0.002) which could be an evidence of CAEV infection influence on lymphocyte reactivity. Regarding ELISA test as a "golden standard" the application of lymphocyte transformation assay in diagnosis of CAEV infection was assessed. The ROC curve was drawn. The area under the curve was only 0.324, which indicates very low accuracy of this method and limits its use for the diagnosis of the disease. PMID:20731174

Kaba, J; Zaleska, M; Bagnicka, E; Nowicki, M; Nowicka, D

2010-01-01

13

Diversity of caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus promoters isolated from goat milk and passaged in vitro.  

PubMed

Transcriptional regulation in retroviruses resides in the U3 region of the proviral long terminal repeat (LTR). Transcription binding sites (TBS) in the U3 region of proviral sequences derived from the milk of 17 goats infected with caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV) were analysed by nested PCR and sequencing. U3 sequences shared a high degree of homology (86-99%) and were closely related to isolates previously ascribed to small ruminant lentivirus subtype B1. Multiple putative AP-1, AP-4, Ets-1, Stat-1 and TATA binding protein (TBP) sites were highly conserved (>85% of isolates), as were single AML(vis), GAS, IRF-1, NFAT and TAS sites. A 10 nucleotide insertion of undetermined relevance was identified in the U3 region of two isolates. To study the stability of TBS within the CAEV U3 region through in vitro passage, milk-derived isolates of CAEV from three infected dams were cultured in goat synovial membrane (GSM) cells; in one isolate the viral U3 region was completely stable during in vitro passage, in a second isolate the viral U3 region accumulated multiple deletions, single nucleotide polymorphisms and insertions, while a third isolate had an intermediate degree of promoter stability. Promoter mutations arising during in vitro passage did not affect most of the conserved putative TBS identified in CAEV. PMID:23183018

Gomez-Lucia, Esperanza; Rowe, Joan; Collar, Carol; Murphy, Brian

2013-06-01

14

Can caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV) be transmitted by in vitro fertilization with experimentally infected sperm?  

PubMed

For each of the five fertilization trials of the experiment, frozen semen was prepared for in vitro capacitation at a concentration of 1 × 10(7) spz/ml and divided into three groups. One group was used as a control, while the two others were inoculated with 100 ?l/ml of either culture medium from non-infected cells (placebo group) or cell culture medium containing virus at a concentration of 10(5) TCID(50)/ml (infected group). A total of 789 oocytes were used for IVF. For each of the five trials a group of oocytes were used as a non-infected control and were found to be caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV) free. The other oocytes were divided in two equal batches. Oocytes in the first batch were in vitro fertilized with CAEV infected sperm (infected group) and the second batch were fertilized with CAEV non-infected sperm (placebo and control groups). After IVF, the zygotes of each group were washed 12 times. The CAEV genome was not detected (using RT-PCR) in the washing media of either the control or placebo groups from each trial. In contrast, the first three washing media from the infected group were consistently found to be positive for the CAEV genome (5/5), whereas subsequent washing media were CAEV-free (P < 0.05). Zygotes obtained using all semen groups tested negative for both the provirus and genome of CAEV. These results clearly show that the first four washes were sufficient to remove viral particles from CAEV infected fertilization media and that CAEV-free embryos can be produced by IVF using spermatozoa infected in vitro by CAEV. PMID:22015154

Fieni, F; Pellerin, J L; Roux, C; Poulin, N; Baril, G; Fatet, A; Valas, S; Chatagnon, G; Mermillod, P; Guignot, F

2012-02-01

15

Risk factors associated with caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus infection in goats on California dairies.  

PubMed

Log-linear methodology was used to examine relations among caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV) seroreactivity and host/management factors in a cross-sectional study of 2,826 goats on 13 California dairies. The CAEV serologic status was associated with age and feeding method (pasteurized/unpasteurized milk), but not with breed. Data from a prevalence survey of 321 goats from 2 additional dairies demonstrated very good fit of the selected log-linear model (P = 1.00), indicating that the model was very appropriate to describe the relations. Odds of seropositivity and odds ratios were generated by use of a logit model derived from the log-linear model. Goats raised by the unpasteurized feeding method were estimated to have been 3.3 times more likely to be CAEV-seropositive than goats fed by the pasteurized method, when adjusted for the effects of age. Goats aged 2, 3, 4, and 5 or greater years were estimated to have been 1.7, 2.6, 4.5, and 5.7 times, respectively, more likely to be CAEV-seropositive than were yearling goats when ratios were adjusted for pasteurization status. Breed, gender, and herd of origin were not associated with CAEV seroreactivity when the effects of other factors were considered. Estimated odds of CAEV seroreactivity and the associated odds ratios for combinations of factor levels are reported. In this study, the magnitude and direction of the associations among CAEV serologic status, age, and pasteurized feeding methods were demonstrated. PMID:1852145

Rowe, J D; East, N E; Thurmond, M C; Franti, C E

1991-03-01

16

Fatal Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus-like infection in 4 Rocky Mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus).  

PubMed

Over a 3.5-year period, 4 Rocky Mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus), housed at a single facility, developed clinical disease attributed to infection by Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV). Ages ranged from 1 to 10 years. Three of the goats, a 1-year-old female, a 2-year-old male, and a 5-year-old male, had been fed raw domestic goat milk from a single source that was later found to have CAEV on the premises. The fourth animal, a 10-year-old male, had not ingested domestic goat milk but had been housed with the other 3 Rocky Mountain goats. All 4 animals had clinical signs of pneumonia prior to death. At necropsy, findings in lungs included marked diffuse interstitial pneumonia characterized histologically by severe lymphoplasmacytic infiltrates with massive alveolar proteinosis, interstitial fibrosis, and type II pneumocyte hyperplasia. One animal also developed left-sided hemiparesis, and locally extensive lymphoplasmacytic myeloencephalitis was present in the cranial cervical spinal cord. Two animals had joint effusions, as well as severe lymphoplasmacytic and ulcerative synovitis. Immunohistochemical staining of fixed sections of lung tissue from all 4 goats, as well as spinal cord in 1 affected animal, and synovium from 2 affected animals were positive for CAEV antigen. Serology testing for anti-CAEV antibodies was positive in the 2 goats tested. The cases suggest that Rocky Mountain goats are susceptible to naturally occurring CAEV infection, that CAEV from domestic goats can be transmitted to this species through infected milk and by horizontal transmission, and that viral infection can result in clinically severe multisystemic disease. PMID:22379056

Patton, Kristin M; Bildfell, Robert J; Anderson, Mark L; Cebra, Christopher K; Valentine, Beth A

2012-03-01

17

Computed tomography findings in a 5-year-old Australian Cashmere goat (Capra hircus) suffering leukoencephalomyelitis due to caprine arthritis encephalitis virus  

PubMed Central

Computed tomography was used to aid in the antemortem diagnosis of leukoencephalomyelitis in a goat infected by caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV). Imaging results were corroborated by histologic examination. This report discusses various methods of imaging the nervous system and their potential for use in the antemortem diagnosis of CAEV neurologic changes. PMID:24155416

DeVilbiss, Bethany; Neelis, Dana; Ochoa, Jennine; Ziegler, Jessie; Barrington, George; Allen, Andrew

2013-01-01

18

Computed tomography findings in a 5-year-old Australian Cashmere goat (Capra hircus) suffering leukoencephalomyelitis due to caprine arthritis encephalitis virus.  

PubMed

Computed tomography was used to aid in the antemortem diagnosis of leukoencephalomyelitis in a goat infected by caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV). Imaging results were corroborated by histologic examination. This report discusses various methods of imaging the nervous system and their potential for use in the antemortem diagnosis of CAEV neurologic changes. PMID:24155416

Devilbiss, Bethany; Neelis, Dana; Ochoa, Jennine; Ziegler, Jessie; Barrington, George; Allen, Andrew

2013-10-01

19

Development and Field Testing of a Real-Time PCR Assay for Caprine Arthritis-Encephalitis-Virus (CAEV)  

PubMed Central

Caprine arthritis/encephalitis (CAE) of goats and occasionally sheep are persistent virus infections caused by a lentivirus (CAEV). This viral infection results in arthritis in adult animals and encephalitis in kids. Prognosis for the encephalitic form is normally poor, with substantial economic loss for the farm. In this context an early/fast laboratory diagnosis for CAEV infection could be useful for effective prophylactic action. In this work we performed a quantitative real time PCR designed on the CAEV env gene to detect/quantify in goat/sheep samples, viral RNA or proviral DNA forms of CAEV. This procedure was validated in 15 sheep, experimentally infected with CAEV or with a highly correlated lentivirus (visna maedi, MVV); in addition, a total of 37 clinical goat specimens recruited in CAEV positive herds were analyzed and compared using serological analysis (Elisa and AGID). All samples infected with MVV resulted negative. In sheep experimentally infected with CAEV, proviral DNA was detectable 15 days post infection, whereas the serological methods revealed an indicative positivity after 40-60 days.This method showed a sensitivity of 102 env fragments/PCR) with a linear dynamic range of quantitation from 103 to 107 env fragments/PCR; the R2 correlation coefficient was 0.98. All subjects with a clinical diagnosis for Caprine Arthritis-Encephalitis (CAE) resulted CAEV DNA positive. PMID:22888382

Brajon, Giovanni; Mandas, Daniela; Liciardi, Manuele; Taccori, Flavia; Meloni, Mauro; Corrias, Franco; Montaldo, Caterina; Coghe, Ferdinando; Casciari, Cristina; Giammarioli, Monica; Orru, Germano

2011-01-01

20

Development and Field Testing of a Real-Time PCR Assay for Caprine Arthritis-Encephalitis-Virus (CAEV).  

PubMed

Caprine arthritis/encephalitis (CAE) of goats and occasionally sheep are persistent virus infections caused by a lentivirus (CAEV). This viral infection results in arthritis in adult animals and encephalitis in kids. Prognosis for the encephalitic form is normally poor, with substantial economic loss for the farm. In this context an early/fast laboratory diagnosis for CAEV infection could be useful for effective prophylactic action. In this work we performed a quantitative real time PCR designed on the CAEV env gene to detect/quantify in goat/sheep samples, viral RNA or proviral DNA forms of CAEV. This procedure was validated in 15 sheep, experimentally infected with CAEV or with a highly correlated lentivirus (visna maedi, MVV); in addition, a total of 37 clinical goat specimens recruited in CAEV positive herds were analyzed and compared using serological analysis (Elisa and AGID). All samples infected with MVV resulted negative. In sheep experimentally infected with CAEV, proviral DNA was detectable 15 days post infection, whereas the serological methods revealed an indicative positivity after 40-60 days.This method showed a sensitivity of 10(2) env fragments/PCR) with a linear dynamic range of quantitation from 10(3) to 10(7)env fragments/PCR; the R2 correlation coefficient was 0.98. All subjects with a clinical diagnosis for Caprine Arthritis-Encephalitis (CAE) resulted CAEV DNA positive. PMID:22888382

Brajon, Giovanni; Mandas, Daniela; Liciardi, Manuele; Taccori, Flavia; Meloni, Mauro; Corrias, Franco; Montaldo, Caterina; Coghe, Ferdinando; Casciari, Cristina; Giammarioli, Monica; Orrù, Germano

2012-01-01

21

Study of a prevention programme for caprine arthritis-encephalitis  

E-print Network

transmission. goat / caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus / prevention Résumé ― Ã?tude d'un programme de) is an RNA virus of the family retro- viridae, subfamily lentivirinae (Crawford et al, 1980; Narayan et al virus a été suivi dans 363 élevages de 1988 à 1990. Le niveau de contamination des chevrettes est passé

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

22

Sialic acids on the surface of caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus define the biological properties of the virus.  

PubMed Central

The lentivirus caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV) is a pathogen of goats. It is transmitted in milk and causes a persistent infection in goats, which often fail to produce neutralizing antibodies to the virus. Native CAEV particles are remarkably resistant to digestion with proteinase K and are neutralized extremely slowly by immune sera. Our studies showed that the virus particles are heavily sialylated. Studies with highly specific sialyltransferase enzymes identified penultimate carbohydrate linkages typical of O- and N-linked oligosaccharides on the virus and suggested that the virus may be more heavily sialylated on O-linked than on N-linked oligosaccharides. Removal of sialic acids from the virus by neuraminidase treatment did not reduce infectivity of the particles. However, desialylation rendered the virus more susceptible to proteolysis by proteinase K. Desialylation also enhanced the kinetics of neutralization of the virus by goat antibodies. These results suggest that the carbohydrates on the viral surface are important both in protecting viral proteins from digestion by proteases and in protecting the virus from rapid neutralization by antibodies. Images PMID:2835502

Huso, D L; Narayan, O; Hart, G W

1988-01-01

23

Large-scale serological survey of caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV) in Korean black goats (Capra hircus aegagrus).  

PubMed

A national serological survey of caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV) infection was conducted using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and an agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) test. A total of 658 black goats of various breeds were sampled from 59 farms in three regions of Korea. The CAEV-positive goats were predominantly detected in the Southern region (n=17) as compared with the Northern (n=1) and Central regions (n=0) (?(2)=6.26, P=0.044). Among 658 goats tested, 18 were positive in both ELISA and AGID, indicating a CAEV prevalence of 2.73% (95% confidence interval: 1.74-4.28). These results indicate that CAEV is present in Korean black goats. PMID:22814087

Oem, Jae-Ku; Chung, Joon-Yee; Byun, Jae-Won; Kim, Ha-Young; Kwak, Dongmi; Jung, Byeong Yeal

2012-12-01

24

Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus detection in blood by loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay targeting the proviral gag region.  

PubMed

Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV), of the genus Lentivirus of the Retroviridae family, causes persistent disease, which is characterized by polyarthritis and mastitis in adult goats and progressive paresis (leukoencephalomyelitis) in kids. A loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay was developed for the detection of CAEV in blood samples. Species-specific primers amplifying the gag gene region in the provirus were used for the detection of CAEV. The LAMP assay result was obtained 30 min after incubation on a constant temperature at 63 °C in a heat block. Resulting amplicons were visualized by addition of SYBR green dye after the reaction and checked by agarose gel electrophoresis. The sensitivity of LAMP assay was evaluated by comparing the result with the nested polymerase chain reaction. Based on the experiments, the result of the assay indicated a rapid and sensitive test for the detection of CAEV. PMID:24630755

Balbin, Michelle M; Belotindos, Lawrence P; Abes, Nancy S; Mingala, Claro N

2014-05-01

25

Vaccination with a T-cell-priming Gag peptide of caprine arthritis encephalitis virus enhances virus replication transiently in vivo.  

PubMed

CD4+ T cells are involved in several immune response pathways used to control viral infections. In this study, a group of genetically defined goats was immunized with a synthetic peptide known to encompass an immunodominant helper T-cell epitope of caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV). Fifty-five days after challenge with the molecularly cloned CAEV strain CO, the vaccinated animals had a higher proviral load than the controls. The measurement of gamma interferon and interleukin-4 gene expression showed that these cytokines were reliable markers of an ongoing immune response but their balance did not account for more or less efficient control of CAEV replication. In contrast, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor appeared to be a key cytokine that might support virus replication in the early phase of infection. The observation of a potential T-cell-mediated enhancement of virus replication supports other recent findings showing that lentivirus-specific T cells can be detrimental to the host, suggesting caution in designing vaccine candidates. PMID:17412991

Nenci, Chiara; Zahno, Marie-Luise; Vogt, Hans-Rudolf; Obexer-Ruff, Gabriela; Doherr, Marcus G; Zanoni, Reto; Peterhans, Ernst; Bertoni, Giuseppe

2007-05-01

26

Development of TaqMan-based qPCR method for detection of caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV) infection.  

PubMed

A specific and sensitive two-step TaqMan real-time PCR has been developed for rapid diagnosis of caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV) infection by using a set of specific primers and a TaqMan probe targeting a highly conserved region within the gene encoding the viral capsid protein (CA). The assay successfully detected CAEV proviral DNA in total DNA extracts originating from cell culture, whole blood samples and isolated PBMCs, with a lower detection limit of 10(2) copies and a linear dynamic range of 10(5) to 10(10) copies/ml. There was no cross-reaction with other animal viruses (e.g., goat pox virus, bovine leukemia virus, bovine mucosal disease virus, swine influenza virus and Nipah virus). When applied in parallel with serological AGID and conventional PCR for detection of CAEV in field samples, this assay exhibited a higher sensitivity than these traditional methods, and 7.8 % of the 308 specimens collected in the Shanxi and Tianjin regions of China from 1993 to 2011 were found to be positive. Thus, the TaqMan qPCR assay provides a fast, specific and sensitive means for detecting CAEV proviral DNA in goat specimens and should be useful for large-scale detection in eradication programs and epidemiological studies. PMID:23670072

Li, Yi; Zhou, Fengjuan; Li, Xia; Wang, Jianhua; Zhao, Xiangping; Huang, Jinhai

2013-10-01

27

Monoclonal antibodies against Caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus epitopes in the p28 and p55(gag) viral proteins.  

PubMed

The genome of the Caprine Arthritis-Encephalitis Virus (CAEV) encodes the polycistronic precursor protein p55(gag). Proteolytic cleavage of p55(gag) generates the viral core proteins. Some studies suggest that the CAEV p55(gag) protein contains epitopes or antigenic determinants for these core proteins. This work reinforces this hypothesis and demonstrates that monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) that are directed against the capsid protein (p28) of CAEV are also reactive against the precursor p55(gag) protein and the intermediate cleavage products, p44, p36 and p22. The major activity of the MAbs was directed against p28. The MAbF12 binding site in p28 was found to be a linear epitope with a structure that is stable after SDS treatment and remains unaltered after ?-mercaptoethanol (?-ME) treatment. The MAbF12 binding site in the p55(gag), p36 and p22 proteins was found to be a linear epitope with cross-linked sulphide bonds. In conclusion, these findings suggest that the p28 epitope is presented differently from the epitope in the polycistronic precursor protein p55(gag). The highly immunogenic p28 contains a linear epitope that is detergent-stable and is not altered by ?-ME treatment, whereas the p55(gag) epitope contains a linear epitope susceptible to denaturing agents. PMID:23164996

Brandão, Camila Fonseca Lopes; Campos, Gubio Soares; Silva, Ana Carolina Requião; Torres, Juliana Alves; Tigre, Dellane Martins; Sardi, Silvia Ines

2013-02-01

28

Quantitative estimation of the impact of caprine arthritis encephalitis virus infection on milk production by dairy goats.  

PubMed

This retrospective study investigated milk production losses associated with serological evidence (serostatus) of caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV) infection over one lactation in 4543 Murciano-Granadina goats from 22 herds in Spain. The seroprevalence of infection was 18%, ranging from 0% to 2% in 11 herds, 7% to 60% in 10 herds and was 100% in one herd. Seropositive does had significantly shorter lactations, produced less milk and milk fat, lactose and dry extract and had higher somatic cell counts than their seronegative counterparts, although differences in milk production between seropositive and seronegative animals were noted between herds. Mixed regression models confirmed the association between CAEV seropositivity and reduced milk production. The adjusted, least squares mean (LSM) test-day milk yield was 10% less in seropositive compared to seronegative does and this difference varied according to lactation number. In contrast, differences in the LSM of milk fat, lactose and dry extract percentages between seropositive and seronegative goats were only between 0.1% and 0.2% and did not increase with lactation number. The findings of this study provide strong evidence that CAEV-infection can be a major cause of reduction in milk yield in goats and its control should be considered as part of dairy goat herd health schemes. PMID:23384438

Martínez-Navalón, Bernardo; Peris, Cristòfol; Gómez, Ernesto A; Peris, Bernat; Roche, María Luz; Caballero, Concepción; Goyena, Elena; Berriatua, Eduardo

2013-08-01

29

Demonstration of coinfection with and recombination by caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus and maedi-visna virus in naturally infected goats.  

PubMed

Recombination of different strains and subtypes is a hallmark of lentivirus infections, particularly for human immunodeficiency virus, and contributes significantly to viral diversity and evolution both within individual hosts and within populations. Recombinant viruses are generated in individuals coinfected or superinfected with more than one lentiviral strain or subtype. This, however, has never been described in vivo for the prototype lentivirus maedi-visna virus of sheep and its closely related caprine counterpart, the caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus. Cross-species infections occur in animals living under natural conditions, which suggests that dual infections with small-ruminant lentiviruses (SRLVs) are possible. In this paper we describe the first documented case of coinfection and viral recombination in two naturally infected goats. DNA fragments encompassing a variable region of the envelope glycoprotein were obtained from these two animals by end-limiting dilution PCR of peripheral blood mononuclear cells or infected cocultures. Genetic analyses, including nucleotide sequencing and heteroduplex mobility assays, showed that these goats harbored two distinct populations of SRLVs. Phylogenetic analysis permitted us to assign these sequences to the maedi-visna virus group (SRLV group A) or the caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus group (SRLV group B). SimPlot analysis showed clear evidence of A/B recombination within the env gene segment of a virus detected in one of the two goats. This case provides conclusive evidence that coinfection by different strains of SRLVs of groups A and B can indeed occur and that these viruses actually recombine in vivo. PMID:17344293

Pisoni, Giuliano; Bertoni, Giuseppe; Puricelli, Maria; Maccalli, Marina; Moroni, Paolo

2007-05-01

30

Serological evidence of caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV) infection in indigenous goats in the Sultanate of Oman.  

PubMed

Caprine arthritis encephalitis (CAE) is a chronic debilitating disease of goats caused by a lentivirus responsible for economic losses as a result of a drop in milk production and weight loss. The objective of the study was to determine if indigenous goats from five different regions in the Sultanate of Oman exhibit serological evidence of exposure to CAEV using a competitive-inhibition ELISA technique. Blood samples were collected from slaughtered goats (N=1,110) and from the National Serum Bank (n=528). In total, 83 (5.1%) of screened samples were classed as seropositive. The results provide the first serological evidence for the presence of CAEV in Oman. PMID:21660649

Tageldin, Mohamed Hassan; Johnson, Eugene H; Al-Busaidi, Rashid M; Al-Habsi, Khalid R; Al-Habsi, Seif S

2012-01-01

31

Risk factors associated with the incidence of seroconversion to caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus in goats on California dairies.  

PubMed

Incidence of seroconversion to caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV) was determined for 1,194 goats on 11 dairies, using 2 repeated annual herd tests for CAEV. Current life table methods were used to compare age-specific incidence of seroconversion for pasteurized milk-raised and unpasteurized milk-raised goats. Logistic regression models were used to determine the risk factors associated with CAEV seroconversion, and to estimate odds ratios for seroconversion for various factor levels. Goats raised by unpasteurized milk-feeding methods were 2.5 to 6.7 times more likely to seroconvert than were goats raised by pasteurized milk-feeding methods, depending on the method of comparison. Similarly, 61.6 to 85.0% of seroconversions in yearling goats possibly were attributable to unpasteurized milk feeding. Among yearling goats, CAEV seroconversion was associated with feeding method, breed, and source of goat (herd of origin) when the effect of dairy was considered. In addition to the 6.7 times greater risk of seroconversion for unpasteurized milk-raised goats, yearling goats of the Saanen and Toggenburg breeds were 2.2 and 3.3 times, respectively, more likely to seroconvert than were Alpine yearling goats. Yearling goats purchased from another source were less likely to seroconvert than were yearlings raised on the dairy where they were studied. Among goats > 1 year old, age was associated with risk of seroconversion. Goats that were 3 years old or were > or = 4 years old were 1.7 and 3.2 times, respectively, more likely to seroconvert than were 2-year-old goats, when adjusted for effect of dairy. The effects of dairy were significant (P < or = 0.001) in yearling and older goats. PMID:1335710

Rowe, J D; East, N E; Franti, C E; Thurmond, M C; Pedersen, N C; Theilen, G H

1992-12-01

32

Twelve-year cohort study on the influence of caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus infection on milk yield and composition.  

PubMed

This long-term observational cohort study was carried out to evaluate the effect of caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV) infection on the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of milk production in dairy goats. For this purpose, a dairy herd comprising both CAEV-infected and uninfected female goats was observed for 12 consecutive years. Records on daily milk yield, somatic cell count (SCC), and contents of the major milk components (fat, protein and lactose) were collected every month. In total, 3,042 records (1,114 from CAEV-positive and 1,928 from CAEV-negative animals) from 177 female goats were used for statistical analysis. The multi-trait repeatability test-day animal model using the derivative-free multivariate analysis package with the average information-REML method was applied to eliminate the influence of factors other than CAEV infection on milk production in goats. The statistical significance of the differences between estimates for seropositive and seronegative goats was evaluated using Student's t-test. The effect of age of goats (parity) on their serological status was also estimated with the one-trait repeatability test-day model. The serological status of goats was linked to parity: the higher the parity, the greater the probability of CAEV infection. No significant differences between infected and uninfected goats with respect to daily milk yield and SCC were found. On the other hand, the milk of uninfected goats contained more total protein (3.40% vs. 3.35%), fat (3.69% vs. 3.54%), and lactose (4.30% vs. 4.25%) than the milk of infected goats. Even though these differences were highly significant, they were small when expressed numerically. PMID:22459809

Kaba, J; Strza?kowska, N; Jó?wik, A; Krzy?ewski, J; Bagnicka, E

2012-04-01

33

Systemic and in vitro expression of goat alpha(1)-acid glycoprotein during Caprine Arthritis-Encephalitis Virus infection.  

PubMed

The present study was carried out in order to investigate the systemic and local expression of the acute-phase protein alpha(1)-acid glycoprotein (AGP, Orosomucoid) during Caprine Arthritis-Encephalitis Virus (CAEV) natural infection. The aminoacid sequence of goat AGP (gAGP), which was unknown, was determined by cDNA sequencing of the gene. AGP serum concentration was analyzed from 40 healthy and 36 CAEV-induced arthritis-affected goats. The mean concentration of AGP in healthy goats was of 219.8 microg/ml (+/-178.6 s.d.) and did not statistically differ from that of arthritis-affected goats (157 microg/ml, +/-137.8 s.d.). In a second set of experiments, AGP was purified to homogeneity from the serum of healthy and unhealthy goats, and the glycan pattern modifications were analyzed by means of specific binding with lectins. In particular, branching, fucosylation and alpha(1-6)- and alpha(1-3)-linked sialylation were analyzed. Goat AGP is not fucosylated in neither physiological nor pathological status. On the contrary, both major (branching) and minor (sialylation) microheterogeneities increase during arthritis. Finally, the possible local synovial origin of gAGP was determined by means of in vitro expression studies (real-time PCR) which used goat synovial membrane (GSM) as cellular model. It was found that gAGP's mRNA can be constitutively produced by GSM cells, but real-time PCR experiments revealed that the expression of AGP was not influenced by in vitro infection with CAEV. PMID:19375174

Ceciliani, Fabrizio; Rahman, Md Mizanur; Lecchi, Cristina; Maccalli, Marina; Pisoni, Giuliano; Sartorelli, Paola

2009-09-15

34

Distribution of caprine arthritis encephalitis virus provirus, RNA, and antigen in the reproductive tract of one naturally and seven experimentally infected bucks.  

PubMed

Caprine arthritis encephalitis is a worldwide, multisystemic disease caused by a small ruminant lentivirus. Although the main route of transmission is oral, detection of proviral DNA of the caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV) in caprine semen has been previously described. However, the presence of viral antigens in the male reproductive tract has apparently never been reported. The objective was to study lesions in the buck reproductive system and to detect, in these tissues, the presence of proviral DNA, viral RNA and CAEV antigens. Tissues from eight CAEV-infected bucks (one naturally and seven experimentally infected) were analyzed by histopathology, nested polymerase chain reaction, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, and immunohistochemistry. Interstitial pneumonia, synovitis, and lesions in the male reproductive tract were detected in some of the bucks. Proviral DNA was detected in the lungs and joints as well as in the reproductive systems of all animals, whereas viral RNA was detected only in the genital tract of the naturally infected buck. Viral antigens were immunostained in most of the organs of the male reproductive tract. This report was apparently the first to clearly demonstrate CAEV antigen expression in the male reproductive tract, which indicates the possibility of venereal transmission of CAEV. PMID:23973050

Turchetti, Andréia P; Paniago, Juliana J; da Costa, Luciana F; da Cruz, Juliano C M; Braz, Gissandra F; Gouveia, Aurora M G; Paixão, Tatiane A; Santos, Renato L; Heinemann, Marcos B

2013-11-01

35

The effect of caprine arthritis encephalitis virus infection on production in goats.  

PubMed

Three consecutive years of monitoring 248 goats in the same flock, found that the first lactation milk yield was significantly higher in seronegative (578L) than in seropositive (447L) animals but this difference disappeared in the subsequent second to fourth lactations. No significant differences were found in the proportions of seronegative and seropositive does in the flock, the percentage of animals culled, the number of offspring, or in the number of cases of udder bacterial infection, irrespective of age. Removal of kids from their dams before suckling and the feeding of pasteurised colostrum resulted in reduced numbers of seropositive animals. Nevertheless, by approximately 24 months of age, 76.9% of these initially seronegative animals were seropositive, a factor that significantly contributed to flock seropositivity. This finding could be attributed to lateral virus transmission from seropositive to seronegative kids because of lack of segregation within the flock. PMID:19157929

Leitner, G; Krifucks, O; Weisblit, L; Lavi, Y; Bernstein, S; Merin, U

2010-03-01

36

Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV) replicates productively in cultured epididymal cells from goats.  

PubMed

The transmission of CAEV from male goats has not been well studied and the target cells that support viral replication are not well characterized. Epididymal epithelial cells (EECs) are important and play a key role in the fertility and motility of spermatozoa. During their transit, spermatozoa incorporate several EEC-produced proteins into their plasma membranes to stabilize them and prevent premature acrosomal reaction. This intimate interaction between spermatozoa and EECs may increase the likelihood of the infection of semen with CAEV if epididymal tissue is productively infected and sheds the virus into the duct. The aim of this study was to examine whether goat EECs are susceptible to CAEV infection in tissue culture. Cells were isolated from epididymides obtained from goats that were sampled from a certified-CAEV-free herd. Cultured cells were then inoculated with a molecularly-cloned isolate of CAEV (CAEV-pBSCA). Inoculated cells developed cytopathic effects (CPE), showing numerous multinucleated giant cells (MGC) in cell-culture monolayers. Expression of CAEV proteins was detected by immunofluorescence using an anti-p28, Gag-specific antibody. The culture medium of inoculated cells was shown to contain high titers (10(6) tissue culture infectious doses 50 per ml (TCID50/ml)) of infectious, cytopathic virus when assayed using indicator goat synovial membrane (GSM) cells. Our findings clearly demonstrate that cells of the buck genital tract are targets of CAEV and are thus a potential reservoir that sheds infectious CAEV into the semen of infected animals. These data suggest the use of sperm from CAEV-free goat males for artificial insemination in genetic selection programs to minimize CAEV dissemination. PMID:23623734

Lamara, Ali; Fieni, Francis; Chatagnon, Gérard; Larrat, Myriam; Dubreil, Laurence; Chebloune, Yahia

2013-07-01

37

Goat uterine epithelial cells are susceptible to infection with Caprine Arthritis Encephalitis Virus (CAEV) in vivo.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine, using immunofluorescence and in situ hybridization, whether CAEV is capable of infecting goat uterine epithelial cells in vivo. Five CAEV seropositive goats confirmed as infected using double nested polymerase chain reaction (dnPCR) on leucocytes and on vaginal secretions were used as CAEV positive goats. Five CAEV-free goats were used as controls. Samples from the uterine horn were prepared for dnPCR, in situ hybridization, and immunofluorescence. The results from dnPCR confirmed the presence of CAEV proviral DNA in the uterine horn samples of infected goats whereas no CAEV proviral DNA was detected in samples taken from the uninfected control goats. The in situ hybridization probe was complementary to part of the CAEV gag gene and confirmed the presence of CAEV nucleic acids in uterine samples. The positively staining cells were seen concentrated in the mucosa of the lamina propria of uterine sections. Finally, laser confocal analysis of double p28/cytokeratin immunolabelled transverse sections of CAEV infected goat uterus, demonstrated that the virus was localized in glandular and epithelial cells. This study clearly demonstrates that goat uterine epithelial cells are susceptible to CAEV infection in vivo. This finding could help to further our understanding of the epidemiology of CAEV, and in particular the possibility of vertical transmission. PMID:22276529

Ali Al Ahmad, Mohamad Z; Dubreil, Laurence; Chatagnon, Gérard; Khayli, Zakaria; Theret, Marine; Martignat, Lionel; Chebloune, Yahia; Fieni, Francis

2012-01-01

38

Development of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification method for rapid detection of caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus proviral DNA.  

PubMed

A rapid detection assay based on loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) has been developed for detecting caprine arthritis-encephalitis (CAEV) proviral DNA. The LAMP assay utilized a set of five primers designed against highly conserved sequences located within the p25 gene region. The assay successfully detected CAEV proviral DNA in total DNA extracts originating from cell culture, whole blood samples and separated PBMCs. There was no cross-reaction with the negative control. Amplification was monitored using a Loopamp real-time turbidimeter; turbidity and the corresponding time were recorded. Amplification from CAEV-Shanxi DNA was detected as early as 17 min, with a maximum sensitivity of 0.0001 TCID(50), reached at 32 min. Sixty-eight animal blood samples were tested using AGID, PCR and LAMP assay, and the positive rates were 30.9 %, 33.8 % and 47.1 %, respectively. Whole blood can be used directly, eliminating the need for separation of PBMCs and nucleic acid extraction, reducing the overall procedure time to approximately 80 min. Therefore, the LAMP assay provides a specific and sensitive means for detecting CAEV proviral DNA in a simple, fast, and cost-effective manner and should be useful in eradication programs and epidemiological studies. Furthermore, the LAMP assay can be performed in less-well-equipped laboratories as well as in the field. PMID:22566005

Huang, Jinhai; Sun, Yuehui; Liu, Yebing; Xiao, Huazhi; Zhuang, Shiwen

2012-08-01

39

Evaluation of a caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus/maedi-visna virus indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in the serological diagnosis of ovine progressive pneumonia virus in U.S. sheep.  

PubMed

A caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV)/maedi-visna virus (MVV) indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (iELISA) was validated with samples from U.S. sheep and by the use of radioimmunoprecipitation as the standard for comparison. The sensitivity and the specificity were 86.0% (+ or - 5.8%) and 95.9% (+ or - 2.9%), respectively. The iELISA format and phylogenetic differences based on the MVV gag sequence contribute to the reduced sensitivity. PMID:20016044

Herrmann-Hoesing, Lynn M; Broughton-Neiswanger, Liam E; Gouine, Kimberly C; White, Stephen N; Mousel, Michele R; Lewis, Gregory S; Marshall, Katherine L; Knowles, Donald P

2010-02-01

40

Activation/proliferation and apoptosis of bystander goat lymphocytes induced by a macrophage-tropic chimeric caprine arthritis encephalitis virus expressing SIV Nef.  

PubMed

Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV) is the natural lentivirus of goats, well known for its tropism for macrophages and its inability to cause infection in lymphocytes. The viral genome lacks nef, tat, vpu and vpx coding sequences. To test the hypothesis that when nef is expressed by the viral genome, the virus became toxic for lymphocytes during replication in macrophages, we inserted the SIVsmm PBj14 nef coding sequences into the genome of CAEV thereby generating CAEV-nef. This recombinant virus is not infectious for lymphocytes but is fully replication competent in goat macrophages in which it constitutively expresses the SIV Nef. We found that goat lymphocytes cocultured with CAEV-nef-infected macrophages became activated, showing increased expression of the interleukin-2 receptor (IL-2R). Activation correlated with increased proliferation of the cells. Interestingly, a dual effect in terms of apoptosis regulation was observed in exposed goat lymphocytes. Nef was found first to induce a protection of lymphocytes from apoptosis during the first few days following exposure to infected macrophages, but later it induced increased apoptosis in the activated lymphocytes. This new recombinant virus provides a model to study the functions of Nef in the context of infection of macrophages, but in absence of infection of T lymphocytes and brings new insights into the biological effects of Nef on lymphocytes. PMID:17442361

Bouzar, Baya Amel; Rea, Angela; Hoc-Villet, Stephanie; Garnier, Céline; Guiguen, François; Jin, Yuhuai; Narayan, Opendra; Chebloune, Yahia

2007-08-01

41

A polytropic caprine arthritis encephalitis virus promoter isolated from multiple tissues from a sheep with multisystemic lentivirus-associated inflammatory disease.  

PubMed

Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV) is a lentivirus that infects both goats and sheep and is closely related to maedi-visna virus that infects sheep; collectively, these viruses are known as small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLV). Infection of goats and sheep with SRLV typically results in discrete inflammatory diseases which include arthritis, mastitis, pneumonia or encephalomyelitis. SRLV-infected animals concurrently demonstrating lentivirus-associated lesions in tissues of lung, mammary gland, joint synovium and the central nervous system are either very rare or have not been reported. Here we describe a novel CAEV promoter isolated from a sheep with multisystemic lentivirus-associated inflammatory disease including interstitial pneumonia, mastitis, polyarthritis and leukomyelitis. A single, novel SRLV promoter was cloned and sequenced from five different anatomical locations (brain stem, spinal cord, lung, mammary gland and carpal joint synovium), all of which demonstrated lesions characteristic of lentivirus associated inflammation. This SRLV promoter isolate was found to be closely related to CAEV promoters isolated from goats in northern California and other parts of the world. The promoter was denoted CAEV-ovine-MS (multisystemic disease); the stability of the transcription factor binding sites within the U3 promoter sequence are discussed. PMID:23955501

Adedeji, Adeyemi O; Barr, Bradd; Gomez-Lucia, Esperanza; Murphy, Brian

2013-08-01

42

A Polytropic Caprine Arthritis Encephalitis Virus Promoter Isolated from Multiple Tissues from a Sheep with Multisystemic Lentivirus-Associated Inflammatory Disease  

PubMed Central

Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV) is a lentivirus that infects both goats and sheep and is closely related to maedi-visna virus that infects sheep; collectively, these viruses are known as small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLV). Infection of goats and sheep with SRLV typically results in discrete inflammatory diseases which include arthritis, mastitis, pneumonia or encephalomyelitis. SRLV-infected animals concurrently demonstrating lentivirus-associated lesions in tissues of lung, mammary gland, joint synovium and the central nervous system are either very rare or have not been reported. Here we describe a novel CAEV promoter isolated from a sheep with multisystemic lentivirus-associated inflammatory disease including interstitial pneumonia, mastitis, polyarthritis and leukomyelitis. A single, novel SRLV promoter was cloned and sequenced from five different anatomical locations (brain stem, spinal cord, lung, mammary gland and carpal joint synovium), all of which demonstrated lesions characteristic of lentivirus associated inflammation. This SRLV promoter isolate was found to be closely related to CAEV promoters isolated from goats in northern California and other parts of the world. The promoter was denoted CAEV-ovine-MS (multisystemic disease); the stability of the transcription factor binding sites within the U3 promoter sequence are discussed. PMID:23955501

Adedeji, Adeyemi O.; Barr, Bradd; Gomez-Lucia, Esperanza; Murphy, Brian

2013-01-01

43

A Gag peptide encompassing B- and T-cell epitopes of the caprine arthritis encephalitis virus functions as modular carrier peptide.  

PubMed

Short synthetic peptides are important tools in biomedical research permitting to generate hapten specific polyclonal sera for analytical purposes or functional studies. In this paper we provide proof of principle that a peptide located in a highly conserved portion of the Gag protein of the caprine arthritis encephalitis virus and carrying an immunodominant T helper cell epitope functions as an efficient carrier peptide, mediating a strong antibody response to a peptidic hapten encompassing a well-characterized B cell epitope of Env. The carrier and hapten peptides were collinearly synthesized permutating their molecular arrangement. While the antibody response to the hapten was similar for both constructs, the antibody response to a B cell epitope overlapping the T helper cell epitope of the Gag carrier peptide was considerably different. This permits a modular use of the carrier peptide to generate antibody directed exclusively to the hapten peptide or a strong humoral response to both carrier- and hapten-peptide. Finally, we have mapped the epitopes involved in this polarized antibody response and discussed the potential immunological implications. PMID:19118559

Niederhäuser, Simone; Zahno, Marie-Luise; Nenci, Chiara; Vogt, Hans-Rudolf; Zanoni, Reto; Peterhans, Ernst; Bertoni, Giuseppe

2009-03-15

44

Is caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV) transmitted vertically to early embryo development stages (morulae or blastocyst) via in vitro infected frozen semen?  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine, in vivo, whether in vitro infected cryopreserved caprine sperm is capable of transmitting caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV) vertically to early embryo development stages via artificial insemination with in vitro infected semen. Sperm was collected from CAEV-free bucks by electroejaculation. Half of each ejaculate was inoculated with CAEV-pBSCA at a viral concentration of 10(4) TCID(50)/mL. The second half of each ejaculate was used as a negative control. The semen was then frozen. On Day 13 of superovulation treatment, 14 CAEV-free does were inseminated directly into the uterus under endoscopic control with thawed infected semen. Six CAEV-free does, used as a negative control, were inseminated intrauterine with thawed CAEV-free sperm, and eight CAEV-free does were mated with naturally infected bucks. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to detect CAEV proviral-DNA in the embryos at the D7 stage, in the embryo washing media, and in the uterine secretions of recipient does. At Day 7, all the harvested embryos were PCR-negative for CAEV proviral-DNA; however, CAEV proviral-DNA was detected in 8/14 uterine smears, and 9/14 flushing media taken from does inseminated with infected sperm, and in 1/8 uterine swabs taken from the does mated with infected bucks. The results of this study confirm that (i) artificial insemination with infected semen or mating with infected bucks may result in the transmission of CAEV to the does genital tack seven days after insemination, and (ii) irrespective of the medical status of the semen or the recipient doe, it is possible to obtain CAEV-free early embryos usable for embryo transfer. PMID:22341707

Al Ahmad, M Z Ali; Chebloune, Y; Chatagnon, G; Pellerin, J L; Fieni, F

2012-05-01

45

Immunogenicity of a lentiviral-based DNA vaccine driven by the 5'LTR of the naturally attenuated caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV) in mice and macaques.  

PubMed

Increasing the safety and the efficacy of existing HIV vaccines is one of the strategies that could help to promote the development of a vaccine for human use. We developed a HIV DNA vaccine (?4-SHIVKU2) that has been shown to induce potent polyfunctional HIV-specific T cell responses following a single dose immunization of mice and macaques. ?4-SHIVKU2 also induced protection when immunized macaques were challenged with homologous pathogenic viruses. In the present study, our aim was to examine whether a chimeric HIV DNA vaccine (CAL-?4-SHIVKU2) whose genome is driven by the LTR of the goat lentivirus, caprine arthritis encephalitis (CAEV) expresses efficiently the vaccine antigens and induces potent immune responses in animal models for HIV vaccine. Data of radioimmunoprecipitation assays clearly show that this chimeric genome drives efficient expression of all HIV antigens in the construct. In addition, evaluation of the p24 Gag protein in the supernatant of HEK-293-T cells transfected in parallel with ?4-SHIVKU2 and CAL-?4-SHIVKU2 showed no difference suggesting that these two LTRs are inducing equally the expression of the viral genes. Immunization of mice and macaques using our single dose immunization regimen resulted in induction of similar IFN-? ELISPOT responses in ?4-SHIVKU2- and CAL-?4-SHIVKU2-treated mice. Similar profiles of T cell responses were also detected both in mice and macaques when multiparametric flow cytometry analyses were performed. Since CAEV LTR is not dependent of Tat to drive viral gene expression and is not functional for integration with HIV integrase, this new vector increases the safety and efficacy of our vaccine vectors and vaccination strategy. PMID:22387218

Arrode-Brusés, Géraldine; Hegde, Ramakrishna; Jin, Yuhuai; Liu, Zhengian; Narayan, Opendra; Chebloune, Yahia

2012-04-19

46

Immunogenicity of a lentiviral-based DNA vaccine driven by the 5' LTR of the naturally attenuated Caprine Arthritis Encephalitis Virus (CAEV) in mice and macaques†  

PubMed Central

Increasing the safety and the efficacy of existing HIV vaccines is one of the strategies that could help to promote the development of a vaccine for human use. We developed a HIV DNA vaccine (?4-SHIVku2) that has been shown to induce potent polyfunctional HIV-specific T cell responses following a single dose immunization of mice and macaques. ?4-SHIVku2 also induced protection when immunized macaques were challenged with homologous pathogenic viruses. In the present study, our aim was to examine whether a chimeric HIV DNA vaccine (CAL-?4-SHIVku2) whose genome is driven by the LTR of the goat lentivirus, caprine arthritis encephalitis (CAEV) expresses efficiently the vaccine antigens and induces potent immune responses in animal models for HIV vaccine. Data of radioimmunoprecipitation assays clearly show that this chimeric genome drives efficient expression of all HIV antigens in the construct. In addition, evaluation of the p24 Gag protein in the supernatant of HEK-293-T cells transfected in parallel with ?4-SHIVku2 and CAL-?4-SHIVku2 showed no difference suggesting that these two LTRs are inducing equally the expression of the viral genes. Immunization of mice and macaques using our single dose immunization regimen resulted in induction of similar IFN-? ELISPOT responses in ?4-SHIVku2- and CAL-?4-SHIVku2-treated mice. Similar profiles of T cell responses were also detected both in mice and macaques when multiparametric flow cytometry analyses were performed. Since CAEV LTR is not dependent of Tat to drive viral gene expression and is not functional for integration with HIV integrase, this new vector increases the safety and efficacy of our vaccine vectors and vaccination strategy. PMID:22387218

Arrode-Bruses, Geraldine; Hegde, Ramakrishna; Jin, Yuhai; Liu, Zhengian; Narayan, Opendra; Chebloune, Yahia

2012-01-01

47

Comparative study by computed radiography, histology, and scanning electron microscopy of the articular cartilage of normal goats and in chronic infection with caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus.  

PubMed

In the northeast of Brazil, caprine arthritis-encephalitis (CAE) is one of the key reasons for herd productivity decreasing that result in considerable economic losses. A comparative study was carried out using computed radiography (CR), histological analysis (HA), and scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) of the joints of CAE infected and normal goats. Humerus head surface of positive animals presented reduced joint space, increased bone density, and signs of degenerative joint disease (DJD). The carpal joint presented no morphological alterations in CR in any of the animals studied. Tarsus joint was the most affected, characterized by severe DJD, absence of joint space, increased periarticular soft tissue density, edema, and bone sclerosis. Histological analysis showed chronic tissue lesions, complete loss of the surface zone, absence of proteoglycans in the transition and radial zones and destruction of the cartilage surface in the CAE positive animals. Analysis by SEM showed ulcerated lesions with irregular and folded patterns on the joint surface that distinguished the limits between areas of normal and affected cartilage. The morphological study of the joints of normal and CAE positive goats deepened understanding of the alteration in the tissue bioarchitecture of the most affected joints. The SEM finding sustained previous histological reports, similar to those found for rheumatoid arthritis, suggesting that the goat infected with CAE can be considered as a potential model for research in this area. PMID:24190602

de Sousa, Videlina Rodrigues; das Chagas Araújo Sousa, Francisco; da Silva Filho, Osmar Ferreira; Grassi Rici, Rose Eli; das Neves Diniz, Anaemilia; da Silva Moura, Laécio; de Jesus Rosa Pereira Alves, Jacyara; de Sousa Júnior, Antônio; Angélica Miglino, Maria; de Sousa, João Macedo; de Jesus Moraes Junior, Felipe; Ribeiro Alves, Flávio

2014-01-01

48

In vitro cross-species infections using a caprine arthritis encephalitis lentivirus carrying the GFP marker gene.  

PubMed

A caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV), carrying the green fluorescent protein (GFP) into the tat region was recently reported [Mselli-Lakhal, L., Guiguen, F., Greenland, T., Mornex, J.F., Chebloune, Y., 2006. Gene transfer system derived from the caprine arthritis-encephalitis lentivirus. J. Virol. Meth. 136, 177-184]. This construct, called pK2EGFPH replicated to titres up to 10(5)IU/ml on infection of caprine cells, and could be concentrated to 10(6)IU/ml by ultracentrifugation. In the present study, the pK2EGFPH construct was characterized better and used in cross-species infection studies. The pK2EGFPH virus could transduce GFP protein expression both to goat synovial membrane cells and to an immortalized goat milk epithelial cell line. The pK2EGFPH infected cells were demonstrated to express both GFP protein and CAEV viral proteins, as demonstrated by radioimmunoprecipitation and multinucleated cell formation. However GFP expression could not be maintained over passages. This vector was used to investigate cross-species infectious potential of CAEV. The bovine cell lines MDBK and GBK were found to be sensitive to infection while the human cell lines Hela, A431 and THP-1 were not. The pK2EGFPH vector should prove useful in studies of CAEV tropism both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:17386948

Mselli-Lakhal, Laila; Guiguen, François; Greenland, Timothy; Mornex, Jean-François; Chebloune, Yahia

2007-07-01

49

PCR associated with agar gel immunodiffusion assay improve caprine arthritis-encephalitis (CAEV) control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Caprine arthritis-encephalitis (CAE) is a multi-systemic viral syndrome in goats caused by small ruminant lentivirus (CAEV). The control measures prescribed for CAEV control are based on the identification of infected animals through a suitable serological test. The aim of this work was to improve the CAE control measures through the association of indirect (agar gel immunodiffusion—AGID) and direct (PCR) assays

J. R. Modolo; A. V. M. Stachissini; C. R. Padovani; J ARAUJOJUNIOR; R. S. Castro; A. P. Ravazzolo; B. L. S. Leite

2009-01-01

50

Development of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of antibody against Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus using recombinant protein of the precursor of the major core protein, p55gag.  

PubMed

An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) by using recombinant Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV) p55gag antigen (rELISA), an indirect ELISA by using whole CAEV (wELISA), and Western blot analysis by using the recombinant p55gag antigen (rWB) were developed for detection of CAEV-specific antibodies in goats. Seven hundred and forty-five sera from goats were tested by rELISA, wELISA, rWB, and agar gel immunodiffusion test (AGID), and the results were compared with those of WB analysis by using the whole CAEV antigen (wWB). The AGID test and rWB had similar sensitivities of 93.3% (95% confidence interval [CI]) and 93% (95% CI), respectively, and similar specificities of 96.0% (95% CI) and 96.3% (95% CI), respectively, compared with wWB. The wELISA had substantially lower sensitivity (80.4%) and specificity (78.0%) compared with wWB, and rELISA had the lowest sensitivity (78.2%) and specificity (61.1%) compared with wWB. The lack of adequate sensitivity and specificity for rELISA and wELISA suggests that these assays need considerable modification. However, the results for rWB show that this assay has excellent agreement with wWB and that it can be used as a confirmatory test for the presence of anti-CAEV antibodies. PMID:20453217

Konishi, Misako; Yamamoto, Takehisa; Shimada, Takako; Shirafuji, Hiroaki; Kameyama, Ken-Ichiro; Sentsui, Hiroshi; Murakami, Kenji

2010-05-01

51

Monoclonal Antibodies to Conformational Epitopes of the Surface Glycoprotein of Caprine Arthritis-Encephalitis Virus: Potential Application to Competitive-Inhibition Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay for Detecting Antibodies in Goat Sera  

PubMed Central

Four immunoglobulin G1 monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) to the gp135 surface envelope glycoprotein (SU) of the 79–63 isolate of caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV), referred to as CAEV-63, were characterized and evaluated for their ability to compete with antibody from CAEV-infected goats. Three murine MAbs (MAbs GPB16A, 29A, and 74A) and one caprine MAb (MAb F7-299) were examined. All MAbs reacted in nitrocellulose dot blots with native CAEV-63 SU purified by MAb F7-299 affinity chromatography, whereas none reacted with denatured and reduced SU. All MAbs reacted in Western blots with purified CAEV-63 SU or the SU component of whole-virus lysate following denaturation in the absence of reducing agent, indicating that intramolecular disulfide bonding was essential for epitope integrity. Peptide-N-glycosidase F digestion of SU abolished the reactivities of MAbs 74A and F7-299, whereas treatment of SU with N-acetylneuraminate glycohydrolase (sialidase A) under nonreducing conditions enhanced the reactivities of all MAbs as well as polyclonal goat sera. MAbs 29A and F7-299 were cross-reactive with the SU of an independent strain of CAEV (CAEV-Co). By enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), the reactivities of horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-conjugated MAbs 16A and 29A with homologous CAEV-63 SU were <10% of that of HRP-conjugated MAb 74A. The reactivity of HRP-conjugated MAb 74A was blocked by sera from goats immunized with CAEV-63 SU or infected with CAEV-63. The reactivity of MAb 74A was also blocked by sera from goats infected with a CAEV-Co molecular clone, although MAb 74A did not react with CAEV-Co SU in Western blots. Thus, goats infected with either CAEV-63 or CAEV-Co make antibodies that inhibit binding of MAb 74A to CAEV-63 SU. A competitive-inhibition ELISA based on displacement of MAb 74A reactivity has potential applicability for the serologic diagnosis of CAEV infection. PMID:11139194

Ozyoruk, Fuat; Cheevers, William P.; Hullinger, Gordon A.; McGuire, Travis C.; Hutton, Melinda; Knowles, Donald P.

2001-01-01

52

Detection of viral genomes of caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV) in semen and in genital tract tissues of male goat  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to determine the infectious status of semen and genital tract tissues from male goat naturally infected with the caprine lentivirus.Firstly, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to detect the presence of CAEV proviral-DNA in the circulating mononuclear cells, semen (spermatozoa and non-spermatic cells), and genital tract tissues (testis, epididymis, vas deferens, and vesicular gland)

M. Z. Ali Al Ahmad; F. Fieni; J. L. Pellerin; F. Guiguen; Y. Cherel; G. Chatagnon; A. B. Bouzar; Y. Chebloune

2008-01-01

53

Detection of viral genomes of caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV) in semen and in genital tract tissues of male goat.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine the infectious status of semen and genital tract tissues from male goat naturally infected with the caprine lentivirus. Firstly, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to detect the presence of CAEV proviral-DNA in the circulating mononuclear cells, semen (spermatozoa and non-spermatic cells), and genital tract tissues (testis, epididymis, vas deferens, and vesicular gland) of nine bucks. RT-PCR was used to detect the presence of CAEV viral RNA in seminal plasma. Secondly, in situ hybridization was performed on PCR-positive samples from the head, body, and tail of the epididymis. CAEV proviral-DNA was identified by PCR in the blood cells of 7/9 bucks and in non-spermatic cells of the seminal plasma of 3/9 bucks. No CAEV proviral-DNA was identified in the spermatozoa fraction. The presence of CAEV proviral-DNA in non-spermatic cells and the presence of CAEV in the seminal plasma was significantly higher (p<0.01) in bucks with PCR-positive blood. Two of the three bucks with positive seminal plasma cells presented with at least one PCR-positive genital tract tissue. Proviral-DNA was found in the head (3/9), body (3/9), and tail (2/9) of the epididymis. In situ hybridization confirmed the presence of viral mRNA in at least one of each of these tissues, in the periphery of the epididymal epithelium. This study clearly demonstrates the presence of viral mRNA and proviral-DNA in naturally infected male goat semen and in various tissues of the male genital tract. PMID:18082249

Ali Al Ahmad, M Z; Fieni, F; Pellerin, J L; Guiguen, F; Cherel, Y; Chatagnon, G; Bouzar, A B; Chebloune, Y

2008-03-01

54

Small ruminant lentiviruses: immunopathogenesis of visna-maedi and caprine arthritis and encephalitis virus.  

PubMed

The small ruminant lentiviruses include the prototype for the genus, visna-maedi virus (VMV) as well as caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV). Infection of sheep or goats with these viruses causes slow, progressive, inflammatory pathology in many tissues, but the most common clinical signs result from pathology in the lung, mammary gland, central nervous system and joints. This review examines replication, immunity to and pathogenesis of these viruses and highlights major differences from and similarities to some of the other lentiviruses. PMID:22237012

Blacklaws, Barbara A

2012-05-01

55

Caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV) detection in semen of endangered goat breeds by nested polymerase chain reaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Semen and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) samples of four naturally infected, four experimentally infected (endangered breeds) and four non-infected bucks (endangered breeds) were evaluated for the presence of CAEV proviral-DNA by nested polymerase chain reaction (n-PCR). Three out of the eight PBMC samples from infected bucks were positive for CAEV-DNA and four out of the eight semen samples were

J. C. M. Cruz; A. M. G. Gouveia; K. C. Souza; G. F. Braz; B. M. Teixeira; M. B. Heinemann; R. C. Leite; J. K. P. Reis; R. R. Pinheiro; A. Andrioli

2009-01-01

56

Lack of risk of transmission of caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV) after an appropriate embryo transfer procedure.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to demonstrate that embryo transfer can be used to produce CAEV-free kids from CAEV-infected biological mothers when appropriate procedure is implemented. Twenty-eight goats that had tested positive for CAEV using PCR on vaginal secretions were used as embryo donors. Embryos with intact-ZP were selected and washed 10 times; they were then frozen and used for transfer into CAEV-free recipient goats. Nineteen of the 49 recipient goats gave birth, producing a total of 23 kids. Three blood samples were taken from each recipient goat, 10 days before, during, and 10 days after parturition; these were tested for CAEV antibodies using ELISA and for CAEV proviral DNA using PCR. The mothers were then euthanized. Tissue samples were taken from the lungs, udder, and retromammary and prescapular lymph nodes. The kids were separated from their mothers at birth. Seven of them died. At 4 months of age, 16 kids were subjected to drug-induced immunosuppression. Blood samples were taken every month from birth to 4 months of age; samples were then taken on days 15, 21, and 28 after the start of the immunosuppressive treatment. The kids were then euthanized and tissue samples taken from the carpal synovial membrane, lung tissue, prescapular lymph nodes, inguinal and retromammary lymph nodes, and uterus. All samples from the 19 recipient goats and 23 kids were found to be negative for CAEV antibodies and/or CAEV proviral DNA. Under acute conditions for infection this study clearly demonstrates that embryo transfer can be safely used to produce CAEV-free neonates from infected CAEV donors. PMID:18036653

Ali Al Ahmad, M Z; Chebloune, Y; Bouzar, B A; Baril, G; Bouvier, F; Chatagnon, G; Leboeuf, B; Pepin, M; Guibert, J M; Russo, P; Manfredi, E; Martin, J; Fieni, F

2008-03-01

57

Small ruminant lentivirus Tat protein induces apoptosis in caprine cells in vitro by the intrinsic pathway.  

PubMed

The small ruminant lentiviruses, caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV) and maedi visna virus (MVV) naturally cause inflammatory disease in goats and sheep, provoking chronic lesions in several different organs. We have previously demonstrated that in vitro infection of caprine cells by CAEV induces apoptosis through the intrinsic pathway (Rea-Boutrois, A., Pontini, G., Greenland, T., Mehlen, P., Chebloune, Y., Verdier, G. and Legras-Lachuer, C. 2008). In the present study, we used Tat deleted viruses and SLRV Tat-expression vectors to show that the SRLV Tat proteins are responsible for this apoptosis. We have also studied the activation of caspases-3, -8 and -9 by fluorescent assays in caprine cells expressing SRLV Tat proteins, and the effects of transfected dominant negative variants of these caspases, to show that Tat-associated apoptosis depends on activation of caspases-3 and -9, but not -8. A simultaneous disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential indicates an involvement of the mitochondrial pathway. PMID:19007964

Rea-Boutrois, Angela; Villet, Stéphanie; Greenland, Tim; Mehlen, Patrick; Chebloune, Yahia; Verdier, Gérard; Legras-Lachuer, Catherine

2009-01-01

58

Neurobiology of simian and feline immunodeficiency virus infections.  

PubMed

Experimental and clinical evidence indicates that all lentiviruses of animals and humans are neurotropic and potentially neurovirulent. The prototypic animal lentiviruses, visna virus in sheep and caprine arthritis encephalitis virus in goats have been known for decades to induce neurologic disease. More recently, infection of the brain with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has been linked to an associated encephalopathy and cognitive/motor complex. While the visna virus and caprine arthritis encephalitis virus are important models of neurologic disease they are not optimal for the study of HIV encephalitis because immune deficiency is only a minor component of the disease they induce. By contrast, the recently isolated lentiviruses from monkeys and cats, the simian and feline immunodeficiency viruses (SIV and FIV respectively), are profoundly immunosuppressive as well as neurotropic. SIV infection of the central nervous system of macaques now provides the best animal model for HIV infection of the human brain due to the close evolutionary relationship between monkeys and man, the genetic relatedness of their respective lentiviruses, and the similarities in the neuropathology. This chapter will compare and contrast the neurobiology of SIV and FIV with HIV. PMID:1669709

Lackner, A A; Dandekar, S; Gardner, M B

1991-04-01

59

Immunomodulation of caprine lentiviral infection by interleukin-16.  

PubMed

Interleukin-16 (IL-16) is a proinflammatory cytokine produced by a variety of cells including lymphocytes, macrophages, mast cells, and eosinophils. We have shown in our previous studies increased expression of IL-16 mRNA and protein in caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV)-infected goats blood. In this study, we determined the immunomodulatory effects of IL-16 in vitro using cells derived from CAEV infected and uninfected goats. Human recombinant IL-16 (rhIL-16) significantly increased chemotaxis of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of both control and CAEV-infected goats. Pretreatment of PBMC with anti-goat CD4 monoclonal antibody inhibited IL-16-induced chemotaxis of PBMC of control and infected goats suggesting that IL-16 exerts its action in goats primarily by binding to CD4. The CAEV proviral DNA was less in caprine monocytes treated with rhIL-16 infected in vitro with CAEV. These data suggest inhibitory effect of IL-16 on viral integration. Flow cytometric studies indicated a trend toward IL-16-induced increased expression of lymphocyte activation markers. Combined with our previously reported data, these experiments suggest that increased IL-16 expression during CAEV infection may inhibit viral integration. PMID:19811834

Nimmanapalli, R; Sharmila, C; Reddy, P G

2010-12-01

60

Japanese encephalitis virus core protein inhibits stress granule formation through an interaction with Caprin-1 and facilitates viral propagation.  

PubMed

Stress granules (SGs) are cytoplasmic foci composed of stalled translation preinitiation complexes induced by environmental stress stimuli, including viral infection. Since viral propagation completely depends on the host translational machinery, many viruses have evolved to circumvent the induction of SGs or co-opt SG components. In this study, we found that expression of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) core protein inhibits SG formation. Caprin-1 was identified as a binding partner of the core protein by an affinity capture mass spectrometry analysis. Alanine scanning mutagenesis revealed that Lys(97) and Arg(98) in the ?-helix of the JEV core protein play a crucial role in the interaction with Caprin-1. In cells infected with a mutant JEV in which Lys(97) and Arg(98) were replaced with alanines in the core protein, the inhibition of SG formation was abrogated, and viral propagation was impaired. Furthermore, the mutant JEV exhibited attenuated virulence in mice. These results suggest that the JEV core protein circumvents translational shutoff by inhibiting SG formation through an interaction with Caprin-1 and facilitates viral propagation in vitro and in vivo. PMID:23097442

Katoh, Hiroshi; Okamoto, Toru; Fukuhara, Takasuke; Kambara, Hiroto; Morita, Eiji; Mori, Yoshio; Kamitani, Wataru; Matsuura, Yoshiharu

2013-01-01

61

Histopathological and biochemical findings of congenital copper deficiency: are these similar to those of caprine arthritis-encephalitis?  

PubMed Central

This study was done after identifying animals with a twisted carpal joint in goat herd. These included a kid goat walking on its articulus carpii and a newborn goat with a stiff leg. Necropsies of the diseased goats revealed swollen carpal joints that were twisted backwards. Arthritis was observed during microscopic examination of the carpal joints. Very low levels of eosinophil, leucocyte, and lymphocyte cell infiltration were found in the central nervous system and meninges. Serum copper levels were significantly decreased in most of the animals. All of these results led us to diagnose the animals with swayback disease. PMID:22437544

Alcigir, G.; Sepici-Dincel, A.; Yonguc, A. D.; Akcora, A.; Turkaslan, J.

2012-01-01

62

Genetic characterization of maedi-visna virus (MVV) detected in Finland.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to characterize the small-ruminant lentiviruses (SRLVs) detected in Finland by defining their phylogenetic relationships and by studying the evolution of the virus based on a well-known epidemiology. The study material comprised lung tissue samples of 20 sheep from 5 different farms, a cell-cultured virus from one of the original sheep lung samples, and a blood sample of a goat. The sheep were identified as positive during seroepidemiologic screenings in 1994-1996 and the goat in 2001. Initial classification of a 251 nucleotide sequence within gag gene amplified from the uncultured samples as well as from the cell-cultured virus showed that the SRLVs were genetically close and that they were more closely related to the prototype ovine maedi-visna viruses (MVVs) than to the caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV). The lentivirus detected from the goat aligned within the cluster of the Finnish ovine viruses, demonstrating a natural sheep-to-goat transmission. Further phylogenetic analysis of the proviral gag, pol and env sequences confirmed the initial classification and showed that they constituted a new subtype within the diverse MVV group. The sequence analyses also showed that the virus had remained genetically relatively stable, in spite of the time given for virus evolution, an estimated 20 years, and in spite of the virus crossing the host species barrier. PMID:17349752

Laamanen, Ilona; Jakava-Viljanen, Miia; Sihvonen, Liisa

2007-06-21

63

Molecular characterization of caprine adeno-associated virus (AAV-Go.1) reveals striking similarity to human AAV5.  

PubMed

The complete genome of the caprine adeno-associated virus (AAV-Go.1) was sequenced, and the expression profile of AAV-Go.1 was determined following virus infection in primary lamb kidney cells. A remarkable similarity between the Rep coding region, the ITR sequence and the central intron of AAV-Go.1, and the human derived AAV5 was observed. The transcription profile of AAV-Go.1 was also quite similar to that of AAV5. AAV-Go.1 was able to efficiently infect human cell lines, following co-infection of human adenovirus, and in reciprocal experiments, AAV5 also was able to efficiently infect primary lamb cells and bovine cell lines. Recombinant AAV5 and AAV-Go.1 expressing the beta-gal gene flanked by AAV5 ITRs, showed similar transduction efficiency in various human and animal cells. Studies of AAV-Go.1 may expand our understanding of the evolutionary relationship between the AAV-5-like group of AAVs, which, in addition to human derived AAV5, includes AAV viruses from bovine, caprine, and avian species. PMID:16926042

Qiu, Jianming; Cheng, Fang; Pintel, David

64

The use of phenothiazine dyes to inactivate bovine viral diarrhea virus in goat colostrum  

PubMed Central

Abstract The objectives of this study were to determine the optimal concentration of phenothiazine dye required to inactivate bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) in goat colostrum following 60 min of illumination and determine if immunoglobulin concentration is affected by this technique. In addition, the potential of continuous agitation of colostrum during illumination to affect viral kill was investigated. This experiment was designed to more closely approximate on-farm use than a previous pilot study performed by the same investigators. Bovine viral diarrhea virus was used as a model for caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus. Goat colostrum containing BVDV was illuminated for 60 min following the addition of either methylene blue (MB) or methylene violet (MV). Four different concentrations of each dye were evaluated. Illumination was performed in a small, portable chesttype freezer equipped on the inside with white fluorescent lights. Some samples were continuously rocked during illumination, while others remained stationary. Virus levels were determined before and after illumination. Immunoglobulin concentrations were determined for time 0 and 60 min. One ?M MB reduced virus to undetectable levels following 60 min of illumination. A concentration of 20 ?M MV was required to reduce virus levels to zero. Agitation of colostrum samples had no effect with either MB or MV on whether virus levels were reduced. High concentrations of MB and MV had no important effect on immunoglobulin concentrations. PMID:15188954

2004-01-01

65

Dot enzyme immunoassay for visual detection of peste-des-petits-ruminants virus antigen from infected caprine tissues.  

PubMed Central

An enzyme-linked immunosorbent microassay using nitrocellulose paper as the solid-phase support was developed for the detection of peste-des-petits-ruminants virus antigens in infected caprine tissue homogenates. Dots of tissue homogenates were applied to nitrocellulose papers, and any unreacted sites were blocked with 5% skim milk powder in triethanolamine-buffered saline. After incubation of the papers in tissue culture supernatant monoclonal antibody against the peste-des-petits-ruminants virus, the antigen-antibody reaction was detected with peroxidase-conjugated anti-mouse immunoglobulin G and the enzyme substrate 4-chloro-1-naphthol. Positive results were visualized as blue dots. Results of the dot enzyme immunoassay compared favorably with those of the standard enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Incorporation of Nonidet P-40 in the washing solution did not improve the sensitivity of the dot enzyme immunoassay, and pretreatment of homogenates with Nonidet P-40 before application to the nitrocellulose paper inhibited the binding of the antigen to the paper and reduced the intensity of the color development. Images PMID:2674200

Obi, T U; Ojeh, C K

1989-01-01

66

Isolation of Maedi/Visna Virus from a Sheep in Japan  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Maedi/visna (MV) is a lentiviral disease of sheep caused by the maedi/visna virus (MVV). Although MV is prevalent in many countries, it had not been reported in Japan. In 2011, however, three sheep in northern Japan were reported to be seropositive against the MVV antigen, indicating a persistent MVV infection. In the present study, we isolated MVV from one sheep to confirm MVV infection and conducted genomic classification of the virus. The co-culture of leukocytes from a seropositive sheep with fetal goat lung cells resulted in the formation of syncytial cells and the amplification of a long terminal repeat sequence of MVV by polymerase chain reaction. The isolate was confirmed as being MVV, rather than the caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus based on phylogenetic analysis of the gag gene sequence. Although the sheep was asymptomatic, nonpurulent meningitis and demyelination were found in the spinal cord. These were considered to be early lesions associated with pathogenic MVV infection. Therefore, the present study demonstrated that MVV is distributed in Japan. PMID:24141278

OGUMA, Keisuke; TANAKA, Chiaki; HARASAWA, Ryo; KIMURA, Atsushi; SASAKI, Jun; GORYO, Masanobu; SENTSUI, Hiroshi

2013-01-01

67

Isolation of maedi/visna virus from a sheep in Japan.  

PubMed

Maedi/visna (MV) is a lentiviral disease of sheep caused by the maedi/visna virus (MVV). Although MV is prevalent in many countries, it had not been reported in Japan. In 2011, however, three sheep in northern Japan were reported to be seropositive against the MVV antigen, indicating a persistent MVV infection. In the present study, we isolated MVV from one sheep to confirm MVV infection and conducted genomic classification of the virus. The co-culture of leukocytes from a seropositive sheep with fetal goat lung cells resulted in the formation of syncytial cells and the amplification of a long terminal repeat sequence of MVV by polymerase chain reaction. The isolate was confirmed as being MVV, rather than the caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus based on phylogenetic analysis of the gag gene sequence. Although the sheep was asymptomatic, nonpurulent meningitis and demyelination were found in the spinal cord. These were considered to be early lesions associated with pathogenic MVV infection. Therefore, the present study demonstrated that MVV is distributed in Japan. PMID:24141278

Oguma, Keisuke; Tanaka, Chiaki; Harasawa, Ryo; Kimura, Atsushi; Sasaki, Jun; Goryo, Masanobu; Sentsui, Hiroshi

2014-03-01

68

Phylogenetic analysis of SRLV sequences from an arthritic sheep outbreak demonstrates the introduction of CAEV-like viruses among Spanish sheep.  

PubMed

Small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLVs) cause different clinical forms of disease in sheep and goats. So far in Spain, Maedi visna virus-like (MVV-like) sequences have been found in both species, and the arthritic SRLV disease has never been found in sheep until a recent outbreak. Knowing that arthritis is common in goats, it was of interest to determine if the genetic type of the virus involved in the sheep arthritis outbreak was caprine arthritis encephalitis virus-like (CAEV-like) rather than MVV-like. Alignment and phylogenetic analyses on nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences from SRLV of this outbreak, allowed a B2 genetic subgroup assignment of these SRLV, compatible with a correspondence between the virus genetic type and the disease form. Furthermore, an isolate was obtained from the arthritic outbreak, its full genome was CAEV-like but the pol integrase region was MVV-like. Although its LTR lacked a U3 repeat sequence and had a deletion in the R region, which has been proposed to reduce viral replication rate, its phenotype in sheep skin fibroblast cultures was rapid/high, thus it appeared to have adapted to sheep cells. This outbreak study represents the first report on CAEV-like genetic findings and complete genome analysis among Spanish small ruminants. PMID:19339126

Glaria, I; Reina, R; Crespo, H; de Andrés, X; Ramírez, H; Biescas, E; Pérez, M M; Badiola, J; Luján, L; Amorena, B; de Andrés, D

2009-07-01

69

Prevalence study of Bovine viral diarrhea virus by evaluation of antigen capture ELISA and RT-PCR assay in Bovine, Ovine, Caprine, Buffalo and Camel aborted fetuses in Iran  

PubMed Central

Bovine viral diarrhea virus is a pestivirus in the family Flaviviridae that cause abortions and stillbirths in livestock and its traditional diagnosis is based on cell culture and virus neutralization test. In this study, for more sensitive, specific detection and determined the prevalence of virus in aborted Bovine, Ovine, Caprine, Buffalo and Camel fetuses the antigen capture ELISA and RT-PCR were recommended. From the total of 2173 aborted fetuses, 347 (15.96%) and 402 (18.49%) were positive for presence of Bovine viral diarrhea virus by antigen capture ELISA and RT-PCR respectively. Statistical analysis of data showed significant differences between ELISA and RT-PCR for detection of virus in aborted fetuses. These results indicate a high presence of this pathogen in Iran and that RT- PCR is considerably faster and more accurate than ELISA for identification of Bovine viral diarrhea virus. To our knowledge the Camels and Bovine are the most resistant and sensitive to Bovine viral diarrhea's abortions respectively and the prevalence of virus in Caprine is more than Ovine aborted fetuses. This study is the first prevalence report of Bovine viral diarrhea virus in aborted Bovine, Ovine, Caprine, Buffalo and Camel fetuses by evaluation of ELISA and RT-PCR in Iran. PMID:22018096

2011-01-01

70

Although macrophage-tropic simian/human immunodeficiency viruses can exhibit a range of pathogenic phenotypes, a majority of isolates induce no clinical disease in immunocompetent macaques.  

PubMed

Unlike prototypical lentiviruses like visna and caprine arthritis-encephalitis viruses, which are mainly macrophage tropic (M-tropic), primate lentiviruses primarily target CD4+ T lymphocytes. We previously reported that during the late phase of highly pathogenic chimeric simian/human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) infections of rhesus macaques, when CD4+ T cells have been systemically eliminated, high levels of viremia are maintained from productively infected macrophages. The availability of several different M-tropic SHIVs from such late-stage immunocompromised animals provided the opportunity to assess whether they might contribute to the immune deficiency induced by their T-cell-tropic parental viruses or possibly cause a distinct disease based on their capacity to infect macrophages. Pairs of rhesus monkeys were therefore inoculated intravenously with six different M-tropic SHIV preparations, and their plasma viral RNA loads, circulating lymphocyte subset numbers, and eventual disease outcomes were monitored. Only one of these six M-tropic SHIVs induced any disease; the disease phenotype observed was the typical rapid, complete, and irreversible depletion of CD4+ T cells induced by pathogenic SHIVs. An analysis of two asymptomatic monkeys, previously inoculated with an M-tropic SHIV recovered directly from alveolar macrophages, revealed that this inoculum targeted alveolar macrophages in vivo, compared to a T-cell-tropic virus, yet no clinical disease occurred. Although one isolate did, in fact, induce the prototypical rapid, irreversible, and complete loss of CD4+ T cells, indicating that M-tropism and pathogenicity may not be inversely related, the majority of M-tropic SHIVs induced no clinical disease in immunocompetent macaques. PMID:17626082

Igarashi, Tatsuhiko; Donau, Olivia K; Imamichi, Hiromi; Nishimura, Yoshiaki; Theodore, Theodore S; Iyengar, Ranjini; Erb, Christopher; Buckler-White, Alicia; Buckler, Charles E; Martin, Malcolm A

2007-10-01

71

Immunogenetics of small ruminant lentiviral infections.  

PubMed

The small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLV) include the caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV) and the Maedi-Visna virus (MVV). Both of these viruses limit production and can be a major source of economic loss to producers. Little is known about how the immune system recognizes and responds to SRLVs, but due to similarities with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), HIV research can shed light on the possible immune mechanisms that control or lead to disease progression. This review will focus on the host immune response to HIV-1 and SRLV, and will discuss the possibility of breeding for enhanced SRLV disease resistance. PMID:25153344

Stonos, Nancy; Wootton, Sarah K; Karrow, Niel

2014-08-01

72

Serological characterization of the new genotype E of small ruminant lentivirus in Roccaverano goat flocks.  

PubMed

Maedi visna virus (MVV) and caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV) are a heterogeneous group of infectious agents affecting sheep and goats. Due to their natural cross-species infection they are referred to as small-ruminant lentiviruses (SRLV). Recently a new genetic cluster, highly divergent from MVV and CAEV was identified in the north-west part of Italy. A panel of genotype E specific antigens was developed and evaluated in flocks infected with B1 and E strains. The results clearly indicate that a strain specific antigen is required to correctly identify animals infected with different genotypes. PMID:19629741

Grego, E; Lacerenza, D; Arias, R Reina; Profiti, M; Rosati, S

2009-09-01

73

Stem cell therapy in a caprine model of osteoarthritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. To explore the role that implanted mesenchymal stem cells may play in tissue repair or regeneration of the injured joint, by delivery of an autologous preparation of stem cells to caprine knee joints following induction of osteoarthritis (OA). Methods. Adult stem cells were isolated from caprine bone marrow, expanded in culture, and trans- duced to express green fluorescent protein.

J. Mary Murphy; David J. Fink; Ernst B. Hunziker; Frank P. Barry

2003-01-01

74

Important mammalian veterinary viral immunodiseases and their control.  

PubMed

This paper offers an overview of important veterinary viral diseases of mammals stemming from aberrant immune response. Diseases reviewed comprise those due to lentiviruses of equine infectious anaemia, visna/maedi and caprine arthritis encephalitis and feline immunodeficiency. Diseases caused by viruses of feline infectious peritonitis, feline leukaemia, canine distemper and aquatic counterparts, Aleutian disease and malignant catarrhal fever. We also consider prospects of immunoprophylaxis for the diseases and briefly other control measures. It should be realised that the outlook for effective vaccines for many of the diseases is remote. This paper describes the current status of vaccine research and the difficulties encountered during their development. PMID:22261411

Patel, J R; Heldens, J G M; Bakonyi, T; Rusvai, M

2012-02-27

75

Recombinant small ruminant lentivirus subtype B1 in goats and sheep of imported breeds in Mexico.  

PubMed

Nucleotide sequences of small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLVs) were determined in sheep and goats, including progeny of imported animals, on a farm in Mexico. On the basis of gag-pol, pol, env and LTR sequences, SRLVs were assigned to the B1 subgroup, which comprises caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV)-like prototype sequences mainly from goats. In comparison with CAEV-like env sequences of American and French origin, two putative recombination events were identified within the V3-V4 and V4-V5 regions of the env gene of a full length SRLV sequence (FESC-752) derived from a goat on the farm. PMID:20932787

Ramírez, H; Glaria, I; de Andrés, X; Martínez, H A; Hernández, M M; Reina, R; Iráizoz, E; Crespo, H; Berriatua, E; Vázquez, J; Amorena, B; de Andrés, D

2011-10-01

76

Molecular characterization of lentiviruses from goats from Poland based on gag gene sequence analysis.  

PubMed

Caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV) infection in goats is worldwide but with higher prevalence in industrialized countries. While positive serology of CAEV in Polish goats was reported there was no genetic study of this virus. In this study, we described the molecular characterization of lentiviruses isolated from seropositive goats from Poland. We cloned and sequenced a fragment from the gag gene covering part of the coding sequences for the matrix (MA) p17 and for the capsid (CA) p25 proteins. Resulting nucleotide sequences were aligned with those from other ovine/caprine lentivirus isolates. We present data showing that the sequences of most goat lentivirus isolates are closer to the prototypic CAEV-Co isolate, nevertheless from one goat we isolated a virus that is closer to the sheep Maedi Visna virus (MVV) isolate. This might indicate a recent cross-species infection from sheep to goat. PMID:17337054

Kuzmak, Jacek; Rola, Marzena; Gallay, Kathy; Chebloune, Yahia

2007-07-01

77

Retroviral Infections in Sheep and Goats: Small Ruminant Lentiviruses and Host Interaction  

PubMed Central

Small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLV) are members of the Retrovirus family comprising the closely related Visna/Maedi Virus (VMV) and the Caprine Arthritis-Encephalitis Virus (CAEV), which infect sheep and goats. Both infect cells of the monocyte/macrophage lineage and cause lifelong infections. Infection by VMV and CAEV can lead to Visna/Maedi (VM) and Caprine Arthritis-Encephalitis (CAE) respectively, slow progressive inflammatory diseases primarily affecting the lungs, nervous system, joints and mammary glands. VM and CAE are distributed worldwide and develop over a period of months or years, always leading to the death of the host, with the consequent economic and welfare implications. Currently, the control of VM and CAE relies on the control of transmission and culling of infected animals. However, there is evidence that host genetics play an important role in determining Susceptibility/Resistance to SRLV infection and disease progression, but little work has been performed in small ruminants. More research is necessary to understand the host-SRLV interaction. PMID:23965529

Larruskain, Amaia; Jugo, Begoña M.

2013-01-01

78

Retroviral infections in sheep and goats: small ruminant lentiviruses and host interaction.  

PubMed

Small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLV) are members of the Retrovirus family comprising the closely related Visna/Maedi Virus (VMV) and the Caprine Arthritis-Encephalitis Virus (CAEV), which infect sheep and goats. Both infect cells of the monocyte/macrophage lineage and cause lifelong infections. Infection by VMV and CAEV can lead to Visna/Maedi (VM) and Caprine Arthritis-Encephalitis (CAE) respectively, slow progressive inflammatory diseases primarily affecting the lungs, nervous system, joints and mammary glands. VM and CAE are distributed worldwide and develop over a period of months or years, always leading to the death of the host, with the consequent economic and welfare implications. Currently, the control of VM and CAE relies on the control of transmission and culling of infected animals. However, there is evidence that host genetics play an important role in determining Susceptibility/Resistance to SRLV infection and disease progression, but little work has been performed in small ruminants. More research is necessary to understand the host-SRLV interaction. PMID:23965529

Larruskain, Amaia; Jugo, Begoña M

2013-08-01

79

Prevention strategies against small ruminant lentiviruses: an update.  

PubMed

Small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLVs), including maedi-visna virus (MVV) of sheep and caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV), are widespread, cause fatal diseases and are responsible for major production losses in sheep and goats. Seventy years after the legendary maedi-visna sheep epidemic in Iceland, which led to the first isolation of a SRLV and subsequent eradication of the infection, no vaccine or treatment against infection has been fully successful. Research during the last two decades has produced sensitive diagnostic tools, leading to a variety of approaches to control infection. The underlying difficulty is to select the strategies applicable to different epidemiological conditions. This review updates the knowledge on diagnosis, risk of infection, immunisation approaches and criteria for selecting the different strategies to control the spread of SRLVs. PMID:18755622

Reina, Ramsés; Berriatua, Eduardo; Luján, Lluís; Juste, Ramón; Sánchez, Antonio; de Andrés, Damián; Amorena, Beatriz

2009-10-01

80

Small ruminant lentivirus proviral sequences from wild ibexes in contact with domestic goats.  

PubMed

Small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLV) are widespread amongst domesticated goats and sheep worldwide, but have not been clearly identified in wild small ruminants, where they might constitute an animal health risk through contamination from local domesticates. SRLV proviruses from three ibexes from the French Alps are described and sequences from their gag gene and long terminal repeats (LTRs) were compared with sequences from local goats and goat/ibex hybrids. The ibex and hybrid proviruses formed a closely related group with <2 % nucleotide difference. Their LTRs were clearly distinct from those of local goats or reference SRLV sequences; however, their gag sequences resembled those from one local goat and reference sequences from caprine arthritis encephalitis virus rather than visna/maedi virus. One SRLV-positive ibex from a distant site shared similarities with the other ibexes studied in both its gag and LTR sequences, suggesting that a distinct SRLV population could circulate in some wild ibex populations. PMID:18474564

Erhouma, Esadk; Guiguen, François; Chebloune, Yahia; Gauthier, Dominique; Lakhal, Laila Mselli; Greenland, Timothy; Mornex, Jean François; Leroux, Caroline; Alogninouwa, Théodore

2008-06-01

81

Aspects of the epidemiology, research, and control of lentiviral infections of small ruminants and their relevance to Dutch sheep and goat farming.  

PubMed

In 1862, the veterinarian Loman reported the first sheep in The Netherlands with symptoms associated with lentiviral infection, although at the time the symptoms were ascribed to ovine progressive pneumonia. In the following century, similar cases were reported by South African, French, American, and Icelandic researchers. Extensive research into the pathology, aetiology, and epidemiology of this slowly progressive and ultimately fatal disease was initiated in several countries, including the Netherlands. Studies of the causative agents--maedi visna virus (MVV) in sheep and caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV) in goats, comprising the heterogeneous group of the small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLV)--prompted the development of diagnostic methods and the initiation of disease control programmes in many European countries including the Netherlands, as a pioneer in 1982, and in the U.S.A. and Canada. PMID:20822040

van Maanen, C; Brinkhof, J M A; Moll, L; Colenbrander, B; Houwers, D J

2010-08-15

82

In vitro antiviral activity of Ficus carica latex against caprine herpesvirus-1.  

PubMed

The latex of Ficus carica Linn. (Moraceae) has been shown to possess antiviral properties against some human viruses. To determine the ability of F. carica latex (F-latex) to interfere with the infection of caprine herpesvirus-1 (CpHV-1) in vitro, F-latex was resuspended in culture media containing 1% ethanol and was tested for potential antiviral effects against CpHV-1. Titration of CpHV-1 in the presence or in the absence of F-latex was performed on monolayers of Madin Darby Bovine Kidney (MDBK) cells. Simultaneous addition of F-latex and CpHV-1 to monolayers of MDBK cells resulted in a significant reduction of CpHV-1 titres 3 days post-infection and this effect was comparable to that induced by acyclovir. The study suggests that the F-latex is able to interfere with the replication of CpHV-1 in vitro on MDBK cells and future studies will determine the mechanisms responsible for the observed antiviral activity. PMID:24853920

Camero, Michele; Marinaro, Mariarosaria; Lovero, Angela; Elia, Gabriella; Losurdo, Michele; Buonavoglia, Canio; Tempesta, Maria

2014-11-01

83

virus  

E-print Network

The nucleotide sequences of the L gene and 5 ? trailer region of Ebola virus strain Mayinga (subtype Zaire) have been determined, thus completing the sequence of the Ebola virus genome. The putative transcription start signal of the L gene was identical to the determined 5 ? terminus of the L mRNA (5 ? GAGGAAGAUUAA) and showed a high degree of similarity to the corresponding regions of other Ebola virus genes. The 3 ? end of the L mRNA terminated with 5 ? AUUAUAAAAAA, a sequence which is distinct from the proposed transcription termination signals of other genes. The 5 ? trailer sequence of the Ebola virus genomic RNA consisted of 676 nt and revealed a selfcomplementary sequence at the extreme end which may play an important role in virus replication. The L gene contained a single ORF encoding a polypeptide of 2212 aa. The deduced amino acid sequence showed identities of about 73 and 44 % to the L proteins of Ebola virus strain Maleo (subtype Sudan) and Marburg virus, respectively. Sequence comparison studies of the Ebola virus L proteins with several corresponding proteins of other non-segmented, negative-strand RNA viruses, including Marburg viruses, confirmed a close relationship between filoviruses and members of the Paramyxovirinae. The presence of several conserved linear domains commonly found within L proteins of other members of the order Mononegavirales identified this protein as the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase of Ebola virus.

Viktor E. Volchkov; Valentina A. Volchkova; R A. Chepurnov; Vladimir M. Blinov; Olga Dolnik; Sergej V. Netesov; Heinz Feldmann

84

A retrospective study of spinal cord lesions in goats submitted to 3 veterinary diagnostic laboratories.  

PubMed

A retrospective study of spinal cord lesions in goats was conducted to identify the range of lesions and diseases recognized and to make recommendations regarding the best tissues to examine and tests to conduct in order to maximize the likelihood of arriving at a definitive etiologic diagnosis in goats with clinical signs referable to the spinal cord. Twenty-seven goats with a spinal cord lesion were identified. The most common lesion recognized, in 13 of 27 goats, was degenerative myelopathy. Eight goats with degenerative myelopathy were diagnosed with copper deficiency. Non-suppurative inflammation due to caprine arthritis encephalitis virus, necrosis due to parasite larvae migration, and neoplasia were each diagnosed 3 times. Based on these findings, it is recommended that, in addition to careful handling and histologic examination of the spinal cord, samples of other tissues, including the brain, liver, and serum, be collected for ancillary testing if warranted. PMID:23204583

Allen, Andrew L; Goupil, Brad A; Valentine, Beth A

2012-06-01

85

[Comparative characteristics of the biological properties of small ruminant lentiviruses].  

PubMed

The infections caused by small ruminant lentiviruses include diseases, such as Maedi-Visna (MV) and caprine arthritis-encephalitis (CAE). According to phylogenetic findings and their common origination, small ruminant lentiviruses were divided into Groups A, B, C, D, and E. Cultivation of the lentiviruses displayed the cytopathic effect of the CAE virus strain 75 G-63 in the primary culture of goatling synovial membrane cells, which was shown by monolayer destruction and polynuclear cell formation; this was uncharacteristic for M-88, K-796, and Tverskoy strains. A high homology was found for the Tverskoy strain with Group B small ruminant lentiviruses and the M-88 and K-796 strains with their Group A. PMID:21899070

Baryshnikova, E I; Malogolovkin, A S; Kolbasova, O L; Tsybanov, S Zh

2011-01-01

86

The analytic hierarchy process in decisionmaking for caprine health programmes.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to apply the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) to assist decision-making when planning animal health programmes, by assigning priorities to issues of concern to producers in Chile's main goat production region. This process allows a multi-criteria approach to problems, by analysing and ranking them in a hierarchical structure. Industry experts have highlighted the following animal health and disease control criteria: acceptance by breeders of disease control measures; impact of specific diseases on regional animal trade; the cost and efficacy of control measures; a decrease in flock production; and the impact of caprine diseases on human public health. Using these criteria in the AHP, the study found that the most important impacts were on human public health and on the animal trade. The disease priorities were tuberculosis, brucellosis and echinococcosis/hydatidosis, due mainlyto their zoonotic impact. The analytic hierarchy process proved useful when several criteria were involved in public health issues. PMID:23520742

Maino, M; Pérez, P; Oviedo, P; Sotomayor, G; Abalos, P

2012-12-01

87

In vitro development of caprine ovarian preantral follicles.  

PubMed

The in vitro growth and developmental pattern of caprine preantral follicles cultured in agar gel was observed. Preantral follicles 50 to 150 microm in diameter were isolated from prepuberal goat ovaries by treatment with collagenase and DNase. The isolated preantral follicles were cultured in agar gel for up to 14 days. A group of 10 follicles in different developmental stages was cultured in a culture well coated with 0.6% agar gel and filled with DMEM medium supplemented with FCS (10%), hypoxanthine (2 mmol/mL), dbcAMP (2 mmol/mL), FSH (100 ng/mL), insulin-transferrin-selenium (ITS) (50 ng/mL), IGF-1 (50 ng/mL), hydrocortisone (40 ng/mL) and antibiotics. Follicle viability was determined under an inverted phase-contrast microscope according to morphological and histological criteria, and follicle growth was assessed by their size and appearance. The results showed that the three-dimensional structures and forms of follicles were basically maintained intact during culture. Primary follicles developed into secondary follicles and a few of them into antral follicles. A large portion of secondary follicles entered the antral stage, and oocytes also acquired growth. The formation of theca lamina and zona pellucida was observed. The survival capacity of secondary follicles was greater than primary follicles. The survival rates for primary and secondary follicles were 11.36% (5/44) and 71.16% (53/74), respectively. During in vitro development the follicles demonstrated dominance. This experiment revealed the preliminary characteristics of the in vitro development of caprine preantral follicles. PMID:11071138

Huanmin, Z; Yong, Z

2000-09-01

88

Caprine blastocyst formation following intracytoplasmic sperm injection and defined culture.  

PubMed

Experiments were undertaken to develop intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) to produce caprine embryos out of the normal breeding season. Oocytes were obtained from 2-6 mm ovarian follicles at slaughter. Selected oocytes with two to four layers of cumulus cells were incubated in 1 ml of H-TCM199 supplemented with 10 micrograms each of oFSH and bLH (NHPP, NIDDK, NICHD, USDA) and 20% fetal bovine serum (FBS) in a thermos (38.5 degrees C) for 4.5 h during transportation. Then, oocytes were transferred into 75 microliters of freshly prepared maturation medium under paraffin oil and a mixture of 5% O2, 5% CO2 and 90% N2. Approximately 26 h after recovery oocytes were denuded by incubation with hyaluronidase (100 IU/ml) and pipetting and held at 38.5 degrees C for 90 min. Spermatozoa frozen in egg yolk extender were thawed in a 37 degrees C water bath for 15 s. Motile fractions were selected by swim-up, then incubated for 90 min in TALP with 10 micrograms heparin/ml. Each oocyte was positioned with its first polar body at 6 or 12 o'clock by a holding pipette. Sperm (1 microliter) were added to 10 microliters medium containing 10% polyvinylpyrrolidone. A sperm cell was aspirated into a pipette, and then injected head-first into the cytoplasm of an oocyte maintained in H-TCM199 + 20% FBS at 37 degrees C. Injected oocytes were transferred to HM and, after 90 min, cultured in 50 microliters of BSA-free synthetic oviduct fluid plus polyvinyl alcohol, citrate and non-essential amino acids. Results demonstrate that caprine blastocysts can be produced outside the breeding season by the use of frozen-thawed semen and injection of sperm cells with broken tails into ova followed by culture in defined medium. PMID:9460911

Keskintepe, L; Morton, P C; Smith, S E; Tucker, M J; Simplicio, A A; Brackett, B G

1997-08-01

89

Characterization of hTERT-immortalized caprine mammary epithelial cells.  

PubMed

The aim of this article is to demonstrate and characterize caprine mammary epithelial cells (CMC) immortalized with human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) gene. Five immortalized CMCs were assigned to either myoepithelial or luminal epithelial groups based on their morphology and expression of cell lineage-specific intermediate filaments. Telomeric repeat amplification protocol revealed various telomerase activities in CMCs associated with their distinct proliferation potential. Karyotypic analysis showed three CMCs retained their modal Capra hircus chromosome number (2n = 60), whereas the remaining two CMCs were abnormal at 2n = 19 and 2n = 36. CMCs with abnormal karyotypes lost p53 protein after chemical-induced DNA damage and showed anchorage-independent growth in soft agar assay. In terms of functional differentiation, luminal CMCs organized into alveolus-like structures when grown in Matrigel. Furthermore, ?s1- and ?-casein gene was induced in luminal CMCs in response to lacto-hormones stimulation. Together these results showed that hTERT-immortalized CMCs retained major characteristics of mammary epithelial cells, and stability of the genome is required for maintaining normal mammary epithelium function. Application of CMCs can provide valuable models to study alveologenesis and lactogenesis of mammary epithelium and test the feasibility of recombinant constructs designed for the generation of transgenic livestock. PMID:22044690

Ke, M W; Hsu, J T; Jiang, Y N; Cheng, W T K; Ju, Y T

2012-08-01

90

MicroRNA-Mediated Myostatin Silencing in Caprine Fetal Fibroblasts.  

PubMed

Myostatin functions as a negative regulator of skeletal muscle growth by suppressing proliferation and differentiation of myoblasts. Dysfunction of the myostatin gene, either due to natural mutation or genetic manipulations such as knockout or knockdown, has been reported to increase muscle mass in mammalian species. RNA interference (RNAi) mediated by microRNAs (miRNAs) is a promising method for gene knockdown studies. In the present study, transient and stable silencing of the myostatin gene in caprine fetal fibroblasts (CFF) was evaluated using the two most effective constructs selected from four different miRNA expression constructs screened in 293FT cells. Using these two miRNA constructs, we achieved up to 84% silencing of myostatin mRNA in transiently transfected CFF cells and up to 31% silencing in stably transfected CFF cells. Moreover, off-target effects due to induction of interferon (IFN) response genes, such as interferon beta (IFN-?) and 2'-5'-oligoadenylate synthetase 2 (OAS2), were markedly fewer in stably transfected CFF cells than in transiently transfected cells. Stable expression of anti-myostatin miRNA with minimal induction of interferon shows great promise for increasing muscle mass in transgenic goats. PMID:25244645

Zhong, Bushuai; Zhang, Yanli; Yan, Yibo; Wang, Ziyu; Ying, Shijia; Huang, Mingrui; Wang, Feng

2014-01-01

91

MicroRNA-Mediated Myostatin Silencing in Caprine Fetal Fibroblasts  

PubMed Central

Myostatin functions as a negative regulator of skeletal muscle growth by suppressing proliferation and differentiation of myoblasts. Dysfunction of the myostatin gene, either due to natural mutation or genetic manipulations such as knockout or knockdown, has been reported to increase muscle mass in mammalian species. RNA interference (RNAi) mediated by microRNAs (miRNAs) is a promising method for gene knockdown studies. In the present study, transient and stable silencing of the myostatin gene in caprine fetal fibroblasts (CFF) was evaluated using the two most effective constructs selected from four different miRNA expression constructs screened in 293FT cells. Using these two miRNA constructs, we achieved up to 84% silencing of myostatin mRNA in transiently transfected CFF cells and up to 31% silencing in stably transfected CFF cells. Moreover, off-target effects due to induction of interferon (IFN) response genes, such as interferon beta (IFN-?) and 2?-5?-oligoadenylate synthetase 2 (OAS2), were markedly fewer in stably transfected CFF cells than in transiently transfected cells. Stable expression of anti-myostatin miRNA with minimal induction of interferon shows great promise for increasing muscle mass in transgenic goats. PMID:25244645

Zhong, Bushuai; Zhang, Yanli; Yan, Yibo; Wang, Ziyu; Ying, Shijia; Huang, Mingrui; Wang, Feng

2014-01-01

92

Contagious caprine pleuropneumonia: new aspects of an old disease.  

PubMed

Contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP), caused by Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae, is a serious OIE-listed disease affecting goats in the Middle East, north and east Africa and Asia. Mortality and morbidity rates can be as high as 60% and 90%, respectively, when the disease first enters a territory, invariably through carrier animals. Recent detections of CCPP in Pakistan and Tajikistan are probably the result of improved diagnosis as the disease has been suspected there for many years, while those in Thrace in 2003 and Mauritius in 2009 represent new outbreaks. CCPP was thought to be highly host specific until recent outbreaks in wildlife species including gazelles and gerenuks show that the causative mycoplasma has broader specificity. Diagnosis was hampered by the fastidiousness of the causative mycoplasma but molecular-based tests like PCR have greatly improved detection. Rapid latex agglutination tests that can be performed at the penside are also available for antibody detection. Clinically affected animals respond to a range of antibiotics although it is unlikely that this results in complete elimination of the mycoplasma. Vaccines consisting of saponized organisms have been shown to be protective but the quality and efficacy may be variable. PMID:21951488

Nicholas, R; Churchward, C

2012-06-01

93

The nerve supply to the major organs and tissues of the caprine head  

E-print Network

THE NERVE SUPPIJF TO THE MAJOR ORGANS AND TISSUES OF 1'i E CAPRINE HEAD A Thesis by M ICHA EL EDWARD TATUM Submitted to the Graduate Co11ege of the Texas A I: M University in partial fulf illment, of the requirements for the d gr e of MASTER... OF SCIENCE May 1959 Majov Subjort: Veterinary Anatomy THE NERVE SUPPLY TO THE MAJOR ORGANS AND TISSUES OF THE CAPRINE HEAD A Thesis by MICHAEL EDWARD TATUM Approved as to style and content by: airman of Commit (Member) {Head q' ' Depar tment Qiien...

Tatum, Michael Edward

2012-06-07

94

Cantharidin and norcantharidin inhibit caprine luteal cell steroidogenesis in vitro.  

PubMed

Cantharidin and its analog norcantharidin are active constituents of Mylabris, have been demonstrated to ailments for a variety of cancers. But several reports of cantharidin's natural or accidental toxicoses in field animals and humans showed a strong connection between cantharidin and its abortifacient and aphrodisiac properties. However, their exact cellular mechanisms in steroidogenesis remains poorly understood. Thus this study was aimed to explore the effects of cantharidin on luteal cell steroidogensis and to compare its effect with that of norcantharidin. For this purpose, luteal cells isolated from corpora lutea of native Taiwan goats were maintained in vitro and treated for 4 and 24 h with cantharidin and norcantharidin (0.1, 1.0, and 10 ?g ml(-1)) to assess their steroidogenic effects. Progesterone (P(4)) levels and steroidogenic enzyme expression were assessed by enzyme immunoassay and Western blot methods, respectively. In caprine luteal cells, cantharidin and norcantharidin repressed basal P(4) production, as well as that mediated by ovine luteinizing hormone (oLH), 8-bromo-cyclic AMP (8-Br-cAMP), 22R-hydroxycholesterol (22R-OHC) and pregnenolone (P(5)). They also inhibited the expression of steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR) protein, cytochrome P450 cholesterol side-chain cleavage (P450scc) enzyme, and 3?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3?-HSD) enzyme. Additionally, the greater inhibitory effect was detected using cantharidin, when it is compared with that of norcantharidin. Our results suggest that ingestion of cantharidin may decrease luteal steroidogenesis, and the decline in luteal P(4) levels may disrupt reproductive functions in humans as well as animals. PMID:20594813

Twu, Nae-Fang; Srinivasan, Ramanujam; Chou, Chung-Hsi; Wu, Leang-Shin; Chiu, Chih-Hsien

2012-01-01

95

The effect of electrical field strength on activation and development of cloned caprine embryos  

Microsoft Academic Search

The activation procedure used in nuclear transfer (NT) is one of the critical factors affecting the efficiency of animal cloning. The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of two electrical field strengths (EFS) for activation on the developmental competence of caprine NT embryos reconstructed from ear skin fibroblasts of adult Alpine does. The NT embryos were obtained

P. C. Shen; S. N. Lee; J. S. Wu; J. C. Huang; F. H. Chu; C. C. Chang; J. C. Kung; H. H. Lin; L. R. Chen; J. W. Shiau; N. T. Yen; W. T. K. Cheng

2006-01-01

96

CAPRINE DIAGNOSTIC PLANS/PANELS Post Office: P.O. Box 5786  

E-print Network

, heart, thymus, small intestine, kidney, fetal skin. SHIP FRESH TISSUE CHILLED AND PROTECT FIXED TISSUE The following diagnostic plans have been developed primarily as an educational tool to assist the veterinarian. DIAGNOSTIC PLAN/PANEL TESTS PERFORMED PRICES SAMPLES NEEDED Caprine Abortion Fetal Tissue Diagnostic Plan (3

Keinan, Alon

97

Long-chain fatty acids differentially alter lipogenesis in bovine and caprine mammary slices.  

PubMed

Indirect comparisons from studies in vivo have suggested that caprine mammary tissue is less sensitive than bovine mammary tissue to the anti-lipogenic effect of long-chain fatty acids (LCFA), including specific rumen biohydrogenation (RBH) intermediates of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). Our objective was to investigate the effects on lipogenesis of 18-carbon LCFA differing in the degree of unsaturation and/or double bond conformation using cultured slices of bovine and caprine mammary tissues. Mammary tissues were collected from five multiparous Holstein × Normande cows and six multiparous Alpine goats in mid lactation. The expression of genes involved in milk component synthesis was measured in tissues collected at slaughter and after slice preparation: FASN, SCD1, CD36, SREBF1 and PPARG1 mRNA levels were higher in bovine than caprine samples, whereas the opposite was observed for CSN2 mRNA levels. Bovine and caprine mammary slices were incubated for 20 h in a medium with BSA (control), cis-9-18 : 1, 18 : 2n-6, 18 : 3n-3, cis-9, trans-11-CLA, or trans-10, cis-12-CLA (the latter at 3 increasing concentrations: C1 (0.11 mm), C2 (0.16 mm), C3 (0.37 mm)). Lipogenesis was estimated by measuring the incorporation of 14C-acetate into total lipid. Significant differences of individual LCFA (P < 0.05) were observed between species: bovine tissue showed a decrease in total lipogenesis with 18 : 2n-6, 18 : 3n-3, trans-10,cis-12-CLA (C2 and C3) while caprine tissue showed an increase after treatment with 18 : 3n-3, cis-9, trans-11-CLA or trans-10, cis-12-CLA (C3). These results were not related to the mRNA abundance of our set of genes in the mammary slices after incubation. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that caprine mammary slices reacted differently from bovine mammary slices to the anti-lipogenic activity of specific LCFA and suggests that regulation of lipogenesis via other genes and/or at protein level and enzyme activity may be involved. PMID:23244392

Bernard, Laurence; Torbati, Mohamad B Montazer; Graulet, Benoit; Leroux, Christine; Chilliard, Yves

2013-02-01

98

Comparison of the principal proteins in bovine, caprine, buffalo, equine and camel milk.  

PubMed

Proteomic analysis of bovine, caprine, buffalo, equine and camel milk highlighted significant interspecies differences. Camel milk was found to be devoid of ?-lactoglobulin, whereas ?-lactoglobulin was the major whey protein in bovine, buffalo, caprine, and equine milk. Five different isoforms of ?-casein were found in camel milk, analogous to the micro-heterogeneity observed for bovine ?-casein. Several spots observed in 2D-electrophoretograms of milk of all species could tentatively be identified as polypeptides arising from the enzymatic hydrolysis of caseins. The understanding gained from the proteomic comparison of these milks may be of relevance both in terms of identifying sources of hypoallergenic alternatives to bovine milk and detection of adulteration of milk samples and products. PMID:22365180

Hinz, Katharina; O'Connor, Paula M; Huppertz, Thom; Ross, R Paul; Kelly, Alan L

2012-05-01

99

Two Different Macaviruses, ovine herpesvirus-2 and caprine herpesvirus-2, Behave Differently in Water Buffaloes than in Cattle or in Their Respective Reservoir Species  

PubMed Central

The ongoing global spread of “exotic” farm animals, such as water buffaloes, which carry their native sets of viruses, may bear unknown risks for the animals, into whose ecological niches the former are introduced and vice versa. Here, we report on the occurrence of malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) on Swiss farms, where “exotic” water buffaloes were kept together with “native” animals, i.e. cattle, sheep, and goats. In the first farm with 56 water buffaloes, eight cases of MCF due to ovine herpesvirus-2 (OvHV-2) were noted, whereas additional ten water buffaloes were subclinically infected with either OvHV-2 or caprine herpesvirus-2 (CpHV-2). On the second farm, 13 water buffaloes were infected with CpHV-2 and two of those succumbed to MCF. In neither farm, any of the two viruses were detected in cattle, but the Macaviruses were present at high prevalence among their original host species, sheep and goats, respectively. On the third farm, sheep were kept well separated from water buffaloes and OvHV-2 was not transmitted to the buffaloes, despite of high prevalence of the virus among the sheep. Macavirus DNA was frequently detected in the nasal secretions of virus-positive animals and in one instance OvHV-2 was transmitted vertically to an unborn water buffalo calf. Thus, water buffaloes seem to be more susceptible than cattle to infection with either Macavirus; however, MCF did not develop as frequently. Therefore, water buffaloes seem to represent an interesting intermediate-type host for Macaviruses. Consequently, water buffaloes in their native, tropic environments may be vulnerable and endangered to viruses that originate from seemingly healthy, imported sheep and goats. PMID:24386255

Stahel, Anina B. J.; Baggenstos, Rhea; Engels, Monika; Friess, Martina; Ackermann, Mathias

2013-01-01

100

Longitudinal and lateral variations in the aluminum concentration of selected caprine, bovine, and human bone samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

Longitudinal and lateral variations in Al concentration in several large animal (bovine and caprine) long bones (tibia and\\u000a femur) and several human clavicle bones were examined using a sensitive analytical method based on electrothermal atomization\\u000a atomic absorption spectrometry with Zeeman background correction. Bone segments were carefully removed using special tools\\u000a free of significant Al contamination, freeze-dried, and digested overnight at

Shida Tang; Patrick J. Parsons; Daniel Perl

1999-01-01

101

Enzymatic Interesterification of Tripalmitin with Vegetable Oil Blends for Formulation of Caprine Milk Infant Formula Analogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The structure of triacylglycerols in vegetable oil blendswasenzymaticallymodified,andtheblendswere incorporated into skim caprine milk to produce goat milk-based infant formula analogs, homologous to hu- man milk. A modified lipid containing palmitic, oleic, andlinoleicacids,resemblingthecompositionofhuman milk fat, was synthesized by enzymatic interesterifica- tion reactions between tripalmitin and a vegetable oil blendcontaininga2.5:1.1:0.8ratioofcoconut,safflower, and soybean oils. A commercial sn-1,3-specific lipase obtained from Rhyzomucor miehei, Lipozyme

C. O. Maduko; C. C. Akoh; Y. W. Park

2007-01-01

102

Compartmentalization of small ruminant lentivirus between blood and colostrum in infected goats.  

PubMed

The compartmentalization of small ruminant lentivirus (SRLV) subtype A (Maedi-Visna virus) and B (caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus) variants was analyzed in colostrum and peripheral blood mononuclear cells of four naturally infected goats. Sequence analysis of DNA and RNA encompassing the V4-V5 env regions showed a differential distribution of SRLV variants between the two compartments. Tissue-specific compartmentalization was demonstrated by phylogenetic analysis in three of the four cases. In these animals colostrum proviral sequences were clustered relative to the blood viral sequences. In one goat, the blood and colostrum-derived provirus sequences were intermingled, suggesting trafficking of virus between the two tissues or mirroring a recent infection. Surprisingly, the pattern of free virus variants in the colostrum of all animals corresponded only partially to that of the proviral form, suggesting that free viruses might not derive from infected colostral cells. The compartmentalization of SRLV between peripheral blood and colostrum indicates that lactogenic transmission may involve specific viruses not present in the proviral populations circulating in the blood. PMID:17719071

Pisoni, Giuliano; Moroni, Paolo; Turin, Lauretta; Bertoni, Giuseppe

2007-12-01

103

Localization of a TNF-activated transcription site and interactions with the gamma activated site within the CAEV U3 70 base pair repeat.  

PubMed

The cytokines TNFalpha and IFNgamma have previously been shown to activate caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV) transcription. Increased viral titers correlate with increased lesion severity. Therefore, TNFalpha and IFNgamma may augment the caprine arthritis lesion by increasing viral titers. CAEV transcription is under the control of the viral promoter within the U3 region of the long terminal repeat. A set of U3 deletion mutants was generated and used to establish stably integrated, U937-based cell lines. These cell lines were utilized to define the required promoter sequences for cytokine-induced transcriptional activation. Here we have identified a novel 17 nucleotide TNF-activated site within the U3 region 70 bp repeat which is both required and sufficient in a minimal construct for TNFalpha-induced CAEV transcriptional activation. In contrast to the results of previous studies with IFNgamma, we found that multiple sequences within the U3 region 70 bp repeat were required for IFNgamma-activation of the CAEV promoter. The results identify previously unrecognized complexity in the CAEV promoter that may be relevant to viral replication and disease. PMID:17382987

Murphy, Brian; Jasmer, Douglas P; White, Stephen N; Knowles, Donald

2007-07-20

104

The presence or absence of the gamma-activated site determines IFN gamma-mediated transcriptional activation in CAEV promoters cloned from the mammary gland and joint synovium of a single CAEV-infected goat.  

PubMed

The caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV) long terminal repeat promoter was cloned and sequenced from mammary gland and carpal joint synovium isolated from a 15.5 year old, CAEV-infected Toggenburg doe with chronic mastitis and carpal arthritis. A deletion of the CAEV gamma activated site (GAS) was identified in the mammary gland but not the synovial isolate. Subsequent promoter-reporter gene construct experiments indicated that the GAS is necessary for interferon ?-mediated promoter activation. Utilizing a molecular clone of the classic isolate CAEV-CO, these findings were corroborated by a set of GAS mutant promoter-reporter constructs with and without the CAEV GAS. Results of experiments with U937 monocyte cell lines stably transfected with molecular clones of CAEV-CO GAS deletion mutants also indicated the GAS is necessary for IFN?-mediated promoter activation. The mammary gland CAE viral isolate was propagated in caprine peripheral blood mononuclear cells and was assigned the name CAEV-MA. This is the first report describing two CAE viral isolates cloned from different anatomical locations in the same animal with and without the CAEV GAS, and is the first report detailing cytokine-induced CAEV promoter function in a naturally occurring ?GAS promoter. PMID:22178805

Murphy, B; Hillman, C; Castillo, D; Vapniarsky, N; Rowe, J

2012-02-01

105

Courte note Dtection du virus de l'arthrite encphalite caprine  

E-print Network

contaminations liées à l'inges- tion de colostrum contaminé, la voie orale étant considérée comme la voie de contamination que le colostrum [5]. En dépit de différents travaux réalisés en vue de préciser d'autres voies de

Boyer, Edmond

106

A Caprine Herpesvirus 1 Vaccine Adjuvanted with MF59(TM) Protects against Vaginal Infection and Interferes with the Establishment of Latency in Goats  

PubMed Central

The immunogenicity and the efficacy of a beta-propiolactone-inactivated caprine herpesvirus 1 (CpHV-1) vaccine adjuvanted with MF59™ were tested in goats. Following two subcutaneous immunizations, goats developed high titers of CpHV-1-specific serum and vaginal IgG and high serum virus neutralization (VN) titers. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) stimulated in vitro with inactivated CpHV-1 produced high levels of soluble IFN-gamma and exhibited high frequencies of IFN-gamma producing cells while soluble IL-4 was undetectable. On the other hand, control goats receiving the inactivated CpHV-1 vaccine without adjuvant produced only low serum antibody responses. A vaginal challenge with virulent CpHV-1 was performed in all vaccinated goats and in naïve goats to assess the efficacy of the two vaccines. Vaginal disease was not detected in goats vaccinated with inactivated CpHV-1 plus MF59™ and these animals had undetectable levels of infectious challenge virus in their vaginal washes. Goats vaccinated with inactivated CpHV-1 in the absence of adjuvant exhibited a less severe disease when compared to naïve goats but shed titers of challenge virus that were similar to those of naïve goats. Detection and quantitation of latent CpHV-1 DNA in sacral ganglia in challenged goats revealed that the inactivated CpHV-1 plus MF59™ vaccine was able to significantly reduce the latent viral load when compared either to the naïve goats or to the goats vaccinated with inactivated CpHV-1 in the absence of adjuvant. Thus, a vaccine composed of inactivated CpHV-1 plus MF59™ as adjuvant was strongly immunogenic and induced effective immunity against vaginal CpHV-1 infection in goats. PMID:22511971

Marinaro, Mariarosaria; Rezza, Giovanni; Del Giudice, Giuseppe; Colao, Valeriana; Tarsitano, Elvira; Camero, Michele; Losurdo, Michele; Buonavoglia, Canio; Tempesta, Maria

2012-01-01

107

Constraints to the integration of the contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP) vaccine into Kenya's animal health delivery system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Animal health is key to successful livestock production in developing countries. The development and delivery of vaccines against major epidemic diseases is one component of improving animal health. This paper presents a case study from Kenya on the production and delivery of a vaccine against Contagious Caprine Pleuropneumonia (CCPP), a major disease of goats. The vaccine, while technically a viable

Michele E. Lipner; Ralph B. Brown

1995-01-01

108

Caprine prion genen polymorphisms are associated with decreased incidence of classical scrapie in goat herds in the United Kingdom  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of genetic breeding programmes to eradicate transmissible spongiform encephalopathies in goats is an important aim for reasons of animal welfare as well as human food safety and food security. Based on the positive impact of Prnp genetics on sheep scrapie in Europe in the past decade, we have established caprine Prnp gene variation in more than 1100 goats

W. Goldmann; K. Ryan; P. Stewart; D. Parnham; R. Xicohtencatl; N. Fernandez; G. Saunders; O. Windl; L. Gonzalez; A. Bossers

2011-01-01

109

[Targeted exogenous EGFP gene editing in caprine fetus fibroblasts by zinc-finger nucleases].  

PubMed

Gene knockout by ZFNs (zinc-finger nucleases) is efficient and specific, and successfully applied in more than 10 organisms. Currently, it is unclear whether this technology can be used for knocking-out enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) gene in transgenic goats. Here we constructed and used ZFN-coding plasmids to produce genetic knockouts in the cells of cloned fetus produced from donor cells by microinjection of EGFP gene. Following introduced plasmids into caprine primary cultured fetus fibroblasts by electroporation, targeting of a transgene resulted in sequence mutation. Using the flow cytometric analysis, we confirmed the disappearance of EGFP expression in treated cells. Sequence from PCR products corresponding to targeted site showed that insertion of a G into the exon of EGFP resulted in frame shift mutation. These results suggest that ZFN-mediated gene targeting can apply to caprine fetus fibroblasts, which may open a unique avenue toward the creation of gene knockout goats combining with somatic cell nuclear transfer. PMID:24701822

Yuan, Yuguo; Yu, Baoli; Song, Shaozheng; Zhou, Feng; Zhang, Liqing; Gu, Yingying; Yu, Minghui; Cheng, Yong

2013-11-01

110

Molecular dating of caprines using ancient DNA sequences of Myotragus balearicus, an extinct endemic Balearic mammal  

PubMed Central

Background Myotragus balearicus was an endemic bovid from the Balearic Islands (Western Mediterranean) that became extinct around 6,000-4,000 years ago. The Myotragus evolutionary lineage became isolated in the islands most probably at the end of the Messinian crisis, when the desiccation of the Mediterranean ended, in a geological date established at 5.35 Mya. Thus, the sequences of Myotragus could be very valuable for calibrating the mammalian mitochondrial DNA clock and, in particular, the tree of the Caprinae subfamily, to which Myotragus belongs. Results We have retrieved the complete mitochondrial cytochrome b gene (1,143 base pairs), plus fragments of the mitochondrial 12S gene and the nuclear 28S rDNA multi-copy gene from a well preserved Myotragus subfossil bone. The best resolved phylogenetic trees, obtained with the cytochrome b gene, placed Myotragus in a position basal to the Ovis group. Using the calibration provided by the isolation of Balearic Islands, we calculated that the initial radiation of caprines can be dated at 6.2 ± 0.4 Mya. In addition, alpine and southern chamois, considered until recently the same species, split around 1.6 ± 0.3 Mya, indicating that the two chamois species have been separated much longer than previously thought. Conclusion Since there are almost no extant endemic mammals in Mediterranean islands, the sequence of the extinct Balearic endemic Myotragus has been crucial for allowing us to use the Messinian crisis calibration point for dating the caprines phylogenetic tree. PMID:16332256

Lalueza-Fox, Carles; Castresana, Jose; Sampietro, Lourdes; Marquès-Bonet, Tomàs; Alcover, Josep Antoni; Bertranpetit, Jaume

2005-01-01

111

Genetic characterization of small ruminant lentiviruses circulating in naturally infected sheep and goats in Ontario, Canada.  

PubMed

Maedi-visna virus (MVV) and caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV) are related members of a group of small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLVs) that infect sheep and goats. SRLVs are endemic in many countries, including Canada. However, very little is known about the genetic characteristics of Canadian SRLVs, particularly in the province of Ontario. Given the importance of surveillance and eradication programs for the control of SRLVs, it is imperative that the diagnostic tests used to identify infected animals are sensitive to local strains of SRLVs. The aim of this work was to characterize SRLV strains circulating in Ontario and to evaluate the variability of the immunodominant regions of the Gag protein. In this study, the nearly complete gag sequence of 164 SRLVs, from 130 naturally infected sheep and 32 naturally infected goats from Ontario, was sequenced. Animals belonged to distantly located single and mixed species (sheep and goats) farms. Ovine lentiviruses from the same farm tended to cluster more closely together than did caprine lentiviruses from the same farm. Sequence analysis revealed a higher degree of heterogeneity among the caprine lentivirus sequences with an average inter-farm pairwise DNA distance of 10% and only 5% in the ovine lentivirus group. Interestingly, amplification of SRLVs from ELISA positive sheep was successful in 81% of cases, whereas amplification of SRLV proviral DNA was only possible in 55% of the ELISA positive goat samples; suggesting that a significant portion of caprine lentiviruses circulating in Ontario possess heterogeneity at the primer binding sites used in this study. Sequences of sheep and goat SRLVs from Ontario were assembled into phylogenetic trees with other known SRLVs and were found to belong to sequence groups A2 and B1, respectively, as defined by Shah et al. (2004a). A novel caprine lentivirus with a pairwise genetic difference of 15.6-25.4% relative to other group B subtypes was identified. Thus we suggest the designation of a novel subtype, B4, within the caprine lentivirus-like cluster. Lastly, we demonstrate evidence of recombination between ovine lentiviruses. These results emphasize the broad genetic diversity of SRLV strains circulating in the province of Ontario and show that the gag region is suitable for phylogenetic studies and may be applied to monitor SRLV eradication programs. PMID:23583225

Santry, Lisa A; de Jong, Jondavid; Gold, Alexander C; Walsh, Scott R; Menzies, Paula I; Wootton, Sarah K

2013-07-01

112

Monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1) plays a direct role in short-chain fatty acids absorption in caprine rumen  

PubMed Central

Despite the importance of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) in maintaining the ruminant physiology, the mechanism of SCFA absorption is still not fully studied. The goal of this study was to elucidate the possible involvement of monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1) in the mechanism of SCFA transport in the caprine rumen, and to delineate the precise cellular localization and the level of MCT1 protein along the entire caprine gastrointestinal tract. RT-PCR revealed the presence of mRNA encoding for MCT1 in all regions of the caprine gastrointestinal tract. Quantitative Western blot analysis showed that the level of MCT1 protein was in the order of rumen ? reticulum > omasum > caecum > proximal colon > distal colon > abomasum > small intestine. Immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence confocal analyses revealed widespread immunoreactive positivities for MCT1 in the caprine stomach and large intestine. Amongst the stratified squamous epithelial cells of the forestomach, MCT1 was predominantly expressed on the cell boundaries of the stratum basale and stratum spinosum. Double-immunofluorescence confocal laser-scanning microscopy confirmed the co-localization of MCT1 with its ancillary protein, CD147 in the caprine gastrointestinal tract. In vivo and in vitro functional studies, under the influence of the MCT1 inhibitors, p-chloromercuribenzoate (pCMB) and p-chloromercuribenzoic acid (pCMBA), demonstrated significant inhibitory effect on acetate and propionate transport in the rumen. This study provides evidence, for the first time in ruminants, that MCT1 has a direct role in the transepithelial transport and efflux of the SCFA across the stratum spinosum and stratum basale of the forestomach toward the blood side. PMID:16901943

Kirat, Doaa; Masuoka, Junji; Hayashi, Hideaki; Iwano, Hidetomo; Yokota, Hiroshi; Taniyama, Hiroyuki; Kato, Seiyu

2006-01-01

113

Expanding possibilities for intervention against small ruminant lentiviruses through genetic marker-assisted selective breeding.  

PubMed

Small ruminant lentiviruses include members that infect sheep (ovine lentivirus [OvLV]; also known as ovine progressive pneumonia virus/maedi-visna virus) and goats (caprine arthritis encephalitis virus [CAEV]). Breed differences in seroprevalence and proviral concentration of OvLV had suggested a strong genetic component in susceptibility to infection by OvLV in sheep. A genetic marker test for susceptibility to OvLV has been developed recently based on the TMEM154 gene with validation data from over 2,800 sheep representing nine cohorts. While no single genotype has been shown to have complete resistance to OvLV, consistent association in thousands of sheep from multiple breeds and management conditions highlight a new strategy for intervention by selective breeding. This genetic marker-assisted selection (MAS) has the potential to be a useful addition to existing viral control measures. Further, the discovery of multiple additional genomic regions associated with susceptibility to or control of OvLV suggests that additional genetic marker tests may be developed to extend the reach of MAS in the future. This review will cover the strengths and limitations of existing data from host genetics as an intervention and outline additional questions for future genetic research in sheep, goats, small ruminant lentiviruses, and their host-pathogen interactions. PMID:23771240

White, Stephen N; Knowles, Donald P

2013-06-01

114

Small ruminant lentiviruses in Jordan: evaluation of sheep and goat serological response using recombinant and peptide antigens.  

PubMed

Small ruminant lentiviruses infect sheep and goats worldwide, causing chronic progressive diseases and relevant economic losses. Disease eradication and prevention is mostly based on serological testing. The goal of this research was to investigate the presence of the small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLVs) in Jordan and to characterize the serological response in sheep and goat populations. A panel of sera were collected from flocks located in Northern Jordan and Jordan Valley. The samples were tested using three ELISA assays: a commercially available ELISA based on p25 recombinant protein and transmembrane peptide derived from British maedi-visna virus (MVV) EV1 strain, an ELISA based on P16-P25 recombinant protein derived from two Italian strains representative of MVV- and caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV)-like SRLVs, and an ELISA based on SU5 peptide from the same two Italian isolates. The results indicate that both MVV- and CAEV-like strains are present in Jordan and that the majority of the viruses circulating among sheep and goat populations belong to the MVV-like genotype. PMID:23392953

Tolari, Francesco; Al-Ramadneh, Wafa'a; Mazzei, Maurizio; Carrozza, Maria Luisa; Forzan, Mario; Bandecchi, Patrizia; Grego, Elena; Rosati, Sergio

2013-08-01

115

Evaluation of five enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and an agar gel immunodiffusion test for detection of antibodies to small ruminant lentiviruses.  

PubMed

In the framework of the Dutch control program for small ruminant lentiviral (SRLV) infections, too many drawbacks were encountered with respect to serological testing. To improve the quality of testing, five enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) and an agar gel immunodiffusion test (AGIDT) were evaluated. The focus was on the sensitivity, specificity, and variances of the commercially available tests. Clear differences were found among the tests in analytical and diagnostic sensitivity and overall diagnostic performance, whereas no significant differences in specificity were found. For serodiagnosis of sheep with clinical symptoms of maedi-visna virus (MVV) (histopathologically confirmed), one ELISA was significantly more sensitive than the other ELISAs and than the AGIDT, while for asymptomatic sheep originating from infected flocks, three ELISAs and the AGIDT demonstrated similar performance. The diagnostic performance appeared to be related to animal species and virus infection (MVV or caprine arthritis encephalitis virus [CAEV]) as well as the phase of infection/progression of disease. Receiver operating characteristic analysis, demonstrating the diagnostic potential of tests irrespective of defined cutoffs, again revealed clear differences between tests with respect to diagnostic performance for detection of antibodies against CAEV or MVV. An indirect ELISA, of which the solid phase is sensitized with a combination of the core protein p27 of MVV produced in Escherichia coli and a peptide derived from the transmembrane protein gp46, appeared to be the test of choice for serodiagnosis of SRLV infections in sheep and goats. PMID:17609394

Brinkhof, J; van Maanen, C

2007-09-01

116

Expanding Possibilities for Intervention against Small Ruminant Lentiviruses through Genetic Marker-Assisted Selective Breeding  

PubMed Central

Small ruminant lentiviruses include members that infect sheep (ovine lentivirus [OvLV]; also known as ovine progressive pneumonia virus/maedi-visna virus) and goats (caprine arthritis encephalitis virus [CAEV]). Breed differences in seroprevalence and proviral concentration of OvLV had suggested a strong genetic component in susceptibility to infection by OvLV in sheep. A genetic marker test for susceptibility to OvLV has been developed recently based on the TMEM154 gene with validation data from over 2,800 sheep representing nine cohorts. While no single genotype has been shown to have complete resistance to OvLV, consistent association in thousands of sheep from multiple breeds and management conditions highlight a new strategy for intervention by selective breeding. This genetic marker-assisted selection (MAS) has the potential to be a useful addition to existing viral control measures. Further, the discovery of multiple additional genomic regions associated with susceptibility to or control of OvLV suggests that additional genetic marker tests may be developed to extend the reach of MAS in the future. This review will cover the strengths and limitations of existing data from host genetics as an intervention and outline additional questions for future genetic research in sheep, goats, small ruminant lentiviruses, and their host-pathogen interactions. PMID:23771240

White, Stephen N.; Knowles, Donald P.

2013-01-01

117

Caprin-1 is a novel microRNA-223 target for regulating the proliferation and invasion of human breast cancer cells.  

PubMed

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are 21-22 nucleotides regulatory small non-coding RNAs that inhibit gene expression by binding to complementary sequences especially the 3' untranslated region (3'UTR) of mRNA. One miRNA can target many messenger RNAs, leading to a complex metabolic network. Previous studies have shown that miRNA-223 regulates migration and invasion of tumor cells and targets cytoplasmic activation/proliferation-associated protein-1 (Caprin-1). In the present study, we detected the expression of miRNA-223 and Caprin-1 in MCF-7, T-47D and MDA-MB-231 cancer cell lines, and MCF-10A normal breast cell line, and analyzed the role of miRNA-223 in Caprin-1-induced proliferation and invasion of human breast cancer cells. We found that miRNA-223 expression levels are significantly lower in MCF-7, T-47D and MDA-MB-231 cancer cells than in MCF-10A normal breast cells, while Caprin-1 expression is higher in cancer cells than in normal breast cells. The most malignant cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 has the lowest expression of miR-223, but the highest expression of Caprin-1. Further, we found that miR-223 targets the 3'UTR of Caprin-1 miRNA and down-regulates the expression of Caprin-1. We also found that over-expression of Caprin-1 can promote the proliferation and the invasion of breast cancer cells, but miRNA-223 can inhibit the proliferation and the invasion. miRNA-223-induced inhibition can be reversed by ectopic over-expression of Caprin-1. These findings suggest that miR-223 may suppress the proliferation and invasion of cancer cells by directly targeting Caprin-1. Our study also indicates that expression levels of miR-223 and Caprin-1 can be used to predict the state of cancer in breast cancer patient. PMID:23953883

Gong, Bo; Hu, Heyu; Chen, Jia; Cao, Shuang; Yu, Jing; Xue, Jianxiang; Chen, Fuhua; Cai, Ye; He, Hong; Zhang, Lei

2013-09-01

118

Effect of vitamin C on growth of caprine spermatogonial stem cells in vitro.  

PubMed

The genetic manipulation of spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) can be used for the production of transgenic animals in a wide range of species. However, this technology is limited by the absence of an ideal culture system in which SSCs can be maintained and proliferated, especially in domestic animals like the goat. The aim of this study therefore was to investigate whether the addition of vitamin C (Vc) in cell culture influences the growth of caprine SSCs. Various concentrations of Vc (0, 5, 10, 25, 40, and 50 ?g/mL(-1)) were added to SSC culture media, and their effect on morphology and alkaline phosphatase activity was studied. The number of caprine SSC colonies and area covered by them were measured at 10 days of culture. The expression of various germ cell and somatic cell markers such as VASA, integrins, Oct-4, GATA-4, ?-SMA, vimentin, and Thy-1 was studied to identify the proliferated cells using immunostaining analyses. Further, the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level was measured at the 3rd, 6th, and 9th day after culture, and expression of Bax, Bcl-2, and P53, factors involved in the regulation of apoptosis, were analyzed on the 7th day after culture using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The results showed that the SSCs formed compact colonies and had unclear borders in the different Vc-supplemented groups at 10 days, and there were no major morphologic differences between the groups. The number and area of colonies were both the highest in the 40 ?g/mL(-1) Vc group. Differential expression of markers for germ cells, undifferentiated spermatogonia, and testis somatic cells was observed. Cultured germ cell clumps were found to have alkaline phosphatase activity regardless of the Vc dose. The number of Thy-1- and Oct-4-positive cells was the most in the 40 ?g/mL(-1) Vc group. Moreover, the level of ROS was dependent on the Vc dose and culture time. The Vc dose 40 ?g/mL(-1) was found to be optimum with regard to decreasing ROS generation, and increasing the expression of the antiapoptotic gene Bcl-2 and decreasing the expression of the proapoptotic genes Bax and P53. In conclusion, the addition of 40 ?g/mL(-1) Vc can maintain a certain physiological level of ROS, trigger the expression of the antiapoptosis gene Bcl-2, suppress the proapoptotic gene P53 and Bax pathway, and further promote the proliferation of caprine SSCs in vitro. PMID:24368149

Wang, Juhua; Cao, Hongguo; Xue, Xiuheng; Fan, Caiyun; Fang, Fugui; Zhou, Jie; Zhang, Yunhai; Zhang, Xiaorong

2014-03-01

119

A modified enrichment protocol for adult caprine skeletal muscle stem cell  

PubMed Central

To establish an adequate model to study the proliferation and differentiation of adult caprine skeletal muscle in response to bioactive compounds, a pool of satellite cells (SC) was derived from the rectus abdominis muscle of adult goat. Skeletal muscle contains a population of adult stem cells, named as satellite cells that reside beneath the basal lamina of skeletal muscle fiber and other populations of cells. These SC are multipotent stem cells, since cells cultured in the presence of specific cell lineage inducing cocktails can differentiate into several types of mesenchymal lineage, such as osteocytes and adipocytes. In the present study, we have developed a modified protocol for isolating satellite cells (>90%) and examined their myogenic and contractile properties in vitro. PMID:20865326

Ramani, Umed V.; Ahir, Viral B.; Rank, Dharamshi N.; Joshi, Chaitanya G.

2010-01-01

120

Purification and characterization of a sperm motility inhibiting factor from caprine epididymal plasma.  

PubMed

Several studies have been reported on the occurrence of sperm motility inhibiting factors in the male reproductive fluids of different mammalian species, but these proteins have not been adequately purified and characterized. A novel sperm motility inhibiting factor (MIF-II) has been purified from caprine epididymal plasma (EP) by Hydroxylapatite gel adsorption chromatography, DEAE-Cellulose ion-exchange chromatography and chromatofocusing. The MIF-II has been purified to apparent homogeneity and the molecular weight estimated by Sephacryl S-300 gel filtration is 160 kDa. MIF-II is a dimeric protein, made up of two subunits each having a molecular mass of 80 kDa as shown by SDS-PAGE. The isoelectric point of MIF-II is 5.1 as determined by chromatofocusing and isoelectric focusing. It is a heat labile protein and maximal active at the pH 6.9 to 7.5. The sperm motility inhibiting protein factor at 2 microg/ml (12.5 nM) level showed maximal motility-inhibiting activity. The observation that the epididymal plasma factor lowered the intracellular cAMP level of spermatozoa in a concentration-dependent manner suggests that it may block the motility of caprine cauda spermatozoa by interfering the cAMP dependent motility function. The results revealed that the purified protein factor has the potential of sperm motility inhibition and may serve as a vaginal contraceptive. The antibody raised against the MIF-II has the potential for enhancement of forward motility of cauda-spermatozoa. This antibody may thus be useful for solving some of the problems of male infertility due to low sperm motility. PMID:20706623

Das, Sujoy; Saha, Sudipta; Majumder, Gopal Chandra; Dungdung, Sandhya Rekha

2010-01-01

121

Purification and Characterization of a Sperm Motility Inhibiting Factor from Caprine Epididymal Plasma  

PubMed Central

Several studies have been reported on the occurrence of sperm motility inhibiting factors in the male reproductive fluids of different mammalian species, but these proteins have not been adequately purified and characterized. A novel sperm motility inhibiting factor (MIF-II) has been purified from caprine epididymal plasma (EP) by Hydroxylapatite gel adsorption chromatography, DEAE-Cellulose ion-exchange chromatography and chromatofocusing. The MIF-II has been purified to apparent homogeneity and the molecular weight estimated by Sephacryl S-300 gel filtration is 160 kDa. MIF-II is a dimeric protein, made up of two subunits each having a molecular mass of 80 kDa as shown by SDS-PAGE. The isoelectric point of MIF-II is 5.1 as determined by chromatofocusing and isoelectric focusing. It is a heat labile protein and maximal active at the pH 6.9 to 7.5. The sperm motility inhibiting protein factor at 2 µg/ml (12.5 nM) level showed maximal motility-inhibiting activity. The observation that the epididymal plasma factor lowered the intracellular cAMP level of spermatozoa in a concentration-dependent manner suggests that it may block the motility of caprine cauda spermatozoa by interfering the cAMP dependent motility function. The results revealed that the purified protein factor has the potential of sperm motility inhibition and may serve as a vaginal contraceptive. The antibody raised against the MIF-II has the potential for enhancement of forward motility of cauda-spermatozoa. This antibody may thus be useful for solving some of the problems of male infertility due to low sperm motility. PMID:20706623

Das, Sujoy; Saha, Sudipta; Majumder, Gopal Chandra; Dungdung, Sandhya Rekha

2010-01-01

122

Changing Patterns of Acute Phase Proteins and Inflammatory Mediators in Experimental Caprine Coccidiosis  

PubMed Central

This experiment was conducted to assess the changing patterns and relative values of acute phase proteins and inflammatory cytokines in experimental caprine coccidiosis. Eighteen newborn kids were allocated to 3 equal groups. Two groups, A and B, were inoculated with a single dose of 1×103 and1×105 sporulated oocysts of Eimeria arloingi, respectively. The third group, C, received distilled water as the control. Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein of each kid in both groups before inoculation and at days 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, and 42 post-inoculation (PI), and the levels of haptoglobin (Hp), serum amyloid A (SAA), TNF-?, and IFN-? were measured. For histopathological examinations, 2 kids were selected from each group, euthanized, and necropsied on day 42 PI. Mean Hp concentrations in groups A and B (0.34 and 0.68 g/L) at day 7 PI were 3.2 and 6.3 times higher than the levels before inoculation. The mean SAA concentrations in groups A and B (25.6 and 83.5 µg/ml) at day 7 PI were 4.2 and 13.7 times higher than the levels before inoculation. The magnitude and duration of the Hp and SAA responses correlated well with the inoculation doses and the severity of the clinical signs and diarrhea in kids. These results were consistent with the histopathological features, which showed advanced widespread lesions in group B. In both groups, significant correlations were observed for TNF-? and IFN-? with SAA and Hp, respectively. In conclusion, Hp and SAA can be useful non-specific diagnostic indicators in caprine coccidiosis. PMID:22072820

Khodakaram-Tafti, Azizollah; Razavi, Seyed Mostafa; Nazifi, Saeed

2011-01-01

123

Detection of Helicobacter pylori in bovine, buffalo, camel, ovine, and caprine milk in Iran.  

PubMed

Helicobacter pylori infection in humans is one of the most common infections worldwide. However, the origin and transmission of this bacterium has not been clearly explained. One of the suggested theories is transmission via raw milk from animals to human beings. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence rate of H. pylori in bulk milk samples from dairy bovine, buffalo, camel, ovine, and caprine herds in Iran. In the present study, 447 bulk milk samples from 230 dairy bovine, buffalo, camel, ovine, and caprine herds were collected in four provinces and tested for H. pylori by cultural method and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the detection of the ureC (glmM) gene. The animals whose milk samples collected for this study were clinically healthy. Using the cultural method, three of 447 milk samples (0.67%), including two sheep (2.2%) and one buffalo (1.6%) milk samples, were found to be contaminated with H. pylori. H. pylori ureC gene was detected in 56 (12.5%) of milk samples, including 19 cow (14.1%), 11 sheep (12.2%), nine goat (8.7%), two camel (3.6%), and 15 buffalo (23.4%) milk samples. Using PCR method, there were significant differences (p<0.05) in the level of contamination with H. pylori between milk samples collected from different species. The present study is the first report of the isolation of H. pylori from raw sheep and buffalo milk in Iran and the first demonstration of H. pylori DNA in camel and buffalo milk. PMID:22458716

Rahimi, Ebrahim; Kheirabadi, Elahe Kazemi

2012-05-01

124

Direct Evidence for Natural Transmission of Small-Ruminant Lentiviruses of Subtype A4 from Goats to Sheep and Vice Versa  

PubMed Central

Small-ruminant lentiviruses (SRLV), which include the caprine arthritis-encephalitis and the maedi-visna virus, cause persistent inflammatory infections in goats and sheep. SRLV are mainly transmitted from mother to offspring through milk. Transmission after prolonged contact between adult animals has also been observed. The observation that certain SRLV subtypes are found in both goats and sheep suggests that interspecies transmission has occurred on several occasions in the past. We investigated seropositive goats and sheep that were kept together in small mixed herds. Phylogenetic analysis of long proviral sequences in gag and pol, combined with epidemiologic information, demonstrated natural sheep-to-goat transmission of the recently identified SRLV subtype A4 in two instances and goat-to-sheep transmission of the same subtype in one instance. In a further mixed cluster, the direction of the interspecies transmission could not be determined. These findings present for the first time direct evidence that natural interspecies transmission of SRLV is ongoing in both directions. The findings are of relevance to virus eradication programs in both species. PMID:15220425

Shah, Cyril; Huder, Jon B.; Boni, Jurg; Schonmann, Marietta; Muhlherr, Janine; Lutz, Hans; Schupbach, Jorg

2004-01-01

125

Molecular characterization and phylogenetic analysis of small ruminant lentiviruses isolated from Canadian sheep and goats  

PubMed Central

Background Small Ruminant Lentiviruses (SRLV) are widespread in Canadian sheep and goats and represent an important health issue in these animals. There is however no data about the genetic diversity of Caprine Arthritis Encephalitis Virus (CAEV) or Maedi Visna Virus (MVV) in this country. Findings We performed a molecular and phylogenetic analysis of sheep and goat lentiviruses from a small geographic area in Canada using long sequences from the gag region of 30 infected sheep and 36 infected goats originating from 14 different flocks. Pairwise DNA distance and phylogenetic analyses revealed that all SRLV sequences obtained from sheep clustered tightly with prototypical Maedi visna sequences from America. Similarly, all SRLV strains obtained from goats clustered tightly with prototypical US CAEV-Cork strain. Conclusions The data reported in this study suggests that Canadian and US SRLV strains share common origins. In addition, the molecular data failed to bring to light any evidence of past cross species transmission between sheep and goats, which is consistent with the type of farming practiced in this part of the country where single species flocks predominate and where opportunities of cross species transmissions are proportionately low. PMID:21639904

2011-01-01

126

Small ruminant lentivirus genotype B and E interaction: evidences on the role of Roccaverano strain on reducing proviral load of the challenging CAEV strain.  

PubMed

Live attenuated vaccines provide the most consistent protective immunity in experimental models of lentivirus infections. In this study we tested the hypothesis that animals infected with a naturally attenuated small ruminant lentivirus field strain of genotype E may control a challenge infection with a virulent strain of the caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV-CO). Within genotype E, Roccaverano strain has been described as attenuated since decreased arthritic pathological indexes were recorded in Roccaverano-infected animals compared to animals of the same breed infected with genotype B strains. Moreover, under natural conditions, animals double-infected with genotypes B and E appear less prone to develop SRLV-related disease, leading to a putative protective role of Roccaverano strain. Here we present evidence that goats experimentally infected with the avirulent genotype E SRLV-Roccaverano strain control the proviral load of a pathogenic challenge virus (CAEV-CO strain) more efficiently than naïve animals and appear to limit the spread of histological lesions to the contralateral joints. PMID:23290119

Bertolotti, Luigi; Reina, Ramsés; Mazzei, Maurizio; Preziuso, Silvia; Camero, Michele; Carrozza, Maria Luisa; Cavalli, Alessandra; Juganaru, Magda; Profiti, Margherita; De Meneghi, Daniele; Perona, Giovanni; Renzoni, Giacomo; Tursi, Massimiliano; Bertoni, Giuseppe; Rosati, Sergio

2013-04-12

127

Molecular and genetic characteristics of small ruminant lentiviruses in Slovenia.  

PubMed

Small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLV) are spread throughout the world, including Slovenia, where the first evidence of caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV) infection was found in 1996. This study was conducted to investigate the molecular and genetic characteristics of SRLV infection in Slovenia in order to classify our strains in relation to other known SRLV strains worldwide as well as to establish molecular techniques in concordance with serology. In this study, 340 goats and sheep were tested. Serological examination revealed that 57% of the goats and only 14% of the sheep were seropositive. The results of this study also show that the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) used in this study is less reliable than ELISA, with only 60.6% of the seropositive animals being PCR positive. Thirty-eight nucleotide sequences of the gag region encoding the matrix protein were determined and compared to sequences derived from the GenBank, revealing that Slovenian SRLV strains belong to sequence groups A and B, being maedivisna virus (MVV) and CAEV-like, respectively. In one goat herd, the presence of more than one genotype was confirmed and the majority of goat SRLV sequences were more closely related to MVV than to CAEV prototype strains. PMID:23439298

Kuhar, Urška; Barli?-Maganja, Darja; Zadnik, Tomaž; Grom, Jože

2013-03-01

128

Diagnostic performance of PCR and ELISA on blood and milk samples and serological survey for small ruminant lentiviruses in central Spain.  

PubMed

The diagnostic performance of an ELISA for the detection of antibodies to the small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLVs) maedi-visna virus and caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus in milk and corresponding blood samples was evaluated in 50 sheep. The agreement between ELISA results in blood and milk was 90 per cent, and the ? value was 0.79. In addition, a serological survey in the central zone of Spain was performed using milk samples from 413 animals (250 sheep and 163 goats) from 12 flocks/herds. All flocks/herds had some animals that were positive for SRLV. Among the animals, 60.0 per cent of the sheep and 8.0 per cent of the goats tested were seropositive. Each sample was also tested using a PCR technique, which increased the percentage of positive animals detected. Using a combination of ELISA and PCR gave a total of 72.2 per cent of sheep and 28.8 per cent of goats positive for SRLV. PMID:21257533

Barquero, N; Arjona, A; Domenech, A; Toural, C; de las Heras, A; Fernández-Garayzabal, J F; Ruiz-Santa Quiteria, J A; Gomez-Lucia, E

2011-01-01

129

Virological and phylogenetic characterization of attenuated small ruminant lentivirus isolates eluding efficient serological detection.  

PubMed

Three field isolates of small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLVs) were derived from a mixed flock of goats and sheep certified for many years as free of caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV). The phylogenetic analysis of pol sequences permitted to classify these isolates as A4 subtype. None of the animals showed clinical signs of SRLV infection, confirming previous observations which had suggested that this particular subtype is highly attenuated, at least for goats. A quantitative real time PCR strategy based on primers and probes derived from a highly variable env region permitted us to classify the animals as uninfected, singly or doubly infected. The performance of different serological tools based on this classification revealed their profound inadequacy in monitoring animals infected with this particular SRLV subtype. In vitro, the isolates showed differences in their cytopathicity and a tendency to replicate more efficiently in goat than sheep cells, especially in goat macrophages. By contrast, in vivo, these viruses reached significantly higher viral loads in sheep than in goats. Both env subtypes infected goats and sheep with equal efficiency. One of these, however, reached significantly higher viral loads in both species. In conclusion, we characterized three isolates of the SRLV subtype A4 that efficiently circulate in a mixed herd of goats and sheep in spite of their apparent attenuation and a strict physical separation between goats and sheep. The poor performance of the serological tools applied indicates that, to support an SRLV eradication campaign, it is imperative to develop novel, subtype specific tools. PMID:23206411

Cardinaux, Laure; Zahno, Marie-Luise; Deubelbeiss, Martina; Zanoni, Reto; Vogt, Hans-Rudolf; Bertoni, Giuseppe

2013-03-23

130

ABSORPTION AND HALF-LIFE OF BOVINE, CAPRINE AND OVINE IgG1 IN THE NEWBORN LAMB.  

E-print Network

ont été nourris au biberon avec un colostrum bovin identique pendant les 32 premières heures de la vie, alors que six agneaux à terme et sept prématurés ont reçu le même colostrum, un colostrum caprin, puis un colostrum ovin, respecti- vement 2 h, 8 h et 16 h post-partum. Dans le premier groupe, les taux

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

131

Properties of Kefir made in Scotland and Poland using Bovine, Caprine and Ovine Milk with Different Starter Cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Varieties of Kefir were made in Poland and Scotland from bovine, caprine and ovine milk, using Kefir grains and two direct-to-vat inoculation (DVI) starter cultures. The chemical composition (g\\/kg) of the Kefir ranged from 106–149 for total solids, 29–64 for crude protein, 38–47 for carbohydrate, 7–11 for ash. The fat content was standardized to a mean value of 31 g\\/kg.

M. Wszolek; A. Y. Tamime; D. D. Muir; M. N. I. Barclay

2001-01-01

132

Sequence diversity of the leukotoxin (lktA) gene in caprine and ovine strains of Mannheimia haemolytica.  

PubMed

Mannheimia haemolytica is the aetiological agent of pneumonic pasteurellosis in small ruminants. The primary virulence factor of the bacterium is a leukotoxin (LktA), which induces apoptosis in susceptible cells via mitochondrial targeting. It has been previously shown that certain lktA alleles are associated either with cattle or sheep. The objective of the present study was to investigate lktA sequence variation among ovine and caprine M haemolytica strains isolated from pneumonic lungs, revealing any potential adaptation for the caprine host, for which there is no available data. Furthermore, we investigated amino acid variation in the N-terminal part of the sequences and its effect on targeting mitochondria. Data analysis showed that the prevalent caprine genotype differed at a single non-synonymous site from a previously described uncommon bovine allele, whereas the ovine sequences represented new, distinct alleles. N-terminal sequence differences did not affect the mitochondrial targeting ability of the isolates; interestingly enough in one case, mitochondrial matrix targeting was indicated rather than membrane association, suggesting an alternative LktA trafficking pattern. PMID:23396525

Vougidou, C; Sandalakis, V; Psaroulaki, A; Petridou, E; Ekateriniadou, L

2013-04-20

133

Abattoir-based study on the epidemiology of caprine tuberculosis in Ethiopia using conventional and molecular tools  

PubMed Central

Background Despite the important role of goats for meat and milk production in Ethiopia, little information is available on the epidemiology of caprine tuberculosis (TB). Caprine TB is important as milk is usually consumed raw particularly by Ethiopian pastoralists. The objectives of the present study were to estimate the prevalence of TB in goats at an abattoir, to evaluate associated risk factors and to characterize the causative mycobacteria. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted on 1990 randomly selected male goats that were slaughtered at Luna Export Abattoir of central Ethiopia. Postmortem examination, mycobacterial culturing and molecular typing techniques like genus typing, deletion typing and spoligotyping were used. Result The overall prevalence of caprine TB-like lesions was 3.5%. The lesion prevalence increased significantly with increasing age. Mycobacteria were found by culture and seen as acid fast bacilli in 12% of the goats with TB-like lesions. Characterization of the eight isolates using multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) indicated that five of them belonged to the genus Mycobacterium. Four of the latter were confirmed to be members of the M. tuberculosis complex. Further characterization of the three M. tuberculosis isolates by spoligotyping identified them as type SIT53 and two new spoligotypes. Conclusion The isolation of M. tuberculosis from goats in this study indicates a potential risk of transmission of M. tuberculosis between humans and goats. PMID:23433481

2013-01-01

134

Fragile Mental Retardation Protein Interacts with the RNA-Binding Protein Caprin1 in Neuronal RiboNucleoProtein Complexes  

PubMed Central

Fragile X syndrome is caused by the absence of the Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein (FMRP), an RNA-binding protein. FMRP is associated with messenger RiboNucleoParticles (mRNPs) present in polyribosomes and its absence in neurons leads to alteration in synaptic plasticity as a result of translation regulation defects. The molecular mechanisms by which FMRP plays a role in translation regulation remain elusive. Using immunoprecipitation approaches with monoclonal Ab7G1-1 and a new generation of chicken antibodies, we identified Caprin1 as a novel FMRP-cellular partner. In vivo and in vitro evidence show that Caprin1 interacts with FMRP at the level of the translation machinery as well as in trafficking neuronal granules. As an RNA-binding protein, Caprin1 has in common with FMRP at least two RNA targets that have been identified as CaMKII? and Map1b mRNAs. In view of the new concept that FMRP species bind to RNA regardless of known structural motifs, we propose that protein interactors might modulate FMRP functions. PMID:22737234

El Fatimy, Rachid; Tremblay, Sandra; Dury, Alain Y.; Solomon, Samuel; De Koninck, Paul; Schrader, John W.; Khandjian, Edouard W.

2012-01-01

135

"Of Sheep and Men": Earliest Direct Evidence of Caprine Domestication in Southern Africa at Leopard Cave (Erongo, Namibia)  

PubMed Central

The origins of herding practices in southern Africa remain controversial. The first appearance of domesticated caprines in the subcontinent is thought to be c. 2000 years BP; however, the origin of this cultural development is still widely debated. Recent genetic analyses support the long-standing hypothesis of herder migration from the north, while other researchers have argued for a cultural diffusion hypothesis where the spread of herding practices took place without necessarily implicating simultaneous and large population movements. Here we document the Later Stone Age (LSA) site of Leopard Cave (Erongo, Namibia), which contains confirmed caprine remains, from which we infer that domesticates were present in the southern African region as early as the end of the first millennium BC. These remains predate the first evidence of domesticates previously recorded for the subcontinent. This discovery sheds new light on the emergence of herding practices in southern Africa, and also on the possible southward routes used by caprines along the western Atlantic coast. PMID:22808138

Pleurdeau, David; Imalwa, Emma; Detroit, Florent; Lesur, Josephine; Veldman, Anzel; Bahain, Jean-Jacques; Marais, Eugene

2012-01-01

136

Comparison of in vitro developmental competence of cloned caprine embryos using donor karyoplasts from adult bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells vs ear fibroblast cells.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to produce cloned caprine embryos using either caprine bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) or ear fibroblast cells (EFCs) as donor karyoplasts. Caprine MSCs were isolated from male Boer goats of an average age of 1.5 years. To determine the pluripotency of MSCs, the cells were induced to differentiate into osteocytes, chondrocytes and adipocytes. Subsequently, MSCs were characterized through cell surface antigen profiles using specific markers, prior to their use as donor karyoplasts for nuclear transfer. No significant difference (p > 0.05) in fusion rates was observed between MSCs (87.7%) and EFCs (91.3%) used as donor karyoplasts. The cleavage rate of cloned embryos derived with MSCs (87.0%) was similar (p > 0.05) to those cloned using EFCs (84.4%). However, the in vitro development of MSCs-derived cloned embryos (25.3%) to the blastocyst stage was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than those derived with EFCs (20.6%). In conclusion, MSCs could be reprogrammed by caprine oocytes, and production of cloned caprine embryos with MSCs improved their in vitro developmental competence, but not in their fusion and cleavage rate as compared to cloning using somatic cells such as EFCs. PMID:24456113

Kwong, P J; Nam, H Y; Wan Khadijah, W E; Kamarul, T; Abdullah, R B

2014-04-01

137

Advances in diagnosis of respiratory diseases of small ruminants.  

PubMed

Irrespective of aetiology, infectious respiratory diseases of sheep and goats contribute to 5.6 percent of the total diseases of small ruminants. These infectious respiratory disorders are divided into two groups: the diseases of upper respiratory tract, namely, nasal myiasis and enzootic nasal tumors, and diseases of lower respiratory tract, namely, peste des petits ruminants (PPR), parainfluenza, Pasteurellosis, Ovine progressive pneumonia, mycoplasmosis, caprine arthritis encephalitis virus, caseous lymphadenitis, verminous pneumonia, and many others. Depending upon aetiology, many of them are acute and fatal in nature. Early, rapid, and specific diagnosis of such diseases holds great importance to reduce the losses. The advanced enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) for the detection of antigen as well as antibodies directly from the samples and molecular diagnostic assays along with microsatellites comprehensively assist in diagnosis as well as treatment and epidemiological studies. The present review discusses the advancements made in the diagnosis of common infectious respiratory diseases of sheep and goats. It would update the knowledge and help in adapting and implementing appropriate, timely, and confirmatory diagnostic procedures. Moreover, it would assist in designing appropriate prevention protocols and devising suitable control strategies to overcome respiratory diseases and alleviate the economic losses. PMID:25028620

Chakraborty, Sandip; Kumar, Amit; Tiwari, Ruchi; Rahal, Anu; Malik, Yash; Dhama, Kuldeep; Pal, Amar; Prasad, Minakshi

2014-01-01

138

Small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLVs) break the species barrier to acquire new host range.  

PubMed

Zoonotic events of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) from non-human primates to humans have generated the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), one of the most devastating infectious disease of the last century with more than 30 million people dead and about 40.3 million people currently infected worldwide. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1 and HIV-2), the two major viruses that cause AIDS in humans are retroviruses of the lentivirus genus. The genus includes arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV) and Maedi-Visna virus (MVV), and a heterogeneous group of viruses known as small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLVs), affecting goat and sheep. Lentivirus genome integrates into the host DNA, causing persistent infection associated with a remarkable diversity during viral replication. Direct evidence of mixed infections with these two closely related SRLVs was found in both sheep and goats. The evidence of a genetic continuum with caprine and ovine field isolates demonstrates the absence of an efficient species barrier preventing cross-species transmission. In dual-infected animals, persistent infections with both CAEV and MVV have been described, and viral chimeras have been detected. This not only complicates animal trade between countries but favors the risk that highly pathogenic variants may emerge as has already been observed in the past in Iceland and, more recently, in outbreaks with virulent strains in Spain. SRLVs affecting wildlife have already been identified, demonstrating the existence of emergent viruses adapted to new hosts. Viruses adapted to wildlife ruminants may acquire novel biopathological properties which may endanger not only the new host species but also domestic ruminants and humans. SRLVs infecting sheep and goats follow a genomic evolution similar to that observed in HIV or in other lentiviruses. Lentivirus genetic diversity and host factors leading to the establishment of naturally occurring virulent versus avirulent infections, in addition to the emergence of new strains, challenge every aspect of SRLV control measures for providing efficient tools to prevent the transmission of diseases between wild ungulates and livestock. PMID:23881276

Minardi da Cruz, Juliano Cezar; Singh, Dinesh Kumar; Lamara, Ali; Chebloune, Yahia

2013-07-01

139

In Vivo Caprine Model for Osteomyelitis and Evaluation of Biofilm-Resistant Intramedullary Nails  

PubMed Central

Bone infection remains a formidable challenge to the medical field. The goal of the current study is to evaluate antibacterial coatings in vitro and to develop a large animal model to assess coated bone implants. A novel coating consisting of titanium oxide and siloxane polymer doped with silver was created by metal-organic methods. The coating was tested in vitro using rapid screening techniques to determine compositions which inhibited Staphylococcus aureus growth, while not affecting osteoblast viability. The coating was then applied to intramedullary nails and evaluated in vivo in a caprine model. In this pilot study, a fracture was created in the tibia of the goat, and Staphylococcus aureus was inoculated directly into the bone canal. The fractures were fixed by either coated (treated) or non-coated intramedullary nails (control) for 5 weeks. Clinical observations as well as microbiology, mechanical, radiology, and histology testing were used to compare the animals. The treated goat was able to walk using all four limbs after 5 weeks, while the control was unwilling to bear weight on the fixed leg. These results suggest the antimicrobial potential of the hybrid coating and the feasibility of the goat model for antimicrobial coated intramedullary implant evaluation. PMID:23841085

Tran, Nhiem; Tran, Phong A.; Jarrell, John D.; Engiles, Julie B.; Thomas, Nathan P.; Young, Matthew D.; Hayda, Roman A.; Born, Christopher T.

2013-01-01

140

Mitogenic responsiveness of caprine mammary epithelial cells to endocrine and cytokine factors.  

PubMed

Mammary cell mitogenic responsiveness was evaluated with an established nontransformed caprine mammary epithelial cell line (CMEC). As expected, the cells responded to insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), insulin, and hydrocortisone with an increased number of cells after 3 and 5 d in culture. In combination, insulin and hydrocortisone augmented each other. A proliferation response was also observed for transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF-alpha), and epidermal growth factor (EGF), but not for fibroblast growth factor a (FGFa), FGFb, IGF-2, bovine somatotropin, or prolactin. Comparison of mitogenic potential for these growth factors with cells grown on plastic substratum indicated that hydrocortisone was most potent, followed by TGF-alpha in inducing a proliferative response measured by 3H-thymidine incorporation assay. Hydrocortisone augmented proliferation by 149% and TGF-alpha stimulated proliferation by 126% relative to the media control (p < 0.01). EGF, which binds to the same receptor as TGF-alpha in other species, induced a modest 35% increase in proliferation. Comparison of culture conditions with plastic, fibronectin, and type I collagen suggests that extracellular matrix/stroma influences the magnitude and effective concentration for cytokine-mediated growth response. Studies on responsiveness to ovarian steroids estradiol 17-beta (E2) and progesterone (P4) showed a modest proliferation response to E2 only in combination with triiodio-L-thyronine (T3), and no response to P4 or T3 either alone or in combination when grown on plastic. PMID:10451220

Pantschenko, A G; Yang, T J

1999-04-01

141

Site-specific N-glycosylation of caprine lysostaphin restricts its bacteriolytic activity toward Staphylococcus aureus.  

PubMed

Lysostaphin (LYS) is an anti-staphylococcal prokaryotic polypeptide that has been used to avoid Staphylococcus aureus mastitis through transgenic or viral vector approaches exogenously expressed in dairy animals. However, glycosylation of lysostaphin expressed in mammalian cells results in a loss of bioactivity. Until now, the mechanism of site-specific glycosylation of lysostaphin causing this loss of bioactivity remains unknown. An immortalized caprine mammary epithelial cell line (CMEC-08-D) was used to study recombinant lysostaphin fused with goat ?-casein, goat lactoferrin (LF) or prokaryotic signal peptides. These constructs were separately ectopically expressed in CMEC-08-D. Results of site-directed mutagenesis show that Asn(125) but not Asn(232) is the exact glycosylation site of lysostaphin expressed in CMEC-08-D. In addition, the effect of glycosylation of lysostaphin on its staphylolytic activity was identified through bacterial plate assay. The data indicated that wild type and mutated N232Q-lysostaphin (Asn(232) to Gln(232) substitution) lacked staphylolytic activity. In contrast, mutated N125Q (Asn(125) to Gln(125) substitution) and N125Q/N232Q-lysostaphin possessed staphylolytic activity. On the other hand, all mutated lysostaphin showed no change in binding ability to S. aureus. This reveals that N-glycosylation at Asn(125) of lysostaphin expressed in a eukaryotic system greatly decreases lysostaphin bacteriolytic activity but does not affect its binding ability to S. aureus. PMID:23534959

Huang, Ching-Ying; Hsu, Jih-Tay; Chung, Pei-Hsuan; Cheng, Winston Teng-Kuei; Jiang, Yan-Nian; Ju, Yu-Ten

2013-01-01

142

Development and Characterization of a Caprine Aerosol Infection Model of Melioidosis  

PubMed Central

Infection with Burkholderia pseudomallei causes the disease melioidosis, which often presents as a serious suppurative infection that is typically fatal without intensive treatment and is a significant emerging infectious disease in Southeast Asia. Despite intensive research there is still much that remains unknown about melioidosis pathogenesis. New animal models of melioidosis are needed to examine novel aspects of pathogenesis as well as for the evaluation of novel therapeutics. The objective of the work presented here was to develop a subacute to chronic caprine model of melioidosis and to characterize the progression of disease with respect to clinical presentation, hematology, clinical microbiology, thoracic radiography, and gross and microscopic pathology. Disease was produced in all animals following an intratracheal aerosol of 104 CFU delivered, with variable clinical manifestations indicative of subacute and chronic disease. Bronchointerstitial pneumonia was apparent microscopically by day 2 and radiographically and grossly apparent by day 7 post infection (PI). Early lesions of bronchopneumonia soon progressed to more severe bronchointerstitial pneumonia with pyogranuloma formation. Extrapulmonary dissemination appeared to be a function of pyogranuloma invasion of pulmonary vasculature, which peaked around day 7 PI. Histopathology indicated that leukocytoclastic vasculitis was the central step in dissemination of B. pseudomallei from the lungs as well as in the establishment of new lesions. While higher doses of organism in goats can produce acute fatal disease, the dose investigated and resulting disease had many similarities to human melioidosis and may warrant further development to provide a model for the study of both natural and bioterrorism associated disease. PMID:22916225

Soffler, Carl; Bosco-Lauth, Angela M.; Aboellail, Tawfik A.; Marolf, Angela J.; Bowen, Richard A.

2012-01-01

143

Complementary tools for the control and eradication of caprine and ovine brucellosis in the European Union.  

PubMed

Caprine and ovine brucellosis is one of the most serious and complex animal health problems faced by Veterinary Services in countries where the disease is endemic. Various geographical factors and the nature of the disease itself influence its epidemiology, encouraging widespread distribution and, at the same time, impeding the ability of animal health programmes to prevent, control and eradicate it. Although strategies against brucellosis have traditionally been based on two specific tools (namely, vaccination of the at-risk population and testing and slaughter of animals which are suspected of or test positive for the disease), other complementary tools of a technical or administrative nature should also be considered. Experience in the European Union has shown that these tools are necessary to guarantee sustainable progress and success against this disease. However, these complementary tools have not always received sufficient attention during the strategic planning and subsequent implementation of animal health programmes, with consequent reductions in efficiency. The aim of this article is to review these complementary tools, in order to facilitate their adoption and use by official Veterinary Services, according to the resources available. PMID:23520752

Crespo León, F; Sáez Llorente, J L; Reviriego Gordejo, F J; Rodríguez Ferri, E F; Durán Ferrer, M

2012-12-01

144

Paleogenomics in a Temperate Environment: Shotgun Sequencing from an Extinct Mediterranean Caprine  

PubMed Central

Background Numerous endemic mammals, including dwarf elephants, goats, hippos and deers, evolved in isolation in the Mediterranean islands during the Pliocene and Pleistocene. Most of them subsequently became extinct during the Holocene. Recently developed high-throughput sequencing technologies could provide a unique tool for retrieving genomic data from these extinct species, making it possible to study their evolutionary history and the genetic bases underlying their particular, sometimes unique, adaptations. Methodology/Principals Findings A DNA extraction of a ?6,000 year-old bone sample from an extinct caprine (Myotragus balearicus) from the Balearic Islands in the Western Mediterranean, has been subjected to shotgun sequencing with the GS FLX 454 platform. Only 0.27% of the resulting sequences, identified from alignments with the cow genome and comprising 15,832 nucleotides, with an average length of 60 nucleotides, proved to be endogenous. Conclusions A phylogenetic tree generated with Myotragus sequences and those from other artiodactyls displays an identical topology to that generated from mitochondrial DNA data. Despite being in an unfavourable thermal environment, which explains the low yield of endogenous sequences, our study demonstrates that it is possible to obtain genomic data from extinct species from temperate regions. PMID:19461892

Ramírez, Oscar; Gigli, Elena; Bover, Pere; Alcover, Josep Antoni; Bertranpetit, Jaume; Castresana, Jose; Lalueza-Fox, Carles

2009-01-01

145

Unexpected genetic diversity of Mycoplasma agalactiae caprine isolates from an endemic geographically restricted area of Spain  

PubMed Central

Background The genetic diversity of Mycoplasma agalactiae (MA) isolates collected in Spain from goats in an area with contagious agalactia (CA) was assessed using a set of validated and new molecular typing methods. Validated methods included pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) typing, and Southern blot hybridization using a set of MA DNA probes, including those for typing the vpma genes repertoire. New approaches were based on PCR and targeted genomic regions that diverged between strains as defined by in silico genomic comparisons of sequenced MA genomes. Results Overall, the data showed that all typing tools yielded consistent results, with the VNTR analyses being the most rapid method to differentiate the MA isolates with a discriminatory ability comparable to that of PFGE and of a set of new PCR assays. All molecular typing approaches indicated that the Spanish isolates from the endemic area in Murcia were very diverse, with different clonal isolates probably restricted to separate, but geographically close, local areas. Conclusions The important genetic diversity of MA observed in infected goats from Spain contrasts with the overall homogeneity of the genomic background encountered in MA from sheep with CA in Southern France or Italy, suggesting that assessment of the disease status in endemic areas may require different approaches in sheep and in goats. A number of congruent sub-typing tools are now available for the differentiation of caprine isolates with comparable discriminatory powers. PMID:22920649

2012-01-01

146

Pneumonia of lambs following inoculation of isolates of sheep herpesvirus (caprine herpesvirus 1) of different DNA genotypes.  

PubMed

One-day-old, specific pathogen-free lambs, were equally susceptible to infection with three isolates of caprine herpesvirus 1 (CHV1). One of these isolates was genomically different by DNA analysis. Lesions, which were confined to the lung, ranged from a mild interstitial reaction to widespread consolidation. CHV1 was recovered from lungs and less commonly from liver and adrenal gland. Three-week-old SPF lambs were also successfully infected with CHV1. Histopathological findings were similar to those in 1-week-old lambs. PMID:2155949

Scott, F M; Angus, K W; Dewar, P

1990-01-01

147

Sperm viability of canine and caprine semen samples preserved in a dry shipper.  

PubMed

This study assessed the efficacy of a dry shipper to preserve canine and caprine semen samples. After equilibration, semen straws from six Majorera bucks and five dogs were frozen and stored in liquid nitrogen (LN). Thirty days after freezing, half of the frozen straws were transferred from LN to a dry shipper (DS). Then, thawing was performed at 1, 2, 3, 5 and 7 days and the percentages of motile spermatozoa, acrosome intact spermatozoa and abnormal spermatozoa were determined. The sperm motility (total and progressive) of canine semen samples preserved with DS was quite similar to those preserved in LN, and no significant differences were observed throughout the experimental period. In addition, no differences were observed in the number of abnormal spermatozoa (range: 13.2-19.0%) or intact acrosome (range 91.3-95%) between both storage protocols. Buck semen samples showed equivalent levels of progressive motility (between 50% and 60%) and intact acrosome membrane (around 70%) during the first 3 days of storage in both procedures; however, from the fifth day of storage onwards, a notable decrease in semen quality was observed in the samples preserved in DS, showing a dramatic fall in the semen viability after 7 days of preservation (12.3% and 36.8%, progressive fast spermatozoa and acrosome integrity, respectively). In dog samples, the present study confirmed that seminal quality did not show modifications for the preservation period (7 days), confirming the efficacy of the dry shipper to preserve frozen samples for a short time. However, under the circumstances reported in this study, the sperm quality of buck samples preserved in the dry shipper only held during the first 3 days of storage, and therefore, its practical application could be more limited. PMID:22277843

Batista, M; Santana, M; Niño, T; Alamo, D; Cabrera, F; González, F; Gracia, A

2012-01-01

148

Purification and characterization of a motility initiating protein from caprine epididymal plasma.  

PubMed

Numerous reports have appeared on the occurrence of undefined protein factors in male reproductive fluids that promote motility of mature sperm and initiate forward motility in the immature (immotile) caput-epididymal sperm. This study reports for the first time purification to apparent homogeneity of a motility initiating protein (MIP) from epididymal plasma and its characterization using the caprine sperm model. It is a 125 kDa (approximately) dimeric protein made up of two subunits: 70 and 54 kDa. MIP is an acidic protein with an isoelectric point of 4.75. The motility protein at 30 microg/ml (240 nM) level showed nearly maximal motility-promoting activity. MIP is heat stable and it is maximally active at pH 8. It is a glycoprotein that binds with high affinity to concanavalin A and it contains mannose, galactose, and N-acetyl glucosamine approximately in the ratios of 6:1:6. It is sensitive to the actions of alpha-mannosidase and beta-N-acetylglucoseaminidase thereby demonstrating that the sugar side chain of the glycoprotein is essential for its biological activity. Epididymal plasma is its richest source. It is also capable of enhancing forward motility of mature cauda-sperm. Its antibody markedly inhibits sperm motility. MIP antibody is highly immunospecific and it recognizes both the subunits. MIP causes significant increase of the intrasperm level of cyclic AMP. MIP: the physiological motility-activating protein has potential for use as a contraceptive vaccine and for solving some of the problems of human infertility and animal breeding. PMID:19795390

Jaiswal, Bijay Shankar; Das, Kaushik; Saha, Sudipta; Dungdung, Sandhya Rekha; Majumder, Gopal C

2010-01-01

149

Short communication: genetic variability in the predicted microRNA target sites of caprine casein genes.  

PubMed

The main goal of the current work was to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) that might create or disrupt microRNA (miRNA) target sites in the caprine casein genes. The 3' untranslated regions of the goat alpha(S1)-, alpha(S2)-, beta-, and kappa-casein genes (CSN1S1, CSN1S2, CSN2, and CSN3, respectively) were resequenced in 25 individuals of the Murciano-Granadina, Cashmere, Canarian, Saanen, and Sahelian breeds. Five SNP were identified through this strategy: c.175C>T at CSN1S1; c.109T>C, c.139G>C, and c.160T>C at CSN1S2; and c.216C>T at CSN2. Analysis with the Patrocles Finder tool predicted that all of these SNP are located within regions complementary to the seed of diverse miRNA sequences. These in silico results suggest that polymorphism at miRNA target sites might have some effect on casein expression. We explored this issue by genotyping the c.175C>T SNP (CSN1S1) in 85 Murciano-Granadina goats with records for milk CSN1S1 concentrations. This substitution destroys a putative target site for miR-101, a miRNA known to be expressed in the bovine mammary gland. Although TT goats had higher levels (6.25 g/L) of CSN1S1 than their CT (6.05 g/L) and CC (6.04 g/L) counterparts, these differences were not significant. Experimental confirmation of the miRNA target sites predicted in the current work and performance of additional association analyses in other goat populations will be an essential step to find out if polymorphic miRNA target sites constitute an important source of variation in casein expression. PMID:20338454

Zidi, A; Amills, M; Tomás, A; Vidal, O; Ramírez, O; Carrizosa, J; Urrutia, B; Serradilla, J M; Clop, A

2010-04-01

150

Effects of genetic variability of the caprine homeobox transcription factor HESX1 gene on performance traits.  

PubMed

HESX1 plays a key role in the development of the forebrain and pituitary gland and produces potential effects on performance traits. The objective of this study was to detect and assess the associations of the possible polymorphisms of six loci within HESX1 gene with performance traits in Chinese 1,119 goats. Only one novel SNP (NM_001494116:g.307049A > G) locating on IVS1 + 348A > G was identified and detected by HaeIII forced-RFLP-PCR. The frequencies of allele "G" varied from 0.025 to 0.245 in analyzed populations with the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (P > 0.05). Genotypic and allelic frequencies were found to be significantly different in four breeds (chi(2) = 147.674, df = 6, P < 0.001; chi(2) = 157.250, df = 3, P < 0.001, respectively), implying that the distribution of genotypic and allelic frequencies of goat HESX1 gene was significantly associated with different goat utilities (cashmere, meat and dairy). Association analysis results revealed no significant effects of caprine HESX1 gene on body sizes in XNSN population (P > 0.05) and cashmere traits in IMWC population (P > 0.05). Significant statistical of HESX1 gene with body weight was found (*P < 0.05). The genotype AA showed significantly higher body weight than those of AG in 2-year-old age (*P < 0.05), while the AA genotype was senior to AG genotype in 4-year-old body weight trait (*P < 0.05). These suggestions indicated that the HESX1 gene has significant effect on goat body weight depending on ages, which is accordance with the function repressor of the HESX1. PMID:19629745

Lan, Xianyong; Lai, Xinsheng; Li, Zhuanjian; Wang, Jing; Lei, Chuzhao; Chen, Hong

2010-01-01

151

Hydrolysis of bovine and caprine milk fat globules by lipoprotein lipase. Effects of heparin and skim milk on lipase distribution and on lipolysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heparin can dissociate lipoprotein lipase from casein micelles, and addition of heparin enhances lipolysis in bovine but not in caprine milk. Heparin shortened the lag-time for binding of lipoprotein lipase to milk fat globules and for lipolysis. Heparin counteracted the inhibitory effects of skim milk on binding of lipase and on lipolysis. Heparin stimulated lipolysis in all bovine milk samples

Gunhild Sundheim; Gunilla Bengtsson-Olivecrona

1987-01-01

152

Generation of transgenic mesenchymal stem cells expressing green fluorescent protein as reporter gene using no viral vector in caprine.  

PubMed

Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) are multipotent cells that can be derived from many different organs and tissues. While there are many ways to label and track cells each with strengths and weakness, the green fluorescent protein (GFP) is a reporter gene commonly employed. In the present study, caprine MSC were collected from bone marrow and cells were characterised with MSC specific markers. Passage 10 (P10) MSC cells were transfected using plasmid vector containing GFP as reporter gene with different concentrations of DNA and lipofectamine. Six different concentrations of DNA and lipofectamine as 1 microg DNA: 2 microL lipofectamine, 1 microg DNA: 2.5 microL lipofectamine, 1.2 microg DNA: 2.2 microL lipofectamine, 1.2 microg DNA: 2.5 microL lipofectamine, 1.5 microg DNA: 2.5 microL lipofectamine, 1.5 microg DNA: 3 microL lipofectamine were used. After 24 h and 48 h of transfection, caprine MSC were observed under florescent microscope. Highest transfection rate indicating green flourecscent MSC were found when the cells were transfected with 1.2 microg DNA: 2.2 microL lipofectamine and 1.5 microg DNA: 2.5 microL lipofectamine than other combinations. These cells have been propagated beyond 4th passage maintaining GFP expression. The results indicated that stable GFP positive MSC cells can be generated using the above protocol. These cells are being used for transplantation studies. PMID:23898548

Kumar, Manish; Yasotha, T; Singh, R K; Singh, Renu; Kumar, Kuldeep; Ranjan, R; Meshram, Chetan D; Das, B C; Bag, Sadhan

2013-07-01

153

A possible case of caprine-associated malignant catarrhal fever in a domestic water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) in Switzerland  

PubMed Central

Background Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) is a fatal herpesvirus infection, affecting various wild and domestic ruminants all over the world. Water buffaloes were reported to be particularly susceptible for the ovine herpesvirus-2 (OvHV-2) causing the sheep-associated form of MCF (SA-MCF). This report describes the first case of possibly caprine-associated malignant catarrhal fever symptoms in a domestic water buffalo in Switzerland. Case presentation The buffalo cow presented with persistent fever, dyspnoea, nasal bleeding and haematuria. Despite symptomatic therapy, the buffalo died and was submitted to post mortem examination. Major findings were an abomasal ulceration, a mild haemorrhagic cystitis and multifocal haemorrhages on the epicardium and on serosal and mucosal surfaces. Eyes and oral cavity were not affected. Histopathology revealed a mild to moderate lymphohistiocytic vasculitis limited to the brain and the urinary bladder. Although these findings are typical for MCF, OvHV-2 DNA was not detected in peripheral blood lymphocytes or in paraffin-embedded brain, using an OvHV-2 specific real time PCR. With the aid of a panherpesvirus PCR, a caprine herpesvirus-2 (CpHV-2) sequence could be amplified from both samples. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first report of malignant catarrhal fever in the subfamily Bovinae, where the presence of CpHV-2 could be demonstrated. The etiological context has yet to be evaluated. PMID:22132808

2011-01-01

154

Cloning and expression of SOLD1 in ovine and caprine placenta, and their expected roles during the development of placentomes  

PubMed Central

Background The Ly-6 (Ly-6/uPAR) superfamily members share the Ly-6 domain defined by distinct disulfide bonding patterns between 8 or 10 cysteine residues. They comprise membrane- and secretory-type proteins. We recently reported the gene and protein characterization of the bovine secreted protein of Ly-6 domain 1 (SOLD1). Bovine SOLD1 is expressed in trophoblast mononucleate cells (TMCs) and is localized in the cotyledonary mesenchyme. Here, we compared the expression and functionality of SOLD1 among the ruminants. We examined mRNA expression by chorionic fibroblasts as a measure of one of the SOLD1 functions. Results Ovine and caprine SOLD1 mRNAs have 303 bp open reading frames and encode for deduced SOLD1 proteins with 100 amino acids, including a 22-aa-long signal peptide at the N-terminal. Both of the SOLD1 amino acid sequences have high similarities with the bovine sequence. Both SOLD1 mRNAs were also expressed in TMCs of cotyledons and intercotyledonary membranes. The mature SOLD1 proteins were localized in the mesenchymal villi of cotyledons after secretion. Bovine, ovine and caprine SOLD1 affected gene expression in mesenchymal fibroblasts in vitro; nucleoredoxin expression was upregulated and BCL2-like 13 was downregulated. Thus, we suggest that SOLD1 acts as a modulator of cell proliferation and apoptosis. Conclusion Expressing cells and protein localization of SOLD1 coincided among the three ruminants. SOLD1 participated in regulating nucleoredoxin and BCL2-like 13 expression in chorionic fibroblasts. SOLD1 is produced specifically in the cotyledons and intercotyledonary membranes in ruminants and appears to be involved in the construction of the ruminant placenta. PMID:20089199

2010-01-01

155

Impact of natural sheep-goat transmission on detection and control of small ruminant lentivirus group C infections.  

PubMed

Dissemination of small ruminant lentivirus (SRLV) infections in Norway is affected by the different control strategies used for maedi-visna virus (MVV) infections in sheep and caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV) infections in goats. Here we investigated SRLV phylogenetic group variants in sheep. CAEV-like isolates, belonging to phylogenetic group C, were found among both seropositive sheep and goats in mixed flocks, in which sheep and goats are kept together. Intra-herd clustering confirmed that mixed flock animals were infected by the same virus variant, suggesting ongoing interspecies transmission. Few sheep flocks were found to be infected with the MVV-like phylogenetic group A. The apparent absence of SRLV group A type in goats is probably due to the MVV control programme and animal management practices. SRLV group C targets lungs and mammary glands in sheep, and induces typical SRLV pathological lesions. SRLV group C isolated from the sheep mammary glands suggested a productive infection and potential for transmission to offspring. SRLV group C was most prevalent among goats. A lower PCR sensitivity in seropositive sheep suggested a lower load of SRLV group C provirus in sheep than in goats. Higher genetic divergence of group C than in other SRLV groups and extensive heterogeneity among group C isolates in the matrix C-terminal region demonstrate the need for identifying conserved target regions when developing PCR protocols for SRLV detection. As sheep and goats may serve as reservoirs for all SRLV genogroup types, successful control programmes require inclusion of both species. PMID:18986775

Gjerset, Britt; Rimstad, Espen; Teige, Jon; Soetaert, Kristin; Jonassen, Christine Monceyron

2009-03-30

156

A retrospective study of brain lesions in goats submitted to three veterinary diagnostic laboratories.  

PubMed

A retrospective study of brain lesions in goats was conducted to identify the range of lesions and diseases recognized and to make recommendations regarding the best tissues to examine and tests to conduct in order to maximize the likelihood of making a definitive diagnosis in goats that may have had clinical signs referable to the brain. One hundred thirty-nine goats with a brain lesion were identified. The most common lesion, in 52.5% of the goats, was suppurative inflammation. Approximately two-thirds of these goats had encephalitic listeriosis. Other goats were found to have suppurative inflammation in association with septicemia, pituitary abscesses, dehorning injury, and otitis. Thirty goats (21.6%) were diagnosed with polioencephalomalacia. Twenty-one goats (15.1%) were diagnosed with nonsuppurative inflammation. In more than half of these goats, no definitive diagnosis was made, while 8 were infected with Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus and 1 with Rabies virus. However, few goats were tested for rabies. Based on these findings, it is recommended that, in addition to appropriate handling of the brain, the head should be examined with attention paid to the sella turcica and the temporal bones for evidence of a pituitary abscess and otitis, respectively. Histologic examination should include multiple areas of the brain, including the brainstem, for lesions of encephalic listeriosis; the cerebral cortex, for lesions of polioencephalomalacia; and the hippocampus, for Negri bodies associated with Rabies virus infection. Consideration should be given to collecting samples of other tissues including, but not limited to, the spinal cord and liver for ancillary testing if warranted. PMID:23794017

Allen, Andrew L; Goupil, Brad A; Valentine, Beth A

2013-07-01

157

Small-ruminant lentivirus enhances PrPSc accumulation in cultured sheep microglial cells.  

PubMed

Sheep scrapie is the prototypical transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (prion disease), which has a fundamental pathogenesis involving conversion of normal cellular prion protein (PrP(C) [C superscript stands for cellular]) to disease-associated prion protein (PrP(Sc) [Sc superscript stands for sheep scrapie]). Sheep microglial cell cultures, derived from a prnp 136VV/171QQ near-term fetal brain, were developed to study sheep scrapie in the natural host and to investigate potential cofactors in the prion conversion process. Two culture systems, a primary cell culture and a cell line transformed with the large T antigen of simian virus 40, were developed, and both were identified as microglial in origin as indicated by expression of several microglial phenotype markers. Following exposure to PrP(Sc), sheep microglial cells demonstrated relatively low levels (transformed cell line) to high levels (primary cell line) of PrP(Sc) accumulation over time. The accumulated PrP(Sc) demonstrated protease resistance, an inferred beta-sheet conformation (as determined by a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay), specific inhibition by anti-PrP antibodies, and was transmissible in a dose-dependent manner. Primary microglia coinfected with a small-ruminant lentivirus (caprine arthritis encephalitis virus-Cork strain) and PrP(Sc) demonstrated an approximately twofold increase in PrP(Sc) accumulation compared to that of primary microglia infected with PrP(Sc) alone. The results demonstrate the in vitro utility of PrP(Sc)-permissive sheep microglial cells in investigating the biology of natural prion diseases and show that small-ruminant lentiviruses enhance prion conversion in cultured sheep microglia. PMID:18684809

Stanton, James B; Knowles, Donald P; O'Rourke, Katherine I; Herrmann-Hoesing, Lynn M; Mathison, Bruce A; Baszler, Timothy V

2008-10-01

158

Polymorphisms of caprine POU1F1 gene and their association with litter size in Jining Grey goats.  

PubMed

Seven pairs of primers were designed to amplify 5' promoter region, six exons and partial introns and to detect the polymorphisms of POU1F1 gene in five goat breeds with different prolificacy. The results showed that six mutations were identified in caprine POU1F1 gene including C256T in exon 3, C53T and T123G in intron 3, and G682T (A228S), T723G and C837T in exon 6. The former four mutations were novel SNPs in goat POU1F1 gene. The 53 and 123 loci were in complete linkage disequilibrium in five caprine breeds. Regarding the 256 locus, the Jining Grey goat does with genotype CT had 0.66 kids more than those with genotype CC (P < 0.05), while does with genotype GT had 0.63 (P < 0.05) kids more than those with genotype GG at the 682 locus. The present study preliminarily showed an association between allele T at the 256 and 682 loci of POU1F1 gene and high litter size in Jining Grey goats. Totally 16 haplotypes and 50 genotypes were identified at the above six loci in POU1F1 gene of five goat breeds. Three common haplotypes (hap2, hap3 and hap4) were identified in five goat breeds joined. Four specific haplotypes (hap7, hap9, hap11 and hap13) were detected in Jining Grey goats. The predominant haplotype was hap1 (35.29% and 48.25%) in both Jining Grey and Guizhou White goats, while hap4 (50%) in Boer goats, and hap2 (42.86% and 38.75%) in both Wendeng Dairy and Liaoning Cashmere goats. The most frequent genotypes at six loci in the above five goat breeds were hap1/hap2 (14.38%) and hap1/hap4 (14.38%), hap1/hap2 (38.60%), hap4/hap4 (40.91%), hap2/hap4 (26.53%), hap2/hap5 (20.00%), respectively. The Jining Grey goat does with nine genotypes analyzed of POU1F1 gene showed no obvious difference in litter size. PMID:21769479

Feng, T; Chu, M X; Cao, G L; Tang, Q Q; Di, R; Fang, L; Li, N

2012-04-01

159

The isolation and purification of a dual specific mast cell-derived protease from parasitised caprine jejunal tissue.  

PubMed

A mast cell granule protease has been isolated and purified from nematode-infected caprine jejunal homogenate by FPLC techniques and termed Goat Mast Cell Protease (GMCP). The purification steps were monitored for proteolytic activity against the synthetic substrate carboxybenzoyl-L-lysine thiobenzyl ester (BLT) and the presence of a homogenous protease preparation in the final sample was shown by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis. This protease was compared with enzymatic activity from isolated mucosal mast cells, which demonstrated the putative mast cell-derived source of the purified enzyme. Rabbit antiserum was raised against the protease and through the use of immunohistochemistry and Western blotting techniques the mast cell origin of the protease was confirmed. NH2-Terminal amino acid sequence analysis demonstrated a high degree of homology between GMCP and other previously isolated mast cell proteases including sheep mast cell protease (SMCP). Substrate analysis showed that GMCP also had an unusual dual chymotrypsin-like and trypsin-like activity similar to SMCP and bovine duodenase. PMID:9557800

Macaldowie, C N; Mackellar, A; Huntley, J F

1998-01-01

160

Detection of Toxoplasma gondii in raw caprine, ovine, buffalo, bovine, and camel milk using cell cultivation, cat bioassay, capture ELISA, and PCR methods in Iran.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to determine the presence of Toxoplasma gondii in animal milk samples in Iran. From a total of 395 dairy herds in three provinces of Iran, 66 bovine, 58 ovine, 54 caprine, 33 buffalo, and 30 camel herds were studied, and from these parts of Iran, 200 bovine, 185 ovine, 180 caprine, 164 buffalo, and 160 camel milk samples were collected from various seasons. Samples were tested for Toxoplasma gondii by cell line culture, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. Only the results of cell line cultivation were confirmed by bioassay in cat. Results indicated that all herds were infected with Toxoplasma gondii. The culture method showed that 51 out of 889 milk samples (5.73%) were positive for Toxoplasma gondii, and all 51 positive culture results were positive with bioassay in cat. The Fars province had the highest prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii (6.84%). The ELISA test showed that 41 milk samples (4.61%) were positive for the presence of Toxoplasma gondii, while the PCR showed that 46 milk samples were positive for Toxoplasma gondii. The results showed higher sensitivity of PCR and higher specificity of ELISA. Caprine had the highest (10%) and camel had the lowest (3.12%) prevalence rate of parasite. The summer season had the highest (76.47%) but winter (3.92) had the lowest incidence of Toxoplasma gondii. This study is the first prevalence report of direct detection of Toxoplasma gondii in animal milk samples in Iran. PMID:23441913

Dehkordi, Farhad Safarpoor; Borujeni, Mohammad Reza Haghighi; Rahimi, Ebrahim; Abdizadeh, Rahman

2013-02-01

161

Perspectives of a scrapie resistance breeding scheme targeting Q211, S146 and K222 caprine PRNP alleles in Greek goats  

PubMed Central

The present study investigates the potential use of the scrapie-protective Q211 S146 and K222 caprine PRNP alleles as targets for selective breeding in Greek goats. Genotyping data from a high number of healthy goats with special emphasis on bucks, revealed high frequencies of these alleles, while the estimated probabilities of disease occurrence in animals carrying these alleles were low, suggesting that they can be used for selection. Greek goats represent one of the largest populations in Europe. Thus, the considerations presented here are an example of the expected effect of such a scheme on scrapie occurrence and on stakeholders. PMID:24717012

2014-01-01

162

Pathogenesis of natural goat scrapie: modulation by host PRNP genotype and effect of co-existent conditions  

PubMed Central

After detection of a high prevalence of scrapie in a large dairy goat herd, 72 infected animals were examined by immunohistochemistry with prion protein (PrP) antibody Bar224 to study the pathogenesis of the infection. Tissues examined included the brain and thoracic spinal cord (TSC), a wide selection of lymphoreticular system (LRS) tissues, the distal ileum and its enteric nervous system (ENS), and other organs, including the mammary gland. The whole open reading frame of the PRNP gene was sequenced and antibodies to caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV) infection were determined. Unexpectedly, accumulation of disease-associated PrP (PrPd) in the brain was more frequent in methionine carriers at codon 142 (24/32, 75.0%) than amongst isoleucine homozygotes (14/40, 35.0%). The latter, however, showed significantly greater amounts of brain PrPd than the former (average scores of 9.3 and 3.0, respectively). A significant proportion of the 38 goats that were positive in brain were negative in the ENS (44.7%) or in the TSC (39.5%). These results, together with the early and consistent involvement of the circumventricular organs and the hypothalamus, point towards a significant contribution of the haematogenous route in the process of neuroinvasion. Chronic enteritis was observed in 98 of the 200 goats examined, with no association with either scrapie infection or presence of PrPd in the gut. Lymphoproliferative interstitial mastitis was observed in 13/31 CAEV-positive and scrapie-infected goats; PrPd in the mammary gland was detected in five of those 13 goats, suggesting a possible contribution of CAEV infection in scrapie transmission via milk. PMID:20374697

Gonzalez, Lorenzo; Martin, Stuart; Hawkins, Stephen A.C.; Goldmann, Wilfred; Jeffrey, Martin; Siso, Silvia

2010-01-01

163

An insight into a combination of ELISA strategies to diagnose small ruminant lentivirus infections.  

PubMed

A single broadly reactive standard ELISA is commonly applied to control small ruminant lentivirus (SRLV) spread, but type specific ELISA strategies are gaining interest in areas with highly prevalent and heterogeneous SRLV infections. Short (15-residue) synthetic peptides (n=60) were designed in this study using deduced amino acid sequence profiles of SRLV circulating in sheep from North Central Spain and SRLV described previously. The corresponding ELISAs and two standard ELISAs were employed to analyze sera from sheep flocks either controlled or infected with different SRLV genotypes. Two outbreaks, showing SRLV-induced arthritis (genotype B2) and encephalitis (genotype A), were represented among the infected flocks. The ELISA results revealed that none of the assays detected all the infected animals in the global population analyzed, the assay performance varying according to the genetic type of the strain circulating in the area and the test antigen. Five of the six highly reactive (57-62%) single peptide ELISAs were further assessed, revealing that the ELISA based on peptide 98M (type A ENV-SU5, consensus from the neurological outbreak) detected positives in the majority of the type-A specific sera tested (Se: 86%; Sp: 98%) and not in the arthritic type B outbreak. ENV-TM ELISAs based on peptides 126M1 (Se: 82%; Sp: 95%) and 126M2 0,65 0.77 (Se: 68%; Sp: 88%) detected preferentially caprine arthritis encephalitis (CAEV, type B) and visna/maedi (VMV, type A) virus infections respectively, which may help to perform a preliminary CAEV vs. VMV-like typing of the flock. The use of particular peptide ELISAs and standard tests individually or combined may be useful in the different areas under study, to determine disease progression, diagnose/type infection and prevent its spread. PMID:23375019

de Andrés, X; Ramírez, H; Bertolotti, L; San Román, B; Glaria, I; Crespo, H; Jáuregui, P; Minguijón, E; Juste, R; Leginagoikoa, I; Pérez, M; Luján, L; Badiola, J J; Polledo, L; García-Marín, J F; Riezu, J I; Borrás-Cuesta, F; de Andrés, D; Rosati, S; Reina, R; Amorena, B

2013-04-15

164

Epidemiological features of Morel's disease in goats.  

PubMed

Morel's disease caused by Staphylococcus aureus subsp. anaerobius was diagnosed for the first time in Poland in October 2006 in a goat flock. A second infected flock was found two months later. The course of the disease in both flocks was observed for 15-17 months. Clinical manifestation was confined to abscesses located near major superficial lymph nodes, mostly: superficial cervical, subiliac, parotid and mandibular. At necropsy no other lesions were found. The incubation period was estimated at 3 weeks. Clinical signs were seen both in young and adult goats and up to 7 abscesses in one animal were noted. Abscesses tended to persist for 1 to 5 months, then rupture and heal completely. The initial high in-flock point prevalence in both flocks (93.6% and 84.4%) dropped to approximately 10-30% during next 3-4 months. Until the end of the observation period the in-flock point prevalence remained at this level and only single abscesses were observed, mainly in young animals. No influence of the concurrent caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV) infection on the clinical course of Morel's disease was noticed. It is to be concluded that the clinical course of Morel's disease in a goat flock resembles caseous lymphadenitis (CLA). However, in Morel's disease abscesses occur more frequently in young goats and are located near, not inside, the lymph nodes, as in the case with CLA. Also, the incubation period of Morel's disease seems to be shorter (3 weeks versus 2-6 months in CLA). PMID:21033557

Szalu?-Jordanow, O; Kaba, J; Czopowicz, M; Witkowski, L; Nowicki, M; Nowicka, D; Stefa?ska, I; Rzewuska, M; Sobczak-Filipiak, M; Binek, M; Frymus, T

2010-01-01

165

Pathogenesis of natural goat scrapie: modulation by host PRNP genotype and effect of co-existent conditions.  

PubMed

After detection of a high prevalence of scrapie in a large dairy goat herd, 72 infected animals were examined by immunohistochemistry with prion protein (PrP) antibody Bar224 to study the pathogenesis of the infection. Tissues examined included the brain and thoracic spinal cord (TSC), a wide selection of lymphoreticular system (LRS) tissues, the distal ileum and its enteric nervous system (ENS), and other organs, including the mammary gland. The whole open reading frame of the PRNP gene was sequenced and antibodies to caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV) infection were determined. Unexpectedly, accumulation of disease-associated PrP (PrPd) in the brain was more frequent in methionine carriers at codon 142 (24/32, 75.0%) than amongst isoleucine homozygotes (14/40, 35.0%). The latter, however, showed significantly greater amounts of brain PrPd than the former (average scores of 9.3 and 3.0, respectively). A significant proportion of the 38 goats that were positive in brain were negative in the ENS (44.7%) or in the TSC (39.5%). These results, together with the early and consistent involvement of the circumventricular organs and the hypothalamus, point towards a significant contribution of the haematogenous route in the process of neuroinvasion. Chronic enteritis was observed in 98 of the 200 goats examined, with no association with either scrapie infection or presence of PrPd in the gut. Lymphoproliferative interstitial mastitis was observed in 13/31 CAEV-positive and scrapie-infected goats; PrPd in the mammary gland was detected in five of those 13 goats, suggesting a possible contribution of CAEV infection in scrapie transmission via milk. PMID:20374697

González, Lorenzo; Martin, Stuart; Hawkins, Stephen A C; Goldmann, Wilfred; Jeffrey, Martin; Sisó, Sílvia

2010-01-01

166

Elucidation of the involvement of p14, a sperm protein during maturation, capacitation and acrosome reaction of caprine spermatozoa.  

PubMed

Mammalian sperm capacitation is an essential prerequisite to fertilization. Although progress is being made in understanding the physiology and biochemistry of capacitation, little has been yet explored about the potential role(s) of individual sperm cell protein during this process. Therefore elucidation of the role of different sperm proteins in the process of capacitation might be of great importance to understand the process of fertilization. The present work describes the partial characterization of a 14-kDa protein (p14) detected in goat spermatozoa using an antibody directed against the purified protein. Confocal microscopic analysis reveals that the protein is present in both the intracellular and extracellular regions of the acrosomal and postacrosomal portion of caudal sperm head. Though subcellular localization shows that p14 is mainly cytosolic, however it is also seen to be present in peripheral plasma membrane and soluble part of acrosome. Immuno-localization experiment shows change in the distribution pattern of this protein upon induction of capacitation in sperm cells. Increased immunolabeling in the anterior head region of live spermatozoa is also observed when these cells are incubated under capacitating conditions, whereas most sperm cells challenged with the calcium ionophore A23187 to acrosome react, lose their labeling almost completely. Intracellular distribution of p14 also changes significantly during acrosome reaction. Interestingly, on the other hand the antibody raised against this 14-kDa sperm protein enhances the forward motility of caprine sperm cells. Rose-Bengal staining method shows that this anti-p14 antibody also decreases the number of acrosome reacted cells if incubated with capacitated sperm cells before induction of acrosome reaction. All these results taken together clearly indicate that p14 is intimately involved and plays a critical role in the acrosomal membrane fusion event. PMID:22291985

Nandi, Pinki; Ghosh, Swatilekha; Jana, Kuladip; Sen, Parimal C

2012-01-01

167

Caprine prion gene polymorphisms are associated with decreased incidence of classical scrapie in goat herds in the United Kingdom.  

PubMed

The application of genetic breeding programmes to eradicate transmissible spongiform encephalopathies in goats is an important aim for reasons of animal welfare as well as human food safety and food security. Based on the positive impact of Prnp genetics on sheep scrapie in Europe in the past decade, we have established caprine Prnp gene variation in more than 1100 goats from the United Kingdom and studied the association of Prnp alleles with disease phenotypes in 150 scrapie-positive goats. This investigation confirms the association of the Met142 encoding Prnp allele with increased resistance to preclinical and clinical scrapie. It reveals a novel association of the Ser127 encoding allele with a reduced probability to develop clinical signs of scrapie in goats that are already positive for the accumulation of disease-specific prion protein in brain or periphery. A United Kingdom survey of Prnp genotypes in eight common breeds revealed eleven alleles in over thirty genotypes. The Met142 encoding allele had a high overall mean allele frequency of 22.6%, whereas the Ser127 encoding allele frequency was considerably lower with 6.4%. In contrast, a well known resistance associated allele encoding Lys222 was found to be rare (0.9%) in this survey. The analysis of Prnp genotypes in Mexican Criollas goats revealed nine alleles, including a novel Phe to Leu substitution in codon 201, confirming that high genetic variability of Prnp can be found in scrapie-free populations. Our study implies that it should be feasible to lower scrapie prevalence in goat herds in the United Kingdom by genetic selection. PMID:22040234

Goldmann, Wilfred; Ryan, Kelly; Stewart, Paula; Parnham, David; Xicohtencatl, Rosa; Fernandez, Nora; Saunders, Ginny; Windl, Otto; González, Lorenzo; Bossers, Alex; Foster, James

2011-01-01

168

Caprine prion gene polymorphisms are associated with decreased incidence of classical scrapie in goat herds in the United Kingdom  

PubMed Central

The application of genetic breeding programmes to eradicate transmissible spongiform encephalopathies in goats is an important aim for reasons of animal welfare as well as human food safety and food security. Based on the positive impact of Prnp genetics on sheep scrapie in Europe in the past decade, we have established caprine Prnp gene variation in more than 1100 goats from the United Kingdom and studied the association of Prnp alleles with disease phenotypes in 150 scrapie-positive goats. This investigation confirms the association of the Met142 encoding Prnp allele with increased resistance to preclinical and clinical scrapie. It reveals a novel association of the Ser127 encoding allele with a reduced probability to develop clinical signs of scrapie in goats that are already positive for the accumulation of disease-specific prion protein in brain or periphery. A United Kingdom survey of Prnp genotypes in eight common breeds revealed eleven alleles in over thirty genotypes. The Met142 encoding allele had a high overall mean allele frequency of 22.6%, whereas the Ser127 encoding allele frequency was considerably lower with 6.4%. In contrast, a well known resistance associated allele encoding Lys222 was found to be rare (0.9%) in this survey. The analysis of Prnp genotypes in Mexican Criollas goats revealed nine alleles, including a novel Phe to Leu substitution in codon 201, confirming that high genetic variability of Prnp can be found in scrapie-free populations. Our study implies that it should be feasible to lower scrapie prevalence in goat herds in the United Kingdom by genetic selection. PMID:22040234

2011-01-01

169

Treatment of diffuse systemic sclerosis with hyperimmune caprine serum (AIMSPRO): a phase II double-blind placebo-controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Objective The primary objective of the study was to explore safety and tolerability of hyperimmune caprine serum (AIMSPRO) in established diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis (SSc). Secondary objectives included assessment of potential efficacy and biological activity and exploration of candidate biomarkers. Methods This was a double-blind parallel group randomised placebo-controlled clinical trial. After informed consent 20 patients with established diffuse cutaneous SSc of greater than 3?years duration not receiving immunosuppressive therapy were randomised to receive either active (n=10) or placebo formulation (n=10) by subcutaneous twice weekly injection over 26?weeks. Clinical assessments were evaluated over 26?weeks. Results There were no safety concerns during this study. Frequency of adverse events was not different between active and placebo groups. Mean modified Rodnan Skin Score (mRSS) fell by 1.4±4.7 units with active treatment but increased by 2.1±6.4 units on placebo when baseline values were compared with 26?weeks and responder analysis showed clinically meaningful improvement in mRSS at 26?weeks in 5 (50%) of actively treated patients compared with 1 (10%) in the control group (p=0.062). PIIINP (µg/L) showed a comparatively larger increase in the treatment group compared with the placebo group, (p=0.0118). Conclusions These results confirm tolerability and safety of this novel biological agent in established diffuse SSc. The value of a placebo treated control group in small clinical trials evaluating skin disease in SSc is confirmed. Potential improvement in mRSS and changes in PIIINP in cases receiving active therapy suggest that this intervention may be of clinical benefit and warrants further evaluation. PMID:24067785

Quillinan, N P; McIntosh, D; Vernes, J; Haq, S; Denton, C P

2014-01-01

170

The characterization of the physicochemical and sensory properties of full-fat, reduced-fat and low-fat bovine, caprine, and ovine Greek yogurt (Labneh)  

PubMed Central

Concentrated/Greek yogurt or Labneh is a semisolid food produced from yogurt by eliminating part of its water and water-soluble compounds. Today's world is geared toward the production of lower fat foods without compromising the texture and flavor of these products. The objective of this study was to characterize the physicochemical and sensory properties of bovine, caprine, and ovine Labneh with different fat levels. Bovine, caprine, and ovine milks were used to produce two batches of full-fat (?10%), reduced-fat (?5%), and low-fat (<1%) concentrated yogurt samples. Chemical analyses of fat, moisture, protein, ash, syneresis, acidity, pH, sodium, magnesium, and calcium contents were conducted. Instrumental texture analysis using the back extrusion method was applied. Quantitative descriptive sensory analysis was used to profile samples by 11 trained panelists and the acceptability of samples was assessed by 47 panelists. Type of milk significantly affected (P?

Atamian, Samson; Olabi, Ammar; Kebbe Baghdadi, Omar; Toufeili, Imad

2014-01-01

171

The effect of heparin, caffeine and calcium ionophore A23187 on in vitro induction of the acrosome reaction in frozen-thawed bovine and caprine spermatozoa.  

PubMed

The effect of heparin (5 IU), caffeine (5 mM) and calcium-ionophore A23187 (0.1 mM) on motility and in vitro induction of the acrosome reaction in glass wool filtered frozen-thawed bull and goat semen was studied. The motile spermatozoa fraction was obtained after glass wool filtration of frozen-thawed semen. The seminal plasma was removed from filtered semen by centrifugation, and the sperm pellet was resuspended in Sperm-TALP medium. Samples of treated and untreated control semen of both species were incubated at 37 degrees C. At 1, 15 and 30 min of incubation the proportions of progressively motile and acrosome-reacted spermatozoa were assessed. Trypan blue and Giemsa stain was used to differentiate live and dead spermatozoa having undergone acrosome reaction. Glass wool filtration enhanced the proportion of motile spermatozoa from 43% to 62% in the bovine and from 41% to 60% in the caprine. Whereas the effect of incubation with caffeine, heparin and calcium-ionophore on spermatozoan motility was negligible, the treatment of semen with calcium-ionophore resulted in a significantly improved percentage of live spermatozoa with true acrosome reaction at all stages of incubation, both in the bovine and the caprine. PMID:11003300

Pereira, R J; Tuli, R K; Wallenhorst, S; Holtz, W

2000-07-15

172

Proportional mortality: A study of 152 goats submitted for necropsy from 13 goat herds in Quebec, with a special focus on caseous lymphadenitis.  

PubMed

The objectives of this study were to determine the main causes of mortality, with a special focus on caseous lymphadenits as a cause of death or wasting in caprine herds from Quebec. Goats (n = 152) from 13 herds were submitted for necropsy; the cause of mortality, and the presence, location, and cause of abscesses (if present) were recorded. Proportional mortalities were distributed as: Clostridium perfringens type D enterotoxemia (17.1%), pneumonia (13.8%), paratuberculosis (10.5%), listeriosis (6.6%), pregnancy toxemia (5.3%), caprine arthritis-encephalitis (4.6%), and caseous lymphadenitis (3.9%). Caseous lymphadenitis was diagnosed in 24.3% of the submitted goats, but was not a major cause of wasting or mortality. Abscesses were localized internally in 54.1% of the cases. Paratuberculosis was diagnosed in 29 goats (16 as cause of death) and was considered a major cause of wasting and/or mortality. PMID:24155449

Debien, Elaine; Hélie, Pierre; Buczinski, Sébastien; Lebœuf, Anne; Bélanger, Denise; Drolet, Richard

2013-06-01

173

Proportional mortality: A study of 152 goats submitted for necropsy from 13 goat herds in Quebec, with a special focus on caseous lymphadenitis  

PubMed Central

The objectives of this study were to determine the main causes of mortality, with a special focus on caseous lymphadenits as a cause of death or wasting in caprine herds from Quebec. Goats (n = 152) from 13 herds were submitted for necropsy; the cause of mortality, and the presence, location, and cause of abscesses (if present) were recorded. Proportional mortalities were distributed as: Clostridium perfringens type D enterotoxemia (17.1%), pneumonia (13.8%), paratuberculosis (10.5%), listeriosis (6.6%), pregnancy toxemia (5.3%), caprine arthritis-encephalitis (4.6%), and caseous lymphadenitis (3.9%). Caseous lymphadenitis was diagnosed in 24.3% of the submitted goats, but was not a major cause of wasting or mortality. Abscesses were localized internally in 54.1% of the cases. Paratuberculosis was diagnosed in 29 goats (16 as cause of death) and was considered a major cause of wasting and/or mortality. PMID:24155449

Debien, Elaine; Helie, Pierre; Buczinski, Sebastien; Leboeuf, Anne; Belanger, Denise; Drolet, Richard

2013-01-01

174

ECHO virus  

MedlinePLUS

Enteric cytopathic human orphan (ECHO) viruses are a group of viruses that lead to gastrointestinal infection and skin rashes. ... Echovirus is one of several families of viruses that affect the ... are common. In the US, they are most common in the summer and ...

175

Virus World  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by the Institute for Molecular Virology at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, this Web site offers high quality virus images that may be used for seminar presentations or any other noncommercial use. Users can choose from American Society for Virology conference poster images, enhanced EM pictures, and images of virology-related book and journal covers. Images may be searched by virus name; the results page will provide links to summary information from the Protein Data Bank and to the Scripps Research Institute's Virus Particle Explorer. Movie animations and relevant links are provided for some of the virus images. Users can also access tutorials on virus structure and other topics.

2002-01-01

176

CHLORELLA VIRUSES  

PubMed Central

Chlorella viruses or chloroviruses are large, icosahedral, plaque?forming, double?stranded?DNA—containing viruses that replicate in certain strains of the unicellular green alga Chlorella. DNA sequence analysis of the 330?kbp genome of Paramecium bursaria chlorella virus 1 (PBCV?1), the prototype of this virus family (Phycodnaviridae), predict ?366 protein?encoding genes and 11 tRNA genes. The predicted gene products of ?50% of these genes resemble proteins of known function, including many that are completely unexpected for a virus. In addition, the chlorella viruses have several features and encode many gene products that distinguish them from most viruses. These products include: (1) multiple DNA methyltransferases and DNA site?specific endonucleases, (2) the enzymes required to glycosylate their proteins and synthesize polysaccharides such as hyaluronan and chitin, (3) a virus?encoded K+ channel (called Kcv) located in the internal membrane of the virions, (4) a SET domain containing protein (referred to as vSET) that dimethylates Lys27 in histone 3, and (5) PBCV?1 has three types of introns; a self?splicing intron, a spliceosomal processed intron, and a small tRNA intron. Accumulating evidence indicates that the chlorella viruses have a very long evolutionary history. This review mainly deals with research on the virion structure, genome rearrangements, gene expression, cell wall degradation, polysaccharide synthesis, and evolution of PBCV?1 as well as other related viruses. PMID:16877063

Yamada, Takashi; Onimatsu, Hideki; Van Etten, James L.

2007-01-01

177

Obesity Virus  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Obesity has many causes, but there is growing evidence that common viruses may contribute to the condition in some people. Recently, Nikhil Dhurandhar and his colleagues at the Pennington Biomedical Research Center infected human stem cells with Ad-36, a common virus known to be associated with obesity in humans. They found that the cells they exposed to the virus accumulated a much higher amount of fat than uninfected cells.

Science Update (AAAS;)

2007-06-12

178

Ebola virus.  

PubMed

Ebola virus was first identified as a filovirus in 1976, following epidemics of severe haemorrhagic fever in sub-Saharan Africa. Further outbreaks have occurred since, but, despite extensive and continued investigations, the natural reservoir for the virus remains unknown. The mortality rate is high and there is no cure for Ebola virus infection. Molecular technology is proving useful in extending our knowledge of the virus. Identification of the host reservoir, control and prevention of further outbreaks, rapid diagnosis of infection, and vaccine development remain areas of continued interest in the fight against this biosafety level-four pathogen. PMID:10795373

Streether, L A

1999-01-01

179

Core-binding factor subunit beta is not required for non-primate lentiviral Vif-mediated APOBEC3 degradation.  

PubMed

Viral infectivity factor (Vif) is required for lentivirus fitness and pathogenicity, except in equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV). Vif enhances viral infectivity by a Cullin5-Elongin B/C E3 complex to inactivate the host restriction factor APOBEC3. Core-binding factor subunit beta (CBF-?) is a cell factor that was recently shown to be important for the primate lentiviral Vif function. Non-primate lentiviral Vif also degrades APOBEC3 through the proteasome pathway. However, it is unclear whether CBF-? is required for the non-primate lentiviral Vif function. In this study, we demonstrated that the Vifs of non-primate lentiviruses, including feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), bovine immunodeficiency virus (BIV), caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV), and maedi-visna virus (MVV), do not interact with CBF-?. In addition, CBF-? did not promote the stability of FIV, BIV, CAEV, and MVV Vifs. Furthermore, CBF-? silencing or overexpression did not affect non-primate lentiviral Vif-mediated APOBEC3 degradation. Our results suggest that non-primate lentiviral Vif induces APOBEC3 degradation through a different mechanism than primate lentiviral Vif. Importance: The APOBEC3 protein family members are host restriction factors that block retrovirus replication. Vif, an accessory protein of lentivirus, degrades APOBEC3 to rescue viral infectivity by forming Cullin5-Elongin B/C-based E3 complex. CBF-? was proved to be a novel regulator of primate lentiviral Vif function. In this study, we found that CBF-? knockdown or overexpression did not affect FIV Vif's function, which induced polyubiquitination and degradation of APOBEC3 by recruiting the E3 complex in a manner similar to that of HIV-1 Vif. We also showed that other non-primate lentiviral Vifs did not require CBF-? to degrade APOBEC3. CBF-? did not interact with non-primate lentiviral Vifs or promote their stability. These results suggest that a different mechanism exists for the Vif-APOBEC interaction and that non-primates are not suitable animal models for exploring pharmacological interventions that disrupt Vif-CBF-? interaction. PMID:25122780

Ai, Youwei; Zhu, Dantong; Wang, Cuihui; Su, Chao; Ma, Jian; Ma, Jianzhang; Wang, Xiaojun

2014-10-01

180

Emerging Viruses  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Emerging viruses are those "whose incidence in humans has increased in the past 2 decades or threatens to increase in the near future." This week's Topic in Depth focuses on sites related to viruses, particularly those that are considered "emerging."The first site (1) is an essay by Alison Jacobson of the University of Capetown that discusses some emerging and potentially emerging viruses, along with factors that contribute to the threat. From a US government interagency working group, the second report (2) focuses on the responses to infectious disease outbreaks, including drugs, vaccines, and government response. A World Health Organization site (3) highlights recent reports of infectious disease, archived by date and by disease. This ThinkQuest site (4) gives a basic introduction to viruses and how they cause infections. An online virology tutorial (5) by Ed Rybicki of the University of Cape Town serves as a lesson on the basics of virology for a more advanced student. The next two sites focus on the specifics of selected viruses. From the Institute for Molecular Virology (6) comes a resource on Marburg and Ebola viruses, and from the National Biological Information Infrastructure (7) is a site on West Nile Virus. The last resource (8) is a scholarly journal from the Centers for Disease Control that presents some of the latest scientific research on emerging diseases.

Lee, Amy.

2002-01-01

181

Computer viruses  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The worm, Trojan horse, bacterium, and virus are destructive programs that attack information stored in a computer's memory. Virus programs, which propagate by incorporating copies of themselves into other programs, are a growing menace in the late-1980s world of unprotected, networked workstations and personal computers. Limited immunity is offered by memory protection hardware, digitally authenticated object programs,and antibody programs that kill specific viruses. Additional immunity can be gained from the practice of digital hygiene, primarily the refusal to use software from untrusted sources. Full immunity requires attention in a social dimension, the accountability of programmers.

Denning, Peter J.

1988-01-01

182

HIV virus  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

HIV is a virus that can be transmitted through fluids exchanged in sexual activity. HIV eventually causes AIDS. AIDS patients have compromised immune systems and they eventually die from diseases that healthy humans would normally fight off very easily.

Carl Henderson (National Institutes of Health;)

2005-12-09

183

The RNA-binding Proteins FMR1, Rasputin and Caprin Act Together with the UBA Protein Lingerer to Restrict Tissue Growth in Drosophila melanogaster  

PubMed Central

Appropriate expression of growth-regulatory genes is essential to ensure normal animal development and to prevent diseases like cancer. Gene regulation at the levels of transcription and translational initiation mediated by the Hippo and Insulin signaling pathways and by the TORC1 complex, respectively, has been well documented. Whether translational control mediated by RNA-binding proteins contributes to the regulation of cellular growth is less clear. Here, we identify Lingerer (Lig), an UBA domain-containing protein, as growth suppressor that associates with the RNA-binding proteins Fragile X mental retardation protein 1 (FMR1) and Caprin (Capr) and directly interacts with and regulates the RNA-binding protein Rasputin (Rin) in Drosophila melanogaster. lig mutant organs overgrow due to increased proliferation, and a reporter for the JAK/STAT signaling pathway is upregulated in a lig mutant situation. rin, Capr or FMR1 in combination as double mutants, but not the respective single mutants, display lig like phenotypes, implicating a redundant function of Rin, Capr and FMR1 in growth control in epithelial tissues. Thus, Lig regulates cell proliferation during development in concert with Rin, Capr and FMR1. PMID:23874212

Baumgartner, Roland; Stocker, Hugo; Hafen, Ernst

2013-01-01

184

Virus Information Database  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Symantec Corporation's AntiVirus Research Center has recently released a virus information database that includes over 10,000 computer viruses. The searchable and browseable database can include information about aliases for each virus, infection length, area of infection, likelihood of infection, region reported, characteristics, target platform and target date, in addition to a brief description of how the virus works. The site also provides a basic tutorial on viruses. Symantec, under the Norton name, produces several anti-virus products.

185

Elimination of small ruminant lentivirus infection from sheep flocks and goat herds aided by health schemes in Great Britain.  

PubMed

Over a period of 11 years, 33 sheep or goat holdings lost their maedi-visna or caprine arthritis-encephalitis accredited status (mean 2.8 per year [0.09 per cent] of the accredited holdings in Great Britain). Of these, 22 sheep flocks and two goat herds eradicated the infection and regained their accredited status. In addition, 10 sheep flocks and two goat herds managed to eradicate infection, having joined the scheme with infected animals. In flocks and herds with a high initial prevalence of infection, the adoption of an indirect ELISA, with greater sensitivity than the agar gel immunodiffusion test, improved success rates. A strategy was devised to interpret the ELISA results depending upon the prevalence of infection at the time. Eighteen of the 33 flocks/herds (54.5 per cent) that had introductions of infection also owned non-accredited stock. PMID:21257509

Synge, B A; Ritchie, C M

2010-11-01

186

Implantation of silicon dioxide-based nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite and pure phase beta-tricalciumphosphate bone substitute granules in caprine muscle tissue does not induce new bone formation  

PubMed Central

Background Osteoinductive bone substitutes are defined by their ability to induce new bone formation even at heterotopic implantation sites. The present study was designed to analyze the potential osteoinductivity of two different bone substitute materials in caprine muscle tissue. Materials and methods One gram each of either a porous beta-tricalcium phosphate (?-TCP) or an hydroxyapatite/silicon dioxide (HA/SiO2)-based nanocrystalline bone substitute material was implanted in several muscle pouches of goats. The biomaterials were explanted at 29, 91 and 181 days after implantation. Conventional histology and special histochemical stains were performed to detect osteoblast precursor cells as well as mineralized and unmineralized bone matrix. Results Both materials underwent cellular degradation in which tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive osteoclast-like cells and TRAP-negative multinucleated giant cells were involved. The ß-TCP was completely resorbed within the observation period, whereas some granules of the HA-groups were still detectable after 180 days. Neither osteoblasts, osteoblast precursor cells nor extracellular bone matrix were found within the implantation bed of any of the analyzed biomaterials at any of the observed time points. Conclusions This study showed that ß-TCP underwent a faster degradation than the HA-based material. The lack of osteoinductivity for both materials might be due to their granular shape, as osteoinductivity in goat muscle has been mainly attributed to cylindrical or disc-shaped bone substitute materials. This hypothesis however requires further investigation to systematically analyze various materials with comparable characteristics in the same experimental setting. PMID:23286366

2013-01-01

187

Evaluation of a Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis leuD Mutant as a Vaccine Candidate against Challenge in a Caprine Model  

PubMed Central

Johne's disease (JD) is prevalent worldwide and has a significant impact on the global agricultural economy. In the present study, we evaluated the protective efficacy of a leuD (?leud) mutant and gained insight into differential immune responses after challenge with virulent M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis in a caprine colonization model. The immune response and protective efficacy were compared with those of the killed vaccine Mycopar. In vitro stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells with johnin purified protein derivative showed that Mycopar and ?leuD generated similar levels of gamma interferon (IFN-?) but significantly higher levels than unvaccinated and challenged phosphate-buffered saline controls. However, only with ?leuD was the IFN-? response maintained. Flow cytometric analysis showed that the increase in IFN-? correlated with proliferation and activation (increased expression of CD25) of CD4, CD8, and ??T cells, but this response was significantly higher in ?leuD-vaccinated animals at some time points after challenge. Both Mycopar and ?leuD vaccines upregulated Th1/proinflammatory and Th17 cytokines and downregulated Th2/anti-inflammatory and regulatory cytokines at similar levels at almost all time points. However, significantly higher levels of IFN-? (at weeks 26 and 30), interleukin-2 (IL-2; week 18), IL-1b (weeks 14 and 22), IL-17 (weeks 18 and 22), and IL-23 (week 18) and a significantly lower level of IL-10 (weeks 14 and 18) and transforming growth factor ? (week 18) were detected in the ?leuD-vaccinated group. Most importantly, ?leuD elicited an immune response that significantly limited colonization of tissues compared to Mycopar upon challenge with wild-type M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. In conclusion, the ?leuD mutant is a promising vaccine candidate for development of a live attenuated vaccine for JD in ruminants. PMID:23408524

Faisal, Syed M.; Chen, Jenn-Wei; Yan, Falong; Chen, Tsai-Tzu; Useh, Nicodemus M.; Yan, Weiwei; Guo, Shanguang; Wang, Shih-Jon; Glaser, Amy L.; McDonough, Sean P.; Singh, Bhupinder; Davis, William C.; Akey, Bruce L.

2013-01-01

188

West Nile Virus: Transmission  

MedlinePLUS

... About CDC.gov . West Nile Virus Share Compartir Transmission West Nile virus is most commonly transmitted to ... fully cooking meat from either birds or mammals. Transmission cycle West Nile Virus Transmission Cycle [PDF - 1 ...

189

West Nile Virus  

MedlinePLUS

... is a virus that can infect humans, birds, horses and mosquitoes. Infection from this virus is most ... Nile virus has been found in humans, birds, horses or mosquitoes are at risk for infection. You ...

190

Attenuated Influenza A Virus.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An attenuated influenza virus of a first strain is described together with a method for preparing the attenuated influenza virus. The attenuated influenza virus of the first strain comprises a sufficient number of single strand RNA segments of negative po...

P. Palese, T. Muster, B. R. Murphy, M. Enami, M. Bergmann

1992-01-01

191

Hanta virus (image)  

MedlinePLUS

Hanta virus is a distant cousin of Ebola virus, but is found worldwide. The virus is spread by human contact with rodent waste. Dangerous respiratory illness develops. Effective treatment is not yet available and over 50% of cases end ...

192

Human Parainfluenza Viruses  

MedlinePLUS

... visit this page: About CDC.gov . Human Parainfluenza Viruses (HPIVs) Human parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs) commonly cause respiratory ... HPIVs Are Not the Same as Influenza (Flu) Viruses People usually get HPIV infections in the spring, ...

193

Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Disease  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Images of Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Disease.  Vesicular stomatitis viruses (VSV) are in the family Rhabdoviridae and the genus Vesiculovirus and are enveloped viruses with bullet-shaped capsids.

American Society For Microbiology;

2007-01-09

194

Chikungunya Virus (CHIKV)  

MedlinePLUS

... Caribbean Countries with reported local transmission of chikungunya virus (as of July 2014) The mosquitoes • Aedes species mosquitoes transmit chikungunya virus • These same types of mosquitoes transmit dengue virus • ...

195

Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV)  

MedlinePLUS

... been added to your dashboard . RSV Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a common virus that infects the lungs and breathing passages. Almost ... antiviral is medicine that kills infections caused by viruses. How can you help protect your baby from ...

196

Ebola Virus Disease  

MedlinePLUS

Ebola virus disease Fact sheet N°103 Updated September 2014 Key facts Ebola virus disease (EVD), formerly ... 7 weeks after recovery from illness. Symptoms of Ebola virus disease The incubation period, that is, the ...

197

Virus Movement Maintains Local Virus Population Diversity  

SciTech Connect

Viruses are the largest reservoir of genetic material on the planet, yet little is known about the population dynamics of any virus within its natural environment. Over a 2-year period, we monitored the diversity of two archaeal viruses found in hot springs within Yellowstone National Park (YNP). Both temporal phylogeny and neutral biodiversity models reveal that virus diversity in these local environments is not being maintained by mutation but rather by high rates of immigration from a globally distributed metacommunity. These results indicate that geographically isolated hot springs are readily able to exchange viruses. The importance of virus movement is supported by the detection of virus particles in air samples collected over YNP hot springs and by their detection in metacommunity sequencing projects conducted in the Sargasso Sea. Rapid rates of virus movement are not expected to be unique to these archaeal viruses but rather a common feature among virus metacommunities. The finding that virus immigration rather than mutation can dominate community structure has significant implications for understanding virus circulation and the role that viruses play in ecology and evolution by providing a reservoir of mobile genetic material.

J. Snyder; B. Wiedenheft; M. Lavin; F. Roberto; J. Spuhler; A. Ortmann; T. Douglas; M. Young

2007-11-01

198

Virus movement maintains local virus population diversity.  

PubMed

Viruses are the largest reservoir of genetic material on the planet, yet little is known about the population dynamics of any virus within its natural environment. Over a 2-year period, we monitored the diversity of two archaeal viruses found in hot springs within Yellowstone National Park (YNP). Both temporal phylogeny and neutral biodiversity models reveal that virus diversity in these local environments is not being maintained by mutation but rather by high rates of immigration from a globally distributed metacommunity. These results indicate that geographically isolated hot springs are readily able to exchange viruses. The importance of virus movement is supported by the detection of virus particles in air samples collected over YNP hot springs and by their detection in metacommunity sequencing projects conducted in the Sargasso Sea. Rapid rates of virus movement are not expected to be unique to these archaeal viruses but rather a common feature among virus metacommunities. The finding that virus immigration rather than mutation can dominate community structure has significant implications for understanding virus circulation and the role that viruses play in ecology and evolution by providing a reservoir of mobile genetic material. PMID:18025457

Snyder, Jamie C; Wiedenheft, Blake; Lavin, Matthew; Roberto, Francisco F; Spuhler, Josh; Ortmann, Alice C; Douglas, Trevor; Young, Mark

2007-11-27

199

Risk factors for subclinical intramammary infection in dairy goats in two longitudinal field studies evaluated by Bayesian logistic regression.  

PubMed

Identification of risk factors for subclinical intramammary infections (IMI) in dairy goats should contribute to improved udder health. Intramammary infection may be diagnosed by bacteriological culture or by somatic cell count (SCC) of a milk sample. Both bacteriological culture and SCC are imperfect tests, particularly lacking sensitivity, which leads to misclassification and thus to biased estimates of odds ratios in risk factor studies. The objective of this study was to evaluate risk factors for the true (latent) IMI status of major pathogens in dairy goats. We used Bayesian logistic regression models that accounted for imperfect measurement of IMI by both culture and SCC. Udder half milk samples were collected from 530 Dutch and 438 California dairy goats in 10 herds on 3 occasions during lactation. Udder halves were classified as positive or negative for isolation of a major pathogen (mostly Staphylococcus aureus) on bacteriological culture and as positive or negative for SCC (cut-off of 2000 × 10(3)cells/mL). Potentially controllable risk factors (udder conformation, teat size, teat shape, teat placement, teat-end shape, teat-end callosity thickness, teat-end callosity roughness, caprine arthritis encephalitis-virus infection status, and kidding season), and uncontrollable risk factors (parity, lactation stage, milk yield, pregnancy status, and breed) were measured in the Dutch study, the Californian study or in both studies. Bayesian logistic regression models were constructed in which the true (but latent) infection status was linked to the joint test results, as functions of test sensitivity and specificity. The latent IMI status was the dependent variable in the logistic regression model with risk factors as independent variables and with random herd and goat effects. For the combined data from both studies, the culture-based estimate of apparent prevalence of major pathogens in udder halves was 2.6% (137/5220) and the estimate of the apparent prevalence of high SCC was 11.0% (581/5294). The model was able to estimate the performance characteristics of bacteriological culture and SCC together with the effect of risk factors on the true IMI status. Higher parity, late lactation and low milk yield were significantly related to higher odds of the latent IMI status. The only significant controllable risk factor was an udder base below the hocks. Lack of a perfect reference test is a common problem in veterinary epidemiology and may lead to biased estimates of odds ratios or other measures of association in risk factor studies. The approach described herein can be used to address these problems. PMID:23182030

Koop, Gerrit; Collar, Carol A; Toft, Nils; Nielen, Mirjam; van Werven, Tine; Bacon, Debora; Gardner, Ian A

2013-03-01

200

The Tobacco Mosaic Virus.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains how the tobacco mosaic virus can be used to study virology. Presents facts about the virus, procedures to handle the virus in the laboratory, and four laboratory exercises involving the viruses' survival under inactivating conditions, dilution end point, filterability, and microscopy. (MDH)

Sulzinski, Michael A.

1992-01-01

201

West Nile virus infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

West Nile virus was discovered in 1937 in the West Nile region of Uganda. The virus was found only in the Eastern Hemisphere until 1999. In 1999, West Nile virus was first identified in the Western Hemisphere in New York City. Since 1999, viremic birds have continued to spread the disease across the United States. West Nile virus is an

Patricia A Devine

2003-01-01

202

Mapping overlapping functional elements embedded within the protein-coding regions of RNA viruses  

E-print Network

viruses. Such viruses include influenza A virus, Ebola virus, rabies virus, SARS virus, MERS virus, Japanese encephalitis virus, yellow fever virus, dengue virus, eastern equine encephalitis virus, and Lassa virus. Many other human pathogenic viruses...

Firth, Andrew E.

2014-01-01

203

Virus-vectored influenza virus vaccines.  

PubMed

Despite the availability of an inactivated vaccine that has been licensed for >50 years, the influenza virus continues to cause morbidity and mortality worldwide. Constant evolution of circulating influenza virus strains and the emergence of new strains diminishes the effectiveness of annual vaccines that rely on a match with circulating influenza strains. Thus, there is a continued need for new, efficacious vaccines conferring cross-clade protection to avoid the need for biannual reformulation of seasonal influenza vaccines. Recombinant virus-vectored vaccines are an appealing alternative to classical inactivated vaccines because virus vectors enable native expression of influenza antigens, even from virulent influenza viruses, while expressed in the context of the vector that can improve immunogenicity. In addition, a vectored vaccine often enables delivery of the vaccine to sites of inductive immunity such as the respiratory tract enabling protection from influenza virus infection. Moreover, the ability to readily manipulate virus vectors to produce novel influenza vaccines may provide the quickest path toward a universal vaccine protecting against all influenza viruses. This review will discuss experimental virus-vectored vaccines for use in humans, comparing them to licensed vaccines and the hurdles faced for licensure of these next-generation influenza virus vaccines. PMID:25105278

Tripp, Ralph A; Tompkins, S Mark

2014-08-01

204

Viruses Infecting Reptiles  

PubMed Central

A large number of viruses have been described in many different reptiles. These viruses include arboviruses that primarily infect mammals or birds as well as viruses that are specific for reptiles. Interest in arboviruses infecting reptiles has mainly focused on the role reptiles may play in the epidemiology of these viruses, especially over winter. Interest in reptile specific viruses has concentrated on both their importance for reptile medicine as well as virus taxonomy and evolution. The impact of many viral infections on reptile health is not known. Koch’s postulates have only been fulfilled for a limited number of reptilian viruses. As diagnostic testing becomes more sensitive, multiple infections with various viruses and other infectious agents are also being detected. In most cases the interactions between these different agents are not known. This review provides an update on viruses described in reptiles, the animal species in which they have been detected, and what is known about their taxonomic positions. PMID:22163336

Marschang, Rachel E.

2011-01-01

205

Symantec: Virus Alerts and Hoaxes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website by Symantec (makers of Norton AntiVirus) provides information on the latest virus threats, security advisories, updates for Symantec products and removal tools, as well as some basic information on viruses. The Reference Area includes FAQ, a Glossary, Newsletter, White Papers, a section where you can Submit Virus Samples, postings of Hoaxes, a Security Database, Virus Encyclopedia, and Virus Calendar.

206

Advances in virus research  

SciTech Connect

This book contains eight chapters. Some of the titles are: Initiation of viral DNA replication; Vaccinia: virus, vector, vaccine; The pre-S region of hepadnavirus envelope proteins; and Archaebacterial viruses.

Maramorosch, K. (Rutgers--the State Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (USA)); Murphy, F.A. (Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, GA (USA)); Shatkin, A.J. (Rutgers-UMDNJ, Piscataway, NJ (US))

1988-01-01

207

Tumorigenic DNA viruses  

SciTech Connect

The eighth volume of Advances in Viral Oncology focuses on the three major DNA virus groups with a postulated or proven tumorigenic potential: papillomaviruses, animal hepatitis viruses, and the Epstein-Bar virus. In the opening chapters, the contributors analyze the evidence that papillomaviruses and animal hepatitis viruses are involved in tumorigenesis and describe the mechanisms that trigger virus-host cell interactions. A detailed section on the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) - comprising more than half the book - examines the transcription and mRNA processing patterns of the virus genome; the mechanisms by which EBV infects lymphoid and epithelial cells; the immunological aspects of the virus; the actions of EBV in hosts with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome; and the involvement of EBV in the etiology of Burkitt's lymphoma.

Klein, G.

1989-01-01

208

Viruses and cancer  

SciTech Connect

This book contains 14 selections. Some of the titles are: Immortalising gene(s) encoded by Epstein-Barr Virus; Adenovirus genes involved in transformation. What determines the oncogenic phenotype.; Oncogenesis by mouse mammary tumour virus; and Transforming ras genes.

Rigby, P.W.J.; Wilkie, N.M.

1985-01-01

209

Virus Assembly and Maturation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use two techniques to look at three-dimensional virus structure: electron cryomicroscopy (cryoEM) and X-ray crystallography. Figure 1 is a gallery of virus particles whose structures Timothy Baker, one of my former colleagues at Purdue University, used cryoEM to determine. It illustrates the variety of sizes of icosahedral virus particles. The largest virus particle on this slide is the Herpes simplex virus, around 1200Å in diameter; the smallest we examined was around 250Å in diameter. Viruses bear their genomic information either as positive-sense DNA and RNA, double-strand DNA, double-strand RNA, or negative-strand RNA. Viruses utilize the various structure and function "tactics" seen throughout cell biology to replicate at high levels. Many of the biological principles that we consider general were in fact discovered in the context of viruses ...

Johnson, John E.

2004-03-01

210

West Nile virus  

MedlinePLUS

West Nile virus is a disease spread by mosquitoes. The condition ranges from mild to severe. ... West Nile virus was first identified in 1937 in Uganda in eastern Africa. It was first discovered in the United States ...

211

West Nile Virus  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Good introduction and synopsis of West Nile Virus. Briefly reporting on such topics as geographic distribution, symptoms and treatment, transmission and prevention. The article includes a list of references for further investigation into the West Nile Virus.

0002-11-30

212

Hepatitis virus panel  

MedlinePLUS

The hepatitis virus panel is a series of blood tests used to detect current or past infection by hepatitis A , hepatitis ... samples for more than one kind of hepatitis virus at the same time. Antibody and antigen tests ...

213

Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections  

MedlinePLUS

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) causes mild, cold-like symptoms in adults and older healthy children. It can cause serious problems in ... tests can tell if your child has the virus. There is no specific treatment. You should give ...

214

West Nile Virus  

MedlinePLUS

... Most mosquitoes are simply annoying. But a small percentage can carry diseases like West Nile virus. Over the past few years, West Nile virus has been found in animals, birds, and humans in all continental states in the United States. ...

215

Wheat Streak Mosaic Virus  

E-print Network

Virus First discovered in Nebraska in 1922, wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) remains a threat today across most of the U.S. Central Plains. WSMV affects spring wheat, barley, corn, triticale, rye and numerous other annual and perennial grasses... Virus First discovered in Nebraska in 1922, wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) remains a threat today across most of the U.S. Central Plains. WSMV affects spring wheat, barley, corn, triticale, rye and numerous other annual and perennial grasses...

Morgan, Gaylon

2005-01-26

216

Computer Virus Protection  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A computer virus is a program--a piece of executable code--that has the unique ability to replicate. Like biological viruses, computer viruses can spread quickly and are often difficult to eradicate. They can attach themselves to just about any type of file, and are spread by replicating and being sent from one individual to another. Simply having…

Rajala, Judith B.

2004-01-01

217

Tobacco mosaic virus  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource demonstrates how the Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) provides an excellent model for teaching students about properties of a plant virus and the relationship between a virus and its host plant. Four activities geared toward grades 9-12 are described. Teaching tips, troubleshooting help and sources of materials information is also included.

Rosemary Ford (Washington College;); Tom Evans (University of Delaware;)

2003-05-28

218

Viruses of asparagus.  

PubMed

The current knowledge on viruses infecting asparagus (Asparagus officinalis) is reviewed. Over half a century, nine virus species belonging to the genera Ilarvirus, Cucumovirus, Nepovirus, Tobamovirus, Potexvirus, and Potyvirus have been found in this crop. The potyvirus Asparagus virus 1 (AV1) and the ilarvirus Asparagus virus 2 (AV2) are widespread and negatively affect the economic life of asparagus crops reducing yield and increasing the susceptibility to biotic and abiotic stress. The main properties and epidemiology of AV1 and AV2 as well as diagnostic techniques for their detection and identification are described. Minor viruses and control are briefly outlined. PMID:22682173

Tomassoli, Laura; Tiberini, Antonio; Vetten, Heinrich-Josef

2012-01-01

219

Viruses and marine pollution.  

PubMed

This short review summarises the present knowledge on pollutant impacts on marine viruses, virus-host systems and their potential ecological implications. Excess nutrients from sewage and river effluents are a primary cause of marine eutrophication and mucilage formation, often related to the development of large viral assemblages. At the same time, hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyl and pesticides alter ecosystem functioning and can determinate changes in the virus-host interactions, thus increasing the potential of viral infection. All these pollutants might have synergistic effects on the virus-host system and are able to induce prophage, thus increasing the impact of viruses on marine ecosystems. PMID:12604062

Danovaro, R; Armeni, M; Corinaldesi, C; Mei, M L

2003-03-01

220

Elastic Properties of Viruses  

PubMed Central

Viruses are compact biological nanoparticles whose elastic and dynamical properties are hardly known. Inelastic (Brillouin) light scattering was used to characterize these properties, from microcrystals of the Satellite Tobacco Mosaic Virus, a nearly spherical plant virus of 17-nm diameter. Longitudinal sound velocities in wet and dry Satellite Tobacco Mosaic Virus crystals were determined and compared to that of the well-known protein crystal, lysozyme. Localized vibrational modes of the viral particles (i.e., particle modes) were sought in the relevant frequency ranges, as derived assuming the viruses as full free nanospheres. Despite very favorable conditions, regarding virus concentration and expected low damping in dry microcrystals, no firm evidence of virus particle modes could be detected. PMID:17526576

Stephanidis, B.; Adichtchev, S.; Gouet, P.; McPherson, A.; Mermet, A.

2007-01-01

221

Elastic properties of viruses.  

PubMed

Viruses are compact biological nanoparticles whose elastic and dynamical properties are hardly known. Inelastic (Brillouin) light scattering was used to characterize these properties, from microcrystals of the Satellite Tobacco Mosaic Virus, a nearly spherical plant virus of 17-nm diameter. Longitudinal sound velocities in wet and dry Satellite Tobacco Mosaic Virus crystals were determined and compared to that of the well-known protein crystal, lysozyme. Localized vibrational modes of the viral particles (i.e., particle modes) were sought in the relevant frequency ranges, as derived assuming the viruses as full free nanospheres. Despite very favorable conditions, regarding virus concentration and expected low damping in dry microcrystals, no firm evidence of virus particle modes could be detected. PMID:17526576

Stephanidis, B; Adichtchev, S; Gouet, P; McPherson, A; Mermet, A

2007-08-15

222

Seroepidemiological investigation of vertebrate hosts of bluetongue virus in West Texas  

E-print Network

cognatum, and species of Tridens and Elymus. The ovine and caprine blood samples obtained were from similar habitats of those of the bovine. The blood Id samples from the jackrabbits, racoons and the armadillo were obtained from animals in Kimble... cognatum, and species of Tridens and Elymus. The ovine and caprine blood samples obtained were from similar habitats of those of the bovine. The blood Id samples from the jackrabbits, racoons and the armadillo were obtained from animals in Kimble...

Snydelaar, Andrew Charles

2012-06-07

223

The Acute bee paralysis virus–Kashmir bee virus–Israeli acute paralysis virus complex  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acute bee paralysis virus (ABPV), Kashmir bee virus (KBV) and Israeli acute paralysis virus (IAPV) are part of a complex of closely related viruses from the Family Dicistroviridae. These viruses have a widespread prevalence in honey bee (Apis mellifera) colonies and a predominantly sub-clinical etiology that contrasts sharply with the extremely virulent pathology encountered at elevated titres, either artificially induced

Joachim R. de Miranda; Guido Cordoni; Giles Budge

2010-01-01

224

Viruses in the stools.  

PubMed Central

It has long been possible to isolate viruses from the stools by culture, though the viruses found are rarely implicated in disease of the gut. In contrast, only recently has it been possible to identify viruses in the stools of patients with diarrhoea. Initially, such identifications were made by electron microscopy but the unsuitability of the microscope for large-scale screening has led to the development of other methods. The new methods have concentrated on rotaviruses but other viruses are also implicated and an overall view of the significance of finding a virus in any stool specimen has to take into account the evidence about all viruses, old and new. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:219041

Madeley, C R

1979-01-01

225

Constructing computer virus phylogenies  

SciTech Connect

There has been much recent algorithmic work on the problem of reconstructing the evolutionary history of biological species. Computer virus specialists are interested in finding the evolutionary history of computer viruses--a virus is often written using code fragments from one or more other viruses, which are its immediate ancestors. A phylogeny for a collection of computer viruses is a directed acyclic graph whose nodes are the viruses and whose edges map ancestors to descendants and satisfy the property that each code fragment is ``invented`` only once. To provide a simple explanation for the data, we consider the problem of constructing such a phylogeny with a minimal number of edges. In general, this optimization problem cannot be solved in quasi-polynomial time unless NQP=QP; we present positive and negative results for associated approximated problems. When tree solutions exist, they can be constructed and randomly sampled in polynomial time.

Goldberg, L.A. [Warwick Univ., Coventry (United Kingdom) Dept. of Computer Science; Goldberg, P.W. [Aston Univ., Birmingham (United Kingdom) Dept. of Applied Mathematics; Phillips, C.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sorkin, G.B. [International Business Machines Corp., Yorktown Heights, NY (United States). Thomas J. Watson Research Center

1996-03-01

226

Biological Nanomachines: Viruses  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Although nanotechnology is a new and emerging field, nanoscale structures are not new. Small molecules such as water, large molecules such as proteins, and larger, more complex objects such as viruses and nanotubes are naturally occurring and exist all around us. Viruses are particularly interesting nanoscale objects because of their precise geometrical shape, their self-assembling capability, and their fascinating ability to invade cells and alter their function. Nanoscale science researchers are studying virus properties with the aim of developing new treatments for human disease. The virus is also being studied as a model for how to make materials and engineer products at the nanoscsale through a process called "self-assembly." In this investigation, students create an icosahedral virus model and consider how virus structure and behavior could be mimicked in nanotechnology applications. This free selection includes the Table of Contents, Acknowledgments, a Dedication page, and an Introduction.

Taylor, Amy R.; Broadwell, Bethany P.; Jones, M. G.; Falvo, Michael R.

2007-01-01

227

Virus trafficking – learning from single-virus tracking  

PubMed Central

What could be a better way to study virus trafficking than ‘miniaturizing oneself’ and ‘taking a ride with the virus particle’ on its journey into the cell? Single-virus tracking in living cells potentially provides us with the means to visualize the virus journey. This approach allows us to follow the fate of individual virus particles and monitor dynamic interactions between viruses and cellular structures, revealing previously unobservable infection steps. The entry, trafficking and egress mechanisms of various animal viruses have been elucidated using this method. The combination of single-virus trafficking with systems approaches and state-of-the-art imaging technologies should prove exciting in the future. PMID:17304249

Brandenburg, Boerries; Zhuang, Xiaowei

2009-01-01

228

About Human Parainfluenza Viruses (HPIVs)  

MedlinePLUS

... Parainfluenza Viruses (HPIVs) Share Compartir About Human Parainfluenza Viruses (HPIVs) Overview Describes HPIVs, who is at risk, symptoms, how the viruses spread... Symptoms & Illnesses Lists symptoms and illnesses caused ...

229

The human oncogenic viruses  

SciTech Connect

This book contains eight selections. The titles are: Cytogenetics of the Leukemias and Lymphomas; Cytogenetics of Solid Tumors: Renal Cell Carcinoma, Malignant Melanoma, Retinoblastoma, and Wilms' Tumor; Elucidation of a Normal Function for a Human Proto-Oncogene; Detection of HSV-2 Genes and Gene Products in Cervical Neoplasia; Papillomaviruses in Anogennital Neoplasms; Human Epstein-Barr Virus and Cancer; Hepatitis B Virus and Hepatocellular Carcinoma; and Kaposi's Sarcoma: Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and Associated Viruses.

Luderer, A.A.; Weetall, H.H

1986-01-01

230

Herpes Simplex Virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) are two of the eight known viruses that make up\\u000a the human herpesvirus family. As with all herpesviruses, they are large, enveloped virions with an icosahedral nucleocapsid\\u000a consisting of 162 capsomeres arranged around a linear, double-stranded deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) core. The DNAs of HSV-1\\u000a and HSV-2 are

David W. Kimberlin

231

CDC: West Nile Virus  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web site contains the most recent West Nile virus data from the Centers for Disease Control. The main features include a 2003 Human Case Count and updated maps representing the spread of the virus. A downloadable document outlines the CDC's West Nile virus surveillance and control program, which involves weekly data collection for wild birds, sentinel chicken flocks, human cases, veterinary cases, and mosquito surveillance. The site also provides links to general information about the virus, from the ecology and virology of West Nile to epidemiological and laboratory issues.

2007-12-12

232

CDC: West Nile Virus  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web site contains the most recent West Nile virus data from the Centers for Disease Control. The main features include a 2003 Human Case Count and updated maps representing the spread of the virus. A downloadable document outlines the CDC's West Nile virus surveillance and control program, which involves weekly data collection for wild birds, sentinel chicken flocks, human cases, veterinary cases, and mosquito surveillance. The site also provides links to general information about the virus, from the ecology and virology of West Nile to epidemiological and laboratory issues.

233

Tracking a Virus  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students simulate the spread of a virus such as HIV through a population by "sharing" (but not drinking) the water in a plastic cup with several classmates. Although invisible, the water in a few of the cups has already be tainted with the "virus" (sodium carbonate). After all the students have shared their liquids, the contents of the cups are tested for the virus with phenolphthalein, a chemical that causes a striking color change in the presence of sodium carbonate. Students then set about trying to determine which of their classmates were the ones originally infected with the virus.

Engineering K-Phd Program

234

Deformed wing virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deformed wing virus (DWV; Iflaviridae) is one of many viruses infecting honeybees and one of the most heavily investigated due to its close association with honeybee colony collapse induced by Varroadestructor. In the absence of V.destructor DWV infection does not result in visible symptoms or any apparent negative impact on host fitness. However, for reasons that are still not fully

Joachim R. de Miranda; Elke Genersch

2010-01-01

235

Making Better Influenza Virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Killed and live influenza virus vaccines are effective in preventing and curbing the spread of disease, but new technologies such as reverse genetics could be used to improve them and to shorten the lengthy process of prepar- ing vaccine seed viruses. By taking advantage of these new technologies, we could develop live vaccines that would be safe, cross-protective against variant

Peter Palese

2006-01-01

236

Positive reinforcement for viruses  

PubMed Central

Summary Virus-cell membrane fusion requires a critical transition from positive to negative membrane curvature. St. Vincent et al., in PNAS (St Vincent, et al., 2010), designed a class of antivirals that targets this transition. These Rigid Amphipathic Fusion Inhibitors are active against an array of enveloped viruses. PMID:21035726

Vigant, Frederic; Jung, Michael; Lee, Benhur

2010-01-01

237

Lettuce Necrotic Yellows Virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

A DESTRUCTIVE virus disease of lettuce, causing extensive crop losses sometimes as high as 100 per cent, was recognized in Victoria in 1954 as being distinct from the lettuce mosaic disease. Until 1959, however, all attempts to transmit the virus to lettuce with aphids which commonly infest lettuce, with thrips, leaf-hoppers and sap inoculation methods were unsuccessful. In that year

L. L. Stubbs; R. G. GROGAN

1963-01-01

238

Ebola virus disease epidemic.  

PubMed

The Ebola virus disease epidemic now constitutes an international public health emergency. Occupational and environmental health nurses can collaborate with international colleagues to halt Ebola virus transmission within Africa, protect workers from exposures, and prevent another pandemic. [Workplace Health Saf 2014;62(11):484.]. PMID:25373029

Phillips, Jennan A

2014-11-01

239

Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV)  

MedlinePLUS

newsletter | contact Share | Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) A parent's guide to condition and treatment information A A A Though more common near the lips, ... eruption of skin or mouth sores with the herpes simplex virus (HSV) is called primary herpes. This may ...

240

The hepatitis B virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

DNA recombinant technology has radically changed hepatitis B virus (HBV) virology. The genetic organization, transcription and replication of the virus are basically understood, structures of integrated HBV sequences in hepatocellular carcinoma have been characterized, and new vaccines produced by recombinant DNA technique are being developed.

Pierre Tiollais; Christine Pourcel; Anne Dejean

1985-01-01

241

Virus persistence in groundwater.  

PubMed Central

More than 50% of the outbreaks of waterborne disease in the United States are due to the consumption of contaminated groundwater. An estimated 65% of the cases in these outbreaks are caused by enteric viruses. Little, however, is known about the persistence of viruses in groundwater. The purpose of this study was to determine whether measurable chemical and physical factors correlate with virus survival in groundwater. Groundwater samples were obtained from 11 sites throughout the United States. Water temperature was measured at the time of collection. Several physical and chemical characteristics, including pH, nitrates, turbidity, and hardness, were determined for each sample. Separate water samples were inoculated with each of three viruses (poliovirus 1, echovirus 1, and MS-2 coliphage) and incubated at the in situ groundwater temperature; selected samples were also incubated at other temperatures. Assays were performed at predetermined intervals over a 30-day period to determine the number of infective viruses remaining. Multiple regression analysis revealed that temperature was the only variable significantly correlated with the decay rates of all three viruses. No significant differences were found among the decay rates of the three viruses, an indication that MS-2 coliphage might be used as a model of animal virus survival in groundwater. PMID:4004211

Yates, M V; Gerba, C P; Kelley, L M

1985-01-01

242

Schmallenberg Virus as Possible Ancestor of Shamonda Virus  

PubMed Central

Schmallenberg virus (SBV), an orthobunyavirus of the Simbu serogroup, recently emerged in Europe and has been suggested to be a Shamonda/Sathuperi virus reassortant. Results of full-genome and serologic investigations indicate that SBV belongs to the species Sathuperi virus and is a possible ancestor of the reassortant Shamonda virus. PMID:23017842

Goller, Katja V.; Hoper, Dirk; Schirrmeier, Horst; Mettenleiter, Thomas C.

2012-01-01

243

Eragrostis minor streak virus: an Asian streak virus in Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genus Mastrevirus of the single-stranded DNA virus family Geminiviridae consists of four distinct virus lineages that have been sampled in different parts of the Old World. These include the Panicoideae-infecting African streak viruses (ten described species including the geographical outlier, Digitaria streak virus [DSV] from Vanuatu) and Australian striate mosaic viruses (three described species), the dicotyledonous-plant-infecting mastreviruses (seven described

Darren P. Martin; Daphne Linderme; Pierre Lefeuvre; Dionne N. Shepherd; Arvind Varsani

2011-01-01

244

Review article PRRSV, the virus  

E-print Network

Abstract ­ Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a positive-strand RNA virus developed infectious cDNA clone of PRRSV. PRRSV / genome organisation / structural protein / infectious cDNA clone Résumé ­ Syndrome dysgénésique et respiratoire porcin, le virus. Le virus du syndrome dys

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

245

Pacui Virus, Rio Preto da Eva Virus, and Tapirape Virus, Three Distinct Viruses within the Family Bunyaviridae  

PubMed Central

Nearly complete genome sequences for three ungrouped viruses, Pacui virus (BEAN27326), Rio Preto da Eva virus (BEAR540870), and Tapirape virus (BEAN767592) isolated in the Amazon region are reported here. All three genomic segments (small, medium and large RNA) were recovered and were similar to members of the genus Orthobunyavirus. PMID:25395627

Medeiros, Daniele Barbosa de Almeida; Rodrigues, Sueli Guerreiro; Martins, Livia Caricio; de Lima, Clayton Pereira Silva; de Oliveira, Layanna Freitas; de Vasconcelos, Janaina Mota; Da Silva, Daisy Elaine; Cardoso, Jedson Ferreira; da Silva, Sandro Patroca; Vianez-Júnior, João Lídio da Silva Gonçalves; Vasconcelos, Pedro Fernando da Costa

2014-01-01

246

Influenza virus isolation.  

PubMed

The isolation of influenza viruses is important for the diagnosis of respiratory diseases in lower animals and humans, for the detection of the infecting agent in surveillance programs, and is an essential element in the development and production of vaccine. Since influenza is caused by a zoonotic virus it is necessary to do surveillance in the reservoir species (aquatic waterfowls), intermediate hosts (quails, pigs), and in affected mammals including humans. Two of the hemagglutinin (HA) subtypes of influenza A viruses (H5 and H7) can evolve into highly pathogenic (HP) strains for gallinaceous poultry; some HP H5 and H7 strains cause lethal infection of humans. In waterfowls, low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) isolates are obtained primarily from the cloaca (or feces); in domestic poultry, the virus is more often recovered from the respiratory tract than from cloacal samples; in mammals, the virus is most often isolated from the respiratory tract, and in cases of high pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) from the blood and internal organs of infected birds. Virus isolation procedures are performed by inoculation of clinical specimens into embryonated eggs (primarily chicken eggs) or onto a variety of primary or continuous tissue culture systems. Successful isolation of influenza virus depends on the quality of the sample and matching the appropriate culture method to the sample type. PMID:22528151

Krauss, Scott; Walker, David; Webster, Robert G

2012-01-01

247

Viruses in reptiles  

PubMed Central

The etiology of reptilian viral diseases can be attributed to a wide range of viruses occurring across different genera and families. Thirty to forty years ago, studies of viruses in reptiles focused mainly on the zoonotic potential of arboviruses in reptiles and much effort went into surveys and challenge trials of a range of reptiles with eastern and western equine encephalitis as well as Japanese encephalitis viruses. In the past decade, outbreaks of infection with West Nile virus in human populations and in farmed alligators in the USA has seen the research emphasis placed on the issue of reptiles, particularly crocodiles and alligators, being susceptible to, and reservoirs for, this serious zoonotic disease. Although there are many recognised reptilian viruses, the evidence for those being primary pathogens is relatively limited. Transmission studies establishing pathogenicity and cofactors are likewise scarce, possibly due to the relatively low commercial importance of reptiles, difficulties with the availability of animals and permits for statistically sound experiments, difficulties with housing of reptiles in an experimental setting or the inability to propagate some viruses in cell culture to sufficient titres for transmission studies. Viruses as causes of direct loss of threatened species, such as the chelonid fibropapilloma associated herpesvirus and ranaviruses in farmed and wild tortoises and turtles, have re-focused attention back to the characterisation of the viruses as well as diagnosis and pathogenesis in the host itself. 1. Introduction 2. Methods for working with reptilian viruses 3. Reptilian viruses described by virus families 3.1. Herpesviridae 3.2. Iridoviridae 3.2.1 Ranavirus 3.2.2 Erythrocytic virus 3.2.3 Iridovirus 3.3. Poxviridae 3.4. Adenoviridae 3.5. Papillomaviridae 3.6. Parvoviridae 3.7. Reoviridae 3.8. Retroviridae and inclusion body disease of Boid snakes 3.9. Arboviruses 3.9.1. Flaviviridae 3.9.2. Togaviridae 3.10. Caliciviridae 3.11. Picornaviridae 3.12. Paramyxoviridae 4. Summary 5. Acknowledgements 6. Competing interests 7. References PMID:21933449

2011-01-01

248

Bluetongue serotype 2 and 9 modified live vaccine viruses as causative agents of abortion in livestock: a retrospective analysis in Italy.  

PubMed

The recent outbreak caused by Schmallenberg virus, which affected sheep, goats and cattle in Europe, highlighted the importance of having a robust surveillance plan capable of monitoring abortions and malformations in the livestock offspring. In this context, bluetongue viruses (BTVs) represented and represent one of the major threats to the European livestock industry. Aiming to improve the understanding on BTV cross placental transmission and serotype involvement, in this retrospective study foetal spleens and/or brains of 663 ovines, 429 bovines, 155 goats and 17 buffaloes were tested for the presence of BTV by virus isolation. BTV vaccine strains were isolated from 31 foetuses (2.4%; 95% CI: 1.7-3.4%): 24 (3.6%; 95% CI: 2.4-5.3%) from ovine foetal tissues; 6 (1.4%; 95% CI: 0.6-3.0%) from bovine foetal tissues and 1 (0.6%; 95% CI: 0.2-3.5%) from the spleen of a caprine foetus. All foetuses were from animals vaccinated with either BTV-2 or BTV-2, and BTV-9 modified live vaccines (MLVs) produced by Onderstepoort Biological Products (OBP), South Africa. Among the 31 isolated vaccine strains, serotype 9 (n = 28) was more frequently isolated (P < 0.05) than serotype 2 (n = 3). In two cases infectious vaccine strains were found in the foetal tissues 2 months after the vaccine administration. Other pathogens known to be causative agents of abortion in ruminants were not detected nor isolated. This study demonstrates, for the first time, that BTV-2 and BTV-9 vaccine strains are able to cross the placental barrier of sheep, cattle and goats. BTV-2 and BTV-9 vaccine strains are able to infect foetuses and cause abortions or malformations depending on the period of pregnancy at the time of vaccination. PMID:22937914

Savini, G; Lorusso, A; Paladini, C; Migliaccio, P; Di Gennaro, A; Di Provvido, A; Scacchia, M; Monaco, F

2014-02-01

249

Avoiding Computer Viruses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The threat of computer sabotage is a real concern to business teachers and others responsible for academic computer facilities. Teachers can minimize the possibility. Eight suggestions for avoiding computer viruses are given. (JOW)

Rowe, Joyce; And Others

1989-01-01

250

Feline immunodeficiency virus latency  

E-print Network

HIV-1, Feline, Animal model, Antilatency therapy, Reservoirto test this therapy in an animal model of lentiviraltherapy (reactivating latent virus to purge the reservoir) is to progress, use of an animal

McDonnel, Samantha J; Sparger, Ellen E; Murphy, Brian G

2013-01-01

251

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)  

MedlinePLUS

... RSV often spreads quickly in crowded households and day care centers. The virus can live for a half ... The following increase the risk for RSV: Attending day care Being near tobacco smoke Having school-aged brothers ...

252

Ebola virus (image)  

MedlinePLUS

Ebola is a virus-caused disease limited to parts of Africa. Within a week, a raised rash, often hemorrhagic (bleeding), spreads over the body. Bleeding from the mucous membranes is typical causing apparent bleeding from the mouth, ...

253

VIRUS instrument enclosures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Visible Integral-Field Replicable Unit Spectrograph (VIRUS) instrument will be installed at the Hobby-Eberly Telescope† in the near future. The instrument will be housed in two enclosures that are mounted adjacent to the telescope, via the VIRUS Support Structure (VSS). We have designed the enclosures to support and protect the instrument, to enable servicing of the instrument, and to cool the instrument appropriately while not adversely affecting the dome environment. The system uses simple HVAC air handling techniques in conjunction with thermoelectric and standard glycol heat exchangers to provide efficient heat removal. The enclosures also provide power and data transfer to and from each VIRUS unit, liquid nitrogen cooling to the detectors, and environmental monitoring of the instrument and dome environments. In this paper, we describe the design and fabrication of the VIRUS enclosures and their subsystems.

Prochaska, T.; Allen, R.; Mondrik, N.; Rheault, J. P.; Sauseda, M.; Boster, E.; James, M.; Rodriguez-Patino, M.; Torres, G.; Ham, J.; Cook, E.; Baker, D.; DePoy, Darren L.; Marshall, Jennifer L.; Hill, G. J.; Perry, D.; Savage, R. D.; Good, J. M.; Vattiat, Brian L.

2014-08-01

254

Dengue Virus Diagnostics  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Dengue fever (DF) is an emerging arborviral disease caused by infection with dengue virus (DENV) which has emerged as the\\u000a most important vector-borne viral disease in tropical areas and it continues to expand geographically. The four serotypes\\u000a of DENV that cause human disease are transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. Expansion in geographic distribution of both viruses\\u000a and mosquito vectors, has led

Evgeni Eltzov; Danit Atias; Levi Gheber; Robert S. Marks

255

MEDLINEPlus: Monkeypox Virus Infections  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Readers can keep up with the latest developments in the Monkeypox outbreak with this straightforward Web site from MEDLINEplus. The site features the latest Monkeypox news as well as links to authoritative sites for background information about the virus. Readers will also find information on prevention and screening, updated statistics on the outbreak from the Center for Disease Control and Prevention, and more. The site also includes a downloadable electron micrograph of the Monkeypox virus.

256

AVG Anti-Virus  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Those who wish for an antivirus program that is both versatile and reliable should definitely consider this latest iteration of the AVG Anti-Virus program. With this program, visitors can be assured that AVG will look for new virus definitions on a daily basis and that it will also create an effective rescue disk in case a dire situation emerges. This website features a number of archived versions of the AVG software for users to choose from.

2008-01-01

257

Origins of Viruses  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page is part of a site created as a supplement for an introduction to virology course for second year microbiology students. It includes discussions on the origins of viruses as well as how they might have evolved. There are several links to pertinent conceptial matter such as basics on the different types of viruses as well as a link to the course home page.

Rybicki, Ed; Town, University O.

258

Rapid Detection and Quantification of RNA of Ebola and Marburg Viruses, Lassa Virus, Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus, Rift Valley Fever Virus, Dengue Virus, and Yellow Fever Virus by Real-Time Reverse Transcription-PCR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Viral hemorrhagic fevers (VHFs) are acute infections with high case fatality rates. Important VHF agents are Ebola and Marburg viruses (MBGV\\/EBOV), Lassa virus (LASV), Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV), Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), dengue virus (DENV), and yellow fever virus (YFV). VHFs are clinically difficult to diagnose and to distinguish; a rapid and reliable laboratory diagnosis is required in

Christian Drosten; Stephan Göttig; Stefan Schilling; Marcel Asper; Marcus Panning; Herbert Schmitz; Stephan Günther

2002-01-01

259

Avian Influenza A Virus Infections in Humans  

MedlinePLUS

... What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Avian Influenza A Virus Infections in Humans Language: English Español Share ... Human Infection with Avian Influenza A Viruses Avian Influenza A Virus Infections in Humans Although avian influenza A viruses ...

260

Isolation and characterization of a 2.3-kilobase-pair cDNA fragment encoding the binding domain of the bovine leukemia virus cell receptor.  

PubMed Central

An immunoscreening strategy was used to isolate a cDNA clone encoding the binding domain for the external glycoprotein gp51 of the bovine leukemia virus (BLV). Three recombinant phages demonstrating BLV binding activity and containing 2.3-kbp cDNA inserts with identical nucleotide sequences were isolated from a lambda gt11 cDNA library of bovine kidney cells (MDBK). One clone, BLVRcp1, hybridized with a 4.8-kb mRNA from cells of bovine origin and was also found to be conserved as a single-copy gene in murine, bovine, ovine, primate, canine, feline, and porcine DNAs. The same gene is amplified in caprine DNA isolated from a BLV-induced tumor. The longest open reading frame of BLVRcp1 encodes a protein fragment of 729 amino acids with a putative receptor structure. BLVRcp1 cDNA was cloned in the eucaryotic expression vector pXT-1 and transfected into murine NIH 3T3 and human HEp-2 cells. Cells expressing BLVRcp1 mRNA became susceptible to BLV infection. BLVRcp1 has no known physiological function and has no significant homology with sequences registered in the GenBank and EMBL data libraries (31 July 1992). Expression of deleted constructs of BLVRcp1 indicates that the BLV binding region is encoded at the 5' side of the receptor clone. Images PMID:8380453

Ban, J; Portetelle, D; Altaner, C; Horion, B; Milan, D; Krchnak, V; Burny, A; Kettmann, R

1993-01-01

261

Ebola virus-like particles prevent lethal Ebola virus infection  

E-print Network

... successfully immunized mice against Ebola virus using virus-like particles ... exposed to lethal doses of Ebola . The work could serve as ... basis for developing countermeasures to Ebola , which causes hemorrhagic fever with ...

262

Recombinant Vaccinia Virus: Immunization against Multiple Pathogens  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The coding sequences for the hepatitis B virus surface antigen, the herpes simplex virus glycoprotein D, and the influenza virus hemagglutinin were inserted into a single vaccinia virus genome. Rabbits inoculated intravenously or intradermally with this polyvalent vaccinia virus recombinant produced antibodies reactive to all three authentic foreign antigens. In addition, the feasibility of multiple rounds of vaccination with recombinant vaccinia virus was demonstrated.

Perkus, Marion E.; Piccini, Antonia; Lipinskas, Bernard R.; Paoletti, Enzo

1985-09-01

263

Immunology of hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

More than 500 million people worldwide are persistently infected with the hepatitis B virus (HBV) and\\/or hepatitis C virus (HCV) and are at risk of developing chronic liver disease, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Despite many common features in the pathogenesis of HBV- and HCV-related liver disease, these viruses markedly differ in their virological properties and in their immune escape and

Michelina Nascimbeni; Barbara Rehermann

2005-01-01

264

Production of virus resistant plants  

DOEpatents

A method of suppressing virus gene expression in plants using untranslatable plus sense RNA is disclosed. The method is useful for the production of plants that are resistant to virus infection. 9 figs.

Dougherty, W.G.; Lindbo, J.A.

1996-12-10

265

Studies Relating to Virus Control.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Fifty years' effort to control virus infections in the USSR; Thirtieth anniversary of the discovery of the causative agent of tick-borne encephalitis; Relationship between the effect of ionizing radiation on the course of virus infections and th...

O. V. Baroyan, E. N. Levkovich, A. G. Moroz

1968-01-01

266

Chlorella viruses isolated in China  

SciTech Connect

Plaque-forming viruses of the unicellular, eukaryotic, exsymbiotic, Chlorella-like green algae strain NC64A, which are common in the United States, were also present in fresh water collected in the People's Republic of China. Seven of the Chinese viruses were examined in detail and compared with the Chlorella viruses previously isolated in the United States. Like the American viruses, the Chinese viruses were large polyhedra and sensitive to chloroform. They contained numerous structural proteins and large double-stranded DNA genomes of at least 300 kilobase pairs. Each of the DNAs from the Chinese viruses contained 5-methyldeoxycytosine, which varied from 12.6 to 46.7% of the deoxycytosine, and N{sup 6}-methyldeoxyadenosine, which varied from 2.2 to 28.3% of the deoxyadenosine. Four of the Chinese virus DNAs hybridized extensively with {sup 32}P-labeled DNA from the American virus PBCV-1, and three hybridized poorly.

Zhang, Y.; Burbank, D.E.; Van Etten, J.L. (Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln (USA))

1988-09-01

267

Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV): Diagnosis  

MedlinePLUS

... Read more information on enabling JavaScript. Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content ... t need to visit a healthcare provider. The virus generally runs its course with the help of ...

268

Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV): Treatment  

MedlinePLUS

... Read more information on enabling JavaScript. Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content ... get beter. Good handwashing can prevent spread the virus. In more severe cases, people with RSV might ...

269

Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV): Symptoms  

MedlinePLUS

... Read more information on enabling JavaScript. Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content ... to six days after being exposed to the virus. However, RSV can be particularly dangerous in premature ...

270

Jaloro': A New Multiple Virus Resistant Hot Yellow Jalapeno Pepper.  

E-print Network

per cultivars are susceptible to to bacco etch virus (TEV), potato virus Y (PVY), pepper mottle virus (PeMV), tobacco ringspot virus (TRSV), cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), and Texas pepper gemini virus (TPGV). Some yellow types exhibit a local... per cultivars are susceptible to to bacco etch virus (TEV), potato virus Y (PVY), pepper mottle virus (PeMV), tobacco ringspot virus (TRSV), cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), and Texas pepper gemini virus (TPGV). Some yellow types exhibit a local...

Villalon, Benigno

1992-01-01

271

An introduction to computer viruses  

SciTech Connect

This report on computer viruses is based upon a thesis written for the Master of Science degree in Computer Science from the University of Tennessee in December 1989 by David R. Brown. This thesis is entitled An Analysis of Computer Virus Construction, Proliferation, and Control and is available through the University of Tennessee Library. This paper contains an overview of the computer virus arena that can help the reader to evaluate the threat that computer viruses pose. The extent of this threat can only be determined by evaluating many different factors. These factors include the relative ease with which a computer virus can be written, the motivation involved in writing a computer virus, the damage and overhead incurred by infected systems, and the legal implications of computer viruses, among others. Based upon the research, the development of a computer virus seems to require more persistence than technical expertise. This is a frightening proclamation to the computing community. The education of computer professionals to the dangers that viruses pose to the welfare of the computing industry as a whole is stressed as a means of inhibiting the current proliferation of computer virus programs. Recommendations are made to assist computer users in preventing infection by computer viruses. These recommendations support solid general computer security practices as a means of combating computer viruses.

Brown, D.R.

1992-03-01

272

Epstein-Barr virus test  

MedlinePLUS

Epstein-Barr virus test is a blood test to detect antibodies to the Epstein-Barr virus ( EBV ) antigens. See also: Monospot test ... specialist looks for antibodies to the Epstein-Barr virus. In the first stages of an illness, little ...

273

Protecting Your Computer from Viruses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A computer virus is defined as a software program capable of reproducing itself and usually capable of causing great harm to files or other programs on the same computer. The existence of computer viruses--or the necessity of avoiding viruses--is part of using a computer. With the advent of the Internet, the door was opened wide for these…

Descy, Don E.

2006-01-01

274

Neuroinvasion by Chandipura virus.  

PubMed

Chandipura virus (CHPV) is an arthropod borne rhabdovirus associated with acute encephalitis in children below the age of 15 years in the tropical states of India. Although the entry of the virus into the nervous system is among the crucial events in the pathogenesis of CHPV, the exact mechanism allowing CHPV to invade the central nervous system (CNS) is currently poorly understood. In the present review, based on the knowledge of host interactors previously predicted for CHPV, along with the support from experimental data available for other encephalitic viruses, the authors have speculated the various plausible modes by which CHPV could surpass the blood-brain barrier and invade the CNS to cause encephalitis whilst evading the host immune surveillance. Collectively, this review provides a conservative set of potential interactions that can be employed for future experimental validation with a view to better understand the neuropathogenesis of CHPV. PMID:24713200

Rajasekharan, Sreejith; Rana, Jyoti; Gulati, Sahil; Gupta, Vandana; Gupta, Sanjay

2014-07-01

275

Herpes Virus Amplicon Vectors  

PubMed Central

Since its emergence onto the gene therapy scene nearly 25 years ago, the replication-defective Herpes Simplex Virus Type-1 (HSV-1) amplicon has gained significance as a versatile gene transfer platform due to its extensive transgene capacity, widespread cellular tropism, minimal immunogenicity, and its amenability to genetic manipulation. Herein, we detail the recent advances made with respect to the design of the HSV amplicon, its numerous in vitro and in vivo applications, and the current impediments this virus-based gene transfer platform faces as it navigates a challenging path towards future clinical testing. PMID:19956558

de Silva, Suresh; Bowers, William J.

2009-01-01

276

Fragg Virus - Kinetic City  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Fragg Virus is a learning module centered learning the importance of systems; it is a part of the Kinetic City-Mission to Vearth site. In general this module is concerned with how different parts work within a system. The Fragg Virus module is equipped with a computer simulation mind game, creative writing exercises for independent study, and art-centered exercises, as well as lesson plans for hands on games and activities designed for a group. The focus of the activities is evolution and the features of an animal that helps the animal survive in its environment. Certain features explored are the giraffes neck, polar bears fir, and a birds beak.

American Association for the Advancement of Science (;)

2008-04-17

277

Jun?n Virus Pathogenesis and Virus Replication  

PubMed Central

Junín virus, the etiological agent of Argentine hemorrhagic fever, causes significant morbidity and mortality. The virus is spread through the aerosolization of host rodent excreta and endemic to the humid pampas of Argentina. Recently, significant progress has been achieved with the development of new technologies (e.g. reverse genetics) that have expanded knowledge about the pathogenesis and viral replication of Junín virus. We will review the pathogenesis of Junín virus in various animal models and the role of innate and adaptive immunity during infection. We will highlight current research regarding the role of molecular biology of Junín virus in elucidating virus attenuation. We will also summarize current knowledge on Junín virus pathogenesis focusing on the recent development of vaccines and potential therapeutics. PMID:23202466

Grant, Ashley; Seregin, Alexey; Huang, Cheng; Kolokoltsova, Olga; Brasier, Allan; Peters, Clarence; Paessler, Slobodan

2012-01-01

278

Infectious virus-antibody complexes of sindbis virus.  

PubMed Central

Infectious virus-antibody complexes were formed when Sindbis virus was reacted with antibodies raised against purified viral envelope glycoproteins E1 and E2 as well as against preparations of intact virus. Results from rate zonal centrifugation in sucrose gradients of the complex formed with anti-E1 sera showed this complex to be about the same size as virions. A test of virus neutralization, based on direct plaque assay, by antibodies raised in rabbits and mice given virus in complete Freund adjuvant indicated the presence of antibodies able to complex but not neutralize virus. Conditions were found in which most of the virus was complexed and protected fron neutralization, suggesting that these sera may contain a mixed population of antiviral antibodies with different specificities and different avidities. PMID:870428

Symington, J; McCann, A K; Schlesinger, M J

1977-01-01

279

Additional hosts of alfalfa mosaic virus, cucumber mosaic virus, and tobacco mosaic virus in New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

In New Zealand, alfalfa mosaic virus is recorded on three new field crop hosts, Cajanus cajan (L.) Huth, Coriandrum sativum L., and Wasabia japonica (Miquel) Matsum. Cucumber mosaic virus is recorded on the weeds Cirsium vulgare L. and Veronica persica Poiret and on the ornamental perennial Gentiana sp. Tobacco mosaic virus is recorded on sunflower Helianthus annuus L.

J. D. Fletcher

1989-01-01

280

RNA viruses in the sea.  

PubMed

Viruses are ubiquitous in the sea and appear to outnumber all other forms of marine life by at least an order of magnitude. Through selective infection, viruses influence nutrient cycling, community structure, and evolution in the ocean. Over the past 20 years we have learned a great deal about the diversity and ecology of the viruses that constitute the marine virioplankton, but until recently the emphasis has been on DNA viruses. Along with expanding knowledge about RNA viruses that infect important marine animals, recent isolations of RNA viruses that infect single-celled eukaryotes and molecular analyses of the RNA virioplankton have revealed that marine RNA viruses are novel, widespread, and genetically diverse. Discoveries in marine RNA virology are broadening our understanding of the biology, ecology, and evolution of viruses, and the epidemiology of viral diseases, but there is still much that we need to learn about the ecology and diversity of RNA viruses before we can fully appreciate their contributions to the dynamics of marine ecosystems. As a step toward making sense of how RNA viruses contribute to the extraordinary viral diversity in the sea, we summarize in this review what is currently known about RNA viruses that infect marine organisms. PMID:19243445

Lang, Andrew S; Rise, Matthew L; Culley, Alexander I; Steward, Grieg F

2009-03-01

281

Bat flight and zoonotic viruses  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Bats are sources of high viral diversity and high-profile zoonotic viruses worldwide. Although apparently not pathogenic in their reservoir hosts, some viruses from bats severely affect other mammals, including humans. Examples include severe acute respiratory syndrome coronaviruses, Ebola and Marburg viruses, and Nipah and Hendra viruses. Factors underlying high viral diversity in bats are the subject of speculation. We hypothesize that flight, a factor common to all bats but to no other mammals, provides an intensive selective force for coexistence with viral parasites through a daily cycle that elevates metabolism and body temperature analogous to the febrile response in other mammals. On an evolutionary scale, this host–virus interaction might have resulted in the large diversity of zoonotic viruses in bats, possibly through bat viruses adapting to be more tolerant of the fever response and less virulent to their natural hosts.

O'Shea, Thomas; Cryan, Paul M.; Cunningham, Andrew A.; Fooks, Anthony R.; Hayman, David T.S.; Luis, Angela D.; Peel, Alison J.; Plowright, Raina K.; Wood, James L.N.

2014-01-01

282

From Shakespeare to Viruses  

ScienceCinema

Berkeley Lab scientists have created a unique new tool for analyzing and comparing long sets of data, be it the genomes of mammals or viruses, or the works of Shakespeare. The results of the Shakespeare analysis surprised scholars with their accuracy

Sung-Hou Kim

2010-01-08

283

From Shakespeare to Viruses  

SciTech Connect

Berkeley Lab scientists have created a unique new tool for analyzing and comparing long sets of data, be it the genomes of mammals or viruses, or the works of Shakespeare. The results of the Shakespeare analysis surprised scholars with their accuracy

Sung-Hou Kim

2009-02-09

284

Virus-associated arthritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The occurrence of arthritis in patients who were infected by a virus has been widely observed. In some cases, the clinical appearance seems to resemble that of rheumatoid arthritis. The mechanism by which the viral infection proceeds to the arthritic manifestation is, however, still to be investigated. Several biological and immunological pathways are suggested to be involved in the pathogenesis.

Kusuki Nishioka

2003-01-01

285

Yellow Fever Virus Infection  

PubMed Central

A sequential and quantitative survey of brain and liver of suckling mice for infective virus and complement-fixing antigen, after infection with yellow fever virus, showed that while there was progressive increase of infective virus content in both organs, only the brain showed a corresponding rise in CF antigen. Histopathological examination revealed that the liver was not significantly involved. The target organ was the brain, where the progressive pathological changes culminated in an acute encephalitis by the 3rd day of experiment. Organ destruction began with the molecular layer of the grey matter. But by the 4th day after infection the entire cerebral cortex was involved. At the initial stages the hippocampus was particularly affected. Tissue damage did not appear to be entirely due to the differential quantitative localization of infective virus. It was hypothesized that the CF antigen acting singly or in conjunction with some hypothetical proteins may be principally involved in the pathological outcome of the disease. ImagesFigs. 7-9Figs. 3-6 PMID:5582071

David-West, Tam. S.; Smith, J. A.

1971-01-01

286

West Nile virus  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To provide primary care physicians with an understanding of West Nile virus in North America. This article focuses on epidemiology, clinical features, diagnosis, and prevention of infection. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE MEDLINE and EMBASE searches revealed epidemiologic, surveillance, cohort, and outcome studies providing level II evidence. There were no randomized controlled trials of treatment. Recommended prevention and treatment strategies are based on level II and III evidence. MAIN MESSAGE The mosquito-borne virus that first appeared on this continent in 1999 is now prevalent throughout North America. Most infections are asymptomatic. Fewer than 1% of those infected develop severe illness; 3% to 15% of those with severe illness die. While methods for controlling the mosquito population are available, we lack evidence that they reduce infection in the general human population. Family physicians have an important role in advising their patients on ways to prevent infection and in identifying patients who might be infected with West Nile virus. CONCLUSION The general population is at low risk of West Nile virus infection. Prevention of infection rests on controlling the mosquito population and educating people on how to protect themselves against mosquito bites. PMID:15986939

MacDonald, Russell D.; Krym, Valerie F.

2005-01-01

287

Toscana Virus in Spain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Toscana virus (TOSV, Phlebovirus, family Bunya- viridae) infection is one of the most prevalent arboviruses in Spain. Within the objectives of a multidisciplinary network, a study on the epidemiology of TOSV was conducted in Granada, in southern Spain. The overall seroprevalence rate was 24.9%, significantly increasing with age. TOSV was detected in 3 of 103 sandfly pools by viral culture

Sara Sanbonmatsu-Gámez; Mercedes Pérez-Ruiz; Ximena Collao; María Paz Sánchez-Seco; Francisco Morillas-Márquez; Manuel de la Rosa-Fraile; José María Navarro-Marí; Antonio Tenorio

2005-01-01

288

Antibodies, viruses and vaccines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neutralizing antibodies are crucial for vaccine-mediated protection against viral diseases. They probably act, in most cases, by blunting the infection, which is then resolved by cellular immunity. The protective effects of neutralizing antibodies can be achieved not only by neutralization of free virus particles, but also by several activities directed against infected cells. In certain instances, non-neutralizing antibodies contribute to

Dennis R. Burton

2002-01-01

289

Human Viruses and Cancer  

PubMed Central

The first human tumor virus was discovered in the middle of the last century by Anthony Epstein, Bert Achong and Yvonne Barr in African pediatric patients with Burkitt’s lymphoma. To date, seven viruses -EBV, KSHV, high-risk HPV, MCPV, HBV, HCV and HTLV1- have been consistently linked to different types of human cancer, and infections are estimated to account for up to 20% of all cancer cases worldwide. Viral oncogenic mechanisms generally include: generation of genomic instability, increase in the rate of cell proliferation, resistance to apoptosis, alterations in DNA repair mechanisms and cell polarity changes, which often coexist with evasion mechanisms of the antiviral immune response. Viral agents also indirectly contribute to the development of cancer mainly through immunosuppression or chronic inflammation, but also through chronic antigenic stimulation. There is also evidence that viruses can modulate the malignant properties of an established tumor. In the present work, causation criteria for viruses and cancer will be described, as well as the viral agents that comply with these criteria in human tumors, their epidemiological and biological characteristics, the molecular mechanisms by which they induce cellular transformation and their associated cancers. PMID:25341666

Morales-Sanchez, Abigail; Fuentes-Panana, Ezequiel M.

2014-01-01

290

Turnip Yellow Mosaic Virus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The bumpy exterior of the turnip yellow mosaic virus (TYMV) protein coat, or capsid, was defined in detail by Dr. Alexander McPherson of the University of California, Irvin using proteins crystallized in space for analysis on Earth. TYMV is an icosahedral virus constructed from 180 copies of the same protein arranged into 12 clusters of five proteins (pentamers), and 20 clusters of six proteins (hexamers). The final TYMV structure led to the unexpected hypothesis that the virus releases its RNA by essentially chemical-mechanical means. Most viruses have fairly flat coats, but in TYNV, the fold in each protein, called the jellyroll, is clustered at the points where the protein pentamers and hexamers join. The jellyrolls are almost standing on end, producing a bumpy surface with knobs at all of the pentamers and hexamers. At the inside surface of the pentamers is a void that is not present at the hexamers. The coating had been seen in early stuties of TYMV, but McPherson's atomic structure shows much more detail. The inside surface is strikingly, and unexpectedly, different than the outside. While the pentamers contain a central void on the inside, the hexameric units contain peptides linked to each other, forming a ring or, more accurately, rings to fill the void. Credit: Dr. Alexander McPherson, University of California, Irvine

2000-01-01

291

Viruses of haloarchaea.  

PubMed

In hypersaline environments, haloarchaea (halophilic members of the Archaea) are the dominant organisms, and the viruses that infect them, haloarchaeoviruses are at least ten times more abundant. Since their discovery in 1974, described haloarchaeoviruses include head-tailed, pleomorphic, spherical and spindle-shaped morphologies, representing Myoviridae, Siphoviridae, Podoviridae, Pleolipoviridae, Sphaerolipoviridae and Fuselloviridae families. This review overviews current knowledge of haloarchaeoviruses, providing information about classification, morphotypes, macromolecules, life cycles, genetic manipulation and gene regulation, and host-virus responses. In so doing, the review incorporates knowledge from laboratory studies of isolated viruses, field-based studies of environmental samples, and both genomic and metagenomic analyses of haloarchaeoviruses. What emerges is that some haloarchaeoviruses possess unique morphological and life cycle properties, while others share features with other viruses (e.g., bacteriophages). Their interactions with hosts influence community structure and evolution of populations that exist in hypersaline environments as diverse as seawater evaporation ponds, to hot desert or Antarctic lakes. The discoveries of their wide-ranging and important roles in the ecology and evolution of hypersaline communities serves as a strong motivator for future investigations of both laboratory-model and environmental systems. PMID:25402735

Luk, Alison W S; Williams, Timothy J; Erdmann, Susanne; Papke, R Thane; Cavicchioli, Ricardo

2014-01-01

292

Interaction of Venezuelan Equine Encephalomyelitis Virus with Neutralizing Antibody: II. The Persistent Virus Fraction.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The persistent virus fraction that results from the interaction of Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis (VEE) virus with antiviral serum is an infectious virus-antibody complex (sensitized virus) that can be neutralized by anti-IgG serum. The quantities of...

N. Hahon

1969-01-01

293

Antibodies against vaccinia virus do not neutralize extracellular enveloped virus but prevent virus release from infected cells and comet formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vaccinia virus (VV) produces two antigenically and structurally distinct infectious virions, intracellular mature virus (IMV) and extracellular enveloped virus (EEV). EEV is important for the efficient dissemi- nation of virus both in vivo and in vitro where it causes formation of comet-shaped virus plaques. Here, we show that EEV, in contrast to IMV, is resistant to neutralization by antibodies bound

Alain Vanderplasschen; Michael Hollinshead; Geoffrey L. Smith

1997-01-01

294

Measles virus for cancer therapy  

PubMed Central

Measles virus offers an ideal platform from which to build a new generation of safe, effective oncolytic viruses. Occasional "spontaneous" tumor regressions have occurred during natural measles infections, but common tumors do not express SLAM, the wild-type MV receptor, and are therefore not susceptible to the virus. Serendipitously, attenuated vaccine strains of measles virus have adapted to use CD46, a regulator of complement activation that is expressed in higher abundance on human tumor cells than on their non transformed counterparts. For this reason, attenuated measles viruses are potent and selective oncolytic agents showing impressive antitumor activity in mouse xenograft models. The viruses can be engineered to enhance their tumor specificity, increase their antitumor potency and facilitate noninvasive in vivo monitoring of their spread. A major impediment to the successful deployment of oncolytic measles viruses as anticancer agents is the high prevalence of pre-existing anti measles immunity, which impedes bloodstream delivery and curtails intratumoral virus spread. It is hoped that these problems can be addressed by delivering the virus inside measles-infected cell carriers and/or by concomitant administration of immunosuppressive drugs. From a safety perspective, population immunity provides an excellent defense against measles spread from patient to carers and, in fifty years of human experience, reversion of attenuated measles to a wild type pathogenic phenotype has not been observed. Clinical trials testing oncolytic measles viruses as an experimental cancer therapy are currently underway. PMID:19203112

Russell, Stephen J.; Whye Peng, Kah

2014-01-01

295

A Fusion-Inhibiting Peptide against Rift Valley Fever Virus Inhibits Multiple, Diverse Viruses  

E-print Network

virus), Class II (Andes virus), or Class III (vesicular stomatitis virus) fusion proteins using, we show that infectivity can be inhibited for diverse, unrelated RNA viruses that have Class I (EbolaA Fusion-Inhibiting Peptide against Rift Valley Fever Virus Inhibits Multiple, Diverse Viruses

296

Heparan Sulfate-Mediated Binding of Infectious Dengue Virus Type 2 and Yellow Fever Virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dengue virus type 2 and Yellow fever virus are arthropod-borne flaviviruses causing hemorrhagic fever in humans. Identification of virus receptors is important in understanding flavivirus pathogenesis. The aim of this work was to study the role of cellular heparan sulfate in the adsorption of infectious Yellow fever and Dengue type 2 viruses. Virus attachment was assessed by adsorbing virus to

Raphaële Germi; Jean-Marc Crance; Daniel Garin; Josette Guimet; Hugues Lortat-Jacob; Rob W. H. Ruigrok; Jean-Pierre Zarski; Emmanuel Drouet

2002-01-01

297

Phage Displayed Peptides to Avian H5N1 Virus Distinguished the Virus from Other Viruses  

PubMed Central

The purpose of the current study was to identify potential ligands and develop a novel diagnostic test to highly pathogenic avian influenza A virus (HPAI), subtype H5N1 viruses using phage display technology. The H5N1 viruses were used as an immobilized target in a biopanning process using a 12-mer phage display random peptide library. After five rounds of panning, three phages expressing peptides HAWDPIPARDPF, AAWHLIVALAPN or ATSHLHVRLPSK had a specific binding activity to H5N1 viruses were isolated. Putative binding motifs to H5N1 viruses were identified by DNA sequencing. In terms of the minimum quantity of viruses, the phage-based ELISA was better than antiserum-based ELISA and a manual, semi-quantitative endpoint RT-PCR for detecting H5N1 viruses. More importantly, the selected phages bearing the specific peptides to H5N1 viruses were capable of differentiating this virus from other avian viruses in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. PMID:21887228

Qin, Chengfeng; Ren, Xiaofeng

2011-01-01

298

The encephalomyocarditis virus  

PubMed Central

The encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) is a small non-enveloped single-strand RNA virus, the causative agent of not only myocarditis and encephalitis, but also neurological diseases, reproductive disorders and diabetes in many mammalian species. EMCV pathogenesis appears to be viral strain- and host-specific, and a better understanding of EMCV virulence factors is increasingly required. Indeed, EMCV is often used as a model for diabetes and viral myocarditis, and is also widely used in immunology as a double-stranded RNA stimulus in the study of Toll-like as well as cytosolic receptors. However, EMCV virulence and properties have often been neglected. Moreover, EMCV is able to infect humans albeit with a low morbidity. Progress on xenografts, such as pig heart transplantation in humans, has raised safety concerns that need to be explored. In this review we will highlight the biology of EMCV and all known and potential virulence factors. PMID:22722247

Carocci, Margot; Bakkali-Kassimi, Labib

2012-01-01

299

Viruses and schizophrenia.  

PubMed

A viral hypothesis for the pathogenesis of schizophrenia has been under serious consideration for more than 70 years. To date, attempts have failed to identify a specific virus which contributes to the aetiology of the disorder. There has, however, been a recent resurgence of interest in a possible relationship between viral illness and schizophrenia. This renewed attention is the result of epidemiological evidence suggesting an excess of winter births in patients with schizophrenia, indications of foetal insults in persons who develop schizophrenia and an association between foetal exposure to the influenza virus and the subsequent development of schizophrenia. Advances in our understanding of the pathophysiology of viral diseases and the development of sophisticated techniques to study them have resulted in more complex viral hypotheses of schizophrenic aetiology, such as viral disruption of normal neurodevelopment, viral induced autoimmunity and retroviral integration. These hypotheses are now beginning to be tested experimentally. PMID:7527632

O'Reilly, R L

1994-06-01

300

Origin of hepatitis ? virus  

PubMed Central

This article addresses some of the questions relating to how hepatitis ? virus (HDV), an agent so far unique in the animal world, might have arisen. HDV was discovered in patients infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV). It generally makes HBV infections more damaging to the liver. It is a subviral satellite agent that depends upon HBV envelope proteins for its assembly and ability to infect new cells. In other aspects of replication, HDV is both independent of and very different from HBV. In addition, the small single-stranded circular RNA genome of HDV, and its mechanism of replication, demonstrate an increasing number of similarities to the viroids – a large family of helper-independent subviral agents that cause pathogenesis in plants. PMID:20210550

Taylor, John; Pelchat, Martin

2010-01-01

301

Principles of Virus Structural Organization  

PubMed Central

Viruses, the molecular nanomachines infecting hosts ranging from prokaryotes to eukaryotes, come in different sizes, shapes and symmetries. Questions such as what principles govern their structural organization, what factors guide their assembly, how these viruses integrate multifarious functions into one unique structure have enamored researchers for years. In the last five decades, following Caspar and Klug's elegant conceptualization of how viruses are constructed, high resolution structural studies using X-ray crystallography and more recently cryo-EM techniques have provided a wealth of information on structures of variety of viruses. These studies have significantly furthered our understanding of the principles that underlie structural organization in viruses. Such an understanding has practical impact in providing a rational basis for the design and development of antiviral strategies. In this chapter, we review principles underlying capsid formation in a variety of viruses, emphasizing the recent developments along with some historical perspective. PMID:22297509

Prasad, B.V. Venkataram; Schmid, Michael F

2013-01-01

302

Genus Orthopoxvirus: Cowpox virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Cowpox virus (CPXV) is distinguished from other orthopoxvirus (OPV) species by producing cytoplasmic A-type inclusion bodies and flattened\\u000a pocks with a hemorrhagic center on the chorioallantoic membrane. CPXV is endemic to Western Eurasia and naturally infects\\u000a a broad range of host species including domestic animals, and zoo animals, as well as humans. Infections in humans seem to\\u000a increase in importance

Sandra Essbauer; Hermann Meyer

303

Viruses in extreme environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tolerance limits of extremophiles in term of temperature, pH, salinity, desiccation, hydrostatic pressure, radiation,\\u000a anaerobiosis far exceed what can support non-extremophilic organisms. Like all other organisms, extremophiles serve as hosts\\u000a for viral replication. Many lines of evidence suggest that viruses could no more be regarded as simple infectious “fragments\\u000a of life” but on the contrary as one of the

Marc Le Romancer; Mélusine Gaillard; Claire Geslin; Daniel Prieur

304

Viruses in extreme environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tolerance limits of extremophiles in term of temperature, pH, salinity, desiccation, hydrostatic pressure, radiation,\\u000a anaerobiosis far exceed what can support non-extremophilic organisms. Like all other organisms, extremophiles serve as hosts\\u000a for viral replication. Many lines of evidence suggest that viruses could no more be regarded as simple infectious “fragments\\u000a of life” but on the contrary as one of the

Marc Le Romancer; Mélusine Gaillard; Claire Geslin; Daniel Prieur

2007-01-01

305

VIRUS instrument collimator assembly  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Visual Integral-Field Replicable Unit Spectrograph (VIRUS) instrument is a baseline array 150 identical fiber fed optical spectrographs designed to support observations for the Hobby-Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX). The collimator subassemblies of the instrument have been assembled in a production line and are now complete. Here we review the design choices and assembly practices used to produce a suite of identical low-cost spectrographs in a timely fashion using primarily unskilled labor.

Marshall, Jennifer L.; DePoy, Darren L.; Prochaska, Travis; Allen, Richard D.; Williams, Patrick; Rheault, Jean-Philippe; Li, Ting; Nagasawa, Daniel Q.; Akers, Christopher; Baker, David; Boster, Emily; Campbell, Caitlin; Cook, Erika; Elder, Alison; Gary, Alex; Glover, Joseph; James, Michael; Martin, Emily; Meador, Will; Mondrik, Nicholas; Rodriguez-Patino, Marisela; Villanueva, Steven; Hill, Gary J.; Tuttle, Sarah; Vattiat, Brian; Lee, Hanshin; Chonis, Taylor S.; Dalton, Gavin B.; Tacon, Mike

2014-07-01

306

Introducing Virological Concepts Using an Insect Virus.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A technique is presented which utilizes wax moth larvae in a laboratory investigation of an insect virus. Describes how an insect virus can be used to introduce undergraduate biology students to laboratory work on viruses and several virological concepts. (SA)

Sheppard, Roger F.

1980-01-01

307

NATIONAL RESPIRATORY AND ENTERIC VIRUS SURVEILLANCE SYSTEM  

EPA Science Inventory

The National Respiratory and Enteric Virus Surveillance System is a lab based system which monitors temporal and geographic patterns associated with the detection of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), human parainfluenza viruses (HPIV), respiratory and enteric adenoviruses, and r...

308

Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus (LCMV) and Pregnancy  

MedlinePLUS

... Healthcare Providers Media Policy Makers  Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus (LCMV) and Pregnancy Language: English Español (Spanish) Share Compartir LCMV (Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus) is a virus that can cause infection in ...

309

Virus Interference. I. The Interferon  

Microsoft Academic Search

During a study of the interference produced by heat-inactivated influenza virus with the growth of live virus in fragments of chick chorio-allantoic membrane it was found that following incubation of heated virus with membrane a new factor was released. This factor, recognized by its ability to induce interference in fresh pieces of chorio-allantoic membrane, was called interferon. Following a lag

A. Isaacs; J. Lindenmann

1957-01-01

310

Tracking the West Nile Virus  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How can viral sequences help us establish the origin of the virus that appeared in the US in 1999? Epidemiologists have adopted bioinformatics approaches using sequence data from strains of pathogens to track the movement of bacteria and viruses from continent to continent. * explore a data set of West Nile Virus sequences from all over the world that date from the mid-20th century to the present

Erica Suchmann (University of California - San Diego;Biology); Mark Gallo (Niagara University;Biology)

2006-05-20

311

Reemergence of chikungunya virus.  

PubMed

Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-transmitted alphavirus that causes acute fever and acute and chronic musculoskeletal pain in humans. Since 2004, CHIKV has caused millions of cases of disease in the Indian Ocean region and has emerged in new areas, including Europe, the Middle East, and the Pacific region. The mosquito vectors for this virus are globally distributed in tropical and temperate zones, providing the opportunity for CHIKV to continue to expand into new geographic regions. In October 2013, locally acquired cases of CHIKV infection were identified on the Caribbean island of Saint Martin, signaling the arrival of the virus in the Western Hemisphere. In just 9 months, CHIKV has spread to 22 countries in the Caribbean and Central and South America, resulting in hundreds of thousands of cases. CHIKV disease can be highly debilitating, and large epidemics have severe economic consequences. Thus, there is an urgent need for continued research into the epidemiology, pathogenesis, prevention, and treatment of these infections. PMID:25078691

Morrison, Thomas E

2014-10-01

312

Rubella virus perturbs autophagy.  

PubMed

Autophagy is a cellular catabolic process implicated in numerous physiological processes and pathological conditions, including infections. Viruses have evolved different strategies to modulate the autophagic process. Since the effects of rubella virus (RV) on autophagy have not yet been reported, we evaluated the autophagic activity in the Statens Seruminstitut Rabbit Cornea cell line infected with the To336 strain of RV. Our results showed that RV lowered the levels of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 B-II (LC3B-II) and the autophagy-related gene 12-autophagy-related gene 5 conjugate, inhibited the autophagic flux, suppressed the intracellular redistribution of LC3B, decreased both the average number and the size of autophagosomes per cell and impeded the formation of acidic vesicular organelles. Induction of autophagy by using rapamycin decreased both the viral yields and the apoptotic rates of infected cultures. Besides its cytoprotective effects, autophagy furnishes an important antiviral mechanism, inhibition of which may reorchestrate intracellular environment so as to better serve the unique requirements of RV replication. Together, our observations suggest that RV utilizes a totally different strategy to cope with autophagy than that evolved by other positive-stranded RNA viruses, and there is considerable heterogeneity among the members of the Togaviridae family in terms of their effects on the cellular autophagic cascade. PMID:24824868

Pásztor, Kata; Orosz, László; Seprényi, György; Megyeri, Klára

2014-10-01

313

West Nile Virus Maps  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

One of the potential effects of global climate change is the spread of disease to new areas, as the vectors of those diseases (e.g., mosquitoes, birds) expand into new locations in response to shifting climate conditions. Although the direct cause of West Nile Virus (WNV) in the United States is not known, the National Atlas of the US Geological Survey (reviewed in the June 26, 1998 Scout Report) has recently launched this new resource on WNV distribution. First documented in the US during the summer of 1999 and previously limited to Africa, Eastern Europe, West Asia, and the Middle East, the West Nile Virus is of danger to humans as it interferes with "normal central nervous system functioning" and can cause encephalitis. This site describes WNV Surveillance Activity for the year 2000 and offers a series of maps highlighting the US distribution of WNV cases found in humans, wild birds, chickens, mosquitoes, and veterinary clinics. A series of links point to further information on the virus.

314

Emergence of influenza A viruses.  

PubMed Central

Pandemic influenza in humans is a zoonotic disease caused by the transfer of influenza A viruses or virus gene segments from animal reservoirs. Influenza A viruses have been isolated from avian and mammalian hosts, although the primary reservoirs are the aquatic bird populations of the world. In the aquatic birds, influenza is asymptomatic, and the viruses are in evolutionary stasis. The aquatic bird viruses do not replicate well in humans, and these viruses need to reassort or adapt in an intermediate host before they emerge in human populations. Pigs can serve as a host for avian and human viruses and are logical candidates for the role of intermediate host. The transmission of avian H5N1 and H9N2 viruses directly to humans during the late 1990s showed that land-based poultry also can serve between aquatic birds and humans as intermediate hosts of influenza viruses. That these transmission events took place in Hong Kong and China adds further support to the hypothesis that Asia is an epicentre for influenza and stresses the importance of surveillance of pigs and live-bird markets in this area. PMID:11779380

Webby, R J; Webster, R G

2001-01-01

315

Testing for Human Immunodeficiency Virus  

MedlinePLUS

Testing for Human Immunodeficiency Virus The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists Women’s Health Care Physicians patient education Fact Sheet PFS005: Testing for Human Immunodeficiency ...

316

Computer virus information update CIAC-2301  

SciTech Connect

While CIAC periodically issues bulletins about specific computer viruses, these bulletins do not cover all the computer viruses that affect desktop computers. The purpose of this document is to identify most of the known viruses for the MS-DOS and Macintosh platforms and give an overview of the effects of each virus. The authors also include information on some windows, Atari, and Amiga viruses. This document is revised periodically as new virus information becomes available. This document replaces all earlier versions of the CIAC Computer virus Information Update. The date on the front cover indicates date on which the information in this document was extracted from CIAC`s Virus database.

Orvis, W.J.

1994-01-15

317

McAfee's Virus Information Library  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

McAfee, the well-known anti-virus software company, offers this free library, containing information on over 40,000 known PC viruses. Virus details include their source, how they infect your computer, and how to remove them. Users can search for viruses by keyword or browse by category. The site also lists new viruses, the year's top ten, and hoax viruses. Although in most cases the instructions for virus removal include the use of a McAfee product, the site is still an excellent source of virus information.

318

Human viruses: discovery and emergence  

PubMed Central

There are 219 virus species that are known to be able to infect humans. The first of these to be discovered was yellow fever virus in 1901, and three to four new species are still being found every year. Extrapolation of the discovery curve suggests that there is still a substantial pool of undiscovered human virus species, although an apparent slow-down in the rate of discovery of species from different families may indicate bounds to the potential range of diversity. More than two-thirds of human viruses can also infect non-human hosts, mainly mammals, and sometimes birds. Many specialist human viruses also have mammalian or avian origins. Indeed, a substantial proportion of mammalian viruses may be capable of crossing the species barrier into humans, although only around half of these are capable of being transmitted by humans and around half again of transmitting well enough to cause major outbreaks. A few possible predictors of species jumps can be identified, including the use of phylogenetically conserved cell receptors. It seems almost inevitable that new human viruses will continue to emerge, mainly from other mammals and birds, for the foreseeable future. For this reason, an effective global surveillance system for novel viruses is needed. PMID:22966141

Woolhouse, Mark; Scott, Fiona; Hudson, Zoe; Howey, Richard; Chase-Topping, Margo

2012-01-01

319

Virus dynamics and drug therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent development of potent antiviral drugs not only has raised hopes for effective treatment of infections with HIV or the hepatitis B virus, but also has led to important quantitative insights into viral dynamics in vivo. Interpretation of the experimental data depends upon mathe- matical models that describe the nonlinear interaction between virus and host cell populations. Here we

SEBASTIAN BONHOEFFER; R OBERT M. MAY; G EORGE M. SHAW; MARTIN A. NOWAK

1997-01-01

320

Measles Virus in the Brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measles virus can give three different forms of infections in the central nervous system. These are acute postinfectious encephalitis, acute progressive infectious encephalitis, and subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE). The postinfectious acute disease is interpreted to reflect an autoimmune reaction. The acute progressive form of brain disease, also referred to as inclusion body encephalitis, reflects a direct attack by the virus

Erling Norrby; Krister Kristensson

1997-01-01

321

INFECTIOUS DOSE OF NORWALK VIRUS  

EPA Science Inventory

The Norwalk virus and related viruses (caliciviruses) have been identified as a common cause of waterborne disease. Moreover, there are many outbreaks of waterborne disease every year where the causative agent was never identified, and it is thought that many of these are due to ...

322

Mutants of Alfalfa Mosaic Virus.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this thesis the isolation and characterization of a number of mutants of alfalfa mosaic virus, a plant virus with a coat protein dependent genome, is described. Thermo-sensitive (ts) mutants were selected since, at least theoretically, ts mutations can...

J. Roosien

1983-01-01

323

Oropouche virus isolation, southeast Brazil.  

PubMed

An Oropouche virus strain was isolated from a novel host (Callithrix sp.) in Arinos, Minas Gerais State, southeastern Brazil. The virus was identified by complement fixation test and confirmed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Phylogenetic analysis identified this strain as a genotype III isolate previously recognized only in Panama. PMID:16318707

Nunes, Márcio Roberto Teixeira; Martins, Lívia Carício; Rodrigues, Sueli Guerreiro; Chiang, Jannifer Oliveira; Azevedo, Raimunda do Socorro da Silva; da Rosa, Amelia P A Travassos; Vasconcelos, Pedro Fernando da Costa

2005-10-01

324

Antivirals for High Hazard Viruses,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In large areas of the world there exist extremely high hazard viruses for which there are no vaccines for prophylaxis and no effective drugs for therapy. Examples of such viruses are Ebola, Argentine, Bolivian, Crimean-Congo, and Korean hemorrhagic fevers...

P. G. Canonico

1988-01-01

325

Virioplankton: Viruses in Aquatic Ecosystems†  

PubMed Central

The discovery that viruses may be the most abundant organisms in natural waters, surpassing the number of bacteria by an order of magnitude, has inspired a resurgence of interest in viruses in the aquatic environment. Surprisingly little was known of the interaction of viruses and their hosts in nature. In the decade since the reports of extraordinarily large virus populations were published, enumeration of viruses in aquatic environments has demonstrated that the virioplankton are dynamic components of the plankton, changing dramatically in number with geographical location and season. The evidence to date suggests that virioplankton communities are composed principally of bacteriophages and, to a lesser extent, eukaryotic algal viruses. The influence of viral infection and lysis on bacterial and phytoplankton host communities was measurable after new methods were developed and prior knowledge of bacteriophage biology was incorporated into concepts of parasite and host community interactions. The new methods have yielded data showing that viral infection can have a significant impact on bacteria and unicellular algae populations and supporting the hypothesis that viruses play a significant role in microbial food webs. Besides predation limiting bacteria and phytoplankton populations, the specific nature of virus-host interaction raises the intriguing possibility that viral infection influences the structure and diversity of aquatic microbial communities. Novel applications of molecular genetic techniques have provided good evidence that viral infection can significantly influence the composition and diversity of aquatic microbial communities. PMID:10704475

Wommack, K. Eric; Colwell, Rita R.

2000-01-01

326

Écosystèmes forestiers et virus Ebola  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary: Ebola virus and forest ecosystem. Despite data collected since the emergence of the Ebola virus in 1976, its natural transmission cycle and especially the nature of its reservoirs and means of transmission are still an enigma. This means that effective epidemiological surveillance and prevention are difficult to implement. The location of outbreak areas has suggested that the reservoir and

J. M. Morvan; E. Nakouné; V. Deubel; M. Colyn

327

Marine Viruses: Truth or Dare  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past two decades, marine virology has progressed from a curiosity to an intensely studied topic of critical importance to oceanography. At concentrations of approximately 10 million viruses per milliliter of surface seawater, viruses are the most abundant biological entities in the oceans. The majority of these viruses are phages (viruses that infect bacteria). Through lysing their bacterial hosts, marine phages control bacterial abundance, affect community composition, and impact global biogeochemical cycles. In addition, phages influence their hosts through selection for resistance, horizontal gene transfer, and manipulation of bacterial metabolism. Recent work has also demonstrated that marine phages are extremely diverse and can carry a variety of auxiliary metabolic genes encoding critical ecological functions. This review is structured as a scientific "truth or dare," revealing several well-established "truths" about marine viruses and presenting a few "dares" for the research community to undertake in future studies.

Breitbart, Mya

2012-01-01

328

Epidemic of cell phone virus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Standard operating systems and Bluetooth technology will be a trend for future cell phone features. These will enable cell phone viruses to spread either through SMS or by sending Bluetooth requests when cell phones are physically close enough. The difference in spreading methods gives these two types of viruses' different epidemiological characteristics. SMS viruses' spread is mainly based on people's social connections, whereas the spreading of Bluetooth viruses is affected by people's mobility patterns and population distribution. Using cell phone data recording calls, SMS and locations of more than 6 million users, we study the spread of SMS and Bluetooth viruses and characterize how the social network and the mobility of mobile phone users affect such spreading processes.

Wang, Pu; González, Marta; Barabási, Albert-László.

2008-03-01

329

The ecology of Ebola virus.  

PubMed

Since Ebola virus was first identified more than 30 years ago, tremendous progress has been made in understanding the molecular biology and pathogenesis of this virus. However, the means by which Ebola virus is maintained and transmitted in nature remains unclear despite dedicated efforts to answer these questions. Recent work has provided new evidence that fruit bats might have a role as a reservoir species, but it is not clear whether other species are also involved or how transmission to humans or apes takes place. Two opposing hypotheses for Ebola emergence have surfaced; one of long-term local persistence in a cryptic and infrequently contacted reservoir, versus another of a more recent introduction of the virus and directional spread through susceptible populations. Nevertheless, with the increasing frequency of human filovirus outbreaks and the tremendous impact of infection on the already threatened great ape populations, there is an urgent need to better understand the ecology of Ebola virus in nature. PMID:17698361

Groseth, Allison; Feldmann, Heinz; Strong, James E

2007-09-01

330

Do viruses require the cytoskeleton?  

PubMed Central

Background It is generally thought that viruses require the cytoskeleton during their replication cycle. However, recent experiments in our laboratory with rubella virus, a member of the family Togaviridae (genus rubivirus), revealed that replication proceeded in the presence of drugs that inhibit microtubules. This study was done to expand on this observation. Findings The replication of three diverse viruses, Sindbis virus (SINV; family Togaviridae family), vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV; family Rhabdoviridae), and Herpes simplex virus (family Herpesviridae), was quantified by the titer (plaque forming units/ml; pfu/ml) produced in cells treated with one of three anti-microtubule drugs (colchicine, noscapine, or paclitaxel) or the anti-actin filament drug, cytochalasin D. None of these drugs affected the replication these viruses. Specific steps in the SINV infection cycle were examined during drug treatment to determine if alterations in specific steps in the virus replication cycle in the absence of a functional cytoskeletal system could be detected, i.e. redistribution of viral proteins and replication complexes or increases/decreases in their abundance. These investigations revealed that the observable impacts were a colchicine-mediated fragmentation of the Golgi apparatus and concomitant intracellular redistribution of the virion structural proteins, along with a reduction in viral genome and sub-genome RNA levels, but not double-stranded RNA or protein levels. Conclusions The failure of poisons affecting the cytoskeleton to inhibit the replication of a diverse set of viruses strongly suggests that viruses do not require a functional cytoskeletal system for replication, either because they do not utilize it or are able to utilize alternate pathways when it is not available. PMID:23597412

2013-01-01

331

Fujinami Sarcoma Virus: An Avian RNA Tumor Virus with a Unique Transforming Gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

The oncogenic properties and RNA of the Fujinami avian sarcoma virus (FSV) and the protein it encodes were investigated and compared to those of other avian tumor viruses with sarcomagenic properties such as Rous sarcoma virus and the acute leukemia viruses MC29 and erythroblastosis virus. Cloned stocks of FSV caused sarcomas in all chickens inoculated and were found to contain

Wen-Hwa Lee; Klaus Bister; Anthony Pawson; Terry Robins; Carlo Moscovici; Peter H. Duesberg

1980-01-01

332

A Seven-Segmented Influenza A Virus Expressing the Influenza C Virus Glycoprotein HEF  

Microsoft Academic Search

Influenza viruses are classified into three types: A, B, and C. The genomes of A- and B-type influenza viruses consist of eight RNA segments, whereas influenza C viruses only have seven RNAs. Both A and B influenza viruses contain two major surface glycoproteins: the hemagglutinin (HA) and the neuraminidase (NA). Influenza C viruses have only one major surface glycoprotein, HEF

Qinshan Gao; Edward W. A. Brydon; Peter Palese

2008-01-01

333

Infectious vaccinia virus recombinants that express hepatitis B virus surface antigen  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Potential live vaccines against hepatitis B virus have been produced. The coding sequence for hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) has been inserted into the vaccinia virus genome under control of vaccinia virus early promoters. Cells infected with these vaccinia virus recombinants synthesize and excrete HBsAg and vaccinated rabbits rapidly produce antibodies to HBsAg.

Smith, Geoffrey L.; Mackett, Michael; Moss, Bernard

1983-04-01

334

Co-Circulation of Toscana Virus and Punique Virus in Northern Tunisia: A Microneutralisation-Based  

E-print Network

Co-Circulation of Toscana Virus and Punique Virus in Northern Tunisia: A Microneutralisation: In northern Tunisia, the co-circulation of two related sand fly-borne phleboviruses, Toscana virus (TOSV-Circulation of Toscana Virus and Punique Virus in Northern Tunisia: A Microneutralisation-Based Seroprevalence Study. PLo

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

335

Comparison of Immunohistochemistry and Virus Isolation for Diagnosis of West Nile Virus  

PubMed Central

Immunohistochemistry and virus isolation were performed on 1,057 birds. Immunohistochemistry, virus isolation, or both found 325 birds to be West Nile virus positive. Of these, 271 were positive by both methods. These results indicate that virus isolation and immunohistochemistry are approximately equal in their ability to detect West Nile virus. PMID:15956415

Ellis, Angela E.; Mead, Daniel G.; Allison, Andrew B.; Gibbs, Samantha E. J.; Gottdenker, Nicole L.; Stallknecht, David E.; Howerth, Elizabeth W.

2005-01-01

336

IInoculate your computer with Symantec AntiVirus, for free! Welchia virus? Blaster  

E-print Network

IInoculate your computer with Symantec AntiVirus, for free! Welchia virus? Blaster virus? PC all locked up? Ever run into these? Help is on the way. NC State has licensed Symantec AntiVirus and NC State students, faculty and staff can get a free copy. Computer viruses on campus are no laughing matter. Last

337

Physical Interaction of a Murine Leukemia Virus with Influenza Virus in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

Incubated mixtures of PR8 influenza virus and Rauscher leukemia virus retained the egg infectivity and hemagglutinin of the influenza virus and the ability of the Rauscher virus to induce splenomegaly in mice. Density-gradient centrifugation on potassium citrate gradients revealed a new interviral product with an intermediate density as the principal constituent of such mixtures. Chicken erythrocytes adsorbed the Rauscher virus

T. E. O'Connor; F. J. Rauscher

1964-01-01

338

Risk factors associated with seropositivity to small ruminant lentiviruses in goat herds.  

PubMed

Cross-sectional studies based on serological testing and questionnaires were conducted at 5-yr intervals (1996, 2002 and 2007) in goat breeding herds from Poland to determine true herd-level seroprevalence of caprine arthritis-encephalitis and the herd-level risk factors for seropositivity. Multivariable logistic regression models were developed for data from 1996 and the combined data from 2002 and 2007, separately. True herd-level seroprevalences in 1996, 2002 and 2007 were 30.8% (CI 95%: 20.5-41.0%), 65.7% and 71.9%, respectively. The import of goats from abroad was a risk factor only in 1996 (OR 13.6, CI 95%: 1.14-162). The presence of seropositive bucks in a herd was a risk factor in 1996 (OR 21, CI 95%: 1.89-233) and in 2002-2007 (OR 2.9, CI 95%: 1.04-8.4). Moreover, large herds (>30 does in 1996 or >100 does in 2002-2007) were more likely to be seropositive than smaller herds (OR=10.1, CI 95%: 2.17-46 in 1996 and OR 5.4, CI 95%: 1.11-26 in 2002-2007). PMID:23089156

Kaba, Jaros?aw; Czopowicz, Micha?; Ganter, Martin; Nowicki, Mariusz; Witkowski, Lucjan; Nowicka, Dorota; Szalu?-Jordanow, Olga

2013-04-01

339

Leptospirosis as the most frequent infectious disease impairing productivity in small ruminants in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.  

PubMed

Despite the importance of small ruminants breeding in developing countries, milk/meat productivity remains unsatisfactory. Infectious diseases, such as leptospirosis, brucellosis, and small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLVs), contribute to this scenario. The objective of the present study was to determine the role of each of these diseases in the productivity of small ruminants breeding in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. In goats, 343 samples were tested for leptospirosis, 560 for Brucella abortus, and 506 for caprine arthritis-encephalitis (CAE), whereas in sheep, 308 samples were tested for leptospirosis, 319 for B. abortus, 374 for Brucella ovis, and 278 for Maedi-Visna (MV). Regarding leptospirosis, 25.9% of goats and 47.4% sheep were seroreactive, with serovar Hardjo the most prevalent in both species. Anti-B. abortus agglutinins were found in 0.7% of all samples, exclusively in goats. In relation to SRLVs, 8.6% of goats and 3.2% of sheep samples were positive for CAE and MV, respectively. Leptospirosis was the major infectious problem in the small ruminants sampled and may contribute to impaired productivity of these animals. PMID:21898182

Martins, Gabriel; Penna, Bruno; Hamond, Camila; Leite, Rachel Cosendey-Kezen; Silva, Andressa; Ferreira, Ana; Brandão, Felipe; Oliveira, Francisco; Lilenbaum, Walter

2012-04-01

340

Aphid Transmission of Tobacco Mosaic Virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aphids (Myzus persicae Sulz.) can acquire tobacco mosaic virus from tobacco leaves coated with a virus suspension and inoculate it into healthy leaves. Transmission depends on virus concentration, period of acquisition, previous feeding history of the aphids, and time between acquisition and transmission feedings. Aphids whose stylets are cut do not transmit the virus.

John S. Lojek; Gert B. Orlob

1969-01-01

341

Ebola Virus Antibodies in Fruit Bats, Bangladesh  

PubMed Central

To determine geographic range for Ebola virus, we tested 276 bats in Bangladesh. Five (3.5%) bats were positive for antibodies against Ebola Zaire and Reston viruses; no virus was detected by PCR. These bats might be a reservoir for Ebola or Ebola-like viruses, and extend the range of filoviruses to mainland Asia. PMID:23343532

Islam, Ariful; Yu, Meng; Anthony, Simon J.; Epstein, Jonathan H.; Khan, Shahneaz Ali; Khan, Salah Uddin; Crameri, Gary; Wang, Lin-Fa; Lipkin, W. Ian; Luby, Stephen P.; Daszak, Peter

2013-01-01

342

The Epstein-Barr virus: Recent advances  

SciTech Connect

This book contains 11 chapters. Some of the titles are: Failure in Immunological Control of the Virus Infection: Post-Transplant Lymphomas; Cellular Immunological Responses to the Virus Infection; Characterization of the Virus-Determined Antigens; and the Virus Genome and its Expression in Latent Infection.

Epstein, M.A.; Achong, B.G.

1986-01-01

343

Label-Free Chemiresistive Immunosensors for Viruses  

E-print Network

Label-Free Chemiresistive Immunosensors for Viruses D H A M M A N A N D J . S H I R A L E , M A N of viruses. Bacteriophages T7 and MS2 were used as safe models for viruses for demonstration. Ppy nanowires, and affordable detection of bioagents/pathogens. Introduction Detection of viruses is central to human health

Chen, Wilfred

344

Safe Computing: An Overview of Viruses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A computer virus is a program that replicates itself, in conjunction with an additional program that can harm a computer system. Common viruses include boot-sector, macro, companion, overwriting, and multipartite. Viruses can be fast, slow, stealthy, and polymorphic. Anti-virus products are described. (MLH)

Wodarz, Nan

2001-01-01

345

Newcastle disease virus f glycoprotein expressed from a recombinant vaccinia virus vector protects chickens against live?virus challenge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chickens were immunised using a vaccinia recombinant virus (vaccinia?Italien?F), expressing the F protein of Newcastle disease virus (NDV). Immunisation was successful using either TK” cells infected with the vaccinia?Italien?F virus, the recombinant virus grown in TK7 cells and inoculated intra?cerebrally in one?day?old chickens or the recombinant virus given by wing?web to adult chickens after adaptation by alternate passage in chick

G. Meulemans; C. Letellier; M. Gonze; M. C. Carlier; A. Burny

1988-01-01

346

Virus interactions with human signal transduction pathways  

PubMed Central

Viruses depend on their hosts at every stage of their life cycles and must therefore communicate with them via Protein-Protein Interactions (PPIs). To investigate the mechanisms of communication by different viruses, we overlay reported pairwise human-virus PPIs on human signalling pathways. Of 671 pathways obtained from NCI and Reactome databases, 355 are potentially targeted by at least one virus. The majority of pathways are linked to more than one virus. We find evidence supporting the hypothesis that viruses often interact with different proteins depending on the targeted pathway. Pathway analysis indicates overrepresentation of some pathways targeted by viruses. The merged network of the most statistically significant pathways shows several centrally located proteins, which are also hub proteins. Generally, hub proteins are targeted more frequently by viruses. Numerous proteins in virus-targeted pathways are known drug targets, suggesting that these might be exploited as potential new approaches to treatments against multiple viruses. PMID:21330695

Zhao, Zhongming; Xia, Junfeng; Tastan, Oznur; Singh, Irtisha; Kshirsagar, Meghana; Carbonell, Jaime; Klein-Seetharaman, Judith

2011-01-01

347

Hepatitis viruses: changing patterns of human disease.  

PubMed Central

Viral hepatitis is a disease of antiquity, but evidence for more than one etiologic agent has been recognized only since the 1940s, when two viruses (hepatitis A virus and hepatitis B virus) were thought to account for all disease. In the past 20 years, three additional hepatitis agents (hepatitis C virus, hepatitis D virus, and hepatitis E virus) have been discovered, and there is evidence for at least one additional virus. Each of the five recognized hepatitis viruses belongs to a different virus family, and each has a unique epidemiology. The medical impact of these viruses on society has been strongly influenced by changes in human ecology. This has resulted in some cases in diminished disease and in others in increases in the incidence of disease. PMID:8146130

Purcell, R H

1994-01-01

348

Transmitting plant viruses using whiteflies.  

PubMed

Whiteflies, Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae, Bemisia tabaci, a complex of morphologically indistinquishable species(5), are vectors of many plant viruses. Several genera of these whitefly-transmitted plant viruses (Begomovirus, Carlavirus, Crinivirus, Ipomovirus, Torradovirus) include several hundred species of emerging and economically significant pathogens of important food and fiber crops (reviewed by(9,10,16)). These viruses do not replicate in their vector but nevertheless are moved readily from plant to plant by the adult whitefly by various means (reviewed by(2,6,7,9,10,11,17)). For most of these viruses whitefly feeding is required for acquisition and inoculation, while for others only probing is required. Many of these viruses are unable or cannot be easily transmitted by other means. Therefore maintenance of virus cultures, biological and molecular characterization (identification of host range and symptoms)(3,13), ecology(2,12), require that the viruses be transmitted to experimental hosts using the whitefly vector. In addition the development of new approaches to management, such as evaluation of new chemicals(14) or compounds(15), new cultural approaches(1,4,19), or the selection and development of resistant cultivars(7,8,18), requires the use of whiteflies for virus transmission. The use of whitefly transmission of plant viruses for the selection and development of resistant cultivars in breeding programs is particularly challenging(7). Effective selection and screening for resistance employs large numbers of plants and there is a need for 100% of the plants to be inoculated in order to find the few genotypes which possess resistance genes. These studies use very large numbers of viruliferous whiteflies, often several times per year. Whitefly maintenance described here can generate hundreds or thousands of adult whiteflies on plants each week, year round, without the contamination of other plant viruses. Plants free of both whiteflies and virus must be produced to introduce into the whitefly colony each week. Whitefly cultures must be kept free of whitefly pathogens, parasites, and parasitoids that can reduce whitefly populations and/or reduce the transmission efficiency of the virus. Colonies produced in the manner described can be quickly scaled to increase or decrease population numbers as needed, and can be adjusted to accommodate the feeding preferences of the whitefly based on the plant host of the virus. There are two basic types of whitefly colonies that can be maintained: a nonviruliferous and a viruliferous whitefly colony. The nonviruliferous colony is composed of whiteflies reared on virus-free plants and allows the weekly availability of whiteflies which can be used to transmit viruses from different cultures. The viruliferous whitefly colony, composed of whiteflies reared on virus-infected plants, allows weekly availability of whiteflies which have acquired the virus thus omitting one step in the virus transmission process. PMID:24300175

Polston, Jane E; Capobianco, H

2013-01-01

349

Modelling the evolution of the influenza virus  

E-print Network

CamGrid: High Throughput Computing in Science dfb21@cam.ac.uk Dr David Burke Antigenic Cartography Group Department of Zoology University of Cambridge 25th June 2008 Modelling the evolution of the influenza virus Antigenic variation of viruses... Antigenically Stable Pathogens Antigenically Variable Pathogens Smallpox Measles Tuberculosis Mumps Tetanus Influenza Virus Malaria HIV Dengue The Influenza Virus Annually, 'flu infects 7-14% of the population (400-800 million people globally ) Virus...

Burke, David

2008-06-27

350

Influenza Viruses in Animal Wildlife Populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Influenza viruses belong to the family Orthomyxoviridae. Genus Influenza A viruses are true zoonotic agents with many animal reservoirs, whereas genus Influenza B viruses are generally\\u000a considered to be a virus of humans. The genome of influenza A viruses consists of eight unique segments of single-stranded\\u000a RNA of negative polarity; they are typed according to their surface proteins, hemagglutinin (HA)

R. J. Webby; R. G. Webster; Jürgen A. Richt

351

21 CFR 866.3360 - Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus serological reagents.  

... false Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus serological reagents. 866.3360 Section...866.3360 Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus serological reagents are devices...

2014-04-01

352

21 CFR 866.3360 - Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus serological reagents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus serological reagents. 866.3360 Section...866.3360 Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus serological reagents are devices...

2013-04-01

353

THE VACUOLATING VIRUS OF MONKEYS  

PubMed Central

Cells infected with the vacuolating virus, SV40, respond by swelling to several times their normal volume. Within enlarged nuclei, virus-containing inclusions appear which are acidophilic and Feulgen-positive. The formation of nuclear inclusions is followed by the appearance of cytoplasmic vacuoles and then shrinkage of the cell. Inclusions were found to exhibit unique double staining when a light-green counterstain was used in the Feulgen reaction. The virus is of low electron density, round, and 300 A in diameter. It occurs in large numbers, singly and in short chains, and it appears to multiply at the expense of chromatin. PMID:13897378

Gaylord, W. H.; Hsiung, G.-D.

1961-01-01

354

Xenotropic Murine Leukemia Virus-related Virus (XMRV) Backgrounder  

Cancer.gov

Researchers have not found evidence that XMRV causes any diseases in humans or in animals. The presence of an infectious agent, such as a virus, in diseased tissue does not mean that the agent causes the disease.

355

9 CFR 113.215 - Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed Virus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.215 Section 113.215 Animals and...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS;...

2013-01-01

356

9 CFR 113.215 - Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed Virus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.215 Section 113.215 Animals and...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS;...

2010-01-01

357

9 CFR 113.215 - Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed Virus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.215 Section 113.215 Animals and...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS;...

2011-01-01

358

9 CFR 113.215 - Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed Virus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.215 Section 113.215 Animals and...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS;...

2012-01-01

359

9 CFR 113.215 - Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed Virus.  

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.215 Section 113.215 Animals and...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS;...

2014-01-01

360

Jatobal virus is a reassortant containing the small RNA of Oropouche virus.  

PubMed

Jatobal (JAT) virus was isolated in 1985 from a carnivore (Nasua nasua) in Tucuruí, Pará state, Brazil and was classified as a distinct member of the Simbu serogroup of the Bunyavirus genus, family Bunyaviridae on the basis of neutralization tests. On the basis of nucleotide sequencing, we have found that the small (S) RNA of JAT virus is very similar (>95% identity) to that of Oropouche (ORO) virus, in particular, the Peruvian genotype of ORO virus. In comparison, limited nucleotide sequencing of the G2 protein gene, encoded by the middle (M) RNA, of JAT and ORO viruses, revealed relatively little identity (<66%) between these two viruses. Neutralization tests confirmed the lack of cross-reactivity between the viruses. These results suggest that JAT virus is a reassortant containing the S RNA of ORO virus. JAT virus was attenuated in hamsters compared to ORO virus suggesting that the S RNA of ORO virus is not directly involved in hamster virulence. PMID:11451484

Saeed, M F; Wang, H; Suderman, M; Beasley, D W; Travassos da Rosa, A; Li, L; Shope, R E; Tesh, R B; Barrett, A D

2001-09-01

361

Antiviral Drugs for Viruses Other Than Human Immunodeficiency Virus  

PubMed Central

Most viral diseases, with the exception of those caused by human immunodeficiency virus, are self-limited illnesses that do not require specific antiviral therapy. The currently available antiviral drugs target 3 main groups of viruses: herpes, hepatitis, and influenza viruses. With the exception of the antisense molecule fomivirsen, all antiherpes drugs inhibit viral replication by serving as competitive substrates for viral DNA polymerase. Drugs for the treatment of influenza inhibit the ion channel M2 protein or the enzyme neuraminidase. Combination therapy with Interferon-? and ribavirin remains the backbone treatment for chronic hepatitis C; the addition of serine protease inhibitors improves the treatment outcome of patients infected with hepatitis C virus genotype 1. Chronic hepatitis B can be treated with interferon or a combination of nucleos(t)ide analogues. Notably, almost all the nucleos(t) ide analogues for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B possess anti–human immunodeficiency virus properties, and they inhibit replication of hepatitis B virus by serving as competitive substrates for its DNA polymerase. Some antiviral drugs possess multiple potential clinical applications, such as ribavirin for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C and respiratory syncytial virus and cidofovir for the treatment of cytomegalovirus and other DNA viruses. Drug resistance is an emerging threat to the clinical utility of antiviral drugs. The major mechanisms for drug resistance are mutations in the viral DNA polymerase gene or in genes that encode for the viral kinases required for the activation of certain drugs such as acyclovir and ganciclovir. Widespread antiviral resistance has limited the clinical utility of M2 inhibitors for the prevention and treatment of influenza infections. This article provides an overview of clinically available antiviral drugs for the primary care physician, with a special focus on pharmacology, clinical uses, and adverse effects. PMID:21964179

Razonable, Raymund R.

2011-01-01

362

Vesicular Stomatitis Virus and RNA Viruses as Gene Therapy Vectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of RNA viruses to efficiently reproduce in transformed cells was first recognized nearly 100 yr ago. However,\\u000a it wasn’t until the late 1990s that a resurrection of the interest in the ability of certain viruses to preferentially replicate\\u000a in malignant cells and less so in normal cells occurred, the curiosity being to evaluate whether these agents could be

Glen N. Barber

363

Rubella Virus Replication Complexes Are Virus-Modified Lysosomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Replication complexes are membrane-bound cytoplasmic vacuoles involved in rubella virus (RV) replication. These structures can be identified by their characteristic morphology at the electron microscopy (EM) level and by their association with double-stranded (ds) RNA in immunogold labeling EM studies. Although these virus-induced structures bear some resemblance to lysosomes, their exact nature and origin are unknown. In this study, the

Dianna Magliano; John A. Marshall; D. Scott Bowden; Nicholas Vardaxis; Jayesh Meanger; Jia-Yee Lee

1998-01-01

364

West Nile virus meningoencephalitis  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Since its first appearance in the US in 1999, West Nile virus (WNV) has emerged as the most common cause of epidemic meningoencephalitis in North America. In the 6 years following the 1999 outbreak, the geographic range and burden of the disease in birds, mosquitoes and humans has greatly expanded to include the 48 contiguous US and 7 Canadian provinces, as well as Mexico, the Caribbean islands and Colombia. WNV has shown an increasing propensity for neuroinvasive disease over the past decade, with varied presentations including meningitis, encephalitis and acute flaccid paralysis. Although neuroinvasive disease occurs in less than 1% of infected individuals, it is associated with high mortality. From 1999–2005, more than 8,000 cases of neuroinvasive WNV disease were reported in the US, resulting in over 780 deaths. In this review, we discuss epidemiology, risk factors, clinical features, diagnosis and prognosis of WNV meningoencephalitis, along with potential treatments. PMID:16932563

DeBiasi, Roberta L.; Tyler, Kenneth L.

2013-01-01

365

Etablierung eines infektiösen Minigenomsystems für Marburg Virus basierend auf Virus-ähnlichen Partikeln.  

E-print Network

??Marburg Virus gehört taxonomisch mit dem Ebola Virus zur Familie der Filoviridae. Diese Erreger verursachen eine fieberhafte hämorrhagische Erkrankung bei Menschen und nichtmenschlichen Primaten, die… (more)

Wenigenrath, Jörg

2009-01-01

366

Reverse genetics of influenza virus.  

PubMed

Reverse genetics is the creation of a virus from a full-length cDNA copy of the viral genome, referred to as an "infectious clone," and is one of the most powerful genetic tools in modern virology. Since its development in 1999, plasmid-based reverse genetics has been effectively applied to numerous aspects of influenza studies which include revolutionizing the production of seasonal and pandemic influenza vaccine seed strains. Although continual improvement in reverse genetics system is being made in different laboratories for the efficient rescue of the influenza virus, the basic concept of synthesizing viral RNA using RNA polymerase I remains the same. Coupled with in vitro mutagenesis, reverse genetics can be applied widely to accelerate progress in understanding the influenza virus life cycle, the generation of customized vaccine seed strains, development of live-attenuated vaccines, and the use of influenza virus as vaccine and gene delivery vectors. PMID:24899418

Lee, Chang-Won

2014-01-01

367

Viruses of eukaryotice green algae  

SciTech Connect

The primary objective of our research was to develop the Chlorella-PBCV-1 virus system so that it can be used as a model system for studying gene expression in a photosynthetic eukaryote. We have made considerable progress and have learned much about PBCV-1 and its replication cycle. In addition, several significant discoveries were made in the last 3 to 4 years. These discoveries include: (i) the finding that morphologically similar, plaque forming, dsDNA containing viruses are common in nature and can be isolated readily from fresh water, (ii) the finding that all of these Chlorella viruses contain methylated bases which range in concentration from 0.1% to 47.5% m{sup 5}dC and 0 to 37% m{sup 6}dA and (iii) the discovery that infection with at least some of these viruses induces the appearance of DNA modification/restriction systems. 26 refs.

Van Etten, J.L.

1989-01-01

368

Bronchiolitis and Respiratory Syncytial Virus  

MedlinePLUS

ADVICE FOR PATIENTS Bronchiolitis and Respiratory Syncytial Virus B ronchiolitis is an infection that affects the lungs and breathing passages; the name “bronchiolitis” means inflammation of the small airways in the ...

369

The Norwegian Healthier Goats program--modeling lactation curves using a multilevel cubic spline regression model.  

PubMed

In 2001, the Norwegian Goat Health Service initiated the Healthier Goats program (HG), with the aim of eradicating caprine arthritis encephalitis, caseous lymphadenitis, and Johne's disease (caprine paratuberculosis) in Norwegian goat herds. The aim of the present study was to explore how control and eradication of the above-mentioned diseases by enrolling in HG affected milk yield by comparison with herds not enrolled in HG. Lactation curves were modeled using a multilevel cubic spline regression model where farm, goat, and lactation were included as random effect parameters. The data material contained 135,446 registrations of daily milk yield from 28,829 lactations in 43 herds. The multilevel cubic spline regression model was applied to 4 categories of data: enrolled early, control early, enrolled late, and control late. For enrolled herds, the early and late notations refer to the situation before and after enrolling in HG; for nonenrolled herds (controls), they refer to development over time, independent of HG. Total milk yield increased in the enrolled herds after eradication: the total milk yields in the fourth lactation were 634.2 and 873.3 kg in enrolled early and enrolled late herds, respectively, and 613.2 and 701.4 kg in the control early and control late herds, respectively. Day of peak yield differed between enrolled and control herds. The day of peak yield came on d 6 of lactation for the control early category for parities 2, 3, and 4, indicating an inability of the goats to further increase their milk yield from the initial level. For enrolled herds, on the other hand, peak yield came between d 49 and 56, indicating a gradual increase in milk yield after kidding. Our results indicate that enrollment in the HG disease eradication program improved the milk yield of dairy goats considerably, and that the multilevel cubic spline regression was a suitable model for exploring effects of disease control and eradication on milk yield. PMID:24819129

Nagel-Alne, G E; Krontveit, R; Bohlin, J; Valle, P S; Skjerve, E; Sølverød, L S

2014-07-01

370

Foodborne viruses: an emerging problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several groups of viruses may infect persons after ingestion and then are shed via stool. Of these, the norovirus (NoV) and hepatitis A virus (HAV) are currently recognised as the most important human foodborne pathogens with regard to the number of outbreaks and people affected in the Western world.NoV and HAV are highly infectious and may lead to widespread outbreaks.

Marion Koopmans; Erwin Duizer

2004-01-01

371

Hepatitis viruses: a pandora's box?  

PubMed

The term hepatitis virus is reserved for those viruses that are predominantly hepatotropic, although several new agents have been assigned to this category in the absence of hepatotropism and clinical disease. The hepatitis viruses can be broadly divided into those transmitted via the fecal-oral route, and those by blood, blood products and body fluids. Hepatitis A (picornaviridae), hepatitis B (hepadnaviridae) and hepatitis C (flaviviridae) represent the major public health problems. The epidemiology of hepatitis A virus (HAV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) is changing in response to vaccination. In the case of HAV, older age groups are now deemed at risk, particularly of fulminant hepatitis if exposed over the age of 50. Chronic hepatitis B in some regions is now predominantly of the so-called precore mutant type where high levels of HBV replication persist in the presence of anti-hepatitis B virus (HBe) antibodies. The HBV vaccination is among the most cost-effective health care measures. The epidemiological significance of mutations found increasingly in the HBV S gene isolated from vaccinated children is unclear. Evidence that hepatitis G and TT virus are significant causes of hepatitis is lacking. Of interest, however, is the finding that the related GBV-B agent of monkeys may be a model for developing new antiviral agents against HCV. Animal models of hepatitis infections are providing new insights into the pathogenesis of hepatitis in humans. Indeed it is possible that hepatitis E is primarily an agent of pigs and other domesticated livestock. Intriguingly, the new TT virus shares many properties with the circoviruses, significant pathogens of chickens and pigs. The challenge in the next decade will be to assess the significance of these new agents in terms of public health and resources. Value judgements will have to be made in assessing the risks associated with blood containing trace amounts of these adventitious agents. PMID:12534779

Howard, Colin R

2002-12-01

372

Movement of Viruses between Biomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Viruses are abundant in all known ecosystems. In the present study, we tested the possibility that viruses from one biome can successfully propagate in another. Viral concentrates were prepared from different near-shore marine sites, lake water, marine sediments, and soil. The concentrates were added to microcosms containing dissolved organic matter as a food source (after filtration to allow 100-kDa particles

Emiko Sano; Suzanne Carlson; Linda Wegley; Forest Rohwer

2004-01-01

373

Human Infection with Foamy Viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Virtually all nonhuman primate species investigated thus far including prosimians, New World and Old World monkeys and apes\\u000a all harbor distinct and species-specific clades of simian foamy virus (SFV). However, evidence supporting the existence of\\u000a a human-specific foamy virus (FV) is not yet available. Early reports describing widespread infection of healthy and sick\\u000a humans with FV could not be confirmed.

W. Heneine; M. Schweizer; P. Sandstrom; T. Folks

374

New hosts of Alfalfa mosaic virus, Cucumber mosaic virus, Potato virus Y, Soybean dwarf virus, and Tomato spotted wilt virus in New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alfalfa mosaic virus is recorded for the first time in New Zealand on Cirsium arvense, Medicago lupulina, Mentha sp., Petunia × hybrida, Rumex obtusifolius, Senecio vulgaris, Sonchus asper, and Trifolium ambiguum. Cucumber mosaic virus is recorded on Arthropodium cirratum, Capsella bursa?pastoris, Carthamus tinctorius, Conium maculatum, Coronopus didymus, Galium aparine, Hirschfeldia incana, Marrubium vulgare, Malva parviflora, Malva sylvestris, Ranunculus sardous, and

J. D. Fletcher

2001-01-01

375

A DNA Virus of Drosophila  

PubMed Central

Little is known about the viruses infecting most species. Even in groups as well-studied as Drosophila, only a handful of viruses have been well-characterized. A viral metagenomic approach was used to explore viral diversity in 83 wild-caught Drosophila innubila, a mushroom feeding member of the quinaria group. A single fly that was injected with, and died from, Drosophila C Virus (DCV) was added to the sample as a control. Two-thirds of reads in the infected sample had DCV as the best BLAST hit, suggesting that the protocol developed is highly sensitive. In addition to the DCV hits, several sequences had Oryctes rhinoceros Nudivirus, a double-stranded DNA virus, as a best BLAST hit. The virus associated with these sequences was termed Drosophila innubila Nudivirus (DiNV). PCR screens of natural populations showed that DiNV was both common and widespread taxonomically and geographically. Electron microscopy confirms the presence of virions in fly fecal material similar in structure to other described Nudiviruses. In 2 species, D. innubila and D. falleni, the virus is associated with a severe (?80–90%) loss of fecundity and significantly decreased lifespan. PMID:22053195

Unckless, Robert L.

2011-01-01

376

Another Really, Really Big Virus  

PubMed Central

Viruses with genomes larger than 300 kb and up to 1.2 Mb, which encode hundreds of proteins, are being discovered and characterized with increasing frequency. Most, but not all, of these large viruses (often referred to as giruses) infect protists that live in aqueous environments. Bioinformatic analyses of metagenomes of aqueous samples indicate that large DNA viruses are quite common in nature and await discovery. One issue that is perhaps not appreciated by the virology community is that large viruses, even those classified in the same family, can differ significantly in morphology, lifestyle, and gene complement. This brief commentary, which will mention some of these unique properties, was stimulated by the characterization of the newest member of this club, virus CroV (Fischer, M.G.; Allen, M.J.; Wilson, W.H.; Suttle, C.A. Giant virus with a remarkable complement of genes infects marine zooplankton. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 2010, 107, 19508–19513 [1]). CroV has a 730 kb genome (with ?544 protein-encoding genes) and infects the marine microzooplankton Cafeteria roenbergensis producing a lytic infection. PMID:21994725

Van Etten, James L.

2011-01-01

377

NOVA: Reviving the 1918 Virus  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video with accompanying interactive activity puts learners in the role of active decision-makers regarding the ethics of a recent experiment to revive the deadly 1918 influenza virus. In 2005, researchers sequenced the germ's genome and published the data on a public database. Other researchers used the genome to bring the long-vanished killer virus back to life. Was the experiment justified, or should dead viruses be left alone? After watching the 10-minute video, an interactive activity allows learners to explore arguments from both sides, then vote online. They will consider the following: 1) Does the knowledge gained outweigh the risks? 2) What if terrorists recreated the virus? 3) What if the virus accidentally leaked into the environment, like the SARS virus in 2004? 4) Should scientists publish genome sequences of potentially deadly organisms? Editor's Note: This resource will help students see that scientists must consider the implications of their work, and whether it is responsible to freely publish all findings. Allow 50 minutes.

2010-10-21

378

Circulating avian influenza viruses closely related to the 1918 virus have pandemic potential.  

PubMed

Wild birds harbor a large gene pool of influenza A viruses that have the potential to cause influenza pandemics. Foreseeing and understanding this potential is important for effective surveillance. Our phylogenetic and geographic analyses revealed the global prevalence of avian influenza virus genes whose proteins differ only a few amino acids from the 1918 pandemic influenza virus, suggesting that 1918-like pandemic viruses may emerge in the future. To assess this risk, we generated and characterized a virus composed of avian influenza viral segments with high homology to the 1918 virus. This virus exhibited pathogenicity in mice and ferrets higher than that in an authentic avian influenza virus. Further, acquisition of seven amino acid substitutions in the viral polymerases and the hemagglutinin surface glycoprotein conferred respiratory droplet transmission to the 1918-like avian virus in ferrets, demonstrating that contemporary avian influenza viruses with 1918 virus-like proteins may have pandemic potential. PMID:24922572

Watanabe, Tokiko; Zhong, Gongxun; Russell, Colin A; Nakajima, Noriko; Hatta, Masato; Hanson, Anthony; McBride, Ryan; Burke, David F; Takahashi, Kenta; Fukuyama, Satoshi; Tomita, Yuriko; Maher, Eileen A; Watanabe, Shinji; Imai, Masaki; Neumann, Gabriele; Hasegawa, Hideki; Paulson, James C; Smith, Derek J; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro

2014-06-11

379

Unusual Influenza A Viruses in Bats  

PubMed Central

Influenza A viruses infect a remarkably diverse number of hosts. Two completely new influenza A virus subtypes were recently discovered in bats, dramatically expanding the host range of the virus. These bat viruses are extremely divergent from all other known strains and likely have unique replication cycles. Phylogenetic analysis indicates long-term, isolated evolution in bats. This is supported by a high seroprevalence in sampled bat populations. As bats represent ~20% of all classified mammals, these findings suggests the presence of a massive cryptic reservoir of poorly characterized influenza A viruses. Here, we review the exciting progress made on understanding these newly discovered viruses, and discuss their zoonotic potential. PMID:25256392

Mehle, Andrew

2014-01-01

380

SUSCEPTIBILITY OF SUCKLING MICE TO VARIOLA VIRUS  

PubMed Central

Marshall, Ronald G. (Army Chemical Corps, Fredrick, Md.), and Peter J. Gerone. Susceptibility of suckling mice to variola virus. J. Bacteriol. 82:15–19. 1961.—The susceptibility of suckling mice inoculated intraperitoneally or intracerebrally with variola virus was investigated. Data are presented that define the death patterns, the relationship of incubation period to dose of virus inoculated, the multiplication of virus in suckling mice, and the influence of the age of suckling mice on their susceptibility to this virus. Additionally the results indicate that a variola virus neutralization test is feasible using the young suckling mouse as an indicator host. PMID:13767234

Marshall, Ronald G.; Gerone, Peter J.

1961-01-01

381

Interactions between human immunodeficiency virus-1, hepatitis delta virus and hepatitis B virus infections in 260 chronic carriers of hepatitis B virus.  

PubMed

To evaluate the factors determining the severity of chronic hepatitis B virus infection and the interactions of human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis delta virus infections, we retrospectively analyzed 260 patients, 146 of whom were followed for a mean of 31.4 +/- 1.8 mo. Human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B virus, and hepatitis delta virus status and aminotransferase activities, histological activity index, alcohol consumption and the prevalence of cirrhosis were investigated. The patients included 54 homosexuals, 19 parenteral drug abusers and 187 subjects with other or unidentified risk factors for exposure to hepatitis B virus. Thirty-five patients (13%) were positive for antibody to human immunodeficiency virus; 27 were homosexual and 8 were drug abusers. The mean aminotransferase activities, histological activity index and the prevalence of cirrhosis were similar in the human immunodeficiency virus-positive and human immunodeficiency virus-negative subgroups. Actuarial survival was significantly lower in the human immunodeficiency virus-negative subgroups. Actuarial survival was significantly lower in the human immunodeficiency virus-positive group than in the human immunodeficiency virus-negative subjects (p = 0.004); the cause of death was clearly related to liver failure in four of the five human immunodeficiency virus-positive patients and two of the six human immunodeficiency virus-negative subjects who died. To evaluate the factors determining the severity of liver disease, we compared homogeneous subgroups of subjects. Among the homosexual patients, the prevalence of HBeAg and hepatitis B virus DNA, aminotransferase activities and the histological activity index did not differ according to human immunodeficiency virus antibody status.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1551633

Housset, C; Pol, S; Carnot, F; Dubois, F; Nalpas, B; Housset, B; Berthelot, P; Brechot, C

1992-04-01

382

Viruses and viruslike particles of eukaryotic algae.  

PubMed Central

Until recently there was little interest or information on viruses and viruslike particles of eukaryotic algae. However, this situation is changing. In the past decade many large double-stranded DNA-containing viruses that infect two culturable, unicellular, eukaryotic green algae have been discovered. These viruses can be produced in large quantities, assayed by plaque formation, and analyzed by standard bacteriophage techniques. The viruses are structurally similar to animal iridoviruses, their genomes are similar to but larger (greater than 300 kbp) than that of poxviruses, and their infection process resembles that of bacteriophages. Some of the viruses have DNAs with low levels of methylated bases, whereas others have DNAs with high concentrations of 5-methylcytosine and N6-methyladenine. Virus-encoded DNA methyltransferases are associated with the methylation and are accompanied by virus-encoded DNA site-specific (restriction) endonucleases. Some of these enzymes have sequence specificities identical to those of known bacterial enzymes, and others have previously unrecognized specificities. A separate rod-shaped RNA-containing algal virus has structural and nucleotide sequence affinities to higher plant viruses. Quite recently, viruses have been associated with rapid changes in marine algal populations. In the next decade we envision the discovery of new algal viruses, clarification of their role in various ecosystems, discovery of commercially useful genes in these viruses, and exploitation of algal virus genetic elements in plant and algal biotechnology. Images PMID:1779928

Van Etten, J L; Lane, L C; Meints, R H

1991-01-01

383

Comparison of cowpox-like viruses isolated from European zoos  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Poxviruses isolated from captive carnivores in Russia (Moscow virus) and elephants in Germany (elephant virus) were very closely-related to cowpox virus. Immunological analysis with absorbed sera separated elephant virus but not cowpox and Moscow virus, whereas polypeptide analysis separated cowpox but not elephant and Moscow virus. A combination of biological tests separated all three. The epidemiological implications are briefly

D. Baxby; W. B. Shackleton; Jean Wheeler; A. Turner

1979-01-01

384

[The Chikungunya virus].  

PubMed

Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), a member of the Alphavirus genus, represents a real public health problem in tropical regions of the Southeast Asia and Africa. It is transmitted to the man by Aedes mosquitoes and the illness, known as Chikungunya, is characterized by fever, eruptions and invalidating arthralgia. An increased surveillance in tropical and subtropical areas is necessary, as far as we have noticed recently the emergence of this new disease in regions where it had never existed before. The epidemic context is of a high importance for diagnosis. It is very important to know the clinical characteristics of the infection, to detect forms rarely or never described previously. Permanence of a highly technical core in specialized laboratories will allow, fast, specific and differential diagnosis. The knowledge of the epidemiological chain of transmission from reservoir, still unknown, to the host aims to protect populations by limiting the risks of exposure when it is possible. The only prevention measures available are individual protection against mosquitoes and antivectorial fight, in the absence of specific antiviral treatment and vaccine. PMID:17627914

Nakouné, E; Finance, C; Le Faou, A; Rihn, B

2007-01-01

385

HETEROLOGOUS IMMUNITY BETWEEN VIRUSES  

PubMed Central

Summary Immune memory responses to previously encountered pathogens can sometimes alter the immune response to and the course of infection of an unrelated pathogen by a process known as heterologous immunity. This response can lead to enhanced or diminished protective immunity and altered immunopathology. Here we discuss the nature of T-cell cross-reactivity and describe matrices of epitopes from different viruses eliciting cross-reactive CD8+ T-cell responses. We examine the parameters of heterologous immunity mediated by these cross-reactive T cells during viral infections in mice and humans. We show that heterologous immunity can disrupt T-cell memory pools, alter the complexity of the T-cell repertoire, change patterns of T-cell immunodominance, lead to the selection of viral epitope-escape variants, alter the pathogenesis of viral infections, and, by virtue of the private specificity of T-cell repertoires within individuals, contribute to dramatic variations in viral disease. We propose that heterologous immunity is an important factor in resistance to and variations of human viral infections and that issues of heterologous immunity should be considered in the design of vaccines. PMID:20536568

Welsh, Raymond M.; Che, Jenny; Brehm, Michael A.; Selin, Liisa K.

2010-01-01

386

Dengue viruses - an overview  

PubMed Central

Dengue viruses (DENVs) cause the most common arthropod-borne viral disease in man with 50–100 million infections per year. Because of the lack of a vaccine and antiviral drugs, the sole measure of control is limiting the Aedes mosquito vectors. DENV infection can be asymptomatic or a self-limited, acute febrile disease ranging in severity. The classical form of dengue fever (DF) is characterized by high fever, headache, stomach ache, rash, myalgia, and arthralgia. Severe dengue, dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF), and dengue shock syndrome (DSS) are accompanied by thrombocytopenia, vascular leakage, and hypotension. DSS, which can be fatal, is characterized by systemic shock. Despite intensive research, the underlying mechanisms causing severe dengue is still not well understood partly due to the lack of appropriate animal models of infection and disease. However, even though it is clear that both viral and host factors play important roles in the course of infection, a fundamental knowledge gap still remains to be filled regarding host cell tropism, crucial host immune response mechanisms, and viral markers for virulence. PMID:24003364

Back, Anne Tuiskunen; Lundkvist, Ake

2013-01-01

387

Usutu virus in Africa.  

PubMed

Usutu virus (USUV) was discovered in South Africa in 1959. Since then, it has been reported in several African countries including Senegal, Central African Republic, Nigeria, Uganda, Burkina Faso, Cote d'Ivoire, and Morocco. In 2001, USUV has been identified for the first time outside of Africa, namely in Europe, where it caused a significant mortality among blackbirds in Vienna, Austria. In 2009, the first two human cases of USUV infection in Europe have been reported in Italy, causing encephalitis in immunocompromised patients. The host range in Africa includes mainly Culex mosquitoes, birds, and also humans with one benign and one severe case. Given its role as a potential human pathogen and the similar appearance compared with other emerging arboviruses, it is essential to investigate the natural history and ecology of USUV in Africa. In this regard, we review the emergence of USUV in Africa, summarizing data about isolations, host range, and potential vectors, which should help to improve our understanding of the factors underlying the circulation of USUV in Europe and Africa. PMID:21767160

Nikolay, Birgit; Diallo, Mawlouth; Boye, Cheikh Saad Bouh; Sall, Amadou Alpha

2011-11-01

388

High prevalence of herpes simplex virus type 2 in acute retinal necrosis syndrome associated with herpes simplex virus in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE:To determine the type of herpes simplex virus in acute retinal necrosis syndrome associated with herpes simplex virus.METHODS:Herpes simplex virus type 1, herpes simplex virus type 2, varicella-zoster virus, Epstein-Barr virus, and cytomegalovirus were examined by polymerase chain reaction in intraocular specimens from 16 patients with acute retinal necrosis syndrome. Anti–herpes simplex virus type 1 and anti–herpes simplex virus type

Norihiko Itoh; Nozomi Matsumura; Akiko Ogi; Tadayuki Nishide; Yumi Imai; Hikaru Kanai; Shigeaki Ohno

2000-01-01

389

Isolation of 16L Virus: A Rapidly Transforming Sarcoma Virus from an Avian Leukosis Virus-Induced Sarcoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have isolated a replication-defective rapidly transforming sarcoma virus (designated 16L virus) from a fibro-sarcoma in a chicken infected with td107A, a transformation-defective deletion mutant of subgroup A Schmidt-Ruppin Rous sarcoma virus. 16L virus transforms fibroblasts and causes sarcomas in infected chickens within 2 wk. Its genomic RNA is 6.0 kilobases and contains sequences homologous to the transforming gene (fps)

Benjamin G. Neel; Lu-Hai Wang; Bernard Mathey-Prevot; Teruko Hanafusa; Hidesaburo Hanafusa; William S. Hayward

1982-01-01

390

Coping with Computer Viruses: General Discussion and Review of Symantec Anti-Virus for the Macintosh.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses computer viruses that attack the Macintosh and describes Symantec AntiVirus for Macintosh (SAM), a commercial program designed to detect and eliminate viruses; sample screen displays are included. SAM is recommended for use in library settings as well as two public domain virus protection programs. (four references) (MES)

Primich, Tracy

1992-01-01

391

Identification du virus de rabougrissement buissonneux de la tomate (Tomato Bushy Stunt Virus)  

E-print Network

Identification du virus de rabougrissement buissonneux de la tomate (Tomato Bushy Stunt Virus) en observé à de nombreuses reprises le virus du rabougrissement buissonneux de la tomate (Tomato Bushy Stunt of Tomato Bushy Stunt Virus on tomato, pepper and eggplant in Tunisia. Some characteristics of the Tunisian

Boyer, Edmond

392

Caveolin-1 interacts with the Gag precursor of murine leukaemia virus and modulates virus production  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Retroviral Gag determines virus assembly at the plasma membrane and the formation of virus-like particles in intracellular multivesicular bodies. Thereby, retroviruses exploit by interaction with cellular partners the cellular machineries for vesicular transport in various ways. RESULTS: The retroviral Gag precursor protein drives assembly of murine leukaemia viruses (MLV) at the plasma membrane (PM) and the formation of virus

Zheng Yu; Christiane Beer; Mario Koester; Manfred Wirth

2006-01-01

393

Giant viruses in the oceans : the 4th Algal Virus Workshop  

E-print Network

Paramecium bursaria chlorella virus (PBCV-1), the prototype of the Phycodnaviridae, was isolated more than 20 bursaria chlorella viruses: NY-2A (infecting PBCV-1 host Chlorella species NC64A) and Chlorella Pbi virus MT325. NY-2A genome contains 368,683 bp, making it the largest chlorella virus sequenced to date

Boyer, Edmond

394

Replication of Herpes Simplex Virus DNA: Localization of Replication Recognition Signals within Defective Virus Genomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serially passaged herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) strain Justin was previously shown to contain defective virus genomes consisting of head-to-tail reiterations of sequences derived from the end of the S component of the standard virus DNA. Cotransfection of purified monomeric defective genome repeat units with foster helper virus DNAs onto rabbit skin cells resulted in regeneration and replication of

Donald A. Vlazny; Niza Frenkel

1981-01-01

395

Nyamanini and Midway Viruses Define a Novel Taxon of RNA Viruses in the Order Mononegavirales  

Microsoft Academic Search

Here, we report the sequencing and classification of Nyamanini virus (NYMV) and Midway virus (MIDWV), two antigenically related viruses that were first isolated in 1957 and 1966, respectively. Although these viruses have been cultured multiple times from cattle egrets, seabirds, and their ticks, efforts to classify them taxonomically using conventional serological and electron microscopic approaches have failed completely. We used

Kathie A. Mihindukulasuriya; Nang L. Nguyen; Guang Wu; Henry V. Huang; Vsevolod L. Popov; Robert B. Tesh; David Wang

2009-01-01

396

Recombination Promoted by DNA Viruses: Phage ? to Herpes Simplex Virus.  

PubMed

The purpose of this review is to explore recombination strategies in DNA viruses. Homologous recombination is a universal genetic process that plays multiple roles in the biology of all organisms, including viruses. Recombination and DNA replication are interconnected, with recombination being essential for repairing DNA damage and supporting replication of the viral genome. Recombination also creates genetic diversity, and viral recombination mechanisms have important implications for understanding viral origins as well as the dynamic nature of viral-host interactions. Both bacteriophage ? and herpes simplex virus (HSV) display high rates of recombination, both utilizing their own proteins and commandeering cellular proteins to promote recombination reactions. We focus primarily on ? and HSV, as they have proven amenable to both genetic and biochemical analysis and have recently been shown to exhibit some surprising similarities that will guide future studies. PMID:25002096

Weller, Sandra K; Sawitzke, James A

2014-09-01

397

Release of virus from lymphoid tissue affects human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and hepatitis C virus kinetics in the blood.  

PubMed

Kinetic parameters of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections have been estimated from plasma virus levels following perturbation of the chronically infected (quasi-) steady state. We extend previous models by also considering the large pool of virus localized in the lymphoid tissue (LT) compartment. The results indicate that the fastest time scale of HIV-1 plasma load decay during therapy probably reflects the clearance rate of LT virus and not, as previously supposed, the clearance rate of virus in plasma. This resolves the discrepancy between the clearance rate estimates during therapy and those based on plasma apheresis experiments. In the extended models plasma apheresis measurements are indeed expected to reflect the plasma decay rate. We can reconcile all current HIV-1 estimates with this model when, on average, the clearance rate of virus in plasma is approximately 20 day(-1), that of LT virus is approximately 3 day(-1), and the death rate of virus-producing cells is approximately 0.5 day(-1). The fast clearance in the LT compartment increases current estimates for total daily virus production. Because HCV is produced in the liver, we let virus be produced into the blood compartment of our model. The results suggest that extending current HCV models with an LT compartment is not likely to affect current estimates for kinetic parameters and virus production. Estimates for treatment efficacy might be affected, however. PMID:11222682

Müller, V; Marée, A F; De Boer, R J

2001-03-01

398

4:41 Prevalence rates of human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus among musculoskeletal tissue donors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose of study: The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence rates of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) among potential musculoskeletal tissue donors tested during the period July 1996 through June 2001. Limitations of the methods of acquiring, screening and testing tissue donors that contribute to higher risk for viral

Robert Kennedy; Jeffrey Wang; Randal Mills; Michael Roberts

2002-01-01

399

Full Genome Sequencing and Genetic Characterization of Eubenangee Viruses Identify Pata Virus as a Distinct Species within the Genus Orbivirus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eubenangee virus has previously been identified as the cause of Tammar sudden death syndrome (TSDS). Eubenangee virus (EUBV), Tilligery virus (TILV), Pata virus (PATAV) and Ngoupe virus (NGOV) are currently all classified within the Eubenangee virus species of the genus Orbivirus, family Reoviridae. Full genome sequencing confirmed that EUBV and TILV (both of which are from Australia) show high levels

Manjunatha N. Belaganahalli; Sushila Maan; Narender S. Maan; Kyriaki Nomikou; Ian Pritchard; Ross Lunt; Peter D. Kirkland; Houssam Attoui; Joe Brownlie; Peter P. C. Mertens

2012-01-01

400

Antigens Associated with Viruses and Cancer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Cancergram covers antigens identified with all viruses associated with cancer: both DNA and RNA, in humans, other primates, and in subprimate species. The antigens may be expressed within infected cells, on cell surfaces, on free virus particules or i...

1978-01-01

401

Antigens Associated with Viruses and Cancer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Cancergram covers antigens identified with all viruses associated with cancer: both DNA and RNA, in humans, other primates and in subprimate species. The antigens may be expressed within infected cells, on cell surfaces, on free virus particules or in...

1977-01-01

402

Swine Influenza/Variant Influenza Viruses  

MedlinePLUS

... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Information on Swine Influenza/Variant Influenza Viruses Language: English Español ... pigs and variant influenza virus infections in humans. Swine Flu in Swine (pigs) Swine Flu in Swine ( ...

403

Selecting Viruses for the Seasonal Influenza Vaccine  

MedlinePLUS

... PCR and Other Molecular Assays for Diagnosis of Influenza Virus Infection Clinical Signs and Symptoms of Influenza International ... influenza. This involves receiving and testing thousands of influenza virus samples from patients with suspected flu illness. The ...

404

Variant (Swine Origin) Influenza Viruses in Humans  

MedlinePLUS

... PCR and Other Molecular Assays for Diagnosis of Influenza Virus Infection Clinical Signs and Symptoms of Influenza International ... each case of human infection with a swine influenza virus should be fully investigated to be sure that ...

405

Kids' Severe Respiratory Virus Confirmed in Northeast  

MedlinePLUS

... this page, please enable JavaScript. Kids' Severe Respiratory Virus Confirmed in Northeast Health officials urge good hygiene ... Sept. 15, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- The severe respiratory virus believed to have sickened hundreds of U.S. children ...

406

About Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV)  

MedlinePLUS

... Providers Laboratory Testing References & Resources About Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) Share Compartir On this Page Symptoms Transmission Diagnosis Prevention & Treatment Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), also known as human herpesvirus 4, is ...

407

West Nile Virus: Prevention and Control  

MedlinePLUS

... a regular basis. Help Your Community West Nile Virus Surveillance and Control Programs Support your local community ... Software Health Education Public Service Videos West Nile Virus in Spanish Preguntas frecuentes: Preguntas generales sobre el ...

408

[Sensitivity of normal and Rous virus-transformed lines of Armenian hamster cells to infectious viruses].  

PubMed

The capacity of normal (NHET) and Rous virus-transformed cell line of armenian hamster both producing (SHET Sh-R) and not producing (SHET K-3) virus to support reproduction of vaccinia and Newcastle disease viruses was demonstrated. The former of these viruses replicated in the cell cultures with cytopathic effect, the latter did so without causing cell degeneration. The degree of Newcastle disease virus reproduction in all 3 cultures was the same whereas vaccinia virus synthesis in SHET Sh-R was inhibited as compared with NHET and SHET K-3 cultures. Interference between Rous virus and vaccinia virus in SHET Sh-R culture was not due to interferon. The infectious viruses under study caused no activation of Rous virus genome in the virogenic SHET K-3 cell line. PMID:176825

Nadzharian, N U; Kamalian, L A

1975-01-01

409

Viruses: Making Friends with Old Foes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study of viruses has traditionally focused on their roles as infectious agents and as tools for understanding cell biology. Viruses are now finding a new expanded role as nanoplatforms with applications in materials science and medicine. Viruses form highly symmetrical monodisperse architectures and are ideal templates for engineering multifunctionality, including multivalent display of surface ligands and encapsulation of inorganic and organic materials. These developments assure that viruses will find applications as versatile nanoscale materials.

Douglas, Trevor; Young, Mark

2006-05-01

410

Recent advances in oncolytic virus design  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cytolytic properties of viruses can be used to treat cancer. Replication of certain viruses is favoured in cancer cells,\\u000a whereas others can be modified to obtain tumour specificity. This approach has evolved to become a new discipline called virotherapy.\\u000a In addition, these replication-competent (oncolytic) viruses can be adapted as vectors for cancer gene therapy. The “armed”\\u000a viruses show a

Rubén Hernández-Alcoceba

2011-01-01

411

Rapid Genotyping of Swine Influenza Viruses  

PubMed Central

The emergence of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus highlighted the need for enhanced surveillance of swine influenza viruses. We used real-time reverse–transcription PCR–based genotyping and found that this rapid and simple genotyping method may identify reassortants derived from viruses of Eurasian avian-like, triple reassortant-like, and pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus lineages. PMID:21470462

Mak, Polly W.Y.; Wong, Chloe K.S.; Li, Olive T.W.; Chan, Kwok Hung; Cheung, Chung Lam; Ma, Edward S.; Webby, Richard J.; Guan, Yi; Peiris, Joseph S. Malik

2011-01-01

412

Structure of Immature West Nile Virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The structure of immature West Nile virus particles, propagated in the presence of ammonium chloride to block virus maturation in the low-pH environment of the trans-Golgi network, was determined by cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM). The structure of these particles was similar to that of immature West Nile virus particles found as a minor component of mature virus samples (naturally occurring immature

Ying Zhang; Barbel Kaufmann; Paul R. Chipman; Richard J. Kuhn; Michael G. Rossmann

2007-01-01

413

Characteristics of Filoviridae: Marburg and Ebola Viruses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Filoviruses are enveloped, nonsegmented negative-stranded RNA viruses. The two species, Marburg and Ebola virus, are serologically, biochemically, and genetically distinct. Marburg virus was first isolated during an outbreak in Europe in 1967, and Ebola virus emerged in 1976 as the causative agent of two simultaneous outbreaks in southern Sudan and northern Zaire. Although the main route of infection is known to be person-to-person transmission by intimate contact, the natural reservoir for filoviruses still remains a mystery.

Beer, Brigitte; Kurth, Reinhard; Bukreyev, Alexander

414

Characteristics of Filoviridae: Marburg and Ebola viruses.  

PubMed

Filoviruses are enveloped, nonsegmented negative-stranded RNA viruses. The two species, Marburg and Ebola virus, are serologically, biochemically, and genetically distinct. Marburg virus was first isolated during an outbreak in Europe in 1967, and Ebola virus emerged in 1976 as the causative agent of two simultaneous outbreaks in southern Sudan and northern Zaire. Although the main route of infection is known to be person-to-person transmission by intimate contact, the natural reservoir for filoviruses still remains a mystery. PMID:10024977

Beer, B; Kurth, R; Bukreyev, A

1999-01-01

415

Searching for virus phylotypes  

PubMed Central

Motivation: Large phylogenies are being built today to study virus evolution, trace the origin of epidemics, establish the mode of transmission and survey the appearance of drug resistance. However, no tool is available to quickly inspect these phylogenies and combine them with extrinsic traits (e.g. geographic location, risk group, presence of a given resistance mutation), seeking to extract strain groups of specific interest or requiring surveillance. Results: We propose a new method for obtaining such groups, which we call phylotypes, from a phylogeny having taxa (strains) annotated with extrinsic traits. Phylotypes are subsets of taxa with close phylogenetic relationships and common trait values. The method combines ancestral trait reconstruction using parsimony, with combinatorial and numerical criteria measuring tree shape characteristics and the diversity and separation of the potential phylotypes. A shuffling procedure is used to assess the statistical significance of phylotypes. All algorithms have linear time complexity. This results in low computing times, typically a few minutes for the larger data sets with a number of shuffling steps. Two HIV-1 data sets are analyzed, one of which is large, containing >3000 strains of HIV-1 subtype C collected worldwide, where the method shows its ability to recover known clusters and transmission routes, and to detect new ones. Availability: This method and companion tools are implemented in an interactive Web interface (www.phylotype.org), which provides a wide choice of graphical views and output formats, and allows for exploratory analyses of large data sets. Contact: francois.chevenet@ird.fr, gascuel@lirmm.fr Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:23329414

Chevenet, Francois; Jung, Matthieu; Peeters, Martine; de Oliveira, Tulio; Gascuel, Olivier

2013-01-01

416

[Dependence of oligomerization of influenza virus nucleoprotein on the species affiliation of the virus].  

PubMed

Comparison of human and avian influenza virus nucleoprotein (NP) oligomerization showed that the efficiency of NP oligomerization is different in influenza viruses of different origin. NP oligomerization is virtually complete in avian influenza viruses, while in human influenza viruses only part of monomeric NP is oligomerized. The authors discuss the utilization of NP oligomerization efficiency as a sign for identification of the origin of influenza virus. PMID:11200638

Semenova, N P; Prokudina, E N; Chumakov, V M; Rudneva, I A; Fediakina, I G; Iamnikova, S S

2000-01-01

417

Virus detection and quantification using electrical parameters  

PubMed Central

Here we identify and quantitate two similar viruses, human and feline immunodeficiency viruses (HIV and FIV), suspended in a liquid medium without labeling, using a semiconductor technique. The virus count was estimated by calculating the impurities inside a defined volume by observing the change in electrical parameters. Empirically, the virus count was similar to the absolute value of the ratio of the change of the virus suspension dopant concentration relative to the mock dopant over the change in virus suspension Debye volume relative to mock Debye volume. The virus type was identified by constructing a concentration-mobility relationship which is unique for each kind of virus, allowing for a fast (within minutes) and label-free virus quantification and identification. For validation, the HIV and FIV virus preparations were further quantified by a biochemical technique and the results obtained by both approaches corroborated well. We further demonstrate that the electrical technique could be applied to accurately measure and characterize silica nanoparticles that resemble the virus particles in size. Based on these results, we anticipate our present approach to be a starting point towards establishing the foundation for label-free electrical-based identification and quantification of an unlimited number of viruses and other nano-sized particles. PMID:25355078

Ahmad, Mahmoud Al; Mustafa, Farah; Ali, Lizna M.; Rizvi, Tahir A.

2014-01-01

418

Advances in virus research. Volume 31  

SciTech Connect

This book presents topics in virus research and advances made in this field. Topics covered include: ambisense RNA genomes of arenaviruses and phleboviruses; the molecular basis of antigenic variation in influenza virus; epitope mapping of flavivirus glycoproteins; regulation of adenovirus mRNA formation; regulation of protein synthesis in virus infected animal cells; and antibody-dependent enhancement of vira infectivity.

Maramorosch, K.; Murphy, F.A.; Shatkin, A.J.

1986-01-01

419

Packaging of actin into Ebola virus VLPs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The actin cytoskeleton has been implicated in playing an important role assembly and budding of several RNA virus families including retroviruses and paramyxoviruses. In this report, we sought to determine whether actin is incorporated into Ebola VLPs, and thus may play a role in assembly and\\/or budding of Ebola virus. Our results indicated that actin and Ebola virus VP40 strongly

Ziying Han; Ronald N Harty

2005-01-01

420

Beet mosaic virus: epidemiology and damage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Overview:<\\/strong>The aim of the studies described in this thesis was to obtain a thorough understanding of the main factors determining the spread of a potyvirus in a high plant density crop. The factors studied included the relationships between virus, host and vector, the spread of the virus around an initial virus source consisting of one or more infected plants, the

A. N. Dusi

1999-01-01

421

Virus detection and quantification using electrical parameters.  

PubMed

Here we identify and quantitate two similar viruses, human and feline immunodeficiency viruses (HIV and FIV), suspended in a liquid medium without labeling, using a semiconductor technique. The virus count was estimated by calculating the impurities inside a defined volume by observing the change in electrical parameters. Empirically, the virus count was similar to the absolute value of the ratio of the change of the virus suspension dopant concentration relative to the mock dopant over the change in virus suspension Debye volume relative to mock Debye volume. The virus type was identified by constructing a concentration-mobility relationship which is unique for each kind of virus, allowing for a fast (within minutes) and label-free virus quantification and identification. For validation, the HIV and FIV virus preparations were further quantified by a biochemical technique and the results obtained by both approaches corroborated well. We further demonstrate that the electrical technique could be applied to accurately measure and characterize silica nanoparticles that resemble the virus particles in size. Based on these results, we anticipate our present approach to be a starting point towards establishing the foundation for label-free electrical-based identification and quantification of an unlimited number of viruses and other nano-sized particles. PMID:25355078

Ahmad, Mahmoud Al; Mustafa, Farah; Ali, Lizna M; Rizvi, Tahir A

2014-01-01

422

Virus entry: molecular mechanisms and biomedical applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Viruses have evolved to enter cells from all three domains of life — Bacteria, Archaea and Eukaryotes. Of more than 3,600 known viruses, hundreds can infect human cells and most of those are associated with disease. To gain access to the cell interior, animal viruses attach to host-cell receptors. Advances in our understanding of how viral entry proteins interact with

Dimiter S. Dimitrov

2004-01-01

423

MODEL OF VIRUS TRANSPORT IN UNSATURATED SOIL  

EPA Science Inventory

As a result of the recently-proposed mandatory ground-water disinfection requirements to inactivate viruses in potable water supplies, there has been increasing interest in virus fate and transport in the subsurface. everal models have been developed to predict the fate of viruse...

424

Pathogenesis of Dengue Vaccine Viruses in Mosquitoes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The dengue-l candidate vaccine (TP 56, nonmutagenized) and it parent virus were compared for their ability to infect orally Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes. The vaccine virus was as infective orally as the parent virus for both mosquito spec...

B. J. Beaty

1983-01-01

425

Virus detection and quantification using electrical parameters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Here we identify and quantitate two similar viruses, human and feline immunodeficiency viruses (HIV and FIV), suspended in a liquid medium without labeling, using a semiconductor technique. The virus count was estimated by calculating the impurities inside a defined volume by observing the change in electrical parameters. Empirically, the virus count was similar to the absolute value of the ratio of the change of the virus suspension dopant concentration relative to the mock dopant over the change in virus suspension Debye volume relative to mock Debye volume. The virus type was identified by constructing a concentration-mobility relationship which is unique for each kind of virus, allowing for a fast (within minutes) and label-free virus quantification and identification. For validation, the HIV and FIV virus preparations were further quantified by a biochemical technique and the results obtained by both approaches corroborated well. We further demonstrate that the electrical technique could be applied to accurately measure and characterize silica nanoparticles that resemble the virus particles in size. Based on these results, we anticipate our present approach to be a starting point towards establishing the foundation for label-free electrical-based identification and quantification of an unlimited number of viruses and other nano-sized particles.

Ahmad, Mahmoud Al; Mustafa, Farah; Ali, Lizna M.; Rizvi, Tahir A.

2014-10-01

426

Mutation pattern of human immunodeficiency virus genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Human immunodeficiency viruses (HIVs) show extensive genetic variation. This feature is the fundamental cause of pathogenicity of HIVs and thwarts efforts to develop effective vaccines. To understand the mutation mechanism of these viruses, we analyzed nucleotide sequences ofenv andgag genes of the viruses by use of molecular evolutionary methods and estimated the direction and frequency of nucleotide substitutions. Results

Etsuko N. Moriyama; Yasuo Ina; Kazuho Ikeo; Nobuaki Shimizu; Takashi Gojobori

1991-01-01

427

FAQ: West Nile Virus and Dead Birds  

MedlinePLUS

... Nile virus is found in all 48 contiguous states (not in Alaska and Hawaii) and the virus circulates in mosquitoes and birds every year. Because West Nile virus is well established, some states and local jurisdictions are no longer collecting dead ...

428

Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Primary Infection  

MedlinePLUS

newsletter | contact Share | Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Primary Infection Information for adults A A A When HIV is first contracted, there may be ... 1–6 weeks following exposure to HIV (the human immunodeficiency virus). Chronic infection with this virus can ...

429

CLASSIFICATION AND NOMENCLATURE OF VIRUSES OF CYANOBACTERIA  

EPA Science Inventory

The Study Group finds it appropriate that viruses which have as their host cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) should be grouped within the well-categorized families of the bacterial viruses. Thus, the term cyanophage is adopted as a synonym for the vernacular name BGA virus (BGAV) ...

430

Advanced Review Viruses and the cellular RNA  

E-print Network

Advanced Review Viruses and the cellular RNA decay machinery Marta Maria Gaglia and Britt A interactions between the eukaryotic RNA turnover machinery and a wide variety of viruses. Interestingly, in many cases viruses have evolved mechanisms not only to evade eradication by these pathways, but also

431

VideoLab:Virus Spreads Fourfold Faster  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Viruses are thought to infect cells cyclically: infect, replicate, release, repeat. However, the vaccinia virus can spread four times faster than this iterative process allows (first movie clip). To explain this incredible speed, Doceul et al. found that as soon as this virus infects a cell, it directs the cell to make two crucial surface proteins.

Virginie Doceul (Imperial College London, St MaryâÂÂs Campus;Department of Virology, Faculty of Medicine); Michael Hollinshead (Imperial College London, St MaryâÂÂs Campus;Department of Virology, Faculty of Medicine); Lonneke Van der Linden (Imperial College London, St MaryâÂÂs Campus;Department of Virology, Faculty of Medicine); Geoffrey L. Smith (Imperial College London, St MaryâÂÂs Campus;Department of Virology, Faculty of Medicine)

2010-02-12

432

Open Problems in Computer Virus Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over a decade of work on the computer virus problem has resulted in a number of useful scientific and technological achievements. The study of biological epidemiology has been extended to help us understand when and why computer viruses spread. Techniques have been developed to help us estimate the safety and effectiveness of anti-virus technology before it is deployed. Technology for

Steve R. White

1998-01-01

433

Mechanism of Virulence Transfer by Bacterial Viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY: Further experimental evidence is described to support the concept that bacterial viruses exert a controlling effect on bacterial variation and evolution. A number of strains of diphtheria bacilli, both mitis and gravis, have been found to be carrying viruses capable of converting a susceptible avirulent diphtheria strain to full virulence and toxigenicity. The virus-resistant strains thus converted to viru-

L. F. Hewitt

1954-01-01

434

Frequently Asked Questions on Ebola Virus Disease  

MedlinePLUS

Frequently asked questions on Ebola virus disease Updated 8 August 2014 1. What is Ebola virus disease? Download the FAQ on Ebola in pdf format ... in detail. Should patients with suspected or confirmed Ebola virus be separated from other patients? Isolating patients ...

435

Disinfection of human enteric viruses on fomites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The virucidal action of several commercially available disinfectant preparations was assayed against hepatitis A virus and human rotavirus dried on polystyrene. Overall, the level of virus disinfection achieved was very poor, usually inducing less than 3 log titre reduction. Suspension tests performed with the same disinfectants showed different virus inactivation rates, thus failing to provide a reliable indication of the

F. Xavier Abad; Rosa M Pintó; Albert Bosch

1997-01-01

436

Novel avian influenza virus vaccines.  

PubMed

Current vaccines against avian influenza (AI) virus infections are primarily based on classical inactivated whole-virus preparations. Although administration of these vaccines can protect poultry from clinical disease, sterile immunity is not achieved under field conditions, allowing for undetected virus spread and evolution under immune cover. Therefore, there is an urgent need for a robust and reliable system of differentiation between infected and vaccinated animals. Moreover, current AI vaccines must be administered individually, requiring the handling of excessively large numbers of animals, which makes it difficult to obtain high vaccine coverage. Consequently, AI vaccines conferring solid immunity that could be used for mass application would be advantageous. Several approaches are being pursued to improve existing vaccines and develop novel vaccines, all of which will be covered in this overview. PMID:19618635

Fuchs, W; Römer-Oberdörfer, A; Veits, J; Mettenleiter, T C

2009-04-01

437

HIV-1 Pathogenesis: The Virus  

PubMed Central

Transmission of HIV-1 results in the establishment of a new infection, typically starting from a single virus particle. That virion replicates to generate viremia and persistent infection in all of the lymphoid tissue in the body. HIV-1 preferentially infects T cells with high levels of CD4 and those subsets of T cells that express CCR5, particularly memory T cells. Most of the replicating virus is in the lymphoid tissue, yet most of samples studied are from blood. For the most part the tissue and blood viruses represent a well-mixed population. With the onset of immunodeficiency, the virus evolves to infect new cell types. The tropism switch involves switching from using CCR5 to CXCR4 and corresponds to an expansion of infected cells to include naïve CD4+ T cells. Similarly, the virus evolves the ability to enter cells with low levels of CD4 on the surface and this potentiates the ability to infect macrophages, although the scope of sites where infection of macrophages occurs and the link to pathogenesis is only partly known and is clear only for infection of the central nervous system. A model linking viral evolution to these two pathways has been proposed. Finally, other disease states related to immunodeficiency may be the result of viral infection of additional tissues, although the evidence for a direct role for the virus is less strong. Advancing immunodeficiency creates an environment in which viral evolution results in viral variants that can target new cell types to generate yet another class of opportunistic infections (i.e., HIV-1 with altered tropism). PMID:23143844

Swanstrom, Ronald; Coffin, John

2012-01-01

438

Lagos bat virus in Kenya.  

PubMed

During lyssavirus surveillance, 1,221 bats of at least 30 species were collected from 25 locations in Kenya. One isolate of Lagos bat virus (LBV) was obtained from a dead Eidolon helvum fruit bat. The virus was most similar phylogenetically to LBV isolates from Senegal (1985) and from France (imported from Togo or Egypt; 1999), sharing with these viruses 100% nucleoprotein identity and 99.8 to 100% glycoprotein identity. This genome conservancy across space and time suggests that LBV is well adapted to its natural host species and that populations of reservoir hosts in eastern and western Africa have sufficient interactions to share pathogens. High virus concentrations, in addition to being detected in the brain, were detected in the salivary glands and tongue and in an oral swab, suggesting that LBV is transmitted in the saliva. In other extraneural organs, the virus was generally associated with innervations and ganglia. The presence of infectious virus in the reproductive tract and in a vaginal swab implies an alternative opportunity for transmission. The isolate was pathogenic for laboratory mice by the intracerebral and intramuscular routes. Serologic screening demonstrated the presence of LBV-neutralizing antibodies in E. helvum and Rousettus aegyptiacus fruit bats. In different colonies the seroprevalence ranged from 40 to 67% and 29 to 46% for E. helvum and R. aegyptiacus, respectively. Nested reverse transcription-PCR did not reveal the presence of viral RNA in oral swabs of bats in the absence of brain infection. Several large bat roosts were identified in areas of dense human populations, raising public health concerns for the potential of lyssavirus infection. PMID:18305130

Kuzmin, Ivan V; Niezgoda, Michael; Franka, Richard; Agwanda, Bernard; Markotter, Wanda; Beagley, Janet C; Urazova, Olga Y; Breiman, Robert F; Rupprecht, Charles E

2008-04-01

439

Neonatal herpes simplex virus infections.  

PubMed

Neonatal herpes simplex virus infections are uncommon, but because of the morbidity and mortality associated with the infection they are often considered in the differential diagnosis of ill neonates. The use of polymerase chain reaction for diagnosis of central nervous system infections and the development of safe and effective antiviral therapy has revolutionized the diagnosis and management of these infants. Initiation of long-term antiviral suppressive therapy in these infants has led to significant improvement in morbidity. This article summarizes the epidemiology of neonatal herpes simplex virus infections and discusses clinical presentation, diagnosis, management, and follow up of infants with neonatal herpes disease. PMID:23481105

Pinninti, Swetha G; Kimberlin, David W

2013-04-01

440

THE SIZE OF INFLUENZA VIRUS  

PubMed Central

The sedimentation behavior of influenza virus in dilute solutions of electrolyte was found to be quite variable. At times the virus activity appeared to sediment at a rate comparable with that of particles about 80 to 120 mµ in diameter, at other times at a rate comparable with that of particles about 10 mµ in diameter, and at still other times the bulk of the activity appeared to sediment at a rate comparable with that of the larger particles and the residual activity at a rate comparable with that of the smaller particles. However, in the presence of a sucrose density gradient, the virus activity was always found to sediment with a rate comparable to that of particles about 80 to 120 mµ in diameter; hence it appeared that the variable sedimentation behavior in dilute electrolyte solution was due to convection or mechanical disturbances during centrifugation. About 30 per cent of the high molecular weight protein present in the allantoic fluid of chick embryos infected with the F 12 strain of influenza virus was found to consist of a component having a sedimentation constant of about 30 S, and hence a probable particle diameter of about 10 mµ. The residual protein of high molecular weight was present in the form of a component having a sedimentation constant of about 600 S, and hence a probable particle diameter of about 70 mµ. The proportion of the 30 S component in allantoic fluid of chick embryos infected with the PR8 strain of influenza virus was found to be considerably less. The 600 S and 30 S components of F 12 allantoic fluid were purified and separated by differential centrifugation. The purified preparations of the 600 S component were found to possess a specific virus activity from 100 to over 10,000 times that of the purified preparations of the 30 S component, the difference in activity apparently depending only on the degree of fractionation of the two components. The purified 30 S component was found to sediment normally in the presence of 12 per cent sucrose, whereas the small residual virus activity of such preparations was found to sediment in the presence of a sucrose density gradient with a rate comparable to that of much heavier particles. It is concluded that influenza virus activity is not associated with material having a particle diameter of about 10 mµ, but is associated solely with material having a sedimentation constant of about 600 S and hence a probable particle diameter of about 70 mµ. PMID:19871369

Stanley, W. M.

1944-01-01

441

Replication-defective viruses as vaccines and vaccine vectors Tim Dudek a,b  

E-print Network

, such as human immunodeficiency virus or herpes simplex virus. Therefore, new types of vaccines are needed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233 Herpes simplex virus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235 Herpes simplex virus

Knipe, David M.