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1

Detection of caprine arthritis-encephalitis- and maedi-visna viruses using the polymerase chain reaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to demonstrate proviral DNA of lentiviruses of small ruminants in cultured cells. Primers for the Taq polymerase were selected in the GAG gene of Icelandic maedi-visna virus and POL gene of caprine arthritis-encephalitis (CAE) virus. Using PCR, proviral DNA of CAE virus was detected at 1 day post infection, 4 days beforeviral

R. Zanoni; U. Pauli; E. Peterhans

1990-01-01

2

Caprine Arthritis Encephalitis Virus Dysregulates the Expression of Cytokines in Macrophages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV) is a lentivirus of goats that leads to chronic mononuclear infiltration of various tissues, in particular, the radiocarpal joints. Cells of the monocyte\\/macrophage lineage are the major host cells of CAEV in vivo. We have shown that infection of cultured goat macrophages with CAEV results in an alteration of cytokine expression in vitro. Constitutive expression

FRANZISKA LECHNER; JOEL MACHADO; GIUSEPPE BERTONI; HENG F. SEOW; DIRK A. E. DOBBELAERE; ERNST PETERHANS

1997-01-01

3

Molecular characterization of the gag gene of caprine arthritis encephalitis virus from goats in the Philippines.  

PubMed

Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV) causes caprine arthritis encephalitis syndrome, which is an emerging disease of goats in the Philippines. DNA sequence analysis showed homology of 86-93 % between Philippine CAEV and available CAEV sequences in GenBank. CAEV was detected using nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and new sets of primers were designed in order to amplify the gag gene, which is a highly conserved region of the viral genome. In addition, the Philippine CAEV isolate clustered in group B with the prototype caprine lentivirus. Based on amino acid sequence alignments, it is possible that the Philippine CAEV isolate is a new strain of CAEV, but it is also possible that it was already present in the country even before the start of goat importation. Molecular characterization of the CAEV gag gene is important for the development of a detection kit specific for the local strain of CAEV and the establishment of small ruminant lentivirus eradication programs in the Philippines. This study is the first report to describe the molecular characteristics of CAEV circulating in the Philippines. PMID:25655265

Padiernos, Ryan Bismark C; Balbin, Michelle M; Parayao, Arman M; Mingala, Claro N

2015-04-01

4

Phenotypic alteration of blood and milk leukocytes in goats infected with caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV) causes a persistent and slow progressive infection in goats, characterized by chronic proliferative sinovitis, arthritis and, less frequently, pneumonia. Infected goats could also be affected by interstitial mastitis. The aim of this study was to evaluate ...

5

B-cell epitopes of the envelope glycoprotein of caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus and antibody response in infected goats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Goats infected with caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV) develop high titres of antibodies to Env. Not only is no consistent neutralizing response found but anti-Env antibodies have even been associated with disease in infected goats. To identify the continuous antigenic determinants involved in this atypical anti-Env response, we mapped CAEV-CO Env by screening an epitope expression library with infected goat sera.

Giuseppe Bertoni; Christian Hertig; Marie-Luise Zahno; Hans-Rudolf Vogt; Sophie Dufour; Pablo Cordano; Ernst Peterhans; William P. Cheevers; Pierre Sonigo; Gianfranco Pancino

2000-01-01

6

Clearance of a Productive Lentivirus Infection in Calves Experimentally Inoculated with Caprine Arthritis-Encephalitis Virus  

PubMed Central

Lentiviruses have long been considered host-specific pathogens, but several recent observations demonstrated their capacity to conquer new hosts from different species, genera, and families. From these cross-species infections emerged new animal and human infectious diseases. The successful colonization and adaptation of a lentivirus to a nonnatural host depends on unspecific and specific host barriers. Some of those barriers exert a relative control of viral replication (i.e., cytotoxic T-lymphocyte response, viral inhibitory factors), but none of them was found able to totally clear the infection once the retrovirus is fully adapted in its host. In this study we examined the evolution of the host-lentivirus interactions occurring in an experimental animal model of cross-species infection in order to analyze the efficiency of those barriers in preventing the establishment of a persistent infection. Five newborn calves were inoculated with caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV), and the evolution of infection was studied for more than 12 months. All the animals seroconverted in the first 0.75 to 1 month following the inoculation and remained seropositive for the remaining time of the experiment. Viral infection was productive during 4 months with isolation of replication competent virus from the blood cells and organs of the early euthanized animals. After 4 months of infection, neither replication-competent virus nor virus genome could be detected in blood cells or in the classical target organs, even after an experimental immunosuppression. No evidence of in vitro restriction of CAEV replication was observed in cells from tissues explanted from organs of these calves. These data provide the demonstration of a natural clearance of lentivirus infection following experimental inoculation of a nonnatural host, enabling perspectives of development of new potential vaccine strategies to fight against lentivirus infections. PMID:12743300

Morin, Thierry; Guiguen, François; Bouzar, Baya Amel; Villet, Stéphanie; Greenland, Timothy; Grezel, Délphine; Gounel, Françoise; Gallay, Kathy; Garnier, Céline; Durand, Jitka; Alogninouwa, Théodore; Mselli-Lakhal, Laïla; Mornex, Jean-François; Chebloune, Yahia

2003-01-01

7

Fatal Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus-like infection in 4 Rocky Mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus).  

PubMed

Over a 3.5-year period, 4 Rocky Mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus), housed at a single facility, developed clinical disease attributed to infection by Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV). Ages ranged from 1 to 10 years. Three of the goats, a 1-year-old female, a 2-year-old male, and a 5-year-old male, had been fed raw domestic goat milk from a single source that was later found to have CAEV on the premises. The fourth animal, a 10-year-old male, had not ingested domestic goat milk but had been housed with the other 3 Rocky Mountain goats. All 4 animals had clinical signs of pneumonia prior to death. At necropsy, findings in lungs included marked diffuse interstitial pneumonia characterized histologically by severe lymphoplasmacytic infiltrates with massive alveolar proteinosis, interstitial fibrosis, and type II pneumocyte hyperplasia. One animal also developed left-sided hemiparesis, and locally extensive lymphoplasmacytic myeloencephalitis was present in the cranial cervical spinal cord. Two animals had joint effusions, as well as severe lymphoplasmacytic and ulcerative synovitis. Immunohistochemical staining of fixed sections of lung tissue from all 4 goats, as well as spinal cord in 1 affected animal, and synovium from 2 affected animals were positive for CAEV antigen. Serology testing for anti-CAEV antibodies was positive in the 2 goats tested. The cases suggest that Rocky Mountain goats are susceptible to naturally occurring CAEV infection, that CAEV from domestic goats can be transmitted to this species through infected milk and by horizontal transmission, and that viral infection can result in clinically severe multisystemic disease. PMID:22379056

Patton, Kristin M; Bildfell, Robert J; Anderson, Mark L; Cebra, Christopher K; Valentine, Beth A

2012-03-01

8

Sialic acids on the surface of caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus define the biological properties of the virus.  

PubMed Central

The lentivirus caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV) is a pathogen of goats. It is transmitted in milk and causes a persistent infection in goats, which often fail to produce neutralizing antibodies to the virus. Native CAEV particles are remarkably resistant to digestion with proteinase K and are neutralized extremely slowly by immune sera. Our studies showed that the virus particles are heavily sialylated. Studies with highly specific sialyltransferase enzymes identified penultimate carbohydrate linkages typical of O- and N-linked oligosaccharides on the virus and suggested that the virus may be more heavily sialylated on O-linked than on N-linked oligosaccharides. Removal of sialic acids from the virus by neuraminidase treatment did not reduce infectivity of the particles. However, desialylation rendered the virus more susceptible to proteolysis by proteinase K. Desialylation also enhanced the kinetics of neutralization of the virus by goat antibodies. These results suggest that the carbohydrates on the viral surface are important both in protecting viral proteins from digestion by proteases and in protecting the virus from rapid neutralization by antibodies. Images PMID:2835502

Huso, D L; Narayan, O; Hart, G W

1988-01-01

9

Vaccination with a T-cell-priming Gag peptide of caprine arthritis encephalitis virus enhances virus replication transiently in vivo.  

PubMed

CD4+ T cells are involved in several immune response pathways used to control viral infections. In this study, a group of genetically defined goats was immunized with a synthetic peptide known to encompass an immunodominant helper T-cell epitope of caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV). Fifty-five days after challenge with the molecularly cloned CAEV strain CO, the vaccinated animals had a higher proviral load than the controls. The measurement of gamma interferon and interleukin-4 gene expression showed that these cytokines were reliable markers of an ongoing immune response but their balance did not account for more or less efficient control of CAEV replication. In contrast, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor appeared to be a key cytokine that might support virus replication in the early phase of infection. The observation of a potential T-cell-mediated enhancement of virus replication supports other recent findings showing that lentivirus-specific T cells can be detrimental to the host, suggesting caution in designing vaccine candidates. PMID:17412991

Nenci, Chiara; Zahno, Marie-Luise; Vogt, Hans-Rudolf; Obexer-Ruff, Gabriela; Doherr, Marcus G; Zanoni, Reto; Peterhans, Ernst; Bertoni, Giuseppe

2007-05-01

10

Viral load, organ distribution, histopathological lesions, and cytokine mRNA expression in goats infected with a molecular clone of the caprine arthritis encephalitis virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV) is a lentivirus of goats that causes persistent infection characterized by the appearance of inflammatory lesions in various organs. To define the sites of persistence, 5 goats were infected with a molecular clone of CAEV, and the viral load was monitored by real-time-PCR and RT-PCR in different sites 8 years after infection. The lymph nodes

Ana Paula Ravazzolo; Chiara Nenci; Hans-Rudolf Vogt; Andreas Waldvogel; Gabriela Obexer-Ruff; Ernst Peterhans; Giuseppe Bertoni

2006-01-01

11

Evaluation of a Caprine Arthritis-Encephalitis Virus/Maedi-Visna Virus Indirect Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay in the Serological Diagnosis of Ovine Progressive Pneumonia Virus in U.S. Sheep  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Serological diagnostic testing of sheep and goats using enzyme immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) is the most common method of determining small ruminant lentivirus (SRLV) infection. A caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV)/maedi-visna virus (MVV) indirect (i) ELISA, which utilizes MVV EV1 capsid a...

12

Demonstration of Coinfection with and Recombination by Caprine Arthritis-Encephalitis Virus and Maedi-Visna Virus in Naturally Infected Goats?  

PubMed Central

Recombination of different strains and subtypes is a hallmark of lentivirus infections, particularly for human immunodeficiency virus, and contributes significantly to viral diversity and evolution both within individual hosts and within populations. Recombinant viruses are generated in individuals coinfected or superinfected with more than one lentiviral strain or subtype. This, however, has never been described in vivo for the prototype lentivirus maedi-visna virus of sheep and its closely related caprine counterpart, the caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus. Cross-species infections occur in animals living under natural conditions, which suggests that dual infections with small-ruminant lentiviruses (SRLVs) are possible. In this paper we describe the first documented case of coinfection and viral recombination in two naturally infected goats. DNA fragments encompassing a variable region of the envelope glycoprotein were obtained from these two animals by end-limiting dilution PCR of peripheral blood mononuclear cells or infected cocultures. Genetic analyses, including nucleotide sequencing and heteroduplex mobility assays, showed that these goats harbored two distinct populations of SRLVs. Phylogenetic analysis permitted us to assign these sequences to the maedi-visna virus group (SRLV group A) or the caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus group (SRLV group B). SimPlot analysis showed clear evidence of A/B recombination within the env gene segment of a virus detected in one of the two goats. This case provides conclusive evidence that coinfection by different strains of SRLVs of groups A and B can indeed occur and that these viruses actually recombine in vivo. PMID:17344293

Pisoni, Giuliano; Bertoni, Giuseppe; Puricelli, Maria; Maccalli, Marina; Moroni, Paolo

2007-01-01

13

STAT1 pathway is involved in activation of caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus long terminal repeat in monocytes.  

PubMed

The caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV) long terminal repeat (LTR) is activated by gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) in promonocytic cells. We have previously shown that a 70-bp element is necessary and sufficient for the response of the CAEV LTR to this cytokine. At the 5' end, this 70-bp IFN-gamma response element contains sequence similarity to the gamma activated site (GAS). Here we demonstrate that the putative GAS element in the CAEV LTR binds specifically to a cellular factor induced by IFN-gamma in promonocytic cells. Substitution mutations in this consensus sequence eliminate binding of the inducible factor. The GAS element from the 70-bp motif is sufficient to confer responsiveness to IFN-gamma using a heterologous minimal promoter. Consistent with the binding data, the same mutations in the GAS element eliminate responsiveness to IFN-gamma in the context of both a functional CAEV LTR and a heterologous promoter. The cellular factor that binds to the GAS element is present from 5 min to 14 h after stimulation with IFN-gamma. Binding of the nuclear factor to the GAS element in the CAEV LTR is inhibited by antibody directed against STAT1 (p91/84). Thus, the GAS sequence in the CAEV LTR is essential for the response to IFN-gamma and a STAT1-like factor binds to this site. The STAT-1 signaling pathway provides at least one mechanism for activation of the CAEV LTR by IFN-gamma in monocytes. These data are the first demonstration of a role for a STAT family member in the regulation of a viral promoter. PMID:8985415

Sepp, T; Tong-Starksen, S E

1997-01-01

14

B-cell epitopes of the envelope glycoprotein of caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus and antibody response in infected goats.  

PubMed

Goats infected with caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV) develop high titres of antibodies to Env. Not only is no consistent neutralizing response found but anti-Env antibodies have even been associated with disease in infected goats. To identify the continuous antigenic determinants involved in this atypical anti-Env response, we mapped CAEV-CO Env by screening an epitope expression library with infected goat sera. In addition to the four previously described epitopes, seven novel antigenic sites were identified, of which five were located on the surface (SU) and two in the transmembrane (TM) subunits of Env. The SU antibody-binding domains located in the variable regions of the C-terminal part of the molecule (SU3 to SU5) showed the strongest reactivity and induced a rapid seroconversion in six experimentally infected goats. However, the response to these immunodominant epitopes did not appear to be associated with any neutralizing activity. The pattern of serum reactivity of naturally infected goats with these epitopes was restricted, suggesting a type-specific reaction. Interestingly, the reactivity of peptides representing SU5 sequences derived from CAEV field isolates varied with the geographical and/or breeding origin of the animals. This suggests that peptides corresponding to the immunodominant SU epitopes may well be useful in the serotyping of CAEV isolates. Furthermore, the identification of the CAEV Env epitopes will permit us to functionally dissect the antibody response and to address the role of anti-Env antibodies either in the protection from or in the pathogenesis of CAEV infection. PMID:11086124

Bertoni, G; Hertig, C; Zahno, M L; Vogt, H R; Dufour, S; Cordano, P; Peterhans, E; Cheevers, W P; Sonigo, P; Pancino, G

2000-12-01

15

Viral load, organ distribution, histopathological lesions, and cytokine mRNA expression in goats infected with a molecular clone of the caprine arthritis encephalitis virus.  

PubMed

Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV) is a lentivirus of goats that causes persistent infection characterized by the appearance of inflammatory lesions in various organs. To define the sites of persistence, 5 goats were infected with a molecular clone of CAEV, and the viral load was monitored by real-time-PCR and RT-PCR in different sites 8 years after infection. The lymph nodes proved to be an important virus reservoir, with moderate virus replication relative to what is reported for lentiviruses of primates. Mammary gland and milk cells were preferred sites of viral replication. The viral load varied significantly between animals, which points to an important role of the genetic background. We found a clear association between occurrence of histopathological lesions and viral load in specific sites. The mRNA expression analysis of several cytokines did not reveal differences between animals that could explain the considerable individual variations in viral load observed. PMID:16537085

Ravazzolo, Ana Paula; Nenci, Chiara; Vogt, Hans-Rudolf; Waldvogel, Andreas; Obexer-Ruff, Gabriela; Peterhans, Ernst; Bertoni, Giuseppe

2006-06-20

16

A serological study on Brucella abortus, caprine arthritis–encephalitis virus and Leptospira in dairy goats in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

In spite of the large number of goats found in several developing tropical countries, milk production remains unsatisfactory. The occurrence of infectious diseases, such as leptospirosis, brucellosis and caprine arthritis–encephalitis (CAE) may in part be responsible for sub-optimal production. In this study, 1000 serum samples were tested for leptospirosis, 953 for brucellosis and 562 for CAE. All tested flocks presented

Walter Lilenbaum; Guilherme Nunes de Souza; Paula Ristow; Madelayne Cortez Moreira; Suzana Fráguas; Verônica da Silva Cardoso; Walter Martin Roland Oelemann

2007-01-01

17

Activation/proliferation and apoptosis of bystander goat lymphocytes induced by a macrophage-tropic chimeric caprine arthritis encephalitis virus expressing SIV Nef  

SciTech Connect

Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV) is the natural lentivirus of goats, well known for its tropism for macrophages and its inability to cause infection in lymphocytes. The viral genome lacks nef, tat, vpu and vpx coding sequences. To test the hypothesis that when nef is expressed by the viral genome, the virus became toxic for lymphocytes during replication in macrophages, we inserted the SIVsmm PBj14 nef coding sequences into the genome of CAEV thereby generating CAEV-nef. This recombinant virus is not infectious for lymphocytes but is fully replication competent in goat macrophages in which it constitutively expresses the SIV Nef. We found that goat lymphocytes cocultured with CAEV-nef-infected macrophages became activated, showing increased expression of the interleukin-2 receptor (IL-2R). Activation correlated with increased proliferation of the cells. Interestingly, a dual effect in terms of apoptosis regulation was observed in exposed goat lymphocytes. Nef was found first to induce a protection of lymphocytes from apoptosis during the first few days following exposure to infected macrophages, but later it induced increased apoptosis in the activated lymphocytes. This new recombinant virus provides a model to study the functions of Nef in the context of infection of macrophages, but in absence of infection of T lymphocytes and brings new insights into the biological effects of Nef on lymphocytes.

Bouzar, Baya Amel [Kansas University of Medical Center, MMD Laboratory of Viral Pathogenesis, 5000 Wahl Hall East, 3901 Rainbow Blvd. Kansas City, Kansas 66160 (United States); Rea, Angela [UMR 754 INRA, 'Virologie Cellulaire, Moleculaire et Maladies Emergentes', Universite Claude Bernard Lyon-1, Batiment B, 50 avenue Tony Garnier, 69007, Lyon (France); Hoc-Villet, Stephanie [UMR 754 INRA, 'Virologie Cellulaire, Moleculaire et Maladies Emergentes', Universite Claude Bernard Lyon-1, Batiment B, 50 avenue Tony Garnier, 69007, Lyon (France); Garnier, Celine [UMR 754 INRA, 'Virologie Cellulaire, Moleculaire et Maladies Emergentes', Universite Claude Bernard Lyon-1, Batiment B, 50 avenue Tony Garnier, 69007, Lyon (France); Guiguen, Francois [UMR 754 INRA, 'Virologie Cellulaire, Moleculaire et Maladies Emergentes', Universite Claude Bernard Lyon-1, Batiment B, 50 avenue Tony Garnier, 69007, Lyon (France); Jin Yuhuai [Kansas University of Medical Center, MMD Laboratory of Viral Pathogenesis, 5000 Wahl Hall East, 3901 Rainbow Blvd. Kansas City, Kansas 66160 (United States); Narayan, Opendra [Kansas University of Medical Center, MMD Laboratory of Viral Pathogenesis, 5000 Wahl Hall East, 3901 Rainbow Blvd. Kansas City, Kansas 66160 (United States); Chebloune, Yahia [UMR 754 INRA, 'Virologie Cellulaire, Moleculaire et Maladies Emergentes', Universite Claude Bernard Lyon-1, Batiment B, 50 avenue Tony Garnier, 69007, Lyon (France) and Kansas University of Medical Center, MMD Laboratory of Viral Pathogenesis, 5000 Wahl Hall East, 3901 Rainbow Blvd. Kansas City, Kansas 66160 (United States)]. E-mail: ychebloune@kumc.edu

2007-08-01

18

A Polytropic Caprine Arthritis Encephalitis Virus Promoter Isolated from Multiple Tissues from a Sheep with Multisystemic Lentivirus-Associated Inflammatory Disease  

PubMed Central

Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV) is a lentivirus that infects both goats and sheep and is closely related to maedi-visna virus that infects sheep; collectively, these viruses are known as small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLV). Infection of goats and sheep with SRLV typically results in discrete inflammatory diseases which include arthritis, mastitis, pneumonia or encephalomyelitis. SRLV-infected animals concurrently demonstrating lentivirus-associated lesions in tissues of lung, mammary gland, joint synovium and the central nervous system are either very rare or have not been reported. Here we describe a novel CAEV promoter isolated from a sheep with multisystemic lentivirus-associated inflammatory disease including interstitial pneumonia, mastitis, polyarthritis and leukomyelitis. A single, novel SRLV promoter was cloned and sequenced from five different anatomical locations (brain stem, spinal cord, lung, mammary gland and carpal joint synovium), all of which demonstrated lesions characteristic of lentivirus associated inflammation. This SRLV promoter isolate was found to be closely related to CAEV promoters isolated from goats in northern California and other parts of the world. The promoter was denoted CAEV-ovine-MS (multisystemic disease); the stability of the transcription factor binding sites within the U3 promoter sequence are discussed. PMID:23955501

Adedeji, Adeyemi O.; Barr, Bradd; Gomez-Lucia, Esperanza; Murphy, Brian

2013-01-01

19

Production of monospecific antibody to immunodominant epitopes of the caprine arthritis encephalitis virus transmembrane glycoprotein and analysis of their activity in vitro.  

PubMed

Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV)-infected goats develop high titers of nonneutralizing antibody to several immunodominant epitopes of the viral envelope glycoprotein. Antibodies directed to these structures, and especially the principal immunodominant domain (PID) of the transmembrane portion of the envelope glycoprotein, have been implicated in the immunopathological mechanisms leading to the development of arthritis. We previously mapped the PID and additional epitopes of CAEV gp38 and showed an association between the development of clinical arthritis in infected animals and the antibody response to these epitopes. The development of clinical arthritis is associated with a higher rate of viral expression, especially in the affected tissue, indicating that antibody may favorably modulate virus replication. To test this hypothesis, we immunized goats with synthetic peptides corresponding to the mapped epitopes. The immunized animals developed high titers of nonneutralizing antibody to the immunizing peptides. In radioimmunoprecipitation experiments these antibodies were shown to react to the envelope glycoproteins in extracts obtained under nondenaturing conditions. Finally, these sera were tested in cultures of primary macrophages infected at low multiplicity without showing any (either positive or negative) modulatory activity. PMID:12403923

Dufour, Sophie; Zahno, Marie-Luise; Vogt, Hans-Rudolf; Peterhans, Ernst; Bertoni, Giuseppe

2002-01-01

20

A Gag peptide encompassing B- and T-cell epitopes of the caprine arthritis encephalitis virus functions as modular carrier peptide.  

PubMed

Short synthetic peptides are important tools in biomedical research permitting to generate hapten specific polyclonal sera for analytical purposes or functional studies. In this paper we provide proof of principle that a peptide located in a highly conserved portion of the Gag protein of the caprine arthritis encephalitis virus and carrying an immunodominant T helper cell epitope functions as an efficient carrier peptide, mediating a strong antibody response to a peptidic hapten encompassing a well-characterized B cell epitope of Env. The carrier and hapten peptides were collinearly synthesized permutating their molecular arrangement. While the antibody response to the hapten was similar for both constructs, the antibody response to a B cell epitope overlapping the T helper cell epitope of the Gag carrier peptide was considerably different. This permits a modular use of the carrier peptide to generate antibody directed exclusively to the hapten peptide or a strong humoral response to both carrier- and hapten-peptide. Finally, we have mapped the epitopes involved in this polarized antibody response and discussed the potential immunological implications. PMID:19118559

Niederhäuser, Simone; Zahno, Marie-Luise; Nenci, Chiara; Vogt, Hans-Rudolf; Zanoni, Reto; Peterhans, Ernst; Bertoni, Giuseppe

2009-03-15

21

Inducible nitric oxide synthase is expressed in joints of goats in the late stage of infection with caprine arthritis encephalitis virus.  

PubMed

We have studied the expression of the inducible form of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in joints of goats infected with the caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV). Nitric oxide generated by iNOS is thought to play an important role in the pathogenesis of various types of arthritis, especially rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in humans. Surprisingly, iNOS immunoreactivity was found only in joints of long-term infected goats with severe clinical arthritis, whereas-despite the presence of high numbers of inflammatory cells in the synovial tissue-no iNOS immunoreactivity was detected in mildly arthritic and in short-term experimentally infected goats. Most iNOS-positive cells expressed neither MHC class II nor CD68, which suggests that they were fibroblast-like synoviocytes. In situ hybridization studies showed that there was no correlation between iNOS immunoreactivity and detectable virus expression in the joint. In addition, infection of macrophages in vitro-the major host cells of CAEV in vivo-did not lead to increased iNOS mRNA expression. In response to stimulation, similar levels of iNOS expression were observed in infected and in uninfected macrophages. These findings suggest that the expression of iNOS is a feature of late-stage chronic arthritis and is not involved in the development of the inflammatory lesions. Both the lack of co-localization of iNOS protein and viral transcripts in the joint and the finding that CAEV does not stimulate the expression of iNOS in vitro further suggest that iNOS is not directly induced by the virus or the anti-viral immune response in the joint, that it may well, however, be involved in tissue remodelling or scar formation. PMID:10403918

Lechner, F; Schütte, A; Von Bodungen, U; Bertoni, G; Pfister, H; Jungi, T W; Peterhans, E

1999-07-01

22

Immunogenicity of a lentiviral-based DNA vaccine driven by the 5' LTR of the naturally attenuated Caprine Arthritis Encephalitis Virus (CAEV) in mice and macaques†  

PubMed Central

Increasing the safety and the efficacy of existing HIV vaccines is one of the strategies that could help to promote the development of a vaccine for human use. We developed a HIV DNA vaccine (?4-SHIVku2) that has been shown to induce potent polyfunctional HIV-specific T cell responses following a single dose immunization of mice and macaques. ?4-SHIVku2 also induced protection when immunized macaques were challenged with homologous pathogenic viruses. In the present study, our aim was to examine whether a chimeric HIV DNA vaccine (CAL-?4-SHIVku2) whose genome is driven by the LTR of the goat lentivirus, caprine arthritis encephalitis (CAEV) expresses efficiently the vaccine antigens and induces potent immune responses in animal models for HIV vaccine. Data of radioimmunoprecipitation assays clearly show that this chimeric genome drives efficient expression of all HIV antigens in the construct. In addition, evaluation of the p24 Gag protein in the supernatant of HEK-293-T cells transfected in parallel with ?4-SHIVku2 and CAL-?4-SHIVku2 showed no difference suggesting that these two LTRs are inducing equally the expression of the viral genes. Immunization of mice and macaques using our single dose immunization regimen resulted in induction of similar IFN-? ELISPOT responses in ?4-SHIVku2- and CAL-?4-SHIVku2-treated mice. Similar profiles of T cell responses were also detected both in mice and macaques when multiparametric flow cytometry analyses were performed. Since CAEV LTR is not dependent of Tat to drive viral gene expression and is not functional for integration with HIV integrase, this new vector increases the safety and efficacy of our vaccine vectors and vaccination strategy. PMID:22387218

Arrode-Brusés, Géraldine; Hegde, Ramakrishna; Jin, Yuhai; Liu, Zhengian; Narayan, Opendra; Chebloune, Yahia

2012-01-01

23

The MHC-haplotype influences primary, but not memory, immune responses to an immunodominant peptide containing T- and B-cell epitopes of the caprine arthritis encephalitis virus Gag protein.  

PubMed

In this report, we describe a short peptide, containing a T helper- and a B-cell epitope, located in the Gag protein of the caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV). This T-cell epitope is capable of inducing a robust T-cell proliferative response in vaccinated goats with different genetic backgrounds and to provide help for a strong antibody response to the B-cell epitope, indicating that it may function as a universal antigen-carrier for goat vaccines. The primary immune response of goats homozygous for MHC class I and II genes showed an MHC-dependent partitioning in rapid-high and slow-low responses, whereas the memory immune response was strong in both groups, demonstrating that a vaccine based on this immunodominant T helper epitope is capable to overcome genetic differences. PMID:16154240

Fluri, Alexandra; Nenci, Chiara; Zahno, Marie-Luise; Vogt, Hans-Rudolf; Charan, Shiv; Busato, André; Pancino, Gianfranco; Peterhans, Ernst; Obexer-Ruff, Gabriela; Bertoni, Giuseppe

2006-01-30

24

Structure and genetic variability of envelope glycoproteins of two antigenic variants of caprine arthritis-encephalitis lentivirus.  

PubMed Central

To define the structure of the caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV) env gene and characterize genetic changes which occur during antigenic variation, we sequenced the env genes of CAEV-63 and CAEV-Co, two antigenic variants of CAEV defined by serum neutralization. The deduced primary translation product of the CAEV env gene consists of a 60- to 80-amino-acid signal peptide followed by an amino-terminal surface protein (SU) and a carboxy-terminal transmembrane protein (TM) separated by an Arg-Lys-Lys-Arg cleavage site. The signal peptide cleavage site was verified by amino-terminal amino acid sequencing of native CAEV-63 SU. In addition, immunoprecipitation of [35S]methionine-labeled CAEV-63 proteins by sera from goats immunized with recombinant vaccinia virus expressing the CAEV-63 env gene confirmed that antibodies induced by env-encoded recombinant proteins react specifically with native virion SU and TM. The env genes of CAEV-63 and CAEV-Co encode 28 conserved cysteines and 25 conserved potential N-linked glycosylation sites. Nucleotide sequence variability results in 62 amino acid changes and one deletion within the SU and 34 amino acid changes within the TM. Images PMID:1656067

Knowles, D P; Cheevers, W P; McGuire, T C; Brassfield, A L; Harwood, W G; Stem, T A

1991-01-01

25

Caprine arthritis encephalitis and caseous lymphadenitis in goats: use of bulk tank milk ELISAs for herd-level surveillance.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of two ELISA tests applied to bulk tank milk (BTM) as the first part of a two-step test scheme for the surveillance of caprine arthritis encephalitis (CAE) and caseous lymphadenitis (CLA) infections in goats. The herd-level BTM tests were assessed by comparing them to the test results of individual serological samples. The potential for refining the cut-off levels for BTM tests used as surveillance tools in a population recently cleared of infection was also investigated. Data was gathered on serum (nCAE =9702 and nCLA=13426) and corresponding BTM (nCAE=78 and nCLA=123) samples from dairy goat herds enrolled in the Norwegian disease control and eradication programme 'Healthier Goats'. The results showed that the sensitivity and specificity of the CAE ELISA BTM test with respect to detecting ?2 per cent within-herd prevalence were 72.7 per cent and 86.6 per cent, respectively. For the CLA ELISA BTM the sensitivity and specificity were 41.4 per cent and 81.7 per cent, respectively, for the same goal of detection. The results suggest that BTM testing can be applied as a cost-effective first step for early detection of CAE and CLA infection. PMID:25344573

Nagel-Alne, G E; Valle, P S; Krontveit, R; Sølverød, L S

2015-02-14

26

Mutations increasing exposure of a receptor binding site epitope in the soluble and oligomeric forms of the caprine arthritis-encephalitis lentivirus envelope glycoprotein  

SciTech Connect

The caprine arthritis-encephalitis (CAEV) and ovine maedi-visna (MVV) viruses are resistant to antibody neutralization, a feature shared with all other lentiviruses. Whether the CAEV gp135 receptor binding site(s) (RBS) in the functional surface envelope glycoprotein (Env) is protected from antibody binding, allowing the virus to resist neutralization, is not known. Two CAEV gp135 regions were identified by extrapolating a gp135 structural model that could affect binding of antibodies to the RBS: the V1 region and a short sequence analogous in position to the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gp120 loop B postulated to be located between two major domains of CAEV gp135. Mutation of isoleucine-166 to alanine in the putative loop B of gp135 increased the affinity of soluble gp135 for the CAEV receptor(s) and goat monoclonal antibody (Mab) F7-299 which recognizes an epitope overlapping the gp135 RBS. The I166A mutation also stabilized or exposed the F7-299 epitope in anionic detergent buffers, indicating that the I166A mutation induces conformational changes and stabilizes the RBS of soluble gp135 and enhances Mab F7-299 binding. In contrast, the affinity of a V1 deletion mutant of gp135 for the receptor and Mab F7-299 and its structural stability did not differ from that of the wild-type gp135. However, both the I166A mutation and the V1 deletion of gp135 increased cell-to-cell fusion activity and binding of Mab F7-299 to the oligomeric Env. Therefore, the CAEV gp135 RBS is protected from antibody binding by mechanisms both dependent and independent of Env oligomerization which are disrupted by the V1 deletion and the I166A mutation, respectively. In addition, we found a correlation between side-chain {beta}-branching at amino acid position 166 and binding of Mab F7-299 to oligomeric Env and cell-to-cell fusion, suggesting local secondary structure constraints in the region around isoleucine-166 as one determinant of gp135 RBS exposure and antibody binding.

Hoetzel, Isidro [Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Pathology, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164-7040 (United States)]. E-mail: ihotzel@gene.com; Cheevers, William P. [Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Pathology, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164-7040 (United States)

2005-09-01

27

Study of a prevention programme for caprine arthritis-encephalitis  

E-print Network

colostrum (cow colostrum or goat colostrum heated to 56°C for 1 h) were contaminated compared with 45% of those that had been given raw colostrum. The segregation between the animals submitted to prevention de 49,5% à 25% après2 années d'application. 19% des chevrettes qui ont bu du colostrum de

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

28

Histopathological and biochemical findings of congenital copper deficiency: are these similar to those of caprine arthritis-encephalitis?  

PubMed Central

This study was done after identifying animals with a twisted carpal joint in goat herd. These included a kid goat walking on its articulus carpii and a newborn goat with a stiff leg. Necropsies of the diseased goats revealed swollen carpal joints that were twisted backwards. Arthritis was observed during microscopic examination of the carpal joints. Very low levels of eosinophil, leucocyte, and lymphocyte cell infiltration were found in the central nervous system and meninges. Serum copper levels were significantly decreased in most of the animals. All of these results led us to diagnose the animals with swayback disease. PMID:22437544

Alcigir, G.; Sepici-Dincel, A.; Yonguc, A. D.; Akcora, A.; Turkaslan, J.

2012-01-01

29

NOVEL CAPRINE ADENO-ASSOCIATED VIRUS (AAV) CAPSID (AAV-GO.1) IS CLOSELY RELATED TO THE PRIMATE AAV-5 AND HAS UNIQUE TROPISM AND NEUTRALIZATION PROPERTIES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Preexisting humoral immunity to adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors may limit their clinical utility in gene delivery. We describe a novel caprine AAV (AAV-Go.1) capsid with unique biological properties. AAV-Go.1 capsid was cloned from goat-derived adenovirus preparations. Surprisingly, AAV-Go.1 ...

30

Isolation of Maedi/Visna Virus from a Sheep in Japan  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Maedi/visna (MV) is a lentiviral disease of sheep caused by the maedi/visna virus (MVV). Although MV is prevalent in many countries, it had not been reported in Japan. In 2011, however, three sheep in northern Japan were reported to be seropositive against the MVV antigen, indicating a persistent MVV infection. In the present study, we isolated MVV from one sheep to confirm MVV infection and conducted genomic classification of the virus. The co-culture of leukocytes from a seropositive sheep with fetal goat lung cells resulted in the formation of syncytial cells and the amplification of a long terminal repeat sequence of MVV by polymerase chain reaction. The isolate was confirmed as being MVV, rather than the caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus based on phylogenetic analysis of the gag gene sequence. Although the sheep was asymptomatic, nonpurulent meningitis and demyelination were found in the spinal cord. These were considered to be early lesions associated with pathogenic MVV infection. Therefore, the present study demonstrated that MVV is distributed in Japan. PMID:24141278

OGUMA, Keisuke; TANAKA, Chiaki; HARASAWA, Ryo; KIMURA, Atsushi; SASAKI, Jun; GORYO, Masanobu; SENTSUI, Hiroshi

2013-01-01

31

Prevalence study of Bovine viral diarrhea virus by evaluation of antigen capture ELISA and RT-PCR assay in Bovine, Ovine, Caprine, Buffalo and Camel aborted fetuses in Iran  

PubMed Central

Bovine viral diarrhea virus is a pestivirus in the family Flaviviridae that cause abortions and stillbirths in livestock and its traditional diagnosis is based on cell culture and virus neutralization test. In this study, for more sensitive, specific detection and determined the prevalence of virus in aborted Bovine, Ovine, Caprine, Buffalo and Camel fetuses the antigen capture ELISA and RT-PCR were recommended. From the total of 2173 aborted fetuses, 347 (15.96%) and 402 (18.49%) were positive for presence of Bovine viral diarrhea virus by antigen capture ELISA and RT-PCR respectively. Statistical analysis of data showed significant differences between ELISA and RT-PCR for detection of virus in aborted fetuses. These results indicate a high presence of this pathogen in Iran and that RT- PCR is considerably faster and more accurate than ELISA for identification of Bovine viral diarrhea virus. To our knowledge the Camels and Bovine are the most resistant and sensitive to Bovine viral diarrhea's abortions respectively and the prevalence of virus in Caprine is more than Ovine aborted fetuses. This study is the first prevalence report of Bovine viral diarrhea virus in aborted Bovine, Ovine, Caprine, Buffalo and Camel fetuses by evaluation of ELISA and RT-PCR in Iran. PMID:22018096

2011-01-01

32

Localization of a TNF-activated transcription site and interactions with the gamma activated site within the CAEV U3 70 base pair repeat  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The cytokines TNF' and IFN' have previously been shown to activate caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV) transcription. Increased viral titers correlate with increased lesion severity. Therefore, TNF' and IFN' may augment the caprine arthritis lesion by increasing viral titers. CAEV transcr...

33

Gag protein epitopes recognized by CD4(+) T-helper lymphocytes from equine infectious anemia virus-infected carrier horses.  

PubMed

Antigen-specific T-helper (Th) lymphocytes are critical for the development of antiviral humoral responses and the expansion of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL). Identification of relevant Th lymphocyte epitopes remains an important step in the development of an efficacious subunit peptide vaccine against equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV), a naturally occurring lentivirus of horses. This study describes Th lymphocyte reactivity in EIAV carrier horses to two proteins, p26 and p15, encoded by the relatively conserved EIAV gag gene. Using partially overlapping peptides, multideterminant and possibly promiscuous epitopes were identified within p26. One peptide was identified which reacted with peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from all five EIAV-infected horses, and three other peptides were identified which reacted with PBMC from four of five EIAV-infected horses. Four additional peptides containing both CTL and Th lymphocyte epitopes were also identified. Multiple epitopes were recognized in a region corresponding to the major homology region of the human immunodeficiency virus, a region with significant sequence similarity to other lentiviruses including simian immunodeficiency virus, puma lentivirus, feline immunodeficiency virus, Jembrana disease virus, visna virus, and caprine arthritis encephalitis virus. PBMC reactivity to p15 peptides from EIAV carrier horses also occurred. Multiple p15 peptides were shown to be reactive, but not all infected horses had Th lymphocytes recognizing p15 epitopes. The identification of peptides reactive with PBMC from outbred horses, some of which encoded both CTL and Th lymphocyte epitopes, should contribute to the design of synthetic peptide or recombinant vector vaccines for EIAV. PMID:10196322

Lonning, S M; Zhang, W; McGuire, T C

1999-05-01

34

G3BP1, G3BP2 and CAPRIN1 Are Required for Translation of Interferon Stimulated mRNAs and Are Targeted by a Dengue Virus Non-coding RNA  

PubMed Central

Viral RNA-host protein interactions are critical for replication of flaviviruses, a genus of positive-strand RNA viruses comprising major vector-borne human pathogens including dengue viruses (DENV). We examined three conserved host RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) G3BP1, G3BP2 and CAPRIN1 in dengue virus (DENV-2) infection and found them to be novel regulators of the interferon (IFN) response against DENV-2. The three RBPs were required for the accumulation of the protein products of several interferon stimulated genes (ISGs), and for efficient translation of PKR and IFITM2 mRNAs. This identifies G3BP1, G3BP2 and CAPRIN1 as novel regulators of the antiviral state. Their antiviral activity was antagonized by the abundant DENV-2 non-coding subgenomic flaviviral RNA (sfRNA), which bound to G3BP1, G3BP2 and CAPRIN1, inhibited their activity and lead to profound inhibition of ISG mRNA translation. This work describes a new and unexpected level of regulation for interferon stimulated gene expression and presents the first mechanism of action for an sfRNA as a molecular sponge of anti-viral effectors in human cells. PMID:24992036

Bidet, Katell; Dadlani, Dhivya; Garcia-Blanco, Mariano A.

2014-01-01

35

CAEV REVIEW  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV) is a small ruminant lentivirus (SRLV) in a family of retroviruses also including maedi-visna virus (MVV) and ovine progressive pneumonia virus (OPPV). SRLV infections are life long in sheep and goats and are characterized by periods of latency, followed b...

36

Although Macrophage-Tropic Simian/Human Immunodeficiency Viruses Can Exhibit a Range of Pathogenic Phenotypes, a Majority of Isolates Induce No Clinical Disease in Immunocompetent Macaques?  

PubMed Central

Unlike prototypical lentiviruses like visna and caprine arthritis-encephalitis viruses, which are mainly macrophage tropic (M-tropic), primate lentiviruses primarily target CD4+ T lymphocytes. We previously reported that during the late phase of highly pathogenic chimeric simian/human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) infections of rhesus macaques, when CD4+ T cells have been systemically eliminated, high levels of viremia are maintained from productively infected macrophages. The availability of several different M-tropic SHIVs from such late-stage immunocompromised animals provided the opportunity to assess whether they might contribute to the immune deficiency induced by their T-cell-tropic parental viruses or possibly cause a distinct disease based on their capacity to infect macrophages. Pairs of rhesus monkeys were therefore inoculated intravenously with six different M-tropic SHIV preparations, and their plasma viral RNA loads, circulating lymphocyte subset numbers, and eventual disease outcomes were monitored. Only one of these six M-tropic SHIVs induced any disease; the disease phenotype observed was the typical rapid, complete, and irreversible depletion of CD4+ T cells induced by pathogenic SHIVs. An analysis of two asymptomatic monkeys, previously inoculated with an M-tropic SHIV recovered directly from alveolar macrophages, revealed that this inoculum targeted alveolar macrophages in vivo, compared to a T-cell-tropic virus, yet no clinical disease occurred. Although one isolate did, in fact, induce the prototypical rapid, irreversible, and complete loss of CD4+ T cells, indicating that M-tropism and pathogenicity may not be inversely related, the majority of M-tropic SHIVs induced no clinical disease in immunocompetent macaques. PMID:17626082

Igarashi, Tatsuhiko; Donau, Olivia K.; Imamichi, Hiromi; Nishimura, Yoshiaki; Theodore, Theodore S.; Iyengar, Ranjini; Erb, Christopher; Buckler-White, Alicia; Buckler, Charles E.; Martin, Malcolm A.

2007-01-01

37

CAPRINE DIAGNOSTIC PLANS/PANELS Post Office: P.O. Box 5786  

E-print Network

. DIAGNOSTIC PLAN/PANEL TESTS PERFORMED PRICES SAMPLES NEEDED Caprine Abortion Fetal Tissue Diagnostic Plan (3 FROM FREEZING. Kit is available. See Ruminant Abortion Kit for more complete instructions. If full/PANEL TESTS PERFORMED PRICES SAMPLES NEEDED Caprine Abortion Serology Panel + Selenium Bovine Virus Diarrhea

Keinan, Alon

38

Phylogenetic analysis of small ruminant lentiviruses from Southern Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first lentivirus isolated from sheep in Brazil was analysed phylogenetically. Evolutionary trees of the proviral 597 nucleotide gag and 432 nucleotide pol sequences obtained by the maximum likelihood method demonstrated that the sheep isolate clustered with prototype Maedi Visna virus whereas three lentiviruses isolated from goats in the same geographic region were close to caprine arthritis encephalitis prototypes. A

Ana Paula Ravazzolo; Dilmara Reischak; Ernst Peterhans; Reto Zanoni

2001-01-01

39

Cytokine detection in eiav-infected equine monocyte-derived macrophages using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction  

E-print Network

caprine arthritis encephalitis virus Cf2Th canine thymus CM control media CPE cytopathic effect Cpm counts per minute Ct threshold cycle CV coefficient of variation ED equine............. 37 2.3 Reproducibility as measured with plasmid DNA templates ...................... 39 2.4 Cycle threshold (Ct) values for LPS-stimulated and unstimulated EMDM...

Allen, Charlotte Annette

2009-05-15

40

Cytokine detection in EIAV-infected equine monocyte-derived macrophages using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction  

E-print Network

caprine arthritis encephalitis virus Cf2Th canine thymus CM control media CPE cytopathic effect Cpm counts per minute Ct threshold cycle CV coefficient of variation ED equine............. 37 2.3 Reproducibility as measured with plasmid DNA templates ...................... 39 2.4 Cycle threshold (Ct) values for LPS-stimulated and unstimulated EMDM...

Allen, Charlotte Annette

2008-10-10

41

TNF¿ and GM-CSF-induced activation of the CAEV promoter is independent of AP-1  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus transcription is under the control of the viral promoter within the long terminal repeat. Previous studies with the closely related maedi visna lentivirus have indicated that viral transcription is dependent upon the AP-1 transcription factor. Other studies hav...

42

Immunogenetics of Small Ruminant Lentiviral Infections  

PubMed Central

The small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLV) include the caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV) and the Maedi-Visna virus (MVV). Both of these viruses limit production and can be a major source of economic loss to producers. Little is known about how the immune system recognizes and responds to SRLVs, but due to similarities with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), HIV research can shed light on the possible immune mechanisms that control or lead to disease progression. This review will focus on the host immune response to HIV-1 and SRLV, and will discuss the possibility of breeding for enhanced SRLV disease resistance. PMID:25153344

Stonos, Nancy; Wootton, Sarah K.; Karrow, Niel

2014-01-01

43

Phylogenetic analysis of small ruminant lentiviruses from Southern Brazil.  

PubMed

The first lentivirus isolated from sheep in Brazil was analysed phylogenetically. Evolutionary trees of the proviral 597 nucleotide gag and 432 nucleotide pol sequences obtained by the maximum likelihood method demonstrated that the sheep isolate clustered with prototype Maedi Visna virus whereas three lentiviruses isolated from goats in the same geographic region were close to caprine arthritis encephalitis prototypes. A subsequent comparison of sequence data of these viruses with those contained in the EMBL sequence database revealed that, in contrast to caprine prototypic viruses, all prototypic Maedi Visna viruses contain a deletion of six nucleotides in the gag gene resulting in the deletion of two residues in the central region of capsid protein. This deletion may be a useful marker in the analysis of small ruminant lentiviruses, especially when considering possible transmission of lentiviruses between sheep and goats. PMID:11551652

Ravazzolo, A P; Reischak, D; Peterhans, E; Zanoni, R

2001-11-01

44

In vitro inhibition of caprine herpesvirus 1 by acyclovir and mizoribine.  

PubMed

Caprine herpesvirus 1 (CpHV-1) infection in goats induces genital vesicular-ulcerative lesions that strictly resemble the lesions induced by herpesvirus 2 in the human host. The immunosuppressive drug Mizoribine (MIZ) was found to increase the antiviral activity of Acyclovir (ACV) against herpesvirus infections, raising interesting perspectives on new combined therapeutic strategies. In this study the anti-CpHV-1 activity in vitro of ACV alone or in combination with MIZ was characterized. When applied alone at non-toxic concentrations, ACV had a slight effect on CpHV-1 replication while in combination with MIZ a dose-dependent inhibition of the virus yield was observed with an IC50 of ACV of 28.5?µM. These findings suggest that combined therapy of ACV and MIZ is potentially exploitable in the treatment of genital infection by herpesviruses. PMID:25660402

Elia, G; Camero, M; Decaro, N; Lovero, A; Martella, V; Tempesta, M; Buonavoglia, C; Crescenzo, G

2015-04-01

45

Identification and cloning of caprine uterine serpin.  

PubMed

The uterine serpins have been described in sheep, cattle, and pigs as a highly diverged group of the large superfamily of serpin proteins that typically function as serine proteinase inhibitors. Here, the range of species that possess and express a uterine serpin gene is extended to the goat. Sequencing of cDNA amplified from total RNA from a pregnant goat at day 25 of pregnancy resulted in a 1,292 bp full-length consensus cDNA sequence for caprine uterine serpin (CaUS). The predicted amino acid sequence of the caprine precursor showed 96%, 82%, 55%, and 56% identity to OvUS, BoUS, PoUS1, and PoUS2, respectively. The signal peptide extends from amino acids 1 to 25, resulting in a secreted protein of 404 amino acids and 46,227 Mr (excluding carbohydrate). Both the goat and sheep uterine serpins have a nine amino acid insert in the Helix I region that is not found in bovine or porcine uterine serpins. A total of 13 amino acids in CaUS are different than those for the nearest homologue, ovine uterine serpin. One of these is in the site of cleavage of the signal sequence, where a single nucleotide substitution (G --> C) changed the cysteine for the sheep, bovine, and porcine genes to a serine. In addition, the amino acid at the putative P1-P1' site (the scissile bond for antiproteinase activity) is a valine for CaUS, BoUS, PoUS1, and PoUS2 versus an alanine for OvUS. The hinge region of all five of the uterine serpins (P17-P9) is distinct from the consensus pattern for inhibitory sequences and it is unlikely, therefore, that the uterine serpins possess prototypical proteinase inhibitory activity. The goat uterine serpin was immunolocalized to the glandular epithelium of the endometrium from a pregnant nanny at day 25 of pregnancy. There was also immunoreactive product in scattered luminal epithelial cells. No immunoreaction product was detected in endometrium from a nanny at day 5 of the estrous cycle. Western blotting of uterine fluid collected from the pregnant uterine horn of a unilaterally-pregnant goat revealed the presence of a protein band at Mr approximately 56,000 that reacted with monoclonal antibody to OvUS. In conclusion, the range of species in which uterine serpins are present and expressed in the uterus includes the goat in addition to the previously described sheep, cow, and pig. In all of these species, the uterine serpin is derived primarily from glandular epithelium, is secreted into the uterine lumen, and contains sequence characteristics suggesting it is not an inhibitory serpin. PMID:15625696

Tekin, Saban; Padua, Maria B; Newton, Gary R; Hansen, Peter J

2005-03-01

46

Transmissibility of caprine scrapie in ovine transgenic mice  

PubMed Central

Background The United States control program for classical ovine scrapie is based in part on the finding that infection is typically spread through exposure to shed placentas from infected ewes. Transmission from goats to sheep is less well described. A suitable rodent model for examining the effect of caprine scrapie isolates in the ovine host will be useful in the ovine scrapie eradication effort. In this study, we describe the incubation time, brain lesion profile, glycoform pattern and PrPSc distribution patterns in a well characterized transgenic mouse line (Tg338) expressing the ovine VRQ prion allele, following inoculation with brain from scrapie infected goats. Results First passage incubation times of caprine tissue in Tg338 ovinized mice varied widely but second passage intervals were shorter and consistent. Vacuolation profiles, glycoform patterns and paraffin-embedded tissue blots from terminally ill second passage mice derived from sheep or goat inocula were similar. Proteinase K digestion products of murine tissue were slightly smaller than the original ruminant inocula, a finding consistent with passage of several ovine strains in previous reports. Conclusions These findings demonstrate that Tg338 mice propagate prions of caprine origin and provide a suitable baseline for examination of samples identified in the expanded US caprine scrapie surveillance program. PMID:22472560

2012-01-01

47

ACTIVIT INHIBITRICE DES SRUMS DE CHVRES INFECTES SUR LA FORMATION DE SYNCITIA DUS AU VIRUS DE L'ARTHRITE  

E-print Network

ACTIVITÉ INHIBITRICE DES SÉRUMS DE CHÈVRES INFECTÉES SUR LA FORMATION DE SYNCITIA DUS AU VIRUS DE L'ARTHRITE sérum; dans le cas du virus de l'arthrite de la chèvre (Caprine Arthritis Encephali- tis Virus, CAEV des neutralisant efficace (Russo 1984). Le virus de l'arthrite de la chèvre se multiplie dans les cellules de la

Boyer, Edmond

48

EFFECTS OF BOVINE AND CAPRINE MONTEREY JACK CHEESES FORTIFIED WITH MILK CALCIUM ON BONE MINERALIZATION IN RATS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Bovine and caprine Monterey Jack cheeses were produced unfortified (cheese) or fortified with milk calcium (Ca) cheese. Five groups of male rats were fed a control diet or more of four experimental diets: bovine cheese diet, bovine Ca-cheese diet, caprine cheese diet, and caprine Ca-cheese diet to...

49

Comparative Characterization of Whey Protein Concentrates from Ovine, Caprine and Bovine Breeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whey protein concentrates (WPC) obtained from ovine, caprine and bovine wheys were studied in terms of chemical composition (concentration of lactose, protein, moisture, ash, calcium, sodium and potassium) and physical properties (onset denaturation temperature and viscoelastic behaviour). Ovine, caprine and bovine WPC exhibited decreasing protein content and increasing lactose content, in this order. The differences in ash content were relatively

Manuela E. Pintado; J. A. Lopes da Silva; F. Xavier Malcata

1999-01-01

50

Morphological changes of post-isolation of caprine pancreatic islet.  

PubMed

Pancreatic islet transplantation is commonly used to treat diabetes. Cell isolation and purification methods can affect the structure and function of the isolated islet cells. Thus, the development of cell isolation techniques that preserve the structure and function of pancreatic islet cells is essential for enabling successful transplantation procedures. The impact of purification procedures on cell function can be assessed by performing ultrastructure and in vivo studies. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of caprine islets purification procedure on islet cell ultrastructure and functional integrity prior to and post-isolation/purification. The islets were isolated from caprine pancreas by using an optimized collagenase XI-S concentration, and the cells were subsequently purified using Euro-Ficoll density gradient. In vitro viability of islets was determined by fluorescein diacetate and propidium iodide staining. Static incubation was used to assess functionality and insulin production by islet cells in culture media when exposed to various levels of glucose. Pancreatic tissues were examined by using light microscopy, fluorescence microscopy, scanning, and transmission electron microscopy. In vivo viability and functionality of caprine islets were assessed by evaluating the transplanted islets in diabetic mice. Insulin assay of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion test showed that the insulin levels increased with increasing concentration of glucose. Thus, purified islets stimulated with high glucose concentration (25 mM) secreted higher levels of insulin (0.542?±?0.346 ?g/L) than the insulin levels (0.361?±?0.219, 0.303?±?0.234 ?g/L) secreted by exposure to low glucose concentrations (1.67 mM). Furthermore, insulin levels of recipient mice were significantly higher (p?caprine islets had minor deformations in the plasma membrane and changes in cell integrity of peripheral region, the alterations did not significantly alter the functionality and viability of the purified islets. PMID:25303943

Hani, Homayoun; Allaudin, Zeenathul Nazariah; Tengku Ibrahim, Tengku Azmi; Mohd-Lila, Mohd-Azmi; Sarsaifi, Kazhal; Camalxaman, Siti Nazrina; Othman, Abas Mazni

2015-02-01

51

Polyamine profile in ovine and caprine colostrum and milk.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to monitor the post-partum variation of polyamine content, in ovine and caprine milk, from indigenous Greek breeds. Twenty samples of ewe and 20 samples of goat colostrum and milk were collected at the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th and 15th day post-partum. Putrescine, spermidine and spermine were measured as dansylated derivatives by high-performance liquid chromatography. Putrescine was the least concentrated of these substances in both milk types. Spermidine was the prevailing polyamine in caprine samples, reaching levels up to 4.41 ?mol/l on the 3rd day post-partum. In ovine milk, the profile of the mean concentrations showed greater levels of spermine than spermidine, except for the 5th day post-partum. These data suggest that goat colostrum and ewe milk (15th day) could be considered as good natural sources for these bioactive growth factors, and may become useful raw materials for designing tailored dairy products for specific population groups. PMID:25465997

Galitsopoulou, Augustina; Michaelidou, Alexandra-Maria; Menexes, George; Alichanidis, Efstathios

2015-04-15

52

AN ENZYME-LINKED IMMUNOSORBENT ASSAY (ELISA) FOR THE DETECTION OF CHLAMYDIALANTIBODIES IN CAPRINE SERA  

E-print Network

AN ENZYME-LINKED IMMUNOSORBENT ASSAY (ELISA) FOR THE DETECTION OF CHLAMYDIALANTIBODIES IN CAPRINE on to adopt a threshold value for positive response and to interprete results on a flock basis. Enzyme-linked

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

53

Influence des tanins hydrolysables de chtaignier sur le mtabolisme azot des ovins et des caprins  

E-print Network

Influence des tanins hydrolysables de châtaignier sur le métabolisme azoté des ovins et des caprins Les tanins ont la propriété de se complexer aux protéines. Ceci peut conduire à l'insolubilisation de effets de l'ingestion de tanins sur le métabolisme azoté des ovins et caprins. Des tanins hydrolysables

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

54

The effect of heat treatment and skimming on precipitate formation in caprine and bovine milks.  

PubMed

Caprine and bovine milks have a similar overall gross composition, but vary considerably in the ratios of their casein components. These differences in colloidal casein micelles could affect directly or indirectly the heat stability of caprine and bovine milks at their natural pH. In the present work, the differences in colloidal stability of caprine and bovine milk have been studied by analysing the effect of heat treatment and skimming on precipitation of proteins. Raw and heated milk samples (70 °C/5 min, 80°C/5 min and 90°C/5 min) were centrifuged at 600, 2000, and 4500  g . The amount of precipitate formed after skimming was measured and the protein composition of both precipitates and supernatants analysed using the SDS-PAGE (sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis) and densitometry. In caprine milk, the heat treatment prior to skimming had a statistically significant effect on protein precipitation. Centrifugal force had a statistically significant effect on amount of precipitate for both milks, but the amount was 2 to 4 times higher for caprine milk. When defatting the milk for electrophoresis, a centrifugal force of 600  g appeared to be the most appropriate, in order to avoid protein loss and a possible error in the interpretation of results. Results of this study could also serve as the basis for further investigations on adjusting the skimming conditions for caprine milk in industrial dairy processing environment. PMID:25406911

Miloradovic, Zorana N; Kljajevic, Nemanja V; Jovanovic, Snezana T; Vucic, Tanja R; Macej, Ognjen D

2015-02-01

55

Contagious caprine pleuropneumonia: new aspects of an old disease.  

PubMed

Contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP), caused by Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae, is a serious OIE-listed disease affecting goats in the Middle East, north and east Africa and Asia. Mortality and morbidity rates can be as high as 60% and 90%, respectively, when the disease first enters a territory, invariably through carrier animals. Recent detections of CCPP in Pakistan and Tajikistan are probably the result of improved diagnosis as the disease has been suspected there for many years, while those in Thrace in 2003 and Mauritius in 2009 represent new outbreaks. CCPP was thought to be highly host specific until recent outbreaks in wildlife species including gazelles and gerenuks show that the causative mycoplasma has broader specificity. Diagnosis was hampered by the fastidiousness of the causative mycoplasma but molecular-based tests like PCR have greatly improved detection. Rapid latex agglutination tests that can be performed at the penside are also available for antibody detection. Clinically affected animals respond to a range of antibiotics although it is unlikely that this results in complete elimination of the mycoplasma. Vaccines consisting of saponized organisms have been shown to be protective but the quality and efficacy may be variable. PMID:21951488

Nicholas, R; Churchward, C

2012-06-01

56

A survey of aflatoxin M1 contamination in bulk milk samples from dairy bovine, ovine, and caprine herds in Iran.  

PubMed

A total of 150 bovine (60), ovine (42), and caprine (48) bulk milk samples were analyzed using a commercially available competitive ELISA kit. Overall, AFM1 was found in 46.7 % of the analyzed samples by an average concentration of 40.3 ± 22.2 ng/L. The incidence rates of AFM1 contamination in bovine, ovine, and caprine bulk milk samples were 66.7, 31.0, and 35.4 %, respectively. The concentration of AFM1 in 37.5 % of AFM1-positive bovine milk samples and 5.9 % of AFM1-positive caprine milk samples were higher than 50 ng/L. PMID:22526986

Rahimi, Ebrahim; Ameri, Mehrdad

2012-07-01

57

Functional Properties of Whey Protein Concentrates from Caprine and Ovine Specialty Cheese Wheys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whey protein concentrates were prepared from two caprine and one ovine specialty cheese wheys by ultrafiltration-diafiltration and freeze-drying pro- cesses. The whey protein concentrates were compared with a bovine whey protein concentrate prepared by the same method for differences in composition and functional properties (foam overrun, foam stability, gelation, and emulsifying capability). Ovine whey protein concentrate showed significantly better foam

J. L. Casper; W. L. Wendorff; D. L. Thomas

1999-01-01

58

tude compare de l'activit microbienne dans le rumen chez les caprins et les ovins  

E-print Network

Étude comparée de l'activité microbienne dans le rumen chez les caprins et les ovins II. Effet du'activité microbienne du rumen, une expérimentation est réalisée sur trois boucs Alpin et trois béliers Ile complémentée avec du tourteau. Si l'activité microbienne est significativement stimulée aussi bien par l

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

59

Screening of fluoroquinolone residues in caprine milk using a 5-kg luminescence photometer  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A terbium-sensitized luminescence (TSL) method was developed to screen presence of residues of four fluoroquinolones (FQ) registered in caprine milk in the European Union: enrofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, flumequine, and danofloxacin. After extraction in McIlvaine buffer and SPE cleanup, TSL was measure...

60

Lipid oxidation in algae oil-in-water emulsions stabilized by bovine and caprine caseins  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Caseins (alpha S1-, alpha S2-, and beta-casein) are phosphoproteins that are capable of binding transition metals and scavenging free radicals, these properties make them good candidates to be used as natural antioxidants in oil-in-water emulsions. Caprine casein exhibits variability in aS1-casein c...

61

Determination of the molecular defect of caprine N-acetylglucosamine 6-sulfatase deficiency  

SciTech Connect

Caprine N-acetylglucosamine 6-sulfatase (G6S) deficiency is the only animal analog of Sanfilippo syndrome (type D). The goat with this mucopolysaccharidousis disorder (MPS III D) demonstrated delayed motor development and growth retardation but reached sexual maturity before dying suddenly at 19 mo. Histochemical and biochemical analysis of the liver showed glycosaminoglycan storage and there was GM{sub 3} ganglioside accumulation in the brain. Towards further development of this animal model for treatment strategies, we have cloned the caprine G6S gene, determined the nature of the gene defect in caprine MPS III D and compared the goat sequence to the human sequence. The human and caprine sequences show an overall sequence similarity of about 90% in the coding region. The 5{prime}-coding region is very GC-rich in both the human and caprine G6S. One striking difference between the human and caprine genes is the presence of a GCC repeat in the goat resulting in insertion of 6 prolines and a leucine in the signal peptide. This proline-rich stretch was confirmed by amplifying and sequencing the same cDNA segment from other goats. Additionally, this region was examined in bovine cDNA and found to contain 4 prolines and 2 leucines. The mRNA for G6S consists of two species of approximately 4.0 and 4.2 kb with a coding region of 1.6 kb. For mutation analysis a series of primers was designed to cover the entire G6S coding region. Amplicons from RT-PCR on normal and affected goat total RNA were produced and sequenced. A single base substitution, T for C, was found in the 5{prime} region of the coding sequence of the affected animals that creates a stop codon. This mutation introduces an Alu I restriction site. PCR primers designed to amplify a short segment of genomic DNA encompassing the mutation have been used to identify putative carriers and develop a caprine Sanfilippo III D carrier colony.

Leipprandt, J.R.; Jones, M.Z.; Cavanagh, K.T. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)] [and others

1994-09-01

62

The distributions of major whey proteins in acid wheys obtained from caprine\\/bovine and ovine\\/bovine milk mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distributions of major whey proteins in acid wheys from different caprine\\/bovine and ovine\\/bovine milk mixtures were investigated using native-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). Significantly different distributions of major whey proteins as individual proteins or as the sum of the same protein from different species were established. The caprine major whey proteins were dominant in mixtures with 10%, 20% and 30%

Mirjana B. Pesic; Miroljub B. Barac; Miroslav M. Vrvic; Nikola M. Ristic; Ognjen D. Macej; Sladjana P. Stanojevic; Aleksandar Z. Kostic

2011-01-01

63

Viruses  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Lytic bacteriophages, viruses which infect and lyse bacterial cells, can provide a natural method to reduce bacterial pathogens on produce commodities. The use of multi-phage cocktails is most likely to be effective against bacterial pathogens on produce commodities, and minimize the development of...

64

A triple-primer PCR method for sexing endangered caprine species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Molecular sexing is becoming an essential technique in understanding the sexual structure and dynamics of natural populations.\\u000a Herein, we report on a triple-primer PCR method based on the last introns of the ZFX\\/Y alleles for sex identification in Bovidae,\\u000a and its successful application to five endangered caprine species. The male samples generated a ~230 bp ZFX-specific fragment\\u000a and a ~140 bp ZFY-specific

Bo Zeng; Liu Xu; Bisong Yue; Fangdong Zou

2009-01-01

65

Isolation, serologic and molecular characterization of the first G3 caprine rotavirus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary.  ?We isolated a rotavirus in cell culture, named the GRV strain, from a stool specimen of a Korean goat with diarrhea, and\\u000a performed an in-depth characterization. At various passage levels in cell culture, the GRV strain retained its pathogenicity\\u000a for goat kids, thereby for the first time establishing that a caprine rotavirus can cause diarrhea in goat kids. The GRV

J.-B. Lee; S.-J. Youn; T. Nakagomi; S.-Y. Park; T.-J. Kim; C.-S. Song; H.-K. Jang; B.-S. Kim; O. Nakagomi

2003-01-01

66

A primitive caprine from the Upper Vallesian of La Roma 2 (Alfambra, Teruel, Aragon, Spain)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe a new caprine form from the Upper Vallesian of La Roma 2 (Teruel Basin, Aragon). Aragoral mudejar Gen.n., sp.n. is close to the primitive forms of the Hippotraginae-Caprinae group. It differs from Norbertia hellenica by its more primitive dentition, the greater separation between the bases of the horn cores, the decreased thickness of the frontal bone and the relatively smaller size of the horn cores.

Alcalá, Luis; Morales, Jorge

1997-06-01

67

Two Different Macaviruses, ovine herpesvirus-2 and caprine herpesvirus-2, Behave Differently in Water Buffaloes than in Cattle or in Their Respective Reservoir Species  

PubMed Central

The ongoing global spread of “exotic” farm animals, such as water buffaloes, which carry their native sets of viruses, may bear unknown risks for the animals, into whose ecological niches the former are introduced and vice versa. Here, we report on the occurrence of malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) on Swiss farms, where “exotic” water buffaloes were kept together with “native” animals, i.e. cattle, sheep, and goats. In the first farm with 56 water buffaloes, eight cases of MCF due to ovine herpesvirus-2 (OvHV-2) were noted, whereas additional ten water buffaloes were subclinically infected with either OvHV-2 or caprine herpesvirus-2 (CpHV-2). On the second farm, 13 water buffaloes were infected with CpHV-2 and two of those succumbed to MCF. In neither farm, any of the two viruses were detected in cattle, but the Macaviruses were present at high prevalence among their original host species, sheep and goats, respectively. On the third farm, sheep were kept well separated from water buffaloes and OvHV-2 was not transmitted to the buffaloes, despite of high prevalence of the virus among the sheep. Macavirus DNA was frequently detected in the nasal secretions of virus-positive animals and in one instance OvHV-2 was transmitted vertically to an unborn water buffalo calf. Thus, water buffaloes seem to be more susceptible than cattle to infection with either Macavirus; however, MCF did not develop as frequently. Therefore, water buffaloes seem to represent an interesting intermediate-type host for Macaviruses. Consequently, water buffaloes in their native, tropic environments may be vulnerable and endangered to viruses that originate from seemingly healthy, imported sheep and goats. PMID:24386255

Stahel, Anina B. J.; Baggenstos, Rhea; Engels, Monika; Friess, Martina; Ackermann, Mathias

2013-01-01

68

CAPRINE HERPESVIRUS 2 ASSOCIATED MALIGNANT CATARRHAL FEVER IN DEER  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A presumptive histopathologic diagnosis of malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) was made in three cases of disease in Sika deer and white-tailed deer with various degrees of hair loss and skin lesions. Antibody against an epitope conserved among the MCF group viruses was detected in the serum of all dise...

69

Cross-linking of bovine and caprine caseins by microbial transglutaminase and their use as microencapsulating agents for n-3 fatty acids  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Bovine and caprine caseins were cross-linked with microbial transglutaminase (mTG). The mTG-cross-linked bovine or caprine casein dispersion, mixed with 14.5% maltodextrin (DE = 40), was used to prepare emulsions with 10.5% algae oil. Oxidative stability of emulsions was evaluated by peroxide valu...

70

Characterization of caprine herpesvirus 1 (CpHV1) glycoprotein E and glycoprotein I ectodomains expressed in mammalian cells.  

PubMed

Caprine herpesvirus 1 (CpHV1) is a member of ruminant alphaherpesviruses antigenically related to the prototype bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV1). Although cross reactivity between the two viruses involves many structural glycoproteins, the use of two competitive BoHV1 ELISAs detecting anti gB and gE antibodies has been proposed for CpHV1 infection, resulting mainly in a gB+/gE- reactivity and leading to suppose that CpHV1 gE may represent an useful target for the development of specific diagnostic test. Since CpHV1 gE gene has been only partially characterized so far, in this study the genome fragment of the short unique unit (Us) encompassing gI and gE gene was amplified and sequenced. Gene fragments encoding the ectodomain of both glycoproteins were subcloned into pSECTag2/Hygro and expressed in HEK293T cells as secreted form in serum free medium. Due to the lack of specific monoclonal antibodies (Mabs), the same recombinant glycoproteins were obtained from BoHV1 and used as positive control with a panel of specific gE and gI Mabs as well as in some ELISA assays. Results clearly indicate that the ectodomain of CpHV1 gE, immobilized on solid face in an indirect ELISA format, represents a sensitive and specific marker of infection, when compared with neutralization test, with absence of very low degree of cross-reactivity with BoHV1 gE counterpart, while the use of CpHV1 gI-ELISA or a combination of gE/gI complex did not significantly improve the sensitivity of the assay. In addition, in the rare event in which cross species barrier occurs for both viruses from their natural host to other species, the use of both BoHV1 and CpHV1 gE in a comparative assay may be proposed. PMID:23490557

Bertolotti, Luigi; Rosamilia, Alfonso; Profiti, Margherita; Brocchi, Emiliana; Masoero, Loretta; Franceschi, Valentina; Tempesta, Maria; Donofrio, Gaetano; Rosati, Sergio

2013-06-28

71

Interspecies nuclear transfer of Tibetan antelope using caprine oocyte as recipient.  

PubMed

Interspecies nuclear transfer is an invalulable tool for studying nucleus-cytoplasm interactions; and at the same time, it provides a possible alternative to clone endangered animals whose oocytes are difficult to obtain. In the present study, we investigated the possibility of cloning Tibetan antelope embryos using abattoir-derived caprine oocytes as recipients. Effects of culture conditions, enucleation timing, and donor cell passages on the in vitro development of Tibetan antelope-goat cloned embryos were studied. Maternal to zygotic transition timing of interspecies Tibetan antelope embryos was also investigated using two types of cloned embryos, Tibetan antelope-rabbit and Tibetan antelope-goat embryos. Our results indicate that: (1) goat oocyte is able to reprogram somatic cells of different genus and supports development to blastocyst in vitro. (2) Coculture system supported the development of Tibetan antelope-goat embryos to blastocyst rate stage (4.0%), while CR1aa alone did not. (3) When MII phase enucleated caprine cytoplast and TII phase enucleated caprine cytoplast were used as recipients, the fusion rate and blastocyst rate of hybrid embryos were not statistically different (73.9% vs. 67.4%; 4.0% vs. 1.1%). (4) When donor cells at 3-8 passages were used, 2.9% hybrid embryos developed to blastocysts, while none developed to blastocysts when cells at 10-17 passages were used. (5) There may be a morula-to-blastocyst block for Tibetan antelope-goat, while there may be an 8- to 16-cell block for Tibetan antelope-rabbit embryos. PMID:17034044

Zhao, Zhen-Jun; Li, Rui-Chang; Cao, Heng-Hua; Zhang, Quan-Jun; Jiang, Man-Xi; Ouyang, Ying-Chun; Nan, Chang-Long; Lei, Zi-Li; Song, Xiang-Fen; Sun, Qing-Yuan; Chen, Da-Yuan

2007-04-01

72

Purification and characterization of caprine kidney uricase, possessing novel kinetic and thermodynamic properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purified uricase from a caprine kidney, possessed K\\u000a \\u000a m\\u000a and V\\u000a max values of 1.1 mg ml?1 and 3512 IU  (mg protein)?1 for uric acid hydrolysis, respectively. The optimum temperature and pH for catalytic activity were 40 °C and 8.5, respectively.\\u000a The activation energy for formation of ES complex was 13.6 kJ  mol?1. Enthalpy (?H*), entropy of activation (?S*) and Gibbs free energy demand of

M. I. Rajoka; Khalil-ur-Rehman; Tehmina Tabish; M. A. Zia

2006-01-01

73

INFLUENCE OF BOVINE AND CAPRINE CASEIN PHOSPHOPEPTIDES DIFFERING IN ALPHA S1-CASEIN CONTENT IN DETERMINING THE ABSORPTION OF CALCIUM FROM BOVINE AND CAPRINE CALCIUM-FORTIFIED MILKS IN RATS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Bovine and caprine milks have a similar overall gross composition, but vary considerably in the ratios of their casein components. These differences cause significant changes in the casein’s ability to bind and stabilize calcium (Ca). It might be expected that these in vitro variations, which are th...

74

Courte note Dtection du virus de l'arthrite encphalite caprine  

E-print Network

contaminations liées à l'inges- tion de colostrum contaminé, la voie orale étant considérée comme la voie de contamination que le colostrum [5]. En dépit de différents travaux réalisés en vue de préciser d'autres voies de

Boyer, Edmond

75

The Fetal Cleft palate: V. Elucidation of the Mechanism of Palatal Clefting in the Congenital Caprine Model  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Maternal ingestion of Nicotiana glauca from gestation days 32 through 41 results in a high incidence of cleft palate in Spanish goats. This caprine cleft palate model was used to evaluate the temporal sequence of palatal shelf fusion throughout the period of cleft induction with the poisonous plant...

76

ABSORPTION AND HALF-LIFE OF BOVINE, CAPRINE AND OVINE IgG1 IN THE NEWBORN LAMB.  

E-print Network

ont été nourris au biberon avec un colostrum bovin identique pendant les 32 premières heures de la vie, alors que six agneaux à terme et sept prématurés ont reçu le même colostrum, un colostrum caprin, puis un colostrum ovin, respecti- vement 2 h, 8 h et 16 h post-partum. Dans le premier groupe, les taux

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

77

Molecular dating of caprines using ancient DNA sequences of Myotragus balearicus, an extinct endemic Balearic mammal  

PubMed Central

Background Myotragus balearicus was an endemic bovid from the Balearic Islands (Western Mediterranean) that became extinct around 6,000-4,000 years ago. The Myotragus evolutionary lineage became isolated in the islands most probably at the end of the Messinian crisis, when the desiccation of the Mediterranean ended, in a geological date established at 5.35 Mya. Thus, the sequences of Myotragus could be very valuable for calibrating the mammalian mitochondrial DNA clock and, in particular, the tree of the Caprinae subfamily, to which Myotragus belongs. Results We have retrieved the complete mitochondrial cytochrome b gene (1,143 base pairs), plus fragments of the mitochondrial 12S gene and the nuclear 28S rDNA multi-copy gene from a well preserved Myotragus subfossil bone. The best resolved phylogenetic trees, obtained with the cytochrome b gene, placed Myotragus in a position basal to the Ovis group. Using the calibration provided by the isolation of Balearic Islands, we calculated that the initial radiation of caprines can be dated at 6.2 ± 0.4 Mya. In addition, alpine and southern chamois, considered until recently the same species, split around 1.6 ± 0.3 Mya, indicating that the two chamois species have been separated much longer than previously thought. Conclusion Since there are almost no extant endemic mammals in Mediterranean islands, the sequence of the extinct Balearic endemic Myotragus has been crucial for allowing us to use the Messinian crisis calibration point for dating the caprines phylogenetic tree. PMID:16332256

Lalueza-Fox, Carles; Castresana, Jose; Sampietro, Lourdes; Marquès-Bonet, Tomàs; Alcover, Josep Antoni; Bertranpetit, Jaume

2005-01-01

78

Adams DS, Crawford TB (1980) CAE: a viral arthritis encephalitis syndrome in goats. Int  

E-print Network

pneumopathies des petits ruminants) (Faugère et Faugère, 1986 ; Faye et Quirin, 1992 ; Lancelot et al, 1992. C'est ainsi que la fièvre aphteuse, la peste bovine, la péripneu- monie contagieuse ou les

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

79

Effect of vitamin C on growth of caprine spermatogonial stem cells in vitro.  

PubMed

The genetic manipulation of spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) can be used for the production of transgenic animals in a wide range of species. However, this technology is limited by the absence of an ideal culture system in which SSCs can be maintained and proliferated, especially in domestic animals like the goat. The aim of this study therefore was to investigate whether the addition of vitamin C (Vc) in cell culture influences the growth of caprine SSCs. Various concentrations of Vc (0, 5, 10, 25, 40, and 50 ?g/mL(-1)) were added to SSC culture media, and their effect on morphology and alkaline phosphatase activity was studied. The number of caprine SSC colonies and area covered by them were measured at 10 days of culture. The expression of various germ cell and somatic cell markers such as VASA, integrins, Oct-4, GATA-4, ?-SMA, vimentin, and Thy-1 was studied to identify the proliferated cells using immunostaining analyses. Further, the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level was measured at the 3rd, 6th, and 9th day after culture, and expression of Bax, Bcl-2, and P53, factors involved in the regulation of apoptosis, were analyzed on the 7th day after culture using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The results showed that the SSCs formed compact colonies and had unclear borders in the different Vc-supplemented groups at 10 days, and there were no major morphologic differences between the groups. The number and area of colonies were both the highest in the 40 ?g/mL(-1) Vc group. Differential expression of markers for germ cells, undifferentiated spermatogonia, and testis somatic cells was observed. Cultured germ cell clumps were found to have alkaline phosphatase activity regardless of the Vc dose. The number of Thy-1- and Oct-4-positive cells was the most in the 40 ?g/mL(-1) Vc group. Moreover, the level of ROS was dependent on the Vc dose and culture time. The Vc dose 40 ?g/mL(-1) was found to be optimum with regard to decreasing ROS generation, and increasing the expression of the antiapoptotic gene Bcl-2 and decreasing the expression of the proapoptotic genes Bax and P53. In conclusion, the addition of 40 ?g/mL(-1) Vc can maintain a certain physiological level of ROS, trigger the expression of the antiapoptosis gene Bcl-2, suppress the proapoptotic gene P53 and Bax pathway, and further promote the proliferation of caprine SSCs in vitro. PMID:24368149

Wang, Juhua; Cao, Hongguo; Xue, Xiuheng; Fan, Caiyun; Fang, Fugui; Zhou, Jie; Zhang, Yunhai; Zhang, Xiaorong

2014-03-01

80

Fatal transmission of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia to an Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx).  

PubMed

Contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP) is an infectious respiratory disease mainly affecting domestic goats. As CCPP has never been documented in grazing antelopes (subfamily hippotraginae), they were not considered susceptible. Mycoplasma capricolum subspecies capripneumoniae (Mccp) was isolated from pleural liquid collected during the necropsy of a severely emaciated Arabian oryx with mild nasal discharge. The Mccp isolate was then genotyped using a multilocus sequence scheme; the sequence type was identical to the Mccp strain previously identified in a sand gazelle from a nearby enclosure. This case shows for the first time that members of the hippotraginae subfamily, here the Arabian oryx, can be affected by CCPP. In addition, genotyping shows that the oryx was most probably infected, at a distance, by sand gazelles. PMID:25069622

Chaber, A L; Lignereux, L; Al Qassimi, M; Saegerman, C; Manso-Silván, L; Dupuy, V; Thiaucourt, F

2014-09-17

81

Association analysis of polymorphisms in caprine KiSS1 gene with reproductive traits.  

PubMed

KiSS1 is considered to be a key mediator of molecular mechanism of reproduction (puberty and prolificacy) in mammals. Kisspeptins are a family of structurally related peptides, encoded by KiSS1 gene, with ability to regulate gonadotropin-releasing hormone and hence hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. The present study investigated the polymorphism of caprine KiSS1 gene in 9 Indian goat breeds differing in sexual precocity and prolificacy. Comparison of KiSS1 amplified sequences of indigenous goats resulted in identification of nine SNPs (intron (1) G296C, T455G, T505A, T693C, T950C and intron (2) T1125C, A2510G, C2540T, A2803G) of which four are novel. These loci were not segregating together (r(2)<0.33). Mutations existed in both, sexually precocious and late-maturing goat breeds as well as low and high prolificacy goat breeds. Three loci reported to be associated with goat litter size (G296C, G2510A and C2540T) were identified in Indian goats as well. Association between loci of KiSS1 gene and age of puberty as well as litter size was explored in Black Bengal (N=158), a sexually precocious and prolific goat breed of India by designing PCR-RFLP. None of the mutations were found to be associated with reproductive traits however, difference in litter size as well age of sexual maturity for different genotypes indicates that the study on additional data based on more number of breeds and animals would be interesting to perform. Considering the importance of the reproductive trait in small ruminants, the results extend the limited information on genetic variation of the caprine KiSS1, which might contribute toward molecular breeding to enhance productivity of goat. PMID:25308062

Maitra, A; Sharma, Rekha; Ahlawat, Sonika; Tantia, M S; Roy, Manoranjan; Prakash, Ved

2014-12-10

82

Purification and Characterization of a Sperm Motility Inhibiting Factor from Caprine Epididymal Plasma  

PubMed Central

Several studies have been reported on the occurrence of sperm motility inhibiting factors in the male reproductive fluids of different mammalian species, but these proteins have not been adequately purified and characterized. A novel sperm motility inhibiting factor (MIF-II) has been purified from caprine epididymal plasma (EP) by Hydroxylapatite gel adsorption chromatography, DEAE-Cellulose ion-exchange chromatography and chromatofocusing. The MIF-II has been purified to apparent homogeneity and the molecular weight estimated by Sephacryl S-300 gel filtration is 160 kDa. MIF-II is a dimeric protein, made up of two subunits each having a molecular mass of 80 kDa as shown by SDS-PAGE. The isoelectric point of MIF-II is 5.1 as determined by chromatofocusing and isoelectric focusing. It is a heat labile protein and maximal active at the pH 6.9 to 7.5. The sperm motility inhibiting protein factor at 2 µg/ml (12.5 nM) level showed maximal motility-inhibiting activity. The observation that the epididymal plasma factor lowered the intracellular cAMP level of spermatozoa in a concentration-dependent manner suggests that it may block the motility of caprine cauda spermatozoa by interfering the cAMP dependent motility function. The results revealed that the purified protein factor has the potential of sperm motility inhibition and may serve as a vaginal contraceptive. The antibody raised against the MIF-II has the potential for enhancement of forward motility of cauda-spermatozoa. This antibody may thus be useful for solving some of the problems of male infertility due to low sperm motility. PMID:20706623

Das, Sujoy; Saha, Sudipta; Majumder, Gopal Chandra; Dungdung, Sandhya Rekha

2010-01-01

83

In vitro evaluation of the fermentation properties and potential prebiotic activity of caprine cheese whey oligosaccharides in batch culture systems.  

PubMed

The prebiotic effect of oligosaccharides recovered and purified from caprine whey, was evaluated by in vitro fermentation under anaerobic conditions using batch cultures at 37°C with human faeces. Effects on key gut bacterial groups were monitored over 24 h by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), which was used to determine a quantitative prebiotic index score. Production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) as fermentation end products was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Growth of Bifidobacterium spp was significantly higher (P ? 0.05) with the purified oligosaccharides compared to the negative control. Lactic and propionic acids were the main SCFAs produced. Antimicrobial activity of the oligosaccharides was also tested, revealing no inhibition though a decrease in Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli growth. These findings indicate that naturally extracted oligosaccharides from caprine whey could be used as new and valuable source of prebiotics. PMID:22996438

Oliveira, Diana L; Costabile, Adele; Wilbey, R Andrew; Grandison, Alistair S; Duarte, Luis C; Roseiro, Luisa B

2012-01-01

84

Direct Evidence for Natural Transmission of Small-Ruminant Lentiviruses of Subtype A4 from Goats to Sheep and Vice Versa  

PubMed Central

Small-ruminant lentiviruses (SRLV), which include the caprine arthritis-encephalitis and the maedi-visna virus, cause persistent inflammatory infections in goats and sheep. SRLV are mainly transmitted from mother to offspring through milk. Transmission after prolonged contact between adult animals has also been observed. The observation that certain SRLV subtypes are found in both goats and sheep suggests that interspecies transmission has occurred on several occasions in the past. We investigated seropositive goats and sheep that were kept together in small mixed herds. Phylogenetic analysis of long proviral sequences in gag and pol, combined with epidemiologic information, demonstrated natural sheep-to-goat transmission of the recently identified SRLV subtype A4 in two instances and goat-to-sheep transmission of the same subtype in one instance. In a further mixed cluster, the direction of the interspecies transmission could not be determined. These findings present for the first time direct evidence that natural interspecies transmission of SRLV is ongoing in both directions. The findings are of relevance to virus eradication programs in both species. PMID:15220425

Shah, Cyril; Huder, Jon B.; Böni, Jürg; Schönmann, Marietta; Mühlherr, Janine; Lutz, Hans; Schüpbach, Jörg

2004-01-01

85

Progress on ovine lentivirus and its resistant genes.  

PubMed

Ovine lentivirus, also termed as small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLVs), includesmaedi-visna virus (MVV) and caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV), which can infect sheep and goats. SRLVs are wide spread throughout the world causing serious economic implications for animal industry. Breed differences in susceptibility to MVV had suggested a strong genetic diversity in sheep. Genome wide association study (GWAS) indicated that a SNP (E35K) in ovine transmemebrane protein 154 (TMEM154) gene was significantly associated with sheep resistance to MVV and can be used as a molecular marker in sheep resistant selection breeding. Here, we review the progress of E35K mutation in sheep TMEM154 gene and its effects on resistance to MVV, and other lentivirusresistant genes including zinc finger cluster, chemokine reveptor 5 (CCR5), tripartite motif-containing 5 alpha (TRIM5?), apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing catalytic polypetide like 3 (APOBEC3), developmental pluripotencyassociated 2 (DPPA2) and DPPA4. Furthermore, SRLVs and the epidemic status are introduced. We hope to provide some guidance for sheep re-sistant breeding. PMID:25487264

Guan, Feng; Shi, Guoqing; Zhao, Jin; Wang, Yimin

2014-12-01

86

The detection of proviral DNA by semi-nested polymerase chain reaction and phylogenetic analysis of Czech Maedi-Visna isolates based on gag gene sequences.  

PubMed

A semi-nested polymerase chain reaction (snPCR) for detecting proviral DNA of ovine lentivirus (OvLV) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells was developed. Primers for snPCR were situated within the gag gene of the Maedi-Visna virus (MVV) genome. A comparison between the snPCR and serological tests (agar gel immunodiffusion test, immunoblot) were performed using 98 ovine blood samples. Thirty (30.6%) of the 98 sheep examined had antibodies specific for the MVV. PCR showed 21 of them to be positive and nine seropositive animals to be PCR negative. Six of the 68 serologically negative sheep were found to be PCR positive, probably due to delayed seroconversion. The PCR amplification products of these six sheep were sequenced and subjected to phylogenetic analysis. The resulting phylogenetic tree of partial gag gene sequences confirmed that the ovine lentivirus genotype in the Czech Republic is more closely related to the prototype MVV isolates than to the caprine arthritis encephalitis viruses. PMID:10829575

Celer, V; Celer, V; Nejedlá, E; Bertoni, G; Peterhans, E; Zanoni, R G

2000-04-01

87

Novel polymorphisms in the caprine PrP gene: a codon 142 mutation associated with scrapie incubation period  

Microsoft Academic Search

Age at disease onset and rate of progression of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies in man, sheep and mice are modulated by the host genome, in particular by the PrP gene and its allelic forms. Analysis of the caprine PrP gene revealed several different alleles. Four PrP protein variants were found, three of which were goat specific with single amino acid changes

Wilfred Goldmann; Trevor Martin; James Foster; Steve Hughes; Grace Smith; Ken Hughes; Michael Dawson; Nora Hunter I

1996-01-01

88

Effects of reducing fat content on the proteolytic and rheological properties of Cheddar-like caprine milk cheese  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

High-moisture Cheddar-like cheeses made from caprine milk containing 3.6, 2.0, 1.0, and 0.1-0.5% fat were manufactured and their proteolytic and rheological properties compared after 1, 3, and 6 mo of aging at 4 deg C. The full-fat (FF), reduced fat (RF), low-fat (LF), and non-fat (NF) cheeses conta...

89

Fragile Mental Retardation Protein Interacts with the RNA-Binding Protein Caprin1 in Neuronal RiboNucleoProtein Complexes  

PubMed Central

Fragile X syndrome is caused by the absence of the Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein (FMRP), an RNA-binding protein. FMRP is associated with messenger RiboNucleoParticles (mRNPs) present in polyribosomes and its absence in neurons leads to alteration in synaptic plasticity as a result of translation regulation defects. The molecular mechanisms by which FMRP plays a role in translation regulation remain elusive. Using immunoprecipitation approaches with monoclonal Ab7G1-1 and a new generation of chicken antibodies, we identified Caprin1 as a novel FMRP-cellular partner. In vivo and in vitro evidence show that Caprin1 interacts with FMRP at the level of the translation machinery as well as in trafficking neuronal granules. As an RNA-binding protein, Caprin1 has in common with FMRP at least two RNA targets that have been identified as CaMKII? and Map1b mRNAs. In view of the new concept that FMRP species bind to RNA regardless of known structural motifs, we propose that protein interactors might modulate FMRP functions. PMID:22737234

El Fatimy, Rachid; Tremblay, Sandra; Dury, Alain Y.; Solomon, Samuel; De Koninck, Paul; Schrader, John W.; Khandjian, Edouard W.

2012-01-01

90

Incidence of Listeria species in bovine, ovine, caprine, camel and water buffalo milk using cultural method and the PCR assay  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine the prevalence rate of Listeria species in bovine, ovine, caprine, camel and water buffalo milk in Iran. Methods From September 2010 to December 2011 a total of 260 bulk milk samples including 85 bovine, 37 camel, 34 water buffalo, 56 ovine and 48 caprine bulk milk samples were collected from commercial dairy herds, in Fars and Khuzestan provinces, Iran and were evaluated for the presence of Listeria species using cultural method and the PCR assay. Results Using cultural method, 19 samples (7.3%) were positive for Listeria spp. The highest prevalence of Listeria was found in raw water buffalo milk (11.8%), followed by raw bovine milk (10.6%), raw ovine milk (7.1%), and raw caprine milk (4.2%) samples. All 37 camel milk samples from 20 camel breeding farms were negative for Listeria spp. The overall prevalence of Listeria was 7.3%, in which Listeria innocua was the most recovered species (4.2%); the remaining isolates were Listeria monocytogenes (1.9%), Listeria ivanovii (0.08%) and Listeria seeligari (0.04%). The PCR assay could identify 8 Listeria-contaminated milk samples that were negative using the cultural method. Conclusions The results presented in this study indicate the potential risk of infection with Listeria in people consuming raw and unpasteurized milk.

Rahimi, Ebrahim; Momtaz, Hassan; Behzadnia, Asma; Baghbadorani, Zeinab Torki

2014-01-01

91

“Of Sheep and Men”: Earliest Direct Evidence of Caprine Domestication in Southern Africa at Leopard Cave (Erongo, Namibia)  

PubMed Central

The origins of herding practices in southern Africa remain controversial. The first appearance of domesticated caprines in the subcontinent is thought to be c. 2000 years BP; however, the origin of this cultural development is still widely debated. Recent genetic analyses support the long-standing hypothesis of herder migration from the north, while other researchers have argued for a cultural diffusion hypothesis where the spread of herding practices took place without necessarily implicating simultaneous and large population movements. Here we document the Later Stone Age (LSA) site of Leopard Cave (Erongo, Namibia), which contains confirmed caprine remains, from which we infer that domesticates were present in the southern African region as early as the end of the first millennium BC. These remains predate the first evidence of domesticates previously recorded for the subcontinent. This discovery sheds new light on the emergence of herding practices in southern Africa, and also on the possible southward routes used by caprines along the western Atlantic coast. PMID:22808138

Pleurdeau, David; Imalwa, Emma; Détroit, Florent; Lesur, Joséphine; Veldman, Anzel; Bahain, Jean-Jacques; Marais, Eugène

2012-01-01

92

Comparison of in vitro developmental competence of cloned caprine embryos using donor karyoplasts from adult bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells vs ear fibroblast cells.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to produce cloned caprine embryos using either caprine bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) or ear fibroblast cells (EFCs) as donor karyoplasts. Caprine MSCs were isolated from male Boer goats of an average age of 1.5 years. To determine the pluripotency of MSCs, the cells were induced to differentiate into osteocytes, chondrocytes and adipocytes. Subsequently, MSCs were characterized through cell surface antigen profiles using specific markers, prior to their use as donor karyoplasts for nuclear transfer. No significant difference (p > 0.05) in fusion rates was observed between MSCs (87.7%) and EFCs (91.3%) used as donor karyoplasts. The cleavage rate of cloned embryos derived with MSCs (87.0%) was similar (p > 0.05) to those cloned using EFCs (84.4%). However, the in vitro development of MSCs-derived cloned embryos (25.3%) to the blastocyst stage was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than those derived with EFCs (20.6%). In conclusion, MSCs could be reprogrammed by caprine oocytes, and production of cloned caprine embryos with MSCs improved their in vitro developmental competence, but not in their fusion and cleavage rate as compared to cloning using somatic cells such as EFCs. PMID:24456113

Kwong, P J; Nam, H Y; Wan Khadijah, W E; Kamarul, T; Abdullah, R B

2014-04-01

93

Identification and Profiling of microRNAs and Their Target Genes from Developing Caprine Skeletal Muscle  

PubMed Central

Goat is an important agricultural animal for meat production. Functional studies have demonstrated that microRNAs (miRNAs) regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level and play an important role in various biological processes. Although studies on miRNAs expression profiles have been performed in various animals, relatively limited information about goat muscle miRNAs has been reported. To investigate the miRNAs involved in regulating different periods of skeletal muscle development, we herein performed a comprehensive research for expression profiles of caprine miRNAs during two developmental stages of skeletal muscles: fetal stage and six month-old stage. As a result, 15,627,457 and 15,593,721 clean reads were obtained from the fetal goat library (FC) and the six month old goat library (SMC), respectively. 464 known miRNAs and 83 novel miRNA candidates were identified. Furthermore, by comparing the miRNA profile, 336 differentially expressed miRNAs were identified and then the potential targets of the differentially expressed miRNAs were predicted. To understand the regulatory network of miRNAs during muscle development, the mRNA expression profiles for the two development stages were characterized and 7322 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified. Then the potential targets of miRNAs were compared to the DEGs, the intersection of the two gene sets were screened out and called differentially expressed targets (DE-targets), which were involved in 231 pathways. Ten of the 231 pathways that have smallest P-value were shown as network figures. Based on the analysis of pathways and networks, we found that miR-424-5p and miR-29a might have important regulatory effect on muscle development, which needed to be further studied. This study provided the first global view of the miRNAs in caprine muscle tissues. Our results help elucidation of complex regulatory networks between miRNAs and mRNAs and for the study of muscle development. PMID:24818606

Fang, Xingtang; Zhao, Yulong; Chen, Xiaohui; Sun, Jiajie; Zhou, Yang; Wang, Jianjin; Wang, Yongan; Lan, Xianyong; Chen, Hong

2014-01-01

94

Small ruminant lentivirus-induced arthritis: clinicopathologic findings in sheep infected by a highly replicative SRLV B2 genotype.  

PubMed

We describe the clinicopathologic features of an arthritis outbreak in sheep induced by small ruminant lentivirus (SRLV), linked to the presence of a new SRLV isolate phylogenetically assigned to caprine arthritis encephalitis virus-like subgroup B2. Thirteen SRLV seropositive Rasa Aragonesa adult ewes were selected from 5 SRLV highly infected flocks (mean seroprevalence, 90.7%) for presenting uni- or bilateral chronic arthritis in the carpal joint. A complete study was performed, including symptomatology, histopathology, immunocytochemistry, immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization, and microbiology. The carpus was the joint almost exclusively affected, with 10 sheep (76%) showing a moderate increase in carpal joint size (diameter range, 18-20 cm; normal range, 15-16 cm) without signs of locomotion problems and with 3 ewes (23%) showing severe inflammation with marked increase in diameter (21-24 cm), pain at palpation, and abnormal standing position. Grossly, chronic proliferative arthritis was observed in affected joints characterized by an increased thickness of the synovial capsule and synovial membrane proliferation. Microscopically, synovial membrane inflammation and proliferation and hyperplasia of synoviocytes were observed. More positive cases of SLRV infection were detected by immunocytochemistry of articular fluid than of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization also detected positive cells in the subsynovial connective tissue, lung, mediastinal lymph node, mammary gland, and mammary lymph node. All animals were negative for the presence of Mycoplasma or other bacteria in the articular space. The present outbreak likely represents an adaptation of a caprine virus to sheep. Our results underline the importance of the arthritis induced by SRLV in sheep, a clinical form that might be underestimated. PMID:24476938

Pérez, M; Biescas, E; Reina, R; Glaria, I; Marín, B; Marquina, A; Salazar, E; Álvarez, N; de Andrés, D; Fantova, E; Badiola, J J; Amorena, B; Luján, L

2015-01-01

95

Advances in Diagnosis of Respiratory Diseases of Small Ruminants  

PubMed Central

Irrespective of aetiology, infectious respiratory diseases of sheep and goats contribute to 5.6 percent of the total diseases of small ruminants. These infectious respiratory disorders are divided into two groups: the diseases of upper respiratory tract, namely, nasal myiasis and enzootic nasal tumors, and diseases of lower respiratory tract, namely, peste des petits ruminants (PPR), parainfluenza, Pasteurellosis, Ovine progressive pneumonia, mycoplasmosis, caprine arthritis encephalitis virus, caseous lymphadenitis, verminous pneumonia, and many others. Depending upon aetiology, many of them are acute and fatal in nature. Early, rapid, and specific diagnosis of such diseases holds great importance to reduce the losses. The advanced enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) for the detection of antigen as well as antibodies directly from the samples and molecular diagnostic assays along with microsatellites comprehensively assist in diagnosis as well as treatment and epidemiological studies. The present review discusses the advancements made in the diagnosis of common infectious respiratory diseases of sheep and goats. It would update the knowledge and help in adapting and implementing appropriate, timely, and confirmatory diagnostic procedures. Moreover, it would assist in designing appropriate prevention protocols and devising suitable control strategies to overcome respiratory diseases and alleviate the economic losses. PMID:25028620

Chakraborty, Sandip; Kumar, Amit; Tiwari, Ruchi; Rahal, Anu; Malik, Yash; Dhama, Kuldeep; Pal, Amar; Prasad, Minakshi

2014-01-01

96

Advances in diagnosis of respiratory diseases of small ruminants.  

PubMed

Irrespective of aetiology, infectious respiratory diseases of sheep and goats contribute to 5.6 percent of the total diseases of small ruminants. These infectious respiratory disorders are divided into two groups: the diseases of upper respiratory tract, namely, nasal myiasis and enzootic nasal tumors, and diseases of lower respiratory tract, namely, peste des petits ruminants (PPR), parainfluenza, Pasteurellosis, Ovine progressive pneumonia, mycoplasmosis, caprine arthritis encephalitis virus, caseous lymphadenitis, verminous pneumonia, and many others. Depending upon aetiology, many of them are acute and fatal in nature. Early, rapid, and specific diagnosis of such diseases holds great importance to reduce the losses. The advanced enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) for the detection of antigen as well as antibodies directly from the samples and molecular diagnostic assays along with microsatellites comprehensively assist in diagnosis as well as treatment and epidemiological studies. The present review discusses the advancements made in the diagnosis of common infectious respiratory diseases of sheep and goats. It would update the knowledge and help in adapting and implementing appropriate, timely, and confirmatory diagnostic procedures. Moreover, it would assist in designing appropriate prevention protocols and devising suitable control strategies to overcome respiratory diseases and alleviate the economic losses. PMID:25028620

Chakraborty, Sandip; Kumar, Amit; Tiwari, Ruchi; Rahal, Anu; Malik, Yash; Dhama, Kuldeep; Pal, Amar; Prasad, Minakshi

2014-01-01

97

Small Ruminant Lentiviruses (SRLVs) Break the Species Barrier to Acquire New Host Range  

PubMed Central

Zoonotic events of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) from non-human primates to humans have generated the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), one of the most devastating infectious disease of the last century with more than 30 million people dead and about 40.3 million people currently infected worldwide. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1 and HIV-2), the two major viruses that cause AIDS in humans are retroviruses of the lentivirus genus. The genus includes arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV) and Maedi-Visna virus (MVV), and a heterogeneous group of viruses known as small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLVs), affecting goat and sheep. Lentivirus genome integrates into the host DNA, causing persistent infection associated with a remarkable diversity during viral replication. Direct evidence of mixed infections with these two closely related SRLVs was found in both sheep and goats. The evidence of a genetic continuum with caprine and ovine field isolates demonstrates the absence of an efficient species barrier preventing cross-species transmission. In dual-infected animals, persistent infections with both CAEV and MVV have been described, and viral chimeras have been detected. This not only complicates animal trade between countries but favors the risk that highly pathogenic variants may emerge as has already been observed in the past in Iceland and, more recently, in outbreaks with virulent strains in Spain. SRLVs affecting wildlife have already been identified, demonstrating the existence of emergent viruses adapted to new hosts. Viruses adapted to wildlife ruminants may acquire novel biopathological properties which may endanger not only the new host species but also domestic ruminants and humans. SRLVs infecting sheep and goats follow a genomic evolution similar to that observed in HIV or in other lentiviruses. Lentivirus genetic diversity and host factors leading to the establishment of naturally occurring virulent versus avirulent infections, in addition to the emergence of new strains, challenge every aspect of SRLV control measures for providing efficient tools to prevent the transmission of diseases between wild ungulates and livestock. PMID:23881276

Minardi da Cruz, Juliano Cezar; Singh, Dinesh Kumar; Lamara, Ali; Chebloune, Yahia

2013-01-01

98

Paleogenomics in a Temperate Environment: Shotgun Sequencing from an Extinct Mediterranean Caprine  

PubMed Central

Background Numerous endemic mammals, including dwarf elephants, goats, hippos and deers, evolved in isolation in the Mediterranean islands during the Pliocene and Pleistocene. Most of them subsequently became extinct during the Holocene. Recently developed high-throughput sequencing technologies could provide a unique tool for retrieving genomic data from these extinct species, making it possible to study their evolutionary history and the genetic bases underlying their particular, sometimes unique, adaptations. Methodology/Principals Findings A DNA extraction of a ?6,000 year-old bone sample from an extinct caprine (Myotragus balearicus) from the Balearic Islands in the Western Mediterranean, has been subjected to shotgun sequencing with the GS FLX 454 platform. Only 0.27% of the resulting sequences, identified from alignments with the cow genome and comprising 15,832 nucleotides, with an average length of 60 nucleotides, proved to be endogenous. Conclusions A phylogenetic tree generated with Myotragus sequences and those from other artiodactyls displays an identical topology to that generated from mitochondrial DNA data. Despite being in an unfavourable thermal environment, which explains the low yield of endogenous sequences, our study demonstrates that it is possible to obtain genomic data from extinct species from temperate regions. PMID:19461892

Ramírez, Oscar; Gigli, Elena; Bover, Pere; Alcover, Josep Antoni; Bertranpetit, Jaume; Castresana, Jose; Lalueza-Fox, Carles

2009-01-01

99

Effect of frozen storage on the proteolytic and rheological properties of soft caprine milk cheese.  

PubMed

Freezing and long-term frozen storage had minimal impact on the rheology and proteolysis of soft cheese made from caprine milk. Plain soft cheeses were obtained from a grade A goat dairy in Georgia and received 4 storage treatments: fresh refrigerated control (C), aged at 4 degrees C for 28 d; frozen control (FC), stored at -20 degrees C for 2 d before being thawed and aged in the same way as C cheese; and 3-mo frozen (3MF), or 6-mo frozen (6MF), stored at -20 degrees C for 3 or 6 mo before being thawed and aged. Soft cheeses had fragile textures that showed minimal change after freezing or over 28 d of aging at 4 degrees C. The only exceptions were the FC cheeses, which, after frozen storage and aging for 1 d at 4 degrees C, were significantly softer than the other cheeses, and less chewy than the other frozen cheeses. Moreover, after 28 d of aging at 4 degrees C, the FC cheeses tended to have the lowest viscoelastic values. Slight variation was noted in protein distribution among the storage treatment, although no significant proteolysis occurred during refrigerated aging. The creation and removal of ice crystals in the cheese matrix and the limited proteolysis of the caseins showed only slight impact on cheese texture, suggesting that frozen storage of soft cheeses may be possible for year-round supply with minimal loss of textural quality. PMID:15905426

Van Hekken, D L; Tunick, M H; Park, Y W

2005-06-01

100

Caprine blastocyst development after in vitro fertilization with spermatozoa frozen in different extenders.  

PubMed

The feasibility of using frozen-thawed semen in caprine IVF outside the breeding season was investigated. Electroejaculated spermatozoa from a Nubian buck were washed twice and then frozen in skim milk- or in egg yolk-based extenders. Goat oocytes were matured and inseminated by frozen-thawed spermatozoa selected by swim-up. In vitro fertilization was performed in a modified defined medium (mDM), altered experimentally, for 24 h. Embryos were cultured in 50 microL of c-SOF + NEA for 9 d. The percentages of oocytes exposed to heparin-capacitated spermatozoa, (previously cryopreserved in skim milk-based extender) that cleaved, reached morula, blastocyst and expanded blastocyst stages were 82.8, 57.1, 35.7 and 30.0%, respectively. Without heparin treatment the rates for cleavage, morula, blastocyst and expanded blastocyst stages were 44.3, 31.4, 18.6 and 8.6%, respectively. Therefore, heparin treatment was included in sperm capacitation. Use of spermatozoa with BSA in the IVF medium yielded no cleavage. Although extenders containing 8 to 20% egg yolk enabled good sperm motility after cryopreservation, in vitro fertilizing ability was compromised under our conditions. By contrast, semen commercially processed in season in an egg yolk-based diluent remained effective for IVF. The highest proportion of blastocysts resulted from the use of spermatozoa diluted in a skim milk extender, heparin capacitation, and insemination in medium containing lamb serum. PMID:10732064

Keskintepe, L; Simplicio, A A; Brackett, B G

1998-05-01

101

In Vivo Caprine Model for Osteomyelitis and Evaluation of Biofilm-Resistant Intramedullary Nails  

PubMed Central

Bone infection remains a formidable challenge to the medical field. The goal of the current study is to evaluate antibacterial coatings in vitro and to develop a large animal model to assess coated bone implants. A novel coating consisting of titanium oxide and siloxane polymer doped with silver was created by metal-organic methods. The coating was tested in vitro using rapid screening techniques to determine compositions which inhibited Staphylococcus aureus growth, while not affecting osteoblast viability. The coating was then applied to intramedullary nails and evaluated in vivo in a caprine model. In this pilot study, a fracture was created in the tibia of the goat, and Staphylococcus aureus was inoculated directly into the bone canal. The fractures were fixed by either coated (treated) or non-coated intramedullary nails (control) for 5 weeks. Clinical observations as well as microbiology, mechanical, radiology, and histology testing were used to compare the animals. The treated goat was able to walk using all four limbs after 5 weeks, while the control was unwilling to bear weight on the fixed leg. These results suggest the antimicrobial potential of the hybrid coating and the feasibility of the goat model for antimicrobial coated intramedullary implant evaluation. PMID:23841085

Tran, Nhiem; Tran, Phong A.; Jarrell, John D.; Engiles, Julie B.; Thomas, Nathan P.; Young, Matthew D.; Hayda, Roman A.; Born, Christopher T.

2013-01-01

102

Recognition of another member of the malignant catarrhal fever virus group: an endemic gammaherpesvirus in domestic goats.  

PubMed

A novel gammaherpesvirus in goats that is herein tentatively designated as caprine herpesvirus-2 was identified based on the sequence of a fragment from the herpesvirus DNA polymerase gene. Sequence alignment analysis revealed that the virus sequence isolated from goats was 67% identical to the homologous sequence from alcelaphine herpesvirus-1, 71% identical to ovine herpesvirus-2 and 73% identical to a recently recognized herpesvirus causing malignant catarrhal fever in white-tailed deer. Combined serological and PCR-survey data demonstrated that this virus is endemic in goats and its transmission pattern may be similar to that of ovine herpesvirus-2 in sheep. PMID:11125175

Li, H; Keller, J; Knowles, D P; Crawford, T B

2001-01-01

103

Molecular phylogeny and diagnosis of species of the family Protostrongylidae from caprine hosts in Uzbekistan.  

PubMed

Protostrongylids are important pulmonary parasites of ungulates, particularly caprines. Their complex life cycles involve terrestrian gastropods as intermediate hosts. Morphological discrimination of larvae in feces and snails is impossible to the species level, and molecular data are missing for many species. To improve diagnosis and epidemiology of protostrongylids, this study describes internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS-2) sequences for five protostrongylid and one metastrongylid species from Uzbekistan. Morphological and molecular analyses identified Protostrongylus rufescens, Protostrongylus hobmaieri, Protostrongylus sp., Spiculocaulus leuckarti, and Cystocaulus ocreatus. Sequence differences between ITS-2 were sufficient to allow species identification, e.g., in the Protostrongylinae intraspecific and interspecific genetic distances ranged between 0-0.01 and 0.05 and 0.16, respectively. There was one exception in the Elaphostrongylidae with identical ITS-2 sequences in Elaphostrongylus cervi and Elaphostrongylus rangiferi questioning their status as valid species. Maximum likelihood analysis sequences largely supported the currently assumed phylogenetic relationships among Protostrongylidae as predicted using morphological characters. The monophyly of the subfamilies Varestrongylinae, Elaphostrongylinae, and Protostrongylinae was corroborated with support values in Shimodaira-Hasegawa or Bayesian modifications of the approximate likelihood ratio test (aLRT) ?97 %, but support for Muellerinae was weak (8 and 52 %, respectively) since Muellerius capillaris differs significantly from the other Muellerinae. On the genus level, paraphyly of the genus Protostrongylus was confirmed since the members of the genera Spiculocaulus and Orthostrongylus were located within the Protostrongylus cluster (aLRT ?99 %). Maximum likelihood unequivocally assigned every unique sequence to the correct species confirming suitability of ITS-2 regions for diagnosis protostrongylids except of E. cervi and E. rangiferi. PMID:25595657

Kuchboev, Abdurakhim E; Krücken, Jürgen; Ruziev, Bakhtiyor H; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Georg

2015-04-01

104

The effect of electrical field strength on activation and development of cloned caprine embryos.  

PubMed

The activation procedure used in nuclear transfer (NT) is one of the critical factors affecting the efficiency of animal cloning. The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of two electrical field strengths (EFS) for activation on the developmental competence of caprine NT embryos reconstructed from ear skin fibroblasts of adult Alpine does. The NT embryos were obtained by transfer of the quiescent fibroblasts at the fourth passage into the enucleated metaphase II (M II) oocytes. Four to five hours after electrical fusion, the NT-embryos were activated by EFS either at 1.67 or at 2.33 kV/cm and immediately incubated in 6-DMAP (2 mM) for 4 h. The cleavage rate of the NT-embryos activated with 2.33 kV/cm was greater than that activated with 1.67 kV/cm after in vitro culture for 18 h (65.6% versus 19.6%, p < 0.001). No pregnancy was found in 14 recipient does after transferring 51 NT embryos at 1-2 cell stages activated with 1.67 kV/cm. In contrast, two of the seven recipients were pregnant and gave birth to three kids after transferring 61 NT embryos at 1-2 cell stages activated by 2.33 kV/cm. The birth weights of three cloned kids were within the normal range of Alpine goats. However, one kid died 1h after birth while the remaining two are still healthy. DNA analysis by polymerase chain reaction (single-strand conformation polymorphism, SSCP) confirmed that the three kids were genetically identical to the nuclear donor. PMID:16159700

Shen, P C; Lee, S N; Wu, J S; Huang, J C; Chu, F H; Chang, C C; Kung, J C; Lin, H H; Chen, L R; Shiau, J W; Yen, N T; Cheng, W T K

2006-05-01

105

In vivo studies of molybdenum-induced apoptosis in kidney cells of caprine.  

PubMed

Molybdenum (Mo) is an essential microelement for the health of animals and human beings, and high dietary intake of Mo can lead to pathological conditions. However, the cytotoxic effects of high levels of Mo on the renal cells in ruminants have not been reported. Therefore, this in vivo study in goats was designed to investigate the impact of Mo on kidney-related apoptosis genes, and histopathological and ultrastructural changes in renal cells using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), light microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. A total of 48 goats were randomly distributed in equal number into four groups and assigned with one of three oral treatments of ammonium molybdate (15, 30, and 45 mg Mo kg(-1) BW), while control group received no Mo. Kidney tissues were taken from individual goat at days 0, 25, and 50 for determining expression of apoptosis genes including Bax, Bcl-2, Cyt c, caspase-3, and Smac. The results revealed that the expression of Bax, Smac, Cyt c, and caspase-3 was significantly (P?caprine renal cells, might be involved in the mitochondrial intrinsic pathway. PMID:25627418

Gu, Xiaolong; Ali, Tariq; Chen, Rongrong; Hu, Guoliang; Zhuang, Yu; Luo, Junrong; Cao, Huabin; Han, Bo

2015-05-01

106

Production enhancement and refolding of caprine growth hormone expressed in Escherichia coli.  

PubMed

This study describes comparison between IPTG and lactose induction on expression of caprine growth hormone (cGH), enhancing cell densities of Escherichia coli cultures and refolding the recombinant cGH, produced as inclusion bodies, to biologically active state. 2-3 times higher cell densities were obtained in shake flask cultures when induction was done with lactose showing almost same level of expression as in case of IPTG induction. With lactose induction highest cell densities were achieved in TB (OD(600) 16.3) and M9NG (OD(600) 16.1) media, producing 885 and 892 mg cGH per liter of the culture, respectively. Lactose induction done at mid-exponential stage resulted in a higher cell density and thus higher product yield. cGH over-expressed as inclusion bodies was solubilized in 50 mM Tris-Cl buffer (pH 12.5) containing 2 M urea, followed by dilution and lowering the pH in a step-wise manner to obtain the final solution in 50mM Tris-Cl (pH 9.5). The cGH was purified by Q-Sepharose chromatography followed by gel filtration with a recovery yield of 39% on the basis of total cell proteins. The product thus obtained showed a single band by SDS-PAGE analysis. MALDI-TOF analysis showed a single peak with a mass of 21,851 dalton, which is very close to its calculated molecular weight. A bioassay based on proliferation of Nb2 rat lymphoma cells showed that the purified cGH was biologically active. PMID:19477280

Khan, Muhammad Altaf; Sadaf, Saima; Sajjad, Muhammad; Waheed Akhtar, M

2009-11-01

107

Role of silent gene mutations in the expression of caprine growth hormone in Escherchia coli.  

PubMed

This report describes the strategy for overexpression of caprine growth hormone (cGH) gene of beetal goat in E. coli through introducing silent mutations in the 5'-end of the coding sequence. The silent mutations introduced were aimed at minimizing translation-inhibiting secondary structures in the mRNA. Free energies of the resultant mRNAs were calculated from the ribosomal binding site of mRNA to +24 base using the Mfold web server. The construct with native sequence did not show any expression, whereas introduction of the silent mutations had strong influence on the expression levels. Some constructs (pETcGH2-7) showed 12-30% expression of total cell proteins while some others (pETcGH8-16) showed 30 to 53% of total cell protein. Any variation in the amount of mRNA transcript for the various constructs, as determined by quantitative PCR, was not enough to suggest that the variable level of the gene expression was due to variation in the transcription levels. It appears that the expression levels are not always correlated with free-energy values of the secondary structures in the 5'-end region of the mRNA; instead some key silent nucleotide alterations at certain sites of 5'-end of the sequence reorganize the secondary structure in such a way that it has positive impact on translation without considerably altering the free-energy values. An empirical approach for determining the optimum 5'-end substitutions for hyperexpression of a recombinant protein thus seems necessary. PMID:17691816

Khan, M Altaf; Sadaf, Saima; Akhtar, M Waheed

2007-01-01

108

Effects of volatile fatty acids on propionate metabolism and gluconeogenesis in caprine hepatocytes  

SciTech Connect

Isolated caprine hepatocytes were incubated with fatty acids of various chain lengths. Short-chain fatty acids effects on rates of gluconeogenesis and oxidation from (2-/sup 14/C) propionate were determined. Additions of glucose (2.5 mM) had no effect on hepatic (2-/sup 14/C)-propionate metabolism in the presence and absence of amino acids. A complete mixture of amino acids increased label incorporation from (2-/sup 14/C) propionate into (/sup 14/C) glucose by 22%. Butyrate inhibited (2-/sup 14/C) propionate metabolism and increased the apparent Michaelis constant for (2-/sup 14/C) propionate incorporation into (/sup 14/C) glucose from 2.4 +/- 1.5 to 5.6 +/- .9 mM. Butyrate's effects on propionate were similar in the presence and absence of L-carnitine (1 mM). Isobutyrate, 2-methylbutyrate, and valerate (1.25 mM) had no effect on (/sup 14/C) glucose production but decreased /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ production to 57, 61, and 54% of the control (2-/sup 14/C) propionate (1.25 mM). This inhibition on /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ was not competitive. Isovalerate had no effect on either (2-/sup 14/C) propionate incorporation into glucose of CO/sub 2/. An increase in ratio of (/sup 14/C) glucose to /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ from (2-/sup 14/C)-propionate demonstrated that short-chain fatty acids other than butyrate do not inhibit gluconeogenesis from propionate. In addition, fatty acids that generate a net synthesis of intracellular oxaloacetate may partition propionate carbons toward gluconeogenic rather than oxidative pathways in goat hepatocytes.

Aiello, R.J.; Armentano, L.E.

1987-12-01

109

K-CARRAGEENAN INTERACTION WITH BOVINE AND CAPRINE CASEINS:IMPLICATION OF SURFACE CHARGE BY A HOMOLOGOUS 3D MODEL OF ALPHA-S2-CASEIN  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The solubility and hydration characteristics of kappa-carrageenan-casein systems from bovine and caprine milk with incorporated salt (NaCl) were determined by means of sedimentation and 17O nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments. Relative salt interaction parameters both for caseins alone and ...

110

Detection of Chlamydophila ( Chlamydia) abortus and Toxoplasma gondii in Smears from Cases of Ovine and Caprine Abortion by the Streptavidin–Biotin Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fetal membranes from 59 cases of ovine and six of caprine abortion from a total of 52 flocks or herds were collected. Immunohistochemical examination of cotyledons fixed in formalin and embedded in paraffin wax detectedChlamydophila abortus in 44 (68%) cases. Immunocytochemical examination of smears made from the surface of fetal membranes detected the organism in 37 (57%) cases. Light microscopical

L. Szeredi; Á. Bacsadi

2002-01-01

111

Analysis of the polymorphisms in the caprine PRDM16, SHH and SF1 genes and their association with production traits in goats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genes that regulate metabolism, development and energy partitioning have the potential to influence economically important traits in farm animals, as do polymorphisms within these genes. In the present study, polymorphisms of the caprine PRDM16, SHH and SF-1 genes were detected by PCR–SSCP and DNA sequencing methods in 560 individuals from three goat breeds. The results revealed two novel silent mutations

D. X. Chen; Q. J. Jin; X. T. Fang; C. L. Zhang; J. J. Sun; X. Y. Shi; Y. Du; X. Y. Lan; H. Chen

2010-01-01

112

A possible case of caprine-associated malignant catarrhal fever in a domestic water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) in Switzerland  

PubMed Central

Background Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) is a fatal herpesvirus infection, affecting various wild and domestic ruminants all over the world. Water buffaloes were reported to be particularly susceptible for the ovine herpesvirus-2 (OvHV-2) causing the sheep-associated form of MCF (SA-MCF). This report describes the first case of possibly caprine-associated malignant catarrhal fever symptoms in a domestic water buffalo in Switzerland. Case presentation The buffalo cow presented with persistent fever, dyspnoea, nasal bleeding and haematuria. Despite symptomatic therapy, the buffalo died and was submitted to post mortem examination. Major findings were an abomasal ulceration, a mild haemorrhagic cystitis and multifocal haemorrhages on the epicardium and on serosal and mucosal surfaces. Eyes and oral cavity were not affected. Histopathology revealed a mild to moderate lymphohistiocytic vasculitis limited to the brain and the urinary bladder. Although these findings are typical for MCF, OvHV-2 DNA was not detected in peripheral blood lymphocytes or in paraffin-embedded brain, using an OvHV-2 specific real time PCR. With the aid of a panherpesvirus PCR, a caprine herpesvirus-2 (CpHV-2) sequence could be amplified from both samples. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first report of malignant catarrhal fever in the subfamily Bovinae, where the presence of CpHV-2 could be demonstrated. The etiological context has yet to be evaluated. PMID:22132808

2011-01-01

113

Heartland Virus  

MedlinePLUS

... Vector-Borne Diseases (DVBD) NCEZID Share Compartir Heartland virus On this Page What is Heartland virus? How ... Do I Need to Know? What is Heartland virus? Heartland virus belongs to a family of viruses ...

114

A new African fossil caprin and a combined molecular and morphological Bayesian phylogenetic analysis of caprini (Mammalia: Bovidae).  

PubMed

Given that most species that have ever existed on Earth are extinct, no evolutionary history can ever be complete without the inclusion of fossil taxa. Bovids (antelopes and relatives) are one of the most diverse clades of large mammals alive today, with over a hundred living species and hundreds of documented fossil species. With the advent of molecular phylogenetics, major advances have been made in the phylogeny of this clade; however, there has been little attempt to integrate the fossil record into the developing phylogenetic picture. We here describe a new large fossil caprin species from ca. 1.9-Ma deposits from the Middle Awash, Ethiopia. To place the new species phylogenetically, we perform a Bayesian analysis of a combined molecular (cytochrome b) and morphological (osteological) character supermatrix. We include all living species of Caprini, the new fossil species, a fossil takin from the Pliocene of Ethiopia (Budorcas churcheri), and the insular subfossil Myotragus balearicus. The combined analysis demonstrates successful incorporation of both living and fossil species within a single phylogeny based on both molecular and morphological evidence. Analysis of the combined supermatrix produces superior resolution than with either the molecular or morphological data sets considered alone. Parsimony and Bayesian analyses of the data set are also compared and shown to produce similar results. The combined phylogenetic analysis indicates that the new fossil species is nested within Capra, making it one of the earliest representatives of this clade, with implications for molecular clock calibration. Geographical optimization indicates no less than four independent dispersals into Africa by caprins since the Pliocene. PMID:22816969

Bibi, F; Vrba, E; Fack, F

2012-09-01

115

Hydrolysis of bovine and caprine milk fat globules by lipoprotein lipase. Effects of heparin and skim milk on lipase distribution and on lipolysis  

SciTech Connect

Heparin can dissociate lipoprotein lipase from casein micelles, and addition of heparin enhances lipolysis in bovine but not in caprine milk. Heparin shortened the lag-time for binding of lipoprotein lipase to milk fat globules and for lipolysis. Heparin counteracted the inhibitory effects of skim milk on binding of lipase and on lipolysis. Heparin stimulated lipolysis in all bovine milk samples when added before cooling and in spontaneously lipolytic milk samples also when added after cooling. Heparin enhanced lipolysis of isolated milk fat globules. Hence, its effect is not solely due to dissociation of lipoprotein lipase from the casein micelles. Cooling of goat milk caused more marked changes in the distribution of lipase than cooling of bovine milk; the fraction of added /sup 125/I-labeled lipase that bound to cream increased from about 8 to 60%. In addition, caprine skim milk caused less inhibition of lipolysis than bovine skim milk. These observations provide an explanation for the high degree of cold storage lipolysis in goat milk. Heparin had only small effects on the distribution of lipoprotein lipase in caprine milk, which explains why heparin has so little effect on lipolysis in caprine milk. The distribution of /sup 35/S-labeled heparin in bovine milk was studied. In warm milk less than 10% bound to the cream fraction, but when milk was cooled, binding of heparin to cream increased to 45%. These results suggest that there exists in the skim fraction a relatively small amount of a heparin-binding protein, which on cooling of milk adsorbs to the milk fat, or suggests that cooling induces a conformational change in a membrane protein such that its affinity for heparin increases.

Sundheim, G.; Bengtsson-Olivecrona, G.

1987-12-01

116

Use of a Caprine Serum Fraction-Immunomodulator to Reduce Mortality in Commercial and Large-Bodied Turkey Lines Infected with Pasteurella multocida  

Microsoft Academic Search

4 Abstract: The effectiveness of an injected caprine serum fraction-immunomodulator (CSF-I2) as a n immunostimulant in male and female F-line and commercial turkey poults infected with fowl cholera (Pasteurella multocida) was examined in separate trials. In the first 2 of 3 controlled trials, the effects of an i.m. injection of CSF-I2 given 24 h prior to a P. multocida challenge,

E. D. Peebles; K. O. Willeford; R. W. Keirs; K. E. Nestor; Y. M. Saif; C. Wang; C. J. Matyi; J. W. Anderson; M. T. Kidd; R. Pulikanti

2008-01-01

117

Targeting a ribonucleoprotein complex containing the caprin-1 protein and the c-Myc mRNA suppresses tumor growth in mice: an identification of a novel oncotarget  

PubMed Central

Tylophorine compounds have been the focus of drug development for decades. Tylophorine derivatives exhibit anti-cancer activities but their cellular targets remain unknown. We used a biotinylated tylophorine derivative to probe for the interacting cellular target(s) of tylophorine. Tylophorine directly binds to caprin-1 and consequently enhances the recruitment of G3BP1, c-Myc mRNA, and cyclin D2 mRNA to form a ribonucleoprotein complex. Subsequently, this tylophorine targeted ribonucleoprotein complex is sequestered to the polysomal fractions and the protein expressions of the associated mRNA-transcripts are repressed. Caprin-1 depleted carcinoma cells become more resistant to tylophorine, associated with decreased formation of the ribonucleoprotein complex targeted by tylophorine. Consequently, tylophorine downregulates c-Myc and cyclins D1/D2, causing hypophosphorylation of Rb and suppression of both processing-body formation and the Warburg effect. Gene expression profiling and gain-of-c-Myc-function experiments also revealed that the downregulated c-Myc contributes to the anti-oncogenic effects of tylophorine compounds. Furthermore, the potent tylophorine derivative dibenzoquinoline-33b elicited a similar effect, as c-Myc protein levels were also decreased in xenograft tumors treated with dibenzoquinoline-33b. Thus, tylophorine compounds exert anti-cancer activity predominantly by targeting and sequestering the caprin-1 protein and c-Myc mRNA associated ribonucleoprotein complex. PMID:25669982

Qiu, Ya-Qi; Yang, Cheng-Wei; Lee, Yue-Zhi; Yang, Ruey-Bing; Lee, Chih-Hao; Hsu, Hsing-Yu; Chang, Chien-Chung; Lee, Shiow-Ju

2015-01-01

118

A novel non-integrative single-cycle chimeric HIV lentivector DNA vaccine.  

PubMed

Novel HIV vaccine vectors and strategies are needed to control HIV/AIDS epidemic in humans and eradicate the infection. DNA vaccines alone failed to induce immune responses robust enough to control HIV-1. Development of lentivirus-based DNA vaccines deficient for integration and with a limited replication capacity is an innovative and promising approach. This type of vaccine mimics the early stages of virus infection/replication like the live-attenuated viruses but lacks the inconvenient integration and persistence associated with disease. We developed a novel lentivector DNA vaccine "CAL-SHIV-IN(-)" that undergoes a single round of replication in the absence of integration resulting in augmented expression of vaccine antigens in vivo. Vaccine gene expression is under control of the LTRs of a naturally attenuated lentivirus, Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV) the natural goat lentivirus. The safety of this vaccine prototype was increased by the removal of the integrase coding sequences from the pol gene. We examined the functional properties of this lentivector DNA in cell culture and the immunogenicity in mouse models. Viral proteins were expressed in transfected cells, assembled into viral particles that were able to transduce once target permissive cells. Unlike the parental replication-competent SHIV-KU2 that was detected in DNA samples from any of the serial passage infected cells, CAL-SHIV-IN(-) DNA was detected only in target cells of the first round of infection, hence demonstrating the single cycle replication of the vaccine. A single dose DNA immunization of humanized NOD/SCID/?2 mice showed a substantial increase of IFN-?-ELISPOT in splenocytes compared to the former replication and integration defective ?4SHIV-KU2 DNA vaccine. PMID:25825333

Moussa, Maha; Arrode-Brusés, Géraldine; Manoylov, Iliyan; Malogolovkin, Alexander; Mompelat, Dimitri; Ishimwe, Honorine; Smaoune, Amel; Ouzrout, Bilel; Gagnon, Jean; Chebloune, Yahia

2015-05-01

119

Virus Resistance  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Identification, characterization and deployment of virus resistant maize are complex tasks requiring multidisciplinary approaches. Insect transmission of viruses in nature and the potential presence of biologically distinct virus strains complicate screening for virus resistance. At least ten maize...

120

Polymorphisms of caprine POU1F1 gene and their association with litter size in Jining Grey goats.  

PubMed

Seven pairs of primers were designed to amplify 5' promoter region, six exons and partial introns and to detect the polymorphisms of POU1F1 gene in five goat breeds with different prolificacy. The results showed that six mutations were identified in caprine POU1F1 gene including C256T in exon 3, C53T and T123G in intron 3, and G682T (A228S), T723G and C837T in exon 6. The former four mutations were novel SNPs in goat POU1F1 gene. The 53 and 123 loci were in complete linkage disequilibrium in five caprine breeds. Regarding the 256 locus, the Jining Grey goat does with genotype CT had 0.66 kids more than those with genotype CC (P < 0.05), while does with genotype GT had 0.63 (P < 0.05) kids more than those with genotype GG at the 682 locus. The present study preliminarily showed an association between allele T at the 256 and 682 loci of POU1F1 gene and high litter size in Jining Grey goats. Totally 16 haplotypes and 50 genotypes were identified at the above six loci in POU1F1 gene of five goat breeds. Three common haplotypes (hap2, hap3 and hap4) were identified in five goat breeds joined. Four specific haplotypes (hap7, hap9, hap11 and hap13) were detected in Jining Grey goats. The predominant haplotype was hap1 (35.29% and 48.25%) in both Jining Grey and Guizhou White goats, while hap4 (50%) in Boer goats, and hap2 (42.86% and 38.75%) in both Wendeng Dairy and Liaoning Cashmere goats. The most frequent genotypes at six loci in the above five goat breeds were hap1/hap2 (14.38%) and hap1/hap4 (14.38%), hap1/hap2 (38.60%), hap4/hap4 (40.91%), hap2/hap4 (26.53%), hap2/hap5 (20.00%), respectively. The Jining Grey goat does with nine genotypes analyzed of POU1F1 gene showed no obvious difference in litter size. PMID:21769479

Feng, T; Chu, M X; Cao, G L; Tang, Q Q; Di, R; Fang, L; Li, N

2012-04-01

121

Angiogenesis in the caprine caruncles in non-pregnant and pregnant normal and swainsonine-treated does.  

PubMed

Microvascular corrosion casts of caruncles from non-pregnant and pregnant doe goats at 4, 7, 10, 13, 16, and 18 weeks were examined with scanning electron microscopy. The internal convex surface of the caruncles of non-pregnant does was covered with capillary meshes of regular diameter and form, without crypts. As pregnancy advanced the complexity of the vasculature increased: at 4 weeks the surface showed a pattern of ridges separated by troughs. At later stages, branches of radial arteries penetrated the periphery forming an extensive mesh of capillaries on the concave surface. Capillary diameters increased significantly during pregnancy, especially after 4 weeks, when large flattened sinusoids formed. These sinusoids had a great deal of surface area for potential contact with the fetal component. The caprine placenta is usually considered to have increased interhemal distance compared with endotheliochorial and hemochorial types: our results suggest that the very extensive development of sinusoids and crypts may compensate for any negative consequences of the placental architecture. Placental angiogenesis, which is physiologically normal, may serve as a general model of this process in other circumstances, such as tumor. The effect of swainsonine (active compound of locoweed and a potential anticancer drug) on vascular development showed no differences in sinusoidal diameters at 7 weeks, but a decrease in capillary density was noted. Swainsonine caused a great distortion to the vasculature at 18 weeks. The effects of this compound on the vascular development lend credibility to its potential as an anticancer agent. PMID:17492673

Hafez, S A; Caceci, T; Freeman, L E; Panter, K E

2007-07-01

122

New Zealand caprine herpes virus : Comparison with an Australian isolate and with bovine herpes virus type 1 by restriction endonuclease analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sir: - In 1981 an outbreak of vulvovaginitis in a Saanen goat herd was reported. regulate their internal temperature.(6) The disease was characterised by erosions of the vulval and vaginal mucosa with erythema, oedema and a ycllowish mucopurulent discharge. Recovery usually occurred within a week.

D. J. Tisdall; C. B. Bentley; D. M. Collins; G. W. Horner

1984-01-01

123

An international collaborative study to determine the prevalence of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia by monoclonal antibody-based cELISA  

PubMed Central

Background Few serological tests are available for detecting antibodies against Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae, the causal agent of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP). The complement fixation test, the test prescribed for international trade purposes, uses a crude antigen that cross-reacts with all the other mycoplasma species of the “mycoides cluster” frequently infecting goat herds. The lack of a more specific test has been a real obstacle to the evaluation of the prevalence and economic impact of CCPP worldwide. A new competitive ELISA kit for CCPP, based on a previous blocking ELISA, was formatted at CIRAD and used to evaluate the prevalence of CCPP in some regions of Kenya, Ethiopia, Mauritius, Tajikistan and Pakistan in an international collaborative study. Results The strict specificity of the test was confirmed in CCPP-free goat herds exposed to other mycoplasma species of the “mycoides cluster”. Prevalence studies were performed across the enzootic range of the disease in Africa and Asia. Seroprevalence was estimated at 14.6% in the Afar region of Ethiopia, whereas all the herds presented for CCPP vaccination in Kenya tested positive (individual seroprevalence varied from 6 to 90% within each herd). In Mauritius, where CCPP emerged in 2009, nine of 62 herds tested positive. In Central Asia, where the disease was confirmed only recently, no positive animals were detected in the Wakhan District of Afghanistan or across the border in neighboring areas of Tajikistan, whereas seroprevalence varied between 2.7% and 44.2% in the other districts investigated and in northern Pakistan. The test was also used to monitor seroconversion in vaccinated animals. Conclusions This newly formatted CCPP cELISA kit has retained the high specificity of the original kit. It can therefore be used to evaluate the prevalence of CCPP in countries or regions without vaccination programs. It could also be used to monitor the efficacy of vaccination campaigns as high-quality vaccines induce high rates of seroconversion. PMID:24565080

2014-01-01

124

Brucella suis vaccine strain S2-infected immortalized caprine endometrial epithelial cell lines induce non-apoptotic ER-stress.  

PubMed

Brucella, which is regarded as an intracellular pathogen responsible for a zoonotic disease called brucellosis, survives and proliferates within several types of phagocytic and non-phagocytic cells. Brucella infects not only their preferred hosts but also other domestic and wild animal species, inducing abortion and infertility. Therefore, the interaction between uterine cells and Brucella is important for understanding the pathogenesis of this disease. In this study, we describe the Brucella suis vaccine strain S2 (B.suis.S2) infection and replication in the immortalized caprine endometrial epithelial cell line hTERT-EECs and the induced cellular and molecular response modulation in vitro. We found that B.suis S2 was able to infect and replicate to high titers and inhibit the proliferation of EECs and induce non-apoptotic pathways, as determined by B.suis.S2 detection using MTT and acridine orange/ethidium bromide (AO/EB) staining and flow cytometry. We explored the evidence of non-apoptotic pathways using real-time quantitative RT-PCR and by western blot analysis. Finally, we discovered the over-expression of GRP78, ATF4, ATF6, PERK, eIF2?, CHOP, and cytochrome c (Cyt-c) but not IRE1, xbp-1, and caspase-3 in B.suis.S2 (HK)-attacked and B.suis.S2-infected cells, suggesting that the molecular mechanism of ER stress sensor activation by B.suis.S2 is basically concomitant with that by B.suis.S2 (HK) and that ER stress, especially the PERK pathway, plays an important role in the process of B.suis.S2 infecting EEC, which may, in part, explain the role of the uterus in the pathogenesis of B.suis.S2. PMID:25633898

Wang, Xiangguo; Lin, Pengfei; Yin, Yanlong; Zhou, Jinhua; Lei, Lanjie; Zhou, Xudong; Jin, Yaping; Wang, Aihua

2015-05-01

125

dFMRP and Caprin, translational regulators of synaptic plasticity, control the cell cycle at the Drosophila mid-blastula transition  

PubMed Central

The molecular mechanisms driving the conserved metazoan developmental shift referred to as the mid-blastula transition (MBT) remain mysterious. Typically, cleavage divisions give way to longer asynchronous cell cycles with the acquisition of a gap phase. In Drosophila, rapid synchronous nuclear divisions must pause at the MBT to allow the formation of a cellular blastoderm through a special form of cytokinesis termed cellularization. Drosophila Fragile X mental retardation protein (dFMRP; FMR1), a transcript-specific translational regulator, is required for cellularization. The role of FMRP has been most extensively studied in the nervous system because the loss of FMRP activity in neurons causes the misexpression of specific mRNAs required for synaptic plasticity, resulting in mental retardation and autism in humans. Here, we show that in the early embryo dFMRP associates specifically with Caprin, another transcript-specific translational regulator implicated in synaptic plasticity, and with eIF4G, a key regulator of translational initiation. dFMRP and Caprin collaborate to control the cell cycle at the MBT by directly mediating the normal repression of maternal Cyclin B mRNA and the activation of zygotic frühstart mRNA. These findings identify two new targets of dFMRP regulation and implicate conserved translational regulatory mechanisms in processes as diverse as learning, memory and early embryonic development. PMID:21068064

Papoulas, Ophelia; Monzo, Kathryn F.; Cantin, Greg T.; Ruse, Cristian; Yates, John R.; Ryu, Young Hee; Sisson, John C.

2010-01-01

126

Powassan (POW) Virus Basics  

MedlinePLUS

Powassan (POW) Virus Basics Powassan (POW) virus is related to some mosquito-borne viruses, including West Nile virus. The virus is ... concerns? How do people get infected with POW virus? POW virus is passed to people by ticks: ...

127

Foodborne viruses  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Testing for human pathogenic viruses in foods represents a formidable task requiring the extraction, concentration, and assay of a host of viruses from a wide range of food matrices. The enteric viruses, particularly genogroup I and II (GI and GII) noroviruses and hepatitis A virus, are the princip...

128

Computer viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computer viruses have been around since the mid 1980s. Over 40,000 different viruses have been cataloged so far and the number of viruses is increasing dramatically. The damage they cause is estimated to be several billions of U.S. dollars per year. Most often, the origin of the virus is difficult to trace. Various kinds of anti-virus software have been developed

S. R. Subramanya; N. Lakshminarasimhan

2001-01-01

129

Differential gene expression and immunolocalization of platelet-derived growth factors and their receptors in caprine ovaries.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the messenger RNA (mRNA) expression and immunolocalization of all members of the platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) family in caprine ovaries by quantitative PCR and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Detectable levels of PDGF-A mRNA were not observed in primordial follicles. Higher levels of PDGF-B mRNA were observed in primary follicles than in primordial follicles (P < 0.05). PDGF-D mRNA levels were higher in secondary follicles than in the other preantral follicle categories (P < 0.05). PDGF-B mRNA expression was higher than PDGF-C mRNA expression in primary follicles (P < 0.05). In antral follicles, PDGF-A mRNA expression was higher in cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) from small antral follicles than in those from large antral follicles and their respective granulosa/theca (GT) cells (P < 0.05). Furthermore, in COCs from small and large antral follicles, PDGF-A mRNA expression was higher than that of the other PDGF isoforms (P < 0.05). The mRNA levels of PDGF-B and PDGF-D and PDGFR-? and PDGFR-? were higher in GT cells from large antral follicles than in GT cells from small antral follicles and in their respective COCs (P < 0.05). In COCs and GT cells from small antral follicles, the mRNA levels of PDGFR-? were higher than those of PDGFR-? (P < 0.05). All proteins were observed in the cytoplasm of oocytes from all follicular categories. In granulosa cells, all PDGFs and PDGFR-? were detected from starting at the secondary stage, and in theca cells, all proteins, except PDGF-C, were detected starting at the antral stage. In conclusion, PDGF and its receptors are differentially expressed in the oocytes and ovarian cells according to the stage of follicular development, suggesting their role in the regulation of folliculogenesis in goats. PMID:25498237

Brito, I R; Sales, A D; Rodrigues, G Q; Lobo, C H; Castro, S V; Silva, A W B; Moura, A A A; Silva, J R V; Rodrigues, A P R; Figueiredo, J R

2015-04-01

130

Employing in vitro analysis to test the potency of methylglyoxal in inducing the formation of amyloid-like aggregates of caprine brain cystatin.  

PubMed

Thiol protease inhibitors (cystatins) are implicated in various disease states from cancer to neurodegenerative conditions and immune responses. Cystatins have high amyloidogenic propensity and they are prone to form fibrillar aggregates leading to amyloidosis. Particularly challenging examples of such disorders occur in type 2 diabetes, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. The aim of the present study is to find an interaction between the compound methylglyoxal (MG) which is particularly elevated in type 2 diabetes with caprine brain cystatin (CBC). Results have shown that elevated concentration of MG forms amyloid aggregates of CBC. This was achieved by allowing slow growth in a solution containing moderate to high concentrations of MG. When analysed with microscopy, the protein aggregate present in the sample after incubation consisted of extended filaments with ordered structures. This fibrillar material possesses extensive ?-sheet structure as revealed by far-UV CD and IR spectroscopy. Furthermore, the fibrils exhibit increased Thioflavin T fluorescence. PMID:25331422

Bhat, Waseem Feeroze; Bhat, Sheraz Ahmad; Khaki, Peerzada Shariq Shaheen; Bano, Bilqees

2015-01-01

131

Chlorella Viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chlorella viruses or chloroviruses are large, icosahedral, plaque?forming, double?stranded?DNA–containing viruses that replicate in certain strains of the unicellular green alga Chlorella. DNA sequence analysis of the 330?kbp genome of Paramecium bursaria chlorella virus 1 (PBCV?1), the prototype of this virus family (Phycodnaviridae), predict ?366 protein?encoding genes and 11 tRNA genes. The predicted gene products of ?50% of these genes resemble

Takashi Yamada; Hideki Onimatsu; James L. Van Etten

2006-01-01

132

ECHO virus  

MedlinePLUS

Enteric cytopathic human orphan (ECHO) viruses are a group of viruses that lead to gastrointestinal infection and skin rashes. ... Echovirus is one of several families of viruses that affect the ... are common. In the US, they are most common in the summer and ...

133

A synthetic peptide encompassing the G5 antigenic region of the rabies virus induces high avidity but poorly neutralizing antibody in immunized animals.  

PubMed

The immunization of goats with a synthetic peptide encompassing the G5 antigenic site of the rabies virus surface glycoprotein induces a strong humoral immune response in the absence of a carrier protein. The immunized animals mounted high antibody titers and showed a strong avidity maturation of the B cell immune response to both the G5-peptide and purified surface glycoprotein G. This antibody weakly neutralized rabies virus carrying the G5 epitope but failed to neutralize escape mutants carrying a single point mutation in this epitope. A putative T helper cell epitope, functional in the context of different caprine MHC haplotypes, was identified by structure analysis of the G5-peptide. This striking dichotomy between high titers and antibody of high avidity to the glycoprotein G and poor neutralizing activity strongly suggests that antibody binding assays such as ELISA cannot always reliably predict the neutralizing activity of sera as measured in functional assays. PMID:18955098

Niederhäuser, Simone; Bruegger, Dorothy; Zahno, Marie-Luise; Vogt, Hans-Rudolf; Peterhans, Ernst; Zanoni, Reto; Bertoni, Giuseppe

2008-12-01

134

Virus World  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by the Institute for Molecular Virology at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, this Web site offers high quality virus images that may be used for seminar presentations or any other noncommercial use. Users can choose from American Society for Virology conference poster images, enhanced EM pictures, and images of virology-related book and journal covers. Images may be searched by virus name; the results page will provide links to summary information from the Protein Data Bank and to the Scripps Research Institute's Virus Particle Explorer. Movie animations and relevant links are provided for some of the virus images. Users can also access tutorials on virus structure and other topics.

2002-01-01

135

CHLORELLA VIRUSES  

PubMed Central

Chlorella viruses or chloroviruses are large, icosahedral, plaque?forming, double?stranded?DNA—containing viruses that replicate in certain strains of the unicellular green alga Chlorella. DNA sequence analysis of the 330?kbp genome of Paramecium bursaria chlorella virus 1 (PBCV?1), the prototype of this virus family (Phycodnaviridae), predict ?366 protein?encoding genes and 11 tRNA genes. The predicted gene products of ?50% of these genes resemble proteins of known function, including many that are completely unexpected for a virus. In addition, the chlorella viruses have several features and encode many gene products that distinguish them from most viruses. These products include: (1) multiple DNA methyltransferases and DNA site?specific endonucleases, (2) the enzymes required to glycosylate their proteins and synthesize polysaccharides such as hyaluronan and chitin, (3) a virus?encoded K+ channel (called Kcv) located in the internal membrane of the virions, (4) a SET domain containing protein (referred to as vSET) that dimethylates Lys27 in histone 3, and (5) PBCV?1 has three types of introns; a self?splicing intron, a spliceosomal processed intron, and a small tRNA intron. Accumulating evidence indicates that the chlorella viruses have a very long evolutionary history. This review mainly deals with research on the virion structure, genome rearrangements, gene expression, cell wall degradation, polysaccharide synthesis, and evolution of PBCV?1 as well as other related viruses. PMID:16877063

Yamada, Takashi; Onimatsu, Hideki; Van Etten, James L.

2007-01-01

136

Chlorella viruses.  

PubMed

Chlorella viruses or chloroviruses are large, icosahedral, plaque-forming, double-stranded-DNA-containing viruses that replicate in certain strains of the unicellular green alga Chlorella. DNA sequence analysis of the 330-kbp genome of Paramecium bursaria chlorella virus 1 (PBCV-1), the prototype of this virus family (Phycodnaviridae), predict approximately 366 protein-encoding genes and 11 tRNA genes. The predicted gene products of approximately 50% of these genes resemble proteins of known function, including many that are completely unexpected for a virus. In addition, the chlorella viruses have several features and encode many gene products that distinguish them from most viruses. These products include: (1) multiple DNA methyltransferases and DNA site-specific endonucleases, (2) the enzymes required to glycosylate their proteins and synthesize polysaccharides such as hyaluronan and chitin, (3) a virus-encoded K(+) channel (called Kcv) located in the internal membrane of the virions, (4) a SET domain containing protein (referred to as vSET) that dimethylates Lys27 in histone 3, and (5) PBCV-1 has three types of introns; a self-splicing intron, a spliceosomal processed intron, and a small tRNA intron. Accumulating evidence indicates that the chlorella viruses have a very long evolutionary history. This review mainly deals with research on the virion structure, genome rearrangements, gene expression, cell wall degradation, polysaccharide synthesis, and evolution of PBCV-1 as well as other related viruses. PMID:16877063

Yamada, Takashi; Onimatsu, Hideki; Van Etten, James L

2006-01-01

137

Obesity Virus  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Obesity has many causes, but there is growing evidence that common viruses may contribute to the condition in some people. Recently, Nikhil Dhurandhar and his colleagues at the Pennington Biomedical Research Center infected human stem cells with Ad-36, a common virus known to be associated with obesity in humans. They found that the cells they exposed to the virus accumulated a much higher amount of fat than uninfected cells.

Science Update (AAAS; )

2007-06-12

138

TUMOR VIRUSES  

E-print Network

It has been known for many years that infection of an experimental animal with one of a relatively small group of viruses somehow resulted in the appearance of gross tumors. Because of this and the known intimate relationships between the infecting virus and the functions of the cell it invades, many scientists have hypothesized that cancer in man may well be of viral etiology. Yet even today when the amount and sophistication of tumor virus research has markedly increased in recent years, it is not known how a virus transforms a normal cell to one having the properties of a tumor cell nor is there direct evidence that viruses cause cancer in man. However, in the last five years there has been a remarkable change in the experimental approach to the study of tumor viruses. Whereas most early investigations were limited to observations of biological phenomena at the whole animal-gross tumor level, now modern, virological, biochemical, and immunological methods are used to examine the quantitative interaction of tumor viruses with the single cell in the transforming event and to look for determining characteristics of the tumor virus particles, as such. This has been a logical development as techniques in these basic areas have been discovered and applied to other biological problems. Thus, although the final answers are still far from being achieved, we find that a number of basic factors of importance in viral oncogenesis have been defined in certain experimental virus-induced tumor systems. IMPORTANCE OF IN VITRO SYSTEMS FOR VIRUS TRANSFORMATION The chief reason that we are able to start formulating some tentative answers to the question of how a virus transforms a normal cell to a tumor cell is the development of tissue culture systems in which virus transformation occurs in vitro. The degree of control that these isolated systems

139

The effects of staged intra-articular injection of cultured autologous mesenchymal stromal cells on the repair of damaged cartilage: a pilot study in caprine model  

PubMed Central

Introduction Treatment of chondral injuries remains a major issue despite the many advances made in cartilage repair techniques. Although it has been postulated that the use of marrow stimulation in combination with cell-based therapy may provide superior outcome, this has yet to be demonstrated. A pilot study was thus conducted to determine if bone marrow derived mesenchymal stromal cells (BM-MSCs) have modulatory effects on the repair outcomes of bone marrow stimulation (BMS) techniques. Methods Two full-thickness chondral 5 mm diameter defects were created in tandem on the medial condyle of left stifle joints of 18 Boer caprine (N = 18). Goats were then divided equally into three groups. Simultaneously, bone marrow aspirates were taken from the iliac crests from the goats in Group 1 and were sent for BM-MSC isolation and expansion in vitro. Six weeks later, BMS surgery, which involves subchondral drilling at the defect sites, was performed. After two weeks, the knees in Group 1 were given autologous intra-articular BM-MSCs (N = 6). In Group 2, although BMS was performed there were no supplementations provided. In Group 3, no intervention was administered. The caprines were sacrificed after six months. Repairs were evaluated using macroscopic assessment through the International Cartilage Repair Society (ICRS) scoring, histologic grading by O’Driscoll score, biochemical assays for glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and gene expressions for aggrecan, collagen II and Sox9. Results Histological and immunohistochemical analyses demonstrated hyaline-like cartilage regeneration in the transplanted sites particularly in Group 1. In contrast, tissues in Groups 2 and 3 demonstrated mainly fibrocartilage. The highest ICRS and O’Driscoll scorings was also observed in Group 1, while the lowest score was seen in Group 3. Similarly, the total GAG/total protein as well as chondrogenic gene levels were expressed in the same order, that is highest in Group 1 while the lowest in Group three. Significant differences between these 3 groups were observed (P <0.05). Conclusions This study suggests that supplementing intra-articular injections of BM-MSCs following BMS knee surgery provides superior cartilage repair outcomes. PMID:24286235

2013-01-01

140

Diseases Caused by Viruses  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The symptoms, causal agents, epidemiology and management of important virus diseases in chickpea and lentil crops were reviewed in depth. The virus diseases include.Alflafa mosaic virus, Cucumber mosaiv virus, Faba bean necrotic yellows virus, Pea enation mosaic virus, Pea seed-borne mosaci virus,...

141

Caprine T-cell receptor variable beta-chain (TCRV beta) repertoire analysis and potential applications in cowdriosis immune response studies.  

PubMed

Anchor polymerase chain reaction has been applied to the study of caprine TCR V beta-chain repertoire at the mRNA level in peripheral blood of a Saanen goat. Single stranded, g-tailed cDNA synthesized from total RNA was PCR-amplified using a sheep V beta constant region primer (3') and a poly(dC) anchor primer (5') at the variable region end of the TCR V beta-chain. The obtained amplicon was subsequently cloned into Bluescript plasmid vector. A total of 72 recombinant clones whereof 61 contained an insert of appropriate size were harvested. Up to now, the full length sequences of a total of 55 clones have been obtained. Nine clones were rearranged but not functional due to stop codons. Forty-five sequences were functionally rearranged and further analyzed. They were classified into 15 different V beta families on the basis of V-region sequence homology with their human counterpart. V beta families corresponding to the 9 published bovine families were represented in our library. This complexity enables us to develop V beta family-specific primers in order to study the TCR V beta repertoire of other goat breeds of interest, i.e., the Creole goat. There the TCR V beta repertoire analysis and kinetic study of the cowdriosis model will provide insight into the type of the immune response and the status of protection during the immunization process and challenge. PMID:9668481

Obexer-Ruff, G; Fluri, A; Hein, W; Lazary, S; Peterhans, E; Bertoni, G

1998-06-29

142

The RNA-binding Proteins FMR1, Rasputin and Caprin Act Together with the UBA Protein Lingerer to Restrict Tissue Growth in Drosophila melanogaster  

PubMed Central

Appropriate expression of growth-regulatory genes is essential to ensure normal animal development and to prevent diseases like cancer. Gene regulation at the levels of transcription and translational initiation mediated by the Hippo and Insulin signaling pathways and by the TORC1 complex, respectively, has been well documented. Whether translational control mediated by RNA-binding proteins contributes to the regulation of cellular growth is less clear. Here, we identify Lingerer (Lig), an UBA domain-containing protein, as growth suppressor that associates with the RNA-binding proteins Fragile X mental retardation protein 1 (FMR1) and Caprin (Capr) and directly interacts with and regulates the RNA-binding protein Rasputin (Rin) in Drosophila melanogaster. lig mutant organs overgrow due to increased proliferation, and a reporter for the JAK/STAT signaling pathway is upregulated in a lig mutant situation. rin, Capr or FMR1 in combination as double mutants, but not the respective single mutants, display lig like phenotypes, implicating a redundant function of Rin, Capr and FMR1 in growth control in epithelial tissues. Thus, Lig regulates cell proliferation during development in concert with Rin, Capr and FMR1. PMID:23874212

Baumgartner, Roland; Stocker, Hugo; Hafen, Ernst

2013-01-01

143

Emerging Viruses  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Emerging viruses are those "whose incidence in humans has increased in the past 2 decades or threatens to increase in the near future." This week's Topic in Depth focuses on sites related to viruses, particularly those that are considered "emerging."The first site (1) is an essay by Alison Jacobson of the University of Capetown that discusses some emerging and potentially emerging viruses, along with factors that contribute to the threat. From a US government interagency working group, the second report (2) focuses on the responses to infectious disease outbreaks, including drugs, vaccines, and government response. A World Health Organization site (3) highlights recent reports of infectious disease, archived by date and by disease. This ThinkQuest site (4) gives a basic introduction to viruses and how they cause infections. An online virology tutorial (5) by Ed Rybicki of the University of Cape Town serves as a lesson on the basics of virology for a more advanced student. The next two sites focus on the specifics of selected viruses. From the Institute for Molecular Virology (6) comes a resource on Marburg and Ebola viruses, and from the National Biological Information Infrastructure (7) is a site on West Nile Virus. The last resource (8) is a scholarly journal from the Centers for Disease Control that presents some of the latest scientific research on emerging diseases.

Lee, Amy.

144

Computer viruses  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The worm, Trojan horse, bacterium, and virus are destructive programs that attack information stored in a computer's memory. Virus programs, which propagate by incorporating copies of themselves into other programs, are a growing menace in the late-1980s world of unprotected, networked workstations and personal computers. Limited immunity is offered by memory protection hardware, digitally authenticated object programs,and antibody programs that kill specific viruses. Additional immunity can be gained from the practice of digital hygiene, primarily the refusal to use software from untrusted sources. Full immunity requires attention in a social dimension, the accountability of programmers.

Denning, Peter J.

1988-01-01

145

Evidence of three new members of malignant catarrhal fever virus group in Muskox (Ovibos moschatus), Nubian ibex (Capra nubiana), and gemsbok (Oryx gazella)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Six members of the malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) virus group of ruminant rhadinoviruses have been identified to date. Four of these viruses are clearly associated with clinical disease: alcelaphine herpesvirus 1 (AlHV-1) carried by wildebeest (Connochaetes spp.); ovine herpesvirus 2 (OvHV-2), ubiquitous in domestic sheep; caprine herpesvirus 2 (CpHV-2), endemic in domestic goats; and the virus of unknown origin found causing classic MCF in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus; MCFV-WTD). Using serology and polymerase chain reaction with degenerate primers targeting a portion of the herpesviral DNA polymerase gene, evidence of three previously unrecognized rhadinoviruses in the MCF virus group was found in muskox (Ovibos moschatus), Nubian ibex (Capra nubiana), and gemsbok (South African oryx, Oryx gazella), respectively. Based on sequence alignment, the viral sequence in the muskox is most closely related to MCFV-WTD (81.5% sequence identity) and that in the Nubian ibex is closest to CpHV-2 (89.3% identity). The viral sequence in the gemsbok is most closely related to AlHV-1 (85.1% identity). No evidence of disease association with these viruses has been found. ?? Wildlife Disease Association 2003.

Li, H.; Gailbreath, K.; Bender, L.C.; West, K.; Keller, J.; Crawford, T.B.

2003-01-01

146

HIV virus  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

HIV is a virus that can be transmitted through fluids exchanged in sexual activity. HIV eventually causes AIDS. AIDS patients have compromised immune systems and they eventually die from diseases that healthy humans would normally fight off very easily.

Carl Henderson (National Institutes of Health; )

2005-12-09

147

West Nile Virus  

MedlinePLUS

... virus is a virus that can infect humans, birds, horses and mosquitoes. Infection from this virus is ... spread by mosquitoes. Mosquitoes become infected by biting birds that carry the virus. People can get West ...

148

Computer Viruses. Technology Update.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document provides general information on computer viruses, how to help protect a computer network from them, measures to take if a computer becomes infected. Highlights include the origins of computer viruses; virus contraction; a description of some common virus types (File Virus, Boot Sector/Partition Table Viruses, Trojan Horses, and…

Ponder, Tim, Comp.; Ropog, Marty, Comp.; Keating, Joseph, Comp.

149

Evaluation of a Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis leuD mutant as a vaccine candidate against challenge in a caprine model.  

PubMed

Johne's disease (JD) is prevalent worldwide and has a significant impact on the global agricultural economy. In the present study, we evaluated the protective efficacy of a leuD (?leud) mutant and gained insight into differential immune responses after challenge with virulent M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis in a caprine colonization model. The immune response and protective efficacy were compared with those of the killed vaccine Mycopar. In vitro stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells with johnin purified protein derivative showed that Mycopar and ?leuD generated similar levels of gamma interferon (IFN-?) but significantly higher levels than unvaccinated and challenged phosphate-buffered saline controls. However, only with ?leuD was the IFN-? response maintained. Flow cytometric analysis showed that the increase in IFN-? correlated with proliferation and activation (increased expression of CD25) of CD4, CD8, and ??T cells, but this response was significantly higher in ?leuD-vaccinated animals at some time points after challenge. Both Mycopar and ?leuD vaccines upregulated Th1/proinflammatory and Th17 cytokines and downregulated Th2/anti-inflammatory and regulatory cytokines at similar levels at almost all time points. However, significantly higher levels of IFN-? (at weeks 26 and 30), interleukin-2 (IL-2; week 18), IL-1b (weeks 14 and 22), IL-17 (weeks 18 and 22), and IL-23 (week 18) and a significantly lower level of IL-10 (weeks 14 and 18) and transforming growth factor ? (week 18) were detected in the ?leuD-vaccinated group. Most importantly, ?leuD elicited an immune response that significantly limited colonization of tissues compared to Mycopar upon challenge with wild-type M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. In conclusion, the ?leuD mutant is a promising vaccine candidate for development of a live attenuated vaccine for JD in ruminants. PMID:23408524

Faisal, Syed M; Chen, Jenn-Wei; Yan, Falong; Chen, Tsai-Tzu; Useh, Nicodemus M; Yan, Weiwei; Guo, Shanguang; Wang, Shih-Jon; Glaser, Amy L; McDonough, Sean P; Singh, Bhupinder; Davis, William C; Akey, Bruce L; Chang, Yung-Fu

2013-04-01

150

Evaluation of a Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis leuD Mutant as a Vaccine Candidate against Challenge in a Caprine Model  

PubMed Central

Johne's disease (JD) is prevalent worldwide and has a significant impact on the global agricultural economy. In the present study, we evaluated the protective efficacy of a leuD (?leud) mutant and gained insight into differential immune responses after challenge with virulent M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis in a caprine colonization model. The immune response and protective efficacy were compared with those of the killed vaccine Mycopar. In vitro stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells with johnin purified protein derivative showed that Mycopar and ?leuD generated similar levels of gamma interferon (IFN-?) but significantly higher levels than unvaccinated and challenged phosphate-buffered saline controls. However, only with ?leuD was the IFN-? response maintained. Flow cytometric analysis showed that the increase in IFN-? correlated with proliferation and activation (increased expression of CD25) of CD4, CD8, and ??T cells, but this response was significantly higher in ?leuD-vaccinated animals at some time points after challenge. Both Mycopar and ?leuD vaccines upregulated Th1/proinflammatory and Th17 cytokines and downregulated Th2/anti-inflammatory and regulatory cytokines at similar levels at almost all time points. However, significantly higher levels of IFN-? (at weeks 26 and 30), interleukin-2 (IL-2; week 18), IL-1b (weeks 14 and 22), IL-17 (weeks 18 and 22), and IL-23 (week 18) and a significantly lower level of IL-10 (weeks 14 and 18) and transforming growth factor ? (week 18) were detected in the ?leuD-vaccinated group. Most importantly, ?leuD elicited an immune response that significantly limited colonization of tissues compared to Mycopar upon challenge with wild-type M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. In conclusion, the ?leuD mutant is a promising vaccine candidate for development of a live attenuated vaccine for JD in ruminants. PMID:23408524

Faisal, Syed M.; Chen, Jenn-Wei; Yan, Falong; Chen, Tsai-Tzu; Useh, Nicodemus M.; Yan, Weiwei; Guo, Shanguang; Wang, Shih-Jon; Glaser, Amy L.; McDonough, Sean P.; Singh, Bhupinder; Davis, William C.; Akey, Bruce L.

2013-01-01

151

Identification and verification of differentially expressed genes in the caprine hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis that are associated with litter size.  

PubMed

Litter size is a favorable economic trait for the goat industry, but remains a complex trait controlled by multiple genes in multiple organs. Several genes have been identified that may affect embryo survival, follicular development, and the health of fetuses during pregnancy. Jining Grey goats demonstrate the largest litter size among goat breeds indigenous to China. In order to better understand the genetic basis of this trait, six suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) cDNA libraries were constructed using pooled mRNAs from hypothalamuses, pituitaries, and ovaries of sexually mature and adult polytocous Jining Grey goats, as testers, versus the pooled corresponding mRNAs of monotocous Liaoning Cashmere goats, as drivers. A total of 1,458 true-positive clones--including 955 known genes and 481 known and 22 unknown expressed sequence tags--were obtained from the SSH libraries by sequencing and alignment. The known genes were categorized into cellular processes and signaling information storage and processing, and metabolism. Three genes (FTH1, GH, and SAA) were selected to validate the SSH results by quantitative real-time PCR; all three were up-regulated in the corresponding tissues in the tester group indicating that these are candidate genes associated with the large litter size of Jining Grey goats. Several other identified genes may affect embryo survival, follicular development, and health during pregnancy. This study provides insights into the mechanistic basis by which the caprine hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis affects reproductive traits and provides a theoretical basis for goat production and breeding. PMID:25651825

Feng, Tao; Cao, Gui-Ling; Chu, Ming-Xing; Di, Ran; Huang, Dong-Wei; Liu, Qiu-Yue; Pan, Zhang-Yuan; Jin, Mei; Zhang, Ying-Jie; Li, Ning

2015-02-01

152

Routes of transmission and consequences of small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLVs) infection and eradication schemes.  

PubMed

Small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLV = maedi-visna in sheep and caprine arthritis encephalitis in goats) are distributed throughout most countries of the world, particularly Europe. Laboratories from 16 European countries established collaborations within the framework of a COST (CO-operation in the field of Scientific and Technical Research) action sponsored by the European Union in order to (i) better organize their research programmes on SRLVs and (ii) to coordinate efforts to combat these two diseases. After five years, a consensus conference--the first one in the veterinary medicine field--concluded the work of this network of laboratories by reviewing the present position and discussing three important questions in the field of SRLVs: routes of transmission, consequences of infection and potential role of eradication programmes at either a European or local level, according to the situation in each country or region. This paper brings together existing information regarding these questions and identifies areas for future research. PMID:15210075

Peterhans, Ernst; Greenland, Tim; Badiola, Juan; Harkiss, Gordon; Bertoni, Giuseppe; Amorena, Beatriz; Eliaszewicz, Muriel; Juste, Ramon A; Krassnig, Renate; Lafont, Jean-Pierre; Lenihan, Patrick; Pétursson, Gudmundur; Pritchard, Geoff; Thorley, John; Vitu, Christian; Mornex, Jean-François; Pépin, Michel

2004-01-01

153

Parainfluenza Viruses  

PubMed Central

Human parainfluenza viruses (HPIV) were first discovered in the late 1950s. Over the last decade, considerable knowledge about their molecular structure and function has been accumulated. This has led to significant changes in both the nomenclature and taxonomic relationships of these viruses. HPIV is genetically and antigenically divided into types 1 to 4. Further major subtypes of HPIV-4 (A and B) and subgroups/genotypes of HPIV-1 and HPIV-3 have been described. HPIV-1 to HPIV-3 are major causes of lower respiratory infections in infants, young children, the immunocompromised, the chronically ill, and the elderly. Each subtype can cause somewhat unique clinical diseases in different hosts. HPIV are enveloped and of medium size (150 to 250 nm), and their RNA genome is in the negative sense. These viruses belong to the Paramyxoviridae family, one of the largest and most rapidly growing groups of viruses causing significant human and veterinary disease. HPIV are closely related to recently discovered megamyxoviruses (Hendra and Nipah viruses) and metapneumovirus. PMID:12692097

Henrickson, Kelly J.

2003-01-01

154

Computer viruses  

SciTech Connect

This thesis investigates a recently discovered vulnerability in computer systems which opens the possibility that a single individual with an average user's knowledge could cause widespread damage to information residing in computer networks. This vulnerability is due to a transitive integrity corrupting mechanism called a computer virus which causes corrupted information to spread from program to program. Experiments have shown that a virus can spread at an alarmingly rapid rate from user to user, from system to system, and from network to network, even when the best-availability security techniques are properly used. Formal definitions of self-replication, evolution, viruses, and protection mechanisms are used to prove that any system that allows sharing, general functionality, and transitivity of information flow cannot completely prevent viral attack. Computational aspects of viruses are examined, and several undecidable problems are shown. It is demonstrated that a virus may evolve so as to generate any computable sequence. Protection mechanisms are explored, and the design of computer networks that prevent both illicit modification and dissemination of information are given. Administration and protection of information networks based on partial orderings are examined, and probably correct automated administrative assistance is introduced.

Cohen, F.B.

1986-01-01

155

Virus Information Database  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Symantec Corporation's AntiVirus Research Center has recently released a virus information database that includes over 10,000 computer viruses. The searchable and browseable database can include information about aliases for each virus, infection length, area of infection, likelihood of infection, region reported, characteristics, target platform and target date, in addition to a brief description of how the virus works. The site also provides a basic tutorial on viruses. Symantec, under the Norton name, produces several anti-virus products.

156

Virus and Spam Protection Virus Protection  

E-print Network

Virus and Spam Protection Virus Protection On November 14, 2002, we installed software that detects and protects our I-Mail from viruses. This software works in the following way: If someone sends a piece, for some reason, actually wants the quarantined file we will make this (virus infected) file available

California at Santa Barbara, University of

157

Computer Viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a description of the major characteristics of disk and network borne viruses for the convenience of library and archival systems administrators. It includes a brief history of the use of destructive software by computer hackers, noting some of the early and more recent forms of attack, and suggests that computer languages newly developed for use with the

Robyn P. Weems

1998-01-01

158

Computer viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an overview of the main categories of malicious programs known as Trojan horses, viruses, bacteria, worms, and logic bombs. The focus is on their general behavior and the properties seen in their implementations rather than the ultimate effects or their intended destructive behavior. Possible preventive measures are also discussed

C. E. Pelaez; John Bowles

1991-01-01

159

Computer viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis investigates a recently discovered vulnerability in computer systems which opens the possibility that a single individual with an average user's knowledge could cause widespread damage to information residing in computer networks. This vulnerability is due to a transitive integrity corrupting mechanism called a computer virus which causes corrupted information to spread from program to program. Experiments have shown

Frederick B. Cohen

1986-01-01

160

Other liver viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous viruses can infect the liver and the incidence of hepatitis caused by such hepatotropic viruses is increasing in the UK, perhaps related to increased travel worldwide. This article will outline the epidemiology, presentation and management of hepatitis A and E viruses, Epstein–Barr virus, cytomegalovirus, and herpes simplex virus. In certain groups such as pregnant women, and patients in immunocompromised

William Alazawi; Heather Lewis; Graham R. Foster

2011-01-01

161

The Geometry of Viruses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented is an activity in which students make models of viruses, which allows them to visualize the shape of these microorganisms. Included are some background on viruses, the biology and geometry of viruses, directions for building viruses, a comparison of cells and viruses, and questions for students. (KR)

Case, Christine L.

1991-01-01

162

Exploring computer viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author presents some thoughts on viruses and explores the anatomy of a sample computer virus. He details, using C language programs, some of the fundamental parts associated with viruses and how these viruses can be detected. It is concluded that the final decision for virus control rests with risk management. It is suggested that, at the very least, contingency

R. Davis

1988-01-01

163

Chikungunya Virus (CHIKV)  

MedlinePLUS

... Caribbean Countries with reported local transmission of chikungunya virus (as of July 2014) The mosquitoes • Aedes species mosquitoes transmit chikungunya virus • These same types of mosquitoes transmit dengue virus • ...

164

Hanta virus (image)  

MedlinePLUS

Hanta virus is a distant cousin of Ebola virus, but is found worldwide. The virus is spread by human contact with rodent waste. Dangerous respiratory illness develops. Effective treatment is not yet ...

165

Computer Viruses: An Overview.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the early history and current proliferation of computer viruses that occur on Macintosh and DOS personal computers, mentions virus detection programs, and offers suggestions for how libraries can protect themselves and their users from damage by computer viruses. (LRW)

Marmion, Dan

1990-01-01

166

Virus Movement Maintains Local Virus Population Diversity  

SciTech Connect

Viruses are the largest reservoir of genetic material on the planet, yet little is known about the population dynamics of any virus within its natural environment. Over a 2-year period, we monitored the diversity of two archaeal viruses found in hot springs within Yellowstone National Park (YNP). Both temporal phylogeny and neutral biodiversity models reveal that virus diversity in these local environments is not being maintained by mutation but rather by high rates of immigration from a globally distributed metacommunity. These results indicate that geographically isolated hot springs are readily able to exchange viruses. The importance of virus movement is supported by the detection of virus particles in air samples collected over YNP hot springs and by their detection in metacommunity sequencing projects conducted in the Sargasso Sea. Rapid rates of virus movement are not expected to be unique to these archaeal viruses but rather a common feature among virus metacommunities. The finding that virus immigration rather than mutation can dominate community structure has significant implications for understanding virus circulation and the role that viruses play in ecology and evolution by providing a reservoir of mobile genetic material.

J. Snyder; B. Wiedenheft; M. Lavin; F. Roberto; J. Spuhler; A. Ortmann; T. Douglas; M. Young

2007-11-01

167

Virus movement maintains local virus population diversity.  

PubMed

Viruses are the largest reservoir of genetic material on the planet, yet little is known about the population dynamics of any virus within its natural environment. Over a 2-year period, we monitored the diversity of two archaeal viruses found in hot springs within Yellowstone National Park (YNP). Both temporal phylogeny and neutral biodiversity models reveal that virus diversity in these local environments is not being maintained by mutation but rather by high rates of immigration from a globally distributed metacommunity. These results indicate that geographically isolated hot springs are readily able to exchange viruses. The importance of virus movement is supported by the detection of virus particles in air samples collected over YNP hot springs and by their detection in metacommunity sequencing projects conducted in the Sargasso Sea. Rapid rates of virus movement are not expected to be unique to these archaeal viruses but rather a common feature among virus metacommunities. The finding that virus immigration rather than mutation can dominate community structure has significant implications for understanding virus circulation and the role that viruses play in ecology and evolution by providing a reservoir of mobile genetic material. PMID:18025457

Snyder, Jamie C; Wiedenheft, Blake; Lavin, Matthew; Roberto, Francisco F; Spuhler, Josh; Ortmann, Alice C; Douglas, Trevor; Young, Mark

2007-11-27

168

Virus movement maintains local virus population diversity  

PubMed Central

Viruses are the largest reservoir of genetic material on the planet, yet little is known about the population dynamics of any virus within its natural environment. Over a 2-year period, we monitored the diversity of two archaeal viruses found in hot springs within Yellowstone National Park (YNP). Both temporal phylogeny and neutral biodiversity models reveal that virus diversity in these local environments is not being maintained by mutation but rather by high rates of immigration from a globally distributed metacommunity. These results indicate that geographically isolated hot springs are readily able to exchange viruses. The importance of virus movement is supported by the detection of virus particles in air samples collected over YNP hot springs and by their detection in metacommunity sequencing projects conducted in the Sargasso Sea. Rapid rates of virus movement are not expected to be unique to these archaeal viruses but rather a common feature among virus metacommunities. The finding that virus immigration rather than mutation can dominate community structure has significant implications for understanding virus circulation and the role that viruses play in ecology and evolution by providing a reservoir of mobile genetic material. PMID:18025457

Snyder, Jamie C.; Wiedenheft, Blake; Lavin, Matthew; Roberto, Francisco F.; Spuhler, Josh; Ortmann, Alice C.; Douglas, Trevor; Young, Mark

2007-01-01

169

A recombinant protein-based ELISA for detecting antibodies to foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype Asia 1.  

PubMed

A recombinant protein-based ELISA was evaluated for detecting antibodies to foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) serotype Asia 1. The recombinant protein (rP13C) was derived from the P1 precursor and 3C protease genes that were cloned into a single expression vector and expressed in insect cells. This protein elicited a low titer of FMDV neutralizing antibodies in pigs. Its utility as a diagnostic antigen was explored in a blocking ELISA using monoclonal antibodies. The rP13C ELISA yielded higher endpoint titers than the liquid phase blocking (LPB) ELISA and virus neutralization test performed on sera from goats challenged with FMDV post-vaccination. The rP13C ELISA correctly scored the FMD international reference weak positive serum. The relative sensitivity between the rP13C ELISA and LPB ELISA was equivalent for vaccinated sera. With this comparable sensitivity, the rP13C ELISA exhibited a specificity of 99.7% for domestic naive swine, bovine and caprine sera. This report demonstrates that an ELISA using recombinant proteins has the potential to replace the LPB ELISA using an inactivated FMDV antigen as a simple and robust serological tool for screening antibodies to FMDV serotype Asia 1. PMID:19442854

Ko, Young-Joon; Jeoung, Hye-Young; Lee, Hyang-Sim; Chang, Byung-Sik; Hong, Seung-Min; Heo, Eun-Jeong; Lee, Kwang-Nyeong; Joo, Hoo-Don; Kim, Su-Mi; Park, Jong-Hyeon; Kweon, Chang-Hee

2009-07-01

170

Immunomodulation by viruses: the myxoma virus story  

Microsoft Academic Search

Myxoma virus is a poxvirus pathogen of rabbits that has evolved to replicate successfully in the presence of an active immune response by an infected host. To accomplish this, the virus has developed a variety of strategies to avoid detection by or obstruct specific aspects of the antiviral response whose consolidated action is antagonistic to virus survival. We describe two

Piers Nash; John Barrett; Jing-Xin Cao; Sheela Hota-Mitchell; Alshad S. Lalani; Helen Everett; Xiao-Ming Xu; Janine Robichaud; Shawna Hnatiuk; Cheryl Ainslie; Bruce T. Seet; Grant McFadden

1999-01-01

171

Bacterial viruses against viruses pathogenic for man?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this review, we discuss possible models of bacteriophage–virus interactions. The first is based on the mechanism by which phages may interact indirectly with viruses. Its essence is that bacteriophage-derived nucleic acid may inhibit pathogenic virus infection. It seems that this phenomenon can be partly explained on the basis of interferon induction. We also discuss a study by Borecky's group

Ryszard Miedzybrodzki; Wojciech Fortuna; Beata Weber-Dabrowska; Andrzej Gorski

2005-01-01

172

The Tobacco Mosaic Virus.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains how the tobacco mosaic virus can be used to study virology. Presents facts about the virus, procedures to handle the virus in the laboratory, and four laboratory exercises involving the viruses' survival under inactivating conditions, dilution end point, filterability, and microscopy. (MDH)

Sulzinski, Michael A.

1992-01-01

173

Sero-prevalence and associated risk factors of peste des petits ruminants and contagious caprine pleuro-pneumonia in goats and sheep in the Southern Zone of Tanzania.  

PubMed

A retrospective Sero-prevalence analysis was conducted in 2012 in order to find out whether contagious caprine pleuro-pneumonia (CCPP) and peste des petits ruminants (PPR) had already been introduced in Mtwara and Lindi regions of Southern Tanzania by 2007 and 2009. A total of 477 randomly selected sera from a bank of 3500 small ruminant samples that were collected as part of Rift Valley Fever surveillance of 2007 in Mtwara and Lindi regions were used in this study. Seroconversion was also evaluated in the 504 sera that were collected in 2009 as part of disease outbreak investigations in Tandahimba and Newala districts of Mtwara region. Seroconversions to CCPP and PPR were tested using competitive ELISA. In addition, information on different variables available in the existing surveillance forms gathered during sampling was used in the analysis of risk factors associated with seropositivity to the two diseases. The overall seroprevalence of CCPP for the sera of 2007 and 2009 in goats was 52.1% (n=447) and 35.5% (n=434) respectively; while in sheep the seroprevalence was 36.7% (n=30) and 22.9% (n=70) respectively. Seroconversion to PPR in goats and sheep was 28.7% (n=434) and 35.7% (n=70) respectively based on the sera of 2009. However, no antibodies were detected in the 2007 sera. Mixed infections were detected in 7.4% (n=434) of the goat and 12.9% (n=70) of sheep samples. Significant risk factors associated with seropositivity to CCPP in 2007 included introduction of new animals in flocks (OR=3.94; 95% CI 1.86-8.36; p<0.001) and raising animals in government farms (OR=4.92; 95% CI 1.57-15.76; p=0.02); whereas, seropositivity to CCPP in 2009 increased with introduction of new animals in flocks (OR=18.82; 95% CI 8.06-43.96; p<0.001), raising animals in government farms (OR=4.04; 95% CI 2.69-6.42; p<0.001) and raising animals in Newala district (OR=2.35; 95% CI 1.53-3.62; p<0.001). On the other hand, predictors for seropositivity to PPR in 2009 were introduction of new animals in flocks (OR=2.83; 95% CI 1.73-4.62; p<0.001) and communal grazing of animals (OR=7.60; 95% CI 1.77-32.58; p=0.01). Therefore, these results show that CCPP was already circulating in goats in the southern zone by 2007 and that PPR was probably introduced thereafter. Their presence in this emerging animal keeping area in Tanzania calls for improved surveillance and control systems. PMID:25022914

Mbyuzi, Albano O; Komba, Erick V G; Kimera, Sharadhuli I; Kambarage, Dominic M

2014-09-01

174

Junín Virus Pathogenesis and Virus Replication  

PubMed Central

Junín virus, the etiological agent of Argentine hemorrhagic fever, causes significant morbidity and mortality. The virus is spread through the aerosolization of host rodent excreta and endemic to the humid pampas of Argentina. Recently, significant progress has been achieved with the development of new technologies (e.g. reverse genetics) that have expanded knowledge about the pathogenesis and viral replication of Junín virus. We will review the pathogenesis of Junín virus in various animal models and the role of innate and adaptive immunity during infection. We will highlight current research regarding the role of molecular biology of Junín virus in elucidating virus attenuation. We will also summarize current knowledge on Junín virus pathogenesis focusing on the recent development of vaccines and potential therapeutics. PMID:23202466

Grant, Ashley; Seregin, Alexey; Huang, Cheng; Kolokoltsova, Olga; Brasier, Allan; Peters, Clarence; Paessler, Slobodan

2012-01-01

175

Understanding ebola virus transmission.  

PubMed

An unprecedented number of Ebola virus infections among healthcare workers and patients have raised questions about our understanding of Ebola virus transmission. Here, we explore different routes of Ebola virus transmission between people, summarizing the known epidemiological and experimental data. From this data, we expose important gaps in Ebola virus research pertinent to outbreak situations. We further propose experiments and methods of data collection that will enable scientists to fill these voids in our knowledge about the transmission of Ebola virus. PMID:25654239

Judson, Seth; Prescott, Joseph; Munster, Vincent

2015-02-01

176

Virus-Vectored Influenza Virus Vaccines  

PubMed Central

Despite the availability of an inactivated vaccine that has been licensed for >50 years, the influenza virus continues to cause morbidity and mortality worldwide. Constant evolution of circulating influenza virus strains and the emergence of new strains diminishes the effectiveness of annual vaccines that rely on a match with circulating influenza strains. Thus, there is a continued need for new, efficacious vaccines conferring cross-clade protection to avoid the need for biannual reformulation of seasonal influenza vaccines. Recombinant virus-vectored vaccines are an appealing alternative to classical inactivated vaccines because virus vectors enable native expression of influenza antigens, even from virulent influenza viruses, while expressed in the context of the vector that can improve immunogenicity. In addition, a vectored vaccine often enables delivery of the vaccine to sites of inductive immunity such as the respiratory tract enabling protection from influenza virus infection. Moreover, the ability to readily manipulate virus vectors to produce novel influenza vaccines may provide the quickest path toward a universal vaccine protecting against all influenza viruses. This review will discuss experimental virus-vectored vaccines for use in humans, comparing them to licensed vaccines and the hurdles faced for licensure of these next-generation influenza virus vaccines. PMID:25105278

Tripp, Ralph A.; Tompkins, S. Mark

2014-01-01

177

Viruses Infecting Reptiles  

PubMed Central

A large number of viruses have been described in many different reptiles. These viruses include arboviruses that primarily infect mammals or birds as well as viruses that are specific for reptiles. Interest in arboviruses infecting reptiles has mainly focused on the role reptiles may play in the epidemiology of these viruses, especially over winter. Interest in reptile specific viruses has concentrated on both their importance for reptile medicine as well as virus taxonomy and evolution. The impact of many viral infections on reptile health is not known. Koch’s postulates have only been fulfilled for a limited number of reptilian viruses. As diagnostic testing becomes more sensitive, multiple infections with various viruses and other infectious agents are also being detected. In most cases the interactions between these different agents are not known. This review provides an update on viruses described in reptiles, the animal species in which they have been detected, and what is known about their taxonomic positions. PMID:22163336

Marschang, Rachel E.

2011-01-01

178

Seroepidemiological investigation of vertebrate hosts of bluetongue virus in West Texas  

E-print Network

cognatum, and species of Tridens and Elymus. The ovine and caprine blood samples obtained were from similar habitats of those of the bovine. The blood Id samples from the jackrabbits, racoons and the armadillo were obtained from animals in Kimble...

Snydelaar, Andrew Charles

1975-01-01

179

Symantec: Virus Alerts and Hoaxes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website by Symantec (makers of Norton AntiVirus) provides information on the latest virus threats, security advisories, updates for Symantec products and removal tools, as well as some basic information on viruses. The Reference Area includes FAQ, a Glossary, Newsletter, White Papers, a section where you can Submit Virus Samples, postings of Hoaxes, a Security Database, Virus Encyclopedia, and Virus Calendar.

180

Viruses and human cancer  

SciTech Connect

This book contains papers on the following topics: Immunology and Epidemiology, Biology and Pathogenesis, Models of Pathogenesis and Treatment, Simian and Bovine Retroviruses, Human Papilloma Viruses, EBV and Herpesvirus, and Hepatitis B Virus.

Gallo, R.C.; Haseltine, W.; Klein, G.; Zur Hausen, H.

1987-01-01

181

Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections  

MedlinePLUS

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) causes mild, cold-like symptoms in adults and older healthy children. It can cause serious problems in ... tests can tell if your child has the virus. There is no specific treatment. You should give ...

182

West Nile virus  

MedlinePLUS

West Nile virus is a disease spread by mosquitoes. The condition ranges from mild to severe. ... West Nile virus was first identified in 1937 in Uganda in eastern Africa. It was first discovered in the United States ...

183

West Nile Virus  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Good introduction and synopsis of West Nile Virus. Briefly reporting on such topics as geographic distribution, symptoms and treatment, transmission and prevention. The article includes a list of references for further investigation into the West Nile Virus.

0000-00-00

184

Human Parainfluenza Viruses  

MedlinePLUS

... HPIVs Are Not the Same as Influenza (Flu) Viruses People usually get HPIV infections in the spring, ... hands, and touching objects or surfaces with the viruses on them then touching your mouth, nose, or ...

185

West Nile Virus  

MedlinePLUS

... West Nile virus has been found in animals, birds, and humans in all continental states in the ... picked up the virus after feeding on infected birds. Pets and other animals can also become infected ...

186

Viruses and Breast Cancer  

PubMed Central

Viruses are the accepted cause of many important cancers including cancers of the cervix and anogenital area, the liver, some lymphomas, head and neck cancers and indirectly human immunodeficiency virus associated cancers. For over 50 years, there have been serious attempts to identify viruses which may have a role in breast cancer. Despite these efforts, the establishment of conclusive evidence for such a role has been elusive. However, the development of extremely sophisticated new experimental techniques has allowed the recent development of evidence that human papilloma virus, Epstein-Barr virus, mouse mammary tumor virus and bovine leukemia virus may each have a role in the causation of human breast cancers. This is potentially good news as effective vaccines are already available to prevent infections from carcinogenic strains of human papilloma virus, which causes cancer of the uterine cervix. PMID:24281093

Lawson, James S.; Heng, Benjamin

2010-01-01

187

West Nile Virus  

MedlinePLUS

West Nile virus (WNV) is an infectious disease that first appeared in the United States in 1999. Infected mosquitoes ... usually go away on their own. If West Nile virus enters the brain, however, it can be ...

188

SOLENOPSIS INVICTA VIRUSES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Unique Solenopsis invicta viruses (SINV) have been identified and their genome sequenced. Oligonucleotide primers have been developed using the isolated nucleic acid sequences of the SINV. The viruses are used as a biocontrol agent for control of fire ants....

189

Tumorigenic DNA viruses  

SciTech Connect

The eighth volume of Advances in Viral Oncology focuses on the three major DNA virus groups with a postulated or proven tumorigenic potential: papillomaviruses, animal hepatitis viruses, and the Epstein-Bar virus. In the opening chapters, the contributors analyze the evidence that papillomaviruses and animal hepatitis viruses are involved in tumorigenesis and describe the mechanisms that trigger virus-host cell interactions. A detailed section on the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) - comprising more than half the book - examines the transcription and mRNA processing patterns of the virus genome; the mechanisms by which EBV infects lymphoid and epithelial cells; the immunological aspects of the virus; the actions of EBV in hosts with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome; and the involvement of EBV in the etiology of Burkitt's lymphoma.

Klein, G.

1989-01-01

190

Viruses and cancer  

SciTech Connect

This book contains 14 selections. Some of the titles are: Immortalising gene(s) encoded by Epstein-Barr Virus; Adenovirus genes involved in transformation. What determines the oncogenic phenotype.; Oncogenesis by mouse mammary tumour virus; and Transforming ras genes.

Rigby, P.W.J.; Wilkie, N.M.

1985-01-01

191

Viruses and the Microbiota  

PubMed Central

Every surface of the human body is colonized by a diverse microbial community called the microbiota, yet the impact of microbiota on viruses is unclear. Recent research has advanced our understanding of how microbiota influence viral infection. Microbiota inhibit infection of some viruses and promote infection of other viruses. These effects can occur through direct and/or indirect effects on the host and/or virus. This review examines the known effects and mechanisms by which the microbiota influence mammalian virus infections. Furthermore, we suggest strategies for future research on how microbiota impact viruses. Overall, microbiota may influence a wide array of viruses through diverse mechanisms, making the study of virus-microbiota interactions a fertile area for future investigation.

Robinson, Christopher M.; Pfeiffer, Julie K.

2015-01-01

192

Evidence of transplacental transmission of bluetongue virus serotype 8 in goats.  

PubMed

During the incursion of bluetongue virus (BTV) serotype 8 in Europe, an increase in the number of abortions in ruminants was observed. Transplacental transmission of BTV-8 in cattle and sheep, with subsequent foetal infection, is a feature of this specific bluetongue serotype. In this study, BTV-8 ability to cross the placental barrier at the beginning of the second third of pregnancy and at the end of pregnancy was investigated in goats in two separate experiments. In the first experiment, nine goats were experimentally infected with BTV-8 at 61 days of pregnancy. Foetuses were collected 21 dpi. BTV-8 was evidenced by real time RT-PCR and by viral isolation using blood from the umbilical cord and the spleens of 3 out of the 13 foetuses. All dams were viraemic (viral isolation) at the moment of sampling of the foetuses. Significant macroscopic or histological lesions could not be observed in foetuses or in their infected dams (notably at the placenta level). In the second experiment, 10 goats were infected with BTV-8 at 135 days of pregnancy. Kids were born by caesarean section at the programmed day of birth (15 dpi). BTV-8 could not be detected by rt-RT-PCR in blood or spleen samples from the kids. This study showed for the first time that BTV-8 transplacental transmission can occur in goats that have been infected at 61 days of pregnancy, with infectious virus recovered from the caprine foetuses. The observed transmission rate was quite high (33%) at this stage of pregnancy. However, it was not possible to demonstrate the existence of BTV-8 transplacental transmission when infection occurred at the end of the goat pregnancy. PMID:23890676

Belbis, G; Bréard, E; Cordonnier, N; Moulin, V; Desprat, A; Sailleau, C; Viarouge, C; Doceul, V; Zientara, S; Millemann, Y

2013-10-25

193

Tobacco mosaic virus  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource demonstrates how the Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) provides an excellent model for teaching students about properties of a plant virus and the relationship between a virus and its host plant. Four activities geared toward grades 9-12 are described. Teaching tips, troubleshooting help and sources of materials information is also included.

Rosemary Ford (Washington College; )

2003-05-28

194

Computer Virus Protection  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A computer virus is a program--a piece of executable code--that has the unique ability to replicate. Like biological viruses, computer viruses can spread quickly and are often difficult to eradicate. They can attach themselves to just about any type of file, and are spread by replicating and being sent from one individual to another. Simply having…

Rajala, Judith B.

2004-01-01

195

Viruses in the sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Viruses exist wherever life is found. They are a major cause of mortality, a driver of global geochemical cycles and a reservoir of the greatest genetic diversity on Earth. In the oceans, viruses probably infect all living things, from bacteria to whales. They affect the form of available nutrients and the termination of algal blooms. Viruses can move between marine

Curtis A. Suttle

2005-01-01

196

Viruses of waterfowl  

Microsoft Academic Search

Viral disease can cause substantial mortality in wild populations of ducks as well as domesticated geese and ducks. Migrating and captive waterfowl play a role in the dynamics and epidemiology of some viruses that also infect humans, such as influenza virus and West Nile virus. Crowded farm conditions favor the transmission of infectious disease agents among birds. Disease transmission is

Jennifer C. Hess; Jean A. Paré

2004-01-01

197

MAIZE FINE STREAK VIRUS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The report outlines the salient features of maize fine streak virus (MFSV) including a general description of the causal virus species, virion properties, genome description, the relationship of the virus to other taxa, biological properties of the disease and agronomic aspects of the disease. Maize...

198

Ecology of prokaryotic viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The finding that total viral abundance is higher than total prokaryotic abundance and that a significant fraction of the prokaryotic community is infected with phages in aquatic systems has stimulated research on the ecology of prokaryotic viruses and their role in ecosystems. This review treats the ecology of prokaryotic viruses (`phages') in marine, freshwater and soil systems from a `virus

Markus G Weinbauer

2004-01-01

199

AVIAN TUMOR VIRUS  

E-print Network

Thymus glands of chicks with leukemia induced by BAI strain A (myeloblastosis) virus were fixed in cold 4 per cent formaldehyde-sucrose. Frozen sections were incubated in the ATPase medium of Wachstein and Meisel and studied by light microscopy and electron microscopy. The ATPase activity of the virus is localized to the outermost membrane of the virus. The membrane of the blast-like cells of the thymus cortex from which the virus emerges, by budding, also possesses such activity. It appears likely that the outermost membrane of the virus is derived from the plasma membrane of these cells.

200

Lipids of Archaeal Viruses  

PubMed Central

Archaeal viruses represent one of the least known territory of the viral universe and even less is known about their lipids. Based on the current knowledge, however, it seems that, as in other viruses, archaeal viral lipids are mostly incorporated into membranes that reside either as outer envelopes or membranes inside an icosahedral capsid. Mechanisms for the membrane acquisition seem to be similar to those of viruses infecting other host organisms. There are indications that also some proteins of archaeal viruses are lipid modified. Further studies on the characterization of lipids in archaeal viruses as well as on their role in virion assembly and infectivity require not only highly purified viral material but also, for example, constant evaluation of the adaptability of emerging technologies for their analysis. Biological membranes contain proteins and membranes of archaeal viruses are not an exception. Archaeal viruses as relatively simple systems can be used as excellent tools for studying the lipid protein interactions in archaeal membranes. PMID:23049284

Roine, Elina; Bamford, Dennis H.

2012-01-01

201

Virus trafficking – learning from single-virus tracking  

Microsoft Academic Search

What could be a better way to study virus trafficking than 'miniaturizing oneself' and 'taking a ride with the virus particle' on its journey into the cell? Single-virus tracking in living cells potentially provides us with the means to visualize the virus journey. This approach allows us to follow the fate of individual virus particles and monitor dynamic interactions between

Boerries Brandenburg; Xiaowei Zhuang

2007-01-01

202

Abacá mosaic virus: A distinct strain of Sugarcane mosaic virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abacá mosaic virus (AbaMV) is related to members of the sugarcane mosaic virus subgroup of the genus Potyvirus. The ?2 kb 3? terminal region of the viral genome was sequenced and, in all areas analysed, found to be most similar to Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV) and distinct from Johnsongrass mosaic virus (JGMV), Maize dwarf mosaic virus (MDMV) and Sorghum mosaic

C. F. Gambley; J. E. Thomas; L. V. Magnaye; L. Herradura

2004-01-01

203

Review article PRRSV, the virus  

E-print Network

Review article PRRSV, the virus Janneke J.M. MEULENBERG Department of Virology, Institute Abstract ­ Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a positive-strand RNA virusDNA clone Résumé ­ Syndrome dysgénésique et respiratoire porcin, le virus. Le virus du syndrome dys

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

204

Other Viruses and Viruslike Agents  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The diseases reported under 'Virus and Virus-like Agents' in the first volume of this compendium, with the exception of Cherry rasp leaf virus and Rubus chinese seed-borne virus, should be considered oddities since there are no known type isolates available for these reported viruses. Without a po...

205

RNA Viruses Infecting Pest Insects  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

RNA viruses are viruses whose genetic material is ribonucleic acid (RNA). RNA viruses may be double or single-stranded based on the type of RNA they contain. Single-stranded RNA viruses can be further grouped into negative sense or positive-sense viruses according to the polarity of their RNA. Fur...

206

Rabies-related viruses.  

PubMed Central

Five viruses related to rabies occur in Africa. Two of these, Obodhiang from Sudan and kotonkan from Nigeria, were found in insects and are only distantly related to rabies virus. The other three are antigenically more closely related to rabies. Mokola virus was isolated from shrews in Nigeria, Lagos bat virus from fruit bats in Nigeria, and Duvenhage virus from brain of a man bitten by a bat in South Africa. The public health significance of the rabies-related viruses was emphasized in Zimbabwe where in 1981 a rabies-related virus became epizootic in the dog and cat population. It is postulated that the ancestral origin of rabies virus was Africa where the greatest antigenic diversity occurs and that the ancestor may have been an insect virus. Questions are raised why rabies has not evolved more rapidly in the New World, given the frequency and ease with which antigenic changes can be induced in the laboratory, and how the virus became so extensively established in New World bats. PMID:6758373

Shope, R. E.

1982-01-01

207

West Nile Virus Map  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Given the increased concern over contagious diseases and viruses spread by various host animals and insects (such as the West Nile virus), these maps provided by the USGS are both helpful in their pragmatic applications, and for those studying the spatial distribution of the West Nile virus. The Web site begins with a brief background essay on the history of the virus, how the virus is transmitted, and the symptoms that may be evident by those who have become infected. The maps track which states have tested various carriers (such as birds, humans, and mosquitoes) for West Nile virus, and where these tests have turned up positive results. The Web site is updated frequently, and where available, also contains links to state and county public health agencies. [KMG

2003-01-01

208

Water system virus detection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The performance of a waste water reclamation system is monitored by introducing a non-pathogenic marker virus, bacteriophage F2, into the waste-water prior to treatment and, thereafter, testing the reclaimed water for the presence of the marker virus. A test sample is first concentrated by absorbing any marker virus onto a cellulose acetate filter in the presence of a trivalent cation at low pH and then flushing the filter with a limited quantity of a glycine buffer solution to desorb any marker virus present on the filter. Photo-optical detection of indirect passive immune agglutination by polystyrene beads indicates the performance of the water reclamation system in removing the marker virus. A closed system provides for concentrating any marker virus, initiating and monitoring the passive immune agglutination reaction, and then flushing the system to prepare for another sample.

Fraser, A. S.; Wells, A. F.; Tenoso, H. J. (inventors)

1978-01-01

209

DNA Virus Replication Compartments  

PubMed Central

Viruses employ a variety of strategies to usurp and control cellular activities through the orchestrated recruitment of macromolecules to specific cytoplasmic or nuclear compartments. Formation of such specialized virus-induced cellular microenvironments, which have been termed viroplasms, virus factories, or virus replication centers, complexes, or compartments, depends on molecular interactions between viral and cellular factors that participate in viral genome expression and replication and are in some cases associated with sites of virion assembly. These virus-induced compartments function not only to recruit and concentrate factors required for essential steps of the viral replication cycle but also to control the cellular mechanisms of antiviral defense. In this review, we summarize characteristic features of viral replication compartments from different virus families and discuss similarities in the viral and cellular activities that are associated with their assembly and the functions they facilitate for viral replication. PMID:24257611

Schmid, Melanie; Speiseder, Thomas; Dobner, Thomas

2014-01-01

210

Constructing computer virus phylogenies  

SciTech Connect

There has been much recent algorithmic work on the problem of reconstructing the evolutionary history of biological species. Computer virus specialists are interested in finding the evolutionary history of computer viruses--a virus is often written using code fragments from one or more other viruses, which are its immediate ancestors. A phylogeny for a collection of computer viruses is a directed acyclic graph whose nodes are the viruses and whose edges map ancestors to descendants and satisfy the property that each code fragment is ``invented`` only once. To provide a simple explanation for the data, we consider the problem of constructing such a phylogeny with a minimal number of edges. In general, this optimization problem cannot be solved in quasi-polynomial time unless NQP=QP; we present positive and negative results for associated approximated problems. When tree solutions exist, they can be constructed and randomly sampled in polynomial time.

Goldberg, L.A. [Warwick Univ., Coventry (United Kingdom) Dept. of Computer Science; Goldberg, P.W. [Aston Univ., Birmingham (United Kingdom) Dept. of Applied Mathematics; Phillips, C.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sorkin, G.B. [International Business Machines Corp., Yorktown Heights, NY (United States). Thomas J. Watson Research Center

1996-03-01

211

Viruses in Antarctic lakes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Water samples collected from four perennially ice-covered Antarctic lakes during the austral summer of 1996-1997 contained high densities of extracellular viruses. Many of these viruses were found to be morphologically similar to double-stranded DNA viruses that are known to infect algae and protozoa. These constitute the first observations of viruses in perennially ice-covered polar lakes. The abundance of planktonic viruses and data suggesting substantial production potential (relative to bacteria] secondary and photosynthetic primary production) indicate that viral lysis may be a major factor in the regulation of microbial populations in these extreme environments. Furthermore, we suggest that Antarctic lakes may be a reservoir of previously undescribed viruses that possess novel biological and biochemical characteristics.

Kepner, R. L. Jr; Wharton, R. A. Jr; Suttle, C. A.; Wharton RA, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

1998-01-01

212

Biological Nanomachines: Viruses  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Although nanotechnology is a new and emerging field, nanoscale structures are not new. Small molecules such as water, large molecules such as proteins, and larger, more complex objects such as viruses and nanotubes are naturally occurring and exist all around us. Viruses are particularly interesting nanoscale objects because of their precise geometrical shape, their self-assembling capability, and their fascinating ability to invade cells and alter their function. Nanoscale science researchers are studying virus properties with the aim of developing new treatments for human disease. The virus is also being studied as a model for how to make materials and engineer products at the nanoscsale through a process called "self-assembly." In this investigation, students create an icosahedral virus model and consider how virus structure and behavior could be mimicked in nanotechnology applications. This free selection includes the Table of Contents, Acknowledgments, a Dedication page, and an Introduction.

Amy R. Taylor

2007-01-01

213

Viruses for Tumor Therapy  

PubMed Central

Oncolytic virotherapy exploits live viruses with selective tropism for cancerous cells and tissues to treat cancer. As discussed here, the field has progressed considerably as a result of both the successes and failures of previous and on-going clinical trials for various cancers. These studies indicate that oncolytic viruses are remarkably safe and more efficacious when virus replication stimulates sustained antitumor immune responses. In the future, virotherapy should be combined with immunomodulatory reagents that target immune tolerance to established cancers. PMID:24629333

Bell, John; McFadden, Grant

2014-01-01

214

The human oncogenic viruses  

SciTech Connect

This book contains eight selections. The titles are: Cytogenetics of the Leukemias and Lymphomas; Cytogenetics of Solid Tumors: Renal Cell Carcinoma, Malignant Melanoma, Retinoblastoma, and Wilms' Tumor; Elucidation of a Normal Function for a Human Proto-Oncogene; Detection of HSV-2 Genes and Gene Products in Cervical Neoplasia; Papillomaviruses in Anogennital Neoplasms; Human Epstein-Barr Virus and Cancer; Hepatitis B Virus and Hepatocellular Carcinoma; and Kaposi's Sarcoma: Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and Associated Viruses.

Luderer, A.A.; Weetall, H.H

1986-01-01

215

CDC: West Nile Virus  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web site contains the most recent West Nile virus data from the Centers for Disease Control. The main features include a 2003 Human Case Count and updated maps representing the spread of the virus. A downloadable document outlines the CDC's West Nile virus surveillance and control program, which involves weekly data collection for wild birds, sentinel chicken flocks, human cases, veterinary cases, and mosquito surveillance. The site also provides links to general information about the virus, from the ecology and virology of West Nile to epidemiological and laboratory issues.

2007-12-12

216

Water system virus detection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A monitoring system developed to test the capability of a water recovery system to reject the passage of viruses into the recovered water is described. A nonpathogenic marker virus, bacteriophage F2, is fed into the process stream before the recovery unit and the reclaimed water is assayed for its presence. Detection of the marker virus consists of two major components, concentration and isolation of the marker virus, and detection of the marker virus. The concentration system involves adsorption of virus to cellulose acetate filters in the presence of trivalent cations and low pH with subsequent desorption of the virus using volumes of high pH buffer. The detection of the virus is performed by a passive immune agglutination test utilizing specially prepared polystyrene particles. An engineering preliminary design was performed as a parallel effort to the laboratory development of the marker virus test system. Engineering schematics and drawings of a fully functional laboratory prototype capable of zero-G operation are presented. The instrument consists of reagent pump/metering system, reagent storage containers, a filter concentrator, an incubation/detector system, and an electronic readout and control system.

Fraser, A. S.; Wells, A. F.; Tenoso, H. J.

1975-01-01

217

Tracking a Virus  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students simulate the spread of a virus such as HIV through a population by "sharing" (but not drinking) the water in a plastic cup with several classmates. Although invisible, the water in a few of the cups has already be tainted with the "virus" (sodium carbonate). After all the students have shared their liquids, the contents of the cups are tested for the virus with phenolphthalein, a chemical that causes a striking color change in the presence of sodium carbonate. Students then set about trying to determine which of their classmates were the ones originally infected with the virus.

Engineering K-PhD Program,

218

CDC: West Nile Virus  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web site contains the most recent West Nile virus data from the Centers for Disease Control. The main features include a 2003 Human Case Count and updated maps representing the spread of the virus. A downloadable document outlines the CDC's West Nile virus surveillance and control program, which involves weekly data collection for wild birds, sentinel chicken flocks, human cases, veterinary cases, and mosquito surveillance. The site also provides links to general information about the virus, from the ecology and virology of West Nile to epidemiological and laboratory issues.

219

The hepatitis B virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

DNA recombinant technology has radically changed hepatitis B virus (HBV) virology. The genetic organization, transcription and replication of the virus are basically understood, structures of integrated HBV sequences in hepatocellular carcinoma have been characterized, and new vaccines produced by recombinant DNA technique are being developed.

Pierre Tiollais; Christine Pourcel; Anne Dejean

1985-01-01

220

What is a Virus?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page is part of a web site that was created as a tutorial for an introductory virology class for college level microbiology students. It includes links to definitions of virus, virions, other virus-like-agents, and organisms, as well as the "definition of life".

Rybicki, Ed

221

EPIDEMIOLOGY OF RETICULOENDOTHELIOSIS VIRUS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) is an avian retrovirus unrelated to the leukosis/sarcoma group of viruses. REV infects chickens, turkeys, ducks, geese, pheasants, quail, and probably many other avian species . The most common clinical diseases induced by REV are chronic lymphomas and an immunosupp...

222

Sweetpotato viruses in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

China is the largest sweetpotato producer country in the world, with its total growing area and yield reaching 5.5 million ha and 106 million metric tones, respectively. Viral diseases constitute a major hindrance to the development and highly profitable production of the sweetpotato industry. The present article provides updated comprehensive information on type of virus, yield loss caused by viruses,

Qingmei Wang; Liming Zhang; Biao Wang; Zhenfang Yin; Chaohong Feng; Qiaochun Wang

2010-01-01

223

Positive reinforcement for viruses  

PubMed Central

Summary Virus-cell membrane fusion requires a critical transition from positive to negative membrane curvature. St. Vincent et al., in PNAS (St Vincent, et al., 2010), designed a class of antivirals that targets this transition. These Rigid Amphipathic Fusion Inhibitors are active against an array of enveloped viruses. PMID:21035726

Vigant, Frederic; Jung, Michael; Lee, Benhur

2010-01-01

224

Cutthroat Trout Virus  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Electron micrograph of the cutthroat trout virus (CTV) showing the small, round virions of approximately 30 nanometers in diameter containing a single-stranded RNA genome. CTV, whose genome was first characterized by USGS researchers, is being used in research into the human virus Hepatitis E....

225

Bovine viral diarrhea viruses  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Infections with bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) result in significant economic losses for beef and dairy producers worldwide. BVDV is actually an umbrella term for two species of viruses, BVDV1 and BVDV2, within the Pestivirus genus of the Flavivirus family. While denoted as a bovine pathogen...

226

RYEGRASS MOSAIC VIRUS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A brief technical description of Ryegrass mosaic virus (RGMV) is presented. Described are biological properties, genome organization, and phylogenetic relationships among RGMV and other potyvirus species. RGMV is designated as a the type species of the genus Rymovirus within the plant virus family ...

227

Papaya Ringspot Virus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The term papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) was coined by Jensen in 1949, to describe a papaya disease in Hawaii. Later work showed that diseases such as papaya mosaic and watermelon mosaic virus-1 were caused by PRSV. The primary host range of PRSV is papaya and cucurbits, with Chenopium amaranticolor ...

228

DETECTING VIRUSES IN WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

This article, which reviews the subject of detecting viruses in water, encompasses two topics. he first topic consists of methods used for concentrating viruses from large volumes of water into smaller, more manageable volumes. he second topic consists of assay methods used for e...

229

Equine Arteritis Virus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

03. Nidovirales : 03.004. Arteriviridae : 03.004.0. {03.004.0. unknown} : 03.004.0.01. Arterivirus : 03.004.0.01.001. Equine arteritis virus will be published online. The article details the phenotypic and genotypic makeup of equine arteritis virus (EAV), and summarizes its biological properties....

230

Recombination in AIDS viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recombination contributes to the generation of genetic diversity in human immunodeficiency viruses (HIV) but can only occur between viruses replicating within the same cell. Since individuals have not been found to be simultaneously coinfected with multiple divergent strains of HIV-1 or HIV-2, recombination events have been thought to be restricted to the rather closely related members of the quasispecies that

David L. Robertson; Beatrice H. Hahn; Paul M. Sharp

1995-01-01

231

Ebola virus disease epidemic.  

PubMed

The Ebola virus disease epidemic now constitutes an international public health emergency. Occupational and environmental health nurses can collaborate with international colleagues to halt Ebola virus transmission within Africa, protect workers from exposures, and prevent another pandemic. [Workplace Health Saf 2014;62(11):484.]. PMID:25373029

Phillips, Jennan A

2014-11-01

232

Virus separation using membranes.  

PubMed

Industrial manufacturing of cell culture-derived viruses or virus-like particles for gene therapy or vaccine production are complex multistep processes. In addition to the bioreactor, such processes require a multitude of downstream unit operations for product separation, concentration, or purification. Similarly, before a biopharmaceutical product can enter the market, removal or inactivation of potential viral contamination has to be demonstrated. Given the complexity of biological solutions and the high standards on composition and purity of biopharmaceuticals, downstream processing is the bottleneck in many biotechnological production trains. Membrane-based filtration can be an economically attractive and efficient technology for virus separation. Viral clearance, for instance, of up to seven orders of magnitude has been reported for state of the art polymeric membranes under best conditions.This chapter summarizes the fundamentals of virus ultrafiltration, diafiltration, or purification with adsorptive membranes. In lieu of an impractical universally applicable protocol for virus filtration, application of these principles is demonstrated with two examples. The chapter provides detailed methods for production, concentration, purification, and removal of a rod-shaped baculovirus (Autographa californica M nucleopolyhedrovirus, about 40 × 300 nm in size, a potential vector for gene therapy, and an industrially important protein expression system) or a spherical parvovirus (minute virus of mice, 22-26 nm in size, a model virus for virus clearance validation studies). PMID:24297430

Grein, Tanja A; Michalsky, Ronald; Czermak, Peter

2014-01-01

233

Biological versus computer viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

To understand biological viruses, some notions of the fundamental knowledge of the structure of DNA, the genetic code, the biosynthesis of proteins, the transcription, replication and transfer processes,... are presented so as to give an idea as to how the genetic information is decrypted by biological mechanisms and consequently, how viruses work.A computer \\

Daniel GUINIER

1989-01-01

234

Influenza A virus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Influenza A viruses are important veterinary and human health pathogens around the world. Avian influenza (AI) virus in poultry is unusual in that it can cause a range of disease symptoms from a subclinical infection to being highly virulent with 100% mortality. The difference between low pathogen...

235

Grapevine Leafroll Associated Viruses  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This book chapter reviews recent advances in molecular characterization of grapevine leafroll associated viruses (GLRaV), and the development and application of molecular techniques for a timely and sensitive detection of nine viruses that are associated with the leafroll disease on grapevine. To d...

236

Human Papilloma Virus Infections  

PubMed Central

Genital warts are believed to be caused by human papilloma viruses and to be sexually transmitted. The viruses are classified by DNA types, which appear to cause different types of disease. The choice of treatment, and usually its success rate, vary according to the type of disease and its location. PMID:21248973

Wright, V. Cecil

1989-01-01

237

Usutu Virus, Italy, 1996  

PubMed Central

Retrospective analysis of archived tissue samples from bird deaths in the Tuscany region of Italy in 1996 identified Usutu virus. Partial sequencing confirmed identity with the 2001 Vienna strain and provided evidence for a much earlier introduction of this virus into Europe than previously assumed. PMID:23347844

Bakonyi, Tamás; Rossi, Giacomo; Mani, Paolo; Nowotny, Norbert

2013-01-01

238

PATHOLOGIE VGTALE Interactions entre virus ou entre virus et leurs  

E-print Network

PATHOLOGIE V�G�TALE SYNTH�SE Interactions entre virus ou entre virus et leurs satellites chez un 84140 Montfavet R�SUM� Deux ou plusieurs virus, apparentés ou non, peuvent se multiplier ensemble dans une même plante et également dans une même cellule. Les interactions entre virus qui en résultent

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

239

Review article Aujeszky's disease (pseudorabies) virus: the virus and  

E-print Network

Review article Aujeszky's disease (pseudorabies) virus: the virus and molecular pathogenesis la séquence génomique de l'ADN du virus. Cette revue de la littéra- ture, qui fait suite à un article-Loeffler-Institutes, Federal Research Centre for Virus Diseases of Animals, 17498 Insel Riems, Germany Abstract ­ Considerable

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

240

Eragrostis minor streak virus: an Asian streak virus in Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genus Mastrevirus of the single-stranded DNA virus family Geminiviridae consists of four distinct virus lineages that have been sampled in different parts of the Old World. These include the Panicoideae-infecting African streak viruses (ten described species including the geographical outlier, Digitaria streak virus [DSV] from Vanuatu) and Australian striate mosaic viruses (three described species), the dicotyledonous-plant-infecting mastreviruses (seven described

Darren P. Martin; Daphne Linderme; Pierre Lefeuvre; Dionne N. Shepherd; Arvind Varsani

2011-01-01

241

Pacui Virus, Rio Preto da Eva Virus, and Tapirape Virus, Three Distinct Viruses within the Family Bunyaviridae  

PubMed Central

Nearly complete genome sequences for three ungrouped viruses, Pacui virus (BEAN27326), Rio Preto da Eva virus (BEAR540870), and Tapirape virus (BEAN767592) isolated in the Amazon region are reported here. All three genomic segments (small, medium and large RNA) were recovered and were similar to members of the genus Orthobunyavirus. PMID:25395627

Medeiros, Daniele Barbosa de Almeida; Rodrigues, Sueli Guerreiro; Martins, Livia Caricio; de Lima, Clayton Pereira Silva; de Oliveira, Layanna Freitas; de Vasconcelos, Janaina Mota; Da Silva, Daisy Elaine; Cardoso, Jedson Ferreira; da Silva, Sandro Patroca; Vianez-Júnior, João Lídio da Silva Gonçalves; Vasconcelos, Pedro Fernando da Costa

2014-01-01

242

Pacui Virus, Rio Preto da Eva Virus, and Tapirape Virus, Three Distinct Viruses within the Family Bunyaviridae.  

PubMed

Nearly complete genome sequences for three ungrouped viruses, Pacui virus (BEAN27326), Rio Preto da Eva virus (BEAR540870), and Tapirape virus (BEAN767592) isolated in the Amazon region are reported here. All three genomic segments (small, medium and large RNA) were recovered and were similar to members of the genus Orthobunyavirus. PMID:25395627

Rodrigues, Daniela Sueli Guerreiro; Medeiros, Daniele Barbosa de Almeida; Rodrigues, Sueli Guerreiro; Martins, Livia Caricio; de Lima, Clayton Pereira Silva; de Oliveira, Layanna Freitas; de Vasconcelos, Janaina Mota; Da Silva, Daisy Elaine; Cardoso, Jedson Ferreira; da Silva, Sandro Patroca; Vianez-Júnior, João Lídio da Silva Gonçalves; Nunes, Márcio Roberto Teixeira; Vasconcelos, Pedro Fernando da Costa

2014-01-01

243

Computer Viruses: Pathology and Detection.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains how computer viruses were originally created, how a computer can become infected by a virus, how viruses operate, symptoms that indicate a computer is infected, how to detect and remove viruses, and how to prevent a reinfection. A sidebar lists eight antivirus resources. (four references) (LRW)

Maxwell, John R.; Lamon, William E.

1992-01-01

244

A Virus in Turbo Pascal.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Addresses why the authors feel it is not inappropriate to teach about viruses in the how-to, hands-on fashion. Identifies the special features of Turbo Pascal that have to be used for the creation of an effective virus. Defines virus, derives its structure, and from this structure is derived the implemented virus. (PR)

Teleky, Heidi Ann; And Others

1993-01-01

245

Realms of the Viruses Online  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Viruses have evolved strategies for infecting all taxa, but most viruses are highly specific about their cellular host. In humans, viruses cause diverse diseases, from chronic but benign warts, to acute and deadly hemorrhagic fever. Viruses have entertaining names like Zucchini Yellow Mosaic, Semliki Forest, Coxsackie, and the original terminator,…

Liu, Dennis

2007-01-01

246

Viruses isolated from Panamanian sloths.  

PubMed

Seven virus strains were isolated in Vero cells from whole blood samples from 80 wild-caught sloths, Bradypus variegatus and Choloepus hoffmanni, from Central Panamá. Four strains of at least two different serotypes are related to Changuinola virus; two of these were associated with prolonged or recrudescent viremias. One strain is an antigenic subtype of Punta Toro virus, and another, described here as Bradypus-4 virus, is a new, antigenically ungrouped virus. A second new virus from sloths, Utive virus, forms an antigenic complex within the Simbu serogroup with Utinga and Pintupo viruses. Tests on sequential plasma samples from radio-marked free-ranging sloths and from recently captured animals maintained in captivity showed that both species develop neutralizing antibodies following naturally acquired virus infections. Antibodies against the Changuinola and Simbu serogroup viruses are widespread in both sloth species and are especially prevalent in Choloepus, but are virtually absent in all other wild vertebrate species tested. PMID:6316795

Seymour, C; Peralta, P H; Montgomery, G G

1983-11-01

247

Ocular Tropism of Respiratory Viruses  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Respiratory viruses (including adenovirus, influenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus, coronavirus, and rhinovirus) cause a broad spectrum of disease in humans, ranging from mild influenza-like symptoms to acute respiratory failure. While species D adenoviruses and subtype H7 influenza viruses are known to possess an ocular tropism, documented human ocular disease has been reported following infection with all principal respiratory viruses. In this review, we describe the anatomical proximity and cellular receptor distribution between ocular and respiratory tissues. All major respiratory viruses and their association with human ocular disease are discussed. Research utilizing in vitro and in vivo models to study the ability of respiratory viruses to use the eye as a portal of entry as well as a primary site of virus replication is highlighted. Identification of shared receptor-binding preferences, host responses, and laboratory modeling protocols among these viruses provides a needed bridge between clinical and laboratory studies of virus tropism. PMID:23471620

Rota, Paul A.; Tumpey, Terrence M.

2013-01-01

248

Influenza Viruses: Transmission Between Species  

Microsoft Academic Search

The only direct evidence for transmission of influenza viruses between species comes from studies on swine influenza viruses. Antigenically and genetically identical Hsw1N1 influenza viruses were isolated from pigs and man on the same farm in Wisconsin, U.S.A. The isolation of H3N2 influenza viruses from a wide range of lower animals and birds suggests that influenza viruses of man can

R. G. Webster; V. S. Hinshaw; W. J. Bean; G. Sriram

1980-01-01

249

Parainfluenza virus infections  

PubMed Central

Parainfluenza viruses types 1, 2 and 3 were found in 2·5%, 0·8% and 1·6% respectively of patients examined in the MRC/PHLS general practice survey and in 2·2%, 0·7% and 2·7% of those in the hospital survey. Type 3 infections were found earlier in life than type 1, while type 2 infections tended to be detected in older children. These viruses were found most frequently in croup and laryngitis but were also common causes of coryza and lower respiratory infections, especially in general practice. The epidemiology and diagnosis of parainfluenza virus infections are discussed briefly. PMID:4377299

Clarke, Suzanne K. R.

1973-01-01

250

Wheat Streak Mosaic Virus  

E-print Network

Figure 1. Leaves infected with Wheat Streak Mosaic Virus. Picture from KSU Department of Plant Pathology web-site. Figure 2. Wheat plant infected with Wheat Streak Mosaic Virus and High Plains Virus. Picture was provided by Dr. Charlie Rush, Plant....edu/Agriculture/Entomology/entfacts/fldcrops/ef117. htm ? Compendium of Wheat Diseases, Wiese. American Phy- topathological Society. 1987. Produced by AgriLife Communications and Marketing, Texas A&M System Extension publications can be found on the Web at: http://AgriLifebookstore.org Visit...

Morgan, Gaylon

2005-01-26

251

Fighting cancer with viruses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the most promising strategies to treat cancer is attacking it with viruses. Viruses can kill tumor cells specifically or act as carriers that deliver normal genes into cancer cells. A model for virotherapy of cancer is investigated and its predictions are in agreement with results obtained from experimental tumors. Furthermore, the model reveals an oscillatory (periodic or aperiodic) response of tumor cells and virus populations which may make clinical prognosis difficult. These results suggest the need for new in vivo and in vitro experiments aiming to detect this oscillatory response.

Ferreira, S. C.; Martins, M. L.; Vilela, M. J.

2005-01-01

252

Viruses in reptiles  

PubMed Central

The etiology of reptilian viral diseases can be attributed to a wide range of viruses occurring across different genera and families. Thirty to forty years ago, studies of viruses in reptiles focused mainly on the zoonotic potential of arboviruses in reptiles and much effort went into surveys and challenge trials of a range of reptiles with eastern and western equine encephalitis as well as Japanese encephalitis viruses. In the past decade, outbreaks of infection with West Nile virus in human populations and in farmed alligators in the USA has seen the research emphasis placed on the issue of reptiles, particularly crocodiles and alligators, being susceptible to, and reservoirs for, this serious zoonotic disease. Although there are many recognised reptilian viruses, the evidence for those being primary pathogens is relatively limited. Transmission studies establishing pathogenicity and cofactors are likewise scarce, possibly due to the relatively low commercial importance of reptiles, difficulties with the availability of animals and permits for statistically sound experiments, difficulties with housing of reptiles in an experimental setting or the inability to propagate some viruses in cell culture to sufficient titres for transmission studies. Viruses as causes of direct loss of threatened species, such as the chelonid fibropapilloma associated herpesvirus and ranaviruses in farmed and wild tortoises and turtles, have re-focused attention back to the characterisation of the viruses as well as diagnosis and pathogenesis in the host itself. 1. Introduction 2. Methods for working with reptilian viruses 3. Reptilian viruses described by virus families 3.1. Herpesviridae 3.2. Iridoviridae 3.2.1 Ranavirus 3.2.2 Erythrocytic virus 3.2.3 Iridovirus 3.3. Poxviridae 3.4. Adenoviridae 3.5. Papillomaviridae 3.6. Parvoviridae 3.7. Reoviridae 3.8. Retroviridae and inclusion body disease of Boid snakes 3.9. Arboviruses 3.9.1. Flaviviridae 3.9.2. Togaviridae 3.10. Caliciviridae 3.11. Picornaviridae 3.12. Paramyxoviridae 4. Summary 5. Acknowledgements 6. Competing interests 7. References PMID:21933449

2011-01-01

253

Hepatitis virus panel  

MedlinePLUS

Hepatitis A antibody test; Hepatitis B antibody test; Hepatitis C antibody test; Hepatitis D antibody test ... Blood (serology) tests are used to check for antibodies to each of the hepatitis viruses.

254

Virus Ultra Structure  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Linda Stannard of the University of Capetown, South Africa, has composed a page which, although it was intended to serve as an introductory manual for students of virology, can be appreciated by a wide audience. A section on the principles of virus architecture uses text and outstanding graphics to provide an introduction to why viruses look the way they do. Other parts of the site emphasize how virus shapes and structures are "seen" and recorded with sections on negative staining and electron microscopy of DNA- and RNA-containing viruses. This site's success relies on the use of well-chosen graphics and the inclusion of interesting factoids such as the following: "The head of a dress-maker's pin can provide seating accommodation for five hundred million rhinoviruses (cause of the common cold)!".

255

VIRUS instrument enclosures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Visible Integral-Field Replicable Unit Spectrograph (VIRUS) instrument will be installed at the Hobby-Eberly Telescope† in the near future. The instrument will be housed in two enclosures that are mounted adjacent to the telescope, via the VIRUS Support Structure (VSS). We have designed the enclosures to support and protect the instrument, to enable servicing of the instrument, and to cool the instrument appropriately while not adversely affecting the dome environment. The system uses simple HVAC air handling techniques in conjunction with thermoelectric and standard glycol heat exchangers to provide efficient heat removal. The enclosures also provide power and data transfer to and from each VIRUS unit, liquid nitrogen cooling to the detectors, and environmental monitoring of the instrument and dome environments. In this paper, we describe the design and fabrication of the VIRUS enclosures and their subsystems.

Prochaska, T.; Allen, R.; Mondrik, N.; Rheault, J. P.; Sauseda, M.; Boster, E.; James, M.; Rodriguez-Patino, M.; Torres, G.; Ham, J.; Cook, E.; Baker, D.; DePoy, Darren L.; Marshall, Jennifer L.; Hill, G. J.; Perry, D.; Savage, R. D.; Good, J. M.; Vattiat, Brian L.

2014-08-01

256

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)  

MedlinePLUS

... RSV often spreads quickly in crowded households and day care centers. The virus can live for a half ... The following increase the risk for RSV: Attending day care Being near tobacco smoke Having school-aged brothers ...

257

Respiratory Syncytial Virus  

MedlinePLUS

... JavaScript on. Read more information on enabling JavaScript. Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) Skip Content Marketing Share this: ... common. The infection can progress to the lower respiratory tract to cause more severe illness such as ...

258

Virus Chapter: Iflaviridae  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The iflaviruses comprise viruses isolated from arthropod species of agricultural importance. All members of iflaviruses have a genome arrangement similar to the picornaviruses, ootyviruses, and secoviruses. However, phylogenetic analysis using the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase region showed that th...

259

Ebola Virus Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... survival. There is as yet no licensed treatment proven to neutralise the virus but a range of ... symptoms, improves survival. There is as yet no proven treatment available for EVD. However, a range of ...

260

How rigid are viruses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Viruses have traditionally been studied as pathogens, but in recent years they have been adapted for applications ranging from drug delivery and gene therapy to nanotechnology, photonics, and electronics. Although the structures of many viruses are known, most of their biophysical properties remain largely unexplored. Using Brillouin light scattering, we analyzed the mechanical rigidity, intervirion coupling, and vibrational eigenmodes of Wiseana iridovirus (WIV). We identified phonon modes propagating through the viral assemblies as well as the localized vibrational eigenmode of individual viruses. The measurements indicate a Young’s modulus of ˜7GPa for single virus particles and their assemblies, surprisingly high for “soft” materials. Mechanical modeling confirms that the DNA core dominates the WIV rigidity. The results also indicate a peculiar mechanical coupling during self-assembly of WIV particles.

Hartschuh, R. D.; Wargacki, S. P.; Xiong, H.; Neiswinger, J.; Kisliuk, A.; Sihn, S.; Ward, V.; Vaia, R. A.; Sokolov, A. P.

2008-08-01

261

Hepatitis B virus (image)  

MedlinePLUS

Hepatitis B is also known as serum hepatitis and is spread through blood and sexual contact. It is seen ... This photograph is an electronmicroscopic image of hepatitis B virus particles. (Image courtesy of the Centers for ...

262

Hepatitis G virus  

PubMed Central

A number of new hepatitis viruses (G, TT, SEN) were discovered late in the past century. We review the data available in the literature and our own findings suggesting that the new hepatitis G virus (HGV), disclosed in the late 1990s, has been rather well studied. Analysis of many studies dealing with HGV mainly suggests the lymphotropicity of this virus. HGV or GBV-C has been ascertained to influence course and prognosis in the HIV-infected patient. Until now, the frequent presence of GBV-C in coinfections, hematological diseases, and biliary pathology gives no grounds to determine it as an “accidental tourist” that is of no significance. The similarity in properties of GBV-C and hepatitis C virus (HCV) offers the possibility of using HGV, and its induced experimental infection, as a model to study hepatitis C and to develop a hepatitis C vaccine. PMID:18720531

Reshetnyak, Vasiliy Ivanovich; Karlovich, Tatiana Igorevna; Ilchenko, Ljudmila Urievna

2008-01-01

263

Feline immunodeficiency virus latency  

E-print Network

HIV-1, Feline, Animal model, Antilatency therapy, Reservoirto test this therapy in an animal model of lentiviraltherapy (reactivating latent virus to purge the reservoir) is to progress, use of an animal

McDonnel, Samantha J; Sparger, Ellen E; Murphy, Brian G

2013-01-01

264

The dengue viruses.  

PubMed Central

Dengue, a major public health problem throughout subtropical and tropical regions, is an acute infectious disease characterized by biphasic fever, headache, pain in various parts of the body, prostration, rash, lymphadenopathy, and leukopenia. In more severe or complicated dengue, patients present with a severe febrile illness characterized by abnormalities of hemostasis and increased vascular permeability, which in some instances results in a hypovolemic shock. Four distinct serotypes of the dengue virus (dengue-1, dengue-2, dengue-3, and dengue-4) exist, with numerous virus strains found worldwide. Molecular cloning methods have led to a greater understanding of the structure of the RNA genome and definition of virus-specific structural and nonstructural proteins. Progress towards producing safe, effective dengue virus vaccines, a goal for over 45 years, has been made. Images PMID:2224837

Henchal, E A; Putnak, J R

1990-01-01

265

Avoiding Computer Viruses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The threat of computer sabotage is a real concern to business teachers and others responsible for academic computer facilities. Teachers can minimize the possibility. Eight suggestions for avoiding computer viruses are given. (JOW)

Rowe, Joyce; And Others

1989-01-01

266

Rapid Detection and Quantification of RNA of Ebola and Marburg Viruses, Lassa Virus, Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus, Rift Valley Fever Virus, Dengue Virus, and Yellow Fever Virus by Real-Time Reverse Transcription-PCR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Viral hemorrhagic fevers (VHFs) are acute infections with high case fatality rates. Important VHF agents are Ebola and Marburg viruses (MBGV\\/EBOV), Lassa virus (LASV), Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV), Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), dengue virus (DENV), and yellow fever virus (YFV). VHFs are clinically difficult to diagnose and to distinguish; a rapid and reliable laboratory diagnosis is required in

Christian Drosten; Stephan Göttig; Stefan Schilling; Marcel Asper; Marcus Panning; Herbert Schmitz; Stephan Günther

2002-01-01

267

AVG Anti-Virus  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Those who wish for an antivirus program that is both versatile and reliable should definitely consider this latest iteration of the AVG Anti-Virus program. With this program, visitors can be assured that AVG will look for new virus definitions on a daily basis and that it will also create an effective rescue disk in case a dire situation emerges. This website features a number of archived versions of the AVG software for users to choose from.

2008-01-01

268

MEDLINEPlus: Monkeypox Virus Infections  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Readers can keep up with the latest developments in the Monkeypox outbreak with this straightforward Web site from MEDLINEplus. The site features the latest Monkeypox news as well as links to authoritative sites for background information about the virus. Readers will also find information on prevention and screening, updated statistics on the outbreak from the Center for Disease Control and Prevention, and more. The site also includes a downloadable electron micrograph of the Monkeypox virus.

269

Respiratory syncytial virus infections  

PubMed Central

RS virus was isolated from 10·5% of the specimens examined in the MRC/PHLS hospital survey and from 0·9% of those in the general practice survey. The highest isolation rates were in infants with lower respiratory tract infections. Dyspnoea, wheezing and cough were the predominant clinical features. The differences in the rates between hospital and general practice and newer methods of diagnosis of RS virus infection are discussed. PMID:4806397

Gardner, P. S.

1973-01-01

270

Origins of Viruses  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page is part of a site created as a supplement for an introduction to virology course for second year microbiology students. It includes discussions on the origins of viruses as well as how they might have evolved. There are several links to pertinent conceptial matter such as basics on the different types of viruses as well as a link to the course home page.

Ed Rybicki

271

Smaller Fleas: Viruses of Microorganisms  

PubMed Central

Life forms can be roughly differentiated into those that are microscopic versus those that are not as well as those that are multicellular and those that, instead, are unicellular. Cellular organisms seem generally able to host viruses, and this propensity carries over to those that are both microscopic and less than truly multicellular. These viruses of microorganisms, or VoMs, in fact exist as the world's most abundant somewhat autonomous genetic entities and include the viruses of domain Bacteria (bacteriophages), the viruses of domain Archaea (archaeal viruses), the viruses of protists, the viruses of microscopic fungi such as yeasts (mycoviruses), and even the viruses of other viruses (satellite viruses). In this paper we provide an introduction to the concept of viruses of microorganisms, a.k.a., viruses of microbes. We provide broad discussion particularly of VoM diversity. VoM diversity currently spans, in total, at least three-dozen virus families. This is roughly ten families per category—bacterial, archaeal, fungal, and protist—with some virus families infecting more than one of these microorganism major taxa. Such estimations, however, will vary with further discovery and taxon assignment and also are dependent upon what forms of life one includes among microorganisms. PMID:24278736

Hyman, Paul; Abedon, Stephen T.

2012-01-01

272

Tick-borne viruses*  

PubMed Central

More than 150 arthropod-borne viruses are now recognized, and over 50 of these are known to produce human infections and disease. Among these viruses are those of the tick-borne Russian spring-summer complex, which is etiologically involved in a wide variety of human diseases of varying severity. The eight antigenically different members of this complex so far known are Russian spring-summer encephalitis, louping-ill, Central European encephalitis, Omsk haemorrhagic fever, Kyasanur Forest disease, Langat, Negishi and Powassan viruses. In his review of the problems posed by these viruses and of research on them, the author points out that, while this complex is distributed around the globe in the temperate zone of the northern hemisphere, the only serious tick-borne virus disease known in the tropics is Kyasanur Forest disease. It is probable, however, that there are other, unrecognized tick-borne viruses in the tropical areas of Asia, Africa and America of importance to human health, and that these will be brought to light as virological studies of diseases of now obscure etiology are pursued. PMID:14043753

Work, Telford H.

1963-01-01

273

Cell Biology of Virus Entry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Part 1 of this lecture will discuss ways in which viruses bind to the surface of host cells. Simian Virus 40 which binds to specific cell surface glycolipids, and Human Papilloma Virus-16 which binds to sites on filoipodia, are examples of different binding mechanisms. Attachment of viruses to the plasma membrane activates cell signaling resulting in endocytosis of the viral particles.In the second lecture, the next steps in viral infection are described. Part 3 focuses on a single virus, the Vaccinia virus, as a model for cell binding, signaling and endocytosis.

Ari Helenius (Insitute of Biochemistry, ETH Zurich, Switzerland; )

2009-02-01

274

Article de synthse LES PORTEURS DE VIRUS  

E-print Network

Article de synthèse LES PORTEURS DE VIRUS: ANALYSE DES Ã?TATS D'Ã?QUILIBRE ENTRE LE VIRUS ET SON HÃ?TE/07/86/accepté le 28/12/86 Abstract VIRUS PERSISTENCE ― ANALYSIS OF EQUILIBRIUM STATES BETWEEN VIRUS AND ITS HOST. ― The various mechanisms of virus persistence are described. Four kinds of virus

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

275

Immunology of hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

More than 500 million people worldwide are persistently infected with the hepatitis B virus (HBV) and\\/or hepatitis C virus (HCV) and are at risk of developing chronic liver disease, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Despite many common features in the pathogenesis of HBV- and HCV-related liver disease, these viruses markedly differ in their virological properties and in their immune escape and

Michelina Nascimbeni; Barbara Rehermann

2005-01-01

276

Insect transmission of plant viruses: a constraint on virus variability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic diversity in viruses is shaped by high rates of recombination and is constrained by host defenses and the requirements of transmission. Recent studies of insect-transmitted plant viruses demonstrate highly conserved molecular motifs in viral genomes that regulate the specificity of insect transmission. In contrast, advances in our understanding of host plant response to virus infection reveal some generalized patterns

Alison G Power

2000-01-01

277

DWEET MOTTLE VIRUS AND CITRUS LEAF BLOTCH VIRUS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

‘Dweet Mottle Virus’ (DMV) of Citrus was first described in the early 1960s in California. It is associated with particular symptoms on the ‘Dweet’ tangor indicator. Recently, the Spanish group at IVIA published a new virus, ‘Citrus Leaf Botch Virus’ (CLBV). CLBV reacts similarly to DMV in ‘Dweet’ b...

278

Characterization of K virus and its comparison with polyoma virus.  

PubMed Central

The antigenic relationship between the two murine papovaviruses, K virus and polyoma virus, was examined by serological techniques to determine whether they shared any antigenic components. No cross-reactivity was found associated with the viral (V) antigens by the indirect immunofluorescence, neutralization, or hemagglutination-inhibition tests. The tumor (T) antigens expressed in transformed cells or cells productively infected by either K or polyoma virus did not cross-react by indirect immunofluorescence. An antigenic relationship was detected, however, among the late proteins of K virus, polyoma virus, simian virus 40, and the human papovavirus BKV, when tested with either hyperimmune sera prepared against polyoma virus and simian virus 40 or sera prepared against disrupted virions. The nucleic acids of K and polyoma viruses were compared by agarose gel electrophoresis and restriction endonuclease analysis. No nucleotide sequence homology between the genomes of these two viruses was detectable by DNA-DNA hybridization techniques under stringent conditions. The genome of K virus was found to be slightly smaller than that of polyoma virus, and the cleavage patterns of the viral DNAs with six restriction endonucleases were different. These findings indicate that there is little relationship between these two murine papovaviruses. Images PMID:81318

Bond, S B; Howley, P M; Takemoto, K K

1978-01-01

279

About Human Parainfluenza Viruses (HPIVs)  

MedlinePLUS

... Diagnosis HPIV Seasons Resources & References About Human Parainfluenza Viruses (HPIVs) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Overview ... HPIVs, who is at risk, symptoms, how the viruses spread... Symptoms & Illnesses Lists symptoms and illnesses caused ...

280

Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV): Diagnosis  

MedlinePLUS

... Read more information on enabling JavaScript. Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content ... t need to visit a healthcare provider. The virus generally runs its course with the help of ...

281

Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV): Treatment  

MedlinePLUS

... Read more information on enabling JavaScript. Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content ... get beter. Good handwashing can prevent spread the virus. In more severe cases, people with RSV might ...

282

Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV): Symptoms  

MedlinePLUS

... Read more information on enabling JavaScript. Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content ... to six days after being exposed to the virus. However, RSV can be particularly dangerous in premature ...

283

Production of virus resistant plants  

DOEpatents

A method of suppressing virus gene expression in plants using untranslatable plus sense RNA is disclosed. The method is useful for the production of plants that are resistant to virus infection. 9 figs.

Dougherty, W.G.; Lindbo, J.A.

1996-12-10

284

Chlorella viruses isolated in China  

SciTech Connect

Plaque-forming viruses of the unicellular, eukaryotic, exsymbiotic, Chlorella-like green algae strain NC64A, which are common in the United States, were also present in fresh water collected in the People's Republic of China. Seven of the Chinese viruses were examined in detail and compared with the Chlorella viruses previously isolated in the United States. Like the American viruses, the Chinese viruses were large polyhedra and sensitive to chloroform. They contained numerous structural proteins and large double-stranded DNA genomes of at least 300 kilobase pairs. Each of the DNAs from the Chinese viruses contained 5-methyldeoxycytosine, which varied from 12.6 to 46.7% of the deoxycytosine, and N{sup 6}-methyldeoxyadenosine, which varied from 2.2 to 28.3% of the deoxyadenosine. Four of the Chinese virus DNAs hybridized extensively with {sup 32}P-labeled DNA from the American virus PBCV-1, and three hybridized poorly.

Zhang, Y.; Burbank, D.E.; Van Etten, J.L. (Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln (USA))

1988-09-01

285

Molluscum contagiosum virus infection.  

PubMed

Molluscum contagiosum virus is an important human skin pathogen: it can cause disfigurement and suffering in children, in adults it is less common and often sexually transmitted. Extensive and persistent skin infection with the virus can indicate underlying immunodeficiency. Traditional ablative therapies have not been compared directly with newer immune-modulating and specific antiviral therapies. Advances in research raise the prospect of new approaches to treatment informed by the biology of the virus; in human skin, the infection is localised in the epidermal layers, where it induces a typical, complex hyperproliferative lesion with an abundance of virus particles but a conspicuous absence of immune effectors. Functional studies of the viral genome have revealed effects on cellular pathways involved in the cell cycle, innate immunity, inflammation, and cell death. Extensive lesions caused by molluscum contagiosum can occur in patients with DOCK8 deficiency-a genetic disorder affecting migration of dendritic and specialised T cells in skin. Sudden disappearance of lesions is the consequence of a vigorous immune response in healthy people. Further study of the unique features of infection with molluscum contagiosum virus could give fundamental insight into the nature of skin immunity. PMID:23972567

Chen, Xiaoying; Anstey, Alex V; Bugert, Joachim J

2013-10-01

286

Engineered plant virus resistance.  

PubMed

Virus diseases are among the key limiting factors that cause significant yield loss and continuously threaten crop production. Resistant cultivars coupled with pesticide application are commonly used to circumvent these threats. One of the limitations of the reliance on resistant cultivars is the inevitable breakdown of resistance due to the multitude of variable virus populations. Similarly, chemical applications to control virus transmitting insect vectors are costly to the farmers, cause adverse health and environmental consequences, and often result in the emergence of resistant vector strains. Thus, exploiting strategies that provide durable and broad-spectrum resistance over diverse environments are of paramount importance. The development of plant gene transfer systems has allowed for the introgression of alien genes into plant genomes for novel disease control strategies, thus providing a mechanism for broadening the genetic resources available to plant breeders. Genetic engineering offers various options for introducing transgenic virus resistance into crop plants to provide a wide range of resistance to viral pathogens. This review examines the current strategies of developing virus resistant transgenic plants. PMID:25438782

Galvez, Leny C; Banerjee, Joydeep; Pinar, Hasan; Mitra, Amitava

2014-11-01

287

Viruses and Multiple Sclerosis  

PubMed Central

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic demyelinating disorder of unknown etiology, possibly caused by a virus or virus-triggered immunopathology. The virus might reactivate after years of latency and lyse oligodendrocytes, as in progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, or initiate immunopathological demyelination, as in animals infected with Theiler’s murine encephalomyelitis virus or coronaviruses. The argument for a viral cause of MS is supported by epidemiological analyses and studies of MS in identical twins, indicating that disease is acquired. However, the most important evidence is the presence of bands of oligoclonal IgG (OCBs) in MS brain and CSF that persist throughout the lifetime of the patient. OCBs are found almost exclusively in infectious CNS disorders, and antigenic targets of OCBs represent the agent that causes disease. Here, the authors review past attempts to identify an infectious agent in MS brain cells and discuss the promise of using recombinant antibodies generated from clonally expanded plasma cells in brain and CSF to identify disease-relevant antigens. They show how this strategy has been used successfully to analyze antigen specificity in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis, a chronic encephalitis caused by measles virus, and in neuromyelitis optica, a chronic autoimmune demyelinating disease produced by antibodies directed against the aquaporin-4 water channel. PMID:22130640

Owens, Gregory P.; Gilden, Don; Burgoon, Mark P.; Yu, Xiaoli; Bennett, Jeffrey L.

2012-01-01

288

Dinoflagellates, diatoms, and their viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the first discovery of the very high virus abundance in marine environments, a number of researchers were fascinated\\u000a with the world of “marine viruses”, which had previously been mostly overlooked in studies on marine ecosystems. In the present\\u000a paper, the possible role of viruses infecting marine eukaryotic microalgae is enlightened, especially summarizing the most\\u000a up-to-the-minute information of marine viruses

Keizo Nagasaki

2008-01-01

289

Raspberry latent virus in Rubus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Raspberry latent virus (RpLV) is a recently characterized virus reported from the Pacific Northwest, including Oregon and Washington in the United States and British Columbia in Canada. The virus appears to spread rapidly in the Fraser River Valley (northwest Washington and southwest British Columb...

290

Protecting Your Computer from Viruses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A computer virus is defined as a software program capable of reproducing itself and usually capable of causing great harm to files or other programs on the same computer. The existence of computer viruses--or the necessity of avoiding viruses--is part of using a computer. With the advent of the Internet, the door was opened wide for these…

Descy, Don E.

2006-01-01

291

Ipomoviruses: Squash vein yellowing virus, Cucumber vein yellowing virus, Cassava brown streak virus, and Ugandan cassava brown streak virus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Ipomoviruses including Squash vein yellowing virus, Cucumber vein yellowing virus and Cassava brown streak virus are currently causing significant economic impact on crop production in several regions of the world. Only recently have results of detailed characterization of their whitefly transmissi...

292

Occupational Exposure to Rabies Virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

This fact sheet is for workers who may be exposed to the rabies virus on the job, and their employers. Three main groups are at risk: those who work with animal species that can transmit the virus, workers whose jobs may incidentally expose them to carrier animal species, and lab workers who use live rabies virus in research or vaccine

2008-01-01

293

Replicon System for Lassa Virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lassa virus is endemic to West Africa and causes hemorrhagic fever in humans. To facilitate the functional analysis of this virus, a replicon system was developed based on Lassa virus strain AV. Genomic and antige- nomic minigenomes (MG) were constructed consisting of the intergenic region of S RNA and a reporter gene (Renilla luciferase) in antisense orientation, flanked by the

Meike Hass; Uta Golnitz; Stefanie Muller; Beate Becker-Ziaja; Stephan Gunther

2004-01-01

294

An introduction to computer viruses  

SciTech Connect

This report on computer viruses is based upon a thesis written for the Master of Science degree in Computer Science from the University of Tennessee in December 1989 by David R. Brown. This thesis is entitled An Analysis of Computer Virus Construction, Proliferation, and Control and is available through the University of Tennessee Library. This paper contains an overview of the computer virus arena that can help the reader to evaluate the threat that computer viruses pose. The extent of this threat can only be determined by evaluating many different factors. These factors include the relative ease with which a computer virus can be written, the motivation involved in writing a computer virus, the damage and overhead incurred by infected systems, and the legal implications of computer viruses, among others. Based upon the research, the development of a computer virus seems to require more persistence than technical expertise. This is a frightening proclamation to the computing community. The education of computer professionals to the dangers that viruses pose to the welfare of the computing industry as a whole is stressed as a means of inhibiting the current proliferation of computer virus programs. Recommendations are made to assist computer users in preventing infection by computer viruses. These recommendations support solid general computer security practices as a means of combating computer viruses.

Brown, D.R.

1992-03-01

295

Endosomes, exosomes and Trojan viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Retroviruses are enveloped viruses that are generally assumed to bud at the plasma membrane of infected cells. Recently it has become apparent that some of these viruses use the endocytic pathway to coordinate their assembly and release. In addition, these and some other enveloped viruses exploit the machinery that generates the internal membranes of multivesicular bodies (MVB). These observations and

Annegret Pelchen-Matthews; Graça Raposo; Mark Marsh

2004-01-01

296

Pathobiology of avian influenza viruses  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Avian influenza virus causes serious disease in a wide variety of birds and mammals. Its natural hosts are wild aquatic birds, in which most infections are unapparent. Avian Influenza (AI) viruses are classified into 16 hemagglutinin (H1-16) and nine neuraminidase (N1-9) subtypes. Each virus has on...

297

Computer Bytes, Viruses and Vaccines.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a history of computer viruses, explains various types of viruses and how they affect software or computer operating systems, and describes examples of specific viruses. Available vaccines are explained, and precautions for protecting programs and disks are given. (nine references) (LRW)

Palmore, Teddy B.

1989-01-01

298

CAN CRYPTOGRAPHY PREVENT COMPUTER VIRUSES?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between cryptography and virus prevention is anything but simple. Since the beginning of the computer virus problem, people have proposed solutions involving some form of cryptography; but cryptography plays only a minor role in the solutions we actually use today. Encryption can also make virus prevention more difficult, by providing viral hiding places inside the objects that it

John F Morar; David M Chess

2000-01-01

299

Research on computer virus database management system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The growing proliferation of computer viruses becomes the lethal threat and research focus of the security of network information. While new virus is emerging, the number of viruses is growing, virus classification increasing complex. Virus naming because of agencies' capture time differences can not be unified. Although each agency has its own virus database, the communication between each other lacks, or virus information is incomplete, or a small number of sample information. This paper introduces the current construction status of the virus database at home and abroad, analyzes how to standardize and complete description of virus characteristics, and then gives the information integrity, storage security and manageable computer virus database design scheme.

Qi, Guoquan

2011-12-01

300

Simian Varicella Virus Pathogenesis  

PubMed Central

Because varicella zoster virus (VZV) is an exclusively human pathogen, the development of an animal model is necessary to study pathogenesis, latency, and reactivation. The pathological, virological, and immunological features of simian varicella virus (SVV) infection in nonhuman primates are similar to those of VZV infection in humans. Both natural infection of cynomolgus and African green monkeys as well as intrabronchial inoculation of rhesus macaques with SVV provide the most useful models to study viral and immunological aspects of latency and the host immune response. Experimental immunosuppression of monkeys latently infected with SVV results in zoster, thus providing a new model system to study how the loss of adaptive immunity modulates virus reactivation. PMID:20186611

Mahalingam, Ravi; Messaoudi, Ilhem; Gilden, Don

2010-01-01

301

[Diversification of influenza viruses].  

PubMed

The presence of flu in humankind history was cited by numerous sources (the oldest known source was written by Hyppocrates, in 412 BC), but the epidemic impact could be measured only starting with the XVIII-th century, after the pandemics from 1729 - 1733 (with estimates of about two million deaths). Nowadays, health scientists dispenses vaccines, containing the antigenes of the viruses responsible with the flu in the last winter mixed with other two major flu-types. The effect of the current flu vaccines extends over about six months from the moment of innoculation. The reason of that short effectiveness of the vaccines is given by ability of viruses to change themselves very quickly. There are two ways through which the virus can astonish the victim antibodies (humans or animals): the mutation (named antigenic drift) and the genetic recombination of the genomic segments from different strains (named antigenic shift). PMID:20422926

Marian, Constantin V; Mih?escu, Grigore

2009-01-01

302

Viruses in water  

PubMed Central

Attention is drawn in this paper to the increasing problem of viral contamination of water and shellfish, particularly since growing demands for available water resources by a rising world population and expanding industry will make the recycling of wastewater almost inevitable in the future. The problem of eliminating viruses pathogenic for man from water is considered in the light of present water treatment procedures, which are often inadequate for that purpose. Man may be exposed to waterborne viruses through the consumption of contaminated water, shellfish, or crops, as a result of recreational activities involving water, or from aerosols following the spraying of crops with liquid wastes. Physical and chemical methods of eliminating viruses from water are discussed. PMID:310357

Melnick, Joseph L.; Gerba, Charles P.; Wallis, Craig

1978-01-01

303

Fragg Virus - Kinetic City  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Fragg Virus is a learning module centered learning the importance of systems; it is a part of the Kinetic City-Mission to Vearth site. In general this module is concerned with how different parts work within a system. The Fragg Virus module is equipped with a computer simulation mind game, creative writing exercises for independent study, and art-centered exercises, as well as lesson plans for hands on games and activities designed for a group. The focus of the activities is evolution and the features of an animal that helps the animal survive in its environment. Certain features explored are the giraffes neck, polar bears fir, and a birds beak.

American Association for the Advancement of Science (; )

2008-04-17

304

Viruses and viral proteins  

PubMed Central

For more than 30 years X-ray crystallography has been by far the most powerful approach for determining the structures of viruses and viral proteins at atomic resolution. The information provided by these structures, which covers many important aspects of the viral life cycle such as cell-receptor recognition, viral entry, nucleic acid transfer and genome replication, has extensively enriched our vision of the virus world. Many of the structures available correspond to potential targets for antiviral drugs against important human pathogens. This article provides an overview of the current knowledge of different structural aspects of the above-mentioned processes. PMID:25485129

Verdaguer, Nuria; Ferrero, Diego; Murthy, Mathur R. N.

2014-01-01

305

Zika Virus Outside Africa  

PubMed Central

Zika virus (ZIKV) is a flavivirus related to yellow fever, dengue, West Nile, and Japanese encephalitis viruses. In 2007 ZIKV caused an outbreak of relatively mild disease characterized by rash, arthralgia, and conjunctivitis on Yap Island in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. This was the first time that ZIKV was detected outside of Africa and Asia. The history, transmission dynamics, virology, and clinical manifestations of ZIKV disease are discussed, along with the possibility for diagnostic confusion between ZIKV illness and dengue.The emergence of ZIKV outside of its previously known geographic range should prompt awareness of the potential for ZIKV to spread to other Pacific islands and the Americas. PMID:19788800

2009-01-01

306

Additional hosts of alfalfa mosaic virus, cucumber mosaic virus, and tobacco mosaic virus in New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

In New Zealand, alfalfa mosaic virus is recorded on three new field crop hosts, Cajanus cajan (L.) Huth, Coriandrum sativum L., and Wasabia japonica (Miquel) Matsum. Cucumber mosaic virus is recorded on the weeds Cirsium vulgare L. and Veronica persica Poiret and on the ornamental perennial Gentiana sp. Tobacco mosaic virus is recorded on sunflower Helianthus annuus L.

J. D. Fletcher

1989-01-01

307

Soilborne viruses: advances in virus movement, virus induced gene silencing, and engineered resistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Until recently soilborne plant viruses were considered important only because they are causative agents for agricultural diseases. In recent years, soilborne plant viruses have played a significant role in advancing research into mechanisms of plasmodesmata transport, gene silencing, and engineered resistance to plant pathogens. Three different mechanisms by which viruses move through plasmodesmata have been identified using dianthoviruses, nepoviruses, and

Jeanmarie Verchot-Lubicz

2003-01-01

308

Bat flight and zoonotic viruses  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Bats are sources of high viral diversity and high-profile zoonotic viruses worldwide. Although apparently not pathogenic in their reservoir hosts, some viruses from bats severely affect other mammals, including humans. Examples include severe acute respiratory syndrome coronaviruses, Ebola and Marburg viruses, and Nipah and Hendra viruses. Factors underlying high viral diversity in bats are the subject of speculation. We hypothesize that flight, a factor common to all bats but to no other mammals, provides an intensive selective force for coexistence with viral parasites through a daily cycle that elevates metabolism and body temperature analogous to the febrile response in other mammals. On an evolutionary scale, this host–virus interaction might have resulted in the large diversity of zoonotic viruses in bats, possibly through bat viruses adapting to be more tolerant of the fever response and less virulent to their natural hosts.

O'Shea, Thomas; Cryan, Paul M.; Cunningham, Andrew A.; Fooks, Anthony R.; Hayman, David T.S.; Luis, Angela D.; Peel, Alison J.; Plowright, Raina K.; Wood, James L.N.

2014-01-01

309

Bat Flight and Zoonotic Viruses  

PubMed Central

Bats are sources of high viral diversity and high-profile zoonotic viruses worldwide. Although apparently not pathogenic in their reservoir hosts, some viruses from bats severely affect other mammals, including humans. Examples include severe acute respiratory syndrome coronaviruses, Ebola and Marburg viruses, and Nipah and Hendra viruses. Factors underlying high viral diversity in bats are the subject of speculation. We hypothesize that flight, a factor common to all bats but to no other mammals, provides an intensive selective force for coexistence with viral parasites through a daily cycle that elevates metabolism and body temperature analogous to the febrile response in other mammals. On an evolutionary scale, this host–virus interaction might have resulted in the large diversity of zoonotic viruses in bats, possibly through bat viruses adapting to be more tolerant of the fever response and less virulent to their natural hosts. PMID:24750692

Cryan, Paul M.; Cunningham, Andrew A.; Fooks, Anthony R.; Hayman, David T.S.; Luis, Angela D.; Peel, Alison J.; Plowright, Raina K.; Wood, James L.N.

2014-01-01

310

Turnip Yellow Mosaic Virus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The bumpy exterior of the turnip yellow mosaic virus (TYMV) protein coat, or capsid, was defined in detail by Dr. Alexander McPherson of the University of California, Irvin using proteins crystallized in space for analysis on Earth. TYMV is an icosahedral virus constructed from 180 copies of the same protein arranged into 12 clusters of five proteins (pentamers), and 20 clusters of six proteins (hexamers). The final TYMV structure led to the unexpected hypothesis that the virus releases its RNA by essentially chemical-mechanical means. Most viruses have fairly flat coats, but in TYNV, the fold in each protein, called the jellyroll, is clustered at the points where the protein pentamers and hexamers join. The jellyrolls are almost standing on end, producing a bumpy surface with knobs at all of the pentamers and hexamers. At the inside surface of the pentamers is a void that is not present at the hexamers. The coating had been seen in early stuties of TYMV, but McPherson's atomic structure shows much more detail. The inside surface is strikingly, and unexpectedly, different than the outside. While the pentamers contain a central void on the inside, the hexameric units contain peptides linked to each other, forming a ring or, more accurately, rings to fill the void. Credit: Dr. Alexander McPherson, University of California, Irvine

2000-01-01

311

Varicella zoster virus latency  

PubMed Central

Primary infection by varicella zoster virus (VZV) typically results in childhood chickenpox, at which time latency is established in the neurons of the cranial nerve, dorsal root and autonomic ganglia along the entire neuraxis. During latency, the histone-associated virus genome assumes a circular episomal configuration from which transcription is epigenetically regulated. The lack of an animal model in which VZV latency and reactivation can be studied, along with the difficulty in obtaining high-titer cell-free virus, has limited much of our understanding of VZV latency to descriptive studies of ganglia removed at autopsy and analogy to HSV-1, the prototype alphaherpesvirus. However, the lack of miRNA, detectable latency-associated transcript and T-cell surveillance during VZV latency highlight basic differences between the two neurotropic herpesviruses. This article focuses on VZV latency: establishment, maintenance and reactivation. Comparisons are made with HSV-1, with specific attention to differences that make these viruses unique human pathogens. PMID:21695042

Eshleman, Emily; Shahzad, Aamir; Cohrs, Randall J

2011-01-01

312

Newcastle disease virus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Newcastle disease virus (NDV), a member of the Avulavirus genus in the Paramyxoviridae family, has a ribonucleic acid (RNA) genome that is negative sense, non-segmented, and single-stranded. The genome codes for six structural proteins: nucleocapsid, phosphoprotein, matrix, fusion, hemagglutinin-neu...

313

Virus Chapter: Dicistrovidae  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Dicistroviridae family comprises viruses infecting both beneficial arthropods such as honey bees and shrimp and insect pests of medical and agricultural importance. During the last five years, advances in sequencing and phylogenetic analysis have led to the discovery and identification of sever...

314

GENOME OF HORSEPOX VIRUS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Here we present the genomic sequence of horsepox virus (HSPV) isolate MNR-76, an orthopoxvirus (OPV) isolated in 1976 from diseased Mongolian horses. The 212 kbp genome contained 7.5 kbp inverted terminal repeats (ITR) and lacked extensive terminal tandem repetition. HSPV contained 236 ORFs with sim...

315

Raspberry leaf curl virus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Raspberry leaf curl virus (RLCV) is limited to hosts in the genus Rubus and is transmitted persistently by the small raspberry aphid, Aphis rubicola Oestlund. It is found only in North America, principally in the northeastern United States and southeastern Canada and in the Rocky Mountain regions of...

316

From Shakespeare to Viruses  

ScienceCinema

Berkeley Lab scientists have created a unique new tool for analyzing and comparing long sets of data, be it the genomes of mammals or viruses, or the works of Shakespeare. The results of the Shakespeare analysis surprised scholars with their accuracy.

Kim, Sung-Hou

2013-05-29

317

From Shakespeare to Viruses  

SciTech Connect

Berkeley Lab scientists have created a unique new tool for analyzing and comparing long sets of data, be it the genomes of mammals or viruses, or the works of Shakespeare. The results of the Shakespeare analysis surprised scholars with their accuracy.

Kim, Sung-Hou

2009-01-01

318

Cold Facts about Viruses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides ways for students to demonstrate their understanding of scientific concepts and skills. Describes a mini-unit around the cold in which students can relate humans to viruses. Includes activities and a modified simulation that provides questions to guide students. Discusses ways that allows students to apply prior knowledge, take ownership…

Pea, Celeste; Sterling, Donna R.

2002-01-01

319

From Shakespeare to Viruses  

SciTech Connect

Berkeley Lab scientists have created a unique new tool for analyzing and comparing long sets of data, be it the genomes of mammals or viruses, or the works of Shakespeare. The results of the Shakespeare analysis surprised scholars with their accuracy

Sung-Hou Kim

2009-02-09

320

Human Viruses and Cancer  

PubMed Central

The first human tumor virus was discovered in the middle of the last century by Anthony Epstein, Bert Achong and Yvonne Barr in African pediatric patients with Burkitt’s lymphoma. To date, seven viruses -EBV, KSHV, high-risk HPV, MCPV, HBV, HCV and HTLV1- have been consistently linked to different types of human cancer, and infections are estimated to account for up to 20% of all cancer cases worldwide. Viral oncogenic mechanisms generally include: generation of genomic instability, increase in the rate of cell proliferation, resistance to apoptosis, alterations in DNA repair mechanisms and cell polarity changes, which often coexist with evasion mechanisms of the antiviral immune response. Viral agents also indirectly contribute to the development of cancer mainly through immunosuppression or chronic inflammation, but also through chronic antigenic stimulation. There is also evidence that viruses can modulate the malignant properties of an established tumor. In the present work, causation criteria for viruses and cancer will be described, as well as the viral agents that comply with these criteria in human tumors, their epidemiological and biological characteristics, the molecular mechanisms by which they induce cellular transformation and their associated cancers. PMID:25341666

Morales-Sánchez, Abigail; Fuentes-Pananá, Ezequiel M.

2014-01-01

321

Apple mosaic virus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Apple mosaic virus (ApMV), a member of the ilarvirus group, naturally infects Betula, Aesculus, Humulus, and several crop genera in the family Rosaceae (Malus, Prunus, Rosa and Rubus). ApMV was first reported in Rubus in several blackberry and raspberry cultivars in the United States and subsequentl...

322

BLUEBERRY SCORCH VIRUS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Blueberry scorch disease was first described in the state of Washington in the USA by Martin and Bristow in 1988 and it was later determined that Sheep Pen Hill disease, described previously in New Jersey, USA was also caused by Blueberry scorch virus (BlScV). BlScV has flexuous, rod-shaped particl...

323

Antibodies, viruses and vaccines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neutralizing antibodies are crucial for vaccine-mediated protection against viral diseases. They probably act, in most cases, by blunting the infection, which is then resolved by cellular immunity. The protective effects of neutralizing antibodies can be achieved not only by neutralization of free virus particles, but also by several activities directed against infected cells. In certain instances, non-neutralizing antibodies contribute to

Dennis R. Burton

2002-01-01

324

West Nile virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evolution of West Nile virus (WNV) has resulted in the emergence of WNV variants that have a significant pathogenicity for humans, horses, and birds. WNV appeared in North America in New York City in 1999 and has since spread throughout the continent into the Caribbean and Mexico and is now believed to be enzootic in much of the United

David N Phalen; Bob Dahlhausen

2004-01-01

325

VIRUSES IN GROUNDWATER  

EPA Science Inventory

The microbial contamination of ground water is a serious problem that can result in large outbreaks of waterborne disease. The purpose of this article is to review the literature available on viruses in ground water in order to evaluate the present state-of-knowledge, assess the ...

326

Viruses of Haloarchaea  

PubMed Central

In hypersaline environments, haloarchaea (halophilic members of the Archaea) are the dominant organisms, and the viruses that infect them, haloarchaeoviruses are at least ten times more abundant. Since their discovery in 1974, described haloarchaeoviruses include head-tailed, pleomorphic, spherical and spindle-shaped morphologies, representing Myoviridae, Siphoviridae, Podoviridae, Pleolipoviridae, Sphaerolipoviridae and Fuselloviridae families. This review overviews current knowledge of haloarchaeoviruses, providing information about classification, morphotypes, macromolecules, life cycles, genetic manipulation and gene regulation, and host-virus responses. In so doing, the review incorporates knowledge from laboratory studies of isolated viruses, field-based studies of environmental samples, and both genomic and metagenomic analyses of haloarchaeoviruses. What emerges is that some haloarchaeoviruses possess unique morphological and life cycle properties, while others share features with other viruses (e.g., bacteriophages). Their interactions with hosts influence community structure and evolution of populations that exist in hypersaline environments as diverse as seawater evaporation ponds, to hot desert or Antarctic lakes. The discoveries of their wide-ranging and important roles in the ecology and evolution of hypersaline communities serves as a strong motivator for future investigations of both laboratory-model and environmental systems. PMID:25402735

Luk, Alison W. S.; Williams, Timothy J.; Erdmann, Susanne; Papke, R. Thane; Cavicchioli, Ricardo

2014-01-01

327

Equine immunity to viruses.  

PubMed

The identification of some of the adaptive immune responses to infection with equine viruses has been the first step toward rational immunoprophylactic design. Sufficient knowledge of infection-induced immunity and informed estimates of the requirements for long-term immunity for EIV have now been obtained. Thus, the future for inactivated EIV vaccines is promising now that new adjuvants have been applied to induce cellular immunity and safe methods have been designed to stimulate virus-neutralizing (VN) antibody at mucosal surfaces. Adenoviruses induce circulating VN antibody, the presence of which appears to correlate with protection from reinfection. Therefore, the potential of vaccines to induce VN antibody and protect from challenge is an important next step with this virus. With persistent viruses such as EHV-1, antibody-mediated protection from infection can be achieved only at the site of initial infection, that is, the nasopharynx and upper respiratory tract. Systemic dissemination is very rapid and consequently VN antibody is unlikely to play a major role in prevention of disease once the initial infection event has occurred. Cellular immune responses, particularly CTLs, play a dominant role in protection and recovery and are important in immune surveillance and determination of the outcome of reactivation of latent virus. Therefore, the key to future EHV-1 vaccine design is to focus on stimulation of CTL responses, and this requires the successful presentation of vaccine-derived antigenic peptides to MHC class I molecules that are recognized by specific receptors on CTL. There is some evidence that stimulation of EHV-1-specific CTL precursors may correlate with immunity to this virus. By analogy with gamma herpesviruses in humans, CTL precursor frequency may also function as an immune correlate for EHV-2. Although EAV infection induces strong immunity in females and geldings, persistent infection of the genital tract is an important route of dissemination from stallions. Although inactivated vaccines induce strong immunity (which depends upon VN activity of serum antibody) to first infection, the immunologic control of persistent infection is currently poorly understood; however, analogy with other persistent viruses suggests that CTLs are also likely to play an important role in the control of persistent EAV infections. PMID:10752138

Slater, J; Hannant, D

2000-04-01

328

Molecular epidemiology of respiratory viruses in virus-induced asthma  

PubMed Central

Acute respiratory illness (ARI) due to various viruses is not only the most common cause of upper respiratory infection in humans but is also a major cause of morbidity and mortality, leading to diseases such as bronchiolitis and pneumonia. Previous studies have shown that respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), human rhinovirus (HRV), human metapneumovirus (HMPV), human parainfluenza virus (HPIV), and human enterovirus infections may be associated with virus-induced asthma. For example, it has been suggested that HRV infection is detected in the acute exacerbation of asthma and infection is prolonged. Thus it is believed that the main etiological cause of asthma is ARI viruses. Furthermore, the number of asthma patients in most industrial countries has greatly increased, resulting in a morbidity rate of around 10-15% of the population. However, the relationships between viral infections, host immune response, and host factors in the pathophysiology of asthma remain unclear. To gain a better understanding of the epidemiology of virus-induced asthma, it is important to assess both the characteristics of the viruses and the host defense mechanisms. Molecular epidemiology enables us to understand the pathogenesis of microorganisms by identifying specific pathways, molecules, and genes that influence the risk of developing a disease. However, the epidemiology of various respiratory viruses associated with virus-induced asthma is not fully understood. Therefore, in this article, we review molecular epidemiological studies of RSV, HRV, HPIV, and HMPV infection associated with virus-induced asthma. PMID:24062735

Ishioka, Taisei; Noda, Masahiro; Kozawa, Kunihisa; Kimura, Hirokazu

2013-01-01

329

Viruses and neurodegeneration  

PubMed Central

Neurodegenerative diseases (NDs) are chronic degenerative diseases of the central nervous system (CNS), which affect 37 million people worldwide. As the lifespan increases, the NDs are the fourth leading cause of death in the developed countries and becoming increasingly prevalent in developing countries. Despite considerable research, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Although the large majority of studies do not show support for the involvement of pathogenic aetiology in classical NDs, a number of emerging studies show support for possible association of viruses with classical neurodegenerative diseases in humans. Space does not permit for extensive details to be discussed here on non-viral-induced neurodegenerative diseases in humans, as they are well described in literature. Viruses induce alterations and degenerations of neurons both directly and indirectly. Their ability to attack the host immune system, regions of nervous tissue implies that they can interfere with the same pathways involved in classical NDs in humans. Supporting this, many similarities between classical NDs and virus-mediated neurodegeneration (non-classical) have been shown at the anatomic, sub-cellular, genomic and proteomic levels suggesting that viruses can explain neurodegenerative disorders mechanistically. The main objective of this review is to provide readers a detailed snapshot of similarities viral and non-viral neurodegenerative diseases share, so that mechanistic pathways of neurodegeneration in human NDs can be clearly understood. Viruses can guide us to unveil these pathways in human NDs. This will further stimulate the birth of new concepts in the biological research, which is needed for gaining deeper insights into the treatment of human NDs and delineate mechanisms underlying neurodegeneration. PMID:23724961

2013-01-01

330

A vaccinia virus renaissance  

PubMed Central

In 1796, Edward Jenner introduced the concept of vaccination with cowpox virus, an Orthopoxvirus within the family Poxviridae that elicits cross protective immunity against related orthopoxviruses, including smallpox virus (variola virus). Over time, vaccinia virus (VACV) replaced cowpox virus as the smallpox vaccine, and vaccination efforts eventually led to the successful global eradication of smallpox in 1979. VACV has many characteristics that make it an excellent vaccine and that were crucial for the successful eradication of smallpox, including (1) its exceptional thermal stability (a very important but uncommon characteristic in live vaccines), (2) its ability to elicit strong humoral and cell-mediated immune responses, (3) the fact that it is easy to propagate, and (4) that it is not oncogenic, given that VACV replication occurs exclusively within the host cell cytoplasm and there is no evidence that the viral genome integrates into the host genome. Since the eradication of smallpox, VACV has experienced a renaissance of interest as a viral vector for the development of recombinant vaccines, immunotherapies, and oncolytic therapies, as well as the development of next-generation smallpox vaccines. This revival is mainly due to the successful use and extensive characterization of VACV as a vaccine during the smallpox eradication campaign, along with the ability to genetically manipulate its large dsDNA genome while retaining infectivity and immunogenicity, its wide mammalian host range, and its natural tropism for tumor cells that allows its use as an oncolytic vector. This review provides an overview of new uses of VACV that are currently being explored for the development of vaccines, immunotherapeutics, and oncolytic virotherapies. PMID:22777090

Verardi, Paulo H.; Titong, Allison; Hagen, Caitlin J.

2012-01-01

331

Virus Maturation by Budding  

PubMed Central

Enveloped viruses mature by budding at cellular membranes. It has been generally thought that this process is driven by interactions between the viral transmembrane proteins and the internal virion components (core, capsid, or nucleocapsid). This model was particularly applicable to alphaviruses, which require both spike proteins and a nucleocapsid for budding. However, genetic studies have clearly shown that the retrovirus core protein, i.e., the Gag protein, is able to form enveloped particles by itself. Also, budding of negative-strand RNA viruses (rhabdoviruses, orthomyxoviruses, and paramyxoviruses) seems to be accomplished mainly by internal components, most probably the matrix protein, since the spike proteins are not absolutely required for budding of these viruses either. In contrast, budding of coronavirus particles can occur in the absence of the nucleocapsid and appears to require two membrane proteins only. Biochemical and structural data suggest that the proteins, which play a key role in budding, drive this process by forming a three-dimensional (cage-like) protein lattice at the surface of or within the membrane. Similarly, recent electron microscopic studies revealed that the alphavirus spike proteins are also engaged in extensive lateral interactions, forming a dense protein shell at the outer surface of the viral envelope. On the basis of these data, we propose that the budding of enveloped viruses in general is governed by lateral interactions between peripheral or integral membrane proteins. This new concept also provides answers to the question of how viral and cellular membrane proteins are sorted during budding. In addition, it has implications for the mechanism by which the virion is uncoated during virus entry. PMID:9841669

Garoff, Henrik; Hewson, Roger; Opstelten, Dirk-Jan E.

1998-01-01

332

Virus movement within grafted watermelon plants  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Watermelon production in Florida is impacted by several viruses including whitefly-transmitted Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV), Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus and Cucurbit leaf crumple virus, and aphid-transmitted Papaya ringspot virus type W (PRSV-W). While germplasm resistant to some...

333

Marine Viruses: Truth or Dare Mya Breitbart  

E-print Network

Marine Viruses: Truth or Dare Mya Breitbart College of Marine Science, University of South Florida million viruses per milliliter of surface seawater, viruses are the most abundant biological entities in the oceans. The majority of these viruses are phages (viruses that infect bacteria). Through lysing

Saleska, Scott

334

How Hepatitis D Virus Can Hinder the Control of Hepatitis B Virus  

E-print Network

How Hepatitis D Virus Can Hinder the Control of Hepatitis B Virus Maria Xiridou1 *, Barbara Borkent) virus is a defective virus that relies on hepatitis B virus (HBV) for transmission; infection of the bond between the two viruses, control measures for HBV may have also affected the spread of hepatitis D

Hulshof, Joost

335

Detection of sweet potato viruses in Yunnan and genetic diversity analysis of the common viruses  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Two hundred seventy-nine samples with virus-like symptoms collected from 16 regions in Yunnan Province were tested by RT-PCR/PCR using virus-specific primers for 8 sweet potato viruses. Six viruses, Sweet potato chlorotic fleck virus (SPCFV), Sweet Potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV), Sweet potato ...

336

Heparan Sulfate-Mediated Binding of Infectious Dengue Virus Type 2 and Yellow Fever Virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dengue virus type 2 and Yellow fever virus are arthropod-borne flaviviruses causing hemorrhagic fever in humans. Identification of virus receptors is important in understanding flavivirus pathogenesis. The aim of this work was to study the role of cellular heparan sulfate in the adsorption of infectious Yellow fever and Dengue type 2 viruses. Virus attachment was assessed by adsorbing virus to

Raphaële Germi; Jean-Marc Crance; Daniel Garin; Josette Guimet; Hugues Lortat-Jacob; Rob W. H. Ruigrok; Jean-Pierre Zarski; Emmanuel Drouet

2002-01-01

337

Hepatitis C Virus and other Flaviviridae Viruses Enter Cells via Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endocytosis of the Flaviviridae viruses, hepatitis C virus, GB virus C\\/hepatitis G virus, and bovine viral diarrheal virus (BVDV) was shown to be mediated by low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptors on cultured cells by several lines of evidence: by the demonstration that endocytosis of these virus correlated with LDL receptor activity, by complete inhibition of detectable endocytosis by anti-LDL receptor

Vincent Agnello; Gyorgy Abel; Mutasim Elfahal; Glenn B. Knight; Qing-Xiu Zhang

1999-01-01

338

Measles virus for cancer therapy  

PubMed Central

Measles virus offers an ideal platform from which to build a new generation of safe, effective oncolytic viruses. Occasional "spontaneous" tumor regressions have occurred during natural measles infections, but common tumors do not express SLAM, the wild-type MV receptor, and are therefore not susceptible to the virus. Serendipitously, attenuated vaccine strains of measles virus have adapted to use CD46, a regulator of complement activation that is expressed in higher abundance on human tumor cells than on their non transformed counterparts. For this reason, attenuated measles viruses are potent and selective oncolytic agents showing impressive antitumor activity in mouse xenograft models. The viruses can be engineered to enhance their tumor specificity, increase their antitumor potency and facilitate noninvasive in vivo monitoring of their spread. A major impediment to the successful deployment of oncolytic measles viruses as anticancer agents is the high prevalence of pre-existing anti measles immunity, which impedes bloodstream delivery and curtails intratumoral virus spread. It is hoped that these problems can be addressed by delivering the virus inside measles-infected cell carriers and/or by concomitant administration of immunosuppressive drugs. From a safety perspective, population immunity provides an excellent defense against measles spread from patient to carers and, in fifty years of human experience, reversion of attenuated measles to a wild type pathogenic phenotype has not been observed. Clinical trials testing oncolytic measles viruses as an experimental cancer therapy are currently underway. PMID:19203112

Russell, Stephen J.; Whye Peng, Kah

2014-01-01

339

Human herpes virus 8: a new virus discloses its face  

Microsoft Academic Search

The human herpes virus 8 (HHV8) or Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpes virus (KSHV) is present in all Kaposi’s sarcoma, and\\u000a the detection of the virus using polymerase chain reaction or in situ hybridization is a highly sensitive and specific diagnostic\\u000a test for the diagnosis of this neoplasm. HHV8 is furthermore invariably present in primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) and has\\u000a also been

Gieri Cathomas

2000-01-01

340

Immunopathology of chronic lentivirus-induced arthritis.  

PubMed Central

This study evaluated histopathology and mononuclear cell phenotypes in synovial lesions of chronic arthritis induced by experimental infection of Saanen goats with caprine arthritis-encephalitis lentivirus. Histological examination of carpal joint synovium of three infected goats with clinical arthritis revealed progressive lesions consisting of membrane villus hypertrophy with extensive angiogenesis and mononuclear cell infiltration and degenerative changes of membrane villus necrosis associated with loss of vasculature and infiltrates. Changes in synovial tissue of five age-matched infected goats without clinical arthritis were limited to moderate synovial membrane hyperplasia also noted in an age-matched uninfected goat. Immunohistochemistry identified CD45R+ CD5- B lymphocytes as the principal component of most perivascular infiltrates in arthritic synovium. Other mononuclear cells included perivascular CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes and macrophages with a prominent accumulation of CD8+ T lymphocytes at the lining surface of inflamed villi. T lymphocytes and macrophages as well as synovial lining cells were activated with respect to MHC class II but not for interleukin-2 receptors. Inflamed villi also contained lymphoid aggregates comprised of B cell germinal centers and activated T-cell mantles. B cells expressing immunoglobulin occurred around follicles and throughout inflamed villi. These findings indicate that memory immune responses that favor expansion and maturation of B cells and immunoglobulin production contribute to the immunopathology of chronic arthritis. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:7778682

Wilkerson, M. J.; Davis, W. C.; Baszler, T. V.; Cheevers, W. P.

1995-01-01

341

Principles of Virus Structural Organization  

PubMed Central

Viruses, the molecular nanomachines infecting hosts ranging from prokaryotes to eukaryotes, come in different sizes, shapes and symmetries. Questions such as what principles govern their structural organization, what factors guide their assembly, how these viruses integrate multifarious functions into one unique structure have enamored researchers for years. In the last five decades, following Caspar and Klug's elegant conceptualization of how viruses are constructed, high resolution structural studies using X-ray crystallography and more recently cryo-EM techniques have provided a wealth of information on structures of variety of viruses. These studies have significantly furthered our understanding of the principles that underlie structural organization in viruses. Such an understanding has practical impact in providing a rational basis for the design and development of antiviral strategies. In this chapter, we review principles underlying capsid formation in a variety of viruses, emphasizing the recent developments along with some historical perspective. PMID:22297509

Prasad, B.V. Venkataram; Schmid, Michael F

2013-01-01

342

Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus (LCMV) and Pregnancy  

MedlinePLUS

... us online at: www.OTISpregnancy.org . Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus (LCMV) and Pregnancy In every pregnancy, a woman ... from your healthcare professional. What is Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus (LCMV)? LCMV is a virus that can cause ...

343

Screening for Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)  

MedlinePLUS

... Understanding Task Force Recommendations Screening for Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (Task ... is human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)? HIV is a virus that attacks cells that help the body fight ...

344

West Nile Virus Infection and Pregnancy  

MedlinePLUS

... online at: http://www.mothertobaby.org/. West Nile Virus Infection and Pregnancy In every pregnancy, a woman ... your health care professional. What is West Nile Virus (WNV)? WNV is a virus that can infect ...

345

Variant (Swine Origin) Influenza Viruses in Humans  

MedlinePLUS

... Submit Button Past Newsletters Variant (Swine Origin) Influenza Viruses in Humans Language: English Español Recommend on ... United States since 2005 Background On Variant Influenza Viruses Swine flu viruses do not normally infect humans. ...

346

FAQ: West Nile Virus and Dead Birds  

MedlinePLUS

... Virus Share Compartir FAQ: West Nile Virus & Dead Birds How do birds get infected with West Nile ... dead bird sightings to local authorities. How do birds get infected with West Nile virus? West Nile ...

347

NATIONAL RESPIRATORY AND ENTERIC VIRUS SURVEILLANCE SYSTEM  

EPA Science Inventory

The National Respiratory and Enteric Virus Surveillance System is a lab based system which monitors temporal and geographic patterns associated with the detection of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), human parainfluenza viruses (HPIV), respiratory and enteric adenoviruses, and r...

348

Antigenic determinants in influenza virus hemagglutinin.  

PubMed Central

Three antigenic determinants were revealed in H3 hemagglutinin of influenza A viruses isolated from 1968 to 1975. One of them was common for all viruses, and two others specified differences between the viruses possessing H3 hemagglutinin. PMID:89090

Rovnova, Z I; Kosyakov, P N; Berezina, O N; Isayeva, E I; Zhdanov, V M

1979-01-01

349

Mechanisms of virus assembly  

E-print Network

Viruses are nanoscale entities containing a nucleic acid genome encased in a protein shell called a capsid, and in some cases surrounded by a lipid bilayer membrane. This review summarizes the physics that govern the processes by which capsids assembles within their host cells and in vitro. We describe the thermodynamics and kinetics for assembly of protein subunits into icosahedral capsid shells, and how these are modified in cases where the capsid assembles around a nucleic acid or on a lipid bilayer. We present experimental and theoretical techniques that have been used to characterize capsid assembly, and we highlight aspects of virus assembly which are likely to receive significant attention in the near future.

Jason D Perlmutter; Michael F Hagan

2014-07-15

350

Virus Interference. I. The Interferon  

Microsoft Academic Search

During a study of the interference produced by heat-inactivated influenza virus with the growth of live virus in fragments of chick chorio-allantoic membrane it was found that following incubation of heated virus with membrane a new factor was released. This factor, recognized by its ability to induce interference in fresh pieces of chorio-allantoic membrane, was called interferon. Following a lag

A. Isaacs; J. Lindenmann

1957-01-01

351

Tracking the West Nile Virus  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How can viral sequences help us establish the origin of the virus that appeared in the US in 1999? Epidemiologists have adopted bioinformatics approaches using sequence data from strains of pathogens to track the movement of bacteria and viruses from continent to continent. * explore a data set of West Nile Virus sequences from all over the world that date from the mid-20th century to the present

Erica Suchmann (University of California - San Diego; Biology)

2006-05-20

352

Viruses from extreme thermal environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Viruses of extreme thermophiles are of great interest because they serve as model systems for understanding the biochemistry and molecular biology required for life at high temperatures. In this work, we report the discovery, isolation, and preliminary characterization of viruses and virus-like particles from extreme thermal acidic environments (70-92°C, pH 1.0-4.5) found in Yellowstone National Park. Six unique particle morphologies

George Rice; Kenneth Stedman; Jamie Snyder; Blake Wiedenheft; Debbie Willits; Susan Brumfield; Timothy McDermott; Mark J. Young

2001-01-01

353

Genus Orthopoxvirus: Cowpox virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Cowpox virus (CPXV) is distinguished from other orthopoxvirus (OPV) species by producing cytoplasmic A-type inclusion bodies and flattened\\u000a pocks with a hemorrhagic center on the chorioallantoic membrane. CPXV is endemic to Western Eurasia and naturally infects\\u000a a broad range of host species including domestic animals, and zoo animals, as well as humans. Infections in humans seem to\\u000a increase in importance

Sandra Essbauer; Hermann Meyer

354

Human Immunodeficiency Virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oral health is an integral component of overall health and well-being in all patients. However, for an immunocompromised patient,\\u000a many common oral conditions may have a significant impact on quality of life. Intraoral pain, which is a common complaint\\u000a among patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), will compromise patients’ ability to maintain adequate and appropriate\\u000a oral intake. Furthermore, the polypharmacopeia

Anita Patel; Michael Glick

355

VIRUS instrument collimator assembly  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Visual Integral-Field Replicable Unit Spectrograph (VIRUS) instrument is a baseline array 150 identical fiber fed optical spectrographs designed to support observations for the Hobby-Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX). The collimator subassemblies of the instrument have been assembled in a production line and are now complete. Here we review the design choices and assembly practices used to produce a suite of identical low-cost spectrographs in a timely fashion using primarily unskilled labor.

Marshall, Jennifer L.; DePoy, Darren L.; Prochaska, Travis; Allen, Richard D.; Williams, Patrick; Rheault, Jean-Philippe; Li, Ting; Nagasawa, Daniel Q.; Akers, Christopher; Baker, David; Boster, Emily; Campbell, Caitlin; Cook, Erika; Elder, Alison; Gary, Alex; Glover, Joseph; James, Michael; Martin, Emily; Meador, Will; Mondrik, Nicholas; Rodriguez-Patino, Marisela; Villanueva, Steven; Hill, Gary J.; Tuttle, Sarah; Vattiat, Brian; Lee, Hanshin; Chonis, Taylor S.; Dalton, Gavin B.; Tacon, Mike

2014-07-01

356

Symptomatic mumps virus reinfections.  

PubMed

Although natural mumps virus infection is believed to induce lifelong immunity, our laboratory was confronted with 82 patients who developed mumps-evoking lesions but exhibited serological evidence of a booster immune response, namely a rise or a high titer of virus-specific IgG, without IgM. In order to provide arguments favoring the existence of recurrent mumps attacks, the age, symptomatology, and humoral response of these patients (group 1) were compared to that of 82 randomly selected true primary infected patients (group 2), 10 parainfluenza virus-infected patients (group 3), and 20 noninfected mumps-immune subjects (group 4). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) procedures with different viral antigenic preparations were used for determination of specific IgM, IgA, IgG, IgG subclasses, and IgG avidity. The patients of group 1, older than those of group 2 (28 vs. 10 years, P < 0.0001), presented a significantly less severe and less typical symptomatology. Against the whole virus they exhibited IgG of higher avidity (P < 0.001), a lower prevalence and titer of IgA (10 vs. 68%, P < 0.0001 and 278 vs. 5,009, P < 0.001, respectively). Values obtained for IgG 1, 2, and 3 were significantly different between the two groups. Prevalence and absorbance of nucleocapsid-directed IgG 3 were significantly lower in group 1 (27 vs. 46%, P < 0.01 and 0.444 vs. 0.869, P < 0.01, respectively). A significant discrepancy also allowed patients from group 1 to be distinguished from those of groups 3 and 4.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7714488

Gut, J P; Lablache, C; Behr, S; Kirn, A

1995-01-01

357

West Nile Virus Maps  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

One of the potential effects of global climate change is the spread of disease to new areas, as the vectors of those diseases (e.g., mosquitoes, birds) expand into new locations in response to shifting climate conditions. Although the direct cause of West Nile Virus (WNV) in the United States is not known, the National Atlas of the US Geological Survey (reviewed in the June 26, 1998 Scout Report) has recently launched this new resource on WNV distribution. First documented in the US during the summer of 1999 and previously limited to Africa, Eastern Europe, West Asia, and the Middle East, the West Nile Virus is of danger to humans as it interferes with "normal central nervous system functioning" and can cause encephalitis. This site describes WNV Surveillance Activity for the year 2000 and offers a series of maps highlighting the US distribution of WNV cases found in humans, wild birds, chickens, mosquitoes, and veterinary clinics. A series of links point to further information on the virus.

358

Reemergence of chikungunya virus.  

PubMed

Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-transmitted alphavirus that causes acute fever and acute and chronic musculoskeletal pain in humans. Since 2004, CHIKV has caused millions of cases of disease in the Indian Ocean region and has emerged in new areas, including Europe, the Middle East, and the Pacific region. The mosquito vectors for this virus are globally distributed in tropical and temperate zones, providing the opportunity for CHIKV to continue to expand into new geographic regions. In October 2013, locally acquired cases of CHIKV infection were identified on the Caribbean island of Saint Martin, signaling the arrival of the virus in the Western Hemisphere. In just 9 months, CHIKV has spread to 22 countries in the Caribbean and Central and South America, resulting in hundreds of thousands of cases. CHIKV disease can be highly debilitating, and large epidemics have severe economic consequences. Thus, there is an urgent need for continued research into the epidemiology, pathogenesis, prevention, and treatment of these infections. PMID:25078691

Morrison, Thomas E

2014-10-01

359

[Ebola virus disease].  

PubMed

Ebola virus disease is a zoonosis causing high mortality epidemics in both human and animal populations. The virus belongs to the Filoviride family. It is composed of a single-strand of RNA. Morbidity foci appear in sub-Saharan Africa. The most probable reservoir are fruit bats, which are local delicacy. The most common route of infection is via mucosa or damaged skin. The spread of disease is rapid due to dietary habits, funeral rites and the insufficient supply of disposable equipment in hospitals. The incubation period of the disease ranges from 2 to 21 days. The beginning is abrupt, dominated by influenza-like symptoms. The disease is staggering with the predominant multi-organ failure and shock. Present-day epidemic symptoms from digestive system in the form of vomiting and diarrhoea are dominant. Currently, the research on vaccine and experimental drug is in progress. The virus is damaged by standard disinfectants used in health care units. Epidemic, which broke out in February 2014, caused by the most dangerous type Zaire, is the greatest of the existing. Morbidity and mortality is underestimated due to numerous unreported cases. PMID:25763588

Karwowska, Kornelia

2015-01-01

360

Review: influenza virus in pigs.  

PubMed

Influenza virus disease still remains one of the major threats to human health, involving a wide range of animal species and pigs play an important role in influenza ecology. Pigs were labeled as "mixing vessels" since they are susceptible to infection with avian, human and swine influenza viruses and genetic reassortment between these viruses can occur. After the H1N1 influenza pandemic of 2009 with a swine origin virus, the most recent research in "influenzology" is directed at improving knowledge of porcine influenza virus infection. This tendency is probably due to the fact that domestic pigs are closely related to humans and represent an excellent animal model to study various microbial infectious diseases. In spite of the role of the pig in influenza virus ecology, swine immune responses against influenza viruses are not fully understood. Considering these premises, the aim of this review is to focus on the in vitro studies performed with porcine cells and influenza virus and on the immune responses of pigs against human, avian and swine influenza viruses in vivo. The increased acceptance of pigs as suitable and valuable models in the scientific community may stimulate the development of new tools to assess porcine immune responses, paving the way for their consideration as the future "gold standard" large-animal model in immunology. PMID:23523121

Crisci, Elisa; Mussá, Tufária; Fraile, Lorenzo; Montoya, Maria

2013-10-01

361

Selective advantage for conservative viruses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this article we study the full semiconservative treatment of a model for the coevolution of a virus and an adaptive immune system. Regions of viability are calculated for both conservatively and semiconservatively replicating viruses interacting with a realistic semiconservatively replicating immune system. The conservative virus is found to have a selective advantage in the form of an ability to survive in regions with a wider range of mutation rates than its semiconservative counterpart, as well as an increased replication rate where both species can survive. This may help explain the existence of a rich range of viruses with conservatively replicating genomes, a trait that is found nowhere else in nature.

Brumer, Yisroel; Shakhnovich, Eugene I.

2005-03-01

362

RECOVIR Software for Identifying Viruses  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Most single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) viruses mutate rapidly to generate a large number of strains with highly divergent capsid sequences. Determining the capsid residues or nucleotides that uniquely characterize these strains is critical in understanding the strain diversity of these viruses. RECOVIR (an acronym for "recognize viruses") software predicts the strains of some ssRNA viruses from their limited sequence data. Novel phylogenetic-tree-based databases of protein or nucleic acid residues that uniquely characterize these virus strains are created. Strains of input virus sequences (partial or complete) are predicted through residue-wise comparisons with the databases. RECOVIR uses unique characterizing residues to identify automatically strains of partial or complete capsid sequences of picorna and caliciviruses, two of the most highly diverse ssRNA virus families. Partition-wise comparisons of the database residues with the corresponding residues of more than 300 complete and partial sequences of these viruses resulted in correct strain identification for all of these sequences. This study shows the feasibility of creating databases of hitherto unknown residues uniquely characterizing the capsid sequences of two of the most highly divergent ssRNA virus families. These databases enable automated strain identification from partial or complete capsid sequences of these human and animal pathogens.

Chakravarty, Sugoto; Fox, George E.; Zhu, Dianhui

2013-01-01

363

Influenza viruses, 1957-60  

PubMed Central

During the period 1957-60 large numbers of influenza A viruses were received at the World Influenza Centre from countries throughout the world. With one exception all the strains were antigenically closely related to the A2 viruses isolated early in the Asian influenza epidemic, and strikingly different from the A1 strains of the previous decade. The A2 viruses were very uniform antigenically and in other in vitro characteristics such as insensitivity to the ?-inhibitor of agglutination. However, many of the strains, particularly during the early stages of the epidemic, showed a low avidity for antibody. At the same time as the influenza A viruses showed a large antigenic change the influenza B viruses showed a lesser antigenic change from earlier influenza B viruses. As with influenza A, the new influenza B viruses have replaced earlier B strains. In 1960 one strain of influenza virus A1 was recovered from a soldier in England. Evidence is presented that this could not be explained as a laboratory pick-up and the suggestion is put forward that this patient may have harboured virus in latent form for many years. PMID:20604108

Isaacs, Alick; Hart, R. J. C.; Law, V. G.

1962-01-01

364

Limits in virus filtration capability? Impact of virus quality and spike level on virus removal with xenotropic murine leukemia virus.  

PubMed

Virus filtration (VF) is a key step in an overall viral clearance process since it has been demonstrated to effectively clear a wide range of mammalian viruses with a log reduction value (LRV)?>?4. The potential to achieve higher LRV from virus retentive filters has historically been examined using bacteriophage surrogates, which commonly demonstrated a potential of?>?9 LRV when using high titer spikes (e.g. 10(10) PFU/mL). However, as the filter loading increases, one typically experiences significant decreases in performance and LRV. The 9 LRV value is markedly higher than the current expected range of 4-5 LRV when utilizing mammalian retroviruses on virus removal filters (Miesegaes et al., Dev Biol (Basel) 2010;133:3-101). Recent values have been reported in the literature (Stuckey et al., Biotech Progr 2014;30:79-85) of LRV in excess of 6 for PPV and XMuLV although this result appears to be atypical. LRV for VF with therapeutic proteins could be limited by several factors including process limits (flux decay, load matrix), virus spike level and the analytical methods used for virus detection (i.e. the Limits of Quantitation), as well as the virus spike quality. Research was conducted using the Xenotropic-Murine Leukemia Virus (XMuLV) for its direct relevance to the most commonly cited document, the International Conference of Harmonization (ICH) Q5A (International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use, Geneva, Switzerland, 1999) for viral safety evaluations. A unique aspect of this work is the independent evaluation of the impact of retrovirus quality and virus spike level on VF performance and LRV. The VF studies used XMuLV preparations purified by either ultracentrifugation (Ultra 1) or by chromatographic processes that yielded a more highly purified virus stock (Ultra 2). Two monoclonal antibodies (Mabs) with markedly different filtration characteristics and with similar levels of aggregate (<1.5%) were evaluated with the Ultra 1 and Ultra 2 virus preparations utilizing the Planova 20 N, a small virus removal filter. Impurities in the virus preparation ultimately limited filter loading as measured by determining the volumetric loading condition where 75% flux decay is observed versus initial conditions (V75 ). This observation occurred with both Mabs with the difference in virus purity more pronounced when very high spike levels were used (>5 vol/vol %). Significant differences were seen for the process performance over a number of lots of the less-pure Ultra 1 virus preparations. Experiments utilizing a developmental lot of the chromatographic purified XMuLV (Ultra 2 Development lot) that had elevated levels of host cell residuals (vs. the final Ultra 2 preparations) suggest that these contaminant residuals can impact virus filter fouling, even if the virus prep is essentially monodisperse. Process studies utilizing an Ultra 2 virus with substantially less host cell residuals and highly monodispersed virus particles demonstrated superior performance and an LRV in excess of 7.7 log10 . A model was constructed demonstrating the linear dependence of filtration flux versus filter loading which can be used to predict the V75 for a range of virus spike levels conditions using this highly purified virus. Fine tuning the virus spike level with this model can ultimately maximize the LRV for the virus filter step, essentially adding the LRV equivalent of another process step (i.e. protein A or CEX chromatography). © 2014 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 31:135-144, 2015. PMID:25395156

Roush, David J; Myrold, Adam; Burnham, Michael S; And, Joseph V; Hughes, Joseph V

2015-01-01

365

McAfee's Virus Information Library  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

McAfee, the well-known anti-virus software company, offers this free library, containing information on over 40,000 known PC viruses. Virus details include their source, how they infect your computer, and how to remove them. Users can search for viruses by keyword or browse by category. The site also lists new viruses, the year's top ten, and hoax viruses. Although in most cases the instructions for virus removal include the use of a McAfee product, the site is still an excellent source of virus information.

366

Computer virus information update CIAC-2301  

SciTech Connect

While CIAC periodically issues bulletins about specific computer viruses, these bulletins do not cover all the computer viruses that affect desktop computers. The purpose of this document is to identify most of the known viruses for the MS-DOS and Macintosh platforms and give an overview of the effects of each virus. The authors also include information on some windows, Atari, and Amiga viruses. This document is revised periodically as new virus information becomes available. This document replaces all earlier versions of the CIAC Computer virus Information Update. The date on the front cover indicates date on which the information in this document was extracted from CIAC`s Virus database.

Orvis, W.J.

1994-01-15

367

Tomato chlorosis virus and Tomato infectious chlorosis virus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This presentation will help consultants, growers, and other practitioners in the Southern and Western Regions of the US, as well as Mexico and the Caribbean identify and manage Tomato infectious chlorosis virus (TICV) and Tomato chlorosis virus (ToCV) in tomato. Information will directly benefit cr...

368

DETECTION OF RETICULOENDOTHELIOSIS VIRUS IN LIVE VIRUS VACCINES OF POULTRY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In vitro and in vivo assays have been used for detection of reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) in live virus vaccines of poultry. The presence of REV is confirmed by the demonstration of viral antigen or provirus in chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEFs) or in specific-pathogen-free chickens inoculated wi...

369

Parainfluenza virus 5 expressing the g protein of rabies virus protects mice after rabies virus infection.  

PubMed

Rabies remains a major public health threat around the world. Once symptoms appear, there is no effective treatment to prevent death. In this work, we tested a recombinant parainfluenza virus 5 (PIV5) strain expressing the glycoprotein (G) of rabies (PIV5-G) as a therapy for rabies virus infection: we have found that PIV5-G protected mice as late as 6 days after rabies virus infection. PIV5-G is a promising vaccine for prevention and treatment of rabies virus infection. PMID:25552723

Huang, Ying; Chen, Zhenhai; Huang, Junhua; Fu, ZhenFang; He, Biao

2015-03-15

370

Prevalence and Transmission of Honeybee Viruses  

PubMed Central

Transmission mechanisms of six honeybee viruses, including acute bee paralysis virus (ABPV), black queen cell virus (BQCV), chronic bee paralysis virus (CBPV), deformed wing virus (DWV), Kashmir bee virus (KBV), and sacbrood bee virus (SBV), in honey bee colonies were investigated by reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) methods. The virus status of individual queens was evaluated by examining the presence of viruses in the queens' feces and tissues, including hemolymph, gut, ovaries, spermatheca, head, and eviscerated body. Except for head tissue, all five tissues as well as queen feces were found to be positive for virus infections. When queens in bee colonies were identified as positive for BQCV, DWV, CBPV, KBV, and SBV, the same viruses were detected in their offspring, including eggs, larvae, and adult workers. On the other hand, when queens were found positive for only two viruses, BQCV and DWV, only these two viruses were detected in their offspring. The presence of viruses in the tissue of ovaries and the detection of the same viruses in queens' eggs and young larvae suggest vertical transmission of viruses from queens to offspring. To our knowledge, this is the first evidence of vertical transmission of viruses in honeybee colonies. PMID:16391097

Chen, Y. P.; Pettis, J. S.; Collins, A.; Feldlaufer, M. F.

2006-01-01

371

Human viruses: discovery and emergence  

PubMed Central

There are 219 virus species that are known to be able to infect humans. The first of these to be discovered was yellow fever virus in 1901, and three to four new species are still being found every year. Extrapolation of the discovery curve suggests that there is still a substantial pool of undiscovered human virus species, although an apparent slow-down in the rate of discovery of species from different families may indicate bounds to the potential range of diversity. More than two-thirds of human viruses can also infect non-human hosts, mainly mammals, and sometimes birds. Many specialist human viruses also have mammalian or avian origins. Indeed, a substantial proportion of mammalian viruses may be capable of crossing the species barrier into humans, although only around half of these are capable of being transmitted by humans and around half again of transmitting well enough to cause major outbreaks. A few possible predictors of species jumps can be identified, including the use of phylogenetically conserved cell receptors. It seems almost inevitable that new human viruses will continue to emerge, mainly from other mammals and birds, for the foreseeable future. For this reason, an effective global surveillance system for novel viruses is needed. PMID:22966141

Woolhouse, Mark; Scott, Fiona; Hudson, Zoe; Howey, Richard; Chase-Topping, Margo

2012-01-01

372

[Virus transmission in drinking water].  

PubMed

Several epidemiological data confirm the presence of enteric viruses in drinking water. The present paper deals with several problems tied to the virological analysis, such as the concentration of the samples, the isolation and the identification of enteric viruses. PMID:14677255

Divizia, M; Gabrieli, R; Macaluso, A; el Ouardi, A

2003-01-01

373

Arenaviruses other than Lassa virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The family Arenaviridae includes 23 viral species, of which 5 can cause viral hemorrhagic fevers with a case fatality rate of about 20%. These five viruses are Junin, Machupo, Guanarito, Sabia and Lassa virus, the manipulation of which requires biosafety level 4 facilities. They are included in the Category A Pathogen List established by the Center for Disease Control and

Rémi N Charrel; Xavier de Lamballerie

2003-01-01

374

Tomato ringspot virus in Rubus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Tomato ringspot virus (ToRSV) is the most widespread and important of the nematode-transmitted viruses affecting cultivated Rubus in North and South America but is not known to occur outside of the Western Hemisphere. A recent report from Turkey on ToRSV in blackberry in borders of stone fruit orcha...

375

TOTAL CULTURABLE VIRUS QUANTAL ASSAY  

EPA Science Inventory

This chapter describes a quantal method for assaying culturable human enteric viruses from water matrices. The assay differs from the plaque assay described in Chapter 10 (December 1987 Revision) in that it is based upon the direct microscopic viewing of cells for virus-induced ...

376

RNA viruses as virotherapy agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

RNA viruses are rapidly emerging as extraordinarily promising agents for oncolytic virotherapy. Integral to the lifecycles of all RNA viruses is the formation of double-stranded RNA, which activates a spectrum of cellular defense mechanisms including the activation of PKR and the release of interferon. Tumors are frequently defective in their PKR signaling and interferon response pathways, and therefore provide a

Stephen J Russell

2002-01-01

377

Virioplankton: Viruses in Aquatic Ecosystems†  

PubMed Central

The discovery that viruses may be the most abundant organisms in natural waters, surpassing the number of bacteria by an order of magnitude, has inspired a resurgence of interest in viruses in the aquatic environment. Surprisingly little was known of the interaction of viruses and their hosts in nature. In the decade since the reports of extraordinarily large virus populations were published, enumeration of viruses in aquatic environments has demonstrated that the virioplankton are dynamic components of the plankton, changing dramatically in number with geographical location and season. The evidence to date suggests that virioplankton communities are composed principally of bacteriophages and, to a lesser extent, eukaryotic algal viruses. The influence of viral infection and lysis on bacterial and phytoplankton host communities was measurable after new methods were developed and prior knowledge of bacteriophage biology was incorporated into concepts of parasite and host community interactions. The new methods have yielded data showing that viral infection can have a significant impact on bacteria and unicellular algae populations and supporting the hypothesis that viruses play a significant role in microbial food webs. Besides predation limiting bacteria and phytoplankton populations, the specific nature of virus-host interaction raises the intriguing possibility that viral infection influences the structure and diversity of aquatic microbial communities. Novel applications of molecular genetic techniques have provided good evidence that viral infection can significantly influence the composition and diversity of aquatic microbial communities. PMID:10704475

Wommack, K. Eric; Colwell, Rita R.

2000-01-01

378

Groundnut Ringspot Virus in Florida  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Tospoviruses in vegetable crops are difficult to manage due to a shortage of basic information about the viruses and their vectors. This is especially true for the recently detected Groundnut ringspot virus (GRSV). This publication presents all current knowledge of GRSV in Florida....

379

Oropouche Virus Isolation, Southeast Brazil  

PubMed Central

An Oropouche virus strain was isolated from a novel host (Callithrix sp.) in Arinos, Minas Gerais State, southeastern Brazil. The virus was identified by complement fixation test and confirmed by reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction. Phylogenetic analysis identified this strain as a genotype III isolate previously recognized only in Panama. PMID:16318707

Martins, Lívia Carício; Rodrigues, Sueli Guerreiro; Chiang, Jannifer Oliveira; Azevedo, Raimunda do Socorro da Silva; Travassos da Rosa, Amelia P.A.; Vasconcelos, Pedro Fernando da Costa

2005-01-01

380

Defining Life: The Virus Viewpoint  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Are viruses alive? Until very recently, answering this question was often negative and viruses were not considered in discussions on the origin and definition of life. This situation is rapidly changing, following several discoveries that have modified our vision of viruses. It has been recognized that viruses have played (and still play) a major innovative role in the evolution of cellular organisms. New definitions of viruses have been proposed and their position in the universal tree of life is actively discussed. Viruses are no more confused with their virions, but can be viewed as complex living entities that transform the infected cell into a novel organism—the virus—producing virions. I suggest here to define life (an historical process) as the mode of existence of ribosome encoding organisms (cells) and capsid encoding organisms (viruses) and their ancestors. I propose to define an organism as an ensemble of integrated organs (molecular or cellular) producing individuals evolving through natural selection. The origin of life on our planet would correspond to the establishment of the first organism corresponding to this definition.

Forterre, Patrick

2010-04-01

381

Swine Influenza Virus: Emerging Understandings  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Introduction: In March-April 2009, a novel pandemic H1N1 emerged in the human population in North America [1]. The gene constellation of the emerging virus was demonstrated to be a combination of genes from swine influenza A viruses (SIV) of North American and Eurasian lineages that had never before...

382

West Nile Virus and Wildlife  

Microsoft Academic Search

West Nile virus (WNV) has spread rapidly across North America, resulting in human deaths and in the deaths of untold numbers of birds, mammals, and reptiles. The virus has reached Central America and the Caribbean and may spread to Hawaii and South America. Although tens of thousands of birds have died, and studies of some bird species show local declines,

Peter P. Marra; Sean Griffing; Carolee Caffrey; A. Marm Kilpatrick; Robert McLean; Christopher Brand; Emi Saito; Alan P. Dupuis; Laura Kramer; Robert Novak

2004-01-01

383

Computer viruses: a quantitative analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides interesting insights for anti-virus research, as it reflects a period of rapid uptake in the application of the Internet and the use of e-mail for business purposes. The purpose of the research is to provide independent justification of the growing prevalence of computer virus incidents over the past five years, and identify patterns in the frequency and

A. Coulthard; T. A. Vuori

2002-01-01

384

Mathematical models on computer viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

An attempt has been made to develop mathematical models on computer viruses infecting the system under different conditions. Mathematical model 1 discusses the situation to find the probability that at any time t how many software components are infected by virus, assuming the recovery rate and proportion of un-infected population receiving infection per unit time does not change with time.

Bimal Kumar Mishra; Dinesh Saini

2007-01-01

385

Dynamic models for computer viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computer viruses are an important risk to computational systems endangering either corporations of all sizes or personal computers used for domestic applications. Here, classical epidemiological models for disease propagation are adapted to computer networks and, by using simple systems identification techniques a model called SAIC (Susceptible, Antidotal, Infectious, Contaminated) is developed. Real data about computer viruses are used to validate

Jose R. C. Piqueira; Adolfo A. De Vasconcelos; Carlos E. C. J. Gabriel; Vanessa O. Araujo

2008-01-01

386

Computer Viruses as Artificial Life  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been considerable interest in computer viruses since they first appeared in 1981, and especially in the past few years as they have reached epidemic numbers in many per- sonal computer environments. Viruses have been written about as a security problem, as a social problem, and as a possible means of performing useful tasks in a distributed computing environment.

Eugene H. Spafford

1994-01-01

387

INTERACTIONS OF VIRUS AND HOST  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is an ubiquitous pathogen of ruminants, found worldwide that is often associated with severe economic losses. Understanding these viruses, particularly at the cellular and molecular levels, is important to develop new vaccination and treatment strategies for produc...

388

Human polyomavirus JC virus genome.  

PubMed Central

The complete DNA sequence of the human JC virus, which was found to consist of 5,130 nucleotide pairs, is presented. The amino acid sequence of six proteins could be deduced: the early, nonstructural proteins, large T and small t antigens; the late capsid proteins, VP1, VP2, and VP3; and the agnogene product encoded within the late leader sequence, called the agnoprotein in simian virus 40. The extent of homology between JC virus DNA and the genomes of simian virus 40 (69%) and BK virus (75%) confirmed the close evolutionary relationship of these three polyomaviruses. The sequences showing the greatest divergence in these viral DNAs occurred within the tandem repeats located to the late side of the replication origins. PMID:6086957

Frisque, R J; Bream, G L; Cannella, M T

1984-01-01

389

Herpes viruses hedge their bets.  

PubMed

Static latency is the hallmark of all herpes viruses. The varicella zoster virus, for instance, causes varicella (chickenpox), and after a latent phase of between 5 and 40 years, it can give rise to herpes zoster (shingles). This latency and the subsequent reactivation has intrigued and puzzled virologists. Although several factors have been suggested, it is unknown what triggers reactivation. However, latency can be explained with a simple evolutionary model. Here, we demonstrate that a simple, yet efficient, bet-hedging strategy might have evolved in a number of viruses, especially those belonging to the herpes virus family and most importantly in varicella zoster virus. We show that the evolution of latency can be explained by the population dynamics of infectious diseases in fluctuating host populations. PMID:12409612

Stumpf, Michael P H; Laidlaw, Zoe; Jansen, Vincent A A

2002-11-12

390

New aspects of influenza viruses.  

PubMed Central

Influenza virus infections continue to cause substantial morbidity and mortality with a worldwide social and economic impact. The past five years have seen dramatic advances in our understanding of viral replication, evolution, and antigenic variation. Genetic analyses have clarified relationships between human and animal influenza virus strains, demonstrating the potential for the appearance of new pandemic reassortants as hemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes are exchanged in an intermediate host. Clinical trials of candidate live attenuated influenza virus vaccines have shown the cold-adapted reassortants to be a promising alternative to the currently available inactivated virus preparations. Modern molecular techniques have allowed serious consideration of new approaches to the development of antiviral agents and vaccines as the functions of the viral genes and proteins are further elucidated. The development of techniques whereby the genes of influenza viruses can be specifically altered to investigate those functions will undoubtedly accelerate the pace at which our knowledge expands. PMID:1310439

Shaw, M W; Arden, N H; Maassab, H F

1992-01-01

391

Marine Viruses: Truth or Dare  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past two decades, marine virology has progressed from a curiosity to an intensely studied topic of critical importance to oceanography. At concentrations of approximately 10 million viruses per milliliter of surface seawater, viruses are the most abundant biological entities in the oceans. The majority of these viruses are phages (viruses that infect bacteria). Through lysing their bacterial hosts, marine phages control bacterial abundance, affect community composition, and impact global biogeochemical cycles. In addition, phages influence their hosts through selection for resistance, horizontal gene transfer, and manipulation of bacterial metabolism. Recent work has also demonstrated that marine phages are extremely diverse and can carry a variety of auxiliary metabolic genes encoding critical ecological functions. This review is structured as a scientific "truth or dare," revealing several well-established "truths" about marine viruses and presenting a few "dares" for the research community to undertake in future studies.

Breitbart, Mya

2012-01-01

392

Unleash your Idea Virus  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In his book, Unleashing the Idea Virus, Godin explores the concept of "ideaviruses," or those ideas or trends that seem spread entirely by word of mouth. New ideas are driving the New Economy, and those "ideas that spread the fastest win." Godin predicts that word of mouth, which is faster, easier to launch, and more effective than traditional marketing strategies, will soon become the preferred way to market new ideas and brand products. Fast Company features an article by Godin, summarizing the ideavirus concept.

Godin, Seth.

2000-01-01

393

IInoculate your computer with Symantec AntiVirus, for free! Welchia virus? Blaster  

E-print Network

IInoculate your computer with Symantec AntiVirus, for free! Welchia virus? Blaster virus? PC all locked up? Ever run into these? Help is on the way. NC State has licensed Symantec AntiVirus and NC State students, faculty and staff can get a free copy. Computer viruses on campus are no laughing matter. Last

394

Complete Genome Sequence of Le Blanc Virus, a Third Caenorhabditis Nematode-Infecting Virus  

E-print Network

Complete Genome Sequence of Le Blanc Virus, a Third Caenorhabditis Nematode-Infecting Virus Carl J,a and Institute of Biology of the Ecole Normale Supérieure (IBENS), Paris, Franceb Orsay virus and Santeuil virus, the first known viruses capable of naturally infecting the nematodes Caenorhabditis elegans

Wang, David

395

Comportement de deux virus filamenteux (Carnation Vein Mottle Virus, Carnation Streak  

E-print Network

Comportement de deux virus filamenteux (Carnation Vein Mottle Virus, Carnation Streak Virus) dans Botanique et de Pathologie végétale, Villa Thuret, B.P. 78, 06602 Antibes Cedex. R�SUM� Virus filamenteux, Dosage, Spectrophotométrie, OEillet. L'évolution de la teneur en virus de la Marbrure des Nervures de l

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

396

Immunobiologic heterotypic activity associated with viral and soluble components of bovine virus diarrhea virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The V and S antigens of bovine virus diarrhea (BVD) virus were studied by pig inoculation experiments to determine the basis for the bovine virus diarrheahog cholera heterotypic relationship. BVD virus infected tissue cultures were harvested and separated by ultracentrifugation and ultrafiltration. V antigen was prepared by Tween-ether-urea inactivation of virus. S antigen was quantitated in filtration samples and

F. J. Volenec; B. E. Sheffy; J. A. Baker

1972-01-01

397

Live-attenuated influenza A virus vaccines using a B virus backbone  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The currently FDA-licensed live attenuated influenza virus vaccine contains a trivalent mixture of types A (H1N1 and H3N2) and B vaccine viruses. The two A virus vaccines have the backbone of a cold-adapted influenza A virus and the B virus vaccine has the six backbone segments derived from a cold-...

398

Genome Sequence of Bivens Arm Virus, a Tibrovirus Belonging to the Species Tibrogargan virus (Mononegavirales: Rhabdoviridae)  

PubMed Central

The new rhabdoviral genus Tibrovirus currently has two members, Coastal Plains virus and Tibrogargan virus. Here, we report the coding-complete genome sequence of a putative member of this genus, Bivens Arm virus. A genomic comparison reveals Bivens Arm virus to be closely related to, but distinct from, Tibrogargan virus. PMID:25792044

Hensley, Lisa E.

2015-01-01

399

Comparison of Immunohistochemistry and Virus Isolation for Diagnosis of West Nile Virus  

PubMed Central

Immunohistochemistry and virus isolation were performed on 1,057 birds. Immunohistochemistry, virus isolation, or both found 325 birds to be West Nile virus positive. Of these, 271 were positive by both methods. These results indicate that virus isolation and immunohistochemistry are approximately equal in their ability to detect West Nile virus. PMID:15956415

Ellis, Angela E.; Mead, Daniel G.; Allison, Andrew B.; Gibbs, Samantha E. J.; Gottdenker, Nicole L.; Stallknecht, David E.; Howerth, Elizabeth W.

2005-01-01

400

Safe Computing: An Overview of Viruses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A computer virus is a program that replicates itself, in conjunction with an additional program that can harm a computer system. Common viruses include boot-sector, macro, companion, overwriting, and multipartite. Viruses can be fast, slow, stealthy, and polymorphic. Anti-virus products are described. (MLH)

Wodarz, Nan

2001-01-01

401

Virus Evolution: Insights from an Experimental  

E-print Network

Virus Evolution: Insights from an Experimental Approach Santiago F. Elena and Rafael Sanju Viruses represent a serious problem faced by human and veterinary medicine and agronomy. New viruses indicates that the evolution of viruses is determined mainly by key features such as their small genomes

Elena, Santiago F.

402

Virus Versus Mankind Aviezri S. Fraenkel  

E-print Network

Virus Versus Mankind Aviezri S. Fraenkel Department of Computer Science and Applied Mathematics://www.wisdom.weizmann.ac.il/~fraenkel Humanity is but a passing episode in the eternal life of the virus Abstract. We define a two­player virus game played on a finite cyclic digraph G = (V; E). Each vertex is either occupied by a single virus

Fraenkel, Aviezri

403

Experimental evolution of plant RNA viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Undoubtedly, viruses represent a major threat faced by human and veterinary medicines and by agronomy. The rapid evolution of viruses enables them to escape from natural immunities and from state-of-the-art antiviral treatments, with new viruses periodically emerging with deadly consequences. Viruses have also become powerful and are increasingly used tools in the field of experimental evolution. A growing body of

S F Elena; P Agudelo-Romero; P Carrasco; F M Codoñer; S Martín; C Torres-Barceló; R Sanjuán

2008-01-01

404

Original article Virus association with lymphocytes  

E-print Network

Original article Virus association with lymphocytes in acute African swine fever L Carrasco F with a highly virulent African swine fever (ASF) virus isolate (Malawi' 83), and the adhesion of the lymphocytes to macrophages containing the virus replication sites. Virus replication in lymph-node medullar tissue

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

405

Cellular Factors Required for Lassa Virus Budding  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is known that Lassa virus Z protein is sufficient for the release of virus-like particles (VLPs) and that it has two L domains, PTAP and PPPY, in its C terminus. However, little is known about the cellular factor for Lassa virus budding. We examined which cellular factors are used in Lassa virus Z budding. We demonstrated that Lassa Z

S. Urata; T. Noda; Yoshihiro Kawaoka; Hideyoshi Yokosawa; Jiro Yasuda

2006-01-01

406

Label-Free Chemiresistive Immunosensors for Viruses  

E-print Network

Label-Free Chemiresistive Immunosensors for Viruses D H A M M A N A N D J . S H I R A L E , M A N of viruses. Bacteriophages T7 and MS2 were used as safe models for viruses for demonstration. Ppy nanowires, and affordable detection of bioagents/pathogens. Introduction Detection of viruses is central to human health

Chen, Wilfred

407

Biologically Inspired Defenses Against Computer Viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today's anti-virus technology, based largely on analysis of existing viruses by human experts, is just barely able to keep pace with the more than three new computer viruses that are writ­ ten daily. In a few years, intelligent agents nav­ igating through highly connected networks are likely to form an extremely fertile medium for a new breed of viruses. At

Jeffrey O. Kephart; Gregory B. Sorkin; William C. Arnold; David M. Chess; Gerald Tesauro; Steve R. White

1995-01-01

408

Modeling Computer Viruses MSc Thesis (Afstudeerscriptie)  

E-print Network

Modeling Computer Viruses MSc Thesis (Afstudeerscriptie) written by Luite Menno Pieter van Zelst About half a year ago, Alban Ponse, my thesis supervisor, suggested that the topic of `computer viruses indus- try and the creators of computer viruses. After all, the anti-virus industry stands to lose a lot

Amsterdam, University of

409

Ebola virus antibodies in fruit bats, bangladesh.  

PubMed

To determine geographic range for Ebola virus, we tested 276 bats in Bangladesh. Five (3.5%) bats were positive for antibodies against Ebola Zaire and Reston viruses; no virus was detected by PCR. These bats might be a reservoir for Ebola or Ebola-like viruses, and extend the range of filoviruses to mainland Asia. PMID:23343532

Olival, Kevin J; Islam, Ariful; Yu, Meng; Anthony, Simon J; Epstein, Jonathan H; Khan, Shahneaz Ali; Khan, Salah Uddin; Crameri, Gary; Wang, Lin-Fa; Lipkin, W Ian; Luby, Stephen P; Daszak, Peter

2013-02-01

410

Hepatitis E Virus Infection  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is a worldwide disease. An improved understanding of the natural history of HEV infection has been achieved within the last decade. Several reservoirs and transmission modes have been identified. Hepatitis E is an underdiagnosed disease, in part due to the use of serological assays with low sensitivity. However, diagnostic tools, including nucleic acid-based tests, have been improved. The epidemiology and clinical features of hepatitis E differ between developing and developed countries. HEV infection is usually an acute self-limiting disease, but in developed countries it causes chronic infection with rapidly progressive cirrhosis in organ transplant recipients, patients with hematological malignancy requiring chemotherapy, and individuals with HIV. HEV also causes extrahepatic manifestations, including a number of neurological syndromes and renal injury. Acute infection usually requires no treatment, but chronic infection should be treated by reducing immunosuppression in transplant patients and/or the use of antiviral therapy. In this comprehensive review, we summarize the current knowledge about the virus itself, as well as the epidemiology, diagnostics, natural history, and management of HEV infection in developing and developed countries. PMID:24396139

Dalton, Harry R.; Abravanel, Florence; Izopet, Jacques

2014-01-01

411

Transmitting Plant Viruses Using Whiteflies  

PubMed Central

Whiteflies, Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae, Bemisia tabaci, a complex of morphologically indistinquishable species5, are vectors of many plant viruses. Several genera of these whitefly-transmitted plant viruses (Begomovirus, Carlavirus, Crinivirus, Ipomovirus, Torradovirus) include several hundred species of emerging and economically significant pathogens of important food and fiber crops (reviewed by9,10,16). These viruses do not replicate in their vector but nevertheless are moved readily from plant to plant by the adult whitefly by various means (reviewed by2,6,7,9,10,11,17). For most of these viruses whitefly feeding is required for acquisition and inoculation, while for others only probing is required. Many of these viruses are unable or cannot be easily transmitted by other means. Therefore maintenance of virus cultures, biological and molecular characterization (identification of host range and symptoms)3,13, ecology2,12, require that the viruses be transmitted to experimental hosts using the whitefly vector. In addition the development of new approaches to management, such as evaluation of new chemicals14 or compounds15, new cultural approaches1,4,19, or the selection and development of resistant cultivars7,8,18, requires the use of whiteflies for virus transmission. The use of whitefly transmission of plant viruses for the selection and development of resistant cultivars in breeding programs is particularly challenging7. Effective selection and screening for resistance employs large numbers of plants and there is a need for 100% of the plants to be inoculated in order to find the few genotypes which possess resistance genes. These studies use very large numbers of viruliferous whiteflies, often several times per year. Whitefly maintenance described here can generate hundreds or thousands of adult whiteflies on plants each week, year round, without the contamination of other plant viruses. Plants free of both whiteflies and virus must be produced to introduce into the whitefly colony each week. Whitefly cultures must be kept free of whitefly pathogens, parasites, and parasitoids that can reduce whitefly populations and/or reduce the transmission efficiency of the virus. Colonies produced in the manner described can be quickly scaled to increase or decrease population numbers as needed, and can be adjusted to accommodate the feeding preferences of the whitefly based on the plant host of the virus. There are two basic types of whitefly colonies that can be maintained: a nonviruliferous and a viruliferous whitefly colony. The nonviruliferous colony is composed of whiteflies reared on virus-free plants and allows the weekly availability of whiteflies which can be used to transmit viruses from different cultures. The viruliferous whitefly colony, composed of whiteflies reared on virus-infected plants, allows weekly availability of whiteflies which have acquired the virus thus omitting one step in the virus transmission process. PMID:24300175

Polston, Jane E.; Capobianco, H.

2013-01-01

412

Multiple sclerosis: autoimmunity and viruses  

PubMed Central

Purpose of review This review will explore two new aspects of the involvement of viruses in multiple sclerosis pathogenesis. The first aspect is the complex interactions between viruses. The second aspect is the proposal of a mechanism by which autoreactive T cells are able to escape thymic selection and potentially recognize self and a pathogen. Recent findings With regard to viruses, recent work has demonstrated that one virus may enhance the replication of another virus, potentially leading to an increase in inflammation and disease progression. Also, interactions between human endogenous retroviruses, which likely do not replicate, and certain herpes viruses, may also play a role in disease pathogenesis. Mechanistically, T cells expressing dual T-cell receptors would be able to recognize self and a foreign antigen specifically. Therefore, human endogenous retroviruses potentially play a role in multiple sclerosis pathogenesis, and both interactions between multiple viruses and autoreactive CD8+ T cells with dual T-cell receptors may play a role in the pathogenesis of the disease. Summary The complex interactions between multiple viral infections, either within the central nervous system or in the periphery, and the host immune response to viral infection may be such that a variety of viral specificities result in the activation of T cells that recognize self and induce multiple sclerosis. Therefore, it is unlikely that any one microbe will be determined to be the causative agent of multiple sclerosis as reflected by the number of potential triggering mechanisms of the disease. PMID:23656710

Cusick, Matthew F.; Libbey, Jane E.; Fujinami, Robert S.

2015-01-01

413

21 CFR 866.3360 - Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus serological reagents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus serological reagents. 866.3360 Section...866.3360 Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus serological reagents are devices...

2013-04-01

414

21 CFR 866.3360 - Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus serological reagents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus serological reagents. 866.3360 Section...866.3360 Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus serological reagents are devices...

2011-04-01

415

21 CFR 866.3360 - Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus serological reagents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... false Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus serological reagents. 866.3360 Section...866.3360 Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus serological reagents are devices...

2014-04-01

416

21 CFR 866.3240 - Equine encephalomyelitis virus serological reagents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 false Equine encephalomyelitis virus serological reagents. 866.3240...866.3240 Equine encephalomyelitis virus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Equine encephalomyelitis virus serological reagents are...

2014-04-01

417

21 CFR 866.3240 - Equine encephalomyelitis virus serological reagents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Equine encephalomyelitis virus serological reagents. 866.3240...866.3240 Equine encephalomyelitis virus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Equine encephalomyelitis virus serological reagents are...

2011-04-01

418

21 CFR 866.3360 - Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus serological reagents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus serological reagents. 866.3360 Section...866.3360 Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus serological reagents are devices...

2012-04-01

419

21 CFR 866.3240 - Equine encephalomyelitis virus serological reagents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Equine encephalomyelitis virus serological reagents. 866.3240...866.3240 Equine encephalomyelitis virus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Equine encephalomyelitis virus serological reagents are...

2013-04-01

420

21 CFR 866.3240 - Equine encephalomyelitis virus serological reagents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Equine encephalomyelitis virus serological reagents. 866.3240...866.3240 Equine encephalomyelitis virus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Equine encephalomyelitis virus serological reagents are...

2012-04-01

421

The genesis of a pandemic influenza virus.  

PubMed

Pandemic influenza viruses pose a significant threat to public health worldwide. In a recent Nature paper, Taubenberger et al. (2005) now report remarkable similarities between the polymerase genes of the influenza virus that caused the 1918 Spanish influenza pandemic and those of avian influenza viruses. Meanwhile, Tumpey et al. (2005) reporting in Science show that the reconstructed 1918 Spanish influenza virus kills mice faster than any other influenza virus so far tested. PMID:16269328

Russell, Charles J; Webster, Robert G

2005-11-01

422

Modelling the evolution of the influenza virus  

E-print Network

CamGrid: High Throughput Computing in Science dfb21@cam.ac.uk Dr David Burke Antigenic Cartography Group Department of Zoology University of Cambridge 25th June 2008 Modelling the evolution of the influenza virus Antigenic variation of viruses... Antigenically Stable Pathogens Antigenically Variable Pathogens Smallpox Measles Tuberculosis Mumps Tetanus Influenza Virus Malaria HIV Dengue The Influenza Virus Annually, 'flu infects 7-14% of the population (400-800 million people globally ) Virus...

Burke, David

2008-06-27

423

Why do RNA viruses recombine?  

PubMed Central

Recombination occurs in many RNA viruses and can be of major evolutionary significance. However, rates of recombination vary dramatically among RNA viruses, which can range from clonal to highly recombinogenic. Here, we review the factors that might explain this variation in recombination frequency and show that there is little evidence that recombination is favoured by natural selection to create advantageous genotypes or purge deleterious mutations, as predicted if recombination functions as a form of sexual reproduction. Rather, recombination rates seemingly reflect larger-scale patterns of viral genome organization, such that recombination may be a mechanistic by-product of the evolutionary pressures acting on other aspects of virus biology. PMID:21725337

Simon-Loriere, Etienne; Holmes, Edward C.

2012-01-01

424

METHODOLOGY Open Access Virus replicon particle based Chikungunya virus  

E-print Network

the efficacy of potential vaccines. As CHIKV is a BSL3 agent, neutralization assays with infectious virus need outbreaks causing fever, headache, rash and severe arthralgia. So far, no specific treatment or vaccine

Boyer, Edmond

425

Xenotropic Murine Leukemia Virus-related Virus (XMRV) Backgrounder  

Cancer.gov

Researchers have not found evidence that XMRV causes any diseases in humans or in animals. The presence of an infectious agent, such as a virus, in diseased tissue does not mean that the agent causes the disease.

426

Rice Yellow Mottle Virus, an RNA Plant Virus, Evolves as Rapidly as Most RNA Animal Viruses? †  

PubMed Central

The rate of evolution of an RNA plant virus has never been estimated using temporally spaced sequence data, by contrast to the information available on an increasing range of animal viruses. Accordingly, the evolution rate of Rice yellow mottle virus (RYMV) was calculated from sequences of the coat protein gene of isolates collected from rice over a 40-year period in different parts of Africa. The evolution rate of RYMV was estimated by pairwise distance linear regression on five phylogeographically defined groups comprising a total of 135 isolates. It was further assessed from 253 isolates collected all over Africa by Bayesian coalescent methods under strict and relaxed molecular clock models and under constant size and skyline population genetic models. Consistent estimates of the evolution rate between 4 × 10?4 and 8 × 10?4 nucleotides (nt)/site/year were obtained whatever method and model were applied. The synonymous evolution rate was between 8 × 10?4 and 11 × 10?4 nt/site/year. The overall and synonymous evolution rates of RYMV were within the range of the rates of 50 RNA animal viruses, below the average but above the distribution median. Experimentally, in host change studies, substitutions accumulated at an even higher rate. The results show that an RNA plant virus such as RYMV evolves as rapidly as most RNA animal viruses. Knowledge of the molecular clock of plant viruses provides methods for testing a wide range of biological hypotheses. PMID:18199644

Fargette, D.; Pinel, A.; Rakotomalala, M.; Sangu, E.; Traoré, O.; Sérémé, D.; Sorho, F.; Issaka, S.; Hébrard, E.; Séré, Y.; Kanyeka, Z.; Konaté, G.

2008-01-01

427

Human immunodeficiency virus endocrinopathy  

PubMed Central

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) endocrinopathy encompasses a broad spectrum of disorders. Almost all the endocrine organs are virtually affected by HIV infection. HIV can directly alter glandular function. More commonly secondary endocrine dysfunction occurs due to opportunistic infections and neoplasms in immunocompromised state. The complex interaction between HIV infection and endocrine system may be manifested as subtle biochemical and hormonal perturbation to overt glandular failure. Antiretroviral therapy as well as other essential medications often result in adverse endocrinal consequences. Apart from adrenal insufficiency, hypogonadism, diabetes and bone loss, AIDS wasting syndrome and HIV lipodystrophy need special reference. Endocrinal evaluation should proceed as in other patients with suspected endocrine dysfunction. Available treatment options have been shown to improve quality of life and long-term mortality in AIDS patients. PMID:22028995

Sinha, Uma; Sengupta, Nilanjan; Mukhopadhyay, Prasanta; Roy, Keshab Sinha

2011-01-01

428

West Nile virus meningoencephalitis  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Since its first appearance in the US in 1999, West Nile virus (WNV) has emerged as the most common cause of epidemic meningoencephalitis in North America. In the 6 years following the 1999 outbreak, the geographic range and burden of the disease in birds, mosquitoes and humans has greatly expanded to include the 48 contiguous US and 7 Canadian provinces, as well as Mexico, the Caribbean islands and Colombia. WNV has shown an increasing propensity for neuroinvasive disease over the past decade, with varied presentations including meningitis, encephalitis and acute flaccid paralysis. Although neuroinvasive disease occurs in less than 1% of infected individuals, it is associated with high mortality. From 1999–2005, more than 8,000 cases of neuroinvasive WNV disease were reported in the US, resulting in over 780 deaths. In this review, we discuss epidemiology, risk factors, clinical features, diagnosis and prognosis of WNV meningoencephalitis, along with potential treatments. PMID:16932563

DeBiasi, Roberta L.; Tyler, Kenneth L.

2013-01-01

429

Varicella-zoster virus.  

PubMed Central

Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is a ubiquitous human alphaherpesvirus that causes varicella (chicken pox) and herpes zoster (shingles). Varicella is a common childhood illness, characterized by fever, viremia, and scattered vesicular lesions of the skin. As is characteristic of the alphaherpesviruses, VZV establishes latency in cells of the dorsal root ganglia. Herpes zoster, caused by VZV reactivation, is a localized, painful, vesicular rash involving one or adjacent dermatomes. The incidence of herpes zoster increases with age or immunosuppression. The VZV virion consists of a nucleocapsid surrounding a core that contains the linear, double-stranded DNA genome; a protein tegument separates the capsid from the lipid envelope, which incorporates the major viral glycoproteins. VZV is found in a worldwide geographic distribution but is more prevalent in temperate climates. Primary VZV infection elicits immunoglobulin G (IgG), IgM, and IgA antibodies, which bind to many classes of viral proteins. Virus-specific cellular immunity is critical for controlling viral replication in healthy and immunocompromised patients with primary or recurrent VZV infections. Rapid laboratory confirmation of the diagnosis of varicella or herpes zoster, which can be accomplished by detecting viral proteins or DNA, is important to determine the need for antiviral therapy. Acyclovir is licensed for treatment of varicella and herpes zoster, and acyclovir, valacyclovir, and famciclovir are approved for herpes zoster. Passive antibody prophylaxis with varicella-zoster immune globulin is indicated for susceptible high-risk patients exposed to varicella. A live attenuated varicella vaccine (Oka/Merck strain) is now recommended for routine childhood immunization. PMID:8809466

Arvin, A M

1996-01-01

430

Epstein-Barr virus test  

MedlinePLUS

EBV antibody test; Monospot ... a lab, where a lab specialist looks for antibodies to the Epstein-Barr virus. In the first stages of an illness, little antibody may be detected. For this reason, serology tests ...

431

Testing for Human Immunodeficiency Virus  

MedlinePLUS

... screening test looks for the presence of HIV antibodies in a sample of your blood. Urine and ... damaged by infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Antibodies: Proteins in the blood produced in reaction to ...

432

Bronchiolitis and Respiratory Syncytial Virus  

MedlinePLUS

ADVICE FOR PATIENTS Bronchiolitis and Respiratory Syncytial Virus B ronchiolitis is an infection that affects the lungs and breathing passages; the name “bronchiolitis” means inflammation of the small airways in the ...

433

Viruses of eukaryotice green algae  

SciTech Connect

The primary objective of our research was to develop the Chlorella-PBCV-1 virus system so that it can be used as a model system for studying gene expression in a photosynthetic eukaryote. We have made considerable progress and have learned much about PBCV-1 and its replication cycle. In addition, several significant discoveries were made in the last 3 to 4 years. These discoveries include: (i) the finding that morphologically similar, plaque forming, dsDNA containing viruses are common in nature and can be isolated readily from fresh water, (ii) the finding that all of these Chlorella viruses contain methylated bases which range in concentration from 0.1% to 47.5% m{sup 5}dC and 0 to 37% m{sup 6}dA and (iii) the discovery that infection with at least some of these viruses induces the appearance of DNA modification/restriction systems. 26 refs.

Van Etten, J.L.

1989-01-01

434

Movement of Viruses between Biomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Viruses are abundant in all known ecosystems. In the present study, we tested the possibility that viruses from one biome can successfully propagate in another. Viral concentrates were prepared from different near-shore marine sites, lake water, marine sediments, and soil. The concentrates were added to microcosms containing dissolved organic matter as a food source (after filtration to allow 100-kDa particles

Emiko Sano; Suzanne Carlson; Linda Wegley; Forest Rohwer

2004-01-01

435

Plant Viruses Transmitted by Whiteflies  

Microsoft Academic Search

One-hundred and fourteen virus species are transmitted by whiteflies (family Aleyrodidae). Bemisia tabaci transmits 111 of these species while Trialeurodes vaporariorum and T. abutilonia transmit three species each. B. tabaci and T. vaporariorum are present in the European–Mediterranean region, though the former is restricted in its distribution. Of the whitefly-transmitted virus species, 90% belong to the Begomovirus genus, 6% to

David R. Jones

2003-01-01

436

The Genome of Canarypox Virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Here we present the genomic sequence, with analysis, of a canarypox virus (CNPV). The 365-kbp CNPV genome contains 328 potential genes in a central region and in 6.5-kbp inverted terminal repeats. Comparison with the previously characterized fowlpox virus (FWPV) genome revealed avipoxvirus-specific genomic fea- tures, including large genomic rearrangements relative to other chordopoxviruses and novel cellular homo- logues and gene

E. R. Tulman; C. L. Afonso; Z. Lu; L. Zsak; G. F. Kutish; D. L. Rock

2004-01-01

437

Bifunctional thiosialosides inhibit influenza virus  

PubMed Central

We have synthesized a panel of bivalent S-sialoside analogues, with modifications at the 4 position, as inhibitors of influenza virus. These first generation compounds show IC50 values ranging from low micromolar to high nanomolar in enzyme inhibition and plaque reduction assays with two intact viruses, Influenza H1N1 (A/California/07/2009) and H3N2 (A/Hongkong/8/68). PMID:24374271

Yang, Yang; He, Yun; Li, Xingzhe; Dinh, Hieu

2014-01-01

438

Taxonomy and nomenclature of viruses.  

PubMed

In his article The species concept in plant virology Milne1 describes the CMI/AAB Descriptions of Plant Viruses2 as providing the 'creeping barrage' (for the 'anti-species' views of many plant virologists and others) in the seemingly unending trench warfare over virus taxonomy and nomenclature. As an editor since 1970 (with BD Harrison) of this continuing series, I am moved to fire a few additional shots in support of Milne's thesis. PMID:3940013

Murant, A F

1985-07-01

439

Foodborne viruses: an emerging problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several groups of viruses may infect persons after ingestion and then are shed via stool. Of these, the norovirus (NoV) and hepatitis A virus (HAV) are currently recognised as the most important human foodborne pathogens with regard to the number of outbreaks and people affected in the Western world.NoV and HAV are highly infectious and may lead to widespread outbreaks.

Marion Koopmans; Erwin Duizer

2004-01-01

440

Kinetics of virus production from single cells  

PubMed Central

The production of virus by infected cells is an essential process for the spread and persistence of viral diseases, the effectiveness of live-viral vaccines, and the manufacture of viruses for diverse applications. Yet despite its importance, methods to precisely measure virus production from cells are lacking. Most methods test infected-cell populations, masking how individual cells behave. Here we measured the kinetics of virus production from single cells. We combined simple steps of liquid-phase infection, serial dilution, centrifugation, and harvesting, without specialized equipment, to track the production of virus particles from BHK cells infected with vesicular stomatitis virus. Remarkably, cell-to-cell differences in latent times to virus release were within a factor of two, while production rates and virus yields spanned over 300-fold, highlighting an extreme diversity in virus production for cells from the same population. These findings have fundamental and technological implications for health and disease. PMID:22222212

Timm, Andrea; Yin, John

2011-01-01

441

Major tomato viruses in the Mediterranean basin.  

PubMed

Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) originated in South America and was brought to Europe by the Spaniards in the sixteenth century following their colonization of Mexico. From Europe, tomato was introduced to North America in the eighteenth century. Tomato plants show a wide climatic tolerance and are grown in both tropical and temperate regions around the world. The climatic conditions in the Mediterranean basin favor tomato cultivation, where it is traditionally produced as an open-field plant. However, viral diseases are responsible for heavy yield losses and are one of the reasons that tomato production has shifted to greenhouses. The major tomato viruses endemic to the Mediterranean basin are described in this chapter. These viruses include Tomato yellow leaf curl virus, Tomato torrado virus, Tomato spotted wilt virus, Tomato infectious chlorosis virus, Tomato chlorosis virus, Pepino mosaic virus, and a few minor viruses as well. PMID:22682165

Hanssen, Inge M; Lapidot, Moshe

2012-01-01

442

Mapping overlapping functional elements embedded within the protein-coding regions of RNA viruses  

E-print Network

viruses. Such viruses include influenza A virus, Ebola virus, rabies virus, SARS virus, MERS virus, Japanese encephalitis virus, yellow fever virus, dengue virus, eastern equine encephalitis virus, and Lassa virus. Many other human pathogenic viruses... functional elements embedded within the coding sequences [40]. For Enterovirus C these include the cre (cis-acting replication element) [41], the RNase L ciRNA (competitive inhibitor of RNase L) [42], and the ?/3D-7000 element [7,10]. The synplot2 analysis...

Firth, Andrew E.

2014-01-01

443

New hosts of Alfalfa mosaic virus, Cucumber mosaic virus, Potato virus Y, Soybean dwarf virus, and Tomato spotted wilt virus in New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alfalfa mosaic virus is recorded for the first time in New Zealand on Cirsium arvense, Medicago lupulina, Mentha sp., Petunia × hybrida, Rumex obtusifolius, Senecio vulgaris, Sonchus asper, and Trifolium ambiguum. Cucumber mosaic virus is recorded on Arthropodium cirratum, Capsella bursa?pastoris, Carthamus tinctorius, Conium maculatum, Coronopus didymus, Galium aparine, Hirschfeldia incana, Marrubium vulgare, Malva parviflora, Malva sylvestris, Ranunculus sardous, and

J. D. Fletcher

2001-01-01

444

Another Really, Really Big Virus  

PubMed Central

Viruses with genomes larger than 300 kb and up to 1.2 Mb, which encode hundreds of proteins, are being discovered and characterized with increasing frequency. Most, but not all, of these large viruses (often referred to as giruses) infect protists that live in aqueous environments. Bioinformatic analyses of metagenomes of aqueous samples indicate that large DNA viruses are quite common in nature and await discovery. One issue that is perhaps not appreciated by the virology community is that large viruses, even those classified in the same family, can differ significantly in morphology, lifestyle, and gene complement. This brief commentary, which will mention some of these unique properties, was stimulated by the characterization of the newest member of this club, virus CroV (Fischer, M.G.; Allen, M.J.; Wilson, W.H.; Suttle, C.A. Giant virus with a remarkable complement of genes infects marine zooplankton. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 2010, 107, 19508–19513 [1]). CroV has a 730 kb genome (with ?544 protein-encoding genes) and infects the marine microzooplankton Cafeteria roenbergensis producing a lytic infection. PMID:21994725

Van Etten, James L.

2011-01-01

445

Virus detection using nanoelectromechanical devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have used a resonating mechanical cantilever to detect immunospecific binding of viruses, captured from liquid. As a model virus, we used a nonpathogenic insect baculovirus to test the ability to specifically bind and detect small numbers of virus particles. Arrays of surface micromachined, antibody-coated polycrystalline silicon nanomechanical cantilever beams were used to detect binding from various concentrations of baculoviruses in a buffer solution. Because of their small mass, the 0.5?m×6?m cantilevers have mass sensitivities on the order of 10-19g/Hz, enabling the detection of an immobilized AcV1 antibody monolayer corresponding to a mass of about 3×10-15g. With these devices, we can detect the mass of single-virus particles bound to the cantilever. Resonant frequency shift resulting from the adsorbed mass of the virus particles distinguished solutions of virus concentrations varying between 105 and 107pfu/ml. Control experiments using buffer solutions without baculovirus showed small amounts (<50attograms) of nonspecific adsorption to the antibody layer.

Ilic, B.; Yang, Y.; Craighead, H. G.

2004-09-01

446

Live viruses to treat cancer.  

PubMed

Viruses that selectively replicate in cancer cells, leading to the death of the cell, are being studied for their potential as cancer therapies. Some of these viruses are naturally occurring but cause little if any illness in humans; others have been engineered to make them specifically able to kill cancer cells while sparing normal cells. These oncolytic viruses may be selective for cancer cells because viral receptors are over-expressed on the surface of cancer cells or because antiviral pathways are distorted in cancer cells. Additionally, when oncolytic viruses kill cancer cells, it can stimulate an antitumour immune response from the host that can enhance efficacy. Numerous early phase trials of at least six oncolytic viruses have been reported with no evidence of concerning toxicity either as single agents or in combination with chemotherapies and radiotherapy. Three oncolytic viruses have reached randomized testing in cancer patients; reolysin in head and neck cancer and JX594 in hepatocellular cancers, while results from the first-phase III trial of T-vec in metastatic melanoma are expected shortly. PMID:23824333

Donnelly, Oliver; Harrington, Kevin; Melcher, Alan; Pandha, Hardev

2013-08-01

447

Viruses in Turing's Garden by Jean-Yves Marion  

E-print Network

Viruses in Turing's Garden by Jean-Yves Marion Cohen and his supervisor Adleman defined a virus as follows: "A virus is a program security community as a foundational definition. Thus, a virus is a self

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

448

PC viruses: How do they do that?  

SciTech Connect

The topic of PC Viruses has been an issue for a number of years now. They`ve been reported in every major newspaper, tabloids, television and radio. People from all fields get viruses: government, private sector businesses, home computers, schools, computer software suppliers. A definition is proposed to introduce the virus phenomenon. Virus authors come from a variety of communities. Motives and ideologies of authors are discussed, and examples of viruses are offered. Also mentioned is the growing number of viruses developed, isolated, and never distributed to the public at large, but kept within the antivirus research community. Virus examples are offered as well. Viruses are distributed not only through bulletin boards and shareware, but also from areas previously assumed to be safe, including the threat of receiving a virus through a standard in-house function, such as an in-house hardware maintenance shop. Three categories of viruses are presented: File Infecter viruses, Boot Sector Infecters, and the new category of Directory Entry Infecter virus. Also discussed are crossover viruses, that is, viruses which utilize a variety of techniques to ensure survival. An explanation of what is occurring within every stage of various viruses is given. Replication strategies common to all three types is noted, mainly the two different replication strategies of memory resident infecters and active selection infecters. A detailed definition, description and application of a stealth virus is presented. Detection strategies are discussed as each topic in this section is completed; a high level schemata of the operation of various virus detection programs ispresented. Since most eradication today is done using virus detection/eradication software, this paper attempts to reveal the techniques used by these packages.Included in the paper is the topic of manual eradication.

Pichnarczyk, K.

1992-07-01

449

PC viruses: How do they do that  

SciTech Connect

The topic of PC Viruses has been an issue for a number of years now. They've been reported in every major newspaper, tabloids, television and radio. People from all fields get viruses: government, private sector businesses, home computers, schools, computer software suppliers. A definition is proposed to introduce the virus phenomenon. Virus authors come from a variety of communities. Motives and ideologies of authors are discussed, and examples of viruses are offered. Also mentioned is the growing number of viruses developed, isolated, and never distributed to the public at large, but kept within the antivirus research community. Virus examples are offered as well. Viruses are distributed not only through bulletin boards and shareware, but also from areas previously assumed to be safe, including the threat of receiving a virus through a standard in-house function, such as an in-house hardware maintenance shop. Three categories of viruses are presented: File Infecter viruses, Boot Sector Infecters, and the new category of Directory Entry Infecter virus. Also discussed are crossover viruses, that is, viruses which utilize a variety of techniques to ensure survival. An explanation of what is occurring within every stage of various viruses is given. Replication strategies common to all three types is noted, mainly the two different replication strategies of memory resident infecters and active selection infecters. A detailed definition, description and application of a stealth virus is presented. Detection strategies are discussed as each topic in this section is completed; a high level schemata of the operation of various virus detection programs ispresented. Since most eradication today is done using virus detection/eradication software, this paper attempts to reveal the techniques used by these packages.Included in the paper is the topic of manual eradication.

Pichnarczyk, K.

1992-07-01

450

Virus of Pekin ducks with structural and biological relatedness to human hepatitis B virus.  

PubMed

A virus found in the sera of Pekin ducks appears to be a new member of the human hepatitis B-like family of viruses. This virus had a diameter of 40 nm and an appearance in the electron microscope similar to that of human hepatitis B virus. The DNA genome of the virus was circular and partially single stranded, and an endogenous DNA polymerase associated with the virus was capable of converting the genome to a double-stranded circle with a size of ca. 3,000 base pairs. An analysis for viral DNA in the organs of infected birds indicated preferential localization in the liver, implicating this organ as the site of virus replication. In all of these aspects, the virus bears a striking resemblance to human hepatitis B virus and appears to be a new member of this family, which also includes ground squirrel hepatitis virus and woodchuck hepatitis virus. PMID:7463557

Mason, W S; Seal, G; Summers, J

1980-12-01

451

Virus-like particles as virus substitutes to design artificial virus-recognition nanomaterials.  

PubMed

Functional recognition imprints of virus-like particles, at the surface of silica particles, were generated following a strategy based on protein-templated polycondensation of organosilanes. PMID:25558487

Sykora, Sabine; Cumbo, Alessandro; Belliot, Gaël; Pothier, Pierre; Arnal, Charlotte; Dudal, Yves; Corvini, Philippe F-X; Shahgaldian, Patrick

2015-01-27

452

Transformation of Murine Cells by Two “Slow Viruses,” Visna Virus and Progressive Pneumonia Virus  

PubMed Central

Visna and progressive pneumonia virus (PPV), two antigenically related, non-oncogenic “slow viruses” which have ribonucleic acid (RNA)-dependent deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) polymerase activity, were examined for their ability to transform cells. Murine cells which had been exposed to either visna or PPV developed foci of altered, spindle-shaped cells 3 to 4 weeks after infection. Visna and PPV transformed lines were established from these cultures. There was no evidence that other oncogenic DNA or RNA viruses were involved in the observed transformation. Visna or PPV could be “rescued” from all transformed lines by co-cultivation with normal sheep testis cells. “Rescued” virus was identified as visna or PPV, and they retained the capacity to transform mouse cells. These experiments may have important implications in the understanding of both viral carcinogenesis and “slow” viral infections. Images PMID:4998321

Takemoto, Kenneth K.; Stone, Lawrence B.

1971-01-01

453

Unusual Influenza A Viruses in Bats  

PubMed Central

Influenza A viruses infect a remarkably diverse number of hosts. Two completely new influenza A virus subtypes were recently discovered in bats, dramatically expanding the host range of the virus. These bat viruses are extremely divergent from all other known strains and likely have unique replication cycles. Phylogenetic analysis indicates long-term, isolated evolution in bats. This is supported by a high seroprevalence in sampled bat populations. As bats represent ~20% of all classified mammals, these findings suggests the presence of a massive cryptic reservoir of poorly characterized influenza A viruses. Here, we review the exciting progress made on understanding these newly discovered viruses, and discuss their zoonotic potential. PMID:25256392

Mehle, Andrew

2014-01-01

454

40 CFR 174.514 - Coat Protein of Watermelon Mosaic Virus-2 and Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus; exemption from the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Coat Protein of Watermelon Mosaic Virus-2 and Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus; exemption from the requirement for a tolerance...174.514 Coat Protein of Watermelon Mosaic Virus-2 and Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus;...

2011-07-01

455

40 CFR 174.514 - Coat Protein of Watermelon Mosaic Virus-2 and Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus; exemption from the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 false Coat Protein of Watermelon Mosaic Virus-2 and Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus; exemption from the requirement for a tolerance...174.514 Coat Protein of Watermelon Mosaic Virus-2 and Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus;...

2014-07-01

456

40 CFR 174.514 - Coat Protein of Watermelon Mosaic Virus-2 and Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus; exemption from the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Coat Protein of Watermelon Mosaic Virus-2 and Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus; exemption from the requirement for a tolerance...174.514 Coat Protein of Watermelon Mosaic Virus-2 and Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus;...

2010-07-01

457

40 CFR 174.514 - Coat Protein of Watermelon Mosaic Virus-2 and Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus; exemption from the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Coat Protein of Watermelon Mosaic Virus-2 and Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus; exemption from the requirement for a tolerance...174.514 Coat Protein of Watermelon Mosaic Virus-2 and Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus;...

2013-07-01

458

40 CFR 174.514 - Coat Protein of Watermelon Mosaic Virus-2 and Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus; exemption from the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Coat Protein of Watermelon Mosaic Virus-2 and Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus; exemption from the requirement for a tolerance...174.514 Coat Protein of Watermelon Mosaic Virus-2 and Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus;...

2012-07-01

459

Emerging and re-emerging swine viruses.  

PubMed

In the past two decades or so, a number of viruses have emerged in the global swine population. Some, such as porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), cause economically important diseases in pigs, whereas others such as porcine torque teno virus (TTV), now known as Torque teno sus virus (TTSuV), porcine bocavirus (PBoV) and related novel parvoviruses, porcine kobuvirus, porcine toroviruses (PToV) and porcine lymphotropic herpesviruses (PLHV), are mostly subclinical in swine herds. Although some emerging swine viruses such as swine hepatitis E virus (swine HEV), porcine endogenous retrovirus (PERV) and porcine sapovirus (porcine SaV) may have a limited clinical implication in swine health, they do pose a potential public health concern in humans due to zoonotic (swine HEV) or potential zoonotic (porcine SaV) and xenozoonotic (PERV, PLHV) risks. Other emerging viruses such as Nipah virus, Bungowannah virus and Menangle virus not only cause diseases in pigs but some also pose important zoonotic threat to humans. This article focuses on emerging and re-emerging swine viruses that have a limited or uncertain clinical and economic impact on pig health. The transmission, epidemiology and pathogenic potential of these viruses are discussed. In addition, the two economically important emerging viruses, PRRSV and PCV2, are also briefly discussed to identify important knowledge gaps. PMID:22225855

Meng, X J

2012-03-01

460

High prevalence of herpes simplex virus type 2 in acute retinal necrosis syndrome associated with herpes simplex virus in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE:To determine the type of herpes simplex virus in acute retinal necrosis syndrome associated with herpes simplex virus.METHODS:Herpes simplex virus type 1, herpes simplex virus type 2, varicella-zoster virus, Epstein-Barr virus, and cytomegalovirus were examined by polymerase chain reaction in intraocular specimens from 16 patients with acute retinal necrosis syndrome. Anti–herpes simplex virus type 1 and anti–herpes simplex virus type

Norihiko Itoh; Nozomi Matsumura; Akiko Ogi; Tadayuki Nishide; Yumi Imai; Hikaru Kanai; Shigeaki Ohno

2000-01-01

461

Bluetongue virus in Lebanon.  

PubMed

Since 2000, several incursions of bluetongue virus (BTV) occurred in the Mediterranean Basin involving European and surrounding Countries. The Middle East represents one of the most important gateways for the access of BTV in Europe. Limited data on the BTV situation in this area are available. In this perspective, an epidemiological survey on the presence of BTV in Lebanon was conducted. Of the 181 serum samples tested, 97 (mean = 53.6%; 95% CI: 46.3-60.7) resulted positive when tested for the presence of BTV antibodies by c-ELISA, of these 42 (mean = 42%; 95% CI: 32.8-51.8) serum samples were from sheep and 55 (mean = 67.9%; 95% CI: 57.1-77.1) serum samples were from goats. Fourteen blood samples (14/110; mean = 12.7%; 95% CI: 7.8-20.3), 6 (6/66; mean = 9.1%; 95% CI: 4.4-18.5) from sheep and 8 (8/44; mean = 18.2%; 95% CI: 9.6-32.0) from goats, were positive by qRT-PCR. The results with serum-neutralization assay and typing performed by RT-PCR confirmed that six BTV serotypes are currently circulating in Lebanon, and these serotypes are as follows: 1, 4, 6, 8, 16 and 24. This study is the first report that confirms the presence and circulation of BTV in Lebanon. PMID:23870037

El Hage, J; Lorusso, A; Carmine, I; Di Gennaro, A; Portanti, O; Olivieri, S; Casaccia, C; Pisciella, M; Teodori, L; Sghaier, S; Savini, G

2013-10-01

462

HETEROLOGOUS IMMUNITY BETWEEN VIRUSES  

PubMed Central

Summary Immune memory responses to previously encountered pathogens can sometimes alter the immune response to and the course of infection of an unrelated pathogen by a process known as heterologous immunity. This response can lead to enhanced or diminished protective immunity and altered immunopathology. Here we discuss the nature of T-cell cross-reactivity and describe matrices of epitopes from different viruses eliciting cross-reactive CD8+ T-cell responses. We examine the parameters of heterologous immunity mediated by these cross-reactive T cells during viral infections in mice and humans. We show that heterologous immunity can disrupt T-cell memory pools, alter the complexity of the T-cell repertoire, change patterns of T-cell immunodominance, lead to the selection of viral epitope-escape variants, alter the pathogenesis of viral infections, and, by virtue of the private specificity of T-cell repertoires within individuals, contribute to dramatic variations in viral disease. We propose that heterologous immunity is an important factor in resistance to and variations of human viral infections and that issues of heterologous immunity should be considered in the design of vaccines. PMID:20536568

Welsh, Raymond M.; Che, Jenny; Brehm, Michael A.; Selin, Liisa K.

2010-01-01

463

Dengue viruses – an overview  

PubMed Central

Dengue viruses (DENVs) cause the most common arthropod-borne viral disease in man with 50–100 million infections per year. Because of the lack of a vaccine and antiviral drugs, the sole measure of control is limiting the Aedes mosquito vectors. DENV infection can be asymptomatic or a self-limited, acute febrile disease ranging in severity. The classical form of dengue fever (DF) is characterized by high fever, headache, stomach ache, rash, myalgia, and arthralgia. Severe dengue, dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF), and dengue shock syndrome (DSS) are accompanied by thrombocytopenia, vascular leakage, and hypotension. DSS, which can be fatal, is characterized by systemic shock. Despite intensive research, the underlying mechanisms causing severe dengue is still not well understood partly due to the lack of appropriate animal models of infection and disease. However, even though it is clear that both viral and host factors play important roles in the course of infection, a fundamental knowledge gap still remains to be filled regarding host cell tropism, crucial host immune response mechanisms, and viral markers for virulence. PMID:24003364

Bäck, Anne Tuiskunen; Lundkvist, Åke

2013-01-01

464

Usutu virus in Africa.  

PubMed

Usutu virus (USUV) was discovered in South Africa in 1959. Since then, it has been reported in several African countries including Senegal, Central African Republic, Nigeria, Uganda, Burkina Faso, Cote d'Ivoire, and Morocco. In 2001, USUV has been identified for the first time outside of Africa, namely in Europe, where it caused a significant mortality among blackbirds in Vienna, Austria. In 2009, the first two human cases of USUV infection in Europe have been reported in Italy, causing encephalitis in immunocompromised patients. The host range in Africa includes mainly Culex mosquitoes, birds, and also humans with one benign and one severe case. Given its role as a potential human pathogen and the similar appearance compared with other emerging arboviruses, it is essential to investigate the natural history and ecology of USUV in Africa. In this regard, we review the emergence of USUV in Africa, summarizing data about isolations, host range, and potential vectors, which should help to improve our understanding of the factors underlying the circulation of USUV in Europe and Africa. PMID:21767160

Nikolay, Birgit; Diallo, Mawlouth; Boye, Cheikh Saad Bouh; Sall, Amadou Alpha

2011-11-01

465

Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccines  

PubMed Central

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most important cause of viral lower respiratory tract illness (LRI) in infants and children worldwide and causes significant LRI in the elderly and in immunocompromised patients. The goal of RSV vaccination is to prevent serious RSV-associated LRI. There are several obstacles to the development of successful RSV vaccines, including the need to immunize very young infants, who may respond inadequately to vaccination; the existence of two antigenically distinct RSV groups, A and B; and the history of disease enhancement following administration of a formalin-inactivated vaccine. It is likely that more than one type of vaccine will be needed to prevent RSV LRI in the various populations at risk. Although vector delivery systems, synthetic peptide, and immune-stimulating complex vaccines have been evaluated in animal models, only the purified F protein (PFP) subunit vaccines and live attenuated vaccines have been evaluated in recent clinical trials. PFP-2 appears to be a promising vaccine for the elderly and for RSV-seropositive children with underlying pulmonary disease, whereas live cold-passaged (cp), temperature-sensitive (ts) RSV vaccines (denoted cpts vaccines) would most probably be useful in young infants. The availability of cDNA technology should allow further refinement of existing live attenuated cpts candidate vaccines to produce engineered vaccines that are satisfactorily attenuated, immunogenic, and phenotypically stable. PMID:9665976

Dudas, Robert A.; Karron, Ruth A.

1998-01-01

466

Virus-host protein interactions in RNA viruses Pierre-Olivier Vidalain*, Frederic Tangy*  

E-print Network

Review Virus-host protein interactions in RNA viruses Pierre-Olivier Vidalain*, Fre´de´ric Tangy RNA viruses exhibit small-sized genomes that only encode a limited number of viral proteins, but still that aim at understanding general features of RNA virus infection networks at the protein level. � 2010

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

467

Guidelines for Anti-Virus Protection Recommended processes to prevent virus problems  

E-print Network

Guidelines for Anti-Virus Protection COE­AVP­01 Recommended processes to prevent virus problems: · Always run either the current University site licensed anti-virus software, which is available from the University download site or through ECS, or other reputable anti-virus software. · Download and run

Demirel, Melik C.

468

Analysis of in vivo dynamics of influenza virus infection in mice using a GFP reporter virus  

E-print Network

Analysis of in vivo dynamics of influenza virus infection in mice using a GFP reporter virus Balaji for review December 30, 2009) Influenza A virus is being extensively studied because of its major impact on human and animal health. However, the dynamics of influenza virus infection and the cell types infected

469

Cytotoxic T-cell abundance and virus load in human immunode ciency virus type 1  

E-print Network

Cytotoxic T-cell abundance and virus load in human immunode ciency virus type 1 and human T-cell leukaemia virus type 1 Dominik Wodarz1 {, Sarah E. Hall2 {, Koichiro Usuku3,4 , Mitsuhiro Osame4 , Graham S OX3 9DU, UK The correlation between virus load and speci¢c cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) frequency

Nowak, Martin A.

470

West Nile Virus What you need to know about West Nile Virus  

E-print Network

West Nile Virus What you need to know about West Nile Virus: To date there have been no reported cases of infection on campus. While there have been a number of high profile deaths from West Nile Virus to human health. More information about West Nile Virus and how to prevent it can be found at the following

Houston, Paul L.

471

Comparison of wheat spindle streak mosaic virus (WSSMV) and barley yellow mosaic virus (BaYMV)  

E-print Network

Comparison of wheat spindle streak mosaic virus (WSSMV) and barley yellow mosaic virus (BaYMV): 2 streak mosaic bymovirus (WSSMV). Using different methods both viruses were found to be closely related. Electron microscopy studies revealed that both viruses lead to formation of 2 types of cytoplasmic

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

472

GENOMIC SEQUENCING OF DEER TICK VIRUS AND PHYLOGENY OF POWASSAN-RELATED VIRUSES OF NORTH AMERICA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Powassan (POW) virus is responsible for central nervous system infection in humans in North America and the eastern parts of Russia. Recently, a new flavivirus, deer tick (DT) virus, related to POW virus was isolated in the United States, but neither its pathogenic potential in human nor the taxonomic relationship with POW virus has been elucidated. In this study, we

G. KUNO; H. ARTSOB; N. KARABATSOS; K. R. TSUCHIYA; G. J. J. CHANG

2001-01-01

473

Identification du virus de rabougrissement buissonneux de la tomate (Tomato Bushy Stunt Virus)  

E-print Network

Identification du virus de rabougrissement buissonneux de la tomate (Tomato Bushy Stunt Virus) en observé à de nombreuses reprises le virus du rabougrissement buissonneux de la tomate (Tomato Bushy Stunt of Tomato Bushy Stunt Virus on tomato, pepper and eggplant in Tunisia. Some characteristics of the Tunisian

Boyer, Edmond

474

Prevalence of respiratory viruses, including newly identified viruses, in hospitalised children in Austria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this epidemiological study was to determine the prevalence of respiratory viruses, including new viruses, in hospitalised children in Austria. Two hundred fourteen nasopharyngeal samples from hospitalised children were tested for the presence of viruses using cell culture and PCR and\\/or viral antigen assays. The results revealed a parainfluenza virus 1 (PIV1) outbreak that ended right before the

C. Larcher; V. Jeller; H. Fischer; H. P. Huemer

2006-01-01

475

Araçatuba Virus: A Vaccinialike Virus Associated with Infection in Humans and Cattle  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a vaccinialike virus, Araçatuba virus, associ- ated with a cowpoxlike outbreak in a dairy herd and a related case of human infection. Diagnosis was based on virus growth characteristics, electron microscopy, and molecular biology techniques. Molecular characterization of the virus was done by using polymerase chain reaction amplification, cloning, and DNA sequencing of conserved orthopoxvirus genes such as

Giliane de Souza Trindade; Flávio Guimarães da Fonseca; João Trindade Marques; Maurício Lacerda Nogueira; Luiz Claudio; Nogueira Mendes; Alexandre Secorun Borges; Juliana Regina Peiró; Edviges Maristela Pituco; Cláudio Antônio Bonjardim; Paulo César Peregrino Ferreira; Erna Geessien Kroon

2003-01-01

476

Research Projects in Ly's & Liang's Labs How virus-host interactions affect Lassa and Influenza virus  

E-print Network

Guanarito (BSL4) Sabia (BSL4) Chapare (BSL4) Lujo (BSL4) Rift Valley Fever (BSL3) (BSL4) Yellow Fever (BSL and Influenza virus replication, virulence and pathogenesis? I fl iLassa fever virus Influenza virus #12;Lassa Virus Causes Lethal Hemorrhagic Fever · Severe multisystem syndrome · Damage to overall vascular system

Blanchette, Robert A.

477

Nyamanini and Midway Viruses Define a Novel Taxon of RNA Viruses in the Order Mononegavirales  

Microsoft Academic Search

Here, we report the sequencing and classification of Nyamanini virus (NYMV) and Midway virus (MIDWV), two antigenically related viruses that were first isolated in 1957 and 1966, respectively. Although these viruses have been cultured multiple times from cattle egrets, seabirds, and their ticks, efforts to classify them taxonomically using conventional serological and electron microscopic approaches have failed completely. We used

Kathie A. Mihindukulasuriya; Nang L. Nguyen; Guang Wu; Henry V. Huang; Vsevolod L. Popov; Robert B. Tesh; David Wang

2009-01-01

478

Structure of the hepatitis E virus-like particle suggests mechanisms for virus assembly  

E-print Network

Structure of the hepatitis E virus-like particle suggests mechanisms for virus assembly (received for review May 1, 2009) Hepatitis E virus (HEV), a small, non-enveloped RNA virus in the family Hepeviridae, is associated with endemic and epidemic acute viral hepatitis in developing countries. Our 3.5-Ã?

Tao, Yizhi Jane

479

RNA Viruses in Hymenopteran Pollinators: Evidence of Inter-Taxa Virus Transmission via Pollen and Potential  

E-print Network

RNA Viruses in Hymenopteran Pollinators: Evidence of Inter-Taxa Virus Transmission via Pollen in the agricultural community. Among honey bee pathogens, RNA viruses are emerging as a serious threat a possible wider environmental spread of these viruses with potential broader impact. It is therefore vital

dePamphilis, Claude

480

Viruses in freshwater ecosystems: an introduction to the exploration of viruses in new aquatic habitats  

E-print Network

Viruses in freshwater ecosystems: an introduction to the exploration of viruses in new aquatic SUMMARY 1. Viruses have become widely recognized as the most abundant biological entities and important focussed on marine viruses, especially in pelagic environments. 2. Here we introduce a special issue

Jacquet, Stéphan

481

Protection of inactivated influenza virus vaccine against lethal influenza virus infection in diabetic mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Influenza virus infection frequently causes complications and some excess mortality in the patients with diabetes. Vaccination is an effective measure to prevent influenza virus infection. In this paper, antibody response and protection against influenza virus infection induced by vaccination were studied in mouse model of diabetes. Healthy and diabetic BALB\\/c mice were immunized once or twice with inactivated influenza virus

Qiang Zhu; Haiyan Chang; Yan Chen; Fang Fang; Changyong Xue; Fenghua Zhang; Meizhen Qiu; Hanzhong Wang; Bin Wang; Ze Chen

2005-01-01

482

Coping with Computer Viruses: General Discussion and Review of Symantec Anti-Virus for the Macintosh.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses computer viruses that attack the Macintosh and describes Symantec AntiVirus for Macintosh (SAM), a commercial program designed to detect and eliminate viruses; sample screen displays are included. SAM is recommended for use in library settings as well as two public domain virus protection programs. (four references) (MES)

Primich, Tracy

1992-01-01

483

A Fusion-Inhibiting Peptide against Rift Valley Fever Virus Inhibits Multiple, Diverse Viruses  

E-print Network

A Fusion-Inhibiting Peptide against Rift Valley Fever Virus Inhibits Multiple, Diverse Viruses (Class I, II, and III) based on the protein sequence and structure. For Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV KW, Taylor SL, et al. (2013) A Fusion-Inhibiting Peptide against Rift Valley Fever Virus Inhibits

484

Full Genome Sequencing and Genetic Characterization of Eubenangee Viruses Identify Pata Virus as a Distinct Species within the Genus Orbivirus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eubenangee virus has previously been identified as the cause of Tammar sudden death syndrome (TSDS). Eubenangee virus (EUBV), Tilligery virus (TILV), Pata virus (PATAV) and Ngoupe virus (NGOV) are currently all classified within the Eubenangee virus species of the genus Orbivirus, family Reoviridae. Full genome sequencing confirmed that EUBV and TILV (both of which are from Australia) show high levels

Manjunatha N. Belaganahalli; Sushila Maan; Narender S. Maan; Kyriaki Nomikou; Ian Pritchard; Ross Lunt; Peter D. Kirkland; Houssam Attoui; Joe Brownlie; Peter P. C. Mertens

2012-01-01

485

Autophagic machinery activated by dengue virus enhances virus replication  

SciTech Connect

Autophagy is a cellular response against stresses which include the infection of viruses and bacteria. We unravel that Dengue virus-2 (DV2) can trigger autophagic process in various infected cell lines demonstrated by GFP-LC3 dot formation and increased LC3-II formation. Autophagosome formation was also observed under the transmission electron microscope. DV2-induced autophagy further enhances the titers of extracellular and intracellular viruses indicating that autophagy can promote viral replication in the infected cells. Moreover, our data show that ATG5 protein is required to execute DV2-induced autophagy. All together, we are the first to demonstrate that DV can activate autophagic machinery that is favorable for viral replication.

Lee, Y.-R. [Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Lei, H.-Y. [Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Department of Microbiology and Immunology, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Liu, M.-T. [Tainan Hospital, Department of Health, Executive Yuan, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Wang, J.-R. [Department of Medical Laboratory Science and Biotechnology, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Chen, S.-H. [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Jiang-Shieh, Y.-F. [Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Lin, Y.-S. [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Yeh, T.-M. [Department of Medical Laboratory Science and Biotechnology, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Liu, C.-C. [Department of Pediatrics, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Liu, H.-S. [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: a713@mail.ncku.edu.tw

2008-05-10

486

Recombination promoted by DNA viruses: phage ? to herpes simplex virus.  

PubMed

The purpose of this review is to explore recombination strategies in DNA viruses. Homologous recombination is a universal genetic process that plays multiple roles in the biology of all organisms, including viruses. Recombination and DNA replication are interconnected, with recombination being essential for repairing DNA damage and supporting replication of the viral genome. Recombination also creates genetic diversity, and viral recombination mechanisms have important implications for understanding viral origins as well as the dynamic nature of viral-host interactions. Both bacteriophage ? and herpes simplex virus (HSV) display high rates of recombination, both utilizing their own proteins and commandeering cellular proteins to promote recombination reactions. We focus primarily on ? and HSV, as they have proven amenable to both genetic and biochemical analysis and have recently been shown to exhibit some surprising similarities that will guide future studies. PMID:25002096

Weller, Sandra K; Sawitzke, James A

2014-01-01

487

Recombination Promoted by DNA Viruses: Phage ? to Herpes Simplex Virus  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this review is to explore recombination strategies in DNA viruses. Homologous recombination is a universal genetic process that plays multiple roles in the biology of all organisms, including viruses. Recombination and DNA replication are interconnected, with recombination being essential for repairing DNA damage and supporting replication of the viral genome. Recombination also creates genetic diversity, and viral recombination mechanisms have important implications for understanding viral origins as well as the dynamic nature of viral-host interactions. Both bacteriophage ? and herpes simplex virus (HSV) display high rates of recombination, both utilizing their own proteins and commandeering cellular proteins to promote recombination reactions. We focus primarily on ? and HSV, as they have proven amenable to both genetic and biochemical analysis and have recently been shown to exhibit some surprising similarities that will guide future studies. PMID:25002096

Weller, Sandra K.; Sawitzke, James A.

2015-01-01

488

Epstein-Barr Virus Antibodies Test  

MedlinePLUS

... website will be limited. Search Help? Epstein-Barr Virus Antibodies Share this page: Was this page helpful? ... available for EBV? 1. How is Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection or infectious mononucleosis (mono) treated? Care ...

489

Viruses Increasingly Behind Child Pneumonia Cases  

MedlinePLUS

... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Viruses Increasingly Behind Child Pneumonia Cases Bug that causes ... years past, the cause is usually a respiratory virus, a large U.S. study finds. The researchers found ...

490

Tropical Virus Symptoms Can Mimic Rheumatoid Arthritis  

MedlinePLUS

... features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Tropical Virus Symptoms Can Mimic Rheumatoid Arthritis: Study Similarities may ... 20, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- The mosquito-borne chikungunya virus causes joint pain and swelling similar to rheumatoid ...

491

About Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV)  

MedlinePLUS

... Providers Laboratory Testing References & Resources About Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On ... Page Symptoms Transmission Diagnosis Prevention & Treatment Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), also known as human herpesvirus 4, is ...

492

Rare Virus Discovered in Common Tick  

MedlinePLUS

... features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Rare Virus Discovered in Common Tick Scientists not yet sure ... FRIDAY, Jan. 16, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- A rare virus has been found in ticks that are common ...

493

Swine Influenza/Variant Influenza Viruses  

MedlinePLUS

... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Information on Swine Influenza/Variant Influenza Viruses Language: English Español ... pigs and variant influenza virus infections in humans. Swine Flu in Swine (pigs) Swine Flu in Swine ( ...

494

FAQ: General Questions about West Nile Virus  

MedlinePLUS

... Mosquitoes become infected when they feed on infected birds. Infected mosquitoes can then spread the virus to ... from year to year. The weather, numbers of birds that maintain the virus, numbers of mosquitoes that ...

495

MOSQUITO PATHOGENIC VIRUSES - THE LAST 20 YEARS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

There are several types of viral pathogens that cause disease in mosquitoes with most belonging to four major groups. The most common viruses of mosquitoes are the baculoviruses (NPVs) (Baculoviridae: Nucleopolyhedrovirus) and cytoplasmic polyhedrosis viruses (CPVs) (Reoviridae: Cypovirus). The ot...